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Sample records for protozoan euglena gracilis

  1. Exploring the glycans of Euglena gracilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O’Neill, Ellis C.; Kuhaudomlarp, Sakonwan; Rejzek, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Euglena gracilis is an alga of great biotechnological interest and extensive metabolic capacity, able to make high levels of bioactive compounds, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins and β-glucan. Previous work has shown that Euglena expresses a wide range of carbohydrate-active enzymes,...

  2. Unexpectedly Streamlined Mitochondrial Genome of the Euglenozoan Euglena gracilis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dobáková, Eva; Flegontov, Pavel; Skalický, Tomáš; Lukeš, Julius

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 12 (2015), s. 3358-3367 ISSN 1759-6653 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-21974S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Euglena gracilis * mitochondrial genome * transcription * RNA editing Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.098, year: 2015

  3. Effect of γ-irradiation on Euglena gracilis Algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hlinkova, E.; Zhuchkina, N.I.; Koltovaya, N.A.; Koltovoj, N.A.

    2011-01-01

    Given the prospects for using Euglena algae as part of the biological systems of human life support in long-term space flights, we studied the effects of low doses of radiation and genotype influence on the radiosensitivity of Euglena cells. Irradiation of several Euglena gracilis strains with 60 Co γ-rays shows that strain Z is the most radioresistant. Its chloroplastless derivate OFL strain shows increased radiosensitivity. The E. bacillaris strain and its derivates W3 and W10 without chlorophyll have intermediate radiosensitivity. Irradiation up to 10 Gy had the hormesis effect on the initial strains, and it is only above 100 Gy that cell death was observed. The hormesis effect was observed concerning both radioresistance and growth rate. The use of methylen blue and fluorochrome dyes allows a rapid estimation of the share of the living and dead cells. A comparison of two survival rate tests shows that the classical method of plating on a growth medium yields an increased death rate because this method does not take into account the living non-dividing cells

  4. Gravitaxis of Euglena gracilis depends only partially on passive buoyancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Peter R.; Schuster, Martin; Lebert, Michael; Streb, Christine; Häder, Donat-Peter

    In darkness, the unicellular freshwater flagellate Euglena gracilis shows a pronounced negative gravitactic behavior, and the cells swim actively upward in the water column. Up to now it was unclear whether this behavior is based on a passive (physical) alignment mechanism (e.g., buoyancy due to a fore-aft asymmetry of the cell body) or on an active physiological mechanism. A sounding rocket experiment was performed in which the effect of sub-1g-accelerations (0.05, 0.08, 0.12, and 0.2g) on untreated living cells and immobilized (fixation with liquid nitrogen) cells was observed. By means of computerized image analysis the angles of the cells long axis with respect to the acceleration vector were analyzed in order to calculate and compare the reorientation kinetics of the immobilized cells versus that of the controls. In both groups, the reorientation kinetics depended on the dose, but the reorientation of the living cells was about five times faster than that of the immobilized cells. This indicates that in young cells gravitaxis can be explained by a physical mechanism only to a small extend. In older cultures, in which the cells often have a drop shaped cell body, the physical reorientation is considerably faster, and a more pronounced influence of passive alignment caused by fore/aft asymmetry (drag-gravity model) can not be excluded. In addition to these results, Euglena gracilis cells seem to respond very sensitively to small accelerations when they are applied after a longer microgravity period. The data indicate that gravitactic orientation occurred at an acceleration as low as 0.05g.

  5. Gravitactic orientation of Euglena gracilis – a sensitive endpoint for ecotoxicological assessment of water pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz eUllah

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pollution of aquatic environments with natural and anthropogenically produced substances is one of the major environmental problems of the world. In many countries the decreasing quantity of water coupled with its increasing usage in multiple sectors has adversely affected water quality and caused problems of water pollution. Polluted water has been a main cause of adverse effects on plants, animals and humans throughout the world. Physicochemical analysis of water, which is a common method used for quality assessment of water, alone may not be enough as it cannot evaluate the impact on living organisms. Therefore, bioassessment of water and wastewater quality is considered to be essential to reflect the ultimate effects on living organisms. Many organisms like bacteria, algae, fish, invertebrates and protozoan are used as bioassay organisms for assessment of water quality. This review article elucidates the use of Euglena gracilis, a freshwater motile flagellate of the phylum Euglenophyta, as a suitable organism in ecotoxicological studies with special emphasis on its gravitactic orientation as a sensitive end point in ecotoxicological assessment of water pollutants.

  6. Trophic transfer of gold nanoparticles from Euglena gracilis or Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to Daphnia magna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Woo-Mi; Yoon, Sung-Ji; Shin, Yu-Jin; An, Youn-Joo

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the trophic transfer of nanoparticles (NPs) is important because NPs are small enough to easily penetrate into organisms. In this study, we evaluated the trophic transfer of gold NPs (AuNPs) within the aquatic food chain. We observed AuNPs transfer from 2 species of primary producers (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii or Euglena gracilis) to the primary consumer (Daphnia magna). Also, bioaccumulation of AuNPs in E. gracilis was higher than that in C. reinhardtii. The reasons for the difference in Au accumulation may be the physical structure of these organisms, and the surface area that is available for interaction with NPs. C. reinhardtii has a cell wall that may act as a barrier to the penetration of NPs. The size of E. gracilis is larger than that of C. reinhardtii. This study demonstrates the trophic transfer of AuNPs from a general producer to a consumer in an aquatic environment. - Highlights: • This study evaluated the trophic transfer of AuNPs in an aquatic food chain. • Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Euglena gracilis were selected as the primary producers. • Daphnia magna was used as the primary consumer. • The bioaccumulation of AuNPs in E. gracilis was higher than that in C. reinhardtii. • AuNPs were transferred from C. reinhardtii and E. gracilis to D. magna. - Gold nanoparticles can transfer from primary producers (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii or Euglena gracilis) to the primary consumer (Daphnia magna) in an aquatic environment

  7. Euglena gracilis Z and its carbohydrate storage substance relieve arthritis symptoms by modulating Th17 immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kengo Suzuki

    Full Text Available Euglena gracilis Z is a microorganism classified as a microalga and is used as a food or nutritional supplement. Paramylon, the carbohydrate storage substance of E. gracilis Z, is reported to affect the immunological system. This study evaluated the symptom-relieving effects of E. gracilis Z and paramylon in rheumatoid arthritis in a collagen-induced arthritis mouse model. The efficacy of both substances was assessed based on clinical arthritis signs, as well as cytokine (interleukin [IL]-17, IL-6, and interferon [IFN]-γ levels in lymphoid tissues. Additionally, the knee joints were harvested and histopathologically examined. The results showed that both substances reduced the transitional changes in the visual assessment score of arthritis symptoms compared with those in the control group, indicating their symptom-relieving effects on rheumatoid arthritis. Furthermore, E. gracilis Z and paramylon significantly reduced the secretion of the cytokines, IL-17, IL-6, and IFN-γ. The histopathological examination of the control group revealed edema, inflammation, cell hyperplasia, granulation tissue formation, fibrosis, and exudate in the synovial membrane, as well as pannus formation and articular cartilage destruction in the femoral trochlear groove. These changes were suppressed in both treatment groups. Particularly, the E. gracilis Z group showed no edema, inflammation, and fibrosis of the synovial membrane, or pannus formation and destruction of articular cartilage in the femoral trochlear groove. Furthermore, E. gracilis Z and paramylon exhibited symptom-relieving effects on rheumatoid arthritis and suppressed the secretion of cytokines IL-17, IL-6, and IFN-γ. These effects were likely mediated by the regulatory activities of E. gracilis Z and paramylon on Th17 immunity. In addition, the symptom-relieving effects of both substances were comparable, which suggests that paramylon is the active component of Euglena gracilis Z.

  8. Sequence Evidence for the Presence of Two Tetrapyrrole Pathways in Euglena gracilis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kořený, Luděk; Oborník, Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 3, - (2011), 359-364 ISSN 1759-6653 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/1423; GA ČR GD206/09/H026 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : tetrapyrrole synthesis * heme pathway * Euglena gracilis * secondary endosymbiosis * evolution * plastid Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.618, year: 2011

  9. Effects of Euglena (Euglena gracilis) supplemented to diet (forage: concentrate ratios of 60:40) on the basic ruminal fermentation and methane emissions in in vitro condition

    OpenAIRE

    Aemiro, Ashagrie; Watanabe, Shota; Suzuki, Kengo; Hanada, Masaaki; Umetsu, Kazutaka

    2016-01-01

    An in vitro study was conducted to investigate the effect of different concentrations of Euglena (Euglena gracilis) on CH4 production, dry matter (DM) digestibility, volatile fatty acid (VFA) and ammonia N(NH3-N) concentration as well as on the protozoa population. The treatments considered were Euglena at concentrations of 0.0, 50, 100, 200, 400 and 1000 g/kg dry matter (DM) of the substrate (60:40 forage: concentrate ratio) incubated for 24 and 96 h using an in vitro continuous gas producti...

  10. Genotoxicity and subchronic toxicity evaluation of dried Euglena gracilis ATCC PTA-123017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Ryan R; Vo, Trung D; Levine, Robert

    2016-10-01

    Euglena gracilis is a microalga capable of synthesizing various nutrients of interest in human and animal nutrition. When cultivated aerobically in the dark, Euglena synthesize paramylon, a storage polysaccharide comprised of high molecular weight beta-1,3-D-glucose polymers organized in cytoplasmic granules. Beta-glucans have been shown to have immune modulation effects, including anti-microbial, anti-tumor, and anti-oxidant properties, and metabolic effects, such as regulation of cholesterol and blood sugar levels. Preparations of E. gracilis and paramylon may therefore have potential utility as functional food ingredients for human and animal nutrition. A battery of toxicological studies was conducted on a dried preparation of E. gracilis and paramylon to support their safe food use. The dried alga was not genotoxic in a bacterial reverse mutation test and mammalian micronucleus test. In the subchronic toxicity study, rats were provided E. gracilis in the diet at levels of 0, 12,500, 25,000 or 50,000 ppm. Paramylon was provided at a concentration of 50,000 ppm. No effects that could be attributable to treatment were observed in clinical observations, body weight, food consumption, ophthalmology, hematology and clinical chemistry, urinalysis, and macroscopic and microscopic findings. A NOAEL of 50,000 ppm in the diet was determined for both ingredients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Physiological characterization of gravitaxis in Euglena gracilis and Astasia longa studied on sounding rocket flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, P R; Lebert, M; Tahedl, H; Hader, D P

    2001-01-01

    Euglena gracilis is a photosynthetic, unicellular flagellate found in eutrophic freshwater habitats. The organisms control their vertical position in the water column using gravi- and phototaxis. Recent experiments demonstrated that negative gravitaxis cannot be explained by passive buoyancy but by an active physiological mechanism. During space experiments, the threshold of gravitaxis was determined to be between 0.08 and 0.12 x g. A strong correlation between the applied acceleration and the intracellular cAMP and Ca2+ was observed. The results support the hypothesis, that the cell body of Euglena, which is denser than the surrounding medium exerts a pressure onto the lower membrane and activates mechanosensitive Ca2+ channels. Changes in the membrane potential and the cAMP concentration are most likely subsequent elements in a signal transduction chain, which results in reorientation strokes of the flagellum. c 2001 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. High-speed stimulated Raman scattering microscopy for studying the metabolic diversity of motile Euglena gracilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Y.; Wakisaka, Y.; Iwata, O.; Nakashima, A.; Ito, T.; Hirose, M.; Domon, R.; Sugawara, M.; Tsumura, N.; Watarai, H.; Shimobaba, T.; Suzuki, K.; Goda, K.; Ozeki, Y.

    2017-02-01

    Microalgae have been receiving great attention for their ability to produce biomaterials that are applicable for food supplements, drugs, biodegradable plastics, and biofuels. Among such microalgae, Euglena gracilis has become a popular species by virtue of its capability of accumulating useful metabolites including paramylon and lipids. In order to maximize the production of desired metabolites, it is essential to find ideal culturing conditions and to develop efficient methods for genetic transformation. To achieve this, understanding and controlling cell-to-cell variations in response to external stress is essential, with chemically specific analysis of microalgal cells including E. gracilis. However, conventional analytical tools such as fluorescence microscopy and spontaneous Raman scattering are not suitable for evaluation of diverse populations of motile microalgae, being restricted either by the requirement for fluorescent labels or a limited imaging speed, respectively. Here we demonstrate video-rate label-free metabolite imaging of live E. gracilis using stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) - an optical spectroscopic method for probing the vibrational signatures of molecules with orders of magnitude higher sensitivity than spontaneous Raman scattering. Our SRS's highspeed image acquisition (27 metabolite images per second) allows for population analysis of live E. gracilis cells cultured under nitrogen-deficiency - a technique for promoting the accumulation of paramylon and lipids within the cell body. Thus, our SRS system's fast imaging capability enables quantification and analysis of previously unresolvable cell-to-cell variations in the metabolite accumulation of large motile E. gracilis cell populations.

  13. Cadmium removal by Euglena gracilis is enhanced under anaerobic growth conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santiago-Martínez, M. Geovanni; Lira-Silva, Elizabeth; Encalada, Rusely; Pineda, Erika; Gallardo-Pérez, Juan Carlos [Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto Nacional de Cardiología (Mexico); Zepeda-Rodriguez, Armando [Facultad de Medicina, UNAM, Mexico City (Mexico); Moreno-Sánchez, Rafael; Saavedra, Emma [Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto Nacional de Cardiología (Mexico); Jasso-Chávez, Ricardo, E-mail: rjass_cardiol@yahoo.com.mx [Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto Nacional de Cardiología (Mexico)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • The protist Euglena gracilis had the ability to grow and remove large amounts of Cd{sup 2+} under anaerobic conditions. • High biomass was attained by combination of glycolytic and mitochondrial carbon sources. • Routes of degradation of glucose, glutamate and malate under anaerobic conditions in E. gracilis are described. • Biosorption was the main mechanism of Cd{sup 2+} removal in anaerobiosis, whereas the Cd{sup 2+} intracellularly accumulated was inactivated by thiol-molecules and polyphosphate. - Abstract: The facultative protist Euglena gracilis, a heavy metal hyper-accumulator, was grown under photo-heterotrophic and extreme conditions (acidic pH, anaerobiosis and with Cd{sup 2+}) and biochemically characterized. High biomass (8.5 × 10{sup 6} cells mL{sup −1}) was reached after 10 days of culture. Under anaerobiosis, photosynthetic activity built up a microaerophilic environment of 0.7% O{sub 2}, which was sufficient to allow mitochondrial respiratory activity: glutamate and malate were fully consumed, whereas 25–33% of the added glucose was consumed. In anaerobic cells, photosynthesis but not respiration was activated by Cd{sup 2+} which induced higher oxidative stress. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were 20 times lower in control cells under anaerobiosis than in aerobiosis, although Cd{sup 2+} induced a higher MDA production. Cd{sup 2+} stress induced increased contents of chelating thiols (cysteine, glutathione and phytochelatins) and polyphosphate. Biosorption (90%) and intracellular accumulation (30%) were the mechanisms by which anaerobic cells removed Cd{sup 2+} from medium, which was 36% higher versus aerobic cells. The present study indicated that E. gracilis has the ability to remove Cd{sup 2+} under anaerobic conditions, which might be advantageous for metal removal in sediments from polluted water bodies or bioreactors, where the O{sub 2} concentration is particularly low.

  14. Cadmium removal by Euglena gracilis is enhanced under anaerobic growth conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santiago-Martínez, M. Geovanni; Lira-Silva, Elizabeth; Encalada, Rusely; Pineda, Erika; Gallardo-Pérez, Juan Carlos; Zepeda-Rodriguez, Armando; Moreno-Sánchez, Rafael; Saavedra, Emma; Jasso-Chávez, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The protist Euglena gracilis had the ability to grow and remove large amounts of Cd 2+ under anaerobic conditions. • High biomass was attained by combination of glycolytic and mitochondrial carbon sources. • Routes of degradation of glucose, glutamate and malate under anaerobic conditions in E. gracilis are described. • Biosorption was the main mechanism of Cd 2+ removal in anaerobiosis, whereas the Cd 2+ intracellularly accumulated was inactivated by thiol-molecules and polyphosphate. - Abstract: The facultative protist Euglena gracilis, a heavy metal hyper-accumulator, was grown under photo-heterotrophic and extreme conditions (acidic pH, anaerobiosis and with Cd 2+ ) and biochemically characterized. High biomass (8.5 × 10 6 cells mL −1 ) was reached after 10 days of culture. Under anaerobiosis, photosynthetic activity built up a microaerophilic environment of 0.7% O 2 , which was sufficient to allow mitochondrial respiratory activity: glutamate and malate were fully consumed, whereas 25–33% of the added glucose was consumed. In anaerobic cells, photosynthesis but not respiration was activated by Cd 2+ which induced higher oxidative stress. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were 20 times lower in control cells under anaerobiosis than in aerobiosis, although Cd 2+ induced a higher MDA production. Cd 2+ stress induced increased contents of chelating thiols (cysteine, glutathione and phytochelatins) and polyphosphate. Biosorption (90%) and intracellular accumulation (30%) were the mechanisms by which anaerobic cells removed Cd 2+ from medium, which was 36% higher versus aerobic cells. The present study indicated that E. gracilis has the ability to remove Cd 2+ under anaerobic conditions, which might be advantageous for metal removal in sediments from polluted water bodies or bioreactors, where the O 2 concentration is particularly low

  15. Effect of chromium on the fatty acid composition of two strains of Euglena gracilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocchetta, Iara [Departamento de Biodiversidad y Biologia Experimental, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Pab. II, Ciudad Universitaria, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail: rocchetta@bg.fcen.uba.ar; Mazzuca, Marcia [Departamento de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad de Patagonia, Comodoro Rivadavia, Chubut (Argentina); Conforti, Visitacion [Departamento de Biodiversidad y Biologia Experimental, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Pab. II, Ciudad Universitaria, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Ruiz, Laura [Departamento de Biodiversidad y Biologia Experimental, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Pab. II, Ciudad Universitaria, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Balzaretti, Vilma [Departamento de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad de Patagonia, Comodoro Rivadavia, Chubut (Argentina); Rios de Molina, Maria del Carmen [Departamento de Quimica Biologica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Pab. II, Ciudad Universitaria, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2006-05-15

    The effect of hexavalent chromium on fatty acid composition was studied in two strains of Euglena gracilis; UTEX 753 (from the Culture Collection of Algae of Texas University, USA) and MAT (isolated from a highly polluted River). Both were grown in photoauxotrophic and photoheterotrophic conditions and exposed to two metal concentrations, one below and one above IC{sub 5}. The high malondialdehyde (MDA) levels (3 to 7-fold) obtained with chromium concentration above IC{sub 5}, suggested the existence of metal-induced lipid peroxidation. Total lipid content increased only with concentration below IC{sub 5}, whereas it was inhibited by higher metal concentration. Photoheterotrophic control strains exhibited a significantly higher proportion of saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Polyunsaturated acids were most affected by chromium, especially those related to chloroplast structures. Ultra-structure studies showed clear thylakoid disorganization in all treated cells. The results indicate that hexavalent chromium affects levels of fatty acids, especially those related to photosynthetic activity. - Fatty acid evaluation in the presence of chromium in Euglena gracilis grown in different culture conditions.

  16. Effect of chromium on the fatty acid composition of two strains of Euglena gracilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocchetta, Iara; Mazzuca, Marcia; Conforti, Visitacion; Ruiz, Laura; Balzaretti, Vilma; Rios de Molina, Maria del Carmen

    2006-01-01

    The effect of hexavalent chromium on fatty acid composition was studied in two strains of Euglena gracilis; UTEX 753 (from the Culture Collection of Algae of Texas University, USA) and MAT (isolated from a highly polluted River). Both were grown in photoauxotrophic and photoheterotrophic conditions and exposed to two metal concentrations, one below and one above IC 5 . The high malondialdehyde (MDA) levels (3 to 7-fold) obtained with chromium concentration above IC 5 , suggested the existence of metal-induced lipid peroxidation. Total lipid content increased only with concentration below IC 5 , whereas it was inhibited by higher metal concentration. Photoheterotrophic control strains exhibited a significantly higher proportion of saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Polyunsaturated acids were most affected by chromium, especially those related to chloroplast structures. Ultra-structure studies showed clear thylakoid disorganization in all treated cells. The results indicate that hexavalent chromium affects levels of fatty acids, especially those related to photosynthetic activity. - Fatty acid evaluation in the presence of chromium in Euglena gracilis grown in different culture conditions

  17. Kinematics of flagellar swimming in Euglena gracilis: Helical trajectories and flagellar shapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Massimiliano; Cicconofri, Giancarlo; Beran, Alfred; Noselli, Giovanni; DeSimone, Antonio

    2017-12-12

    The flagellar swimming of euglenids, which are propelled by a single anterior flagellum, is characterized by a generalized helical motion. The 3D nature of this swimming motion, which lacks some of the symmetries enjoyed by more common model systems, and the complex flagellar beating shapes that power it make its quantitative description challenging. In this work, we provide a quantitative, 3D, highly resolved reconstruction of the swimming trajectories and flagellar shapes of specimens of Euglena gracilis We achieved this task by using high-speed 2D image recordings taken with a conventional inverted microscope combined with a precise characterization of the helical motion of the cell body to lift the 2D data to 3D trajectories. The propulsion mechanism is discussed. Our results constitute a basis for future biophysical research on a relatively unexplored type of eukaryotic flagellar movement. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  18. A new homolog of FocA transporters identified in cadmium-resistant Euglena gracilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delomenie, Claudine; Foti, Emilie; Floch, Enora; Diderot, Vimala; Porquet, Dominique; Dupuy, Corinne; Bonaly, Jacqueline

    2007-01-01

    To better understand the cellular mechanism of stress resistance to various pollutants (cadmium, pentachlorophenol), we undertook a survey of the Euglena gracilis transcriptome by mRNA differential display and cDNA cloning. We performed a real-time RT-PCR analysis upon four selected genes. One of them significantly changed its expression level in response to stress treatments: B25 gene was overexpressed in Cd-resistant cells whereas it was down-regulated in PCP-adapted cells. By Race assays we obtained for B25 a 1093 bp cDNA. The deduced protein was identified as a bacterial formate/nitrite transporter (FocA) homolog and the gene was named EgFth. From all the data, we concluded that EgFth overexpression was related to chronic exposure to cadmium

  19. Protein synthesis during the initial phase of the temperature-induced bleaching response in Euglena gracilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, W.

    1990-01-01

    Growing cultures of photoheterotrophic Euglena gracilis experience an increase in chlorophyll accumulation during the initial phase of the temperature-induced bleaching response suggesting an increase in the synthesis of plastid components at the bleaching temperature of 33 degree C. A primary goal of this work was to establish whether an increase in the synthesis of plastid proteins accompanies the observed increase in chlorophyll accumulation. In vivo pulse-labeling experiments with [ 35 S]sodium sulfate were carried out with cells grown at room temperature or at 33 degree C. The synthesis of a number of plastid polypeptides of nucleocytoplasmic origin, including some presumably novel polypeptides, increased in cultures treated for 15 hours at 33 degree C. In contrast, while synthesis of thylakoid proteins by the plastid protein synthesis machinery decreased modestly, synthesis of the large subunit of the enzyme ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase was strongly affected at the elevated temperature. Synthesis of novel plastid-encoded polypeptides was not induced at the bleaching temperature. It is concluded that protein synthesis in plastids declines during the initial phase of the temperature response in Euglena despite an overall increase in cellular protein synthesis and an increase in chlorophyll accumulation per cell

  20. Low-resolution characterization of the 3D structure of the Euglena gracilis photoreceptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barsanti, Laura; Coltelli, Primo; Evangelista, Valtere; Passarelli, Vincenzo; Frassanito, Anna Maria; Vesentini, Nicoletta; Gualtieri, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the first characterization of the structure of the photoreceptive organelle of the unicellular alga Euglena gracilis (Euglenophyta). This organelle has a three-dimensional organization consisting of up to 50 closely stacked membrane lamellae. Ionically induced unstacking of the photoreceptor lamellae revealed ordered arrays well suited to structural analysis by electron microscopy and image analysis, which ultimately yielded a low-resolution picture of the structure. Each lamella is formed by the photoreceptive membrane protein of the cell assembled within the membrane layer in a hexagonal lattice. The first order diffraction spots in the calculated Fourier transform reveals the presence of 6-fold symmetrized topography (better resolution about 90 A). The 2D and 3D structural data are very similar with those recently published on proteorodopsin, a membrane protein used by marine bacterio-plankton as light-driven proton pump. In our opinion these similarity indicate that a photoreceptive protein belonging to the same superfamily of proteorodopsin could form the Euglena photoreceptor

  1. Amino acids as possible alternative nitrogen source for growth of Euglena gracilis Z in life support systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, P R; Liu, Y; An, Y; Li, X; Nasir, A; Strauch, S M; Becker, I; Krüger, J; Schuster, M; Ntefidou, M; Daiker, V; Haag, F W M; Aiach, A; Lebert, M

    2015-01-01

    In recent times Euglena gracilis Z was employed as primary producer in closed environmental life-support system (CELSS), e.g. in space research. The photosynthetic unicellular flagellate is not capable of utilizing nitrate, nitrite, and urea as nitrogen source. Therefore, ammonium is supplied as an N-source in the lab (provided as diammonium-dihydrogenphosphate, (NH4)2HPO4) to E. gracilis cultures. While nitrate exerts low toxicity to organisms, ammonium is harmful for many aquatic organisms especially, at high pH-values, which causes the ionic NH4+ (low toxicity) to be partially transformed into the highly toxic ammonia, NH3. In earlier reports, Euglena gracilis was described to grow with various amino acids as sole N-source. Our aim was to investigate alternatives for (NH4)2HPO4 as N-source with lower toxicity for organisms co-cultivated with Euglena in a CELSS. The growth kinetics of Euglena gracilis cultures was determined in the presence of different amino acids (glycine, glutamine, glutamic acid, leucine, and threonine). In addition, uptake of those amino acids by the cells was measured. Cell growth in the presence of glycine and glutamine was quite comparable to the growth in (NH4)2HPO4 containing cultures while a delay in growth was observed in the presence of leucine and threonine. Unlike, aforementioned amino acids glutamate consumption was very poor. Cell density and glutamate concentration were almost unaltered throughout the experiment and the culture reached the stationary phase within 8 days. The data are compared with earlier studies in which utilization of amino acids in Euglena gracilis was investigated. All tested amino acids (glutamate with limitations) were found to have the potential of being an alternative N-source for Euglena gracilis. Hence, these amino acids can be used as a non-toxic surrogate for (NH4)2HPO4. Copyright © 2014 The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR). Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of 60Co γ-rays on the contents of paramylon and trehalose in Euglena gracilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, M.; Maruyama, A.; Nakazawa, M.; Ueda, M.; Miyatake, K.; Kato, A.; Enomoto, T.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: It is reported that the non-reducing disaccharide trehalose is accumulated in various organisms and protects biomolecules against various environmental stresses including heat shock, osmotic shock, and oxidative stresses. Euglena (Euglena gracilis) is photosynthetic unicellular organisms which is classified both as animal and as plant because of its motility. In our previous study, it was shown that salt stress causes degradation of paramylon, the reserve carbohydrate of Euglena, and trehalose, the degraded product of paramylon, accumulated simultaneously to maintain the osmotic pressure of Euglena cells. Euglena is known to be radiation-resistant more than Escherichia coli and other bacteria. Therefore, we have investigated whether or not the same phenomenon could be observed in Euglena after 60 Co-gamma irradiation. Exposure of the native Z strain and chloroplast-deficient SM-ZK strain of Euglena to a dose of 500 kGy induced significant paramylon degradation and trehalose accumulation during the incubation in the Koren-Hunter culture medium containing glucose as carbon source after the irradiation. Forty percent of the paramylon was degraded within 10-hr incubation after the irradiation but accumulated trehalose content was about one sixth of that by salt stress. Trehlose accumulation disappeared when the irradiated cells were incubated in phosphate buffer but it recovered when glucose is added to the buffer to the same concentration as K-H media. These results suggest that trehalose accumulation in irradiated Euglena cells plays a role in protecting cellular constituents from oxidative damage caused by gamma-irradiation independently of the response to salt stress

  3. Gravitaxis in the flagellate Euglena gracilis--results from NiZeMi, clinostat and sounding rocket flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häder, D P

    1994-05-01

    Many motile microorganisms including flagellates such as the green Euglena gracilis move up and down within the water column and use a number of external clues for their orientation, the most important of which may be light and gravity. The cells use positive phototaxis and negative gravitaxis to move closer to the surface of the water column which for energetic reasons is vital for their survival. However, most phytoplankton organisms cannot tolerate the bright irradiance of unfiltered solar radiation at the surface which also bleaches the photosynthetic pigments, disables the photosynthetic apparatus and impairs phototaxis, gravitaxis and motility in Euglena. Thus, it is not surprising that at higher irradiances negative phototaxis operates antagonistically to the responses described above to guide the cells into deeper water where they are protected from excessive radiation. Phototaxis and gravitaxis are not independent from one another: in a vertically positioned cuvette negative gravitaxis can be "titrated" by light impinging from above and is compensated at about 30 W m-2. While the photoreceptor for phototaxis has been identified in Euglena gracilis biochemically and spectroscopically, the gravireceptor is not yet known. Young cultures of Euglena gracilis show a positive gravitaxis, the ecological signficance of which is not yet understood while older cultures show negative gravitaxis. One hypothesis concerning the nature of graviperception is based on a passive physical process such as an asymmetric distribution of the mass within the cell. However, the observation that short term UV irradiation decreases the precision of negative gravitaxis rather indicates the involvement of an active physiological gravireceptor. Furthermore, some heavy metal ions have been found to change the direction of movement from positive to negative gravitaxis in young cells.

  4. Compression and release dynamics of an active matter system of Euglena gracilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Amy; Tsang, Alan C. H.; Ouellette, Nicholas; Riedel-Kruse, Ingmar

    Active matter, defined as ensembles of self-propelled particles, encompasses a large variety of systems at all scales, from nanoparticles to bird flocks. Though various models and simulations have been created to describe the dynamics of these systems, experimental verification has been difficult to obtain. This is frequently due to the complex interaction rules which govern the particle behavior, in turn making systematic varying of parameters impossible. Here, we propose a model for predicting the system evolution of compression and release of an active system based on experiments and simulations. In particular, we consider ensembles of the unicellular, photo-responsive algae, Euglena gracilis, under light stimulation. By varying the spatiotemporal light patterns, we are able to finely adjust cell densities and achieve arbitrary non-homogeneous distributions, including compression into high-density aggregates of varying geometries. We observe the formation of depletion zones after the release of the confining stimulus and investigate the effects of the density distribution and particle rotational noise on the depletion. These results provide implications for defining state parameters which determine system evolution.

  5. Effects of solar and artificial UV irradiation on motility and phototaxis in the flagellate, Euglena gracilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeder, D.-P.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of solar irradiation on the percentage of motile cells, their average speed and their phototactic orientation to white actinic light was studied in the flagellate, Euglena gracilis. Unfiltered solar radiation in midsummer during mid-day at a location near Lisboa, Portugal, was found to impair motility within 2 h. This effect is exclusively due to the UV-B component of the radiation and not due to UV-A, visible light or a temperature increase. Likewise, phototactic orientation was drastically impaired. Reduction of the solar UV-B irradiation by insertion of an ozone-flooded plexiglass cuvette partially reduced the inhibition and covering the cuvettes with glass prevented any decrease in motility and photoorientation. Similar results were found with artificial irradiation (Xe lamps). After inoculation, the motility of the population follows an optimum curve (optimum at 8 days). Also, the UV-B effect on motility was smallest after about one week and increased for younger and older cultures. (author)

  6. Applicability of Euglena gracilis for biorefineries demonstrated by the production of α-tocopherol and paramylon followed by anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Philipp; Risse, Joe M; Cholewa, Dominik; Müller, Jakob M; Beshay, Usama; Friehs, Karl; Flaschel, Erwin

    2015-12-10

    In this study the use of Euglena gracilis biomass for α-tocopherol, paramylon and biogas production in a value-added chain was investigated. Therefore, we analyzed the dry cell weight and product concentrations at different growth phases during heterotrophic, photoheterotrophic and photoautotrophic cultivation in a low-cost minimal medium. Furthermore, the specific biogas yields for differently derived biomass with and without product recovery were investigated. We demonstrate that growth phase and cultivation mode not only have a significant impact on product formation, but also influence the yield of biogas obtained from anaerobic digestion of Euglena gracilis biomass. The maximum dry cell weight concentration ranged from 12.3±0.14gL(-1) for heterotrophically to 3.4±0.02gL(-1) for photoautotrophically grown Euglena gracilis cells. The heterotrophically grown biomass accumulated product concentrations of 5.3±0.12mgL(-1) of α-tocopherol and 9.3±0.1gL(-1) of paramylon or 805±10.9mL of biogasgvs(-1) (per gram volatile solids). The results for photoautotrophically grown cells were 8.6±0.22mgL(-1) of α-tocopherol and 0.78±0.01gL(-1) of paramylon or 648±7.2mL of biogasgvs(-1). For an energy-saving downstream procedure the extracting agent methanol does not have to be removed strictly. Samples with residual methanol showed a significantly increased biogas yield, because the solvent can be used as an additional substrate for methane production by archaebacteria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. High-Throughput Accurate Single-Cell Screening of Euglena gracilis with Fluorescence-Assisted Optofluidic Time-Stretch Microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoshan Guo

    Full Text Available The development of reliable, sustainable, and economical sources of alternative fuels is an important, but challenging goal for the world. As an alternative to liquid fossil fuels, algal biofuel is expected to play a key role in alleviating global warming since algae absorb atmospheric CO2 via photosynthesis. Among various algae for fuel production, Euglena gracilis is an attractive microalgal species as it is known to produce wax ester (good for biodiesel and aviation fuel within lipid droplets. To date, while there exist many techniques for inducing microalgal cells to produce and accumulate lipid with high efficiency, few analytical methods are available for characterizing a population of such lipid-accumulated microalgae including E. gracilis with high throughout, high accuracy, and single-cell resolution simultaneously. Here we demonstrate high-throughput, high-accuracy, single-cell screening of E. gracilis with fluorescence-assisted optofluidic time-stretch microscopy-a method that combines the strengths of microfluidic cell focusing, optical time-stretch microscopy, and fluorescence detection used in conventional flow cytometry. Specifically, our fluorescence-assisted optofluidic time-stretch microscope consists of an optical time-stretch microscope and a fluorescence analyzer on top of a hydrodynamically focusing microfluidic device and can detect fluorescence from every E. gracilis cell in a population and simultaneously obtain its image with a high throughput of 10,000 cells/s. With the multi-dimensional information acquired by the system, we classify nitrogen-sufficient (ordinary and nitrogen-deficient (lipid-accumulated E. gracilis cells with a low false positive rate of 1.0%. This method holds promise for evaluating cultivation techniques and selective breeding for microalgae-based biofuel production.

  8. Restart capability of resting-states of Euglena gracilis after 9 months of dormancy: preparation for autonomous space flight experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauch, Sebastian M.; Becker, Ina; Pölloth, Laura; Richter, Peter R.; Haag, Ferdinand W. M.; Hauslage, Jens; Lebert, Michael

    2018-04-01

    Dormant states of organisms are easier to store than the living state because they tolerate larger variations in temperature, light, storage space etc., making them attractive for laboratory culture stocks and also for experiments under special circumstances, especially space flight experiments. Like several other organisms, Euglena gracilis is capable of forming desiccation tolerant resting states in order to survive periods of unfavourable environmental conditions. In earlier experiments it was found that dormant Euglena cells must not become completely desiccated. Some residual moisture is required to ensure recovery of the resting states. To analyse the water demand in recovery of Euglena resting states, cells were transferred to a defined amount of cotton wool (0.5 g). Subsequently different volumes of medium (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 10 and 20 ml) were added in order to supply humidity; a control was set up without additional liquid. Samples were sealed in transparent 50 ml falcon tubes and stored for 9 months under three different conditions: • Constant low light conditions in a culture chamber at 20°C, • In a black box, illuminated with short light emitting diode-light pulses provided by joule thieves and • In darkness in a black box. After 9 months, cells were transferred to fresh medium and cell number, photosynthetic efficiency and movement behavior was monitored over 3 weeks. It was found that cells recovered under all conditions except in the control, where no medium was supplied. Transcription levels of 21 genes were analysed with a Multiplex-polymerase chain reaction. One hour after rehydration five of these genes were found to be up-regulated: ubiquitin, heat shock proteins HSP70, HSP90, the calcium-sensor protein frequenin and a distinct protein kinase, which is involved in gravitaxis. The results indicate a transient general stress response of the cells.

  9. Improvement of kinetics, yield, and colloidal stability of biogenic gold nanoparticles using living cells of Euglena gracilis microalga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahoumane, Si Amar; Yéprémian, Claude; Djédiat, Chakib; Couté, Alain; Fiévet, Fernand; Coradin, Thibaud; Brayner, Roberta

    2016-03-01

    Recent years have witnessed a boom in the biosynthesis of a large variety of nanomaterials using different biological resources among which algae-based entities have been gaining much more attention within the community of material scientists worldwide. In our previously published findings, we explored some factors that governed the biofabrication of gold nanoparticles using living cultures of microalgae, such as the utilized microalgal genera, the phylum they belong to, and the impact of tetrachloroauric acid concentrations on the ability of these strains to perform the biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles once in contact with these cations. As a follow-up, we present in this paper an improvement of the features of bioproduced gold colloids using living cells of Euglena gracilis microalga when this species is grown under either mixotrophic or autotrophic conditions, i.e., exposed to light and grown in an organic carbon-enriched culture medium versus under autotrophic conditions. As an outcome to this alteration, the growth rate of this photosynthetic microorganism is multiplied 7-8 times when grown under mixotrophic conditions compared to autotrophic ones. Therefore, the yield, the kinetics, and the colloidal stability of the biosynthesized gold nanoparticles are dramatically enhanced. Moreover, the shape and the size of the as-produced nano-objects via this biological method are affected. In addition to round-shaped gold nanoparticles, particular shapes, such as triangles and hexagons, appear. These findings add up to the amassed knowledge toward the design of photobioreactors for the scalable and sustainable production of interesting nanomaterials.

  10. Improvement of kinetics, yield, and colloidal stability of biogenic gold nanoparticles using living cells of Euglena gracilis microalga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahoumane, Si Amar, E-mail: sa.dahoumane@gmail.com [Paris-Diderot University, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Interfaces, Traitements, Organisation et Dynamique des Systèmes (ITODYS), UMR 7086, CNRS (France); Yéprémian, Claude; Djédiat, Chakib; Couté, Alain [Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Département RDDM, UMR 7245, Unité MCAM (France); Fiévet, Fernand [Paris-Diderot University, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Interfaces, Traitements, Organisation et Dynamique des Systèmes (ITODYS), UMR 7086, CNRS (France); Coradin, Thibaud, E-mail: thibaud.coradin@upmc.fr [UPMC—Paris 06, CNRS, Chimie de la Matière Condensée de Paris, Collège de France (France); Brayner, Roberta, E-mail: roberta.brayner@univ-paris-diderot.fr [Paris-Diderot University, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Interfaces, Traitements, Organisation et Dynamique des Systèmes (ITODYS), UMR 7086, CNRS (France)

    2016-03-15

    Recent years have witnessed a boom in the biosynthesis of a large variety of nanomaterials using different biological resources among which algae-based entities have been gaining much more attention within the community of material scientists worldwide. In our previously published findings, we explored some factors that governed the biofabrication of gold nanoparticles using living cultures of microalgae, such as the utilized microalgal genera, the phylum they belong to, and the impact of tetrachloroauric acid concentrations on the ability of these strains to perform the biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles once in contact with these cations. As a follow-up, we present in this paper an improvement of the features of bioproduced gold colloids using living cells of Euglena gracilis microalga when this species is grown under either mixotrophic or autotrophic conditions, i.e., exposed to light and grown in an organic carbon-enriched culture medium versus under autotrophic conditions. As an outcome to this alteration, the growth rate of this photosynthetic microorganism is multiplied 7–8 times when grown under mixotrophic conditions compared to autotrophic ones. Therefore, the yield, the kinetics, and the colloidal stability of the biosynthesized gold nanoparticles are dramatically enhanced. Moreover, the shape and the size of the as-produced nano-objects via this biological method are affected. In addition to round-shaped gold nanoparticles, particular shapes, such as triangles and hexagons, appear. These findings add up to the amassed knowledge toward the design of photobioreactors for the scalable and sustainable production of interesting nanomaterials.

  11. The different phenotypes of phot- photosynthetic deficient mutants in Euglena gracilis: the frequency of production by ultraviolet irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolas, Paul; Heizmann, Philippe; Nigon, Victor

    1982-01-01

    In Euglena gracilis, pigment-less mutants appear spontaneously with a frequency of about 2-5x10 -3 . Ultraviolet-irradiation increases the proportion of chlorophyll-less colonies to an upper limit where green colonies represent 4x10 -4 of the surviving ones. This limit might indicate the occurrence of processes involving repair of the chloroplastic DNA. Most of the photosynthetic-deficient (phot - ) mutants induced by ultraviolet irradiation are characterized by the presence of a reduced number of chloroplast DNA molecules showing deletions (phi - class). Most of the phi - mutants present the phenotype phi - chlo - car - , where neither chlorophyll nor carotenoids are obvious: the phi - chlo - car + mutants, devoid of chlorophyll but containing carotenoids, are obtained among the phi - strains with a frequency lower than 10 -3 . The phot - mutants which belong to the cp - class are characterized by the maintenance of a great number of chloroplastic DNA molecules, where large deletions are absent: their occurrence after ultraviolet irradiation is low [fr

  12. Evaluación de la bioacumulación de cobre en Euglena gracilis mediante la técnica de fluorescencia de rayos X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cervantes-Garcia

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available En esta investigación se evaluó el efecto de la exposición de cobre en la capacidad de bioacumulación de metal en células de Euglena gracilis. La acumulación de metal medida con la técnica de fluorescencia de rayos X (XRF mostró que la acumulación de Cu+2 en E. gracilis fue dosis dependiente y se incrementó significativamente en las células tratadas con 0.4 y 0.8 mM de Cu+2 con respecto al control. No se descarta la presencia de una estrategia de acumulación en E. gracilis que podría involucrar la participación de una serie de múltiples procesos, como producción de vacuolas. Futuros estudios al respecto deberán orientarse a evaluar la capacidad de bioacumulación de E. gracilis para su aplicación en programas de biorremediación de sistemas acuáticos.

  13. Modulating effects of orally supplied Euglena gracilis on the physiological responses of the freshwater mussel Diplodon chilensis, exposed to sewage water pollution in a Patagonian river (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Virginia A; Castro, Juan M; Rocchetta, Iara; Conforti, Visitación; Pascual, Mariano; Luquet, Carlos M

    2016-04-01

    In order to test if orally supplied Euglena sp. cells modulate the physiological status of bivalves during bioremediation procedures, we evaluated the effect of Euglena gracilis diet on the immune response, oxidative balance and metabolic condition of Diplodon chilensis exposed to sewage water pollution. Mussels were fed for 90 days with E. gracilis (EG) or Scenedesmus vacuolatus (SV, control diet), and then exposed for 10 days at three sites along the Pocahullo river basin: 1) an unpolluted site, upstream of the city (control, C); 2) upstream (UpS) and 3) downstream (DoS) from the main tertiary-treated sewage discharge, in the city of San Martín de los Andes, Northwest Patagonia, Argentina. Our results show that the total hemocyte number decreases while pollution load increases along the river course for both, EG and SV mussels. Phagocytic activity is higher in EG mussels than in SV ones under all conditions. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in hemocytes increases with the increase in the pollution load, being significantly higher for EG mussels than for SV ones at DoS; no changes are observed for total oxyradical scavenging capacity (TOSC). Hemocytes' viability is increased for E. gracilis diet at C and remains unchanged in this group of mussels when exposed at the polluted sites. Lysosomal membrane stability is higher in EG mussels than in SV ones for all conditions, although it is decreased at polluted sites compared with that at C. Antioxidant (catalase) and detoxifying (gluthatione S-transferase) defenses are generally lower in gills and digestive gland of EG mussels than in SV ones. Lipid peroxidation (TBARS) is evident in gills of EG mussels at C, and in digestive gland of the same group, at all the sites. Gill mass factor (GF) is affected by the E. gracilis diet; it is increased at C and decreased at polluted sites when compared with that of SV ones. Digestive gland mass factor (DGF) is higher in EG mussels than in SV ones. In D

  14. Euglena gracilis chloroplast DNA: analysis of a 1.6 kb intron of the psb C gene containing an open reading frame of 458 codons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montandon, P E; Vasserot, A; Stutz, E

    1986-01-01

    We retrieved a 1.6 kbp intron separating two exons of the psb C gene which codes for the 44 kDa reaction center protein of photosystem II. This intron is 3 to 4 times the size of all previously sequenced Euglena gracilis chloroplast introns. It contains an open reading frame of 458 codons potentially coding for a basic protein of 54 kDa of yet unknown function. The intron boundaries follow consensus sequences established for chloroplast introns related to class II and nuclear pre-mRNA introns. Its 3'-terminal segment has structural features similar to class II mitochondrial introns with an invariant base A as possible branch point for lariat formation.

  15. A 39-kD plasma membrane protein (IP39) is an anchor for the unusual membrane skeleton of Euglena gracilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosiere, T.K.; Marrs, J.A.; Bouck, G.B.

    1990-01-01

    The major integral plasma membrane protein (IP39) of Euglena gracilis was radiolabeled, peptide mapped, and dissected with proteases to identify cytoplasmic domains that bind and anchor proteins of the cell surface. When plasma membranes were radioiodinated and extracted with octyl glucoside, 98% of the extracted label was found in IP39 or the 68- and 110-kD oligomers of IP39. The octyl glucoside extracts were incubated with unlabeled cell surface proteins immobilized on nitrocellulose (overlays). Radiolabel from the membrane extract bound one (80 kD) of the two (80 and 86 kD) major membrane skeletal protein bands. Resolubilization of the bound label yielded a radiolabeled polypeptide identical in Mr to IP39. Intact plasma membranes were also digested with papain before or after radioiodination, thereby producing a cytoplasmically truncated IP39. The octyl glucoside extract of truncated IP39 no longer bound to the 80-kD membrane skeletal protein in the nitrocellulose overlays. EM of intact or trypsin digested plasma membranes incubated with membrane skeletal proteins under stringent conditions similar to those used in the nitrocellulose overlays revealed a partially reformed membrane skeletal layer. Little evidence of a membrane skeletal layer was found, however, when plasma membranes were predigested with papain before reassociation. A candidate 80-kD binding domain of IP39 has been tentatively identified as a peptide fragment that was present after trypsin digestion of plasma membranes, but was absent after papain digestion in two-dimensional peptide maps of IP39. Together, these data suggest that the unique peripheral membrane skeleton of Euglena binds to the plasma membrane through noncovalent interactions between the major 80-kD membrane skeletal protein and a small, papain sensitive cytoplasmic domain of IP39

  16. Euglena in time: Evolution, control of central metabolic processes and multi-domain proteins in carbohydrate and natural product biochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellis C. O’Neill

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Euglena gracilis is a eukaryotic microalgae that has been the subject of scientific study for hundreds of years. It has a complex evolutionary history, with traces of at least four endosymbiotic genomes and extensive horizontal gene transfer. Given the importance of Euglena in terms of evolutionary cell biology and its unique taxonomic position, we initiated a de novo transcriptome sequencing project in order to understand this intriguing organism. By analysing the proteins encoded in this transcriptome, we can identify an extremely complex metabolic capacity, rivalling that of multicellular organisms. Many genes have been acquired from what are now very distantly related species. Herein we consider the biology of Euglena in different time frames, from evolution through control of cell biology to metabolic processes associated with carbohydrate and natural products biochemistry.

  17. Euglena mitochondria and chloroplasts form tyrosine-O-sulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saidha, T.; Hanfstingl, U.; Schiff, J.A. (Brandeis Univ., Waltham, MA (USA))

    1989-04-01

    Mitochondria from light-grown wild-type Euglena gracilis var. bacillaris Cori or dark-grown mutant W{sub 10}BSmL incubated with {sup 35}SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} and ATP, or with {sup 14}C-tyrosine, non-radioactive sulfate and ATP accumulate a labeled compound in the medium. Since this compound shows exact coelectrophoresis with tyrosine-O-sulfate (TOS) at pH 2.0, 5.8 or 8.0., yields sulfate and tyrosine on acid hydrolysis, and treatment with aryl sulfatase from Aerobacter aerogenes yields sulfate and tyrosine but no tyrosine methyl ester, it is identified as TOS. No TOS is found outside purified developing chloroplasts incubated with {sup 35}SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} and ATP, but both chloroplasts and mitochondria form to {sup 35}S externally when incubated with adenosine 3{prime} phosphate 5{prime}phospho({sup 35}S) sulfate (PAP{sup 35}S). Since no tyrosine need be added, tyrosine is provided from endogenous sources. Although TOS is found in the free pool of Euglena cells it cannot be detected in proteins of cells or mucus ruling our sulfation of tyrosine of protein or incorporation of TOS into proteins. The system forming TOS is membrane-bound and may be involved in tyrosine transport.

  18. Speciation of bioaccumulated uranium(VI) by Euglena mutabilis cells obtained by laser fluorescence spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brockmann, Sina; Bernhard, Gert [Technical Univ. Dresden (Germany). Radiochemistry; Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) e.V., Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Resource Ecology; Arnold, Thuro [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) e.V., Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Resource Ecology

    2014-07-01

    The ability of Euglena mutabilis cells - a unicellular protozoan with a flexible pellicle, which is typically found in acid mine drainage (AMD) environments - to bioaccumulate uranium under acid conditions was studied in batch sorption experiments at pH 3 and 4 using Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and NaClO{sub 4} as background media. It was found that axenic cultures of Euglena mutabilis Schmitz were able to bioaccumulate in 5 days 94.9 to 99.2% of uranium from a 1 x 10{sup -5} mol/L uranium solution in perchlorate medium and 95.1 to 95.9% in sodium sulfate medium, respectively. The speciation of uranium in solution and uranium bioaccumulated by Euglena mutabilis cells, were studied by laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy (LIFS). The LIFS investigations showed that the uranium speciation in the NaClO{sub 4} systems was dominated by free uranyl(VI) species and that the UO{sub 2}SO{sub 4} species was dominating in the Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} medium. Fluorescence spectra of the bioaccumulated uranium revealed that aqueous uranium binds to carboxylic and/or (organo)phosphate groups located on the euglenid pellicle or inside the Euglena mutabilis cells. Reduced uranium immobilization rates of 0.93-1.43 mg uranium per g Euglena mutabilis biomass were observed in similar experiments, using sterile filtrated AMD waters containing, 4.4 x 10{sup -5} mol/L uranium. These lower rates were attributed to competition with other cations for available sorption sites. Additional LIFS measurements, however, showed that the speciation of the bioaccumulated uranium by the Euglena mutabilis cells was found to be identical with the uranium speciation found in the bioaccumulation experiments carried out in Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and NaClO{sub 4} media. The results indicate that Euglena mutabilis has the potential to immobilize aqueous uranium under acid condition and thus may be used in future as promising agent for immobilizing uranium in low pH waste water environments. (orig.)

  19. Speciation of bioaccumulated uranium(VI) by Euglena mutabilis cells obtained by laser fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brockmann, Sina; Bernhard, Gert; Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf; Arnold, Thuro

    2014-01-01

    The ability of Euglena mutabilis cells - a unicellular protozoan with a flexible pellicle, which is typically found in acid mine drainage (AMD) environments - to bioaccumulate uranium under acid conditions was studied in batch sorption experiments at pH 3 and 4 using Na 2 SO 4 and NaClO 4 as background media. It was found that axenic cultures of Euglena mutabilis Schmitz were able to bioaccumulate in 5 days 94.9 to 99.2% of uranium from a 1 x 10 -5 mol/L uranium solution in perchlorate medium and 95.1 to 95.9% in sodium sulfate medium, respectively. The speciation of uranium in solution and uranium bioaccumulated by Euglena mutabilis cells, were studied by laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy (LIFS). The LIFS investigations showed that the uranium speciation in the NaClO 4 systems was dominated by free uranyl(VI) species and that the UO 2 SO 4 species was dominating in the Na 2 SO 4 medium. Fluorescence spectra of the bioaccumulated uranium revealed that aqueous uranium binds to carboxylic and/or (organo)phosphate groups located on the euglenid pellicle or inside the Euglena mutabilis cells. Reduced uranium immobilization rates of 0.93-1.43 mg uranium per g Euglena mutabilis biomass were observed in similar experiments, using sterile filtrated AMD waters containing, 4.4 x 10 -5 mol/L uranium. These lower rates were attributed to competition with other cations for available sorption sites. Additional LIFS measurements, however, showed that the speciation of the bioaccumulated uranium by the Euglena mutabilis cells was found to be identical with the uranium speciation found in the bioaccumulation experiments carried out in Na 2 SO 4 and NaClO 4 media. The results indicate that Euglena mutabilis has the potential to immobilize aqueous uranium under acid condition and thus may be used in future as promising agent for immobilizing uranium in low pH waste water environments. (orig.)

  20. Muscle conserving free gracilis transfer (mini-gracilis free flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibhuti Bhusan Nayak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gracilis is a commonly used muscle for free tissue transfer. It is also split into two based on its pedicles and used as two units. Use of distal part as a free flap in isolation has never been described in literature. We describe a technique of harvesting a small unit of gracilis based on its minor pedicle and maintaining the continuity and conserving the major bulk of muscle. Thus, the function of the muscle is preserved and the same is also available for transfer on its major pedicle later, if required.

  1. The use of radioactive precursors for the labeling of ribosomal proteins in Euglena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freyssinet, Georges

    1977-01-01

    The metabolism of three radioactive compounds has been studied in Euglena gracilis, either in the dark during the non-growing phase, or during light-induced greening, in the presence or absence of inhibitors of protein synthesis. The results can be summarized as follows: the fixation of 14 CO 2 and its incorporation into proteins occurs rapidly. Their intensities depend on the time of incubation and the physiological state of cells. Radioactive amino acids penetrate the cells within 2-4 hours and incorporation into proteins follows the uptake. In a few cases, amino acid uptake is low or even nonexistent. The rates of uptake and incorporation of radioactive sodium sulfate depend on the sulfur deficiency induced during growth in the dark, and on the time of incubation. Protein synthesis inhibitors act either on uptake or on incorporation or on both. The rate of inhibition depends on the inhibitor and precursor used. The radioactive precursors can be used for the labeling of cytoplasmic and chloroplast ribosomal proteins. The most favourable conditions for this labeling are mostly related to the uptake and incorporation measured on whole cells. All these results allow criteria to be determined which facilitate the choice of inhibitors, precursors and conditions of incubation depending on the protein studied

  2. Membrane skeletal proteins and their integral membrane protein anchors are targets for tyrosine and threonine kinases in Euglena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, M J; Da Silva, A C; Rosiere, T K; Bouck, G B

    1995-01-01

    Proteins of the membrane skeleton of Euglena gracilis were extensively phosphorylated in vivo and in vitro after incubation with [32P]-orthophosphate or gamma-[32P] ATP. Endogenous protein threonine/serine activity phosphorylated the major membrane skeletal proteins (articulins) and the putative integral membrane protein (IP39) anchor for articulins. The latter was also the major target for endogenous protein tyrosine kinase activity. A cytoplasmic domain of IP39 was specifically phosphorylated, and removal of this domain with papain eliminated the radiolabeled phosphoamino acids and eliminated or radically shifted the PI of the multiple isoforms of IP39. In gel kinase assays IP39 autophosphorylated and a 25 kDa protein which does not autophosphorylate was identified as a threonine/serine (casein) kinase. Plasma membranes from the membrane skeletal protein complex contained threonine/serine (casein) kinase activity, and cross-linking experiments suggested that IP39 was the likely source for this membrane activity. pH optima, cation requirements and heparin sensitivity of the detergent solubilized membrane activity were determined. Together these results suggest that protein kinases may be important modulators of protein assembly and function of the membrane skeleton of these protistan cells.

  3. Immunomodulation of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry by bath exposure to a β-glucan from Euglena gracilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chettri, Jiwan Kumar; Kania, Per Walter; Buchmann, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Early developmental stages of fish mostly depend on innate immune factors for their protection. Augmenting these factors by application of different immunostimulatory substances may be beneficial for rearing and survival of the early life stages of fish. Bath administration of stimulants leads to...

  4. Ionizing radiation promotes protozoan reproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luckey, T.D.

    1986-01-01

    This experiment was performed to determine whether ionizing radiation is essential for maximum growth rate in a ciliated protozoan. When extraneous ionizing radiation was reduced to 0.15 mrad/day, the reproduction rate of Tetrahymena pyriformis was significantly less (P less than 0.01) than it was at near ambient levels, 0.5 or 1.8 mrad/day. Significantly higher growth rates (P less than 0.01) were obtained when chronic radiation was increased. The data suggest that ionizing radiation is essential for optimum reproduction rate in this organism

  5. Apoptotic markers in protozoan parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fasel Nicolas

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The execution of the apoptotic death program in metazoans is characterized by a sequence of morphological and biochemical changes that include cell shrinkage, presentation of phosphatidylserine at the cell surface, mitochondrial alterations, chromatin condensation, nuclear fragmentation, membrane blebbing and the formation of apoptotic bodies. Methodologies for measuring apoptosis are based on these markers. Except for membrane blebbing and formation of apoptotic bodies, all other events have been observed in most protozoan parasites undergoing cell death. However, while techniques exist to detect these markers, they are often optimised for metazoan cells and therefore may not pick up subtle differences between the events occurring in unicellular organisms and multi-cellular organisms. In this review we discuss the markers most frequently used to analyze cell death in protozoan parasites, paying special attention to changes in cell morphology, mitochondrial activity, chromatin structure and plasma membrane structure/permeability. Regarding classical regulators/executors of apoptosis, we have reviewed the present knowledge of caspase-like and nuclease activities.

  6. Carrying capacity of Chaetoceros gracilis in Homa Lagoon and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The possibility for nutrient limitation to affect C. gracilis was assessed from two different ecosystems (Izmir Bay and Homa Lagoon). Our goal was to determine the growth rate of all nutrients and the maximum levels of the C. gracilis phytoplankton biomass (the maximum biomass carrying capacity) on the extent of its full ...

  7. Molecular characterization of intestinal protozoan parasites from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Koffi Mathurin

    2014-02-17

    Feb 17, 2014 ... three major protozoan parasites which cause diarrhea. Out of ... 2010) regarding the under 5 mortality rate (U5MR) and .... Positive (%) Negative Total ..... Checkley W, Epstein LD, Gilman RH, Black RE, Cabrera L, Sterling CR.

  8. Campylobacter gracilis and Campylobacter rectus in primary endodontic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, J F; Rôças, I N

    2003-03-01

    A species-specific nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was used to investigate the occurrence of Campylobacter gracilis and C. rectus in primary root canal infections. Samples were collected from 57 single-rooted teeth with carious lesions, necrotic pulps and radiographic evidence of periradicular disease. Twenty-eight cases were diagnosed as chronic asymptomatic periradicular lesions, 12 cases as acute apical periodontitis, and 17 cases as acute periradicular abscess. DNA was extracted from the samples and initially amplified using universal 16S rDNA primers. A second round of amplification using the first PCR products was performed to specifically detect C. gracilis or C. rectus in the samples. Campylobacter gracilis and C. rectus were, respectively, detected in 21.4 (6 of 28) and 30% (6 of 20) of the root canals associated with chronic asymptomatic periradicular lesions. Campylobacter gracilis was found in 16.7% (2 of 12) of the cases diagnosed as acute apical periodontitis, whilst C. rectus was found in 33.3% (two of six cases). In the abscessed cases, C. gracilis and C. rectus were detected in 23.5 (4 of 17) and 11.8% (2 of 17) of the cases, respectively. No association of these species with clinical symptoms was observed (P > 0.01) In general, species-specific nPCR allowed the detection of C. gracilis in 21.1% (12 of 57) and C. rectus in 23.3% (10 of 43)of the samples taken from primary endodontic infections. Findings confirmed the assertion that both C. gracilis and C. rectus participate in infections of endodontic origin and suggest a pathogenetic role with regard to periradicular diseases.

  9. IMPORTANT PROTOZOAN PARASITES IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srisasi Gandahusada

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The most important protozoan parasites in Indonesia are the malaria parasites, Toxoplasma gondii and Entamoeba histolytica. After the second world war the residual insecticides and effective antimalarial drugs were used in the control of malaria. After development of resistance among mosquitoes to insecticides, the Malaria Control Programme was switched over to the Malaria Eradication Programme. Malaria incidence dropped heavily. However, due to the quick development of vector resistance and financial limitations, malaria came back and so did the Malaria Control Programme. P. falciparum and P.vivax are the most common species in Indonesia. Important vectors are An. sundaicus, An. aconitus, An. maculatus, An. hyrcanus group, An. balabacensis, An. farauti etc. An. sundaicus and An. aconitus have developed resistance to DDT and Dieldrin in Java. In 1959 the Malaria Eradication Programme was started in Java, Bali and Lampung. In 1965 the API dropped to 0,15 per thousand. From 1966 onwards malaria transmission was on the increase, because spraying activities were slowed down, but dropped again from 1974 onwards by occasional residual house spraying with DDT or Fenitrothion, malaria surveillance and treatment of malaria cases, resulting in an API of 0.18 per thousand in 1987. At present malaria is not transmitted in Jakarta and in capitals of the provinces and kabupatens, except in Irian Jaya, Nusa Tenggara Timur and one or two other provinces, but it still exists in rural areas. The distribution of chloroquine resistant P.falciparum is patchy. Resistance is at the RI, RII and RUT levels. The main problems of malaria control are : the increasing development of resistance of the vector to insecticides, the change of An.aconitus from zoophili to anthropophili and from indoor to outdoor biting, the increasing resistance of P.falciparum to chloroquine, the shortage of skilled manpower and limitation of budget. In Indonesia many newborns with congenital

  10. Pedicularis gracilis Wall. Ex Benth. (Scrophulariaceae Complex in the Himalayas – A Taxonomic Reinvestigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Husain

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper highlights the complex nature of Pedicularis gracilis Wall. ex Benth. in the Himalayas and enumerates two subspecies and four varieties of this species. Morphological and distributional data have been appended to show that the subspecies – gracilis and brunoniana (Wall. ex Pennell Husain & Garg and varieties – gracilis and stricta (Wall. Husain & Garg (under subsp. gracilis and brunoniana and macrocarpa (Prain Husain & Garg (under subsp. brunoniana are distinct.

  11. Outcomes of electrically stimulated gracilis neosphincter surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillin, T; Chambers, M; Feldman, R

    2005-07-01

    To examine patient quality of life (QoL) and long-term costs of electrically stimulated gracilis neosphincter surgery (ESGNS). Independently conducted prospective case-comparison study of patients at the Royal London Hospital (RLH), plus a cross-sectional study of outcomes of ESGNS performed at three other UK centres. Cases were patients who underwent ESGNS at the participating hospitals during a 5-year period from 1977. Comparisons were made with two groups of people with similar bowel disorders who did not undergo ESGNS. ESGNS is a procedure designed to improve bowel function for people living with severe faecal incontinence or stomas. It involves transposition of the gracilis muscle to form a neo-anal sphincter. The transposed muscle is electrically stimulated via an electronic pulse generator implanted beneath the skin of the abdomen. Clinical success and symptomatic outcomes of surgery. Generic, domain and condition specific measures of QoL. Comparative costs to the NHS of ESGNS and conventional alternatives. At 3 years after surgery approximately three-quarters of patients still had functioning neosphincters. At this stage, bowel-related QoL and continence improved by more than 20% for nearly two-thirds of RLH patients. However, ongoing bowel evacuation difficulties occurred in half of those with good continence outcomes. QoL improvements were maintained in the smaller group of RLH patients who had reached 4 and 5 years of follow-up, although at this stage the proportion with failed neosphincters had increased. The RLH findings were supported by those from the three other UK centres. No significant changes in QoL were observed in the comparison groups during the follow-up period. The mean cost of patient care at RLH, was 23,253 pounds. In the other three centres, the estimated mean cost of the intervention per patient was 11,731 pounds, reflecting fewer planned operations and repeat admissions. Costs of patient care for those with stomas who did not undergo

  12. Assessment of potential sources of protozoan contamination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Occasional screening of food and water quality available to organisms in protected areas could be beneficial to their successful conservation. This is important for areas receiving regular human visitors and exhibiting activities that may be detrimental to ecosystem health. This study determined the intestinal protozoan ...

  13. Assessment of the phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activity of a bloom forming microalgae Euglena tuba

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhuri, Dipankar; Ghate, Nikhil Baban; Deb, Shampa; Panja, Sourav; Sarkar, Rhitajit; Rout, Jayashree; Mandal, Nripendranath

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Unstable generation of free radicals in the body are responsible for many degenerative diseases. A bloom forming algae Euglena tuba growing abundantly in the aquatic habitats of Cachar district in the state of Assam in North-East India was analysed for its phytochemical contents, antioxidant activity as well as free radical scavenging potentials. RESULTS: Based on the ability of the extract in ABTS•+ radical cation inhibition and Fe3+ reducing power, the obtained results revealed ...

  14. Influence of water chemistry on the distribution of an acidophilic protozoan in an acid mine drainage system at the abandoned Green Valley coal mine, Indiana, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brake, S.S.; Dannelly, H.K.; Connors, K.A.; Hasiotis, S.T. [Indiana State University, Terre Haute, IN (United States). Dept. of Geography Geology & Anthropology

    2001-07-01

    Euglena mutabilis, a benthic photosynthetic protozoan that intracellularly sequesters Fe, is variably abundant in the main effluent channel that contains acid mine drainage (AMD) discharging from the Green Valley coal mine site in western Indiana. Samples of effluent (pH 3.0-4.6) taken from the main channel and samples of contaminated stream water (pH 3.3 to 8.0) collected from an adjacent stream were analyzed to evaluate the influence of water chemistry on E. mutabilis distribution. E. mutabilis communities were restricted to areas containing unmixed effluent with the thickest (up to 3 mm) benthic communities residing in effluent containing high concentrations of total Fe (up to 12110 mg/l), SO{sub 4}(up to 2940 mg/l), Al (up to 1846 mg/l), and Cl (up to 629 mg/l). Communities were also present, but much less abundant, in areas with effluent containing lower concentrations of these same constituents. In effluent where SO{sub 4} was most highly concentrated, E. mutabilis was largely absent, suggesting that extremely high concentrations of SO{sub 4} may have an adverse effect on this potentially beneficial Fe-mediating, acidophilic protozoan.

  15. Ankistrodesmus gracilis (Chlorophyta fertilized in swine manure in the laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Helena Sipaúba-Tavares

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to investigate the influence of swine manure media on the growth, total length, dry weight, and nutritional value of Ankistrodesmus gracilis microalgae. Two media were measured: “in natura” and biodigested. The growth rate peak for A. gracilis was highest with biodigester treatment (6.2 x 107 cells.mL-1 on the 5th day, at a volume of 2L. The highest percentage of lipids was verifi ed for “in natura” media. Protein was highest (p > 0.05 for the biodigested media at 2L. Biovolume, ash rate, and total length were different (p 0.05. Light demand was also different between media, with lesser intensity being required for biodigested media (13.5μE.cm-2.s-1. In fact, the biodigested media proved to be cheaper in terms of cost and benefit. Generally, the medium containing swine manure, both “in natura” and biodigested, showed better results in A. gracilis development, with water quality adequate for culture systems. Swine manure in both forms may also be used in high-density cultures in the laboratory.

  16. Molecular detection of protozoan parasites in ticks infesting cattle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An assessment of protozoan parasite load in the ticks infesting cattle entering the country by hooves through a major trans-boundary route in Ogun State was carried out using ... This is the first report on protozoan parasites detected in ticks infesting cattle entering Nigeria through a major trans-boundary route in Nigeria.

  17. Protozoan Diversity in a productive fishpond of a tropical plateau ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of the Protozoan species diversity in a productive fishpond of the Jos Plateau, Nigeria was investigated at 7 day interval over a period of 11 months. Samples were collected from water column and sediment. Protozoans were found to compose of the flagellates sarcodines and cilliates. There was a significant ...

  18. On the chemical identification and visualization of uranium species in biofilms and Euglena mutabilis cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brockmann, Sina

    2013-01-01

    For risk assessment of anthropogenic uranium contaminations in the environment a detailed knowledge of the migration and immobilization behavior is required to prevent health hazards for humans and animals caused by an uncontrolled discharge of uranium. Hence, comprehensive studies on the interactions of uranium with the environment are required. Besides the influences of the geological materials, there is a huge effect of the biosphere, especially the interactions with microorganisms and biofilms, on the properties of uranium in the environment. The aim of this study was to investigate and to describe naturally occurring biofilms from real uranium contaminated areas and their influence on the uranium migration. The investigations in this study on the localization and the speciation of the uranium in the biosystems were primarily done with a coupled system of laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy (LIFS). Natural biofilms collected from two uranium contaminated acid mine drainage (AMD) environments, the former uranium mine in Koenigstein (Saxony, Germany) and the former Gessenheap near Ronneburg (Thuringia,Germany), were investigated in this study. The chosen samples represent typical biofilm communities living in AMD water and are exemplary for potentially occurring scenarios of contaminated mining water both in the underground and on the surface. The investigation on the interactions between uranium and Euglena mutabilis, which is a typical unicellular microorganism that can be found in acidic, uranium and other heavy metal containing waters, was another important part of this study. Bioaccumulation experiments of uranium on living Euglena mutabilis cells depending on the pH (pH 3 - 6) and on the background media in sodium perchlorate (9 g/l) or sodium sulfate (3.48 g/l) solution containing 0.01 mM uranium show an effective immobilization of uranium. At the acidic pH-values (pH 3 - 4) over 90 % of the added uranium was

  19. Protozoan growth rates on secondary-metabolite-producing Pseudomonas spp. correlate with high-level protozoan taxonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Annette L.; Winding, Anne; Altenburger, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Different features can protect bacteria against protozoan grazing, for example large size, rapid movement, and production of secondary metabolites. Most papers dealing with these matters focus on bacteria. Here, we describe protozoan features that affect their ability to grow on secondary-metabol...

  20. Drug target identification in protozoan parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Joachim; Hemphill, Andrew

    2016-08-01

    Despite the fact that diseases caused by protozoan parasites represent serious challenges for public health, animal production and welfare, only a limited panel of drugs has been marketed for clinical applications. Herein, the authors investigate two strategies, namely whole organism screening and target-based drug design. The present pharmacopoeia has resulted from whole organism screening, and the mode of action and targets of selected drugs are discussed. However, the more recent extensive genome sequencing efforts and the development of dry and wet lab genomics and proteomics that allow high-throughput screening of interactions between micromolecules and recombinant proteins has resulted in target-based drug design as the predominant focus in anti-parasitic drug development. Selected examples of target-based drug design studies are presented, and calcium-dependent protein kinases, important drug targets in apicomplexan parasites, are discussed in more detail. Despite the enormous efforts in target-based drug development, this approach has not yet generated market-ready antiprotozoal drugs. However, whole-organism screening approaches, comprising of both in vitro and in vivo investigations, should not be disregarded. The repurposing of already approved and marketed drugs could be a suitable strategy to avoid fastidious approval procedures, especially in the case of neglected or veterinary parasitoses.

  1. Recovery from inhibition of transcription in γ-irradiated Euglena cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsushimoto, G.; Kikuchi, T.; Ishida, M.R.

    1982-01-01

    Transcriptional activity was inhibited with low doses of γ-irradiation which did not cause the death of cells, but induced the delay of cell division in the unicellular alga Euglena. The incorporation of [ 14 C]uracil into cells was inhibited to about 50% of non-irradiated cells immediately after 3 krad irradiation. The suppressed transcriptional activity was gradually recovered after irradiation. At about 12 h post-irradiation, the rate of incorporation of [ 14 C]uracil recovered to that of non-irradiated cells. The synthesis of ribosomal RNA was inhibited immediately after 3 krad irradiation, but it recovered within 12 h after irradiation. The synthesis of cytosol ribosomal RNA precursor was more strongly inhibited than that of other cytosol ribosomal RNAs. The synthesis of cytoplasmic organelle ribosomal RNA was also inhibited and recovered after 3 krad irradiation. (Auth.)

  2. Antiviral Ability of Kalanchoe gracilis Leaf Extract against Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A16

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Ying Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pandemic infection or reemergence of Enterovirus 71 (EV71 and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16 occurs in tropical and subtropical regions, being associated with hand-foot-and-mouth disease, herpangina, aseptic meningitis, brain stem encephalitis, pulmonary edema, and paralysis. However, effective therapeutic drugs against EV71 and CVA16 are rare. Kalanchoe gracilis (L. DC is used for the treatment of injuries, pain, and inflammation. This study investigated antiviral effects of K. gracilis leaf extract on EV71 and CVA16 replications. HPLC analysis with a C-18 reverse phase column showed fingerprint profiles of K. gracilis leaf extract had 15 chromatographic peaks. UV/vis absorption spectra revealed peaks 5, 12, and 15 as ferulic acid, quercetin, and kaempferol, respectively. K. gracilis leaf extract showed little cytotoxicity, but exhibited concentration-dependent antiviral activities including cytopathic effect, plaque, and virus yield reductions. K. gracilis leaf extract was shown to be more potent in antiviral activity than ferulic acid, quercetin, and kaempferol, significantly inhibiting in vitro replication of EV71 (IC50=35.88 μg/mL and CVA16 (IC50=42.91 μg/mL. Moreover, K. gracilis leaf extract is a safe antienteroviral agent with the inactivation of viral 2A protease and reduction of IL-6 and RANTES expressions.

  3. Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activity of Green Algae Halimeda gracilis from Seribu Island District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Basir

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Seaweeds have ecological functions as primary producers in marine waters. It also has an important economic value as a producer of hydrocolloids (alginate, agar and carrageenan that is used in various industries of food and pharmaceuticals. This study aimed to determine the antibacterial and antioxidant activity of green algae Halimeda gracilis. The study was conducted in several stages, sample collection and preparation, extraction of bioactive compound, fractionation, antibacterial and antioxidant test, and phytochemical. Extraction was done by maceration method using methanol and concentrated by rotary evaporator. The methanol extracts of H. gracilis were tested against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Methanol extract of H. gracilis formed inhibition zone against the test bacteria with diameter of inhibition zone was 10 mm and 6 mm, respectively. After liquid-liquid partition (water: ethyl acetate, inhibition zone was only seen in the ethyl acetate fraction of H. gracilis with diameter of inhibition zone was 6 mm and 7.50±1.71 mm, respectively. Antioxidant test methanol extracts and ethyl acetate fractions of H. gracilis each show IC50 value of 290.49 ppm and 375.50 ppm. Phytochemical test showed methanol extract of H. gracilis contains phenols and steroids.

