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Sample records for prototypical ternary oxide

  1. New ternary oxides with rhenium(4) of the perovskite structure

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    Jezowska-Trzebiatowska, B; Nowakowski, T; Mrozinski, J [Wroclaw Univ. (Poland)

    1978-01-01

    A series of ternary oxides described by general formula CaIrsub(x)Resub(1-x)O/sub 3/, where x 0.25; 0.33; 0.66; 0.75, has been obtained. The X-ray investigations have shown, that these compounds have a distorted perovskite structure. The proximal coordination sphere of Re/sup 4 +/ and Ir/sup 4 +/ ions constituted by an octahedron of oxide ions was confirmed by the IR spectra.

  2. Study on the solid state chemistry of ternary uranium oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Toshiyuki

    1988-03-01

    With the increase of burnup of uranium oxide fuels, various kinds of fission products are formed, and the oxygen atoms combined with the consumed heavy atoms are freed. The solid state chemical and/or thermodynamic properties of these elements at high temperatures are complex, and have not been well clarified. In the present report, an approach was taken that the chemical interactions between UO 2 and these fission products can be regarded as causing overlapped effects of composing ternary uranium oxides, and formation reactions and phase behavior were studied for several ternary uranium oxides with typical fission product elements such as alkaline earth metals and rare earth elements. Precise determination methods for the composition of ternary uranium oxides were developed. The estimated accuracies for x and y values in M y U 1-y O 2+x were ± 0.006 and ± 0.004, respectively. The thermodynamic properties and the lattice parameters of the phases in the Ca-U-O and Pr-U-O systems were discussed in relation to the composition determined by the methods. Crystal structure analyses of cadmium monouranates were made with X-ray diffraction method. (author) 197 refs

  3. Internal oxidation of laminated ternary Ru–Ta–Zr coatings

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    Chen, Yung-I, E-mail: yichen@mail.ntou.edu.tw; Lu, Tso-Shen

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • Internal oxidation was observed in annealed and laminated Ru–Ta–Zr coatings. • The oxidized Ru–Ta–Zr coatings comprised three alternately stacked sublayers. • Correlated variations of O{sup 2-} and Zr{sup 4+} binding energies were verified in XPS spectra. - Abstract: Researchers have observed the internal oxidation phenomenon in binary alloy coatings when developing refractory alloy coatings for protective purposes by conducting annealing at high temperatures and in oxygen-containing atmospheres. The coatings were assembled using cyclical gradient concentration deposition during cosputtering by employing a substrate holder rotating at a slow speed. The internally oxidized zone demonstrated a laminated structure, comprising alternating oxygen-rich and oxygen-deficient layers stacked in a general orientation. In the current study, Ru–Ta–Zr coatings were prepared with various stacking sequences during cosputtering. The Ru–Ta–Zr coatings were annealed at 600 °C in an atmosphere continuously purged with 1% O{sub 2}–99% Ar mixed gas for 30 min. A transmission electron microscope was used to examine the periods of the laminated layers and crystallinity of the annealed coatings. Depth profiles produced using an Auger electron spectroscope and X-ray photoelectron spectroscope were used to certify the periodic variation of the related constituents and chemical states of the elements, respectively. The results indicate that the internally oxidized ternary coatings are stacked of Ru-, Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}-, and ZrO{sub 2}-dominant sublayers and that the stacking sequences of the sublayers affect the crystalline structure of the coatings. Zr is oxidized preferentially in the Ru–Ta–Zr coatings, increasing the surface hardness of the oxidized coatings.

  4. Multistate Memristive Tantalum Oxide Devices for Ternary Arithmetic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wonjoo; Chattopadhyay, Anupam; Siemon, Anne; Linn, Eike; Waser, Rainer; Rana, Vikas

    2016-11-01

    Redox-based resistive switching random access memory (ReRAM) offers excellent properties to implement future non-volatile memory arrays. Recently, the capability of two-state ReRAMs to implement Boolean logic functionality gained wide interest. Here, we report on seven-states Tantalum Oxide Devices, which enable the realization of an intrinsic modular arithmetic using a ternary number system. Modular arithmetic, a fundamental system for operating on numbers within the limit of a modulus, is known to mathematicians since the days of Euclid and finds applications in diverse areas ranging from e-commerce to musical notations. We demonstrate that multistate devices not only reduce the storage area consumption drastically, but also enable novel in-memory operations, such as computing using high-radix number systems, which could not be implemented using two-state devices. The use of high radix number system reduces the computational complexity by reducing the number of needed digits. Thus the number of calculation operations in an addition and the number of logic devices can be reduced.

  5. Synthesis and properties of ternary mixture of nickel/cobalt/tin oxides for supercapacitors

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    Ferreira, C. S.; Passos, R. R.; Pocrifka, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    The present study reports the synthesis and morphological, structural and electrochemical characterization of ternary oxides mixture containing nickel, cobalt and tin. The ternary oxide is synthesized by Pechini method with subsequent deposition onto a titanium substrate in a thin-film form. XRD and EDS analysis confirm the formation of ternary film with amorphous nature. SEM analysis show that cracks on the film favor the gain of the surface area that is an interesting feature for electrochemical capacitors. The ternary film is investigated in KOH electrolyte solution using cyclic voltammetry and charge-discharge study with a specific capacitance of 328 F g-1, and a capacitance retention of 86% over 600 cycles. The values of specific power and specific energy was 345.7 W kg-1 and 18.92 Wh kg-1, respectively.

  6. Electrochemical combustion of indigo at ternary oxide coated titanium anodes

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    María I. León

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The film of iridium and tin dioxides doped with antimony (IrO2-SnO2–Sb2O5 deposited on a Ti substrate (mesh obtained by Pechini method was used for the formation of ·OH radicals by water discharge. Detection of ·OH radicals was followed by the use of the N,N-dimethyl-p-nitrosoaniline (RNO as a spin trap. The electrode surface morphology and composition was characterized by SEM-EDS. The ternary oxide coating was used for the electrochemical combustion of indigo textile dye as a model organic compound in chloride medium. Bulk electrolyses were then carried out at different volumetric flow rates under galvanostatic conditions using a filter-press flow cell. The galvanostatic tests using RNO confirmed that Ti/IrO2-SnO2-Sb2O5 favor the hydroxyl radical formation at current densities between 5 and 7 mA cm-2, while at current density of 10 mA cm-2 the oxygen evolution reaction occurs. The indigo was totally decolorized and mineralized via reactive oxygen species, such as (·OH, H2O2, O3 and active chlorine formed in-situ at the Ti/IrO2-SnO2-Sb2O5 surface at volumetric flow rates between 0.1-0.4 L min-1 and at fixed current density of 7 mA cm-2. The mineralization of indigo carried out at 0.2 L min-1 achieved values of 100 %, with current efficiencies of 80 % and energy consumption of 1.78 KWh m-3.

  7. Effect of ternary additions on the oxidation resistance of Ti5Si3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thom, A.J.; Akinc, M.; Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA

    1995-01-01

    Refractory intermetallic silicides are receiving increasing consideration for use as high temperature structural materials. Ti 5 Si 3 -based compositions are attractive due to their ability to incorporate a variety of interstitial ternary additions. These ternary additions present a unique opportunity to potentially tailor physical properties. Previous experimental work has shown that these additions significantly increase the otherwise poor oxidation resistance of undoped Ti 5 Si 3 above 700 C. Recent experimental work by the authors on the oxidation of small atom doped Ti 5 Si 3 is discussed. Interstitial additions of boron, carbon, and oxygen substantially improve the isothermal oxidation resistance of Ti 5 Si 3 at 1,000 C. In contrast, added nitrogen does not provide significant improvement. Even up to 1,306 C, interstitial oxygen imparts excellent oxidation resistance with a mass gain of 1.1 mg/cm 2 after 240 hours

  8. Sol-gel prepared active ternary oxide coating on titanium in cathodic protection

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    VLADIMIR V. PANIC

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of a ternary oxide coating, on titanium, which consisted of TiO2, RuO2 and IrO2 in the molar ratio 0.6:0.3:0.1, calculated on the metal atom, were investigated for potential application for cathodic protection in a seawater environment. The oxide coatings on titanium were prepared by the sol gel procedure from a mixture of inorganic oxide sols, which were obtained by forced hydrolysis of metal chlorides. The morphology of the coating was examined by scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical properties of activated titanium anodes were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and polarization measurements in a H2SO4- and NaCl-containing electrolyte, as well as in seawater sampled on the Adriatic coast in Tivat, Montenegro. The anode stability during operation in seawater was investigated by the galvanostatic accelerated corrosion stability test. The morphology and electrochemical characteristics of the ternary coating are compared to that of a sol-gel-prepared binary Ti0.6Ru0.4O2 coating. The activity of the ternary coating was similar to that of the binary Ti0.6Ru0.4O2 coating in the investigated solutions. However, the corrosion stability in seawater is found to be considerably greater for the ternary coating.

  9. Ternary ceramic alloys of Zr-Ce-Hf oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becher, P.F.; Funkenbusch, E.F.

    1990-11-20

    A ternary ceramic alloy is described which produces toughening of zirconia and zirconia composites through the stress transformation from tetragonal phase to monoclinic phase. This alloy, having the general formula Ce[sub x]Hf[sub y]Zr[sub 1[minus]x[minus]y]O[sub 2], is produced through the addition of appropriate amounts of ceria and hafnia to the zirconia. Typically, improved toughness is achieved with about 5 to about 15 mol % ceria and up to about 40 mol % hafnia. The preparation of alloys of these compositions are given together with data as to the densities, tetragonal phase content, hardness and fracture toughness. The alloys are useful in preparing zirconia bodies as well as reinforcing ceramic composites. 1 fig.

  10. Ternary oxide nanostructures and methods of making same

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    Wong, Stanislaus S [Stony Brook, NY; Park, Tae-Jin [Port Jefferson, NY

    2009-09-08

    A single crystalline ternary nanostructure having the formula A.sub.xB.sub.yO.sub.z, wherein x ranges from 0.25 to 24, and y ranges from 1.5 to 40, and wherein A and B are independently selected from the group consisting of Ag, Al, As, Au, B, Ba, Br, Ca, Cd, Ce, Cl, Cm, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Dy, Er, Eu, F, Fe, Ga, Gd, Ge, Hf, Ho, I, In, Ir, K, La, Li, Lu, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nb, Nd, Ni, Os, P, Pb, Pd, Pr, Pt, Rb, Re, Rh, Ru, S, Sb, Sc, Se, Si, Sm, Sn, Sr, Ta, Tb, Tc, Te, Ti, Tl, Tm, U, V, W, Y, Yb, and Zn, wherein the nanostructure is at least 95% free of defects and/or dislocations.

  11. Dislocation motion and high temperature plasticity of binary and ternary oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bretheau, T.; Castaing, J.; Rabier, J.; Veyssiere, P.

    1979-01-01

    Literature dealing with the plasticity of single crystal oxides deformed at elevated temperatures and the associated mobility of dislocations is reviewed. The experimental approach to the subject is examined critically by selecting oxides and deforming samples and by studying their specific mechanical behaviour, characterizing the deformation substructures and modelling the rate controlling processes. Since oxides with the simple rocksalt structure (Mg0, Ni0, Co0, Fe0,...) are not representative of all oxides, examples of other structures are also examined in detail, including Ti0 2 and Cu 2 0 oxides with fluorite (Zr0 2 , U0 2 ), with corundum (A1 2 0 3 ) and with spinel (MgA1 2 0 4 ternary) structures. Occasionally work on more exotic compounds like Y 2 0 3 or some with the garnet structure is included. (UK)

  12. MnO2 Nanorods Intercalating Graphene Oxide/Polyaniline Ternary Composites for Robust High-Performance Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guangqiang; Liu, Yun; Zhang, Lingling; Kan, Erjun; Zhang, Shaopeng; Tang, Jian; Tang, Weihua

    2014-04-01

    New ternary composites of MnO2 nanorods, polyaniline (PANI) and graphene oxide (GO) have been prepared by a two-step process. The 100 nm-long MnO2 nanorods with a diameter ~20 nm are conformably coated with PANI layers and fastened between GO layers. The MnO2 nanorods incorporated ternary composites electrode exhibits significantly increased specific capacitance than PANI/GO binary composite in supercapacitors. The ternary composite with 70% MnO2 exhibits a highest specific capacitance reaching 512 F/g and outstanding cycling performance, with ~97% capacitance retained over 5000 cycles. The ternary composite approach offers an effective solution to enhance the device performance of metal-oxide based supercapacitors for long cycling applications.

  13. Thermodynamic study of sodium-iron oxides. Part 2. Ternary phase diagram of the Na-Fe-O system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Jintao; Furukawa, Tomohiro; Aoto, Kazumi

    2003-01-01

    Studies on ternary phase diagrams of the Na-Fe-O system have been carried out from the thermodynamic point of view. Thermodynamic data of main ternary Na-Fe oxides Na 4 FeO 3 (s), Na 3 FeO 3 (s), Na 5 FeO 4 (s) and Na 8 Fe 2 O 7 (s) have been assessed. A user database has been created by reviewing literature data together with recent DSC and vapor pressure measurements by the present authors. New ternary phase diagrams of the Na-Fe-O system have been constructed from room temperature to 1000K. Stable conditions of the ternary oxides at 800K were presented in predominance diagram as functions of oxygen pressure and sodium pressure

  14. Efficient Bisphenol-A detection based on the ternary metal oxide (TMO) composite by electrochemical approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Jahir; Rahman, Mohammed M.; Siddiquey, Iqbal A.; Asiri, Abdullah M.; Hasnat, Mohammad A.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Ternary metal oxides (TMO) composites prepared by wet-chemical method. •Highly sensitive and selective Bisphenol A (BPA) sensor by I–V method. •Ultra-low detection limit was obtained by 3N/S. •Real environmental samples were analyzed. •Health care and environmental safety -- Abstract: A facile wet chemical method in basic medium was used to synthesis the ternary metal oxides (TMO; ZnO.CoO.FeO) composites at low temperature. The calcined TMO was characterized by FESEM, EDS, UV/vis., FTIR spectroscopy, EIS, and XRD systematically. Glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was modified with the TMO using 5% Nafion at room conditions. The resultant electrode was used for selective detection of Bisphenol-A (BPA) using cyclic voltammetry (CV). It was observed that the TMO electrode exhibited an excellent sensitivity (3.28 μAμM −1 cm −2 ), low detection limit (LOD: 1.2 ± 0.1 nM; S/N = 3), higher stability, very good repeatability, and reproducibility. In diagnostic exploration, a linear calibration plot was obtained for a wide range of concentration of BPA (LDR: 0.80 to 7.20 μM; r 2 : 0.99). This method represents an efficient way of sensitive sensor development for the detection of toxic and carcinogenic phenolic compounds.

  15. Hybrid ternary rice paper-manganese oxide-carbon nanotube nanocomposites for flexible supercapacitors

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    Jiang, Wenchao; Zhang, Kaixi; Wei, Li; Yu, Dingshan; Wei, Jun; Chen, Yuan

    2013-10-01

    Modern portable electronic devices create a strong demand for flexible energy storage devices. Paper based nanocomposites are attractive as sustainable materials for such applications. Here, we directly explored the hydroxyl chemistry of cellulose fibers to synthesize hybrid ternary nanocomposites, comprised of rice paper, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and manganese oxide nanoparticles. The functional groups on cellulose fibers can react with adsorbed permanganate ions, resulting in uniform deposition of manganese oxide nanoparticles. SWCNTs coated on top of manganese oxide nanoparticles form a highly conductive network connecting individual manganese oxide particles. By using the hybrid ternary composites as electrodes, the assembled two-electrode supercapacitors demonstrated high capacitance (260.2 F g-1), energy (9.0 W h kg-1), power (59.7 kW kg-1), and cycle stability (12% drop after 3000 cycles). In addition, the nanocomposites show good strength and excellent mechanical flexibility, and their capacitance shows negligible changes after bending more than 100 times. These findings suggest that opportunities exist to further explore the rich chemistry of cellulose fibers for innovative energy applications.Modern portable electronic devices create a strong demand for flexible energy storage devices. Paper based nanocomposites are attractive as sustainable materials for such applications. Here, we directly explored the hydroxyl chemistry of cellulose fibers to synthesize hybrid ternary nanocomposites, comprised of rice paper, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and manganese oxide nanoparticles. The functional groups on cellulose fibers can react with adsorbed permanganate ions, resulting in uniform deposition of manganese oxide nanoparticles. SWCNTs coated on top of manganese oxide nanoparticles form a highly conductive network connecting individual manganese oxide particles. By using the hybrid ternary composites as electrodes, the assembled two

  16. Thermodynamic and kinetic aspects on the selective surface oxidation of binary, ternary and quarternary model alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaminathan, Srinivasan; Spiegel, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Segregation and selective oxidation phenomena of minor alloying elements during annealing of steel sheets lead to the formation of bare spots after hot dip galvanizing. In order to understand the influence of common alloying elements on the surface chemistry after annealing, model alloys of binary (Fe-2Si, Fe-2Mn and Fe-0.8Cr), ternary (Fe-2Mn-2Si, Fe-2Mn-0.8Cr and Fe-2Si-0.8Cr) and quarternary (Fe-2Mn-2Si-0.8Cr) systems were investigated. The specimens were annealed for 60 s at 820 deg. C in N 2 -5% H 2 gas atmospheres with different dew points -80 and -40 deg. C, respectively. Surface chemistry of the annealed specimens was obtained by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) was used to view surface morphology. At low dew point -80 deg. C, apart from the thermodynamical calculations such as solubility product of oxides and their critical solute concentrations, kinetics play a decisive role on the selective oxidation, i.e. oxygen competition. As expected, the amount of external selective oxidation of alloying elements are well pronounced at higher dew point -40 deg. C. An attempt has been made to explain the dominant process of Si and Mn on Cr-oxidation and segregation. It is observed that annealing of quarternary system at higher dew point shifts the Cr-oxidation from external to internal

  17. Thermodynamic and kinetic aspects on the selective surface oxidation of binary, ternary and quarternary model alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaminathan, Srinivasan [High Temperature Reactions Group, Department of Interface Chemistry and Surface Engineering, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Eisenforschung GmbH, Max-Planck-Str. 1, D-40237 Duesseldorf (Germany)]. E-mail: s.swaminathan@mpie.de; Spiegel, Michael [High Temperature Reactions Group, Department of Interface Chemistry and Surface Engineering, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Eisenforschung GmbH, Max-Planck-Str. 1, D-40237 Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2007-03-15

    Segregation and selective oxidation phenomena of minor alloying elements during annealing of steel sheets lead to the formation of bare spots after hot dip galvanizing. In order to understand the influence of common alloying elements on the surface chemistry after annealing, model alloys of binary (Fe-2Si, Fe-2Mn and Fe-0.8Cr), ternary (Fe-2Mn-2Si, Fe-2Mn-0.8Cr and Fe-2Si-0.8Cr) and quarternary (Fe-2Mn-2Si-0.8Cr) systems were investigated. The specimens were annealed for 60 s at 820 deg. C in N{sub 2}-5% H{sub 2} gas atmospheres with different dew points -80 and -40 deg. C, respectively. Surface chemistry of the annealed specimens was obtained by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) was used to view surface morphology. At low dew point -80 deg. C, apart from the thermodynamical calculations such as solubility product of oxides and their critical solute concentrations, kinetics play a decisive role on the selective oxidation, i.e. oxygen competition. As expected, the amount of external selective oxidation of alloying elements are well pronounced at higher dew point -40 deg. C. An attempt has been made to explain the dominant process of Si and Mn on Cr-oxidation and segregation. It is observed that annealing of quarternary system at higher dew point shifts the Cr-oxidation from external to internal.

  18. Ternary Pt/Rh/SnO2 electrocatalysts for oxidizing ethanol to CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowal, A; Li, M; Shao, M; Sasaki, K; Vukmirovic, M B; Zhang, J; Marinkovic, N S; Liu, P; Frenkel, A I; Adzic, R R

    2009-04-01

    Ethanol, with its high energy density, likely production from renewable sources and ease of storage and transportation, is almost the ideal combustible for fuel cells wherein its chemical energy can be converted directly into electrical energy. However, commercialization of direct ethanol fuel cells has been impeded by ethanol's slow, inefficient oxidation even at the best electrocatalysts. We synthesized a ternary PtRhSnO(2)/C electrocatalyst by depositing platinum and rhodium atoms on carbon-supported tin dioxide nanoparticles that is capable of oxidizing ethanol with high efficiency and holds great promise for resolving the impediments to developing practical direct ethanol fuel cells. This electrocatalyst effectively splits the C-C bond in ethanol at room temperature in acid solutions, facilitating its oxidation at low potentials to CO(2), which has not been achieved with existing catalysts. Our experiments and density functional theory calculations indicate that the electrocatalyst's activity is due to the specific property of each of its constituents, induced by their interactions. These findings help explain the high activity of Pt-Ru for methanol oxidation and the lack of it for ethanol oxidation, and point to the way to accomplishing the C-C bond splitting in other catalytic processes.

  19. Synergistic Enhancement of Ternary Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene/Graphene Oxide/Manganese Oxide Composite as a Symmetrical Electrode for Supercapacitors

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    Nur Hawa Nabilah Azman

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel facile preparation of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene/graphene oxide/manganese oxide (PEDOT/GO/MnO2 ternary composite as an electrode material for a supercapacitor was evaluated. The ternary composite was sandwiched together and separated by filter paper soaked in 1 M KCl in order to investigate the supercapacitive properties. The ternary composite exhibits a higher specific capacitance (239.4 F/g compared to PEDOT/GO (73.3 F/g at 25 mV/s. The incorporation of MnO2 which act as a spacer in the PEDOT/GO helps to improve the supercapacitive performance by maximizing the utilization of electrode materials by the electrolyte ions. The PEDOT/GO/MnO2 ternary composite displays a specific energy and specific power of 7.9 Wh/kg and 489.0 W/kg, respectively. The cycling stability test revealed that the ternary composite is able to achieve 95% capacitance retention even after 1000 cycles due to the synergistic effect between the PEDOT, GO, and MnO2 that helps to enhance the performance of the ternary composite for supercapacitor application.

  20. Integrated Ternary Bioinspired Nanocomposites via Synergistic Toughening of Reduced Graphene Oxide and Double-Walled Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Shanshan; Cui, Wei; Zhang, Qi; Cao, Anyuan; Jiang, Lei; Cheng, Qunfeng

    2015-12-22

    With its synergistic toughening effect and hierarchical micro/nanoscale structure, natural nacre sets a "gold standard" for nacre-inspired materials with integrated high strength and toughness. We demonstrated strong and tough ternary bioinspired nanocomposites through synergistic toughening of reduced graphene oxide and double-walled carbon nanotube (DWNT) and covalent bonding. The tensile strength and toughness of this kind of ternary bioinspired nanocomposites reaches 374.1 ± 22.8 MPa and 9.2 ± 0.8 MJ/m(3), which is 2.6 and 3.3 times that of pure reduced graphene oxide film, respectively. Furthermore, this ternary bioinspired nanocomposite has a high conductivity of 394.0 ± 6.8 S/cm and also shows excellent fatigue-resistant properties, which may enable this material to be used in aerospace, flexible energy devices, and artificial muscle. The synergistic building blocks with covalent bonding for constructing ternary bioinspired nanocomposites can serve as the basis of a strategy for the construction of integrated, high-performance, reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-based nanocomposites in the future.

  1. Atomistic study of ternary oxides as high-temperature solid lubricants

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    Gao, Hongyu

    Friction and wear are important tribological phenomena tightly associated with the performance of tribological components/systems such as bearings and cutting machines. In the process of contact and sliding, friction and wear lead to energy loss, and high friction and wear typically result in shortened service lifetime. To reduce friction and wear, solid lubricants are generally used under conditions where traditional liquid lubricants cannot be applied. However, it is challenging to maintain the functionality of those materials when the working environment becomes severe. For instance, at elevated temperatures (i.e., above 400 °C), most traditional solid lubricants, such as MoS2 and graphite, will easily oxidize or lose lubricity due to irreversible chemical changes. For such conditions, it is necessary to identify materials that can remain thermally stable as well as lubricious over a wide range of temperatures. Among the currently available high-temperature solid lubricants, Ag-based ternary metal oxides have recently drawn attention due to their low friction and ability to resist oxidation. A recent experimental study showed that the Ag-Ta-O ternary exhibited an extremely low coefficient of friction (0.06) at 750 °C. To fully uncover the lubricious nature of this material as a high-temperature solid lubricant, a series of tribological investigations were carried out based on one promising candidate - silver tantalate (AgTaO3). The study was then extended to alternative materials, Cu-Ta-O ternaries, to accommodate a variety of application requirements. We aimed to understand, at an atomic level, the effects of physical and chemical properties on the thermal, mechanical and tribological behavior of these materials at high temperatures. Furthermore, we investigated potassium chloride films on a clean iron surface as a representative boundary lubricating system in a nonextreme environment. This investigation complemented the study of Ag/Cu-Ta-O and enhanced the

  2. Determination of oxygen in ternary uranium oxides by a gravimetric alkaline earth addition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujino, T.; Tagawa, H.

    1979-01-01

    The applicability of a gravimetric method based on alkaline earth metal addition for the determination of oxygen in ternary uranium oxides of the tupe M-U-O (M=La, Ce and Th) is described. The oxide sample is mixed with MgO or Basub(2.8)UOsub(5.8) and heated in air under suitable conditions. Because uranium is completely oxidized to the hexavalent state during the reaction, oxygen can be determined from the weight change. Oxygen in Lasub(y)Usub(1-y)Osub(2+x) is determined up to y = 0.8 with a standard deviation for x of +- 0.006 with MgO. For Thsub(y)Usub(1-y)Osub(2+x) the value of x is determined with Basub(2.8)UOsub(5.8) with a standard deviation of +- 0.01 at y = 0.8. For Cesub(y)Usub(1-y)Osub(2+x), the method can be applied only for low cerium concentrations where y = 0-0.2; the value for x with Basub(2.8)UOsub(5.8) at y = 0.2 showed a standard deviation of +- 0.002. (Auth.)

  3. Ternary Interactions and Energy Transfer between Fluorescein Isothiocyanate, Adenosine Triphosphate, and Graphene Oxide Nanocarriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratajczak, Katarzyna; Stobiecka, Magdalena

    2017-07-20

    The interactions of fluorescent probes and biomolecules with nanocarriers are of key importance to the emerging targeted drug delivery systems. Graphene oxide nanosheets (GONs) as the nanocarriers offer biocompatibility and robust drug binding capacity. The interactions of GONs with fluorophores lead to strong fluorescence quenching, which may interfere with fluorescence bioimaging and biodetection. Herein, we report on the interactions and energy transfers in a model ternary system: GONs-FITC-ATP, where FITC is a model fluorophore (fluorescein isothiocyanate) and ATP is a common biomolecule (adenosine-5'-triphosphate). We have found that FITC fluorescence is considerably quenched by ATP (the quenching constant K SV = 113 ± 22 M -1 ). The temperature coefficient of K SV is positive (α T = 4.15 M -1 deg -1 ). The detailed analysis of a model for internal self-quenching of FITC indicates that the temperature dependence of the net quenching efficiency η for the FITC-ATP pair is dominated by FITC internal self-quenching modes with their contribution estimated at 79%. The quenching of FITC by GONs is much stronger (K SV = 598 ± 29 M -1 ) than that of FITC-ATP and is associated with the formation of supramolecular assemblies bound with hydrogen bonding and π-π stacking interactions. For the analysis of the complex behavior of the ternary system GONs-FITC-ATP, a model of chemisorption of ATP on GONs, with partial blocking of FITC quenching, has been developed. Our results indicate that ATP acts as a moderator for FITC quenching by GONs. The interactions between ATP, FITC, and GONs have been corroborated using molecular dynamics and quantum mechanical calculations.

  4. A tunable amorphous p-type ternary oxide system: The highly mismatched alloy of copper tin oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isherwood, Patrick J. M., E-mail: P.J.M.Isherwood@lboro.ac.uk; Walls, John M. [CREST, School of Electronic, Electrical and Systems Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Butler, Keith T.; Walsh, Aron [Centre for Sustainable Technologies and Department of Chemistry, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-14

    The approach of combining two mismatched materials to form an amorphous alloy was used to synthesise ternary oxides of CuO and SnO{sub 2}. These materials were analysed across a range of compositions, and the electronic structure was modelled using density functional theory. In contrast to the gradual reduction in optical band gap, the films show a sharp reduction in both transparency and electrical resistivity with copper contents greater than 50%. Simulations indicate that this change is caused by a transition from a dominant Sn 5s to Cu 3d contribution to the upper valence band. A corresponding decrease in energetic disorder results in increased charge percolation pathways: a “compositional mobility edge.” Contributions from Cu(II) sub band-gap states are responsible for the reduction in optical transparency.

  5. Hydrothermal synthesis of graphene oxide/multiwalled carbon nanotube/Fe3O4 ternary nanocomposite for removal of Cu (II) and methylene blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Zhihang; Zhan, Yingqing; Li, Fei; Wan, Xinyi; He, Yi; Hou, Chunyan; Hu, Hai

    2017-09-01

    In this work, highly activated graphene oxide/multiwalled carbon nanotube/Fe3O4 ternary nanocomposite adsorbent was prepared from a simple hydrothermal route by using ferrous sulfate as precursor. For this purpose, the graphene oxide/multiwalled carbon nanotube architectures were formed through the π-π attractions between them, followed by attaching Fe3O4 nanoparticles onto their surface. The structure and composition of as-prepared ternary nanocomposite were characterized by XRD, FTIR, XPS, SEM, TEM, Raman, TGA, and BET. It was found that the resultant porous graphene oxide/multiwalled carbon nanotube/Fe3O4 ternary nanocomposite with large surface area could effectively prevent the π-π stacking interactions between graphene oxide nanosheets and greatly improve sorption sites on the surfaces. Thus, owing to the unique ternary nanocomposite architecture and synergistic effect among various components, as-prepared ternary nanocomposite exhibited high separation efficiency when they were used to remove the Cu (II) and methylene blue from aqueous solutions. Furthermore, the adsorption isotherms of ternary nanocomposite structures for Cu (II) and methylene blue removal fitted the Langmuir isotherm model. This work demonstrated that the graphene oxide/multiwalled carbon nanotube/Fe3O4 ternary nanocomposite was promising as an efficient adsorbent for heavy metal ions and organic dye removal from wastewater in low concentration.

  6. Luminol, horseradish peroxidase, and glucose oxidase ternary functionalized graphene oxide for ultrasensitive glucose sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fang; Ma, Wenjing; Liu, Jiachang; Wu, Xiang; Wang, Yan; He, Jianbo

    2018-01-01

    Luminol, horseradish peroxidase (HRP), and glucose oxidase (GOx) ternary functionalized graphene oxide (HRP/GOx-luminol-GO) with excellent chemiluminescence (CL) activity and specific enzymatic property was prepared via a simple and general strategy for the first time. In this approach, luminol functionalized GO (luminol-GO) was prepared by gently stirring GO with luminol. Then HRP and GOx were further co-immobilized onto the surface of luminol-GO by storing HRP and GOx with luminol-GO at 4 °C overnight, to form HRP/GOx-luminol-GO bionanocomposites. The synthesized HRP/GOx-luminol-GO could react with H 2 O 2 generated from GOx catalyzed glucose oxidization reaction, to produce strong CL emission in the presence of co-immobilized HRP. Thus, we developed an ultrasensitive, homogeneous, reagentless, selective, and simple CL sensing system for glucose detection. The resulting biosensors exhibited ultra-wide linear range from 5.0 nM to 5.0 mM, and an ultra-low detection limit of 1.2 nM, which was more than 3 orders of magnitude lower than previously reported methods. Furthermore, the sensing system was successfully applied for the detection of glucose in human blood samples.

  7. A combined theoretical and experimental approach of a new ternary metal oxide in molybdate composite for hybrid energy storage capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minakshi, M.; Watcharatharapong, T.; Chakraborty, S.; Ahuja, R.

    2018-04-01

    Sustainable energy sources require an efficient energy storage system possessing excellent electrochemical properties. The better understanding of possible crystal configurations and the development of a new ternary metal oxide in molybdate composite as an electrode for hybrid capacitors can lead to an efficient energy storage system. Here, we reported a new ternary metal oxide in molybdate composite [(Mn1/3Co1/3Ni1/3)MoO4] prepared by simple combustion synthesis with an extended voltage window (1.8 V vs. Carbon) resulting in excellent specific capacity 35 C g-1 (58 F g-1) and energy density (50 Wh kg-1 at 500 W kg-1) for a two electrode system in an aqueous NaOH electrolyte. The binding energies measured for Mn, Co, and Ni 2p are consistent with the literature, and with the metal ions being present as M(II), implying that the oxidation states of the transition metals are unchanged. The experimental findings are correlated well through density functional theory based electronic structure calculations. Our reported work on the ternary metal oxide studies (Mn1/3Co1/3Ni1/3)MoO4 suggests that will be an added value to the materials for energy storage.

  8. Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cells Based on Ternary Metal Oxide Nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wenyong [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Tang, Jinke [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Dahnovsky, Yuri [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Pikal, Jon M [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Chien, TeYu [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)

    2017-11-03

    In Phase I of this project we investigate quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) based on ternary metal oxide nanowires and study the physical and chemical mechanisms that govern device operation. Our research has the following five objectives: (1) synthesis of ternary metal oxide nanowires, (2) synthesis of QDs and exploration of non-solution based QD deposition methods, (3) physical and electro-optical characterizations of fabricated solar devices, (4) device modeling and first-principle theoretical study of transport physics, and (5) investigation of long-term stability issues of QD sensitized solar cells. In Phase II of this project our first major research goal is to investigate magnetically doped quantum dots and related spin polarization effect, which could improve light absorption and suppress electron relaxation in the QDs. We will utilize both physical and chemical methods to synthesize these doped QDs. We will also study magnetically modified nanowires and introduce spin-polarized transport into QDSSCs, and inspect its impact on forward electron injection and back electron transfer processes. Our second goal is to study novel solid-state electrolytes for QDSSCs. Specifically, we will inspect a new type of polymer electrolytes based on a modified polysulfide redox couple, and examine the effect of their electrical properties on QDSSC performance. These solid-state electrolytes could also be used as filler materials for in situ sample fracturing in STM and enable cross-sectional interface examination of QD/nanowire structures. Our third research goal is to examine the interfacial properties such as energy level alignment at QD/nanowire interfaces using the newly developed Cross-sectional Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Spectroscopy technique for non-cleavable materials. This technique allows a direct probing of band structures and alignment at device interfaces, which could generate important insight into the mechanisms that govern QDSSC operation

  9. Attapulgite-CeO2/MoS2 ternary nanocomposite for photocatalytic oxidative desulfurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiazhang; Zhang, Zuosong; Yao, Chao; Lu, Xiaowang; Zhao, Xiaobing; Ni, Chaoying

    2016-02-01

    Novel attapulgite(ATP)-CeO2/MoS2 ternary nanocomposites were synthesized by microwave assisted assembly method. The structures of the nanocomposites were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, UV-vis, XPS and in situ TEM. The photocatalytic activities of ATP-CeO2/MoS2 composites were investigated by degradating dibenzothiophene (DBT) in gasoline under visible light irradiation. The effect of the mass ratio of CeO2 to MoS2 on photocatalytic activity was investigated. The results indicate that the three-dimensional network structure is firmly constructed by ATP skeleton, CeO2 particles and MoS2 nanosheet which effectively increase the surface area of the composites and promote the separation of electrons and holes by resulting electronic transmission channels of multi-channel in space. The degradation rate of DBT can reach 95% under 3 h irradiation when the mass ratio of CeO2/MoS2 is 4/10. A plausible mechanism for the photocatalytic oxidative desulfurization of this nanocomposite is put forward.

  10. Facile Synthesis of Co3O4/Mildly Oxidized Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes/Reduced Mildly Oxidized Graphene Oxide Ternary Composite as the Material for Supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv, Meiyu; Liu, Kaiyu; Li, Yan; Wei, Lai; Zhong, Jianjian; Su, Geng

    2014-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) Co 3 O 4 /mildly oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (moCNTs)/reduced mildly oxidized graphene oxide (rmGO) ternary composite was prepared via a simple and green hydrolysis-hydrothermal approach by mixing Co(Ac) 2 ·4H 2 O with moCNTs and mGO suspension in mixed ethanol/H 2 O. As characterized by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles with size of 20-100 nm and moCNTs are effectively anchored in mGO. Cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements were adopted to investigate the electrochemical properties of Co 3 O 4 /moCNTs/rmGO ternary composite in 6 M KOH solution. In a potential window of 0-0.6 V vs. Hg/HgO, the composite delivers an initial specific capacitance of 492 F g -1 at 0.5 A g -1 and the capacitance remains 592 F g -1 after 2000 cycles, while the pure Co 3 O 4 shows obviously capacitance fading, indicating that rmGO and moCNTs greatly enhance the electrochemical performance of Co 3 O 4

  11. Synthesis and characterization of some reduced ternary and quaternary molybdenum oxide phases with strong metal-metal bonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lii, K.H.

    1985-10-01

    In the course of our research on reduced ternary and quaternary molybdenum oxides, very interesting compounds with strong metal-metal bonds were discovered. Among these solid-state materials are found discrete cluster arrays and structures with extended metal-metal bonding. Further study in this system has revealed that many new structures exist in this new realm. The synthesis, structures, bonding, and properties of these new oxides, which are briefly summarized in tabular form, are presented in this thesis. 144 refs., 63 figs., 79 tabs

  12. Porous nickel hydroxide-manganese dioxide-reduced graphene oxide ternary hybrid spheres as excellent supercapacitor electrode materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Zhou, Shuxue; Wu, Limin

    2014-06-11

    This paper reports the first nickel hydroxide-manganese dioxide-reduced graphene oxide (Ni(OH)2-MnO2-RGO) ternary hybrid sphere powders as supercapacitor electrode materials. Due to the abundant porous nanostructure, relatively high specific surface area, well-defined spherical morphology, and the synergetic effect of Ni(OH)2, MnO2, and RGO, the electrodes with the as-obtained Ni(OH)2-MnO2-RGO ternary hybrid spheres as active materials exhibited significantly enhanced specific capacitance (1985 F·g(-1)) and energy density (54.0 Wh·kg(-1)), based on the total mass of active materials. In addition, the Ni(OH)2-MnO2-RGO hybrid spheres-based asymmetric supercapacitor also showed satisfying energy density and electrochemical cycling stability.

  13. Stopped Flow Kinetics of MnII Catalysed Periodate Oxidation of 2, 3- dimethylaniline - Evaluation of Stability Constant of the Ternary Intermediate Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajneesh Dutt Kaushik

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The formation of ternary intermediate unstable complex during the oxidation of aromatic amines by periodate ion catalysed by MnII has been proposed in case of some anilines. This paper is the first report on stopped-flow kinetic study and evaluation of stability constant of ternary complex forming in the MnII - catalysed periodate oxidation of 2, 3-dimethylaniline (D in acetone-water medium. Stop-flow spectrophotometric method was used to study the ternary complex formation and to determine its stability constant. The stop-flow trace shows the reaction to occur in two steps. The first step, which is presumably the formation of ternary complex, is relatively fast while the second stage is relatively quite slow. The stability constant evaluated for D - MnII - IO4- ternary complex by determining  equilibrium absorbance is (2.2 ± 1.0 × 105. Kinetics of ternary complex formation was defined by the rate law(A  under pseudo first order conditions. ln{[C2]eq / ( [C2]eq -[C2]} = kobs . t (A where, kobs is the pseudo first order rate constant, [C2] is concentration of ternary complex at given time t, and [C2]eq is the equilibrium concentration of ternary complex. © 2015 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 3rd October 2014; Revised: 4th December 2014; Accepted: 15th December 2014How to Cite: Kaushik, R.D., Agarwal, R., Tyagi, P., Singh, O., Singh, J. (2015. Stopped Flow Kinetics of MnII Catalysed Periodate Oxidation of 2,3-dimethylaniline - Evaluation of Stability Constant of the Ternary Intermediate Complex. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 10 (1: 78-87. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.10.1.7621.78-87Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.10.1.7621.78-87

  14. Ternary Oxides in the TiO2-ZnO System as Efficient Electron-Transport Layers for Perovskite Solar Cells with Efficiency over 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiong; Xu, Zhongzhong; Guo, Yanjun; Xu, Peng; He, Meng

    2016-11-02

    Perovskite solar cells, which utilize organometal-halide perovskites as light-harvesting materials, have attracted great attention due to their high power conversion efficiency (PCE) and potentially low cost in fabrication. A compact layer of TiO 2 or ZnO is generally applied as electron-transport layer (ETL) in a typical perovskite solar cell. In this study, we explored ternary oxides in the TiO 2 -ZnO system to find new materials for the ETL. Compact layers of titanium zinc oxides were readily prepared on the conducting substrate via spray pyrolysis method. The optical band gap, valence band maximum and conduction band minimum of the ternary oxides varied significantly with the ratio of Ti to Zn, surprisingly, in a nonmonotonic way. When a zinc-rich ternary oxide was applied as ETL for the device, a PCE of 15.10% was achieved, comparable to that of the device using conventional TiO 2 ETL. Interestingly, the perovskite layer deposited on the zinc-rich ternary oxide is stable, in sharp contrast with that fabricated on a ZnO layer, which will turn into PbI 2 readily when heated. These results indicate that potentially new materials with better performance can be found for ETL of perovskite solar cells in ternary oxides, which deserve more exploration.

  15. System Tb-Fe-O: thermodynamic properties of ternary oxides using solid-state electrochemical cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakshit, S.K.; Parida, S.C.; Dash, S.; Singh, Ziley; Prasad, R.; Venugopal, V.

    2003-01-01

    The standard molar Gibbs free energies of formation of TbFeO 3 (s) and Tb 3 Fe 5 O 12 (s) have been determined using solid-state electrochemical cell employing different solid electrolytes. The reversible emfs of the following solid-state electrochemical cells have been measured in the temperature range 1050≤T/K≤1250. Cell (I):(-)Pt/{TbFeO 3 (s)+Tb 2 O 3 (s)+Fe(s)}//YDT/CSZ//{Fe(s)+Fe 0.95 O(s)}/Pt(+))) (Cell (II):(-)Pt/{Fe(s)+Fe 0.95 O(s)}//CSZ//{TbFeO 3 (s)+Tb 3 Fe 5 O 12 (s)+Fe 3 O 4 (s)}/Pt(+) The oxygen chemical potentials corresponding to the three-phase equilibria involving the ternary oxides have been computed from the emf data. The standard molar Gibbs free energies of formation of solid TbFeO 3 and Tb 3 Fe 5 O 12 calculated by the least-squares regression analysis of the data obtained in the present study are given by {Δ f G compfn m (TbFeO 3 ,s)/(kJ·mol -1 )±3.2}=-1357.5+0.2531·(T/K); (1050≤T/K≤1548);))and({Δ f G compfn m (Tb 3 Fe 5 O 12 ,s)/(kJ·mol -1 )±3.5}=-4901.7+ 0.9997·(T/K); (1050≤T/K≤1250).)) The uncertainty estimates for Δ f G compfn m include the standard deviation in the emf and uncertainty in the data taken from the literature. Based on the thermodynamic information, oxygen potential diagram and chemical potential diagrams were computed for the system Tb-Fe-O at T=1250 K

  16. The influence of the oxygen partial pressure on the quasi-ternary system Cr-Mn-Ti-oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Rosales, C.; Schulze, H.A.; Naoumidis, A.; Nickel, H.

    1991-05-01

    The passivation layers formed by the oxidizing corrosion of high temperature alloys consist primarily of oxides and mixed oxides of the elements chromium, manganese and titanium. For a reproducible formation and characterization of such oxide layers it is necessary to know the phase equilibria of these oxide systems at temperature and oxygen partial pressure conditions which will be relevant during their application. For the investigation of the quasi-ternary system Cr-Mn-Ti-oxide, oxide powders were prepared and annealed at 1000deg C under different oxygen partial pressures ranging from 0.21 bar to 10 -21 bar. Phase identification and determination of lattice parameter using X-ray diffraction analysis as well as the direct measurement of phase boundaries as a function of oxygen partial pressure using the emf-methode were carried out for these investigations. In the quasi-ternary system Cr-Mn-Ti-oxide the spinels play a decisive role in the oxigen partial pressure range examined. The spinel MnCr 2 O 4 may be regarded as the most significant compound. Part of the chronium can be replaced by trivalent manganese at high oxygen partial pressures and by trivalent titanium at low pressures, and the formation of a solid solution with the spinel Mn 2 TiO 4 is possible in all cases. In this way a coherent single-phase spinel region is observed which extends over the entire oxygen partial pressure range form 0.21 bar to 10 -21 bar examined at 1000deg C. (orig.) [de

  17. Structure-property relationships of new bismuth and lead oxide based perovskite ternary solid solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Akansha

    Two new bismuth and lead oxide based perovskite ternary solid solutions, namely xBi(Zn1/2Ti1/2)O3-yPbZrO3-zPbTiO3 [xBZT-yPZ-zPT] and xBi(Mg1/2Ti1/2)O3-yBi(Zn 1/2Ti1/2)O3-zPbTiO3 [xBMT-yBZT-zPT] have been developed and their structural and electrical properties have been determined. Various characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction, calorimetery, electron microscopy, dielectric and piezoelectric measurements have been performed to determine the details of the phase diagram, crystal structure, and domain structure. The selection of these materials is based on the hypothesis that the presence of BZT-PT (Case I ferroelectric (FE)) will increase the transition temperature of MPB systems BMT-PT (Case II FE), and PZ-PT (Case III FE), and subsequently a MPB will be observed in the ternary phase diagrams. The Case I, II, and III classification has been outlined by Stringer et al., is on the basis of the transition temperatures (TC) behavior with composition in the Bi and Pb oxide based binary systems. Several pseudobinary lines have been investigated across the xBZT-yPZ-zPT ternary phase diagram which exhibit varied TC behavior with composition, showing both Case I- and Case III-like TC trends in different regions. A MPB between rhombohedral to tetragonal phases has been located on a pseudobinary line 0.1BZT-0.9[xPT-(1-x)PZ]. Compositions near MPB exhibit mainly soft PZT-like properties with the TC around 60°C lower than the unmodified PZT near its MPB. Electrical properties are reported for the MPB composition, TC = 325°C, Pr = 35 microC/cm2, d33 = 300 pC/N and kP =0.45. Rhombohedral compositions show diffuse phase transition with small frequency dispersion, similar to relaxors. Two transition peaks in the permittivity as well as in the latent heat has been observed in some compositions near the BZT-PT binary. This leads to the speculation for the existence of miscibility gap in the solid solutions in these regions. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM

  18. Ternary reduced-graphene-oxide/Bi2MoO6/Au nanocomposites with enhanced photocatalytic activity under visible light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi, Jinhong; Fang, Wei; Li, Li; Li, Xiaofen; Liu, Minghua; Liang, Shijing; Zhang, Zizhong; He, Yunhui; Lin, Huaxiang; Wu, Ling; Liu, Shengwei; Wong, Po Keung

    2015-01-01

    A novel ternary nanocomposite photocatalyst consisted of reduced-graphene-oxide (RGO), Bi 2 MoO 6 and plasmonic Au nanoparticles were successfully fabricated by multiple steps including a simple solvothermal process and photochemical reduction process. RGO/Bi 2 MoO 6 /Au was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction patterns, transmission electron microscopy, UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In comparison with Bi 2 MoO 6 , RGO/Bi 2 MoO 6 and Au/Bi 2 MoO 6 , RGO/Bi 2 MoO 6 /Au exhibits an enhanced photocatalytic activity for decomposition of Rhodamine B under visible light. The separation efficiency of the photogenerated holes and electrons on Bi 2 MoO 6 is promoted by the combined effect of both RGO and Au in the ternary composite, and thus enhances photocatalytic activity. The scavenger study revealed that both hole and superoxide are the major reactive species for the photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B using RGO/Bi 2 MoO 6 /Au photocatalyst. - Graphical abstract: A novel ternary nanocomposite photocatalyst consisted of reduced-graphene-oxide (RGO), Bi 2 MoO 6 and plasmonic Au nanoparticles were successfully fabricated by multiple steps including a simple solvothermal process and photochemical reduction process. The resulted ternary nanocomposites greatly enhanced the visible light photocatalytic properties compared to Bi 2 MoO 6 , RGO/Bi 2 MoO 6 or Au/Bi 2 MoO 6 binary systems. The improved photocatalytic activity was mainly attributed to the synergistic effect of Au and RGO with better separation of the photogenerated holes and electrons, resulting from the surface plasmonic resonance and extra strong electron magnetic field of Au nanoparticles and the high electron conductivity of RGO. - Highlights: • The ternary nanocomposites RGO/Bi 2 MoO 6 /Au were constructed for the first time. • RGO/Bi 2 MoO 6 /Au showed much higher visible photoactivity than RGO (Au)/Bi 2 MoO 6 . • The improved

  19. Optimized spherical manganese oxide-ferroferric oxide-tin oxide ternary composites as advanced electrode materials for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jian; Tang, Shaochun; Vongehr, Sascha; Xie, Hao; Meng, Xiangkang

    2015-09-01

    Inexpensive MnO2 is a promising material for supercapacitors (SCs), but its application is limited by poor electrical conductivity and low specific surface area. We design and fabricate hierarchical MnO2-based ternary composite nanostructures showing superior electrochemical performance via doping with electrochemically active Fe3O4 in the interior and electrically conductive SnO2 nanoparticles in the surface layer. Optimization composition results in a MnO2-Fe3O4-SnO2 composite electrode material with 5.9 wt.% Fe3O4 and 5.3 wt.% SnO2, leading to a high specific areal capacitance of 1.12 F cm-2 at a scan rate of 5 mV s-1. This is two to three times the values for MnO2-based binary nanostructures at the same scan rate. The low amount of SnO2 almost doubles the capacitance of porous MnO2-Fe3O4 (before SnO2 addition), which is attributed to an improved conductivity and remaining porosity. In addition, the optimal ternary composite has a good rate capability and an excellent cycling performance with stable capacitance retention of ˜90% after 5000 charge/discharge cycles at 7.5 mA cm-2. All-solid-state SCs are assembled with such electrodes using polyvinyl alcohol/Na2SO4 electrolyte. An integrated device made by connecting two identical SCs in series can power a light-emitting diode indicator for more than 10 min.

  20. Study of ternary-component bismuth molybdate catalysts by 18O2 tracer in the oxidation of propylene to acrolein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, W.; Moro-oka, Y.; Ikawa, T.

    1981-01-01

    Participation of lattice oxide ions of ternary-component bismuth molybdate catalysts M-Bi-Mo-O (M = Ni, Co, Mg, Mn, Ca, Sr, Ba, and Pb) was investigated using the 18 O 2 tracer in the selective oxidation of propylene to acrolein. The participation of the lattice oxide ions in the oxidation is prominent on every catalyst but the extent of the participation varies significantly depending on the structure of the catalyst. Only lattice oxide ions in the bismuth molybdate phase are incorporated into the oxidized products on the catalysts (M = Ni, Co, Mg, and Mn) where M have smaller ionic radius than Bi 3+ ; catalyst particles are composed of a shell of bismuth molybdates and a core of MMoO 4 . On the other hand, whole oxide ions in the active particles are involved in the oxidation on catalysts having a scheelite-type structure (M = Ca, Sr, Ba, and Pb) where M has a comparable ionic radius to Bi 3+

  1. State-of-the-art Sn2+-based ternary oxides as photocatalysts for water splitting: electronic structures and optoelectronic properties

    KAUST Repository

    Noureldine, Dalal

    2016-09-19

    Developing visible light responsive metal oxide photocatalysts is a challenge that must be conquered to achieve high efficiency for water splitting or hydrogen evolution reactions. Valence band engineering is possible by forming ternary oxides using the combination of a metal cation with an s2d10 electronic configuration and a transition metal oxide with a d0 configuration. Many (Sn2+, Bi3+, Pb2+)-based ternary metal oxide photocatalysts have been reported for hydrogen and/or oxygen evolution under visible irradiation. Sn2+-based materials have attracted particular attention because tin is inexpensive, abundant and more environmentally friendly than lead or bismuth. In this review, we provide a fruitful library for Sn2+-based photocatalysts that have been reported to evolve hydrogen using sacrificial reagents, including SnNb2O6, Sn2Nb2O7, SnTaxNb2−xO6, SnTa2O6, Sn2Ta2O7, SnWO4 (α and β phases), SnSb2O6·nH2O, and Sn2TiO4. The synthesis method used in the literature and the resultant morphology and crystal structure of each compound are discussed. The density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the electronic structure and density of states are provided, and the consequent optoelectronic properties such as band gap, nature of the bandgap, dielectric constant, and effective masses are summarized. This review will help highlight the main challenges for Sn2+-based materials.