  4. Antiviral Ability of Kalanchoe gracilis Leaf Extract against Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ching-Ying; Huang, Shun-Chueh; Zhang, Yongjun; Lai, Zhen-Rung; Kung, Szu-Hao; Chang, Yuan-Shiun; Lin, Cheng-Wen

    2012-01-01

    Pandemic infection or reemergence of Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) occurs in tropical and subtropical regions, being associated with hand-foot-and-mouth disease, herpangina, aseptic meningitis, brain stem encephalitis, pulmonary edema, and paralysis. However, effective therapeutic drugs against EV71 and CVA16 are rare. Kalanchoe gracilis (L.) DC is used for the treatment of injuries, pain, and inflammation. This study investigated antiviral effects of K. gracilis leaf extract on EV71 and CVA16 replications. HPLC analysis with a C-18 reverse phase column showed fingerprint profiles of K. gracilis leaf extract had 15 chromatographic peaks. UV/vis absorption spectra revealed peaks 5, 12, and 15 as ferulic acid, quercetin, and kaempferol, respectively. K. gracilis leaf extract showed little cytotoxicity, but exhibited concentration-dependent antiviral activities including cytopathic effect, plaque, and virus yield reductions. K. gracilis leaf extract was shown to be more potent in antiviral activity than ferulic acid, quercetin, and kaempferol, significantly inhibiting in vitro replication of EV71 (IC50 = 35.88 μg/mL) and CVA16 (IC50 = 42.91 μg/mL). Moreover, K. gracilis leaf extract is a safe antienteroviral agent with the inactivation of viral 2A protease and reduction of IL-6 and RANTES expressions. PMID:22666293

  5. Experimental evolution of protozoan traits in response to interspecific competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    terHorst, C P

    2011-01-01

    Decades of experiments have demonstrated the ecological effect of competition, but experimental evidence for competitive effects on trait evolution is rare. I measured the evolution of six protozoan traits in response to competitors from the inquiline community of pitcher plants. Replicate populations of Colpoda, a ciliated protozoan, were allowed to evolve in response to intra- and interspecific competition for 20 days (approximately 100 generations), before traits were measured in two common garden environments. Populations that evolved with interspecific competition had smaller cell sizes, produced fewer cysts and had higher population growth rates relative to populations grown in monoculture. The presence of interspecific competitors led to differential lineage sorting, most likely by increasing the strength of selection. These results are the first to demonstrate protozoan evolution in response to competition and may have implications for species coexistence in this system. © 2010 The Author. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2010 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  6. Antimicrobial action of the essential oil of Lippia gracilis Schauer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Cavalcanti de Albuquerque

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil (EO of Lippia gracilis Schauer over fungi and heliconia endophytic bacteria was evaluated. For the fungi Geotrichum candidum; Trichoderma viride; Torula herbarum; Paecillomyces sp.; Fusicoccum sp.; P. aeruginens; Curvularia lunata; Aspergillus nidulans; A. flavus; and A. niger mycelial discs were inoculated in PDA medium with oil (0; 420; 440; 460; 480 e 500 µL L-1. The inhibition percentage in 420 µL L-1 was 100% for all fungi, except for C. lunata and A. niger, which was 95.58% and 89.40% , respectively. In other experiment, a suspension of the Salmonella choleraceuis-diarizonae, Enterobacter asburiae, Bacillus thuringiensis, B. pumilus, B. cereus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and E. hormaechei was individually added to the solid NYDA medium dishes. In each dish, wells were drilled in medium and filled with water or EO (420 µL L-1. The diameter of the inhibition halo was assessed. K. pneumoniae was the bacterial species less sensitive and E. hormaechei was the most sensitive.Avaliou-se a atividade antimicrobiana do óleo essencial (OE de Lippia gracilis Schauer sobre fungos contaminantes de laboratórios de cultura de tecidos vegetais e bactérias endofíticas de helicônias. Discos de micélio dos fungos Geotrichum candidum; Trichoderma viride; Torula herbarum; Paecillomyces sp.; Aspergillus nidulans; Fusicoccum sp.; A. flavus; P. aeruginens; Curvularia lunata e A. niger, foram inoculados em meio BDA com óleo (0; 420; 440; 460; 480 e 500 µL L-1. O percentual de inibição em 420 µL L-1 foi de 100% para todos os fungos exceto paraC. lunata and A. niger, o qual foi de 95.58% and 89.40% respectivamente. Em outro experimento, suspensão das espécies Salmonela choleraceuis-diarizonae, Enterobacter asburiae, Bacillus thuringiensis, B. pumilus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, E. hormaechei, Bacillus pumilus, B. cereus, B. pumilus foi individualmente adicionada ao meio NYDA, que foi vertido em placas de Petri e, ap

  7. Copper and Cadmium Toxicity to Marine Phytoplankton, Chaetoceros gracilis and Isochrysis sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suratno Suratno

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In Copper (Cu based antifouling (AF paints Cu was largely used as booster biocide after organotin was banned. Cu is micronutrient which is important in photosynthesis process because Cu is an essential metal as component of enzyme and electron transport chain. But in certain dosage, Cu could be toxic to marine organism. Chaetoceros gracilis and Isochrysis sp. are dominant microalgae in aquatic ecosystem. In this study the effect of Cu and Cadmium (Cd on two marine microalgae, C. gracilis and Isochrysis sp. were compared. Toxicity test was based on American Standard for Testing Material (ASTM. IC50-96 h of Cd as reference toxicant was 2,370 mg.L-1 for C. gracilis and 490 mg.L-1 for Isochrysis sp. IC50-96 h of Cu to growth of C. gracilis was 63.75 mg.L-1 and Isochrysis sp. was 31.80 mg.L-1. Both Cd and Cu were inhibited growth of microalgae. Based on IC50-96 h value, it could be concluded that Cu was more toxic than Cd. Toxicity of Cu was 37 times stronger than Cd for C. gracilis and 15 times for Isochrysis sp. It was estimated that at concentration 10 mg.L-1 Cu does not show observable effect (NOEC to C. gracilis and 5 mg.L-1 to Isochrysis sp. The lowest observable effect of Cu (LOEC to C. gracilis was at concentration 17 mg.L-1 and 10 mg.L-1 for Isochrysis sp.

  8. Intestinal protozoan and helminthic diarrheal infections in children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intestinal protozoan and helminthic diarrheal infections in children under five years old in Agasha, Benue State, north-central Nigeria. ... creation particularly on proper hand washing with soap or ash and water for children and their parents/care-givers. Keywords: diarrhea, protozoa, helminthes, hygiene and hand hygiene.

  9. Phytoplankton/protozoan dynamics in the Nyara Estuary, a small ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytoplankton/protozoan dynamics in the Nyara Estuary, a small temporarily open system in the Eastern Cape (South Africa) ... freshwater inflow, the Nyara is best described as a predominantly low nutrient, low phytoplankton biomass, stratified system, dominated by the microbial food-web and possibly fed by detritus.

  10. Off the hook - how bacteria survive protozoan grazing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matz, Carsten; Kjelleberg, S.

    2005-01-01

    Bacterial growth and survival in numerous environments are constrained by the action of bacteria-consuming protozoa. Recent findings suggest that bacterial adaptations against protozoan predation might have a significant role in bacterial persistence and diversification. We argue that selective p...... for microbial ecology and evolution at the interface of prokaryotes and eukaryotes....

  11. Blood protozoan parasites of rodents in Jos, Plateau State, Nigerai ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and thirty rodents, comprising nine different species caught from seven different locations in Jos, Nigeria, were examined for blood protozoan parasites, and 82(63.08%) were positive, with Plasmodium 63(48.46%), Trypanosoma 4(3.08%), Toxoplasma 6(4.62%), Babesia 7(5.38%) and Anaplasma 2(1.54%).

  12. Intestinal protozoan parasites with zoonotic potential in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marietto-Gonçalves, G A; Fernandes, T M; Silva, R J; Lopes, R S; Andreatti Filho, R L

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of potentially zoonotic intestinal protozoan infections in exotic and wildlife Brazilian birds. Fecal samples from 207 birds of 45 species were examined. Infections by Balantidium sp., Entamoeba sp., and Blastocystis sp. were observed in 17 individuals (8.2%) of Gnorimopsar chopi, Oryzoborus angolensis, Sporophila caerulescens, Ramphastos toco, Aratinga leucophtalmus, and Pavo cristatus.

  13. Dynamic Penile Corpora Cavernosa Reconstruction Using Bilateral Innervated Gracilis Muscles: A Preclinical Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhuming; Liu, Liqiang; Xue, Bingjian; Fan, Jincai; Chen, Wenlin; Liu, Zheng

    2018-03-07

    Prosthesis-assisted penile reconstruction has been performed extensively to restore a cosmetically acceptable phallus. However, a large number of patients will undergo revision surgery for various prosthesis-related complications. To develop a 1-stage prosthesis-free dynamic cavernosa reconstruction method using bilateral innervated gracilis muscles and to investigate the feasibility and reliability of the surgical design. 10 fresh cadavers were dissected to assess the availability of bilateral gracilis muscles for functional cavernosa rebuilding. 11 mongrel female dogs were involved in the penile reconstruction surgery. The neophallus consisted of bilateral gracilis muscles as the neo-cavernosa, a right gracilis skin flap as the neourethra, and a lower abdominal flap with an anterior rectus sheath as the skin envelope and neo-tunica albuginea. The function and structure of the neo-phalli were assessed 7 months postoperatively. The neurovascular pedicle length of the gracilis muscles and the volume of the gracilis venter musculi were measured in the cadaveric investigation. The average dimensions of the canine neo-phalli at rest and during electrostimulated erection were obtained and the muscular fatigue-resistant curve was drawn. Histologic evaluations also were performed. The neurovascular pedicle length and volume of the gracilis muscles were sufficient to yield a nearly normal appearance of the neo-cavernosa in the cadaveric and animal studies. The muscular fatigue-resistant curve demonstrated adequate length, stiffness, and duration of erection of the neo-phalli to accomplish normal coitus. Histologic evaluations showed an intact neourethra and nearly normal muscle structure in the inner layer of the canine neo-cavernosa, except for significantly increased amount of collagen fibers and type I/III collagen ratio in the outer layer of the neo-cavernosa. The percentage of type II (fatigue-prone) muscle fibers did not change significantly. Our preclinical

  14. Human parasitic protozoan infection to infertility: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiadeh, Malihe Nourollahpour; Niyyati, Maryam; Fallahi, Shirzad; Rostami, Ali

    2016-02-01

    Protozoan parasitic diseases are endemic in many countries worldwide, especially in developing countries, where infertility is a major burden. It has been reported that such infections may cause infertility through impairment in male and female reproductive systems. We searched Medline, PubMed, and Scopus databases and Google scholar to identify the potentially relevant studies on protozoan parasitic infections and their implications in human and animal model infertility. Literature described that some of the protozoan parasites such as Trichomonas vaginalis may cause deformities of the genital tract, cervical neoplasia, and tubal and atypical pelvic inflammations in women and also non-gonoccocal urethritis, asthenozoospermia, and teratozoospermia in men. Toxopalasma gondii could cause endometritis, impaired folliculogenesis, ovarian and uterine atrophy, adrenal hypertrophy, vasculitis, and cessation of estrus cycling in female and also decrease in semen quality, concentration, and motility in male. Trypanosoma cruzi inhibits cell division in embryos and impairs normal implantation and development of placenta. Decrease in gestation rate, infection of hormone-producing glands, parasite invasion of the placenta, and overproduction of inflammatory cytokines in the oviducts and uterine horns are other possible mechanisms induced by Trypanosoma cruzi to infertility. Plasmodium spp. and Trypanosoma brucei spp. cause damage in pituitary gland, hormonal disorders, and decreased semen quality. Entamoeba histolytica infection leads to pelvic pain, salpingitis, tubo-ovarian abscess, and genital ulcers. Cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis can induce genital lesion, testicular amyloidosis, inflammation of epididymis, prostatitis, and sperm abnormality in human and animals. In addition, some epidemiological studies have reported that rates of protozoan infections in infertile patients are higher than healthy controls. The current review indicates that protozoan parasitic

  15. Solar Radiation Stress in Natural Acidophilic Biofilms of Euglena mutabilis Revealed by Metatranscriptomics and PAM Fluorometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puente-Sánchez, Fernando; Olsson, Sanna; Gómez-Rodriguez, Manuel; Souza-Egipsy, Virginia; Altamirano-Jeschke, Maria; Amils, Ricardo; Parro, Victor; Aguilera, Angeles

    2016-02-01

    The daily photosynthetic performance of a natural biofilm of the extreme acidophilic Euglena mutabilis from Río Tinto (SW, Spain) under full solar radiation was analyzed by means of pulse amplitude-modulated (PAM) fluorescence measurements and metatrascriptomic analysis. Natural E. mutabilis biofilms undergo large-scale transcriptomic reprogramming during midday due to a dynamic photoinhibition and solar radiation stress. Photoinhibition is due to UV radiation and not to light intensity, as revealed by PAM fluorometry analysis. In order to minimize the negative effects of solar radiation, our data supports the presence of a circadian rhythm in this euglenophyte that increases their opportunity to survive. Differential gene expression throughout the day (at 12:00, 20:00 and night) was monitored by massive Illumina parallel sequencing of metatranscriptomic libraries. The transcription pattern was altered in genes involved in Photosystem II stability and repair, UV damaged DNA repair, non-photochemical quenching and oxidative stress, supporting the photoinhibition detected by PAM fluorometry at midday. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessment of the phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activity of a bloom forming microalgae Euglena tuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipankar Chaudhuri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Unstable generation of free radicals in the body are responsible for many degenerative diseases. A bloom forming algae Euglena tuba growing abundantly in the aquatic habitats of Cachar district in the state of Assam in North-East India was analysed for its phytochemical contents, antioxidant activity as well as free radical scavenging potentials. RESULTS: Based on the ability of the extract in ABTS•+ radical cation inhibition and Fe3+ reducing power, the obtained results revealed the prominent antioxidant activity of the algae, with high correlation coefficient of its TEAC values to the respective phenolic and flavonoid contents. The extract had shown its scavenging activity for different free radicals and 41.89 ± 0.41 µg/ml, 5.83 ± 0.07 µg/ml, 278.46 ± 15.02 µg/ml and 223.25 ± 4.19 µg/ml were determined as the IC50 values for hydroxyl, superoxide, nitric oxide and hypochlorous acid respectively, which are lower than that of the corresponding reference standards. The phytochemical analysis also revealed that the phenolics, flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins and carbohydrates are present in adequate amount in the extract which was confirmed by HPLC analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that 70% methanol extract of the algae possesses excellent antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties.

  17. Hydrothermal liquefaction of Gracilaria gracilis and Cladophora glomerata macro-algae for biocrude production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsa, Mehran; Jalilzadeh, Hamoon; Pazoki, Maryam; Ghasemzadeh, Reza; Abduli, MohammadAli

    2018-02-01

    The potential of Gracilaria gracilis (G. gracilis) and Cladophora glomerata (C. glomerata) macro-algae species harvested from Caspian Sea for biocrude oil production under Hydrothermal Liquefaction (HTL) reaction at 350 °C and 15 min has been investigated. Furthermore, the effect of using recycled aqueous phase as the HTL reaction solvent was studied. The biocrude yield for G. gracilis and C. glomerata was 15.7 and 16.9 wt%, respectively with higher heating value (HHV) of 36.01 and 33.06 MJ/kg. The sources of each existing component in bio-oil were identified by GC-MS based on their suggested reaction pathways. Moreover, after two series of aqueous solution recycling, experiments showed that the bio-oil yield significantly increased compared with the initial condition. This increasing directly relates with recovery of carbon content from the aqueous solution residue. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. On the chemical identification and visualization of uranium species in biofilms and Euglena mutabilis cells; Zur chemischen Identifizierung und Visualisierung von Uran-Spezies in Biofilmen und Euglena mutabilis Zellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brockmann, Sina

    2013-11-14

    For risk assessment of anthropogenic uranium contaminations in the environment a detailed knowledge of the migration and immobilization behavior is required to prevent health hazards for humans and animals caused by an uncontrolled discharge of uranium. Hence, comprehensive studies on the interactions of uranium with the environment are required. Besides the influences of the geological materials, there is a huge effect of the biosphere, especially the interactions with microorganisms and biofilms, on the properties of uranium in the environment. The aim of this study was to investigate and to describe naturally occurring biofilms from real uranium contaminated areas and their influence on the uranium migration. The investigations in this study on the localization and the speciation of the uranium in the biosystems were primarily done with a coupled system of laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy (LIFS). Natural biofilms collected from two uranium contaminated acid mine drainage (AMD) environments, the former uranium mine in Koenigstein (Saxony, Germany) and the former Gessenheap near Ronneburg (Thuringia,Germany), were investigated in this study. The chosen samples represent typical biofilm communities living in AMD water and are exemplary for potentially occurring scenarios of contaminated mining water both in the underground and on the surface. The investigation on the interactions between uranium and Euglena mutabilis, which is a typical unicellular microorganism that can be found in acidic, uranium and other heavy metal containing waters, was another important part of this study. Bioaccumulation experiments of uranium on living Euglena mutabilis cells depending on the pH (pH 3 - 6) and on the background media in sodium perchlorate (9 g/l) or sodium sulfate (3.48 g/l) solution containing 0.01 mM uranium show an effective immobilization of uranium. At the acidic pH-values (pH 3 - 4) over 90 % of the added uranium was

  19. Bovine Tick-borne Protozoan Diseases: Emerging Threats

    OpenAIRE

    El-Ashker MR

    2013-01-01

    Tick-borne protozoan diseases, Theileriosis and Babesiosis, are major health and management problems of cattle, small ruminants and buffaloes in Africa, Asia and Latin America. Recently, tickborne diseases were ranked high in terms of their impact on poor farming communities in developing countries. Whereas the global economic importance of ticks is particularly high for livestock, there is also a relevant impact on public health in the northern hemisphere.

  20. Homologous Recombination in Protozoan Parasites and Recombinase Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew A. Kelso

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Homologous recombination (HR is a DNA double-strand break (DSB repair pathway that utilizes a homologous template to fully repair the damaged DNA. HR is critical to maintain genome stability and to ensure genetic diversity during meiosis. A specialized class of enzymes known as recombinases facilitate the exchange of genetic information between sister chromatids or homologous chromosomes with the help of numerous protein accessory factors. The majority of the HR machinery is highly conserved among eukaryotes. In many protozoan parasites, HR is an essential DSB repair pathway that allows these organisms to adapt to environmental conditions and evade host immune systems through genetic recombination. Therefore, small molecule inhibitors, capable of disrupting HR in protozoan parasites, represent potential therapeutic options. A number of small molecule inhibitors were identified that disrupt the activities of the human recombinase RAD51. Recent studies have examined the effect of two of these molecules on the Entamoeba recombinases. Here, we discuss the current understandings of HR in the protozoan parasites Trypanosoma, Leishmania, Plasmodium, and Entamoeba, and we review the small molecule inhibitors known to disrupt human RAD51 activity.

  1. UV-B affects photosynthesis, ROS production and motility of the freshwater flagellate, Euglena agilis Carter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kottuparambil, Sreejith [Institute of Green Environmental Research Center, University of Incheon, Incheon, 406 840 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Woongghi [Department of Biology, Chungnam University, Daejeon, 306 764 (Korea, Republic of); Brown, Murray T. [School of Marine Science and Engineering, Plymouth University, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Han, Taejun, E-mail: hanalgae@hanmail.net [Institute of Green Environmental Research Center, University of Incheon, Incheon, 406 840 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Marine Science, University of Incheon, Incheon, 406 840 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We proposed a hypothesis for the UV-B protective/adaptive mechanism in Euglena agilis. After moderate levels of UV-B radiation, ROS plays a signaling role to shut down photosynthetic system for protection against harmful UV radiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer E. agilis exposed to excessive UV appears to become animal-like, investing all its stored energy into movement rather than into sustaining its photosynthetic machinery. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This adaptation allows E. agilis to avoid harmful UV and seek a safe place where the organism may regain its photosynthetic capacity for survival. - Abstract: The effects of ultraviolet B (UV-B; 295-320 nm) radiation on certain vital physiological (photosynthesis), biochemical (production of reactive oxygen species - ROS) and behavioral (motility and orientation) characteristics were investigated in the unicellular photoautotroph, Euglena agilis Carter. The photosynthetic performance of E. agilis was recorded after exposure of between 15 and 60 min followed by a period of recovery lasting 6-24 h under dim light (5-10 {mu}mol photons m{sup -2} s{sup -1}). The maximum quantum yield of PS II (F{sub v}/F{sub m}) was reduced to 65% and 14% of initial values immediately following 15 and 30 min UV-B exposure, but recovered to 100 and 86% of the initials, respectively. Values of rETR{sub max} in E. agilis exposed to 15 min UV-B were similar to those of the initials, but a 30 min UV exposure resulted in 75% reduction of rETR{sub max} with only a 43% recovery as compared with the initial after 24 h recovery. After a 60 min UV-B exposure, there were no Chl a fluorescence signals, and hence no F{sub v}/F{sub m} or rETR{sub max}. A UV dose-dependent increase in DCFH-DA fluorescence was found in E. agilis cells, reflecting an increase in ROS production. After exposures to UV-B for between 15 and 60 min, the percentages of motile cells in the population decreased to 76, 39 and 15

  2. Proximal hamstring reconstruction using semitendinosus and gracilis autograft: a novel technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muellner, Thomas; Kumar, Sandeep; Singla, Amit

    2017-01-01

    The complete proximal hamstring avulsion is relatively uncommon injury and predominantly occurs in young athletes but causes significant functional impairment. In chronic cases, the muscle mass is so much retracted that primary repair is not possible. A surgical technique for reconstruction of chronic proximal hamstring avulsion using contralateral semitendinosus and gracilis autograft is described in this case report. V.

  3. Chemical Composition Variability of Essential Oils of Daucus gracilis Steinh. from Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyelles, Batoul; Allali, Hocine; Dib, Mohamed El Amine; Djabou, Nassim; Paolini, Julien; Costa, Jean

    2017-06-01

    The chemical compositions of 20 Algerian Daucus gracilis essential oils were investigated using GC-FID, GC/MS, and NMR analyses. Altogether, 47 compounds were identified, accounting for 90 - 99% of the total oil compositions. The main components were linalool (18; 12.5 - 22.6%), 2-methylbutyl 2-methylbutyrate (20; 9.2 - 20.2%), 2-methylbutyl isobutyrate (10; 4.2 - 12.2%), ammimajane (47; 2.6 - 37.1%), (E)-β-ocimene (15; 0.2 - 12.8%) and 3-methylbutyl isovalerate (19; 3.3 - 9.6%). The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained from separate organs was also studied. GC and GC/MS analysis of D. gracilis leaves and flowers allowed identifying 47 compounds, amounting to 92.3% and 94.1% of total oil composition, respectively. GC and GC/MS analysis of D. gracilis leaf and flower oils allowed identifying linalool (22.7%), 2-methylbutyl 2-methylbutyrate (18.9%), 2-methylbutyl isovalerate (13.6%), ammimajane (10.4%), 3-methylbutyl isovalerate (10.3%), (E)-β-ocimene (8.4%) and isopentyl 2-methylbutyrate (8.1%) as main components. The chemical variability of the Algerian oil samples was studied using statistical analysis, which allowed the discrimination of three main Groups. A direct correlation between the altitudes, nature of soils and the chemical compositions of the D. gracilis essential oils was evidenced. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  4. Consequences of acclimation to Microcystis on the selective feeding behavior of the calanoid copepod Eudiaptomus gracilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ger, K.A.; Panosso, R.; Lürling, M.

    2011-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that calanoid copepods would adapt to extended periods of Microcystis exposure by increasing selective feeding on alternative food. Copepod (Eudiaptomus gracilis) clearance rates were compared before and after a 5-d acclimation to Microcystis aeruginosa using paired food

  5. Gracilioethers A-C, Antimalarial Metabolites from the Marine Sponge Agelas gracilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ueoka, R.; Nakao, Y.; Kawatsu, S.; Yaegashi, J.; Matsumoto, Y.; Matsunaga, S.; Furihata, K; van Soest, R.W.M.; Fusetani, N.

    2009-01-01

    Three new antiprotozoan compounds, gracilioethers A−C (1−3), have been isolated from the marine sponge Agelas gracilis. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical methods. Gracilioethers A−C showed antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum with IC50 values

  6. Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative activities of Kalanchoe gracilis (L.) DC stem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Zhen-Rung; Ho, Yu-Ling; Huang, Shun-Chieh; Huang, Tai-Hung; Lai, Shang-Chih; Tsai, Jen-Chieh; Wang, Ching-Ying; Huang, Guan-Jhong; Chang, Yuan-Shiun

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation are related to several chronic diseases including cancer and atherosclerosis. Kalanchoe gracilis (L.) DC is a special folk medicinal plant in Taiwan. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative activities of the methanolic extract and fractions of the stem of K. gracilis. TEAC, total phenolic compound content, total flavonoid content, DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power, inhibition of NO production in LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells, and inhibition of cancer cell proliferation were analyzed. Among all fractions, the chloroform fraction showed the highest TEAC and DPPH radical scavenging activities. The chloroform fraction also had the highest content of polyphenols and flavonoids. Chloroform fractions also decreased LPS-induced NO production and expressions of iNOS and COX-2 in RAW264.7 cells. The antiproliferative activities of the methanolic extract and fractions were studied in vitro using HepG2 cells, and the results were consistent with their antioxidant capacities. Chloroform fractions had the highest antiproliferative activity with an IC(50) of 136.85 ± 2.32 μg/ml. Eupafolin also had good pharmacological activity in the antioxidant, anti-inflammation and antiproliferative. Eupafolin might be an important bioactive compound in the stem of K. gracilis. The above experimental data indicated that the stem of K. gracilis is a potent antioxidant medicinal plant, and such efficacy may be mainly attributed to its polyphenolic compounds.

  7. Chemical analysis, antimicrobial and anti-oxidative properties of Daucus gracilis essential oil and its mechanism of action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meriem El Kolli

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: D. gracilis EO showed potent antimicrobial and anti-oxidative activities and had acted on the cytoplasm membrane. These activities could be exploited in the food industry for food preservation.

  8. Cancer in the parasitic protozoans Trypanosoma brucei and Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lun, Zhao-Rong; Lai, De-Hua; Wen, Yan-Zi; Zheng, Ling-Ling; Shen, Ji-Long; Yang, Ting-Bo; Zhou, Wen-Liang; Qu, Liang-Hu; Hide, Geoff; Ayala, Francisco J

    2015-07-21

    Cancer is a general name for more than 100 malignant diseases. It is postulated that all cancers start from a single abnormal cell that grows out of control. Untreated cancers can cause serious consequences and deaths. Great progress has been made in cancer research that has significantly improved our knowledge and understanding of the nature and mechanisms of the disease, but the origins of cancer are far from being well understood due to the limitations of suitable model systems and to the complexities of the disease. In view of the fact that cancers are found in various species of vertebrates and other metazoa, here, we suggest that cancer also occurs in parasitic protozoans such as Trypanosoma brucei, a blood parasite, and Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular pathogen. Without treatment, these protozoan cancers may cause severe disease and death in mammals, including humans. The simpler genomes of these single-cell organisms, in combination with their complex life cycles and fascinating life cycle differentiation processes, may help us to better understand the origins of cancers and, in particular, leukemias.

  9. Impact and control of protozoan parasites in maricultured fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmann, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    Aquaculture, including both freshwater and marine production, has on a world scale exhibited one of the highest growth rates within animal protein production during recent decades and is expected to expand further at the same rate within the next 10 years. Control of diseases is one of the most prominent challenges if this production goal is to be reached. Apart from viral, bacterial, fungal and metazoan infections it has been documented that protozoan parasites affect health and welfare and thereby production of fish in marine aquaculture. Representatives within the main protozoan groups such as amoebae, dinoflagellates, kinetoplastid flagellates, diplomonadid flagellates, apicomplexans, microsporidians and ciliates have been shown to cause severe morbidity and mortality among farmed fish. Well studied examples are Neoparamoeba perurans, Amyloodinium ocellatum, Spironucleus salmonicida, Ichthyobodo necator, Cryptobia salmositica, Loma salmonae, Cryptocaryon irritans, Miamiensis avidus and Trichodina jadranica. The present report provides details on the parasites' biology and impact on productivity and evaluates tools for diagnosis, control and management. Special emphasis is placed on antiprotozoan immune responses in fish and a strategy for development of vaccines is presented.

  10. Adynamic Graciloplasty With a Pedicled Gracilis Muscle Flap Wrapped Around Bulbar Urethra for Treatment of Male Acquired Urinary Incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hailin; Sa, Yinglong; Xu, Yuemin; Wang, Lin; Fei, Xiaofang

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of adynamic gracilis urethral myoplasty with a pedicled gracilis muscle flap wrapped around bulbar urethra for treatment of male acquired urinary incontinence. Twenty-four patients with acquired urinary incontinence (8 after radical prostatectomy, 7 after transurethral resection of the prostate, and 9 after posterior urethroplasty) were included in our study. Eighteen of these patients (75.0%) had mild to moderate urinary incontinence, and 6 (25.0%) had severe urinary incontinence. All patients received adynamic gracilis urethral myoplasty with a pedicled gracilis muscle flap wrapped around bulbar urethra and had a close follow-up. The mean postoperative maximum urethral pressure after the gracilis muscle wrapped around bulbar urethra was significantly higher than that of the preoperative measurements (P urethra can raise the urethral pressure. Adynamic graciloplasty with a pedicled gracilis muscle flap wrapped around bulbar urethra is a safe and effective surgical option in the treatment of male patients with mild to moderate incontinence, but is not suitable for severe incontinence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Can the gracilis be used to replace the anterior cruciate ligament in the knee? A cadaver study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaignac, Etienne; Pailhé, Regis; Murgier, Jérôme; Reina, Nicolas; Lauwers, Frederic; Chiron, Philippe

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a four-strand gracilis-only graft can be used in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Cadaver study. This study involved 16 cadaver knees. The length and diameter of the native ACL were measured in each one. The same measurements were performed on a four-strand graft of the gracilis only, the semitendinosus only and both tendons. Student's t-test was used to compare the various conditions. The average diameter of the G4 construct was 0.07 mm greater (1%) than the native ACL (p=0.044). The average cross-sectional area of the G4 construct was 1.2 mm(2) greater (3.9%) than the native ACL (p=0.049). The G4 was on average 38.9 mm longer than the intra-articular portion of the ACL (p<0.001). A four-strand gracilis construct meets the anatomical specifications for use as an ACL reconstruction graft. By using the gracilis only, the morbidity associated with harvesting the gracilis and semitendinosus tendons should be reduced. Further studies must be performed to compare the biomechanical properties of this graft with other graft types and also to evaluate how this four-strand gracilis graft behaves in a clinical setting. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Desenvolvimento marsupial e pós-marsupial de Janaira Gracilis (Crustacea, Isopoda, Asellota Marsupial and postmarsupial development of Janaira gracilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Setubal Pires

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo são descritos os estádios de desenvolvimento de Janaira gracilis e discutidos vários aspectos de seu crescimento. Coletou-se o material mensalmente, de janeiro de 1972 a janeiro de 1973, junto ao trapiche da Base Norte do Instituto Oceanográfico da Universidade de São Paulo, Ubatuba, Estado de Sao Paulo. Janaira gracilis apresenta 4 estádios de desenvolvimento marsupial, 9 de desenvolvimento pós-marsupial para as fêmeas, e 10 para os machos. Os estádios pós-marsupiais podem ser bem determinados através do número de artículos do flagelo da antena 1, pereópodo I e VII, pleópodos 1 e 2 masculino e desenvolvimento de oostégitos na fêmea. As transformações decorrentes do desenvolvimento pós-marsupial são mais marcantes nos machos, pois as fêmeas conservam uma morfologia juvenil e uniforme durante toda a sua vida. O crescimento médio dos machos suplanta o das fêmeas a partir do estádio 7. Nestas, a diminuição de crescimento observada deve-se, provavelmente, à utilização crescente de energia disponível, para fins reprodutivos. Os machos alcançam a maturidade sexual precocemente às fêmeas.The development and growth of Janaira gracilis are described and discussed. The sampling was carried out once a month from January 1972 to January 1973 at the pier of Base Norte, Instituto Oceanográfico USP, Ubatuba, State of São Paulo. Four distinct marsupial stages were disclosed in the development of Janaira gracilis as well as 9 distinct postmarsupial stages for the females and 10 for the males. Every postmarsupial instar can be distinguished by morphological features, such as first antennae articles, first and seventh pereopod, first and second pair of pleopods and the oostegites. During the course of development females undergo less morphological changes than males. Considering the final stages, in average males are larger than females. It is suggested that the decrease in growth of females may be related to

  13. Effect of Cadmium on the population growth of the marine diatom Chaetoceros gracilis Schutt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Vera

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton constitutes the base of the trophic webs in the marine environment, so it is important to know the possible effects of pollutants on the algal populations. In the present paper the effect of cadmium on the population growth of the diatom Chaetoceros gracilis was assessed. The microalgae were cultured in the a modified “f/2” Guillard medium, and were exposed to different concentrations of cadmium between 50 and 100000 µg.–1, which produced an inhibitory effect from 20% to 99% on the population growth of Chaetoceros gracilis. Based on the dose (cadmium-response (inhibition relationship, a mean effective concentration (EC50% equal to 591 µg.L–1 of cadmium was obtained.

  14. With a flick of the lid: a novel trapping mechanism in Nepenthes gracilis pitcher plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Bauer

    Full Text Available Carnivorous pitcher plants capture prey with modified leaves (pitchers, using diverse mechanisms such as 'insect aquaplaning' on the wet pitcher rim, slippery wax crystals on the inner pitcher wall, and viscoelastic retentive fluids. Here we describe a new trapping mechanism for Nepenthes gracilis which has evolved a unique, semi-slippery wax crystal surface on the underside of the pitcher lid and utilises the impact of rain drops to 'flick' insects into the trap. Depending on the experimental conditions (simulated 'rain', wet after 'rain', or dry, insects were captured mainly by the lid, the peristome, or the inner pitcher wall, respectively. The application of an anti-slip coating to the lower lid surface reduced prey capture in the field. Compared to sympatric N. rafflesiana, N. gracilis pitchers secreted more nectar under the lid and less on the peristome, thereby directing prey mainly towards the lid. The direct contribution to prey capture represents a novel function of the pitcher lid.

  15. Surgical repair of rectovaginal fistula using gracilis muscular flap. A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Yasuhiro; Ooi, Masataka; Takeuchi, Kenji; Honzumi, Makoto [Nabari City Hospital, Mie (Japan); Fukunishi, Shigeji

    1999-07-01

    A 78 year-old female suffered from vaginal discharge of flatus and stool for 20 years after the radiation therapy for cervical cancer. Digital and endoscopic examination of the rectum and the vagina disclosed a large, short rectovaginal fistula at the level of the cervix. Since laparotomy and low anterior resection of the rectum were impossible, a perineal approach was adopted. After perineal skin incision, the fistula was resected and the defects of the rectum and the vagina were closed. Gracilis muscular flap was anchored between the two closures. Though the closure of the rectal side was torn, her postoperative course was uneventful. Endoscopic examination 24 days after the operation confirmed healing of the dehiscence. The results verified the usefulness of the perineal approach using the gracilis muscular flap as an alternative method to low anterior resection for troublesome radiation induced rectovaginal fistula. (author)

  16. Surgical repair of rectovaginal fistula using gracilis muscular flap. A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Yasuhiro; Ooi, Masataka; Takeuchi, Kenji; Honzumi, Makoto; Fukunishi, Shigeji

    1999-01-01

    A 78 year-old female suffered from vaginal discharge of flatus and stool for 20 years after the radiation therapy for cervical cancer. Digital and endoscopic examination of the rectum and the vagina disclosed a large, short rectovaginal fistula at the level of the cervix. Since laparotomy and low anterior resection of the rectum were impossible, a perineal approach was adopted. After perineal skin incision, the fistula was resected and the defects of the rectum and the vagina were closed. Gracilis muscular flap was anchored between the two closures. Though the closure of the rectal side was torn, her postoperative course was uneventful. Endoscopic examination 24 days after the operation confirmed healing of the dehiscence. The results verified the usefulness of the perineal approach using the gracilis muscular flap as an alternative method to low anterior resection for troublesome radiation induced rectovaginal fistula. (author)

  17. Spermiogenesis and spermatozoon of the tapeworm Parabothriocephalus gracilis (Bothriocephalidea): Ultrastructural and cytochemical studies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šípková, Lenka; Levron, Céline; Freeman, M.; Scholz, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 1 (2010), s. 58-65 ISSN 1230-2821 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP524/07/P039; GA ČR GA524/08/0885; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Eucestoda * Bothriocephalidea * Parabothriocephalus gracilis * spermiogenesis * spermatozoon * ultrastructure Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.144, year: 2010

  18. Kalanchosides A-C, new cytotoxic bufadienolides from the aerial parts of Kalanchoe gracilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pei-Lin; Hsu, Yu-Lin; Wu, Tian-Shung; Bastow, K F; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung

    2006-11-09

    [Structure: see text] Three new compounds, kalanchosides A-C (1-3), as well as five known compounds, were isolated from the aerial parts of Kalanchoe gracilis. The compound structures were determined by spectroscopic methods. All eight isolated compounds showed significant cytotoxic activity against a panel of human tumor cell lines, with potency reaching the nanomolar range. However, only bryophyllin B (8) inhibited HIV replication in H9 lymphocyte cells.

  19. A rapid phenol toxicity test based on photosynthesis and movement of the freshwater flagellate, Euglena agilis Carter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kottuparambil, Sreejith; Kim, Youn-Jung; Choi, Hoon; Kim, Mi-Sung; Park, Areum; Park, Jihae; Shin, Woongghi; Han, Taejun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Rapid phenol toxicity tests (1 h) were developed based on Chl a fluorescence and the movement parameters of Euglena agilis. • Phenol significantly reduced F v /F m of PS II and rETRmax with EC50 values of 8.94 and 4.67 mM, respectively. • Among the movement parameters tested, velocity was the most sensitive biomarker with an EC50 of 3.17 mM. • The EC50 values for F v /F m , motility, and velocity appear to overlap the environmental permissible levels of phenol. - Abstract: Phenol, a monosubstituted aromatic hydrocarbon with various commercial uses, is a major organic constituent in industrial wastewaters. The ecotoxic action of phenol for aquatic environment is well known. In this study, rapid phenol toxicity tests (1 h) were developed based on chlorophyll a (Chl a) fluorescence and the movement parameters of the freshwater flagellate, Euglena agilis Carter. Phenol significantly reduced the maximum quantum yield (F v /F m ) of photosystem II (PS II) and the maximum photosynthetic electron transport rate (rETR max ) with median effective concentration (EC 50 ) values of 8.94 and 4.67 mM, respectively. Phenol reduced the motility and triggered change in the swimming velocity of the test organism. Among the parameters tested, velocity was the most sensitive biomarker with an EC 50 of 3.17 mM. The EC 50 values for F v /F m , motility, and velocity appear to overlap the permitted levels of phenol. In conclusion, the photosynthesis and movement of E. agilis can be fast and sensitive risk assessment parameters for the evaluation of phenol toxicity in municipal and industrial effluents

  20. A rapid phenol toxicity test based on photosynthesis and movement of the freshwater flagellate, Euglena agilis Carter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kottuparambil, Sreejith [Institute of Green Environmental Research Center, Incheon National University, Incheon 406 840 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Youn-Jung [Institute of Green Environmental Research Center, Incheon National University, Incheon 406 840 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Marine Science, Incheon National University, Incheon 406 840 (Korea, Republic of); Green-Pioneer (Ltd.), Incheon National University, Incheon 406 840 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hoon; Kim, Mi-Sung; Park, Areum; Park, Jihae [Institute of Green Environmental Research Center, Incheon National University, Incheon 406 840 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Woongghi [Department of Biology, Chungnam University, Daejeon 306 764 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Taejun, E-mail: hanalgae@hanmail.net [Institute of Green Environmental Research Center, Incheon National University, Incheon 406 840 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Marine Science, Incheon National University, Incheon 406 840 (Korea, Republic of); Green-Pioneer (Ltd.), Incheon National University, Incheon 406 840 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Rapid phenol toxicity tests (1 h) were developed based on Chl a fluorescence and the movement parameters of Euglena agilis. • Phenol significantly reduced F{sub v}/F{sub m} of PS II and rETRmax with EC50 values of 8.94 and 4.67 mM, respectively. • Among the movement parameters tested, velocity was the most sensitive biomarker with an EC50 of 3.17 mM. • The EC50 values for F{sub v}/F{sub m}, motility, and velocity appear to overlap the environmental permissible levels of phenol. - Abstract: Phenol, a monosubstituted aromatic hydrocarbon with various commercial uses, is a major organic constituent in industrial wastewaters. The ecotoxic action of phenol for aquatic environment is well known. In this study, rapid phenol toxicity tests (1 h) were developed based on chlorophyll a (Chl a) fluorescence and the movement parameters of the freshwater flagellate, Euglena agilis Carter. Phenol significantly reduced the maximum quantum yield (F{sub v}/F{sub m}) of photosystem II (PS II) and the maximum photosynthetic electron transport rate (rETR{sub max}) with median effective concentration (EC{sub 50}) values of 8.94 and 4.67 mM, respectively. Phenol reduced the motility and triggered change in the swimming velocity of the test organism. Among the parameters tested, velocity was the most sensitive biomarker with an EC{sub 50} of 3.17 mM. The EC{sub 50} values for F{sub v}/F{sub m}, motility, and velocity appear to overlap the permitted levels of phenol. In conclusion, the photosynthesis and movement of E. agilis can be fast and sensitive risk assessment parameters for the evaluation of phenol toxicity in municipal and industrial effluents.

  1. Treatment of ischial pressure sores using a modified gracilis myofasciocutaneous flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Haodong; Hou, Chunlin; Chen, Aimin; Xu, Zhen

    2010-04-01

    Despite the availability of a variety of flap reconstruction options, ischial pressure sores continue to be the most difficult pressure sores to treat. This article describes a successful surgical procedure for the coverage of ischial ulcers using a modified gracilis myofasciocutaneous flap. From August 2000 to April 2004, 12 patients with ischial sores were enrolled in the study. All patients underwent early aggressive surgical debridement followed by surgical reconstruction with a modified gracilis myofasciocutaneous flap. The follow-up period ranged from 13 to 86 months, with a mean of 44 months. Overall, 91.7% of the flaps (11 of 12) survived primarily. Partial flap necrosis occurred in one patient. Primary wound healing occurred without complications at both the donor and recipient sites in all cases. In one patient, grade II ischial pressure sores recurred 13 months after the operation. There was no recurrence in other 11 patients. A modified gracilis myofasciocutaneous flap provides a good cover for ischial pressure sores. Because it is easy to use and has favorable results, it can be used in the primary treatment for large and deep ischial pressure sores. Copyright Thieme Medical Publishers.

  2. Free gracilis muscle transfer for smile reanimation after treatment for advanced parotid malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faris, Callum; Heiser, Alyssa; Hadlock, Tessa; Jowett, Nate

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the outcomes of free gracilis muscle transfer for delayed smile reanimation after radical parotidectomy. A retrospective chart review of patients who underwent free gracilis muscle transfer for smile reanimation after radical parotidectomy between 2003 and 2016 was performed. Patient-reported quality of life (Facial Clinimetric Evaluation Scale [FaCE]), physician-reported facial function ("eFACE" facial grading scale), and oral commissure excursion were compared preoperatively and postoperatively. Twelve patients were identified with prior surgery and adjuvant therapy (radiotherapy in 6 cases and chemoradiotherapy in 6 cases). Significant postoperative improvements were demonstrated for ipsilateral commissure excursion with smile (preoperatively: -2.2 mm [SD 2.3 mm] vs postoperatively: 7.9 mm [SD 2.5 mm]; P = .002), with meaningful smile achieved in 11 of 12 cases (91.7%). The average duration of facial paralysis before intervention was 72 months (range 12-204 months). Free gracilis muscle transfer is an option for dynamic smile reanimation in select patients who have undergone treatment for advanced parotid malignancy. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Factors affecting growth of the spiny lobsters Panulirus gracilis and Panulirus inflatus (Decapoda: Palinuridae in Guerrero, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Briones-Fourzán

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of sex, injuries, season and site on the growth of the spiny lobsters Panulirus gracilis, and P. inflatus, were studied through mark-recapture techniques in two sites with different ecological characteristics on the coast of Guerrero, México. Panulirus gracilis occurred in both sites, whereas P. inflatus occurred only in one site. All recaptured individuals were adults. Both species had similar intermolt periods, but P. gracilis had significantly higher growth rates (mm carapace length week -1 than P. inflatus as a result of a larger molt increment. Growth rates of males were higher than those of females in both species owing to larger molt increments and shorter intermolt periods in males. Injuries had no effect on growth rates in either species. Individuals of P. gracilis grew faster in site 1 than in site 2. Therefore, the effect of season on growth of P. gracilis was analyzed separately in each site. In site 2, growth rates of P. gracilis were similar in summer and in winter, whereas insite 1 both species had higher growth rates in winter than in summer. This could be due to spatial differences in processes related to changes in population density and food resources, which were documented in previous works. The overall results show that P. gracilis grows faster than P. inflatus, and that growth rates of both species are highly variable and are affected by environmental factors such as site and season, which should be taken into account when attempting to produce population growth curves for each species.Se analizaron, por medio de marcado-recaptura, los efectos del sexo, heridas, estación del año y localidad sobre el crecimiento de las langostas espinosas Panulirus gracilis Streets, 1871, y Panulirus inflatus (Bouvier, 1895 en dos localidades con diferentes características ecológicas en la costa de Guerrero, México. Panulirus gracilis se presentó en ambas localidades, mientras que P. inflatus sólo se encontró en una de

  4. Protozoan predation in soil slurries compromises determination of contaminant mineralization potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badawi, Nora; Johnsen, Anders R.; Brandt, Kristian K.; Sørensen, Jan; Aamand, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Soil suspensions (slurries) are commonly used to estimate the potential of soil microbial communities to mineralize organic contaminants. The preparation of soil slurries disrupts soil structure, however, potentially affecting both the bacterial populations and their protozoan predators. We studied the importance of this “slurry effect” on mineralization of the herbicide 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA, 14 C-labelled), focussing on the effects of protozoan predation. Mineralization of MCPA was studied in “intact” soil and soil slurries differing in soil:water ratio, both in the presence and absence of the protozoan activity inhibitor cycloheximide. Protozoan predation inhibited mineralization in dense slurry of subsoil (soil:water ratio 1:3), but only in the most dilute slurry of topsoil (soil:water ratio 1:100). Our results demonstrate that protozoan predation in soil slurries may compromise quantification of contaminant mineralization potential, especially when the initial density of degrader bacteria is low and their growth is controlled by predation during the incubation period. - Highlights: ► We studied the protozoan impact on MCPA mineralization in soil slurries. ► Cycloheximide was used as protozoan inhibitor. ► Protozoa inhibited MCPA mineralization in dilute topsoil slurry and subsoil slurry. ► Mineralization potentials may be underestimated when using soil slurries. - Protozoan predation may strongly bias the quantification of mineralization potential when performed in soil slurries, especially when the initial density of degrader bacteria is low such as in subsoil or very dilute topsoil slurries.

  5. Posteromedial knee friction syndrome: an entity with medial knee pain and edema between the femoral condyle, sartorius and gracilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeone, F Joseph; Huang, Ambrose J; Chang, Connie Y; Smith, Maximilian; Gill, Thomas J; Bredella, Miriam A; Torriani, Martin

    2015-04-01

    To describe MRI features of an entity consisting of medial knee pain and edema between the posteromedial femoral condyle (PMFC), sartorius and/or gracilis tendons and determine whether reduced tendon-bone distances may account for these findings. We retrospectively identified MRI cases of edema between the PMFC, sartorius and/or gracilis tendons (25 subjects, 26 knees). Two musculoskeletal radiologists independently graded edema and measured the sartorius- and gracilis-PMFC distances and knee flexion angle. Age- and gender-matched subjects with normal knee MRIs (27 subjects, 27 knees) served as controls for measurements. Statistical analyses compared abnormal to control subjects. Sartorius-PMFC and gracilis-PMFC spaces were narrower in abnormal compared to control subjects (1.6 ± 1.0 vs. 2.1 ± 1.2 mm, P = 0.04; 2.3 ± 2.0 vs. 4.6 ± 3.0 mm, P = 0.002, respectively). The knee flexion angle was similar between groups (P > 0.05). In subjects with clinical information, medial knee pain was the main complaint in 58 % (15/26) of abnormal subjects, with 42 % (11/26) having clinical suspicion of medial meniscal tear. Edema between the PMFC, sartorius and/or gracilis was mild in 54 % (14/26), moderate in 35 % (9/26) and severe in 12 % (3/26), and it was most frequent deep to both the sartorius and gracilis (50 %, 13/26). Edema between the PMFC, sartorius and/or gracilis tendons identified on knee MRI may be associated with medial knee pain and may represent a friction syndrome.

  6. Posteromedial knee friction syndrome: an entity with medial knee pain and edema between the femoral condyle, sartorius and gracilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simeone, F.J.; Huang, Ambrose J.; Chang, Connie Y.; Smith, Maximilian; Bredella, Miriam A.; Torriani, Martin [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Division of Musculoskeletal Imaging and Intervention, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Gill, Thomas J. [Boston Sports Medicine and Research Institute, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-12-20

    To describe MRI features of an entity consisting of medial knee pain and edema between the posteromedial femoral condyle (PMFC), sartorius and/or gracilis tendons and determine whether reduced tendon-bone distances may account for these findings. We retrospectively identified MRI cases of edema between the PMFC, sartorius and/or gracilis tendons (25 subjects, 26 knees). Two musculoskeletal radiologists independently graded edema and measured the sartorius- and gracilis-PMFC distances and knee flexion angle. Age- and gender-matched subjects with normal knee MRIs (27 subjects, 27 knees) served as controls for measurements. Statistical analyses compared abnormal to control subjects. Sartorius-PMFC and gracilis-PMFC spaces were narrower in abnormal compared to control subjects (1.6 ± 1.0 vs. 2.1 ± 1.2 mm, P = 0.04; 2.3 ± 2.0 vs. 4.6 ± 3.0 mm, P = 0.002, respectively). The knee flexion angle was similar between groups (P > 0.05). In subjects with clinical information, medial knee pain was the main complaint in 58 % (15/26) of abnormal subjects, with 42 % (11/26) having clinical suspicion of medial meniscal tear. Edema between the PMFC, sartorius and/or gracilis was mild in 54 % (14/26), moderate in 35 % (9/26) and severe in 12 % (3/26), and it was most frequent deep to both the sartorius and gracilis (50 %, 13/26). Edema between the PMFC, sartorius and/or gracilis tendons identified on knee MRI may be associated with medial knee pain and may represent a friction syndrome. (orig.)

  7. Posteromedial knee friction syndrome: an entity with medial knee pain and edema between the femoral condyle, sartorius and gracilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simeone, F.J.; Huang, Ambrose J.; Chang, Connie Y.; Smith, Maximilian; Bredella, Miriam A.; Torriani, Martin; Gill, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    To describe MRI features of an entity consisting of medial knee pain and edema between the posteromedial femoral condyle (PMFC), sartorius and/or gracilis tendons and determine whether reduced tendon-bone distances may account for these findings. We retrospectively identified MRI cases of edema between the PMFC, sartorius and/or gracilis tendons (25 subjects, 26 knees). Two musculoskeletal radiologists independently graded edema and measured the sartorius- and gracilis-PMFC distances and knee flexion angle. Age- and gender-matched subjects with normal knee MRIs (27 subjects, 27 knees) served as controls for measurements. Statistical analyses compared abnormal to control subjects. Sartorius-PMFC and gracilis-PMFC spaces were narrower in abnormal compared to control subjects (1.6 ± 1.0 vs. 2.1 ± 1.2 mm, P = 0.04; 2.3 ± 2.0 vs. 4.6 ± 3.0 mm, P = 0.002, respectively). The knee flexion angle was similar between groups (P > 0.05). In subjects with clinical information, medial knee pain was the main complaint in 58 % (15/26) of abnormal subjects, with 42 % (11/26) having clinical suspicion of medial meniscal tear. Edema between the PMFC, sartorius and/or gracilis was mild in 54 % (14/26), moderate in 35 % (9/26) and severe in 12 % (3/26), and it was most frequent deep to both the sartorius and gracilis (50 %, 13/26). Edema between the PMFC, sartorius and/or gracilis tendons identified on knee MRI may be associated with medial knee pain and may represent a friction syndrome. (orig.)

  8. Evaluation of the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of the essential oil of Lippia gracilis leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, S S; Bomfim, R R; Jesus, H C R; Alves, P B; Blank, A F; Estevam, C S; Antoniolli, A R; Thomazzi, S M

    2010-06-16

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities of essential oil (EO) of Lippia gracilis Schauer (Verbenaceae) leaves to support the medicinal uses claimed by folklore practitioners in the caatinga region (semi-arid) of Northeastern Brazil. The chemical composition and antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the EO of Lippia gracilis leaves (50-200 mg/kg) were investigated. Antinociceptive activity of the EO was evaluated by writhing test. Anti-inflammatory activity of the EO was evaluated using paw oedema and peritonitis methods. Oral treatment with the EO of Lippia gracilis leaves elicited inhibitory activity on acetic acid effect at 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg (30.33+/-2.36, 25.20+/-1.48, and 21.00+/-1.54 abdominal writhes, respectively, Pleaves at 200 mg/kg (0.72+/-0.06 mL h, Pleaves at 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg (13.81+/-0.61, 11.77+/-0.91, and 10.30+/-0.60 leukocytes x 10(6)/mL, respectively, Pessential oil allowed the identification of Lippia gracilis as a thymol-p-cymene chemotype (32.68% and 17.82%, respectively). The EO of Lippia gracilis leaves shows antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Estabelecimento de protocolo para micropropagação de Lippia gracilis Schauer Establishment of protocol for Lippia gracilis Schauer micropropagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J.M Marinho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A espécie Lippia gracilis SCHAUER (Verbenaceae é nativa do Nordeste brasileiro e se destaca pela capacidade de acumular nos tricomas glandulares óleos essenciais com atividade antimicrobiana. Tendo em vista que não constam trabalhos na literatura sobre o estabelecimento in vitro dessa espécie, este trabalho teve como objetivo estabelecer protocolo para micropropagação de L. gracilis. Para tanto, ramos contendo folhas foram coletados de plantas matrizes no habitat natural para a confecção de estacas. Em laboratório, os explantes provenientes do processo de estaquia foram assepticamente tratados e inoculados em meio MS, acrescido de fitorreguladores, com o intuito de se estabelecer a melhor dose para o desenvolvimento dos explantes. Em decorrência de altos níveis de contaminação, avaliou-se o efeito da cefalexina. No entanto, apesar do antibiótico ter apresentado diminuição na contaminação bacteriana, a porcentagem de oxidação foi elevada. Portanto, testou-se o carvão ativado, ácido ascórbico, ácido cítrico e metade dos sais de MS quanto a eficiência no controle da oxidação. Concluiu-se que, o antibiótico na concentração utilizada provocou a oxidação dos explantes e os fitorreguladores, bem como os métodos antioxidantes testados, não apresentaram resultados consistentes para o melhor desenvolvimento dos explantes e controle da oxidação, respectivamente.The species Lippia gracilis Schauer (Verbenaceae is native to Northeastern Brazil and has been important for its ability to accumulate essential oils with antimicrobial activity in the glandular trichomes. Since there are no reports in the literature on the micropropagation of this species, the present work aimed to establish a protocol for L. gracilis micropropagation. Thus, branches containing leaves were collected from plant matrices in their natural habitat to prepare cuttings. In the laboratory, explants from cutting were aseptically treated and inoculated

  10. Observations on the symbiosis between Colus gracilis (Da Costa, 1778) (Mollusca: Gastropoda) and Hormathia digitata (O.F. Müller, 1776) (Cnidaria: Actiniaria)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ates, R.M.L.

    1998-01-01

    Aquarium observations of the behaviour of the actinian Hormathia digitata when mounting live specimens of the gastropod Colus gracilis are fully described for the first time. C. gracilis actively initiates an association with H. digitata by approaching and remaining stationary near the actinian.

  11. Micrositios del pasto navajita (Bouteloua gracilis en comunidades de pastizal y de matorral del Altiplano Mexicano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalva García-Sánchez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar si hay un tipo de micrositio específico para el establecimiento de Bouteloua gracilis, con patrones recurrentes, en dos diferentes tipos de comunidades vegetales. El pasto navajita azul es una especie perenne de alto valor forrajero y resistente a la sequía. Para ello se realizó un recorrido por tres matorrales y tres pastizales del Altiplano Mexicano; los sitios estudiados fueron elegidos con base en los reportes de ejemplares colectados y herborizados. Los resultados muestran, por un lado, que en los pastizales se presentan micrositios más de tipo funcional que físico, que determinan el establecimiento de B. gracilis, debido principalmente a los altos requerimientos de humedad edáfica de las semillas para germinar y desarrollarse. El micrositio más frecuente que determina el reclutamiento de los individuos provenientes de semilla es el suelo cercano a individuos adultos de su propia especie. Por otro lado, en los matorrales se detectaron, de manera recurrente, varias condiciones de micrositio para la especie y se observó que el tipo de micrositio es determinante, tanto para el establecimiento como para el crecimiento de este y otros pastos; también, el estudio mostró que en comunidades de matorral existe una mayor diversidad de micrositios que en los pastizales, por lo que se concluye que los individuos de B. gracilis, en los matorrales, crecen asociados a micrositios específicos que le brindan protección contra la desecación.

  12. Rapid biotransformation of arsenic by a model protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin Xixiang [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); State Key Lab of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China); Zhang Yongyu; Yang Jun [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Zhu Yongguan, E-mail: ygzhu@rcees.ac.cn [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); State Key Lab of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2011-04-15

    Arsenic biomethylation and biovolatilization are thought to be two important metabolic pathways in aquatic and soil environments. Tetrahymena thermophila is a genus of free-living ciliated protozoan that is widely distributed in freshwater environments around the world. In this study, we studied arsenic accumulation, speciation, efflux, methylation and volatilization in this unicellular eukaryote exposed to various concentrations of arsenate. Our results show that T. thermophila accumulated 187 mg.kg{sup -1} dry weight of arsenic when exposed to 40 {mu}M for 48 h, with MMAs(V) (monomethylarsenate) and DMAs(V) (dimethylarsenate) as the dominant species, accounting for 66% of the total arsenic. Meanwhile, arsenate, arsenite, MMAs(V) and DMAs(V) were detected in the culture medium; the last three were released by the cells. The production of volatile arsenic increased with increasing external As(V) concentrations and exposure time. To our knowledge, this is the first study on arsenic metabolism, particularly biomethylation and biovolatilization, in protozoa. - Tetrahymena thermophila can rapidly methylate arsenic, and produce volatile arsenicals.

  13. Effect of the Silica Content of Diatoms on Protozoan Grazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuwen Zhang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect that silica content in diatom cells has on the behavior of protists. The diatoms Thalassiosira weissflogii and T. pseudonana were cultured in high or low light conditions to achieve low and high silica contents, respectively. These cells were then fed to a heterotrophic dinoflagellate Noctiluca scintillans and a ciliate Euplotes sp. in single and mixed diet experiments. Our results showed that in general, N. scintillans and Euplotes sp. both preferentially ingested the diatoms with a low silica content rather than those with a high silica content. However, Euplotes sp. seemed to be less influenced by the silica content than was N. scintillans. In the latter case, the clearance and ingestion rate of the low silica diatoms were significantly higher, both in the short (6-h and long (1-d duration grazing experiments. Our results also showed that N. scintillans required more time to digest the high silica-containing cells. As the high silica diatoms are harder to digest, this might explain why N. scintillans exhibits a strong preference for the low silica prey. Thus, the presence of high silica diatoms might limit the ability of the dinoflagellate to feed. Our findings suggest that the silica content of diatoms affects their palatability and digestibility and, consequently, the grazing activity and selectivity of protozoan grazers.

  14. Taxonomy of the phyllosoma of Panulirus inflatus (Bouvier, 1895 and P. gracilis Streets, 1871, based on morphometry and molecular analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Muñoz-García

    Full Text Available Analysis of wild phyllosoma of Panulirus inflatus (Bouvier, 1895 and P. gracilis Streets, 1871 determined the morphological structures having taxonomic value for differentiation of the two species, in addition to the structures described previously. Of 54 phyllosoma, species identity was confirmed by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP on 42 P. inflatus and 4 P. gracilis, for which morphology and morphometric measurements were taken. Morphological analysis found subexopodal spines, spines at the base of pereopods 1 and 2, and the mandibles are structures of taxonomic value for differentiating the two species. Morphometric data did not allow differentiation.

  15. Induction of anthocyanin formation and of enzymes related to its biosynthesis by UV light in cell cultures of Haplopappus gracilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wellmann, E.; Hrazdina, G.; Grisebach, H.

    1976-01-01

    Only UV light below 345 nm stimulates anthocyanin formation in dark grown cell suspension cultures of Haplopappus gracilis. A linear relationship between UV dose and flavonoid accumulation, as found previously with parsley cell cultures was not observed with the H.gracilis cells. Only continuous irradiation with high doses of UV was effective. Drastic increases in the activities of the enzymes phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, chalcone isomerase and flavanone synthase were observed under continuous UV light. The increase in enzyme activities paralleled anthocyanin formation. (author)

  16. 15-30, 2016 15 Prevalence of diarrhea causing protozoan infections

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    protozoal infection was recorded and therefore public health education about diarrhea causing protozoans and ..... individuals serve as unidentified carriers and may .... Web GIS for tourism devel- ... CSA [Ethiopia] and ICF International; 2012.

  17. Synergistic Interactions within a Multispecies Biofilm Enhance Individual Species Protection against Grazing by a Pelagic Protozoan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raghupathi, Prem Krishnan; Liu, Wenzheng; Sabbe, Koen

    2018-01-01

    of a multispecies bacterial biofilm subject to grazing by a pelagic protozoan predator were investigated. To this end, a mono and multispecies biofilms of four bacterial soil isolates, namely Xanthomonas retroflexus, Stenotrophomonas rhizophila, Microbacterium oxydans and Paenibacillus amylolyticus, were...

  18. In situ proteo-metabolomics reveals metabolite secretion by the acid mine drainage bio-indicator, Euglena mutabilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halter, David; Goulhen-Chollet, Florence; Gallien, Sébastien; Casiot, Corinne; Hamelin, Jérôme; Gilard, Françoise; Heintz, Dimitri; Schaeffer, Christine; Carapito, Christine; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Tcherkez, Guillaume; Arsène-Ploetze, Florence; Bertin, Philippe N

    2012-01-01

    Euglena mutabilis is a photosynthetic protist found in acidic aquatic environments such as peat bogs, volcanic lakes and acid mine drainages (AMDs). Through its photosynthetic metabolism, this protist is supposed to have an important role in primary production in such oligotrophic ecosystems. Nevertheless, the exact contribution of E. mutabilis in organic matter synthesis remains unclear and no evidence of metabolite secretion by this protist has been established so far. Here we combined in situ proteo-metabolomic approaches to determine the nature of the metabolites accumulated by this protist or potentially secreted into an AMD. Our results revealed that the secreted metabolites are represented by a large number of amino acids, polyamine compounds, urea and some sugars but no fatty acids, suggesting a selective organic matter contribution in this ecosystem. Such a production may have a crucial impact on the bacterial community present on the study site, as it has been suggested previously that prokaryotes transport and recycle in situ most of the metabolites secreted by E. mutabilis. Consequently, this protist may have an indirect but important role in AMD ecosystems but also in other ecological niches often described as nitrogen-limited. PMID:22237547

  19. Drug resistance in the sexually transmitted protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REBECCA L DUNNE; LINDA A DUNN; PETER UPCROFT; PETER J O'DONOGHUE; JACQUELINE A UPCROFT

    2003-01-01

    Trichomoniasis is the most common, sexually transmitted infection. It is caused by the flagellated protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis. Symptoms include vaginitis and infections have been associated with preterm delivery, low birth weight and increased infant mortality, as well as predisposing to HIV/AIDS and cervical cancer. Trichomoniasis has the highest prevalence and incidence of any sexually transmitted infection. The 5-nitroimidazole drugs, of which metronidazole is the most prescribed, are the only approved,effective drugs to treat trichomoniasis. Resistance against metronidazole is frequently reported and crossresistance among the family of 5-nitroimidazole drugs is common, leaving no alternative for treatment, with some cases remaining unresolved. The mechanism of metronidazole resistance in T. vaginalis from treatment failures is not well understood, unlike resistance which is developed in the laboratory under increasing metronidazole pressure. In the latter situation, hydrogenosomal function which is involved in activation of the prodrug, metronidazole, is down-regulated. Reversion to sensitivity is incomplete after removal of drug pressure in the highly resistant parasites while clinically resistant strains, so far analysed, maintain their resistance levels in the absence of drug pressure. Although anaerobic resistance has been regarded as a laboratory induced phenomenon, it clearly has been demonstrated in clinical isolates. Pursuit of both approaches will allow dissection of the underlying mechanisms. Many alternative drugs and treatments have been tested in vivo in cases of refractory trichomoniasis, as well as in vitro with some successes including the broad spectrum anti-parasitic drug nitazoxanide. Drug resistance incidence in T. vaginalis appears to be on the increase and improved surveillance of treatment failures is urged.

  20. Extending the use of the gracilis muscle flap in perineal reconstruction surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldie, Stephen J; Almasharqah, Riyadh; Fogg, Quentin A; Anderson, William

    2016-08-01

    Reconstruction of the perineum is required following oncological resections. Plastic surgical techniques can be used to restore the aesthetics and function of the perineum. The gracilis myocutaneous flap provides a substantial skin paddle, with minimal donor site morbidity. The flap is pedicled on a perforator from the medial circumflex femoral artery, giving it limited reach across the perineum. Tunnelling the flap under the adductor longus muscle may free up more of the arterial pedicle, increasing its reach. On three female cadavers, bilateral gracilis flaps were raised in the standard surgical manner, giving six flaps in total. With the flaps pedicled across the perineum, the distance from the tip of each flap was measured to the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS). The flaps were then tunnelled under the adductor longus muscle. The distances to the ASIS were measured again. The average pedicle length was greater than 7 cm. Tunnelling the flap under the adductor longus muscle increased the reach by more than 4 cm on average. Cadaveric dissection has shown that tunnelling of the flap in a novel way increase its reach across the perineum. This additional flexibility improves its use clinically and is of benefit to plastic surgeons operating in perineal reconstruction. Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Free gracilis transfer for smile in children: the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary Experience in excursion and quality-of-life changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadlock, Tessa A; Malo, Juan S; Cheney, Mack L; Henstrom, Douglas K

    2011-01-01

    Free muscle transfer for facial reanimation has become the standard of care in recent decades and is now the cornerstone intervention for dynamic smile reanimation. We sought to quantify smile excursion and quality-of-life (QOL) changes in our pediatric free gracilis recipients following reanimation. We quantified gracilis muscle excursion in 17 pediatric patients undergoing 19 consecutive pediatric free gracilis transplantation operations, using our validated SMILE program, as an objective measure of functional outcome. These were compared against excursion measured the same way in a cohort of 17 adults with 19 free gracilis operations. In addition, we prospectively evaluated QOL outcomes in these children using the Facial Clinimetric Evaluation (FaCE) instrument. The mean gracilis excursion in our pediatric free gracilis recipients was 8.8 mm ± 5.0 mm, which matched adult results, but with fewer complete failures of less than 2-mm excursion, with 2 (11%) and 4 (21%), respectively. Quality-of-life measures indicated statistically significant improvements following dynamic smile reanimation (P = .01). Dynamic facial reanimation using free gracilis transfer in children has an acceptable success rate, yields improved commissure excursion, and improves QOL in the pediatric population. It should be considered first-line therapy for children with lack of a meaningful smile secondary to facial paralysis.

  2. Use of secondary sewage water as a culture medium for Chaetoceros gracilis and Thalassiosira Sp (Chrysophyceae in laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rauquírio André Albuquerque Marinho da Costa

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were carried out in order to test the efficiency of additions of secondary sewage as a culture medium for Chaetoceros gracilis and Thalassiosira sp (Chrysophyceae under laboratory conditions. These algae were cultivated in sea water with concentrations of 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% of wastewater. The results were compared with those obtained by the nutritive medium f2 of Guillard (1975. The best results in terms of cellular densities were observed at 40% additions. There were significant differences (significance levels of 5% between the nutritive medium f2 and the 40% additions for both the species. Maximum cellular densities observed for all additions tested were, 4,125.00 x 10³ cells/ml for Chaetoceros gracilis on the ninth day and 834.00 x 10³ cells/ml for Thalassiosira sp on the fifth day. Biomass was higher in the nutritive medium f2 than in the other treatments, reaching average values of 2,363μg/ml for Chaetoceros gracilis. At all experimental units, the best results were registered at 40% addition for Chaetoceros gracilis, where average values of 0.768μg/ml were observed on the fifth day, and at 30% additions for Thalassiosira sp where 0.883μg/ml were observed on the thirteenth day. It was concluded that secondary sewage could be used as a culture medium for the species tested here, after large scale tests.

  3. Review of the South American characiform fish genus Chilodus, with description of a new species, C. gracilis (Pisces, Characiformes, Chilodontidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isbrücker, I.J.H.; Nijssen, H.

    1988-01-01

    Examination of 291 specimens of Chilodus, a genus of South American fresh water fishes, yielded the presence of three species, viz.: C. punctatus, C. zunevei, and C. gracilis. Of the first species the lectotype is designated. The type material of C. zunevei is lost; new material enabled a

  4. A study on protozoan infections (Giardia, Entamoeba, Isoapora and Cryptosporidium in stray dogs in Ilam province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Kakekhani

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Giardia, Entamoeba, Isospora and Cryptosporidium are important protozoan parastites that caused diarrhea in human and animals. In the present study, fecal samples were collected fresh, directly from the rectum of 112 stray dogs in Ilam province. Giardia and Entamoeba were concentrated by using the formalin ether sedimentation method followed by the trichrome and iodine staining technique andCryptosporidium  oocysts  were  concentrated  by  using  the  formalin  ether  sedimentation  method  followed by the modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique. Of 112 stray dogs, protozoan infections were detected from feces of 46 dogs (41.07% that Giardia infection was detected from feces of 21 dogs (18.75%, Isospora 17 (15.17%, Cryptosporidium 8 (7.14% and synchronization infection to 2 protozoan in 9 dogs (8.03% and to 3 protozoan in 3 (2.67%. In the present study not observed to Entamoeba. No statistically significant differences in prevalence of protozoan parasites occurred between female (34.21 % and male (55.5 % stray dogs (p>0/05. But statistically significant differences in prevalence occurred between 1≥0 and 0 ≥1 stray dogs (p>0/05. So that stray dogs of Ilam province can cause infection of human water and food sources.

  5. Evolution of apoptosis-like programmed cell death in unicellular protozoan parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczanowski, Szymon; Sajid, Mohammed; Reece, Sarah E

    2011-03-25

    Apoptosis-like programmed cell death (PCD) has recently been described in multiple taxa of unicellular protists, including the protozoan parasites Plasmodium, Trypanosoma and Leishmania. Apoptosis-like PCD in protozoan parasites shares a number of morphological features with programmed cell death in multicellular organisms. However, both the evolutionary explanations and mechanisms involved in parasite PCD are poorly understood. Explaining why unicellular organisms appear to undergo 'suicide' is a challenge for evolutionary biology and uncovering death executors and pathways is a challenge for molecular and cell biology. Bioinformatics has the potential to integrate these approaches by revealing homologies in the PCD machinery of diverse taxa and evaluating their evolutionary trajectories. As the molecular mechanisms of apoptosis in model organisms are well characterised, and recent data suggest similar mechanisms operate in protozoan parasites, key questions can now be addressed. These questions include: which elements of apoptosis machinery appear to be shared between protozoan parasites and multicellular taxa and, have these mechanisms arisen through convergent or divergent evolution? We use bioinformatics to address these questions and our analyses suggest that apoptosis mechanisms in protozoan parasites and other taxa have diverged during their evolution, that some apoptosis factors are shared across taxa whilst others have been replaced by proteins with similar biochemical activities.

  6. Free gracilis flap for chest wall reconstruction in male patient with Poland syndrome after implant failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherubino, Mario; Maggiulli, Francesca; Pellegatta, Igor; Valdatta, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Poland's syndrome (PS) is a congenital monolateral deformity that may involve breast, chest wall, and upper limb with different degrees of clinical expressions. In some cases, the problem is mainly cosmetic, and the reconstruction should be performed to achieve minimal scarring and donor site morbidity. The authors describe a case report of a male patient with PS who developed a severe capsular contraction after 25 years implant reconstruction, who was treated after explantation using free gracilis flap (FGF). In this patient, only the pectoralis major muscle was missing. An FGF was performed to reconstruct the anterior axillary fold and the soft tissue defect. There was no flap loss, the patient had a clearly improved appearance of the chest wall, and the pain syndrome was solved. In this case report, we demonstrate our experience with the use of an FGF for chest wall reconstruction in male patients with PS after prosthesis explantation.

  7. Free gracilis flap for chest wall reconstruction in male patient with Poland syndrome after implant failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Cherubino

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Poland's syndrome (PS is a congenital monolateral deformity that may involve breast, chest wall, and upper limb with different degrees of clinical expressions. In some cases, the problem is mainly cosmetic, and the reconstruction should be performed to achieve minimal scarring and donor site morbidity. The authors describe a case report of a male patient with PS who developed a severe capsular contraction after 25 years implant reconstruction, who was treated after explantation using free gracilis flap (FGF. In this patient, only the pectoralis major muscle was missing. An FGF was performed to reconstruct the anterior axillary fold and the soft tissue defect. There was no flap loss, the patient had a clearly improved appearance of the chest wall, and the pain syndrome was solved. In this case report, we demonstrate our experience with the use of an FGF for chest wall reconstruction in male patients with PS after prosthesis explantation.

  8. USAGE OF ALGAE SPECIES CHAETOMORPHA GRACILIS AND CH. AEREA FOR DEPURATION PROCESS OF THE RESIDUAL WATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SALARU VICTOR

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Rapid increase of the population on the globe scale imposes maximum exploration of the natural resources and first of all of the aquatic resources. As a result are obtained an enormous quantity of residual waters which pollute the waters from rivers, lakes, freatic and underground waters. Elaboration of the depuration methods for residual waters the quantity of which grows continuously, is one of the most up to dated issue of the world. The physical-chemical depuration methods of the residual waters are very expensive and lack the efficiency we would like to have. The most efficient method proved to be the biological method using some species of algae and superior aquatic plants. In our experiences we have involved filamentous green algae Chaetomorpha gracilis and Ch. aerea for depuration of the sewerage water from town Cimishlia. The concentration of the mineral nitrogen compounds in the residual water is around 92,5 mg/l, and of the phosphates 10,1 mg/l. There were used the following concentration of the sewerage water: 10%, 25% and 50%. The most intense development of algae Chaetomorpha aerea was observed in the variant with 10% of residual water, in which the total concentration of the nitrogen was 10,24 mg/l, and of the phosphates 1,05 mg/l. For this variant the depuration water level was about 56,9%. For the case with Chaetomorpha gracilis, the depuration level for the same concentration of the residual water constituted 55,9 %. Increase of the concentration of the polluted water inhibits development of the algae reducing to the minimum their capacity to assimilate the nitrogen and the phosphor. In the solutions with 50 % of residual waters, the algae didn't die, but at the same time they didn't develop. From this results that both algae may be used in the phytoamelioration of the residual waters being diluted at 10% with purified water.

  9. Redescription of the Indo-West Pacific cardinalfishes (Perciformes: Apogonidae) Rhabdamia spilota Allen Kuiter 1994 and R. gracilis (Bleeker 1856).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Tomohiro; Motomura, Hiroyuki

    2018-01-31

    Rhabdamia spilota Allen Kuiter 1994 (Apogonidae), a poorly known cardinalfish previously known only from the Philippines, Indonesia and the Red Sea, is redescribed on the basis of 70 specimens (20.9-61.2 mm standard length) (including types), from the Indo-West Pacific (Red Sea, Andaman Sea, Japan, South China Sea, the Philippines, Indonesia, New Caledonia, and Australia). Because most reports of the similar species R. gracilis (Bleeker 1856), following its original description, were based on misidentifications, R. gracilis is also redescribed (based on 98 Indo-West Pacific specimens from Seychelles, Maldives, Andaman Sea, Japan, Malaysia, Indonesia, New Caledonia, and Australia, 27.9-59.3 mm standard length); a lectotype is designated for it. Rhabdamia spilota differs from R. gracilis in having 27-33 (mode 30-31) developed gill rakers [vs. 22-27 (mode 24) in the latter], 27-33 (30) gill rakers including rudiments [vs. 23-27 (24-25)], a black stripe from the jaw tips to the anterior margin of the orbit (vs. black pigments only at snout and tip of lower jaw), 3-6 reddish brown to blackish blotches on the opercle and anterior of body (vs. blotches absent), and indistinct black pigment restricted to caudal fin outer margins (vs. pigment scattered over entire fin). Rhabdamia gracilis exhibits sexual dichromatism, female specimens larger than 41.3 mm SL having one or two black stripes on the lateral surface of the body; the stripes are absent in males and smaller females. No evidence of sexual dichromatism was found in R. spilota.

  10. Arthroscopic intra- and extra-articular anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with gracilis and semitendinosus tendons: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Marcacci, Maurilio; Zaffagnini, Stefano; Marcheggiani Muccioli, Giulio Maria; Neri, Maria Pia; Bondi, Alice; Nitri, Marco; Bonanzinga, Tommaso; Grassi, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this paper are to summarize the concepts relating to the use of a combined intra-articular and extra-articular reconstructive procedure in the arthroscopic treatment of a torn ACL and to review several operative techniques utilizing gracilis and semitendinosus tendons that are currently in use to treat this instability. The highly satisfactory results obtained over the time show that a combination of intra- and extra-articular procedures for ACL reconstruction is a valid surgi...

  11. Influence of gamma radiation and fast neutrons on the growth of Haplopappus gracilis (Nutt) A. Gray callus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cebulska-Wasilewska, A.; Wajda, L.; Korzonek, M.; Polska Akademia Nauk, Krakow. Inst. Fizjologii Roslin)

    1979-01-01

    The sensitivity of the callus of Haplopappus gracilis to gamma radiation and fast neutrons was studied. High doses of radiation cause inhibition of callus growth. At small doses the effect is less pronounced. Stimulation of callus growth was seen. Apart from morphological changes, ionizing radiations lowered the fresh weight ratio of the callus. The RBE value for 5.5 MeV neutrons depended on the dose rate of radiation and the combination of growth medium. (author)

  12. Effects of temporally persistent ant nests of soil protozoan communities and the abundance of morphological types of amoeba

    Science.gov (United States)

    We compared soil protozoan communities near ant nests with soil protozoans in reference soils 5m from the edge of any mounds. We sampled three species of Chihuahuan Desert ants that construct nests that persist for more than a decade: a seed harvester, Pogonomymex rugosus, a liquid feeding honey-po...

  13. DETECTION OF PROTOZOAN PARASITES IN SOURCE AND FINISHED WATER - 3RD EDITION ASM'S METHODS IN ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protozoans are eukaryotic organisms which can live either a free-living or parasitic existence. Some free-living forms, under the right conditions, can become opportunistic parasites. Enteric pathogenic protozoans, like Giardia and Cryptosporidium, which are now known to be tra...

  14. Cultivo de Ankistrodesmus gracilis (Chlorophyta em laboratório à base de esterco suíno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Betioli Fioresi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2008v21n1p7 O objetivo do presente trabalho foi testar a influência do meio à base de esterco suíno “in natura” e biodigerido, sobre o desenvolvimento, crescimento, comprimento total, peso seco e valor nutricional da microalga Ankistro desmus gracilis. O pico de crescimento para A. gracilis foi maior no meio biodigerido (6,2 x 107 células. mL-1 no volume de 2L. Alta porcentagem de lipídio foi observada no meio “in natura”, e, elevados teores de proteína no meio biodigerido em 2L. O biovolume, teor de cinzas e comprimento total foram diferentes (p 0,05. O requerimento de luz foi diferente entre os meios, com menor intensidade para o esterco biodigerido (13,5μE.cm-2.s-1, indicando menor custo benefício. O meio a base de esterco suíno, mostrou bons resultados para o crescimento de A. gracilis, com qualidade de água adequada para cultivo, podendo ser utilizado para cultura em larga escala.

  15. Experience with 32 Pelvic Fracture Urethral Defects Associated with Urethrorectal Fistulas: Transperineal Urethroplasty with Gracilis Muscle Interposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hailin; Sa, Yinglong; Fu, Qiang; Jin, Chongrui; Wang, Lin

    2017-07-01

    Pelvic fracture urethral defects associated with urethrorectal fistulas are rare and difficult to repair. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of transperineal urethroplasty with gracilis muscle interposition for the repair of pelvic fracture urethral defects associated with urethrorectal fistulas. We identified 32 patients who underwent transperineal urethroplasty with gracilis muscle interposition to repair pelvic fracture urethral defects associated with urethrorectal fistulas. Patient demographics as well as preoperative, operative and postoperative data were obtained. Mean followup was 33 months (range 6 to 64). The overall success rate was 91% (29 of 32 cases). One-stage repair was successful in 17 of 18 patients (94%) using perineal anastomosis with separation of the corporeal body and in 12 of 14 (86%) using perineal anastomosis with inferior pubectomy and separation of the corporeal body. All 22 patients (100%) without a previous history of repair were successfully treated. However, only 7 of 10 patients (70%) with a previous history of failed urethroplasty and urethrorectal fistula repair were cured. Recurrent urethral strictures developed in 2 cases. One patient was treated successfully with optical internal urethrotomy and the other was treated successfully with tubed perineoscrotal flap urethroplasty. Recurrent urethrorectal fistulas associated with urethral strictures developed in an additional patient. Transperineal urethroplasty with gracilis muscle interposition is a safe and effective surgical procedure for most pelvic fracture urethral defects associated with urethrorectal fistulas. Several other factors may affect its postoperative efficiency. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The accordion gracilis muscle flap: a new design for coverage of recurrent and complicated ischeal pressure sores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sabbagh, Ahmed H

    2011-10-01

    Management of patients with large or recurrent pressure ulcerations can be complicated by the lack of available local flap, whether already used or because adjacent lesions make such flap insufficient for complete coverage. In this article, the gracilis muscle was modified to cover large defects without help from its cutaneous territory. Twelve ischeal pressure sores were treated between August 2007 and 2009 with the modified gracilis muscle flap in a single-staged procedure. Five ulcers were recurrent and seven patients have associated pressure ulcers. All reconstructions were successful. Mean patient age was 35 years and nearly all patients had multiple significant comorbidities, including associated ulcers, diabetes and urethrocutaneous fistula. All flaps and donor sites healed uneventfully. There was one complication presented as cellulites at the donor site. Follow-up in some cases extend up to 1·5 years. No recurrence was observed. The accordion gracilis muscle flap is a handy, safe and fast flap for reconstruction of recurrent, difficult ischeal pressure sores. © 2011 The Author. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and Medicalhelplines.com Inc.

  17. Release of hand burn contracture: comparing the ALT perforator flap with the gracilis free flap with split skin graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misani, M; Zirak, C; Hau, Lê Thua Trung; De Mey, A; Boeckx, W

    2013-08-01

    The use of microsurgery in the management of burn sequelae is not a new idea. According to the properties of various types of free flaps different goals can be achieved or various additional procedures have to be combined. We report the comparison of two different free flaps on a single patient for reconstruction of both upper extremities for burn sequelae. A 1-year-old child sustained severe burns on both hands, arms and thorax and was initially only treated conservatively. This resulted in severe contractures. At the age of 4-years a free gracilis flap was selected for reconstruction of his left hand and a free anterolateral thigh flap for the right hand. We noticed a better functional and esthetic result for the gracilis flap associated with a shorter operative time and a minor donor site morbidity. The intraoperative technique and time, postoperative complications, functional and esthetic results and donor site morbidities were studied in the two types of flaps chosen. A review of literature was also performed. Our experience reported a better success of the gracilis muscle flap covered with a split skin graft compared to the anterolateral thigh flap in the reconstruction of hand function after severe burn sequelae. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  18. Management of fourth degree obstetric perineal tear without colostomy using non - stimulated gracilis - our experience over eleven years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiten Kulkarni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although gracilis muscle transposition for faecal incontinence has been well-described method, its literature for use in obstetric perineal tear without colostomy is sparse. In this study, we have tried to analyse its use in fourth-degree obstetric perineal tears. Patients and Methods: A total of 30 patients with recto-vaginal fistula with faecal incontinence secondary to obstetric perineal tear were retrospectively studied between February 2003 and May 2014. The recto-vaginal fistula was explored, dissected and identification of sphincters was done using muscle stimulator. Fistula closure was done followed by sphincter repair, vaginal tightening procedure and single gracilis transposition. None of the patients had covering colostomy. Faecal incontinence was assessed pre- and post-operatively by digital rectal examination (single examiner, Park's score and Corman's score in all cases and using barium hold and transperineal ultrasonography, manometric studies in a few cases. The outcome was measured at an average follow-up of 8.8 months (7–24 months. Results: As per Park's score 26 patients had Grade I continence, two had Grade II and two patients had Grade III continence. Corman's score improved from fair to excellent in 26 patients. The patients in whom manometry was performed showed a remarkable rise in both resting and squeeze pressures. Two patients developed post-operative infections in upper 1/3 thigh incision site and three patients at gluteal region scar site. Conclusion: Satisfactory continence following gracilis muscle could be achieved.

  19. Effects of the essential oil of Lippia gracilis Schauer on caulinary shoots of heliconia cultivated in vitro Efeito do óleo essencial de Lippia gracilis Schauer sobre ápices caulinares de heliconia cultivadas in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.C. Albuquerque

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of thymol and carvacrol and the essential oil of Lippia gracilis on caulinary shoots of heliconia were evaluated. After disinfection, the shoots were inoculated into MS medium and subjected to the treatments with 420 µL L-1 of essential oil (EO of L. gracilis; 420 µL L-1 of thymol; 420 µL L-1 of carvacrol; 210 µL L-1 of thymol and 210 µL L-1 of carvacrol. The control treatment consisted of the MS medium without any phytoregulators. The main components of EO from L. gracilis are carvacrol, ρ-cimene, and thymol. Seven days after the initiation of the experiments, 36.3% of the control treatment shoots were necrotized, but 90% of the caulinary shoots exposed to EO, thymol, or carvacrol appeared necrotized. Transmission electron microscopy of the shoots revealed that the treatment with EO, thymol, or carvacrol caused the destruction of the plasma cell membranes, and the cell organelles and the nucleus were hardly evident. The EO and its main constituent were toxic to caulinary shoots of heliconia.O efeito do timol, carvacrol e óleo essencial de Lippia gracilis foi observado sobre ápices caulinares de heliconia. Após a desinfestação os ápices foram inoculados em meio MS com os tratamentos de 420 µL L-1 do óleo essencial (OE de L. gracilis; 420 µL L-1 de timol; 420 µL L-1 de carvacrol; 210 µg L-1 de timol e 210 µL L-1 de carvacrol. O tratamento controle consistiu de meio MS sem fitorreguladores. Os principais componentes do OE foram carvacrol, ρ-cimeno e timol. Sete dias após o início do experimento 36,3% dos ápices submetidos ao tratamento controle e 90% dos ápices caulinares expostos ao EO, timol ou carvacrol necrosaram. A microscopia eletrônica de transmissão dos ápices caulinares revelou que os tratamentos com OE, timol e carvacrol provocaram desestruturação da membrana plasmática das células. As organelas e o núcleo não estavam evidentes. O OE e seus principais constituintes foram tóxico para os

  20. The Occurrence of Some Nonblood Protozoan Parasites in Wild and Domestic Mammals in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukášová, Radka; Halajian, Ali; Bártová, Eva; Kobédová, Kateřina; Swanepoel, Lourens H; O'Riain, M Justin

    2018-04-01

    Relatively little is known about protozoan parasites in African animals. Here we investigated the occurrence of protozoan parasites in mammals from South Africa. Oocysts of protozoan parasites were detected in 13 of 56 (23%) fecal samples using conventional microscopic examination methods. Cryptosporidium spp. and Cystoisospora spp. were detected in eight (14%) and five (9%) samples, respectively. Mixed parasitic infection of Cryptosporidium spp. and Cystoisospora spp. was recorded in banded mongoose ( Mungos mungo). Cryptosporidium spp. was detected for the first time in cheetah ( Acinonyx jubatus), spotted hyena ( Crocuta crocuta), and African polecat ( Ictonyx striatus). Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum were not detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in any of 32 sera tested. We detected T. gondii by PCR in tissues of five of 243 (2%) animals: domestic dog ( Canis lupus familiaris), gerbil ( Gerbilliscus spp.), greater kudu ( Tragelaphus strepsiceros), honey badger ( Mellivora capensis), and white-tailed mongoose ( Ichneumia albicauda). Our isolation of T. gondii from white-tailed mongoose and honey badger was a unique finding. All tissue samples were negative for N. caninum. The study increases our knowledge on the occurrence of protozoan parasites in populations of wild and domestic animals in South Africa.

  1. Meeting on the Microbiology of Soils, Autumn 2001: Estimation of protozoan diversity in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, Flemming

    2002-01-01

    Different methods of estimating protozoan diversity in soil are discussed in this paper, with the major emphasis on heterotrophic flagellates. Although many species of ciliates and testate amoebae seem to be unique to the soil environment, the communities of heterotrophic flagellates and naked am...

  2. ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES, POTENTIAL VIRULENT FACTORS, IN DIFFERENT STRAINS OF THE OYSTER PROTOZOAN PARASITE, PERKINSUS MARINUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The oyster protozoan parasite, Perkinsus marinus, is one of the two important parasites causing severe mortality in the eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) on the US east coast. Our recent study suggests that P. marinus cells and its extracellular products (ECP) could scaveng...

  3. Photodynamic therapy in the cattle protozoan Tritrichomonas foetus cultivated on superhydrophilic carbon nanotube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Susane Moreira [Laboratory of Tissue and Cell Biology, Development and Research Institute (IP and D), Universidade do Vale do Paraíba (UNIVAP), Av. Shishima Hifumi 2911, Urbanova, 12244-000 São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Pacheco-Soares, Cristina [Laboratory of Tissue and Cell Biology, Development and Research Institute (IP and D), Universidade do Vale do Paraíba (UNIVAP), Av. Shishima Hifumi 2911, Urbanova, 12244-000 São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Laboratory of Dynamics of Cellular Compartments, Development and Research Institute (IP and D), Universidade do Vale do Paraíba (UNIVAP), Av. Shishima Hifumi 2911, Urbanova, 12244-000 São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Marciano, Fernanda Roberta; Lobo, Anderson Oliveira [Laboratory of Biomedical Nanotechnology, Development and Research Institute (IP and D), Universidade do Vale do Paraíba (UNIVAP), Av. Shishima Hifumi 2911, Urbanova, 12244-000 São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Soares da Silva, Newton, E-mail: nsoares@univap.br [Laboratory of Tissue and Cell Biology, Development and Research Institute (IP and D), Universidade do Vale do Paraíba (UNIVAP), Av. Shishima Hifumi 2911, Urbanova, 12244-000 São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Laboratory of Dynamics of Cellular Compartments, Development and Research Institute (IP and D), Universidade do Vale do Paraíba (UNIVAP), Av. Shishima Hifumi 2911, Urbanova, 12244-000 São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2014-03-01

    Superhydrophilic vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNT-O{sub 2}) were used for the first time as scaffolds for photodynamic therapy (PDT) to induce inhibition of cell division in eukaryotic cells. VACNT-O{sub 2} scaffolds were produced on Ti substrates using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique and functionalized by oxygen plasma. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis was performed to characterize the surface changes of the protozoan and interaction with VACNT-O{sub 2}. Characterization of lipid and total protein expression was performed with protozoa that were or not treated with PDT. Quantification of protein was conducted using Qubit fluorometer and separated on a polyacrylamide gel. SEM analysis showed the release of lipid vesicles by protozoa after the PDT. These vesicles were characterized by the PKH26 fluorescent probe. The results demonstrated a greater amount of protein released after PDT than in the control. When analyzing the protein material in polyacrylamide gel, a significant protein expression of approximately 65 kDa was found. A model identified the programmed death of Tritrichomonas foetus after the PDT was also proposed. - Highlights: • VAMWCNT-O{sub 2} used for the first time as scaffolds for study in parasitic protozoan. • VAMWCNT-O{sub 2} films applied to understand spreading mechanisms of parasitic protozoan. • A release of a protein of approximately 65kDa of protozoan was also observed.

  4. Photodynamic therapy in the cattle protozoan Tritrichomonas foetus cultivated on superhydrophilic carbon nanotube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, Susane Moreira; Pacheco-Soares, Cristina; Marciano, Fernanda Roberta; Lobo, Anderson Oliveira; Soares da Silva, Newton

    2014-01-01

    Superhydrophilic vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNT-O 2 ) were used for the first time as scaffolds for photodynamic therapy (PDT) to induce inhibition of cell division in eukaryotic cells. VACNT-O 2 scaffolds were produced on Ti substrates using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique and functionalized by oxygen plasma. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis was performed to characterize the surface changes of the protozoan and interaction with VACNT-O 2 . Characterization of lipid and total protein expression was performed with protozoa that were or not treated with PDT. Quantification of protein was conducted using Qubit fluorometer and separated on a polyacrylamide gel. SEM analysis showed the release of lipid vesicles by protozoa after the PDT. These vesicles were characterized by the PKH26 fluorescent probe. The results demonstrated a greater amount of protein released after PDT than in the control. When analyzing the protein material in polyacrylamide gel, a significant protein expression of approximately 65 kDa was found. A model identified the programmed death of Tritrichomonas foetus after the PDT was also proposed. - Highlights: • VAMWCNT-O 2 used for the first time as scaffolds for study in parasitic protozoan. • VAMWCNT-O 2 films applied to understand spreading mechanisms of parasitic protozoan. • A release of a protein of approximately 65kDa of protozoan was also observed

  5. A decade of intestinal protozoan epidemiology among settled immigrants in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Madi, Marawan A; Behnke, Jerzy M; Boughattas, Sonia; Al-Thani, Asma; Doiphode, Sanjay H

    2016-08-05

    The World Health Organization estimates that about 3.5 billion people worldwide are affected by intestinal parasitic infections. Reports have already emphasized the role of immigrants in outbreaks of parasitic diseases in industrialized countries. With the mass influx of immigrants to Qatar, patent intestinal parasitic infections have been observed. Herein, the prevalence of intestinal protozoan infections was analysed in 29,286 records of subjects referred for stool examination at the Hamad Medical Corporation over the course of a decade (2005 to 2014, inclusive). Overall prevalence of combined protozoan infections was 5.93 % but there were significant temporal trends, age and sex effects and those arising from the region of origin of the subjects. The most common protozoan was Blastocystis hominis (overall prevalence 3.45 %). Giardia duodenalis, Chilomastix mesnili, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba hartmanni, Endolimax nana, Iodamoeba butschlii, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Cryptosporidium sp. and a single case of Isospora were also detected. The prevalence of combined protozoan infections, G. duodenalis and the non-pathogenic amoebae all declined significantly across the decade. That of B. hominis varied between years but showed no directional trend across years and there was no evidence that prevalence of E. histolyitica/dispar changed significantly. Protozoan infections were observed among all regional groups, but prevalence was higher among subjects from the Arabian Peninsula, Africa and Asia compared to those from the Eastern Mediterranean and Qatar. Prevalence was higher among male subjects in all cases, but age-prevalence profiles differed between the taxa. These results offer optimism that prevalence will continue to decline in the years ahead.

  6. Dipteran larvae and microbes facilitate nutrient sequestration in the Nepenthes gracilis pitcher plant host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Weng Ngai; Chong, Kwek Yan; Anand, Ganesh S; Tan, Hugh Tiang Wah

    2017-03-01

    The fluid-containing traps of Nepenthes carnivorous pitcher plants (Nepenthaceae) are often inhabited by organisms known as inquilines. Dipteran larvae are key components of such communities and are thought to facilitate pitcher nitrogen sequestration by converting prey protein into inorganic nitrogen, although this has never been demonstrated in Nepenthes Pitcher fluids are also inhabited by microbes, although the relationship(s) between these and the plant is still unclear. In this study, we examined the hypothesis of digestive mutualism between N. gracilis pitchers and both dipteran larvae and fluid microbes. Using dipteran larvae, prey and fluid volumes mimicking in situ pitcher conditions, we conducted in vitro experiments and measured changes in available fluid nitrogen in response to dipteran larvae and microbe presence. We showed that the presence of dipteran larvae resulted in significantly higher and faster releases of ammonium and soluble protein into fluids in artificial pitchers, and that the presence of fluid microbes did likewise for ammonium. We showed also that niche segregation occurs between phorid and culicid larvae, with the former fragmenting prey carcasses and the latter suppressing fluid microbe levels. These results clarify the relationships between several key pitcher-dwelling organisms, and show that pitcher communities facilitate nutrient sequestration in their host. © 2017 The Author(s).

  7. Expression and characterization of plant aspartic protease nepenthesin-1 from Nepenthes gracilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadek, Alan; Tretyachenko, Vyacheslav; Mrazek, Hynek; Ivanova, Ljubina; Halada, Petr; Rey, Martial; Schriemer, David C; Man, Petr

    2014-03-01

    Carnivorous plants of the genus Nepenthes produce their own aspartic proteases, nepenthesins, to digest prey trapped in their pitchers. Nepenthesins differ significantly in sequence from other aspartic proteases in the animal or even plant kingdoms. This difference, which also brings more cysteine residues into the structure of these proteases, can be a cause of uniquely high temperature and pH stabilities of nepenthesins. Their detailed structure characterization, however, has not previously been possible due to low amounts of protease present in the pitcher fluid and also due to limited accessibility of Nepenthes plants. In the present study we describe a convenient way for obtaining high amounts of nepenthesin-1 from Nepenthes gracilis using heterologous production in Escherichia coli. The protein can be easily refolded in vitro and its characteristics are very close to those described for a natural enzyme isolated from the pitcher fluid. Similarly to the natural enzyme, recombinant nepenthesin-1 is sensitive to denaturing and reducing agents. It also has maximal activity around pH 2.5, shows unusual stability at high pH and its activity is not irreversibly inhibited even after prolonged incubation in the basic pH range. On the other hand, temperature stability of the recombinant enzyme is lower in comparison with the natural enzyme, which can be attributed to missing N-glycosylation in the recombinant protein. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Isolation and Characterization of Silaffin that Catalyze Biosilica Formation from Marine Diatom Chaetoceros gracilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGNES IMELDA MANURUNG

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The method of making silica in industries requires extreme conditions. The finding of proteins involved in the formation of biosilica from diatoms, has opened up an alternative way of production. Chaetoceros gracilis is one of the diatoms, which is potential in producing silaffin protein. This study aimed to isolate and to characterize the protein. We also analyzed the protein activity toward tetraethoxyorthosilicate (TEOS substrate in in vitro reaction. Diatom biomass was harvested and further kept in 2% SDS/100 mM EDTA solution. Protein isolation was conducted by dissolving the silica and separating the protein by soaking in 2 M HF/8 M NH4F. Protein concentration was analyzed using Bradford method and the molecular weight was estimated through SDS-PAGE. Protein activity was observed by reacting it with TEOS substrate to form silica polymer and measured by colorimetric molibdate assay. Protein concentration was 1.20 mg/ml and appeared filamentous. The apparent molecular weights consisted of 12, 23, 42, 44 kDa. These protein was able to polymerize the silica at room temperature within 10 min. As much as 85.65 μmol TEOS was polymerized per 1.4 × 106 silaffin protein per min. SEM analysis showed the formation of spherical, aggregate biosilica.

  9. Isolation and Characterization of Silaffin that Catalyze Biosilica Formation from Marine Diatom Chaetoceros gracilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGNES IMELDA MANURUNG

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The method of making silica in industries requires extreme conditions. The finding of proteins involved in the formation of biosilica from diatoms, has opened up an alternative way of production. Chaetoceros gracilis is one of the diatoms, which is potential in producing silaffin protein. This study aimed to isolate and to characterize the protein. We also analyzed the protein activity toward tetraethoxyorthosilicate (TEOS substrate in in vitro reaction. Diatom biomass was harvested and further kept in 2% SDS/100 mM EDTA solution. Protein isolation was conducted by dissolving the silica and separating the protein by soaking in 2 M HF/8 M NH4F. Protein concentration was analyzed using Bradford method and the molecular weight was estimated through SDS-PAGE. Protein activity was observed by reacting it with TEOS substrate to form silica polymer and measured by colorimetric molibdate assay. Protein concentration was 1.20 mg/ml and appeared filamentous. The apparent molecular weights consisted of 12, 23, 42, 44 kDa. These protein was able to polymerize the silica at room temperature within 10 min. As much as 85.65 mol TEOS was polymerized per 1.4 x 106 silaffin protein per min. SEM analysis showed the formation of spherical, aggregate biosilica.

  10. Pedal proportions of Poposaurus gracilis: convergence and divergence in the feet of archosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farlow, James O; Schachner, Emma R; Sarrazin, John Cody; Klein, Hendrik; Currie, Philip J

    2014-06-01

    The crocodile-line basal suchian Poposaurus gracilis had body proportions suggesting that it was an erect, bipedal form like many dinosaurs, prompting questions of whether its pedal proportions, and the shape of its footprint, would likewise "mimic" those of bipedal dinosaurs. We addressed these questions through a comparison of phalangeal, digital, and metatarsal proportions of Poposaurus with those of extinct and extant crocodile-line archosaurs, obligate or facultatively bipedal non-avian dinosaurs, and ground birds of several clades, as well as a comparison of the footprint reconstructed from the foot skeleton of Poposaurus with known early Mesozoic archosaurian ichnotaxa. Bivariate and multivariate analyses of phalangeal and digital dimensions showed numerous instances of convergence in pedal morphology among disparate archosaurian clades. Overall, the foot of Poposaurus is indeed more like that of bipedal dinosaurs than other archosaur groups, but is not exactly like the foot of any particular bipedal dinosaur clade. Poposaurus likely had a digitigrade stance, and its footprint shape could have resembled grallatorid ichnotaxa, unless digit I of the foot of Poposaurus commonly left an impression. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. How to cheat when you cannot lie? Deceit pollination in Begonia gracilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Reyna A; Caballero, Helga; Boege, Karina; Fornoni, Juan; Domínguez, César A

    2012-07-01

    Mimicry between rewarding and non-rewarding flowers within individuals has been accepted as a strategy favored by selection to deceive pollinators. It has been proposed that this mechanism relies on the exploitation of pollinator's sensory biases, but field evidence is still scarce. In this study, we describe the mechanism of deceit pollination in the monoecious herb Begonia gracilis, a species with exposed rewarding structures (pollen) and intersexual mimicry. Specifically, we test the role of mimicry and exploitation of sensory biases on the reproductive success of male (pollination visitation) and female flowers (probability of setting fruits). We show that pollinators' perception of the amount of reward provided by male flowers is influenced by the independent variation in the sizes of the androecium and the perianth. Large rewarding structures and small perianths were preferred by pollinators, suggesting a central role of the relative size of the rewarding structure on pollinators' foraging decisions. Hence, rewarding male flowers cheat pollinators by exploiting their sensory biases, a strategy followed by non-rewarding female flowers. We suggest that intersexual mimicry operates through the functional resemblance of male flowers' deceit strategy. Artificial manipulation of the flowers supports our findings in natural conditions. Overall, we propose that the continuous and independent variation in the size of the perianth and the reproductive organs among male and female flowers could itself be adaptive.

  12. Transverse musculocutaneous gracilis flap for treatment of capsular contracture in tertiary breast reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pülzl, Petra; Huemer, Georg M; Schoeller, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    Capsular contracture is a common complication associated with implant-based breast reconstruction and augmentation leading to pain, displacement, and rupture. After capsulectomy and implant exchange, the problem often reappears. We performed 52 deepithelialized free transverse musculocutaneous gracilis (TMG) flaps in 33 patients for tertiary breast reconstruction or augmentation of small- and medium-sized breasts. The indications for implant removal were unnatural feel and emotion of their breasts with foreign body feel, asymmetry, pain, and sensation of cold. Anyway, most of the patients did not have a severe capsular contracture deformity. The TMG flap is formed into a cone shape by bringing the tips of the ellipse together. Depending on the contralateral breast, the muscle can also be shaped in an S-form to get more projection if needed. The operating time for unilateral TMG flap breast reconstruction or augmentation was on average 3 hours and for bilateral procedure 5 hours. One patient had a secondary revision of the donor site due to disruption of the normal gluteal fold. Eighty percent of the unilateral TMG flap reconstructions had a lipofilling procedure afterward to correct small irregularities or asymmetry. The advantages of the TMG flap such as short harvesting time, inconspicuous donor site, and the possibility of having a natural breast shape make it our first choice to treat capsular contracture after breast reconstruction and augmentation.

  13. Higher levels of multiple paternities increase seedling survival in the long-lived tree Eucalyptus gracilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin F Breed

    Full Text Available Studying associations between mating system parameters and fitness in natural populations of trees advances our understanding of how local environments affect seed quality, and thereby helps to predict when inbreeding or multiple paternities should impact on fitness. Indeed, for species that demonstrate inbreeding avoidance, multiple paternities (i.e. the number of male parents per half-sib family should still vary and regulate fitness more than inbreeding--named here as the 'constrained inbreeding hypothesis'. We test this hypothesis in Eucalyptus gracilis, a predominantly insect-pollinated tree. Fifty-eight open-pollinated progeny arrays were collected from trees in three populations. Progeny were planted in a reciprocal transplant trial. Fitness was measured by family establishment rates. We genotyped all trees and their progeny at eight microsatellite loci. Planting site had a strong effect on fitness, but seed provenance and seed provenance × planting site did not. Populations had comparable mating system parameters and were generally outcrossed, experienced low biparental inbreeding and high levels of multiple paternity. As predicted, seed families that had more multiple paternities also had higher fitness, and no fitness-inbreeding correlations were detected. Demonstrating that fitness was most affected by multiple paternities rather than inbreeding, we provide evidence supporting the constrained inbreeding hypothesis; i.e. that multiple paternity may impact on fitness over and above that of inbreeding, particularly for preferentially outcrossing trees at life stages beyond seed development.

  14. Dental microwear reveals mammal-like chewing in the neoceratopsian dinosaur Leptoceratops gracilis

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    Frank J. Varriale

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Extensive oral processing of food through dental occlusion and orbital mandibular movement is often cited as a uniquely mammalian trait that contributed to their evolutionary success. Save for mandibular translation, these adaptations are not seen in extant archosaurs or lepidosaurs. In contrast, some ornithischian dinosaurs show evidence of precise dental occlusion, habitual intraoral trituration and complex jaw motion. To date, however, a robust understanding of the diversity of jaw mechanics within non-avian dinosaurs, and its comparison with other vertebrates, remains unrealized. Large dental batteries, well-developed dental wear facets, and robust jaws suggests that neoceratopsian (horned dinosaurs were capable chewers. But, biomechanical analyses have assumed a relatively simple, scissor-like (orthal jaw mechanism for these animals. New analyses of dental microwear, presented here, show curvilinear striations on the teeth of Leptoceratops. These features indicate a rostral to caudal orbital motion of the mandible during chewing. A rostrocaudal mandibular orbit is seen in multituberculates, haramiyid allotherians, and some rodents, and its identification in Leptoceratops gracilis is the first evidence of complex, mammal-like chewing in a ceratopsian dinosaur. The term circumpalinal is here proposed to distinguish this new style of chewing from other models of ceratopsian mastication that also involve a palinal component. This previously unrecognized complexity in dinosaurian jaw mechanics indicates that some neoceratopsian dinosaurs achieved a mammalian level of masticatory efficiency through novel adaptive solutions.

  15. Una nueva especie de Euglena (Euglenozoa: Euglenales aislada de ambientes extremófilos en las Pailas de Barro del Volcán Rincón de la Vieja, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sittenfeld

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Se describe una nueva especie de euglena aislada de las Pailas de Barro Caliente del Volcán Rincón de la Vieja, Costa Rica. Esta especie se caracteriza por habitar sitios ácidos y calientes. Euglena pailasensis sp. nov. tiene como características principales: la ausencia de flagelos, presencia de filamentos similares a "pilis", presencia de cloroplastos con pirenoides atravesados por varios tilacoides, además, es termotolerante y acido-tolerante. Los análisis filogenéticos para el gen ADNr 18S y la secuencia del gen para la enzima Gap C indican que la nueva especie está relacionada con E. mutabilis. Las características taxonómicas basadas en la morfología, biología y secuencia del ADNr 18S y los genes GAP C, son discutidas y comparadas con otras especies relativamente cercanas al géneroAnew species of euglena isolated from a hot and acid mud pool located in Las Pailas de Barro, Volcán Rincón de la Vieja, Costa Rica is described. This species inhabits hot and acid environments. Euglena pailasensis sp. nov. main features are: the absence of flagella, the presence filaments like "pilis", the presence of chloroplasts with pyrenoids crossed by several tylakoids, and acid and heat tolerance. Molecular phylogeny studies using 18S rDNA and Gap C genes indicated that the new species is related to E mutabilis. Its taxonomic characters based on morphology, biology and sequence of the 18S rDNA and Gap C genes are discussed and compared with other closely related species of the genus

  16. Protozoan parasites of four species of wild anurans from a local zoo in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, K N; Badrul, M M; Mohamad, N; Zainal-Abidin, A H

    2013-12-01

    The parasitic protozoan fauna in sixty-six anurans comprising of Duttaphrynus melanostictus, Phrynoidis juxtaspera, Hylarana erythraea and Polypedates leucomystax collected from Zoo Negara Malaysia was investigated. The distribution and prevalence rate of parasitic species in the digestive tract and blood were examined. Seven species of intestinal protozoa (Opalina ranarum, Cepedea dimidiata, Nycthetorus cordiformis, Entamoeba ranarum, Iodamoeba butschlii, Endamoeba blattae, and Tritrichomonas sp.) and two species of blood protozoa (Lankesterella sp. and Trypanosoma sp.) were recorded. Opalina ranarum was the most common protozoan found in the rectum and intestine (prevalence rate: 34.8%) infecting all host species, with P. juxtaspera heavily infected with the parasite, whereas Tritrichomonas sp. was the least prevalent intestinal species infecting only D. melanostictus. Both Lankesterella sp. and Trypanosoma sp. were found in the blood of H. erythraea.

  17. Visible-light-responsive ZnCuO nanoparticles: benign photodynamic killers of infectious protozoans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadhman, Akhtar; Nazir, Samina; Khan, Malik Ihsanullah; Ayub, Attiya; Muhammad, Bakhtiar; Khan, Momin; Shams, Dilawar Farhan; Yasinzai, Masoom

    2015-01-01

    Human beings suffer from several infectious agents such as viruses, bacteria, and protozoans. Recently, there has been a great interest in developing biocompatible nanostructures to deal with infectious agents. This study investigated benign ZnCuO nanostructures that were visible-light-responsive due to the resident copper in the lattice. The nanostructures were synthesized through a size-controlled hot-injection process, which was adaptable to the surface ligation processes. The nanostructures were then characterized through transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, diffused reflectance spectroscopy, Rutherford backscattering, and photoluminescence analysis to measure crystallite nature, size, luminescence, composition, and band-gap analyses. Antiprotozoal efficiency of the current nanoparticles revealed the photodynamic killing of Leishmania protozoan, thus acting as efficient metal-based photosensitizers. The crystalline nanoparticles showed good biocompatibility when tested for macrophage toxicity and in hemolysis assays. The study opens a wide avenue for using toxic material in resident nontoxic forms as an effective antiprotozoal treatment.

  18. Everybody needs sphingolipids, right! Mining for new drug targets in protozoan sphingolipid biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, John G M; Denny, P W

    2018-02-01

    Sphingolipids (SLs) are an integral part of all eukaryotic cellular membranes. In addition, they have indispensable functions as signalling molecules controlling a myriad of cellular events. Disruption of either the de novo synthesis or the degradation pathways has been shown to have detrimental effects. The earlier identification of selective inhibitors of fungal SL biosynthesis promised potent broad-spectrum anti-fungal agents, which later encouraged testing some of those agents against protozoan parasites. In this review we focus on the key enzymes of the SL de novo biosynthetic pathway in protozoan parasites of the Apicomplexa and Kinetoplastidae, outlining the divergence and interconnection between host and pathogen metabolism. The druggability of the SL biosynthesis is considered, alongside recent technology advances that will enable the dissection and analyses of this pathway in the parasitic protozoa. The future impact of these advances for the development of new therapeutics for both globally threatening and neglected infectious diseases is potentially profound.

  19. Genome and transcriptome studies of the protozoan parasites Trypanosoma cruzi and Giardia intestinalis

    OpenAIRE

    Franzén, Oscar

    2012-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi and Giardia intestinalis are two human pathogens and protozoan parasites responsible for the diseases Chagas disease and giardiasis, respectively. Both diseases cause su ering and illness in several million individuals. The former disease occurs primarily in South America and Central America, and the latter disease occurs worldwide. Current therapeutics are toxic and lack e cacy, and potential vaccines are far from the market. Increased knowledge about the bio...

  20. Biología pesquera de la langosta Panulirus gracilis en Playa Lagarto, Guanacaste, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helven Naranjo Madrigal

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Los parámetros biológicos y pesqueros analizados se fundamentaron en una muestra de 843 langostas provenientes de la actividad pesquera realizada en Playa Lagarto entre noviembre del 2007 y octubre del 2008. Las longitudes cefalotoráxicas de los machos estuvo comprendida entre los 143.6 y 42.8 y 115 y 35.8mm para hembras. El 74.9% de las langostas en los desembarques estuvo por debajo de la talla mínima legal de captura (80 mm de LC. La estructura de tallas muestra un considerable solapamiento de segmentos poblacionales y el incremento de las tallas con la profundidad en donde operan las dos modalidades de pesca estudiadas: el buceo a pulmón y el buceo con compresor. La proporción de sexos obtenida fue de 1.36 M:H. La relación entre LC y peso reveló que las hembras pesan más que los machos de una misma talla y que esta diferencia fue significativa (pBiology and fishery of the lobster Panulirus gracilis in Playa Lagarto, Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Panulirus gracilis is a high valuable lobster species with considerable captures along the tropical Pacific coast. In this study, I present some biological and fishery parameters described after a sample of 843 lobsters, landed in Playa Lagarto from November 2007 to October 2008. From landing records, a total of 74.9% of lobsters were below the minimum legal catch size (80mm CL. Carapace lengths were in the range of 42.8 and 143.6mm for males and 115 and 35.8mm for females. The size structure showed a wide overlapping of population segments, and a trend to increase with depth, where lung diving and “hooka” diving operations take place. Sex ratio was 1.36 M:H. The relationship between weight and LC revealed that females are heavier than males of the same size, and this difference was significant (p<0.05. The von Bertalanffy growth parameters for males and females respectively (K=0.45-0.38, LC∞=166.9-121.7 showed accelerated growth compared to other species. Males observed a higher growth rate

  1. The past, present and future of fluorescent protein tags in anaerobic protozoan parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin-Adeline, Victoria; Šlapeta, Jan

    2016-03-01

    The world health organization currently recognizes diarrhoeal diseases as a significant cause of death in children globally. Protozoan parasites such as Giardia and Entamoeba that thrive in the oxygen-deprived environment of the human gut are common etiological agents of diarrhoea. In the urogenital tract of humans, the anaerobic protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis is notorious as the most common non-viral, sexually transmitted pathogen. Even with high medical impact, our understanding of anaerobic parasite physiology is scarce and as a result, treatment choices are limited. Fluorescent proteins (FPs) are invaluable tools as genetically encoded protein tags for advancing knowledge of cellular function. These FP tags emit fluorescent colours and once attached to a protein of interest, allow tracking of parasite proteins in the dynamic cellular space. Application of green FPs-like FPs in anaerobic protozoans is hindered by their oxygen dependency. In this review, we examine aspects of anaerobic parasite biology that clash with physio-chemical properties of FPs and limit their use as live-parasite protein tags. We expose novel FPs, such as miniSOG that do not require oxygen for signal production. The potential use of novel FPs has the opportunity to leverage the anaerobe parasitologist toolkit to that of aerobe parasitologist.

  2. The importance of protozoan bacterivory in a subtropical environment (Lobo-Broa Reservoir, SP, Brazil

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    AS Mansano

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the importance of heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNF and ciliates bacterivory in a mesotrophic subtropical environment (Lobo-Broa Reservoir, Brazil by the quantification of their ingestion rates. The in situ experiments using fluorescently labelled bacteria (FLB were carried out bimonthly over one year (three surveys in the dry season and three in the rainy one at the sub-surface of two sampling points that have different trophic degrees. The ingestion rates for both ciliates and HNF were higher in the meso-eutrophic region (point 2 due to the higher water temperatures, which accelerate the metabolism of protozoans and the higher bacteria densities. Concerning total protozoan bacterivory, the HNF had the greatest grazing impact on bacterial community, especially the HNF <5µm. The data showed that HNF grazing, in addition to regulating the bacteria abundance, also induced changes to the bacterial community structure, such as increasing size and numbers of bacterial filaments. The ciliates were also important to the system bacterivory, especially in point 2, where there were high densities and ingestion rates. The protozoan bottom-up control was more important in the dry season and the top-down control was more important in the rainy season, so, these two forces are equally important to the bacterial abundance regulation in this reservoir in an annual basis.

  3. Prevalence of Intestinal Protozoans among Schoolchildren in Suburban Areas near Yangon, Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Jae; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Cho, Jaeeun; Kim, Deok-Gyu; Song, Hyemi; Lee, Keon-Hoon; Cho, Seon; Htoon, Thi Thi; Tin, Htay Htay; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2016-06-01

    Although intestinal protozoans are common etiologies of diarrhea, few studies have been conducted in Myanmar. This study planned to investigate the prevalence of Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica, and Endolimax nana among schoolchildren and their guardians in suburban areas near Yangon, Myanmar. We performed a cross-sectional survey among schoolchildren and their guardians from 7 primary schools in South Dagon and Hlaing Thar Yar districts, Yangon, Myanmar. Stool samples were observed with a microscope after concentration technique and iodine staining. Total 821 stool samples, including 556 from schoolchildren and 265 from guardians, were examined. The median age was 6 years old for schoolchildren and 36 years old for guardians. A 53.1% of the school children and 14.6 % of the guardians were males. The overall prevalence of each intestinal protozoan species was as follows: 3.4% (28/821) for G. lamblia; 3.5% (29/821) for E. coli; 1.2% (10/821) for E. histoytica, and 3.0% for E. nana. This study showed that intestinal protozoans are common in primary schoolchildren and their guardians in suburban areas near Yangon, Myanmar. Health interventions, such as hand washing education, improvement of sanitation, and establishment of water purification systems are urgently needed in this area.

  4. [Genital elephantiasis: reconstructive treatment of penoscrotal lymphoedema with a myocutaneous M. gracilis flap. Experiences from a District Hospital in Ethiopia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prica, S; Donati, O F; Schaefer, D J; Peltzer, J

    2008-08-01

    Genital elephantiasis is an illness leading to serious functional and aesthetic as well as psychosocial impairment. Since the 19th century there have been articles describing methods for surgical ablative treatment of penoscrotal lymphoedema. However, most of these methods ignore the creation a new drainage for the lymph. We now describe a new technique using a myocutaneous M. gracilis muscle flap for the reconstruction of the soft tissue damage resulting from radical excision, thus ensuring drainage of the lymph into the deep muscle compartment of the thigh. In the District Hospital "Mettu-Karl Hospital" in the Ethiopian rain forest region of Illubabor, during a period of 6 months the described surgical procedure was applied to 9 patients suffering from severe forms of this grotesquely disfiguring disease. Two patients presented with combined penoscrotal oedema, while the other 7 patients were suffering from isolated scrotal lymphoedema alone. All patients benefited from reconstruction with a myocutaneous M. gracilis muscle flap after radical excision of the affected tissue. All patients were evaluated after 3 and 12 months postoperatively in the presence of a translator. All nine patients showed a functionally and aesthetically satisfying result after 3 months without postoperative occurrence of infection. The evaluation 12 months postoperatively showed no recurrence of genitoscrotal lymphoedema. All patients reported on having regained normal ability for sexual intercourse and no occurrence of urinary tract infections since the operation. Concerning fertility, no statements could be made. A significant improvement in the quality of life was observed by the regained ability to walk and work and consequently the reintegration of the patients into their socio-economic environment. Radical excision of the affected tissue followed by transferring a functioning lymphatic drainage into the deep muscle compartment of the ipsilateral thigh using a proximally based

  5. Experiencia en reconstrucción de tercio distal de pierna con colgajo libre de músculo gracilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Conejero

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available En los defectos de cobertura distales de la pierna con exposición ósea o articular, la transferencia de tejidos libres es frecuentemente la única opción viable. Se utilizan en el rescate de extremidades inferiores en riesgo por trauma, infección, ulceración, quemaduras y tumores. El colgajo libre de músculo gracilis está descrito en la literatura como una excelente alternativa. El objetivo de este estudio es describir las características de los pacientes y resultados de la utilización del colgajo libre de músculo gracilis en la reconstrucción del tercio distal de la pierna. Se trata de un estudio retrospectivo, observacional, de revisión de archivo clínico y fotográfico de 7 pacientes operados por los autores entre los años 2007-2010, 4 hombres y 3 mujeres con un promedio de edad de 38,5 años. El defecto de cobertura que motivó la cirugía (de hasta de 20 x 6 cm fue secundario a fractura expuesta (tipo III de Gustilo y a osteomielitis crónica. La cobertura del colgajo se hizo en todos los casos con injerto dermo-epidérmico. No hubo complicaciones menores ni mayores del sitio donante ni del receptor, con resultados funcionales y estéticos satisfactorios. El colgajo libre de músculo gracilis es una muy buena alternativa para la reconstrucción distal de pierna con defectos de cobertura en fracturas expuestas y osteomielitis o en úlceras crónicas. Tras el seguimiento, todos nuestros pacientes lograron una cobertura completa y estable en el tiempo.

  6. A three-dimensional study of the musculotendinous and neurovascular architecture of the gracilis muscle: application to functional muscle transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattah, A Y; Ravichandiran, K; Zuker, R M; Agur, A M R

    2013-09-01

    Muscle transfer is used to restore function typically using a single vector of contraction. Although its use with two independently functional muscular units has been employed, in order to refine this concept we endeavoured to detail the intramuscular anatomy of gracilis, a muscle commonly used for transfer. A novel method to capture intramuscular fibre bundle and neurovascular arrangement was used to create a three-dimensional (3D) digital model that allowed for accurate representation of the relationships between all the intramuscular structures to facilitate flap planning. Twenty gracilis muscles were harvested from 15 cadavers. All components of the muscle were digitised using a Microscribe G2 Digitiser. The data were exported to the 3D animation software Autodesk(®) Maya(®) 2012 whereupon it was rendered into a 3D model that can be exported as static images or videos. Neurovascular anatomy and muscle architecture were analysed from these models, and fibre bundle length, pennation angle and physiological cross-sectional area were calculated from digitised data. The muscle is composed of a variable number of distinct longitudinal segments with muscle fibres spiralling onto the tendon. The main artery to the muscle has three main intramuscular patterns of distribution. The venae comitantes drain discrete zones without intramuscular macroscopic anastomoses. The minor pedicles form an anastomotic chain along the anterior border of the muscle and all vessels were biased to the deep surface. The nerve is related to the vessels in a variable manner and both run between longitudinal muscular compartments. The digitisation technique may be used to advance knowledge of intramuscular architecture and it demonstrated that the gracilis muscle is comprised of four to seven muscular compartments, each representing a functional unit that may theoretically be differentially activated and could be harnessed for more sophisticated muscle transfers. Copyright © 2013 British

  7. Local climate and cultivation, but not ploidy, predict functional trait variation in Bouteloua gracilis (Poaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfield, Bradley J.; Wood, Troy E.

    2015-01-01

    Efforts to improve the diversity of seed 18 resources for important restoration species has become a high priority for land managers in many parts of the world. Relationships between functional trait values and the environment from which seed sources are collected can provide important insights into patterns of local adaptation and guidelines for seed transfer. However, little is known about which functional traits exhibit genetic differentiation across populations of restoration species and thus may contribute to local adaptation. Here, we report the results of a common garden experiment aimed at assessing genetic (including ploidy level) and environmental regulation of several functional traits among populations of Bouteloua gracilis, a dominant C4 grass and the most highly utilized restoration species across much of the Colorado Plateau. We found that leaf size and specific leaf area (SLA) varied significantly among populations, and were strongly correlated with the source population environment from which seeds were collected. However, variation in ploidy level had no significant effect on functional traits. Leaves of plants grown from commercial seed releases were significantly larger and had lower SLA than those from natural populations, a result that is concordant with the overall relation between climate and these two functional traits. We suggest that the patterns of functional trait variation shown here may extend to other grass species in the western USA, and may serve as useful proxies for more extensive genecology research. Furthermore, we argue that care should be taken to develop commercial seed lines with functional trait values that match those of natural populations occupying climates similar to target restoration sites.

  8. Avian-like attributes of a virtual brain model of the oviraptorid theropod Conchoraptor gracilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundrát, Martin

    2007-06-01

    An almost complete adult endoneurocranium of Conchoraptor gracilis Barsbold 1986 (Oviraptoridae; ZPAL MgD-I/95), discovered at the Hermiin Tsav locality (the Upper Cretaceous) in Mongolia, is analyzed. A virtual model of the endoneurocranial cavity was derived from CT scans and represents the most complete maniraptoran endocast to date. It displays reduced olfactory bulbs, large cerebral hemispheres in contact with the expanded cerebellum, an epiphysial projection, optic lobes displaced latero-ventrally, presumptive cerebellar folia, enlarged cerebellar auricles, and a deep medulla oblongata with a prominent ventral flexure. Contrary to Archaeopteryx, the shortened olfactory tract and cerebellum overtopping cerebral hemispheres of Conchoraptor resemble conditions in modern birds. Calculating brain mass relative to body mass indicates that Conchoraptor falls within the range of extant birds, whereas Archaeopteryx occupies a marginal position. Most of the endoneurocranial attributes, however, have a less birdlike appearance in Conchoraptor than do corresponding structures in Archaeopteryx and modern birds in which 1) postero-laterally expanded hemispheral domains broadly overlap the optic lobes, 2) the epiphysis projects to the posterior cerebrum, 3) lateral extension of the optic lobes substantially decreases a brain length-to-width ratio, 4) optic lobe and anterior hindbrain are superposed in lateral view, and 5) cerebellar and midbrain compartments are in distinct superposition. The endoneurocranial characteristics of Conchoraptor, taken together, suggest that the animal had a keen sense of vision, balance, and coordination. The data presented in this study do not allow an unambiguous assessment whether the avian-like endoneurocranial characteristics of the flightless Conchoraptor evolved convergently to those of avian theropods, or indicate a derivation of oviraptorosaurs from volant ancestors.

  9. The transverse musculo-cutaneous gracilis flap for breast reconstruction: How to avoid complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodin, Frédéric; Dissaux, Caroline; Dupret-Bories, Agnes; Schohn, Thomas; Fiquet, Caroline; Bruant-Rodier, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The transverse musculocutaneous gracilis (TMG) flap has become a common solution for breast reconstruction. However, the safe skin paddle limits are not yet understood. In this study, we attempted to address this issue based on our experiences with inferior and posterior skin paddle extension. Forty-four breast reconstructions with TMG flaps performed between November 2010 and January 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. For the first 20 cases, the flap skin paddle was extended 3 cm posteriorly to the middle thigh (group 1). For the next 20 flaps (group 2), the posterior tip was limited to this line, whereas more fat was recruited inferiorly. In the four cases of group 3, the skin flap was extended posteriorly with a second vascular pedicle from the profunda artery perforator (PAP) flap. The weights and the dimensions of the flaps, operating durations, and postoperative complications of the entire series were analyzed. Groups 1 and 2 were statistically compared. Flap complications were statistically more frequent in group 1 compared with group 2 (45 vs. 0%, P = 0.0012); 40% posterior flap tip necrosis was observed in group 1. Conversely, donor site complications were statistically more frequent in group 2 than in group 1 (40 vs. 5%, P = 0.019) with 35% inner thigh dehiscence. In the TMG with extended PAP flap group, the operating duration was 77 min longer compared with the rest of the series with no donor site complications. In one case, limited necrosis occurred at the anterior skin tip. Harvesting the posterior portion of the TMG up to the middle of the posterior thigh may lead to partial flap necrosis. Extending subcutaneous fat removal under the inferior skin incision may increase the risk of donor site complications. Adding a second vascular pedicle from the PAP flap may improve posterior TMG tip perfusion at the expense of a longer operation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. The transverse musculocutaneous gracilis flap for breast reconstruction: guidelines for flap and patient selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeller, Thomas; Huemer, Georg M; Wechselberger, Gottfried

    2008-07-01

    The transverse musculocutaneous gracilis (TMG) flap has received little attention in the literature as a valuable alternative source of donor tissue in the setting of breast reconstruction. The authors give an in-depth review of their experience with breast reconstruction using the TMG flap. A retrospective review of 111 patients treated with a TMG flap for breast reconstruction in an immediate or a delayed setting between August of 2002 and July of 2007 was undertaken. Of these, 26 patients underwent bilateral reconstruction and 68 underwent unilateral reconstruction, and 17 patients underwent reconstruction unilaterally with a double TMG flap. Patient age ranged between 24 and 65 years (mean, 37 years). Twelve patients had to be taken back to the operating room because of flap-related problems and nine patients underwent successful revision microsurgically, resulting in three complete flap losses in a series of 111 patients with 154 transplanted TMG flaps. Partial flap loss was encountered in two patients, whereas fat tissue necrosis was managed conservatively in six patients. Donor-site morbidity was an advantage of this flap, with a concealed scar and minimal contour irregularities of the thigh, even in unilateral harvest. Complications included delayed wound healing (n = 10), hematoma (n = 5), and transient sensory deficit over the posterior thigh (n = 49). The TMG flap is more than an alternative to the deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap in microsurgical breast reconstruction in selected patients. In certain indications, such as bilateral reconstructions, it possibly surpasses the DIEP flap because of a better concealed donor scar and easier harvest.

  11. Spine micromorphology of normal and hyperhydric Mammillaria gracilis Pfeiff. (Cactaceae) shoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peharec, P; Posilović, H; Balen, B; Krsnik-Rasol, M

    2010-07-01

    Artificial conditions of tissue culture affect growth and physiology of crassulacean acid metabolism plants which often results in formation of hyperhydric shoots. In in vitro conditions Mammillaria gracilis Pfeiff. (Cactaceae) growth switches from organized to unorganized way, producing a habituated organogenic callus which simultaneously regenerates morphologically normal as well as altered hyperhydric shoots. In this study, influence of tissue culture conditions on morphology of cactus spines of normal and hyperhydric shoots was investigated. Spines of pot-grown Mammillaria plants and of in vitro regenerated shoots were examined with stereo microscope and scanning electron microscope. The pot-grown plants had 16-17 spines per areole. In vitro grown normal shoots, even though they kept typical shoot morphology, had lower number of spines (11-12) and altered spine morphology. This difference was even more pronounced in spine number (six to seven) and morphology of the hyperhydric shoots. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed remarkable differences in micromorphology of spine surface between pot-grown and in vitro grown shoots. Spines of in vitro grown normal shoots showed numerous long trichomes, which were more elongated on spines of the hyperhydric shoots; the corresponding structures on spine surface of pot-grown plants were noticed only as small protrusions. Scanning electron microscopy morphometric studies showed that the spines of pot-grown plants were significantly longer compared to the spines of shoots grown in tissue culture. Moreover, transverse section shape varies from elliptical in pot-grown plants to circular in normal and hyperhydric shoots grown in vitro. Cluster and correspondence analyses performed on the scanning electron microscope obtained results suggest great variability among spines of pot-grown plants. Spines of in vitro grown normal and hyperhydric shoots showed low level of morphological variation among themselves despite the

  12. Investigation of radiosensitivity and growth dynamics for callus tissues Crepis Capillaris, Haplopappus gracilis, Phasolium vulgaris exposed to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatsek, Eh.; Glinkova, E.; Ismailova, Eh.N.

    1983-01-01

    Radiosensitivity of three kinds of callus tissues (Crepis capillaris, Haplopappus gracilis, Phasolium vulgaris) manifested in the change of fresh weight after γ-irradiation has been investigated. Irradiated callus arowth showed decrease with increasing doses. It is shown that the radiosensitivity of ''young'' callus tissues is determined by the kind of the plant. Callus of Phaseolis has been found to have the highest radioresistance, while that of Crepis has the lowest one. Radiosensitivity of ''old'' callus tissues is the same for all kinds. Potential mechanism of radiosensitivity of callus tissUes are discussed

  13. Descripción ultraestructural de Euglena pailasensis (Euglenozoa del Volcán Rincón de la Vieja, Guanacaste, Costa Rica

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    Ethel Sánchez

    2004-03-01

    H 2 - 4. The hot mud pool is located in Area de Pailas de Barro, Las Pailas, Rincón de la Vieja Volcano, Guanacaste, Costa Rica. The morphological characterization of the Euglena pailasensis was performed by SEM and TEM. It was determined that, although the euglenoid was obtained from an extreme volcanic environment, the general morphology corresponds to that of a typical member of Euglena of 30-45 µm long and 8-10 µm wide, with membrane, pellicle, chloroplasts, mitochondria, nucleus, pigments and other cytoplasmic organelles. E. pailasensis is delimited by a membrane and by 40 to 90 pellicle strips. It was observed up to 5 elongated chloroplasts per cell. The chloroplast contains several osmiophilic globules and a pyrenoid penetrated by few thylakoid pairs. The nutritious material is reserved in numerous small paramylon grains located at the center of the cell, mitocondria are characterized by the presence of crests in radial disposition toward the interior of the lumen. It was also observed around the external surface "pili" like filaments originating from the pellicle strips. There is no evidence for the presence of flagella in the ampulla (reservoir/canal area, a fact confirmed by negative staining, and a difference regarding other species of Euglena. The observed ultrastructural characteristics are not sufficient to explain the adaptation of this species to acid and hot environments

  14. A tangled tale of two teal: Population history of the grey Anas gracilis and chestnut teal a. castanea of Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, L.; Adcock, G.J.; Linde, C.; Omland, K.E.; Heinsohn, R.; Terry, Chesser R.; Roshier, D.

    2009-01-01

    Two Australian species of teal (Anseriformes: Anatidae: Anas), the grey teal Anas gracilis and the chestnut teal A. castanea, are remarkable for the zero or near-zero divergence recorded between them in earlier surveys of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diversity. We confirmed this result through wider geographical and population sampling as well as nucleotide sampling in the more rapidly evolving mtDNA control region. Any data set where two species share polymorphism as is the case here can be explained by a model of gene flow through hybridization on one hand or by incomplete lineage sorting on the other hand. Ideally, analysis of such shared polymorphism would simultaneously estimate the likelihood of both phenomena. To do this, we used the underlying principle of the IMa package to explore ramifications to understanding population histories of A. gracilis and A. castanea. We cannot reject that hybridization occurs between the two species but an equally or more plausible finding for their nearly zero divergence is incomplete sorting following very recent divergence between the two, probably in the mid-late Pleistocene. Our data add to studies that explore intermediate stages in the evolution of reciprocal monophyly and paraphyletic or polyphyletic relationships in mtDNA diversity among widespread Australian birds. ?? 2009 J. Avian Biol.

  15. Clinical and radiological outcomes after a quasi-anatomical reconstruction of medial patellofemoral ligament with gracilis tendon autograft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monllau, Joan C; Masferrer-Pino, Àngel; Ginovart, Gerard; Pérez-Prieto, Daniel; Gelber, Pablo E; Sanchis-Alfonso, Vicente

    2017-08-01

    To analyse the clinical and radiological outcomes of a quasi-anatomical reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) with a gracilis tendon autograft. Patients with objective recurrent patellar instability that were operated on from 2006 to 2012 were included. A quasi-anatomical surgical technique was performed using a gracilis tendon autograft. It was anatomically attached at the patella, and the adductor magnus tendon was also used as a pulley for femoral fixation (non-anatomical reconstruction). The IKDC, Kujala and Lysholm scores as well as Tegner and VAS for pain were collected preoperatively and at final follow-up. Radiographic measurements of patellar position tilt and signs of osteoarthritis (OA) as well as trochlear dysplasia were also recorded. Thirty-six patients were included. The mean age at surgery was 25.6 years. After a minimum 27 months of follow-up, all functional scores significantly improved (p patellofemoral surfaces at the short term, as shown by the absence of radiological signs of OA in the CT scan. The procedure has been shown to be safe and suitable for the treatment of chronic patellar instability, including in adolescents with open physis. A new effective, inexpensive and easy-to-perform technique is described to reconstruct MPFL in the daily clinical practice. Therapeutic case series, Level IV.

  16. NÚMERO CROMOSSÔMICO DE Lippia gracilis Schauer (VERBENACEAE OCORRENTES NO ESTADO DO RIO GRANDE DO NORTE, BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIS EDUARDO DE SOUSA SOARES

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Lippia (Verbenaceae comprises about 200 species of pantropical distribution. Lippia gracilis Schauer, popularly known as the mountain balm, is an aromatic plant, native of northeastern Brazil, used in folk medicine as an antiseptic and to treat dermatitis. Although cytogenetic serve as a tool in taxonomy rate, cytogenetical studies of genus Lippia are restricted. Given the above, the present study aimed to determine, at the first time, the chromosome number of copies of L. gracilis, and thereby contribute to a better taxonomic understanding of this genus. In this sense root tips collected from newly planted specimens were pretreated with a solution of 2mM 8-hydroxyquinoline for 4 hours, fixed in Carnoy 3:1 (ethanol: acetic acid for 24 hours and stored in the same fixative for later analysis. The roots were hydrolyzed in 5N HCl for 20 minutes and the slides, prepared by squashing in acetic acid (45% and stained with 2% Giemsa. The best metaphases were photographed and pointed to the chromosome number 2n = 24. Moreover, were observed metacentric and submetacentric chromosomes. Because there are several chromosome numbers in the genus, from n=10 to n=30, and as the same is little known cytogenetically, f more comprehensive cytogenetic studies are necessary, involving a larger number of species, so these data may help to clarify taxonomic inconsistencies in the family Verbenaceae.

  17. Acaricidal efficacies of Lippia gracilis essential oil and its phytochemicals against organophosphate-resistant and susceptible strains of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant-derived natural products can serve as an alternative to synthetic compounds for control of ticks of veterinary and medical importance. Lippia gracilis is an aromatic plant that produces essential oil with high content of carvacrol and thymol monoterpenes. These monoterpenes have high acaricida...

  18. Simple and rapid staining for detection of Entamoeba cysts and other protozoans with fluorochromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, F; Mizuno, S; Fujioka, H; Kumada, N; Sugiyama, E; Takeuchi, T; Kobayashi, S; Iseki, M; Yamada, M; Matsumoto, Y

    1987-02-01

    Three fluorochromes were applied to stain various parasitic protozoans. By double staining with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole and propidium iodide, differentiation of the nuclei from the cytoplasm can easily be achieved within several seconds. The chromatoid bodies in Entamoeba cysts were stained bright red. Plasmodium yoelii at all stages except late trophozoites and young gametocytes was easily identified. In the oocysts of Cryptosporidium sp., the nuclei and cytoplasm of the sporozoites fluoresced bluish white and red, respectively, whereas the residual body appeared blue or green. The third fluorochrome, Calcofluor white M2R, was suitable for detecting the cysts of Entamoeba spp. and Chilomastix mesnili.

  19. Zoonotic intestinal protozoan of the wild boars, Sus scrofa, in Persian Gulf’s coastal area (Bushehr province, Southwestern Iran

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    Kambiz Yaghoobi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Wild boars, Sus scrofa, are potential reservoirs of many zoonotic diseases, and there are a possibility of transmission of the zoonotic diseases from these animals to humans and also domestic animals. This study aimed to evaluate the protozoan contamination of wild boars in the Persian Gulf’s coastal area (Bushehr Province, southwestern Iran. Materials and Methods: A total of 25 crossbred boars were collected during a course of vertebrate pest control in Bushehr province, in 2013. Samples were collected from the gastrointestinal tracts of each boar in 5% formalin, Bouin’s solution, sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin, and polyvinyl alcohol fixatives. Fixed stool smears examined by trichrome and Ziehl–Neelsen staining. Results: Each of the 25 wild boars was infected with at least one of the intestinal protozoans. The rate of contamination with intestinal protozoan was 64% for Balantidium coli, 76% for Iodamoeba sp., 52% for Entamoeba polecki, 44% for Blastocystis sp. and 8% for Chilomastix sp. No intestinal coccidian was detected in studied boars when the stool samples were evaluated by Ziehl–Neelsen staining method. Conclusion: Findings of this study demonstrated that wild boars in the Persian Gulf coastal area are contaminated by many protozoans, including zoonotic protozoan, which poses a potential risk to locals as well as the domestic animals of the area.

  20. Zoonotic intestinal protozoan of the wild boars, Sus scrofa, in Persian Gulf's coastal area (Bushehr province), Southwestern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghoobi, Kambiz; Sarkari, Bahador; Mansouri, Majid; Motazedian, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-10-01

    Wild boars, Sus scrofa , are potential reservoirs of many zoonotic diseases, and there are a possibility of transmission of the zoonotic diseases from these animals to humans and also domestic animals. This study aimed to evaluate the protozoan contamination of wild boars in the Persian Gulf's coastal area (Bushehr Province), southwestern Iran. A total of 25 crossbred boars were collected during a course of vertebrate pest control in Bushehr province, in 2013. Samples were collected from the gastrointestinal tracts of each boar in 5% formalin, Bouin's solution, sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin, and polyvinyl alcohol fixatives. Fixed stool smears examined by trichrome and Ziehl-Neelsen staining. Each of the 25 wild boars was infected with at least one of the intestinal protozoans. The rate of contamination with intestinal protozoan was 64% for Balantidium coli , 76% for Iodamoeba sp., 52% for Entamoeba polecki , 44% for Blastocystis sp. and 8% for Chilomastix sp. No intestinal coccidian was detected in studied boars when the stool samples were evaluated by Ziehl-Neelsen staining method. Findings of this study demonstrated that wild boars in the Persian Gulf coastal area are contaminated by many protozoans, including zoonotic protozoan, which poses a potential risk to locals as well as the domestic animals of the area.

  1. Catch composition of the spiny lobster Panulirus gracilis (Decapoda: Palinuridae off the western coast of Mexico Composición de la captura de la langosta espinosa Panulirus gracilis (Decapoda: Palinuridae en la costa oeste de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Pérez-González

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The lobster fishery in the Gulf of California and the south-central region of the western coast of Mexico consists of small-scale artisanal activity supported by Panulirus gracilis and P. inflatus, with an annual average catch of 132 ton. The present study analyzes the landing composition of this fishery and the population structure of P. gracilis. Carapace lengths (CL for this species ranged from 35 to 125 mm, and the most frequent sizes were between 60 and 85 mm. The size distribution was approximately normal. This implies that the fishery is composed of several size classes, with annual recruitment to the fishing areas. For the 1989-1990 and 1990-1991 fishing seasons, the mean monthly sizes of males were between 70.18 ± 11.74 and 81.11 ± 6.76 mm CL, whereas females averaged from 73.60 ± 8.95 to 80.28 ± 7.53 mm CL. Power-law relationships between carapace length (CL in mm and total weight (TW in g were determined, resulting in the following equations: PT = 0.0021 CL27689 for males and PT = 0.0009 CL³ 0038 for females. During certain periods of the year, males dominated the catch; however, the overall annual male:female ratio was near 1:1.La pesquería de langosta en el golfo de California y en el centro-sur de la costa occidental de México es una actividad artesanal a pequeña escala y es sostenida por Panulirus gracilis y P. inflatus, con una captura promedio anual de 132 ton. En este estudio se analiza la composición de los desembarques de esta pesquería y la estructura de la población de P. gracilis. El intervalo de talla de esta especie fue de 35 a 125 mm de longitud del cefalotórax (LC y el más frecuente se encontró entre 60 y 85 mm. La distribución de tallas fue aproximadamente normal. Esto implica que la pesquería está compuesta por varias clases de tallas, con un reclutamiento anual a las áreas de pesca. La talla media mensual de machos fue entre 70,18 ± 11,74 y 81,11 ± 6,76 mm LC y en hembras de 73,60 ± 8,95 a 80

  2. Breast-feeding protects infantile diarrhea caused by intestinal protozoan infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Hafeez, Ekhlas Hamed; Belal, Usama Salah; Abdellatif, Manal Zaki Mohamed; Naoi, Koji; Norose, Kazumi

    2013-10-01

    This study investigated the effect of breast-feeding in protection against protozoan infection in infants with persistent diarrhea. Infants were classified into 2 groups; 161 breast-fed infants and the same number of non-breast-fed infants. Microscopic examinations of stool were done for detection of parasites and measuring the intensity of infection. Moreover, serum levels of IgE and TNF-α were measured by ELISA. Cryptosporidium spp., Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar, Giardia lamblia, and Blastocystis sp. were demonstrated in infants with persistent diarrhea. The percentage of protozoan infections was significantly lower in breast-fed infants than that in the non-breast-fed infants. The levels of IgE and TNF-α were significantly lower in the breast-fed group than in the non-breast-fed group. There were significant positive associations between the serum levels of IgE and TNF-α and the intensity of parasite infection in the breast-fed group. It is suggested that breast-feeding has an attenuating effect on the rate and intensity of parasite infection.

  3. Microfaunal indicators, Ciliophora phylogeny and protozoan population shifts in an intermittently aerated and fed bioreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ntougias, Spyridon; Tanasidis, Spartakos; Melidis, Paraschos

    2011-01-01

    Microfauna community structure was examined in the mixed liquor of a bench-scale bioreactor equipped with an intermittent aeration and feeding system. The reactor was operated under an intermittent aeration of 25 min in every 1 h and varying feeding conditions (0.264, 0.403 and 0.773 kg BOD 5 /m 3 d). A total of 14 protozoan and metazoan taxa were identified by microscopic examination. Sessile ciliates, followed by crawling ciliates, were the major protozoan groups under 0.403 kg BOD 5 /m 3 d organic loading conditions, while sessile ciliate population was remarkably increased under an organic loading of 0.773 kg BOD 5 /m 3 d. Principal Component Analysis and Pearson correlation coefficient tests were performed in order to reveal relationships between microfauna community and operational parameters. Ciliophora specific-18S rRNA gene clone library was constructed to identify ciliate diversity under 0.773 kg BOD 5 /m 3 d organic loading conditions. Ciliophora diversity consisted of members of Aspidiscidae, Epistylidae, Opisthonectidae and Vorticellidae, with the majority of the clones being associated with the species Vorticella fusca. At least one novel phylogenetic linkage among Ciliophora was identified. Comparisons made after molecular characterization and microscopic examination of Ciliophora community showed that the estimation of broad ciliate groups is useful for ecological considerations and evaluation of the operational conditions in wastewater treatment plants.

  4. Emerging infectious diseases with cutaneous manifestations: Fungal, helminthic, protozoan and ectoparasitic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollipara, Ramya; Peranteau, Andrew J; Nawas, Zeena Y; Tong, Yun; Woc-Colburn, Laila; Yan, Albert C; Lupi, Omar; Tyring, Stephen K

    2016-07-01

    Given increased international travel, immigration, changing climate conditions, and the increased incidence of iatrogenic immunosuppression, fungal, protozoan, helminthic, and ectoparasitic infections that were once uncommon are being seeing more frequently in the Western hemisphere. However, the diagnosis and management of these infections is fraught with a lack of consistency because there is a dearth of dermatology literature on the cutaneous manifestations of these infections. In addition, delays in the diagnosis and treatment of these diseases can lead to significant patient morbidity and mortality. We review the epidemiology, cutaneous manifestations, diagnostic modalities, and treatment options for emerging fungal, protozoan, helminthic, and ectoparasitic infections. It should be noted, however, that throughout this review we cite statistics documenting their increased incidence to back-up these infections as emerging, and although some of the diagnoses are clinical, others rely on newer laboratory tests, and the possibility exists that the increased incidence could be caused by better detection methods. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Microfaunal indicators, Ciliophora phylogeny and protozoan population shifts in an intermittently aerated and fed bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ntougias, Spyridon, E-mail: sntougia@env.duth.gr [Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Environmental Engineering, Laboratory of Wastewater Management and Treatment Technologies, Vas. Sofias 12, 67100 Xanthi (Greece); Tanasidis, Spartakos; Melidis, Paraschos [Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Environmental Engineering, Laboratory of Wastewater Management and Treatment Technologies, Vas. Sofias 12, 67100 Xanthi (Greece)

    2011-02-28

    Microfauna community structure was examined in the mixed liquor of a bench-scale bioreactor equipped with an intermittent aeration and feeding system. The reactor was operated under an intermittent aeration of 25 min in every 1 h and varying feeding conditions (0.264, 0.403 and 0.773 kg BOD{sub 5}/m{sup 3} d). A total of 14 protozoan and metazoan taxa were identified by microscopic examination. Sessile ciliates, followed by crawling ciliates, were the major protozoan groups under 0.403 kg BOD{sub 5}/m{sup 3} d organic loading conditions, while sessile ciliate population was remarkably increased under an organic loading of 0.773 kg BOD{sub 5}/m{sup 3} d. Principal Component Analysis and Pearson correlation coefficient tests were performed in order to reveal relationships between microfauna community and operational parameters. Ciliophora specific-18S rRNA gene clone library was constructed to identify ciliate diversity under 0.773 kg BOD{sub 5}/m{sup 3} d organic loading conditions. Ciliophora diversity consisted of members of Aspidiscidae, Epistylidae, Opisthonectidae and Vorticellidae, with the majority of the clones being associated with the species Vorticella fusca. At least one novel phylogenetic linkage among Ciliophora was identified. Comparisons made after molecular characterization and microscopic examination of Ciliophora community showed that the estimation of broad ciliate groups is useful for ecological considerations and evaluation of the operational conditions in wastewater treatment plants.

  6. Morphological Identification and Single-Cell Genomics of Marine Diplonemids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gawryluk, R. M. R.; del Campo, J.; Okamoto, n.; Strassert, J. F. H.; Lukeš, Julius; Richards, T.A.; Worden, A.Z.; Santoro, A. E.; Keeling, P. J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 22 (2016), s. 3053-3059 ISSN 0960-9822 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Euglena gracilis * introns * genes * annotation * RNA Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 8.851, year: 2016

  7. Effects of mixed substrates on growth and vitamin production by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-10-16

    Oct 16, 2007 ... The cells were grown mixotrophically in glucose (G), ethanol ... Key words: mixed substrate culture, Euglena gracilis, cell growth, vitamin production. ..... Biological elimination of nitric oxide from fuel gas by marine micro-.