  2. State-of-the-art Sn2+-based ternary oxides as photocatalysts for water splitting: electronic structures and optoelectronic properties

    KAUST Repository

    Noureldine, Dalal; Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Developing visible light responsive metal oxide photocatalysts is a challenge that must be conquered to achieve high efficiency for water splitting or hydrogen evolution reactions. Valence band engineering is possible by forming ternary oxides using the combination of a metal cation with an s2d10 electronic configuration and a transition metal oxide with a d0 configuration. Many (Sn2+, Bi3+, Pb2+)-based ternary metal oxide photocatalysts have been reported for hydrogen and/or oxygen evolution under visible irradiation. Sn2+-based materials have attracted particular attention because tin is inexpensive, abundant and more environmentally friendly than lead or bismuth. In this review, we provide a fruitful library for Sn2+-based photocatalysts that have been reported to evolve hydrogen using sacrificial reagents, including SnNb2O6, Sn2Nb2O7, SnTaxNb2−xO6, SnTa2O6, Sn2Ta2O7, SnWO4 (α and β phases), SnSb2O6·nH2O, and Sn2TiO4. The synthesis method used in the literature and the resultant morphology and crystal structure of each compound are discussed. The density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the electronic structure and density of states are provided, and the consequent optoelectronic properties such as band gap, nature of the bandgap, dielectric constant, and effective masses are summarized. This review will help highlight the main challenges for Sn2+-based materials.

  3. Ternary electrocatalysts for oxidizing ethanol to carbon dioxide: making ir capable of splitting C-C bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Cullen, David A; Sasaki, Kotaro; Marinkovic, Nebojsa S; More, Karren; Adzic, Radoslav R

    2013-01-09

    Splitting the C-C bond is the main obstacle to electrooxidation of ethanol (EOR) to CO(2). We recently demonstrated that the ternary PtRhSnO(2) electrocatalyst can accomplish that reaction at room temperature with Rh having a unique capability to split the C-C bond. In this article, we report the finding that Ir can be induced to split the C-C bond as a component of the ternary catalyst. We characterized and compared the properties of several carbon-supported nanoparticle (NP) electrocatalysts comprising a SnO(2) NP core decorated with multimetallic nanoislands (MM' = PtIr, PtRh, IrRh, PtIrRh) prepared using a seeded growth approach. An array of characterization techniques were employed to establish the composition and architecture of the synthesized MM'/SnO(2) NPs, while electrochemical and in situ infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy studies elucidated trends in activity and the nature of the reaction intermediates and products. Both EOR reactivity and selectivity toward CO(2) formation of several of these MM'/SnO(2)/C electrocatalysts are significantly higher compared to conventional Pt/C and Pt/SnO(2)/C catalysts. We demonstrate that the PtIr/SnO(2)/C catalyst with high Ir content shows outstanding catalytic properties with the most negative EOR onset potential and reasonably good selectivity toward ethanol complete oxidation to CO(2).

  4. A gravimetric method for the determination of oxygen in uranium oxides and ternary uranium oxides by addition of alkaline earth compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujino, Takeo; Tagawa, Hiroaki; Adachi, Takeo; Hashitani, Hiroshi

    1978-01-01

    A simple gravimetric determination of oxygen in uranium oxides and ternary uranium oxides is described. In alkaline earth uranates which are formed by heating in air at 800-1100 0 C, uranium is in the hexavalent state over certain continuous ranges of alkaline earth-to-uranium ratios. Thus, if an alkaline earth uranate or a compound containing an alkaline earth element, e.g. MgO, is mixed with the oxide sample and heated in air under suitable conditions, oxygen can be determined from the weight change before and after the reaction. The standard deviation of the O:U ratio for a UOsub(2+x) test sample is +-0.0008-0.001, if a correction is applied for atmospheric moisture absorbed during mixing. (Auth.)

  5. A ternary nanocatalyst of Ni/Cr/Co oxides with high activity and stability for alkaline glucose electrooxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Yingying; Yang, Haihong; Li, Benqiang; An, Yarui

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Ni-Cr-Co nanomaterial was synthesized by thermal decomposition method. • Ni 4 -Cr 1 -Co 1.5 has the highest GOR activity among the prepared catalysts. • A catalytic current density of 23.8 mA × cm −2 is attained for alkaline GOR. - Abstract: A novel ternary nanocatalyst of Ni-Cr-Co oxides is synthesized as anode electro-catalysts for glucose oxidation. The nanostructure is characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), which indicates that the catalyst particles are well dispersed with average size of 30 nm when the calcination temperature is 500 °C. The electrochemical performance is evaluated via cyclic voltammetry (CV). Compared with the bimetallic Ni-Cr and Ni-Co nanocatalysts, Ni-Cr-Co electrocatalysts exhibites more negative onset potential (0.4 V) and high oxidation peak current density (23.8 mA cm −2 ) in alkaline media towards glucose oxidation. Meanwhile, the results also show that the Ni-Cr-Co nanomaterial possesses good performance of anti-poisoning capability, reproducibility and long-time stability, which make it an excellent candidate for fuel cell electrocatalyst.

  6. Hierarchical Mesoporous Zinc-Nickel-Cobalt Ternary Oxide Nanowire Arrays on Nickel Foam as High-Performance Electrodes for Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chun; Cai, Junjie; Zhang, Qiaobao; Zhou, Xiang; Zhu, Ying; Shen, Pei Kang; Zhang, Kaili

    2015-12-09

    Nickel foam supported hierarchical mesoporous Zn-Ni-Co ternary oxide (ZNCO) nanowire arrays are synthesized by a simple two-step approach including a hydrothermal method and subsequent calcination process and directly utilized for supercapacitive investigation for the first time. The nickel foam supported hierarchical mesoporous ZNCO nanowire arrays possess an ultrahigh specific capacitance value of 2481.8 F g(-1) at 1 A g(-1) and excellent rate capability of about 91.9% capacitance retention at 5 A g(-1). More importantly, an asymmetric supercapacitor with a high energy density (35.6 Wh kg(-1)) and remarkable cycle stability performance (94% capacitance retention over 3000 cycles) is assembled successfully by employing the ZNCO electrode as positive electrode and activated carbon as negative electrode. The remarkable electrochemical behaviors demonstrate that the nickel foam supported hierarchical mesoporous ZNCO nanowire array electrodes are highly desirable for application as advanced supercapacitor electrodes.

  7. Structural, magnetic and electronic properties of rare earth ternary oxides Li Ln(II) 2 Ln(III)O4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malki, M.

    1987-06-01

    Properties of a new class of rare earth ternary oxides Li Ln(II) 2 Ln(III)O 4 where Ln(II) is a divalent metal (Sr, Eu) and Ln(III) a trivalent rare earth (Eu, Gd, Dy, Er and Y). These orthorhombic compounds (type Li Eu 3 O 4 ) allow the study of many magnetic phenomena and their evolution in function of the nature of Ln(II) and Ln(III): diamagnetic ions Sr 2+ , Y 3+ ; isotrope magnetic ions: Eu 2+ , Gd 3+ and anisotrope magnetic ions Dy 3+ , Er 3+ . Magnetic and electric properties are obtained by classical techniques and from hyperfine interaction by Moessbauer spectroscopy. The possibility to use several Moessbauer resonance (nuclei Eu 151, Gd 155, Dy 161 and Er 166) completes informations obtained by the macroscopic study [fr

  8. Optical properties and thermal stability of LaYbO3 ternary oxide for high-k dielectric application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wei-tao; Yang, Li; Li, Bin

    2011-01-01

    A new ternary rare oxide dielectric LaYbO3 film had been prepared on silicon wafers and quartz substrates by reactive sputtering method using a La-Yb metal target. A range of analysis techniques was performed to determine the optical band gap, thermal stability, and electrical property of the deposited samples. It was found the band gap of LaYbO3 film was about 5.8 eV. And the crystallization temperature for rapid thermal annealing (20 s) was between 900 and 950 °C. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results indicate the formation of the SiO2 and silicate in the interface between silicon wafer and LaYbO3 film. The dielectric constant is about 23 from the calculation of capacitance-voltage curve, which is comparable higher than previously reported La2O3 or Yb2O3 film.

  9. Attapulgite-CeO{sub 2}/MoS{sub 2} ternary nanocomposite for photocatalytic oxidative desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiazhang, E-mail: lixiazhang509@163.com [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Catalytic Materials and Technology, School of Petrochemical Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Environment Functional Materials, Suzhou University of Science and Technology, Suzhou 215009 (China); W.M.Keck Center for Advanced Microscopy and Microanalysis, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Zhang, Zuosong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Yao, Chao [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Catalytic Materials and Technology, School of Petrochemical Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Lu, Xiaowang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Zhao, Xiaobing [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Environment Functional Materials, Suzhou University of Science and Technology, Suzhou 215009 (China); Ni, Chaoying [W.M.Keck Center for Advanced Microscopy and Microanalysis, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)

    2016-02-28

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Novel attapulgite(ATP)-CeO{sub 2}/MoS{sub 2} ternary nanocomposites were fabricated. • ATP possessed outstanding adsorption property and enhanced the stability of the network structure. • CeO{sub 2}/MoS{sub 2} couples facilitated the separation of photo-induced electrons and holes. • Mass ratio of CeO{sub 2}/MoS{sub 2} influenced the photocatalytic oxidation desulfurization. - Abstract: Novel attapulgite(ATP)-CeO{sub 2}/MoS{sub 2} ternary nanocomposites were synthesized by microwave assisted assembly method. The structures of the nanocomposites were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, UV–vis, XPS and in situ TEM. The photocatalytic activities of ATP-CeO{sub 2}/MoS{sub 2} composites were investigated by degradating dibenzothiophene (DBT) in gasoline under visible light irradiation. The effect of the mass ratio of CeO{sub 2} to MoS{sub 2} on photocatalytic activity was investigated. The results indicate that the three-dimensional network structure is firmly constructed by ATP skeleton, CeO{sub 2} particles and MoS{sub 2} nanosheet which effectively increase the surface area of the composites and promote the separation of electrons and holes by resulting electronic transmission channels of multi-channel in space. The degradation rate of DBT can reach 95% under 3 h irradiation when the mass ratio of CeO{sub 2}/MoS{sub 2} is 4/10. A plausible mechanism for the photocatalytic oxidative desulfurization of this nanocomposite is put forward.

  10. Preparation and supercapacitance performance of manganese oxide nanosheets/graphene/carbon nanotubes ternary composite film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Qianqiu; Sun, Minqiang; Yu, Shuangmin; Wang, Gengchao

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The MnO 2 nanosheets/graphene/MWCNT composite film with a porous sandwich structure was fabricated through a filtration-directed self-assembly. • The introduction of graphene and MWCNT restricts dense stacking of MnO 2 nanosheets. • Ternary composite film exhibits impressive electrochemical performance compared to pure MnO 2 nanosheets. - Abstract: A novel MnO 2 nanosheets/graphene nanosheets/carboxylic multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MONS/GNS/cMWCNT) ternary composite film was fabricated through a filtration-directed self-assembly method. The Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed the porous sandwiched structure of MONS/GNS/cMWCNT with GNS providing a conductive substrate and cMWCNT functioning as a vertical electron pathway. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectra further confirmed that the introduction of GNS and cMWCNT restricted the serious aggregation of MONS, resulting in a higher specific area (691 m 2 g −1 ). As a result, the MONS/GNS/cMWCNT composite film exhibited higher specific capacitance (248 Fg −1 at 1 Ag −1 in 1 M Na 2 SO 4 ), better rate performance (66.9% capacitance retention from 0.2 to 10 Ag −1 ) and cycling stability (86.5% retention after 3000 cycles) compared with those of pure dried MnO 2 nanosheets

  11. Ternary superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giorgi, A.L.

    1987-01-01

    Ternary superconductors constitute a class of superconducting compounds with exceptional properties such as high transition temperatures (≅ 15.2 K), extremely high critical fields (H c2 >60 Tesla), and the coexistence of superconductivity and long-range magnetic order. This has generated great interest in the scientific community and resulted in a large number of experimental and theoretical investigations in which many new ternary compounds have been discovered. A review of some of the properties of these ternary compounds is presented with particular emphasis on the ternary molybdenum chalcogenides and the ternary rare earth transition metal tetraborides. The effect of partial substitution of a second metal atom to form pseudoternary compounds is examined as well as some of the proposed correlations between the superconducting transition temperature and the structural and electronic properties of the ternary superconductors

  12. Growing Platinum-Ruthenium-Tin ternary alloy nanoparticles on reduced graphene oxide for strong ligand effect toward enhanced ethanol oxidation reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qing Qing; Zhang, Lian Ying; Zhao, Zhi Liang; Li, Chang Ming

    2017-11-15

    Uniform Pt 1 Ru 0.5 Sn 0.5 ternary alloy nanoparticles are in situ deposited on reduced graphene oxide (Pt 1 Ru 0.5 Sn 0.5 -RGO) through its functional groups and defects as nucleation sites to greatly electrocatalyze ethanol oxidation reaction for much higher mass current densities, larger apparent specific current densities and better stability than commercial Pt-C catalyst (Pt-C(commer)). Mechanistic studies indicate that the excellent electrocatalytic activity and anti-poisoning are resulted from a strong ligand effect of the ternary alloy components, in which the charge transfer is boosted while decreasing the density of states close to the Fermi level of Pt to reduce bond energy between Pt and CO-like adsorbates for greatly improved anti-poisoning ability. This work holds a great promise to fabricate a high performance anode catalyst with a low Pt loading for direct ethanol fuel cells. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Optical properties of zinc oxide-based ternary compounds synthesized by electrodeposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cembrero, J. [Departament d' Enginyeria Mecanica i Materials, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Cami de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Mollar, M.; Tortosa, M. [Departament de Fisica Aplicada, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Cami de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Mari, B.

    2008-07-01

    Structure, morphology and optical properties of ZnO thin films grown by electrodeposition under different conditions changing both solvent (water or dimethylsulfoxide) and substrate (polycrystalline FTO or monocrystalline GaN) are reported. The results point out the advantage of using dimethylsulfoxide when uniform, oriented and highly transparent films are required. On the other hand electrodeposition in aqueous bath produces perfectly defined hexagonal ZnO columns which can be fully oriented by chosing a suitable substrate. Photoluminescence has only been observed for ZnO films grown in aqueous bath. Ternary compounds as ZnMO (M=Cd,Co,Mn) with a controlled ratio between both cations, and morphology and structure like binary ZnO can be easily obtained from dimethylsulfoxide. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  14. Free-standing ternary NiWP film for efficient water oxidation reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yunpeng; Zhou, Kuo; Ma, Lili; Liang, Yanqin; Yang, Xianjin; Cui, Zhenduo; Zhu, Shengli; Li, Zhaoyang

    2018-03-01

    High-efficient catalysts for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is of great concern in improving energy efficiency for water splitting. Here we report a high-performance OER electrocatalyst of nickel-tungsten-phosphorus (NiWP) film prepared by template method. This free-standing ternary electrocatalyst exhibits a remarkable electrocatalytic activity of OER in alkaline medium due to the synergetic effect among these elements and the good electrical conductivity. The reported NiWP composite catalyst has an overpotential of as low as 0.4 V (vs. RHE) at 30 mA cm-2, better than that of the commercial RuO2 catalyst. Moreover, a small charge transfer resistance of 4.06 Ω and a Tafel slope of 68 mV dec-1 demonstrate the outstanding catalytic activity.

  15. Isothermal oxidation behavior of ternary Zr-Nb-Y alloys at high temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prajitno, Djoko Hadi, E-mail: djokohp@batan.go.id [Research Center for Nuclear Materials and Radiometry, Jl. Tamansari 71, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Soepriyanto, Syoni; Basuki, Eddy Agus [Metallurgy Engineering, Institute Technology Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Wiryolukito, Slameto [Materials Engineering, Institute Technology Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    The effect of yttrium content on isothermal oxidation behavior of Zr-2,5%Nb-0,5%Y, Zr-2,5%Nb-1%Y Zr-2,5%Nb-1,5%Y alloy at high temperature has been studied. High temperature oxidation carried out at tube furnace in air at 600,700 and 800°C for 1 hour. Optical microscope is used for microstructure characterization of the alloy. Oxidized and un oxidized specimen was characterized by x-ray diffraction. In this study, kinetic oxidation of Zr-2,5%Nb with different Y content at high temperature has also been studied. Characterization by optical microscope showed that microstructure of Zr-Nb-Y alloys relatively unchanged and showed equiaxed microstructure. X-ray diffraction of the alloys depicted that the oxide scale formed during oxidation of zirconium alloys is monoclinic ZrO2 while unoxidised alloy showed two phase α and β phase. SEM-EDS examination shows that depletion of Zr composition took place under the oxide layer. Kinetic rate of oxidation of zirconium alloy showed that increasing oxidation temperature will increase oxidation rate but increasing yttrium content in the alloys will decrease oxidation rate.

  16. Enhanced visible light-driven photocatalytic performance of ZnO–g-C_3N_4 coupled with graphene oxide as a novel ternary nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Wan-Kuen; Clament Sagaya Selvam, N.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Prepared novel ternary nanocomposite consisting of ZnO, g-C_3N_4, and graphene oxide. • ZnO nanospheres disperse evenly and embed on porous g-C_3N_4-coupled graphene oxide. • Heterojunction of ternary composite account for the enhanced photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: This article reports a novel ternary nanocomposite consisting of ZnO, g-C_3N_4, and graphene oxide (GO) that provides enhanced photocatalytic performance and stability. The ZnO nanospheres disperse evenly and embed themselves in the porous g-C_3N_4. Composites with various g-C_3N_4 and GO to ZnO weight ratios were synthesized and characterized systematically. The results indicated that the absorption of binary g-C_3N_4/ZnO nanocomposites shifted to a lower energy compared to pure ZnO in a fashion consistent with the loading content of g-C_3N_4. Notably, the loading content of GO in the ZnO–g-C_3N_4 composite resulted in increased absorption in the visible range and improved charge separation efficiency, thereby drastically improving photocatalytic activity. Successful hybridization of ternary nanocomposite was confirmed by drastic quenching of fluorescence and broader visible light absorption. The optimal content of g-C_3N_4 in the ZnO–g-C_3N_4 composite was 50%, which exhibited the effective hybridization between ZnO and g-C_3N_4, and high photocatalytic efficiency. However, the photocatalytic degradation of the ternary nanocomposite showed performance that was two times greater than ZnO–g-C_3N_4, exhibiting 99.5% degradation efficiency after just 15 min of light irradiation. The combined heterojunction and synergistic effects of this composite account for the improved photocatalytic activity.

  17. Ternary fission

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the energy minimization of all possible ternary breakups of a heavy radioactive nucleus. Further, within the TCM we have analysed the competition between different geometries as well as different positioning of the fragments. Also, an attempt was made to calculate the mass distribution of ternary fission process within the ...

  18. Ag3PO4-TiO2-Graphene Oxide Ternary Composites with Efficient Photodegradation, Hydrogen Evolution, and Antibacterial Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Jye Sheu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Ag3PO4-TiO2-graphene oxide ternary composite photocatalysts were fabricated by the photocatalytic reduction and ion exchange methods. The properties and photocatalytic activity of the composites were examined, and the photodegradation mechanism was investigated. More TiO2 nanoparticles in the composites were found to improve light absorption, but caused a larger impedance and inferior charge transport. Excess TiO2 nanoparticles distributed over the surfaces of Ag3PO4 and graphene oxide decreased the specific surface area and thus lowered light absorbance. An appropriate TiO2 content enhanced photocatalytic performance. When the molar ratio of Ag3PO4 to TiO2 was 0.6, the highest efficiency in photodegradation, hydrogen production (with a quantum efficiency of 8.1% and a hydrogen evolution rate of 218.7 μmole·g−1·h−1 and bacterial inactivation was achieved. Trapping experiments demonstrated that superoxide radicals and holes are the major active species involved in the photodegradation process.

  19. Preparation of reduced graphene oxide/meso-TiO_2/AuNPs ternary composites and their visible-light-induced photocatalytic degradation n of methylene blue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yongfang; Ma, Zheng; Xu, Lidong; Wang, Hefang; Fu, Nian

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Reduced graphene oxide/meso-TiO_2/AuNPs (RGO/meso-TiO_2/AuNPs) ternary composites were prepared via the addition of graphene oxide to the dispersion of meso-TiO_2/AuNPs under a hydrothermal condition. The RGO/meso-TiO_2/AuNPs ternary composites show high photocatalytic activity toward MB. - Highlights: • RGO/meso-TiO_2/AuNPs were obtained by addition of graphene oxide to meso-TiO_2/AuNPs. • Au NPs in the mesopores of meso-TiO_2 reduce the recombination of charge carriers. • RGO covered with the surface of the meso-TiO_2 enhance the adsorption of MB. • RGO/meso-TiO_2/AuNPs composites show high photocatalytic performance toward MB. - Abstract: Reduced graphene oxide/meso-TiO_2/AuNPs (RGO/meso-TiO_2/AuNPs) ternary composites were prepared via the addition of graphene oxide to the dispersion of meso-TiO_2/AuNPs under hydrothermal conditions. The structure and the morphology of the RGO/meso-TiO_2/AuNPs materials were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The photocatalytic activity of RGO/meso-TiO_2/AuNPs was evaluated by degradation of methyl blue (MB) under visible-light illumination. The ternary composites present an extended light absorption range, efficient charge separation properties, high adsorption ability for MB and high photocatalytic degradation activity of MB compared to the meso-TiO_2 and meso-TiO_2/AuNPs.

  20. Preparation of reduced graphene oxide/meso-TiO{sub 2}/AuNPs ternary composites and their visible-light-induced photocatalytic degradation n of methylene blue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yongfang; Ma, Zheng; Xu, Lidong [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Wang, Hefang, E-mail: whf0618@163.com [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Fu, Nian, E-mail: funian3678@163.com [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); College of Physics Science and Technology of Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China)

    2016-04-30

    Graphical abstract: Reduced graphene oxide/meso-TiO{sub 2}/AuNPs (RGO/meso-TiO{sub 2}/AuNPs) ternary composites were prepared via the addition of graphene oxide to the dispersion of meso-TiO{sub 2}/AuNPs under a hydrothermal condition. The RGO/meso-TiO{sub 2}/AuNPs ternary composites show high photocatalytic activity toward MB. - Highlights: • RGO/meso-TiO{sub 2}/AuNPs were obtained by addition of graphene oxide to meso-TiO{sub 2}/AuNPs. • Au NPs in the mesopores of meso-TiO{sub 2} reduce the recombination of charge carriers. • RGO covered with the surface of the meso-TiO{sub 2} enhance the adsorption of MB. • RGO/meso-TiO{sub 2}/AuNPs composites show high photocatalytic performance toward MB. - Abstract: Reduced graphene oxide/meso-TiO{sub 2}/AuNPs (RGO/meso-TiO{sub 2}/AuNPs) ternary composites were prepared via the addition of graphene oxide to the dispersion of meso-TiO{sub 2}/AuNPs under hydrothermal conditions. The structure and the morphology of the RGO/meso-TiO{sub 2}/AuNPs materials were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The photocatalytic activity of RGO/meso-TiO{sub 2}/AuNPs was evaluated by degradation of methyl blue (MB) under visible-light illumination. The ternary composites present an extended light absorption range, efficient charge separation properties, high adsorption ability for MB and high photocatalytic degradation activity of MB compared to the meso-TiO{sub 2} and meso-TiO{sub 2}/AuNPs.

  1. Catalytic combustion of methane over mixed oxides derived from Co-Mg/Al ternary hydrotalcites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Zheng [Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford, OX1 3QR (United Kingdom); Research Centre of Eco-Environmental Sciences, CAS, Beijing 100085 (China); Jesus College, University of Oxford, OX1 3DW (United Kingdom); Yu, Junjie; Cheng, Jie; Hao, Zhengping [Research Centre of Eco-Environmental Sciences, CAS, Beijing 100085 (China); Xiao, Tiancun; Edwards, Peter P. [Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford, OX1 3QR (United Kingdom); Jones, Martin O. [Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford, OX1 3QR (United Kingdom); Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-15

    Co{sub x}Mg{sub 3-x} /Al composite oxides (xCoMAO-800) were prepared by calcination of Co{sub x}Mg{sub 3-x}/Al hydrotalcites (x=0.0,0.5,1.0,1.5,2.0,2.5,3.0, respectively) at 800 C. The materials were characterized using XRD, TG-DSC, N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption and TPR. The methane catalytic combustion over the xCoMAO-800 was assessed in a fixed bed micro-reactor. The results revealed that cobalt can be homogenously dispersed into the matrices of the hydrotalcites and determines the structure, specific surface areas and porosity of the derived xCoMAO-800 oxide catalysts. The thermal stability and homogeneity of the hydrotalcites markedly depends on the cobalt concentration in the hydrotalcites. The Co-based hydrotalcite-derived oxides exhibit good activity in the catalytic combustion of methane. The catalytic activity over the xCoMAO-800 oxides enhances with increasing x up to 1.5, but subsequently decreases dramatically as cobalt loadings are further increased. The 1.5CoMAO-800 catalyst shows the best methane combustion activity, igniting methane at 450 C and completing methane combustion around 600 C. The catalytic combustion activity over the xCoMAO-800 oxides are closely related to the strong Co-Mg/Al interaction within the mixed oxides according to the TG-DSC, TPR and activity characteristics. (author)

  2. Better Organic Ternary Memory Performance through Self-Assembled Alkyltrichlorosilane Monolayers on Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiang; Cheng, Xue-Feng; Zhou, Jin; He, Jing-Hui; Xu, Qing-Feng; Li, Hua; Li, Na-Jun; Chen, Dong-Yun; Lu, Jian-Mei

    2017-11-16

    Recently, surface engineering of the indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode of sandwich-like organic electric memory devices was found to effectively improve their memory performances. However, there are few methods to modify the ITO substrates. In this paper, we have successfully prepared alkyltrichlorosilane self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on ITO substrates, and resistive random access memory devices are fabricated on these surfaces. Compared to the unmodified ITO substrates, organic molecules (i.e., 2-((4-butylphenyl)amino)-4-((4-butylphenyl)iminio)-3-oxocyclobut-1-en-1-olate, SA-Bu) grown on these SAM-modified ITO substrates have rougher surface morphologies but a smaller mosaicity. The organic layer on the SAM-modified ITO further aged to eliminate the crystalline phase diversity. In consequence, the ternary memory yields are effectively improved to approximately 40-47 %. Our results suggest that the insertion of alkyltrichlorosilane self-assembled monolayers could be an efficient method to improve the performance of organic memory devices. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Ternary iron(II) complex with an emissive imidazopyridine arm from Schiff base cyclizations and its oxidative DNA cleavage activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Arindam; Dhar, Shanta; Nethaji, Munirathinam; Chakravarty, Akhil R

    2005-01-21

    The ternary iron(II) complex [Fe(L')(L")](PF6)3(1) as a synthetic model for the bleomycins, where L' and L" are formed from metal-mediated cyclizations of N,N'-(2-hydroxypropane-1,3-diyl)bis(pyridine-2-aldimine)(L), is synthesized and structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography. In the six-coordinate iron(ii) complex, ligands L' and L" show tetradentate and bidentate chelating modes of bonding. Ligand L' is formed from an intramolecular attack of the alcoholic OH group of L to one imine moiety leading to the formation of a stereochemically constrained five-membered ring. Ligand L" which is formed from an intermolecular reaction involving one imine moiety of L and pyridine-2-carbaldehyde has an emissive cationic imidazopyridine pendant arm. The complex binds to double-stranded DNA in the minor groove giving a Kapp value of 4.1 x 10(5) M(-1) and displays oxidative cleavage of supercoiled DNA in the presence of H2O2 following a hydroxyl radical pathway. The complex also shows photo-induced DNA cleavage activity on UV light exposure involving formation of singlet oxygen as the reactive species.

  4. Electrophoretic-deposited novel ternary silk fibroin/graphene oxide/hydroxyapatite nanocomposite coatings on titanium substrate for orthopedic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Xiong, Pan; Mo, Maosong; Cheng, Yan; Zheng, Yufeng

    2016-09-01

    The combination of graphene oxide (GO) with robust mechanical property, silk fibroin (SF) with fascinating biological effects and hydroxyapatite (HA) with superior osteogenic activity is a competitive approach to make novel coatings for orthopedic applications. Herein, the feasibility of depositing ternary SF/GO/HA nanocomposite coatings on Ti substrate was firstly verified by exploiting electrophoretic nanotechnology, with SF being used as both a charging additive and a dispersion agent. The surface morphology, microstructure and composition, in vitro hemocompatibility and in vitro cytocompatibility of the resulting coatings were investigated by SEM, Raman, FTIR spectra and biocompatibility tests. Results demonstrated that GO, HA and SF could be co-deposited with a uniform, smooth thin-film morphology. The hemolysis rate analysis and the platelet adhesion test indicated good blood compatibility of the coatings. The human osteosarcoma MG63 cells displayed well adhesion and proliferation behaviors on the prepared coatings, with enhanced ALP activities. The present study suggested that SF/GO/HA nanocomposite coatings could be a promising candidate for the surface functionalization of biomaterials, especially as orthopedic implant coating.

  5. Some reduced ternary and quaternary oxides of molybdenum. A family of compounds with strong metal-metal bonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torardi, C.C.; McCarley, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    Several new, reduced ternary and quaternary oxides of molybdenum are reported, each containing molybdenum in an average oxidation state 2 sealed in Mo tubes held at 1100 0 C for ca. 7 days. Refinement of the substructure of the new compound Ba 0 62 Mo 4 O 6 was based on an orthorhombic cells, with a = 9.509(2), b = 9.825(2), c = 2.853(1) A, Z = 2 in space group Pbam; weak supercell reflections indicate the true structure has c = 8(2.853) A. The chief structural feature is closely related to that of NaMo 4 O 6 which consists of infinite chains of Mo 6 octahedral clusters fused on opposite edges, bridged on the outer edges by O atoms and crosslinked by Mo-O-Mo bonding to create four-sided tunnels in which the Ba 2+ ions are located. The structure of Ba 1 13 Mo 8 O 16 is triclinic, a = 7.311(1), b = 7.453(1), c = 5.726(1) A, α = 101.49(2), β = 99.60(2), γ = 89.31(2) 0 , Z = 1, space group P1. It is a low-symmetry, metal-metal bonded variant of the hollandite structure, in which two different infinite chains, built up from Mo 4 O 8 2- and Mo 4 O 8 0 26- cluster units, respectively, are interlinked via Mo-O-Mo bridge bonding to create again four-sided tunnels in which the Ba 2+ ions reside. Other compounds prepared and characterized by analyses and x-ray powder diffraction data are Pb/sub x/Mo 4 O 6 (x approx. 0.6), LiZn 2 Mo 3 O 8 , , CaMo 5 O 8 , K 2 Mo 12 O 19 , and Na 2 Mo 12 O 19

  6. Ternary fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagemans, C.

    1991-01-01

    Since its discovery in 1946, light (charged) particle accompanied fission (ternary fission) has been extensively studied, for spontaneous as well as for induced fission reactions. The reason for this interest was twofold: the ternary particles being emitted in space and time close to the scission point were expected to supply information on the scission point configuration and the ternary fission process was an important source of helium, tritium, and hydrogen production in nuclear reactors, for which data were requested by the nuclear industry. Significant experimental progress has been realized with the advent of high-resolution detectors, powerful multiparameter data acquisition systems, and intense neutron and photon beams. As far as theory is concerned, the trajectory calculations (in which scission point parameters are deduced from the experimental observations) have been very much improved. An attempt was made to explain ternary particle emission in terms of a Plateau-Rayleigh hydrodynamical instability of a relatively long cylindrical neck or cylindrical nucleus. New results have also been obtained on the so-called open-quotes trueclose quotes ternary fission (fission in three about-equal fragments). The spontaneous emission of charged particles has also clearly been demonstrated in recent years. This chapter discusses the main characteristics of ternary fission, theoretical models, light particle emission probabilities, the dependence of the emission probabilities on experimental variables, light particle energy distributions, light particle angular distributions, correlations between light particle accompanied fission observables, open-quotes trueclose quotes ternary fission, and spontaneous emission of heavy ions. 143 refs., 18 figs., 8 tabs

  7. Ternary hybrid polymeric nanocomposites through grafting of polystyrene on graphene oxide-TiO{sub 2} by surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Arvind; Bansal, Ankushi; Behera, Babita; Jain, Suman L.; Ray, Siddharth S., E-mail: ssray@iip.res.in

    2016-04-01

    A ternary hybrid of graphene oxide-titania-polystyrene (GO-TiO{sub 2}-PS) nanocomposite is developed where polystyrene composition is regulated by controlling growth of polymer chains and nanoarchitectonics is discussed. Graphene Oxide-TiO{sub 2} (GO-TiO{sub 2}) nanocomposite is prepared by in-situ hydrothermal method and the surface is anchored with α-bromoisobutyryl bromide to activate GO-TiO{sub 2} as initiator for polymerization. In-situ grafting of polystyrene through surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI- ATRP) on this Br-functionalized nano-composite initiator yields GO-TiO{sub 2}-PS ternary hybrid. Varying the monomer amount and keeping the concentration of initiator constant, polystyrene chain growth is regulated with narrow poly-dispersivity to achieve desired composition. This composite is well characterized by various analytical techniques like FTIR, XRD, DSC, SEM, TEM, and TGA. - Highlights: • Nanocomposite of ternary hybrid of GO-TiO{sub 2} with polystyrene. • PS is surface grafted on GO-TiO{sub 2}. • Polymer chain lengths are well regulated by SI-ATRP living polymerization. • Thermal stability of this hybrid is relatively high.

  8. Ternary hybrid polymeric nanocomposites through grafting of polystyrene on graphene oxide-TiO_2 by surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Arvind; Bansal, Ankushi; Behera, Babita; Jain, Suman L.; Ray, Siddharth S.

    2016-01-01

    A ternary hybrid of graphene oxide-titania-polystyrene (GO-TiO_2-PS) nanocomposite is developed where polystyrene composition is regulated by controlling growth of polymer chains and nanoarchitectonics is discussed. Graphene Oxide-TiO_2 (GO-TiO_2) nanocomposite is prepared by in-situ hydrothermal method and the surface is anchored with α-bromoisobutyryl bromide to activate GO-TiO_2 as initiator for polymerization. In-situ grafting of polystyrene through surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI- ATRP) on this Br-functionalized nano-composite initiator yields GO-TiO_2-PS ternary hybrid. Varying the monomer amount and keeping the concentration of initiator constant, polystyrene chain growth is regulated with narrow poly-dispersivity to achieve desired composition. This composite is well characterized by various analytical techniques like FTIR, XRD, DSC, SEM, TEM, and TGA. - Highlights: • Nanocomposite of ternary hybrid of GO-TiO_2 with polystyrene. • PS is surface grafted on GO-TiO_2. • Polymer chain lengths are well regulated by SI-ATRP living polymerization. • Thermal stability of this hybrid is relatively high.

  9. Oxidation of 316 stainless steel and other alloys in prototypic GCFR environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acharya, R.T.

    1980-05-01

    The oxidation behavior of type 316 stainless steel and candidate advanced alloys for the gas-cooled fast reactor (GCFR) is being investigated at General Atomic Company. The test program consists of oxidation tests in prototypic GCFR environments. Two tests have been completed to date and a third test is under way. The first test was performed in an environment containing a hydrogen/water ratio of 10. The oxidation behavior of all the alloys was good to excellent in this environment. Preferential oxidation of chromium was responsible for this behavior. The second test was performed in an environment containing a hydrogen/water ratio of 0.25, where both chromium and iron oxides are thermodynamically stable. Some of the alloys and some of the ribbed type 316 stainless steel test specimens showed unacceptable oxidation resistance in this environment. In the third test, presently under way, two different pretreatment procedures are being used to control the poor oxidation behavior observed in the second test. Early results show some degree of success

  10. Bis(tri-n-hexylsilyl oxide) silicon phthalocyanine: a unique additive in ternary bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessard, Benoît H; Dang, Jeremy D; Grant, Trevor M; Gao, Dong; Seferos, Dwight S; Bender, Timothy P

    2014-09-10

    Previous studies have shown that the use of bis(tri-n-hexylsilyl oxide) silicon phthalocyanine ((3HS)2-SiPc) as an additive in a P3HT:PC61BM cascade ternary bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic (BHJ OPV) device results in an increase in the short circuit current (J(SC)) and efficiency (η(eff)) of up to 25% and 20%, respectively. The previous studies have attributed the increase in performance to the presence of (3HS)2-SiPc at the BHJ interface. In this study, we explored the molecular characteristics of (3HS)2-SiPc which makes it so effective in increasing the OPV device J(SC) and η(eff. Initially, we synthesized phthalocyanine-based additives using different core elements such as germanium and boron instead of silicon, each having similar frontier orbital energies compared to (3HS)2-SiPc and tested their effect on BHJ OPV device performance. We observed that addition of bis(tri-n-hexylsilyl oxide) germanium phthalocyanine ((3HS)2-GePc) or tri-n-hexylsilyl oxide boron subphthalocyanine (3HS-BsubPc) resulted in a nonstatistically significant increase in JSC and η(eff). Secondly, we kept the silicon phthalocyanine core and substituted the tri-n-hexylsilyl solubilizing groups with pentadecyl phenoxy groups and tested the resulting dye in a BHJ OPV. While an increase in JSC and η(eff) was observed at low (PDP)2-SiPc loadings, the increase was not as significant as (3HS)2-SiPc; therefore, (3HS)2-SiPc is a unique additive. During our study, we observed that (3HS)2-SiPc had an extraordinary tendency to crystallize compared to the other compounds in this study and our general experience. On the basis of this observation, we have offered a hypothesis that when (3HS)2-SiPc migrates to the P3HT:PC61BM interface the reason for its unique performance is not solely due to its frontier orbital energies but also might be due to a high driving force for crystallization.

  11. Ternary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagan, D.N.; Hubberstey, P.; Barker, M.G.

    1985-01-01

    The paper reviews the experimental and theoretical studies carried out on multicomponent alkali metal systems. Solid-liquid phase equilibria studies are mainly concerned with the systems Na-K-Rb and Na-K-Cs, and data on the liquidus temperatures in these systems are presented. The thermodynamic properties of the ternary Na-K-Cs eutectic system have been determined experimentally, and the enthalpy, heat capacity and excess functions of the alloy are given. An analysis of calculational methods used in determining thermodynamic functions of ternary liquid metals systems is described. Finally, data are tabulated for the density, compressibility, saturated vapour pressure, viscosity and thermal conductivity of the ternary Na-K-Cs eutectic system. (UK)

  12. Single-step solvothermal synthesis of mesoporous Ag-TiO2-reduced graphene oxide ternary composites with enhanced photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif Sher Shah, Md. Selim; Zhang, Kan; Park, A. Reum; Kim, Kwang Su; Park, Nam-Gyu; Park, Jong Hyeok; Yoo, Pil J.

    2013-05-01

    With growing interest in the photocatalytic performance of TiO2-graphene composite systems, the ternary phase of TiO2, graphene, and Ag is expected to exhibit improved photocatalytic characteristics because of the improved recombination rate of photogenerated charge carriers and potential contribution of the generation of localized surface plasmon resonance at Ag sites on a surface of the TiO2-graphene binary matrix. In this work, Ag-TiO2-reduced graphene oxide ternary nanocomposites were successfully synthesized by a simple solvothermal process. In a single-step synthetic procedure, the reduction of AgNO3 and graphene oxide and the hydrolysis of titanium tetraisopropoxide were spontaneously performed in a mixed solvent system of ethylene glycol, N,N-dimethylformamide and a stoichiometric amount of water without resorting to the use of typical reducing agents. The nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, along with different microscopic and spectroscopic techniques, enabling us to confirm the successful reduction of AgNO3 and graphite oxide to metallic Ag and reduced graphene oxide, respectively. Due to the highly facilitated electron transport of well distributed Ag nanoparticles, the synthesized ternary nanocomposite showed enhanced photocatalytic activity for degradation of rhodamine B dye under visible light irradiation.With growing interest in the photocatalytic performance of TiO2-graphene composite systems, the ternary phase of TiO2, graphene, and Ag is expected to exhibit improved photocatalytic characteristics because of the improved recombination rate of photogenerated charge carriers and potential contribution of the generation of localized surface plasmon resonance at Ag sites on a surface of the TiO2-graphene binary matrix. In this work, Ag-TiO2-reduced graphene oxide ternary nanocomposites were successfully synthesized by a simple solvothermal process. In a single-step synthetic procedure, the reduction

  13. Enhanced visible light-driven photocatalytic performance of ZnO–g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} coupled with graphene oxide as a novel ternary nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Wan-Kuen; Clament Sagaya Selvam, N., E-mail: clamentloy@gmail.com

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Prepared novel ternary nanocomposite consisting of ZnO, g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}, and graphene oxide. • ZnO nanospheres disperse evenly and embed on porous g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}-coupled graphene oxide. • Heterojunction of ternary composite account for the enhanced photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: This article reports a novel ternary nanocomposite consisting of ZnO, g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}, and graphene oxide (GO) that provides enhanced photocatalytic performance and stability. The ZnO nanospheres disperse evenly and embed themselves in the porous g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. Composites with various g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} and GO to ZnO weight ratios were synthesized and characterized systematically. The results indicated that the absorption of binary g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/ZnO nanocomposites shifted to a lower energy compared to pure ZnO in a fashion consistent with the loading content of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. Notably, the loading content of GO in the ZnO–g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} composite resulted in increased absorption in the visible range and improved charge separation efficiency, thereby drastically improving photocatalytic activity. Successful hybridization of ternary nanocomposite was confirmed by drastic quenching of fluorescence and broader visible light absorption. The optimal content of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} in the ZnO–g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} composite was 50%, which exhibited the effective hybridization between ZnO and g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}, and high photocatalytic efficiency. However, the photocatalytic degradation of the ternary nanocomposite showed performance that was two times greater than ZnO–g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}, exhibiting 99.5% degradation efficiency after just 15 min of light irradiation. The combined heterojunction and synergistic effects of this composite account for the improved photocatalytic activity.

  14. Chitosan mediated synthesis of core/double shell ternary polyaniline/Chitosan/cobalt oxide nano composite-as high energy storage electrode material in supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vellakkat, Mini; Hundekkal, Devendrappa

    2016-01-01

    Nanostructured ternary composite of polyaniline (PANI), Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles, and Chitosan (CS) has been prepared by an in situ chemical oxidation method, and the nanocomposites (CPAESCO) were used as supercapacitor electrodes. The Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles are uniformly coated with CS and PANI layers in it. Different techniques (Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry, x-ray diffraction, thermal gravimetric analysis, UV−visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and electro chemical analysis-cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge (GCD), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy) were used to analyse the optical, structural, thermal, chemical and supercapacitive aspects of the nanocomposites. Core/double shell ternary composite electrode exhibits significantly increased specific capacitance than PANI/Co 3 O 4 or PANI/CS binary composites in supercapacitors. The ternary nanocomposite with 40% nanoparticle exhibits a highest specific capacitance reaching 687 F g −1 , Energy density of (95.42 Wh kg −1 at 1 A g −1 ) and power density of (1549 W kg −1 at 3 A g −1 ) and outstanding cycling performance, with, 91% capacitance retained over 5000 cycles. It is found that this unique bio compatible nano composite with synergy is a new multifunctional material which will be useful in the design of supercapacitor electrodes and other energy conversion devices too. (paper)

  15. Coherent polyaniline/graphene oxides/multi-walled carbon nanotubes ternary composites for asymmetric supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Ming; Chen, Yi; Xiong, Weilai; Zhang, Liu; Wu, Liyang; Fu, Yang; Mei, Tao; Wang, Jianying; Li, Jinhua; Wang, Xianbao

    2016-01-01

    A coherent polyaniline (PANI)/graphene oxides (GOs)/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) composite was prepared by in-situ solution polymerization as a positive electrode of supercapacitors. The orderly growth of PANI nano-dots on GOs led to the formation of the nano-ravines that can enhance ions diffusion efficiency. MWCNTs surrounded by PANI connected all components, and thus the conductivity with the increasing electron transfer rate was improved. The results showed that the electrode exhibited the outstanding electrochemical performances with the specific capacitance up to 696 F g −1 at 20 mV s −1 . The KOH-activated GOs/MWCNTs were used as a negative electrode to assemble an asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC). The ASC possessed an extended working potential (1.6 V), a good rate capability (58% capacitance retention even after the current density being increased by 10 times), an excellent cycling stability (89% capacitance retention after 3000 cycles), and a decent average energy and power density (69 W h/kg and 6.4 kW/kg).

  16. Facile Synthesis of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/Mildly Oxidized Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes/Reduced Mildly Oxidized Graphene Oxide Ternary Composite as the Material for Supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Meiyu; Liu, Kaiyu; Li, Yan; Wei, Lai; Zhong, Jianjian; Su, Geng [Central South Univ., Changsha (China)

    2014-05-15

    A three-dimensional (3D) Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/mildly oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (moCNTs)/reduced mildly oxidized graphene oxide (rmGO) ternary composite was prepared via a simple and green hydrolysis-hydrothermal approach by mixing Co(Ac){sub 2}·4H{sub 2}O with moCNTs and mGO suspension in mixed ethanol/H{sub 2}O. As characterized by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles with size of 20-100 nm and moCNTs are effectively anchored in mGO. Cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements were adopted to investigate the electrochemical properties of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/moCNTs/rmGO ternary composite in 6 M KOH solution. In a potential window of 0-0.6 V vs. Hg/HgO, the composite delivers an initial specific capacitance of 492 F g{sup -1} at 0.5 A g{sup -1} and the capacitance remains 592 F g{sup -1} after 2000 cycles, while the pure Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} shows obviously capacitance fading, indicating that rmGO and moCNTs greatly enhance the electrochemical performance of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}.

  17. First approach for thermodynamic modelling of the high temperature oxidation behaviour of ternary γ′-strengthened Co–Al–W superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, L.; Zendegani, A.; Palumbo, M.; Fries, S.G.; Virtanen, S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermodynamic modelling of the oxidation behaviour of a novel Co-base superalloy. • Calculated oxide layer sequence is in good agreement with formed oxide scales. • Prediction of an optimised alloy composition with increased phase stability. • Prediction of the influence of oxygen partial pressure on Al 2 O 3 formation. - Abstract: In the present work, thermodynamic modelling of the high temperature oxidation behaviour of a γ′-strengthened Co-base superalloy is presented. The ternary Co–9Al–9W alloy (values in at%) was isothermally oxidised for 500 h at 800 and 900 °C in air. Results reveal that the calculated oxide layer sequence (Thermo-Calc, TCNI6) is in good agreement with the formed oxide scales on the alloy surface. Furthermore, prediction of the influence of oxygen partial pressure on Al 2 O 3 formation is presented. The modelling results indicate pathways for alloy development or possible pre-oxidation surface treatments for improved oxidation resistance of the material

  18. Oxygen potential of a prototypic Mo-cermet fuel containing plutonium oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miwa, Shuhei, E-mail: miwa.shuhei@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002 Narita-cho, Oarai-machi, Higashiibaraki-gun, Ibaraki, 311-1393 (Japan); Osaka, Masahiko [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002 Narita-cho, Oarai-machi, Higashiibaraki-gun, Ibaraki, 311-1393 (Japan); Nozaki, Takahiro; Arima, Tatsumi; Idemitsu, Kazuya [Kyushu University, 744 Motooka Nishi-ku, Fukuoka, 819-0395 (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    Oxygen potential of a prototypic Mo-cermet fuel containing 50 vol.% PuO{sub 2−x} were investigated by the thermogravimetric analysis in the temperature range from 1273 K to 1473 K. It was shown that the oxygen potential and oxidation rate of the Mo-cermet were the same as those of pure PuO{sub 2−x} below the oxygen potential of Mo/MoO{sub 2} oxidation reaction. The same features of the Mo-cermet sample containing 50 vol.% PuO{sub 2−x} with those of pure PuO{sub 2−x} were discussed in terms of the microstructure. - Highlights: • Oxygen potential of Mo-cermet fuel was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis. • It was the same as that of pure PuO{sub 2−x} below the oxygen potential for Mo/MoO{sub 2}. • Gradual oxidation of Mo matrix occurred only above the oxygen potential for Mo/MoO{sub 2}. • Mo matrix and PuO{sub 2−x} in Mo-cermet fuel can thus be thermochemically individual.

  19. Oxygen potential of a prototypic Mo-cermet fuel containing plutonium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miwa, Shuhei; Osaka, Masahiko; Nozaki, Takahiro; Arima, Tatsumi; Idemitsu, Kazuya

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen potential of a prototypic Mo-cermet fuel containing 50 vol.% PuO_2_−_x were investigated by the thermogravimetric analysis in the temperature range from 1273 K to 1473 K. It was shown that the oxygen potential and oxidation rate of the Mo-cermet were the same as those of pure PuO_2_−_x below the oxygen potential of Mo/MoO_2 oxidation reaction. The same features of the Mo-cermet sample containing 50 vol.% PuO_2_−_x with those of pure PuO_2_−_x were discussed in terms of the microstructure. - Highlights: • Oxygen potential of Mo-cermet fuel was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis. • It was the same as that of pure PuO_2_−_x below the oxygen potential for Mo/MoO_2. • Gradual oxidation of Mo matrix occurred only above the oxygen potential for Mo/MoO_2. • Mo matrix and PuO_2_−_x in Mo-cermet fuel can thus be thermochemically individual.

  20. Systems Ln-Fe-O ( Ln=Eu, Gd): thermodynamic properties of ternary oxides using solid-state electrochemical cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parida, S. C.; Rakshit, S. K.; Dash, S.; Singh, Ziley; Prasad, R.; Venugopal, V.

    2003-05-01

    The standard molar Gibbs energies of formation of LnFeO 3(s) and Ln3Fe 5O 12(s) where Ln=Eu and Gd have been determined using solid-state electrochemical technique employing different solid electrolytes. The reversible e.m.f.s of the following solid-state electrochemical cells have been measured in the temperature range from 1050 to 1255 K. Cell (I): (-)Pt / { LnFeO 3(s)+ Ln2O 3(s)+Fe(s)} // YDT/CSZ // {Fe(s)+Fe 0.95O(s)} / Pt(+); Cell (II): (-)Pt/{Fe(s)+Fe 0.95O(s)}//CSZ//{ LnFeO 3(s)+ Ln3Fe 5O 12(s)+Fe 3O 4(s)}/Pt(+); Cell (III): (-)Pt/{ LnFeO 3(s)+ Ln3Fe 5O 12(s)+Fe 3O 4(s)}//YSZ//{Ni(s)+NiO(s)}/Pt(+); and Cell(IV):(-)Pt/{Fe(s)+Fe 0.95O(s)}//YDT/CSZ//{ LnFeO 3(s)+ Ln3Fe 5O 12(s)+Fe 3O 4(s)}/Pt(+). The oxygen chemical potentials corresponding to the three-phase equilibria involving the ternary oxides have been computed from the e.m.f. data. The standard Gibbs energies of formation of solid EuFeO 3, Eu 3Fe 5O 12, GdFeO 3 and Gd 3Fe 5O 12 calculated by the least-squares regression analysis of the data obtained in the present study are given by Δ fG°m(EuFeO 3, s) /kJ mol -1 (± 3.2)=-1265.5+0.2687( T/K) (1050 ⩽ T/K ⩽ 1570), Δ fG°m(Eu 3Fe 5O 12, s)/kJ mol -1 (± 3.5)=-4626.2+1.0474( T/K) (1050 ⩽ T/K ⩽ 1255), Δ fG°m(GdFeO 3, s) /kJ mol -1 (± 3.2)=-1342.5+0.2539( T/K) (1050 ⩽ T/K ⩽ 1570), and Δ fG°m(Gd 3Fe 5O 12, s)/kJ·mol -1 (± 3.5)=-4856.0+1.0021( T/K) (1050 ⩽ T/K ⩽ 1255). The uncertainty estimates for Δ fG°m include the standard deviation in the e.m.f. and uncertainty in the data taken from the literature. Based on the thermodynamic information, oxygen potential diagrams for the systems Eu-Fe-O and Gd-Fe-O and chemical potential diagrams for the system Gd-Fe-O were computed at 1250 K.

  1. Fabrication of novel ternary Au/CeO2@g-C3N4 nanocomposite: kinetics and mechanism investigation of 4-nitrophenol reduction, and benzyl alcohol oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohantorabi, Mona; Gholami, Mohammad Reza

    2018-06-01

    Au nanoparticles supported on cerium oxide/graphitic carbon nitride (CeO2@g-C3N4) was synthesized and used as heterogeneous catalyst in redox reaction. The catalyst was characterized by different techniques such as FT-IR, XRD, FE-SEM, EDS, TEM, BET, TGA, and ICP. The as-prepared ternary nanocomposite was used as an effective catalyst for the reduction of toxic 4-nitrophenol to useful 4-aminophenol by NaBH4. The rate constant value of reduction reaction reached up to 0.106 s-1 by Au/CeO2@g-C3N4, which was 3.8, and 8.8 times higher than that of Au@CeO2 (0.028 s-1), and Au@g-C3N4 (0.012 s-1) nanocomposites, respectively. The superior catalytic performance of as-prepared catalyst in 4-NP reduction can be attributed to synergistic effect between Au nanoparticles and CeO2@g-C3N4 support, and efficient electron transfer. The reduction reaction was carried out at different temperatures, and the energy of activation ({Ea}), and thermodynamic parameters including, activation of entropy (Δ S^ ≠), enthalpy (Δ H^ ≠), and Gibbs free energy (Δ G^ ≠) were determined. Additionally, the mechanism of reaction was studied in details, and equilibrium constants of 4-NP ( K 4-NP), and {BH}4^{ - } ({K_{{BH}4^{{ - }} }}) were calculated using Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. Furthermore, this nanocomposite exhibited excellent catalytic activity in oxidation of benzyl alcohol by molecular oxygen as a green oxidant. This study revealed that the ternary Au/CeO2@g-C3N4 nanocomposite is an attractive candidate for catalytic applications.

  2. Ternary iron(II) complex with an emissive imidazopyridine arm from Schiff base cyclizations and its oxidative DNA cleavage activity

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee, Arindam; Dhar, Shanta; Nethaji, Munirathinam; Chakravarty, Akhil R

    2005-01-01

    The ternary iron(II) complex [Fe(L')(L")] $(PF_6)_3(1)$ as a synthetic model for the bleomycins, where L' and L" are formed from metal-mediated cyclizations of N,N -(2-hydroxypropane-1,3-diyl)bis(pyridine-2-aldimine)(L), is synthesized and structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography. In the six-coordinate iron(II) complex, ligands L' and L" show tetradentate and bidentate chelating modes of bonding. Ligand L' is formed from an intramolecular attack of the alcoholic OH group of L to o...

  3. Thermodynamic properties of ternary oxides in the system Ba-Fe-O using solid-state electrochemical cells with oxide and fluoride ion conducting electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakshit, S. K.; Parida, S. C.; Singh, Ziley; Prasad, R.; Venugopal, V.

    2004-04-01

    The standard molar Gibbs energy of formations of BaFe 12O 19(s), BaFe 2O 4(s), Ba 2Fe 2O 5(s), Ba 3Fe 2O 6(s) and Ba 5Fe 2O 8(s) have been determined using solid-state electrochemical technique employing CaF 2(s) as an electrolyte. The reversible e.m.f. values have been measured in the temperature range from 970 to 1151 K. The oxygen chemical potential corresponding to three phase equilibria involving technologically important compound BaFe 12O 19(s) has been determined using solid-state electrochemical technique employing CSZ as an electrolyte from 1048 to 1221 K. The values of Δ fGm0( T) for the above ternary oxides are given by ΔfG m0( BaFe12O19, s)/ kJ mol -1(±0.6)=-5431.3+1.5317 (T/ K) (970⩽T/ K⩽1151) ΔfG m0( BaFe2O4, s)/ kJ mol -1(±1.3)=-1461.4+0.3745 (T/ K) (970⩽T/ K⩽1151) ΔfG m0( Ba2Fe2O5, s)/ kJ mol -1(±1.4)=-2038.3+0.4433 (T/ K) (970⩽T/ K⩽1149) ΔfG m0( Ba3Fe2O6, s)/ kJ mol -1(±1.5)=-2700.1+0.6090 (T/ K) (969⩽T/ K⩽1150) and ΔfG m0( Ba5Fe2O8, s)/ kJ mol -1(±1.6)=-3984.1+0.9300 (T/ K) (973⩽T/ K⩽1150) The uncertainty estimates for Δ fGm0 includes the standard deviation in the e.m.f. and uncertainty in the data taken from the literature. An isothermal oxygen potential diagram for the system Ba-Fe-O was constructed at 1100 K based on the thermodynamic data obtained in this study.

  4. Ternary Hollow Mesoporous TiN/N-Graphene/Pt Hybrid Results in Enhanced Electrocatalytic Performance for Methanol Oxidation and Oxygen Reduction Reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Baocang; Huo, Lili; Zhang, Geng; Zhang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel hollow mesoporous ternary @M-TiN/N-G/Pt electrocatalysts were synthesized. • The @M-TiN/N-G/Pt electrocatalysts displayed outstanding activity and stability toward MOR and ORR. • The activity and stability of @M-TiN/N-G/Pt electrocatalysts were higher than Pt/TiN, @M-TiN/Pt, and Pt/C catalysts. • The excellent electrocatalytic performance rooted in its unique configuration. • Several reasons were proposed to explain the enhanced electrocatalytic performance of @M-TiN/N-G/Pt. - Abstract: A novel hollow mesoporous TiN/N-graphene (N-G) hybrid architecture (@M-TiN/N-G) composed of N-doped graphene wrapped mesoporous TiN nanoparticle shells was constructed for the first time. It can be used as an efficient support for creating a highly efficient ternary @M-TiN/N-G/Pt electrocatalyst with superior catalytic activity and stability for methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) through decorating well-dispersed Pt nanoparticles on @M-TiN/N-G surface. By optimizing the content of N-G in catalysts, the @M-TiN/N-G/Pt catalysts display superior catalytic activity and stability toward MOR and ORR to traditional Pt/C and graphene-free Pt/TiN and @M-TiN/Pt catalysts. The various characterization results reveal that the outstanding electrocatalytic performance of @M-TiN/N-G/Pt catalyst roots in its large surface area, high porosity, strong interaction among Pt, TiN, and N-G, excellent electron transfer property facilitated by N-doped graphene, and small size of Pt and TiN nanocrystals. The synthetic approach may be available for constructing other graphene based hollow metal nitrides, carbides, and phosphides for various electrocatalytic applications.

  5. Coelectrodeposition of Ternary Mn-Oxide/Polypyrrole Composites for ORR Electrocatalysts: A Study Based on Micro-X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy and X-ray Fluorescence Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetto Bozzini

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Low energy X-ray fluorescence (XRF and soft X-ray absorption (XAS microspectroscopies at high space-resolution are employed for the investigation of the coelectrodeposition of composites consisting of a polypyrrole(PPy-matrix and Mn-based ternary dispersoids, that have been proposed as promising electrocatalysts for oxygen-reduction electrodes. Specifically, we studied Mn–Co–Cu/PP, Mn–Co–Mg/PPy and Mn–Ni–Mg/PPy co-electrodeposits. The Mn–Co–Cu system features the best ORR electrocatalytic activity in terms of electron transfer number, onset potential, half-wave potential and current density. XRF maps and micro-XAS spectra yield compositional and chemical state distributions, contributing unique molecular-level information on the pulse-plating processes. Mn, Ni, Co and Mg exhibit a bimodal distribution consisting of mesoscopic aggregates of micrometric globuli, separated by polymer-rich ridges. Within this common qualitative scenario, the individual systems exhibit quantitatively different chemical distribution patterns, resulting from specific electrokinetic and electrosorption properties of the single components. The electrodeposits consist of Mn3+,4+-oxide particles, accompanied by combinations of Co0/Co2+, Ni0/Ni2+ and Cu0,+/Cu2+ resulting from the alternance of cathodic and anodic pulses. The formation of highly electroactive Mn3+,4+ in the as-fabricated material is a specific feature of the ternary systems, deriving from synergistic stabilisation brought about by two types of bivalent dopants as well as by galvanic contact to elemental metal; this result represents a considerable improvement in material quality with respect to previously studied Mn/PPy and Mn-based/PPy binaries.

  6. Photocatalytic oxidation removal of Hg"0 using ternary Ag/AgI-Ag_2CO_3 hybrids in wet scrubbing process under fluorescent light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Anchao; Zhang, Lixiang; Chen, Xiaozhuan; Zhu, Qifeng; Liu, Zhichao; Xiang, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Ag/AgI-Ag_2CO_3 hybrids were employed for Hg"0 removal under fluorescent light. • Superoxide radical (·O_2"−) played a key role in Hg"0 removal. • NO exhibited a significant effect on Hg"0 removal in comparison to SO_2. • The mechanism for enhanced Hg"0 removal over Ag/AgI-Ag_2CO_3 was proposed. - Abstract: A series of ternary Ag/AgI-Ag_2CO_3 photocatalysts synthesized using a facile coprecipitation method were employed to investigate their performances of Hg"0 removal in a wet scrubbing reactor. The hybrids were characterized by N_2 adsorption-desorption, XRD, SEM-EDS, HRTEM, XPS, DRS and ESR. The photocatalytic activities of Hg"0 removal were evaluated under fluorescent light. The results showed that AgI content, fluorescent light irradiation, reaction temperature all showed significant influences on Hg"0 removal. NO exhibited significant effect on Hg"0 removal in comparison to SO_2. Among these ternary Ag/AgI-Ag_2CO_3 hybrids, Ag/AgI(0.1)-Ag_2CO_3 showed the highest Hg"0 removal efficiency, which could be ascribed to the effective separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs between AgI and Ag_2CO_3 and the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect in the visible region by metallic silver nanoparticles (Ag"0 NPs). The trapping studies of reactive radicals showed that the superoxide radicals (·O_2"−) may play a key role in Hg"0 removal under fluorescent light. According to the experimental and characterization results, a possible photocatalytic oxidation mechanism for enhanced Hg"0 removal over Ag/AgI(0.1)-Ag_2CO_3 hybrid under fluorescent light was proposed.

  7. Oxidation and reduction behaviors of a prototypic MgO-PuO{sub 2-x} inert matrix fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miwa, Shuhei, E-mail: miwa.shuhei@jaea.go.jp; Osaka, Masahiko

    2017-04-15

    Oxidation and reduction behaviors of prototypic MgO-based inert matrix fuels (IMFs) containing PuO{sub 2-x} were experimentally investigated by means of thermogravimetry. The oxidation and reduction kinetics of the MgO-PuO{sub 2-x} specimen were determined. The oxidation and reduction rates of the MgO-PuO{sub 2-x} were found to be low compared with those of PuO{sub 2-x}. It is note that the changes in O/Pu ratios of MgO-PuO{sub 2-x} from stoichiometry were smaller than those of PuO{sub 2-x} at high oxygen partial pressure.

  8. Solvothermal one-step synthesis of Ni-Al layered double hydroxide/carbon nanotube/reduced graphene oxide sheet ternary nanocomposite with ultrahigh capacitance for supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wanlu; Gao, Zan; Wang, Jun; Ma, Jing; Zhang, Milin; Liu, Lianhe

    2013-06-26

    A Ni-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH), mutil-wall carbon nanotube (CNT), and reduced graphene oxide sheet (GNS) ternary nanocomposite electrode material has been developed by a facile one-step ethanol solvothermal method. The obtained LDH/CNT/GNS composite displayed a three-dimensional (3D) architecture with flowerlike Ni-Al LDH/CNT nanocrystallites gradually self-assembled on GNS nanosheets. GNS was used as building blocks to construct 3D nanostructure, and the LDH/CNT nanoflowers in turn separated the two-dimensional (2D) GNS sheets, which preserved the high surface area of GNSs. Furthermore, the generated porous networks with a narrow pore size distribution in the LDH/CNT/GNS composite were also demonstrated by the N2 adsorption/desorption experiment. Such morphology would be favorable to improve the mass transfer and electrochemical action of the electrode. As supercapacitor electrode material, the LDH/CNT/GNS hybrid exhibited excellent electrochemical performance, including ultrahigh specific capacitance (1562 F/g at 5 mA/cm(2)), excellent rate capability, and long-term cycling performance, which could be a promising energy storage/conversion material for supercapacitor application.

  9. A prototype Ultraviolet Light Sensor based on ZnO Nanoparticles/Graphene Oxide Nanocomposite Using Low Temperature Hydrothermal Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Fandi, M; Oweis, R; Khwailah, H; Al-Hattami, S; Al-Shawwa, E; Albiss, B A; Al-Akhras, M-Ali; Qutaish, H; AlZoubi, T

    2015-01-01

    A new prototype UV nanosensor using ZnO nanoparticles (NPs)/graphene oxide (GO) nanocomposite (ZnO-NP/GO) on silicon substrate is reported in this paper. The hybrid nanocomposite structure has been developed by an optimized hydrothermal process at low growth temperature (∼50 °C). In this hybrid nanosensor, the ZnO nanoparticles act as UV- absorbing and charge carrier generating material, while graphene with its superior electrical conductivity has been used as a charge transporting material. Various nanostructure characterization techniques were intensively utilized including SEM, EDX, XRD, FTIR and UV-VIS. Also, the I-V measurement was employed to evaluate the prototype sensor. The morphological SEM analysis showed that the ZnO-NPs (average diameter of 20 nm) were dispersed evenly on the GO sheets. As well, the EDX spectra confirmed the exact chemical composition of the intended structure. The room temperature UV-VIS measurement revealed an enhanced optical absorption of UV-light at an absorption band centered on 375 nm. The improved optical and electrical properties were observed at an optimum relative concentration of 1:10. Under UV light illumination, the measured I-V characteristic of the prototype detector exhibited a considerable photocurrent increase of the ZnO-NP/GO nanocomposite compared to pristine ZnO nanostructure. These results can be promising for future enhanced UV- sensing applications. (paper)

  10. Thermoluminescent properties of Spinel-type oxides present in the Ternary system In2O3-TiO2-Mg O in air at 1350 degrees C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, F.; Hernandez P, T. C.; Alvarez M, V. E.; Cruz V, C.; Munoz, I. C.; Bernal, R.

    2015-10-01

    Full text: In the ternary system In 2 O 3 -TiO 2 -Mg O exists a solid solution Mg 2-x In 2x Ti 1-x O 4 (0≤ x ≤1) with spinel-type structure between MgIn 2 O 4 and Mg 2 TiO 4 (F. Brown et. al., 2000). In order to analyze their thermoluminescent (Tl) response, we obtained the spinel-type oxides with x= 0 (s1), 0.25 (s2), 0.5 (s3), 0.75 (s4), and 1 (s5) by a solid state reaction at 1350 degrees C in air. The X-ray patterns showed a spinel type structure for these compounds. The powders were exposed to beta particles from 90 Sr. The glow curve showed by s1 and s3 were hundreds of times more intense than s2, s4 and s5. At 50 Gy, s1 exhibits a main Tl maximum located at 200 degrees C, with two shoulders at 119 and 250 degrees C. The s3 oxide reveals a simple and wide glow curve at ≅195 degrees C with a Tl maximum located at 203 degrees C at 21.33 Gy. The peaks of the s1 and s3 oxide show a shift to lower temperatures and this increases its intensity as the irradiation dose increases. The lineal behavior observed for s1 and s3 were between 1.33-150 Gy and 10.66-341 Gy correspondingly, without evidence of saturation signal. After cycle 4, the s1 oxide has small variations in the relative sensitivity, with percentages below 1%. On the other hand, s3 reveals a relative sensitivity variation of 2.7%. Besides this, the standard deviation after ten consecutive irradiation-Tl readout cycles for s1 was 3.07 % and for s3 was 1%. The minimum detectable dose obtained were 0.5 Gy for s1 and 5.65 Gy for s3. These results suggest a possible application of Mg 1.5 InTi 0.5 O 4 in dosimetry. (Author)

  11. Binary and ternary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    Conditions for thermodynamical equilibrium in binary and ternary systems are considered. Main types of binary and ternary system phase diagrams are sequently constructed on the basis of general regularities on the character of transition from one equilibria to others. New statements on equilibrium line direction in the diagram triple points and their isothermal cross sections are developed. New represenations on equilibria in case of monovariant curve minimum and maximum on three-phase equilibrium formation in ternary system are introduced

  12. Ternary Pt9RhFex Nanoscale Alloys as Highly Efficient Catalysts with Enhanced Activity and Excellent CO-Poisoning Tolerance for Ethanol Oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Yin, Shibin; Wen, Ying; Tian, Zhiqun; Wang, Ningzhang; Key, Julian; Wang, Shuangbao; Shen, Pei Kang

    2017-03-22

    To address the problems of high cost and poor stability of anode catalysts in direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs), ternary nanoparticles Pt 9 RhFe x (x = 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9) supported on carbon powders (XC-72R) have been synthesized via a facile method involving reduction by sodium borohydride followed by thermal annealing in N 2 at ambient pressure. The catalysts are physically characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and their catalytic performance for the ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR) is evaluated by cyclic and linear scan voltammetry, CO-stripping voltammograms, and chronopotentiometry. All the Pt 9 RhFe x /C catalysts of different atomic ratios produce high EOR catalytic activity. The catalyst of atomic ratio composition 9:1:3 (Pt/Rh/Fe) has the highest activity and excellent CO-poisoning tolerance. Moreover, the enhanced EOR catalytic activity on Pt 9 RhFe 3 /C when compared to Pt 9 Rh/C, Pt 3 Fe/C, and Pt/C clearly demonstrates the presence of Fe improves catalytic performance. Notably, the onset potential for CO oxidation on Pt 9 RhFe 3 /C (0.271 V) is ∼55, 75, and 191 mV more negative than on Pt 9 Rh/C (0.326 V), Pt 3 Fe/C (0.346 V), and Pt/C (0.462 V), respectively, which implies the presence of Fe atoms dramatically improves CO-poisoning tolerance. Meanwhile, compared to the commercial PtRu/C catalyst, the peak potential on Pt 9 RhFe 3 /C for CO oxidation was just slightly changed after several thousand cycles, which shows high stability against the potential cycling. The possible mechanism by which Fe and Rh atoms facilitate the observed enhanced performance is also considered herein, and we conclude Pt 9 RhFe 3 /C offers a promising anode catalyst for direct ethanol fuel cells.

  13. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic activity of mixed oxides derived from ZnAlTi ternary layered double hydroxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, R. K.; Mohanta, B. S.; Das, N. N.

    2013-09-01

    A new series of Ti4+ containing ZnAl-LDHs with varying Zn:Al:Ti (~3:1:0-3:0.5:0.5) ratio were prepared by coprecipitation of homogeneous solution metal salts and characterized by various physicochemical methods. Powder XRD revealed the formation of well crystallized LDH even at the highest Ti4+ content. On thermal treatment at 450 °C, the well crystallized LDH precursors yielded mixed oxides with BET surface area in the range 92-118 m2/g. UV-vis diffuse reflection spectroscopy (DRS) showed a marginal decrease of band gap energy for calcined ZnAlTi-LDHs in comparison to either ZnO or TiO2-P25. The TEM analyses of a representative sample (as-synthesized and calcined) indicated more or less uniform distribution of titanium species. The derived mixed oxides from titanium containing LDH precursors demonstrated better activity toward photodegradation of methylene blue and rhodamine B than those of a physical mixture of ZnO and TiO2. Moreover, the present work not only provided a first hand understanding about semiconductor properties of ZnAlTi-LDHs but also demonstrated their potential as photocatalysts for degradation of organic pollutants.

  14. Manufacture and evaluation of integrated metal-oxide electrode prototype for corrosion monitoring in high temperature water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Yoshinori; Tani, Jun-ichi

    2014-01-01

    We have developed an integrated metal-oxide (M/O) electrode based on an yttria-stabilized-zirconia-(YSZ)-membrane M/O electrode, which was used as a reference electrode for corrosion monitoring in high temperature water. The YSZ-membrane M/O electrode can operate at high temperatures because of the conductivity of YSZ membrane tube. We cannot utilize it for long term monitoring at a wide range of temperatures. It also has a braze juncture between the YSZ membrane and metal tubes, which may corrode in high-temperature water. This corrosion should be prevented to improve the performance of the M/O electrode. An integrated M/O electrode was developed (i.e., integrated metal-oxide electrode, IMOE) to eliminate the braze juncture and increase the conductivity of YSZ. These issues should be overcome to improve the performance of M/O electrode. So we have developed two type of IMOE prototype with sputter - deposition or thermal oxidation. In this paper we will present and discuss the performance of our IMOEs in buffer solution at room temperature. (author)

  15. Highly active sulfided CoMo catalysts supported on (ZrO{sub 2}–TiO{sub 2})/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ternary oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escobar, José, E-mail: jeaguila@imp.mx [Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo, Eje Central Lázaro Cárdenas 152, Col. San Bartolo Atepehuacan, Gustavo A. Madero, México, D.F. 07730 (Mexico); De Los Reyes, José A., E-mail: jarh@xanum.uam.mx [Area de Ing. Química, UAM – Iztapalapa, San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, Iztapalapa, México, D.F. 09340 (Mexico); Ulín, Carlos A. [Area de Ing. Química, UAM – Iztapalapa, San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, Iztapalapa, México, D.F. 09340 (Mexico); Barrera, María C., E-mail: mcbdgavilan@gmail.com [Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Veracruzana, Av. Universidad km. 7.5, Col. Santa Isabel, Coatzacoalcos, Veracruz, México, D.F. 96538 (Mexico)

    2013-12-16

    (ZrO{sub 2}–TiO{sub 2})/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ternary oxide at 20 mol% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (80% ZrO{sub 2}–TiO{sub 2}, in turn at 40–60 mol ratio) prepared by controlled co-precipitation (by urea thermal decomposition) of zirconium (ZrOCl{sub 2}·8H{sub 2}O) and titanium (TiCl{sub 4}) chlorides over a ground alumina substrate constitutes a promising material to be used as carrier of sulfided hydrodesulfurization (HDS) catalysts. After calcining (at 500 °C), the ternary oxide presented textural properties (S{sub g} = 387 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}, V{sub p} = 0.74 ml g{sup −1}, mean pore diameter = 7.6 nm) suitable to its utilization as carrier of catalysts applied in the oil-derived middle distillates HDS. As determined by temperature programmed-reduction and Raman and UV–vis spectroscopies ZrO{sub 2}–TiO{sub 2} deposition over alumina substrate resulted in decreased proportion of Mo{sup 6+} species in tetrahedral coordination on the oxidic impregnated material. As those species constitute hardly reducible precursors, their diminished concentration could be reflected in enhanced amount of Mo species susceptible of activation by sulfiding (H{sub 2}S/H{sub 2} at 400 °C) over our ternary carrier. Limiting the concentration of zirconia-titania (at 40–60 mol ratio) to 20 mol% in the mixed oxides support allowed the preparation of highly active promoted (by cobalt, at Co/(Co + Mo) = 0.3) MoS{sub 2} phase (at 2.8 atoms/nm{sup 2}), that formulation showing excellent properties in hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of both dibenzothiophene and highly-refractory 4,6-dimethyl-dibenzothiophene. Due to alike yields to various HDS products over CoMo/(ZrO{sub 2}–TiO{sub 2})/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and the corresponding Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-supported formulation, presence of similar actives sites over those catalysts was strongly suggested. It seemed that enhanced concentration of octahedral Mo{sup 6+} over the oxidic impregnated precursor with (ZrO{sub 2}–TiO{sub 2})/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3

  16. System DyFeO: thermodynamic properties of ternary oxides using Calvet calorimetry and solid-state electrochemical cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parida, S. C.; Jacob, K. T.; Venugopal, V.

    2002-10-01

    The enthalpy increments and the standard molar Gibbs energies of formation of DyFeO 3(s) and Dy 3Fe 5O 12(s) have been measured using a Calvet micro-calorimeter and a solid oxide galvanic cell, respectively. A co-operative phase transition, related to anti-ferromagnetic to paramagnetic transformation, is apparent from the heat capacity data for DyFeO 3 at ˜648 K. A similar type of phase transition has been observed for Dy 3Fe 5O 12 at ˜560 K which is related to ferrimagnetic to paramagnetic transformation. Enthalpy increment data for DyFeO 3(s) and Dy 3Fe 5O 12(s), except in the vicinity of the second-order transition, can be represented by the following polynomial expressions: {H 0m(T)-H 0m(298.15 K)} ( J mol-1) (±1.1%)=-52754+142.9×(T ( K))+2.48×10 -3×(T ( K)) 2+2.951×10 6×(T ( K)) -1;(298.15⩽ T ( K)⩽1000) for DyFeO 3(s), and {H 0m(T)-H 0m(298.15 K)} ( J mol-1) (±1.2%)=-191048+545.0×(T ( K))+2.0×10 -5×(T ( K)) 2+8.513×10 6×(T ( K)) -1;(298.15⩽T ( K)⩽1000) for Dy 3Fe 5O 12(s). The reversible emfs of the solid-state electrochemical cells: (-)Pt/{DyFeO 3(s) + Dy 2O 3(s) + Fe(s)}//YDT/CSZ//{Fe(s) + Fe 0.95O(s)}/Pt(+) and (-)Pt/{Fe(s) + Fe 0.95O(s)}//CSZ//{DyFeO 3(s) + Dy 3Fe 5O 12(s) + Fe 3O 4(s)}/Pt(+), were measured in the temperature range from 1021 to 1250 K and 1035 to 1250 K, respectively. The standard Gibbs energies of formation of solid DyFeO 3 and Dy 3Fe 5O 12 calculated by the least squares regression analysis of the data obtained in the present study, and data for Fe 0.95O and Dy 2O 3 from the literature, are given by: Δ fG 0m( DyFeO3, s) ( kJ mol-1) (±3.2)=-1339.9+0.2473×(T ( K));(1021⩽T ( K)⩽1548) and Δ fG 0m( Dy3Fe5O12, s) ( kJ mol-1) (±3.5)=-4850.4+0.9846×(T ( K));(1035⩽T ( K)⩽1250). The uncertainty estimates for Δ fG 0m include the standard deviation in the emf and uncertainty in the data taken from the literature. Based on the thermodynamic information, oxygen potential diagram and chemical potential diagrams for

  17. TERNARY ALLOYS OF URANIUM, COLUMBIUM, AND ZIRCONIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, F.G.

    1960-08-01

    Ternary alloys of uranium are described which are useful as neutron- reflecting materials in a fast neutron reactor. They are especially resistant to corrosion caused by oxidative processes of gascous or aqueous origin and comprise uranium as the predominant metal with zirconiunn and niobium wherein the total content of the minor alloying elements is between 2 and 8% by weight.

  18. Ternary chalcopyrite semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Shay, J L; Pamplin, B R

    2013-01-01

    Ternary Chalcopyrite Semiconductors: Growth, Electronic Properties, and Applications covers the developments of work in the I-III-VI2 and II-IV-V2 ternary chalcopyrite compounds. This book is composed of eight chapters that focus on the crystal growth, characterization, and applications of these compounds to optical communications systems. After briefly dealing with the status of ternary chalcopyrite compounds, this book goes on describing the crystal growth of II-IV-V2 and I-III-VI2 single crystals. Chapters 3 and 4 examine the energy band structure of these semiconductor compounds, illustrat

  19. Synthesis and loading-dependent characteristics of nitrogen-doped graphene foam/carbon nanotube/manganese oxide ternary composite electrodes for high performance supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tao; Yu, Baozhi; Cao, Linli; Tan, Huiyun; Li, Xinghua; Zheng, Xinliang; Li, Weilong; Ren, Zhaoyu; Bai, Jinbo

    2017-09-01

    The ternary composite electrodes, nitrogen-doped graphene foam/carbon nanotube/manganese dioxide (NGF/CNT/MnO 2 ), have been successfully fabricated via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and facile hydrothermal method. The morphologies of the MnO 2 nanoflakes presented the loading-dependent characteristics and the nanoflake thickness could also be tuned by MnO 2 mass loading in the fabrication process. The correlation between their morphology and electrochemical performance was systematically investigated by controlling MnO 2 mass loading in the ternary composite electrodes. The electrochemical properties of the flexible ternary electrode (MnO 2 mass loading of 70%) exhibited a high areal capacitance of 3.03F/cm 2 and a high specific capacitance of 284F/g at the scan rate of 2mV/s. Moreover, it was interesting to find that the capacitance of the NGF/CNT/MnO 2 composite electrodes showed a 51.6% increase after 15,000 cycles. The gradual increase in specific capacitance was due to the formation of defective regions in the MnO 2 nanostructures during the electrochemical cycles of the electrodes, which further resulted in increased porosity, surface area, and consequently increased electrochemical capacity. This work demonstrates a rarely reported conclusion about loading-dependent characteristics for the NGF/CNT/MnO 2 ternary composite electrodes. It will bring new perspectives on designing novel ternary or multi-structure for various energy storage applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Processing-dependent thermal stability of a prototypical amorphous metal oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Li; Moghadam, Mahyar M.; Buchholz, D. Bruce; Li, Ran; Keane, Denis T.; Dravid, Vinayak P.; Chang, Robert P. H.; Voorhees, Peter W.; Marks, Tobin J.; Bedzyk, Michael J.

    2018-05-01

    Amorphous metal oxides (AMOs) are important candidate materials for fabricating next-generation thin-film transistors. While much attention has been directed toward the synthesis and electrical properties of AMOs, less is known about growth conditions that allow AMOs to retain their desirable amorphous state when subjected to high operating temperatures. Using in situ x-ray scattering and level-set simulations, we explore the time evolution of the crystallization process for a set of amorphous I n2O3 thin films synthesized by pulsed-laser deposition at deposition temperatures (Td) of -50, -25, and 0 °C. The films were annealed isothermally and the degree of crystallinity was determined by a quantitative analysis of the time-evolved x-ray scattering patterns. As expected, for films grown at the same Td, an increase in the annealing temperature TA led to a shorter delay prior to the onset of crystallization, and a faster crystallization rate. Moreover, when lowering the deposition temperature by 25 °C, a 40 °C increase in annealing temperature is needed to achieve the same time interval for the crystals to grow from 10 to 90% volume fraction of the sample. Films grown at Td=0 ∘C exhibited strong cubic texture after crystallization. A level-set method was employed to quantitatively model the texture that develops in the microstructures and to determine key parameters, such as the interface growth velocity, the nucleation density, and the activation energy. The differences observed in the crystallization processes are attributed to the changes in the atomic structure of the oxide and possible nanocrystalline inclusions that formed during the deposition of the amorphous phase.

  1. Architectural prototyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind; Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2004-01-01

    A major part of software architecture design is learning how specific architectural designs balance the concerns of stakeholders. We explore the notion of "architectural prototypes", correspondingly architectural prototyping, as a means of using executable prototypes to investigate stakeholders...

  2. Microstructure and crystallography of Al2O3-Y3Al5O12-ZrO2 ternary eutectic oxide grown by the micropulling down technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benamara, Omar; Cherif, Maya; Duffar, Thierry; Lebbou, Kheirreddine

    2015-11-01

    The directional solidification of Al2O3-YAG-ZrO2 eutectic ceramic by a micro-pulling down (μ-PD) technique is investigated. The effect of the pulling rate (0.1-1 mm min-1) on the crystallography and the microstructure is discussed. This ternary eutectic system has a Chinese script microstructure and the eutectic spacing λ depends on the pulling rate υ following the law: λ = 6.5υ-1/2 where λ is in μm and υ in μm/s as derived from the Jackson-Hunt model. With the lower pulling rates, all phases are oriented with the direction parallel to the growth direction; however other orientations appear at the higher pulling rates. The Cr3+ ions R-lines emission in the sapphire phase in the ternary eutectic composite is measured to estimate the stress in the alumina phase which is also shown to depend on the pulling rate.

  3. Collaborative Prototyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogers, Marcel; Horst, Willem

    2014-01-01

    of the prototyping process, the actual prototype was used as a tool for communication or development, thus serving as a platform for the cross-fertilization of knowledge. In this way, collaborative prototyping leads to a better balance between functionality and usability; it translates usability problems into design......This paper presents an inductive study that shows how collaborative prototyping across functional, hierarchical, and organizational boundaries can improve the overall prototyping process. Our combined action research and case study approach provides new insights into how collaborative prototyping...... can provide a platform for prototype-driven problem solving in early new product development (NPD). Our findings have important implications for how to facilitate multistakeholder collaboration in prototyping and problem solving, and more generally for how to organize collaborative and open innovation...

  4. Ternary complex formation at mineral/solution interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leckie, J.O.

    1995-01-01

    Adsorption of trace concentrations of radionuclides and heavy metals from aqueous solution is dependent on pH, absorbent and adsorbate concentration, and speciation of the metal in solution. In particular, complexation of metal ions by organic and inorganic ligands can dramatically alter adsorption behavior compared to ligand-free systems. The presence of complexing ligands can cause the formation of ''metal like'' or ''ligand like'' ternary surface complexes depending on whether adsorption of the ternary complex increases or decreases with increasing pH, respectively. Examples of ternary surface complexes behaving ''metal like'' include uranyl-EDTA surface complexes on goethite, neptunyl-EDTA surface complexes on hematite and neptunyl-humic surface complexes on gibbsite. Examples of ''ligand like'' ternary surface complexes include uranyl-carbonato and neptunyl-carbonato surface complexes on iron oxides. The effects of complex solutions and multimineralic systems are discussed. (authors). 39 refs., 16 figs., 8 tabs

  5. Design and development of a prototype wet oxidation system for the reclamation of water and the disposition of waste residues onboard space vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagow, R. B.

    1972-01-01

    Laboratory investigations to define optimum process conditions for oxidation of fecal/urine slurries were conducted in a one-liter batch reactor. The results of these tests formed the basis for the design, fabrication, and testing of an initial prototype system, including a 100-hour design verification test. Areas of further development were identified during this test. Development of a high pressure slurry pump, materials corrosion studies, oxygen supply trade studies, comparison of salt removal water recovery devices, ammonia removal investigation, development of a solids grinder, reactor design studies and bearing life tests, and development of shutoff valves and a back pressure regulator were undertaken. The development work has progressed to the point where a prototype system suitable for manned chamber testing can be fabricated and tested with a high degree of confidence of success.

  6. Asymmetric supercapacitors with metal-like ternary selenides and porous graphene electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Chuan; Jiang, Qiu; Zhao, Chao; Beaujuge, Pierre; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2016-01-01

    nanostructured ternary nickel cobalt selenides result in a much higher areal capacitance (2.33 F cm−2 at 4 mA cm−2), better rate performance and cycling stability than their binary selenide equivalents, and other ternary oxides and chalcogenides. Those hybrid

  7. Prototyping Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Tamke, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the role of the prototyping in digital architecture. During the past decade, a new research field has emerged exploring the digital technology’s impact on the way we think, design and build our environment. In this practice the prototype, the pavilion, installation or demonstr......This paper examines the role of the prototyping in digital architecture. During the past decade, a new research field has emerged exploring the digital technology’s impact on the way we think, design and build our environment. In this practice the prototype, the pavilion, installation...

  8. Photocatalytic oxidation removal of Hg{sup 0} using ternary Ag/AgI-Ag{sub 2}CO{sub 3} hybrids in wet scrubbing process under fluorescent light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Anchao, E-mail: aczhang@qq.com [School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo, 454000 (China); Zhang, Lixiang; Chen, Xiaozhuan; Zhu, Qifeng; Liu, Zhichao [School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo, 454000 (China); Xiang, Jun, E-mail: xiangjun@mail.hust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430074 (China)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Ag/AgI-Ag{sub 2}CO{sub 3} hybrids were employed for Hg{sup 0} removal under fluorescent light. • Superoxide radical (·O{sub 2}{sup −}) played a key role in Hg{sup 0} removal. • NO exhibited a significant effect on Hg{sup 0} removal in comparison to SO{sub 2}. • The mechanism for enhanced Hg{sup 0} removal over Ag/AgI-Ag{sub 2}CO{sub 3} was proposed. - Abstract: A series of ternary Ag/AgI-Ag{sub 2}CO{sub 3} photocatalysts synthesized using a facile coprecipitation method were employed to investigate their performances of Hg{sup 0} removal in a wet scrubbing reactor. The hybrids were characterized by N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption, XRD, SEM-EDS, HRTEM, XPS, DRS and ESR. The photocatalytic activities of Hg{sup 0} removal were evaluated under fluorescent light. The results showed that AgI content, fluorescent light irradiation, reaction temperature all showed significant influences on Hg{sup 0} removal. NO exhibited significant effect on Hg{sup 0} removal in comparison to SO{sub 2}. Among these ternary Ag/AgI-Ag{sub 2}CO{sub 3} hybrids, Ag/AgI(0.1)-Ag{sub 2}CO{sub 3} showed the highest Hg{sup 0} removal efficiency, which could be ascribed to the effective separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs between AgI and Ag{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect in the visible region by metallic silver nanoparticles (Ag{sup 0} NPs). The trapping studies of reactive radicals showed that the superoxide radicals (·O{sub 2}{sup −}) may play a key role in Hg{sup 0} removal under fluorescent light. According to the experimental and characterization results, a possible photocatalytic oxidation mechanism for enhanced Hg{sup 0} removal over Ag/AgI(0.1)-Ag{sub 2}CO{sub 3} hybrid under fluorescent light was proposed.

  9. Absolute determination by X-ray diffraction of a binary or ternary mixture: nickel oxide and fluoride in a nickel powder (1960)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpin, P.; Hauptman, A.

    1960-01-01

    The method employed is based upon the comparison between computed and measured intensities for conveniently selected X-Ray diffraction lines of each component of the powder. Care must be taken to allow for absorption, both inside each grain and in overall sample. This method has been applied to the determination of nickel oxide and fluoride in a nickel powder. (author) [fr

  10. Unikabeton Prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Asbjørn; Dombernowsky, Per

    2011-01-01

    The Unikabeton prototype structure was developed as the finalization of the cross-disciplinary research project Unikabeton, exploring the architectural potential in linking the computational process of topology optimisation with robot fabrication of concrete casting moulds. The project was elabor......The Unikabeton prototype structure was developed as the finalization of the cross-disciplinary research project Unikabeton, exploring the architectural potential in linking the computational process of topology optimisation with robot fabrication of concrete casting moulds. The project...... of Architecture was to develop a series of optimisation experiments, concluding in the design and optimisation of a full scale prototype concrete structure....

  11. New ternary superconducting germanides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschalkov, V. V.; Muttik, I. G.; Samarin, N. A.; Seropegin, Yu. D.; Rudometkina, M. V.

    1991-12-01

    We have studied the structure, electrical and magnetic properties of new ternary compounds with germanium and transition metals of IV and V groups (Ti 0.7V 0.3Ge 3, Hf 2V 3Ge, Zr 32-36V 32-36Ge 30-32, Hf 2Nb 3Ge 4, HfVGe, Zr 15-17V 39-40Ge 44-45, Hf 10.8-21.7V 36.0-42.8). The homogeneity fields for all new phases are determined. Resistivity (T) and magnetic susceptibility χ(T) are investigated at T=4.2…300 K. Two new superconductors have been found - Zr 32-36V 32-36Ge 30-32 and HfVGe with T c=4.7 K and 5.7 K, respectively.

  12. Thermoluminescent properties of Spinel-type oxides present in the Ternary system In{sub 2}O{sub 3}-TiO{sub 2}-Mg O in air at 1350 degrees C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, F.; Hernandez P, T. C.; Alvarez M, V. E.; Cruz V, C. [Universidad de Sonora, Departamento de Investigacion en Polimeros y Materiales, Apdo. Postal 130, 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Munoz, I. C. [Universidad de Sonora, Departamento de Ciencias Quimico-Biologicas, Apdo. Postal 130, 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Bernal, R., E-mail: imunoz@polimeros.uson.mx [Universidad de Sonora, Departamento de Investigacion en Fisica, Apdo. Postal 5-088, 83190 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: In the ternary system In{sub 2}O{sub 3}-TiO{sub 2}-Mg O exists a solid solution Mg{sub 2-x}In{sub 2x}Ti{sub 1-x}O{sub 4} (0≤ x ≤1) with spinel-type structure between MgIn{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Mg{sub 2}TiO{sub 4} (F. Brown et. al., 2000). In order to analyze their thermoluminescent (Tl) response, we obtained the spinel-type oxides with x= 0 (s1), 0.25 (s2), 0.5 (s3), 0.75 (s4), and 1 (s5) by a solid state reaction at 1350 degrees C in air. The X-ray patterns showed a spinel type structure for these compounds. The powders were exposed to beta particles from {sup 90}Sr. The glow curve showed by s1 and s3 were hundreds of times more intense than s2, s4 and s5. At 50 Gy, s1 exhibits a main Tl maximum located at 200 degrees C, with two shoulders at 119 and 250 degrees C. The s3 oxide reveals a simple and wide glow curve at ≅195 degrees C with a Tl maximum located at 203 degrees C at 21.33 Gy. The peaks of the s1 and s3 oxide show a shift to lower temperatures and this increases its intensity as the irradiation dose increases. The lineal behavior observed for s1 and s3 were between 1.33-150 Gy and 10.66-341 Gy correspondingly, without evidence of saturation signal. After cycle 4, the s1 oxide has small variations in the relative sensitivity, with percentages below 1%. On the other hand, s3 reveals a relative sensitivity variation of 2.7%. Besides this, the standard deviation after ten consecutive irradiation-Tl readout cycles for s1 was 3.07 % and for s3 was 1%. The minimum detectable dose obtained were 0.5 Gy for s1 and 5.65 Gy for s3. These results suggest a possible application of Mg{sub 1.5}InTi{sub 0.5}O{sub 4} in dosimetry. (Author)

  13. Solution Prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Efeoglu, Arkin; Møller, Charles; Serie, Michel

    2013-01-01

    This paper outlines an artifact building and evaluation proposal. Design Science Research (DSR) studies usually consider encapsulated artifact that have relationships with other artifacts. The solution prototype as a composed artifact demands for a more comprehensive consideration in its systematic...... environment. The solution prototype that is composed from blending product and service prototype has particular impacts on the dualism of DSR’s “Build” and “Evaluate”. Since the mix between product and service prototyping can be varied, there is a demand for a more agile and iterative framework. Van de Ven......’s research framework seems to fit this purpose. Van de Ven allows for an iterative research approach to problem solving with flexible starting point. The research activity is the result between the iteration of two dimensions. This framework focuses on the natural evaluation, particularly on ex...

  14. Synthesis and characterization of a novel stationary phase, Si-Zr/Ti(PMTDS), based upon ternary oxide support for high performance liquid chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amparo, Maura R.; Marques, Fabiana A.; Faria, Anizio M., E-mail: anizio@pontal.ufu.br [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (FACIP/UFU), Ituiutaba, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Integradas do Pontal

    2013-09-15

    A new stationary phase based on the thermal immobilization of poly(methyltetradecylsiloxane) (PMTDS) on silica particles coated with a mixture of zirconia and titania was prepared and evaluated for the chromatographic separation of test mixtures. The spherical particles were characterized by elemental analysis, SEM, FTIR and {sup 29}Si NMR. The physicochemical properties of PMTDS phase supported on Si-Zr/Ti were intermediate between PMTDS phases supported on titanized silica and zirconized silica. The chromatographic performance of Si-Zr/Ti(PMTDS) phase was similar to PMTDS phases based on metal oxide coated silica having only one metal oxide and the preparation of a Si-Zr/Ti(PMTDS) phase allowed evaluation of the effect of each oxide, zirconia and titania, on the separation process and on the stability of the immobilized polymer phase. The hydrolytic stability of Si-Zr/Ti(PMTDS) stationary phase was similar to the Si-Ti(PMTDS) phase, improving the chemical stability of the silica-based PMTDS phase by about 100%. (author)

  15. Software Prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Fiol, Guilherme; Hanseler, Haley; Crouch, Barbara Insley; Cummins, Mollie R.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Health information exchange (HIE) between Poison Control Centers (PCCs) and Emergency Departments (EDs) could improve care of poisoned patients. However, PCC information systems are not designed to facilitate HIE with EDs; therefore, we are developing specialized software to support HIE within the normal workflow of the PCC using user-centered design and rapid prototyping. Objective To describe the design of an HIE dashboard and the refinement of user requirements through rapid prototyping. Methods Using previously elicited user requirements, we designed low-fidelity sketches of designs on paper with iterative refinement. Next, we designed an interactive high-fidelity prototype and conducted scenario-based usability tests with end users. Users were asked to think aloud while accomplishing tasks related to a case vignette. After testing, the users provided feedback and evaluated the prototype using the System Usability Scale (SUS). Results Survey results from three users provided useful feedback that was then incorporated into the design. After achieving a stable design, we used the prototype itself as the specification for development of the actual software. Benefits of prototyping included having 1) subject-matter experts heavily involved with the design; 2) flexibility to make rapid changes, 3) the ability to minimize software development efforts early in the design stage; 4) rapid finalization of requirements; 5) early visualization of designs; 6) and a powerful vehicle for communication of the design to the programmers. Challenges included 1) time and effort to develop the prototypes and case scenarios; 2) no simulation of system performance; 3) not having all proposed functionality available in the final product; and 4) missing needed data elements in the PCC information system. PMID:27081404

  16. Highly active carbon supported ternary PdSnPtx (x=0.1-0.7) catalysts for ethanol electro-oxidation in alkaline and acid media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoguang; Zhu, Fuchun; He, Yongwei; Wang, Mei; Zhang, Zhonghua; Ma, Zizai; Li, Ruixue

    2016-04-15

    A series of trimetallic PdSnPtx (x=0.1-0.7)/C catalysts with varied Pt content have been synthesized by co-reduction method using NaBH4 as a reducing agent. These catalysts were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (CA). The electrochemical results show that, after adding a minor amount of Pt dopant, the resultant PdSnPtx/C demonstrated more superior catalytic performance toward ethanol oxidation as compared with that of mono-/bi-metallic Pd/C or PdSn/C in alkaline solution and the PdSnPt0.2/C with optimal molar ratio reached the best. In acid solution, the PdSnPt0.2/C also depicted a superior catalytic activity relative to the commercial Pt/C catalyst. The possible enhanced synergistic effect between Pd, Sn/Sn(O) and Pt in an alloyed state should be responsible for the as-revealed superior ethanol electro-oxidation performance based upon the beneficial electronic effect and bi-functional mechanism. It implies the trimetallic PdSnPt0.2/C with a low Pt content has a promising prospect as anodic electrocatalyst in fields of alkali- and acid-type direct ethanol fuel cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Preparation of ternary Pt/Rh/SnO2 anode catalysts for use in direct ethanol fuel cells and their electrocatalytic activity for ethanol oxidation reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Eiji; Takase, Tomonori; Chiku, Masanobu; Inoue, Hiroshi

    2014-10-01

    Pt, Rh and SnO2 nanoparticle-loaded carbon black (Pt/Rh/SnO2/CB) catalysts with different contents of Pt and Rh were prepared by the modified Bönnemann method. The mean size and size distribution of Pt, Rh and SnO2 for Pt-71/Rh-4/SnO2/CB (Pt : Rh : Sn = 71 at.%: 4 at.%: 25 at.%) were 3.8 ± 0.7, 3.2 ± 0.7 and 2.6 ± 0.5 nm, respectively, indicating that Pt, Rh and SnO2 were all nanoparticles. The onset potential of ethanol oxidation current for the Pt-65/Rh-10/SnO2/CB and Pt-56/Rh-19/SnO2/CB electrodes was ca. 0.2 V vs. RHE which was ca. 0.2 V less positive than that for the Pt/CB electrode. The oxidation current at 0.6 V for the Pt/Rh/SnO2/CB electrode (ca. 2% h-1) decayed more slowly than that at the Pt/SnO2/CB electrode (ca. 5% h-1), indicating that the former was superior in durability to the latter. The main product of EOR in potentiostatic electrolysis at 0.6 V for the Pt-71/Rh-4/SnO2/CB electrode was acetic acid.

  18. Synthesis of chelating agent free-solid phase extractor (CAF-SPE) based on new SiO2/Al2O3/SnO2 ternary oxide and application for online preconcentration of Pb2+ coupled with FAAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarley, César R.T.; Scheel, Guilherme L.; Zappielo, Caroline D.; Suquila, Fabio A.C.; Ribeiro, Emerson S.

    2018-01-01

    A new online solid phase preconcentration method using the new SiO 2 /Al2O 3 /SnO 2 ternary oxide (designated as SiAlSn) as chelating agent free-solid phase extractor (CAF-SPE) coupled to flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) for Pb 2+ determination at trace levels in different kind of samples is proposed. The solid adsorbent has been characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) and textural data. The method involves the preconcentration using time-based sampling of Pb 2+ solution at pH 4.3 through 100.0 mg of packed adsorbed into a mini-column under flow rate of 4.0 mL min -1 during 5 min. The elution step was accomplished by using 1.0 mol L -1 HCl. A wide range of analytical curve (5.0-400.0 μg L -1 ), high enrichment factor (40.5), low consumption index (0.5 mL) and low limits of quantification and detection, 5.0 and 1.5 μg L -1 , respectively, were obtained with the developed method. Practical application of method was tested on water samples, chocolate powder, Ginkgo biloba and sediment (certified reference material). On the basis of the results, the SiAlSn can be considered an effective adsorbent belonging to the class of CAF-SPE for Pb 2+ determination from different matrices. (author)

  19. The Study on the Performance of Carbon Supported PtSnM (M = W, Pd, and Ni) Ternary Electro-Catalysts for Ethanol Electro-Oxidation Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Chang Soo; Heo, Dong Hyun; Lee, Ki Rak; Jeon, Min Ku; Sohn, Jung Min

    2016-05-01

    PtSn/C and Pt5Sn4M/C (M = W, Pd, Ni) electrocatalysts were prepared by impregnation method using NaBH4 as a reducing agent. Chemical composition, crystalline size, and alloy formation were determined by EDX, XRD and TEM. The average particle sizes of the synthesized catalysts were approximately 3.64-4.95 nm. The electro-chemical properties were measured by CO stripping, cyclic voltammetry, linear sweep voltammetry, and chronoamperometry. The maximum specific activity of the electro-catalysts for ethanol electro-oxidation was 406.08 mA m(-2) in Pt5Sn4Pd/C. The poisoning rate of the Pt5Sn4Pd/C (0.0017% s(-1)) was 4.5 times lower than that of the PtSn/C (0.0076% s(-1)).

  20. Methanol-dispersed of ternary Fe3O4@γ-APS/graphene oxide-based nanohybrid for novel removal of benzotriazole from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh, Tran Dinh; Lee, Byeong-Kyu; Nguyen-Le, Minh-Tri

    2018-03-01

    A novel nanohybrid: Fe 3 O 4 coated with γ-APS polymer deposited on graphene oxide (F@γ-A/G), to remove an emergent heterocyclic contaminant benzotriazole (BTA) from solution. F@γ-A/G was synthesized in methanol-dispersion via aminosilanization under ultra-sonication. We newly found that F@γ-A/G crystallite lattice has a 2D triangular-network intersection with angle of 60° in three types of d 311 , d 220 and d 111 planes with different interplanar spacings. Textural characteristics did not affect BTA adsorption, which was desired at high temperature (40 °C), neutral solution (pH = 6) and controlled by endothermic process. Considering the maximum BTA adsorption capacity of 312.5 mg/g, which was much higher than previously reported adsorbents, the plausible mechanism was attributed to hydrophobic, electrostatic and π-π interaction. Effects of pH and temperature are significant on BTA adsorption to F@γ-A/G. Methanol was the best solvent for multiple cycle regeneration with only 2% loss of BTA removal efficiency even after five cycles of F@γ-A/G. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Mechanochemically prepared ternary hybrid cathode material for lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posudievsky, Oleg Yu; Kozarenko, Olga A.; Dyadyun, Vyacheslav S.; Jorgensen, Scott W.; Spearot, James A.; Koshechko, Vyacheslav G.; Pokhodenko, Vitaly D.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The presence of macromolecules of an ion-conducting polymer in the composition of the ternary nanocomposite PPy–PEO/V 2 O 5 promotes interfacial transfer of lithium ions and also facilitates faster transport inside the particles of the nanocomposite. -- Highlights: • Two- and three component nanocomposites are prepared via a solvent-free mechanochemical synthesis. • The nanocomposites retain their capacity above 200 mA h g −1 for at least one hundred cycles. • The presence of PEO promotes interfacial transfer of lithium ions and facilitates faster transport inside the nanocomposite. -- Abstract: Ternary host–guest nanocomposite based on vanadium oxide and two polymers with different types of conductivity (ionic and electronic) – polypyrrole (PPy) and polyethylene oxide (PEO) – is prepared by solventless mechanochemical synthesis. The nanocomposite can be reversibly cycled with a specific capacity of ∼200 mA h g −1 for at least one hundred cycles of full charge–discharge as the active component of the positive electrode of lithium batteries. Electrochemical performance of ternary PPy 0.1 PEO 0.15 V 2 O 5 is compared with two-component analog PPy 0.1 V 2 O 5 . The presence of macromolecules of an ion-conducting polymer in the composition of the ternary nanocomposite PPy 0.1 PEO 0.15 V 2 O 5 promotes interfacial transfer of lithium ions and also facilitates faster transport inside the particles of the nanocomposite

  2. Ternary Weighted Function and Beurling Ternary Banach Algebra l1ω(S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Dehghanian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Let S be a ternary semigroup. In this paper, we introduce our notation and prove some elementary properties of a ternary weight function ω on S. Also, we make ternary weighted algebra l1ω(S and show that l1ω(S is a ternary Banach algebra.