  8. Use of alternative media and different types of recipients in a laboratory culture of Ankistrodesmus gracilis (Reinsch Korshikov (Chlorophyceae - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i3.8046 Use of alternative media and different types of recipients in a laboratory culture of Ankistrodesmus gracilis (Reinsch Korshikov (Chlorophyceae - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i3.8046

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia de Almeida Berchielli

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory culture of Ankistrodesmus gracilis algae was evaluated by studying the biology of the species and its chemical composition in a traditional medium (CHU12 and in two alternative culture media, NPK (20-5-20 and macrophyte (Eichhornia crassipes + NPK, in three different types of recipients (fiberglass, carboy and plastic bag. First peak in the growth curve of Ankistrodesmus gracilis occurred on the ninth day in macrophyte + NPK medium (74.16 x 105 cells mL-1 in a fiberglass recipient. However, highest density (p 12 (122.87 x 105 cells mL-1 in a plastic bag on the twelfth day. Cell density was over 70 x 105 cells mL-1 starting on the twelfth day. Growth rate of A. gracilis was similar (p > 0.05 in culture media in the three recipients. Protein and fiber were similar (p > 0.05 in the treatments, but lipids were higher (p -1 in NPK (p A. gracilis cultured in three types of recipients. Costs are low, occupying less space when cultured in plastic bags and in the laboratory.A laboratory culture of Ankistrodesmus gracilis algae was evaluated by studying the biology of the species and its chemical composition in a traditional medium (CHU12 and in two alternative culture media, NPK (20-5-20 and macrophyte (Eichhornia crassipes + NPK, in three different types of recipients (fiberglass, carboy and plastic bag. First peak in the growth curve of Ankistrodesmus gracilis occurred on the ninth day in macrophyte + NPK medium (74.16 x 105 cells mL-1 in a fiberglass recipient. However, highest density (p 12 (122.87 x 105 cells mL-1 in a plastic bag on the twelfth day. Cell density was over 70 x 105 cells mL-1 starting on the twelfth day. Growth rate of A. gracilis was similar (p > 0.05 in culture media in the three recipients. Protein and fiber were similar (p > 0.05 in the treatments, but lipids were higher (p -1 in NPK (p A. gracilis cultured in three types of recipients. Costs are low, occupying less space when cultured in plastic bags and in the

  9. Quality-of-life improvement after free gracilis muscle transfer for smile restoration in patients with facial paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Robin W; Bhama, Prabhat; Hadlock, Tessa A

    2014-01-01

    Facial paralysis can contribute to disfigurement, psychological difficulties, and an inability to convey emotion via facial expression. In patients unable to perform a meaningful smile, free gracilis muscle transfer (FGMT) can often restore smile function. However, little is known about the impact on disease-specific quality of life. To determine quantitatively whether FGMT improves quality of life in patients with facial paralysis. Prospective evaluation of 154 FGMTs performed at a facial nerve center on 148 patients with facial paralysis. The Facial Clinimetric Evaluation (FaCE) survey and Facial Assessment by Computer Evaluation software (FACE-gram) were used to quantify quality-of-life improvement, oral commissure excursion, and symmetry with smile. Free gracilis muscle transfer. Change in FaCE score, oral commissure excursion, and symmetry with smile. There were 127 successful FGMTs on 124 patients and 14 failed procedures on 13 patients. Mean (SD) FaCE score increased significantly after successful FGMT (42.30 [15.9] vs 58.5 [17.60]; paired 2-tailed t test, P improved significantly in all subgroups (nonflaccid cohort, 37.8 [19.9] vs 52.9 [19.3]; P = .02; flaccid cohort, 43.1 [15.1] vs 59.6 [17.2]; P improved from a mean (SD) of 13.8 (7.46) to 4.88 (3.47) (P improvement in quality of life after FGMT in patients who could not recover a meaningful smile after facial nerve insult. Quality-of-life improvement was not statistically different between donor nerve groups or facial paralysis types.

  10. Detection and prevalence of protozoan parasites in ready-to-eat packaged salads on sale in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caradonna, Tiziana; Marangi, Marianna; Del Chierico, Federica; Ferrari, Nicola; Reddel, Sofia; Bracaglia, Giorgia; Normanno, Giovanni; Putignani, Lorenza; Giangaspero, Annunziata

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the prevalence of protozoan contamination by Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., Toxoplasma gondii and Cyclospora cayetanensis, in 'ready to eat' (RTE) salads on sale in Italy, 648 packages were purchased from industrial and local brands. Nine individual packages from each brand were collected per month, pooled and subjected to microscopy and molecular analyses. Microscopic examination of 864 slides detected Cryptosporidium spp. but also Blastocystis hominis and Dientamoeba fragilis. Molecular tools identified G. duodenalis assemblage A, Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium ubiquitum, T. gondii Type I and C. cayetanensis. B. hominis and D. fragilis were also molecularly confirmed. The overall prevalence of each protozoan species was 0.6% for G. duodenalis, 0.8% for T. gondii, 0.9% for Cryptosporidium spp., and 1.3% for C. cayetanensis, while prevalence for B. hominis was 0.5% and for D. fragilis 0.2%. Microscopy and/or molecular tools revealed that 4.2% of the samples were contaminated by at least one protozoan species, and 0.6% of samples presented contamination by two protozoan species, with a number of oocysts ranging from 62 to 554 per g of vegetable matter for T. gondii, and 46 to 1.580 for C. cayetanensis. This is Europe's first large-scale study on the presence of protozoans in packaged salads, and shows that RTE sanitation processes do not guarantee a product free from protozoans of fecal origin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Recurrent wheezing is associated with intestinal protozoan infections in Warao Amerindian children in Venezuela: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overeem, Marcella M A; Verhagen, Lilly M; Hermans, Peter W M; del Nogal, Berenice; Sánchez, Adriana Márquez; Acevedo, Natacha Martinez; Murga, Rosalicia Ramirez; Roelfsema, Jeroen; Pinelli, Elena; de Waard, Jacobus H

    2014-05-29

    While in developed countries the prevalence of allergic diseases is rising, inflammatory diseases are relatively uncommon in rural developing areas. High prevalence rates of helminth and protozoan infections are commonly found in children living in rural settings and several studies suggest an inverse association between helminth infections and allergies. No studies investigating the relationship between parasitic infections and atopic diseases in rural children of developing countries under the age of 2 years have been published so far. We performed a cross-sectional survey to investigate the association of helminth and protozoan infections and malnutrition with recurrent wheezing and atopic eczema in Warao Amerindian children in Venezuela. From August to November 2012, 229 children aged 0 to 2 years residing in the Orinoco Delta in Venezuela were enrolled. Data were collected through standardized questionnaires and physical examination, including inspection of the skin and anthropometric measurements. A stool sample was requested from all participants and detection of different parasites was performed using microscopy and real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We observed high prevalence rates of atopic eczema and recurrent wheezing, respectively 19% and 23%. The prevalence of helminth infections was 26% and the prevalence of protozoan infections was 59%. Atopic eczema and recurrent wheezing were more frequently observed in stunted compared with non-stunted children in multivariable analysis (OR 4.3, 95% CI 1.3 - 13.6, p = 0.015 and OR 4.5, 95% CI 0.97 - 21.2, p = 0.055). Furthermore, recurrent wheezing was significantly more often observed in children with protozoan infections than in children without protozoan infections (OR 6.7, 95% CI 1.5 - 30.5). High prevalence rates of atopic eczema and recurrent wheezing in Warao Amerindian children under 2 years of age were related to stunting and intestinal protozoan infections respectively. Helminth

  12. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Intestinal Protozoan Infections with Cryptosporidium, Giardia, Blastocystis and Dientamoeba among Schoolchildren in Tripoli, Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Marwan; El Safadi, Dima; Cian, Amandine; Benamrouz, Sadia; Nourrisson, Céline; Poirier, Philippe; Pereira, Bruno; Razakandrainibe, Romy; Pinon, Anthony; Lambert, Céline; Wawrzyniak, Ivan; Dabboussi, Fouad; Delbac, Frederic; Favennec, Loïc; Hamze, Monzer; Viscogliosi, Eric; Certad, Gabriela

    2016-03-01

    Intestinal protozoan infections are confirmed as major causes of diarrhea, particularly in children, and represent a significant, but often neglected, threat to public health. No recent data were available in Lebanon concerning the molecular epidemiology of protozoan infections in children, a vulnerable population at high risk of infection. In order to improve our understanding of the epidemiology of intestinal pathogenic protozoa, a cross-sectional study was conducted in a general pediatric population including both symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects. After obtaining informed consent from the parents or legal guardians, stool samples were collected in January 2013 from 249 children in 2 schools in Tripoli, Lebanon. Information obtained from a standard questionnaire included demographic characteristics, current symptoms, socioeconomic status, source of drinking water, and personal hygiene habits. After fecal examination by both microscopy and molecular tools, the overall prevalence of parasitic infections was recorded as 85%. Blastocystis spp. presented the highest infection rate (63%), followed by Dientamoeba fragilis (60.6%), Giardia duodenalis (28.5%) and Cryptosporidium spp. (10.4%). PCR was also performed to identify species and genotypes of Cryptosporidium, subtypes of Blastocystis, and assemblages of Giardia. Statistical analysis using a logistic regression model showed that contact with family members presenting gastrointestinal disorders was the primary risk factor for transmission of these protozoa. This is the first study performed in Lebanon reporting the prevalence and the clinical and molecular epidemiological data associated with intestinal protozoan infections among schoolchildren in Tripoli. A high prevalence of protozoan parasites was found, with Blastocystis spp. being the most predominant protozoans. Although only 50% of children reported digestive symptoms, asymptomatic infection was observed, and these children may act as unidentified

  13. Impact of elevated CO2 concentrations on the growth and ultrastructure of non-calcifying marine diatom (Chaetoceros gracilis F.Schütt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan M. Khairy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of different CO2 concentrations on the growth, physiology and ultrastructure of noncalcifying microalga Chaetoceros gracilis F.Schütt (Diatom were studied. We incubated Ch. gracilis under different CO2 concentrations, preindustrial and current ambient atmospheric concentrations (285 and 385 μatm, respectively or predicted year-2100 CO2 levels (550, 750 and 1050 μatm in continuous culture conditions. The growth of Ch. gracilis measured as cell number was decreased by increasing the pCO2 concentration from nowadays concentration (385 μatm to 1050 μatm. The lowest percentage changes of oxidizable organic matter, nitrite, nitrate, phosphate and silicate were recorded at a higher pCO2 (1050 μatm, and this is in consistence with the lowest recorded cell number indicating unsuitable conditions for the growth of Ch. gracilis. The minimum cell numbers obtained at higher levels of CO2 clearly demonstrate that, low improvement occurred when the carbon level was raised. This was confirmed by a highly negative correlation between cell number and carbon dioxide partial pressure (r = −0.742, p ⩽ 0.05. On the other hand, highest growth rate at pCO2 = 385 μatm was also confirmed by the maximum uptake of nutrient salts (NO3 = 68.96 μmol.l−1, PO4 = 29.75 μmol.l−1, Si2O3 = 36.99 μmol.l−1. Total protein, carbohydrate and lipid composition showed significant differences (p ⩽ 0.05 at different carbon dioxide concentrations during the exponential growth phase (day 8. Transmission Electron Microscopy of Ch. gracilis showed enlargement of the cell, chloroplast damage, disorganization and disintegration of thylakoid membranes; cell lysis occurs at a higher CO2 concentration (1050 μatm. It is concluded from this regression equation and from the results that the growth of Ch. gracilis is expected to decrease by increasing pCO2 and increasing ocean acidification.

  14. Biomonitoring of coastal pollution status using protozoan communities with a modified PFU method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kuidong; Choi, Joong Ki; Yang, Eun Jin; Lee, Kyu Chul; Lei, Yanli

    2002-09-01

    Structural and functional parameters of protozoan communities were assessed as indicators of water quality in Korean coastal waters in the summer of 2000. A modified polyurethane foam unit (PFU) method, named the bottled PFU (BPFU) system, was used in order to carry out the bioassessment. Both parameters suggested that biomonitoring using the BPFU system was more effective than the conventional PFU method in offshore areas. The species number collected by the BPFU system generally decreased as pollution intensity increased at three main stations and was greater than that collected using the PFU method (paired t-test, t = 4.83, p PFU method (paired t-test, t = 5.37, p < 0.0001). Furthermore, the functional parameters, i.e. S(eq),G and T90%, correlated with the pollution status and could thus clearly discriminate the different classes of water quality.

  15. Pathogenic bacteriumVibrio harveyi: an endosymbiont in the marine parasitic ciliate protozoan Cryptocaryon irritans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAO Ying; WANG Jun; MAO Yong; LIU Min; CHEN Ruanni; SU Yongquan; KE Qiaozhen; HAN Kunhuang; ZHENG Weiqiang

    2017-01-01

    Vibrio harveyi, known as a pathogenic bacterium caused severe secondary bacterial infections of the large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea, was identified as an endosymbiont in the marine parasitic ciliate protozoan Cryptocaryon irritans. Meta 16S sequencing method was used to identify the bacterial flora in C. irritans, and V. harveyi was isolated via culture-dependent method.Vibrio harveyi was observed in cytoplasm of C. irritans at the stage of tomont both by transmission electron microscopy and by Fluorescencein situ hybridization; no signal, however, was detected in nucleus area. The relationship betweenV. harveyi and C. irritans and the role of endosymbioticV. harveyi inC. irritans merit further investigation.

  16. Sampling frequency of ciliated protozoan microfauna for seasonal distribution research in marine ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Henglong; Yong, Jiang; Xu, Guangjian

    2015-12-30

    Sampling frequency is important to obtain sufficient information for temporal research of microfauna. To determine an optimal strategy for exploring the seasonal variation in ciliated protozoa, a dataset from the Yellow Sea, northern China was studied. Samples were collected with 24 (biweekly), 12 (monthly), 8 (bimonthly per season) and 4 (seasonally) sampling events. Compared to the 24 samplings (100%), the 12-, 8- and 4-samplings recovered 94%, 94%, and 78% of the total species, respectively. To reveal the seasonal distribution, the 8-sampling regime may result in >75% information of the seasonal variance, while the traditional 4-sampling may only explain sampling frequency, the biotic data showed stronger correlations with seasonal variables (e.g., temperature, salinity) in combination with nutrients. It is suggested that the 8-sampling events per year may be an optimal sampling strategy for ciliated protozoan seasonal research in marine ecosystems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Protozoan and helminth infections in pregnancy. Short-term and long-term implications of transmission of infection from mother to foetus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Eskild

    2007-01-01

    This review of protozoan and helminth infections in pregnancy focuses on the impact on the immune response in the newborn infant to maternal infection. Studies of protozoan and helminth infections in pregnant women and in their offspring have shown that children exposed to antigens or microorgani...

  18. Generation and analysis of expressed sequence tags from the ciliate protozoan parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arias Covadonga

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ciliate protozoan Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich is an important parasite of freshwater fish that causes 'white spot disease' leading to significant losses. A genomic resource for large-scale studies of this parasite has been lacking. To study gene expression involved in Ich pathogenesis and virulence, our goal was to generate expressed sequence tags (ESTs for the development of a powerful microarray platform for the analysis of global gene expression in this species. Here, we initiated a project to sequence and analyze over 10,000 ESTs. Results We sequenced 10,368 EST clones using a normalized cDNA library made from pooled samples of the trophont, tomont, and theront life-cycle stages, and generated 9,769 sequences (94.2% success rate. Post-sequencing processing led to 8,432 high quality sequences. Clustering analysis of these ESTs allowed identification of 4,706 unique sequences containing 976 contigs and 3,730 singletons. These unique sequences represent over two million base pairs (~10% of Plasmodium falciparum genome, a phylogenetically related protozoan. BLASTX searches produced 2,518 significant (E-value -5 hits and further Gene Ontology (GO analysis annotated 1,008 of these genes. The ESTs were analyzed comparatively against the genomes of the related protozoa Tetrahymena thermophila and P. falciparum, allowing putative identification of additional genes. All the EST sequences were deposited by dbEST in GenBank (GenBank: EG957858–EG966289. Gene discovery and annotations are presented and discussed. Conclusion This set of ESTs represents a significant proportion of the Ich transcriptome, and provides a material basis for the development of microarrays useful for gene expression studies concerning Ich development, pathogenesis, and virulence.

  19. Visible-light-responsive ZnCuO nanoparticles: benign photodynamic killers of infectious protozoans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadhman A

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Akhtar Nadhman,1,2 Samina Nazir,2 Malik Ihsanullah Khan,1 Attiya Ayub,2,3 Bakhtiar Muhammad,3 Momin Khan,1 Dilawar Farhan Shams,4 Masoom Yasinzai1,5 1Department of Biotechnology, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan; 2Nanosciences and Catalysis Division, National Centre for Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University Campus, Islamabad, Pakistan; 3Department of Chemistry, Hazara University, Dhodial, Pakistan; 4Department of Environmental Sciences, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, Mardan, Pakistan; 5Center of Interdisciplinary Research, International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan Abstract: Human beings suffer from several infectious agents such as viruses, bacteria, and protozoans. Recently, there has been a great interest in developing biocompatible nanostructures to deal with infectious agents. This study investigated benign ZnCuO nanostructures that were visible-light-responsive due to the resident copper in the lattice. The nanostructures were synthesized through a size-controlled hot-injection process, which was adaptable to the surface ligation processes. The nanostructures were then characterized through transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, diffused reflectance spectroscopy, Rutherford backscattering, and photoluminescence analysis to measure crystallite nature, size, luminescence, composition, and band-gap analyses. Antiprotozoal efficiency of the current nanoparticles revealed the photodynamic killing of Leishmania protozoan, thus acting as efficient metal-based photosensitizers. The crystalline nanoparticles showed good biocompatibility when tested for macrophage toxicity and in hemolysis assays. The study opens a wide avenue for using toxic material in resident nontoxic forms as an effective antiprotozoal treatment. Keywords: zinc oxide, nanoparticles, doping, photodynamic therapy, Leishmania

  20. Enrichment of specific protozoan populations during in situ bioremediation of uranium-contaminated groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, Dawn; Giloteaux, L.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Wrighton, Kelly C.; Wilkins, Michael J.; Thompson, Courtney A.; Roper, Thomas J.; Long, Philip E.; Lovley, Derek

    2013-07-28

    The importance of bacteria in the anaerobic bioremediation of groundwater polluted with organic and/or metal contaminants is well-recognized and in some instances so well understood that modeling of the in situ metabolic activity of the relevant subsurface microorganisms in response to changes in subsurface geochemistry is feasible. However, a potentially significant factor influencing bacterial growth and activity in the subsurface that has not been adequately addressed is protozoan predation of the microorganisms responsible for bioremediation. In field experiments at a uranium-contaminated aquifer located in Rifle, CO, acetate amendments initially promoted the growth of metal-reducing Geobacter species followed by the growth of sulfate-reducers, as previously observed. Analysis of 18S rRNA gene sequences revealed a broad diversity of sequences closely related to known bacteriovorous protozoa in the groundwater prior to the addition of acetate. The bloom of Geobacter species was accompanied by a specific enrichment of sequences most closely related to the amoeboid flagellate, Breviata anathema, which at their peak accounted for over 80% of the sequences recovered. The abundance of Geobacter species declined following the rapid emergence of B. anathema. The subsequent growth of sulfate-reducing Peptococcaceae was accompanied by another specific enrichment of protozoa, but with sequences most similar to diplomonadid flagellates from the family Hexamitidae, which accounted for up to 100% of the sequences recovered during this phase of the bioremediation. These results suggest a prey-predator response with specific protozoa responding to increased availability of preferred prey bacteria. Thus, quantifying the influence of protozoan predation on the growth, activity, and composition of the subsurface bacterial community is essential for predictive modeling of in situ uranium bioremediation strategies.

  1. Immune response in the adipose tissue of lean mice infected with the protozoan parasite Neospora caninum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Luzia; Moreira, João; Melo, Joana; Bezerra, Filipa; Marques, Raquel M; Ferreirinha, Pedro; Correia, Alexandra; Monteiro, Mariana P; Ferreira, Paula G; Vilanova, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The adipose tissue can make important contributions to immune function. Nevertheless, only a limited number of reports have investigated in lean hosts the immune response elicited in this tissue upon infection. Previous studies suggested that the intracellular protozoan Neospora caninum might affect adipose tissue physiology. Therefore, we investigated in mice challenged with this protozoan if immune cell populations within adipose tissue of different anatomical locations could be differently affected. Early in infection, parasites were detected in the adipose tissue and by 7 days of infection increased numbers of macrophages, regulatory T (Treg) cells and T-bet+ cells were observed in gonadal, mesenteric, omental and subcutaneous adipose tissue. Increased expression of interferon-γ was also detected in gonadal adipose tissue of infected mice. Two months after infection, parasite DNA was no longer detected in these tissues, but T helper type 1 (Th1) cell numbers remained above control levels in the infected mice. Moreover, the Th1/Treg cell ratio was higher than that of controls in the mesenteric and subcutaneous adipose tissue. Interestingly, chronically infected mice presented a marked increase of serum leptin, a molecule that plays a role in energy balance regulation as well as in promoting Th1-type immune responses. Altogether, we show that an apicomplexa parasitic infection influences immune cellular composition of adipose tissue throughout the body as well as adipokine production, still noticed at a chronic phase of infection when parasites were already cleared from that particular tissue. This strengthens the emerging view that infections can have long-term consequences for the physiology of adipose tissue. PMID:25581844

  2. Euglenophyceae de ambientes lênticos na planície costeira do Rio Grande do Sul, Sul do Brasil: gêneros Euglena Ehr. e Lepocinclis Perty Euglenophyceae of lentic environments at the coastal plain of Rio Grande do Sul State, South of Brazil: genera Euglena Ehr. and Lepocinclis Perty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Maria Alves-da-Silva

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados 28 táxons específicos e infra-específicos dos gêneros Euglena Ehr. e Lepocinclis Perty como resultado do estudo do fitoplâncton e perifíton em ambientes lênticos (lagoas, açude e banhados da Lagoa do Casamento e ecossistemas associados (30º03'- 30º34'S e 50º25'- 50º47'W e ecossistemas próximos ao Butiazal de Tapes (30º23'- 30º38'S e 51º16'- 51º29'W na planície costeira do Rio Grande do Sul. As coletas abrangeram as estações de outono e primavera de 2003. As áreas úmidas (banhados associadas à Lagoa do Casamento na primavera de 2003 apresentaram maior riqueza específica destes dois gêneros. Lepocinclis salina Fritsch var. salina foi a espécie que se distinguiu quanto a distribuição por ter ocorrido em 41,2% do total de amostras analisadas. São novos registros para o estado do Rio Grande do Sul e país, L. playfairiana Defl. var. playfairiana e L. boseensis Xie, Qiu & Ling.Twenty eight specific and infra-specific taxa of the genera Euglena Ehr. and Lepocinclis Perty are presented as a result of phytoplankton and periphyton study in lentic systems next to Lagoa do Casamento (30º03'- 30º34'S and 50º25'- 50º47'W and Butiazal de Tapes (30º23'- 30º38'S and 51º16'- 51º29'W, coastal zone of Rio Grande do Sul State. Samples were collected in autumn and spring seasons in 2003. The swamps associated to Lagoa do Casamento in spring of 2003 presented more specific richness of these two genera. Lepocinclis salina Fritsch var. salina distinguished by its distribution, occuring in 41,2% of the analized samples. Two taxa are new records for the State and Brazil: L. playfairiana Defl. var. playfairiana and L. boseensis Xie, Qiu & Ling.

  3. Study of Euglenophyta in the Jacuí Delta State Park, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. 1. Euglena Ehr., Lepocinclis Perty Estudo de Euglenophyta no Parque Estadual Delta do Jacuí, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, 1. Euglena Ehr., Lepocinclis Perty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Maria Alves-da-Silva

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the result of the study of pigmented Euglenaceae performed within the area of the Jacuí Delta State Park, located between parallels 29º56' and 30º03'S and meridians 51º12'and 51º18'W, with qualitative samplings at 25 stations, distributed over 8 islands, 8 "sacos" (i.e. small bays, 4 river mouths, 2 stream mouths and 3 channels in December/1993 and January/1994, and from February/1998 to December/1999. One hundred and fifty taxa of the Euglenophyceae were identified in the area. Currently 23 specific and infraspecific taxa of genus Euglena and 12 taxa of Lepocinclis are presented. E. acus Ehr. var. acus, and L. salina Fritsch var. salina were the taxa best represented in the region since they occured in over 40% of the samples studied. E. bonettoi (Tell & Zaloc. Couté & Thérez., L. playfairiana Defl. var. striata Conf. and L. caudata (Cunha Conr. were recorded exclusively for South America; sixteen taxa identified have a cosmopolitan distribution. Ranges of some abiotic variables of the environments in which each taxon occurred in the study area are mentioned.Este trabalho é o resultado do estudo de Euglenaceae pigmentadas realizado na área do Parque Estadual Delta do Jacuí, localizado entre paralelos 29º56' e 30º03'S e os meridianos 51º12'e 51º18'W, com amostragens qualitativas em 25 estações de coletas distribuídas em 8 ilhas, 8 sacos, 6 desembocaduras de rios e 3 canais, em dezembro/1993 e janeiro/1994 e de fevereiro/1998 a dezembro/1999. Foram identificados na área cerca de 150 táxons de Euglenophyceae. São apresentados, neste trabalho, 23 táxons específicos e infra-específicos do gênero Euglena e 12 táxons de Lepocinclis. E. acus Ehr. var. acus e L. salina Fritsch var. salina foram os táxons melhor representados na área por ocorrerem em mais de 40% dos biótopos estudados. E. bonettoi (Tell & Zaloc. Couté & Thérez., L. playfairiana Defl. var. striata Conf. e L. caudata (Cunha Conr. foram

  4. Studies evaluating the applicability of utilizing the same concentration techniques for the detection of protozoan parasites and viruses in water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kfir, R

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available sample volume to about 101. This study shows that concentration techniques utilised for the isolation of enteric viruses can also be applied for the detection of protozoan parasites from water. This procedure allows for co-analysis of both viruses...

  5. Detection of protozoan hosts for Legionella pneumophila in engineered water systems by using a biofilm batch test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valster, R.M.; Wullings, B.A.; Kooij, van der D.

    2010-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila proliferates in aquatic habitats within free-living protozoa, 17 species of which have been identified as hosts by using in vitro experiments. The present study aimed at identifying protozoan hosts for L. pneumophila by using a biofilm batch test (BBT). Samples (600 ml)

  6. Molecular characteristics of an immobilization antigen gene of the fish-parasitic protozoan Ichthyophthirius multifiliis strain ARS-6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, a ciliated protozoan parasite of fish, expresses surface antigens (i-antigens), which react with host antibodies that render them immobile. The nucleotide sequence of an i-antigen gene of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis strain ARS-6 was deduced. The predicted protein of 47...

  7. In vitro activity of essential oils of Lippia sidoides and Lippia gracilis and their major chemical components against Thielaviopsis paradoxa, causal agent of stem bleeding in coconut palms

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    Rejane Rodrigues da Costa e Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils of Lippia sidoides, Lippia gracilis and their main chemical components were investigated for in vitro control of Thielaviopsis paradoxa. Mycelial growth and a number of pathogen conidia were inhibited by the essential oil of L. sidoides at all concentrations tested (0.2; 0.5; 1.0; 3.0 µL mL-1. L. sidoides oil contained 42.33% thymol and 4.56% carvacrol, while L. gracilis oil contained 10% thymol and 41.7% carvacrol. Mycelial growth and conidial production of T. paradoxa were completely inhibited by thymol at a 0.3 µL m-1 concentration. The results suggest that thymol could potentially be used for controlling coconut stem bleeding.

  8. Factors Associated with High Prevalence of Intestinal Protozoan Infections among Patients in Sana'a City, Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyousefi, Naelah A.; Mahdy, Mohammed A. K.; Mahmud, Rohela; Lim, Yvonne A. L.

    2011-01-01

    Background Intestinal protozoan diseases in Yemen are a significant health problem with prevalence ranging from 18% to 27%. The present study is a cross-sectional study aimed at determining the factors associated with the high prevalence of intestinal protozoan infections among patients seeking health care in Sana'a City, the capital of Yemen. Methodology/Principal Findings Stool samples were collected from 503 patients aged between 1 and 80 years old; 219 were males and 284 females. Biodata were collected via pretested standard questionnaire. Faecal samples were processed and examined for (oo)cysts or ova using a wet mount preparation after formal-ether concentration technique. Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected using the Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique. The overall prevalence of intestinal protozoan infections was 30.9%. Infection rates of Giardia duodenalis, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar and Cryptosporidium were 17.7%, 17.1% and 1%, respectively. Other parasites detected included Ascaris lumbricoides (2.4%), Schistosoma mansoni (0.3%), Hymenolepis nana (1.4%) and Enterobius vermicularis (0.4%). Multivariate analysis using forward stepwise logistic regression based on intestinal protozoan infections showed that contact with animals (OR = 1.748, 95% CI = 1.168–2.617) and taking bath less than twice a week (OR = 1.820, 95% CI = 1.192–2.779) were significant risk factors of protozoan infections. Conclusions/Significance This present study indicated that intestinal protozoan infections are still a public health problem in Yemen, with Giardia and Entamoeba infections being most common. Statistical analysis indicated that low personal hygiene and contact with animals were important predictors for intestinal protozoan infections. As highlighted in this study, in order to effectively reduce these infections, a multi-sectoral effort is needed. Preventive measures should include good hygienic practices, good animal husbandry practices, heightened

  9. Fungitoxicidade dos extratos vegetais e do óleo essencial de Lippia gracilis Schauer sobre o fungo Monosporascus cannonballus Pollack e Uecker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Cristina Borges Fernandes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Alecrim da Chapada (Lippia gracilis Schauer é considerada uma planta rica em óleo essencial e possui atividade antimicrobiana comprovada, devido aos monoterpenos fenólicos carvacrol e timol. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito in vitro do óleo essencial e dos extratos etanólicos de raízes e folhas de L. gracilis no controle do fungo Monosporasccus cannonballus, causador do colapso do meloeiro. O extratos foram testados nas concentrações de 2500, 5000 e 7500 ppm e o óleo essencial de L. gracilis foi avaliado nas concentrações 255, 340 e 425 ppm tendo também um controle positivo com o fungicida comercial Captan(r e um negativo apenas com meio BDA (batata, dextrose, ágar. Discos de micélio com 3 mm de diâmetro foram inoculados no centro de placas de Petri e as medições do crescimento micelial do fungo foram realizadas 48 horas após a montagem do experimento. Verificou-se que o óleo essencial de L. gracilis nas três concentrações testadas foi eficiente para o controle do fungo, com percentuais de inibição de 100%, em comparação ao tratamento com o controle negativo (0% que não apresentou inibição. O extrato radicular, nas concentrações de 5000 e 7500 ppm e o extrato foliar na concentração de 7500 ppm também proporcionaram um percentual de inibição de 100%.

  10. The impact of Manjil and Tarik dams (Sefidroud River, southern Caspian Sea basin on morphological traits of Siah Mahi Capoeta gracilis (Pisces: Cyprinidae

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    Adeleh Heidari

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available It has been postulated that the building of the Manjil and Tarik dams on Sefidroud River has led to the body shape variation of Capoeta gracilis in up- and downstream populations due to the isolation. In this study, Geometric morphometric approach was used to explore body shape variations of Capoeta gracilis populations in up- and downstream Manjil and Tarik dams in Sefidroud River from south of the Caspian Sea basin. The shape of 90 individuals from three sampling sites was extracted by recording the 2-D coordinates of 13 landmark points. PCA, CVA, DFA and CA analysis were used to examine shape differences among the populations. The significant differences were found among the shape of the populations and these differences were observed in the snout, the caudal peduncle and head. The present study indicated the body shape differences in the populations of Capoeta gracilis in the Sefidroud River across the Manjil and Tarik dams, probably due to the dam construction showing anthropogenic transformation of rivers influences body shape in an aquatic organism.

  11. Optic chiasm in the species of order Clupeiformes, family Clupeidae: optic chiasm of Spratelloides gracilis shows an opposite laterality to that of Etrumeus teres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogi, Kazue; Misawa, Kazuya; Utsunomiya, Kentaro; Kawada, Yuta; Yamazaki, Toshihisa; Takeuchi, Shigeo; Toyoizumi, Ryuji

    2009-09-01

    In most teleost fishes, the optic nerves decussate completely as they project to the mesencephalic region. Examination of the decussation pattern of 25 species from 11 different orders in Pisces revealed that each species shows a specific chiasmic type. In 11 species out of the 25, laterality of the chiasmic pattern was not determined; in half of the individuals examined, the left optic nerve ran dorsally to the right optic nerve, while in the other half, the right optic nerve was dorsal. In eight other species the optic nerves from both eyes branched into several bundles at the chiasmic point, and intercalated to form a complicated decussation pattern. In the present study we report our findings that Spratelloides gracilis, of the order Clupeiformes, family Clupeidae, shows a particular laterality of decussation: the left optic nerve ran dorsally to the right (n=200/202). In contrast, Etrumeus teres, of the same order and family, had a strong preference of the opposite (complementary) chiasmic pattern to that of S. gracilis (n=59/59), revealing that these two species display opposite left-right optic chiasm patterning. As far as we investigated, other species of Clupeiformes have not shown left-right preference in the decussation pattern. We conclude that the opposite laterality of the optic chiasms of these two closely related species, S. gracilis and E. teres, enables investigation of species-specific laterality in fishes of symmetric shapes.

  12. Ciclo reproductivo de Liolaemus gracilis Bell, 1843 (Iguanidae: Tropidurinae en las dunas costeras de Buenos Aires, Argentina

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    Vega, Laura Estela

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Estudiamos la fenología y edad de madurez reproductiva y el tamaño y la frecuencia de la puesta de una población de Liolaemus gracilis de las dunas costeras de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Examinamos las gónadas de 93 ejemplares coleccionados mensualmente a lo largo de un año en la localidad de Mar del Sur (provincia de Buenos Aires y medimos 11 caracteres morfométricos en 39 adultos en búsqueda de dimorfismo sexual. Las hembras se consideraron maduras si poseían folículos yemados mayores a 2 mm, o huevos oviductales, u oviductos claramente distendidos. En los machos los indicadores de madurez sexual fueron la presencia de testículos agrandados y el estado convoluto de los epidídimos, midiéndose el ancho y largo del testículo izquierdo en cada uno. L. gracilis exhibió un patrón reproductivo estacional con características del tipo parcial de otoño. El tamaño medio de las hembras en actividad reproductiva fue de 48,9 mm ± 3,5 (largo hocico-cloaca (n = 19 y la menor madura sexualmente midió 43,8 mm. El tamaño de la puesta varió de 4 a 6 huevos ( X = 4,75 ± 0,95, n = 4. El macho de menor tamaño con testículos agrandados midió 40,5 mm. (largo hocico-cloaca. Tanto los machos como las hembras estuvieron reproductivamente activos desde comienzos del otoño hasta comienzos del verano. Las hembras producirían una puesta por año entre fines de la primavera y comienzos del verano y las crías nacerían a mediados de esta estación. Encontramos dimorfismo sexual en la mayor distancia entre los miembros anteriores y posteriores de las hembras y en la mayor longitud de la cabeza, tibio-fíbula y pie de los machos. We studied the reproductive phenology, size at maturity, frequency and clutch size of a lizard population of Liolaemus gracilis from coastal sand dunes of Buenos Aires, Argentina. We examined 93 specimens collected monthly throughout a year in the locality of Mar del Sur (Buenos Aires province and measured 11 morphometric

  13. HPLC-DAD analysis, antioxidant potential and anti-urease activity of Asparagus gracilis collected from District Islamabad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Naseer Ali; Khan, Muhammad Rashid; Sattar, Saadia; Ahmad, Bushra; Mirza, Bushra

    2014-09-23

    Asparagus gracilis subspecie of Asparagus capitatus Baker, is described as food and medicine for various ailments. In this study we investigated, its phenolic constituents, in vitro antioxidant potential against various free radicals and anti-urease potential. Asparagus gracilis aerial parts collected from District Islamabad, Pakistan were extracted with crude methanol which was further fractionated into n-hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous fraction. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were estimated for extract and all the derived fractions. Diverse in vitro antioxidants assays such as DPPH, H2O2, •OH, ABTS, β-carotene bleaching assay, superoxide radical, lipid peroxidation, reducing power, and total antioxidant capacity were studied to assess scavenging potential. Antiurease activity of methanol extract and its derived fractions was also investigated. HPLC-DAD analysis of crude methanol extract was performed by using different phenolic standards. Ethyl acetate fraction expressed maximum content of flavonoids (240.6 ± 6.1 mg RE/g dry sample), phenolics (615 ± 13 mg GAE/g dry sample) and best antioxidant potential among different fractions of crude methanol extract. Hydrogen peroxide assay and hydroxyl, supeoxide, nitric oxide free radicals antioxidant assays as well as beta carotene assay showed significant correlation with flavonoid content while hydrogen peroxide, ABTS and lipid peroxidation assay displayed significant correlation with phenolic content. HPLC analysis showed the presence of important phenolics i.e. catechin (4.04 ± 0.02 μg/mg sample), caffeic acid (0.89 ± 0.003 μg/mg sample), rutin (24.58 ± 0.1 μg/mg sample), myricetin (1.13 ± 0.07 μg/mg sample) and quercetin (14.91 ± 0.09 μg/mg sample). Ethyl acetate fraction expressed lowest IC50 in antiurease activity. Correlation analysis of antiurease activity expressed significant correlation with flavonoids (P < 0.004) and phenolics (P < 0.02) proposing multipotent activity of

  14. Comparison of Oone-Stage Free Gracilis Muscle Flap With Two-Stage Method in Chronic Facial Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Ghaffari

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Background:Rehabilitation of facial paralysis is one of the greatest challenges faced by reconstructive surgeons today. The traditional method for treatment of patients with facial palsy is the two-stage free gracilis flap which has a long latency period of between the two stages of surgery.Methods: In this paper, we prospectively compared the results of the one-stage gracilis flap method with the two -stage technique.Results:Out of 41 patients with facial palsy refered to Hazrat-e-Fatemeh Hospital 31 were selected from whom 22 underwent two- stage and 9 one-stage method treatment. The two groups were identical according to age,sex,intensity of illness, duration, and chronicity of illness. Mean duration of follow up was 37 months. There was no significant relation between the two groups regarding the symmetry of face in repose, smiling, whistling and nasolabial folds. Frequency of complications was equal in both groups. The postoperative surgeons and patients' satisfaction were equal in both groups. There was no significant difference between the mean excursion of muscle flap in one-stage (9.8 mm and two-stage groups (8.9 mm. The ratio of contraction of the affected side compared to the normal side was similar in both groups. The mean time of the initial contraction of the muscle flap in the one-stage group (5.5 months had a significant difference (P=0.001 with the two-stage one (6.5 months.The study revealed a highly significant difference (P=0.0001 between the mean waiting period from the first operation to the beginning of muscle contraction in one-stage(5.5 monthsand two-stage groups(17.1 months.Conclusion:It seems that the results and complication of the two methods are the same,but the one-stage method requires less time for facial reanimation,and is costeffective because it saves time and decreases hospitalization costs.

  15. Factors related to occurrence and distribution of selected bacterial and protozoan pathogens in Pennsylvania streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duris, Joseph W.; Reif, Andrew G.; Donna A. Crouse,; Isaacs, Natasha M.

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence and distribution of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and bacterial and protozoan pathogens are controlled by diverse factors. To investigate these factors in Pennsylvania streams, 217 samples were collected quarterly from a 27-station water-quality monitoring network from July 2007 through August 2009. Samples were analyzed for concentrations of Escherichia coli (EC) and enterococci (ENT) indicator bacteria, concentrations of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts, and the presence of four genes related to pathogenic types of EC (eaeA, stx2, stx1, rfbO157) plus three microbial source tracking (MST) gene markers that are also associated with pathogenic ENT and EC (esp, LTIIa, STII). Water samples were concurrently analyzed for basic water chemistry, physical measures of water quality, nutrients, metals, and a suite of 79 organic compounds that included hormones, pharmaceuticals, and antibiotics. For each sample location, stream discharge was measured by using standardized methods at the time of sample collection, and ancillary sample site information, such as land use and geological characteristics, was compiled. Samples exceeding recreational water quality criteria were more likely to contain all measured pathogen genes but notCryptosporidium or Giardia (oo)cysts. FIB and Giardia density and frequency of eaeA gene occurrence were significantly related to season. When discharge at a sampling location was high (>75th percentile of daily mean discharge), there were greater densities of FIB and Giardia, and the stx2, rfbO157, STII, and esp genes were found more frequently than at other discharge conditions. Giardia occurrence was likely related to nonpoint sources, which are highly influential during seasonal overland transport resulting from snowmelt and elevated precipitation in late winter and spring in Pennsylvania. When MST markers of human, swine, or bovine origin were present, samples more frequently carried the eaeA, stx2

  16. A Comparative Study of the Common Protozoan Parasites of Clarias gariepinus from the Wild and Cultured Environments in Benue State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omeji, S.; Solomon, S. G.; Idoga, E. S.

    2011-01-01

    A total of one hundred and twenty Clarias gariepinus comprising 30 dead and 30 live fishes were examined for protozoan parasites infestation, sixty each from the wild and a pond (cultured environment) over a period of six months. Ichthyophthirius multifiliis was the most common protozoan parasites found in C. gariepinus from the wild (River Benue) and cultured (pond) environments. These protozoan parasites constitute 37.08% of the total parasites encountered for fishes in the pond and 42.51% of fishes in the wild. Among the body parts of the sampled fishes from the pond, the gills had the highest parasite load (38.86%). Also, the gills had the highest parasite load (40.54%) among the body parts of the fishes sampled from the wild. Fishes not infested with any protozoan parasites from the pond constituted 36.70% of the total fish sampled. On the other hand, fishes not infested with any protozoan parasites from the wild constituted 31.65% of the total fish sampled. Female fishes had more protozoan parasites than the male fishes. Bigger fishes of total length (25–48 cm) had more parasite load than the smaller ones (19–24 cm). Also, fishes between 150–750 g had more parasite load than the smaller ones of less than 150 g. Protozoan parasite load of fish from the cultured environment (pond) did not differ significantly (P < 0.05) from those from River Benue (wild). PMID:22028952

  17. A Comparative Study of the Common Protozoan Parasites of Clarias gariepinus from the Wild and Cultured Environments in Benue State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Omeji

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of one hundred and twenty Clarias gariepinus comprising 30 dead and 30 live fishes were examined for protozoan parasites infestation, sixty each from the wild and a pond (cultured environment over a period of six months. Ichthyophthirius multifiliis was the most common protozoan parasites found in C. gariepinus from the wild (River Benue and cultured (pond environments. These protozoan parasites constitute 37.08% of the total parasites encountered for fishes in the pond and 42.51% of fishes in the wild. Among the body parts of the sampled fishes from the pond, the gills had the highest parasite load (38.86%. Also, the gills had the highest parasite load (40.54% among the body parts of the fishes sampled from the wild. Fishes not infested with any protozoan parasites from the pond constituted 36.70% of the total fish sampled. On the other hand, fishes not infested with any protozoan parasites from the wild constituted 31.65% of the total fish sampled. Female fishes had more protozoan parasites than the male fishes. Bigger fishes of total length (25–48 cm had more parasite load than the smaller ones (19–24 cm. Also, fishes between 150–750 g had more parasite load than the smaller ones of less than 150 g. Protozoan parasite load of fish from the cultured environment (pond did not differ significantly (P<0.05 from those from River Benue (wild.

  18. Protozoan Bacterivory and Escherichia coli Survival in Drinking Water Distribution Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibille, I.; Sime-Ngando, T.; Mathieu, L.; Block, J. C.

    1998-01-01

    The development of bacterial communities in drinking water distribution systems leads to a food chain which supports the growth of macroorganisms incompatible with water quality requirements and esthetics. Nevertheless, very few studies have examined the microbial communities in drinking water distribution systems and their trophic relationships. This study was done to quantify the microbial communities (especially bacteria and protozoa) and obtain direct and indirect proof of protozoan feeding on bacteria in two distribution networks, one of GAC water (i.e., water filtered on granular activated carbon) and the other of nanofiltered water. The nanofiltered water-supplied network contained no organisms larger than bacteria, either in the water phase (on average, 5 × 107 bacterial cells liter−1) or in the biofilm (on average, 7 × 106 bacterial cells cm−2). No protozoa were detected in the whole nanofiltered water-supplied network (water plus biofilm). In contrast, the GAC water-supplied network contained bacteria (on average, 3 × 108 cells liter−1 in water and 4 × 107 cells cm−2 in biofilm) and protozoa (on average, 105 cells liter−1 in water and 103 cells cm−2 in biofilm). The water contained mostly flagellates (93%), ciliates (1.8%), thecamoebae (1.6%), and naked amoebae (1.1%). The biofilm had only ciliates (52%) and thecamoebae (48%). Only the ciliates at the solid-liquid interface of the GAC water-supplied network had a measurable grazing activity in laboratory test (estimated at 2 bacteria per ciliate per h). Protozoan ingestion of bacteria was indirectly shown by adding Escherichia coli to the experimental distribution systems. Unexpectedly, E. coli was lost from the GAC water-supplied network more rapidly than from the nanofiltered water-supplied network, perhaps because of the grazing activity of protozoa in GAC water but not in nanofiltered water. Thus, the GAC water-supplied network contained a functional ecosystem with well-established and

  19. Cranial pneumatization and auditory perceptions of the oviraptorid dinosaur Conchoraptor gracilis (Theropoda, Maniraptora) from the Late Cretaceous of Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanah, D.; Raghunath, S.; Mee, D. J.; Rösgen, T.; Jacobs, P. A.

    2007-09-01

    The distribution of air-filled structures in the craniofacial and neurocranial bones of the oviraptorid ZPAL MgD-I/95, discovered at the Hermiin Tsav locality, Mongolia, is restored. Based on the complete obliteration of most of the cranial sutures, the specimen is identified as an adult individual of Conchoraptor gracilis Barsbold 1986. Except for the orbitosphenoids and epipterygoids, the preserved bones of the neurocranium are hollow. Three types of tympanic recess are present in Conchoraptor, a characteristic shared with troodontids, dromaeosaurids, and avian theropods. The contralateral middle ear cavities are interconnected by the supraencephalic pathway that passes through the dorsal tympanic recesses, the posterodorsal prootic sinuses and the parietal sinus. The spatial arrangements of the middle ear cavity and a derived neurocranial pneumatic system in Conchoraptor indicate enhancements of acoustic perception in the lower-frequency registers and of auditory directionality. We further speculate that this improvement of binaural hearing could be explained as an adaptation required for accurate detection of prey and/or predators under conditions of low illumination. The other potentially pneumatic structures of the Conchoraptor cranium include (1) recessus-like irregularities on the dorsal surface of the nasal and frontal bones (a putative oviraptorid synapomorphy; pos); (2) a subotic recess; (3) a sub-condylar recess; and (4) a posterior condylar recess (pos).

  20. Effects of chronic exposure in populations of Koeleria gracilis Pers. from the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site, Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geras'kin, S A; Oudalova, A A; Dikarev, V G; Dikareva, N S; Mozolin, E M; Hinton, T; Spiridonov, S I; Copplestone, D; Garnier-Laplace, J

    2012-02-01

    Morphological and cytogenetic abnormalities were examined in crested hairgrass (Koeleria gracilis Pers.) populations inhabiting the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site (STS), Kazakhstan. Sampling of biological material and soil was carried out during 3 years (2005-2007) at 4 sites within the STS. Activity concentrations of 10 radionuclides and 8 heavy metals content in soils were measured. Doses absorbed by plants were estimated and varied, depending on the plot, from 4 up to 265 mGy/y. The frequency of cytogenetic alterations in apical meristem of germinated seeds from the highly contaminated plot significantly exceeded the level observed at other plots with lower levels of radioactive contamination during all three years of the study. A significant excess of chromosome aberrations, typical for radiation exposure, as well as a dependence of the frequency of these types of mutations on dose absorbed by plants were revealed. The results indicate the role radioactive contamination plays in the occurrence of cytogenetic effects. However, no radiation-dependent morphological alterations were detected in the progeny of the exposed populations. Given that the crested hairgrass populations have occupied the radioactively contaminated plots for some 50 years, adaptation to the radiation stress was not evident. The findings obtained were in agreement with the benchmark values proposed in the FASSET and ERICA projects to restrict radiation impacts on biota. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Chemical mechanism of D-amino acid oxidase from Rhodotorula gracilis: pH dependence of kinetic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramón, F; Castillón, M; De La Mata, I; Acebal, C

    1998-01-01

    The variation of kinetic parameters of d-amino acid oxidase from Rhodotorula gracilis with pH was used to gain information about the chemical mechanism of the oxidation of D-amino acids catalysed by this flavoenzyme. d-Alanine was the substrate used. The pH dependence of Vmax and Vmax/Km for alanine as substrate showed that a group with a pK value of 6.26-7.95 (pK1) must be unprotonated and a group with a pK of 10.8-9.90 (pK2) must be protonated for activity. The lower pK value corresponded to a group on the enzyme involved in catalysis and whose protonation state was not important for binding. The higher pK value was assumed to be the amino group of the substrate. Profiles of pKi for D-aspartate as competitive inhibitor showed that binding is prevented when a group on the enzyme with a pK value of 8.4 becomes unprotonated; this basic group was not detected in Vmax/Km profiles suggesting its involvement in binding of the beta-carboxylic group of the inhibitor. PMID:9461524

  2. Cloning and bacterial expression of adenosine-5'-triphosphate sulfurylase from the enteric protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, T; Arase, T; Shigeta, Y; Asai, T; Leustek, T; Takeuchi, T

    1998-12-08

    A gene encoding adenosine-5'-triphosphate sulfurylase (AS) was cloned from the enteric protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica by polymerase chain reaction using degenerate oligonucleotide primers corresponding to conserved regions of the protein from a variety of organisms. The deduced amino acid sequence of E. histolytica AS revealed a calculated molecular mass of 47925 Da and an unusual basic pI of 9.38. The amebic protein sequence showed 23-48% identities with AS from bacteria, yeasts, fungi, plants, and animals with the highest identities being to Synechocystis sp. and Bacillus subtilis (48 and 44%, respectively). Four conserved blocks including putative sulfate-binding and phosphate-binding regions were highly conserved in the E. histolytica AS. The upstream region of the AS gene contained three conserved elements reported for other E. histolytica genes. A recombinant E. histolytica AS revealed enzymatic activity, measured in both the forward and reverse directions. Expression of the E. histolytica AS complemented cysteine auxotrophy of the AS-deficient Escherichia coli strains. Genomic hybridization revealed that the AS gene exists as a single copy gene. In the literature, this is the first description of an AS gene in Protozoa.

  3. The first suicides: a legacy inherited by parasitic protozoans from prokaryote ancestors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Brown, Emilie; Hurd, Hilary

    2013-04-18

    It is more than 25 years since the first report that a protozoan parasite could die by a process resulting in a morphological phenotype akin to apoptosis. Since then these phenotypes have been observed in many unicellular parasites, including trypanosomatids and apicomplexans, and experimental evidence concerning the molecular pathways that are involved is growing. These observations support the view that this form of programmed cell death is an ancient one that predates the evolution of multicellularity. Here we review various hypotheses that attempt to explain the origin of apoptosis, and look for support for these hypotheses amongst the parasitic protists as, with the exception of yeast, most of the work on death mechanisms in unicellular organisms has focussed on them. We examine the role that addiction modules may have played in the original eukaryote cell and the part played by mitochondria in the execution of present day cells, looking for examples from Leishmania spp. Trypanosoma spp. and Plasmodium spp. In addition, the expanding knowledge of proteases, nucleases and other molecules acting in protist execution pathways has enabled comparisons to be made with extant Archaea and bacteria and with biochemical pathways that evolved in metazoans. These comparisons lend support to the original sin hypothesis but also suggest that present-day death pathways may have had multifaceted beginnings.

  4. Community of protozoans and metazoans parasitizing Auchenipterus nuchalis (Auchenipteridae, a catfish from the Brazilian Amazon

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    Marcos Tavares Dias

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the first study on parasite diversity in Auchenipterus nuchalis Spix & Agassiz, 1829 (Auchenipteridae. In 31 fish caught in a tributary of the Amazon River, 10,708 parasites were collected, such as Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Piscinoodinium pilullare, Cosmetocleithrum striatuli, metacercariae of Posthodiplostomum sp, and larvae and adults of Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus inopinatus. These parasite species showed aggregated dispersion, except for C. striatuli, which had a uniform dispersion. The component community of parasites showed a low Brillouin diversity (0.67 ± 0.27, low species richness (3.5 ± 0.8 and low evenness (0.43 ± 0.17, and it was characterized by the presence of species with high prevalence and abundance. Protozoan species were the prevalent parasites, which may be a consequence of the host’s mode of life, while the low presence of endoparasites in A. nuchalis suggests that this fish may occupy an intermediate trophic level in the food web. These data represent the first record of such parasite species for this host.

  5. An Agar-Based Method for Plating Marine Protozoan Parasites of the Genus Perkinsus.

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    Emma R Cold

    Full Text Available The genus Perkinsus includes protozoan parasites of mollusks responsible for losses in the aquaculture industry and hampering the recovery of natural shellfish beds worldwide, and they are a key taxon for understanding intracellular parasitism adaptations. The ability to propagate the parasite in liquid media, in the absence of the host, has been crucial for improving understanding of its biology; however, alternative techniques to grow the parasite are needed to explore other basic aspects of the Perkinsus spp. biology. We optimized a DME: Ham's F12-5% FBS- containing solid agar medium for plating Perkinsus marinus. This solid medium supported trophozoite propagation both by binary fission and schizogony. Colonies were visible to the naked eye 17 days after plating. We tested the suitability of this method for several applications, including the following: 1 Subcloning P. marinus isolates: single discrete P. marinus colonies were obtained from DME: Ham's F12-5% FBS- 0.75% agar plates, which could be further propagated in liquid medium; 2 Subcloning engineered Perkinsus mediterraneus MOE[MOE]: GFP by streaking cultures on plates; 3 Chemical susceptibility: Infusing the DME: Ham's F12-5% FBS- 0.75% agar plates with triclosan resulted in inhibition of the parasite propagation in a dose-dependent manner. Altogether, our plating method has the potential for becoming a key tool for investigating diverse aspects of Perkinsus spp. biology, developing new molecular tools, and for biotechnological applications.

  6. Protozoan and metazoan parasites of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus cultured in Brazil

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    Wanderson Pantoja MF

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study describes the parasitic fauna and relative condition factor (Kn in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus L. (Cichlidae from fish farms in the State of Amapá. Material and methods. 123 fish from four fish farms in the state of Amapá, Brazil were necropsied for parasitological and Kn analysis. Results. 64.2% of the examined fish, had the gills infected with Cichlidogyrus tilapiae Paperna, 1960 (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae; Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876 (Protozoa: Ciliophora, Trichodina Ehrenberg, 1830 and Paratrichodina africana Kazubski & El-Tantawy, 1986 (Protozoa: Trichodinidae. The highest prevalence found corresponded to Monogenoidea C. tilapiae while the lowest corresponded to Trichodinidae. However, I. multifiliis was the parasite that presented the greatest intensity and abundance. The differences found in the infection rates of the different fish farms due to causes further discussed. The parasitism did not influence the relative condition factor (Kn of fish. This was the first record of P. africana in Brazil and occurred in the Eastern Amazon. Conclusions. In Brazil, Lamproglena sp. is an emerging parasite in the Southern and Southeastern regions, but this crustacean was not found in the Nile tilapia in the State of Amapá. The parasitic infections in Nile tilapia farmed in Brazil are caused by protozoan, monogenoidea, crustacea and digenea species, and the regional differences on their prevalence and intensity rates are discussed in this study.

  7. Molecular characterization of 5S ribosomal RNA genes and transcripts in the protozoan parasite Leishmania major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Campos, Rodrigo; Florencio-Martínez, Luis E; Nepomuceno-Mejía, Tomás; Rojas-Sánchez, Saúl; Vélez-Ramírez, Daniel E; Padilla-Mejía, Norma E; Figueroa-Angulo, Elisa; Manning-Cela, Rebeca; Martínez-Calvillo, Santiago

    2016-12-01

    Eukaryotic 5S rRNA, synthesized by RNA polymerase III (Pol III), is an essential component of the large ribosomal subunit. Most organisms contain hundreds of 5S rRNA genes organized into tandem arrays. However, the genome of the protozoan parasite Leishmania major contains only 11 copies of the 5S rRNA gene, which are interspersed and associated with other Pol III-transcribed genes. Here we report that, in general, the number and order of the 5S rRNA genes is conserved between different species of Leishmania. While in most organisms 5S rRNA genes are normally associated with the nucleolus, combined fluorescent in situ hybridization and indirect immunofluorescence experiments showed that 5S rRNA genes are mainly located at the nuclear periphery in L. major. Similarly, the tandemly repeated 5S rRNA genes in Trypanosoma cruzi are dispersed throughout the nucleus. In contrast, 5S rRNA transcripts in L. major were localized within the nucleolus, and scattered throughout the cytoplasm, where mature ribosomes are located. Unlike other rRNA species, stable antisense RNA complementary to 5S rRNA is not detected in L. major.

  8. Survey on the Ability of Wolbachia to Control Human Viral, Protozoan, and Filarial Disease Pathogens

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    Garedaghi Yagoob

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Most human filarial nematode parasites and arthropods are hosts for a bacterial endosymbiont, Wolbachia. In filariasis, Wolbachia are required for normal development, fertility, and survival. However, in arthropods, Wolbachia are largely parasitic and can influence development and reproduction, but are generally not required for host survival. Materials and Methods: Due to their obligate nature in filarial parasites, Wolbachia have been a target for drug discovery initiatives using several approaches including diversity and focused library screening and genomic sequence analysis. Results: In vitro and in vivo anti-Wolbachia antibiotic treatments have been shown to have adulticidal activity, a long sought goal of filarial parasite drug discovery. In mosquitoes, it has been shown that the presence of Wolbachia can inhibit the transmission of certain viruses, such as dengue, chikungunya, yellow fever, West Nile, as well as the infectivity of the malaria-causing protozoan, Plasmodium and filarial nematodes. Conclusion: Wolbachia can cause a form of conditional sterility that can be used to suppress populations of mosquitoes and additional medically important insects. Thus, Wolbachia, a pandemic endosymbiont, offers great potential for elimination of a wide-variety of devastating human diseases.

  9. Global Distribution, Public Health and Clinical Impact of the Protozoan Pathogen Cryptosporidium

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    Lorenza Putignani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium spp. are coccidians, oocysts-forming apicomplexan protozoa, which complete their life cycle both in humans and animals, through zoonotic and anthroponotic transmission, causing cryptosporidiosis. The global burden of this disease is still underascertained, due to a conundrum transmission modality, only partially unveiled, and on a plethora of detection systems still inadequate or only partially applied for worldwide surveillance. In children, cryptosporidiosis encumber is even less recorded and often misidentified due to physiological reasons such as early-age unpaired immunological response. Furthermore, malnutrition in underdeveloped countries or clinical underestimation of protozoan etiology in developed countries contribute to the underestimation of the worldwide burden. Principal key indicators of the parasite distribution were associated to environmental (e.g., geographic and temporal clusters, etc. and host determinants of the infection (e.g., age, immunological status, travels, community behaviours. The distribution was geographically mapped to provide an updated picture of the global parasite ecosystems. The present paper aims to provide, by a critical analysis of existing literature, a link between observational epidemiological records and new insights on public health, and diagnostic and clinical impact of cryptosporidiosis.

  10. Epidemiology and geographical distribution of enteric protozoan infections in Sydney, Australia

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    Stephanie Fletcher

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Enteric protozoa are associated with diarrhoeal illnesses in humans; however there are no recent studies on their epidemiology and geographical distribution in Australia. This study describes the epidemiology of enteric protozoa in the state of New South Wales and incorporates spatial analysis to describe their distribution. Design and methods. Laboratory and clinical records from four public hospitals in Sydney for 910 patients, who tested positive for enteric protozoa over the period January 2007-December 2010, were identified, examined and analysed. We selected 580 cases which had residence post code data available, enabling us to examine the geographic distribution of patients, and reviewed the clinical data of 252 patients to examine possible links between protozoa, demographic and clinical features. Results. Frequently detected protozoa were Blastocystis spp. (57%, Giardia intestinalis (27% and Dientamoeba fragilis (12%. The age distribution showed that the prevalence of protozoa decreased with age up to 24 years but increasing with age from 25 years onwards. The geographic provenance of the patients indicates that the majority of cases of Blastocystis (53.1% are clustered in and around the Sydney City Business District, while pockets of giardiasis were identified in regional/rural areas. The distribution of cases suggests higher risk of protozoan infection may exist for some communities. Conclusions. These findings provide useful information for policy makers to design and tailor interventions to target high risk communities. Follow-up investigation into the risk factors for giardiasis in regional/rural area is needed.

  11. Bax function in the absence of mitochondria in the primitive protozoan Giardia lamblia.

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    Adrian B Hehl

    Full Text Available Bax-induced permeabilization of the mitochondrial outer membrane and release of cytochrome c are key events in apoptosis. Although Bax can compromise mitochondria in primitive unicellular organisms that lack a classical apoptotic machinery, it is still unclear if Bax alone is sufficient for this, or whether additional mitochondrial components are required. The protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia is one of the earliest branching eukaryotes and harbors highly degenerated mitochondrial remnant organelles (mitosomes that lack a genome. Here we tested whether human Bax expressed in Giardia can be used to ablate mitosomes. We demonstrate that these organelles are neither targeted, nor compromised, by Bax. However, specialized compartments of the regulated secretory pathway are completely ablated by Bax. As a consequence, maturing cyst wall proteins that are sorted into these organelles are released into the cytoplasm, causing a developmental arrest and cell death. Interestingly, this ectopic cargo release is dependent on the carboxy-terminal 22 amino acids of Bax, and can be prevented by the Bax-inhibiting peptide Ku70. A C-terminally truncated Bax variant still localizes to secretory organelles, but is unable to permeabilize these membranes, uncoupling membrane targeting and cargo release. Even though mitosomes are too diverged to be recognized by Bax, off-target membrane permeabilization appears to be conserved and leads to cell death completely independently of mitochondria.

  12. Seroprevalence rates of antibodies againstLeishmania infantum and other protozoan and rickettsial parasites in dogs

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    Silvana de Cássia Paulan

    Full Text Available Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL is caused by the protozoan Leishmania infantum, which infects dogs and humans in many regions of Brazil. The present study involved an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT to analyze L. infantum,Ehrlichia spp., Babesia canis,Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninuminfection rates in serum samples from 93 dogs in a rural settlement in Ilha Solteira, SP, Brazil. The seroprevalence rates of anti-L. infantum, anti-Ehrlichia, anti-B. canis, anti-T. gondii and anti-N. caninum antibodies were 37.6%, 75.3%, 72%, 47.3% and 6.4%, respectively. In addition to IFAT, direct microscopic examination of popliteal lymph node aspirates revealed 26.9% of CVL positive dogs. Serological tests revealed that 17.2% of the dogs were seropositive for a single parasite, 29% for two parasites, 33% for three, 16.1% for four, and 1.1% for five parasites, while 3.2% were seronegative for five parasites. The presence of antibodies against these parasites in serum samples from dogs confirmed their exposure to these parasites in this rural area. Because of the potential zoonotic risk of these diseases, mainly leishmaniasis, ehrlichiosis and toxoplasmosis, special attention should focus on programs for the improvement of diagnostic assays and control measures against these parasites.

  13. Protozoan Bacterivory in the Ice and the Water Column of a Cold Temperate Lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sime-Ngando; Demers; Juniper

    1999-02-01

    > Abstract Bacterial abundance and bacterivorous protist abundance and activity were examined in ice-brine and water column communities of a cold temperate Japanese lagoon (Saroma-Ko Lagoon, Hokkaido, 44 degreesN, 144 degreesE), during the late winter phase of ice community development (February-March 1992). Bacterial abundance averaged 6 and 1 x 10(5) cells ml-1 in the ice-brine and plankton samples, respectively, and generally decreased during the sampling period. Bacterivorous protists, identified based on direct observation of short-term (Protist abundance averaged 4 x 10(3) and 8.1 cells ml-1 in the ice-brine and 0.3 x 10(3) and 1.2 cells ml-1 in the plankton, for flagellates and ciliates, respectively. In contrast to bacteria, the abundance of protists generally increased throughout the sampling period, indicating predator-prey interactions. Protistan bacterivory, measured from the rate of FLB disappearance over 24 h, averaged 36% (ice) and 24% (plankton) of bacterial standing stock and exhibited the same seasonal pattern as for protist abundance. The calculated specific clearance (range, 2-67 nl protozoa-1 h-1) and ingestion (protists" on nonbacterial food items were also provided. Although alternative sources of bacterial loss are likely to be of importance, this study provides evidence for the potential of protozoan assemblages as bacterial grazers in both sea ice-brine biota and water column at the southern limit of sea ice in the northern hemisphere.

  14. Role of the Ubiquitin-Proteasome Systems in the Biology and Virulence of Protozoan Parasites

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    Christian Muñoz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In eukaryotic cells, proteasomes perform crucial roles in many cellular pathways by degrading proteins to enforce quality control and regulate many cellular processes such as cell cycle progression, signal transduction, cell death, immune responses, metabolism, protein-quality control, and development. The catalytic heart of these complexes, the 20S proteasome, is highly conserved in bacteria, yeast, and humans. However, until a few years ago, the role of proteasomes in parasite biology was completely unknown. Here, we summarize findings about the role of proteasomes in protozoan parasites biology and virulence. Several reports have confirmed the role of proteasomes in parasite biological processes such as cell differentiation, cell cycle, proliferation, and encystation. Proliferation and cell differentiation are key steps in host colonization. Considering the importance of proteasomes in both processes in many different parasites such as Trypanosoma, Leishmania, Toxoplasma, and Entamoeba, parasite proteasomes might serve as virulence factors. Several pieces of evidence strongly suggest that the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is also a viable parasitic therapeutic target. Research in recent years has shown that the proteasome is a valid drug target for sleeping sickness and malaria. Then, proteasomes are a key organelle in parasite biology and virulence and appear to be an attractive new chemotherapeutic target.

  15. Assembly-history dynamics of a pitcher-plant protozoan community in experimental microcosms.

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    Kohmei Kadowaki

    Full Text Available History drives community assembly through differences both in density (density effects and in the sequence in which species arrive (sequence effects. Density effects arise from predictable population dynamics, which are free of history, but sequence effects are due to a density-free mechanism, arising solely from the order and timing of immigration events. Few studies have determined how components of immigration history (timing, number of individuals, frequency alter local dynamics to determine community assembly, beyond addressing when immigration history produces historically contingent assembly.We varied density and sequence effects independently in a two-way factorial design to follow community assembly in a three-species aquatic protozoan community. A superior competitor, Colpoda steinii, mediated alternative community states; early arrival or high introduction density allowed this species to outcompete or suppress the other competitors (Poterioochromonas malhamensis and Eimeriidae gen. sp.. Multivariate analysis showed that density effects caused greater variation in community states, whereas sequence effects altered the mean community composition.A significant interaction between density and sequence effects suggests that we should refine our understanding of priority effects. These results highlight a practical need to understand not only the "ingredients" (species in ecological communities but their "recipes" as well.

  16. Metazoan-protozoan parasite co-infections and host body weight in St Kilda Soay sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, B H; Tempest, L J; Pilkington, J G; Pemberton, J M

    2008-04-01

    For hundreds of years, the unmanaged Soay sheep population on St Kilda has survived despite enduring presumably deleterious co-infections of helminth, protozoan and arthropod parasites and intermittent periods of starvation. Important parasite taxa in young Soay sheep are strongyles (Trichostrongylus axei, Trichostrongylus vitrinus and Teladorsagia circumcincta), coccidia (11 Eimeria species) and keds (Melophagus ovinus) and in older animals, Teladorsagia circumcincta. In this research, associations between the intensity of different parasite taxa were investigated. Secondly, the intensities of different parasite taxa were tested for associations with variation in host weight, which is itself a determinant of over-winter survival in the host population. In lambs, the intensity of strongyle eggs was positively correlated with that of Nematodirus spp. eggs, while in yearlings and adults strongyle eggs and coccidia oocysts were positively correlated. In lambs and yearlings, of the parasite taxa tested, only strongyle eggs were significantly and negatively associated with host weight. However, in adult hosts, strongyles and coccidia were independently and negatively associated with host weight. These results are consistent with the idea that strongyles and coccidia are exerting independent selection on Soay sheep.

  17. Faecal and protozoan parasite contamination of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) cultivated in urban wastewater in Phnom Penh, Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anh, Vuong Tuan; Tram, Nguyen Thuy; Klank, Lise Tønner

    2007-01-01

    Objective To identify the level of contamination with thermotolerant coliforms (ThC), intestinal helminth eggs and protozoan parasites in water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) cultivated in a wastewater-fed lake in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Methods The investigation was carried out from July 2004 to May...... into a stream. Water spinach samples were harvested at each of the three locations with and without wastewater contact according to the normal practices of farmers, and analysed for ThC, protozoan parasites (Giardia, Cryptosporidium and Cyclospora), and helminth eggs (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichura...... and hookworm) using standard methods. Wastewater samples were also collected at each of the three locations and analysed for ThC and helminth eggs. Results High concentrations of ThC (approximately 10(5)-10(7)/g) were found in water spinach samples. ThC mean counts did not differ significantly, neither between...

  18. Incidence of adult brain cancers is higher in countries where the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii is common

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Frédéric; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Brodeur, Jacques; Elguero, Eric; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel; Missé, Dorothée

    2011-01-01

    We explored associations between the common protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii and brain cancers in human populations. We predicted that T. gondii could increase the risk of brain cancer because it is a long-lived parasite that encysts in the brain, where it provokes inflammation and inhibits apoptosis. We used a medical geography approach based on the national incidence of brain cancers and seroprevalence of T. gondii. We corrected reports of incidence for national gross domestic product b...

  19. Extra and intracelular activities of carbonic anhydrase of the marine microalga Tetraselmis gracilis (Chlorophyta Atividade extra e intracelular da Anidrase Carbônica na microalga marinha Tetraselmis gracilis (Chlorophyta

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    Marilda Rigobello-Masini

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The activities of extra and intracellular carbonic anhydrases (CA were studied in the microalgae Tetraselmis gracilis (Kylin Butcher (Chlorophyta, Prasinophyceae growing in laboratory cultivation. During ten days of batch cultivation, daily determinations of pH, cell number, enzymatic activity, and total dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC, as well as its main species, CO2 and HCO3-, were performed. Enzymatic activity increased as the growing cell population depleted inorganic carbon from the medium. Carbon dioxide concentration decreased quickly, especially in the third day of cultivation, when a significant increase of the intracellular enzymatic activity was observed. Bicarbonate concentration had its largest decrease in the cultivation medium in the fourth day, when the activity of the extracellular enzyme had its largest increase, suggesting its use by the alga through CA activity. After the fourth cultivation day, half of the cultures were aerated with CO2-free atmospheric air, which caused an increase in the total and external activity of the enzyme, although, in this condition, the stationary growth phase began earlier than in cultures aerated with atmospheric air. The pH of the media was measured daily, increasing from the first to the fourth day, and remaining almost constant until the end of the cultivation. Algal material transferred to the dark lost all enzymatic activity.As atividades da Anidrase Carbônica (AC extra e intracelular foram estudadas na microalga marinha Tetraselmis gracilis (Kylin Butcher (Chlorophyta, Prasinophyceae crescendo em cultivos laboratoriais. Durante dez dias de cultivo, determinações diárias do pH, número de células, atividades enzimáticas, carbono inorgânico total dissolvido (CID e suas principais espécies CO2 e HCO3- foram feitas. A atividade enzimática aumentou na medida em que a população celular em crescimento retirava carbono inorgânico do meio de cultivo. A concentração de dióxido de

  20. Synergistic Interactions within a Multispecies Biofilm Enhance Individual Species Protection against Grazing by a Pelagic Protozoan

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    Prem K. Raghupathi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofilm formation has been shown to confer protection against grazing, but little information is available on the effect of grazing on biofilm formation and protection in multispecies consortia. With most biofilms in nature being composed of multiple bacterial species, the interactions and dynamics of a multispecies bacterial biofilm subject to grazing by a pelagic protozoan predator were investigated. To this end, a mono and multispecies biofilms of four bacterial soil isolates, namely Xanthomonas retroflexus, Stenotrophomonas rhizophila, Microbacterium oxydans and Paenibacillus amylolyticus, were constructed and subjected to grazing by the ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis. In monocultures, grazing strongly reduced planktonic cell numbers in P. amylolyticus and S. rhizophila and also X. retroflexus. At the same time, cell numbers in the underlying biofilms increased in S. rhizophila and X. retroflexus, but not in P. amylolyticus. This may be due to the fact that while grazing enhanced biofilm formation in the former two species, no biofilm was formed by P. amylolyticus in monoculture, either with or without grazing. In four-species biofilms, biofilm formation was higher than in the best monoculture, a strong biodiversity effect that was even more pronounced in the presence of grazing. While cell numbers of X. retroflexus, S. rhizophila, and P. amylolyticus in the planktonic fraction were greatly reduced in the presence of grazers, cell numbers of all three species strongly increased in the biofilm. Our results show that synergistic interactions between the four-species were important to induce biofilm formation, and suggest that bacterial members that produce more biofilm when exposed to the grazer not only protect themselves but also supported other members which are sensitive to grazing, thereby providing a “shared grazing protection” within the four-species biofilm model. Hence, complex interactions shape the dynamics of the biofilm and

  1. Molecular evidence for bacterial and protozoan pathogens in hard ticks from Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionita, Mariana; Mitrea, Ioan Liviu; Pfister, Kurt; Hamel, Dietmar; Silaghi, Cornelia

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to provide a preliminary insight into the diversity of tick-borne pathogens circulating at the domestic host-tick interface in Romania. For this, feeding and questing ticks were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Anaplasma platys, Ehrlichia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu latu, and by PCR and subsequent sequencing for Rickettsia spp., Babesia spp. and Theileria spp. A total of 382 ticks, encompassing 5 species from 4 genera, were collected in April-July 2010 from different areas of Romania; of them, 40 were questing ticks and the remainder was collected from naturally infested cattle, sheep, goats, horses or dogs. Tick species analyzed included Ixodes ricinus, Dermacentor marginatus, Hyalomma marginatum, Rhipicephalus bursa, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Four rickettsiae of the spotted fever group of zoonotic concern were identified for the first time in Romania: Rickettsia monacensis and Rickettsia helvetica in I. ricinus, and Rickettsia slovaca and Rickettsia raoultii in D. marginatus. Other zoonotic pathogens such as A. phagocytophilum, Borrelia afzelii, and Babesia microti were found in I. ricinus. Pathogens of veterinary importance were also identified, including Theileria equi in H. marginatum, Babesia occultans in D. marginatus and H. marginatum, Theileria orientalis/sergenti/buffeli-group in I. ricinus and in H. marginatum and E. canis in R. sanguineus. These findings show a wide distribution of very diverse bacterial and protozoan pathogens at the domestic host-tick interface in Romania, with the potential of causing both animal and human diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Occurrence and host specificity of a neogregarine protozoan in four milkweed butterfly hosts (Danaus spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriga, Paola A; Sternberg, Eleanore D; Lefèvre, Thierry; de Roode, Jacobus C; Altizer, Sonia

    2016-10-01

    Throughout their global range, wild monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) are infected with the protozoan Ophryocystis elektroscirrha (OE). In monarchs, OE infection reduces pupal eclosion, adult lifespan, adult body size and flight ability. Infection of other butterfly hosts with OE is rare or unknown, and the only previously published records of OE infection were on monarch and queen butterflies (D. gilippus). Here we explored the occurrence and specificity of OE and OE-like parasites in four Danaus butterfly species. We surveyed wild D. eresimus (soldier), D. gilippus (queen), D. petilia (lesser wanderer), and D. plexippus (monarch) from five countries to determine the presence of infection. We conducted five cross-infection experiments, on monarchs and queen butterflies and their OE and OE-like parasites, to determine infection probability and the impact of infection on their hosts. Our field survey showed that OE-like parasites were present in D. gilippus, D. petilia, and D. plexippus, but were absent in D. eresimus. Infection probability varied geographically such that D. gilippus and D. plexippus populations in Puerto Rico and Trinidad were not infected or had low prevalence of infection, whereas D. plexippus from S. Florida and Australia had high prevalence. Cross-infection experiments showed evidence for host specificity, in that OE strains from monarchs were more effective at infecting monarchs than queens, and monarchs were less likely to be infected by OE-like strains from queens and lesser wanderers relative to their own natal strains. Our study showed that queens are less susceptible to OE and OE-like infection than monarchs, and that the reduction in adult lifespan following infection is more severe in monarchs than in queens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Polymeric immunoglobulin receptor in intestinal immune defense against the lumen-dwelling protozoan parasite Giardia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davids, Barbara J; Palm, J E Daniel; Housley, Michael P; Smith, Jennifer R; Andersen, Yolanda S; Martin, Martin G; Hendrickson, Barbara A; Johansen, Finn-Eirik; Svärd, Staffan G; Gillin, Frances D; Eckmann, Lars

    2006-11-01

    The polymeric Ig receptor (pIgR) is conserved in mammals and has an avian homologue, suggesting evolutionarily important functions in vertebrates. It transports multimeric IgA and IgM across polarized epithelia and is highly expressed in the intestine, yet little direct evidence exists for its importance in defense against common enteric pathogens. In this study, we demonstrate that pIgR can play a critical role in intestinal defense against the lumen-dwelling protozoan parasite Giardia, a leading cause of diarrheal disease. The receptor was essential for the eradication of Giardia when high luminal IgA levels were required. Clearance of Giardia muris, in which IgA plays a dominant role, was severely compromised in pIgR-deficient mice despite significant fecal IgA output at 10% of normal levels. In contrast, eradication of the human strain Giardia lamblia GS/M, for which adaptive immunity is less IgA dependent in mice, was unaffected by pIgR deficiency, indicating that pIgR had no physiologic role when lower luminal IgA levels were sufficient for parasite elimination. Immune IgA was greatly increased in the serum of pIgR-deficient mice, conferred passive protection against Giardia, and recognized several conserved giardial Ags, including ornithine carbamoyltransferase, arginine deiminase, alpha-enolase, and alpha- and beta-giardins, that are also detected in human giardiasis. Corroborative observations were made in mice lacking the J chain, which is required for pIgR-dependent transepithelial IgA transport. These results, together with prior data on pIgR-mediated immune neutralization of luminal cholera toxin, suggest that pIgR is essential in intestinal defense against pathogenic microbes with high-level and persistent luminal presence.