  3. Morphology evolution of poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA), poly(.epsilon.-caprolactone) (PCL) and polyethylene oxide (PEO) ternary blend and their effects on mechanical properties for bio scaffold applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ezzati, P.; Ghasemi, I.; Karrabi, M.; Azizi, H.; Fortelný, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 4 (2014), s. 449-456 ISSN 0379-153X Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : PLLA/PCL/PEO ternary blend * bio scaffold * melt blending Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.528, year: 2014

  4. True ternary fission in 310126X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banupriya, B.; Vijayaraghavan, K.R.; Balasubramaniam, M.

    2015-01-01

    All possible combinations are minimized by the two dimensional minimization process and minimized with respect to neutron numbers and proton numbers of the fragments. Potential energy is low and Q - value is high at true ternary fission region. It shows that true ternary mode is the dominant mode in the ternary fission of superheavy nuclei. Also, the results show that the fragments with neutron magic numbers are the dominant one in the ternary fission of superheavy nuclei whereas the fragments with proton magic numbers are the dominant one in the ternary fission of heavy nuclei

  5. Facile Synthesis of Ternary Boron Carbonitride Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Lijie

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, a novel and facile approach for the synthesis of ternary boron carbonitride (B–C–N nanotubes was reported. Growth occurred by heating simple starting materials of boron powder, zinc oxide powder, and ethanol absolute at 1150 °C under a mixture gas flow of nitrogen and hydrogen. As substrate, commercial stainless steel foil with a typical thickness of 0.05 mm played an additional role of catalyst during the growth of nanotubes. The nanotubes were characterized by SEM, TEM, EDX, and EELS. The results indicate that the synthesized B–C–N nanotubes exhibit a bamboo-like morphology and B, C, and N elements are homogeneously distributed in the nanotubes. A catalyzed vapor–liquid–solid (VLS mechanism was proposed for the growth of the nanotubes.

  6. Modeling and simulation of a novel 4.5 kW_e multi-stack solid-oxide fuel cell prototype assembly for combined heat and power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anyenya, Gladys A.; Sullivan, Neal P.; Braun, Robert J.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel CHP application of SOFC technology in unconventional oil and gas processing. • Thermo-electrochemical performance model of a multi-stack solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) assembly is described. • Parametric study explores a wider range of operating conditions than can be experimentally tested. • Geothermic Fuel Cell operational characteristics are reviewed. - Abstract: The United States Geological Survey estimates that over four trillion barrels of crude oil are currently trapped within U.S. oil shale reserves. However, no cost-effective, environmentally sustainable method for oil production from oil shale currently exists. Given the continuing demand for low-cost fossil-fuel production, alternative methods for shale-oil extraction are needed. Geothermic Fuel Cells™ (GFC) harness the heat generated by high-temperature solid oxide fuel cells during electricity generation to process oil shale into “sweet” crude oil. In this paper, a thermo-electrochemical model is exercised to simulate the performance of a 4.5 kW_e (gross) Geothermic Fuel Cell module for in situ oil-shale processing. The GFC analyzed in this work is a prototype which contains three 1.5 kW_e solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack-and-combustor assemblies packaged within a 0.3 m diameter, 1.8 m tall, stainless-steel housing. The high-temperature process heat produced by the SOFCs during electricity generation is used to retort oil shale within underground geological formations into high-value shale oil and natural gas. A steady-state system model is developed in Aspen Plus™ using user-defined subroutines to predict the stack electrochemical performance and the heat-rejection from the module. The model is validated against empirical data from independent single-stack performance testing and full GFC-module experiments. Following model validation, further simulations are performed for different values of current, fuel and air utilization to study their influence on system

  7. Some new ternary linear codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumen Daskalov

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Let an $[n,k,d]_q$ code be a linear code of length $n$, dimension $k$ and minimum Hamming distance $d$ over $GF(q$. One of the most important problems in coding theory is to construct codes with optimal minimum distances. In this paper 22 new ternary linear codes are presented. Two of them are optimal. All new codes improve the respective lower bounds in [11].

  8. Ternary scandium and transition metals germanides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotur, B.Ya.

    1992-01-01

    Brief review of data on phase diagram of ternary Sc-Me-Ge systems (Me-d - , f-transition element) is given. Isothermal sections at 870 and 1070 K of 17 ternary systems are plotted. Compositions and their structural characteristics are presented. Variability of crystal structure is typical for ternary scandium germanides: 70 compounds with the studied structure belong to 23 structural types. Ternary germanides isostructural to types of Sm 4 Ge 4 , ZrCrSi 2 , ZrNiAl, ScCeSi, TiNiSi U 4 Re 7 Si 6 145 compounds from 70 under investigation are mostly formed in studied systems

  9. High-Efficient Circuits for Ternary Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Faghih Mirzaee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available New ternary adders, which are fundamental components of ternary addition, are presented in this paper. They are on the basis of a logic style which mostly generates binary signals. Therefore, static power dissipation reaches its minimum extent. Extensive different analyses are carried out to examine how efficient the new designs are. For instance, the ternary ripple adder constructed by the proposed ternary half and full adders consumes 2.33 μW less power than the one implemented by the previous adder cells. It is almost twice faster as well. Due to their unique superior characteristics for ternary circuitry, carbon nanotube field-effect transistors are used to form the novel circuits, which are entirely suitable for practical applications.

  10. Description of the ternary system Cu-Ge-Te

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogguy, M.; Carcaly, C.; Rivet, J.; Flahaut, J.

    1977-01-01

    The Cu-Ge-Te ternary system has been studied by DTA and by crystallographic and metallographic analysis. The existence of a ternary compound Cu 2 GeTe 3 is demonstrated; this compound has a ternary incongruent melting point at 500 0 C. This ternary compound has a superstructure of a zinc blende type. The study shows the existence of five ternary eutectics. Two liquid-liquid miscibility gaps exist: the first is situated entirely in the ternary system; the second gives a monotectic region within the ternary system. (Auth.)

  11. Hardware emulation of Memristor based Ternary Content Addressable Memory

    KAUST Repository

    Bahloul, Mohamed A.

    2017-12-13

    MTCAM (Memristor Ternary Content Addressable Memory) is a special purpose storage medium in which data could be retrieved based on the stored content. Using Memristors as the main storage element provides the potential of achieving higher density and more efficient solutions than conventional methods. A key missing item in the validation of such approaches is the wide spread availability of hardware emulation platforms that can provide reliable and repeatable performance statistics. In this paper, we present a hardware MTCAM emulation based on 2-Transistors-2Memristors (2T2M) bit-cell. It builds on a bipolar memristor model with storing and fetching capabilities based on the actual current-voltage behaviour. The proposed design offers a flexible verification environment with quick design revisions, high execution speeds and powerful debugging techniques. The proposed design is modeled using VHDL and prototyped on Xilinx Virtex® FPGA.

  12. Hardware emulation of Memristor based Ternary Content Addressable Memory

    KAUST Repository

    Bahloul, Mohamed A.; Naous, Rawan; Masmoudi, M.

    2017-01-01

    MTCAM (Memristor Ternary Content Addressable Memory) is a special purpose storage medium in which data could be retrieved based on the stored content. Using Memristors as the main storage element provides the potential of achieving higher density and more efficient solutions than conventional methods. A key missing item in the validation of such approaches is the wide spread availability of hardware emulation platforms that can provide reliable and repeatable performance statistics. In this paper, we present a hardware MTCAM emulation based on 2-Transistors-2Memristors (2T2M) bit-cell. It builds on a bipolar memristor model with storing and fetching capabilities based on the actual current-voltage behaviour. The proposed design offers a flexible verification environment with quick design revisions, high execution speeds and powerful debugging techniques. The proposed design is modeled using VHDL and prototyped on Xilinx Virtex® FPGA.

  13. All-optical symmetric ternary logic gate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Tanay

    2010-09-01

    Symmetric ternary number (radix=3) has three logical states (1¯, 0, 1). It is very much useful in carry free arithmetical operation. Beside this, the logical operation using this type of number system is also effective in high speed computation and communication in multi-valued logic. In this literature all-optical circuits for three basic symmetrical ternary logical operations (inversion, MIN and MAX) are proposed and described. Numerical simulation verifies the theoretical model. In this present scheme the different ternary logical states are represented by different polarized state of light. Terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer (TOAD) based interferometric switch has been used categorically in this manuscript.

  14. Performance Estimation for Lowpass Ternary Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenton Steele

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Ternary filters have tap values limited to −1, 0, or +1. This restriction in tap values greatly simplifies the multipliers required by the filter, making ternary filters very well suited to hardware implementations. Because they incorporate coarse quantisation, their performance is typically limited by tap quantisation error. This paper derives formulae for estimating the achievable performance of lowpass ternary filters, thereby allowing the number of computationally intensive design iterations to be reduced. Motivated by practical communications systems requirements, the performance measure which is used is the worst-case stopband attenuation.

  15. Ternary chalcogenide micro-pseudocapacitors for on-chip energy storage

    KAUST Repository

    Kurra, Narendra

    2015-05-11

    We report the successful fabrication of a micro-pseudocapacitor based on ternary nickel cobalt sulfide for the first time, with performance substantially exceeding that of previously reported micro-pseudocapacitors based on binary sulfides. CoNi2S4 micro-pseudocapacitor exhibits a maximum energy density of 18.7 mWh/cm3 at a power density of 1163 mW/cm3, opens up an avenue for exploring new family of ternary oxides/sulfides based micro-pseudocapacitors.

  16. Ternary chalcogenide micro-pseudocapacitors for on-chip energy storage

    KAUST Repository

    Kurra, Narendra; Xia, Chuan; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2015-01-01

    We report the successful fabrication of a micro-pseudocapacitor based on ternary nickel cobalt sulfide for the first time, with performance substantially exceeding that of previously reported micro-pseudocapacitors based on binary sulfides. CoNi2S4 micro-pseudocapacitor exhibits a maximum energy density of 18.7 mWh/cm3 at a power density of 1163 mW/cm3, opens up an avenue for exploring new family of ternary oxides/sulfides based micro-pseudocapacitors.

  17. Rethink! prototyping transdisciplinary concepts of prototyping

    CERN Document Server

    Nagy, Emilia; Stark, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    In this book, the authors describe the findings derived from interaction and cooperation between scientific actors employing diverse practices. They reflect on distinct prototyping concepts and examine the transformation of development culture in their fusion to hybrid approaches and solutions. The products of tomorrow are going to be multifunctional, interactive systems – and already are to some degree today. Collaboration across multiple disciplines is the only way to grasp their complexity in design concepts. This underscores the importance of reconsidering the prototyping process for the development of these systems, particularly in transdisciplinary research teams. “Rethinking Prototyping – new hybrid concepts for prototyping” was a transdisciplinary project that took up this challenge. The aim of this programmatic rethinking was to come up with a general concept of prototyping by combining innovative prototyping concepts, which had been researched and developed in three sub-projects: “Hybrid P...

  18. Architectures of prototypes and architectural prototyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius; Christensen, Michael; Sandvad, Elmer

    1998-01-01

    together as a team, but developed a prototype that more than fulfilled the expectations of the shipping company. The prototype should: - complete the first major phase within 10 weeks, - be highly vertical illustrating future work practice, - continuously live up to new requirements from prototyping......This paper reports from experience obtained through development of a prototype of a global customer service system in a project involving a large shipping company and a university research group. The research group had no previous knowledge of the complex business of shipping and had never worked...... sessions with users, - evolve over a long period of time to contain more functionality - allow for 6-7 developers working intensively in parallel. Explicit focus on the software architecture and letting the architecture evolve with the prototype played a major role in resolving these conflicting...

  19. Ternary networks reliability and Monte Carlo

    CERN Document Server

    Gertsbakh, Ilya; Vaisman, Radislav

    2014-01-01

    Ternary means “based on three”. This book deals with reliability investigations of  networks whose components subject to failures can be in three states –up, down and middle (mid), contrary to traditionally considered networks  having only binary (up/down) components. Extending binary case to ternary allows to consider more realistic and flexible models for communication, flow and supply networks.

  20. A simple urea-based route to ternary metal oxynitride nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomathi, A.; Reshma, S.; Rao, C.N.R.

    2009-01-01

    Ternary metal oxynitrides are generally prepared by heating the corresponding metal oxides with ammonia for long durations at high temperatures. In order to find a simple route that avoids use of gaseous ammonia, we have employed urea as the nitriding agent. In this method, ternary metal oxynitrides are obtained by heating the corresponding metal carbonates and transition metal oxides with excess urea. By this route, ternary metal oxynitrides of the formulae MTaO 2 N (M=Ca, Sr or Ba), MNbO 2 N (M=Sr or Ba), LaTiO 2 N and SrMoO 3-x N x have been prepared successfully. The oxynitrides so obtained were generally in the form of nanoparticles, and were characterized by various physical techniques. - Graphical abstract: Nanoparticles of ternary metal oxynitrides can be synthesized by means of urea route. Given is the TEM image of the nanoparticles of CaTaO 2 N so obtained and the insets show the SAED pattern and HREM image of the nanoparticles

  1. Crystallization features of ternary reversible reciprocal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomashik, V.N.; Shcherbak, L.P.; Fejchuk, P.I.; Grytsiv, V.I.

    2006-01-01

    Some features of the primary crystallization of phases in ternary reversible reciprocal system are considered and discussed. The diagonal join CdTe-GeSe of the CdTe + GeSe = CdSe + GeTe ternary reciprocal system is studied to show that the features in primary and secondary heating and cooling curves in such systems under fully equilibrium conditions are not reproduced upon consecutive heating and cooling sessions, because of the existence of different amounts of the reagents and the reaction products in the mixture; the temperatures of each transformation lie in a range. Those who experimentally investigate other ternary and more complex reversible reciprocal systems should take this fact into account [ru

  2. The ternary system nickel-boron-silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugscheider, E.; Reimann, H.; Knotek, O.

    1975-01-01

    The ternary system Nickel-Boron-Silicon was established at 850 0 C by means of X-ray diffraction, metallographic and micro-hardness examinations. The well known binary nickel borides and silicides resp. were confirmed. In the boron-silicon system two binary phases, SiBsub(4-x) with x approximately 0.7 and SiB 6 were found the latter in equilibrium with the β-rhombohedral boron. Confirming the two ternary silicon borides a greater homogeneity range was found for Ni 6 Si 2 B, the phase Nisub(4,6)Si 2 B published by Uraz and Rundqvist can better be described by the formula Nisub(4.29)Si 2 Bsub(1.43). In relation to further investigations we measured melting temperatures in ternary Ni-10 B-Si alloys by differential thermoanalysis. (author)

  3. Ternary fission induced by polarized neutrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gönnenwein Friedrich

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ternary fission of (e,e U- and Pu- isotopes induced by cold polarized neutrons discloses some new facets of the process. In the so-called ROT effect shifts in the angular distributions of ternary particles relative to the fission fragments show up. In the so-called TRI effect an asymmetry in the emission of ternary particles relative to a plane formed by the fragment momentum and the spin of the neutron appear. The two effects are shown to be linked to the components of angular momentum perpendicular and parallel to the fission axis at the saddle point of fission. Based on theoretical models the spectroscopic properties of the collective transitional states at the saddle point are inferred from experiment.

  4. Ternary cobalt-molybdenum-zirconium coatings for alternative energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yar-Mukhamedova, Gulmira; Ved', Maryna; Sakhnenko, Nikolay; Koziar, Maryna

    2017-11-01

    Consistent patterns for electrodeposition of Co-Mo-Zr coatings from polyligand citrate-pyrophosphate bath were investigated. The effect of both current density amplitude and pulse on/off time on the quality, composition and surface morphology of the galvanic alloys were determined. It was established the coating Co-Mo-Zr enrichment by molybdenum with current density increasing up to 8 A dm-2 as well as the rising of pulse time and pause duration promotes the content of molybdenum because of subsequent chemical reduction of its intermediate oxides by hydrogen ad-atoms. It was found that the content of the alloying metals in the coating Co-Mo-Zr depends on the current density and on/off times extremely and maximum Mo and Zr content corresponds to the current density interval 4-6 A dm-2, on-/off-time 2-10 ms. Chemical resistance of binary and ternary coatings based on cobalt is caused by the increased tendency to passivity and high resistance to pitting corrosion in the presence of molybdenum and zirconium, as well as the acid nature of their oxides. Binary coating with molybdenum content not less than 20 at.% and ternary ones with zirconium content in terms of corrosion deep index are in a group ;very proof;. It was shown that Co-Mo-Zr alloys exhibits the greatest level of catalytic properties as cathode material for hydrogen electrolytic production from acidic media which is not inferior a platinum electrode. The deposits Co-Mo-Zr with zirconium content 2-4 at.% demonstrate high catalytic properties in the carbon(II) oxide conversion. This confirms the efficiency of materials as catalysts for the gaseous wastes purification and gives the reason to recommend them as catalysts for red-ox processes activating by oxygen as well as electrode materials for red-ox batteries.

  5. True ternary fission of 252Cf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayaraghavan, K.R.; Balasubramaniam, M.; Oertzen, W. von

    2014-01-01

    Splitting of heavy radioactive nucleus into three fragments is known as ternary fission. If the size of the fragments are almost equal it is referred to as true ternary fission. Recently, Yu. V. Pyatkov et al observed/reported the experimental observation of true ternary fission in 252 Cf. In this work, the possibilities of different true ternary fission modes of 252 Cf through potential energy surface (PES) calculations based on three cluster model (TCM) are discussed. In TCM a condition on the mass numbers of the fission fragments is implied as A 1 ≥ A 2 ≥ A 3 in order to avoid repetition of combinations. Due to this condition, the values of Z 3 vary from 0 to 36 and Z 2 vary from 16 to 51. Of the different pairs having similar (Z 2 , Z 3 ) with different potential energy, a pair possessing minimum potential energy is chosen. Thus identified favourable combinations are plotted. For the PES calculations the arrangement of the fragments is considered in the order of A 1 +A 2 +A 3 . i.e. the heavy and the lightest fragments are kept at the ends. It is seen that the deepest minimum in the PES occurs for Z 3 =2 labelled as (Z 2 ; 2) indicating He accompanied breakup as the most favourable one. Of which, the breakup with Z 2 around 46 to 48 is the least (shown by dashed (Z 1 = 50) and dotted (Z 1 = 52) lines indicating a constant Z 1 value). The other notable minima in the PES are labelled and they correspond to the (Z 2 , Z 3 ) pairs viz., (20, 20), (28, 20), (28, 28) and (32, 32). Of these four minima, the first three are associated with the magic numbers 20 and 28. For Z 3 =20, there are two minimums at (20,20) and (28,20) among them (28,20) is the lowest minimum through which the minimum-path passes, and it is the ternary decay observed by Yu. V. Pyatkov et al. The fourth minima is the most interesting due to the fact that it corresponds to true ternary fission mode with Z 2 =32, Z 3 =32 and Z 1 =34. The minimum potential energy path also goes through this true

  6. A Josephson ternary associative memory cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morisue, M.; Suzuki, K.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a three-valued content addressable memory cell using a Josephson complementary ternary logic circuit named as JCTL. The memory cell proposed here can perform three operations of searching, writing and reading in ternary logic system. The principle of the memory circuit is illustrated in detail by using the threshold-characteristics of the JCTL. In order to investigate how a high performance operation can be achieved, computer simulations have been made. Simulation results show that the cycle time of memory operation is 120psec, power consumption is about 0.5 μW/cell and tolerances of writing and reading operation are +-15% and +-24%, respectively

  7. Imagining the prototype

    OpenAIRE

    Brouwer, C. E.; Bhomer, ten, M.; Melkas, H.; Buur, J.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on the analysis of a design session, employing conversation analysis. In the design session three experts and a designer discuss a prototype of a shirt, which has been developed with the input from these experts. The analysis focuses on the type of involvement of the participants with the prototype and how they explicate the points they make in the discussion with or without making use of the prototype. Three techniques for explicating design issues that exploit the proto...

  8. Rapid Prototyping Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ARDEC Rapid Prototyping (RP) Laboratory was established in December 1992 to provide low cost RP capabilities to the ARDEC engineering community. The Stratasys,...

  9. Fabrication and Prototyping Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The Fabrication and Prototyping Lab for composite structures provides a wide variety of fabrication capabilities critical to enabling hands-on research and...

  10. Ternary-fragmentation-driving potential energies of 252Cf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikraj, C.; Ren, Zhongzhou

    2017-12-01

    Within the framework of a simple macroscopic model, the ternary-fragmentation-driving potential energies of 252Cf are studied. In this work, all possible ternary-fragment combinations of 252Cf are generated by the use of atomic mass evaluation-2016 (AME2016) data and these combinations are minimized by using a two-dimensional minimization approach. This minimization process can be done in two ways: (i) with respect to proton numbers (Z1, Z2, Z3) and (ii) with respect to neutron numbers (N1, N2, N3) of the ternary fragments. In this paper, the driving potential energies for the ternary breakup of 252Cf are presented for both the spherical and deformed as well as the proton-minimized and neutron-minimized ternary fragments. From the proton-minimized spherical ternary fragments, we have obtained different possible ternary configurations with a minimum driving potential, in particular, the experimental expectation of Sn + Ni + Ca ternary fragmentation. However, the neutron-minimized ternary fragments exhibit a driving potential minimum in the true-ternary-fission (TTF) region as well. Further, the Q -value energy systematics of the neutron-minimized ternary fragments show larger values for the TTF fragments. From this, we have concluded that the TTF region fragments with the least driving potential and high Q values have a strong possibility in the ternary fragmentation of 252Cf. Further, the role of ground-state deformations (β2, β3, β4, and β6) in the ternary breakup of 252Cf is also studied. The deformed ternary fragmentation, which involves Z3=12 -19 fragments, possesses the driving potential minimum due to the larger oblate deformations. We also found that the ground-state deformations, particularly β2, strongly influence the driving potential energies and play a major role in determining the most probable fragment combinations in the ternary breakup of 252Cf.

  11. Indacenodithienothiophene-Based Ternary Organic Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasparini, Nicola, E-mail: nicola.gasparini@fau.de [Institute of Materials for Electronics and Energy Technology (I-MEET), Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen (Germany); García-Rodríguez, Amaranda [Macromolecular Chemistry Group (buwmakro), Institute for Polymer Technology, BergischeUniversität Wuppertal, Wuppertal (Germany); Prosa, Mario [Istituto per lo Studio dei Materiali Nanostrutturati (ISMN), Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Bologna (Italy); Bayseç, Şebnem; Palma-Cando, Alex [Macromolecular Chemistry Group (buwmakro), Institute for Polymer Technology, BergischeUniversität Wuppertal, Wuppertal (Germany); Katsouras, Athanasios; Avgeropoulos, Apostolos [Department of Materials Science Engineering, University of Ioannina, Ioannina (Greece); Pagona, Georgia; Gregoriou, Vasilis G. [Advent Technologies SA, Patras Science Park, Patra (Greece); National Hellenic Research Foundation (NHRF), Athens (Greece); Chochos, Christos L. [Department of Materials Science Engineering, University of Ioannina, Ioannina (Greece); Advent Technologies SA, Patras Science Park, Patra (Greece); Allard, Sybille; Scherf, Ulrich [Macromolecular Chemistry Group (buwmakro), Institute for Polymer Technology, BergischeUniversität Wuppertal, Wuppertal (Germany); Brabec, Christoph J. [Institute of Materials for Electronics and Energy Technology (I-MEET), Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen (Germany); Bavarian Center for Applied Energy Research (ZAE Bayern), Erlangen (Germany); Ameri, Tayebeh, E-mail: nicola.gasparini@fau.de [Institute of Materials for Electronics and Energy Technology (I-MEET), Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen (Germany)

    2017-01-13

    One of the key aspects to achieve high efficiency in ternary bulk-hetorojunction solar cells is the physical and chemical compatibility between the donor materials. Here, we report the synthesis of a novel conjugated polymer (P1) containing alternating pyridyl[2,1,3]thiadiazole between two different donor fragments, dithienosilole and indacenodithienothiophene (IDTT), used as a sensitizer in a host system of indacenodithieno[3,2-b]thiophene,2,3-bis(3-(octyloxy)phenyl)quinoxaline (PIDTTQ) and [6,6]-phenyl C{sub 70} butyric acid methyl ester (PC{sub 71}BM). We found that the use of the same IDTT unit in the host and guest materials does not lead to significant changes in the morphology of the ternary blend compared to the host binary. With the complementary use of optoelectronic characterizations, we found that the ternary cells suffer from a lower mobility-lifetime (μτ) product, adversely impacting the fill factor. However, the significant light harvesting in the near infrared region improvement, compensating the transport losses, results in an overall power conversion efficiency enhancement of ~7% for ternary blends as compared to the PIDTTQ:PC{sub 71}BM devices.

  12. Self-triggered coordination with ternary controllers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Persis, Claudio; Frasca, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    This paper regards coordination of networked systems with ternary controllers. We develop a hybrid coordination system which implements a self-triggered communication policy, based on polling the neighbors upon need. We prove that the proposed scheme ensures finite-time convergence to a neighborhood

  13. Ternary gradient metal-organic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chong; Rosi, Nathaniel L

    2017-09-08

    Gradient MOFs contain directional gradients of either structure or functionality. We have successfully prepared two ternary gradient MOFs based on bMOF-100 analogues, namely bMOF-100/102/106 and bMOF-110/100/102, via cascade ligand exchange reactions. The cubic unit cell parameter discrepancy within an individual ternary gradient MOF crystal is as large as ∼1 nm, demonstrating the impressive compatibility and flexibility of the component MOF materials. Because of the presence of a continuum of unit cells, the pore diameters within individual crystals also change in a gradient fashion from ∼2.5 nm to ∼3.0 nm for bMOF-100/102/106, and from ∼2.2 nm to ∼2.7 nm for bMOF-110/100/102, indicating significant porosity gradients. Like previously reported binary gradient MOFs, the composition of the ternary gradient MOFs can be easily controlled by adjusting the reaction conditions. Finally, X-ray diffraction and microspectrophotometry were used to analyse fractured gradient MOF crystals by comparing unit cell parameters and absorbance spectra at different locations, thus revealing the profile of heterogeneity (i.e. gradient distribution of properties) and further confirming the formation of ternary gradient MOFs.

  14. Does Science Also Prefer a Ternary Pattern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogliani, L.; Klein, D. J.; Balaban, A. T.

    2006-01-01

    Through the importance of the number three in our culture and the strange preference for a ternary pattern of our nature one can perceive how and why number theory degraded to numerology. The strong preference of our minds for simple patterns can be read as the key to understanding not only the development of numerology, but also why scientists…

  15. Angular distribution in ternary cold fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delion, D.S.; J.W. Goethe Univ., Frankfurt; Sandulescu, A.; J.W. Goethe Univ., Frankfurt; Greiner, W.

    2003-01-01

    We describe the spontaneous ternary cold fission of 252 Cf, accompanied by 4 He, 10 Be and 14 C. The light cluster decays from the first resonant eigenstate in the Coulomb potential plus a harmonic oscillator potential. We have shown that the angular distribution of the emitted light particle is strongly connected with its deformation and the equatorial distance. (author)

  16. Superconducting state parameters of ternary metallic glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    to binary metallic glasses. They are of interest since third element can modify the physical properties of binary metallic glasses and can also be used as a probe to study the host. ..... conducting nature in the present case. When we. Figure 6. Variation of transition temperature (TC) with valance (Z) of ternary metallic glasses.

  17. Designing and testing prototypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vereijken, P.; Wijnands, F.; Stol, W.

    1995-01-01

    This second progress report focuses on designing a theoretical prototype by linking parameters to methods and designing the methods in this context until they are ready for initial testing. The report focuses also on testing and improving the prototype in general and the methods in particular until

  18. EUCLID ARCHIVE SYSTEM PROTOTYPE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belikov, Andrey; Williams, Owen; Droge, Bob; Tsyganov, Andrey; Boxhoorn, Danny; McFarland, John; Verdoes Kleijn, Gijs; Valentijn, E; Altieri, Bruno; Dabin, Christophe; Pasian, F.; Osuna, Pedro; Soille, P.; Marchetti, P.G.

    2014-01-01

    The Euclid Archive System prototype is a functional information system which is used to address the numerous challenges in the development of fully functional data processing system for Euclid. The prototype must support the highly distributed nature of the Euclid Science Ground System, with Science

  19. Specifications in software prototyping

    OpenAIRE

    Luqi; Chang, Carl K.; Zhu, Hong

    1998-01-01

    We explore the use of software speci®cations for software prototyping. This paper describes a process model for software prototyping, and shows how specifications can be used to support such a process via a cellular mobile phone switch example.

  20. EPCiR prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    A prototype of a residential pervasive computing platform based on OSGi involving among other a mock-up of an health care bandage.......A prototype of a residential pervasive computing platform based on OSGi involving among other a mock-up of an health care bandage....

  1. Characterization of U(VI)-carbonato ternary complexes on hematite: EXAFS and electrophoretic mobility measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargar, John R.; Reitmeyer, Rebecca; Lenhart, John J.; Davis, James A.

    2000-01-01

    We have measured U(VI) adsorption on hematite using EXAFS spectroscopy and electrophoresis under conditions relevant to surface waters and aquifers (0.01 to 10 μM dissolved uranium concentrations, in equilibrium with air, pH 4.5 to 8.5). Both techniques suggest the existence of anionic U(VI)-carbonato ternary complexes. Fits to EXAFS spectra indicate that U(VI) is simultaneously coordinated to surface FeO6 octahedra and carbonate (or bicarbonate) ligands in bidentate fashions, leading to the conclusion that the ternary complexes have an inner-sphere metal bridging (hematite-U(VI)-carbonato) structure. Greater than or equal to 50% of adsorbed U(VI) was comprised of monomeric hematite-U(VI)-carbonato ternary complexes, even at pH 4.5. Multimeric U(VI) species were observed at pH ≥ 6.5 and aqueous U(VI) concentrations approximately an order of magnitude more dilute than the solubility of crystalline β-UO2(OH)2. Based on structural constraints, these complexes were interpreted as dimeric hematite-U(VI)-carbonato ternary complexes. These results suggest that Fe-oxide-U(VI)-carbonato complexes are likely to be important transport-limiting species in oxic aquifers throughout a wide range of pH values.

  2. Cooperative Prototyping Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Grønbæk, Kaj

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes experiments with a design technique that we denote cooperative prototyping. The experiments consider design of a patient case record system for municipal dental clinics in which we used HyperCard, an off the shelf programming environment for the Macintosh. In the ecperiments we...... tried to achieve a fluent work-like evaluation of prototypes where users envisioned future work with a computer tool, at the same time as we made on-line modifications of prototypes in cooperation with the users when breakdown occur in their work-like evaluation. The experiments showed...... that it was possible to make a number of direct manipulation changes of prototypes in cooperation with the users, in interplay with their fluent work-like evaluation of these. However, breakdown occurred in the prototyping process when we reached the limits of the direct manipulation support for modification. From...

  3. Design of a novel quantum reversible ternary up-counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houshmand, Pouran; Haghparast, Majid

    2015-08-01

    Reversible logic has been recently considered as an interesting and important issue in designing combinational and sequential circuits. The combination of reversible logic and multi-valued logic can improve power dissipation, time and space utilization rate of designed circuits. Only few works have been reported about sequential reversible circuits and almost there are no paper exhibited about quantum ternary reversible counter. In this paper, first we designed 2-qutrit and 3-qutrit quantum reversible ternary up-counters using quantum ternary reversible T-flip-flop and quantum reversible ternary gates. Then we proposed generalized quantum reversible ternary n-qutrit up-counter. We also introduced a new approach for designing any type of n-qutrit ternary and reversible counter. According to the results, we can conclude that applying second approach quantum reversible ternary up-counter is better than the others.

  4. PRMS Data Warehousing Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guruvadoo, Eranna K.

    2002-01-01

    Project and Resource Management System (PRMS) is a web-based, mid-level management tool developed at KSC to provide a unified enterprise framework for Project and Mission management. The addition of a data warehouse as a strategic component to the PRMS is investigated through the analysis, design and implementation processes of a data warehouse prototype. As a proof of concept, a demonstration of the prototype with its OLAP's technology for multidimensional data analysis is made. The results of the data analysis and the design constraints are discussed. The prototype can be used to motivate interest and support for an operational data warehouse.

  5. Synthesis of chelating agent free-solid phase extractor (CAF-SPE) based on new SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SnO{sub 2} ternary oxide and application for online preconcentration of Pb{sup 2+} coupled with FAAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarley, César R.T.; Scheel, Guilherme L.; Zappielo, Caroline D.; Suquila, Fabio A.C., E-mail: ctarleyquim@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), PR (Brazil). Dept. de Química; Ribeiro, Emerson S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Grupo LaDANM

    2018-05-01

    A new online solid phase preconcentration method using the new SiO{sub 2}/Al2O{sub 3}/SnO{sub 2} ternary oxide (designated as SiAlSn) as chelating agent free-solid phase extractor (CAF-SPE) coupled to flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) for Pb{sup 2+} determination at trace levels in different kind of samples is proposed. The solid adsorbent has been characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) and textural data. The method involves the preconcentration using time-based sampling of Pb{sup 2+} solution at pH 4.3 through 100.0 mg of packed adsorbed into a mini-column under flow rate of 4.0 mL min{sup -1} during 5 min. The elution step was accomplished by using 1.0 mol L{sup -1} HCl. A wide range of analytical curve (5.0-400.0 μg L{sup -1}), high enrichment factor (40.5), low consumption index (0.5 mL) and low limits of quantification and detection, 5.0 and 1.5 μg L{sup -1}, respectively, were obtained with the developed method. Practical application of method was tested on water samples, chocolate powder, Ginkgo biloba and sediment (certified reference material). On the basis of the results, the SiAlSn can be considered an effective adsorbent belonging to the class of CAF-SPE for Pb{sup 2+} determination from different matrices. (author)

  6. The ternary system nickel-nobium-carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stadelmaier, H.H.; Fiedler, M.L.

    1975-01-01

    The ternary system nickel-niobium-carbon was studied by metallographic and X-ray diffraction methods to produce a liquidus projection and an isothermal section at 1,100 0 C. The liquidus projection is dominated by a wide field of primary NbC that extends far into the nickel corner of the composition triangle. Only one ternary compound is observed in this system, an eta-carbide formed in a peritectoid reaction. It has a narrow homogeneity range at Ni 2 Nb 4 C, and its lattice constant in alloys quenched from 1,100 0 C varies between 11.659 and 11.667 A. No eta-carbide Ni 3 Nb 3 C or Ni 6 Nb 6 could be detected. (orig.) [de

  7. Equilibrium study for ternary mixtures of biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doungsri, S.; Sookkumnerd, T.; Wongkoblap, A.; Nuchitprasittichai, A.

    2017-11-01

    The liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) data for the ternary mixtures of methanol + fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) + palm oil and FAME + palm oil + glycerol at various temperatures from 35 to 55°C, the tie lines and binodial curves were also investigated and plotted in the equilibrium curve. The experimental results showed that the binodial curves of methanol + FAME + palm oil depended significantly with temperature while the binodial curves of FAME + palm oil + glycerol illustrated insignificant change with temperatures. The interaction parameters between liquid pair obtained for NRTL (Nonrandom Two-Liquid) and UNIQUAC (Universal Quasi-Chemical Theory) models from the experimental data were also investigated. It was found that the correlated parameters of UNIQUAC model for system of FAME + palm oil + glycerol, denoted as a13 and a31, were 580.42K and -123.69K, respectively, while those for system of methanol + FAME + palm oil, denoted as a42 and a24, were 71.48 K and 965.57K, respectively. The ternary LLE data reported here would be beneficial for engineers and scientists to use for prediction of yield and purity of biodiesel for the production. The UNIQUAC model agreed well with the experimental data of ternary mixtures of biodiesel.

  8. Thermal expansion of the nuclear fuel-sodium reaction product Na3(U0.84(2),Na0.16(2))O4 - Structural mechanism and comparison with related sodium-metal ternary oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illy, Marie-Claire; Smith, Anna L.; Wallez, Gilles; Raison, Philippe E.; Caciuffo, Roberto; Konings, Rudy J. M.

    2017-07-01

    Na3.16(2)UV,VI0.84(2)O4 is obtained from the reaction of sodium with uranium dioxide under oxygen potential conditions typical of a sodium-cooled fast nuclear reactor. In the event of a breach of the steel cladding, it would be the dominant reaction product forming at the rim of the mixed (U,Pu)O2 fuel pellets. High-temperature X-ray diffraction measurements show that a distortion of the uranium environment in Na3.16(2)UV,VI0.84(2)O4 results in a strongly anisotropic thermal expansion. A comparison with several related sodium metallates Nan-2Mn+On-1 - including Na3SbO4 and Na3TaO4, whose crystal structures are reported for the first time - has allowed us to assess the role played in the lattice expansion by the Mn+ cation radius and the Na/M ratio. On this basis, the thermomechanical behavior of the title compound is discussed, along with those of several related double oxides of sodium and actinide elements, surrogate elements, or fission products.

  9. Design of ternary clocked adiabatic static random access memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Pengjun; Mei Fengna

    2011-01-01

    Based on multi-valued logic, adiabatic circuits and the structure of ternary static random access memory (SRAM), a design scheme of a novel ternary clocked adiabatic SRAM is presented. The scheme adopts bootstrapped NMOS transistors, and an address decoder, a storage cell and a sense amplifier are charged and discharged in the adiabatic way, so the charges stored in the large switch capacitance of word lines, bit lines and the address decoder can be effectively restored to achieve energy recovery during reading and writing of ternary signals. The PSPICE simulation results indicate that the ternary clocked adiabatic SRAM has a correct logic function and low power consumption. Compared with ternary conventional SRAM, the average power consumption of the ternary adiabatic SRAM saves up to 68% in the same conditions. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  10. Design of ternary clocked adiabatic static random access memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengjun, Wang; Fengna, Mei

    2011-10-01

    Based on multi-valued logic, adiabatic circuits and the structure of ternary static random access memory (SRAM), a design scheme of a novel ternary clocked adiabatic SRAM is presented. The scheme adopts bootstrapped NMOS transistors, and an address decoder, a storage cell and a sense amplifier are charged and discharged in the adiabatic way, so the charges stored in the large switch capacitance of word lines, bit lines and the address decoder can be effectively restored to achieve energy recovery during reading and writing of ternary signals. The PSPICE simulation results indicate that the ternary clocked adiabatic SRAM has a correct logic function and low power consumption. Compared with ternary conventional SRAM, the average power consumption of the ternary adiabatic SRAM saves up to 68% in the same conditions.

  11. Ternary q-Virasoro-Witt Hom-Nambu-Lie algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammar, F; Makhlouf, A; Silvestrov, S

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we construct ternary q-Virasoro-Witt algebras which q-deform the ternary Virasoro-Witt algebras constructed by Curtright, Fairlie and Zachos using su(1, 1) enveloping algebra techniques. The ternary Virasoro-Witt algebras constructed by Curtright, Fairlie and Zachos depend on a parameter and are not Nambu-Lie algebras for all but finitely many values of this parameter. For the parameter values for which the ternary Virasoro-Witt algebras are Nambu-Lie, the corresponding ternary q-Virasoro-Witt algebras constructed in this paper are also Hom-Nambu-Lie because they are obtained from the ternary Nambu-Lie algebras using the composition method. For other parameter values this composition method does not yield a Hom-Nambu-Lie algebra structure for q-Virasoro-Witt algebras. We show however, using a different construction, that the ternary Virasoro-Witt algebras of Curtright, Fairlie and Zachos, as well as the general ternary q-Virasoro-Witt algebras we construct, carry a structure of the ternary Hom-Nambu-Lie algebra for all values of the involved parameters.

  12. Description of light charged particle emission in ternary fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, A. V.; Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.; Kuklin, S. N.; Scheid, W.

    2010-01-01

    We consider the motion of three fragments starting from the scission point of ternary system. In the alpha-accompanied ternary fission the initial conditions are not the free parameters and determined by minimization of potential energy at scission point. In the trajectory calculations the angular distribution and mean value of the kinetic energy of the alpha-particles are well described in the spontaneous ternary fission of 252 Cf. In the Be- and C-accompanied ternary fission we found that the emission of the third particle occurs from one of the heavy fragments after their separation. (authors)

  13. Role of ternary fission in synthesis of bypassed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramarovskij, Ya.M.; Chechev, V.P.

    1983-01-01

    A possible influence of ternary fission with escape of neutron-enriched light charged particles on the synthesis of bypassed nuclides is considered. It is shown that this concept cannot give explanation of bypassed isotope concentrations, but it can make some contribution, if the probability of ternary fission for superheavy nuclei grows sharply with Z 2 /A parameter. The account of β-delayed fission contributes to the shift of ternary fission fragments into the region of neutron-deficient isotopes. Consistent consideration of the ternary fission role in the nucleosynthesis is possible only with an important accumulation of experimental and theoretical data on this process, particularly for the nuclei with Z > 100

  14. Fusibility diagram of ternary system with incongruently melting double compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutsyk, V.I.; Vorob'eva, V.P.; Sumkina, O.G.

    1989-01-01

    Temperature calculation and properties of ternary eutectics and concentration coordinates of ternary peritectics accoriding to the linear model of initial crystallization surfaces as an element of the expert system for simulating fusibility diagrams of ternary systems is considered. It is shown that the calculated and experimental data on coordinates of ternary nonvariant points in the systems NaCl-PbCl 2 -CdCl 2 , PbCl 2 -CaCl 2 -UCl 4 , CaF 2 -NaF-CsF and UCl 3 -CaCl 2 -ThCl 4 are in good agreement

  15. From prototype to product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tariq Osman; Bansler, Jørgen P.; Kensing, Finn

    2017-01-01

    This paper delves into the challenges of engaging patients, clinicians and industry stakeholders in the participatory design of an mHealth platform for patient-clinician collaboration. It follows the process from the development of a research prototype to a commercial software product. In particu......This paper delves into the challenges of engaging patients, clinicians and industry stakeholders in the participatory design of an mHealth platform for patient-clinician collaboration. It follows the process from the development of a research prototype to a commercial software product....... In particular, we draw attention to four major challenges of (a) aligning the different concerns of patients and clinicians, (b) designing according to clinical accountability, (c) ensuring commercial interest, and (d) dealing with regulatory constraints when prototyping safety critical health Information...... Technology. Using four illustrative cases, we discuss what these challenges entail and the implications they pose to Participatory Design. We conclude the paper by presenting lessons learned....

  16. PANDA Muon System Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abazov, Victor; Alexeev, Gennady; Alexeev, Maxim; Frolov, Vladimir; Golovanov, Georgy; Kutuzov, Sergey; Piskun, Alexei; Samartsev, Alexander; Tokmenin, Valeri; Verkheev, Alexander; Vertogradov, Leonid; Zhuravlev, Nikolai

    2018-04-01

    The PANDA Experiment will be one of the key experiments at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) which is under construction now in the territory of the GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research in Darmstadt, Germany. PANDA is aimed to study hadron spectroscopy and various topics of the weak and strong forces. Muon System is chosen as the most suitable technology for detecting the muons. The Prototype of the PANDA Muon System is installed on the test beam line T9 at the Proton Synchrotron (PS) at CERN. Status of the PANDA Muon System prototype is presented with few preliminary results.

  17. Prototyping a Smart City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Henrik; Brynskov, Martin

    In this paper, we argue that by approaching the so-called Smart City as a design challenge, and an interaction design perspective, it is possible to both uncover existing challenges in the interplay between people, technology and society, as well as prototype possible futures. We present a case...... in which we exposed data about the online communication between the citizens and the municipality on a highly visible media facade, while at the same time prototyped a tool that enabled citizens to report ‘bugs’ within the city....

  18. PANDA Muon System Prototype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abazov Victor

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The PANDA Experiment will be one of the key experiments at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR which is under construction now in the territory of the GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research in Darmstadt, Germany. PANDA is aimed to study hadron spectroscopy and various topics of the weak and strong forces. Muon System is chosen as the most suitable technology for detecting the muons. The Prototype of the PANDA Muon System is installed on the test beam line T9 at the Proton Synchrotron (PS at CERN. Status of the PANDA Muon System prototype is presented with few preliminary results.

  19. An intimately bonded titanate nanotube–polyaniline–gold nanoparticle ternary composite as a scaffold for electrochemical enzyme biosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaoqiang, E-mail: liuxiaoqiang@henu.edu.cn [Institute of Environmental and Analytical Sciences, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan Province, 475004 (China); Zhu, Jie; Huo, Xiaohe; Yan, Rui [Institute of Environmental and Analytical Sciences, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan Province, 475004 (China); Wong, Danny K.Y., E-mail: Danny.Wong@mq.edu.au [Department of Chemistry and Biomolecular Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia)

    2016-03-10

    In this work, titanate nanotubes (TNTs), polyaniline (PANI) and gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were assembled to form a ternary composite, which was then applied on an electrode as a scaffold of an electrochemical enzyme biosensor. The scaffold was constructed by oxidatively polymerising aniline to produce an emeraldine salt of PANI on TNTs, followed by gold nanoparticle deposition. A novel aspect of this scaffold lies in the use of the emeraldine salt of PANI as a molecular wire between TNTs and GNPs. Using horseradish peroxidase (HRP) as a model enzyme, voltammetric results demonstrated that direct electron transfer of HRP was achieved at both TNT-PANI and TNT-PANI-GNP-modified electrodes. More significantly, the catalytic reduction current of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} by HRP was ∼75% enhanced at the TNT-PANI-GNP-modified electrode, compared to that at the TNT-PANI-modified electrode. The heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant of HRP was found to be ∼3 times larger at the TNT-PANI-GNP-modified electrode than that at the TNT-PANI-modified electrode. Based on chronoamperometric detection of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, a linear range from 1 to 1200 μM, a sensitivity of 22.7 μA mM{sup −1} and a detection limit of 0.13 μM were obtained at the TNT-PANI-GNP-modified electrode. The performance of the biosensor can be ascribed to the superior synergistic properties of the ternary composite. - Highlights: • A ternary TiO{sub 2} nanotube–polyaniline–gold nanoparticle composite was developed. • New synthetic route for ternary composite with a polyaniline molecular wire between TiO{sub 2} nanotubes and gold nanoparticles. • An electrochemical biosensor with ternary composite as a scaffold. • Ternary composite facilitated improved analytical performance of electrochemical biosensor.

  20. LEP vacuum chamber, prototype

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1983-01-01

    Final prototype for the LEP vacuum chamber, see 8305170 for more details. Here we see the strips of the NEG pump, providing "distributed pumping". The strips are made from a Zr-Ti-Fe alloy. By passing an electrical current, they were heated to 700 deg C.

  1. Imagining the prototype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, C. E.; Bhomer, ten M.; Melkas, H.; Buur, J.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on the analysis of a design session, employing conversation analysis. In the design session three experts and a designer discuss a prototype of a shirt, which has been developed with the input from these experts. The analysis focuses on the type of involvement of the

  2. MIND performance and prototyping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervera-Villanueva, A.

    2008-01-01

    The performance of MIND (Magnetised Iron Neutrino Detector) at a neutrino factory has been revisited in a new analysis. In particular, the low neutrino energy region is studied, obtaining an efficiency plateau around 5 GeV for a background level below 10 -3 . A first look has been given into the detector optimisation and prototyping

  3. The prototype fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broomfield, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    The paper concerns the Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR), which is a liquid metal cooled fast reactor power station, situated at Dounreay, Scotland. The principal design features of a Fast Reactor and the PFR are given, along with key points of operating history, and health and safety features. The role of the PFR in the development programme for commercial reactors is discussed. (U.K.)

  4. AGS Booster prototype magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danby, G.; Jackson, J.; Lee, Y.Y.; Phillips, R.; Brodowski, J.; Jablonski, E.; Keohane, G.; McDowell, B.; Rodger, E.

    1987-03-19

    Prototype magnets have been designed and constructed for two half cells of the AGS Booster. The lattice requires 2.4m long dipoles, each curved by 10/sup 0/. The multi-use Booster injector requires several very different standard magnet cycles, capable of instantaneous interchange using computer control from dc up to 10 Hz.

  5. AGS booster prototype magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danby, G.; Jackson, J.; Lee, Y.Y.; Phillips, R.; Brodowski, J.; Jablonski, E.; Keohane, G.; McDowell, B.; Rodger, E.

    1987-01-01

    Prototype magnets have been designed and constructed for two half cells of the AGS Booster. The lattice requires 2.4m long dipoles, each curved by 10 0 . The multi-use Booster injector requires several very different standard magnet cycles, capable of instantaneous interchange using computer control from dc up to 10 Hz

  6. Cockroft Walton accelerator prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutapea, Sumihar.

    1976-01-01

    Prototype of a Cockroft Walton generator using ceramic and plastic capacitors is discussed. Compared to the previous generator, the construction and components are much more improved. Pralon is used for the high voltage insulation column and plastic is used as a dielectric material for the high voltage capacitor. Cockroft Walton generator is used as a high tension supply for an accelerator. (author)

  7. Prompt and Precise Prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    For Sanders Design International, Inc., of Wilton, New Hampshire, every passing second between the concept and realization of a product is essential to succeed in the rapid prototyping industry where amongst heavy competition, faster time-to-market means more business. To separate itself from its rivals, Sanders Design aligned with NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center to develop what it considers to be the most accurate rapid prototyping machine for fabrication of extremely precise tooling prototypes. The company's Rapid ToolMaker System has revolutionized production of high quality, small-to-medium sized prototype patterns and tooling molds with an exactness that surpasses that of computer numerically-controlled (CNC) machining devices. Created with funding and support from Marshall under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract, the Rapid ToolMaker is a dual-use technology with applications in both commercial and military aerospace fields. The advanced technology provides cost savings in the design and manufacturing of automotive, electronic, and medical parts, as well as in other areas of consumer interest, such as jewelry and toys. For aerospace applications, the Rapid ToolMaker enables fabrication of high-quality turbine and compressor blades for jet engines on unmanned air vehicles, aircraft, and missiles.

  8. Surrogates-based prototyping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Du Bois, E.; Horvath, I.

    2014-01-01

    The research is situated in the system development phase of interactive software products. In this detailed design phase, we found a need for fast testable prototyping to achieve qualitative change proposals on the system design. In this paper, we discuss a literature study on current software

  9. Z Andromedae: the prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viotti, R.; Giangrande, A.; Ricciardi, O.; Cassatella, A.

    1982-01-01

    Z And is considered as the ''prototype'' of the symbiotic stars. Besides its symbiotic spectrum, the star is also known for its characteristic light curve (and for the related spectral variations). Since many theoretical speculations on Z And and similar objects have been based on the luminosity and spectral variations of this star, the authors critically analyse the observational data concerning it. (Auth.)