  4. Eupafolin and Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Kalanchoe gracilis Stem Extract Show Potent Antiviral Activities against Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ching-Ying; Huang, Shun-Chueh; Lai, Zhen-Rung; Ho, Yu-Ling; Jou, Yu-Jen; Kung, Szu-Hao; Zhang, Yongjun; Chang, Yuan-Shiun; Lin, Cheng-Wen

    2013-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CoxA16) are main pathogens of hand-foot-and-mouth disease, occasionally causing aseptic meningitis and encephalitis in tropical and subtropical regions. Kalanchoe gracilis, Da-Huan-Hun, is a Chinese folk medicine for treating pain and inflammation, exhibiting antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Our prior report (2012) cited K. gracilis leaf extract as moderately active against EV71 and CoxA16. This study further rates antienteroviral potential of K. gracilis stem (KGS) extract to identify potent antiviral fractions and components. The extract moderately inhibits viral cytopathicity and virus yield, as well as in vitro replication of EV71 (IC50 = 75.18 μg/mL) and CoxA16 (IC50 = 81.41 μg/mL). Ethyl acetate (EA) fraction of KGS extract showed greater antiviral activity than that of n-butanol or aqueous fraction: IC50 values of 4.21 μg/mL against EV71 and 9.08 μg/mL against CoxA16. HPLC analysis, UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, and plaque reduction assay indicate that eupafolin is a vital component of EA fraction showing potent activity against EV71 (IC50 = 1.39 μM) and CoxA16 (IC50 = 5.24 μM). Eupafolin specifically lessened virus-induced upregulation of IL-6 and RANTES by inhibiting virus-induced ERK1/2, AP-1, and STAT3 signals. Anti-enteroviral potency of KGS EA fraction and eupafolin shows the clinical potential against EV71 and CoxA16 infection. PMID:24078828

  5. Eupafolin and Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Kalanchoe gracilis Stem Extract Show Potent Antiviral Activities against Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A16

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Ying Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV71 and coxsackievirus A16 (CoxA16 are main pathogens of hand-foot-and-mouth disease, occasionally causing aseptic meningitis and encephalitis in tropical and subtropical regions. Kalanchoe gracilis, Da-Huan-Hun, is a Chinese folk medicine for treating pain and inflammation, exhibiting antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Our prior report (2012 cited K. gracilis leaf extract as moderately active against EV71 and CoxA16. This study further rates antienteroviral potential of K. gracilis stem (KGS extract to identify potent antiviral fractions and components. The extract moderately inhibits viral cytopathicity and virus yield, as well as in vitro replication of EV71 (IC50 = 75.18 μg/mL and CoxA16 (IC50 = 81.41 μg/mL. Ethyl acetate (EA fraction of KGS extract showed greater antiviral activity than that of n-butanol or aqueous fraction: IC50 values of 4.21 μg/mL against EV71 and 9.08 μg/mL against CoxA16. HPLC analysis, UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, and plaque reduction assay indicate that eupafolin is a vital component of EA fraction showing potent activity against EV71 (IC50 = 1.39 μM and CoxA16 (IC50 = 5.24 μM. Eupafolin specifically lessened virus-induced upregulation of IL-6 and RANTES by inhibiting virus-induced ERK1/2, AP-1, and STAT3 signals. Anti-enteroviral potency of KGS EA fraction and eupafolin shows the clinical potential against EV71 and CoxA16 infection.

  6. Reconstruction of the pelvic floor and the vagina after total pelvic exenteration using the transverse musculocutaneous gracilis flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaartinen, Ilkka S; Vuento, Maarit H; Hyöty, Marja K; Kallio, Jukka; Kuokkanen, Hannu O

    2015-01-01

    Total pelvic exenteration (TPE) is a rare operation in which the pelvic contents are removed entirely. Several options for pelvic floor and vaginal reconstruction have been described including transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (TRAM) or deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flaps. The transverse musculocutaneous gracilis (TMG) flap has been introduced for breast reconstruction as a free flap. We adopted the pedicled TMG flap for reconstructions after TPE. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of this method in the literature. Between November 2011 and February 2014, 12 patients underwent TPE and reconstruction with unilateral (six patients) or bilateral (six patients) pedicled TMG flaps. Five patients underwent vaginal reconstruction with bilateral TMG flaps. We describe the operative procedure and the outcome of the operation in these patients. The total mean operative times for TPE with or without vaginal reconstruction were 467 ± 12 and 386 ± 59 min, respectively. The TMG flaps had enough vascular tissue and mobility for reconstructing the TPE defects. There was distal edge necrosis in one out of 18 flaps, while the rest survived completely. During the follow-up, complete wound healing with no signs of weakening of the pelvic floor was observed in all cases. Soft-tissue reconstructions are needed to reduce complications associated with TPE, to secure the pelvic floor and to reconstruct the vagina in select patients. The TMG flap is a logical flap choice that does not lead to functional deficits, complicate the abdominal ostomies or weaken the abdominal wall. It reduces the length of operation compared to that of abdominal flaps. IV, therapeutic. Copyright © 2014 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of chronic exposure in populations of Koeleria gracilis Pers. from the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site, Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geras'kin, S.A.; Oudalova, A.A.; Dikarev, V.G.; Dikareva, N.S.; Mozolin, E.M.; Hinton, T.; Spiridonov, S.I.; Copplestone, D.; Garnier-Laplace, J.

    2012-01-01

    Morphological and cytogenetic abnormalities were examined in crested hairgrass (Koeleria gracilis Pers.) populations inhabiting the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site (STS), Kazakhstan. Sampling of biological material and soil was carried out during 3 years (2005–2007) at 4 sites within the STS. Activity concentrations of 10 radionuclides and 8 heavy metals content in soils were measured. Doses absorbed by plants were estimated and varied, depending on the plot, from 4 up to 265 mGy/y. The frequency of cytogenetic alterations in apical meristem of germinated seeds from the highly contaminated plot significantly exceeded the level observed at other plots with lower levels of radioactive contamination during all three years of the study. A significant excess of chromosome aberrations, typical for radiation exposure, as well as a dependence of the frequency of these types of mutations on dose absorbed by plants were revealed. The results indicate the role radioactive contamination plays in the occurrence of cytogenetic effects. However, no radiation-dependent morphological alterations were detected in the progeny of the exposed populations. Given that the crested hairgrass populations have occupied the radioactively contaminated plots for some 50 years, adaptation to the radiation stress was not evident. The findings obtained were in agreement with the benchmark values proposed in the FASSET and ERICA projects to restrict radiation impacts on biota. - Highlights: ► Morphological and cytogenetic abnormalities were examined in plants from the STS. ► Annual doses absorbed by plants varied from 4 up to 265 mGy. ► Cytogenetic alterations in plants from the explosions epicenter exceeded the control. ► No radiation-dependent morphological alterations were detected in the progeny. ► Radio-adaptation in plant populations in 50 years of chronic exposure was not evident.

  8. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the methanol extract of Kalanchoe gracilis (L.) DC stem in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Zhen-Rung; Peng, Wen-Huang; Ho, Yu-Ling; Huang, Shun-Chieh; Huang, Tai-Hung; Lai, Shang-Chih; Ku, Yoe-Ray; Tsai, Jen-Chieh; Wang, Ching-Ying; Chang, Yuan-Shiun

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the analgesic effect of the methanol extract of Kalanchoe gracilis (MKGS) stem in animal models by inducing writhing response with acetic acid and conducting formalin test. The anti-inflammatory effect of MKGS was also estimated on mice with lambda-carrageenan induced paw edema model. In order to investigate the anti-inflammatory mechanism of MKGS, we analyzed the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GRx) in the liver, and the levels of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha), malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) in the edema paw tissue. In the analgesic tests, MKGS (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg) decreased both the acetic acid-induced writhing response and the licking time in the late phase of the formalin test. In the anti-inflammatory test, MKGS (0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 g/kg) decreased paw edema at the third, fourth, fifth and sixth hours after lambda-carrageenan had been administrated. Furthermore, MKGS increased the activities of SOD and GRx in liver tissues and decreased MDA level in the edema paws three hours after lambda-carrageenan was injected. MKGS also affected the levels of IL-1beta, TNF-alpha and NO induced by lambda-carrageenan. All these results suggested that MKGS possessed analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. The anti-inflammatory mechanism of MKGS might be related to the lowering of MDA level in the edema paw via increasing the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and GRx in the liver, as well as the decreases in the levels of TNF-alpha and NO, and the production of IL-1beta in inflamed tissues.

  9. Biologia floral e sistema reprodutivo de duas espécies de marantaceae no Nordeste do Brasil : Ischnosiphon gracilis (Rudge) Köern. e Stromanthe porteana A. Gris

    OpenAIRE

    Virgínia de Lima Leite, Ana

    2002-01-01

    As espécies de Marantaceae apresentam um elaborado mecanismo de polinização caracterizado pela apresentação secundária de pólen associada a um mecanismo explosivo do estilete. Neste trabalho foram feitas análises da biologia floral e do sistema reprodutivo em populações naturais de Ischnosiphon gracilis (Rudge) Köern. e Stromanthe porteana A. Gris ocorrentes no Parque Estadual Dois Irmãos (8º7 30 S 34º52 30 W), estado de Pernambuco, Brasil. A inflorescência de I. gracil...

  10. Use of alternative media and different types of recipients in a laboratory culture of Ankistrodesmus gracilis (Reinsch Korshikov (Chlorophyceae = Utilização de meios alternativos e diferentes tipos de recipientes no cultivo de Ankistrodesmus gracilis (Reinsch Korshikov (Chlorophyceae em laboratório.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Helena Sipauba-Tavares

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory culture of Ankistrodesmus gracilis algae was evaluated by studying the biology of the species and its chemical composition in a traditional medium (CHU12 and in two alternative culture media, NPK (20-5-20 and macrophyte (Eichhornia crassipes + NPK, in three different types of recipients (fiberglass, carboy and plastic bag. First peak in the growth curve of Ankistrodesmus gracilis occurred on the ninth day in macrophyte + NPK medium (74.16 x 105 cells mL-1 in a fiberglass recipient. However, highest density (p 0.05 in culture media in the three recipients. Protein and fiber were similar (p > 0.05 in the treatments, but lipids were higher (p O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar os aspectos biológicos e a composição química da alga Ankistrodesmus gracilis em laboratório utilizando um meio tradicional (CHU12 e dois meios alternativos, NPK (20-5-20 e macrófita (Eichhornia crassipes + NPK em três diferentes tipos de recipientes (cuba de fibra de vidro translúcido, garrafões e saco plástico. O primeiro pico de densidade celular de Ankistrodesmus gracilis ocorreu no nono dia da curva de crescimento em meio macrófita+NPK (74,16 x 105 células mL-1 no recipiente de fibra de vidro, porém a maior densidade (p 0,05 nos três recipientes e meios de cultivo. Os teores de proteína e fibra foram similares (p > 0,05 nos tratamentos utilizados, já os de lipídios foram mais elevados (p < 0,05 no meio NPK. Os teores médios de nitrato, amônia, fósforo total e ortofosfato estiveram acima de 1 mg L-1 no meio NPK (p < 0,01. Os resultados obtidos neste estudo indicam a possibilidade do uso de meios alternativos como o NPK e macrophyte +NPK para o cultivo de A. gracilis em larga escala cultivados nos três tipos de recipientes, porém, em saco plástico o custo é baixo e ocupa menos espaço em cultivo de laboratório.

  11. Transcriptome analysis of the model protozoan, Tetrahymena thermophila, using Deep RNA sequencing.

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    Jie Xiong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila is a well-studied single-celled eukaryote model organism for cellular and molecular biology. However, the lack of extensive T. thermophila cDNA libraries or a large expressed sequence tag (EST database limited the quality of the original genome annotation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This RNA-seq study describes the first deep sequencing analysis of the T. thermophila transcriptome during the three major stages of the life cycle: growth, starvation and conjugation. Uniquely mapped reads covered more than 96% of the 24,725 predicted gene models in the somatic genome. More than 1,000 new transcribed regions were identified. The great dynamic range of RNA-seq allowed detection of a nearly six order-of-magnitude range of measurable gene expression orchestrated by this cell. RNA-seq also allowed the first prediction of transcript untranslated regions (UTRs and an updated (larger size estimate of the T. thermophila transcriptome: 57 Mb, or about 55% of the somatic genome. Our study identified nearly 1,500 alternative splicing (AS events distributed over 5.2% of T. thermophila genes. This percentage represents a two order-of-magnitude increase over previous EST-based estimates in Tetrahymena. Evidence of stage-specific regulation of alternative splicing was also obtained. Finally, our study allowed us to completely confirm about 26.8% of the genes originally predicted by the gene finder, to correct coding sequence boundaries and intron-exon junctions for about a third, and to reassign microarray probes and correct earlier microarray data. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: RNA-seq data significantly improve the genome annotation and provide a fully comprehensive view of the global transcriptome of T. thermophila. To our knowledge, 5.2% of T. thermophila genes with AS is the highest percentage of genes showing AS reported in a unicellular eukaryote. Tetrahymena thus becomes an excellent unicellular

  12. Protozoan Parasites of Rodents and Their Zoonotic Significance in Boyer-Ahmad District, Southwestern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Seifollahi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds. Wild rodents are reservoirs of various zoonotic diseases, such as toxoplasmosis, babesiosis, and leishmaniasis. The current study aimed to assess the protozoan infection of rodents in Boyer-Ahmad district, southwestern Iran. Materials and Methods. A total of 52 rodents were collected from different parts of Boyer-Ahmad district, in Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad province, using Sherman live traps. Each rodent was anesthetized with ether, according to the ethics of working with animals, and was dissected. Samples were taken from various tissues and stool samples were collected from the contents of the colon and small intestines. Moreover, 2 to 5 mL of blood was taken from each of the rodents and the sera were examined for anti-Leishmania antibodies, by ELISA, or anti-T. gondii antibodies, by modified agglutination test (MAT. DNA was extracted from brain tissue samples of each rodent and PCR was used to identify the DNA of T. gondii. Results. Of the 52 stool samples of rodents studied by parasitological methods, intestinal protozoa infection was seen in 28 cases (53.8%. From 52 rodents, 19 (36.5% were infected with Trichomonas, 10 (19.2% with Giardia muris, and 11 (21.2% with Entamoeba spp. Also, 10 cases (19.2% were infected with Blastocystis, 3 (5.8% were infected with Chilomastix, 7 (13.5% were infected with Endolimax, 1 (1.9% was infected with Retortamonas, 3 (5.77% were infected with T. gondii, and 6 (11.54% were infected with Trypanosoma lewisi. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in the sera of 5 (9.61% cases. Results of the molecular study showed T. gondii infection in 3 (5.77% of the rodents. Findings of this study showed that rodents in Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad province, southwestern Iran, are infected with several blood and intestinal parasites; some of them might be potential risks to residents and domestic animals in the region.

  13. Investigation of sexually transmitted protozoan parasite Tritrichomonas foetus in cattle in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Islam

    2017-06-01

    prevalence of this important sexually transmitted protozoan disease in cattle. To our best knowledge, this is the first study on the prevalence of bovine tritrichomoniasis in Bangladesh except a single clinical case reported in 1974. This study also indicate that bovine tritrichomoniasis has a minor role related to abortion of cattle in Bangladesh.

  14. Involuntary movement during mastication in patients with long-term facial paralysis reanimated with a partial gracilis free neuromuscular flap innervated by the masseteric nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozen, Shai; Harrison, Bridget

    2013-07-01

    Midface reanimation in patients with chronic facial paralysis is not always possible with an ipsilateral or contralateral facial nerve innervating a free neuromuscular tissue transfer. Alternate use of nonfacial nerves is occasionally indicated but may potentially result in inadvertent motions. The goal of this study was to objectively review videos of patients who underwent one-stage reanimation with a gracilis muscle transfer innervated by the masseteric nerve for (1) inadvertent motion during eating, (2) characterization of masticatory patterns, and (3) social hindrance perceived by the patients during meals. Between the years 2009 and 2012, 18 patients underwent midfacial reanimation with partial gracilis muscle transfer coapted to the masseter nerve for treatment of midfacial paralysis. Sixteen patients were videotaped in detail while eating. Involuntary midface movement on the reconstructed side and mastication patterns were assessed. In addition, 16 patients were surveyed as to whether involuntary motion constituted a problem in their daily lives. All 16 patients videotaped during mastication demonstrated involuntary motion on the reconstructed side while eating. Several unique masticatory patterns were noted as well. Only one of the 16 patients reported involuntary motion as a minor disturbance in daily life during meals. All patients with chronic facial paralysis who plan to undergo midface reanimation with a free tissue transfer innervated by the ipsilateral masseter nerve should be told that they would universally have involuntary animation during mastication. Most patients do not consider this a major drawback in their daily lives. Therapeutic, IV.

  15. Use of gastrointestinal anastomosis stapler for harvest of gracilis muscle and securing it in the face for facial reanimation: a novel technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shridharani, Sachin M; Stapleton, Sahael M; Redett, Richard J; Magarakis, Michael; Rosson, Gedge D

    2010-04-08

    The primary objective of this study is to report a novel technique that uses the gastrointestinal anastomosis (GIA) stapler for harvesting and securing the gracilis muscle in facial reanimation surgery. We conducted a retrospective chart review with 18 consecutive patients who underwent gracilis muscle flap transfer with or without the use of a GIA stapler. Of 11 operations with the GIA stapler, one patient developed a hematoma (donor site) and another required drainage of an abscess (recipient site). Of 8 operations without the use of the stapler, one patient had total flap failure and three required drainage of an abscess (2 recipient sites and 1 donor site). These differences trended toward improvement but were not statistically different. The use of the GIA stapler is a fast, safe technique. Larger studies are, however, warranted to further examine this novel approach in order to test precisely what factors of increased efficiency occur, the amount of suture pull-through, and overall tension capable of being applied to the secured staple line.

  16. 13C-NMR reveals glycerol as an unexpected major metabolite of the protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, A.; Lloyd, D.; Linstead, D.J.; Williams, J.

    1985-01-01

    13 C-NMR has been used to study the kinetics of the formation of metabolites from [l- 13 C]glucose in intact cells of Trichomonas vaginalis during anaerobic incubation. As well as the expected metabolites lactate and acetate, this technique revealed glycerol as an additional major product, present in amounts equimolar with acetate. The formation of glycerol is readily explained in terms of the need to maintain redox balance. This protozoan now joins the small group of organisms which are known to produce glycerol as a result of normal metabolic activities. (Auth.)

  17. Effect of far-UV and near-UV radiation on the cell surface charge of the protozoan Tritrichomonas foetus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Filho, F C; Elias, C A; Souza, W de

    1986-05-01

    Cell electrophoresis was used to detect the effect of far-UV or near-UV radiation on the cell surface charge of the pathogenic protozoan Tritrichomonas foetus. Either far-UV or near-UV radiation interfered with the surface charge of T. foetus at fluences which inhibited cell growth by 50%. Both UV-radiations induced a significant decrease on surface charge of T. foetus, as evaluated by measurement of its electrophoretic mobility (EPM). Determinations of EPM of protozoa in solution of low ionic strength indicated that the decrease in the EPM induced by far-UV is much less pronounced that that observed for near-UV or control cells.

  18. A Comparative Study of Four Methods for the Detection of Nematode Eggs and Large Protozoan Cysts in Mandrill Faecal Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouillevet, Hanae; Dibakou, Serge-Ely; Ngoubangoye, Barthélémy; Poirotte, Clémence; Charpentier, Marie J E

    2017-01-01

    Coproscopical methods like sedimentation and flotation techniques are widely used in the field for studying simian gastrointestinal parasites. Four parasites of known zoonotic potential were studied in a free-ranging, non-provisioned population of mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx): 2 nematodes (Necatoramericanus/Oesophagostomum sp. complex and Strongyloides sp.) and 2 protozoan species (Balantidium coli and Entamoeba coli). Different coproscopical techniques are available but they are rarely compared to evaluate their efficiency to retrieve parasites. In this study 4 different field-friendly methods were compared. A sedimentation method and 3 different McMaster methods (using sugar, salt, and zinc sulphate solutions) were performed on 47 faecal samples collected from different individuals of both sexes and all ages. First, we show that McMaster flotation methods are appropriate to detect and thus quantify large protozoan cysts. Second, zinc sulphate McMaster flotation allows the retrieval of a higher number of parasite taxa compared to the other 3 methods. This method further shows the highest probability to detect each of the studied parasite taxa. Altogether our results show that zinc sulphate McMaster flotation appears to be the best technique to use when studying nematodes and large protozoa. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Foodborne intestinal protozoan infection and associated factors among patients with watery diarrhea in Northern Ethiopia; a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhe, Birhane; Bugssa, Gessessew; Bayisa, Sena; Alemu, Megbaru

    2018-03-02

    Intestinal protozoa are parasites transmitted by consumption of contaminated water and food and mainly affect children and elder people and cause considerable health problems. They are the leading causes of outpatient morbidity due to diarrhea in the developing countries. So, assessing water and food source of diarrheal patients and identifying the main associated factors for transmission of protozoan parasitic infections help for effective control measures of protozoan infections. Hence, the current study was aimed at determining the prevalence of foodborne intestinal protozoa infections and associated factors among diarrheic patients in North Ethiopia. A health facility based cross-sectional study was conducted among 223 patients with watery diarrhea in four selected government health facilities in North Ethiopia from November 2016-June 2017. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demography of study participants and factors associated with foodborne protozoa infections. The diarrheic stool samples were collected, transported, and processed using direct wet mount, formal-ether concentration and modified ZiehlNeelson staining methods. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 21 and descriptive statistics, bi-variate, and multivariate logistic regressions were computed. P-value parasite infection .

  20. Selective Inhibitors of Protozoan Protein N-myristoyltransferases as Starting Points for Tropical Disease Medicinal Chemistry Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Andrew S.; Mills, James E.; Williams, Gareth P.; Brannigan, James A.; Wilkinson, Anthony J.; Parkinson, Tanya; Leatherbarrow, Robin J.; Tate, Edward W.; Holder, Anthony A.; Smith, Deborah F.

    2012-01-01

    Inhibition of N-myristoyltransferase has been validated pre-clinically as a target for the treatment of fungal and trypanosome infections, using species-specific inhibitors. In order to identify inhibitors of protozoan NMTs, we chose to screen a diverse subset of the Pfizer corporate collection against Plasmodium falciparum and Leishmania donovani NMTs. Primary screening hits against either enzyme were tested for selectivity over both human NMT isoforms (Hs1 and Hs2) and for broad-spectrum anti-protozoan activity against the NMT from Trypanosoma brucei. Analysis of the screening results has shown that structure-activity relationships (SAR) for Leishmania NMT are divergent from all other NMTs tested, a finding not predicted by sequence similarity calculations, resulting in the identification of four novel series of Leishmania-selective NMT inhibitors. We found a strong overlap between the SARs for Plasmodium NMT and both human NMTs, suggesting that achieving an appropriate selectivity profile will be more challenging. However, we did discover two novel series with selectivity for Plasmodium NMT over the other NMT orthologues in this study, and an additional two structurally distinct series with selectivity over Leishmania NMT. We believe that release of results from this study into the public domain will accelerate the discovery of NMT inhibitors to treat malaria and leishmaniasis. Our screening initiative is another example of how a tripartite partnership involving pharmaceutical industries, academic institutions and governmental/non-governmental organisations such as Medical Research Council and Wellcome Trust can stimulate research for neglected diseases. PMID:22545171

  1. Far beyond Phagocytosis: Phagocyte-Derived Extracellular Traps Act Efficiently against Protozoan Parasites In Vitro and In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana M. R. Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Professional mononuclear phagocytes such as polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN, monocytes, and macrophages are considered as the first line of defence against invasive pathogens. The formation of extracellular traps (ETs by activated mononuclear phagocytes is meanwhile well accepted as an effector mechanism of the early host innate immune response acting against microbial infections. Recent investigations showed evidence that ETosis is a widely spread effector mechanism in vertebrates and invertebrates being utilized to entrap and kill bacteria, fungi, viruses, and protozoan parasites. ETs are released in response to intact protozoan parasites or to parasite-specific antigens in a controlled cell death process. Released ETs consist of nuclear DNA as backbone adorned with histones, antimicrobial peptides, and phagocyte-specific granular enzymes thereby producing a sticky extracellular matrix capable of entrapping and killing pathogens. This review summarizes recent data on protozoa-induced ETosis. Special attention will be given to molecular mechanisms of protozoa-induced ETosis and on its consequences for the parasites successful reproduction and life cycle accomplishment.

  2. Patrón reproductivo y talla media de madurez sexual de hembras de la langosta Panulirus gracilis (Decapoda: Palinuridae en Playa Lagarto, Guanacaste, Costa Rica

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    Helven Naranjo Madrigal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La langosta Panulirus gracilis es importante como recurso pesquero de las comunidades costeras en el Pacífico Norte de Costa Rica. Debido a la importancia de actualizar el conocimiento relacionado con el patrón reproductivo de esta especie, se analizaron 357 especímenes de langostas P. gracilis hembras capturados mediante el buceo con compresor y el buceo a pulmón durante noviembre de 2007 a octubre del 2008 en Playa Lagarto. Se examinó la composición de las tallas por estrato de profundidad, el patrón mensual de la actividad reproductiva (IAR asociado al aumento relativo de la temperatura superficial del océano, y además se determinó la talla media de madurez sexual utilizando Modelos Lineales Generalizados. Los cuatro estados fisiológicos de madurez sexual mostraron que las hembras sin masa espermatófora y no ovígeras, presentaron las menores tallas con una media de 62.3mm de longitud cefalotoráxica (LC. Se observaron características de madurez sexual a partir de tallas muy bajas que van desde 30 a 50mm de LC, encontrándose la menor hembra ovígera reportada para esta especie de 35.8mm de LC y el mayor porcentaje de hembras maduras entre 70 y 80mm de LC. Los porcentajes del IAR se mantuvieron por encima del 50% durante el año, con excepción de los meses de octubre y enero. Además, se observó un aumento en el IAR que inició a partir de abril y continuó hasta agosto asociado a un relativo aumento en la temperatura a partir del mes de marzo, sin embargo esta relación no fue significativa (r²=0.49, p>0.05. No se descarta que la baja talla media de madurez sexual de 70.2mm de LC para P. gracilis en esta región sea causada por las prácticas de pesca. Se recomienda que se establezca una veda en la región de cinco meses (abril-agosto con el fin de proteger la estacionalidad reproductiva de la especie y promover un mayor reclutamiento a las áreas de pesca.

  3. Influence of thiamine on the post-irradiation effect caused by fast neutrons or gamma radiation in callus cultures of Haplopappus gracilis (Nutt) A. Gray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wajda, L.; Korzonek, M.

    1979-01-01

    Influence of thiamine within the investigated range of concentrations 1.5 to 12.0 mg/l on the postirradiation effect caused by fast neutrons or gamma irradiation was found in cultures of Haplopappus gracilis callus. The lowest sensitivity to fast neutrons was noticed in callus grown on nutrient combination 1.5 to 3.0 and 12.0 to 3.0 mg/l of thiamine. On the contrary the highest sensitivity to gamma radiation was shown by cultures grown on nutrient media: 1.5 to 3.0 mg/l; all the other investigated thiamine concentrations caused a marked decrease in the sensitivity of the callus. (author)

  4. Evidence for the bacterial origin of genes encoding fermentation enzymes of the amitochondriate protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, B; Mai, Z; Caplivski, D; Ghosh, S; de la Vega, H; Graf, T; Samuelson, J

    1997-06-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is an amitochondriate protozoan parasite with numerous bacterium-like fermentation enzymes including the pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (POR), ferredoxin (FD), and alcohol dehydrogenase E (ADHE). The goal of this study was to determine whether the genes encoding these cytosolic E. histolytica fermentation enzymes might derive from a bacterium by horizontal transfer, as has previously been suggested for E. histolytica genes encoding heat shock protein 60, nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase, and superoxide dismutase. In this study, the E. histolytica por gene and the adhE gene of a second amitochondriate protozoan parasite, Giardia lamblia, were sequenced, and their phylogenetic positions were estimated in relation to POR, ADHE, and FD cloned from eukaryotic and eubacterial organisms. The E. histolytica por gene encodes a 1,620-amino-acid peptide that contained conserved iron-sulfur- and thiamine pyrophosphate-binding sites. The predicted E. histolytica POR showed fewer positional identities to the POR of G. lamblia (34%) than to the POR of the enterobacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae (49%), the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. (44%), and the protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis (46%), which targets its POR to anaerobic organelles called hydrogenosomes. Maximum-likelihood, neighbor-joining, and parsimony analyses also suggested as less likely E. histolytica POR sharing more recent common ancestry with G. lamblia POR than with POR of bacteria and the T. vaginalis hydrogenosome. The G. lamblia adhE encodes an 888-amino-acid fusion peptide with an aldehyde dehydrogenase at its amino half and an iron-dependent (class 3) ADH at its carboxy half. The predicted G. lamblia ADHE showed extensive positional identities to ADHE of Escherichia coli (49%), Clostridium acetobutylicum (44%), and E. histolytica (43%) and lesser identities to the class 3 ADH of eubacteria and yeast (19 to 36%). Phylogenetic analyses inferred a closer relationship of the E

  5. Proteomic characterization of the hemolymph of Octopus vulgaris infected by the protozoan parasite Aggregata octopiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos-Martínez, Sheila; Diz, Angel P; Álvarez-Chaver, Paula; Gestal, Camino

    2014-06-13

    the octopus immune defense against a parasite infection. Particularly, it is centered in the host-parasite relationship developed between the octopus and the protozoan A. octopiana, which induces severe gastrointestinal injuries in octopus that produce a malabsorption syndrome. The common octopus is a commercially important species with a high potential for aquaculture in semi-open systems, and this pathology reduces the condition of the octopus populations on-growing in open-water systems resulting in important economical loses. This is the first proteomic approach developed on this host-parasite relationship, and therefore, the contribution of this work goes from i) ecological, since this particular relationship is tending to be established as a model of host-parasite interaction in natural populations; ii) evolutionary, due to the characterization of immune molecules that could contribute to understand the functioning of the immune defense in these highly evolved mollusks; and iii) to economical view. The results of this study provide an overview of the octopus hemolymph proteome. Furthermore, proteins influenced by the level of infection and implicated in the octopus cellular response are also showed. Consequently, a set of biomarkers for disease resistance is suggested for further research that could be valuable for the improvement of the octopus culture, taken into account their high economical value, the declining of landings and the need for the diversification of reared species in order to ensure the growth of the aquaculture activity. Although cephalopods are model species for biomedical studies and possess potential in aquaculture, their genomes have not been sequenced yet, which limits the application of genomic data to research important biological processes. Similarly, the octopus proteome, like other non-model organisms, is poorly represented in public databases. Most of the proteins were identified from an octopus' hemocyte RNA-seq database that we

  6. Facial reanimation with gracilis muscle transfer neurotized to cross-facial nerve graft versus masseteric nerve: a comparative study using the FACIAL CLIMA evaluating system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hontanilla, Bernardo; Marre, Diego; Cabello, Alvaro

    2013-06-01

    Longstanding unilateral facial paralysis is best addressed with microneurovascular muscle transplantation. Neurotization can be obtained from the cross-facial or the masseter nerve. The authors present a quantitative comparison of both procedures using the FACIAL CLIMA system. Forty-seven patients with complete unilateral facial paralysis underwent reanimation with a free gracilis transplant neurotized to either a cross-facial nerve graft (group I, n=20) or to the ipsilateral masseteric nerve (group II, n=27). Commissural displacement and commissural contraction velocity were measured using the FACIAL CLIMA system. Postoperative intragroup commissural displacement and commissural contraction velocity means of the reanimated versus the normal side were first compared using the independent samples t test. Mean percentage of recovery of both parameters were compared between the groups using the independent samples t test. Significant differences of mean commissural displacement and commissural contraction velocity between the reanimated side and the normal side were observed in group I (p=0.001 and p=0.014, respectively) but not in group II. Intergroup comparisons showed that both commissural displacement and commissural contraction velocity were higher in group II, with significant differences for commissural displacement (p=0.048). Mean percentage of recovery of both parameters was higher in group II, with significant differences for commissural displacement (p=0.042). Free gracilis muscle transfer neurotized by the masseteric nerve is a reliable technique for reanimation of longstanding facial paralysis. Compared with cross-facial nerve graft neurotization, this technique provides better symmetry and a higher degree of recovery. Therapeutic, III.

  7. [Reproductive pattern and mean size of sexual maturity of female lobsters Panulirus gracilis (Decapoda: Palinuridae) in Playa Lagarto, Guanacaste, Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo Madrigal, Helven

    2012-12-01

    The lobster P. gracilis is important as a fishery resource and also contributes to food security of fishers in coastal communities in the North Pacific of Costa Rica. Due to the importance of updating knowledge related to the reproductive pattern of this species, we analyzed 357 specimens of female lobsters caught by the fishing methods of "hookah" and lung diving, from November 2007 to October 2008 in Playa Lagarto. Furthermore, we examined the size composition by depth; monthly pattern of reproductive activity (RAI) associated with the relative increase in sea surface temperature, and also the mean size at maturity using Generalized Linear Models. Four physiological states of sexual maturity showed that females with no signs of mating or sexual maturity have a minimum mean size of 62.3mm of cephalothorax length (CL). There are characteristics of functional maturity from very small sizes ranging from 30 to 50mm CL, being the smallest berried female reported for this specie of 35.8mm CL and the highest percentage of mature females between 70 and 80mm CL. Percentages of RAI remained above 50% during the year except October and January. In addition, it observed an increase in the RAI that started from April and continued until August associated with a relative increase in temperature on March, although the correlation was not significant (r2=0.49, p>0.05). It is possible that the low mean size at maturity (70.2mm LC) for P. gracilis in this region is related to the fishing activity. It recommends the establishment of a ban in the region of at least five months (April-August) in order to protect the reproductive seasonality of the species and to promote a recruitment increase in the fishing areas.

  8. Purification and crystallization of human Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase recombinantly produced in the protozoan Leishmania tarentolae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazdag, Emerich Mihai; Cirstea, Ion Cristian; Breitling, Reinhard; Lukeš, Julius; Blankenfeldt, Wulf; Alexandrov, Kirill

    2010-01-01

    The structures of two new crystal forms of human Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase produced in the eukaryotic expression host L. tarentolae are reported. The rapid and inexpensive production of high-quality eukaryotic proteins in recombinant form still remains a challenge in structural biology. Here, a protein-expression system based on the protozoan Leishmania tarentolae was used to produce human Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) in recombinant form. Sequential integration of the SOD1 expression cassettes was demonstrated to lead to a linear increase in expression levels to up to 30 mg per litre. Chromatographic purification resulted in 90% pure recombinant protein, with a final yield of 6.5 mg per litre of culture. The protein was crystallized and the structures of two new crystal forms were determined. These results demonstrate the suitability of the L. tarentolae expression system for structural research

  9. Molecular evidence of the protozoan parasite Marteilia refringens in Crassostrea gigas and Crassostrea corteziensis from the Gulf of California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Grijalva-Chon

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The search for exotic pathogens related to the outbreaks and in surveillance samplings of the Mexican oyster farms, is a recent activity achieved by academic institutions and state committees for Aquatic Animal Health, with remarkable results. In samples of Crassostrea gigas collected through December 2009, January 2010 and November 2010, and of C. corteziensis in September 2011, the protozoan Marteilia refringens was detected for the first time in the Gulf of California. The carrier oysters were from cultures without abnormal mortality rates, whereby, the use of histology, in situ hybridization and transmission electron microscopy studies are necessary to determine if M. refringens has become established in the Gulf of California oyster cultures. Detection of M. refringens is of great concern to the global oyster farming industry.

  10. Phylloseptins: a novel class of anti-bacterial and anti-protozoan peptides from the Phyllomedusa genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, José Roberto S A; Silva, Luciano P; Rodrigues, Maria Izabel S; Prates, Maura V; Brand, Guilherme D; Lacava, Bruno M; Azevedo, Ricardo B; Bocca, Anamélia L; Albuquerque, Sergio; Bloch, Carlos

    2005-04-01

    Six novel peptides called phylloseptins (PS-1, -2, -3, -4, -5, and -6) showing anti-bacterial (PS-1) and anti-protozoan (PS-4 and -5) activities were isolated from the skin secretion of the Brazilian tree-frogs, Phyllomedusa hypochondrialis and Phyllomedusa oreades. Phylloseptins have a primary structure consisting of 19-21 amino acid residues (1.7-2.1 kDa). They have common structural features, such as a highly conserved N-terminal region and C-terminal amidation. Phylloseptin-1 (FLSLIPHAINAVSAIAKHN-NH2) demonstrated a strong effect against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria (MICs ranging from 3 to 7.9 microM), without showing significant hemolytic activity (Trypanosoma cruzi.

  11. A role for Sar1 and ARF1 GTPases during Golgi biogenesis in the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Sevil; Warren, Graham

    2017-01-01

    A single Golgi stack is duplicated and partitioned into two daughter cells during the cell cycle of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei. The source of components required to generate the new Golgi and the mechanism by which it forms are poorly understood. Using photoactivatable GFP, we show that the existing Golgi supplies components directly to the newly forming Golgi in both intact and semipermeabilized cells. The movement of a putative glycosyltransferase, GntB, requires the Sar1 and ARF1 GTPases in intact cells. In addition, we show that transfer of GntB from the existing Golgi to the new Golgi can be recapitulated in semipermeabilized cells and is sensitive to the GTP analogue GTPγS. We suggest that the existing Golgi is a key source of components required to form the new Golgi and that this process is regulated by small GTPases. PMID:28495798

  12. Effect of far-UV and near-UV radiation on the cell surface charge of the protozoan Tritrichomonas foetus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Filho, F.C.; Elias, C.A.; Souza, W. de

    1986-01-01

    Cell electrophoresis was used to detect the effect of far-UV or near-UV radiation on the cell surface charge of the pathogenic protozoan Tritrichomonas foetus. Either far-UV or near-UV radiation interfered with the surface charge of T. foetus at fluences which inhibited cell growth by 50%. Both UV-radiations induced a significant decrease on surface charge of T. foetus, as evaluated by measurement of its electrophoretic mobility (EPM). Determinations of EPM of protozoa in solution of low ionic strength indicated that the decrease in the EPM induced by far-UV is much less pronounced that that observed for near-UV or control cells. (author)

  13. De novo arachidonic acid synthesis in Perkinsus marinus, a protozoan parasite of the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Fu-Lin E; Lund, Eric; Soudant, Philippe; Harvey, Ellen

    2002-02-01

    The capability of synthesizing fatty acids de novo in the meront stage of the oyster protozoan parasite, Perkinsus marinus, was investigated employing stable-isotope-labeled precursors (1,2 13C-acetate and palmitic-d(31) acid). Fatty acid methyl esters derived from 1,2 13C-acetate and palmitic-d(31) acid were analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and gas chromatography/flame ionization detection. Results revealed that in vitro cultured P. marinus meronts utilized 13C-acetate to synthesize a range of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. The saturated fatty acids 14:0, 16:0, 18:0, 20:0, 22:0, 24:0 and the unsaturated fatty acids, 18:1(n-9), 18:2(n-6), 20:1(n-9), 20:2(n-6), 20:2(n-9), 20:3(n-6), 20:4(n-6) were found to contain 13C, after 7, 14, and 21 days incubation with the precursor. This indicates that meronts can synthesize fatty acid de novo using acetate as a substrate. Meronts efficiently elongated 16:0-d(31) to 18:0, 20:0, 22:0, 24:0, but desaturation activity was limited, after 7 and 14 days cultivation. Only a small quantity of 18:1-d(29) was detected. This suggests that meronts cannot directly convert exogenous palmitic acid or its products of elongation to unsaturated counterparts. The ability to synthesize 20:4(n-6) from acetate is particularly interesting. No parasitic protozoan has been reported to be capable of synthesizing long chain essential fatty acids, such as 20:4(n-6) de novo. Future study will be directed to determine whether the observed in vitro activities indeed reflect the in vivo activities, when meronts are associated with the host.

  14. Protozoan Predation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Is Unaffected by the Carriage of Shiga Toxin-Encoding Bacteriophages.

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    Carrie E Schmidt

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a food-borne bacterium that causes hemorrhagic diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome in humans. While cattle are a known source of E. coli O157:H7 exposure resulting in human infection, environmental reservoirs may also be important sources of infection for both cattle and humans. Bacteriophage-encoded Shiga toxins (Stx carried by E. coli O157:H7 may provide a selective advantage for survival of these bacteria in the environment, possibly through their toxic effects on grazing protozoa. To determine Stx effects on protozoan grazing, we co-cultured Paramecium caudatum, a common ciliate protozoon in cattle water sources, with multiple strains of Shiga-toxigenic E. coli O157:H7 and non-Shiga toxigenic cattle commensal E. coli. Over three days at ambient laboratory temperature, P. caudatum consistently reduced both E. coli O157:H7 and non-Shiga toxigenic E. coli populations by 1-3 log cfu. Furthermore, a wild-type strain of Shiga-toxigenic E. coli O157:H7 (EDL933 and isogenic mutants lacking the A subunit of Stx 2a, the entire Stx 2a-encoding bacteriophage, and/or the entire Stx 1-encoding bacteriophage were grazed with similar efficacy by both P. caudatum and Tetrahymena pyriformis (another ciliate protozoon. Therefore, our data provided no evidence of a protective effect of either Stx or the products of other bacteriophage genes on protozoan predation of E. coli. Further research is necessary to determine if the grazing activity of naturally-occurring protozoa in cattle water troughs can serve to decrease cattle exposure to E. coli O157:H7 and other Shiga-toxigenic E. coli.

  15. Global analysis of gene expression in response to L-Cysteine deprivation in the anaerobic protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Entamoeba histolytica, an enteric protozoan parasite, causes amebic colitis and extra intestinal abscesses in millions of inhabitants of endemic areas. E. histolytica completely lacks glutathione metabolism but possesses L-cysteine as the principle low molecular weight thiol. L-Cysteine is essential for the structure, stability, and various protein functions, including catalysis, electron transfer, redox regulation, nitrogen fixation, and sensing for regulatory processes. Recently, we demonstrated that in E. histolytica, L-cysteine regulates various metabolic pathways including energy, amino acid, and phospholipid metabolism. Results In this study, employing custom-made Affymetrix microarrays, we performed time course (3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h) gene expression analysis upon L-cysteine deprivation. We identified that out of 9,327 genes represented on the array, 290 genes encoding proteins with functions in metabolism, signalling, DNA/RNA regulation, electron transport, stress response, membrane transport, vesicular trafficking/secretion, and cytoskeleton were differentially expressed (≥3 fold) at one or more time points upon L-cysteine deprivation. Approximately 60% of these modulated genes encoded proteins of no known function and annotated as hypothetical proteins. We also attempted further functional analysis of some of the most highly modulated genes by L-cysteine depletion. Conclusions To our surprise, L-cysteine depletion caused only limited changes in the expression of genes involved in sulfur-containing amino acid metabolism and oxidative stress defense. In contrast, we observed significant changes in the expression of several genes encoding iron sulfur flavoproteins, a major facilitator super-family transporter, regulator of nonsense transcripts, NADPH-dependent oxido-reductase, short chain dehydrogenase, acetyltransferases, and various other genes involved in diverse cellular functions. This study represents the first genome-wide analysis of

  16. Global analysis of gene expression in response to L-Cysteine deprivation in the anaerobic protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeelani Ghulam

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Entamoeba histolytica, an enteric protozoan parasite, causes amebic colitis and extra intestinal abscesses in millions of inhabitants of endemic areas. E. histolytica completely lacks glutathione metabolism but possesses L-cysteine as the principle low molecular weight thiol. L-Cysteine is essential for the structure, stability, and various protein functions, including catalysis, electron transfer, redox regulation, nitrogen fixation, and sensing for regulatory processes. Recently, we demonstrated that in E. histolytica, L-cysteine regulates various metabolic pathways including energy, amino acid, and phospholipid metabolism. Results In this study, employing custom-made Affymetrix microarrays, we performed time course (3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h gene expression analysis upon L-cysteine deprivation. We identified that out of 9,327 genes represented on the array, 290 genes encoding proteins with functions in metabolism, signalling, DNA/RNA regulation, electron transport, stress response, membrane transport, vesicular trafficking/secretion, and cytoskeleton were differentially expressed (≥3 fold at one or more time points upon L-cysteine deprivation. Approximately 60% of these modulated genes encoded proteins of no known function and annotated as hypothetical proteins. We also attempted further functional analysis of some of the most highly modulated genes by L-cysteine depletion. Conclusions To our surprise, L-cysteine depletion caused only limited changes in the expression of genes involved in sulfur-containing amino acid metabolism and oxidative stress defense. In contrast, we observed significant changes in the expression of several genes encoding iron sulfur flavoproteins, a major facilitator super-family transporter, regulator of nonsense transcripts, NADPH-dependent oxido-reductase, short chain dehydrogenase, acetyltransferases, and various other genes involved in diverse cellular functions. This study represents the first

  17. Separation and Identification of Odd Chain Triacylglycerols of the Protozoan Khawkinea quartana and the Mold Mortierella alpina Using LC-MS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řezanka, Tomáš; Vítová, Milada; Nováková, Alena; Sigler, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 8 (2015), s. 811-820 ISSN 0024-4201 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/11/0215; GA ČR GA14-00227S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Protozoan * Khawkinea quartana * Mold Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.892, year: 2015

  18. Effects of decreased resource availability, protozoan grazing and viral impact on a structure of bacterioplankton assemblage in a canyon-shaped reservoir

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horňák, Karel; Mašín, Michal; Jezbera, Jan; Bettarel, Y.; Nedoma, Jiří; Sime-Ngando, T.; Šimek, Karel

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 3 (2005), s. 315-327 ISSN 0168-6496 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/02/0003 Grant - others:PICS(FR) project 1111 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : bacterioplankton * protozoan grazing * viral lysis Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.787, year: 2005

  19. Use of PFU protozoan community structural and functional characteristics in assessment of water quality in a large, highly polluted freshwater lake in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Muqi; Cao, Hong; Xie, Ping; Deng, Daogui; Feng, Weisong; Xu, Jian

    2005-07-01

    Structural and functional parameters of protozoan communities colonizing on PFU (polyurethane foam unit) artificial substrate were assessed as indicators of water quality in the Chaohu Lake, a large, shallow and highly polluted freshwater lake in China. Protozoan communities were sampled 1, 3, 6, 9 and 14 days after exposure of PFU artificial substrate in the lake during October 2003. Four study stations with the different water quality gradient changes along the lake were distinguishable in terms of differences in the community's structural (species richness, individual abundance, etc.) and functional parameters (protozoan colonization rates on PFU). The concentrations of TP, TN, COD and BOD as the main chemical indicators of pollution at the four sampling sites were also obtained each year during 2002-2003 for comparison with biological parameters. The results showed that the species richness and PFU colonization rate decreased as pollution intensity increased and that the Margalef diversity index values calculated at four sampling sites also related to water quality. The three functional parameters based on the PFU colonization process, that is, S(eq), G and T90%, were strongly related to the pollution status of the water. The number of protozoan species colonizing on PFU after exposure of 1 to 3 days was found to give a clear comparative indication of the water quality at the four sampling stations. The research provides further evidence that the protozoan community may be utilized effectively in the assessment of water quality and that the PFU method furnishes rapid, cost-effective and reliable information that may be useful for measuring responses to pollution stress in aquatic ecosystems.

  20. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ARTHROSCOPIC SINGLE BUNDLE ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION AND NON-ANATOMICAL DOUBLE BUNDLE WITH SINGLE TIBIAL TUNNEL ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION WITH SEMITENDINOSUS ± GRACILIS AUTOGRAFTS USING LAXOMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivananda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The knee joint is the most commonly injured of all joints and the ACL is the most commonly injured ligament. Arthroscopic reconstruction of ACL has become gold standard in treating these injuries. AIM 1. To compare the short-term results of ACL reconstruction using single bundle (one Tibial + one Femoral tunnel and non-anatomical double-bundle (one Tibial + two Femoral tunnels techniques using Hamstrings (Semitendinosus ± Gracilis graft. 2. To evaluate ACL graft reconstruction stability measured by laxometry and to find out an association with clinical findings. MATERIAL & METHODS We performed a prospective study between 2014-2015 of 20 case of ACL injuries & compared single bundle reconstruction with Non – anatomical double Bundle reconstruction with semitendinosus ± Gracilis, Autograft using laxometry. CONCLUSION Arthroscopic Non-anatomical double ACL Reconstruction is Bio-mechanically stable reconstruction resembling anatomy of the ACL.

  1. Calcium signaling in closely related protozoan groups (Alveolata): non-parasitic ciliates (Paramecium, Tetrahymena) vs. parasitic Apicomplexa (Plasmodium, Toxoplasma).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plattner, H; Sehring, I M; Mohamed, I K; Miranda, K; De Souza, W; Billington, R; Genazzani, A; Ladenburger, E-M

    2012-05-01

    The importance of Ca2+-signaling for many subcellular processes is well established in higher eukaryotes, whereas information about protozoa is restricted. Recent genome analyses have stimulated such work also with Alveolates, such as ciliates (Paramecium, Tetrahymena) and their pathogenic close relatives, the Apicomplexa (Plasmodium, Toxoplasma). Here we compare Ca2+ signaling in the two closely related groups. Acidic Ca2+ stores have been characterized in detail in Apicomplexa, but hardly in ciliates. Two-pore channels engaged in Ca2+-release from acidic stores in higher eukaryotes have not been stingently characterized in either group. Both groups are endowed with plasma membrane- and endoplasmic reticulum-type Ca2+-ATPases (PMCA, SERCA), respectively. Only recently was it possible to identify in Paramecium a number of homologs of ryanodine and inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate receptors (RyR, IP3R) and to localize them to widely different organelles participating in vesicle trafficking. For Apicomplexa, physiological experiments suggest the presence of related channels although their identity remains elusive. In Paramecium, IP3Rs are constitutively active in the contractile vacuole complex; RyR-related channels in alveolar sacs are activated during exocytosis stimulation, whereas in the parasites the homologous structure (inner membrane complex) may no longer function as a Ca2+ store. Scrutinized comparison of the two closely related protozoan phyla may stimulate further work and elucidate adaptation to parasitic life. See also "Conclusions" section. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Protozoans bacterivory in a subtropical environment during a dry/cold and a rainy/warm season

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    Karina F. Hisatugo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In aquatic ecosystems, bacteria are controlled by several organisms in the food chain, such as protozoa, that use them as food source. This study aimed to quantify the ingestion and clearance rates of bacteria by ciliates and heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNF in a subtropical freshwater reservoir (Monjolinho reservoir -São Carlos -Brazil during one year period, in order to verify their importance as consumers and controllers of bacteria in two seasons, a dry/cold and a rainy/warm one. For this purpose, in situ bacterivory experiments were carried out bimonthly using fluorescently labeled bacteria with 5-(4,6 diclorotriazin-2yl aminofluorescein (DTAF. Although ciliates have shown the highest individual ingestion and clearance rates, bacterivory was dominated by HNF, who showed higher population ingestion rates (mean of 9,140 bacteria h-1mL-1 when compared to ciliates (mean of 492 bacteria h-1mL-1. The greater predation impact on bacterial communities was caused mainly by the small HNF (< 5 µm population, especially in the rainy season, probably due to the abundances of these organisms, the precipitation, trophic index state and water temperature that were higher in this period. Thus, the protozoan densities together with environmental variables were extremely relevant in determining the seasonal pattern of bacterivory in Monjolinho reservoir.

  3. Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis infection and protozoan load in South African women: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waaij, Dewi J

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Trichomonas vaginalis is thought to be the most common non-viral sexually transmitted infection worldwide. We investigated the prevalence, risk factors and protozoan load of T. vaginalis infection in South African women. Methods A cross-sectional study of 604 women was conducted at 25 primary healthcare facilities in rural South Africa (Mopani district). T. vaginalis DNA was detected in vaginal and rectal swabs. In univariate and multivariate analyses, the T. vaginalis infection was investigated in relation to demographic characteristics, medical history and behavioural factors. The T. vaginalis load was determined as the logarithm of DNA copies per microlitre sample solution. Results Collected vaginal and rectal swabs were tested for T. vaginalis DNA. Prevalence of vaginal T. vaginalis was 20% (95% CI 17.0% to 23.4%) and rectal 1.2% (95% CI 0.6% to 2.4%). Most women (66%) with a vaginal infection were asymptomatic. Factors associated with T. vaginalis infection were a relationship status of single (OR 2.4; 95% CI 1.5 to 4.0; pvaginalis infection were more likely to have concurrent Chlamydia trachomatis rectal infection than those without vaginal infection (12%vs3%; pvaginalis load was observed among women with observed vaginal discharge compared with those without vaginal discharge (p=0.025). Conclusions Vaginal trichomoniasis is highly prevalent in rural South Africa, especially among single women and those with HIV infection, and often presents without symptoms. PMID:28993385

  4. Introduction of caveolae structural proteins into the protozoan Toxoplasma results in the formation of heterologous caveolae but not caveolar endocytosis.

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    Bao Lige

    Full Text Available Present on the plasma membrane of most metazoans, caveolae are specialized microdomains implicated in several endocytic and trafficking mechanisms. Caveolins and the more recently discovered cavins are the major protein components of caveolae. Previous studies reported that caveolar invaginations can be induced de novo on the surface of caveolae-negative mammalian cells upon heterologous expression of caveolin-1. However, it remains undocumented whether other components in the transfected cells participate in caveolae formation. To address this issue, we have exploited the protozoan Toxoplasma as a heterologous expression system to provide insights into the minimal requirements for caveogenesis and caveolar endocytosis. Upon expression of caveolin-1, Toxoplasma accumulates prototypical exocytic caveolae 'precursors' in the cytoplasm. Toxoplasma expressing caveolin-1 alone, or in conjunction with cavin-1, neither develops surface-located caveolae nor internalizes caveolar ligands. These data suggest that the formation of functional caveolae at the plasma membrane in Toxoplasma and, by inference in all non-mammalian cells, requires effectors other than caveolin-1 and cavin-1. Interestingly, Toxoplasma co-expressing caveolin-1 and cavin-1 displays an impressive spiraled network of membranes containing the two proteins, in the cytoplasm. This suggests a synergistic activity of caveolin-1 and cavin-1 in the morphogenesis and remodeling of membranes, as illustrated for Toxoplasma.

  5. Incidence of adult brain cancers is higher in countries where the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii is common

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Frédéric; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Brodeur, Jacques; Elguero, Eric; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel; Missé, Dorothée

    2012-01-01

    We explored associations between the common protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii and brain cancers in human populations. We predicted that T. gondii could increase the risk of brain cancer because it is a long-lived parasite that encysts in the brain, where it provokes inflammation and inhibits apoptosis. We used a medical geography approach based on the national incidence of brain cancers and seroprevalence of T. gondii. We corrected reports of incidence for national gross domestic product because wealth probably increases the ability to detect cancer. We also included gender, cell phone use and latitude as variables in our initial models. Prevalence of T. gondii explained 19 per cent of the residual variance in brain cancer incidence after controlling for the positive effects of gross domestic product and latitude among nations. Infection with T. gondii was associated with a 1.8-fold increase in the risk of brain cancers across the range of T. gondii prevalence in our dataset (4–67%). These results, though correlational, suggest that T. gondii should be investigated further as a possible oncogenic pathogen of humans.

  6. Marine-Derived 2-Aminoimidazolone Alkaloids. Leucettamine B-Related Polyandrocarpamines Inhibit Mammalian and Protozoan DYRK & CLK Kinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadège Loaëc

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A large diversity of 2-aminoimidazolone alkaloids is produced by various marine invertebrates, especially by the marine Calcareous sponges Leucetta and Clathrina. The phylogeny of these sponges and the wide scope of 2-aminoimidazolone alkaloids they produce are reviewed in this article. The origin (invertebrate cells, associated microorganisms, or filtered plankton, physiological functions, and natural molecular targets of these alkaloids are largely unknown. Following the identification of leucettamine B as an inhibitor of selected protein kinases, we synthesized a family of analogues, collectively named leucettines, as potent inhibitors of DYRKs (dual-specificity, tyrosine phosphorylation regulated kinases and CLKs (cdc2-like kinases and potential pharmacological leads for the treatment of several diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease and Down syndrome. We assembled a small library of marine sponge- and ascidian-derived 2-aminoimidazolone alkaloids, along with several synthetic analogues, and tested them on a panel of mammalian and protozoan kinases. Polyandrocarpamines A and B were found to be potent and selective inhibitors of DYRKs and CLKs. They inhibited cyclin D1 phosphorylation on a DYRK1A phosphosite in cultured cells. 2-Aminoimidazolones thus represent a promising chemical scaffold for the design of potential therapeutic drug candidates acting as specific inhibitors of disease-relevant kinases, and possibly other disease-relevant targets.

  7. CAMBIOS EN LA ESTRUCTURA DE LA POBLACIÓN DE Boeckella gracilis (CRUSTACEA, CENTROPAGIDAE EN EL PLANCTON DEL LAGO DE TOTA, BOYACÁ - COLOMBIA

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    ADRIANA DEL PILAR GONZÁLEZ ANGARITA

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un seguimiento a la población de Boeckella gracilis Daday, 1902 en el lago de Tota, Boyacá, Colombia, durante seis meses con periodicidad quincenal a partir de mayo de 2004. La densidad poblacional fue de 11.968 Ind.m-3 en promedio y expresó un incremento progresivo hasta el final del estudio que corresponde a época de fuertes lluvias en la zona y aguas altas en el lago. Los machos adultos dominaron en densidad y biomasa, constituyendo el 32,5% y el 35,8% de la población, respectivamente. La fecundidad promedio se estimó en 0,32 huevos por hembra. En la época de aguas altas se presentó un aumento de la actividad reproductiva evidenciado por el incremento de la fecundidad y el mayor número de copepoditos. Con base en el análisis de componentes principales, la transparencia, el pH y el oxígeno disuelto fueron las variables determinantes de la expresión temporal del hábitat. El comportamiento de la biomasa de la población se asoció positivamente con la variación de la densidad de los adultos y copepoditos y negativamente con la concentración de oxígeno disuelto en el lago.

  8. Reconstrucción mamaria mediante colgajo transverso miocutáneo de gracilis: evaluación de resultados y estudio comparativo

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    V. Yuste-Benavente

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El uso de tejido abdominal representa una de las primeras líneas de actuación en reconstrucción mamaria con tejido autólogo. En aquellas pacientes en las que no está disponible, el colgajo miocutáneo transverso de gracilis (TMG representa una opción válida para la creación de una nueva mama. Presentamos una serie de 10 casos de reconstrucción mamaria con TMG con el objetivo de evaluar esta opción quirúrgica. Para ello, administramos a las pacientes intervenidas un cuestionario sobre calidad de la reconstrucción y de la zona donante y valoramos además: la duración promedio de la intervención, el periodo promedio de ingreso hospitalario, las complicaciones sufridas en el área donante y en la mama reconstruida. Para poder comparar los resultados obtenidos con esta técnica, recogimos también los mismos datos en las pacientes sometidas a reconstrucción mamaria con colgajo de músculo dorsal ancho, una alternativa a la reconstrucción con tejido abdominal ampliamente extendida. Exponemos los resultados de la comparación, que obtuvieron resultados superiores en los ítems referentes al aspecto de la mama reconstruida con el colgajo TMG.

  9. Involvement of a putative intercellular signal-recognizing G protein-coupled receptor in the engulfment of Salmonella by the protozoan Tetrahymena

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    P.N. Agbedanu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to investigate the molecular basis of protozoa engulfment-mediated hypervirulence of Salmonella in cattle, we evaluated protozoan G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs as transducers of Salmonella engulfment by the model protozoan Tetrahymena. Our laboratory previously demonstrated that non-pathogenic protozoa (including Tetrahymena engulf Salmonella and then exacerbate its virulence in cattle, but the mechanistic details of the phenomenon are not fully understood. GPCRs were investigated since these receptors facilitate phagocytosis of particulates by Tetrahymena, and a GPCR apparently modulates bacterial engulfment for the pathogenic protozoan Entamoeba histolytica. A database search identified three putative Tetrahymena GPCRs, based on sequence homologies and predicted transmembrane domains, that were the focus of this study. Salmonella engulfment by Tetrahymena was assessed in the presence of suramin, a non-specific GPCR inhibitor. Salmonella engulfment was also assessed in Tetrahymena in which expression of putative GPCRs was knocked-down using RNAi. A candidate GPCR was then expressed in a heterologous yeast expression system for further characterization. Our results revealed that Tetrahymena were less efficient at engulfing Salmonella in the presence of suramin. Engulfment was reduced concordantly with a reduction in the density of protozoa. RNAi-based studies revealed that knock-down of one the Tetrahymena GPCRs caused diminished engulfment of Salmonella. Tetrahymena lysates activated this receptor in the heterologous expression system. These data demonstrate that the Tetrahymena receptor is a putative GPCR that facilitates bacterial engulfment by Tetrahymena. Activation of the putative GPCR seemed to be related to protozoan cell density, suggesting that its cognate ligand is an intercellular signaling molecule.

  10. A novel soluble immune-type receptor (SITR in teleost fish: carp SITR is involved in the nitric oxide-mediated response to a protozoan parasite.

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    Carla M S Ribeiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The innate immune system relies upon a wide range of germ-line encoded receptors including a large number of immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF receptors. Different Ig-like immune receptor families have been reported in mammals, birds, amphibians and fish. Most innate immune receptors of the IgSF are type I transmembrane proteins containing one or more extracellular Ig-like domains and their regulation of effector functions is mediated intracellularly by distinct stimulatory or inhibitory pathways.Carp SITR was found in a substracted cDNA repertoire from carp macrophages, enriched for genes up-regulated in response to the protozoan parasite Trypanoplasma borreli. Carp SITR is a type I protein with two extracellular Ig domains in a unique organisation of a N-proximal V/C2 (or I- type and a C-proximal V-type Ig domain, devoid of a transmembrane domain or any intracytoplasmic signalling motif. The carp SITR C-proximal V-type Ig domain, in particular, has a close sequence similarity and conserved structural characteristics to the mammalian CD300 molecules. By generating an anti-SITR antibody we could show that SITR protein expression was restricted to cells of the myeloid lineage. Carp SITR is abundantly expressed in macrophages and is secreted upon in vitro stimulation with the protozoan parasite T. borreli. Secretion of SITR protein during in vivo T. borreli infection suggests a role for this IgSF receptor in the host response to this protozoan parasite. Overexpression of carp SITR in mouse macrophages and knock-down of SITR protein expression in carp macrophages, using morpholino antisense technology, provided evidence for the involvement of carp SITR in the parasite-induced NO production.We report the structural and functional characterization of a novel soluble immune-type receptor (SITR in a teleost fish and propose a role for carp SITR in the NO-mediated response to a protozoan parasite.

  11. Application of magnetically induced hyperthermia in the model protozoan Crithidia fasciculata as a potential therapy against parasitic infections

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    Grazú V

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available V Grazú,1 AM Silber,2 M Moros,1 L Asín,1 TE Torres,1,3,5 C Marquina,3,4 MR Ibarra,1,3 GF Goya1,31Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragón (INA, Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain; 2Departamento de Parasitologia, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 3Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain; 4Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón (ICMA, CSIC, Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain; 5Laboratorio de Microscopías Avanzadas (LMA, Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, SpainBackground: Magnetic hyperthermia is currently a clinical therapy approved in the European Union for treatment of tumor cells, and uses magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs under time-varying magnetic fields (TVMFs. The same basic principle seems promising against trypanosomatids causing Chagas disease and sleeping sickness, given that the therapeutic drugs available have severe side effects and that there are drug-resistant strains. However, no applications of this strategy against protozoan-induced diseases have been reported so far. In the present study, Crithidia fasciculata, a widely used model for therapeutic strategies against pathogenic trypanosomatids, was targeted with Fe3O4 MNPs in order to provoke cell death remotely using TVMFs.Methods: Iron oxide MNPs with average diameters of approximately 30 nm were synthesized by precipitation of FeSO4 in basic medium. The MNPs were added to C. fasciculata choanomastigotes in the exponential phase and incubated overnight, removing excess MNPs using a DEAE-cellulose resin column. The amount of MNPs uploaded per cell was determined by magnetic measurement. The cells bearing MNPs were submitted to TVMFs using a homemade AC field applicator (f = 249 kHz, H = 13 kA/m, and the temperature variation during the experiments was measured. Scanning electron microscopy was used to assess morphological changes after the TVMF

  12. Macrophage and T-cell gene expression in a model of early infection with the protozoan Leishmania chagasi.

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    Nicholas A Ettinger

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis is a potentially fatal infectious disease caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania infantum/chagasi in the New World, or by L. donovani or L. infantum/chagasi in the Old World. Infection leads to a variety of outcomes ranging from asymptomatic infection to active disease, characterized by fevers, cachexia, hepatosplenomegaly and suppressed immune responses. We reasoned that events occurring during the initial few hours when the parasite encounters cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems are likely to influence the eventual immune response that develops. Therefore, we performed gene expression analysis using Affymetrix U133Plus2 microarray chips to investigate a model of early infection with human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs challenged with wild-type L. chagasi parasites, with or without subsequent co-culture with Leishmania-naïve, autologous T-cells. Microarray data generated from total RNA were analyzed with software from the Bioconductor Project and functional clustering and pathway analysis were performed with DAVID and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA, respectively. Many transcripts were down-regulated by infection in cultures containing macrophages alone, and the pattern indicated a lack of a classically activated phenotype. By contrast, the addition of autologous Leishmania-naïve T cells to infected macrophages resulted in a pattern of gene expression including many markers of type 1 immune cytokine activation (IFN-gamma, IL-6, IL-1alpha, IL-1beta. There was simultaneous up-regulation of a few markers of immune modulation (IL-10 cytokine accumulation; TGF-beta Signaling Pathway. We suggest that the initial encounter between L. chagasi and cells of the innate and adaptive immune system stimulates primarily type 1 immune cytokine responses, despite a lack of classical macrophage activation. This local microenvironment at the site of parasite inoculation may determine the initial course of immune T

  13. Molecular and phylogenetic characterization of honey bee viruses, Nosema microsporidia, protozoan parasites, and parasitic mites in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bu; Peng, Guangda; Li, Tianbang; Kadowaki, Tatsuhiko

    2013-02-01

    China has the largest number of managed honey bee colonies, which produce the highest quantity of honey and royal jelly in the world; however, the presence of honey bee pathogens and parasites has never been rigorously identified in Chinese apiaries. We thus conducted a molecular survey of honey bee RNA viruses, Nosema microsporidia, protozoan parasites, and tracheal mites associated with nonnative Apis mellifera ligustica and native Apis cerana cerana colonies in China. We found the presence of black queen cell virus (BQCV), chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV), deformed wing virus (DWV), Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV), and sacbrood virus (SBV), but not that of acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV) or Kashmir bee virus (KBV). DWV was the most prevalent in the tested samples. Phylogenies of Chinese viral isolates demonstrated that genetically heterogeneous populations of BQCV, CBPV, DWV, and A. cerana-infecting SBV, and relatively homogenous populations of IAPV and A. meliifera-infecting new strain of SBV with single origins, are spread in Chinese apiaries. Similar to previous observations in many countries, Nosema ceranae, but not Nosema apis, was prevalent in the tested samples. Crithidia mellificae, but not Apicystis bombi was found in five samples, including one A. c. cerana colony, demonstrating that C. mellificae is capable of infecting multiple honey bee species. Based on kinetoplast-encoded cytochrome b sequences, the C. mellificae isolate from A. c. cerana represents a novel haplotype with 19 nucleotide differences from the Chinese and Japanese isolates from A. m. ligustica. This suggests that A. c. cerana is the native host for this specific haplotype. The tracheal mite, Acarapis woodi, was detected in one A. m. ligustica colony. Our results demonstrate that honey bee RNA viruses, N. ceranae, C. mellificae, and tracheal mites are present in Chinese apiaries, and some might be originated from native Asian honey bees.

  14. Produção de mudas de dois genótipos de alecrim-de-tabuleiro (Lippia gracilis Schauer em função de fertilizante mineral, calcário, substratos e recipientes Seedling production of two "alecrim-de-tabuleiro" (Lippia gracilis Schauer genotypes under mineral fertilizer, limestone, substrates and containers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C.L Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lippia gracilis Schauer popularmente conhecida como alecrim-de-tabuleiro possui moderada atividade antibacteriana, antimicrobiana e antiséptica. Objetivando avaliar o efeito de doses de fertilizante mineral, calcário, substratos e recipientes na produção de mudas de dois genótipos de alecrim-de-tabuleiro realizou-se experimentos com estacas de dois genótipos de L. gracilis. No experimento 1, foram utilizadas estacas apicais distribuídas em bandejas de poliestireno expandido de 128 células com o substrato pó-de-coco + areia (1:1, três repetições e oito estacas por repetição. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 4x2x2, sendo quatro doses do fertilizante (6-24-12+micronutrientes (1, 2, 3 e 4 g L-1, duas doses de calcário (0 e 1 g L-1 e dois genótipos (LGRA106 e LGRA201. Aos 35 após plantio, foram avaliadas a sobrevivência (%, enraizamento (%, comprimento de raiz (cm e massa seca de raiz (mg. No experimento 2, foram utilizadas três repetições com oito estacas por repetição. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas onde foram testados nas parcelas dois recipientes (bandeja de poliestireno expandido de 128 alvéolos e tubetes de 110 cm³, na sub parcela foram testadas as combinações de quatro substratos (PC - pó de coco; PCA (1:1 - pó de coco + areia (1:1; PCA (2:1 - pó de coco + areia (2:1 e PCA (3:1 - pó de coco + areia (3:1 e dois genótipos (LGRA106 e LGRA201. Aos 35 dias após o plantio foram analisadas as mesmas variáveis do experimento 1, além de altura de parte aérea (cm e massa seca de parte aérea (mg. A utilização de 1 g L-1 do fertilizante na ausência de calcário foi efetivo para sobrevivência de plantas e enraizamento de estacas de alecrim-de-tabuleiro. Com base nesses experimentos, concluiu-se que o genótipo LGRA106 é superior ao LGRA201 nas variáveis analisadas e recomenda-se a bandeja de poliestireno expandido para

  15. Neurotization of free gracilis transfer with the brachialis branch of the musculocutaneous nerve to restore finger and thumb flexion in lower trunk brachial plexus injury: an anatomical study and case report

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    Yi Yang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the feasibility of using free gracilis muscle transfer along with the brachialis muscle branch of the musculocutaneous nerve to restore finger and thumb flexion in lower trunk brachial plexus injury according to an anatomical study and a case report. METHODS: Thirty formalin-fixed upper extremities from 15 adult cadavers were used in this study. The distance from the point at which the brachialis muscle branch of the musculocutaneous nerve originates to the midpoint of the humeral condylar was measured, as well as the length, diameter, course and branch type of the brachialis muscle branch of the musculocutaneous nerve. An 18-year-old male who sustained an injury to the left brachial plexus underwent free gracilis transfer using the brachialis muscle branch of the musculocutaneous nerve as the donor nerve to restore finger and thumb flexion. Elbow flexion power and hand grip strength were recorded according to British Medical Research Council standards. Postoperative measures of the total active motion of the fingers were obtained monthly. RESULTS: The mean length and diameter of the brachialis muscle branch of the musculocutaneous nerve were 52.66±6.45 and 1.39±0.09 mm, respectively, and three branching types were observed. For the patient, the first gracilis contraction occurred during the 4th month. A noticeable improvement was observed in digit flexion one year later; the muscle power was M4, and the total active motion of the fingers was 209°. CONCLUSIONS: Repairing injury to the lower trunk of the brachial plexus by transferring the brachialis muscle branch of the musculocutaneous nerve to the anterior branch of the obturator nerve using a tension-free direct suture is technically feasible, and the clinical outcome was satisfactory in a single surgical patient.

  16. Talla de captura y reproducción de la langosta verde Panulirus gracilis (Decapoda: Palinuridae en la costa de Manabí, Ecuador

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    Juan Figueroa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available La langosta verde Panulirus gracilis es un recurso de gran importancia económica para las poblaciones pesqueras de la costa continental del Ecuador. Esta especie es capturada tradicionalmente mediante redes y buceo semiautónomo (hookah. Para analizar algunos aspectos biológicos de la pesquería en la provincia de Manabí, se examinó la talla de captura (longitud cefalotorácica: LC y abdominal: LA, proporción sexual y aspectos reproductivos en hembras (n=415 de 703 especímenes entre junio y septiembre 2010: con red en El Mangle-Puerto Cayo (costa central, profundidad: 3-6m, y mediante buceo en Puerto López-Salango (costa centro-sur, profundidad: 7-12m. La proporción sexual: machos a hembras fue 0.72:1 para captura con red y 0.63:1 para buceo. Las langostas capturadas con buceo fueron más grandes (84.1±3.3mm LC que las capturadas con red (73.4±2.9mm LC. La proporción de hembras ovígeras capturadas con buceo fue mayor que en las capturas con red. La diferencia entre talla y ocurrencia de hembras ovígeras podría relacionarse con la profundidad a la que los métodos de captura fueron utilizados. El 98% de las langostas analizadas estuvieron por debajo de la talla legal. Se propone el establecimiento de un programa de evaluación continua del recurso durante la temporada de pesca y veda para conocer la fluctuación natural del tamaño y época reproductiva de la langosta verde en Manabí.