  10. Prototype ATLAS straw tracker

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1998-01-01

    This is an early prototype of the straw tracking device for the ATLAS detector at CERN. This detector will be part of the LHC project, scheduled to start operation in 2008. The straw tracker will consist of thousands of gas-filled straws, each containing a wire, allowing the tracks of particles to be followed.

  11. Neutron Damage and MAX Phase Ternary Compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barsoum, Michael [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Hoffman, Elizabeth [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Sindelar, Robert [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Garcua-Duaz, Brenda [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Kohse, Gordon [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2014-06-17

    The Demands of Gen IV nuclear power plants for long service life under neutron radiation at high temperature are severe. Advanced materials that would withstand high temperatures (up to 1000+ C) to high doses in a neutron field would be ideal for reactor internal structures and would add to the long service life and reliability of the reactors. The objective of this work is to investigate the response of a new class of machinable, conductive, layered, ternary transition metal carbides and nitrides - the so-called MAX phases - to low and moderate neutron dose levels.

  12. Neutron Damage and MAX Phase Ternary Compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barsoum, Michael; Hoffman, Elizabeth; Sindelar, Robert; Garcua-Diaz, Brenda; Kohse, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    The Demands of Gen IV nuclear power plants for long service life under neutron radiation at high temperature are severe. Advanced materials that would withstand high temperatures (up to 1000+ C) to high doses in a neutron field would be ideal for reactor internal structures and would add to the long service life and reliability of the reactors. The objective of this work is to investigate the response of a new class of machinable, conductive, layered, ternary transition metal carbides and nitrides - the so-called MAX phases - to low and moderate neutron dose levels.

  13. Courthouse Prototype Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malhotra, Mini [ORNL; New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL; Im, Piljae [ORNL

    2018-02-01

    As part of DOE's support of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1 and IECC, researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) apply a suite of prototype buildings covering 80% of the commercial building floor area in the U.S. for new construction. Efforts have started on expanding the prototype building suite to cover 90% of the commercial building floor area in the U.S., by developing prototype models for additional building types including place of worship, public order and safety, public assembly. Courthouse is courthouse is a sub-category under the “Public Order and Safety" building type category; other sub-categories include police station, fire station, and jail, reformatory or penitentiary.ORNL used building design guides, databases, and documented courthouse projects, supplemented by personal communication with courthouse facility planning and design experts, to systematically conduct research on the courthouse building and system characteristics. This report documents the research conducted for the courthouse building type and proposes building and system characteristics for developing a prototype building energy model to be included in the Commercial Building Prototype Model suite. According to the 2012 CBECS, courthouses occupy a total of 436 million sqft of floor space or 0.5% of the total floor space in all commercial buildings in the US, next to fast food (0.35%), grocery store or food market (0.88%), and restaurant or cafeteria (1.2%) building types currently included in the Commercial Prototype Building Model suite. Considering aggregated average, courthouse falls among the larger with a mean floor area of 69,400 sqft smaller fuel consumption intensity building types and an average of 94.7 kBtu/sqft compared to 77.8 kBtu/sqft for office and 80 kBtu/sqft for all commercial buildings.Courthouses range in size from 1000 sqft to over a million square foot building gross square feet and 1 courtroom to over 100 courtrooms. Small courthouses

  14. Embedding complete ternary tree in hypercubes using AVL trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.A. Choudum; I. Raman (Indhumathi)

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractA complete ternary tree is a tree in which every non-leaf vertex has exactly three children. We prove that a complete ternary tree of height h, TTh, is embeddable in a hypercube of dimension . This result coincides with the result of [2]. However, in this paper, the embedding utilizes

  15. Thermodynamic modeling of the Ti-Al-Cr ternary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Leyi; Qiu Aitao; Liu Lanjie; Jiang Ming; Lu Xionggang; Li Chonghe

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The full experimental results of the Ti-Al-Cr ternary system and its sub-binary systems are reviewed and analysed in detail. → Based on the latest thermodynamic assessments of the Ti-Al, Ti-Cr and Al-Cr systems and the ternary experimental data in literature, the thermodynamic parameters of the Ti-Al-Cr ternary system are fully assessed by the Calphad method. → The transformation of disorder to order (bcc a 2 to B2) and the new ternary compound L 12T i 25 Cr 8 Al 67 are considered in this work. - Abstract: The Ti-Al-Cr ternary system is one of the most important systems to studying the titanium alloys. Some experimental data of this ternary system are available and a few partial thermodynamic assessments are reported. However, no full thermodynamic descriptions were published. In this study, the previous work on the Ti-Al-Cr system and its related binary systems are reviewed. Based on the thermodynamic descriptions of the Ti-Al, Ti-Cr and Al-Cr systems and the ternary experimental data in literature, the Ti-Al-Cr ternary system is assessed by means of the Calphad method. Several isothermal sections from 1073 K to 1573 K and some invariant reactions are calculated, which are in good agreement with the most of the experimental results.

  16. Density-Driven segregation in Binary and Ternary Granular Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windows-Yule, Kit; Parker, David

    2015-01-01

    We present a first experimental study of density-induced segregation within a three-dimensional, vibrofluidised, ternary granular system. Using Positron Emission Particle Tracking (PEPT), we study the steady-state particle distributions achieved by binary and ternary granular beds under a variety of

  17. Calculation of ternary interdiffusion coefficients using a single diffusion couple

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čermák, Jiří; Rothová, Věra

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 5 (2016), s. 305-314 ISSN 0023-432X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : diffusion * interdiffusion * ternary alloys * ternary diffusion coefficients Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 0.366, year: 2016

  18. A high-speed interconnect network using ternary logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jens Kargaard; Long, S. I.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a high-speed interconnect network (ICN) for a multiprocessor system using ternary logic. By using ternary logic and a fast point-to-point communication technique called STARI (Self-Timed At Receiver's Input), the communication between...

  19. Grey water reclamation by decentralized MBR prototype

    OpenAIRE

    Santasmasas Rubiralta, Carme; Rovira Boixaderas, Miquel; Clarens Blanco, Frederic; Valderrama Angel, César Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Grey water treatment and reuse for non-drinking water requirements has become of great interest in arid and semi-arid zones where water resources are becoming both quantitatively and qualitatively scarce. In this study a decentralized and automatic MBR prototype has been designed and installed in the REMOSA facilities for treatment of low-load grey water to be recycled in flushing-toilet application. The recycling treatment of grey water comprises four stages: screening, biological oxidation,...

  20. Ionic conductivity of ternary electrolyte containing sodium salt and ionic liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egashira, Minato; Asai, Takahito; Yoshimoto, Nobuko; Morita, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ternary electrolyte containing NaBF 4 , polyether and ionic liquid has been prepared. ► The conductivity of the electrolytes has been evaluated toward content of ionic liquid. ► The conductivity shows maximum 1.2 mS cm −1 and is varied in relation to solution structure. - Abstract: For the development of novel non-aqueous sodium ion conductor with safety of sodium secondary cell, non-flammable ionic liquid is attractive as electrolyte component. A preliminary study has been carried out for the purpose of constructing sodium ion conducting electrolyte based on ionic liquid. The solubility of sodium salt such as NaBF 4 in ionic liquid is poor, thus the ternary electrolyte has been prepared where NaBF 4 with poly(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether (PEGDME) as coordination former is dissolved with ionic liquid diethyl methoxyethyl ammonium tetrafluoroborate (DEMEBF 4 ). The maximum conductivity among the prepared solutions, ca. 1.2 mS cm −1 at 25 °C, was obtained when the molar ratio (ethylene oxide unit in PEGDME):NaBF 4 :DEMEBF 4 was 8:1:2. The relationship between the conductivity of the ternary electrolyte and its solution structure has been discussed.

  1. Enhancing Performance of Large-Area Organic Solar Cells with Thick Film via Ternary Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianqi; Zhao, Yifan; Fang, Jin; Yuan, Liu; Xia, Benzheng; Wang, Guodong; Wang, Zaiyu; Zhang, Yajie; Ma, Wei; Yan, Wei; Su, Wenming; Wei, Zhixiang

    2017-06-01

    Large-scale fabrication of organic solar cells requires an active layer with high thickness tolerability and the use of environment-friendly solvents. Thick films with high-performance can be achieved via a ternary strategy studied herein. The ternary system consists of one polymer donor, one small molecule donor, and one fullerene acceptor. The small molecule enhances the crystallinity and face-on orientation of the active layer, leading to improved thickness tolerability compared with that of a polymer-fullerene binary system. An active layer with 270 nm thickness exhibits an average power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 10.78%, while the PCE is less than 8% with such thick film for binary system. Furthermore, large-area devices are successfully fabricated using polyethylene terephthalate (PET)/Silver gride or indium tin oxide (ITO)-based transparent flexible substrates. The product shows a high PCE of 8.28% with an area of 1.25 cm 2 for a single cell and 5.18% for a 20 cm 2 module. This study demonstrates that ternary organic solar cells exhibit great potential for large-scale fabrication and future applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Asymmetric supercapacitors with metal-like ternary selenides and porous graphene electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Chuan

    2016-04-14

    Asymmetric supercapacitors provide a promising approach to fabricate capacitive energy storage devices with high energy and power densities. In this work, asymmetric supercapacitors with excellent performance have been fabricated using ternary (Ni, Co)0.85Se on carbon fabric as bind-free positive electrode and porous free-standing graphene films as negative electrode. Owing to their metal-like conductivity (~1.67×106 S m−1), significant electrochemical activity, and superhydrophilic nature, our nanostructured ternary nickel cobalt selenides result in a much higher areal capacitance (2.33 F cm−2 at 4 mA cm−2), better rate performance and cycling stability than their binary selenide equivalents, and other ternary oxides and chalcogenides. Those hybrid supercapacitors can afford impressive areal capacitance and stack capacitance of 529.3 mF cm−2 and 6330 mF cm−3 at 1 mA cm−2, respectively. More impressively, our optimized asymmetric device operating at 1.8 V delivers a very high stack energy density of 2.85 mWh cm−3 at a stack power density of 10.76 mW cm−3, as well as 85% capacitance retention after 10,000 continuous charge-discharge cycles. Even at a high stack power density of 1173 mW cm−3, this device still deliveries a stack energy density of 1.19 mWh cm−3, superior to most of the reported supercapacitors.

  3. Symmetric weak ternary quantum homomorphic encryption schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuqi; She, Kun; Luo, Qingbin; Yang, Fan; Zhao, Chao

    2016-03-01

    Based on a ternary quantum logic circuit, four symmetric weak ternary quantum homomorphic encryption (QHE) schemes were proposed. First, for a one-qutrit rotation gate, a QHE scheme was constructed. Second, in view of the synthesis of a general 3 × 3 unitary transformation, another one-qutrit QHE scheme was proposed. Third, according to the one-qutrit scheme, the two-qutrit QHE scheme about generalized controlled X (GCX(m,n)) gate was constructed and further generalized to the n-qutrit unitary matrix case. Finally, the security of these schemes was analyzed in two respects. It can be concluded that the attacker can correctly guess the encryption key with a maximum probability pk = 1/33n, thus it can better protect the privacy of users’ data. Moreover, these schemes can be well integrated into the future quantum remote server architecture, and thus the computational security of the users’ private quantum information can be well protected in a distributed computing environment.

  4. Nanoscratching of nylon 66-based ternary nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasari, Aravind; Yu Zhongzhen; Mai Yiuwing

    2007-01-01

    The nanoscratch behavior of nylon 66/SEBS-g-MA/clay ternary nanocomposites produced by different blending protocols with contrasting microstructures is studied by using atomic force and transmission electron microscopy. A standard diamond Berkovich indenter is used for scratching and a low load of 1 mN, along with a low sliding velocity of 1 μm s -1 , are employed for this purpose. It is shown that in order to resist penetration it is more important to have exfoliated clay in the continuous nylon matrix during nanoscratching than to have the clay in the dispersed soft rubber domains. The results obtained also explain the preferred usage of ternary nanocomposites compared to binary nanocomposites, particularly nylon 66/exfoliated clay nanocomposites. This research extends current basic knowledge and provides new insights on the nature of nanoscale processes that occur during nanoscratching of polymer nanocomposites. Critical questions are raised on the relationships between the penetration depth and material deformation and damage left behind the moving indenter

  5. Irregular Homogeneity Domains in Ternary Intermetallic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marc Joubert

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ternary intermetallic A–B–C systems sometimes have unexpected behaviors. The present paper examines situations in which there is a tendency to simultaneously form the compounds ABx, ACx and BCx with the same crystal structure. This causes irregular shapes of the phase homogeneity domains and, from a structural point of view, a complete reversal of site occupancies for the B atom when crossing the homogeneity domain. This work reviews previous studies done in the systems Fe–Nb–Zr, Hf–Mo–Re, Hf–Re–W, Mo–Re–Zr, Re–W–Zr, Cr–Mn–Si, Cr–Mo–Re, and Mo–Ni–Re, and involving the topologically close-packed Laves, χ and σ phases. These systems have been studied using ternary isothermal section determination, DFT calculations, site occupancy measurement using joint X-ray, and neutron diffraction Rietveld refinement. Conclusions are drawn concerning this phenomenon. The paper also reports new experimental or calculated data on Co–Cr–Re and Fe–Nb–Zr systems.

  6. Plasmonic spectral tunability of conductive ternary nitrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassavetis, S.; Patsalas, P., E-mail: ppats@physics.auth.gr [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Bellas, D. V.; Lidorikis, E. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, GR-45110 Ioannina (Greece); Abadias, G. [Institut Pprime, Département Physique et Mécanique des Matériaux, Université de Poitiers-CNRS-ENSMA, 86962 Chasseneuil-Futuroscope (France)

    2016-06-27

    Conductive binary transition metal nitrides, such as TiN and ZrN, have emerged as a category of promising alternative plasmonic materials. In this work, we show that ternary transition metal nitrides such as Ti{sub x}Ta{sub 1−x}N, Ti{sub x}Zr{sub 1−x}N, Ti{sub x}Al{sub 1−x}N, and Zr{sub x}Ta{sub 1−x}N share the important plasmonic features with their binary counterparts, while having the additional asset of the exceptional spectral tunability in the entire visible (400–700 nm) and UVA (315–400 nm) spectral ranges depending on their net valence electrons. In particular, we demonstrate that such ternary nitrides can exhibit maximum field enhancement factors comparable with gold in the aforementioned broadband range. We also critically evaluate the structural features that affect the quality factor of the plasmon resonance and we provide rules of thumb for the selection and growth of materials for nitride plasmonics.

  7. Ternary Au/ZnO/rGO nanocomposites electrodes for high performance electrochemical storage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Manchal; Doong, Ruey-an; Kumar, Nagesh; Tseng, Tseung Yuen

    2017-10-01

    The combination of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles with reduced graphene oxides (rGO) is an active electrode material for electrochemical storage devices. Herein, we have, for the first time, reported the fabrication of ternary Au/ZnO/rGO nanocomposites by using a rapid and environmentally friendly microwave-assisted hydrothermal method for high performance supercapacitor applications. The ZnO/rGO provides excellent electrical conductivity and good macro/mesopore structures, which can facilitate the rapid electrons and ions transport. The Au nanoparticles with particle sizes of 7-12 nm are homogeneously distributed onto the ZnO/rGO surface to enhance the electrochemical performance by retaining the capacitance at high current density. The Au/ZnO/rGO nanocomposites, prepared with the optimized rGO amount of 100 mg exhibit a high specific capacitance of 875 and 424 F g-1 at current densities of 1 and 20 A g-1, respectively, in 2 M KOH. In addition, the energy and power densities of ternary Au/ZnO/rGO can be up to 17.6-36.5 Wh kg-1 and 0.27-5.42 kW kg-1, respectively. Results obtained in this study clearly demonstrate the excellence of ternary Au/ZnO/rGO nanocomposites as the active electrode materials for electrochemical pseudocapacitor performance and can open an avenue to fabricate metal/metal oxide/rGO nanocomposites for electrochemical storage devices with both high energy and power densities.

  8. Database Replication Prototype

    OpenAIRE

    Vandewall, R.

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the design of a Replication Framework that facilitates the implementation and com-parison of database replication techniques. Furthermore, it discusses the implementation of a Database Replication Prototype and compares the performance measurements of two replication techniques based on the Atomic Broadcast communication primitive: pessimistic active replication and optimistic active replication. The main contributions of this report can be split into four parts....

  9. Brachial Plexus Blocker Prototype

    OpenAIRE

    Stéphanie Coelho Monteiro

    2017-01-01

    Although the area of surgical simulation has been the subject of study in recent years, it is still necessary to develop artificial experimental models with a perspective to dismiss the use of biological models. Since this makes the simulators more real, transferring the environment of the health professional to a physical or virtual reality, an anesthetic prototype has been developed, where the motor response is replicated when the brachial plexus is subjected to a proximal nervous stimulus....

  10. Prototyping real-time systems

    OpenAIRE

    Clynch, Gary

    1994-01-01

    The traditional software development paradigm, the waterfall life cycle model, is defective when used for developing real-time systems. This thesis puts forward an executable prototyping approach for the development of real-time systems. A prototyping system is proposed which uses ESML (Extended Systems Modelling Language) as a prototype specification language. The prototyping system advocates the translation of non-executable ESML specifications into executable LOOPN (Language of Object ...

  11. Electrical transport and thermochromic properties of polyaniline/chitosan/Co3O4 ternary nano composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    V, Mini; Kamath, Archana; S, Raghu; Chapi, Sharanappa; H, Devendrappa

    2015-06-01

    A new Polyaniline/ chitosan/ Co3O4 (CPAESCO) ternary nanocomposite is prepared by in situ oxidation polymerization of aniline in the presence of (NH4)2S2O8, chitosan and Co3O4. The Structural, Thermal, Optical and Electrical features of Polyaniline (PANI), Polyaniline/ chitosan (CPANI) and CPAESCO were analyzed using FT-IR, TGA, UV-vis analysis and Impedance spectroscopy by varying temperature. The results show that the introduction of the Co3O4 nanoparticles into CPANI matrix enhanced its properties. Mott's parameters show 3D -VRH Type conduction in it.

  12. MITRE sensor layer prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Francis; McGarry, Donald; Zasada, David; Foote, Scott

    2009-05-01

    The MITRE Sensor Layer Prototype is an initial design effort to enable every sensor to help create new capabilities through collaborative data sharing. By making both upstream (raw) and downstream (processed) sensor data visible, users can access the specific level, type, and quantities of data needed to create new data products that were never anticipated by the original designers of the individual sensors. The major characteristic that sets sensor data services apart from typical enterprise services is the volume (on the order of multiple terabytes) of raw data that can be generated by most sensors. Traditional tightly coupled processing approaches extract pre-determined information from the incoming raw sensor data, format it, and send it to predetermined users. The community is rapidly reaching the conclusion that tightly coupled sensor processing loses too much potentially critical information.1 Hence upstream (raw and partially processed) data must be extracted, rapidly archived, and advertised to the enterprise for unanticipated uses. The authors believe layered sensing net-centric integration can be achieved through a standardize-encapsulate-syndicateaggregate- manipulate-process paradigm. The Sensor Layer Prototype's technical approach focuses on implementing this proof of concept framework to make sensor data visible, accessible and useful to the enterprise. To achieve this, a "raw" data tap between physical transducers associated with sensor arrays and the embedded sensor signal processing hardware and software has been exploited. Second, we encapsulate and expose both raw and partially processed data to the enterprise within the context of a service-oriented architecture. Third, we advertise the presence of multiple types, and multiple layers of data through geographic-enabled Really Simple Syndication (GeoRSS) services. These GeoRSS feeds are aggregated, manipulated, and filtered by a feed aggregator. After filtering these feeds to bring just the type

  13. Design and assembly of ternary Pt/Re/SnO2 NPs by controlling the zeta potential of individual Pt, Re, and SnO2 NPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drzymała, Elżbieta; Gruzeł, Grzegorz; Pajor-Świerzy, Anna; Depciuch, Joanna; Socha, Robert; Kowal, Andrzej; Warszyński, Piotr; Parlinska-Wojtan, Magdalena

    2018-05-01

    In this study Pt, Re, and SnO2 nanoparticles (NPs) were combined in a controlled manner into binary and ternary combinations for a possible application for ethanol oxidation. For this purpose, zeta potentials as a function of the pH of the individual NPs solutions were measured. In order to successfully combine the NPs into Pt/SnO2 and Re/SnO2 NPs, the solutions were mixed together at a pH guaranteeing opposite zeta potentials of the metal and oxide NPs. The individually synthesized NPs and their binary/ternary combinations were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) combined with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis. FTIR and XPS spectroscopy showed that the individually synthesized Pt and Re NPs are metallic and the Sn component was oxidized to SnO2. STEM showed that all NPs are well crystallized and the sizes of the Pt, Re, and SnO2 NPs were 2.2, 1.0, and 3.4 nm, respectively. Moreover, EDS analysis confirmed the successful formation of binary Pt/SnO2 and Re/SnO2 NP, as well as ternary Pt/Re/SnO2 NP combinations. This study shows that by controlling the zeta potential of individual metal and oxide NPs, it is possible to assemble them into binary and ternary combinations. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  14. A prototype analysis of vengeance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elshout, Maartje; Nelissen, Rob; van Beest, Ilja

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined the concept of vengeance from a prototype perspective. In 6 studies, the prototype structure of vengeance was mapped. Sixty-nine features of vengeance were identified (Study 1), and rated on centrality (Study 2). Further studies confirmed the prototype structure. Compared to

  15. Predicting the stability of ternary intermetallics with density functional theory and machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jonathan; Chen, Liming; Botti, Silvana; Marques, Miguel A. L.

    2018-06-01

    We use a combination of machine learning techniques and high-throughput density-functional theory calculations to explore ternary compounds with the AB2C2 composition. We chose the two most common intermetallic prototypes for this composition, namely, the tI10-CeAl2Ga2 and the tP10-FeMo2B2 structures. Our results suggest that there may be ˜10 times more stable compounds in these phases than previously known. These are mostly metallic and non-magnetic. While the use of machine learning reduces the overall calculation cost by around 75%, some limitations of its predictive power still exist, in particular, for compounds involving the second-row of the periodic table or magnetic elements.

  16. Ternary particle yields in 249Cf(nth,f)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsekhanovich, I.; Büyükmumcu, Z.; Davi, M.; Denschlag, H. O.; Gönnenwein, F.; Boulyga, S. F.

    2003-03-01

    An experiment measuring ternary particle yields in 249Cf(nth,f) was carried out at the high flux reactor of the Institut Laue-Langevin using the Lohengrin recoil mass separator. Parameters of energy distributions were determined for 27 ternary particles up to 30Mg and their yields were calculated. The yields of 17 further ternary particles were estimated on the basis of the systematics developed. The heaviest particles observed in the experiment are 37Si and 37S; their possible origin is discussed.

  17. Ternary particle yields in 249Cf(nth,f)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsekhanovich, I.; Bueyuekmumcu, Z.; Davi, M.; Denschlag, H.O.; Goennenwein, F.; Boulyga, S.F.

    2003-01-01

    An experiment measuring ternary particle yields in 249 Cf(n th ,f) was carried out at the high flux reactor of the Institut Laue-Langevin using the Lohengrin recoil mass separator. Parameters of energy distributions were determined for 27 ternary particles up to 30 Mg and their yields were calculated. The yields of 17 further ternary particles were estimated on the basis of the systematics developed. The heaviest particles observed in the experiment are 37 Si and 37 S; their possible origin is discussed

  18. A Three-dimensional Topological Model of Ternary Phase Diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu, Yingxue; Bao, Hong

    2017-01-01

    In order to obtain a visualization of the complex internal structure of ternary phase diagram, the paper realized a three-dimensional topology model of ternary phase diagram with the designed data structure and improved algorithm, under the guidance of relevant theories of computer graphics. The purpose of the model is mainly to analyze the relationship between each phase region of a ternary phase diagram. The model not only obtain isothermal section graph at any temperature, but also extract a particular phase region in which users are interested. (paper)

  19. Effect of Alloying Additions on the Phase Equilibria and Oxidation in the Mo-Si-B System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mendiratta, M

    2001-01-01

    .... For high-pressure turbine blade application, the ternary Mo-Si-B compositions exhibit adequate oxidation resistance in the temperature range of 1000 to 1300 deg C, but below 1000 deg C, the oxidation...

  20. OPAL Jet Chamber Prototype

    CERN Multimedia

    OPAL was one of the four experiments installed at the LEP particle accelerator from 1989 - 2000. OPAL's central tracking system consists of (in order of increasing radius) a silicon microvertex detector, a vertex detector, a jet chamber, and z-chambers. All the tracking detectors work by observing the ionization of atoms by charged particles passing by: when the atoms are ionized, electrons are knocked out of their atomic orbitals, and are then able to move freely in the detector. These ionization electrons are detected in the dirfferent parts of the tracking system. This piece is a prototype of the jet chambers

  1. Prototyping Augmented Reality

    CERN Document Server

    Mullen, Tony

    2011-01-01

    Learn to create augmented reality apps using Processing open-source programming language Augmented reality (AR) is used all over, and you may not even realize it. Smartphones overlay data onto live camera views to show homes for sale, restaurants, or historical sites. American football broadcasts use AR to show the invisible first-down line on the field to TV viewers. Nike and Budweiser, among others, have used AR in ads. Now, you can learn to create AR prototypes using 3D data, Processing open-source programming language, and other languages. This unique book is an easy-to-follow guide on how

  2. Nightshade Prototype Experiments (Silverleaf)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danielson, Jeremy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bauer, Amy L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-12-23

    The Red Sage campaign is a series of subcritical dynamic plutonium experiments designed to measure ejecta. Nightshade, the first experiments in Red Sage scheduled for fiscal year 2019, will measure the amount of ejecta emission into vacuum from a double-­shocked plutonium surface. To address the major technical risks in Nightshade, a Level 2 milestone was developed for fiscal year 2016. Silverleaf, a series of four experiments, was executed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in July and August 2016 to demonstrate a prototype of the Nightshade package and to satisfy this Level 2 milestone. This report is documentation that Red Sage Level 2 milestone requirements were successfully met.

  3. Electrodeposition of Polypyrrole/Reduced Graphene Oxide/Iron Oxide Nanocomposite as Supercapacitor Electrode Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. C. Eeu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polypyrrole (PPy was reinforced with reduced graphene oxide (RGO and iron oxide to achieve electrochemical stability and enhancement. The ternary nanocomposite film was prepared using a facile one-pot chronoamperometry approach, which is inexpensive and experimentally friendly. The field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM image shows a layered morphology of the ternary nanocomposite film as opposed to the dendritic structure of PPy, suggesting hybridization of the three materials during electrodeposition. X-ray diffraction (XRD profile shows the presence of Fe2O3 in the ternary nanocomposite. Cyclic voltammetry (CV analysis illustrates enhanced current for the nanocomposite by twofold and fourfold compared to its binary (PPy/RGO and individual (PPy counterparts, respectively. The ternary nanocomposite film exhibited excellent specific capacitance retention even after 200 cycles of charge/discharge.

  4. DataCollection Prototyping

    CERN Multimedia

    Beck, H.P.

    DataCollection is a subsystem of the Trigger, DAQ & DCS project responsible for the movement of event data from the ROS to the High Level Triggers. This includes data from Regions of Interest (RoIs) for Level 2, building complete events for the Event Filter and finally transferring accepted events to Mass Storage. It also handles passing the LVL1 RoI pointers and the allocation of Level 2 processors and load balancing of Event Building. During the last 18 months DataCollection has developed a common architecture for the hardware and software required. This involved a radical redesign integrating ideas from separate parts of earlier TDAQ work. An important milestone for this work, now achieved, has been to demonstrate this subsystem in the so-called Phase 2A Integrated Prototype. This prototype comprises the various TDAQ hardware and software components (ROSs, LVL2, etc.) under the control of the TDAQ Online software. The basic functionality has been demonstrated on small testbeds (~8-10 processing nodes)...

  5. OMS FDIR: Initial prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Eric W.; Hanson, Matthew A.

    1990-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP) Operations Management System (OMS) will automate major management functions which coordinate the operations of onboard systems, elements and payloads. The objectives of OMS are to improve safety, reliability and productivity while reducing maintenance and operations cost. This will be accomplished by using advanced automation techniques to automate much of the activity currently performed by the flight crew and ground personnel. OMS requirements have been organized into five task groups: (1) Planning, Execution and Replanning; (2) Data Gathering, Preprocessing and Storage; (3) Testing and Training; (4) Resource Management; and (5) Caution and Warning and Fault Management for onboard subsystems. The scope of this prototyping effort falls within the Fault Management requirements group. The prototyping will be performed in two phases. Phase 1 is the development of an onboard communications network fault detection, isolation, and reconfiguration (FDIR) system. Phase 2 will incorporate global FDIR for onboard systems. Research into the applicability of expert systems, object-oriented programming, fuzzy sets, neural networks and other advanced techniques will be conducted. The goals and technical approach for this new SSFP research project are discussed here.

  6. Live Piloting and Prototyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Rizzo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents current trends in service design research concerning large scale projects aimed at generating changes at a local scale. The strategy adopted to achieve this, is to co-design solutions including future users in the development process, prototyping and testing system of products and services before their actual implementation. On the basis of experience achieved in the European Project Life 2.0, this paper discusses which methods and competencies are applied in the development of these projects, eliciting the lessons learnt especially from the piloting phase in which the participatory design (PD approach plays a major role. In the first part, the topic is introduced jointly with the theoretical background where the user center design and participatory design methods are presented; then the Life 2.0 project development is described; finally the experience is discussed from a service design perspective, eliciting guidelines for piloting and prototyping services in a real context of use. The paper concludes reflecting on the designers’ role and competencies needed in this process.

  7. Speeds of sound and isothermal compressibility of ternary liquid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thermo-acoustics Research Lab, Department of Chemistry, University of Allahabad,. Allahabad 211 002, India ... compressibility data of these industrially important organic compounds of ternary and higher liquid ... distillation. Densities and ...

  8. Kinetic study of lithium-cadmium ternary amalgam decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordova, M.H.; Andrade, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of metals, which form stable lithium phase in binary alloys, on the formation of intermetallic species in ternary amalgams and their effect on thermal decomposition in contact with water is analyzed. Cd is selected as ternary metal, based on general experimental selection criteria. Cd (Hg) binary amalgams are prepared by direct contact Cd-Hg, whereas Li is formed by electrolysis of Li OH aq using a liquid Cd (Hg) cathodic well. The decomposition kinetic of Li C(Hg) in contact with 0.6 M Li OH is studied in function of ageing and temperature, and these results are compared with the binary amalgam Li (Hg) decomposition. The decomposition rate is constant during one hour for binary and ternary systems. Ageing does not affect the binary systems but increases the decomposition activation energy of ternary systems. A reaction mechanism that considers an intermetallic specie participating in the activated complex is proposed and a kinetic law is suggested. (author)

  9. Positron annihilation lifetime study of interfaces in ternary polymer blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meghala, D; Ramya, P; Pasang, T; Raj, J M; Ranganathaiah, C; Williams, J F

    2013-01-01

    A new method based on positron lifetime spectroscopy is developed to characterize individual interfaces in ternary polymer blends and hence determine the composition dependent miscibility level. The method owes its origin to the Kirkwood-Risemann-Zimm (KRZ) model for the evaluation of the hydrodynamic interaction parameters (α ij ) which was used successfully for a binary blend with a single interface. The model was revised for the present work for ternary polymer blends to account for three interfaces. The efficacy of this method is shown for two ternary blends namely poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile)/poly (ethylene-co-vinylacetate)/poly(vinyl chloride) (SAN/EVA/PVC) and polycaprolactone /poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile)/poly(vinyl chloride) (PCL/SAN/PVC) at different compositions. An effective hydrodynamic interaction parameter, α eff , was introduced to predict the overall miscibility of ternary blends.

  10. Tricolore. A flexible color scale for ternary compositions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2018-01-01

    tricolore is an R library providing a flexible color scale for the visualization of three-part/ternary compositions. Its main functionality is to color-code any ternary composition as a mixture of three primary colours and to draw a suitable color-key. tricolore flexibly adapts to different...... visualisation challenges via - discrete and continuous color support - support for unbalanced compositional data via centering - support for data with very narrow range via scaling - hue, chroma and lightness options...

  11. Analytical determination of distillation boundaries for ternary azeotropic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Marcilla Gomis, Antonio; Reyes Labarta, Juan Antonio; Velasco, Raúl; Serrano Cayuelas, María Dolores; Olaya López, María del Mar

    2009-01-01

    A new straight forward algorithm to calculate distillation boundaries in ternary azeotropic systems has been developed. The proposed method allows, using cubic splines, the calculation of distillation trajectories and the calculation of that corresponding to the searched distillation boundaries. The algorithm is applied to 4 ternary liquid-vapour systems to test its validity. Vicepresidency of Research (University of Alicante) and Generalitat Valenciana (GV/2007/125)

  12. Charge distribution in the ternary fragmentation of {sup 252}Cf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senthil Kannan, M.T.; Balasubramaniam, M. [Bharathiar University, Department of Physics, Coimbatore (India)

    2017-08-15

    We present here, for the first time, a study on ternary fragmentation charge distribution of {sup 252}Cf using the convolution integral method and the statistical theory. The charge distribution for all possible charge combinations of a ternary breakup are grouped as a bin containing different mass partitions. Different bins corresponding to various third fragments with mass numbers from A{sub 3} = 16 to 84 are identified with the available experimental masses. The corresponding potential energy surfaces are calculated using the three cluster model for the two arrangements A{sub 1} + A{sub 2} + A{sub 3} and A{sub 1} + A{sub 3} + A{sub 2}. The ternary fragmentation yield values are calculated for the ternary combination from each bin possessing minimum potential energy. The yields of the resulting ternary combinations as a function of the charge numbers of the three fragments are analyzed for both the arrangements. The calculations are carried out at different excitation energies of the parent nucleus. For each excitation energy the temperature of the three fragments are iteratively computed conserving the total energy. The distribution of fragment temperatures corresponding to different excitation energies for some fixed third fragments are discussed. The presence of the closed shell nucleus Sn in the favourable ternary fragmentation is highlighted. (orig.)

  13. Impact of ternary blends of biodiesel on diesel engine performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Pongamia and waste cooking oils are the main non edible oils for biodiesel production in India. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the fuel properties and investigate the impact on engine performance using Pongamia and waste cooking biodiesel and their ternary blend with diesel. The investigation of the fuel properties shows that Pongamia biodiesel and waste cooking biodiesel have poor cold flow property. This will lead to starting problem in the engine operation. To overcome this problem the ternary blends of diesel, waste cooking biodiesel and Pongamia biodiesel are prepared. The cloud and pour point for ternary blend, (WCB20:PB20:D60 were found to be 7 °C and 6.5 °C which are comparable to cloud and pour point of diesel 6 °C and 5 °C, respectively. The result of the test showed that brake specific fuel consumption for Pongamia biodiesel and waste cooking biodiesel is higher than ternary blend, (WCB20:PB20:D60 due to their lower energy content. The brake thermal efficiency of ternary blend and diesel is comparable while the Pongamia and waste cooking biodiesel have low efficiency. The result of investigation showed that ternary blend can be developed as alternate fuel.

  14. Kinetic and thermodynamic study of lithium ternary amalgams in contact with solvated lithium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordova M, M.

    1991-12-01

    Lithium amalgams are used on lithium isotope separation, the process has been studied in its different parameters, but there is no information on the isotopic separation in the presence of ternary metals diluted in the amalgam. The latest voltammetric technique developed for trace analysis is used for the study, to determine the effects of the presence of cadmium, which has been selected on compatibility criteria with the system, in the intermetallic structures of the amalgam. The differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry indicates the presence of an intermetallic persistent structure after the potassium and lithium oxidation. This structure has a slow formation and destruction rate, with an anionic character, which accounts for the oxidation potential displacement of the amalgamated metals. The activation energy results of amalgam decomposition reaction in contact with water, allows to establish the intermetallic effects on this reaction, raising the energy of the activated state, on condition that there were time to form it. A reaction mechanism is proposed that agrees with these results. The study of the isotopic composition indicates that the intermetallic species affect the thermodynamic equilibrium between the phases in contact. The measurements of the system's isotopic composition do not give exact values for the separation factors, but they establish a difference in the sign of enthalpies of the isotopic equilibria. The enthalpy for the isotopic exchange for the binary amalgam is negative, with a value that agrees with those in the literature. Nevertheless, those of the ternary systems are positive, indicating an endothermic character process. (author)

  15. Prototypes as Platforms for Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horst, Willem

    developers, and design it accordingly. Designing a flexible prototype in combination with supportive tools to be used by both interaction designers and non-designers during development is introduced as a way to open up the prototyping process to these users. Furthermore I demonstrate how such a flexible...... on prototyping, by bringing to attention that the prototype itself is an object of design, with its users and use context, which deserves further attention. Moreover, in this work I present concrete tools and methods that can be used by interaction designers in practice. As such this work addresses both......The development of interactive products in industry is an activity involving different disciplines – such as different kinds of designers, engineers, marketers and managers – in which prototypes play an important role. On the one hand, prototypes can be powerful boundary objects and an effective...

  16. Prototype Stilbene Neutron Collar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, M. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Shumaker, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Snyderman, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Verbeke, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wong, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-10-26

    A neutron collar using stilbene organic scintillator cells for fast neutron counting is described for the assay of fresh low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel assemblies. The prototype stilbene collar has a form factor similar to standard He-3 based collars and uses an AmLi interrogation neutron source. This report describes the simulation of list mode neutron correlation data on various fuel assemblies including some with neutron absorbers (burnable Gd poisons). Calibration curves (doubles vs 235U linear mass density) are presented for both thermal and fast (with Cd lining) modes of operation. It is shown that the stilbene collar meets or exceeds the current capabilities of He-3 based neutron collars. A self-consistent assay methodology, uniquely suited to the stilbene collar, using triples is described which complements traditional assay based on doubles calibration curves.

  17. Brachial Plexus Blocker Prototype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Coelho Monteiro

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Although the area of surgical simulation has been the subject of study in recent years, it is still necessary to develop artificial experimental models with a perspective to dismiss the use of biological models. Since this makes the simulators more real, transferring the environment of the health professional to a physical or virtual reality, an anesthetic prototype has been developed, where the motor response is replicated when the brachial plexus is subjected to a proximal nervous stimulus. Using action-research techniques, with this simulator it was possible to validate that the human nerve response can be replicated, which will aid the training of health professionals, reducing possible risks in a surgical environment.

  18. Maxwell-Stefan diffusion coefficient estimation for ternary systems: an ideal ternary alcohol system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allie-Ebrahim, Tariq; Zhu, Qingyu; Bräuer, Pierre; Moggridge, Geoff D; D'Agostino, Carmine

    2017-06-21

    The Maxwell-Stefan model is a popular diffusion model originally developed to model diffusion of gases, which can be considered thermodynamically ideal mixtures, although its application has been extended to model diffusion in non-ideal liquid mixtures as well. A drawback of the model is that it requires the Maxwell-Stefan diffusion coefficients, which are not based on measurable quantities but they have to be estimated. As a result, numerous estimation methods, such as the Darken model, have been proposed to estimate these diffusion coefficients. However, the Darken model was derived, and is only well defined, for binary systems. This model has been extended to ternary systems according to two proposed forms, one by R. Krishna and J. M. van Baten, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 2005, 44, 6939-6947 and the other by X. Liu, T. J. H. Vlugt and A. Bardow, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 2011, 50, 10350-10358. In this paper, the two forms have been analysed against the ideal ternary system of methanol/butan-1-ol/propan-1-ol and using experimental values of self-diffusion coefficients. In particular, using pulsed gradient stimulated echo nuclear magnetic resonance (PGSTE-NMR) we have measured the self-diffusion coefficients in various methanol/butan-1-ol/propan-1-ol mixtures. The experimental values of self-diffusion coefficients were then used as the input data required for the Darken model. The predictions of the two proposed multicomponent forms of this model were then compared to experimental values of mutual diffusion coefficients for the ideal alcohol ternary system. This experimental-based approach showed that the Liu's model gives better predictions compared to that of Krishna and van Baten, although it was only accurate to within 26%. Nonetheless, the multicomponent Darken model in conjunction with self-diffusion measurements from PGSTE-NMR represents an attractive method for a rapid estimation of mutual diffusion in multicomponent systems, especially when compared to exhaustive

  19. Naval Prototype Optical Interferometer (NPOI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Used for astrometry and astronomical imaging, the Naval Prototype Optical Interferometer (NPOI) is a distributed aperture optical telescope. It is operated...

  20. Mobile prototyping with Axure 7

    CERN Document Server

    Hacker, Will

    2013-01-01

    This book is a step-by-step tutorial which includes hands-on examples and downloadable Axure files to get you started with mobile prototyping immediately. You will learn how to develop an application from scratch, and will be guided through each and every step.If you are a mobile-centric developer/designer, or someone who would like to take their Axure prototyping skills to the next level and start designing and testing mobile prototypes, this book is ideal for you. You should be familiar with prototyping and Axure specifically, before you read this book.

  1. Binary and ternary photofission of thorium 232

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titterton, E W; Brinkley, T A

    1950-05-01

    Work by Titterton and Goward (1949) has shown that uranium undergoes photofission into three charged fragments. Experiments have been conducted to determine whether a similar process takes place in the photofission of thorium. Some difficulties were encountered in loading plates with /sup 232/Th atoms, but this was finally accomplished by means of a technique described in detail. Plates loaded by this method were irradiated with a continuous spectrum of ..gamma.. rays of maximum energy 24 MeV from the (Atomic Energy Research Establishment) Synchrotron. Three irradiations, of 100, 150, and 180 r, were made and the resulting plates showed a fission density of 2.5 x 10/sup 4//cc at the 150 r level. In an examination involving 2500 binary photofissions, 5 cases of ternary fission involving the emission of a long range light fragment, probably an ..cap alpha..-particle, were observed. These events are described. A number-range curve was determined for the photofission tracks and is compared with a similar curve for tracks formed by the slow neutron fission of /sup 235/U in a D/sub 1/ emulsion under conditions of similar emulsion sensitivity. It appears that the energy release in the photofission of /sup 232/Th is smaller than that in the slow neutron fission of /sup 235/U. The data indicate that 124 MeV is the mean kinetic energy released in the photofission of /sup 232/Th.

  2. Anisotropy in the ternary cold fission

    CERN Document Server

    Delion, D S; Greiner, W

    2003-01-01

    We describe the spontaneous ternary cold fission of sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf, accompanied by sup 4 He, sup 1 sup 0 Be and sup 1 sup 4 C within a stationary scattering formalism. We show that the light cluster should be born in the neck region. It decays from the first resonant eigenstate in the Coulomb plus harmonic oscillator potential, centred in this region and eccentric with respect to the symmetry axis. This description gives a simple answer to the question why the averaged values in the energy spectra of emitted clusters are close to each other, in spite of different Coulomb barriers. We have shown that the angular distribution of the emitted light particle is strongly connected with its deformation and the equatorial distance. Experimental angular distributions can be explained by the spherical shapes of emitted clusters, except for a deformed sup 1 sup 0 Be. We also predicted some dependences of half-lives for such tri-nuclear systems upon potential parameters.

  3. Window prototypes during the project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    1996-01-01

    The conditions for the PASSYS test and the results of the measurements on one of the aerogel window prototypes are described.......The conditions for the PASSYS test and the results of the measurements on one of the aerogel window prototypes are described....

  4. Rapid prototyping: een veelbelovende methode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverman, T.M.; Karagozoglu, K.H.; Prins, H.; Schulten, E.A.J.M.; Forouzanfar, T.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid prototyping is a method which makes it possible to produce a three-dimensional model based on two-dimensional imaging. Various rapid prototyping methods are available for modelling, such as stereolithography, selective laser sintering, direct laser metal sintering, two-photon polymerization,

  5. Role model and prototype matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkegaard, Eva; Ulriksen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    ’ meetings with the role models affected their thoughts concerning STEM students and attending university. The regular self-to-prototype matching process was shown in real-life role-models meetings to be extended to a more complex three-way matching process between students’ self-perceptions, prototype...

  6. Microneedle Device Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    electrochemical characterization of gold electrode (n = 8) array with oxide dielectric defined working electrodes with 1 mM [Fe(CN)6] 3- in 0.1 M potassium ...treatment and an electrochemical treatment were used to clean the arrays. First, gold electrode arrays were sonicated in a solution of 50 mM potassium ... acrylate -based material that is used to manufacture hearing aid shells, was poured into the mold and polymerized with a UV lamp for 20 min. Bores were

  7. Virtual Prototyping at CERN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennaro, Silvano De

    The VENUS (Virtual Environment Navigation in the Underground Sites) project is probably the largest Virtual Reality application to Engineering design in the world. VENUS is just over one year old and offers a fully immersive and stereoscopic "flythru" of the LHC pits for the proposed experiments, including the experimental area equipment and the surface models that are being prepared for a territorial impact study. VENUS' Virtual Prototypes are an ideal replacement for the wooden models traditionally build for the past CERN machines, as they are generated directly from the EUCLID CAD files, therefore they are totally reliable, they can be updated in a matter of minutes, and they allow designers to explore them from inside, in a one-to-one scale. Navigation can be performed on the computer screen, on a stereoscopic large projection screen, or in immersive conditions, with an helmet and 3D mouse. By using specialised collision detection software, the computer can find optimal paths to lower each detector part into the pits and position it to destination, letting us visualize the whole assembly probess. During construction, these paths can be fed to a robot controller, which can operate the bridge cranes and build LHC almost without human intervention. VENUS is currently developing a multiplatform VR browser that will let the whole HEP community access LHC's Virtual Protoypes over the web. Many interesting things took place during the conference on Virtual Reality. For more information please refer to the Virtual Reality section.

  8. UA1 prototype detector

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    Prototype of UA1 central detector inside a plexi tube. The UA1 experiment ran at CERN's Super Proton Synchrotron and made the Nobel Prize winning discovery of W and Z particles in 1983. The UA1 central detector was crucial to understanding the complex topology of proton-antiproton events. It played a most important role in identifying a handful of Ws and Zs among billions of collisions. The detector was essentially a wire chamber - a 6-chamber cylindrical assembly 5.8 m long and 2.3 m in diameter, the largest imaging drift chamber of its day. It recorded the tracks of charged particles curving in a 0.7 Tesla magnetic field, measuring their momentum, the sign of their electric charge and their rate of energy loss (dE/dx). Atoms in the argon-ethane gas mixture filling the chambers were ionised by the passage of charged particles. The electrons which were released drifted along an electric field shaped by field wires and were collected on sense wires. The geometrical arrangement of the 17000 field wires and 6...

  9. Constitution of the ternary system Cr–Ni–Ti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krendelsberger, Natalja; Weitzer, Franz; Du, Yong; Schuster, Julius C.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Reaction scheme and liquidus surface for Cr-Ni-Ti are given. •In the ternary the C14-type Laves phase coexists with the liquid phase. •Two ternary eutectics are identified. -- Abstract: The nature of solid–liquid phase equilibria in the ternary system Cr–Ni–Ti was investigated using electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and differential thermal analysis. Literature data on solid state phase equilibria are confirmed. The Cr 2 Ti Laves phase modifications coexisting with Ni–Ti phases are clarified to be hexagonal C14-type and cubic C15-type. The C14-type Laves phase γCr 2 Ti is found to coexist with the liquid phase. It forms in the pseudobinary peritectic reaction p max1 from L + β(Cr,Ti) at 1389 °C. On further cooling γCr 2 Ti + NiTi solidify at 1202 °C in the pseudobinary eutectic e max2 . In the Cr-rich part of the system ternary eutectics occur at 1216 °C (E 1 : L = Ni 3 Ti + (Ni) + β(Cr,Ti)) and 1100 °C (E 2 : L = NiTi + Ni 3 Ti + β(Cr,Ti)), respectively. No ternary eutectic is found in the Ti-rich part. Rather the eutectic trough ends in the binary eutectic L = NiTi 2 + β(Ti)

  10. Ternary fission of spontaneously fissile uranium isomers excited by neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarenko, V.E.; Molchanov, Y.D.; Otroshchenko, G.A.; Yan'kov, G.B.

    1989-01-01

    Spontaneously fissile isomers (SFI) of uranium were excited in the reactions 236,238 U(n,n') at an average neutron energy 4.5 MeV. A pulsed electrostatic accelerator and time analysis of the fission events were used. Fission fragments were detected by the scintillation method, and long-range particles from fission were detected by an ionization method. The relative probability of fission of nuclei through a spontaneously fissile isomeric state was measured: (1.30±0.01)·10 -4 ( 236 U) and (1.48±0.02)·10 -4 ( 238 U). Half-lives of the isomers were determined: 121±2 nsec (the SFI 236 U) and 267±13 nsec (the SFI 238 U). In study of the ternary fission of spontaneously fissile isotopes of uranium it was established that the probability of the process amounts to one ternary fission per 163±44 binary fissions of the SFI 236 U and one ternary fission per 49±14 binary fissions of the SFI 238 U. The substantial increase of the probability of ternary fission of SFI of uranium in comparison with the case of ternary fission of nuclei which are not in an isomeric state may be related to a special nucleon configuration of the fissile isomers of uranium

  11. Ternary mixed metal Fe-doped NiCo2O4 nanowires as efficient electrocatalysts for oxygen evolution reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Kai-Li; Shang, Xiao; Li, Zhen; Dong, Bin; Li, Xiao; Gao, Wen-Kun; Chi, Jing-Qi; Chai, Yong-Ming; Liu, Chen-Guang

    2017-09-01

    Designing mixed metal oxides with unique nanostructures as efficient electrocatalysts for water electrolysis has been an attractive approach for the storage of renewable energies. The ternary mixed metal spinel oxides FexNi1-xCo2O4 (x = 0, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 0.9, 1) have been synthesized by a facile hydrothermal approach and calcination treatment using nickel foam as substrate. Fe/Ni ratios have been proved to affect the nanostructures of FexNi1-xCo2O, which imply different intrinsic activity for oxygen evolution reaction (OER). SEM images show that Fe0.5Ni0.5Co2O4 has the uniform nanowires morphology with about 30 nm of the diameter and 200-300 nm of the length. The OER measurements show that Fe0.5Ni0.5Co2O4 exhibits the better electrocatalytic performances with lower overpotential of 350 mV at J = 10 mA cm-2. In addition, the smaller Tafel slope of 27 mV dec-1 than other samples with different Fe/Ni ratios for Fe0.5Ni0.5Co2O4 is obtained. The improved OER activity of Fe0.5Ni0.5Co2O4 may be attributed to the synergistic effects from ternary mixed metals especially Fe-doping and the uniform nanowires supported on NF. Therefore, synthesizing Fe-doped multi-metal oxides with novel nanostructures may be a promising strategy for excellent OER electrocatalysts and it also provides a facile way for the fabrication of high-activity ternary mixed metal oxides electrocatalysts.

  12. Ternary systems Sr-{Ni,Cu}-Si: Phase equilibria and crystal structure of ternary phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasir, Navida; Melnychenko-Koblyuk, Nataliya; Grytsiv, Andriy; Rogl, Peter; Giester, Gerald; Wosik, Jaroslaw; Nauer, Gerhard E.

    2010-01-01

    Phase relations were established in the Sr-poor part of the ternary systems Sr-Ni-Si (900 deg. C) and Sr-Cu-Si (800 deg. C) by light optical microscopy, electron probe microanalysis and X-ray diffraction on as cast and annealed alloys. Two new ternary compounds SrNiSi 3 (BaNiSn 3 -type) and SrNi 9-x Si 4+x (own-type) were found in the Sr-Ni-Si system along with previously reported Sr(Ni x Si 1-x ) 2 (AlB 2 -type). The crystal structure of SrNi 9-x Si 4+x (own-type, x=2.7, a=0.78998(3), c=1.1337(2) nm; space group P4/nbm) was determined from X-ray single crystal counter to be a low symmetry derivative of the cubic, parent NaZn 13 -type. At higher Si-content X-ray Rietveld refinements reveal the formation of a vacant site (□) corresponding to a formula SrNi 5.5 Si 6.5 □ 1.0 . Phase equilibria in the Sr-Cu-Si system are characterized by the compounds SrCu 2-x Si 2+x (ThCr 2 Si 2 -type), Sr(Cu x Si 1-x ) 2 (AlB 2 -type), SrCu 9-x Si 4+x (0≤x≤1.0; CeNi 8.5 Si 4.5 -type) and SrCu 13-x Si x (4≤x≤1.8; NaZn 13 -type). The latter two structure types appear within a continuous solid solution. Neither a type-I nor a type-IX clathrate compound was encountered in the Sr-{Cu,Ni}-Si systems. Structural details are furthermore given for about 14 new ternary compounds from related alloy systems with Ba. - Graphical abstract: The crystal structure of SrNi 9-x Si 4+x (own-type, x=2.7, a=0.78998(3), c=1.1337(2) nm; space group P4/nbm) was determined from X-ray single crystal counter to be a low symmetry derivative of the cubic, parent NaZn 13 -type and is related to CeNi 8.5 Si 4.5 -type.