  17. Occurrence of health-compromising protozoan and helminth infections in tortoises kept as pet animals in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallinger, Malek J; Taubert, Anja; Hermosilla, Carlos; Mutschmann, Frank

    2018-06-18

    Exotic reptiles such as tortoises, have become increasingly common domestic pets worldwide and are known to host different gastrointestinal parasites. Some of these parasites bear zoonotic potential. In the present survey, we parasitologically examined tortoise faecal samples (n = 1005) from 19 different species held as pets in private German households and German zoological gardens. Saline faecal smears were used to generate prevalence data for potentially health-compromising gastrointestinal parasites. In addition, we performed complete parasitological dissections of dead tortoises (n = 49) to estimate endoparasite burdens precisely. Analysed tortoise faecal samples contained a broad spectrum of endoparasites. We detected ten taxa of endoparasites; oxyurid nematodes (e.g. Tachygonetria spp.) were the most prevalent parasites in faecal samples (43.18%), followed by ascarids (Angusticaecum spp.) (0.01%), Hexamita spp. (0.007%), Balantidium spp. (0.007%), trichomonads (0.004%), Strongyloides spp. (0.003%), Entamoeba spp. (0.005%), Hartmanella spp. (0.001%), Blastocystis spp. (0.002%), heterakids (0.001%) and Trimitus spp. (0.001%). Additionally, we investigated dead tortoise individuals (n = 49; of 10 different species) for aetiological diagnosis and estimation of endoparasite burden. Of these individuals, 38 (77.6%) were infected with parasites and 14 (28.6%) of them died most probably due to severe parasitic infection. Oxyurid infections correlated positively with calcium deficiency and metabolic bone disease (MBD) as well as nephrosis/nephritis, mainly occurring in juvenile tortoises (< 5 years of age). The saline faecal smear technique proved to be efficient in detecting different metazoan and protozoan parasite stages in tortoise faeces. The prevalence of oxyurid infections was particularly high. In combination with pathological findings in clinical oxyuridosis obtained from necropsied animals, our findings call for further, detailed investigations on

  18. Protozoan and helminth parasite fauna of free-living Croatian wild wolves (Canis lupus) analyzed by scat collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermosilla, Carlos; Kleinertz, Sonja; Silva, Liliana M R; Hirzmann, Jörg; Huber, Djuro; Kusak, Josip; Taubert, Anja

    2017-01-15

    The European wolf (Canis lupus) is a large carnivore species present in limited areas of Europe with several small populations still being considered as endangered. Wolves can be infected by a wide range of protozoan and metazoan parasites with some of them affecting free-living wolf health condition. On this account, an epidemiological survey was conducted to analyze the actual parasite fauna in Croatian wild wolves. In total, 400 individual faecal samples were collected during field studies on wolf ecology in the years 2002-2011. Parasite stages were identified by the sodium acetate acetic acid formalin (SAF)-technique, carbolfuchsin-stained faecal smears and Giardia/Cryptosporidium coproantigen-ELISAs. A subset of taeniid eggs-positive wolf samples was additionally analyzed by PCR and subsequent sequencing to identify eggs on Echinococcus granulosus/E. multilocularis species level. In total 18 taxa of parasites were here detected. Sarcocystis spp. (19.1%) occurred most frequently in faecal samples, being followed by Capillaria spp. (16%), ancylostomatids (13.1%), Crenosoma vulpis (4.6%), Angiostrongylus vasorum (3.1%), Toxocara canis (2.8%), Hammondia/Neospora spp. (2.6 %), Cystoisospora ohioensis (2.1%), Giardia spp. (2.1%), Cystoisospora canis (1.8%), Cryptosporidium spp. (1.8%), Trichuris vulpis (1.5%), Taenia spp. (1.5%), Diphyllobothrium latum (1.5%), Strongyloides spp. (0.5%), Opisthorchis felineus (0.5%), Toxascaris leonina (0.3%), Mesocestoides litteratus (0.3%) and Alaria alata (0.3%). Some of the here identified parasites represent relevant pathogens for wolves, circulating between these carnivorous definitive hosts and a variety of mammalian intermediate hosts, e. g. Taenia spp. and Sarcocystis spp., while others are considered exclusively pathogenic for canids (e.g. A. vasorum, C. vulpis, T. vulpis, Cystoisospora spp.). This study provides first records on the occurrence of the two relevant anthropozoonotic parasites, Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium

  19. Factores de virulencia del patógeno intestinal Entamoeba histolytica Virulence factors of the enteric protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica

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    Juanita Trejos-Suárez

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Entamoeba histolytica es un protozoo entérico causante de la amebiasis intestinal y extraintestinal. Se calcula que 10% de la población mundial está infectada por el complejo Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar. Según la OMS, hay 500 millones de nuevas infecciones por año y, aproximadamente, 70.000 a 100.000 muertes a causas de ellas. Este parásito cumple un proceso de invasión muy elaborado, en el cual se secretan y expresan proteínas que le permiten adherirse al epitelio, degradar la matriz extracelular y producir citólisis de las células epiteliales para penetrar dentro de la mucosa. El entendimiento de estos factores de virulencia ha generado múltiples estudios en diferentes áreas de las ciencias biomédicas, desde métodos diagnósticos cada vez más sensibles y específicos hasta candidatos para vacunas, lo que abre nuevas expectativas terapéuticas a raíz de estos estudios.The enteric protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica is a human pathogen that causes widespread morbidity and mortality. It is estimated that 10% of the world’s population is infected with the complex Entamoeba histolytica/ Entamoeba dispar. According to the WHO there are 500 million new infections per year and it is the cause of approximately 70,000 - 100,000 deaths. This parasite has a very elaborate process of invasion, where there are expressed and secreted proteins that allow the parasite to adhere to the epithelium, to degrade extracellular matrix and to penetrate epithelial cells within the mucosa. Numerous studies have been carried out to understand how virulence factors work in diverse areas of biomedical sciences. The studies have proposed diagnostic tests to increase the sensitivity and specificity and to find vaccine candidates, which are an opening way to new therapeutic expectations.

  20. Dysfunctions at human intestinal barrier by water-borne protozoan parasites: lessons from cultured human fully differentiated colon cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liévin-Le Moal, Vanessa

    2013-06-01

    Some water-borne protozoan parasites induce diseases through their membrane-associated functional structures and virulence factors that hijack the host cellular molecules and signalling pathways leading to structural and functional lesions in the intestinal barrier. In this Microreview we analyse the insights on the mechanisms of pathogenesis of Entamoeba intestinalis, Giardia and Cryptosporidium observed in the human colon carcinoma fully differentiated colon cancer cell lines, cell subpopulations and clones expressing the structural and functional characteristics of highly specialized fully differentiated epithelial cells lining the intestinal epithelium and mimicking structurally and functionally an intestinal barrier. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. A new blind snake of the genus Letheobia (Serpentes: Typhlopidae) from Rwanda with redescriptions of L. gracilis (Sternfeld, 1910) and L. graueri (Sternfeld, 1912) and the introduction of a non-invasive preparation procedure for scanning electron microscopy in zoology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehling, J Maximilian; Hinkel, Harald H; Ensikat, Hans-jÜrgen; Babilon, Kenny; Fischer, Eberhard

    2018-02-11

    A new species of blind snake in the genus Letheobia is described from Akagera National Park in eastern Rwanda. The new species is most similar to species of the L. gracilis complex, particularly L. gracilis and L. graueri. It differs from all other species of the genus by a unique combination of morphological characters, including the highest number of middorsal scale rows (834) and the most extreme elongation (total-length/midbody-width ratio 131) of all species in the genus and of any species of snake in the world; 22-22-22 longitudinal scale rows; snout in dorsal profile rounded, in lateral profile bluntly rounded with an angular horizontal edge ventrally; rostral broad, posteriorly rounded; eyes invisible; supralabial imbrication pattern T-0; tail short (1.3 percent of total length) with an apical spine; and a pink life colouration. The holotype of the new species was collected in gallery forest at a lake shore surrounded by savanna at 1300 m elevation. We produced scanning electron microscope images of the heads of the investigated specimens applying a liquid-substitution preparation procedure which does not require coating or drying and thus does not irreversibly damage the investigated samples. The obtained images allow an easy and more accurate examination of the scalation.

  2. Effects of mixed substrates on growth and vitamin production by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of mixed carbon sources on growth and production of vitamins E and A by Euglena gracilis cells were investigated in batch culture. The cells were grown mixotrophically in glucose (G), ethanol (E) and a mixture of glucose and ethanol (EG). Cell growth was measured by counting the cell number with microscope, ...

  3. Modeling and Control of Algae Harvesting, Dewatering and Drying (HDD) Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    concentration to 5% water based on latent heat of vaporization Algae Botryococcus braunii Chlorella vulgaris Euglena gracilis Nannochlorops is...microalga Chlorella protothecoides by heterotrophic growth in fermenters. J Biotechnol 126:499–507, 2006 [9] Acièn Fernández F-G, Garcìa Camacho F

  4. Evolution of the Tetrapyrrole Biosynthetic Pathway in Secondary Algae: Conservation, Redundancy and Replacement

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cihlář, J.; Füssy, Z.; Horák, A.; Oborník, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 11 (2016), e0166338 E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : DELTA-AMINOLEVULINIC-ACID * PLASTID EVOLUTION * EUGLENA-GRACILIS Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016

  5. Kinetics of petroleum oil biodegradation by a consortium of three protozoan isolates (Aspidisca sp., Trachelophyllum sp. and Peranema sp.

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    L. Kachieng’a

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum oil is a complex mixture of substances, the majority of which are hydrocarbons; the latter represent an extremely important and heterogeneous group of compounds that find their way into water resources by anthropogenic or natural ways. The majority of toxic hydrocarbon components of petroleum are biodegradable, where bioremediation using microbial species has become an integral process for the restoration of oil-polluted areas. In this study, three bioremediation processes, namely natural attenuation, nutrient supplementation by adding glucose and biostimulation by adding Tween® 80, were carried out in various petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in polluted water media using a consortium of three protozoan isolates (Aspidisca sp., Trachelophyllum sp. and Peranema sp.. A first-order kinetics model was fitted to the biodegradation data to evaluate the biodegradation rate and to determine the corresponding half-life time. First-order kinetics satisfactorily described the biodegradation of the petroleum-based contaminants under abiotic conditions. The results showed an increase in the percentage removal of petroleum oil at the lower petroleum concentrations and a gradual percentage decrease in removing petroleum oil residues occurred when there was an increase in the initial concentrations of the petroleum oil: 39%, 27%, 22%, 12%, 10% for various petroleum oil concentrations of 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 mg/L, respectively. A similar trend was also observed in the glucose-supplemented culture media where the reduction was 45% and 78% for petroleum concentrations of 250 mg/L and 50 mg/L, respectively. Biodegradation of between 33 and 90% was achieved at a Tween® 80 concentration of between 50 mg/L and 250 mg/L. The degradation rate constants for the natural attenuation process ranged between ≥0 to ≤0.50, ≥0 to ≤0.35, ≥0 to ≤0.25, ≥0 to ≤ 0.14 and ≥ 0 to ≤0.11 for petroleum oil concentrations varying from 50, 100, 150

  6. Survey of protozoan, helminth and viral infections in shrimp Litopenaeus setiferus and prawn Macrobrachium acanthurus native to the Jamapa River region, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Machín, Magda E; Hernández-Vergara, Martha P; Jiménez-García, Isabel; Simá-Alvarez, Raúl; Rodríguez-Canul, Rossanna

    2011-09-09

    We surveyed protozoan and metazoan parasites as well as white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and infectious hypodermal hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) in white shrimp Litopenaeus setiferus and the palaemonid prawn Macrobrachium acanthurus native to the lower Jamapa River region of Veracruz, Mexico. The presence of parasites and the infection parameters were evaluated in 113 palaemonid prawns collected during the northwind (n = 45), rainy (n = 38) and dry seasons (n = 30) between October 2007 and July 2008, and in 91 shrimp collected in the rainy season between May and June 2008. In L. setiferus, ciliates of the subclass Apostomatia (Ascophrys sp.) were evident in gills, and third-stage larvae of the nematode Physocephalus sexalatus were evident in the stomach. Cestodes of the genus Prochristianella were evident in the hepatopancreas, while some gregarines of the genus Nematopsis, as well as unidentified larval cestodes, were observed in the intestine. Histology identified Ascophrys sp. in association with gill necrosis and tissue melanization. Slight inflammation was observed in intestinal epithelium near cestode larvae. In M. acanthurus, epibionts of the protozoans Epistylis sp., Acineta sp. and Lagenophrys sp. were observed under uropods, periopods and pleopods. An unidentified ciliate of the Apostomatia was also found in the gills, and Nematopsis was identified in the intestine. No histopathology was observed in association with these parasites. Moreover, neither WSSV nor IHHNV were detected by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in any of the L. setiferus or M. acanthurus analysed.

  7. Environmental drivers of heterogeneity in the trophic-functional structure of protozoan communities during an annual cycle in a coastal ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guangjian; Yang, Eun Jin; Xu, Henglong

    2017-08-15

    Trophic-functional groupings are an important biological trait to summarize community structure in functional space. The heterogeneity of the tropic-functional pattern of protozoan communities and its environmental drivers were studied in coastal waters of the Yellow Sea during a 1-year cycle. Samples were collected using the glass slide method at four stations within a water pollution gradient. A second-stage matrix-based analysis was used to summarize spatial variation in the annual pattern of the functional structure. A clustering analysis revealed significant variability in the trophic-functional pattern among the four stations during the 1-year cycle. The heterogeneity in the trophic-functional pattern of the communities was significantly related to changes in environmental variables, particularly ammonium-nitrogen and nitrates, alone or in combination with dissolved oxygen. These results suggest that the heterogeneity in annual patterns of protozoan trophic-functional structure may reflect water quality status in coastal ecosystems. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Ecological effects of ionizing radiation and other toxic agents on the aquatic microcosm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuma, Shoichi; Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Takeda, Hiroshi; Miyamoto, Kiriko; Yanagisawa, Kei; Kawabata, Zen'ichiro

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was comparative evaluation of effects of ionizing radiation and other various toxic agents on aquatic microbial communities. For this purpose, the authors investigated effects of γ-rays, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, acidification, aluminum, manganese, nickel, copper and gadolinium on the microcosm, i.e., the experimental model ecosystem consisting of populations of the flagellate alga Euglena gracilis as a producer, the ciliate protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila as a consumer and the bacterium Eseherichia coli as a decomposer. Effects of toxic agents in the microcosm were not only direct effects but also community-level effects due to interactions among the constituting species or between organisms and toxic agents. In general, the degrees of effects observed in the microcosm could be categorized as follows: no effects; recognizable effects, i.e., decrease or increase in the cell densities of at least one species; severe effects, i.e., extinction of one or two species; and destructive effects, i.e., extinction of all species. These results were analyzed by the ecological effect index (EEI), in which differences in the cell densities between exposed and control microcosm were represented by the Euclidean distance function. A 50% effect doses for the microcosm (ED M50 ), at which the EEI became 50%, were evaluated to be 530 Gy for γ-rays, 2100 J m -2 for UV, 4100 μM for manganese, 45 μM for nickel, 110 μM for copper and 250 μM for gadolinium. (author)

  9. Ecological effects of various toxic agents on the aquatic microcosm in comparison with acute ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuma, S.; Ishii, N.; Takeda, H.; Miyamoto, K.; Yanagisawa, K.; Ichimasa, Y.; Saito, M.; Kawabata, Z.; Polikarpov, G.G.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was an evaluation of the effect levels of various toxic agents compared with acute doses of ionizing radiation for the experimental model ecosystem, i.e., microcosm mimicking aquatic microbial communities. For this purpose, the authors used the microcosm consisting of populations of the flagellate alga Euglena gracilis as a producer, the ciliate protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila as a consumer and the bacterium Escherichia coli as a decomposer. Effects of aluminum and copper on the microcosm were investigated in this study, while effects of γ-rays, ultraviolet radiation, acidification, manganese, nickel and gadolinium were reported in previous studies. The microcosm could detect not only the direct effects of these agents but also the community-level effects due to the interspecies interactions or the interactions between organisms and toxic agents. The authors evaluated doses or concentrations of each toxic agent which had the following effects on the microcosm: (1) no effects; (2) recognizable effects, i.e., decrease or increase in the cell densities of at least one species; (3) severe effects, i.e., extinction of one or two species; and (4) destructive effects, i.e., extinction of all species. The resulting effects data will contribute to an ecological risk assessment of the toxic agents compared with acute doses of ionizing radiation

  10. Assessing the resistance and bioremediation ability of selected bacterial and protozoan species to heavy metals in metal-rich industrial wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamika, Ilunga; Momba, Maggy N B

    2013-02-06

    Heavy-metals exert considerable stress on the environment worldwide. This study assessed the resistance to and bioremediation of heavy-metals by selected protozoan and bacterial species in highly polluted industrial-wastewater. Specific variables (i.e. chemical oxygen demand, pH, dissolved oxygen) and the growth/die-off-rates of test organisms were measured using standard methods. Heavy-metal removals were determined in biomass and supernatant by the Inductively Couple Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometer. A parallel experiment was performed with dead microbial cells to assess the biosorption ability of test isolates. The results revealed that the industrial-wastewater samples were highly polluted with heavy-metal concentrations exceeding by far the maximum limits (in mg/l) of 0.05-Co, 0.2-Ni, 0.1-Mn, 0.1-V, 0.01-Pb, 0.01-Cu, 0.1-Zn and 0.005-Cd, prescribed by the UN-FAO. Industrial-wastewater had no major effects on Pseudomonas putida, Bacillus licheniformis and Peranema sp. (growth rates up to 1.81, 1.45 and 1.43 d-1, respectively) compared to other test isolates. This was also revealed with significant COD increases (p heavy metals (Co-71%, Ni-51%, Mn-45%, V-83%, Pb-96%, Ti-100% and Cu-49%) followed by Bacillus licheniformis (Al-23% and Zn-53%) and Peranema sp. (Cd-42%). None of the dead cells were able to remove more than 25% of the heavy metals. Bacterial isolates contained the genes copC, chrB, cnrA3 and nccA encoding the resistance to Cu, Cr, Co-Ni and Cd-Ni-Co, respectively. Protozoan isolates contained only the genes encoding Cu and Cr resistance (copC and chrB genes). Peranema sp. was the only protozoan isolate which had an additional resistant gene cnrA3 encoding Co-Ni resistance. Significant differences (p metal-removal and the presence of certain metal-resistant genes indicated that the selected microbial isolates used both passive (biosorptive) and active (bioaccumulation) mechanisms to remove heavy metals from industrial wastewater. This study

  11. Assessing the resistance and bioremediation ability of selected bacterial and protozoan species to heavy metals in metal-rich industrial wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamika Ilunga

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heavy-metals exert considerable stress on the environment worldwide. This study assessed the resistance to and bioremediation of heavy-metals by selected protozoan and bacterial species in highly polluted industrial-wastewater. Specific variables (i.e. chemical oxygen demand, pH, dissolved oxygen and the growth/die-off-rates of test organisms were measured using standard methods. Heavy-metal removals were determined in biomass and supernatant by the Inductively Couple Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometer. A parallel experiment was performed with dead microbial cells to assess the biosorption ability of test isolates. Results The results revealed that the industrial-wastewater samples were highly polluted with heavy-metal concentrations exceeding by far the maximum limits (in mg/l of 0.05-Co, 0.2-Ni, 0.1-Mn, 0.1-V, 0.01-Pb, 0.01-Cu, 0.1-Zn and 0.005-Cd, prescribed by the UN-FAO. Industrial-wastewater had no major effects on Pseudomonas putida, Bacillus licheniformis and Peranema sp. (growth rates up to 1.81, 1.45 and 1.43 d-1, respectively compared to other test isolates. This was also revealed with significant COD increases (p Pseudomonas putida demonstrated the highest removal rates of heavy metals (Co-71%, Ni-51%, Mn-45%, V-83%, Pb-96%, Ti-100% and Cu-49% followed by Bacillus licheniformis (Al-23% and Zn-53% and Peranema sp. (Cd-42%. None of the dead cells were able to remove more than 25% of the heavy metals. Bacterial isolates contained the genes copC, chrB, cnrA3 and nccA encoding the resistance to Cu, Cr, Co-Ni and Cd-Ni-Co, respectively. Protozoan isolates contained only the genes encoding Cu and Cr resistance (copC and chrB genes. Peranema sp. was the only protozoan isolate which had an additional resistant gene cnrA3 encoding Co-Ni resistance. Conclusion Significant differences (p Peranema sp. as a potential candidate for the bioremediation of heavy-metals in wastewater treatment, in addition to Pseudomonas

  12. Involvement of the actin cytoskeleton and p21rho-family GTPases in the pathogenesis of the human protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica

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    G.D. Godbold

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available It has been estimated that infection with the enteric protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica kills more than 50,000 people a year. Central to the pathogenesis of this organism is its ability to directly lyse host cells and cause tissue destruction. Amebic lesions show evidence of cell lysis, tissue necrosis, and damage to the extracellular matrix. The specific molecular mechanisms by which these events are initiated, transmitted, and effected are just beginning to be uncovered. In this article we review what is known about host cell adherence and contact-dependent cytolysis. We cover the involvement of the actin cytoskeleton and small GTP-binding proteins of the p21rho-family in the process of cell killing and phagocytosis, and also look at how amebic interactions with molecules of the extracellular matrix contribute to its cytopathic effects.

  13. Mass spectrometric analysis of L-cysteine metabolism: physiological role and fate of L-cysteine in the enteric protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeelani, Ghulam; Sato, Dan; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Watanabe, Haruo; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi

    2014-11-04

    L-cysteine is essential for virtually all living organisms, from bacteria to higher eukaryotes. Besides having a role in the synthesis of virtually all proteins and of taurine, cysteamine, glutathione, and other redox-regulating proteins, L-cysteine has important functions under anaerobic/microaerophilic conditions. In anaerobic or microaerophilic protozoan parasites, such as Entamoeba histolytica, L-cysteine has been implicated in growth, attachment, survival, and protection from oxidative stress. However, a specific role of this amino acid or related metabolic intermediates is not well understood. In this study, using stable-isotope-labeled L-cysteine and capillary electrophoresis-time of flight mass spectrometry, we investigated the metabolism of L-cysteine in E. histolytica. [U-(13)C3, (15)N]L-cysteine was rapidly metabolized into three unknown metabolites, besides L-cystine and L-alanine. These metabolites were identified as thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (T4C), 2-methyl thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (MT4C), and 2-ethyl-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (ET4C), the condensation products of L-cysteine with aldehydes. We demonstrated that these 2-(R)-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acids serve for storage of L-cysteine. Liberation of L-cysteine occurred when T4C was incubated with amebic lysates, suggesting enzymatic degradation of these L-cysteine derivatives. Furthermore, T4C and MT4C significantly enhanced trophozoite growth and reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels when it was added to cultures, suggesting that 2-(R)-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acids are involved in the defense against oxidative stress. Amebiasis is a human parasitic disease caused by the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica. In this parasite, L-cysteine is the principal low-molecular-weight thiol and is assumed to play a significant role in supplying the amino acid during trophozoite invasion, particularly when the parasites move from the anaerobic intestinal lumen to highly

  14. Impact of a high magnetic field on the orientation of gravitactic unicellular organisms--a critical consideration about the application of magnetic fields to mimic functional weightlessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmersbach, Ruth; Simon, Anja; Waßer, Kai; Hauslage, Jens; Christianen, Peter C M; Albers, Peter W; Lebert, Michael; Richter, Peter; Alt, Wolfgang; Anken, Ralf

    2014-03-01

    The gravity-dependent behavior of Paramecium biaurelia and Euglena gracilis have previously been studied on ground and in real microgravity. To validate whether high magnetic field exposure indeed provides a ground-based facility to mimic functional weightlessness, as has been suggested earlier, both cell types were observed during exposure in a strong homogeneous magnetic field (up to 30 T) and a strong magnetic field gradient. While swimming, Paramecium cells were aligned along the magnetic field lines; orientation of Euglena was perpendicular, demonstrating that the magnetic field determines the orientation and thus prevents the organisms from the random swimming known to occur in real microgravity. Exposing Astasia longa, a flagellate that is closely related to Euglena but lacks chloroplasts and the photoreceptor, as well as the chloroplast-free mutant E. gracilis 1F, to a high magnetic field revealed no reorientation to the perpendicular direction as in the case of wild-type E. gracilis, indicating the existence of an anisotropic structure (chloroplasts) that determines the direction of passive orientation. Immobilized Euglena and Paramecium cells could not be levitated even in the highest available magnetic field gradient as sedimentation persisted with little impact of the field on the sedimentation velocities. We conclude that magnetic fields are not suited as a microgravity simulation for gravitactic unicellular organisms due to the strong effect of the magnetic field itself, which masks the effects known from experiments in real microgravity.

  15. Delineamento de formulações cosméticas com óleo essencial de Lippia gracilis Schum (Alecrim-de- Tabuleiro de origem amazônica

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    Lucelya Carvalho Silva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Diversos cosméticos têm sido produzidos para atender a crescente demanda de mercado. Para que estes produtos possuam boa aceitação são necessárias que os mesmos apresentem adequadas características físicoquímicas e sensoriais, bem como eficácia, segurança e qualidade. Esse trabalho visou o desenvolvimento e avaliação da estabilidade de formulações biocosméticas a partir da incorporação dos óleos essenciais da espécie Lippia gracilis Schum em formulações cosméticas para cabelo, por meio de estudos de pré-formulação e testes de estabilidade preliminar e acelerada. Foram realizados testes físico-químicos para avaliação dos parâmetros: pH, viscosidade aparente, características sensoriais, espuma e densidade. Durante os estudos de estabilidade preliminar e acelerada, foi observado que as temperaturas: Refrigerador (TG (5,0 ± 0,5ºC e Estufa (TE (45,0 ± 0,5ºC sofreram alterações de pH, viscosidade e das características sensoriais. Ao final do estudo, mantiveram as características iniciais, apenas as formulações mantidas em temperatura ambiente. Concluiu-se que a formulação de xampu não possui estabilidade quando exposta a temperaturas abaixo de 5ºC e acima de 45ºC. A formulação de condicionador, além de ser instável em temperaturas extremas, apresentou também alterações após 30 dias (T2 em temperatura ambiente (TA (24,0 ± 2,0ºC.Palavras-chave: Lippia gracilis, Cosméticos, Estabilidade, Formulação. ABSTRACT Several cosmetics have been produced to meet the growing market demand. For these products have good acceptance is necessary that they show suitable physico-chemical and organoleptic characteristics, as well as efficacy, safety and quality. This research aimed at the development and evaluation of the stability of formulations biocosmetics from the incorporation of the essential oils of the species Lippia gracilis Schum in shampoo and conditioner through preliminary stability testing and

  16. Nonobese Diabetic (NOD Mice Lack a Protective B-Cell Response against the “Nonlethal” Plasmodium yoelii 17XNL Malaria Protozoan

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    Mirian Mendoza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Plasmodium yoelii 17XNL is a nonlethal malaria strain in mice of different genetic backgrounds including the C57BL/6 mice (I-Ab/I-Enull used in this study as a control strain. We have compared the trends of blood stage infection with the nonlethal murine strain of P. yoelii 17XNL malaria protozoan in immunocompetent Nonobese Diabetic (NOD mice prone to type 1 diabetes (T1D and C57BL/6 mice (control mice that are not prone to T1D and self-cure the P. yoelii 17XNL infection. Prediabetic NOD mice could not mount a protective antibody response to the P. yoelii 17XNL-infected red blood cells (iRBCs, and they all succumbed shortly after infection. Our data suggest that the lack of anti-P. yoelii 17XNL-iRBCs protective antibodies in NOD mice is a result of parasite-induced, Foxp3+ T regulatory (Treg cells able to suppress the parasite-specific antibody secretion. Conclusions. The NOD mouse model may help in identifying new mechanisms of B-cell evasion by malaria parasites. It may also serve as a more accurate tool for testing antimalaria therapeutics due to the lack of interference with a preexistent self-curing mechanism present in other mouse strains.

  17. Monoculture of the ciliate protozoan Euplotes sp. (Ciliophora; Hypotrichia fed with different diets - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i1.11795

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    Emílio Mateus Costa Melo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ciliate protozoa of the genus Euplotes commonly appears contaminating mass cultures of rotifers but also with potential to be used as live food in the larviculture of marine fish. To obtain a monoculture of Euplotes sp., three diets were tested: 1 microalgae Nannochloropsis oculata, 2 commercial diet for rotifers Culture Selco 3000, and 3 baker’s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The ciliates were inoculated at 10 ind. mL-¹. On day 5, protozoa densities in the groups fed the commercial diet (1,911.0 ± 248.7 ind. mL-¹ and the baker’s yeast (2,600.0 ± 195.3 ind. mL-1 did not differ, but were higher than the group fed microalgae (2.0 ± 1.4 ind. mL-1 (p -¹ than in the groups fed microalgae (3.0 ± 1.4 ind. mL-¹ or commercial diet (11,287.0 ± 1,468.0 ind. mL-¹. An exponential growth curve was observed for the protozoa fed baker’s yeast (R² = 0.992; p Euplotes sp. can result in very high densities of this protozoan.  

  18. The protozoan, Paramecium primaurelia, as a non-sentient model to test laser light irradiation: The effects of an 808nm infrared laser diode on cellular respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaroli, Andrea; Ravera, Silvia; Parker, Steven; Panfoli, Isabella; Benedicenti, Alberico; Benedicenti, Stefano

    2015-07-01

    Photobiomodulation (PBM) has been used in clinical practice for more than 40 years. Unfortunately, conflicting literature has led to the labelling of PBM as a complementary or alternative medicine approach. However, past and ongoing clinical and research studies by reputable investigators have re-established the merits of PBM as a genuine medical therapy, and the technique has, in the last decade, seen an exponential increase in the numbers of clinical instruments available, and their applications. This resurgence has led to a clear need for appropriate experimental models to test the burgeoning laser technology being developed for medical applications. In this context, an ethical model that employs the protozoan, Paramecium primaurelia, is proposed. We studied the possibility of using the measure of oxygen consumption to test PBM by irradiation with an infrared or near-infrared laser. The results show that an 808nm infrared laser diode (1W; 64J/cm²) affects cellular respiration in P. primaurelia, inducing, in the irradiated cells, a significantly (p Paramecium can be an excellent tool in biological assays involving infrared and near-infrared PBM, as it combines the advantages of in vivo results with the practicality of in vitro testing. This test represents a fast, inexpensive and straightforward assay, which offers an alternative to both traditional in vivo testing and more expensive mammalian cellular cultures. 2015 FRAME.

  19. In vitro and in vivo efficacy of drugs against the protozoan parasite Azumiobodo hoyamushi that causes soft tunic syndrome in the edible ascidian Halocynthia roretzi (Drasche).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, K H; Zeon, S-R; Lee, J-G; Choi, S-H; Shin, Y K; Park, K-I

    2014-04-01

    It was discovered recently that infection by a protozoan parasite, Azumiobodo hoyamushi, is the most probable cause for soft tunic syndrome in an edible ascidian, Halocynthia roretzi (Drasche). In an attempt to develop measures to eradicate the causative parasite, various drugs were tested for efficacy in vitro and in vivo. Of the 20 antiprotozoal drugs having different action mechanisms, five were found potent (24-h EC50  chloramine-T and benzalkonium chloride. Seven compounds, metronidazole, albendazole, paromomycin, nalidixic acid, sulfamonomethoxine, KMnO4 , potassium monopersulphate and citric acid, exhibited EC50  > 100 mg L(-1) . When ascidians were artificially infected with A. hoyamushi, treated using 40 mg L(-1) formalin, bronopol, ClO2 , or H2 O2 for 1 h and then monitored for 24 h, very low mortality was observed. However, the number of surviving parasite cells in the ascidian tunic tissues was significantly reduced by treating with 40 mg L(-1) formalin or ClO2 for 1 h. The data suggest that we might be able to develop a disinfection measure using a treatment regimen involving commonly available drugs. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Functional and phylogenetic evidence of a bacterial origin for the first enzyme in sphingolipid biosynthesis in a phylum of eukaryotic protozoan parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, John G; Thye, Julie K; Alqaisi, Amjed Q I; Bird, Louise E; Dods, Robert H; Grøftehauge, Morten K; Mosely, Jackie A; Pratt, Steven; Shams-Eldin, Hosam; Schwarz, Ralph T; Pohl, Ehmke; Denny, Paul W

    2017-07-21

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate, intracellular eukaryotic apicomplexan protozoan parasite that can cause fetal damage and abortion in both animals and humans. Sphingolipids are essential and ubiquitous components of eukaryotic membranes that are both synthesized and scavenged by the Apicomplexa. Here we report the identification, isolation, and analyses of the Toxoplasma serine palmitoyltransferase, an enzyme catalyzing the first and rate-limiting step in sphingolipid biosynthesis: the condensation of serine and palmitoyl-CoA. In all eukaryotes analyzed to date, serine palmitoyltransferase is a highly conserved heterodimeric enzyme complex. However, biochemical and structural analyses demonstrated the apicomplexan orthologue to be a functional, homodimeric serine palmitoyltransferase localized to the endoplasmic reticulum. Furthermore, phylogenetic studies indicated that it was evolutionarily related to the prokaryotic serine palmitoyltransferase, identified in the Sphingomonadaceae as a soluble homodimeric enzyme. Therefore this enzyme, conserved throughout the Apicomplexa, is likely to have been obtained via lateral gene transfer from a prokaryote. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Pesquisa de ovos de helmintos e de cistos de protozoários em dinheiro Research into the transmission of helminthic eggs and protozoan cysts on money

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    Eduardo Virgilio Levai

    1986-02-01

    Full Text Available Em virtude da elevada prevalência de parasitoses intestinais no Brasil e da possível participação de objetos na transmissão dessas afecções, foi desenvolvida pesquisa envolvendo dinheiro difundido na coletividade. Foram analisadas, quanto à presença de ovos de helmintos e de cistos de protozoários, 1.003 cédulas e 1.011 moedas, de valores e procedências diversos. Do estudo resultou o encontro de cistos de Entamoeba histolytica em duas eventualidades, de ovos de Ascaris lumbricoides larvado e infértil, de ovo de Taenia sp. morfologicamente íntegro e de outros elementos não patogênicos. Ficou salientada a importância do dinheiro circulante na epidemiologia das enteroparasitoses, tendo havido sugestão de novos trabalhos de natureza congênere, inclusive delineando diretrizes de ordem profilática.Due to the high prevalence of intestinal parasitic diseases in Brazil and to the fact that inanimate objects may play an important role in their transmission, it was decided to carry out an investigation into the existence of helminthic eggs and protozoan cysts in money currently handled by the community. A thousand and three banknotes and 1,011 coins of different origins were analysed, yielding the following results. Entamoeba histolytica cysts were found twice, and fertile and infertile Ascaris lumbricoides eggs and one intact Taenia sp. egg, besides other nonpathogenic elements, were also found. The importance of the handling of money in the epidemiology of common intestinal parasitic diseases is emphasized and it is suggested that further similar studies should be carried out; possible means of prevention are also indicated.

  2. New polymorphic microsatellite markers derived from hemocyte cDNA library of Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum challenged by the protozoan parasite Perkinsus olseni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun-Sil; Hong, Hyun-Ki; Park, Kyung-Il; Cho, Moonjae; Youn, Seok-Hyun; Choi, Kwang-Sik

    2017-03-01

    Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum is one of the most important benthic animals in the coastal north Pacific region, where clam populations have been mixed genetically through trade and aquaculture activities. Accordingly, identification of the genetically different clam populations has become one of the most important issues to manage interbreeding of the local and introduced clam populations. To identify genetically different populations of clam populations, we developed 11 expressed sequence tag (EST)-microsatellite loci (i.e., simple sequence repeat, SSR) from 1,128 clam hemocyte cDNA clones challenged by the protozoan parasite Perkinsus olseni. Genotype analysis using the markers developed in this study demonstrated that clams from a tidal flat on the west coast contained 6 to 19 alleles per locus, and a population from Jeju Island had 4 to 20 alleles per locus. The expected heterozygosity of the 2 clam populations ranged from 0.472 to 0.919 for clams from the west coast, and 0.494 to 0.919 for clams from Jeju Island, respectively. Among the 11 loci discovered in this study, 7 loci significantly deviated from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium after Bonferroni correction. The 5 loci developed in this study also successfully amplified the SSRs of R. variegatus, a clam species taxonomically very close to R. philippinarum, from Hong Kong and Jeju Island. We believe that the 11 novel polymorphic SSR developed in this study can be utilized successfully in Manila clam genetic diversity analysis, as well as in genetic discrimination of different clam populations.

  3. Development of a Focused Library of Triazole-Linked Privileged-Structure-Based Conjugates Leading to the Discovery of Novel Phenotypic Hits against Protozoan Parasitic Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uliassi, Elisa; Piazzi, Lorna; Belluti, Federica; Mazzanti, Andrea; Kaiser, Marcel; Brun, Reto; Moraes, Carolina B; Freitas-Junior, Lucio H; Gul, Sheraz; Kuzikov, Maria; Ellinger, Bernhard; Borsari, Chiara; Costi, Maria Paola; Bolognesi, Maria Laura

    2018-04-06

    Protozoan infections caused by Plasmodium, Leishmania, and Trypanosoma spp. contribute significantly to the burden of infectious diseases worldwide, causing severe morbidity and mortality. The inadequacy of available treatments calls for cost- and time-effective drug discovery endeavors. To this end, we envisaged the triazole linkage of privileged structures as an effective drug design strategy to generate a focused library of high-quality compounds. The versatility of this approach was combined with the feasibility of a phenotypic assay, integrated with early ADME-tox profiling. Thus, an 18-membered library was efficiently assembled via Huisgen cycloaddition of phenothiazine, biphenyl, and phenylpiperazine scaffolds. The resulting 18 compounds were then tested against seven parasite strains, and counter-screened for selectivity against two mammalian cell lines. In parallel, hERG and cytochrome P450 (CYP) inhibition, and mitochondrial toxicity were assessed. Remarkably, 10-((1-(3-([1,1'-biphenyl]-3-yloxy)propyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-5-yl)methyl)-10H-phenothiazine (7) and 10-(3-(1-(3-([1,1'-biphenyl]-3-yloxy)propyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)propyl)-10H-phenothiazine (12) showed respective IC 50 values of 1.8 and 1.9 μg mL -1 against T. cruzi, together with optimal selectivity. In particular, compound 7 showed a promising ADME-tox profile. Thus, hit 7 might be progressed as an antichagasic lead. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Humanized HLA-DR4 mice fed with the protozoan pathogen of oysters Perkinsus marinus (Dermo do not develop noticeable pathology but elicit systemic immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wathsala Wijayalath

    Full Text Available Perkinsus marinus (Phylum Perkinsozoa is a marine protozoan parasite responsible for "Dermo" disease in oysters, which has caused extensive damage to the shellfish industry and estuarine environment. The infection prevalence has been estimated in some areas to be as high as 100%, often causing death of infected oysters within 1-2 years post-infection. Human consumption of the parasites via infected oysters is thus likely to occur, but to our knowledge the effect of oral consumption of P. marinus has not been investigated in humans or other mammals. To address the question we used humanized mice expressing HLA-DR4 molecules and lacking expression of mouse MHC-class II molecules (DR4.EA(0 in such a way that CD4 T cell responses are solely restricted by the human HLA-DR4 molecule. The DR4.EA(0 mice did not develop diarrhea or any detectable pathology in the gastrointestinal tract or lungs following single or repeated feedings with live P. marinus parasites. Furthermore, lymphocyte populations in the gut associated lymphoid tissue and spleen were unaltered in the parasite-fed mice ruling out local or systemic inflammation. Notably, naïve DR4.EA(0 mice had antibodies (IgM and IgG reacting against P. marinus parasites whereas parasite specific T cell responses were undetectable. Feeding with P. marinus boosted the antibody responses and stimulated specific cellular (IFNγ immunity to the oyster parasite. Our data indicate the ability of P. marinus parasites to induce systemic immunity in DR4.EA(0 mice without causing noticeable pathology, and support rationale grounds for using genetically engineered P. marinus as a new oral vaccine platform to induce systemic immunity against infectious agents.

  5. Molecular aspects of calcium signalling at the crossroads of unikont and bikont eukaryote evolution--the ciliated protozoan Paramecium in focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plattner, Helmut

    2015-03-01

    The ciliated protozoan, Paramecium tetraurelia has a high basic Ca(2+) leakage rate which is counteracted mainly by export through a contractile vacuole complex, based on its V-type H(+)-ATPase activity. In addition Paramecium cells dispose of P-type Ca(2+)-ATPases, i.e. a plasmamembrane and a sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (PMCA, SERCA). Antiporter systems are to be expected, as inferred from indirect evidence. Among the best known cytosolic Ca(2+)-binding proteins, calmodulin activates Ca(2+) influx channels in the somatic cell membrane, but inactivates Ca(2+) influx channels in cilia, where it, thus, ends ciliary reversal induced by depolarization via channels in the somatic cell membrane. Centrin inactivates Ca(2+) signals after stimulation by its high capacity/low affinity binding sites, whereas its high affinity sites regulate some other functions. Cortical Ca(2+) stores (alveolar sacs) are activated during stimulated trichocyst exocytosis and thereby mediate store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE). Ca(2+) release channels (CRCs) localised to alveoli and underlying SOCE are considered as Ryanodine receptor-like proteins (RyR-LPs) which are members of a CRC family with 6 subfamilies. These also encompass genuine inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) and intermediates between the two channel types. All IP3R/RyR-type CRCs possess six carboxyterminal transmembrane domains (TMD), with a pore domain between TMD 5 and 6, endowed with a characteristic selectivity filter. There are reasons to assume a common ancestor molecule for such channels and diversification further on in evolution. The distinct distribution of specific CRCs in the different vesicles undergoing intracellular trafficking suggests constitutive formation of very locally restricted Ca(2+) signals during vesicle-vesicle interaction. In summary, essential steps of Ca(2+) signalling already occur at this level of evolution, including an unexpected multitude of CRCs. For dis

  6. Long-term exposure of bacterial and protozoan communities to TiO2 nanoparticles in an aerobic-sequencing batch reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supha, Chitpisud; Boonto, Yuphada; Jindakaraked, Manee; Ananpattarachai, Jirapat; Kajitvichyanukul, Puangrat

    2015-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanopowders at different concentrations (0–50 mg L −1 ) were injected into an aerobic-sequencing batch reactor (SBR) to investigate the effects of long-term exposure to nanoparticles on bacterial and protozoan communities. The detection of nanoparticles in the bioflocs was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. The SBR wastewater experiments were conducted under the influence of ultraviolet light with photocatalytic TiO 2 . The intrusion of TiO 2 nanoparticles was found both on the surface and inside of the bioflocs. The change of microbial population in terms of mixed liquor-suspended solids and the sludge volume index was monitored. The TiO 2 nanoparticles tentatively exerted an adverse effect on the microbial population, causing the reduction of microorganisms (both bacteria and protozoa) in the SBR. The respiration inhibition rate of the bacteria was increased, and the viability of the microbial population was reduced at the high concentration (50 mg L −1 ) of TiO 2 . The decreasing number of protozoa in the presence of TiO 2 nanoparticles during 20 days of treatment with 0.5 and 1.0 mg L −1 TiO 2 is clearly demonstrated. The measured chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the effluent tends to increase with a long-term operation. The increase of COD in the system suggests a decrease in the efficiency of the wastewater treatment plant. However, the SBR can effectively remove the TiO 2 nanoparticles (up to 50 mg L −1 ) from the effluent. (focus issue paper)

  7. A novel strategy for the identification of antigens that are recognised by bovine MHC class I restricted cytotoxic T cells in a protozoan infection using reverse vaccinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Simon P; Honda, Yoshikazu; Pellé, Roger; Mwangi, Duncan M; Glew, E Jane; de Villiers, Etienne P; Shah, Trushar; Bishop, Richard; van der Bruggen, Pierre; Nene, Vishvanath; Taracha, Evans L N

    2007-02-09

    Immunity against the bovine protozoan parasite Theileria parva has previously been shown to be mediated through lysis of parasite-infected cells by MHC class I restricted CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes. It is hypothesized that identification of CTL target schizont antigens will aid the development of a sub-unit vaccine. We exploited the availability of the complete genome sequence data and bioinformatics tools to identify genes encoding secreted or membrane anchored proteins that may be processed and presented by the MHC class I molecules of infected cells to CTL. Of the 986 predicted open reading frames (ORFs) encoded by chromosome 1 of the T. parva genome, 55 were selected based on the presence of a signal peptide and/or a transmembrane helix domain. Thirty six selected ORFs were successfully cloned into a eukaryotic expression vector, transiently transfected into immortalized bovine skin fibroblasts and screened in vitro using T. parva-specific CTL. Recognition of gene products by CTL was assessed using an IFN-gamma ELISpot assay. A 525 base pair ORF encoding a 174 amino acid protein, designated Tp2, was identified by T. parva-specific CTL from 4 animals. These CTL recognized and lysed Tp2 transfected skin fibroblasts and recognized 4 distinct epitopes. Significantly, Tp2 specific CD8+ T cell responses were observed during the protective immune response against sporozoite challenge. The identification of an antigen containing multiple CTL epitopes and its apparent immunodominance during a protective anti-parasite response makes Tp2 an attractive candidate for evaluation of its vaccine potential.

  8. Toxoplasmosis: An Important Protozoan Zoonosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonar S. S. and Brahmbhatt M.N.

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is an important infection caused by single celled parasite Toxoplasma gondii which is one of the world's most common parasites. Toxoplasmosis is considered to be the third leading cause of death attributed to food-borne illness in the United States. Most people affected never develop signs and symptoms. But for infants born to infected mothers and for people with compromised immune systems, toxoplasmosis can cause extremely serious complications. Toxoplasmosis was first described in 1908 from a small rodent. The parasite infects almost all worm blooded animals and serological evidence indicates that it is one of the most common of humans’ infections throughout the world. The disease is transmitted mainly by ingestion of infective stage of the parasite, organ transplant as well as blood transfusion in addition to the transplacental transmission which is very common. Toxoplasmosis can be presented in various forms of clinical manifestations depending on the immune status of the patient causing life threatening disease in AIDS patient. Pregnant women, cat owners, veterinarians, abattoir workers, children, cooks, butchers are considered as high risk group. Timely treatment of man and animals with proper antibiotic, hygienic measures, proper disinfection, mass education and vaccination are the measures to curtail the disease. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(9.000: 436-439

  9. Effects of diuron and carbofuran pesticides in their pure and commercial forms on Paramecium caudatum: The use of protozoan in ecotoxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansano, Adrislaine S; Moreira, Raquel A; Pierozzi, Mayara; Oliveira, Thiessa M A; Vieira, Eny M; Rocha, Odete; Regali-Seleghim, Mirna H

    2016-06-01

    Toxic effects of diuron and carbofuran on Paramecium caudatum were evaluated. Acute and chronic tests were conducted with diuron and carbofuran active ingredients and their commercial formulations, Diuron Nortox(®) 500 SC and Furadan(®) 350 SC, respectively. The sensitivity range of P. caudatum to reference substance sodium chloride was established. A preliminary risk assessment of diuron and carbofuran for Brazilian water bodies was performed. The tests indicated that toxicity of pure diuron and its commercial formulation was similar, while the commercial product carbofuran was more toxic than its pure form. In acute tests, readings were carried out at 2, 3, 4 and 6 h and showed an increase of mortality with increasing exposure time. The sensitivity of P. caudatum to NaCl ranged from 3.31 to 4.44 g L(-1), averaging 3.88 g L(-1). For diuron, the 6 h LC50 was 64.6 ± 3.3 mg L(-1) for its pure form and 62.4 ± 2.5 mg L(-1) for its commercial formulation. Carbofuran active ingredient was less toxic than that of diuron, presenting a 6 h LC50 of 142.0 ± 2.4 mg L(-1) for its pure form and 70.4 ± 2.2 mg L(-1) for its commercial product. Chronic tests showed that these pesticides cause significant decrease on population growth, generation number and biomass of P. caudatum. The 24 h IC50 was 7.10 ± 0.58 mg L(-1) for pure diuron, 6.78 ± 0.92 mg L(-1) for commercial diuron, 22.95 ± 3.57 mg L(-1) for pure carbofuran and 4.98 ± 0.62 mg L(-1) for commercial carbofuran. Preliminary risk assessment indicated that diuron and carbofuran present potential ecological risks for Brazilian water bodies. P. caudatum was a suitable and sensitive test organism to evaluate diuron and carbofuran toxicity to freshwater protozooplankton and, taking into account the relevant role of protozoans in aquatic environments, we strongly recommend its inclusion in ecotoxicological studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Perkinsus marinus, a protozoan parasite of the Eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica): effects of temperature on the uptake and metabolism of fluorescent lipid analogs and lipase activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Fu-Lin E; Soudant, P; Lund, E D

    2003-10-01

    The effects of temperature on the uptake and metabolism of fluorescent labeled palmitic acid (FLC16) and phosphatidylcholine (FLPC) and lipase activities in the oyster protozoan parasite, Perkinsus marinus, meront stage were tested at 10, 18, and 28 degrees C. Temperature significantly affected not only the uptake, assimilation, and metabolism of both FLC16 and FLPC in P. marinus, but also its triacylglycerol (TAG) lipase activities. The incorporation of both FLC16 and FLPC increased with temperature and paralleled the increase in the amount of total fatty acids in P. marinus meront cultures. The incorporation of FLC16 was higher than FLPC at all temperatures. The percentage of FLC16 metabolized to TAG was significantly higher at higher temperatures. Trace amounts of incorporated FLC16 were detected in monoacylglycerol (MAG) and PC at 18 and 28 degrees C. P. marinus meronts metabolized FLPC to TAG, diacylglycerol (DAG), monoacylglycerol (MAG), free fatty acids (FFA), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), and cardiolipin (CL). The conversion of FLPC to TAG and PE was highest at 28 degrees C. The relative proportions of individual fatty acids and total saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids changed with temperatures. While total saturated fatty acids (SAFAs) increased with temperature, total monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) decreased with temperature. Total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) increased from 28 to 18 degrees C. The findings of increase of total SAFAs and decrease of total MUFAs with the increase of temperatures and upward shift of total PUFAs from 28 to 18 degrees C suggest that, as in other organisms, P. marinus is capable of adapting to changes in environmental temperatures by modifying its lipid metabolism. Generally, higher lipase activities were noted at higher cultivation temperatures. Both TAG lipase and phospholipase activities were detected in P. marinus cells and their extra cellular products (ECP), but phospholipase

  11. Geographical distribution of protozoan and metazoan parasites of farmed Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (L.) (Perciformes: Cichlidae) in Yucatán, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes-Trujillo, Amelia; Velázquez-Abunader, Iván; Torres-Irineo, Edgar; Romero, David; Vidal-Martínez, Víctor Manuel

    2016-02-03

    In Yucatán State, southern México, as in many other parts of the world where tilapia has been introduced for aquaculture, the deficient application of management measures has led to the establishment of non-native parasites. The aims of this study were to describe the geographical distribution of protozoan and helminth parasites of farmed Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (L.) throughout the Yucatán and to examine the potential statistical associations of the prevalence and mean abundance of these parasites with management and environmental variables. All 29 Nile tilapia farms currently operating in Yucatán were surveyed. Maps were created to describe the geographical location of the parasites infecting Nile tilapia at each farm. We evaluated the statistical associations of management and environmental variables with the mean abundance values of each parasite species using a multivariate redundancy analysis (RDA) and generalized additive models (GAM). We also used Ripley's K to determine whether there were significant clusters of the mean abundance of particular parasite species in specific regions of the Yucatán State. A total of 580 O. niloticus were examined, and 11 species of parasites were recorded. Cichlidogyrus sclerosus was the most frequent and abundant parasite at all 29 farms, whereas Gyrodactylus cichlidarum was found in 26 of the 29 farms. The RDA showed that the most important predictors were the concentration of nitrites and ammonium and the water exchange rate. The GAM showed the significant effect of the tank capacity, no use of quarantine area and no use of prophylactic treatments on the mean abundance of G. cichlidarum. The geographical distribution patterns of the mean abundance of most parasite species exhibited clustering near to the coast of Yucatán. Two groups of farms were distinguished: (i) farms with medium to high technology, where the most frequent and abundant parasite was G. cichlidarum, and (ii) farms with low technology

  12. Impact of edible chitosan-cassava starch coatings enriched with Lippia gracilis Schauer genotype mixtures on the shelf life of guavas (Psidium guajava L.) during storage at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aquino, Alana Bezerra; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; Santana, Luciana Cristina Lins de Aquino

    2015-03-15

    The effect of edible chitosan-cassava starch (CH-CS) coatings containing a mixture of Lippia gracilis Schauer genotypes (EOM) on the shelf life of guavas during storage at room temperature for 10 days was studied. Sixteen formulations were prepared with a range of chitosan and essential oil mixtures concentrations, and the in vitro antimicrobial activity was tested. Formulations containing 2.0% cassava starch, 2.0% chitosan and 1.0%, 2.0% or 3.0% EOM were most effective in inhibiting the growth of the majority of bacteria. The edible CH-CS coating and CH-CS with 1.0% (CH-CS-EOM1) or 3.0% EOM (CH-CS-EOM3) were added to guavas and the shelf life was evaluated. On the tenth day of storage, total aerobic mesophilic bacteria and mould and yeast counts were statistically lower (p<0.05) in the CH-CS-EOM1- or CH-CS-EOM3-coated fruits than CH-CS-coated fruits. In addition, fruits coated with CH-CS or CH-CS-EOM showed no significant changes of total soluble solids content, while CH-CS-EOM-coated fruits showed lower titratable acidity than CH-CS-coated fruits at the end of storage. CH-CS-EOM3-coated guavas showed lower a(∗) and b(∗) values and higher L(∗) and hue values than those with other coatings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Mutagenicity of fly ash samples in a test with the protozoan Paramecium tetraurelia. Onderzoek naar de mutageniteit van een aantal vliegasmonsters in een toets met het pantoffeldiertje Paramecium tetraurelia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooftman, R.N.

    1983-08-01

    The mutagenicity of fly ash derived from combustion of coal was investigated in a test with the protozoan Paramecium tetraurelia. This unicellular organism is able to ingest particles of the size of these that are ingested and removed by the alveolar macrophages in the lung of man and other animals: in Paramecium, as in the macrophage, ingestion is followed by intracellular extraction. Both ash from the electrostatic filter and stack-ash were mutagenic in Paramecium. The results showed similarities with and some differences from those obtained in the Ames test. There are indications that the test with Paramecium is a sensitive test for the mutagenicity of complex wastes.

  14. Mutagenicity of fly ash samples in a test with the protozoan Paramecium tetraurelia. Onderzoek naar de mutageniteit van een aantal vliegasmonsters in een toets met het pantoffeldiertje Paramecium tetraurelia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooftman, R.N.

    1983-08-01

    The mutagenicity of fly ash derived from combustion of coal was investigated in a test with the protozoan Paramecium tetraurelia. This unicellular organism is able to ingest particles of the size of those that are ingested and removed by the alveolar macrophages in the lung of man and other animals: in Paramecium, as in the macrophage, ingestion is followed by intracellular extraction. Both ash from the electrostatic filter and stack-ash were mutagenic in Paramecium. The results showed similarities with and some differences from those obtained in the Ames test. There are indications that the test with Paramecium is a sensitive test for the mutagenicity of complex wastes.

  15. The microorganisms as a renewable source of ecological clean fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shalygo, N.V.; Mel'nikov, S.S.; Manankina, E.E.; Budakova, E.A.; Kolyago, V.M.

    2006-01-01

    Five families of microorganisms (Bacillaceae, Rhodospirillaceae, Cyanophyceae, Chlorophyceae and Euglenophyceae) as hydrogen producers were tested and the conditions that are necessary for hydrogen photoproduction were investigated. It was shown, that the most effective producers of hydrogen were Rhodobacter spheroides, Clostridium sp.; Euglena gracilis var. bacillaris and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Addition of glucose, iron and vanadium salts resulted in the increase of hydrogen production. Polycultures consisted of two or three microorganisms were more effective hydrogen producers compared to separate monocultures. (authors)

  16. Photodynamics of BLUF domain proteins: a new class of the biological blue-light photoreceptors

    OpenAIRE

    Zirak Yousefabadi, Peyman

    2008-01-01

    BLUF domains are light sensors of many microorganisms. They are present in the multi-domain proteins e.g. AppA from the phototrophic proteobacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides, YcgF from Escherichia coli, PAC (photoactive adenylyl cyclase) from the unicellular flagellate Euglena gracilis and single domain proteins e.g. BlrB from Rhodobacter sphaeroides, Slr1694 from cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp.PCC6803, and Tll0078 of the thermophilic unicellular cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus elongates B...

  17. Evolution of the Tetrapyrrole Biosynthetic Pathway in Secondary Algae: Conservation, Redundancy and Replacement

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cihlář, Jaromír; Füssy, Zoltán; Horák, Aleš; Oborník, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 11 (2016), č. článku e0166338. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/12/1522 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : delta aminolevulinic acid * plastid evolution * Euglena gracilis * gene transfer * diatom endosymbionts * Bigelowiella natans * chloroplast genome * sequence alignment * nuclear genomes * protein import Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016

  18. Anti-ulcer, anti-protozoan and anti-cancer activities of irradiated κ-carrageenan: some biological effects of irradiated food grade-carrageenan on various gastrointestinal disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deocaris, Custer C.; Cruz, Angela C; Dela Rosa, Alumanda M.; De Guzman, Roche Ray C.; Abilo, Rhea Mae L.; Gutierrez, Ana Kamila O.; Deocaris, Chester C.

    2001-01-01

    κ carrageenan and its radiolytic products are both shown to strongly inhibit pepsin activity based on our in vitro peptic ulcer model. Generated Lineweaver-Burke (LB) plots resemble the trend for competitive inhibition except that the changes in the slopes are too large rendering Km to approach a negative value. Our observations corroborate with the published dual behavior of carrageenan in inhibiting peptic ulcers, that is, by exerting simultaneously both enzyme (E) competitive inhibition and substrate (S) occlusion. Irradiated-carrageenan does not display anti-protozoan activity against Tetrahymena and pathogenic Entamoeba histolytica, and anti-tumor potential based on Artemia salina (brine shrimp) nauplus tests and the MTT assay with human MCF7 breast carcinoma cell line. (Author)

  19. Características morfológicas, histoquímicas e imunoistoquímicas dos tendões dos músculos semitendíneo e grácil: estudo comparativo entre os sexos Morphologic, histochemical, and immunohistochemical characteristics of the tendons of the semitendinosus and gracilis muscles: comparative study between men and women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgard dos Santos Pereira Júnior

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar, entre os sexos, as características morfológicas, histoquímicas e imunoistoquímicas dos tendões dos músculos semitendíneo e grácil a serem utilizados como auto-enxerto nas cirurgias de reconstrução do ligamento cruzado anterior. MÉTODOS: Amostras dos tendões dos músculos semitendíneo e grácil de 36 pacientes (36 joelhos foram avaliadas. As idades variaram de 15 a 46 anos, com média de 29,3 anos. Com relação à cor, 33 pacientes eram brancos e três não brancos. Quanto ao lado, eram 23 joelhos direitos e 13 esquerdos. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos, sexo masculino (n = 20 e feminino (n = 16. As amostras dos tendões foram submetidas à análise histológica, histoquímica e imunoistoquímica. RESULTADOS: Não se observaram diferenças estatisticamente significantes em relação à idade, ao sexo, à cor, ao lado, ao processo inflamatório, à vascularização, e à alcianofilia entre os grupos avaliados. Houve aumento da celularidade nos tendões do músculo semitendíneo em relação aos tendões do músculo grácil (sexo masculino p = 0,03 e sexo feminino p = 0,22. Pôde-se observar tendência nas mulheres à maior presença de calcificações dos tendões dos músculos semitendíneo e grácil (p = 0,06 e p = 0,09, e ao aumento da degeneração das fibras colágenas dos tendões do músculo semitendíneo (p = 0,06. Em relação à presença de receptores de estrógeno nos tendões dos músculos semitendíneo e grácil, observou-se aumento do número de receptores nos pacientes do sexo masculino. CONCLUSÃO: Observaram-se, entre os sexos, diferenças morfológicas, histoquímicas e imunoistoquímicas no tendão do músculo semitendíneo entre o tendão dos músculos grácil e semitendíneo no sexo masculino.OBJECTIVE: To compare the morphologic, histochemical, and immunohistochemical characteristics of the tendons of the semitendinosus and the gracilis muscles to be used as autograft in anterior

  20. Production of microscopic algae for its consequent use as aviation fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekawa, T.; Akamatsu, N. [Research Inst. of Tsukuba Bio-tech Corp., Ibaraki (Japan); Jia, J.; Intabon, K. [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan); Terazawa, Y. [Nakamura Gakuen Univ. Fukuoka (Japan). Nourishment Science Dept.

    2010-07-01

    There is a large market for aviation fuel in Japan's aviation industry whose annual demand for aviation fuel is 12 million KL. In this study, a biofuel was produced from microscopic algae for use as jet fuel at an industrial scale. In order to comply with the cap-and-trade environmental policy of the European Union, algal oil as a biomass fuel must represent 3 per cent , 5 per cent and 10 per cent of total annual demand by 2011, 2013, and 2020, respectively. The microscopic algae Euglena gracilis was used in this study. Its lipid concentration was about 20 per cent. The extraction residue contains a high-density protein that can be used in animal feed. The electricity required to supply the light needed to cultivate E. gracilis ranged from 180 MW to 900 MW for 4 L of bioreactor medium. The maximum quantity of photons needed in the cultivation liquid was determined along with the light intensity required during the start up period for the cultivation of E. gracilis. Continuous harvesting in high yields of E. gracilis kept the density of the dry matter of E. gracilis between 0.5 g/l to1.5 g/l. It was concluded that the liquid used to cultivate E. gracilis should be sterilized by maintaining a low pH level by blowing carbon dioxide into the liquid.

  1. Tratamento anaeróbio de esgoto e sua eficiência na redução da viabilidade de ovos de helmintos Helminth eggs and protozoan cysts in sludge obtained by anaerobic digestion process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosangela C. Paulino

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem como objetivo determinar a prevalência e a viabilidade de ovos e larvas de helmintos e cistos de protozoários presentes em biossólido e em esgoto submetido ao tratamento anaeróbio em estações de tratamento de esgoto onde são empregados reatores anaeróbios de lodo fluidizado (RALF, na região metropolitana de Curitiba, Paraná. Os parasitos presentes no esgoto e no lodo foram helmintos: Ascaris sp (85%, Toxocara sp (5,5%, Trichuris sp (4,5%, Hymenolepis diminuta (3,7%, H. nana (1% e Taenia sp (0,4%, Protozoários: Isospora sp, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, Endolimax nana. Houve diferença significativa quanto ao número de ovos viáveis de helmintos presentes no material de quatro estações estudadas. A redução da viabilidade dos ovos de helmintos variou de 59,7 a 93%. No tratamento biológico baseado na digestão anaeróbia a eficácia depende do tempo e da temperatura. Novos tratamentos higienizantes são necessários para a utilização do lodo produzido por digestão anaeróbia na reciclagem em agricultura ou para outros objetivos visando reduzir o risco para saúde humana e animal.This study evaluates the prevalence and viability of helminth eggs and protozoan cysts in sludge obtained by anaerobic treatment in four treatment stations in Curitiba, Parana State, Brazil. The parasites observed were helminths: Ascaris sp (85%, Toxocara sp (5.5%, Trichuris sp (4.5%, Hymenolepis diminuta (3.7%, H. nana (1% and Taenia sp (0.4%, protozoan: Isospora sp, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, Endolimax nana. In biological treatment based on the anaerobic digestion the effectiveness depends on the duration and temperature. The treatment showed efficiency for pathogen reduction of between 59.7 to 93%. However, the number of helminth eggs found in treatment stations was still high and new higher performance treatment is necessary for land application or for other objectives

  2. Two distinct populations of bovine IL-17⁺ T-cells can be induced and WC1⁺IL-17⁺γδ T-cells are effective killers of protozoan parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckham, R K; Brill, R; Foster, D S; Bowen, A L; Leigh, J A; Coffey, T J; Flynn, R J

    2014-06-25

    IL-17 has emerged as a key player in the immune system, exhibiting roles in protection from infectious diseases and promoting inflammation in autoimmunity. Initially thought to be CD4 T-cell-derived, the sources of IL-17 are now known to be varied and belong to both the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. Mechanisms for inducing IL-17 production in lymphoid cells are thought to rely on appropriate antigenic stimulation in the context of TGF-β1, IL-6 and/or IL-1β. Using culture protocols adapted from human studies, we have effectively induced both bovine CD4(+) and WC1(+) γδ T-cells to produce IL-17 termed Th17 and γδ17 cells, respectively. The negative regulatory effect of IFN-γ on mouse and human IL-17 production can be extended to the bovine model, as addition of IFN-γ decreases IL-17 production in both cell types. Furthermore we show that infection with the protozoan Neospora caninum will induce fibroblasts to secrete pro-IL-17 factors thereby inducing a γδ17 phenotype that preferentially kills infected target cells. Our study identifies two T-cell sources of IL-17, and is the first to demonstrate a protective effect of IL-17(+) T-cells in ruminants. Our findings offer further opportunities for future adjuvants or vaccines which could benefit from inducing these responses.

  3. Elongamento do enxerto de tendões do músculo grácial e semitendinoso humanos: estudo realizado em cadáveres de adultos jovens Graft semitendinosus and gracilis human muscle tendons elongation: a study carried out on young adult human cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Rocha Piedade

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Na cirurgia de reconstrução do ligamento cruzado anterior do joelho, os enxertos de tendões autólogos são a principal opção como substitutos ligamentares. Entretanto, uma das razões da falha da reconstrução ligamentar com tecidos moles é o estiramento ou elongamento do enxerto com o tempo. Neste trabalho, foram ensaiados oito tendões do músculo grácil e oito do músculo semitendinoso humanos, obtidos de quatro cadáveres do sexo masculino, com idade média de 24,5 anos. Cada tendão foi submetido a uma deformação relativa constante de 2,5% durante 600 s, com registro contínuo do relaxamento de força. A seguir, o tendão retornava ao seu comprimento inicial e era mantido num período de repouso de 300 s. Após este intervalo, um segundo ensaio, semelhante ao primeiro, era realizado. A velocidade de carregamento empregada foi de 10% do comprimento inicial do corpo de prova por segundo. Foram obtidos valores de força inicial, com 300 s e 600 s nos dois ensaios. A análise estatística sugere um comportamento mecânico mais uniforme para o tendão do músculo semitendinoso quando comparado ao tendão do músculo grácil.In the anterior cruciate ligament knee surgery reconstruction, autologous tendons graft remains as a main option as substitutive ligaments. However time effect on graft elongation is the main reason of ligament reconstruction failure. Traction tests have been performed on eight gracilis as well as on eight semitendinosus human muscles tendons obtained from four male cadavers at an average of 24.5 years. Each tendon specimen has been submitted to a deformation of 2.5% of its initial length for a time interval of 600 s with continuous recording of the corresponding force relaxation. The tendon specimen was then kept at rest for 300 s as soon as it returned to its initial length. The same specimen was then submitted to a similar test. Deformation rate for both tests was 10% of its initial length per second. Initial

  4. Transferências microcirúrgicas do músculo grácil para flexão do cotovelo na lesão do plexo braquial do adulto: estudo retrospectivo de oito casos Microsurgical transfer of the gracilis muscle for elbow flexion in brachial plexus injury in adults: retrospective study of eight cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Koiti Kimura

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O tratamento das lesões do plexo braquial representa um grande desafio, principalmente as lesões tardias, com mais de 12 meses de evolução. Analisamos retrospectivamente pacientes que foram submetidos a uma das possibilidades para tentar restaurar a função do membro superior afetado nestas condições, a transferência microcirúrgica do músculo grácil para flexão do cotovelo. MÉTODOS: Foram incluídos oito pacientes, divididos em dois grupos: um cujo procedimento realizado consistia em neurorrafia do retalho muscular com enxerto de nervo sural e anastomoses mais distais; o outro em que a neurorrafia era realizada diretamente no nervo espinal acessório, e anastomose nos vasos toracoacromiais. RESULTADOS: Encontramos significante diferença entre os grupos, sendo que aqueles submetidos à neurorrafia direta obtiveram resultados satisfatórios em maior número (75% M4 quando comparados com o outro grupo, que fez uso de enxerto para neurorrafia, em que foi menor o sucesso do procedimento (25% M4. CONCLUSÃO: Pacientes submetidos à transferência funcional microcirúrgica do músculo grácil cujas anastomoses vasculares foram realizadas nos vasos toracoacromiais apresentaram melhor resultado funcional do que aqueles que tiveram suas anastomoses realizadas na artéria braquial e consequente utilização de enxerto de nervo.OBJECTIVE: Treating brachial plexus injuries is a major challenge, especially lesions that are presented late, with more than 12 months of evolution. We retrospectively analyzed patients who underwent one of the possibilities for attempting to restore the function of upper limbs affected under such conditions: microsurgical transfer of the gracilis muscle for elbow flexion. METHODS: Eight patients were included, divided into two groups: one in which the procedure consisted of neurorrhaphy of the muscle flap with sural nerve grafting and anastomosis more distally; and the other, in which the neurorrhaphy was

  5. The plastid genome of Eutreptiella provides a window into the process of secondary endosymbiosis of plastid in euglenids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štěpánka Hrdá

    Full Text Available Euglenids are a group of protists that comprises species with diverse feeding modes. One distinct and diversified clade of euglenids is photoautotrophic, and its members bear green secondary plastids. In this paper we present the plastid genome of the euglenid Eutreptiella, which we assembled from 454 sequencing of Eutreptiella gDNA. Comparison of this genome and the only other available plastid genomes of photosynthetic euglenid, Euglena gracilis, revealed that they contain a virtually identical set of 57 protein coding genes, 24 genes fewer than the genome of Pyramimonas parkeae, the closest extant algal relative of the euglenid plastid. Searching within the transcriptomes of Euglena and Eutreptiella showed that 6 of the missing genes were transferred to the nucleus of the euglenid host while 18 have been probably lost completely. Euglena and Eutreptiella represent the deepest bifurcation in the photosynthetic clade, and therefore all these gene transfers and losses must have happened before the last common ancestor of all known photosynthetic euglenids. After the split of Euglena and Eutreptiella only one additional gene loss took place. The conservation of gene content in the two lineages of euglenids is in contrast to the variability of gene order and intron counts, which diversified dramatically. Our results show that the early secondary plastid of euglenids was much more susceptible to gene losses and endosymbiotic gene transfers than the established plastid, which is surprisingly resistant to changes in gene content.

  6. Molecular characterization of phytoplankton dissolved organic matter (DOM) and sulfur components using high resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangal, Vaughn; Stock, Naomi L; Guéguen, Celine

    2016-03-01

    Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) with electrospray ionization in both positive and negative polarity was conducted on Suwannee River fulvic acid (SRFA), Pony Lake fulvic acid (PLFA) standards, and dissolved organic matter (DOM) released by freshwater phytoplankton (Scenedesmus obliquus, Euglena mutabilis, and Euglena gracilis). Three-dimensional van Krevelen diagrams expressing various oxygenation states of sulfur molecules and abundance plots of sulfur-containing species were constructed. Orbitrap HRMS analysis of SRFA found a high density of peaks in the lignin region (77 %) and low density of protein material (6.53 %), whereas for PLFA, 25 % of the total peaks were lignin related compared to 56 % of peaks in protein regions, comparable with other HRMS studies. Phytoplankton-derived DOM of S. obliquus, E. mutabilis, and E. gracilis was dominated by protein molecules at respective percentages of 36, 46, and 49 %, and is consistent with previous experiments examining phytoplankton-derived DOM composition. The normalized percentage of SO-containing compounds was determined among the three phytoplankton to be 56 % for Scenedesmus, 54 % for E. mutabilis, and 47 % for E. gracilis, suggesting variation between sulfur content in phytoplankton-derived DOM and differences in metal binding capacities. These results suggest the level of resolution by Orbitrap mass spectrometry is sufficient for preliminary characterization of phytoplankton DOM at an affordable cost relative to other HRMS techniques.

  7. Mobile genetic elements in protozoan parasites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    thought to aid the transposition of their nonautonomous counterparts .... experiments with gene fusion constructs) and vary in number in ... T. brucei. Since RIME insertion is thought to activate ..... actions to form an aggregate or core particle.

  8. The protozoan associates of some crustaceans

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Santhakumari, V.; Gopalan, U.K.

    produced by high turbidity and low oxygen tension in the infested tanaidacean were carried out. Most of the infested tanaidaceans were found dead, showing the potentially harmful nature of this ciliate...

  9. Epizoic and ectoparasitic protozoans from crab larvae

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Santhakumari, V.

    A suctorian, Ephelota gemmipara Hertwig, infesting the zoea of the peacrab, Porcellana and an ectoparasitic flagellate Ellobiopsis chattoni Caullery infecting the zoea of the crab were observed from off Cape Comorin, the south-east coast of India...

  10. Molecular characterization of intestinal protozoan parasites from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Koffi Mathurin

    2014-02-17

    Feb 17, 2014 ... histolytica and C. parvum infection, based on molecular diagnosis, in children .... cytotoxigenic Clostridium difficile ), viruses (Rotavirus,. Noro viruses and ... cost, it gives the true prevalence with respect to its sensi- tivity and ...

  11. Longitudinal variation of attributes from flagellate protozoan community in tropical streams = Variação longitudinal dos atributos da comunidade de protozoários flagelados de riachos tropicais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janielly Carvalho Camargo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study verified the existence of longitudinal patterns in speciescomposition, richness, density and biomass of flagellate protozoan in tropical streams and investigated whether the possible zonation patterns are different between two periods of the year. For this, samplings were carried out in three regions from 10 streams, during the summer and winter. The flagellate community may be considered species-rich, because it was represented by 106 taxa, belonging to 8 orders and 1 residual group. The values of density and biomass are greater than those commonly found in other lotic environments, with mean values close to 2.3x104 cels. mL-1 and 150.8 ƒÊgC L-1. We did not observe any conspicuous and significant longitudinal pattern of the attributes from flagellates community. Only temporal variations of these attributes were verified. The Pearson Correlation evidenced that this temporal patterns was mainly driven by the nutrients availability, temperature and dissolved oxygen, since, the higher values of species richness, density and biomass were recorded during the winter, when the higher concentrations of nutrients and dissolved oxygen and lower temperatures were registered. In summary, the absence of patterns may be ascribed to the unidirectional and continuous flow from lotic environments.O presente estudo objetivou verificar a existencia de padroes longitudinais de composicao, riqueza de especies, densidade e biomassa da comunidade de protozoarios flagelados de riachos tropicais e, ainda, investigar se os possiveis padroes de zonacao sao diferentes entre dois periodos do ano. Foram realizadas coletas em tres regioes ao longo de dez riachos, durante os periodos de verao e inverno. A comunidade de protozoarios flagelados pode ser considerada bastante rica, sendo representada por 106 taxons pertencentes a oito ordens e um grupo residual. Os valores de densidade e biomassa registrados encontram-se acima dos valores comumente encontradosem

  12. Protozoan parasites of Xiphophorus spp. (Poeciliidae and their relation with water characteristics Parasitos protozoários de Xiphophorus sp. (Poeciliidae e a relação deles com as características da água

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Garcia

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This work investigated the relationship between water characteristics and infestation of protozoan parasites, Icthyophthirius multifiliis and Trichodina sp., in swordtails (Xiphophorus helleri and platy (Xiphophorus maculates collected in an ornamental fish farm in São Paulo, Brazil. Fish were monthly collected from ponds and tanks for one year. The prevalence rates in fish from tanks and ponds were, respectively, 34.2% and 22.5% for I. multifiliis, and 13% and 54.2% for Trichodina sp. Increased electric conductivity and pH provoked reduction of I. multifiliis infestation. Low oxygen concentration increased Trichodina sp. infestation. The use of salt to increase the electric conductivity of water was a method to control I. multifiliis. Low dissolved oxygen and the addition of organic fertilizer favored the reproduction of Trichodina sp.Investigou-se a relação entre as características da água e a infestação de protozoários parasitos, Icthyophthirius multifiliis e Trichodina sp., em peixe espada, Xiphophorus helleri e em plati, Xiphophorus maculatus, coletados em uma piscicultura de peixes ornamentais no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Os peixes foram coletados mensalmente, durante um ano, dos viveiros e das caixas de estocagem. A prevalência da infestação nos peixes das caixas e dos viveiros foram, respectivamente, 34,2% e 22,5% para I. multifiliis e 13% e 54% para Trichodina sp. A elevada condutividade elétrica e o pH da água reduziram a infestação por I. multifiliis. A baixa concentração de oxigênio resultou em aumento na infestação por Trichodina sp. O uso do sal, para aumentar a condutividade elétrica da água, consistiu em um método de controle de I. multifiliis. A redução do oxigênio dissolvido e a adição de fertilizante orgânico favoreceram a reprodução de Trichodina sp.

  13. In vitro degradation of ribosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, G; Rivas, A

    1976-12-01

    The cytoplasmic ribosomes from Euglena gracilis var. bacillaris are found to be of two types taking into consideration their stability "in vitro". In the group of unstable ribosomes the large subunit is degraded. The other group apparently does not suffer any degradation under the conditions described. However the RNAs extracted from both types of ribosomes are degraded during sucrose density gradients. The degradation of the largest RNA species has been reported previously, but no comment has been made about the stability of the ribosome itself.

  14. Tetrapyrrole Synthesis of Photosynthetic Chromerids Is Likely Homologous to the Unusual Pathway of Apicomplexan Parasites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kořený, Luděk; Sobotka, Roman; Janouškovec, J.; Keeling, P. J.; Oborník, Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 9 (2011), s. 3454-3462 ISSN 1040-4651 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/1423; GA AV ČR IAA601410907 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : YEAST SACCHAROMYCES-CEREVISIAE * HEME-BIOSYNTHESIS PATHWAY * PLASMODIUM-FALCIPARUM * MALARIA PARASITE * 5-AMINOLEVULINATE SYNTHASE * SECONDARY PLASTIDS * TOXOPLASMA-GONDII * PROTEIN-TRANSPORT * EUGLENA-GRACILIS * METABOLIC MAPS Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 8.987, year: 2011

  15. A biotic video game smart phone kit for formal and informal biophysics education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Honesty; Lee, Seung Ah; Riedel-Kruse, Ingmar

    2015-03-01

    Novel ways for formal and informal biophysics education are important. We present a low-cost biotic game design kit that incorporates microbial organisms into an interactive gaming experience: A 3D-printable microscope containing four LEDs controlled by a joystick enable human players to provide directional light stimuli to the motile single-celled organism Euglena gracilis. These cellular behaviors are displayed on the integrated smart phone. Real time cell-tracking couples these cells into interactive biotic video game play, i.e., the human player steers Euglena to play soccer with virtual balls and goals. The player's learning curve in mastering this fun game is intrinsically coupled to develop a deeper knowledge about Euglena's cell morphology and the biophysics of its phototactic behavior. This kit is dual educational - via construction and via play - and it provides an engaging theme for a formal biophysics devices class as well as to be presented in informal outreach activities; its low cost and open soft- and hardware should enable wide adoption.

  16. scrotal reconstruction with a pedicled gracilis muscle flap after

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nonviable tissue is removed and a granulation bed suitable for .... The pedicled or free greater omental flap as well as scrotal tissue ... Bien-keem Tan, Mohammed ZulfikarRasheed,. WofflesT.L.Wu ... Honda Hsu Chih Ming Lin, Tzong-Bon Sun,.

  17. Scrotal Reconstruction with a Pedicled Gracilis Muscle Flap after ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several scrotal reconstructive options are available including split thickness skin grafts, scrotal advancement flaps, local fasciocutaneous, muscle or myocutaneous flaps, and free tissue transfer. We report a case of a 34 year old African male who presented as a referral from a district hospital with a scrotal defect and ...

  18. Estudo da ocorrência de enteroparasitas em hortaliças comercializadas na região metropolitana de São Paulo - SP, Brasil: II - Pesquisa de protozoários intestinais Study of the occurrence of intestinal parasites os vegetables comercially traded in the metropolitan area of S.Paulo, SP - Brazil: II - Research into protozoan cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto Fernandes de Oliveira

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisadas hortaliças "in natura", comercializadas na Região Metropolitana de São Paulo, SP-Brasil, visando à pesquisa e à identificação de cistos de protozoários de interesse médico. As hortaliças, constituídas de 50 amostras de cada variedade, consistiram em: alface (Lactuca sativa, variedades lisa e crespa, escarola (Chichorium sp e agrião (Nasturtium officinale. Os resultados evidenciaram elevados percentuais de contaminação em todas as variedades de hortaliças analisadas, porém as freqüências de protozoários foram maiores no agrião. As amostras de alfaces apresentaram os menores percentuais de contaminação, enquanto que a escarola apresentou valores geralmente situados entre o agrião e as alfaces. Observou-se uma grande variedade de protozoários, cujas freqüências de ocorrência na população residente na Região Metropolitana de São Paulo são igualmente elevadas. Os mais freqüentes foram Entamoeba sp (com 4 e 8 núcleos e Giardia sp. Foram também isolados cistos de Iodamoeba sp, Endolimax sp e Chilomastix sp. Os elevados níveis de contaminação fecal encontrados nas amostras analisadas apontam para a importância dos alimentos na transmissão de protozoários intestinais.Vegetables in natura , commercially traded in the metropolitan area of S.Paulo, Brazil, were analised by means of the appropriate methodology with a view to discovering and identifying protozoan cysts of medical interest. The vegetables under study consisted of 50 samples of each of the variaties listed bel ow: lettuce (Lactuca sativa - oily leaves and crisphead varieties, endive (Chicorium sp and water-cress (Nasturtium officinale. Results showed high rates of contamination in all the varieties of vegetable analysed. However, the water-cress was the one which presented the highest frequencies of enteroparasites. Both the oily leafes and crisphead varieties of lettuce presented the lowest rates of contamination, whereas endive

  19. Combined effects of γ-rays and acidification on an experimental model ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuma, Shoichi; Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Kawabata, Zen'ichiro; Ichimasa, Yusuke

    2002-01-01

    It is necessary to evaluate combined effects of ionizing radiation and other toxic agents on ecosystems, because ecosystems are exposed to these various factors. The authors studied combined effects of γ-rays and acidification on an experimental model ecosystem (microcosm) mimicking aquatic microbial communities. Microcosms, consisted of flagellate algae Euglena gracilis Z as a producer, ciliate protozoa Tetrahymena thermophila B as a consumer and bacteria Escherichia coli DH5α as a decomposer, were loaded by the following treatments: Irradiation with 100 Gy 60 Co γ-rays; Acidification of culture medium to pH4.0 with the mixture of 0.1 N HNO 3 and 0.1 N H 2 SO 4 (1:1, v/v), which mimicked acid rain; and Irradiation with 100 Gy γ-rays followed by the acidification of the culture medium (pH 4.0). The γ-irradiation induced a temporary decrease in cell densities of E. coli, but did not affect cell densities of the other species. The concentrations of chlorophyll a and ATP in the microcosm were not affected by the γ-irradiation, and chlorophyll a concentrations in a Eu. gracilis cell were not affected, either. The acidification significantly decreased cell densities of T. thermophila, slightly decreased cell densities of E. coli, and slightly increased cell densities of Eu. gracilis. The concentrations of chlorophyll a and ATP in the microcosm were increased by the acidification, although chlorophyll a concentrations in a Eu. gracilis cell were decreased. The combined exposure to γ-rays and acids temporarily decreased cell densities of E. coli, significantly decreased cell densities of T. thermophila, and slightly increased cell densities of Eu. gracilis. The concentrations of chlorophyll a and ATP in the microcosm were increased by the combined exposure, although chlorophyll a concentrations in a Eu. gracilis cell were decreased. The authors therefore conclude that combined exposure to γ-rays and acids had additive effects on cell densities, chlorophyll a and

  20. Recent Advances in Human Protozoan Parasites of Gastrointestinal Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-01

    organism was found in 40% and 50%, respectively. The organism did not seem to be casually involved in the inflammatory periodontal * disease. Entamoeba...and lung, and in Ecuador, B. coli was found to be the cause of bloody-mucoid diarrhea and hepatic abscess . SUMMARY An attempt was made in this report

  1. NERL MICROBIAL PROGRAM WITH EMPHASIS ON PROTOZOAN METHODS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Exposure Research Laboratory's facility in Cincinnati is engated in a variety of microbiological research projects that include studies on bacteria, viruses, fungi and protozoa. One of these was a protzoology project to determine the best way to evaluate methods rep...

  2. Targeting channels and transporters in protozoan parasite infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Anna; Erler, Holger; Beitz, Eric

    2018-03-01

    Infectious diseases caused by pathogenic protozoa are among the most significant causes of death in humans. Therapeutic options are scarce and massively challenged by the emergence of resistant parasite strains. Many of the current anti-parasite drugs target soluble enzymes, generate unspecific oxidative stress, or act by an unresolved mechanism within the parasite. In recent years, collections of drug-like compounds derived from large-scale phenotypic screenings, such as the malaria or pathogen box, have been made available to researchers free of charge boosting the identification of novel promising targets. Remarkably, several of the compound hits have been found to inhibit membrane proteins at the periphery of the parasites, i.e. channels and transporters for ions and metabolites. In this review, we will focus on the progress made on targeting channels and transporters at different levels and the potential for use against infections with apicomplexan parasites mainly Plasmodium spp. (malaria) and Toxoplasma gondii (toxoplasmosis), with kinetoplastids Trypanosoma brucei (sleeping sickness), Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas disease) and Leishmania ssp. (leishmaniasis), and the amoeba Entamoeba histolytica (amoebiasis).

  3. Bacterial production, protozoan grazing, and mineralization in stratified Lake Vechten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloem, J.

    1989-01-01

    The role of heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNAN, size 2-20 μm) in grazing on bacteria and mineralization of organic matter in stratified Lake Vechten was studied.

    Quantitative effects of manipulation and fixation on HNAN were checked. Considerable losses were caused by

  4. Vorticella: A Protozoan for Bio-Inspired Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangjin Ryu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we introduce Vorticella as a model biological micromachine for microscale engineering systems. Vorticella has two motile organelles: the oral cilia of the zooid and the contractile spasmoneme in the stalk. The oral cilia beat periodically, generating a water flow that translates food particles toward the animal at speeds in the order of 0.1–1 mm/s. The ciliary flow of Vorticella has been characterized by experimental measurement and theoretical modeling, and tested for flow control and mixing in microfluidic systems. The spasmoneme contracts in a few milliseconds, coiling the stalk and moving the zooid at 15–90 mm/s. Because the spasmoneme generates tension in the order of 10–100 nN, powered by calcium ion binding, it serves as a model system for biomimetic actuators in microscale engineering systems. The spasmonemal contraction of Vorticella has been characterized by experimental measurement of its dynamics and energetics, and both live and extracted Vorticellae have been tested for moving microscale objects. We describe past work to elucidate the contraction mechanism of the spasmoneme, recognizing that past and continuing efforts will increase the possibilities of using the spasmoneme as a microscale actuator as well as leading towards bioinspired actuators mimicking the spasmoneme.

  5. Topics on the Pathology of Protozoan and Invasive Arthropod Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    significant morbidity and mortality in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador , Honduras, Paraguay, Peru, and Venezuela. It occurs less frequently in...The population at highest risk for CL is nonimmune expatriates such as tourists , soldiers, new settlers, and construction or agricultural workers...of 1933. U. S. Treasury Department, Public Health Service. National Institute of Health Bulletin No. 166. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing

  6. Molecular systematics of the parasitic protozoan Giardia intestinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monis, P T; Andrews, R H; Mayrhofer, G; Ey, P L

    1999-09-01

    The long-standing controversy regarding whether Giardia intestinalis is a single species prevalent in both human and animal hosts or a species complex consisting of morphologically similar organisms that differ in host range and other biotypic characteristics is an issue with important medical, veterinary, and environmental management implications. In the past decade, highly distinct genotypes (some apparently confined to particular host groups) have been identified by genetic analysis of samples isolated from different host species. The aim of this study was to undertake a phylogenetic analysis of G. intestinalis that were representative of all known major genetic groups and compare them with other Giardia species, viz. G. ardeae, G. muris, and G. microti. Segments from four "housekeeping" genes (specifying glutamate dehydrogenase, triose phosphate isomerase, elongation factor 1 alpha, and 18S ribosomal RNA) were examined by analysis of 0.48-0.69-kb nucleotide sequences determined from DNA amplified in polymerase chain reactions from each locus. In addition, isolates were compared by allozymic analysis of electrophoretic data obtained for 21 enzymes representing 23 gene loci. The results obtained from these independent techniques and different loci were essentially congruous. Analyses using G. ardeae and/or G. muris as outgroups supported the monophyly of G. intestinalis and also showed that this species includes genotypes that represent at least seven deeply rooted lineages, herein designated assemblages A-G. Inclusion of G. microti in the analysis of 18S rRNA sequence data demonstrated the monophyly of Giardia with the same median body morphology but did not support the monophyly of G. intestinalis, instead placing G. microti within G. intestinalis. The findings support the hypothesis that G. intestinalis is a species complex and suggest that G. microti is a member of this complex.

  7. The Prevalence of Helminth Eggs and Protozoan Oocysts on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The presence of helminths eggs on vegetables is of public health significance, considering the fact that communities are at risk of infection. Thus, the need to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in leafy vegetables sold in markets in Abuja, Nigeria. A total of 150 leafy vegetable samples including cabbage ...

  8. Parasites and cancer: a review of the emergence of protozoan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of infectious agents in the formation of cancers has been long established. However the bulk of the emphasis has been on oncogenic DNA viruses and to a lesser extent, bacteria. However,amidst parasites, only a few metazoans have been linked to cancer, and with feeble molecular bases. This review explores the ...

  9. Mineralization of nitrogen by protozoan activity in soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuikman, P.

    1990-01-01

    In general, more than 95% of the nitrogen in soils is present in organic forms. This nitrogen is not directly available to plants unless microbial decomposition takes place with the release of mineral nitrogen. In modern agriculture, nitrogen is often applied to arable soils as a fertilizer

  10. Early detection of protozoan grazers in algal biofuel cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, John G; Thomas, Naomi J; Achilles-Day, Undine E M; Leakey, Raymond J G

    2012-06-01

    Future micro-algal biofuels will most likely be derived from open-pond production systems. These are by definition open to "invasion" by grazers, which could devastate micro-algal mass-cultures. There is an urgent requirement for methodologies capable of early detection and control of grazers in dense algal cultures. In this study a model system employing the marine alga Nannochloropsis oculata was challenged by grazers including ciliates, amoebae and a heterotrophic dinoflagellate. A FlowCAM flow-cytometer was used to detect all grazers investigated (size range 80 μm in length) in the presence of algae. Detection limits were 1.4 × 10(8) cells ml(-1) (>0.5 g l(-1) dry wt.). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Retention and loss of RNA interference pathways in trypanosomatid protozoans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lon-Fye Lye

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available RNA interference (RNAi pathways are widespread in metaozoans but the genes required show variable occurrence or activity in eukaryotic microbes, including many pathogens. While some Leishmania lack RNAi activity and Argonaute or Dicer genes, we show that Leishmania braziliensis and other species within the Leishmania subgenus Viannia elaborate active RNAi machinery. Strong attenuation of expression from a variety of reporter and endogenous genes was seen. As expected, RNAi knockdowns of the sole Argonaute gene implicated this protein in RNAi. The potential for functional genetics was established by testing RNAi knockdown lines lacking the paraflagellar rod, a key component of the parasite flagellum. This sets the stage for the systematic manipulation of gene expression through RNAi in these predominantly diploid asexual organisms, and may also allow selective RNAi-based chemotherapy. Functional evolutionary surveys of RNAi genes established that RNAi activity was lost after the separation of the Leishmania subgenus Viannia from the remaining Leishmania species, a divergence associated with profound changes in the parasite infectious cycle and virulence. The genus Leishmania therefore offers an accessible system for testing hypothesis about forces that may select for the loss of RNAi during evolution, such as invasion by viruses, changes in genome plasticity mediated by transposable elements and gene amplification (including those mediating drug resistance, and/or alterations in parasite virulence.

  12. Strategies of the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica to evade ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    the innate immune responses of intestinal epithelial cells ... metabolically active eukaryotic cells and display anti- bacterial activity ..... and TLR4 in inflammatory bowel disease; Infect. Immun. .... which contains a beta2 integrin motif; Mol. Biol.

  13. Strategies of the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica to evade ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    and the subsequent migration of the amoeba to the liver where abscesses are formed (Espinosa-Cantellano and. Martinez-Paloma 2000; Stanley 2001). ..... activity of bacterial peroxiredoxins; Nature (London) 407. 211–215. Cario E and Podolsky D K 2000 Differential alteration in intes- tinal epithelial cell expression of ...

  14. Ecological impacts of umbrella effects of radiation on the individual members

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Masahiro; Kawaguchi, Isao

    2007-01-01

    In order to study the interactions in a model aquatic microcosm, an individual-based computer simulation model was developed. The microcosm consists of Euglena gracilis as an autotroph algae, Tetrahymena thermophila as a heterotroph protozoa and Escherichia coli as a saprotroph bacteria. There exists a strong interaction between Tetrahymena and E. coli as the first is the predator of the second. Ecological toxicity tests were conducted to test the population level impacts of the biological effects of radiation and toxicants on the lethality and mobility factors that influence directly or indirectly growth and reproduction. Radiological effects on lethality of E. coli individuals were translated to the reduction of the equilibrium population of Tetrahymena. A synergistic effect at the community level was also observed by the simulation of a combined exposure of radiation and a toxicant which reduced the feeding efficiency of Tetrahymena

  15. Operation of an enclosed aquatic ecosystem in the Shenzhou-8 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyan; Richter, Peter R.; Hao, Zongjie; An, Yanjun; Wang, Gaohong; Li, Dunhai; Liu, Yongding; Strauch, Sebastian M.; Schuster, Martin; Haag, Ferdinand W.; Lebert, Michael

    2017-05-01

    Long- term spaceflight needs reliable Biological life support systems (BLSS) to supply astronauts with enough food, fresh air and recycle wasters, but the knowledge about the operation pattern and controlling strategy is rear. For this purpose, a miniaturized enclosed aquatic ecosystem was developed and flown on the Chinese spaceship Shenzhou-8. The system with a total volume of about 60 mL was separated into two chambers by means of a gas transparent membrane. The lower chamber was inoculated with Euglena gracilis cells, and the upper chamber was cultured with Chlorella cells and three snails. After 17.5 days flight, the samples were analyzed. It was found that all snails in the ground module (GM) were alive, while in the flight module (FM) only one snail survived. The total cell numbers, assimilation of nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorus, soluble proteins and carbohydrate contents showed a decrease in FM than in GM. The correlation analysis showed upper chambers of both FM and GM had the same positive and negative correlation factors, while differential correlation was found in lower chambers. These results suggested primary productivity in the enclosed system decreased in microgravity, accompanied with nutrients assimilation. The FM chamber endured lacking of domination species to sustain the system development and GM chamber endured richness in population abundance. These results implied photosynthesis intensity should be reduced to keep the system healthy. More Chlorella but less Euglena might be a useful strategy to sustain system stability. It is the first systematic analysis of enclosed systems in microgravity.

  16. Effect of an energy-deficient diet on populations of ciliate protozoans in bovine rumen Efeito da deficiência de energia na dieta sobre a população de protozoários ciliados do rúmen de bovinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. Soares

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Ten young rumen-cannulated crossbred steers were randomly divided into two groups: a control group (C; n=4, which was fed a balanced diet for daily weight gain of 900g; and a pronounced energy-deprived group (PED; n=6, receiving 30% less of the required energy for maintenance. After 140 days of these alimentary regimes, rumen fluid and urine samples were collected for biochemical and functional tests, before feeding and at 1, 3, 6, and 9 hours after feeding. The energy-deprivation diet caused a significant reduction in the number of Entodinium, Eodinium, Isotricha, Dasytricha, Eremoplastron, Eudiplodinium, Metadinium, Charonina, Ostracodinium, and Epidinium protozoa. There was no effect of the time of sampling in both groups on the total number of ciliates in rumen fluid. A higher number of protozoan forms in binary division were recorded in the control group, at the 6th and 9th hours after feeding (PForam utilizados 10 novilhos mestiços com cânula ruminal, distribuídos em dois grupos: no grupo controle (C; n=4 receberam dieta balanceada para ganho diário de 900g; no grupo tratado com carência pronunciada de energia (CP; n=6, receberam dieta com 30% a menos do nível de mantença em energia. Após 140 dias sob esses regimes de alimentação, foram coletadas amostras do fluido ruminal e urina, para realização de provas bioquímicas e funcionais, antes e às 1, 3, 6 e 9 horas após o fornecimento do alimento. A carência energética resultou em diminuição significativa na quantidade dos protozoários Entodinium, Eodinium, Isotricha, Dasytricha, Eremoplastron, Eudiplodinium, Metadinium, Charonina, Ostracodinium e Epidinium. Não houve efeito da hora de coleta sobre o total de ciliados nos grupos C e CP. Maior número de formas em divisão binária foi registrado no grupo C, na sexta e nona horas pós-alimentação (P<0,019. Observaram-se altas correlações positivas entre a contagem total de protozoários e a fermentação de glicose, am

  17. Seroprevalence rates of antibodies against Leishmania infantum and other protozoan and rickettsial parasites in dogs Soroprevalência de anticorpos contra Leishmania infantum e outras espécies de protozoários e rickettsia em cães

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana de Cássia Paulan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL is caused by the protozoan Leishmania infantum, which infects dogs and humans in many regions of Brazil. The present study involved an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT to analyze L. infantum, Ehrlichia spp., Babesia canis, Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum infection rates in serum samples from 93 dogs in a rural settlement in Ilha Solteira, SP, Brazil. The seroprevalence rates of anti-L. infantum, anti-Ehrlichia, anti-B. canis, anti-T. gondii and anti-N. caninum antibodies were 37.6%, 75.3%, 72%, 47.3% and 6.4%, respectively. In addition to IFAT, direct microscopic examination of popliteal lymph node aspirates revealed 26.9% of CVL positive dogs. Serological tests revealed that 17.2% of the dogs were seropositive for a single parasite, 29% for two parasites, 33% for three, 16.1% for four, and 1.1% for five parasites, while 3.2% were seronegative for five parasites. The presence of antibodies against these parasites in serum samples from dogs confirmed their exposure to these parasites in this rural area. Because of the potential zoonotic risk of these diseases, mainly leishmaniasis, ehrlichiosis and toxoplasmosis, special attention should focus on programs for the improvement of diagnostic assays and control measures against these parasites.Leishmaniose Visceral Canina (LVC é causada pelo protozoário Leishmania infantum, podendo infectar cães e humanos em várias regiões do Brasil. O presente estudo teve por objetivo realizar a reação de imunofluorescência indireta (RIFI para analisar os índices de infecção parasitária para L. infantum, Ehrlichia spp., Babesia canis, Toxoplasma gondii e Neospora caninum, em 93 amostras de soro de cães de um assentamento rural no município de Ilha Solteira, SP, Brasil. A taxa de soroprevalência de cães com anticorpos anti-L. infantum, anti-Ehrlichia, anti-B. canis, anti-T. gondii e anti-N. caninum foi de 37,6%, 75,3%, 72%, 47,3% e 6

  18. Ecological impacts of environmental toxicants and radiation on the microbial ecosystem: a model simulation of computational microbiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Masahiro; Sakashita, Tetsuya; Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Fuma, Shoichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Miyamoto, Kiriko; Yanagisawa, K.; Nakamura, Yuji; Kawabata, Zenichiro

    2000-01-01

    This study explores a microorganic closed-ecosystem by computer simulation to illustrate symbiosis among populations in the microcosm that consists of heterotroph protozoa, Tetrahymena thermophila B as a consumer, autotroph algae, Euglena gracilis Z as a primary producer and saprotroph Bacteria, Escherichia coli DH5 as decomposer. The simulation program is written as a procedure of StarLogoT1.5.1, which is developed by Center for Connected Learning and Computer-Based Modeling, Tufts University. The virtual microcosm is structured and operated by the following rules; 1) Environment is defined as a lattice model, which consists of 10,201 square patches, 300 micron Wide, 300 micron Length and 100 micron Hight. 2) Each patch has its own attributes, Nutrient, Detritus and absolute coordinates, 3) Components of the species, Tetrahymena, Euglena and E-coli are defined as sub-system, and each sub-system has its own attributes as location, heading direction, cell-age, structured biomass, reserves energy and demographic parameters (assimilation rate, breeding threshold, growth rate, etc.). 4) Each component of the species, Tetrahymena, Euglena and E-coli, lives by foraging (Tetrahymena eats E-coli), excreting its metabolic products to the environment (as a substrate of E-coli), breeding and dying according vital condition. 5) Euglena utilizes sunlight energy by photosynthesis process and produces organic compounds. E-coli breaks down the organic compounds of dead protoplasm or metabolic wastes (Detritus) and releases inorganic substances to construct down stream of food cycle. Virtual ecosystem in this study is named SIM-COSM, a parallel computing model for self-sustaining system of complexity. It found that SIM-COSM is a valuable to illustrate symbiosis among populations in the microcosm, where a feedback mechanism acts in response to disturbances and interactions among species and environment. In the simulation, microbes increased demographic and environmental

  19. Anaerobic Coculture of Microalgae with Thermosipho globiformans and Methanocaldococcus jannaschii at 68°C Enhances Generation of n-Alkane-Rich Biofuels after Pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, Shigeru; Igarashi, Kensuke; Utsumi, Motoo; Shiraiwa, Yoshihiro; Kuwabara, Tomohiko

    2013-01-01

    We tested different alga-bacterium-archaeon consortia to investigate the production of oil-like mixtures, expecting that n-alkane-rich biofuels might be synthesized after pyrolysis. Thermosipho globiformans and Methanocaldococcus jannaschii were cocultured at 68°C with microalgae for 9 days under two anaerobic conditions, followed by pyrolysis at 300°C for 4 days. Arthrospira platensis (Cyanobacteria), Dunaliella tertiolecta (Chlorophyta), Emiliania huxleyi (Haptophyta), and Euglena gracilis (Euglenophyta) served as microalgal raw materials. D. tertiolecta, E. huxleyi, and E. gracilis cocultured with the bacterium and archaeon inhibited their growth and CH4 production. E. huxleyi had the strongest inhibitory effect. Biofuel generation was enhanced by reducing impurities containing alkanenitriles during pyrolysis. The composition and amounts of n-alkanes produced by pyrolysis were closely related to the lipid contents and composition of the microalgae. Pyrolysis of A. platensis and D. tertiolecta containing mainly phospholipids and glycolipids generated short-carbon-chain n-alkanes (n-tridecane to n-nonadecane) and considerable amounts of isoprenoids. E. gracilis also produced mainly short n-alkanes. In contrast, E. huxleyi containing long-chain (31 and 33 carbon atoms) alkenes and very long-chain (37 to 39 carbon atoms) alkenones, in addition to phospholipids and glycolipids, generated a high yield of n-alkanes of various lengths (n-tridecane to n-pentatriacontane). The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) profiles of these n-alkanes were similar to those of native petroleum crude oils despite containing a considerable amount of n-hentriacontane. The ratio of phytane to n-octadecane was also similar to that of native crude oils. PMID:23183975

  20. RuBisCO in Non-Photosynthetic Alga Euglena longa: Divergent Features, Transcriptomic Analysis and Regulation of Complex Formation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Záhonová, K.; Füssy, Zoltán; Oborník, Miroslav; Eliáš, M.; Yurchenko, V.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 7 (2016), e0158790 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-33039S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : oxygenase small subunit * gene replacement * mechanistic diversity Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016

  1. RuBisCO in Non-Photosynthetic Alga Euglena longa: Divergent Features, Transcriptomic Analysis and Regulation of Complex Formation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Záhonová, K.; Füssy, Z.; Oborník, Miroslav; Eliáš, M.; Yurchenko, V.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 7 (2016), e0158790 E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : FLAGELLATE ASTASIA-LONGA * OXYGENASE SMALL SUBUNIT * A/B-BINDING-PROTEIN Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016

  2. Population structure and biological characteristics of Siriella gracilis (Mysida) from the Exclusive Economic Zone of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Biju, A.; Honey, U.K.; Kusum, K.K.; Jagadeesan, L.

    di ffe re nt se as o n s St at io n n o . La tit ud e (°N ) Lo ng itu de (°E ) IM S (20 04 ) SW M (20 05 ) N EM (20 06 ) S. gr a ci lis Te m pe ra tu re Sa lin ity S. gr a ci lis Te m pe ra tu re Sa lin ity S. gr a ci lis Te m pe ra tu re Sa lin ity... 04 ) SW M (20 05 ) N EM (20 06 ) S. gr a ci lis Te m pe ra tu re Sa lin ity S. gr a ci lis Te m pe ra tu re Sa lin ity S. gr a ci lis Te m pe ra tu re Sa lin ity de ns ity (°C ) de ns ity (°C ) de ns ity (°C ) 27 15 72 – 29 .7 35 .0 – 30 .7 35 .9...

  3. [Cytogenetic effects in Koeleria gracilis Pers. populations from the Semipalatinsk proving ground].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geras'kin, S A; Mozolin, E M; Dikarev, V G; Udalova, A A; Dikareva, N S; Spiridonov, S I; Teten'kin, V L

    2009-01-01

    The proliferative activity and the frequency of cytogenetic disturbances in apical meristem of coleoptile sprouts at germination of seeds collected from crested hairgrass populations inhabiting contrast in level of radioactive contamination sites of the Semipalatinsk test site (Kazakhstan) are studied. Sampling of biological material and soil was carrying out during three years (2005-2007). The absorbed dose to critical organs of crested hairgrass vary depending on a site from 2.8 up to 262.2 mGy/year. A sognificant correlation between the frequency of cytogenetic disturbances in apical meristem and dose absorbed in crested hairgrass critical organs is found. Devere aberrations such as single and double bridges make the main contribution to spectrum of structural mutations as well as lagging chromosomes. In spite of the fact that the crested hairgrass populations have occupied the sites with a high level of radioactive contamination for a long time, the data analysis fails to reveal radio-adaptation effect.

  4. The ultrastructure of book lung development in the bark scorpion Centruroides gracilis (Scorpiones: Buthidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farley Roger D

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Near the end of the nineteenth century the hypothesis was presented for the homology of book lungs in arachnids and book gills in the horseshoe crab. Early studies with the light microscope showed that book gill lamellae are formed by outgrowth and possibly some invagination (infolding of hypodermis (epithelium from the posterior surface of opisthosomal limb buds. Scorpion book lungs are formed near the bilateral sites of earlier limb buds. Hypodermal invaginations in the ventral opisthosoma result in spiracles and sac-like cavities (atria. In early histological sections of embryo book lungs, widening of the atrial entrance of some lamellae (air channels, air sacs, saccules was interpreted as an indication of invagination as hypothesized for book gill lamellae. The hypodermal infolding was thought to produce the many rows of lamellar precursor cells anterior to the atrium. The ultrastructure of scorpion book lung development is compared herein with earlier investigations of book gill formation. Results In scorpion embryos, there is ingression (inward migration of atrial hypodermal cells rather than invagination or infolding of the atrial hypodermal layer. The ingressing cells proliferate and align in rows anterior to the atrium. Their apical-basal polarity results in primordial air channels among double rows of cells. The cuticular walls of the air channels are produced by secretion from the apical surfaces of the aligned cells. Since the precursor cells are in rows, their secreted product is also in rows (i.e., primordial air channels, saccules. For each double row of cells, their opposed basal surfaces are gradually separated by a hemolymph channel of increasing width. Conclusions The results from this and earlier studies show there are differences and similarities in the formation of book lung and book gill lamellae. The homology hypothesis for these respiratory organs is thus supported or not supported depending on which developmental features are emphasized. For both organs, when the epithelial cells are in position, their apical-basal polarity results in alternate page-like channels of hemolymph and air or water with outward directed hemolymph saccules for book gills and inward directed air saccules for book lungs.

  5. Free gracilis flap for chest wall reconstruction in male patient with Poland syndrome after implant failure

    OpenAIRE

    Cherubino, Mario; Maggiulli, Francesca; Pellegatta, Igor; Valdatta, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Poland's syndrome (PS) is a congenital monolateral deformity that may involve breast, chest wall, and upper limb with different degrees of clinical expressions. In some cases, the problem is mainly cosmetic, and the reconstruction should be performed to achieve minimal scarring and donor site morbidity. The authors describe a case report of a male patient with PS who developed a severe capsular contraction after 25 years implant reconstruction, who was treated after explantation using free gr...

  6. Biología pesquera de la langosta Panulirus gracilis en Playa Lagarto, Guanacaste, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helven Naranjo Madrigal

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Los parámetros biológicos y pesqueros analizados se fundamentaron en una muestra de 843 langostas provenientes de la actividad pesquera realizada en Playa Lagarto entre noviembre del 2007 y octubre del 2008. Las longitudes cefalotoráxicas de los machos estuvo comprendida entre los 143.6 y 42.8 y 115 y 35.8mm para hembras. El 74.9% de las langostas en los desembarques estuvo por debajo de la talla mínima legal de captura (80 mm de LC. La estructura de tallas muestra un considerable solapamiento de segmentos poblacionales y el incremento de las tallas con la profundidad en donde operan las dos modalidades de pesca estudiadas: el buceo a pulmón y el buceo con compresor. La proporción de sexos obtenida fue de 1.36 M:H. La relación entre LC y peso reveló que las hembras pesan más que los machos de una misma talla y que esta diferencia fue significativa (p<0.05. Los parámetros de crecimiento de von Bertalanffy para machos y hembras respectivamente (K=0.45-0.38, LC∞=166.9-121.7 indican un crecimiento acelerado en comparación a otras especies. Los machos por su parte exhibieron una mayor tasa de crecimiento que las hembras. Además, la mortalidad natural (M, la mortalidad total (Z y la mortalidad por pesca (F fue más alta en machos (0.49-2.34-1.92 que en hembras (0.47-1.82-1.42. El reclutamiento para ambos sexos presentó un comportamiento continuó durante el año con un pulso de mayor intensidad en julio de 18.5%. El significativo porcentaje de langostas por debajo de la talla mínima legal permitida para la pesca evidencia fuerte presión ejercida sobre las tallas juveniles. Afirmación que es reforzada por el valor de la tasa de explotación (E determinada de 0.80, que indica que bajo el actual régimen de pesca la población estaría en riesgo de colapso.

  7. Larval anatomy of the pterobranch Cephalodiscus gracilis supports secondarily derived sessility concordant with molecular phylogenies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stach, Thomas

    2013-12-01

    Pterobranchs have been interpreted as "missing links" combining primitive invertebrate features with advanced vertebrate-like characteristics. The first detailed morphological description of an ontogenetic stage of a pterobranch, based on digital 3D-reconstruction at electron microscopic resolution, reveals a triploblastic animal with monociliated epithelia, an extensive coelomic cavity, a through gut with an asymmetrically developed gill slit but no signs of planktonic specializations, such as ciliated bands. Therefore, this crawling larva supports the hypothesis proposed in previous molecular phylogenetic studies that pterobranchs could be derived within enteropneusts rather than being "missing links".

  8. Expression and characterization of plant aspartic protease nepenthesin-1 from Nepenthes gracilis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kádek, Alan; Tretyachenko, V.; Mrázek, Hynek; Ivanova, Ljubina; Halada, Petr; Rey, M.; Schriemer, D. C.; Man, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 95, MAR 2014 (2014), s. 121-128 ISSN 1046-5928 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP206/12/0503; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0003 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Plant aspartic protease * Nepenthesin * Protease characterization Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.695, year: 2014

  9. Uso del microhábitat por el protozoo parásito Aggregata patagonica Sardella, Ré & Timi, 2000 (Apicomplexa: Aggregatidae en su hospedador definitivo, el pulpo Enteroctopus megalocyathus (Gould, 1852 (Cephalopoda: Octopodidae en el sur de Chile Microhabitat use by the protozoan parasite Aggregata patagonica Sardella, Ré & Timi, 2000 (Apicomplexa: Aggregatidae in his definitive host Enteroctopus megalocyathus (Gould, 1852 (Cephalopoda: Octopodidae in southern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHRISTIAN M. IBÁÑEZ

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Los protozoos de la familia Aggregatidae requieren de dos hospedadores para completar su ciclo biológico: un crustáceo y un cefalópodo. En este estudio se busca evidenciar si existe un uso diferencial de microhábitats de las infrapoblaciones de Aggregata patagonica entre dos zonas del tracto digestivo de su hospedador definitivo, el pulpo Enteroctopus megalocyathus. Para ello, se examinaron 40 ejemplares de Ancud y 37 de Quellón, provenientes de las capturas artesanales de la Isla de Chiloé. El tamaño y la densidad de los ooquistes se cuantificaron en el ciego y el intestino del hospedador. Además, se efectuaron observaciones histológicas para determinar cuantitativamente la ocurrencia de los distintos estados de desarrollo del parásito. En Ancud el 80 % de los pulpos estaban parasitados en el ciego y el intestino, mientras que en Quellón era el 100 %. Se determinaron cuatro estados de desarrollo (microgametos, cigotos, esporoquistes inmaduros y maduros. Los ooquistes de A. patagonica fueron más pequeños y abundantes en el ciego, pero la cobertura fue mayor en el intestino. Además, la densidad y cobertura aumenta en pocos meses entre una muestra y otra. Al parecer, A. patagonica no usaría a los dos microhábitats como lugares de preferencia para pasar los diferentes estados de desarrollo, sino más bien, y según las condiciones del microhábitat, en el intestino crecerían más los ooquistes pero en menos cantidad, ocupando una mayor superficie del microhábitat, contrario a lo que ocurre en el ciego. Por esto se sugiere que A. patagonica hace un uso diferencial del microhábitat, mediante dos estrategias distintas de historia de vidaThe protozoan parasites of the family Aggregatidae, require two hosts to complete their life cycle, a crustacean and a cephalopod. This research looks for evidence of differential microhabitat use of Aggregata patagonica infrapopulations between two zones of the digestive tract of his definitive host

  10. High-throughput, label-free, single-cell, microalgal lipid screening by machine-learning-equipped optofluidic time-stretch quantitative phase microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Baoshan; Lei, Cheng; Kobayashi, Hirofumi; Ito, Takuro; Yalikun, Yaxiaer; Jiang, Yiyue; Tanaka, Yo; Ozeki, Yasuyuki; Goda, Keisuke

    2017-05-01

    The development of reliable, sustainable, and economical sources of alternative fuels to petroleum is required to tackle the global energy crisis. One such alternative is microalgal biofuel, which is expected to play a key role in reducing the detrimental effects of global warming as microalgae absorb atmospheric CO 2 via photosynthesis. Unfortunately, conventional analytical methods only provide population-averaged lipid amounts and fail to characterize a diverse population of microalgal cells with single-cell resolution in a non-invasive and interference-free manner. Here high-throughput label-free single-cell screening of lipid-producing microalgal cells with optofluidic time-stretch quantitative phase microscopy was demonstrated. In particular, Euglena gracilis, an attractive microalgal species that produces wax esters (suitable for biodiesel and aviation fuel after refinement), within lipid droplets was investigated. The optofluidic time-stretch quantitative phase microscope is based on an integration of a hydrodynamic-focusing microfluidic chip, an optical time-stretch quantitative phase microscope, and a digital image processor equipped with machine learning. As a result, it provides both the opacity and phase maps of every single cell at a high throughput of 10,000 cells/s, enabling accurate cell classification without the need for fluorescent staining. Specifically, the dataset was used to characterize heterogeneous populations of E. gracilis cells under two different culture conditions (nitrogen-sufficient and nitrogen-deficient) and achieve the cell classification with an error rate of only 2.15%. The method holds promise as an effective analytical tool for microalgae-based biofuel production. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  11. Microfluidic Trap Arrays: Passive Sensors for Studying Aquatic Protozoan Ecology and Biogeography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, J. F.; Bouchillon, G.; Shor, L. M.

    2012-12-01

    Microscopic organisms such as bacteria and protozoa are the engine that drives global biogeochemical processes: microbes fix carbon, produce oxygen, mediate nutrient cycling, and break down anthropogenic contaminants. In many habitats, the bacterial community structure and its net production is controlled in a top-down fashion by predation by protozoa. Despite their importance, many researchers have noted a significant gap in our understanding of their diversity, biogeography, and ecosystem function. We developed a microfluidic field sampling and analysis tool to study the biogeography and function of microbial eukaryotes. Microfluidic samplers were created to systematically target the morphology, function, and habitat of different microbial eukaryotes. Features such as channel dimensions, branching angles and radii of curvature were varied to allow organisms to be selected and captured based on cell size, shape, plasticity, and swimming or crawling modalities. We also developed genetic analysis protocols to extract and amplify DNA from a single trapped cell, allowing for molecular identification of trapped species. Results from freshwater sediment and water column deployments confirmed design efficiencies in trapping and concentrating protozoa based on biomass density, allowed for analysis of body plasticity and cell size, and also confirmed the viability of this technology for future real time monitoring of protozoa in aquatic ecosystems. This research offers a radical departure from existing approaches to study microbial eukaryotic communities in the field. Our novel methodology involving trapping, observation and recording of physical characteristics and genetic analysis of single cells allows comparison with bulk samples to place trapped microbes within a function- and habitat-specific context.

  12. "Ormilo disease" a disorder of zebu cattle in Tanzania: bovine cerebral theileriosis or new protozoan disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Deborah; Biasibetti, Elena; Lynen, Godelieve; Di Giulio, Giuseppe; De Meneghi, Daniele; Tomassone, Laura; Valenza, Federico; Capucchio, Maria Teresa

    2015-06-01

    "Ormilo" disease is a neurological disorder of cattle described by Maasai herders in Tanzania. It is attributed to infection by Theileria species, although no detailed data are available in the literature. The authors describe the macroscopical and histological changes observed in 30 brains of indigenous short-horn zebu cattle from Northern Tanzania, aged 2-9 years, with the characteristic neurological signs of "Ormilo". Moreover, the ultrastructural details observed in 14 selected brain samples were reported. Areas of congestion and hemorrhages, associated with the obstruction of the cerebral vessels with large numbers of parasitized lymphoid cells, were observed. Electron microscopy showed the presence of intralymphocytic parasites morphologically comparable to flagellated protozoa, not previously described in the lymphoid cells of cattle, but only reported during the sexual stages within the vector. Theileria taurotragi was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse line blot (RLB) in nine samples. The authors hypothesize that the parasite detected by electron microscopy could be a strain of a Theileria endemic to this region till now not investigated, having an intralymphocytic phase and being associated with other Theileria spp. infestation. Further studies are needed to better understand the etiology of "Ormilo" disease and to characterize the morphology of the observed parasite, clarifying its role in the disease in Tanzania.

  13. Protozoan Cysts Act as a Survival Niche and Protective Shelter for Foodborne Pathogenic Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrecht, Ellen; Baré, Julie; Chavatte, Natascha; Bert, Wim; Sabbe, Koen

    2015-01-01

    The production of cysts, an integral part of the life cycle of many free-living protozoa, allows these organisms to survive adverse environmental conditions. Given the prevalence of free-living protozoa in food-related environments, it is hypothesized that these organisms play an important yet currently underinvestigated role in the epidemiology of foodborne pathogenic bacteria. Intracystic bacterial survival is highly relevant, as this would allow bacteria to survive the stringent cleaning and disinfection measures applied in food-related environments. The present study shows that strains of widespread and important foodborne bacteria (Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, and Listeria monocytogenes) survive inside cysts of the ubiquitous amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii, even when exposed to either antibiotic treatment (100 μg/ml gentamicin) or highly acidic conditions (pH 0.2) and resume active growth in broth media following excystment. Strain- and species-specific differences in survival periods were observed, with Salmonella enterica surviving up to 3 weeks inside amoebal cysts. Up to 53% of the cysts were infected with pathogenic bacteria, which were located in the cyst cytosol. Our study suggests that the role of free-living protozoa and especially their cysts in the persistence and epidemiology of foodborne bacterial pathogens in food-related environments may be much more important than hitherto assumed. PMID:26070667

  14. Comparative Proteome Bioinformatics: Identification of Phosphotyrosine Signaling Proteins in the Unicellular Protozoan Ciliate Tetrahymena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Steen; Christensen, Søren Tvorup; Joachimiak, Marcin

    2005-01-01

    Tetrahymena, bioinformatics, cilia, evolution, signaling, TtPTK1, PTK, Grb2, SH-PTP 2, Plcy, Src, PTP, PI3K, SH2, SH3, PH......Tetrahymena, bioinformatics, cilia, evolution, signaling, TtPTK1, PTK, Grb2, SH-PTP 2, Plcy, Src, PTP, PI3K, SH2, SH3, PH...

  15. Use of Phage Antibodies to Distinguish Closely Related Species of Protozoan Parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Paget

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Acanthamoeba are typically identified in the laboratory using culture and microscopic observation. In this paper we describe the isolation and specificity of antibody fragments that can be used for the identification of Acanthamoeba. A phage library expressing a large repertoire (approx. 5×109 of antibody fragments was used to generate two libraries one enriched for bacteriophage that exhibit genus specific binding and the other containing bacteriophage that bind specifically to pathogenic Acanthamoeba. Individual clones were isolated on the basis of binding by ELISA, and then flowcytometry and immunofluorescence were used for further characterisation. Four monoclonal antibodies were isolated, specific for Acanthamoeba at the generic level with clone HPPG6 exhibiting the highest level of binding. Furthermore clone HPPG55 was specific for pathogenic species of Acanthamoeba.

  16. A genetic linkage map for the apicomplexan protozoan parasite Eimeria maxima and comparison with Eimeria tenella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Damer P; Oakes, Richard; Smith, Adrian L

    2011-02-01

    Eimeria maxima is one of the seven Eimeria spp. that infect the chicken and cause the disease coccidiosis. The well characterised immunogenicity and genetic diversity associated with E. maxima promote its use in genetics-led studies on avian coccidiosis. The development of a genetic map for E. maxima, presented here based upon 647 amplified fragment length polymorphism markers typed from 22 clonal hybrid lines and assembled into 13 major linkage groups, is a major new resource for work with this parasite. Comparison with genetic maps produced for other coccidial parasites indicates relatively high levels of genetic recombination. Conversion of ∼14% of the markers representing the major linkage groups to sequence characterised amplified region markers can provide a scaffold for the assembly of future genomic sequences as well as providing a foundation for more detailed genetic maps. Comparison with the Eimeria tenella genetic map produced 10years ago has revealed a less biased marker distribution, with no more than nine markers mapped within any unresolved heritable unit. Nonetheless, preliminary bioinformatic characterisation of the three largest publicly available genomic E. maxima sequences suggest that the feature-poor/feature-rich structure which has previously been found to define the first sequenced E. tenella chromosome also defines the E. maxima genome. The significance of such a segmented genome and the apparent potential for variation in genetic recombination will be relevant to haplotype stability and the longevity of future anticoccidial strategies based upon multiple loci targeted by novel chemotherapeutic drugs or recombinant subunit vaccines. Copyright © 2010 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Ultraviolet light photobiology of the protozoan Tetrahymena pyriformis and chemical reactivation of DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    The tunable dye laser was developed in order to perform UV-B and UV-C (254-320 nm) action spectra studies on several different organisms. Using the laser, action spectra studies have been performed for Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces, Chlamydomonas, Caenorhabditis elegans, Paramecium, and Tetrahymena pyriformis. Studies generally indicate increasing LD 50 values with increasing wavelength. Two notable findings were made: (1) The action spectra does not follow the DNA absorption spectra at 280, 290 and 295 nm; (2) The repair competent/repair defective sensitization factor does not remain constant throughout the wavelength region. In addition it was found that the repair defective strain of E. coli, Bs-1, showed an increase in survival with increasing UV irradiation, at certain dose levels. Further experiments were designed to better characterize the reactivation. Tetrahymena were exposed to UV-C and reactivated with methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and 4-nitro quinoline oxide (4-NQO). In both cases survival was seen to increase after chemical exposure. Likewise, UV-C was found to reactivate chemical damage (MMS)

  18. Trichostatin A effects on gene expression in the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Upinder

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Histone modification regulates chromatin structure and influences gene expression associated with diverse biological functions including cellular differentiation, cancer, maintenance of genome architecture, and pathogen virulence. In Entamoeba, a deep-branching eukaryote, short chain fatty acids (SCFA affect histone acetylation and parasite development. Additionally, a number of active histone modifying enzymes have been identified in the parasite genome. However, the overall extent of gene regulation tied to histone acetylation is not known. Results In order to identify the genome-wide effects of histone acetylation in regulating E. histolytica gene expression, we used whole-genome expression profiling of parasites treated with SCFA and Trichostatin A (TSA. Despite significant changes in histone acetylation patterns, exposure of parasites to SCFA resulted in minimal transcriptional changes (11 out of 9,435 genes transcriptionally regulated. In contrast, exposure to TSA, a more specific inhibitor of histone deacetylases, significantly affected transcription of 163 genes (122 genes upregulated and 41 genes downregulated. Genes modulated by TSA were not regulated by treatment with 5-Azacytidine, an inhibitor of DNA-methyltransferase, indicating that in E. histolytica the crosstalk between DNA methylation and histone modification is not substantial. However, the set of genes regulated by TSA overlapped substantially with genes regulated during parasite development: 73/122 genes upregulated by TSA exposure were upregulated in E. histolytica cysts (p-value = 6 × 10-53 and 15/41 genes downregulated by TSA exposure were downregulated in E. histolytica cysts (p-value = 3 × 10-7. Conclusion This work represents the first genome-wide analysis of histone acetylation and its effects on gene expression in E. histolytica. The data indicate that SCFAs, despite their ability to influence histone acetylation, have minimal effects on gene transcription in cultured parasites. In contrast, the effect of TSA on E. histolytica gene expression is more substantial and includes genes involved in the encystation pathway. These observations will allow further dissection of the effects of histone acetylation and the genetic pathways regulating stage conversion in this pathogenic parasite.

  19. Exosome Secretion by the Parasitic Protozoan Leishmania within the Sand Fly Midgut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Diniz Atayde

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite several studies describing the secretion of exosomes by Leishmania in vitro, observation of their formation and release in vivo has remained a major challenge. Herein, we show that Leishmania constitutively secretes exosomes within the lumen of the sand fly midgut through a mechanism homologous to the mammalian pathway. Through egestion experiments, we demonstrate that Leishmania exosomes are part of the sand fly inoculum and are co-egested with the parasite during the insect’s bite, possibly influencing the host infectious process. Indeed, co-inoculation of mice footpads with L. major plus midgut-isolated or in-vitro-isolated L. major exosomes resulted in a significant increase in footpad swelling. Notably, co-injections produced exacerbated lesions through overinduction of inflammatory cytokines, in particular IL-17a. Our data indicate that Leishmania exosomes are an integral part of the parasite’s infectious life cycle, and we propose to add these vesicles to the repertoire of virulence factors associated with vector-transmitted infections.

  20. Licochalcone A, a novel antiparasitic agent with potent activity against human pathogenic protozoan species of Leishmania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, M; Christensen, S B; Blom, J

    1993-01-01

    Licochalcone A, an oxygenated chalcone isolated from the roots of Chinese licorice plant, inhibited the growth of both Leishmania major and Leishmania donovani promastigotes and amastigotes. The structure of the licochalcone A was established by mass and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies...... killing of the parasite. These data show that intracellular Leishmania amastigotes are more susceptible than promastigotes to licochalcone A. Results of studies on the site of action of licochalcone A indicate that the target organelle appears to be the parasite mitochondria. These findings demonstrate...

  1. Prokaryotic, protozoan and metazoan processing of organic matter in the sediments: a tracer approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pozzato, L.

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria, protists and eukaryotes are the key actors in organic matter (OM) procesing but the knowledge on their relative importance and impact on the composition of sediment OM is still limited. Research approaches so far have been generally monodisciplinary, providing a biased view of sedimentary

  2. Effects of ionizing radiation over the structure, metabolism and infectivity of a pathogenic protozoan, Toxoplasma gondii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiramoto, Roberto Mitsuyoshi

    1998-01-01

    The intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii (Apicomplexa), has as definitive host domestic and wild felines and as intermediate hosts most species of mammals and birds, Including man. The infection in man is usually asymptomatic, but can become a severe and lethal illness in some special groups like the fetus of primoinfected pregnant woman, or in AIDS and transplanted patients. The transmission is due to ingestion of food or water contaminated with oocysts from cat feces as well as raw or rare cooked cyst containing meet. There is no available vaccine against toxoplasmosis, with some reports of the use ionizing radiation in order to attenuate or suppress the parasite. These studies are promising, but more research is needed to optimize the radiation process and to clarify those alterations caused on T gondii.Using a increasing doses of 60 Co irradiation on T.gondii tachyzoites, we studied many parameters such as morphology, both at optical and electron microscopy level, detection of DNA fragmentation, metabolism alterations (cellular oxidative burst, protein, nucleic acids and DNA synthesis), determination of the parasite survival both in in vivo and in vitro models, antigenicity and immunogenicity after the process, cellular invasion and irradiated tachyzoite induced protection. After definition of 200 Gy of 60 Co irradiation as the lower radiation dose that suppress parasite growth in vitro and in vivo, we found no detectable changes in parasite viability, its cell invasion capacity or in its structural proteins. DNA fragmentation like apoptosis or alterations of the parasite metabolism were similarly not affected by radiation. Mice infection with irradiated parasites induce partial protection when these animals were re-inoculated with non irradiated virulent parasites, inducing greater specific IgG levels as well as a longer survival. Irradiated T.gondii maintains its the ability of invasion, even under radiation effects. Based on our results we conclude that ionizing radiation can be considered as a possible tool in vaccine production due to similar viability, invasivity and metabolism and absence of reproductive capacity, of irradiated tachyzoites. (author)

  3. Prevalence of the protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium on three organic pig farms in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Heidi H.; Jianmin, Wang; Mejer, Helena

    2013-01-01

    Pigs are a potential source of contamination with Cryptosporidium spp., which can lead to infection in humans. Two species C. parvum and C. hominis can cause an acute diarrheal illness in humans, which can become severe in e.g. patients with HIV. The oocyst can survive for long periods in the env......Pigs are a potential source of contamination with Cryptosporidium spp., which can lead to infection in humans. Two species C. parvum and C. hominis can cause an acute diarrheal illness in humans, which can become severe in e.g. patients with HIV. The oocyst can survive for long periods...... in the environment and is resistant to many common disinfectants. In order to estimate the prevalence of the zoonotic parasite Cryptosporidium in organic pigs and to improve our knowledge of the parasite epidemiology, the prevalence was monitored four times between September 2011 and June 2012 in three Danish...... organic pig farms. Faecal samples were collected for examination of Cryptosporidium spp. with a total of 994 pigs grouped as sows, fatteners, young pigs and piglets. The number of pigs in each age group was 298, 232, 315 and 161 respectively, distributed on the three farms. Faecal samples were collected...

  4. Metabolic Reprogramming During Purine Stress in the Protozoan Pathogen Leishmania donovani

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Jessica L.; Yates, Phillip A.; Soysa, Radika; Alfaro, Joshua F.; Yang, Feng; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Weitz, Karl K.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Wilmarth, Phillip A.; David, Larry L.; Ramasamy, Gowthaman; Myler, Peter J.; Carter, Nicola S.

    2014-02-27

    The ability of Leishmania to survive in their insect or mammalian host is dependent upon an ability to sense and adapt to changes in the microenvironment. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the parasite response to environmental changes, such as nutrient availability. To elucidate nutrient stress response pathways in Leishmania donovani, we have used purine starvation as the paradigm. The salvage of purines from the host milieu is obligatory for parasite replication; nevertheless, purine-starved parasites can persist in culture without supplementary purine for over 3 months, indicating that the response to purine starvation is robust and engenders parasite survival under conditions of extreme scarcity. To understand metabolic reprogramming during purine starvation we have employed global approaches. Whole proteome comparisons between purine-starved and purine-replete parasites over a 6-48 h span have revealed a temporal and coordinated response to purine starvation. Purine transporters and enzymes involved in acquisition at the cell surface are upregulated within a few hours of purine removal from the media, while other key purine salvage components are upregulated later in the time-course and more modestly. After 48 h, the proteome of purine-starved parasites is extensively remodeled and adaptations to purine stress appear tailored to deal with both purine deprivation and general stress. To probe the molecular mechanisms affecting proteome remodeling in response to purine starvation, comparative RNA-seq analyses, qRT-PCR, and luciferase reporter assays were performed on purine-starved versus purine-replete parasites. While the regulation of a minority of proteins tracked with changes at the mRNA level, for many regulated proteins it appears that proteome remodeling during purine stress occurs primarily via translational and/or post-translational mechanisms.

  5. Novel features of a PIWI-like protein homolog in the parasitic protozoan Leishmania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad K Padmanabhan

    Full Text Available In contrast to nearly all eukaryotes, the Old World Leishmania species L. infantum and L. major lack the bona fide RNAi machinery genes. Interestingly, both Leishmania genomes code for an atypical Argonaute-like protein that possesses a PIWI domain but lacks the PAZ domain found in Argonautes from RNAi proficient organisms. Using sub-cellular fractionation and confocal fluorescence microscopy, we show that unlike other eukaryotes, the PIWI-like protein is mainly localized in the single mitochondrion in Leishmania. To predict PIWI function, we generated a knockout mutant for the PIWI gene in both L. infantum (Lin and L. major species by double-targeted gene replacement. Depletion of PIWI has no effect on the viability of insect promastigote forms but leads to an important growth defect of the mammalian amastigote lifestage in vitro and significantly delays disease pathology in mice, consistent with a higher expression of the PIWI transcript in amastigotes. Moreover, amastigotes lacking PIWI display a higher sensitivity to apoptosis inducing agents than wild type parasites, suggesting that PIWI may be a sensor for apoptotic stimuli. Furthermore, a whole-genome DNA microarray analysis revealed that loss of LinPIWI in Leishmania amastigotes affects mostly the expression of specific subsets of developmentally regulated genes. Several transcripts encoding surface and membrane-bound proteins were found downregulated in the LinPIWI((-/- mutant whereas all histone transcripts were upregulated in the null mutant, supporting the possibility that PIWI plays a direct or indirect role in the stability of these transcripts. Although our data suggest that PIWI is not involved in the biogenesis or the stability of small noncoding RNAs, additional studies are required to gain further insights into the role of this protein on RNA regulation and amastigote development in Leishmania.

  6. Effects of heartwood extractives on symbiotic protozoan communities and mortality in two termite species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babar Hassan; Mark E. Mankowski; Grant Kirker; Sohail Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Lower termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) are considered severe pests of wood in service, crops and plantation forests. Termites mechanically remove and digest lignocellulosic material as a food source. The ability to digest lignocellulose not only depends on their digestive physiology, but also on the symbiotic relationship between termites and their intestinal...

  7. Two-dimensional gravitactic bioconvection in a protozoan (tetrahymena pyriformis) culture

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen-Quang, Tri; Nguyen, The Hung; Guichard, Frederic; Nicolau, Ana; Szatmari, George; LePalec, Georges; Dusser, Martine; Lafossee, Josee; Bonnet, Jean Louis; Bohatier, Jacques

    2009-01-01

    Gravitactic bioconvective patterns created by Tetrahymena pyriformis in a Hele-Shaw apparatus were realized and compared with theoretical results. There were found to be two thresholds for bioconvection development: the first indicates the transition from the diffusion to the steady convection state; the second corresponds to the transition from the steady to the unsteady convection state. The results showed that the Hele-Shaw apparatus may be used as a physical analogy of poro...

  8. Genome and transcriptome studies of the protozoan parasites Trypanosoma cruzi and Giardia intestinalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farran, Alexandra J. E.

    Vocal fold (VF) diseases and disorders are difficult to treat surgically or therapeutically. Tissue engineering offers an alternative strategy for the restoration of functional VF. In this work, we have developed tissue engineering methodologies for the functional reconstruction of VF. As a first step, the structure, composition and mechanical properties of native VF tissues have been investigated. In pigs ranging from fetal to 2+ years old, the VF structure and viscoelastic properties were found to be age-dependent. Adult tissues were more organized, displaying a denser lamina propria, and mature elastin fibers compared to fetal tissues, resulting in higher storage moduli. Secondly, biomimetic scaffolds which recaptured the mechanical properties of the native VF were developed. Chemically-defined collagen-hyaluronic acid (HA) composite hydrogels, and elastin-mimetic hybrid polymers (EMHPs) were successfully used as conducive 3D matrices, and 2D elastic scaffolds respectively, to in vitro static culture of fibroblasts. While the collagen-HA hydrogels allowed for in situ cell encapsulation and supported cell attachment and proliferation in 3D, the integrin-binding domain RGDSP was needed for cell proliferation on EMHPs. To emulate in vitro the mechanical environment of the native VF tissue, a dynamic culture system capable of generating vibratory stimulations at human phonation frequencies was successfully created and characterized. Gene expression analysis of fibroblasts subjected to 1 hour vibrations in 2D revealed that the expression of ECM-related genes was altered in response to changes in vibratory frequency and amplitude. Finally, expanding on our previous studies, the dynamic culture system was modified to accommodate for the long-term dynamic culture of cell-laden hydrogels. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) encapsulated in a collagen/HA-based hydrogel, cultured in presence of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), and subjected to high frequency vibrations were shown to respond to all three type of external factors. In summary, microenvironments such as biomimetic scaffolds, soluble factors, and mechanical stimuli are important modulator of cellular function. The strategic combination of those microenvironments into a biomimicking VF tissue engineering 3D system did not only provide an in vitro platform for the investigation of VF diseases, but also have the potential to offer alternative treatments for VF disorders.

  9. Elimination of viruses, bacteria and protozoan oocysts by slow sand filtration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijnen, W.A.M.; Visser, Ate; Schijven, J.F.; Bonné, P.; Medema, Gerriet Jan

    2004-01-01

    The decimal elimination capacity (DEC) of slow sand filters (SSF) for viruses, bacteria and oocysts of Cryptosporidium has been assessed from full-scale data and pilot plant and laboratory experiments. DEC for viruses calculated from experimental data with MS2-bacteriophages in the pilot plant

  10. Targeting essential pathways in trypanosomatids gives insights into protozoan mechanisms of cell death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fasel Nicolas

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Apoptosis is a normal component of the development and health of multicellular organisms. However, apoptosis is now considered a prerogative of unicellular organisms, including the trypanosomatids of the genera Trypanosoma spp. and Leishmania spp., causative agents of some of the most important neglected human diseases. Trypanosomatids show typical hallmarks of apoptosis, although they lack some of the key molecules contributing to this process in metazoans, like caspase genes, Bcl-2 family genes and the TNF-related family of receptors. Despite the lack of these molecules, trypanosomatids appear to have the basic machinery to commit suicide. The components of the apoptotic execution machinery of these parasites are slowly coming into light, by targeting essential processes and pathways with different apoptogenic agents and inhibitors. This review will be confined to the events known to drive trypanosomatid parasites to apoptosis.

  11. Parasites of chimpanzees in Kalinzu Forest Reserve, Uganda, with emphasis on comensal protozoans

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrášová, J.; Pomajbíková, K.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Jirků, M.; Profousová, Ilona; Modrý, David; Hashimoto, C.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 5 (2008), s. 370 ISSN 0015-5713. [Congress of the European Federation for Primatology /2./. 03.09.2007-07.09.2007, Prague] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/06/0264 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : parasites * chimpanzee * Uganda Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  12. A soluble 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase in the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena Diaz, Javier; Montalvetti, A; Camacho, A

    1997-01-01

    of the genes described from eukaryotic organisms and the deduced amino acid sequence could be aligned with the C-terminal half of animal and plant reductases exhibiting pronounced similarity to other eukaryotic counterparts. Further examination of the 5' flanking region by cDNA analysis and establishment...

  13. Lipid Synthesis in Protozoan Parasites: a Comparison Between Kinetoplastids and Apicomplexans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Srinivasan; Serricchio, Mauro; Striepen, Boris; Bütikofer, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Lipid metabolism is of crucial importance for pathogens. Lipids serve as cellular building blocks, signalling molecules, energy stores, posttranslational modifiers, and pathogenesis factors. Parasites rely on a complex system of uptake and synthesis mechanisms to satisfy their lipid needs. The parameters of this system change dramatically as the parasite transits through the various stages of its life cycle. Here we discuss the tremendous recent advances that have been made in the understanding of the synthesis and uptake pathways for fatty acids and phospholipids in apicomplexan and kinetoplastid parasites, including Plasmodium, Toxoplasma, Cryptosporidium, Trypanosoma and Leishmania. Lipid synthesis differs in significant ways between parasites from both phyla and the human host. Parasites have acquired novel pathways through endosymbiosis, as in the case of the apicoplast, have dramatically reshaped substrate and product profiles, and have evolved specialized lipids to interact with or manipulate the host. These differences potentially provide opportunities for drug development. We outline the lipid pathways for key species in detail as they progress through the developmental cycle and highlight those that are of particular importance to the biology of the pathogens and/or are the most promising targets for parasite-specific treatment. PMID:23827884

  14. Effect of near-ultraviolet radiation on the cell surface of the protozoan Tritichomonas foetus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filho, F.C.S.; Elias, C.A.; Souza, W. de

    1982-01-01

    It is concluded that the authors' data showing that near-ultraviolet radiation decreases the cellular electrophoretic mobility of Tritrichomonas foetus indicate that ultraviolet radiation may have an important effect on basic properties of the plasma membrane such as (a) its surface charge, (b) the mobility of membrane-associated components, as revealed by the concanavalin A-induced agglutination, and (c) changes in its permeability to cytoplasmic components. These data also indicate that protozoa may be a useful model for studies related with the effect of radiation on eukaryotic cells. (author)

  15. Comparative use of bacterial, algal and protozoan tests to study toxicity of azo- and anthraquinone dyes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novotný, Čeněk; Dias, N.; Karpanen, A.; Malachová, K.; Vandrovcová, M.; Itavaara, M.; Lima, N.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 63, - (2006), s. 1436-1442 ISSN 0045-6535 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/00/1303; GA MŠk 1P04OC847.002; GA MŠk LN00B030 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : reactive orange 16 * congo red * remazol briliant Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.442, year: 2006

  16. Removal of virus to protozoan sized particles in point-of-use ceramic water filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielefeldt, Angela R; Kowalski, Kate; Schilling, Cherylynn; Schreier, Simon; Kohler, Amanda; Scott Summers, R

    2010-03-01

    The particle removal performance of point-of-use ceramic water filters (CWFs) was characterized in the size range of 0.02-100 microm using carboxylate-coated polystyrene fluorescent microspheres, natural particles and clay. Particles were spiked into dechlorinated tap water, and three successive water batches treated in each of six different CWFs. Particle removal generally increased with increasing size. The removal of virus-sized 0.02 and 0.1 microm spheres were highly variable between the six filters, ranging from 63 to 99.6%. For the 0.5 microm spheres removal was less variable and in the range of 95.1-99.6%, while for the 1, 2, 4.5, and 10 microm spheres removal was >99.6%. Recoating four of the CWFs with colloidal silver solution improved removal of the 0.02 microm spheres, but had no significant effects on the other particle sizes. Log removals of 1.8-3.2 were found for natural turbidity and spiked kaolin clay particles; however, particles as large as 95 microm were detected in filtered water. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. An immobilization antigen gene of the fish-parasitic protozoan Ichthyophthirius multifiliis strain ARS-6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) is a severe fish parasite that causes ‘white spot’ disease in many freshwater fish and leads to high mortality. The antigens on the parasite surface are involved in the antibody-mediated immobilization and hence designated as immobilization antigens (i-antigens). ...

  18. Helminthes and protozoan of farmed pirarucu (Arapaima gigas in eastern Amazon and host-parasite relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.G.B. Marinho

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The parasitofauna in the giant Amazon basin, pirarucu (Arapaima gigas Schinz, 1822 cultured in fish farms from the state of Amapá, in eastern Amazonia (Brazil was investigated. Of the 100 examined fish, 90.0% were parasitized by Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ciliophora, Dawestrema cycloancistrium, Dawestrema cycloancistrioides (Monogenoidea and Polyacanthorhynchus macrorhynchus (Acanthocephala, which had an aggregated distribution pattern. The highest infection rates were caused by I. multifiliis and the lowest by P. macrorhynchus. Infection rates were different for each fish farm, due to different water quality and management characteristics. A negative correlation was found between the intensity of monogenoideans D. cycloancistrium and D. cycloancistrioides and the relative condition factor (Kn, but the welfare of fish was not affected by parasitism. The number of I. multifiliis was positively correlated with the weight and total length of hosts, while the intensity of monogenoideans was negatively correlated with body weight and total length. This study is the first to record the occurrence of P. macrorhynchus in A. gigas farmed in Amazon.

  19. Influence of Protozoan Grazing on the Marine Geochemistry of Particle Reactive Trace Metals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barbeau, Katherine

    1998-01-01

    .... Principle findings included mobilization of extracellular as well as intracellular trace metals by protists, apparent generation of metal-organic complexes, and decoupling of metal and carbon cycling...

  20. Protozoan ALKBH8 Oxygenases Display both DNA Repair and tRNA Modification Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zdżalik, Daria; Vågbø, Cathrine B; Kirpekar, Finn

    2014-01-01

    The ALKBH family of Fe(II) and 2-oxoglutarate dependent oxygenases comprises enzymes that display sequence homology to AlkB from E. coli, a DNA repair enzyme that uses an oxidative mechanism to dealkylate methyl and etheno adducts on the nucleobases. Humans have nine different ALKBH proteins, ALKBH......1-8 and FTO. Mammalian and plant ALKBH8 are tRNA hydroxylases targeting 5-methoxycarbonylmethyl-modified uridine (mcm5U) at the wobble position of tRNAGly(UCC). In contrast, the genomes of some bacteria encode a protein with strong sequence homology to ALKBH8, and robust DNA repair activity...... was previously demonstrated for one such protein. To further explore this apparent functional duality of the ALKBH8 proteins, we have here enzymatically characterized a panel of such proteins, originating from bacteria, protozoa and mimivirus. All the enzymes showed DNA repair activity in vitro, but...

  1. Species selection for the design of gold nanobioreactor by photosynthetic organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahoumane, Si Amar [Universite Paris Diderot, Interfaces, Traitements, Organisation et Dynamique des Systemes (ITODYS), UMR 7086, CNRS, Sorbonne Paris Cite (France); Djediat, Chakib; Yepremian, Claude; Coute, Alain [Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, Departement RDDM, FRE 3206, USM 505 (France); Fievet, Fernand [Universite Paris Diderot, Interfaces, Traitements, Organisation et Dynamique des Systemes (ITODYS), UMR 7086, CNRS, Sorbonne Paris Cite (France); Coradin, Thibaud, E-mail: thibaud.coradin@upmc.fr [UPMC Universites Paris 06, CNRS, Chimie de la Matiere Condensee de Paris (LCMCP), College de France (France); Brayner, Roberta, E-mail: roberta.brayner@univ-paris-diderot.fr [Universite Paris Diderot, Interfaces, Traitements, Organisation et Dynamique des Systemes (ITODYS), UMR 7086, CNRS, Sorbonne Paris Cite (France)

    2012-06-15

    The design of cell-based bioreactors for inorganic particles formation requires both a better understanding of the underlying processes and the identification of most suitable organisms. With this purpose, the process of Au{sup 3+} incorporation, intracellular reduction, and Au{sup 0} nanoparticle release in the culture medium was compared for four photosynthetic microorganisms, Klebsormidium flaccidum and Cosmarium impressulum green algae, Euglena gracilis euglenoid and Anabaena flos-aquae cyanobacteria. At low gold content, the two green algae show maintained photosynthetic activity and recovered particles (ca. 10 nm in size) are similar to internal colloids, indicating a full biological control over the whole process. In similar conditions, the euglenoid exhibits a rapid loss of biological activity, due to the absence of protective extracellular polysaccharide, but could grow again after an adaptation period. This results in a larger particle size dispersity but larger reduction yield. The cyanobacteria undergo rapid cell death, due to their prokaryotic nature, leading to high gold incorporation rate but poor control over released particle size. Similar observations can be made after addition of a larger gold salt concentration when all organisms rapidly die, suggesting that part of the process is not under biological control anymore but also involves extracellular chemical reactions. Overall, fruitful information on the whole biocrystallogenesis process is gained and most suitable species for further bioreactor design can be identified, i.e., green algae with external coating.

  2. LudusScope: Accessible Interactive Smartphone Microscopy for Life-Science Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Honesty; Gerber, Lukas Cyrill; Chiu, Daniel; Lee, Seung Ah; Cira, Nate J; Xia, Sherwin Yuyang; Riedel-Kruse, Ingmar H

    2016-01-01

    For centuries, observational microscopy has greatly facilitated biology education, but we still cannot easily and playfully interact with the microscopic world we see. We therefore developed the LudusScope, an accessible, interactive do-it-yourself smartphone microscopy platform that promotes exploratory stimulation and observation of microscopic organisms, in a design that combines the educational modalities of build, play, and inquire. The LudusScope's touchscreen and joystick allow the selection and stimulation of phototactic microorganisms such as Euglena gracilis with light. Organismal behavior is tracked and displayed in real time, enabling open and structured game play as well as scientific inquiry via quantitative experimentation. Furthermore, we used the Scratch programming language to incorporate biophysical modeling. This platform is designed as an accessible, low-cost educational kit for easy construction and expansion. User testing with both teachers and students demonstrates the educational potential of the LudusScope, and we anticipate additional synergy with the maker movement. Transforming observational microscopy into an interactive experience will make microbiology more tangible to society, and effectively support the interdisciplinary learning required by the Next Generation Science Standards.

  3. Species selection for the design of gold nanobioreactor by photosynthetic organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahoumane, Si Amar; Djediat, Chakib; Yéprémian, Claude; Couté, Alain; Fiévet, Fernand; Coradin, Thibaud; Brayner, Roberta

    2012-01-01

    The design of cell-based bioreactors for inorganic particles formation requires both a better understanding of the underlying processes and the identification of most suitable organisms. With this purpose, the process of Au 3+ incorporation, intracellular reduction, and Au 0 nanoparticle release in the culture medium was compared for four photosynthetic microorganisms, Klebsormidium flaccidum and Cosmarium impressulum green algae, Euglena gracilis euglenoid and Anabaena flos-aquae cyanobacteria. At low gold content, the two green algae show maintained photosynthetic activity and recovered particles (ca. 10 nm in size) are similar to internal colloids, indicating a full biological control over the whole process. In similar conditions, the euglenoid exhibits a rapid loss of biological activity, due to the absence of protective extracellular polysaccharide, but could grow again after an adaptation period. This results in a larger particle size dispersity but larger reduction yield. The cyanobacteria undergo rapid cell death, due to their prokaryotic nature, leading to high gold incorporation rate but poor control over released particle size. Similar observations can be made after addition of a larger gold salt concentration when all organisms rapidly die, suggesting that part of the process is not under biological control anymore but also involves extracellular chemical reactions. Overall, fruitful information on the whole biocrystallogenesis process is gained and most suitable species for further bioreactor design can be identified, i.e., green algae with external coating.