  13. Model for competitive binary and ternary ion-molecule reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbst, E.

    1985-01-01

    A mechanism by which competitive binary and ternary ion-molecule reactions can occur is proposed. Calculations are undertaken for the specific system CH3(+) + NH3 + He which has been studied in the laboratory by Smith and Adams (1978), and the potential surface of which has been studied theoretically by Nobes and Radom (1983). It is shown that a potential-energy barrier in the exit channel prevents the rapid dissociation of collision complexes with large amounts of angular momentum and thereby allows collisional stabilization of the complexes. The calculated ternary-reaction rate coefficient is in good agreement with the experimental value, but a plot of the effective two-body rate coefficient of the ternary channel vs helium density does not quite show the observed saturation. 21 references

  14. Collective and tracer diffusion kinetics in the ternary random alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belova, I.V.; Murch, G.E.; Allnatt, A.R.

    2002-01-01

    In this study, collective and tracer diffusion kinetics is addressed for the ternary random alloy. A formal solution from the self-consistent theory of Moleko et al (Moleko L K, Allnatt A R and Allnatt E L 1989 Phil. Mag. A 59 141) is derived for collective diffusion and compared with the corresponding solution for the binary random alloy. Tracer diffusion in the ternary alloy is treated from the perspective of a special case of the quaternary random alloy. Results from Monte Carlo calculations for tracer and collective correlation factors (for the bcc ternary random alloy) are found to be in excellent agreement with this self-consistent theory but in only semi-quantitative agreement with the earlier theory of Manning (Manning J R 1971 Phys. Rev. B 4 1111). (author)

  15. Constitutional studies of the molybdenum-ruthenium-palladium ternary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornish, L.A.; Pratt, J.N.

    1997-01-01

    An experimental and computational study has been made of phase equilibria in the Mo-Ru-Pd ternary system. The constitution of annealed binary and ternary alloys was investigated using optical and electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and SEM phase analysis techniques. Limited thermodynamic measurements were made using the ZrO 2 solid electrolyte e.m.f. method. The data obtained from the various techniques were used to construct a ternary isothermal section at 1473 K. The experimentally determined section is compared with a calculated section for the same temperature, computed using thermodynamic coefficients derived solely from binary system information. Lattice parameters are reported for the b.c.c., f.c.c. and c.p.h. solid solutions and for the σ phase. (orig.)

  16. Thermal decomposition of cesium-ethylene-ternary graphite intercalation compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, R.; Oishi, Y.; Arii, T.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the thermal decomposition of air-stable Cs-ethylene-ternary graphite intercalation compounds (GICs) is discussed. The air stability of Cs-GICs is improved remarkably after the absorption of ethylene into their interlayer nanospace, because the ethylene molecules oligomerize and block the movement of Cs atoms. In addition, the evaporation of Cs atoms from the Cs-ethylene-ternary GICs is observed above 400 o C under a N 2 atmosphere of 100 Pa by ion attachment mass spectrometry. Although the results indicate that Cs-ethylene-ternary GICs remain stable up to approximately 400 o C, their thermal stability is not very high as compared to that of Cs-GICs.

  17. α-ternary decay of Cf isotopes, statistical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, Jayesh George; Santhosh, K.P.

    2017-01-01

    The process of splitting a heavier nucleus to three simultaneous fragments is termed as ternary fission and compared to usual binary fission, it is a rare process. Depending on the nature of third particle either it is called light charged particle (LCP) accompanying fission if it is light or true ternary fission if all three fragments have nearly same mass distributions. After experimental observations in early seventies, initially with a slow pace, now theoretical studies in ternary fission has turned to a hot topic in nuclear decay studies especially in past one decade. Mean while various models have been developed, existing being modified and seeking for new with a hope that it can beam a little more light to the profound nature of nuclear interaction. In this study a statistical method, level density formulation, has been employed

  18. Completed Local Ternary Pattern for Rotation Invariant Texture Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha H. Rassem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that the two texture descriptors, the completed modeling of Local Binary Pattern (CLBP and the Completed Local Binary Count (CLBC, have achieved a remarkable accuracy for invariant rotation texture classification, they inherit some Local Binary Pattern (LBP drawbacks. The LBP is sensitive to noise, and different patterns of LBP may be classified into the same class that reduces its discriminating property. Although, the Local Ternary Pattern (LTP is proposed to be more robust to noise than LBP, however, the latter’s weakness may appear with the LTP as well as with LBP. In this paper, a novel completed modeling of the Local Ternary Pattern (LTP operator is proposed to overcome both LBP drawbacks, and an associated completed Local Ternary Pattern (CLTP scheme is developed for rotation invariant texture classification. The experimental results using four different texture databases show that the proposed CLTP achieved an impressive classification accuracy as compared to the CLBP and CLBC descriptors.

  19. The partially alternating ternary sum in an associative dialgebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremner, Murray R; Sanchez-Ortega, Juana

    2010-01-01

    The alternating ternary sum in an associative algebra, abc - acb - bac + bca + cab - cba, gives rise to the partially alternating ternary sum in an associative dialgebra with products dashv and vdash by making the argument a the center of each term. We use computer algebra to determine the polynomial identities in degree ≤9 satisfied by this new trilinear operation. In degrees 3 and 5, these identities define a new variety of partially alternating ternary algebras. We show that there is a 49-dimensional space of multilinear identities in degree 7, and we find equivalent nonlinear identities. We use the representation theory of the symmetric group to show that there are no new identities in degree 9.

  20. New ternary hydride formation in U-Ti-H system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Takuya; Kayano, Hideo; Yamawaki, Michio.

    1991-01-01

    Hydrogen absorption properties of two titanium-rich uranium alloys, UTi 2 and UTi 4 , were studied in order to prepare and identify the recently found ternary hydride. They slowly reacted with hydrogen of the initial pressure of 10 5 Pa at 873K to form the ternary hydride. The hydrogenated specimen mainly consisted of the pursued ternary hydride but contained also U(or UO 2 ), TiH x , and some transient phases. X-ray powder diffraction and Electron Probe Micro Analysis proved that it was the UTi 2 H x with the expected MgCu 2 structure, though all the X-ray peaks were broad probably because of inhomogeneity. This compound had extremely high resistance to powdering on its formation, which showed high potential utilities for a non-powdering tritium storage system or for other purposes. (author)

  1. Ternary nanocomposite of polyaniline/manganese dioxide/titanium nitride nanowire array for supercapacitor electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Chi; Xie, Yibing; Du, Hongxiu; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The electroactive polyaniline (PANI) and manganese oxide (MnO 2 ) were integrated with titanium nitride (TiN) nanowire array (NWA) to form PANI/MnO 2 /TiN ternary nanocomposite for supercapacitor application. TiN NWA was prepared via a seed-assisted hydrothermal synthesis and ammonia nitridization process. The electroactive MnO 2 and PANI was layer-by-layer coated on TiN NWA to form heterogeneous coaxial structure through a stepwise electrodeposition process. Scanning electron micrographs revealed that the well-separated TiN NWA was composed of well-distributed nanowires with diameters in the range of 10–30 nm and a total length of 1.5 μm. A villiform MnO 2 layer with a thickness of 10–20 nm covered on TiN NWA to form MnO 2 /TiN NWA composite. The coral-like PANI layer with thicknesses in the range of 20–50 nm covered on the above MnO 2 /TiN NWA to form PANI/MnO 2 /TiN NWA. Electrochemical measurements showed that a high specific capacitance of 674 F g −1 at a current density of 1 A g −1 (based on total mass of PANI/MnO 2 ) was obtained for PANI/MnO 2 /TiN NWA ternary nanocomposite, which was much higher than that of PANI/MnO 2 /carbon-cloth composites reported previously. This ternary nanocomposite also showed a good rate and cycling stability. Moreover, in comparison with PANI/TiN NWA or MnO 2 /TiN NWA, the specific capacitance of PANI/MnO 2 /TiN NWA was obviously enhanced due to the extra pseudocapacitance contribution and the effective surface area of coral-like PANI layer, showing the advantage of manipulating the heterogeneous coaxial configuration between PANI and MnO 2 for fundamentally improved capacitive performance. These results demonstrated that PANI/MnO 2 /TiN NWA ternary nanocomposite was a promising candidate electrode material for supercapacitor application

  2. Ternary nanocomposite of polyaniline/manganese dioxide/titanium nitride nanowire array for supercapacitor electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Chi; Xie, Yibing, E-mail: ybxie@seu.edu.cn; Du, Hongxiu; Wang, Wei [Southeast University, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (China)

    2015-01-15

    The electroactive polyaniline (PANI) and manganese oxide (MnO{sub 2}) were integrated with titanium nitride (TiN) nanowire array (NWA) to form PANI/MnO{sub 2}/TiN ternary nanocomposite for supercapacitor application. TiN NWA was prepared via a seed-assisted hydrothermal synthesis and ammonia nitridization process. The electroactive MnO{sub 2} and PANI was layer-by-layer coated on TiN NWA to form heterogeneous coaxial structure through a stepwise electrodeposition process. Scanning electron micrographs revealed that the well-separated TiN NWA was composed of well-distributed nanowires with diameters in the range of 10–30 nm and a total length of 1.5 μm. A villiform MnO{sub 2} layer with a thickness of 10–20 nm covered on TiN NWA to form MnO{sub 2}/TiN NWA composite. The coral-like PANI layer with thicknesses in the range of 20–50 nm covered on the above MnO{sub 2}/TiN NWA to form PANI/MnO{sub 2}/TiN NWA. Electrochemical measurements showed that a high specific capacitance of 674 F g{sup −1} at a current density of 1 A g{sup −1} (based on total mass of PANI/MnO{sub 2}) was obtained for PANI/MnO{sub 2}/TiN NWA ternary nanocomposite, which was much higher than that of PANI/MnO{sub 2}/carbon-cloth composites reported previously. This ternary nanocomposite also showed a good rate and cycling stability. Moreover, in comparison with PANI/TiN NWA or MnO{sub 2}/TiN NWA, the specific capacitance of PANI/MnO{sub 2}/TiN NWA was obviously enhanced due to the extra pseudocapacitance contribution and the effective surface area of coral-like PANI layer, showing the advantage of manipulating the heterogeneous coaxial configuration between PANI and MnO{sub 2} for fundamentally improved capacitive performance. These results demonstrated that PANI/MnO{sub 2}/TiN NWA ternary nanocomposite was a promising candidate electrode material for supercapacitor application.

  3. Establishment of a ternary network system for evaluating the antioxidant fraction of Danhong injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Jiang, Zhenzuo; Yang, Fan; Chai, Xin; Zhu, Yan; Zhao, Xiaoya; Jiang, Miaomiao; Yang, Jing; Zhao, Buchang; Qian, Ke; Wang, Yuefei

    2016-10-01

    Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in numerous cardiovascular diseases. As an effective therapy, Danhong injection (DHI) is considered to act through an antioxidant mechanism for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. In our study, we focused on the potential contribution of the antioxidant capacity of DHI fractions (Frs) and established an innovative screening method based on a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity assay. A ternary network evaluation system, which was constructed based on the radical scavenging activity, the area under the activity-concentration curve and the solid content of the fractions, was implemented to select the fractions that posed the greatest antioxidant effect. As a result, Frs 5-7 and Frs 17-19 were shown to exhibit superior antioxidant activity according to the regression area of the ternary network, which was >0.5. Furthermore, the active fractions were characterized by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry combined with nuclear magnetic resonance. This study provided an effective method for the comprehensive evaluation of the antioxidant effect of DHI fractions. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. The ternary post-transition metal carbodiimide SrZn(NCN)2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corkett, Alex J.; Konze, Philipp M.; Dronskowski, Richard

    2017-01-01

    SrZn(NCN) 2 , the first example of a ternary post-transition metal carbodiimide, was prepared by a solid-state metathesis reaction. The crystal structure was solved from PXRD data and found to adopt the orthorhombic (Cmcm) BaZnSO structure, a high symmetry modification of that expressed by the oxide analogue SrZnO 2 . Locally, SrZn(NCN) 2 features ZnN 4 tetrahedra and SrN 6 trigonal prisms similar to those in quarternary LiSr 2 M(NCN) 4 (M = Al 3+ and Ga 3+ ) phases, however, the overall topologies are distinct with single chains in the former and double chains in the latter. Electronic structure calculations indicate an indirect bandgap of about 2.95 eV in SrZn(NCN) 2 , slightly lower than the experimentally observed bandgap of 3.4 eV in SrZnO 2 and consistent with a greater degree of covalency. The structural similarities between SrZn(NCN) 2 and oxychalcogenide analogues highlight the pseudochalcogenide character of NCN 2- and suggest that the title compound may serve as a template for accessing novel ternary carbodiimides featuring tetrahedrally coordinated transition metals. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Crystal Structures of Murine Carnitine Acetyltransferase in Ternary Complexes with Its Substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsiao,Y.; Jogl, G.; Tong, L.

    2006-01-01

    Carnitine acyltransferases catalyze the reversible exchange of acyl groups between coenzyme A (CoA) and carnitine. They have important roles in many cellular processes, especially the oxidation of long-chain fatty acids in the mitochondria for energy production, and are attractive targets for drug discovery against diabetes and obesity. To help define in molecular detail the catalytic mechanism of these enzymes, we report here the high resolution crystal structure of wild-type murine carnitine acetyltransferase (CrAT) in a ternary complex with its substrates acetyl-CoA and carnitine, and the structure of the S554A/M564G double mutant in a ternary complex with the substrates CoA and hexanoylcarnitine. Detailed analyses suggest that these structures may be good mimics for the Michaelis complexes for the forward and reverse reactions of the enzyme, representing the first time that such complexes of CrAT have been studied in molecular detail. The structural information provides significant new insights into the catalytic mechanism of CrAT and possibly carnitine acyltransferases in general.

  6. The ternary post-transition metal carbodiimide SrZn(NCN){sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corkett, Alex J.; Konze, Philipp M. [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Dronskowski, Richard [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Juelich-Aachen Research Alliance (JARA-HPC), RWTH-Aachen University, Aachen (Germany)

    2017-11-17

    SrZn(NCN){sub 2}, the first example of a ternary post-transition metal carbodiimide, was prepared by a solid-state metathesis reaction. The crystal structure was solved from PXRD data and found to adopt the orthorhombic (Cmcm) BaZnSO structure, a high symmetry modification of that expressed by the oxide analogue SrZnO{sub 2}. Locally, SrZn(NCN){sub 2} features ZnN{sub 4} tetrahedra and SrN{sub 6} trigonal prisms similar to those in quarternary LiSr{sub 2}M(NCN){sub 4} (M = Al{sup 3+} and Ga{sup 3+}) phases, however, the overall topologies are distinct with single chains in the former and double chains in the latter. Electronic structure calculations indicate an indirect bandgap of about 2.95 eV in SrZn(NCN){sub 2}, slightly lower than the experimentally observed bandgap of 3.4 eV in SrZnO{sub 2} and consistent with a greater degree of covalency. The structural similarities between SrZn(NCN){sub 2} and oxychalcogenide analogues highlight the pseudochalcogenide character of NCN{sup 2-} and suggest that the title compound may serve as a template for accessing novel ternary carbodiimides featuring tetrahedrally coordinated transition metals. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Ternary manganese ferrite/graphene/polyaniline nanostructure with enhanced electrochemical capacitance performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Pan; Hu, Chenyao; Fan, Ye; Zhang, Wenyao; Zhu, Junwu; Wang, Xin

    2014-11-01

    A ternary manganese ferrite/graphene/polyaniline (MGP) nanostructure is designed and synthesized via a facile two-step approach. This nanostructure exhibits outstanding electrochemical performances, such as high specific capacitance (454.8 F g-1 at 0.2 A g-1), excellent rate capability (75.8% capacity retention at 5 A g-1), and good cycling stability (76.4% capacity retention after 5000 cycles at 2 A g-1), which are superior to those of its individual components (manganese ferrite, reduced-graphene oxide, polyaniline) and corresponding binary hybrids (manganese ferrite/graphene (MG), manganese ferrite/polyaniline (MP), and graphene/polyaniline (GP)). A symmetric supercapacitor device using the as-obtained hybrid has been fabricated and tested. The device exhibits a high specific capacitance of 307.2 F g-1 at 0.1 A g-1 with a maximum energy density of 13.5 W h kg-1. The high electrochemical performance of ternary MGP can be attributed to its well-designed nanostructure and the synergistic effect of the individual components.

  8. Equilibrium phase diagram of the Ag-Au-Pb ternary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassam, S.; Bahari, Z.

    2005-01-01

    The phase diagram of the ternary system Ag-Au-Pb has been established using differential thermal analysis and X-ray powder diffraction analysis. Four vertical sections were studied: X Pb = 0.40, X Au /X Pb = 1/3, X Ag /X Au = 4/1 and X Ag /X Au = 1/1. Two ternary transitory peritectics and one ternary eutectic were characterized. A schematic representation of the ternary equilibria is given

  9. Prototype moving-ring reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.C. Jr.; Ashworth, C.P.; Abreu, K.E.

    1981-01-01

    The objective of this work was to design a prototype fusion reactor based on fusion plasmas confined as ''Compact Toruses.' Six major criteria guided the prototype design. The prototype must: (1) produce net electricity decisively (P/sub net/ >70% of P/sub gross/), with P/sub net/ approximately 100 MW(e); (2) have small physical size (low project cost) but commercial plant; (3) have all features required of commerical plants; (4) avoid unreasonable extrapolation of technology; (5) minimize nuclear issues substantially, i.e. accident and waste issues of public concern, and (6) be modular (to permit repetitive fabrication of parts) and be maintainable with low occupational radiological exposures

  10. Adiabatic pipelining: a key to ternary computing with quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pečar, P.; Ramšak, A.; Zimic, N.; Mraz, M.; Lebar Bajec, I.

    2008-12-01

    The quantum-dot cellular automaton (QCA), a processing platform based on interacting quantum dots, was introduced by Lent in the mid-1990s. What followed was an exhilarating period with the development of the line, the functionally complete set of logic functions, as well as more complex processing structures, however all in the realm of binary logic. Regardless of these achievements, it has to be acknowledged that the use of binary logic is in computing systems mainly the end result of the technological limitations, which the designers had to cope with in the early days of their design. The first advancement of QCAs to multi-valued (ternary) processing was performed by Lebar Bajec et al, with the argument that processing platforms of the future should not disregard the clear advantages of multi-valued logic. Some of the elementary ternary QCAs, necessary for the construction of more complex processing entities, however, lead to a remarkable increase in size when compared to their binary counterparts. This somewhat negates the advantages gained by entering the ternary computing domain. As it turned out, even the binary QCA had its initial hiccups, which have been solved by the introduction of adiabatic switching and the application of adiabatic pipeline approaches. We present here a study that introduces adiabatic switching into the ternary QCA and employs the adiabatic pipeline approach to successfully solve the issues of elementary ternary QCAs. What is more, the ternary QCAs presented here are sizewise comparable to binary QCAs. This in our view might serve towards their faster adoption.

  11. Adiabatic pipelining: a key to ternary computing with quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecar, P; Zimic, N; Mraz, M; Lebar Bajec, I; Ramsak, A

    2008-01-01

    The quantum-dot cellular automaton (QCA), a processing platform based on interacting quantum dots, was introduced by Lent in the mid-1990s. What followed was an exhilarating period with the development of the line, the functionally complete set of logic functions, as well as more complex processing structures, however all in the realm of binary logic. Regardless of these achievements, it has to be acknowledged that the use of binary logic is in computing systems mainly the end result of the technological limitations, which the designers had to cope with in the early days of their design. The first advancement of QCAs to multi-valued (ternary) processing was performed by Lebar Bajec et al, with the argument that processing platforms of the future should not disregard the clear advantages of multi-valued logic. Some of the elementary ternary QCAs, necessary for the construction of more complex processing entities, however, lead to a remarkable increase in size when compared to their binary counterparts. This somewhat negates the advantages gained by entering the ternary computing domain. As it turned out, even the binary QCA had its initial hiccups, which have been solved by the introduction of adiabatic switching and the application of adiabatic pipeline approaches. We present here a study that introduces adiabatic switching into the ternary QCA and employs the adiabatic pipeline approach to successfully solve the issues of elementary ternary QCAs. What is more, the ternary QCAs presented here are sizewise comparable to binary QCAs. This in our view might serve towards their faster adoption.

  12. Adiabatic pipelining: a key to ternary computing with quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pečar, P; Ramšak, A; Zimic, N; Mraz, M; Lebar Bajec, I

    2008-12-10

    The quantum-dot cellular automaton (QCA), a processing platform based on interacting quantum dots, was introduced by Lent in the mid-1990s. What followed was an exhilarating period with the development of the line, the functionally complete set of logic functions, as well as more complex processing structures, however all in the realm of binary logic. Regardless of these achievements, it has to be acknowledged that the use of binary logic is in computing systems mainly the end result of the technological limitations, which the designers had to cope with in the early days of their design. The first advancement of QCAs to multi-valued (ternary) processing was performed by Lebar Bajec et al, with the argument that processing platforms of the future should not disregard the clear advantages of multi-valued logic. Some of the elementary ternary QCAs, necessary for the construction of more complex processing entities, however, lead to a remarkable increase in size when compared to their binary counterparts. This somewhat negates the advantages gained by entering the ternary computing domain. As it turned out, even the binary QCA had its initial hiccups, which have been solved by the introduction of adiabatic switching and the application of adiabatic pipeline approaches. We present here a study that introduces adiabatic switching into the ternary QCA and employs the adiabatic pipeline approach to successfully solve the issues of elementary ternary QCAs. What is more, the ternary QCAs presented here are sizewise comparable to binary QCAs. This in our view might serve towards their faster adoption.

  13. Applications of organocatalytic asymmetric synthesis to drug prototypes--dual action and selective inhibitors of n-nitric oxide synthase with activity against the 5-HT1D/1B subreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanessian, Stephen; Stoffman, Eli; Mi, Xueling; Renton, Paul

    2011-03-04

    The scope of MacMillan's organocatalytic asymmetric conjugate addition reaction of indoles and electron-rich aromatics to α,β-unsaturated aldehydes has been extended to the use of 3-amino crotonaldehydes as substrates. The aromatics used include indoles as well as an aniline and a furan. The scope and effect of the groups on nitrogen (R, R') has also been studied. The method has been applied to the concise synthesis of an advanced precursor to S-(+)-1, a drug prototype for the treatment of migraine headaches.

  14. A novel ternary logic circuit using Josephson junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morisue, M.; Oochi, K.; Nishizawa, M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a novel Josephson complementary ternary logic circuit named as JCTL. This fundamental circuit is constructed by combination of two SQUIDs, one of which is switched in the positive direction and the other in the negative direction. The JCTL can perform the fundamental operations of AND, OR, NOT and Double NOT in ternary form. The principle of the operation and design criteria are described in detail. The results of the simulation show that the reliable operations of these circuits can be achieved with a high performance

  15. PM1 steganographic algorithm using ternary Hamming Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Kaczyński

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available PM1 algorithm is a modification of well-known LSB steganographic algorithm. It has increased resistance to selected steganalytic attacks and increased embedding efficiency. Due to its uniqueness, PM1 algorithm allows us to use of larger alphabet of symbols, making it possible to further increase steganographic capacity. In this paper, we present the modified PM1 algorithm which utilizies so-called syndrome coding and ternary Hamming code. The modified algorithm has increased embedding efficiency, which means fewer changes introduced to carrier and increased capacity.[b]Keywords[/b]: steganography, linear codes, PM1, LSB, ternary Hamming code

  16. Preparation and photoluminescence enhancement in terbium(III ternary complexes with β-diketone and monodentate auxiliary ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devender Singh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of new solid ternary complexes of terbium(III ion based on β-diketone ligand acetylacetone (acac and monodentate auxiliary ligands (aqua/urea/triphenylphosphineoxide/pyridine-N-oxide had been prepared. The structural characterizations of synthesized ternary compounds were studied by means of elemental analysis, infrared (IR, and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectral techniques. The optical characteristics were investigated with absorption as well as photoluminescence spectroscopy. Thermal behavior of compounds was examined by TGA/DTA analysis and all metal complexes were found to have good thermal stability. The luminescence decay time of complexes were also calculated by monitoring at emission wavelength corresponding to 5D4 → 7F5 transition. A comparative inspection of the luminescent behavior of prepared ternary compounds was performed in order to determine the function of auxiliary ligands in the enhancement of luminescence intensity produced by central terbium(III ion. The color coordinates values suggested that compounds showed bright green emission in visible region in electromagnetic spectrum. Complexes producing green light could play a significant role in the fabrication of efficient light conversion molecular devices for display purposes and lightning systems.

  17. Binary and ternary carbides and nitrides of the transition metals and their phase relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holleck, H.

    1981-01-01

    The occurrance and the structure of the binary and ternary transition metal carbides and nitrides are described. Phase diagrams are assessed for most of the binary and ternary systems. Many ternary phase diagrams are published in this report for the first time. (orig.) [de

  18. Learning Axure RP interactive prototypes

    CERN Document Server

    Krahenbuhl, John Henry

    2015-01-01

    If you are a user experience professional, designer, information architect, or business analyst who wants to gain interactive prototyping skills with Axure, then this book is ideal for you. Some familiarity with Axure is preferred but not essential.

  19. Architectural Prototyping in Industrial Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2008-01-01

    Architectural prototyping is the process of using executable code to investigate stakeholders’ software architecture concerns with respect to a system under development. Previous work has established this as a useful and cost-effective way of exploration and learning of the design space of a system......, in addressing issues regarding quality attributes, in addressing architectural risks, and in addressing the problem of knowledge transfer and conformance. Little work has been reported so far on the actual industrial use of architectural prototyping. In this paper, we report from an ethnographical study...... and focus group involving architects from four companies in which we have focused on architectural prototypes. Our findings conclude that architectural prototypes play an important role in resolving problems experimentally, but less so in exploring alternative solutions. Furthermore, architectural...

  20. Experimentation with PEC channel prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caponetti, R.; Iacovelli, M.

    1984-01-01

    Experimentation on prototypes of PEC components is presently being carried out at Casaccia CRE. This report shows the results of the first cycle of experimentation of the central channel, concerning the aspects of sodium removal after experimentation

  1. Tangiplay: prototyping tangible electronic games

    OpenAIRE

    Boileau, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Tangible electronic games currently exist in research laboratories around the world but have yet to transition to the commercial sector. The development process of a tangible electronic game is one of the factors preventing progression, as it requires much time and money. Prototyping tools for tangible hardware and software development are becoming more available but are targeted to programmers and technically trained developers. Paper prototyping board and video games is a proven and rapid m...

  2. Fast-prototyping of VLSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saucier, G.; Read, E.

    1987-01-01

    Fast-prototyping will be a reality in the very near future if both straightforward design methods and fast manufacturing facilities are available. This book focuses, first, on the motivation for fast-prototyping. Economic aspects and market considerations are analysed by European and Japanese companies. In the second chapter, new design methods are identified, mainly for full custom circuits. Of course, silicon compilers play a key role and the introduction of artificial intelligence techniques sheds a new light on the subject. At present, fast-prototyping on gate arrays or on standard cells is the most conventional technique and the third chapter updates the state-of-the art in this area. The fourth chapter concentrates specifically on the e-beam direct-writing for submicron IC technologies. In the fifth chapter, a strategic point in fast-prototyping, namely the test problem is addressed. The design for testability and the interface to the test equipment are mandatory to fulfill the test requirement for fast-prototyping. Finally, the last chapter deals with the subject of education when many people complain about the lack of use of fast-prototyping in higher education for VLSI

  3. Sc-W-Si and Sc-W-Ge ternary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotur, B.Ya.; Voznyak, O.M.; Bodak, O.I.

    1989-01-01

    Phase equilibria in Sc-W-Si and Sc-W-Ge ternary systems are investigated at 1070 K. Sc 2+x W 3-x Si 4 ternary compound (0≤x≤1) is determined, its crystal structure (Ce 2 Sc 3 Si 4 structural type), as well as, change of elementary cell parameters and microhardness within homogeneity range are determined. Regularities of component interaction within Sc-M-Si(Ge) (M-Cr, Mo, W) ternary system are determined. Ternary systems with Mo and W are more closer to each other according to the phase equilibria character, than to ternary systems with Cr

  4. Ternary catalyst-olefin-hydroperoxide complexes and their contribution to epoxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svitych, R.B.; Rzhevskaya, N.N.; Buchachenko, A.L.; Yablonskij, O.P.; Petukhov, A.A.; Belyaev, V.A.

    1976-01-01

    Electron and NMR spectroscopy have been used for studying the complex formation of catalysts (Mo 5+ , Mn 2+ , Co 2+ ) in double and triple systems: metal-olefin and metal-olefin-hydroperoxide. It has been established that ions of metals form complexes with olefins in the first sphere. The formation has been proved of ternary complexes metal-olefin-hydroperoxide. The structure of the complexes has been proposed with olefins in the first and hydroperoxide in the second sphere of the metal ion. The structure explains known kinetic regularities of epoxydation and the mechanism of the formation of final products, oxide and alcohol. It has been shown that the best catalysts for epoxydation of olefins with hydroperoxides must be the compounds of the metals with an electron state of ion d 0 [ru

  5. Ternary mixtures of alkyltriphenylphosphonium bromides (C12 TPB ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Critical Micellar Concentrations (CMCs) by conductometry, but their ternary mixtures produce single ... efficiently quenched pyrene fluorescence; the performances of the homologues in this respect were assessed. Keywords ..... The shape of the amphiphile aggregates ..... Haque M E, Das A R and Moulik S P 1999 J. Colloid.

  6. Robust Self-Triggered Coordination With Ternary Controllers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Persis, Claudio; Frasca, Paolo; Nair, G.N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper regards the coordination of networked systems, studied in the framework of hybrid dynamical systems. We design a coordination scheme which combines the use of ternary controllers with a self-triggered communication policy. The communication policy requires the agents to measure, at each

  7. Excess isentropic compressibility and speed of sound of the ternary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These excess properties of the binary mixtures were fitted to Redlich-Kister equation, while the Cibulka's equation was used to fit the values related to the values to the ternary system. These excess properties have been used to discuss the presence of significant interactions between the component molecules in the binary ...

  8. Robust self-triggered coordination with ternary controllers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Persis, Claudio; Frasca, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    This paper regards the coordination of networked systems, studied in the framework of hybrid dynamical systems. We design a coordination scheme which combines the use of ternary controllers with a self-triggered communication policy. The communication policy requires the agents to measure, at each

  9. Calculation of Fe–B–V ternary phase diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homolová, Viera; Kroupa, Aleš; Výrostková, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Phase diagram of Fe–B–V system was modelled by CALPHAD method. ► Database for thermodynamic calculations for Fe–B–V system was created. ► The new ternary phase was found in 67Fe–18B–15V [in at.%] alloy. - Abstract: The phase equilibria of the Fe–B–V ternary system are studied experimentally and theoretically in this paper. Phase diagram of the system was modelled by CALPHAD method. Boron was modelled as an interstitial element in the FCC and BCC solid solutions. The calculations of isothermal sections of phase diagram are compared with our experimental results at 903 and 1353 K and with available literature experimental data. New ternary phase (with chemical composition 28Fe32V40B in at.%) was found in 67Fe–18B–15V alloy [in at.%]. Further experimental studies for the determination of exact nature of the ternary phase including crystallographic information are necessary.

  10. Effect of Limestone Powder on Microstructure of Ternary Cementitious System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.; Ye, G.

    2012-01-01

    The pressure to reach sustainability favours the development of ternary composite cement. The synergistic effect on mechanical behaviour at 28 days between limestone powder (LP) and pozzolanic additives, i.e. fly ash (FA) and blast furnace slag (BFS), has been documented. In order to better

  11. Studies on Molecular Interaction in Ternary Liquid Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Uvarani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic velocity, density and viscosity for the ternary liquid mixtures of cyclohexanone with 1-propanol and 1-butanol in carbon tetrachloride were measured at 303 K. The acoustical parameters and their excess values were calculated. The trends in the variation of these excess parameters were used to discuss the nature and strength of the interactions present between the component molecules.

  12. A Simple Refraction Experiment for Probing Diffusion in Ternary Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Cecil A.; Mankidy, Bijith D.; Gupta, Vinay K.

    2010-01-01

    Diffusion is a fundamental phenomenon that is vital in many chemical processes such as mass transport in living cells, corrosion, and separations. We describe a simple undergraduate-level experiment based on Weiner's Method to probe diffusion in a ternary aqueous mixture of small molecular-weight molecules. As an illustration, the experiment…

  13. Segregation in ternary alloys: an interplay of driving forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luyten, J.; Helfensteyn, S.; Creemers, C.

    2003-01-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) simulations combined with the constant bond energy (CBE) model are set up to explore and understand the general segregation behaviour in ternary alloys as a function of composition and more in particular the segregation to Cu-Ni-Al (1 0 0) surfaces. Besides its simplicity, allowing swift simulations, which are necessary for a first general survey over all possible compositions, one of the advantages of the CBE model lies in the possibility to clearly identify the different driving forces for segregation. All simulations are performed in the Grand Canonical Ensemble, using a new algorithm to determine the chemical potential of the components. Notwithstanding the simplicity of the CBE model, one extra feature is evidenced: depending on the values of the interatomic interaction parameters, in some regions of the ternary diagram, a single solid solution becomes thermodynamically unstable, leading to demixing into two conjugate phases. The simulations are first done for three hypothetical systems that are however representative for real alloy systems. The three systems are characterised by different sets of interatomic interaction parameters. These extensive simulations over the entire composition range of the ternary alloy yield a 'topographical' segregation map, showing distinct regions where different species segregate. These distinct domains originate from a variable interplay between the driving forces for segregation and attractive/repulsive interactions in the bulk of the alloy. The results on these hypothetical systems are very helpful for a better understanding of the segregation behaviour in Cu-Ni-Al and other ternary alloys

  14. Univolatility curves in ternary mixtures: geometry and numerical computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shcherbakova, Nataliya; Rodriguez-Donis, Ivonne; Abildskov, Jens

    2017-01-01

    We propose a new non-iterative numerical algorithm allowing computation of all univolatility curves in homogeneous ternary mixtures independently of the presence of the azeotropes. The key point is the concept of generalized univolatility curves in the 3D state space, which allows the main comput...

  15. Phase coexistence and line tension in ternary lipid systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Idema, T.; Leeuwen, van J.M.J.; Storm, C.

    2009-01-01

    The ternary system consisting of cholesterol, a saturated lipid, and an unsaturated one exhibits a rich phase behavior with multiple phase coexistence regimes. Remarkably, phase separation even occurs when each of the three binary systems consisting of two of these components is a uniform mixture.

  16. Thermodynamic evaluation of the Ti-Al-O ternary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B.-J.

    1997-01-01

    A thermodynamic evaluation of the Ti-Al-O ternary system has been made by using thermodynamic models for the Gibbs energy of individual phases. A consistent model parameter set was determined so that the calculation of isothermal sections and other thermodynamic quantities becomes possible. The agreement between calculation and corresponding experimental data was generally good along large temperature and composition range. (orig.)

  17. Design of ternary low-power Domino JKL flip—flop and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Pengjun; Yang Qiankun; Zheng Xuesong

    2012-01-01

    By researching the ternary flip—flop and the adiabatic Domino circuit, a novel design of low-power ternary Domino JKL flip—flop on the switch level is proposed. First, the switch-level structure of the ternary adiabatic Domino JKL flip—flop is derived according to the switch-signal theory and its truth table. Then the ternary loop operation circuit and ternary reverse loop operation circuit are achieved by employing the ternary JKL flip—flop. Finally, the circuit is simulated by using the Spice tool and the results show that the logic function is correct. The energy consumption of the ternary adiabatic Domino JKL flip—flop is 69% less than its conventional Domino counterpart. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  18. Design and synthesis of hierarchical MnO2 nanospheres/carbon nanotubes/conducting polymer ternary composite for high performance electrochemical electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Ye; Cheng, Yingwen; Hobson, Tyler; Liu, Jie

    2010-07-14

    For efficient use of metal oxides, such as MnO(2) and RuO(2), in pseudocapacitors and other electrochemical applications, the poor conductivity of the metal oxide is a major problem. To tackle the problem, we have designed a ternary nanocomposite film composed of metal oxide (MnO(2)), carbon nanotube (CNT), and conducting polymer (CP). Each component in the MnO(2)/CNT/CP film provides unique and critical function to achieve optimized electrochemical properties. The electrochemical performance of the film is evaluated by cyclic voltammetry, and constant-current charge/discharge cycling techniques. Specific capacitance (SC) of the ternary composite electrode can reach 427 F/g. Even at high mass loading and high concentration of MnO(2) (60%), the film still showed SC value as high as 200 F/g. The electrode also exhibited excellent charge/discharge rate and good cycling stability, retaining over 99% of its initial charge after 1000 cycles. The results demonstrated that MnO(2) is effectively utilized with assistance of other components (fFWNTs and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) in the electrode. Such ternary composite is very promising for the next generation high performance electrochemical supercapacitors.

  19. Experimental investigation of the Ag–Bi–I ternary system and thermodynamic properties of the ternary phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashadieva, Leyla F.; Aliev, Ziya S.; Shevelkov, Andrei V.; Babanly, Mahammad B.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The self-consistent phase diagram of the Ag–Bi–I system is constructed. ► Ag 2 BiI 5 and AgBi 2 I 7 are the only ternary phases of the system. ► Standard thermodynamic functions of formation and the standard entropies of Ag 2 BiI 5 and AgBi 2 I 7 are calculated. - Abstract: The phase equilibriums in the Ag–Bi–I ternary system and thermodynamic properties of the ternary phases were experimentally determined by using DTA and XRD techniques and EMF measurements with the Ag 4 RbI 5 solid electrolyte. According to the obtained experimental results, the polythermal sections of the ternary phase diagram, its isothermal section at 300 K as well as the projection of the liquids surface have been revised. The fields of the primary crystallization and types and coordinates of nonvariant and monovariant equilibriums were determined. The partial molar functions of silver iodide and silver in the alloys as well as the standard thermodynamic functions of formation and the standard entropies of Ag 2 BiI 5 and AgBi 2 I 7 were calculated based on EMF measurements.

  20. Prototypes in engineering design: Definitions and strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lasse Skovgaard; Özkil, Ali Gürcan; Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    2016-01-01

    By reviewing literature, we investigate types, purposes and definitions of prototypes. There is no overarching definition of a prototype, but we identify five categories of prototypes in litterature. We further synthesize and reference previous work to create an overview of aspects in prototyping...

  1. Prototyping in theory and in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Fei; Brem, Alexander; Pasinell, Michele

    2018-01-01

    and functions of a prototype and needed to meet specific goals in order to push the process forward. Designers, on the other hand, used prototypes to investigate the design space for new possibilities, and were more open to a variety of prototyping materials and tools, especially for low-fidelity prototypes...

  2. Rapid Prototyping of Formally Modelled Distributed Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Buchs, Didier; Buffo, Mathieu; Titsworth, Frances M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents various kinds of prototypes, used in the prototyping of formally modelled distributed systems. It presents the notions of prototyping techniques and prototype evolution, and shows how to relate them to the software life-cycle. It is illustrated through the use of the formal modelling language for distributed systems CO-OPN/2.

  3. Towards an Operational Framework for Architectural Prototyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak

    2005-01-01

    We use a case study in architectural prototyping as input for presenting a first, tentative, framework describing key concepts and their relationships in architectural prototyping processes.......We use a case study in architectural prototyping as input for presenting a first, tentative, framework describing key concepts and their relationships in architectural prototyping processes....

  4. Engineering prototypes for theta-pinch devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansborough, L.D.; Hammer, C.F.; Hanks, K.W.; McDonald, T.E.; Nunnally, W.C.

    1975-01-01

    Past, present, and future engineering prototypes for theta-pinch plasma-physics devices at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory are discussed. Engineering prototypes are designed to test and evaluate all components under system conditions expected on actual plasma-physics experimental devices. The importance of engineering prototype development increases as the size and complexity of the plasma-physics device increases. Past experiences with the Scyllac prototype and the Staged Theta-Pinch prototype are discussed and evaluated. The design of the proposed Staged Scyllac prototype and the Large Staged Scyllac implosion prototype assembly are discussed

  5. Prototypical Rod Consolidation Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The objective of Phase III of the Prototypical Rod Consolidation Demonstration Project (PRCDP) was to procure, fabricate, assemble, and test the Prototypical Rod Consolidation System as described in the NUS Phase II Final Design Report. This effort required providing the materials, components, and fabricated parts which makes up all of the system equipment. In addition, it included the assembly, installation, and setup of this equipment at the Cold Test Facility. During the Phase III effort the system was tested on a component, subsystem, and system level. Volume IV provides the Operating and Maintenance Manual for the Prototypical Rod Consolidation System that was installed at the Cold Test Facility. This document, Book 1 of Volume IV, discusses: Process overview functional descriptions; Control system descriptions; Support system descriptions; Maintenance system descriptions; and Process equipment descriptions

  6. Science with the ASTRI prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartore, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    ASTRI (Astrofisica a Specchi con Tecnologia Replicante Italiana) is a “Flagship Project” financed by the Italian Ministry of Instruction, University and Research and led by the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics. It represents the Italian proposal for the development of the Small Size Telescope system of the Cherenkov Telescope Array, the next generation observatory for Very High Energy gamma-rays (20 GeV - 100 TeV). The ASTRI end-to-end prototype will be installed at Serra La Nave (Catania, Italy) and it will see the first light at the beginning of 2014. We describe the expected performance of the prototype on few selected test cases of the northern emisphere. The aim of the prototype is to probe the technological solutions and the nominal performance of the various telescope's subsystems

  7. Flight Telerobotic Servicer prototype simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Rob; Krauze, Linda; Hartley, Craig; Dickenson, Alan; Lavecchia, Tom; Working, Bob

    A prototype simulator for the Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) system is described for use in the design development of the FTS, emphasizing the hand controller and user interface. The simulator utilizes a graphics workstation based on rapid prototyping tools for systems analyses of the use of the user interface and the hand controller. Kinematic modeling, manipulator-control algorithms, and communications programs are contained in the software for the simulator. The hardwired FTS panels and operator interface for use on the STS Orbiter are represented graphically, and the simulated controls function as the final FTS system configuration does. The robotic arm moves based on the user hand-controller interface, and the joint angles and other data are given on the prototype of the user interface. This graphics simulation tool provides the means for familiarizing crewmembers with the FTS system operation, displays, and controls.

  8. Prototypical Rod Consolidation Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The objective of Phase III of the Prototypical Rod Consolidation Demonstration Project (PRCDP) was to procure, fabricate, assemble, and test the Prototypical Rod Consolidation System as described in the NUS Phase II Final Design Report. This effort required providing the materials, components, and fabricated parts which makes up all of the system equipment. In addition, it included the assembly, installation, and setup of this equipment at the Cold Test Facility. During the Phase III effort the system was tested on a component, subsystem, and system level. Volume IV provides the Operating and Maintenance Manual for the Prototypical Rod Consolidation System that was installed at the Cold Test Facility. This document, Book 4 of Volume IV, discusses: Off-normal operating and recovery procedures; Emergency response procedures; Troubleshooting procedures; and Preventive maintenance procedures

  9. Axure RP 6 Prototyping Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Schwartz, Ezra

    2012-01-01

    Axure RP 6 Prototyping Essentials is a detailed, practical primer on the leading rapid prototyping tool. Short on jargon and high on concepts, real-life scenarios and step-by-step guidance through hands-on examples, this book will show you how to integrate Axure into your UX workflow. This book is written for UX practitioners, business analysts, product managers, and anyone else who is involved in UX projects. The book assumes that you have no or very little familiarity with Axure. It will help you if you are evaluating the tool for an upcoming project or are required to quickly get up to spee

  10. Visible-light driven photocatalytic degradation of methylene-violet by rGO/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/ZnO ternary nanohybrid structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thangavel, Srinivas [Nanomaterials Research Lab ( NmRL ), Department of Nanoscience and Technology, Karunya University, Coimbatore 641 114, Tamil Nadu (India); Center of Excellence in Advanced Materials and Green Technologies, Department of Chemical Engineering and Material Science, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Coimbatore 641 112, Tamil Nadu (India); Thangavel, Sakthivel [Nanomaterials Research Lab ( NmRL ), Department of Nanoscience and Technology, Karunya University, Coimbatore 641 114, Tamil Nadu (India); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jeju National University, Jeju 690-756 (Korea, Republic of); Raghavan, Nivea [Nanomaterials Research Lab ( NmRL ), Department of Nanoscience and Technology, Karunya University, Coimbatore 641 114, Tamil Nadu (India); Krishnamoorthy, Karthikeyan [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jeju National University, Jeju 690-756 (Korea, Republic of); Venugopal, Gunasekaran, E-mail: gunasekaran@karunya.edu [Nanomaterials Research Lab ( NmRL ), Department of Nanoscience and Technology, Karunya University, Coimbatore 641 114, Tamil Nadu (India); Solid State Electronics Lab, Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Katahira, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2016-04-25

    A novel ternary nanohybrid structure was constructed with reduced graphene-oxide/iron-oxide/zinc-oxide (rGO/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/ZnO) via a facile hydrothermal method. The structural, morphological and optical properties were explored using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope (SEM) with energy dispersive spectra and photoluminescence (PL) studies. The functional groups of ternary nanohybrid were characterized by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy. SEM images confirm the presence of two-dimensional GO sheets, one dimensional Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and ZnO nanorods. The PL spectra showed the quenching effect which has been observed from the reduction of electron–hole recombination in hybrid. Degradation efficiency of this system was evaluated and compared with pure ZnO and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/ZnO. Under visible light condition, the ternary nanohybrid has shown an excellent photocatalytic degradation of methylene-violet dye. The degradation efficiency of rGO/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/ZnO was systematically analyzed by absorption spectra and total organic carbon removal techniques. Our experimental results will show the potential way for the development of futuristic rGO based nanohybrids as an effective photocatalytic materials for waste-water treatment and environmental remedial applications. - Graphical abstract: A new ternary nanohybrid has been constructed with 1D Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}–ZnO and 2D rGO sheets to utilize as visible-light photocatalyst. Highly active photocatalyst has been prepared by a feasible hydrothermal approach. For the first time, rGO/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/ZnO ternary nanohybrid exhibits a superior photocatalytic activity towards the degradation of methylene-violet (dye) and the same can be used for environmental remediation applications. - Highlights: • Ternary nanohybrid constructed with 1D ZnO, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and 2D rGO. • Aggregation free rGO/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/ZnO nanohybrid exhibits superior photocatalytic activity. • rGO boost up

  11. Ternary Fission of U235 by Resonance Neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvitek, I.; Popov, Ju.P.; Rjabov, Ju.V.

    1965-01-01

    Recently a number of papers have appeared indicating considerable variations in the ratio of the ternary-fission cross-section to the binary-fission cross-section of U 235 on transition from one neutron resonance to another. However, such variations have not been discovered in U 233 and Pu 239 . The paper reports investigations of the ternary fission of U 235 by neutrons with an energy of 0.1 to 30 eV. Unlike other investigators of the ternary fission of U 235 , we identified the ternary-fission event by the coincidence of one of the fission fragments with a light long-range particle. This made it passible to separate ternary fissions from the possible contribution of the (n, α)reaction. The measurements were performed at the fast pulsed reactor of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research by the time-of-flight method. A flight length of 100 m was used, giving a resolution of 0.6 μs/m. Gas scintillation counters filled with xenon at a pressure of 2 atm were used to record the fission fragments and the light long-range particle. A layer of enriched U 235 ∼2 mg/cm 2 thick and ∼300 cm 2 in area was applied to an aluminium foil 20-fim thick. The scintillations from the fission fragments were recorded in the gas volume on one side of the foil and those from the light long-range particles in that on the other. In order to assess the background (e.g . coincidences of the pulse from a fragment with that from a fission gamma quantum or a proton from the (n, p) reaction in the aluminium foil), a measurement was carried out in which the volume recording the long-range particle was shielded with a supplementary aluminium filter 1-mm thick. The results obtained indicate the absence of the considerable variations in the ratio between the ternary-and binary- fission cross-sections for U 235 that have been noted by other authors. Measurements showed no irregularity in the ratio of the cross-sections in the energy range 0.1 to 0.2 eV. The paper discusses the possible effect of

  12. Quantitative analysis of crystalline and remaining glass phases in CaO-B2O3-SiO2 ternary system glass ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Ming; Wu Mengqiang; Zhang Shuren; Zhou Xiaohua; Zhang Ting; Chen Song

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → As for CBS ternary system glass ceramics, due to the complex phase compositions, many methods could be difficult to determine quantitatively the absolute amounts of crystalline and remaining oxides. In this study, an available method based on the Rietveld method was used to quantitatively analyze the relative weight fraction and densities of crystalline phases. These above data are used to obtain a table of both relative weight fraction of crystalline phases and densities of all phases including CBS LTCC. Using volume additivity rule, it is possible to analysis quantitatively the absolute weight fraction of crystalline phases and also the oxides molar content in the remaining glass. - Abstract: Based on Rietveld method of X-ray techniques and volume additivity rule, a new method was developed to quantitatively analyze the phase composition of CaO-B 2 O 3 -SiO 2 ternary system glass ceramics. Lattice parameters, densities and relative weight fractions of crystalline phases in CaO-B 2 O 3 -SiO 2 ternary system were obtained by X-ray diffraction (XRD) refinement. According to the relative weight fraction of crystalline phases and densities of various components, the volume additivity rule was revealed by calculating the absolute weight fraction of crystalline phases of CaO-B 2 O 3 -SiO 2 glass ceramics. In addition, molar contents of the oxides in the remaining glass can also be determined by this method. Comparing this method with internal standard method, it is found that the maximum deviations of the crystallinity and the absolute weight fraction of crystalline phases are less than 2.6% and 2.9%, respectively. As a result, quantitative evaluation of CaO-B 2 O 3 -SiO 2 ternary system glass ceramics can be achieved using this method.

  13. NMS Prototype development final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepetich, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    Program for development of NMS prototype for LAMPF consisted of 5 tasks: crystal procurement specification, inspection/evaluation of CsI crystals, design/fabrication of crystal housing, design/fabrication of PMT shields, and packaging of crystals in the housing

  14. EUSO-TA prototype telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisconti, Francesca, E-mail: francesca.bisconti@kit.edu

    2016-07-11

    EUSO-TA is one of the prototypes developed for the JEM-EUSO project, a space-based large field-of-view telescope to observe the fluorescence light emitted by cosmic ray air showers in the atmosphere. EUSO-TA is a ground-based prototype located at the Telescope Array (TA) site in Utah, USA, where an Electron Light Source and a Central Laser Facility are installed. The purpose of the EUSO-TA project is to calibrate the prototype with the TA fluorescence detector in presence of well-known light sources and cosmic ray air showers. In 2015, the detector started the first measurements and tests using the mentioned light sources have been performed successfully. A first cosmic ray candidate has been observed, as well as stars of different magnitude and color index. Since Silicon Photo-Multipliers (SiPMs) are very promising for fluorescence telescopes of next generation, they are under consideration for the realization of a new prototype of EUSO Photo Detector Module (PDM). The response of this sensor type is under investigation through simulations and laboratory experimentation.

  15. The OPAL vertex detector prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roney, J.M.; Armitage, J.C.; Carnegie, R.K.; Giles, G.L.; Hemingway, R.J.; McPherson, A.C.; Pinfold, J.L.; Waterhouse, J.; Godfrey, L.; Hargrove, C.K.

    1989-01-01

    The prototype test results of a high resolution charged particle tracking detector are reported. The detector is designed to measure vertex topologies of particles produced in the e + e - collisions of the OPAL experiment at LEP. The OPAL vertex detector is a 1 m long, 0.46 m diameter cylindrical drift chamber consisting of an axial and stereo layer each of which is divided into 36 jet cells. A prototype chamber containing four axial and two stereo cells was studied using a pion test beam at CERN. The studies examined the prototype under a variety of operating conditions. An r-Φ resolution of 60 μm was obtained when the chamber was operated with argon (50%)-ethane (50%) at 3.75 bar, and when CO 2 (80%)-isobutane (20%) at 2.5 bar was used a 25 μm resolution was achieved. A z measurement using end-to-end time difference has a resolution of 3.5 cm. The details of these prototype studies are discussed in this paper. (orig.)

  16. Rapid Prototyping Enters Mainstream Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winek, Gary

    1996-01-01

    Explains rapid prototyping, a process that uses computer-assisted design files to create a three-dimensional object automatically, speeding the industrial design process. Five commercially available systems and two emerging types--the 3-D printing process and repetitive masking and depositing--are described. (SK)

  17. Encapsulation of polymer photovoltaic prototypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C

    2006-01-01

    A simple and efficient method for the encapsulation of polymer and organic photovoltaic prototypes is presented. The method employs device preparation on glass substrates with subsequent sealing using glass fiber reinforced thermosetting epoxy (prepreg) against a back plate. The method allows...

  18. EUSO-TA prototype telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisconti, Francesca; JEM-EUSO Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    EUSO-TA is one of the prototypes developed for the JEM-EUSO project, a space-based large field-of-view telescope to observe the fluorescence light emitted by cosmic ray air showers in the atmosphere. EUSO-TA is a ground-based prototype located at the Telescope Array (TA) site in Utah, USA, where an Electron Light Source and a Central Laser Facility are installed. The purpose of the EUSO-TA project is to calibrate the prototype with the TA fluorescence detector in presence of well-known light sources and cosmic ray air showers. In 2015, the detector started the first measurements and tests using the mentioned light sources have been performed successfully. A first cosmic ray candidate has been observed, as well as stars of different magnitude and color index. Since Silicon Photo-Multipliers (SiPMs) are very promising for fluorescence telescopes of next generation, they are under consideration for the realization of a new prototype of EUSO Photo Detector Module (PDM). The response of this sensor type is under investigation through simulations and laboratory experimentation.

  19. Facial Prototype Formation in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inn, Donald; And Others

    This study examined memory representation as it is exhibited in young children's formation of facial prototypes. In the first part of the study, researchers constructed images of faces using an Identikit that provided the features of hair, eyes, mouth, nose, and chin. Images were varied systematically. A series of these images, called exemplar…

  20. Prototype diagnosis of psychiatric syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    WESTEN, DREW

    2012-01-01

    The method of diagnosing patients used since the early 1980s in psychiatry, which involves evaluating each of several hundred symptoms for their presence or absence and then applying idiosyncratic rules for combining them for each of several hundred disorders, has led to great advances in research over the last 30 years. However, its problems have become increasingly apparent, particularly for clinical practice. An alternative approach, designed to maximize clinical utility, is prototype matching. Instead of counting symptoms of a disorder and determining whether they cross an arbitrary cutoff, the task of the diagnostician is to gauge the extent to which a patient’s clinical presentation matches a paragraph-length description of the disorder using a simple 5-point scale, from 1 (“little or no match”) to 5 (“very good match”). The result is both a dimensional diagnosis that captures the extent to which the patient “has” the disorder and a categorical diagnosis, with ratings of 4 and 5 corresponding to presence of the disorder and a rating of 3 indicating “subthreshold” or “clinically significant features”. The disorders and criteria woven into the prototypes can be identified empirically, so that the prototypes are both scientifically grounded and clinically useful. Prototype diagnosis has a number of advantages: it better captures the way humans naturally classify novel and complex stimuli; is clinically helpful, reliable, and easy to use in everyday practice; facilitates both dimensional and categorical diagnosis and dramatically reduces the number of categories required for classification; allows for clinically richer, empirically derived, and culturally relevant classification; reduces the gap between research criteria and clinical knowledge, by allowing clinicians in training to learn a small set of standardized prototypes and to develop richer mental representations of the disorders over time through clinical experience; and can help

  1. Prototype Effect and the Persuasiveness of Generalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlman, Christian; Sarwar, Farhan; Bååth, Rasmus; Wahlberg, Lena; Sikström, Sverker

    An argument that makes use of a generalization activates the prototype for the category used in the generalization. We conducted two experiments that investigated how the activation of the prototype affects the persuasiveness of the argument. The results of the experiments suggest that the features of the prototype overshadow and partly overwrite the actual facts of the case. The case is, to some extent, judged as if it had the features of the prototype instead of the features it actually has. This prototype effect increases the persuasiveness of the argument in situations where the audience finds the judgment more warranted for the prototype than for the actual case (positive prototype effect), but decreases persuasiveness in situations where the audience finds the judgment less warranted for the prototype than for the actual case (negative prototype effect).

  2. Supporting Active User Involvment in Prototyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Kaj

    1990-01-01

    The term prototyping has in recent years become a buzzword in both research and practice of system design due to a number of claimed advantages of prototyping techniques over traditional specification techniques. In particular it is often stated that prototyping facilitates the users' involvement...... in the development process. But prototyping does not automatically imply active user involvement! Thus a cooperative prototyping approach aiming at involving users actively and creatively in system design is proposed in this paper. The key point of the approach is to involve users in activities that closely couple...... development of prototypes to early evaluation of prototypes in envisioned use situations. Having users involved in such activities creates new requirements for tool support. Tools that support direct manipulation of prototypes and simulation of behaviour have shown promise for cooperative prototyping...

  3. Prototyping of user interfaces for mobile applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bähr, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    This book investigates processes for the prototyping of user interfaces for mobile apps, and describes the development of new concepts and tools that can improve the prototype driven app development in the early stages. It presents the development and evaluation of a new requirements catalogue for prototyping mobile app tools that identifies the most important criteria such tools should meet at different prototype-development stages. This catalogue is not just a good point of orientation for designing new prototyping approaches, but also provides a set of metrics for a comparing the performance of alternative prototyping tools. In addition, the book discusses the development of Blended Prototyping, a new approach for prototyping user interfaces for mobile applications in the early and middle development stages, and presents the results of an evaluation of its performance, showing that it provides a tool for teamwork-oriented, creative prototyping of mobile apps in the early design stages.

  4. Thermodynamic calculations in ternary titanium–aluminium–manganese system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA I. KOSTOV

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Thermodynamic calculations in the ternary Ti–Al–Mn system are shown in this paper. The thermodynamic calculations were performed using the FactSage thermochemical software and database, with the aim of determining thermodynamic properties, such as activities, coefficient of activities, partial and integral values of the enthalpies and Gibbs energies of mixing and excess energies at two different temperatures: 2000 and 2100 K. Bearing in mind that no experimental data for the Ti–Al–Mn ternary system have been obtained or reported. The obtained results represent a good base for further thermodynamic analysis and may be useful as a comparison with some future critical experimental results and thermodynamic optimization of this system.

  5. Ternary carbide uranium fuels for advanced reactor design applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, Travis; Anghaie, Samim

    1999-01-01

    Solid-solution mixed uranium/refractory metal carbides such as the pseudo-ternary carbide, (U, Zr, Nb)C, hold significant promise for advanced reactor design applications because of their high thermal conductivity and high melting point (typically greater than 3200 K). Additionally, because of their thermochemical stability in a hot-hydrogen environment, pseudo-ternary carbides have been investigated for potential space nuclear power and propulsion applications. However, their stability with regard to sodium and improved resistance to attack by water over uranium carbide portends their usefulness as a fuel for advanced terrestrial reactors. An investigation into processing techniques was conducted in order to produce a series of (U, Zr, Nb)C samples for characterization and testing. Samples with densities ranging from 91% to 95% of theoretical density were produced by cold pressing and sintering the mixed constituent carbides at temperatures as high as 2650 K. (author)

  6. Experimental Investigation of Ternary Alloys for Fusion Breeding Blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, B. William [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chiu, Ing L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-26

    Future fusion power plants based on the deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel cycle will be required to breed the T fuel via neutron reactions with lithium, which will be incorporated in a breeding blanket that surrounds the fusion source. Recent work by LLNL proposed the used of liquid Li as the breeder in an inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant. Subsequently, an LDRD was initiated to develop alternatives ternary alloy liquid metal breeders that have reduced chemical reactivity with water and air compared to pure Li. Part of the work plan was to experimentally investigate the phase diagrams of ternary alloys. Of particular interest was measurement of the melt temperature, which must be low enough to be compatible with the temperature limits of the steel used in the construction of the chamber and heat transfer system.

  7. Reconstructing Unrooted Phylogenetic Trees from Symbolic Ternary Metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünewald, Stefan; Long, Yangjing; Wu, Yaokun

    2018-03-09

    Böcker and Dress (Adv Math 138:105-125, 1998) presented a 1-to-1 correspondence between symbolically dated rooted trees and symbolic ultrametrics. We consider the corresponding problem for unrooted trees. More precisely, given a tree T with leaf set X and a proper vertex coloring of its interior vertices, we can map every triple of three different leaves to the color of its median vertex. We characterize all ternary maps that can be obtained in this way in terms of 4- and 5-point conditions, and we show that the corresponding tree and its coloring can be reconstructed from a ternary map that satisfies those conditions. Further, we give an additional condition that characterizes whether the tree is binary, and we describe an algorithm that reconstructs general trees in a bottom-up fashion.

  8. Ternary fission in an effective liquid drop model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, Sergio B.; Tavares, Odilon A.P.; Dimarco, A.; Goncalves, Marcello; Guzman, Fernando; Trallero-Herrera, Carlos; Rodriguez, Oscar; Garcia, Fermin

    2001-01-01

    Full text follows: The nuclear partition in three fragments has been observed in recent experiments for fission process of 252 Cf and 24 '0 Pu. We apply the Effective Liquid Drop Model (ELDM), successfully used for discussing binary cold fission and cluster emissions for a three center geometric shape parametrization, describing the quasi-molecular deformation which can lead to ternary fragmentation. A preliminary calculation for rates of these processes are performed and the results are compared to the rate of the dominant binary fission process. A large range of parent nuclei (spherical and deformed) is covered in the calculation. The purpose is to point out others possible ternary fission process experimentally measurable. (author)

  9. Susceptibility of ternary aluminum alloys to cracking during solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jiangwei; Kou, Sindo

    2017-01-01

    The crack susceptibility map of a ternary Al alloy system provides useful information about which alloy compositions are most susceptible to cracking and thus should be avoided by using a filler metal with a significantly different composition. In the present study the crack susceptibility maps of ternary Al alloy systems were calculated based on the maximum |dT/d(f S ) 1/2 | as an index for the crack susceptibility, where T is temperature and f S fraction solid. Due to the complexity associated with ternary alloy solidification, commercial thermodynamic software Pandat and Al database PanAluminum, instead of analytical equations, were used to calculate f S as a function of T and hence the maximum |dT/d(f S ) 1/2 | for ternary Al-Mg-Si, Al-Cu-Mg and Al-Cu-Si alloy systems. A crack susceptibility map covering 121 alloy compositions was constructed for each of the three ternary alloy systems at each of the following three levels of back diffusion: no back diffusion, back diffusion under a 100 °C/s cooling rate, and back diffusion under 20° C/s. The location of the region of high crack susceptibility, which is the most important part of the map, was shown in each of the nine calculated maps. These locations were compared with those observed in crack susceptibility tests by previous investigators. With back diffusion considered, either under 20 or 100 °C/s, the agreement between the calculated and observed maps was good especially for Al-Mg-Si and Al-Cu-Mg. Thus, the maximum |dT/d(f S ) 1/2 | can be used as a crack susceptibility index to construct crack susceptibility maps for ternary Al alloys and to evaluate the effect of back diffusion on their crack susceptibility. - Graphical abstract: The crack susceptibility map of a ternary alloy system indicates the composition range most susceptible to cracking, which should be avoided in welding or casting. The crack susceptibility maps of ternary Al alloy systems Al-Mg-Si, Al-Cu-Mg and Al-Cu-Si were calculated based

  10. Dynamical theory of subconstituents based on ternary algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bars, I.; Guenaydin, M.

    1980-01-01

    We propose a dynamical theory of possible fundamental constituents of matter. Our scheme is based on (super) ternary algebras which are building blocks of Lie (super) algebras. Elementary fields, called ''ternons,'' are associated with the elements of a (super) ternary algebra. Effective gauge bosons, ''quarks,'' and ''leptons'' are constructed as composite fields from ternons. We propose two- and four-dimensional (super) ternon theories whose structures are closely related to CP/sub N/ and Yang-Mills theories and their supersymmetric extensions. We conjecture that at large distances (low energies) the ternon theories dynamically produce effective gauge theories and thus may be capable of explaining the present particle-physics phenomenology. Such a scenario is valid in two dimensions

  11. Cohesion energy calculations for ternary ionic novel crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez P, G.; Cabrera, E.; Mijangos, R.R.; Valdez, E.; Duarte, C.

    2001-01-01

    The present work calculates the value of the link energy of a crystalline ternary structure newly formed by alkali halides. The ternary structure prepared with different concentrations of KCl x KBrRbCl 2 maintains a very good miscibility and stability. The calculation is based on the use of a generalization of the Vegard law (which generally is valid for binary compounds) for calculating the values of the lattice constant and the repulsive m exponent. The value of the lattice parameter given by X-ray diffractometry agrees with the close approximation of the calculated value of the method used. It also compares the value of energy cohesion obtained by the Born expression with more complex approximations. (Author)

  12. Developing Low-Clinker Ternary Blends for Indian Cement Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Aritra

    2018-05-01

    In today's scenario cement-concrete has become the backbone of infrastructure development. The use of concrete is increasing day by day and so does cement. One of the major concerns is that the cement manufacturing contributes 7% of total man-made CO2 emission in the environment. At the same time India being a developing country secured the second position in cement production. On the other hand solid waste management is one of the growing problems in India. As we are one of the major contributors in this situation so, the time has come to think about the sustainable alternatives. From various researches it has been observed that the low clinker cement can be suitable option. In the present paper we have tried to develop a low clinker ternary blend for Indian cement industry using the concept of synergetic behavior of fly ash-limestone reaction and formation of more stable monocarboaluminate hydrate and hemicarboaluminate hydrate. 30% fly ash and 15% limestone and 5% gypsum have been used as supplementary cementing material for replacing 50% clinker. The mechanical properties like, compressive strength, have been studied for the fly ash limestone ternary blends cements and the results have been compared with the other controlled blends and ternary blends. The effect of intergrinding of constituent materials has shown a comparable properties which can be used for various structural application. The effect of dolomitic limestone has also been studied in fly ash limestone ternary blends and the result shows the relation between compressive strength and dolomite content is inversely proportional.

  13. Tetragonal ternary borides: superconductivity, ferromagnetism and the role of scandium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthias, B.T.; Patel, C.K.N.; Barz, H.; Corenzwit, E.; Vandenberg, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    The authors report and discuss two discoveries made while studying the condensation phenomena of ternary rhodium borides, MRh 4 B 4 . M is generally a trivalent transition metal, usually a rare earth element RE. An exception is scandium which by itself does not form an isomorphous boride, but in combination with many other elements will do just that. A suprising correlation between ferromagnetic and superconducting transition temperatures has been found. (Auth.)

  14. Electronic structure of ternary hydrides based on light elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orgaz, E. [Departamento de Fisica y Quimica Teorica, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, CP 04510 Coyoacan, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: orgaz@eros.pquim.unam.mx; Membrillo, A. [Departamento de Fisica y Quimica Teorica, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, CP 04510 Coyoacan, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Castaneda, R. [Departamento de Fisica y Quimica Teorica, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, CP 04510 Coyoacan, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Aburto, A. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, CP 04510 Coyoacan, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-12-08

    Ternary hydrides based on light elements are interesting owing to the high available energy density. In this work we focused into the electronic structure of a series of known systems having the general formula AMH{sub 4}(A=Li,Na,M=B,Al). We computed the energy bands and the total and partial density of states using the linear-augmented plane waves method. In this report, we discuss the chemical bonding in this series of complex hydrides.

  15. Thermoelectric properties of RuSb2Te ternary skutterudites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Navrátil, Jiří; Plecháček, T.; Drašar, Č.; Laufek, F.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 7 (2013), s. 1864-1869 ISSN 0361-5235 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/10/1315 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : RuSb2Te * ternary skutterudite * doping Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.675, year: 2013 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11664-012-2451-5

  16. Some new quasi-twisted ternary linear codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumen Daskalov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Let [n, k, d]_q code be a linear code of length n, dimension k and minimum Hamming distance d over GF(q. One of the basic and most important problems in coding theory is to construct codes with best possible minimum distances. In this paper seven quasi-twisted ternary linear codes are constructed. These codes are new and improve the best known lower bounds on the minimum distance in [6].

  17. Synthesis of Ternary Quantum Logic Circuits by Decomposition

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Faisal Shah; Perkowski, Marek

    2005-01-01

    Recent research in multi-valued logic for quantum computing has shown practical advantages for scaling up a quantum computer. Multivalued quantum systems have also been used in the framework of quantum cryptography, and the concept of a qudit cluster state has been proposed by generalizing the qubit cluster state. An evolutionary algorithm based synthesizer for ternary quantum circuits has recently been presented, as well as a synthesis method based on matrix factorization.In this paper, a re...

  18. Development and application of high strength ternary boride base cermets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Ken-ichi

    2006-01-01

    Reaction boronizing sintering is a novel strategy to form a ternary boride coexisting with a metal matrix in a cermet during liquid phase sintering. This new sintering technique has successfully developed world first ternary boride base cermets with excellent mechanical properties such as Mo 2 FeB 2 , Mo 2 NiB 2 and WCoB base ones. In these cermets Mo 2 FeB 2 and Mo 2 NiB 2 base ones consist of a tetragonal M 3 B 2 (M: metal)-type complex boride as a hard phase and a transition metal base matrix. The cermets have already been applied to wear resistant applications such as injection molding machine parts, can making tools, and hot copper extruding dies, etc. This paper focuses on the characteristics, effects of the additional elements on the mechanical properties and structure, and practical applications of the ternary boride base cermets. - Graphical abstract: TRS and hardness of Ni-5B-51Mo-17.5Cr and Ni-5B-51Mo-12.5Cr-5V-xMn mass% cermets as functions of Mn content (Fig. 17)

  19. Phase Equilibria of Sn-Co-Cu Ternary System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Kai; Hsu, Chia-Ming; Chen, Sinn-Wen; Chen, Chih-Ming; Huang, Yu-Chih

    2012-10-01

    Sn-Co-Cu ternary alloys are promising lead-free solders, and isothermal sections of Sn-Co-Cu phase equilibria are fundamentally important for the alloys' development and applications. Sn-Co-Cu ternary alloys were prepared and equilibrated at 523 K, 1073 K, and 1273 K (250 °C, 800 °C, and 1000 °C), and the equilibrium phases were experimentally determined. In addition to the terminal solid solutions and binary intermetallic compounds, a new ternary compound, Sn3Co2Cu8, was found. The solubilities of Cu in the α-CoSn3 and CoSn2 phases at 523 K (250 °C) are 4.2 and 1.6 at. pct, respectively, while the Cu solubility in the α-Co3Sn2 phase is as high as 20.0 at. pct. The Cu solubility increases with temperature and is around 30.0 at. pct in the β-Co3Sn2 at 1073 K (800 °C). The Co solubility in the η-Cu6Sn5 phase is also significant and is 15.5 at. pct at 523 K (250 °C).

  20. Phase equilibria of the Mo-Al-Ho ternary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yitai; Chen, Xiaoxian; Liu, Hao [Guangxi Univ., Nanning (China). College of Materials Science and Engineering; Guangxi Univ., Nanning (China). Guangxi Key Laboratory of Processing for Non-ferrous Metal and Featured Materials; Zhan, Yongzhong [Guangxi Univ., Nanning (China). College of Materials Science and Engineering; Guangxi Univ., Nanning (China). Guangxi Key Laboratory of Processing for Non-ferrous Metal and Featured Materials; Guangxi Univ., Nanning (China). Center of Ecological Collaborative Innovation for Aluminum Industry

    2017-08-15

    Investigation into the reactions and phase equilibria of transition metal elements (i.e. Mo, Zr, Cr, V and Ti), Al and rare earths is academically and industrially important for the development of both refractory alloys and lightweight high-temperature materials. In this work, the equilibria of the Mo-Al-Ho ternary system at 773 K have been determined by using X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray analysis. A new ternary phase Al{sub 4}Mo{sub 2}Ho has been found and the other ternary phase Al{sub 43}Mo{sub 4}Ho{sub 6} is observed. Ten binary phases in the Al-Mo and Al-Ho systems, including Al{sub 17}Mo{sub 4} rather than Al{sub 4}Mo, have been determined to exist at 773 K. The homogeneity ranges of AlMo{sub 3} and Al{sub 8}Mo{sub 3} phase are 7.5 at.% and 1 at.%, respectively. According to the phase-disappearing method, the maximum solubility of Al in Mo is about 16 at.%.

  1. Valence band electronic structure of Pd based ternary chalcogenide superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohani, H. [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 400085 (India); Mishra, P. [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India); Goyal, R.; Awana, V.P.S. [National Physical Laboratory(CSIR), Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Sekhar, B.R., E-mail: sekhar@iopb.res.in [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • VB Photoemission study and DFT calculations on Pd based ternary superconductors are presented. • Nb{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.95}S{sub 5} shows a temperature dependent pseudogap. • VB spectral features of ternary superconductors are correlated to their structural geometry. - Abstract: We present a comparative study of the valence band electronic structure of Pd based ternary chalcogenide superconductors Nb{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.95}S{sub 5}, Ta{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.97}S{sub 6} and Ta{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.97}Te{sub 6} using experimental photoemission spectroscopy and density functional based theoretical calculations. We observe a qualitatively similarity between valence band (VB) spectra of Nb{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.95}S{sub 5} and Ta{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.97}S{sub 6}. Further, we find a pseudogap feature in Nb{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.95}S{sub 5} at low temperature, unlike other two compounds. We have correlated the structural geometry with the differences in VB spectra of these compounds. The different atomic packing in these compounds could vary the strength of inter-orbital hybridization among various atoms which leads to difference in their electronic structure as clearly observed in our DOS calculations.

  2. Superconductivity of ternary metal compounds prepared at high pressures

    CERN Document Server

    Shirotani, I

    2003-01-01

    Various ternary metal phosphides, arsenides, antimonides, silicides and germanides have been prepared at high temperatures and high pressures. These ternary metal compounds can be classified into four groups: [1] metal-rich compounds MM' sub 4 X sub 2 and [2] MM'X, [3] non-metal-rich compounds MXX' and [4] MM' sub 4 X sub 1 sub 2 (M and M' = metal element; X and X' = non-metal element). We have studied the electrical and magnetic properties of these materials at low temperatures, and found many new superconductors with the superconducting transition temperature (T sub c) of above 10 K. The metal-rich compound ZrRu sub 4 P sub 2 with a tetragonal structure showed the superconducting transition at around 11 K, and had an upper critical field (H sub c sub 2) of 12.2 tesla (T) at 0 K. Ternary equiatomic compounds ZrRuP and ZrRuSi crystallize in two modifications, a hexagonal Fe sub 2 P-type structure [h-ZrRuP(Si)] and an orthorhombic Co sub 2 P-type structure [o-ZrRuP(Si)]. Both h-ZrRuP and h-ZrRuSi have rather h...

  3. Realizing Ternary Logic in FPGAs for SWL DSP Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayeb Din

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently SWL (Short Word Length DSP (Digital Signal Processing applications has been proposed to overcome multiplier complexity that is evident in most of the digital applications. These SWL applications have been processed through sigma-delta modulation as a key element. For such applications, adder design plays vital role and can impact upon the chip area and its performance. In this paper, a ternary approach for adder tree has been proposed instead of binary that can accommodate more data with less chip-area at the cost of extra pin. The proposed ternary adder tree has been designed and developed in Quartus-II using three different design strategies namely T-gate (Ternary gate, LUT (Look Up Table and algebraic equations. Through rigorous simulation it was found that T-gate technique results in superior performance, an average of 23.5 and 33% improvement compared to the same adder structure based on Boolean Algebraic Equation and LUT, respectively. The proposed adder design would benefit the efficient implementation of SWL applications.

  4. Design in action: From prototyping by demonstration to cooperative prototyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Grønbæk, Kaj

    1991-01-01

    ... the development of any computer-based system will have to proceed in a cycle from design to experience and back again. It is impossible to anticipate all of the relevant breakdown and their domains. They emerge gradually in practice. Winograd and Flores, 1986. p.171 Some time ago we worked wi...... with a group of dental assistants, designing a prototype case record system to explore the possibility of using computer support in public dental clinics. ...

  5. Synthesis and characterization of ternary Pt-Ni-M/C (M=Cu, Fe, Ce, Mo, W) nano-catalysts for low temperature fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Riaz; Jamil, Rabia; Ansari, Muhammad Shahid

    2014-01-01

    Ternary metal catalysts were synthesized by impregnation method. The mixture of metal solutions was reduced slowly under inert atmosphere and the reduced metals were deposited on the Vulcan Carbon(VC). Tungsten, molybdenum, cerium, iron and copper were added to specified amounts of platinum and nickel. Addition of nickel generally improves catalytic activity of platinum. The XRD of the catalysts was done and the crystallite size and other parameters were calculated. Crystallite sizes were in the range of 5 to 16 nm. Electrochemical surface areas of the catalysts were determined by cyclic voltammetry (CV) in acidic media and are compared. Electro oxidation of methanol on the catalysts was done and peak potential, peak current, mass activity of the catalysts were calculated and are compared. These parameters were determined in acidic and basic media. It was found that mass activity increased significantly in basic media. Rate constants for the electro oxidation of methanol were also calculated in acidic and basic media and are compared and discussed. Rate constants were generally higher in basic media. Ternary catalysts showed improved catalytic activity than the binary catalyst. Nano alloying improved the catalytic activity and stability of the ternary catalysts

  6. Discovery of a ternary pseudobrookite phase in the earth-abundant Ti-Zn-O system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Nicola H; Stevanovic, Vladan; Lim, Linda Y; Mason, Thomas O

    2016-01-28

    We combine theory with experiment in searching for "missing", stable materials within the Zn-Ti-O chemical system, leading to the discovery of a new pseudobrookite phase, ZnxTi3-xO5-δ. This ternary system was chosen for (1) technological relevance, (2) earth abundance, and (3) the fact that many compounds in this system are predicted from enthalpies of formation to be borderline stable, suggesting an important role of entropic contributions in their stabilization and making this chemical system a perfect test bed for exploring the limits of theoretical predictions. The initial set of exploratory experimental syntheses, via sintering in evacuated ampoules and quenching, resulted in a single phase ZnxTi3-xO5-δ composition with x ≈ 0.6 and an almost stoichiometric oxygen content, as evaluated by X-ray fluorescence, energy dispersive spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The theoretically calculated lowest energy crystal structure for the closest stoichiometric ZnTi5O10 composition matched that measured experimentally by synchrotron X-ray diffraction (allowing for differences attributable to cation disorder). The measured broad optical absorption, n-type electrical conductivity, and stability in acidic media are comparable to those of other ternary pseudobrookites and Ti-O Magnéli phases, suggesting comparable applicability as a robust electrode or catalyst support in electrochemical devices or water remediation. However, the new phase decomposes upon heating in air as it oxidizes. The success of the present approach to identify a "missing material" in an earth-abundant and applications-rich system suggests that future efforts to experimentally realize and theoretically confirm missing materials in this and similar systems are warranted, both scientifically and technologically.

  7. Ternary Ag-In-S polycrystalline films deposited using chemical bath deposition for photoelectrochemical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Wen-Sheng; Wu, Ching-Chen; Jeng, Ming-Shan; Cheng, Kong-Wei; Huang, Chao-Ming; Lee, Tai-Chou

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the preparation and characterization of ternary Ag-In-S thin films deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrates using chemical bath deposition (CBD). The composition of the thin films was varied by changing the concentration ratio of [Ag]/[In] in the precursor solutions. The crystal structure, optical properties, and surface morphology of the thin films were analyzed by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), UV-vis spectroscopy, and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). GIXRD results indicate that the samples consisted of AgInS 2 and/or AgIn 5 S 8 crystal phases, depending on the composition of the precursor solutions. The film thicknesses, electrical resistivity, flat band potentials, and band gaps of the samples were between 1.12 and 1.37 μm, 3.73 x 10 -3 and 4.98 x 10 4 Ω cm, -0.67 and -0.90 V vs. NHE, and 1.83 and 1.92 eV, respectively. The highest photocurrent density was observed in the sample with [Ag]/[In] = 4. A photocurrent density of 9.7 mA cm -2 was obtained with an applied potential of 0.25 V vs. SCE in the three-electrode system. The photoresponse experiments were conducted in 0.25 M K 2 SO 3 and 0.35 M Na 2 S aqueous electrolyte solutions under irradiation by a 300 W Xe light (100 mW cm -2 ). The results show that ternary Ag-In-S thin film electrodes have potential in water splitting applications.

  8. Ternary Ag-In-S polycrystalline films deposited using chemical bath deposition for photoelectrochemical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Wen-Sheng [Energy and Environmental Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, 195 Sec. 4, Chung-Hsing Road, Hsin-Chu 310, Taiwan (China); Wu, Ching-Chen [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Chung Cheng University, 168 University Road, Min-Hsiung, Chia-Yi 621, Taiwan (China); Jeng, Ming-Shan [Energy and Environmental Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, 195 Sec. 4, Chung-Hsing Road, Hsin-Chu 310, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Kong-Wei [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa 1st Road, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan (China); Huang, Chao-Ming [Department of Environmental Engineering, Kun Shan University, 949 Da Wan Road, Yung-Kang City, Tainan Hsien 710, Taiwan (China); Lee, Tai-Chou, E-mail: chmtcl@ccu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Chung Cheng University, 168 University Road, Min-Hsiung, Chia-Yi 621, Taiwan (China)

    2010-04-15

    This paper describes the preparation and characterization of ternary Ag-In-S thin films deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrates using chemical bath deposition (CBD). The composition of the thin films was varied by changing the concentration ratio of [Ag]/[In] in the precursor solutions. The crystal structure, optical properties, and surface morphology of the thin films were analyzed by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), UV-vis spectroscopy, and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). GIXRD results indicate that the samples consisted of AgInS{sub 2} and/or AgIn{sub 5}S{sub 8} crystal phases, depending on the composition of the precursor solutions. The film thicknesses, electrical resistivity, flat band potentials, and band gaps of the samples were between 1.12 and 1.37 {mu}m, 3.73 x 10{sup -3} and 4.98 x 10{sup 4} {Omega} cm, -0.67 and -0.90 V vs. NHE, and 1.83 and 1.92 eV, respectively. The highest photocurrent density was observed in the sample with [Ag]/[In] = 4. A photocurrent density of 9.7 mA cm{sup -2} was obtained with an applied potential of 0.25 V vs. SCE in the three-electrode system. The photoresponse experiments were conducted in 0.25 M K{sub 2}SO{sub 3} and 0.35 M Na{sub 2}S aqueous electrolyte solutions under irradiation by a 300 W Xe light (100 mW cm{sup -2}). The results show that ternary Ag-In-S thin film electrodes have potential in water splitting applications.

  9. Ternary fission of 184466,476X formed in U + U collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karthikraj, C.; Subramanian, S.; Selvaraj, S.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the very rare process of nuclear ternary fission has been of great interest in nuclear dynamics. Based on the statistical theory of fission, we discuss here the ternary-fission mass distribution of 184 466,476 X formed in low-energy U + U collisions for different heavy third fragments at T = 1 and 2 MeV. The expected ternary configurations 208 Pb + 208 Pb + 50 Ca and 204 Hg + 204 Hg + 58 Cr are obtained from the ternary fission of 184 466 X at T = 2 MeV. In addition, for both the systems, various possible ternary modes are listed for different heavy third fragments. Our results clearly indicate that the favored ternary configurations have either proton and/or neutron shell closure nucleus as one of their partners. (orig.)

  10. High-field superconductivity in the Nb-Ti-Zr ternary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ralls, K.M.; Rose, R.M.; Wulff, J.

    1980-01-01

    Resistive critical current densities, critical fields, and normal-state electrical resistivities were obtained at 4.2 0 K for 55 alloys in the Nb-Ti-Zr ternary alloy system, excepting Ti-Zr binary compositions. The resistive critical field as a function of ternary composition has a saddle point between the Nb-Ti and Nb-Zr binaries, so that ternary alloying in this system is not expected to result in higher critical fields than the binary alloys

  11. High-field superconductivity in the Nb-Ti-Zr ternary system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralls, K. M.; Rose, R. M.; Wulff, J.

    1980-06-01

    Resistive critical current densities, critical fields, and normal-state electrical resistivities were obtained at 4.2 °K for 55 alloys in the Nb-Ti-Zr ternary alloy system, excepting Ti-Zr binary compositions. The resistive critical field as a function of ternary composition has a saddle point between the Nb-Ti and Nb-Zr binaries, so that ternary alloying in this system is not expected to result in higher critical fields than the binary alloys.

  12. Zr-Fe-Sn Ternary System Phase Diagrams- New Experimental Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieva, N; Gomez, A; Arias, D

    2004-01-01

    New experimental results for the Zr-Fe-Sn ternary system are presented in this paper. The phases present and equilibrium relations for the 900 o C isothermal on the central zone of the Gibbs triangle are analysed. A set of ternary alloys was designed and obtained, and they were analysed by semi quantitative SEM- EDS, XRD, and metallographic samples. The resulting ternary phase diagrams are presented here (JCH)

  13. Experimental study of the ternary Ag-Cu-In phase diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahari, Zahra; Elgadi, Mohamed; Rivet, Jacques; Dugue, Jerome

    2009-01-01

    The phase diagram of the Ag-Cu-In system was investigated using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). Two isothermal sections (at 510 and 607 deg. C) and 15 isopletic sections were studied. The results showed seven ternary peritectics, one ternary eutectic and one ternary metatectic. A complete reaction scheme was constructed, the valleys were drawn and the liquidus surfaces were derived from DSC data in the entire composition range.

  14. Experimental study of the ternary Ag-Cu-In phase diagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahari, Zahra [Laboratoire de chimie physique et minerale, Faculte des sciences pharmaceutiques et biologiques, Universite Paris Descartes, avenue de l' Observatoire, 75006 Paris (France); Laboratoire de chimie du solide mineral (LCSM), Faculte des sciences, Universite Mohamed 1er, Route Sidi Maafa, B.P. 524, Oujda, Maroc (Morocco); Elgadi, Mohamed [Laboratoire de chimie du solide mineral (LCSM), Faculte des sciences, Universite Mohamed 1er, Route Sidi Maafa, B.P. 524, Oujda, Maroc (Morocco); Rivet, Jacques [Laboratoire de chimie physique et minerale, Faculte des sciences pharmaceutiques et biologiques, Universite Paris Descartes, avenue de l' Observatoire, 75006 Paris (France); Dugue, Jerome [Laboratoire de chimie physique et minerale, Faculte des sciences pharmaceutiques et biologiques, Universite Paris Descartes, avenue de l' Observatoire, 75006 Paris (France)], E-mail: jerome.dugue@univ-paris5.fr

    2009-05-27

    The phase diagram of the Ag-Cu-In system was investigated using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). Two isothermal sections (at 510 and 607 deg. C) and 15 isopletic sections were studied. The results showed seven ternary peritectics, one ternary eutectic and one ternary metatectic. A complete reaction scheme was constructed, the valleys were drawn and the liquidus surfaces were derived from DSC data in the entire composition range.

  15. Prototypical Rod Consolidation Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The objective of Phase 3 of the Prototypical Rod consolidation Demonstration Project (PRCDP) was to procure, fabricate, assemble, and test the Prototypical Rod consolidation System as described in the NUS Phase 2 Final Design Report. This effort required providing the materials, components, and fabricated parts which makes up all of the system equipment. In addition, it included the assembly, installation, and setup of this equipment at the Cold Test Facility. During the Phase 3 effort the system was tested on a component, subsystem, and system level. This volume 1, discusses the PRCDP Phase 3 Test Program that was conducted by the HALLIBURTON NUS Environmental Corporation under contract AC07-86ID12651 with the United States Department of Energy. This document, Volume 1, Book 2 discusses the following topics: Fuel Rod Extraction System Test Results and Analysis Reports and Clamping Table Test Results and Analysis Reports

  16. Prototypical Rod Consolidation Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The objective of Phase 3 of the Prototypical Rod consolidation Demonstration Project (PRCDP) was to procure, fabricate, assemble, and test the Prototypical Rod consolidation System as described in the NUS Phase 2 Final Design Report. This effort required providing the materials, components, and fabricated parts which makes up all of the system equipment. In addition, it included the assembly, installation, and setup of this equipment at the Cold Test Facility. During the Phase 3 effort the system was tested on a component, subsystem, and system level. This volume 1, discusses the PRCDP Phase 3 Test Program that was conducted by the HALLIBURTON NUS Environmental Corporation under contract AC07-86ID12651 with the United States Department of Energy. This document, Volume 1, Book 1 discusses the following topics: the background of the project; test program description; summary of tests and test results; problem evaluation; functional requirements confirmation; recommendations; and completed test documentation for tests performed in Phase 3

  17. Prototypical Rod Consolidation Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The objective of Phase 3 of the Prototypical Rod consolidation Demonstration Project (PRCDP) was to procure, fabricate, assemble, and test the Prototypical Rod consolidation System as described in the NUS Phase 2 Final Design Report. This effort required providing the materials, components, and fabricated parts which makes up all of the system equipment. In addition, it included the assembly, installation, and setup of this equipment at the Cold Test Facility. During the Phase 3 effort the system was tested on a component, subsystem, and system level. This volume 1, discusses the PRCDP Phase 3 Test Program that was conducted by the HALLIBURTON NUS Environmental Corporation under contract AC07-86ID12651 with the United States Department of Energy. This document, Volume 1, Book 9 discusses the following topics: Integrated System Normal Operations Test Results and Analysis Report; Integrated System Off-Normal Operations Test Results and Analysis Report; and Integrated System Maintenance Operations Test Results and Analysis Report

  18. Prototype of sun projector device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihsan; Dermawan, B.

    2016-11-01

    One way to introduce astronomy to public, including students, can be handled by solar observation. The widely held device for this purpose is coelostat and heliostat. Besides using filter attached to a device such as telescope, it is safest to use indirect way for observing the Sun. The main principle of the indirect way is deflecting the sun light and projecting image of the sun on a screen. We design and build a simple and low-cost astronomical device, serving as a supplement to increase public service, especially for solar observation. Without using any digital and intricate supporting equipment, people can watch and relish image of the Sun in comfortable condition, i.e. in a sheltered or shady place. Here we describe a design and features of our prototype of the device, which still, of course, has some limitations. In the future, this prototype can be improved for more efficient and useful applications.

  19. Prototypical Rod Consolidation Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The objective of Phase 3 of the Prototypical Rod consolidation Demonstration Project (PRCDP) was to procure, fabricate, assemble, and test the Prototypical Rod consolidation System as described in the NUS Phase 2 Final Design Report. This effort required providing the materials, components, and fabricated parts which makes up all of the system equipment. In addition, it included the assembly, installation, and setup of this equipment at the Cold Test Facility. During the Phase 3 effort the system was tested on a component, subsystem, and system level. This volume 1, discusses the PRCDP Phase 3 Test Program that was conducted by the HALLIBURTON NUS Environmental Corporation under contract AC07-86ID12651 with the United States Department of Energy. This document, Volume 1, Book 8 discusses Control System SOT Tests Results and Analysis Report. This is a continuation of Book 7

  20. Prototype and proposed ISABELLE dipoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McInturff, A.D.; Sampson, W.B.; Robins, K.E.; Dahl, P.F.; Damm, R.

    1977-01-01

    Data are presented on the latest dipole prototypes to update the operational parameters possible for ISABELLE. This data base will constantly expand until the start of construction of the storage rings. The data will include field quality, stray field magnitudes, quench temperature and propagation times, protection capabilities singly and in multiple units, maximum central fields obtained and training behavior. Performance of the dipoles versus temperature and mode of refrigeration will be discussed. The single layer cosine theta turns distribution coils' parameters are better than those required for the operation of the 200 x 200 GeV version of ISABELLE. The double layer prototype has exceeded the magnetic field performance and two dimensional quality of field needed for the 400 x 400 GeV version of ISABELLE

  1. Prototypical Rod Construction Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The objective of Phase 3 of the Prototypical Rod consolidation Demonstration Project (PRCDP) was to procure, fabricate, assemble, and test the Prototypical Rod consolidation System as described in the NUS Phase 2 Final Design Report. This effort required providing the materials, components, and fabricated parts which makes up all of the system equipment. In addition, it included the assembly, installation, and setup of this equipment at the Cold Test Facility. During the Phase 3 effort the system was tested on a component, subsystem, and system level. This volume 1, discusses the PRCDP Phase 3 Test Program that was conducted by the HALLIBURTON NUS Environmental Corporation under contract AC07-86ID12651 with the United States Department of Energy. This document, Volume 1, Book 3 discusses the following topics: Downender Test Results and Analysis Report; NFBC Canister Upender Test Results and Analysis Report; Fuel Assembly Handling Fixture Test Results and Analysis Report; and Fuel Canister Upender Test Results and Analysis Report

  2. Rapid mask prototyping for microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisonneuve, B G C; Honegger, T; Cordeiro, J; Lecarme, O; Thiry, T; Fuard, D; Berton, K; Picard, E; Zelsmann, M; Peyrade, D

    2016-03-01

    With the rise of microfluidics for the past decade, there has come an ever more pressing need for a low-cost and rapid prototyping technology, especially for research and education purposes. In this article, we report a rapid prototyping process of chromed masks for various microfluidic applications. The process takes place out of a clean room, uses a commercially available video-projector, and can be completed in less than half an hour. We quantify the ranges of fields of view and of resolutions accessible through this video-projection system and report the fabrication of critical microfluidic components (junctions, straight channels, and curved channels). To exemplify the process, three common devices are produced using this method: a droplet generation device, a gradient generation device, and a neuro-engineering oriented device. The neuro-engineering oriented device is a compartmentalized microfluidic chip, and therefore, required the production and the precise alignment of two different masks.

  3. Prototyping the PANDA Barrel DIRC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, C., E-mail: C.Schwarz@gsi.de [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Kalicy, G.; Dzhygadlo, R.; Gerhardt, A.; Götzen, K.; Hohler, R.; Kumawat, H.; Lehmann, D.; Lewandowski, B.; Patsyuk, M.; Peters, K.; Schepers, G.; Schmitt, L.; Schwiening, J.; Traxler, M.; Zühlsdorf, M. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Dodokhov, V.Kh. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Britting, A.; Eyrich, W.; Lehmann, A. [Friedrich Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen (Germany); and others

    2014-12-01

    The design of the Barrel DIRC detector for the future PANDA experiment at FAIR contains several important improvements compared to the successful BABAR DIRC, such as focusing and fast timing. To test those improvements as well as other design options a prototype was build and successfully tested in 2012 with particle beams at CERN. The prototype comprises a radiator bar, focusing lens, mirror, and a prism shaped expansion volume made of synthetic fused silica. An array of micro-channel plate photomultiplier tubes measures the location and arrival time of the Cherenkov photons with sub-nanosecond resolution. The development of a fast reconstruction algorithm allowed to tune construction details of the detector setup with test beam data and Monte-Carlo simulations.

  4. Customer-experienced rapid prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lijuan; Zhang, Fu; Li, Anbo

    2008-12-01

    In order to describe accurately and comprehend quickly the perfect GIS requirements, this article will integrate the ideas of QFD (Quality Function Deployment) and UML (Unified Modeling Language), and analyze the deficiency of prototype development model, and will propose the idea of the Customer-Experienced Rapid Prototyping (CE-RP) and describe in detail the process and framework of the CE-RP, from the angle of the characteristics of Modern-GIS. The CE-RP is mainly composed of Customer Tool-Sets (CTS), Developer Tool-Sets (DTS) and Barrier-Free Semantic Interpreter (BF-SI) and performed by two roles of customer and developer. The main purpose of the CE-RP is to produce the unified and authorized requirements data models between customer and software developer.

  5. DOE's annealing prototype demonstration projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, J.; Nakos, J.; Rochau, G.

    1997-01-01

    One of the challenges U.S. utilities face in addressing technical issues associated with the aging of nuclear power plants is the long-term effect of plant operation on reactor pressure vessels (RPVs). As a nuclear plant operates, its RPV is exposed to neutrons. For certain plants, this neutron exposure can cause embrittlement of some of the RPV welds which can shorten the useful life of the RPV. This RPV embrittlement issue has the potential to affect the continued operation of a number of operating U.S. pressurized water reactor (PWR) plants. However, RPV material properties affected by long-term irradiation are recoverable through a thermal annealing treatment of the RPV. Although a dozen Russian-designed RPVs and several U.S. military vessels have been successfully annealed, U.S. utilities have stated that a successful annealing demonstration of a U.S. RPV is a prerequisite for annealing a licensed U.S. nuclear power plant. In May 1995, the Department of Energy's Sandia National Laboratories awarded two cost-shared contracts to evaluate the feasibility of annealing U.S. licensed plants by conducting an anneal of an installed RPV using two different heating technologies. The contracts were awarded to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Center for Research and Technology Development (CRTD) and MPR Associates (MPR). The ASME team completed its annealing prototype demonstration in July 1996, using an indirect gas furnace at the uncompleted Public Service of Indiana's Marble Hill nuclear power plant. The MPR team's annealing prototype demonstration was scheduled to be completed in early 1997, using a direct heat electrical furnace at the uncompleted Consumers Power Company's nuclear power plant at Midland, Michigan. This paper describes the Department's annealing prototype demonstration goals and objectives; the tasks, deliverables, and results to date for each annealing prototype demonstration; and the remaining annealing technology challenges

  6. Encapsulation of polymer photovoltaic prototypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krebs, Frederik C. [The Danish Polymer Centre, RISOE National Laboratory, P.O. Box 49, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2006-12-15

    A simple and efficient method for the encapsulation of polymer and organic photovoltaic prototypes is presented. The method employs device preparation on glass substrates with subsequent sealing using glass fiber reinforced thermosetting epoxy (prepreg) against a back plate. The method allows for transporting oxygen and water sensitive devices outside a glove box environment after sealing and enables sharing of devices between research groups such that efficiency and stability can be evaluated in different laboratories. (author)

  7. Yucca Mountain project prototype testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, W.T.; Girdley, W.A.

    1990-01-01

    The U.S. DOE is responsible for characterizing the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada to determine its suitability for development as a geologic repository to isolate high-level nuclear waste for at least 10,000 years. This unprecedented task relies in part on measurements made with relatively new methods or applications, such as dry coring and overcoring for studies to be conducted from the land surface and in an underground facility. The Yucca Mountain Project has, since 1988, implemented a program of equipment development and methods development for a broad spectrum of hydrologic, geologic, rock mechanics, and thermomechanical tests planned for use in an Exploratory Shaft during site characterization at the Yucca Mountain site. A second major program was fielded beginning in April 1989 to develop and test methods and equipment for surface drilling to obtain core samples from depth using only air as a circulating medium. The third major area of prototype testing has been during the ongoing development of the Instrumentation/ Data Acquisition System (IDAS), designed to collect and monitor data from down-hole instrumentation in the unsaturated zone, and store and transmit the data to a central archiving computer. Future prototype work is planned for several programs including the application of vertical seismic profiling methods and flume design to characterizing the geology at Yucca Mountain. The major objectives of this prototype testing are to assure that planned Site Characterization testing can be carried out effectively at Yucca Mountain, both in the Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF), and from the surface, and to avoid potential major failures or delays that could result from the need to re-design testing concepts or equipment. This paper will describe the scope of the Yucca Mountain Project prototype testing programs and summarize results to date. 3 figs

  8. Prototype Morphing Fan Nozzle Demonstrated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho-Jun; Song, Gang-Bing

    2004-01-01

    Ongoing research in NASA Glenn Research Center's Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch to develop smart materials technologies for aeropropulsion structural components has resulted in the design of the prototype morphing fan nozzle shown in the photograph. This prototype exploits the potential of smart materials to significantly improve the performance of existing aircraft engines by introducing new inherent capabilities for shape control, vibration damping, noise reduction, health monitoring, and flow manipulation. The novel design employs two different smart materials, a shape-memory alloy and magnetorheological fluids, to reduce the nozzle area by up to 30 percent. The prototype of the variable-area fan nozzle implements an overlapping spring leaf assembly to simplify the initial design and to provide ease of structural control. A single bundle of shape memory alloy wire actuators is used to reduce the nozzle geometry. The nozzle is subsequently held in the reduced-area configuration by using magnetorheological fluid brakes. This prototype uses the inherent advantages of shape memory alloys in providing large induced strains and of magnetorheological fluids in generating large resistive forces. In addition, the spring leaf design also functions as a return spring, once the magnetorheological fluid brakes are released, to help force the shape memory alloy wires to return to their original position. A computerized real-time control system uses the derivative-gain and proportional-gain algorithms to operate the system. This design represents a novel approach to the active control of high-bypass-ratio turbofan engines. Researchers have estimated that such engines will reduce thrust specific fuel consumption by 9 percent over that of fixed-geometry fan nozzles. This research was conducted under a cooperative agreement (NCC3-839) at the University of Akron.

  9. Using prototyping in software development

    OpenAIRE

    Šinkovec, Miha

    2010-01-01

    Today the business system changers faster than the usual conventional cascade life cycle. Because of that, we can conclude, that today's programming system will no longer be presented as the answer to this topic in the developing age of ever changing user requirements. Neither increased performance or higher productivity will decrease the problem. The appropriate solution to this stated problem is prototyping. Instead of building and developing the whole system, we build a module that can...

  10. Iteration and Prototyping in Creating Technical Specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynt, John P.

    1994-01-01

    Claims that the development process for computer software can be greatly aided by the writers of specifications if they employ basic iteration and prototyping techniques. Asserts that computer software configuration management practices provide ready models for iteration and prototyping. (HB)

  11. Printing of Titanium implant prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiria, Florencia Edith; Shyan, John Yong Ming; Lim, Poon Nian; Wen, Francis Goh Chung; Yeo, Jin Fei; Cao, Tong

    2010-01-01

    Dental implant plays an important role as a conduit of force and stress to flow from the tooth to the related bone. In the load sharing between an implant and its related bone, the amount of stress carried by each of them directly related to their stiffness or modulus. Hence, it is a crucial issue for the implant to have matching mechanical properties, in particular modulus, between the implant and its related bone. Titanium is a metallic material that has good biocompatibility and corrosion resistance. Whilst the modulus of the bulk material is still higher than that of bone, it is the lowest among all other commonly used metallic implant materials, such as stainless steel or cobalt alloy. Hence it is potential to further reduce the modulus of pure Titanium by engineering its processing method to obtain porous structure. In this project, porous Titanium implant prototype is fabricated using 3-dimensional printing. This technique allows the flexibility of design customization, which is beneficial for implant fabrication as tailoring of implant size and shape helps to ensure the implant would fit nicely to the patient. The fabricated Titanium prototype had a modulus of 4.8-13.2 GPa, which is in the range of natural bone modulus. The compressive strength achieved was between 167 to 455 MPa. Subsequent cell culture study indicated that the porous Titanium prototype had good biocompatibility and is suitable for bone cell attachment and proliferation.

  12. Majorana Thermosyphon Prototype Experimental Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast, James E.; Reid, Douglas J.; Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao

    2010-01-01

    The Majorana demonstrator will operate at liquid Nitrogen temperatures to ensure optimal spectrometric performance of its High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector modules. In order to transfer the heat load of the detector module, the Majorana demonstrator requires a cooling system that will maintain a stable liquid nitrogen temperature. This cooling system is required to transport the heat from the detector chamber outside the shield. One approach is to use the two phase liquid-gas equilibrium to ensure constant temperature. This cooling technique is used in a thermosyphon. The thermosyphon can be designed so the vaporization/condensing process transfers heat through the shield while maintaining a stable operating temperature. A prototype of such system has been built at PNNL. This document presents the experimental results of the prototype and evaluates the heat transfer performance of the system. The cool down time, temperature gradient in the thermosyphon, and heat transfer analysis are studied in this document with different heat load applied to the prototype.