  4. The physics of the unconventional motility strategy of euglenids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Marino; Noselli, Giovanni; Desimone, Antonio

    Euglenids are a family of unicellular protists, which use flagella to move in a fluid. However, they are also capable of performing elegantly concerted large amplitude deformations of the cell shape, in what is known as metaboly. To perform metaboly, euglenids use an elaborate cortical complex capable of actively imposing spatially modulated shear deformations on the cell surface. This mode of cell deformation has been linked to motility, but biophysical studies have demonstrated that it leads to very small swimming velocities as compared to flagellar locomotion. Furthermore, why would these cells possess two elaborate apparatus for the same function remains unclear. In this work, we combine experimental observations of euglena gracilis cells with theoretical models to shed light into the function of metaboly. The theoretical models account for the force generation and shape evolution at the cell envelop, together with the mechanical interaction of the cell with its environment. We characterize the efficiency of the two modes of locomotion of this cells in terms of the physical nature of their environment. ERC AdG 340685 MicroMotility.

  5. Macromolecular synthesis in algal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, M.R.; Kikuchi, Tadatoshi

    1980-01-01

    The present paper is a review of our experimental results obtained previously on the macromolecular biosyntheses in the cells of blue-green alga Anacystis nidulans as a representative species of prokaryote, and also in those of three species of eukaryotic algae, i.e. Euglena gracilis strain Z, Chlamydomonas reinhardi, and Cyanidium caldarium. In these algal cells, the combined methods consisting of pulse-labelling using 32 P, 3 H- and 14 C-labelled precursors for macromolecules, of their chasing and of the use of inhibitors which block specifically the syntheses of macromolecules such as proteins, RNA and DNA in living cells were very effectively applied for the analyses of the regulatory mechanism in biosyntheses of macromolecules and of the mode of their assembly into the cell structure, especially organelle constituents. Rased on the results obtained thus, the following conclusions are reached: (1) the metabolic pool for syntheses of macromolecules in the cells of prokaryotic blue-green alga is limited to the small extent and such activities couple largely with the photosynthetic mechanism; (2) 70 S ribosomes in the blue-green algal cells are assembled on the surface of thylakoid membranes widely distributed in their cytoplasm; and (3) the cells of eukaryotic unicellular algae used here have biochemical characters specific for already differentiated enzyme system involving in transcription and translation machineries as the same as in higher organisms, but the control mechanism concerning with such macromolecule syntheses are different among each species. (author)

  6. Study of metal bioaccumulation by nuclear microprobe analysis of algae fossils and living algae cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, P.; Wang, J.; Li, X.; Zhu, J.; Reinert, T.; Heitmann, J.; Spemann, D.; Vogt, J.; Flagmeyer, R.-H.; Butz, T.

    2000-01-01

    Microscopic ion-beam analysis of palaeo-algae fossils and living green algae cells have been performed to study the metal bioaccumulation processes. The algae fossils, both single cellular and multicellular, are from the late Neoproterozonic (570 million years ago) ocean and perfectly preserved within a phosphorite formation. The biosorption of the rare earth element ions Nd 3+ by the green algae species euglena gracilis was investigated with a comparison between the normal cells and immobilized ones. The new Leipzig Nanoprobe, LIPSION, was used to produce a proton beam with 2 μm size and 0.5 nA beam current for this study. PIXE and RBS techniques were used for analysis and imaging. The observation of small metal rich spores (<10 μm) surrounding both of the fossils and the living cells proved the existence of some specific receptor sites which bind metal carrier ligands at the microbic surface. The bioaccumulation efficiency of neodymium by the algae cells was 10 times higher for immobilized algae cells. It confirms the fact that the algae immobilization is an useful technique to improve its metal bioaccumulation

  7. Antioxidant and antimutagenic activity of N-(2-carboxyethyl)chitosan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogan, Grigorij; Skorik, Yury A.; Zitnanova, Ingrid; Krizkova, Livia; Durackova, Zdenka; Gomes, Carlos A.R.; Yatluk, Yury G.; Krajcovic, Juraj

    2004-01-01

    The antioxidant and antimutagenic activities of the novel carboxyethyl derivatives of chitosan with three different degrees of substitution have been assayed in vitro in the unicellular flagellate Euglena gracilis subjected to the action of genotoxic agents acridine orange and ofloxacin. It has been demonstrated that chitosan derivatives exhibit concentration-dependent protective antigenotoxic activity against both mutagens. It is suggested that different mechanisms may be involved in its protective action--antioxidant activity in case of ofloxacin-induced DNA damage, as well as possible interaction with the cell membrane that prevents acridine orange from reaching the genetic compartments and subsequent damaging DNA through intercalative binding. Direct adsorption of acridine orange on chitosan derivatives was ruled out as a possible mechanism of protection on the basis of spectrophotometric measurements. Dependence of the antimutagenic properties of the studied chitosan derivatives on the degree of substitution was reversed in experiments involving acridine orange and ofloxacin, which also indicated different mechanisms of protection involved in these two cases

  8. Identification of a volatile phytotoxin from algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garavelli, J. S.; Fong, F.; Funkhouser, E. A.

    1984-01-01

    The objectives were to develop a trap system for isolating fractions of volatile algal phytotoxin and to characterize the major components of the isolated phytotoxin fractions. A bioassay using Phaseolus vulgaris seedlings was developed to aid in investigating the properties of the phytotoxin produced by cultures of Euglena gracilis var. bacillaris and Chlorella vulgaris. Two traps were found, 1.0 M hydrochloric acid and 0 C, which removed the phytotoxin from the algal effluent and which could be treated to release that phytotoxin as judged with the bioassay procedure. It was also determined that pretraps of 1.0 M sodium hydroxide and 1.0 M potassium biocarbonate could be used without lowering the phytotoxin effect. Ammonia was identified in trap solutions by ninhydrin reaction, indophenol reaction and derivatization with dansyl chloride and phenylisothiocyanate. Ammonia at the gaseous concentrations detected was found to have the same effects in the bioassay system as the volatile phytotoxin. It is possible that other basic, nitrogen containing compounds which augment the effects of ammonia were present at lower concentrations in the algal effluent.

  9. Interactive Biophysics with Microswimmers: Education, Cloud Experimentation, Programmed Swarms, and Biotic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel-Kruse, Ingmar

    Modern biotechnology gets increasingly powerful to manipulate and measure microscopic biophysical processes. Nevertheless, no platform exists to truly interact with these processes, certainly not with the convenience that we are accustomed to from our electronic smart devices. In my talk I will provide the rational for such Interactive Biotechnology and conceptualize its core component, the BPU (biotic processing unit), which is then connected to an according user interface. The biophysical phenomena currently featured on these platforms utilize the phototactic response of motile microorganisms, e.g., Euglena gracilis, resulting in spatio-temporal dynamics from the single cell to the self-organized multi-cellular scale. I will demonstrate multiple platforms, such as scalable biology cloud experimentation labs, tangible museum exhibits, biotic video games, low-cost interactive DIY kits using smartphones, and programming languages for swarm robotics. I will discuss applications for education as well as for professional and citizen science. Hence, we turn traditionally observational microscopy into an interactive experience. I was told that presenting in the educational section does not count against the ''one author - one talk policy'' - so I submit two abstracts. In case of conflict - please contact me: ingmar@stanford.edu.

  10. Evolutionary History of the Enzymes Involved in the Calvin-Benson Cycle in Euglenids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markunas, Chelsea M; Triemer, Richard E

    2016-05-01

    Euglenids are an ancient lineage that may have existed as early as 2 billion years ago. A mere 65 years ago, Melvin Calvin and Andrew A. Benson performed experiments on Euglena gracilis and elucidated the series of reactions by which carbon was fixed and reduced during photosynthesis. However, the evolutionary history of this pathway (Calvin-Benson cycle) in euglenids was more complex than Calvin and Benson could have imagined. The chloroplast present today in euglenophytes arose from a secondary endosymbiosis between a phagotrophic euglenid and a prasinophyte green alga. A long period of evolutionary time existed before this secondary endosymbiotic event took place, which allowed for other endosymbiotic events or gene transfers to occur prior to the establishment of the green chloroplast. This research revealed the evolutionary history of the major enzymes of the Calvin-Benson cycle throughout the euglenid lineage and showed that the majority of genes for Calvin-Benson cycle enzymes shared an ancestry with red algae and/or chromophytes suggesting they may have been transferred to the nucleus prior to the acquisition of the green chloroplast. © 2015 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2015 International Society of Protistologists.

  11. Assessing Transformations of Algal Organic Matter in the Long-Term: Impacts of Humification-Like Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maud Leloup

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Algae and cyanobacteria are important contributors to the natural organic matter (NOM of eutrophic water resources. The objective of this work is to increase knowledge on the modifications of algal organic matter (AOM properties in the long term to anticipate blooms footprint in such aquatic environments. The production of AOM from an alga (Euglena gracilis and a cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa was followed up and characterized during the stationary phase and after one year and four months of cultivation, in batch experiments. Specific UV absorbance (SUVA index, organic matter fractionation according to hydrophobicity and apparent molecular weight were combined to assess the evolution of AOM. A comparison between humic substances (HS mainly derived from allochthonous origins and AOM characteristics was performed to hypothesize impacts of AOM transformation processes on the water quality of eutrophic water resources. Each AOM fraction underwent a specific evolution pattern, depending on its composition. Impacts of humification-like processes were predominant over release of biopolymers due to cells decay and led to an increase in the hydrophobic compounds part and molecular weights over time. However, the hydrophilic fraction remained the major fraction whatever the growth stage. Organic compounds generated by maturation of these precursors corresponded to large and aliphatic structures.

  12. Ecological effects of ionizing radiation on population and ecosystem: a computational model ecosystem study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Masahiro; Fuma, Shoichi; Ishii, Nobuyuki; Sakashita, Tetsuya; Miyamoto, Kiriko; Takeda, Hiroshi; Kawabata, Zenichiro

    2003-01-01

    Ecosystem is a self-sustaining system of complexity, and their responses to the impacts are synergistic and subjected to the demographic stochasticity of the species, environmental stochasticity and randomness. Environmental fate and effects of radiation has ranged from observable DNA damage of the cell to the fare on tissues, individual, population, community and ecosystems. The quantitative, systematic individual-based model, SIM-COSM was developed to simulate impacts of radiation exposure and other toxicants on an aquatic microbial ecosystem (microcosm). The microcosm consists of heterotroph ciliate protozoa (Tetrahymena thermophila B) as a consumer, autotroph flagellate algae (Euglena gracilis Z) as a producer and saprotroph bacteria (Escherichia coli DH5) as a decomposer. The symbiosis among microbes is self-organized by realizing material cycle and sustained for more than 2 years after inoculation. The system can not afford to lose any one of the microbes to maintain its sustainability. Experimental ecotoxicological tests for (a) gamma radiation, (b) Manganese ions and (c) Gadolinium are summarized. Population dynamics of microbes in Microcosm and its computer simulations by SIM-COSM are shown together in a figure. Population dynamics in Microcosm and SIM-COSM exposed to 500 Gy of gamma-radiation at 50 days after inoculation are shown also in a figure. To take the effects on the interactions between species and environment into account, one option is to put the ecotoxicity tests as experimental micro ecosystem study and theoretical model ecosystem analysis. (M. Suetake)

  13. Species selection for the design of gold nanobioreactor by photosynthetic organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahoumane, Si Amar; Djediat, Chakib; Yéprémian, Claude; Couté, Alain; Fiévet, Fernand; Coradin, Thibaud; Brayner, Roberta

    2012-06-01

    The design of cell-based bioreactors for inorganic particles formation requires both a better understanding of the underlying processes and the identification of most suitable organisms. With this purpose, the process of Au3+ incorporation, intracellular reduction, and Au0 nanoparticle release in the culture medium was compared for four photosynthetic microorganisms, Klebsormidium flaccidum and Cosmarium impressulum green algae, Euglena gracilis euglenoid and Anabaena flos- aquae cyanobacteria. At low gold content, the two green algae show maintained photosynthetic activity and recovered particles (ca. 10 nm in size) are similar to internal colloids, indicating a full biological control over the whole process. In similar conditions, the euglenoid exhibits a rapid loss of biological activity, due to the absence of protective extracellular polysaccharide, but could grow again after an adaptation period. This results in a larger particle size dispersity but larger reduction yield. The cyanobacteria undergo rapid cell death, due to their prokaryotic nature, leading to high gold incorporation rate but poor control over released particle size. Similar observations can be made after addition of a larger gold salt concentration when all organisms rapidly die, suggesting that part of the process is not under biological control anymore but also involves extracellular chemical reactions. Overall, fruitful information on the whole biocrystallogenesis process is gained and most suitable species for further bioreactor design can be identified, i.e., green algae with external coating.

  14. Broken Bioabsorbable Tibial Interference Screw after Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL Reconstruction using a Semitendinosus-gracilis Graft: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang ME Deborah

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available When a patient presents with knee pain and locking after an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction, a new meniscal injury or an osteochondral loose body are usually considered for differential diagnosis. We present the case of a 22-year-old female with just these complaints 6 months after ACL reconstruction surgery. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the knee showed a broken screw tip which was later arthroscopically removed. At arthroscopy, an 11mm long broken bioabsorbable interference screw tip was found lying in the intercondylar notch; this resulted in a 0.5cm Outerbridge grade II chondral ulcer located at mid- patella. Both menisci and cruciate ligaments were intact and no other loose bodies were found in the knee joint.

  15. Effects of iron availability on pigment signature and biogenic silica production in the coastal diatom Chaetoceros gracilis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Biswas, H.; Bandyopadhyay, D.

    -102. 13. F. Morales, A. Abadia, R. Belkhodja and J. Abadia, Iron deficiency-induced changes in the photosynthetic pigment composition of field-grown pear (Pyrus communis L.) Leaves, Plant Cell Environ. 17(1994), pp. 1153 -1160. 14. A. Hager... of the artificial algal culture medium Aquil, Biol. Oceanogr. 6(1988/1989), pp. 443–461. 28. G. Rejomon, K. K. Balachandran. M. Nair, T. Joseph. P. K. Dineshkumar, C. T. Achuthankutty, K. K. C Nair, N. G. K. Pillai, Trace metal concentrations in zooplankton...

  16. Alternative Methods for Marine Harpacticoid Copepod, Macrosetella gracilis Production in Marine Fish Larviculture

    OpenAIRE

    N. Jeyaraj; P. Santhanam; P. Raju; S. Ananth; K. Jothiraj

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable aquaculture depends upon eco-friendly, economically and socially viable culture systems. The recycling of organic wastes for plankton culture serves the dual purpose of cleaning the environment and providing economic benefits. There has been no experimentation to measure the effect of organic manure for the aquaculture of copepods, it may be reduced time and labor cost. Hence, the present experiment was conducted to evaluate the mass culture feasibili...

  17. Bioecology of the conifer swift moth, Korscheltellus gracilis, a root feeder associated with spruce-fir decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    William E. Wallner; David L. Wagner; Bruce L. Parker; Donald L. Tobi

    1991-01-01

    During the past two decades, the decline of red spruce, Picea rubens Sargent, and balsam fir, Abies balsamea (L), at high elevations (900-1200 m) in eastern North America has evoked concern about the effects of anthropogenic deposition upon terrestrial ecosystems. In many high-elevation forests across New England, as many as 50...

  18. Cranial pneumatization and auditory perceptions of the oviraptorid dinosaur Conchoraptor gracilis (Theropoda, Maniraptora) from the Late Cretaceous of Mongolia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kundrát, M.; Janáček, Jiří

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 9 (2007), s. 769-778 ISSN 0028-1042 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : Conchoraptor * neurocranium * acoustic perception Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.955, year: 2007

  19. G-Quadruplex Identification in the Genome of Protozoan Parasites Points to Naphthalene Diimide Ligands as New Antiparasitic Agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Belmonte-Reche, E.; Martínez-García, M.; Guédin, A.; Zuffo, M.; Arevalo-Ruiz, M.; Doria, F.; Campos-Salinas, J.; Maynadier, M.; Lopez-Rubio, J.J.; Freccero, M.; Mergny, Jean-Louis; Maria Perez-Victoria, J.; Carlos Morales, J.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 3 (2018), s. 1231-1240 ISSN 0022-2623 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EF15_003/0000477 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : terminal repeat promoter * plasmodium-falciparum Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 6.259, year: 2016

  20. Protozoan Parasites in Drinking Water: A System Approach for Improved Water, Sanitation and Hygiene in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omarova, Alua; Tussupova, Kamshat; Berndtsson, Ronny; Kalishev, Marat; Sharapatova, Kulyash

    2018-03-12

    Improved water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) are significant in preventing diarrhea morbidity and mortality caused by protozoa in low- and middle-income countries. Due to the intimate and complex relationships between the different WASH components, it is often necessary to improve not just one but all of these components to have sustainable results. The objective of this paper was to review the current state of WASH-related health problems caused by parasitic protozoa by: giving an overview and classification of protozoa and their effect on people's health, discussing different ways to improve accessibility to safe drinking water, sanitation services and personal hygiene behavior; and suggesting an institutional approach to ensure improved WASH. The findings indicate that Giardia and Cryptosporidium are more often identified during waterborne or water-washed outbreaks and they are less sensitive than most of the bacteria and viruses to conventional drinking water and wastewater treatment methods. There are various institutions of control and prevention of water-related diseases caused by protozoa in developed countries. Unfortunately, the developing regions do not have comparable systems. Consequently, the institutional and systems approach to WASH is necessary in these countries.

  1. Induction of apoptosis by zerumbone isolated from Zingiber zerumbet (L. Smith in protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani due to oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debarati Mukherjee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present context of emergence of resistance aligned with the conventional anti-leishmanial drugs and occasional treatment failure compelled us to continue the search for replaceable therapeutic leads against Leishmania infection. Various ginger spices of the Zingiberaceae family are widely used as spices, flavouring agents, and medicines in Southeast Asia because of their unique flavour as well as due to their medicinal properties. Zerumbone, a natural component of Zingiber zerumbet (L. Smith, has been studied for its pharmacological potential as antiulcer, antioxidant, anticancer, and antimicrobial. In this study, we have shown that zerumbone could induce ROS mediated apoptosis in Leishmania donovani promastigotes and also found effective in reducing intracellular amastigotes in infected-macrophages. We emphasized the potential of zerumbone to be employed in the development of new therapeutic drugs against L. donovani infection and provided the basis for future research on the application of transitional medicinal plants.

  2. Induction of apoptosis by zerumbone isolated from Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith in protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani due to oxidative stress

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee, Debarati; Singh, Chingakham Brajakishor; Dey, Somaditya; Mandal, Supratim; Ghosh, Joydip; Mallick, Suvadip; Hussain, Aabid; Swapana, Ningombam; Ross, Samir Anis; Pal, Chiranjib

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In the present context of emergence of resistance aligned with the conventional anti-leishmanial drugs and occasional treatment failure compelled us to continue the search for replaceable therapeutic leads against Leishmaniainfection. Various ginger spices of the Zingiberaceae family are widely used as spices, flavouring agents, and medicines in Southeast Asia because of their unique flavour as well as due to their medicinal properties. Zerumbone, a natural component of Zingiber zeru...

  3. Functional genomics studies of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus ticks in response to infection with the cattle protozoan parasite, Babesia bigemina

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Antunes, S.; Galindo, R. C.; Almazán, C.; Rudenko, Natalia; Golovchenko, Maryna; Grubhoffer, Libor; Shkap, V.; do Rosário, A.; de la Fuente, J.; Domingos, A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 2 (2012), s. 187-195 ISSN 0020-7519 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Tick * Genomics * Babesia * Rhipicephalus * Boophilus * RNA interference * Vaccine Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.637, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0020751912000033

  4. GLT-1-Dependent Disruption of CNS Glutamate Homeostasis and Neuronal Function by the Protozoan Parasite Toxoplasma gondii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clément N David

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The immune privileged nature of the CNS can make it vulnerable to chronic and latent infections. Little is known about the effects of lifelong brain infections, and thus inflammation, on the neurological health of the host. Toxoplasma gondii is a parasite that can infect any mammalian nucleated cell with average worldwide seroprevalence rates of 30%. Infection by Toxoplasma is characterized by the lifelong presence of parasitic cysts within neurons in the brain, requiring a competent immune system to prevent parasite reactivation and encephalitis. In the immunocompetent individual, Toxoplasma infection is largely asymptomatic, however many recent studies suggest a strong correlation with certain neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. Here, we demonstrate a significant reduction in the primary astrocytic glutamate transporter, GLT-1, following infection with Toxoplasma. Using microdialysis of the murine frontal cortex over the course of infection, a significant increase in extracellular concentrations of glutamate is observed. Consistent with glutamate dysregulation, analysis of neurons reveal changes in morphology including a reduction in dendritic spines, VGlut1 and NeuN immunoreactivity. Furthermore, behavioral testing and EEG recordings point to significant changes in neuronal output. Finally, these changes in neuronal connectivity are dependent on infection-induced downregulation of GLT-1 as treatment with the ß-lactam antibiotic ceftriaxone, rescues extracellular glutamate concentrations, neuronal pathology and function. Altogether, these data demonstrate that following an infection with T. gondii, the delicate regulation of glutamate by astrocytes is disrupted and accounts for a range of deficits observed in chronic infection.

  5. Rapid, Selection-Free, High-Efficiency Genome Editing in Protozoan Parasites Using CRISPR-Cas9 Ribonucleoproteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Carolina Soares Medeiros

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosomatids (order Kinetoplastida, including the human pathogens Trypanosoma cruzi (agent of Chagas disease, Trypanosoma brucei, (African sleeping sickness, and Leishmania (leishmaniasis, affect millions of people and animals globally. T. cruzi is considered one of the least studied and most poorly understood tropical disease-causing parasites, in part because of the relative lack of facile genetic engineering tools. This situation has improved recently through the application of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats–CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR-Cas9 technology, but a number of limitations remain, including the toxicity of continuous Cas9 expression and the long drug marker selection times. In this study, we show that the delivery of ribonucleoprotein (RNP complexes composed of recombinant Cas9 from Staphylococcus aureus (SaCas9, but not from the more routinely used Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 (SpCas9, and in vitro-transcribed single guide RNAs (sgRNAs results in rapid gene edits in T. cruzi and other kinetoplastids at frequencies approaching 100%. The highly efficient genome editing via SaCas9/sgRNA RNPs was obtained for both reporter and endogenous genes and observed in multiple parasite life cycle stages in various strains of T. cruzi, as well as in T. brucei and Leishmania major. RNP complex delivery was also used to successfully tag proteins at endogenous loci and to assess the biological functions of essential genes. Thus, the use of SaCas9 RNP complexes for gene editing in kinetoplastids provides a simple, rapid, and cloning- and selection-free method to assess gene function in these important human pathogens.

  6. Hydrological modeling of geophysical parameters of arboviral and protozoan disease vectors in Internally Displaced People camps in Gulu, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Benjamin G; Muturi, Ephantus J; Caamano, Erick X; Gunter, James T; Mpanga, Enoch; Ayine, Robert; Okelloonen, Joseph; Nyeko, Jack Pen-Mogi; Shililu, Josephat I; Githure, John I; Regens, James L; Novak, Robert J; Kakoma, Ibulaimu

    2008-03-14

    The aim of this study was to determine if remotely sensed data and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) can test relationships between Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles gambiae s.l. larval habitats and environmental parameters within Internally Displaced People (IDP) campgrounds in Gulu, Uganda. A total of 65 georeferenced aquatic habitats in various IDP camps were studied to compare the larval abundance of Cx. quinquefasciatus and An. gambiae s.l. The aquatic habitat dataset were overlaid onto Land Use Land Cover (LULC) maps retrieved from Landsat imagery with 150 m x 150 m grid cells stratified by levels of drainage. The LULC change was estimated over a period of 14 years. Poisson regression analyses and Moran's I statistics were used to model relationships between larval abundance and environmental predictors. Individual larval habitat data were further evaluated in terms of their covariations with spatial autocorrelation by regressing them on candidate spatial filter eigenvectors. Multispectral QuickBird imagery classification and DEM-based GIS methods were generated to evaluate stream flow direction and accumulation for identification of immature Cx. quinquefasciatus and An. gambiae s.l. and abundance. The main LULC change in urban Gulu IDP camps was non-urban to urban, which included about 71.5 % of the land cover. The regression models indicate that counts of An. gambiae s.l. larvae were associated with shade while Cx. quinquefasciatus were associated with floating vegetation. Moran's I and the General G statistics for mosquito density by species and instars, identified significant clusters of high densities of Anopheles; larvae, however, Culex are not consistently clustered. A stepwise negative binomial regression decomposed the immature An. gambiae s.l. data into empirical orthogonal bases. The data suggest the presence of roughly 11% to 28 % redundant information in the larval count samples. The DEM suggest a positive correlation for Culex (0.24) while for Anopheles there was a negative correlation (-0.23) for a local model distance to stream. These data demonstrate that optical remote sensing; geostatistics and DEMs can be used to identify parameters associated with Culex and Anopheles aquatic habitats.

  7. Protozoan Parasites in Drinking Water: A System Approach for Improved Water, Sanitation and Hygiene in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tussupova, Kamshat; Berndtsson, Ronny; Sharapatova, Kulyash

    2018-01-01

    Improved water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) are significant in preventing diarrhea morbidity and mortality caused by protozoa in low- and middle-income countries. Due to the intimate and complex relationships between the different WASH components, it is often necessary to improve not just one but all of these components to have sustainable results. The objective of this paper was to review the current state of WASH-related health problems caused by parasitic protozoa by: giving an overview and classification of protozoa and their effect on people’s health, discussing different ways to improve accessibility to safe drinking water, sanitation services and personal hygiene behavior; and suggesting an institutional approach to ensure improved WASH. The findings indicate that Giardia and Cryptosporidium are more often identified during waterborne or water-washed outbreaks and they are less sensitive than most of the bacteria and viruses to conventional drinking water and wastewater treatment methods. There are various institutions of control and prevention of water-related diseases caused by protozoa in developed countries. Unfortunately, the developing regions do not have comparable systems. Consequently, the institutional and systems approach to WASH is necessary in these countries. PMID:29534511

  8. Protozoan Parasites in Drinking Water: A System Approach for Improved Water, Sanitation and Hygiene in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alua Omarova

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Improved water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH are significant in preventing diarrhea morbidity and mortality caused by protozoa in low- and middle-income countries. Due to the intimate and complex relationships between the different WASH components, it is often necessary to improve not just one but all of these components to have sustainable results. The objective of this paper was to review the current state of WASH-related health problems caused by parasitic protozoa by: giving an overview and classification of protozoa and their effect on people’s health, discussing different ways to improve accessibility to safe drinking water, sanitation services and personal hygiene behavior; and suggesting an institutional approach to ensure improved WASH. The findings indicate that Giardia and Cryptosporidium are more often identified during waterborne or water-washed outbreaks and they are less sensitive than most of the bacteria and viruses to conventional drinking water and wastewater treatment methods. There are various institutions of control and prevention of water-related diseases caused by protozoa in developed countries. Unfortunately, the developing regions do not have comparable systems. Consequently, the institutional and systems approach to WASH is necessary in these countries.

  9. G-Quadruplex Identification in the Genome of Protozoan Parasites Points to Naphthalene Diimide Ligands as New Antiparasitic Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmonte-Reche, Efres; Martínez-García, Marta; Guédin, Aurore; Zuffo, Michela; Arévalo-Ruiz, Matilde; Doria, Filippo; Campos-Salinas, Jenny; Maynadier, Marjorie; López-Rubio, José Juan; Freccero, Mauro; Mergny, Jean-Louis; Pérez-Victoria, José María; Morales, Juan Carlos

    2018-02-08

    G-quadruplexes (G4) are DNA secondary structures that take part in the regulation of gene expression. Putative G4 forming sequences (PQS) have been reported in mammals, yeast, bacteria, and viruses. Here, we present PQS searches on the genomes of T. brucei, L. major, and P. falciparum. We found telomeric sequences and new PQS motifs. Biophysical experiments showed that EBR1, a 29 nucleotide long highly repeated PQS in T. brucei, forms a stable G4 structure. G4 ligands based on carbohydrate conjugated naphthalene diimides (carb-NDIs) that bind G4's including hTel could bind EBR1 with selectivity versus dsDNA. These ligands showed important antiparasitic activity. IC 50 values were in the nanomolar range against T. brucei with high selectivity against MRC-5 human cells. Confocal microscopy confirmed these ligands localize in the nucleus and kinetoplast of T. brucei suggesting they can reach their potential G4 targets. Cytotoxicity and zebrafish toxicity studies revealed sugar conjugation reduces intrinsic toxicity of NDIs.

  10. DECREASED RESISTANCE OF EASTERN OYSTERS (CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA) TO A PROTOZOAN PATHOGEN (PERKINSUS MARINUS) AFTER SUBLETHAL EXPOSURE TO TRIBUTYLTIN OXIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthropogenic environmental stress is a likely contributor to outbreaks of disease due to immunosuppression or increased host vulnerability. Estuarine organisms are exposed to variable concentrations of marine antifouling agents, such as tributyltin (TBT), with higher exposures e...

  11. Attenuation of a drug-sensitive strain of a turkey protozoan parasite Eimeria meleagrimitis by selection for precocious development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathinam, T; Gadde, U; Chapman, H D

    2016-01-30

    An attenuated line of Eimeria meleagrimitis was established by repeated propagation of the parasite in 9-day old turkey poults and subsequent selection for precocious development. Following 20 passages, the prepatent period decreased from 120 to 104h. A series of experiments were conducted to evaluate the pathogenicity, immunogenicity and fecundity of the newly selected line. Judged by body weight gain, feed consumption and feed efficiency following infection, the attenuated line had appreciably reduced pathogenicity. Immunogenicity of the attenuated line was examined by infecting poults successively with incremental doses of 10(2), 10(3) and 10(4) oocysts at 0, 7, and 14 days of age respectively. No oocysts were detected following challenge with 5×10(2) oocysts, indicating that the attenuated line had retained immunogenicity. Fecundity was assessed by infecting two-week old birds with 5×10(2) oocysts of either parent or attenuated line. Oocyst production from 96 to 240h post-infection showed that the patent period of the attenuated line commenced earlier and was of shorter duration than the parent line. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The Eimeria Transcript DB: an integrated resource for annotated transcripts of protozoan parasites of the genus Eimeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, Luiz Thibério; Novaes, Jeniffer; Durham, Alan M.; Madeira, Alda Maria B. N.; Gruber, Arthur

    2013-01-01

    Parasites of the genus Eimeria infect a wide range of vertebrate hosts, including chickens. We have recently reported a comparative analysis of the transcriptomes of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima and Eimeria tenella, integrating ORESTES data produced by our group and publicly available Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs). All cDNA reads have been assembled, and the reconstructed transcripts have been submitted to a comprehensive functional annotation pipeline. Additional studies included orthology assignment across apicomplexan parasites and clustering analyses of gene expression profiles among different developmental stages of the parasites. To make all this body of information publicly available, we constructed the Eimeria Transcript Database (EimeriaTDB), a web repository that provides access to sequence data, annotation and comparative analyses. Here, we describe the web interface, available sequence data sets and query tools implemented on the site. The main goal of this work is to offer a public repository of sequence and functional annotation data of reconstructed transcripts of parasites of the genus Eimeria. We believe that EimeriaTDB will represent a valuable and complementary resource for the Eimeria scientific community and for those researchers interested in comparative genomics of apicomplexan parasites. Database URL: http://www.coccidia.icb.usp.br/eimeriatdb/ PMID:23411718

  13. Identification, Localization, and Functional Implications of the Microdomain-Forming Stomatin Family in the Ciliated Protozoan Paramecium tetraurelia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuermer, Claudia A. O.; Plattner, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    The SPFH protein superfamily is assumed to occur universally in eukaryotes, but information from protozoa is scarce. In the Paramecium genome, we found only Stomatins, 20 paralogs grouped in 8 families, STO1 to STO8. According to cDNA analysis, all are expressed, and molecular modeling shows the typical SPFH domain structure for all subgroups. For further analysis we used family-specific sequences for fluorescence and immunogold labeling, gene silencing, and functional tests. With all family members tested, we found a patchy localization at/near the cell surface and on vesicles. The Sto1p and Sto4p families are also associated with the contractile vacuole complex. Sto4p also makes puncta on some food vacuoles and is abundant on vesicles recycling from the release site of spent food vacuoles to the site of nascent food vacuole formation. Silencing of the STO1 family reduces mechanosensitivity (ciliary reversal upon touching an obstacle), thus suggesting relevance for positioning of mechanosensitive channels in the plasmalemma. Silencing of STO4 members increases pulsation frequency of the contractile vacuole complex and reduces phagocytotic activity of Paramecium cells. In summary, Sto1p and Sto4p members seem to be involved in positioning specific superficial and intracellular microdomain-based membrane components whose functions may depend on mechanosensation (extracellular stimuli and internal osmotic pressure). PMID:23376944

  14. Inactivation credit of UV radiation for viruses, bacteria and protozoan (oo)cysts in water: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijnen, W.A.M.; Beerendonk, E.F.; Medema, Gerriet Jan

    2006-01-01

    UV disinfection technology is of growing interest in the water industry since it was demonstrated that UV radiation is very effective against (oo)cysts of Cryptosporidium and Giardia, two pathogenic micro-organisms of major importance for the safety of drinking water. Quantitative Microbial Risk

  15. Purification and crystallization of human Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase recombinantly produced in the protozoan Leishmania tarentolae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gazdag, E. M.; Cirstea, I.; Breitling, R.; Lukeš, Julius; Blankenfeldt, W.; Alexandrov, K.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 8 (2010), s. 871-877 ISSN 1744-3091 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : recombinant proteins * eukaryotic expression systems * Leishmania Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.563, year: 2010

  16. Effect of ionizing and non ionizing radiation on Protozoan and Parasites Ova causing gastroenteritis presents in sewage sludge wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamma, M.; Al-Adawi, M.A.; Sharabi, N.

    2005-06-01

    The efficacy of Adra wastewater treatment plant for removing of parasitic eggs and other pathogens was various as the results of this work showed many eggs detected on and numeration referenced methods were applied for liquid and dried sledges. Helminths eggs viability was determined by aid of methods and techniques which depend on the morphological parameters, studying the motility incubation and applying the vital staining. The protozoa viability was studied by using vital staining, but applying culture techniques on specific composed media did not give any results. The disinfection results for ascaris eggs, protozoa and amoeba oocysts irradiated by 6 KGy of gamma (Co 6 0) which was sufficient to kill all types of such parasites. In conflict the UV radiation was able to motivate the division of the ascaris eggs embryo nations. Also, the viability of the Giardia and Entamoeba oocysts not affected. Therefor the UV technique couldn't be the alternative technology of ionizing radiation. (author)

  17. Effects of protozoan grazing on colony formation in Phaeocystis globosa (Prymnesiophyceae) and the potential costs and benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Hans Henrik; Tang, K.W.

    2002-01-01

    . scintillans increased the mean colony size by up to 50 % relative to the controls, whereas grazing by G. dominans enhanced the mean colony size by up to 3-fold. Microscopic observations confirmed that N. scintillans was also able to ingest small colonies. In contrast, G. dominans apparently did not ingest...

  18. Effects of crude extracts of Mucuna pruriens (Fabaceae) and Carica papaya (Caricaceae) against the protozoan fish parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekanem, A P; Obiekezie, A; Kloas, W; Knopf, K

    2004-03-01

    The ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis is among the most pathogenic parasites of fish maintained in captivity. In the present study, the effects of the crude methanolic extract of leaves of Mucuna pruriens and the petroleum-ether extract of seeds of Carica papaya against I. multifiliis were investigated under in vivo and in vitro conditions. Goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) infected with the parasites were immersed for 72 h in baths with M. pruriens extract, and for 96 h in baths with C. papaya extract. There was a 90% reduction in numbers of I. multifiliis on fish after treatment in baths of each plant extract at 200 mg l(-1 )compared to untreated controls. Consequently, parasite-induced fish mortality was reduced significantly. A complete interruption of trophont recruitment was achieved by immersion in the M. pruriens extract. In vitro tests led to a 100% mortality of I. multifiliis in 150 mg/l M. pruriens extract, and in 200 mg/l of C. papaya extract after 6 h. Although the active constituents of the medicinal plant extracts are still unknown, we have demonstrated that they have potential for effective control of I. multifiliis.

  19. Effect of ionizing and non ionizing radiation on Protozoan and Parasites Ova causing gastroenteritis presents in sewage sludge wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamma, M.; Al-Adawi, M.A.; Sharabi, N.

    2006-01-01

    Helminths eggs viability was determined by aid of methods and techniques which depend on the morphological parameters, studying the motility incubation and applying the vital staining. The protozoa viability was studied by using many vital staining, but applying culture techniques on specific composed media did not give any results. The disinfection results showed that for ascaris eggs, protozoa and amoeba oocysts irradiated by 6 KGy of gamma (Co 6 0) which was sufficient to kill all types of such parasites. On the contrary, conflict the UV radiation was able to motivate the ascaris eggs embryonations. Also, the viability of the Giardia and Entamoeba oocysts were not affected. In the light of the current experiments, it is possible to conclude that using the UV technique instead of the ionizing radiation for killing the helminths eggs and protozoa is not usable. (Authors)

  20. A rapid, reliable method of evaluating growth and viability of intraerythrocytic protozoan hemoparasites using fluorescence flow cytometry

    OpenAIRE

    Davis,W. C.; Wyatt,C. R.; Hamilton,M. J.; Goff,W. L.

    1992-01-01

    Fluorescence flow cytometry was employed to assess the potential of a vital dye, hydroethiedine, for use in the detection and monitoring of the viability of hemoparasites in infected erythrocytes, using Babesia bovis as a model parasite. The studies demonstrated that hydroethidine is taken up by B. bovis and metabolically converted to the DNA binding fluorochrone, ethidium. Following uptake of the dye, erythrocytes contamine viable parasites were readily distinguished and quantitated. Timed s...

  1. A rapid, reliable method of evaluating growth and viability of intraerythrocytic protozoan hemoparasites using fluorescence flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, W C; Wyatt, C R; Hamilton, M J; Goff, W L

    1992-01-01

    Fluorescence flow cytometry was employed to assess the potential of a vital dye, hydroethidine, for use in the detection and monitoring of the viability of hemoparasites in infected erythrocytes, using Babesia bovis as a model parasite. The studies demonstrated that hydroethidine is taken up by B. bovis and metabolically converted to the DNA binding fluorochrome, ethidium. Following uptake of the dye, erythrocytes containing viable parasites were readily distinguished and quantitated. Timed studies with the parasiticidal drug, Ganaseg, showed that it is possible to use the fluorochrome assay to monitor the effects of the drug on the rate of replication and viability of B. bovis in culture. The assay provides a rapid method for evaluation of the in vitro effect of drugs on hemoparasites and for analysis of the effect of various components of the immune response, such as lymphokines, monocyte products, antibodies, and effector cells (T, NK, LAK, ADCC) on the growth and viability of intraerythrocytic parasites.

  2. Molecular detection of tick-borne protozoan parasites in a population of domestic cats in midwestern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Ísis Assis; de Souza Ramos, Dirceu Guilherme; Marcili, Arlei; Melo, Andréia Lima Tomé; Taques, Isis Indaiara Gonçalves Granjeiro; Amude, Alexandre Mendes; Chitarra, Cristiane Silva; Nakazato, Luciano; Dutra, Valéria; de Campos Pacheco, Richard; Aguiar, Daniel Moura

    2016-07-01

    Some tick-borne pathogens that infect domestic cats have been considered emergent in veterinary medicine. Occurrences of Hepatozoon spp., Babesia spp. and Cytauxzoon spp. have been described in several regions of Brazil. This paper offers a comprehensive analysis of the 18S rRNA gene of a Hepatozoon sp. strain detected in domestic cats in the metropolitan area of Cuiabá, in Midwestern Brazil. Based on a molecular analysis, we detected the presence of Hepatozoon species circulating among cats in this region. The aforementioned strain is closely related to other isolates of H. felis detected in wild felids. Moreover, a phylogenetic analysis indicates that this genotype is grouped into a clade of 18S rRNA sequences previously described for the genus Hepatozoon in wild felids around the world. Hepatozoon felis strains detected in cats from Spain and Israel showed, respectively, 98% and 97% identity to our sequence and are clustered on a separate branch of the phylogenetic tree. This finding suggests a high diversity of Hepatozoon genotypes occurring in cats in Europe and South America. None of the analyzed cats were positive for Babesia spp. or Cytauxzoon spp. by PCR analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. A rapid, reliable method of evaluating growth and viability of intraerythrocytic protozoan hemoparasites using fluorescence flow cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. C. Davis

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence flow cytometry was employed to assess the potential of a vital dye, hydroethiedine, for use in the detection and monitoring of the viability of hemoparasites in infected erythrocytes, using Babesia bovis as a model parasite. The studies demonstrated that hydroethidine is taken up by B. bovis and metabolically converted to the DNA binding fluorochrone, ethidium. Following uptake of the dye, erythrocytes contamine viable parasites were readily distinguished and quantitated. Timed studies with the parasiticidal drug, Ganaseg, showed that it is possible to use the fluorochrome assay to monitor the effects of the drug on the rate of replication and viability of B. bovis in culture. The assay provides a rapid method for evaluation of the in vitro effect of drugs on hemoparasites and for analysis of the effect of various components of the immune response, such as lymphokines, monocyte products, antibodies, and effector cells (T, NK, LAK, ADCC on the growth and viability of intraerythrocytic parasites.

  4. Modul.LES: a multi-compartment, multi-organism aquatic life support system as experimental platform for research in ∆g

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbig, Reinhard; Anken, Ralf; Grimm, Dennis

    In view of space exploration and long-term satellite missions, a new generation of multi-modular, multi-organism bioregenerative life support system with different experimental units (Modul.LES) is planned, and subunits are under construction. Modul.LES will be managed via telemetry and remote control and therefore is a fully automated experimental platform for different kinds of investigations. After several forerunner projects like AquaCells (2005), C.E.B.A.S. (1998, 2003) or Aquahab (OHB-System AG the Oreochromis Mossambicus Eu-glena Gracilis Aquatic Habitat (OmegaHab) was successfully flown in 2007 in course of the FOTON-M3 Mission. It was a 3 chamber controlled life support system (CLSS), compris-ing a bioreactor with the green algae Euglena gracilis, a fish chamber with larval cichlid fish Oreochromis mossambicus and a filter chamber with biodegrading bacteria. The sensory super-vision of housekeeping management was registered and controlled by telemetry. Additionally, all scientific data and videos of the organisms aboard were stored and sequentially transmitted to relay stations. Based on the effective performance of OmegaHab, this system was chosen for a reflight on Bion-M1 in 2012. As Bion-M1 is a long term mission (appr. 4 weeks), this CLSS (OmegaHab-XP) has to be redesigned and refurbished with enhanced performance. The number of chambers has been increased from 3 to 4: an algae bioreactor, a fish tank for adult and larval fish (hatchery inserted), a nutrition chamber with higher plants and crustaceans and a filter chamber. The OmegaHab-XP is a full automated system with an extended satellite downlink for video monitoring and housekeeping data acquisition, but no uplink for remote control. OmegaHab-XP provides numerous physical and chemical parameters which will be monitored regarding the state of the biological processes and thus enables the automated con-trol aboard. Besides the two basic parameters oxygen content and temperature, products of the

  5. The evolution of glutathione metabolism in phototrophic microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, R. C.; Buschbacher, R. M.; Newton, G. L.

    1987-01-01

    Of the many roles ascribed to glutathione (GSH) the one most clearly established is its role in the protection of higher eucaryotes against oxygen toxicity through destruction of thiol-reactive oxygen byproducts. If this is the primary function of GSH then GSH metabolism should have evolved during or after the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis. That many bacteria do not produce GSH is consistent with this view. In the present study we have examined the low-molecular-weight thiol composition of a variety of phototrophic microorganisms to ascertain how evolution of GSH production is related to evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis. Cells were extracted in the presence of monobromobimane (mBBr) to convert thiols to fluorescent derivatives, which were analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Significant levels of GSH were not found in the green bacteria (Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum and Chloroflexus aurantiacus). Substantial levels of GSH were present in the purple bacteria (Chromatium vinosum, Rhodospirillum rubrum, Rhodobacter sphaeroides, and Rhodocyclus gelatinosa), the cyanobacteria [Anacystis nidulans, Microcoleus chthonoplastes S.G., Nostoc muscorum, Oscillatoria amphigranulata, Oscillatoria limnetica, Oscillatoria sp. (Stinky Spring, Utah), Oscillatoria terebriformis, Plectonema boryanum, and Synechococcus lividus], and eucaryotic algae (Chlorella pyrenoidsa, Chlorella vulgaris, Euglena gracilis, Scenedesmus obliquus, and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii). Other thiols measured included cysteine, gamma-glutamylcysteine, thiosulfate, coenzyme A, and sulfide; several unidentified thiols were also detected. Many of the organisms examined also exhibited a marked ability to reduce mBBr to syn-(methyl,methyl)bimane, an ability that was quenched by treatment with 2-pyridyl disulfide or 5,5'-bisdithio-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) prior to reaction with mBBr. These observations indicate the presence of a reducing system capable of electron transfer to mBBr and reduction of

  6. Screening for unicellular algae as possible bioassay organisms for monitoring marine water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán de Kuhn, Rosmary; Streb, Christine; Breiter, Roman; Richter, Peter; Neesse, Thomas; Häder, Donat-Peter

    2006-08-01

    ECOTOX is an automatic early warning system to monitor potential pollution of freshwater, municipal or industrial waste waters or aquatic ecosystems. It is based on a real time image analysis of the motility and orientation parameters of the unicellular, photosynthetic flagellate Euglena gracilis. In order to widen the use of the device to marine habitats and saline waters nine marine flagellates were evaluated as putative bioassay organisms, viz. Dunaliella salina, Dunaliella viridis, Dunaliella bardawil, Prorocentrum minimum Kattegat, P. minimum Lissabon, Tetraselmis suecica, Heterocapsa triquetra, Gyrodinium dorsum and Cryptomonas maculata. Because of their slow growth the last three strains were excluded from further evaluation. Selection criteria were ease of culture, density of cell suspension, stability of motility and gravitactic orientation. The sensitivity toward toxins was tested using copper(II) ions. The instrument allows the user to automatically determine effect-concentration (EC) curves from which the EC(50) values can be calculated. For the interpretation of the EC curves a sigmoid logistic model was proposed which proved to be satisfactory for all tested strains. The inhibition of the motility was considered as the most appropriate movement parameter as an endpoint. The Dunaliella species had the lowest sensitivity to copper with EC(50) values of 220, 198 and 176 mg/L for D. salina, D. bardawil and D. viridis, respectively, followed by T. suecica with an EC(50) value of 40 mg/L. The Prorocentrum species were found to be the most sensitive with an EC(50) value of 13.5 mg/L for P. minimum Lissabon and 7.5 mg/L for P. minimum Kattegat.

  7. Copper addition helps alleviate iron stress in a coastal diatom: Response of Chaetoceros gracilis from the Bay of Bengal to experimental Cu and Fe addition

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Biswas, H.; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Waite, A.

    , analytical quality CuCl2, 2H2O was procured from Merck chemicals (Germany) and dissolved in MQ water to achieve a stock solution of 10 mM. Further dilutions were performed before adding to the incubation bottles. No artificial chelating agents were used... (Kosakowska et al., 2004). To protect the cell from surplus light energy and thus photo-damage, algae generally produce more PP pigments relative to LH pigments (Abadia et al., 1989, Morales, 1994; reviewed by Bertrand, 2010). The high ratios of PP...

  8. "Navajita Cecilia" Bouteloua gracilis H.B.K (Lag.. Nueva variedad de pasto para zonas áridas y semiáridas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Beltrán López

    2010-01-01

    fertilización nitrogenada. Los resultados muestran que el uso combinado de inoculante más 30 kg N ha-1 produjo 50 % más MS (aproximadamente 11 t más que cuando se aplica sólo nitrógeno, especialmente en avena y ballico anual. El análisis económico mostró que el mejor tratamiento fue el de inoculación con 30 kg N ha-1 en Avena sativa L, con una tasa de retorno marginal por arriba del 60 %.

  9. "Navajita Cecilia" Bouteloua gracilis H.B.K (Lag.). Nueva variedad de pasto para zonas áridas y semiáridas

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Beltrán López; Carlos Alberto García Díaz; José Antonio Hernández Alatorre; Catarina Loredo Osti; Jorge Urrutia Morales; Luis Antonio González Eguiarte; Héctor Guillermo Gámez Vázquez

    2010-01-01

    Los objetivos fueron evaluar el efecto combinado de diferentes dosis de inoculante (Rhodococcus fascians) y fertilización nitrogenada en la producción de forraje de gramíneas así como la relación costo/beneficio. Las gramíneas fueron: Avena sativa L, Lolium multiflorum Lam yTriticum durum L con los siguientes tratamientos: inoculación, fertilización nitrogenada (0, 30, 60 kg N ha-1), y la combinación de inoculante y fertilización. Las especies se establecieron en condiciones de riego en un...

  10. Epidemiology of Soil-Transmitted Helminth and Intestinal Protozoan Infections in Preschool-Aged Children in the Amhara Region of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiemjoy, Kristen; Gebresillasie, Sintayehu; Stoller, Nicole E; Shiferaw, Ayalew; Tadesse, Zerihun; Chanyalew, Melsew; Aragie, Solomon; Callahan, Kelly; Keenan, Jeremy D

    2017-04-01

    AbstractIntestinal parasites are important contributors to global morbidity and mortality and are the second most common cause of outpatient morbidity in Ethiopia. This cross-sectional survey describes the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths and intestinal protozoa in preschool children 0-5 years of age in seven communities in the Amhara region of Ethiopia, and investigates associations between infection, household water and sanitation characteristics, and child growth. Stool samples were collected from children 0-5 years of age, 1 g of sample was preserved in sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin, and examined for intestinal helminth eggs and protozoa cysts ether-concentration method. A total of 212 samples were collected from 255 randomly selected children. The prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides , Trichuris trichiura , and hookworm were 10.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.6-15.1), 1.4% (95% CI = 0-3.0), and 0% (95% CI = 0-1.7), respectively. The prevalence of the pathogenic intestinal protozoa Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica / dispar were 10.4% (95% CI = 6.2-14.6) and 3.3% (95% CI = 0.09-5.7), respectively. Children with A. lumbricoides infections had lower height-for-age z -scores compared with those without, but were not more likely to have stunting. Compared with those without G. lamblia , children with G. lamblia infections had lower weight-for-age and weight-for-height z -scores and were more than five times as likely to meet the z -score definition for wasting (prevalence ratio = 5.42, 95% CI = 2.97-9.89). This article adds to a growing body of research on child growth and intestinal parasitic infections and has implications for their treatment and prevention in preschool-aged children.

  11. Cathelicidin-like helminth defence molecules (HDMs: absence of cytotoxic, anti-microbial and anti-protozoan activities imply a specific adaptation to immune modulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Thivierge

    Full Text Available Host defence peptides (HDPs are expressed throughout the animal and plant kingdoms. They have multifunctional roles in the defence against infectious agents of mammals, possessing both bactericidal and immune-modulatory activities. We have identified a novel family of molecules secreted by helminth parasites (helminth defence molecules; HDMs that exhibit similar structural and biochemical characteristics to the HDPs. Here, we have analyzed the functional activities of four HDMs derived from Schistosoma mansoni and Fasciola hepatica and compared them to human, mouse, bovine and sheep HDPs. Unlike the mammalian HDPs the helminth-derived HDMs show no antimicrobial activity and are non-cytotoxic to mammalian cells (macrophages and red blood cells. However, both the mammalian- and helminth-derived peptides suppress the activation of macrophages by microbial stimuli and alter the response of B cells to cytokine stimulation. Therefore, we hypothesise that HDMs represent a novel family of HDPs that evolved to regulate the immune responses of their mammalian hosts by retaining potent immune modulatory properties without causing deleterious cytotoxic effects.

  12. Response of protozoan and microbial communities in various coniferous forest soils after transfer to forests with different levels of atmospheric pollution.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Couteaux, M.-M.; Raubuch, M.; Berg, M.P.

    1998-01-01

    During recent decades, forest ecosystems have been exposed to high levels of atmospheric pollution, and it has been argued that this affects the composition and activity of decomposer communities and, subsequently, ecosystem functioning. To investigate the effects of atmospheric pollution on

  13. First report of the protozoan parasite Perkinsus marinus in South America, infecting mangrove oysters Crassostrea rhizophorae from the Paraíba River (NE, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Patricia Mirella; Vianna, Rogério Tubino; Guertler, Cristhiane; Ferreira, Liana Pinho; Santana, Lucas Nunes; Fernández-Boo, Sergio; Ramilo, Andrea; Cao, Asunción; Villalba, Antonio

    2013-05-01

    The present work aimed to study the infection by Perkinsus sp. in the mangrove oysters Crassostrea rhizophorae from the estuary of the Paraíba River (Paraíba State, Brazil). Perkinsosis was detected by incubation of oyster gill pieces in Ray's fluid thioglycollate medium. The monthly prevalence values were all above 70%, thus infection was not likely to be a transient event. Perkinsus sp. parasites isolated from eight oysters were propagated in vitro. PCR-RFLP analysis of in vitro cultured cells as well as the sequences of the rDNA ITS region allowed the identification of the in vitro propagated parasites as Perkinsus marinus. Phylogenetic analyses using rDNA ITS region sequences strongly supported the Perkinsus sp. from Paraíba in a monophyletic group with P. marinus. Thus, the results confirmed the species affiliation of Paraíba Perkinsus sp. as P. marinus. This is the first report of P. marinus in Brazil and South America and the first report of P. marinus naturally infecting C. rhizophorae. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Sensitive and specific identification by polymerase chain reaction of Eimeria tenella and Eimeria maxima, important protozoan pathogens in laboratory avian facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-A; Hong, Sunhwa; Chung, Yungho; Kim, Okjin

    2011-09-01

    Eimeria tenella and Eimeria maxima are important pathogens causing intracellular protozoa infections in laboratory avian animals and are known to affect experimental results obtained from contaminated animals. This study aimed to find a fast, sensitive, and efficient protocol for the molecular identification of E. tenella and E. maxima in experimental samples using chickens as laboratory avian animals. DNA was extracted from fecal samples collected from chickens and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis was employed to detect E. tenella and E. maxima from the extracted DNA. The target nucleic acid fragments were specifically amplified by PCR. Feces secreting E. tenella and E. maxima were detected by a positive PCR reaction. In this study, we were able to successfully detect E. tenella and E. maxima using the molecular diagnostic method of PCR. As such, we recommended PCR for monitoring E. tenella and E. maxima in laboratory avian facilities.

  15. HIGH-TEMPERATURE INDUCIBLE CELL-FREE TRANSCRIPTION AND REPLICATION OF DOUBLE-STRANDED RNAS WITHIN THE PARASITIC PROTOZOAN CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARVUM. (R825148)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  16. Effects of 60Co gamma irradiation on Eimeria falciformis (Eimer 1870) Schneider 1875, a protozoan parasite of the mouse, Mus musculus L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, A.C.

    1976-01-01

    Oocysts of an E. falciformis strain first isolated in Wuppertal, Germany were exposed to cobalt-60 gamma radiation under different conditions of oocyst age and development. In order to construct survival curves for oocysts irradiated in the unsporulated state, normalized percent sporulation was plotted as a function of radiation dose. Oocysts irradiated in the sporulated state never caused infection after receiving doses of 50 krads or more. Rarely, oocysts which had received 40 krads produced infection and completed their life cycle in susceptible hosts, but usually the doses beyond which infection did not occur ranged from 30 to 35 krads. Immunity was shown best by hosts which had received unirradiated oocysts in vaccinations prior to challenge. When irradiated sporulated oocysts were used in attempts to immunize susceptible hosts against coccidiosis, the most positive results were obtained from oocysts which had been exposed to 20 krads. Animals receiving vaccinations of oocysts exposed to 20 krads always survived the minimal infections caused by vaccination and also exhibited good immunity to challenge

  17. Molecular and phylogenetic characterizations of an Eimeria krijgsmanni Yakimoff & Gouseff, 1938 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) mouse intestinal protozoan parasite by partial 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeo, Toshinori; Tanaka, Tetsuya; Matsubayashi, Makoto; Maeda, Hiroki; Kusakisako, Kodai; Matsui, Toshihiro; Mochizuki, Masami; Matsuo, Tomohide

    2014-08-01

    Previously, we characterized an undocumented strain of Eimeria krijgsmanni by morphological and biological features. Here, we present a detailed molecular phylogenetic analysis of this organism. Namely, 18S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) sequences of E. krijgsmanni were analyzed to incorporate this species into a comprehensive Eimeria phylogeny. As a result, partial 18S rDNA sequence from E. krijgsmanni was successfully determined, and two different types, Type A and Type B, that differed by 1 base pair were identified. E. krijgsmanni was originally isolated from a single oocyst, and thus the result show that the two types might have allelic sequence heterogeneity in the 18S rDNA. Based on phylogenetic analyses, the two types of E. krijgsmanni 18S rDNA formed one of two clades among murine Eimeria spp.; these Eimeria clades reflected morphological similarity among the Eimeria spp. This is the third molecular phylogenetic characterization of a murine Eimeria spp. in addition to E. falciformis and E. papillata. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cupiennin 1a exhibits a remarkably broad, non-stereospecific cytolytic activity on bacteria, protozoan parasites, insects, and human cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn-Nentwig, Lucia; Willems, Jean; Seebeck, Thomas; Shalaby, Tarek; Kaiser, Marcel; Nentwig, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Cupiennin 1a, a cytolytic peptide isolated from the venom of the spider Cupiennius salei, exhibits broad membranolytic activity towards bacteria, trypanosomes, and plasmodia, as well as human blood and cancer cells. In analysing the cytolytic activity of synthesised all-D: - and all-L: -cupiennin 1a towards pro- and eukaryotic cells, a stereospecific mode of membrane destruction could be excluded. The importance of negatively charged sialic acids on the outer leaflet of erythrocytes for the binding and haemolytic activity of L: -cupiennin 1a was demonstrated. Reducing the overall negative charges of erythrocytes by partially removing their sialic acids or by protecting them with tri- or pentalysine results in reduced haemolytic activity of the peptide.

  19. Potential role of beavers (Castor fiber in contamination of water in the Masurian Lake District (north-eastern Poland with protozoan parasites Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sroka Jacek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the possible influence of beavers on the contamination of lake water with zoonotic parasites Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp., with respect to the risk to human health. A total of 79 water samples were taken around the habitats of beavers from 14 localities situated in the recreational Masurian Lake District (north-eastern Poland. Water was sampled in the spring and autumn seasons, at different distances from beavers’ lodges (0-2, 10, 30, and 50 m. The samples were examined for the presence of (oocysts of zoonotic protozoa Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. by direct fluorescence assay (DFA and by nested and real time PCR. By DFA, the presence of Giardia cysts was found in 36 samples (45.6% and the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts in 26 samples (32.9%. Numbers of Giardia cysts, Cryptosporidium oocysts, and summarised (oocysts of both parasites showed a significant variation depending on locality. The numbers of Giardia cysts significantly decreased with the distance from beavers’ lodges while the numbers of Cryptosporidium oocysts did not show such dependence. The amount of Giardia cysts in samples collected in spring was approximately 3 times higher than in autumn. Conversely, a larger number of Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in samples collected in autumn than in spring. By PCR, Giardia DNA was found in 38 samples (48.1% whereas DNA of Cryptosporidium was found in only 7 samples (8.9%. Eleven Giardia isolates were subjected to phylogenetic analysis by restriction fragment length polymorphism PCR or sequencing which evidenced their belonging to zoonotic assemblages: A (3 isolates and B (8 isolates. In conclusion, water in the vicinity of beavers’ lodges in the tested region was markedly contaminated with (oocysts of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp., which confirms the potential role of beavers as a reservoir of these parasites and indicates a need for implementation of appropriate preventive measures to protect tourists’ health.

  20. The water-borne protein signals (pheromones) of the Antarctic ciliated protozoan Euplotes nobilii: structure of the gene coding for the En-6 pheromone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Terza, Antonietta; Dobri, Nicoleta; Alimenti, Claudio; Vallesi, Adriana; Luporini, Pierangelo

    2009-01-01

    The marine Antarctic ciliate, Euplotes nobilii, secretes a family of water-borne signal proteins, denoted as pheromones, which control vegetative proliferation and mating in the cell. Based on the knowledge of the amino acid sequences of a set of these pheromones isolated from the culture supernatant of wild-type strains, we designed probes to identify their encoding genes in the cell somatic nucleus (macronucleus). The full-length gene of the pheromone En-6 was determined and found to contain an open-reading frame specific for the synthesis of the En-6 cytoplasmic precursor (pre-pro-En-6), which requires 2 proteolytic cleavages to remove the signal peptide (pre) and the prosegment before secretion of the mature protein. In contrast to the sequence variability that distinguishes the secreted pheromones, the pre- and pro-sequences appear to be tightly conserved and useful for the construction of probes to clone every other E. nobilii pheromone gene. Potential intron sequences in the coding region of the En-6 gene imply the synthesis of more En-6 isoforms.

  1. Soil microbial toxicity of eight polycyclic aromatic compounds: effects on nitrification, the genetic diversity of bacteria, and the total number of protozoans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sverdrup, Line Emilie; Ekelund, Flemming; Krogh, Paul Henning

    2002-01-01

    mg/kg. For effects on nitrification, toxicity (NOEC values) expressed as soil pore-water concentrations (log10(micromol/L)) showed a significant inverse relationship with lipophilicity (log octanol-water partition coefficient) of the substances (r2 = 0.69, p = 0.011, n = 8). This finding could...

  2. Disinfection and toxicological assessments of pulsed UV and pulsed-plasma gas-discharge treated-water containing the waterborne protozoan enteroparasite Cryptosporidium parvum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Jennifer; Kirf, Dominik; Garvey, Mary; Rowan, Neil

    2013-09-01

    We report for the first time on the comparative use of pulsed-plasma gas-discharge (PPGD) and pulsed UV light (PUV) for the novel destruction of the waterborne enteroparasite Cryptosporidium parvum. It also describes the first cyto-, geno- and ecotoxicological assays undertaken to assess the safety of water decontaminated using PPGD and PUV. During PPGD treatments, the application of high voltage pulses (16 kV, 10 pps) to gas-injected water (N2 or O2, flow rate 2.5L/min) resulted in the formation of a plasma that generated free radicals, ultraviolet light, acoustic shock waves and electric fields that killed ca. 4 log C. parvum oocysts in 32 min exposure. Findings showed that PPGD-treated water produced significant cytotoxic properties (as determined by MTT and neutral red assays), genotoxic properties (as determined by comet and Ames assays), and ecotoxic properties (as determined by Microtox™, Thamnotox™ and Daphnotox™ assays) that are representative of different trophic levels in aquatic environment (pozone (0.8 mg/L) and/or dissociated nitric and nitrous acid that contributed to the observed disinfection and toxicity. Chemical analysis of PPGD-treated water revealed increasing levels of electrode metals that were present at ≤ 30 times the tolerated respective values for EU drinking water. PUV-treated water did not exhibit any toxicity and was shown to be far superior to that of PPGD for killing C. parvum oocysts taking only 90 s of pulsing [UV dose of 6.29 μJ/cm(2)] to produce a 4-log reduction compared to a similar reduction level achieved after 32min PPGD treatment as determined by combined in vitro CaCo-2 cell culture-qPCR. © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Population dynamics of the fast-growing sub-populations of Pseudomonas and total bacteria, and their protozoan grazers, revealed by fenpropimorph treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirup, L; Ekelund, Flemming; Johnsen, Kaare Eske

    2000-01-01

    The population dynamics of indigenous soil bacteria and protozoa on decaying barley roots were followed by using litter bags buried in laboratory-incubated soil. The soil was either non-treated or treated with the fungicide fenpropimorph (in the formulation Corbel) at concentrations corresponding...... of protozoa corresponding to the two subpopulations was followed. The results strongly indicate a predatory association between the protozoa and bacteria. This was shown by a tight temporal association, and by a stimulation of bacteria following predatory release when protozoa were inhibited by fenpropimorph...

  4. Epizoic and ectoparasitic protozoans from planktonic copepods of the southwest and southeast coasts of India with the description of a new species

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Santhakumari, V.

    . pleuromammae are new records from the Indian Ocean. E. gemmipara as epizoic on copepods is recorded for the first time. A. sajirae is a new species belonging to the family Acinetidae. The epizoits and the ectoparasites were found infesting the appendages...

  5. Microscopic Gardens: A Close Look at Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Mary Ann

    1983-01-01

    Describes classroom activities using algae, including demonstration of eutrophication, examination of mating strains, and activities with Euglena. Includes on algal morphology/physiology, types of algae, and field sources for collecting these organisms. (JN)

  6. Novel Euglenoid Derived Alkaloid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Disclosed herein is a purified toxin isolated from Euglena sanguinea. More specifically the toxin, termed euglenophycin, is an alkaloid having herbicidal and...

  7. Amphibian haematology: Metamorphosis-related changes in blood cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, Per; Sørensen, Inger; Ussing, Anne Phaff

    1995-01-01

    Zoofysiologi, Amphibian metamorphosis, Haematology, Immunosuppression, Immunological Tolerance, Protozoan Infection, metamorfose, springpadder, ontogenese, halepadder.......Zoofysiologi, Amphibian metamorphosis, Haematology, Immunosuppression, Immunological Tolerance, Protozoan Infection, metamorfose, springpadder, ontogenese, halepadder....

  8. Epithelial sentinels or protozoan parasites?: Studies on isolated rodlet cells on the 100th anniversary of an enigma Centinelas epiteliales o parásitos protozoarios?: Estudios en células rodlet aisladas en el centenario de un enigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLIVER SCHMACHTENBERG

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Rodlet cells are an unusual cell type found exclusively in teleost fishes. Their principal characteristics are a fibrous capsule and arrow or club-like structures pointing towards the apex of the cell, which are called rodlets. Rodlet cells were first described by Thelohan (1892 as undetermined sporozoan fish parasites, and soon after named Rhabdospora thelohani by Laguesse (1895. In 1906, a presently ongoing controversy started, with Plehn's independent characterization of rodlet cells as endogenous glandular cells, and a prompt refutation by Laguesse (1906. Both maintained their position, and during the following century both views continued to coexist with varying popularity, while additional interpretations of rodlet cell function were proposed. Here I present observations of live rodlet cells from the olfactory epithelium of the marine teleost Isacia conceptionis. Rodlet ejection was monitored and the fate of rodlet cells and ejected rodlets was tracked for up to 12 h. While rodlet cells died within a few hours, usually after rodlet expulsion, the rodlets remained stable over the observation period. These results are discussed in the light of the current hypotheses regarding rodlet cell functionLas células "rodlet" son un tipo celular poco usual que se encuentra exclusivamente en peces teleósteos. Sus características principales son tener una cápsula fibrosa y estructuras en forma de lanza que apuntan hacia el ápice de la célula, denominadas "rodlet". Las células "rodlet" fueron descritas por primera vez por Thelohan (1892 como parásitos esporozoarios no determinados de peces, y poco después bautizados por Laguesse (1895 como Rhabdospora thelohani. En 1906, con la caracterización independiente realizada por Plehn de estas células como células glandulares endógenas, y la pronta refutación por Laguesse (1906, comienza una controversia que se ha mantenido hasta hoy. Ambos defendieron su posición, y durante el siglo siguiente ambas visiones continuaron coexistiendo con variada popularidad, al mismo tiempo que se proponían interpretaciones alternativas sobre la función de las células "rodlet". Aquí presento observaciones de células "rodlet" vivas del epitelio olfatorio del teleósteo marino I. conceptionis. Se monitoreó la expulsión de los "rodlets", el destino de las células "rodlet", y se siguió la trayectoria de los "rodlets" expulsados durante 12 h. No obstante las células "rodlet" murieron dentro de unas pocas horas, generalmente después de la expulsión de los "rodlets", los "rodlets" siguieron siendo estables durante el período de observación. Se discuten estos resultados teniendo en cuenta las hipótesis actuales sobre la función de estas células

  9. Effects of ionizing radiation over the structure, metabolism and infectivity of a pathogenic protozoan, Toxoplasma gondii; Efeitos da radiacao ionizante sobre a estrutura, metabolismo e infectividade de um protozoario patogenico, Toxoplasma gondii (Nicole and Manceau, 1908)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiramoto, Roberto Mitsuyoshi

    1998-07-01

    The intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii (Apicomplexa), has as definitive host domestic and wild felines and as intermediate hosts most species of mammals and birds, Including man. The infection in man is usually asymptomatic, but can become a severe and lethal illness in some special groups like the fetus of primoinfected pregnant woman, or in AIDS and transplanted patients. The transmission is due to ingestion of food or water contaminated with oocysts from cat feces as well as raw or rare cooked cyst containing meet. There is no available vaccine against toxoplasmosis, with some reports of the use ionizing radiation in order to attenuate or suppress the parasite. These studies are promising, but more research is needed to optimize the radiation process and to clarify those alterations caused on T gondii.Using a increasing doses of {sup 60} Co irradiation on T.gondii tachyzoites, we studied many parameters such as morphology, both at optical and electron microscopy level, detection of DNA fragmentation, metabolism alterations (cellular oxidative burst, protein, nucleic acids and DNA synthesis), determination of the parasite survival both in in vivo and in vitro models, antigenicity and immunogenicity after the process, cellular invasion and irradiated tachyzoite induced protection. After definition of 200 Gy of {sup 60} Co irradiation as the lower radiation dose that suppress parasite growth in vitro and in vivo, we found no detectable changes in parasite viability, its cell invasion capacity or in its structural proteins. DNA fragmentation like apoptosis or alterations of the parasite metabolism were similarly not affected by radiation. Mice infection with irradiated parasites induce partial protection when these animals were re-inoculated with non irradiated virulent parasites, inducing greater specific IgG levels as well as a longer survival. Irradiated T.gondii maintains its the ability of invasion, even under radiation effects. Based on our results we conclude that ionizing radiation can be considered as a possible tool in vaccine production due to similar viability, invasivity and metabolism and absence of reproductive capacity, of irradiated tachyzoites. (author)

  10. Trichomonas vaginalis virus-mediated expression of EGFP in the parasitic protozoan Trichomonas vagi-nails%阴道毛滴虫病毒介导的EGFP在阴道毛滴虫细胞内的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭瑞娟; 李淑红; 张西臣; 李建华; 宫鹏涛; 杨举; 张国才

    2010-01-01

    目的 研究阴道毛滴虫病毒(Trichomonas vaginalis virus,TVV)介导外源基因进入阴道毛滴虫体内表达的能力,探索TVV作为双链RNA病毒转染载体的可能性.方法 根据TVV基因组的序列特征,用绿色荧光蛋白(EG-FP)编码基因替换TVV的全部或部分基因编码区,构建TVV与增强型EGFP编码基因的嵌合体pTVV-EGFP,其体外转录体经电穿孔方法转染携病毒阴道毛滴虫株,RT-PCR及SDS-PAGE方法检测EGFP的表达情况.结果 电穿孔转染后培养的虫体在荧光显微镜下观察到绿色荧光信号,且续传15代后仍然存在;RT-PCR检测到EGFP的mRNA,SDS-PAGE检测到转染后虫体及培养上清中有分子质量单位为27 ku的蛋白,与已知EGFP的分子质量相符.结论 TVV能成功介导外源性EGFP编码基因在阴道毛滴虫体内表达.

  11. Reconstruction of the anus, rectovaginal septum, and distal part of the vagina after postirradiation necrosis. Report of a unique case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowacki, M.P.; Towpik, E.

    1988-01-01

    Successful repair of postirradiation total loss of the anal sphincters, rectovaginal septum, and distal part of the vagina is reported. Gracilis muscle flap was used as a substitute sphincter. Part of the muscle was wrapped-up in a split skin graft. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report on new application of gracilis muscle and split skin graft in perineal reconstruction

  12. Microscopic Moves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurcher, Sandra L.

    1991-01-01

    Presents lessons to stimulate children's interest in science and develop communication skills by having students simulate the locomotion of an ameba, a paramecium, and an Euglena, and the cyclosis in the pondweed Elodea. Students practice communication skills by demonstrating their organism to the remainder of the class. (MDH)

  13. Antioxidative properties of some phototropic microalgae grown in waste water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safafar, Hamed; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Møller, Peter

    for the screening and selection of the species. In this study,the potential antioxidant activities of 12 micro algal sample from Chlorella., Spirulina., Euglena, Scenedesmus and Haematococcus species grown in waste water in Kalundborg micro algal facilities were evaluated using three antioxidant assays, including...

  14. Gene fragmentation: a key to mitochondrial genome evolution in Euglenozoa?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Flegontov, Pavel; Gray, M.W.; Burger, G.; Lukeš, Julius

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 4 (2011), 225-232 ISSN 0172-8083 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Euglena * Diplonema * Mitochondrial genome * RNA editing * Constructive neutral evolution Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.556, year: 2011

  15. A new species of Stellaria (Caryophyllaceae) from the Nepal Himalaya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Majumdar, N.C.

    1968-01-01

    Herba perennis, gracilis, caule repente valde furcato. Rami erecti vel suberecti, quadrangulares, e gemmis axillaribus emergentes, straminei, squamosi, simpliccs et infra glabrescentes, corymbose furcati et glandulari-pubescentes, sursum altitudine 10—20 cm attingentes. Folia simplicia, exstipulata,

  16. Distribution of @iPleuromamma@@ spp (Copepoda-Calanoida) in the northern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Goswami, S.C.

    P. gracilis@@ evinced restricted distribution with northern limit till lat. 18~'N. Copepodite stages (CIV and CV) of both species were distributed mostly in the euphotic zone. The adults occurred at deeper depths. The males were recorded at shallower depths...

  17. Breast reconstruction - natural tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... flap; TRAM; Latissimus muscle flap with a breast implant; DIEP flap; DIEAP flap; Gluteal free flap; Transverse upper gracilis flap; TUG; Mastectomy - breast reconstruction with natural tissue; Breast cancer - breast reconstruction with natural tissue

  18. Neuston composition in central Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, S.R.S.; Achuthankutty, C.T.; Haridas, P.; Nair, V.R.

    organisms. But at some stations where the biomass was high, aggregation of the mysid Siriella gracilis was observed. The copepods Undinula vulgaris, Acrocalanus gibber, Bestiola similis, Euchaeta rimana, Paracalanus spp, Labidocera spp, Oncaea spp...

  19. Comparative toxicity of water soluble fractions of four oils on the growth of a Microalga

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Phatarpekar, P.V.; Ansari, Z.A.

    Toxic effects of water soluble fractions (WSF) of four different fuel oils on a microalga. Tetraselmis gracilis, were examined and compared. On applying different concentrations of WSF, a decrease in cell population was observed. Depending...

  20. Parthenogenetic reproduction of Diaphanosoma celebensis (Crustacea: Cladocera). Effect of algae and algal density on survival, growth, life span and neonate production

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shrivastava, Y.; Mahambre, G.G.; Achuthankutty, C.T.; Fernandes, Brenda; Goswami, S.C.; Madhupratap, M.

    ) and Tetraselmis gracilis (Kylin), was determined. Growth was faster in the initial stage with all three diets but slowed down in later life. Increased food concentrations resulted in higher neonate production but reduced the life span of females. However, long...