  13. Prototype effect and the persuasiveness of generalizations

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlman, Christian; Sarwar, Farhan; Bååth, Rasmus; Wahlberg, Lena; Sikström, Sverker

    2015-01-01

    An argument that makes use of a generalization activates the prototype for the category used in the generalization. We conducted two experiments that investigated how the activation of the prototype affects the persuasiveness of the argument. The results of the experiments suggest that the features of the prototype overshadow and partly overwrite the actual facts of the case. The case is, to some extent, judged as if it had the features of the prototype instead of the features it actually ...

  14. Implicit face prototype learning from geometric information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Or, Charles C-F; Wilson, Hugh R

    2013-04-19

    There is evidence that humans implicitly learn an average or prototype of previously studied faces, as the unseen face prototype is falsely recognized as having been learned (Solso & McCarthy, 1981). Here we investigated the extent and nature of face prototype formation where observers' memory was tested after they studied synthetic faces defined purely in geometric terms in a multidimensional face space. We found a strong prototype effect: The basic results showed that the unseen prototype averaged from the studied faces was falsely identified as learned at a rate of 86.3%, whereas individual studied faces were identified correctly 66.3% of the time and the distractors were incorrectly identified as having been learned only 32.4% of the time. This prototype learning lasted at least 1 week. Face prototype learning occurred even when the studied faces were further from the unseen prototype than the median variation in the population. Prototype memory formation was evident in addition to memory formation of studied face exemplars as demonstrated in our models. Additional studies showed that the prototype effect can be generalized across viewpoints, and head shape and internal features separately contribute to prototype formation. Thus, implicit face prototype extraction in a multidimensional space is a very general aspect of geometric face learning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Scintillator Tile Hadronic Calorimeter Prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusinov, V.

    2006-01-01

    A high granularity scintillator hadronic calorimeter prototype is described. The calorimeter is based on a novel photodetector - Silicon Photo-Multiplier (SiPM). The main parameters of SiPM are discussed as well as readout cell construction and optimization. The experience with a small prototype production and testing is described. A new 8 k channel prototype is being manufactured now

  16. Rapid Prototyping: An Alternative Instructional Design Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Steven D.; Bichelmeyer, Barbara

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the nature of instructional design and describes rapid prototyping as a feasible model for instructional system design (ISD). The use of prototyping in software engineering is described, similarities between software design and instructional design are discussed, and an example is given which uses rapid prototyping in designing a…

  17. Project management strategies for prototyping breakdowns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granlien, Maren Sander; Pries-Heje, Jan; Baskerville, Richard

    2009-01-01

    , managing the explorative and iterative aspects of prototyping projects is not a trivial task. We examine the managerial challenges in a small scale prototyping project in the Danish healthcare sector where a prototype breakdown and project escalation occurs. From this study we derive a framework...... of strategies for coping with escalation in troubled prototyping projects; the framework is based on project management triangle theory and is useful when considering how to manage prototype breakdown and escalation. All strategies were applied in the project case at different points in time. The strategies led...

  18. Results from the FDIRC prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, D.A., E-mail: roberts@umd.edu [University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Arnaud, N. [Laboratoire de l’Accélérateur Linéaire, Centre Scientifique d’Orsay, F-91898 Orsay Cedex (France); Dey, B. [University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Borsato, M. [Laboratoire de l’Accélérateur Linéaire, Centre Scientifique d’Orsay, F-91898 Orsay Cedex (France); Leith, D.W.G.S.; Nishimura, K.; Ratcliff, B.N. [SLAC, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA 94309 (United States); Varner, G. [University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Va’vra, J. [SLAC, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA 94309 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    We present results from a novel Cherenkov imaging detector called the Focusing DIRC (FDIRC). This detector was designed as a prototype of the particle identification system for the SuperB experiment, and comprises 1/12 of the SuperB barrel azimuthal coverage with partial electronics implementation. The prototype was tested in the SLAC Cosmic Ray Telescope (CRT) which provides 3-D muon tracking with an angular resolution of ∼1.5 mrad, track position resolution of 5–6 mm, start time resolution of 70 ps, and a muon low-energy cutoff of ∼2 GeV provided by an iron range stack. The quartz focusing photon camera couples to a full-size BaBar DIRC bar box and is read out by 12 Hamamatsu H8500 MaPMTs providing 768 pixels. We used IRS2 waveform digitizing electronics to read out the MaPMTs. We present several results from our on-going development activities that demonstrate that the new optics design works very well, including: (a) single photon Cherenkov angle resolutions with and without chromatic corrections, (b) S/N ratio between the Cherenkov peak and background, which consists primarily of ambiguities in possible photon paths to a given pixel, (c) dTOP=TOP{sub measured}–TOP{sub expected} resolutions, and (d) performance of the detector in the presence of high-rate backgrounds. We also describe data analysis methods and point out limits of the present performance. - Highlights: • We present results from a novel Cherenkov imaging detector called the Focusing DIRC (FDIRC). • The prototype was tested in the SLAC Cosmic Ray Telescope (CRT) which provides 3-D muon tracking. • We present several results from our on-going development activities that demonstrate that new optics design works very well. • We describe data analysis methods and point out limits of the present performance.

  19. Crystal Growth of Ternary Compound Semiconductors in Low Gravity Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ching-Hua

    2014-01-01

    A low gravity material experiment will be performed in the Material Science Research Rack (MSRR) on International Space Station (ISS). There are two sections of the flight experiment: (I) crystal growth of ZnSe and related ternary compounds, such as ZnSeS and ZnSeTe, by physical vapor transport (PVT) and (II) melt growth of CdZnTe by directional solidification. The main objective of the project is to determine the relative contributions of gravity-driven fluid flows to the compositional distribution, incorporation of impurities and defects, and deviation from stoichiometry observed in the grown crystals as results of buoyancy-driven convection and growth interface fluctuations caused by irregular fluid-flows on Earth. The investigation consists of extensive ground-based experimental and theoretical research efforts and concurrent flight experimentation. This talk will focus on the ground-based studies on the PVT crystal growth of ZnSe and related ternary compounds. The objectives of the ground-based studies are (1) obtain the experimental data and conduct the analyses required to define the optimum growth parameters for the flight experiments, (2) perfect various characterization techniques to establish the standard procedure for material characterization, (3) quantitatively establish the characteristics of the crystals grown on Earth as a basis for subsequent comparative evaluations of the crystals grown in a low-gravity environment and (4) develop theoretical and analytical methods required for such evaluations. ZnSe and related ternary compounds have been grown by vapor transport technique with real time in-situ non-invasive monitoring techniques. The grown crystals have been characterized extensively by various techniques to correlate the grown crystal properties with the growth conditions.

  20. Digital Prototyping of Milk Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Nielsen, Otto Højager Attermann; Skytte, Jacob Lercke

    2012-01-01

    reflectance measurements can be used for more extensive validation and for gathering data that can be used to extend our current model such that it can also predict how the optical properties develop during fermentation or acidification of milk to yogurt. A well-established way of measuring optical properties...... prototyping of milk products such that it can also predict how the optical properties develop during gelation of milk to yogurt. The influence of the colloidal aggregation on the optical properties is described by the static structure factor. As our method is noninvasive, we can use our setup for monitoring...

  1. Mechanical Prototyping and Manufacturing Internship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenfell, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The internship was located at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Innovation Design Center (IDC), which is a facility where the JSC workforce can meet and conduct hands-on innovative design, fabrication, evaluation, and testing of ideas and concepts relevant to NASA's mission. The tasks of the internship included mechanical prototyping design and manufacturing projects in service of research and development as well as assisting the users of the IDC in completing their manufacturing projects. The first project was to manufacture hatch mechanisms for a team in the Systems Engineering and Project Advancement Program (SETMAP) hexacopter competition. These mechanisms were intended to improve the performance of the servomotors and offer an access point that would also seal to prevent cross-contamination. I also assisted other teams as they were constructing and modifying their hexacopters. The success of this competition demonstrated a proof of concept for aerial reconnaissance and sample return to be potentially used in future NASA missions. I also worked with Dr. Kumar Krishen to prototype an improved thermos and a novel, portable solar array. Computer-aided design (CAD) software was used to model the parts for both of these projects. Then, 3D printing as well as conventional techniques were used to produce the parts. These prototypes were then subjected to trials to determine the success of the designs. The solar array is intended to work in a cluster that is easy to set up and take down and doesn't require powered servomechanisms. It could be used terrestrially in areas not serviced by power grids. Both projects improve planetary exploration capabilities to future astronauts. Other projects included manufacturing custom rail brackets for EG-2, assisting engineers working on underwater instrument and tool cases for the NEEMO project, and helping to create mock-up parts for Space Center Houston. The use of the IDC enabled efficient completion of these projects at

  2. Prototype system of secure VOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minemura, Harumi; Yamaguchi, Tomohisa

    1997-12-01

    Secure digital contents delivery systems are to realize copyright protection and charging mechanism, and aim at secure delivery service of digital contents. Encrypted contents delivery and history (log) management are means to accomplish this purpose. Our final target is to realize a video-on-demand (VOD) system that can prevent illegal usage of video data and manage user history data to achieve a secure video delivery system on the Internet or Intranet. By now, mainly targeting client-server systems connected with enterprise LAN, we have implemented and evaluated a prototype system based on the investigation into the delivery method of encrypted video contents.

  3. CERN LHC dipole prototype success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    In a crash programme, the first prototype superconducting dipole magnet for CERN's LHC protonproton collider was successfully powered for the first time at CERN on 14 April, eventually sailing to 9T, above the 8.65T nominal LHC field, before quenching for the third time. The next stage is to install the delicate measuring system for making comprehensive magnetic field maps in the 10 m long, 50 mm diameter twin-apertures of the magnet. These measurements will check that the required LHC field quality has been achieved at both the nominal and injection fields

  4. Prototype plutonium-storage monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bliss, M.; Craig, R.A.; Sunberg, D.S.; Warner, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has fabricated cerium-activated lithium silicate scintillating fibers via a hot-downdraw process. These fibers typically have an operational transmission length (e -1 length) of greater than 2 meters. This permits the fabrication of devices that, hitherto, were not possible to consider. A prototype neutron monitor for scrap Pu-storage containers was fabricated and tested for 70 days, taking data with a variety of sources in a high-background environment. These data and their implication in the context of a storage-monitor situation are discussed

  5. FY97 ICCS prototype specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodruff, J.

    1997-01-01

    The ICCS software team will implement and test two iterations of their software product during FY97. This document specifies the products to be delivered in that first prototype and projects the direction that the second prototype will take. Detailed specification of the later iteration will be written when the results of the first iteration are complete. The selection of frameworks to be implemented early is made on a basis of risk analysis from the point of view of future development in the ICCS project. The prototype will address risks in integration of object- oriented components, in refining our development process, and in emulation testing for FEP devices. This document is a specification that identifies products and processes to undertake for resolving these risks. The goals of this activity are to exercise our development process at a modest scale and to probe our architecture plan for fundamental limits and failure modes. The product of the iterations will be the framework software which will be useful in future ICCS code. Thus the FY97 products are intended for internal usage by the ICCS team and for demonstration to the FEP software developers of the strategy for integrating supervisory software with FEP computers. This will be the first of several expected iterations of the software development process and the performance measurements that ICCS will demonstrate, intended to support confidence in our ability to meet project RAM goals. The design of the application software is being carried out in a separate WBS 1.5.2 activity. The design activity has as its FY97 product a series of Software Design Documents that will specify the functionality of the controls software of ICCS. During the testing of this year''s prototypes, the application functionality needed for test will be provided by sample maintenance controls. These are early precursors of controls that can be used for low level device control. Since the devices under test will be represented by

  6. Rapid prototyping of robotic platforms

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Ronde, Willis

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available of thickness up to 200mm can be cut to create prototype chassis/ bodies or even the final product. One of the few limitations is the cutting of certain laminated materials, as this tends to produce delaminated cutting edges or even fractures in the case... mine inspection robot (Shongololo). Shongololo’s frame is made from engineering plastics while the chassis of Dassie was made from aluminium and cut using abrasive waterjet machining. The advantage of using abrasive waterjet machining is the speed...

  7. Ternary equilibria in bismuth--indium--lead alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, K.C.; Johnson, D.L.; Nelson, R.C.

    1975-01-01

    The liquidus surface is characterized by three binary equilibria. One binary extends from the Pb--Bi peritectic to the Pb--In peritectic. The other two extend from In--Bi eutectics, merge at 50 at. percent Bi and 30 at. percent Pb, and end at the Bi--Pb eutectic. Based on analysis of ternary liquidus contours and vertical sections, it is suggested that solidification for high lead and very high indium alloys occurs from two-phase equilibria. Solidification from all other alloys occurs from three-phase equilibria. Four-phase solidification does not occur in this system

  8. Paramagnetic centers in ternary coordinated oxygen in beryllium aluminosilicate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaginina, L.A.; Zatsepin, A.F.; Dmitriev, I.A.

    1988-01-01

    Glasses of the composition 3BeO-Al 2 O 3 -6SiO 2 containing a homogenizing additive of MgF 2 were synthesized. The ESR spectra of x-ray and gamma irradiated specimens were determined. A complex ESR spectrum arose in the original glass. The ESR spectrum of the gamma-irradiated polycrystalline Be 2 SiO 4 glass was almost identical to the crystallized glass. It was shown that the presence of beryllium atoms in the composition of silicate glasses created the conditions for the formation of structural fragments with ternary coordinated oxygen

  9. Implementation of DFT application on ternary optical computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junjie, Peng; Youyi, Fu; Xiaofeng, Zhang; Shuai, Kong; Xinyu, Wei

    2018-03-01

    As its characteristics of huge number of data bits and low energy consumption, optical computing may be used in the applications such as DFT etc. which needs a lot of computation and can be implemented in parallel. According to this, DFT implementation methods in full parallel as well as in partial parallel are presented. Based on resources ternary optical computer (TOC), extensive experiments were carried out. Experimental results show that the proposed schemes are correct and feasible. They provide a foundation for further exploration of the applications on TOC that needs a large amount calculation and can be processed in parallel.

  10. Plutonium microstructures. Part 2. Binary and ternary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, E.M.; Bergin, J.B.

    1983-12-01

    This report is the second of three parts that exhibit illustrations of inclusions in plutonium metal from inherent and tramp impurities, of intermetallic and nonmetallic constituents from alloy additions, and of the effects of thermal and mechanical treatments. This part includes illustrations of the microstructures in binary cast alloys and a few selected ternary alloys that result from measured additions of diluent elements, and of the microconstituents that are characteristic of phase fields in extended alloy systems. Microhardness data are given and the etchant used in the preparation of each sample is described

  11. Infrared target recognition based on improved joint local ternary pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Junding; Wu, Xiaosheng

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a simple, efficient, yet robust approach, named joint orthogonal combination of local ternary pattern, for automatic forward-looking infrared target recognition. It gives more advantages to describe the macroscopic textures and microscopic textures by fusing variety of scales than the traditional LBP-based methods. In addition, it can effectively reduce the feature dimensionality. Further, the rotation invariant and uniform scheme, the robust LTP, and soft concave-convex partition are introduced to enhance its discriminative power. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve competitive results compared with the state-of-the-art methods.

  12. Quantifying the energetics of cooperativity in a ternary protein complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter S; Schuck, Peter; Sundberg, Eric J

    2002-01-01

    and mathematical modeling to describe the energetics of cooperativity in a trimolecular protein complex. As a model system for quantifying cooperativity, we studied the ternary complex formed by the simultaneous interaction of a superantigen with major histocompatibility complex and T cell receptor, for which...... a structural model is available. This system exhibits positive and negative cooperativity, as well as augmentation of the temperature dependence of binding kinetics upon the cooperative interaction of individual protein components in the complex. Our experimental and theoretical analysis may be applicable...... to other systems involving cooperativity....

  13. Ternary system of cesium, rubidium and lead iodides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volchanskaya, V.V.; Dunaeva, T.I.; Il'yasov, I.I.

    1990-01-01

    Meltability diagram of ternary system (CsI) 2 -(RbI) 2 -PbI 2 has been studied. The liquidus of the given system consists of crystallization fields of solid solutions (CsI-RbI) and (CsI·PbI 2 -RbI-PbI 2 ), fields of incongruently melting compounds 9RbI·PbI 2 , 4CsI·PbI 2 and field of PbI 2 component. In the system two nonvariant points at 410 and 380 deg C are detected

  14. First principle study of cubic ScGaN ternaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adli, W.; Mecheref, R.; Sekkal, N.; Tair, F.; Amrani, B.

    2008-08-01

    The electronic properties of the Sc x Ga1- x N ternary alloy are investigated. The transition from rocksalt (B1) to zinc blende (B3) structure is found to occur rapidly after incorporating just a small fraction (less than 1%) of Ga. In the present paper, the first principles method the full potential linear muffin-tin orbitals method (FPLMTO) in its atomic sphere approximation (ASA) coupled to the technique of the empty spheres is employed. Our results concerning the electronic properties are different from those reported in literature. (author)

  15. Phase diagram of the ternary Zr-Ti-Sn system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias, D.; Gonzalez Camus, M.

    1987-01-01

    It is well known that Ti stabilizes the high temperature cubic phase of Zr and that Sn stabilizes the low temperature hexagonal phase of Zr. The effect of Sn on the Zr-Ti diagram has been studied in the present paper. Using high purity metals, nine different alloys have been prepared, with 4-32 at % Ti, 0.7-2.2 at % Sn and Zr till 100%. Resistivity and optical and SEM metallography techniques have been employed. Effect of some impurities have been analyzed. The results are discussed and different isothermic sections of the ternary Zr-Ti-Sn diagram are presented. (Author) [es

  16. One-step synthesis of PtPdAu ternary alloy nanoparticles on graphene with superior methanol electrooxidation activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Yuzhen; Gu Yonge; Lin Shaoxiong; Wei Jinping; Wang Zaihua [Department of Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Wang Chunming, E-mail: wangcm@lzu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Du Yongling; Ye Weichun [Department of Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2011-10-01

    Highlights: > PtPdAu nanoparticles were synthesized on graphene sheets via chemical reduction method. > The prepared PtPdAu nanoparticles were ternary alloy with fcc structure. > The catalyst exhibited superior catalytic activity and stability for MOR in alkaline. - Abstract: Well-dispersed PtPdAu ternary alloy nanoparticles were synthesized on graphene sheets via a simple one-step chemical reduction method in ethylene glycol (EG) and water system, in which EG served as both reductive and dispersing agent. The electrocatalytic activity of PtPdAu/G was tested by methanol oxidation reaction (MOR). The catalyst was further characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), which indicated that the as-synthesized PtPdAu nanoparticles with alloy structures were successfully dispersed on the graphene sheets. Electrocatalytic properties of the catalyst for MOR in alkaline have been investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry and Tafel curves. The electrocatalytic activity and stability of PtPdAu/G were superior to PtPd/G, PtAu/G and Pt/G. In addition, the anodic peak current on PtPdAu/G catalyst was proportional to the concentration of methanol in the range of 0.05-1.00 M. This study implies that the prepared catalyst have great potential applications in fuel cells.

  17. A new ternary composite based on carbon nanotubes/polyindole/graphene with preeminent electrocapacitive performance for supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Weigang; Wu, Shishan

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: This paper presents a new sandwich-like ternary composite, which was obtained from a two-step method, showing preeminent electrocapacitive performance for supercapacitors. - Highlights: • CNTs/Polyindole/graphene composite has been firstly fabricated with an optimal feed ratio. • The Polyindole shell enhances the dispersity and electrocapacitive performances of CNTs. • The CNTs/Polyindole/graphene exhibited preeminent capacitance and cycling stability. - Abstract: In this work, a hybrid nanocomposite based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs), polyindole (PIn) and reduced graphene oxides (RGO) was firstly fabricated and the optimal feed ratio of this composite was investigated. The morphology and structure of CNTs/PIn/RGO composite were investigated by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The electrocapacitive performances of this ternary electrode composite were researched by cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge-discharge (GCD) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). And the specific surface area and pore size distribution of the samples were investigated by nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms. The prepared composite shows high dispersibility, high specific capacitance and excellent stability. Specifically, the CNTs/PIn/RGO composite exhibits a large specific capacitance of 383 F g"−"1 at 1 A g"−"1 and outstanding cycling stability of 88.79% capacitive retention after 3000 cycles at 10 A g"−"1. It was anticipated that CNTs/PIn/RGO12 composite could be a practical and valuable material for the application of supercapacitors.

  18. A new ternary composite based on carbon nanotubes/polyindole/graphene with preeminent electrocapacitive performance for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Weigang; Wu, Shishan, E-mail: shishanwu@nju.edu.cn

    2017-02-28

    Graphical abstract: This paper presents a new sandwich-like ternary composite, which was obtained from a two-step method, showing preeminent electrocapacitive performance for supercapacitors. - Highlights: • CNTs/Polyindole/graphene composite has been firstly fabricated with an optimal feed ratio. • The Polyindole shell enhances the dispersity and electrocapacitive performances of CNTs. • The CNTs/Polyindole/graphene exhibited preeminent capacitance and cycling stability. - Abstract: In this work, a hybrid nanocomposite based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs), polyindole (PIn) and reduced graphene oxides (RGO) was firstly fabricated and the optimal feed ratio of this composite was investigated. The morphology and structure of CNTs/PIn/RGO composite were investigated by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The electrocapacitive performances of this ternary electrode composite were researched by cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge-discharge (GCD) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). And the specific surface area and pore size distribution of the samples were investigated by nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms. The prepared composite shows high dispersibility, high specific capacitance and excellent stability. Specifically, the CNTs/PIn/RGO composite exhibits a large specific capacitance of 383 F g{sup −1} at 1 A g{sup −1} and outstanding cycling stability of 88.79% capacitive retention after 3000 cycles at 10 A g{sup −1}. It was anticipated that CNTs/PIn/RGO12 composite could be a practical and valuable material for the application of supercapacitors.

  19. Using a Ternary Diagram to Display a System's Evolving Energy Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazzle, Bob; Tapp, Anne

    2016-01-01

    A ternary diagram is a graphical representation used for systems with three components. They are familiar to mineralogists (who typically use them to categorize varieties of solid solution minerals such as feldspar) but are not yet widely used in the physics community. Last year the lead author began using ternary diagrams in his introductory…

  20. Detection of the ternary alpha particles from 252Cr spontaneous source with timepix pixeleted detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadov, G.S.; Telezhnikov, S.A.; Ahmadov, F.I.; Garibov, A.A.; Ahmadov, G.S.; Ahmadov, F.I.; Granja, C.; Pospisil, S.

    2013-01-01

    A third charged particle is emitted besides the two main fission fragments in ternary fission. Because of the ternary fission is a unique tool to explore the dynamics and structure of atomic nuclei by probing the fissioning system near the scission point and observing fissioning reaction and decay mechanisms main tool to study nuclear fission processes

  1. Ternary System with Controlled Structure: A New Strategy toward Efficient Organic Photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Pei; Wang, Rui; Zhu, Jingshuai; Huang, Wenchao; Chang, Sheng-Yung; Meng, Lei; Sun, Pengyu; Cheng, Hao-Wen; Qin, Meng; Zhu, Chenhui; Zhan, Xiaowei; Yang, Yang

    2018-02-01

    Recently, a new type of active layer with a ternary system has been developed to further enhance the performance of binary system organic photovoltaics (OPV). In the ternary OPV, almost all active layers are formed by simple ternary blend in solution, which eventually leads to the disordered bulk heterojunction (BHJ) structure after a spin-coating process. There are two main restrictions in this disordered BHJ structure to obtain higher performance OPV. One is the isolated second donor or acceptor domains. The other is the invalid metal-semiconductor contact. Herein, the concept and design of donor/acceptor/acceptor ternary OPV with more controlled structure (C-ternary) is reported. The C-ternary OPV is fabricated by a sequential solution process, in which the second acceptor and donor/acceptor binary blend are sequentially spin-coated. After the device optimization, the power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of all OPV with C-ternary are enhanced by 14-21% relative to those with the simple ternary blend; the best PCEs are 10.7 and 11.0% for fullerene-based and fullerene-free solar cells, respectively. Moreover, the averaged PCE value of 10.4% for fullerene-free solar cell measured in this study is in great agreement with the certified one of 10.32% obtained from Newport Corporation. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Experimental investigation of phase equilibria in the Co-W-V ternary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xingjun; Zhu Yihong; Yu Yan; Wang Cuiping

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Three isothermal sections of the Co-W-V ternary system at 1100 deg. C, 1200 deg. C and 1300 deg. C were determined. → No ternary compound was found in the Co-W-V ternary system. → A stable liquid miscibility gap is newly discovered in the Co-W-V ternary system. → This work is of great essence to establish the thermodynamic database for the Co-based alloys. - Abstract: The phase equilibria in the Co-W-V ternary system were experimentally investigated by optical microscopy (OM), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) on the equilibrated alloys. Three isothermal sections of the Co-W-V ternary system at 1100 deg. C, 1200 deg. C and 1300 deg. C were determined, and no ternary compound was found in this system. In addition, a novel phenomena induced by the liquid phase separation in the Co-W-V alloys was firstly discovered, suggesting that a stable liquid miscibility gap exists in the Co-W-V ternary system. The newly determined phase equilibria and firstly discovered phase separation phenomena in the Co-W-V system will provide important information for the development of Co-W based alloys.

  3. Multicomponent ternary cocrystals of the sulfonamide group with pyridine-amides and lactams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolla, Geetha; Nangia, Ashwini

    2015-11-04

    SMBA was selected as a bifunctional sulfa drug to design ternary cocrystals with pyridine amides and lactam coformers. Supramolecular assembly of five ternary cocrystals of p-sulfonamide benzoic acid with nicotinamide and 2-pyridone is demonstrated and reproducible heterosynthons are identified for crystal engineering.

  4. Asymmetry in ternary fission induced by polarized neutrons and fission mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunakov, V.E.; Gennenvajn, F.; Dzhessinger, P.; Mutterer, M.; Petrov, G.A.

    2003-01-01

    The results of measuring the P-odd, P-even (right-left) and T-odd asymmetries of the charged particles emission in the double and ternary fission, induced by the polarized neutrons, are considered. It is shown, what kind of information on the mechanism of the ternary nuclear fission may be obtained from the theoretical analysis of these data [ru

  5. Measurement of p-odd asymmetry of fragment escape in ternary fission of plutonium 239

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belozerov, A.V.; Vodennikov, B.D.; Danilyan, G.V.; Korobkina, E.I.; Pavlov, V.S.; Pevchev, Yu.F.; Sadchikov, A.G.

    1988-01-01

    Values of effects of parity nonconservation in binary and ternary fission of plutonium 239 by polarized thermal neutrons were measured simultaneously. The ratio of asymmetry coefficient (AC) of ternary fission to the AC of binary fission was equal to 0.67+-0.20. The obtained result testifies to insignificant disagreement of AC of fragment escape in studied fission types

  6. INTERVAL-VALUED INTUITIONISTIC FUZZY BI-IDEALS IN TERNARY SEMIRINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. KRISHNASWAMY

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce the notions of interval-valued fuzzy bi-ideal, interval-valued anti fuzzy bi-ideal and interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy bi-ideal in ternary semirings and some of the basic properties of these ideals are investigated. We also introduce normal interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy ideals in ternary semirings.

  7. Low-friction nanojoint prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlassov, Sergei; Oras, Sven; Antsov, Mikk; Butikova, Jelena; Lõhmus, Rünno; Polyakov, Boris

    2018-05-01

    High surface energy of individual nanostructures leads to high adhesion and static friction that can completely hinder the operation of nanoscale systems with movable parts. For instance, silver or gold nanowires cannot be moved on silicon substrate without plastic deformation. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate an operational prototype of a low-friction nanojoint. The movable part of the prototype is made either from a gold or silver nano-pin produced by laser-induced partial melting of silver and gold nanowires resulting in the formation of rounded bulbs on their ends. The nano-pin is then manipulated into the inverted pyramid (i-pyramids) specially etched in a Si wafer. Due to the small contact area, the nano-pin can be repeatedly tilted inside an i-pyramid as a rigid object without noticeable deformation. At the same time in the absence of external force the nanojoint is stable and preserves its position and tilt angle. Experiments are performed inside a scanning electron microscope and are supported by finite element method simulations.

  8. Prototypical Rod Consolidation Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The objective of Phase 3 of the Prototypical Rod consolidation Demonstration Project (PRCDP) was to procure, fabricate, assemble, and test the Prototypical Rod consolidation System as described in the NUS Phase 2 Final Design Report. This effort required providing the materials, components, and fabricated parts which makes up all of the system equipment. In addition, it included the assembly, installation, and setup of this equipment at the Cold Test Facility. During the Phase 3 effort the system was tested on a component, subsystem, and system level. This volume 1, discusses the PRCDP Phase 3 Test Program that was conducted by the HALLIBURTON NUS Environmental Corporation under contract AC07-86ID12651 with the United States Department of Energy. This document, Volume 1, Book 4 discusses the following topics: Rod Compaction/Loading System Test Results and Analysis Report; Waste Collection System Test Results and Analysis Report; Waste Container Transfer Fixture Test Results and Analysis Report; Staging and Cutting Table Test Results and Analysis Report; and Upper Cutting System Test Results and Analysis Report

  9. Prototypical Rod Consolidation Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The objective of Phase 3 of the Prototypical Rod consolidation Demonstration Project (PRCDP) was to procure, fabricate, assemble, and test the Prototypical Rod consolidation System as described in the NUS Phase 2 Final Design Report. This effort required providing the materials, components, and fabricated parts which makes up all of the system equipment. In addition, it included the assembly, installation, and setup of this equipment at the Cold Test Facility. During the Phase 3 effort the system was tested on a component, subsystem, and system level. This volume 1, discusses the PRCDP Phase 3 Test Program that was conducted by the HALLIBURTON NUS Environmental Corporation under contract AC07-86ID12651 with the United States Department of Energy. This document, Volume 1, Book 5 discusses the following topics: Lower Cutting System Test Results and Analysis Report; NFBC Loading System Test Results and Analysis Report; Robotic Bridge Transporter Test Results and Analysis Report; RM-10A Remotec Manipulator Test Results and Analysis Report; and Manipulator Transporter Test Results and Analysis Report

  10. Sunlight impelled photocatalytic pursuance of Ag-TiO2-SGO and Pt-TiO2-SGO ternary nanocomposites on rhodamine B degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamelu, K.; Ali, B. M. Jaffar

    2018-04-01

    We demonstrate a hydrothermal method combined with polyol reduction process for the synthesis of an Ag-TiO2-SGO and Pt-TiO2-SGO ternary nanocomposites in which the Ag, Pt and TiO2 nanoparticles are dispersed on the Sulfonated graphene oxide nanosheets. The structural and optical properties of obtained nanocomposites were characterized by XRD, UV-DRS, Raman, FTIR and Photoluminescence spectroscopy. The nanocomposites shows increased light absorption ability in the visible region due to surface plasmon resonance effect of noble metal. The rate of electron-hole pair recombination was significating reduced for nanocomposites system compare to pure. Also, their Performance for the photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B as a model organic pollutant is explored. The results showed that Ag-TiO2-SGO and Pt-TiO2-SGO nanocomposites could degrade 95% of the dye within 90 min, under natural sunlight irradiation. The reaction kinetics of ternary nanocomposites exhibit more than 2.2 fold increased photocatalytic activity compared to pristine TiO2. Sulfonated graphene based ternary photocatalyst are potential candidates for wastewater treatment in real time application, due to this ability degrade cationic and anionic dyes.

  11. Effective Electron Transfer Pathway of the Ternary TiO2/RGO/Ag Nanocomposite with Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity under Visible Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Tian

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Mesoporous TiO2/reduced graphene oxide/Ag (TiO2/RGO/Ag ternary nanocomposite with an effective electron transfer pathway is obtained by an electrostatic self-assembly method and photo-assisted treatment. Compared with bare mesoporous TiO2 (MT and mesoporous TiO2/RGO (MTG, the ternary mesoporous TiO2/RGO/Ag (MTGA nanocomposite exhibited superior photocatalytic performance for the degradation of methylene blue (MB under visible light, and the degradation rate reached 0.017 min−1, which was 3.4-times higher than that of MTG. What is more, the degradation rate of MTGA nanocomposite after three cycle times is 91.2%, and the composition is unchanged. In addition, we found that the OH•, h+ and especially O2•− contribute to the high photocatalytic activity of MTGA for MB degradation. It is proposed that Ag nanoparticles can form the local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR to absorb the visible light and distract the electrons into MT, and RGO can accept the electrons from MT to accelerate the separation efficiency of photogenerated carriers. The establishment of MTGA ternary nanocomposite makes the three components act synergistically to enhance the photocatalytic performance.

  12. Energy dissipation in the process of ternary fission in heavy nuclear reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xian; Wang Chengqian; Yan Shiwei

    2015-01-01

    We studied the evolution of the collective motion, interaction potential, the total kinetic and excitation energies in ternary fissions of 197 Au + 197 Au system at 15 MeV/u, and discussed energy dissipation of this reaction. Through the comparison with energy-angle correlation data in binary fissions, we preliminarily concluded that the rst fission of ternary fission was an extreme deep-inelastic process. We further analyzed the correlation of the total kinetic energy with impact parameters in both binary and ternary reactions, and found that the total energy of binary reactions systems was lost about 150 MeV more than ternary fission with small impact parameters, and with larger impact parameters the total energy of ternary reactions were lost 300 MeV more than binary reactions. (authors)

  13. First-principles study of ternary fcc solution phases from special quasirandom structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin Dongwon; Wang Yi; Liu Zikui; Walle, Axel van de

    2007-01-01

    In the present work, ternary special quasirandom structures (SQSs) for a fcc solid solution phase are generated at different compositions, x A =x B =x C =(1/3) and x A =(1/2), x B =x C =(1/4), whose correlation functions are satisfactorily close to those of a random fcc solution. The generated SQSs are used to calculate the mixing enthalpy of the fcc phase in the Ca-Sr-Yb system. It is observed that first-principles calculations of all the binary and ternary SQSs in the Ca-Sr-Yb system exhibit very small local relaxation. It is concluded that the fcc ternary SQSs can provide valuable information about the mixing behavior of the fcc ternary solid solution phase. The SQSs presented in this work can be widely used to study the behavior of ternary fcc solid solutions

  14. High-performance ternary blend polymer solar cells involving both energy transfer and hole relay processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Luyao; Chen, Wei; Xu, Tao; Yu, Luping

    2015-06-04

    The integration of multiple materials with complementary absorptions into a single junction device is regarded as an efficient way to enhance the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of organic solar cells (OSCs). However, because of increased complexity with one more component, only limited high-performance ternary systems have been demonstrated previously. Here we report an efficient ternary blend OSC with a PCE of 9.2%. We show that the third component can reduce surface trap densities in the ternary blend. Detailed studies unravel that the improved performance results from synergistic effects of enlarged open circuit voltage, suppressed trap-assisted recombination, enhanced light absorption, increased hole extraction, efficient energy transfer and better morphology. The working mechanism and high device performance demonstrate new insights and design guidelines for high-performance ternary blend solar cells and suggest that ternary structure is a promising platform to boost the efficiency of OSCs.

  15. Technology review: prototyping platforms for monitoring ambient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afolaranmi, Samuel Olaiya; Ramis Ferrer, Borja; Martinez Lastra, Jose Luis

    2018-05-08

    The monitoring of ambient conditions in indoor spaces is very essential owing to the amount of time spent indoors. Specifically, the monitoring of air quality is significant because contaminated air affects the health, comfort and productivity of occupants. This research work presents a technology review of prototyping platforms for monitoring ambient conditions in indoor spaces. It involves the research on sensors (for CO 2 , air quality and ambient conditions), IoT platforms, and novel and commercial prototyping platforms. The ultimate objective of this review is to enable the easy identification, selection and utilisation of the technologies best suited for monitoring ambient conditions in indoor spaces. Following the review, it is recommended to use metal oxide sensors, optical sensors and electrochemical sensors for IAQ monitoring (including NDIR sensors for CO 2 monitoring), Raspberry Pi for data processing, ZigBee and Wi-Fi for data communication, and ThingSpeak IoT platform for data storage, analysis and visualisation.

  16. Prototype fast breeder reactor main options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhoje, S.B.; Chellapandi, P.

    1996-01-01

    Fast reactor programme gets importance in the Indian energy market because of continuous growing demand of electricity and resources limited to only coal and FBR. India started its fast reactor programme with the construction of 40 MWt Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR). The reactor attained its first criticality in October 1985. The reactor power will be raised to 40 MWt in near future. As a logical follow-up of FBTR, it was decided to build a prototype fast breeder reactor, PFBR. Considering significant effects of capital cost and construction period on economy, systematic efforts are made to reduce the same. The number of primary and secondary sodium loops and components have been reduced. Sodium coolant, pool type concept, oxide fuel, 20% CW D9, SS 316 LN and modified 9Cr-1Mo steel (T91) materials have been selected for PFBR. Based on the operating experience, the integrity of the high temperature components including fuel and cost optimization aspects, the plant temperatures are recommended. Steam temperature of 763 K at 16.6 MPa and a single TG of 500 MWe gross output have been decided. PFBR will be located at Kalpakkam site on the coast of Bay of Bengal. The plant life is designed for 30 y and 75% load factor. In this paper the justifications for the main options chosen are given in brief. (author). 2 figs, 2 tabs

  17. Analysis of the flow at a T-bifurcation for a ternary unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campero, P; Beck, J; Jung, A

    2014-01-01

    The motivation of this research is to understand the flow behavior through a 90° T- type bifurcation, which connects a Francis turbine and the storage pump of a ternary unit, under different operating conditions (namely turbine, pump and hydraulic short-circuit operation). As a first step a CFD optimization process to define the hydraulic geometry of the bifurcation was performed. The CFD results show the complexity of the flow through the bifurcation, especially under hydraulic short-circuit operation. Therefore, it was decided to perform experimental investigations in addition to the CFD analysis, in order to get a better understanding of the flow. The aim of these studies was to investigate the flow development upstream and downstream the bifurcation, the estimation of the bifurcation loss coefficients and also to provide comprehensive data of the flow behavior for the whole operating range of the machine. In order to evaluate the development of the velocity field Stereo Particle Image Velocimetry (S-PIV) measurements at different sections upstream and downstream of the bifurcation on the main penstock and Laser Doppler Anemometrie (LDA) measurements at bifurcation inlet were performed. This paper presents the CFD results obtained for the final design for different operating conditions, the model test procedures and the model test results with special attention to: 1) The bifurcation head loss coefficients, and their extrapolation to prototype conditions, 2) S-PIV and LDA measurements. Additionally, criteria to define the minimal uniformity conditions for the velocity profiles entering the turbine are evaluated. Finally, based on the gathered flow information a better understanding to define the preferred location of a bifurcation is gained and can be applied to future projects

  18. Investigations of binary and ternary phase change alloys for future memory applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rausch, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    The understanding of phase change materials is of great importance because it enables us to predict properties and tailor alloys which might be even better suitable to tackle challenges of future memory applications. Within this thesis two topics have been approached: on the one hand the understanding of the alloy In 3 Sb 1 Te 2 and on the other hand the so called resistivity drift of amorphous Ge-Sn-Te phase change materials. The main topic covers an in depth discussion of the ternary alloy In 3 Sb 1 Te 2 . At first glance, this alloy does not fit into the established concepts of phase alloys: e.g. the existence of resonant bonding in the crystalline phase is not obvious and the number of p-electrons is very low compared to other phase change alloys. Furthermore amorphous phase change alloys with high indium content are usually not discussed in literature, an exception being the recent work by Spreafico et al. on InGeTe 2 . For the first time a complete description of In 3 Sb 1 Te 2 alloy is given in this work for the crystalline phase, amorphous phase and crystallization process. In addition comparisons are drawn to typical phase change materials like Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 /GeTe or prototype systems like AgInTe 2 and InTe. The second topic of this thesis deals with the issue of resistivity drift, i.e. the increase of resistivity of amorphous phase change alloys with aging. This drift effect greatly hampers the introduction of multilevel phase change memory devices into the market. Recently a systematic decrease of drift coefficient with stoichiometry has been observed in our group going from GeTe over Ge 3 Sn 1 Te 4 to Ge 2 Sn 2 Te 4 . These alloys are investigated with respect to constraint theory.

  19. Genetic Synthesis of New Reversible/Quantum Ternary Comparator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEIBUK, V.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Methods of quantum/reversible logic synthesis are based on the use of the binary nature of quantum computing. However, multiple-valued logic is a promising choice for future quantum computer technology due to a number of advantages over binary circuits. In this paper we have developed a synthesis of ternary reversible circuits based on Muthukrishnan-Stroud gates using a genetic algorithm. The method of coding chromosome is presented, and well-grounded choice of algorithm parameters allowed obtaining better circuit schemes of one- and n-qutrit ternary comparators compared with other methods. These parameters are quantum cost of received reversible devices, delay time and number of constant input (ancilla lines. Proposed implementation of the genetic algorithm has led to reducing of the device delay time and the number of ancilla qutrits to 1 and 2n-1 for one- and n-qutrits full comparators, respectively. For designing of n-qutrit comparator we have introduced a complementary device which compares output functions of 1-qutrit comparators.

  20. Halo Formation During Solidification of Refractory Metal Aluminide Ternary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, N.; Feitosa, L. M.; West, G. D.; Dong, H. B.

    2018-02-01

    The evolution of eutectic morphologies following primary solidification has been studied in the refractory metal aluminide (Ta-Al-Fe, Nb-Al-Co, and Nb-Al-Fe) ternary systems. The undercooling accompanying solid growth, as related to the extended solute solubility in the primary and secondary phases can be used to account for the evolution of phase morphologies during ternary eutectic solidification. For small undercooling, the conditions of interfacial equilibrium remain valid, while in the case of significant undercooling when nucleation constraints occur, there is a departure from equilibrium leading to unexpected phases. In Ta-Al-Fe, an extended solubility of Fe in σ was observed, which was consistent with the formation of a halo of μ phase on primary σ. In Nb-Al-Co, a halo of C14 is formed on primary CoAl, but very limited vice versa. However, in the absence of a solidus projection it was not possible to definitively determine the extended solute solubility in the primary phase. In Nb-Al-Fe when nucleation constraints arise, the inability to initiate coupled growth of NbAl3 + C14 leads to the occurrence of a two-phase halo of C14 + Nb2Al, indicating a large undercooling and departure from equilibrium.

  1. Face Liveness Detection Using Dynamic Local Ternary Pattern (DLTP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajida Parveen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Face spoofing is considered to be one of the prominent threats to face recognition systems. However, in order to improve the security measures of such biometric systems against deliberate spoof attacks, liveness detection has received significant recent attention from researchers. For this purpose, analysis of facial skin texture properties becomes more popular because of its limited resource requirement and lower processing cost. The traditional method of skin analysis for liveness detection was to use Local Binary Pattern (LBP and its variants. LBP descriptors are effective, but they may exhibit certain limitations in near uniform patterns. Thus, in this paper, we demonstrate the effectiveness of Local Ternary Pattern (LTP as an alternative to LBP. In addition, we adopted Dynamic Local Ternary Pattern (DLTP, which eliminates the manual threshold setting in LTP by using Weber’s law. The proposed method was tested rigorously on four facial spoof databases: three are public domain databases and the other is the Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM face spoof database, which was compiled through this study. The results obtained from the proposed DLTP texture descriptor attained optimum accuracy and clearly outperformed the reported LBP and LTP texture descriptors.

  2. Enhanced Light Absorption in Fluorinated Ternary Small-Molecule Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eastham, Nicholas D. [Department; Dudnik, Alexander S. [Department; Harutyunyan, Boris [Department; Aldrich, Thomas J. [Department; Leonardi, Matthew J. [Department; Manley, Eric F. [Department; Chemical; Butler, Melanie R. [Department; Harschneck, Tobias [Department; Ratner, Mark A. [Department; Chen, Lin X. [Department; Chemical; Bedzyk, Michael J. [Department; Department; Melkonyan, Ferdinand S. [Department; Facchetti, Antonio [Department; Chang, Robert P. H. [Department; Marks, Tobin J. [Department; Department

    2017-06-14

    Using small-molecule donor (SMD) semiconductors in organic photovoltaics (OPVs) has historically afforded lower power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) than their polymeric counterparts. The PCE difference is attributed to shorter conjugated backbones, resulting in reduced intermolecular interactions. Here, a new pair of SMDs is synthesized based on the diketopyrrolopyrrole-benzodithiophene-diketopyrrolopyrrole (BDT-DPP2) skeleton but having fluorinated and fluorinefree aromatic side-chain substituents. Ternary OPVs having varied ratios of the two SMDs with PC61BM as the acceptor exhibit tunable open-circuit voltages (Vocs) between 0.833 and 0.944 V due to a fluorination-induced shift in energy levels and the electronic “alloy” formed from the miscibility of the two SMDs. A 15% increase in PCE is observed at the optimal ternary SMD ratio, with the short-circuit current density (Jsc) significantly increased to 9.18 mA/cm2. The origin of Jsc enhancement is analyzed via charge generation, transport, and diffuse reflectance measurements, and is attributed to increased optical absorption arising from a maximum in film crystallinity at this SMD ratio, observed by grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering.

  3. A ternary logic model for recurrent neuromime networks with delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hangartner, R D; Cull, P

    1995-07-01

    In contrast to popular recurrent artificial neural network (RANN) models, biological neural networks have unsymmetric structures and incorporate significant delays as a result of axonal propagation. Consequently, biologically inspired neural network models are more accurately described by nonlinear differential-delay equations rather than nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs), and the standard techniques for studying the dynamics of RANNs are wholly inadequate for these models. This paper develops a ternary-logic based method for analyzing these networks. Key to the technique is the realization that a nonzero delay produces a bounded stability region. This result significantly simplifies the construction of sufficient conditions for characterizing the network equilibria. If the network gain is large enough, each equilibrium can be classified as either asymptotically stable or unstable. To illustrate the analysis technique, the swim central pattern generator (CPG) of the sea slug Tritonia diomedea is examined. For wide range of reasonable parameter values, the ternary analysis shows that none of the network equilibria are stable, and thus the network must oscillate. The results show that complex synaptic dynamics are not necessary for pattern generation.

  4. Kinetics of radiation-induced segregation in ternary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, N.O.; Kumar, A.; Wiedersich, H.

    1982-01-01

    Model calculations of radiation-induced segregation in ternary alloys have been performed, using a simple theory. The theoretical model describes the coupling between the fluxes of radiation-induced defects and alloying elements in an alloy A-B-C by partitioning the defect fluxes into those occurring via A-, B-, and C-atoms, and the atom fluxes into those taking place via vacancies and interstitials. The defect and atom fluxes can be expressed in terms of concentrations and concentration gradients of all the species present. With reasonable simplifications, the radiation-induced segregation problem can be cast into a system of four coupled partial-differential equations, which can be solved numerically for appropriate initial and boundary conditions. Model calculations have been performed for ternary solid solutions intended to be representative of Fe-Cr-Ni and Ni-Al-Si alloys under various irradiation conditions. The dependence of segregation on both the alloy properties and the irradiation variables, e.g., temperature and displacement rate, was calculated. The sample calculations are in good qualitative agreement with the general trends of radiation-induced segregation observed experimentally

  5. Investigation of transient photoresponse of WSSe ternary alloy crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Payal; Solanki, G. K.; Tannarana, Mohit; Pataniya, Pratik; Patel, K. D.; Pathak, V. M.

    2018-05-01

    Transition metal chalcogenides have been studied intensively in recent time due to their tunability of electronic properties by compositional change, alloying and by transforming bulk material into crystalline 2D structure. These changes lead to the development of verities of next generation opto-electronic device applications such as solar cells, FETs and flexible detectors etc. In present work, we report growth and characterization of crystalline ternary alloy WSSe by direct vapour transport technique. A photodetector is constructed using grown crystals to study its transient photoresponse under polychromatic radiation. The WSSe crystals are mechanically exfoliated to thickness of 3 µm and the lateral dimension of prepared sample is 2.25 mm2. The time-resolved photoresponse is studied under polychromatic illumination of power density ranging from 10 to 40 mW/cm2. The photo response is also studied under different bias voltages ranging from 0.1 V to 0.5 V. The typical photodetector parameters i.e. photocurrent, rise and fall time, responsivity and sensitivity are evaluated and discussed in light of the ternary alloy composition.

  6. Plotting and Analyzing Data Trends in Ternary Diagrams Made Easy

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Cédric M.

    2004-04-01

    Ternary plots are used in many fields of science to characterize a system based on three components. Triangular plotting is thus useful to a broad audience in the Earth sciences and beyond. Unfortunately, it is typically the most expensive commercial software packages that offer the option to plot data in ternary diagrams, and they lack features that are paramount to the geosciences, such as the ability to plot data directly into a standardized diagram and the possibility to analyze temporal and stratigraphic trends within this diagram. To address these issues, δPlot was developed with a strong emphasis on ease of use, community orientation, and availability free of charges. This ``freeware'' supports a fully graphical user interface where data can be imported as text files, or by copying and pasting. A plot is automatically generated, and any standard diagram can be selected for plotting in the background using a simple pull-down menu. Standard diagrams are stored in an external database of PDF files that currently holds some 30 diagrams that deal with different fields of the Earth sciences. Using any drawing software supporting PDF, one can easily produce new standard diagrams to be used with δPlot by simply adding them to the library folder. An independent column of values, commonly stratigraphic depths or ages, can be used to sort the data sets.

  7. Prototype moving-ring reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.C. Jr.; Ashworth, C.P.; Abreu, K.E.

    1982-01-01

    We have completed a design of the Prototype Moving-Ring Reactor. The fusion fuel is confined in current-carrying rings of magnetically-field-reversed plasma (Compact Toroids). The plasma rings, formed by a coaxial plasma gun, undergo adiabatic magnetic compression to ignition temperature while they are being injected into the reactor's burner section. The cylindrical burner chamber is divided into three burn stations. Separator coils and a slight axial guide field gradient are used to shuttle the ignited toroids rapidly from one burn station to the next, pausing for 1/3 of the total burn time at each station. D-T- 3 He ice pellets refuel the rings at a rate which maintains constant radiated power

  8. LEP vacuum chamber, early prototype

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1978-01-01

    The structure of LEP, with long bending magnets and little access to the vacuum chamber between them, required distributed pumping. This is an early prototype for the LEP vacuum chamber, made from extruded aluminium. The main opening is for the beam. The small channel to the right is for cooling water, to carry away the heat deposited by the synchroton radiation from the beam. The 4 slots in the channel to the left house the strip-shaped ion-getter pumps (see 7810255). The ion-getter pumps depended on the magnetic field of the bending magnets, too low at injection energy for the pumps to function well. Also, a different design was required outside the bending magnets. This design was therefore abandoned, in favour of a thermal getter pump (see 8301153 and 8305170).

  9. Prototype international quality assurance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadway, J.A.; Chambless, D.A.; Sapozhnikov, Yu.A.; Kalmykov, S.N.

    1998-01-01

    The international community presently lacks the ability to determine the quality and credibility of environmental measurements that is required to make sound decisions in matters related to international security, public health, and investment-related considerations. The ultimate goal of the work described in this article is to develop a credible information base including measurement capability for determination of environmental contamination and the potential for proliferation of material components of chemical or nuclear weapons. This study compared the accuracy obtained by six Russian and six U.S. laboratories for samples representative of classes of trace metals, dioxing-furans, and radioactive substances. The results obtained in this work indicate that current estimates for laboratory accuracy are likely overly optimistic. The weaknesses discovered by this prototype U.S. - Russia study also exist within the broader international community of laboratories. Further work is proposed to address the urgent need for the international community to improve performance evaluations for analytical measurements. (author)

  10. Prototype of industrial electrons accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, V.H.; Valdovinos, A.M.

    1992-01-01

    The interest and the necessity of Mexico's industry in the use of irradiation process has been increased in the last years. As examples are the irradiation of combustion gases (elimination of NO x and SO 2 ) and the polymer cross-linking between others. At present time at least twelve enterprises require immediately of them which have been contacted by electron accelerators suppliers of foreign countries. The first project step consisted in to identify the electrons accelerator type that in can be constructed in Mexico with the major number of possible equipment, instruments, components and acquisition materials local and useful for the major number of users. the characteristics of the accelerator prototype are: accelerator type transformer with multiple secondary insulated and rectifier circuits with a potential of 0.8 MV of voltage, the second step it consisted in an economic study that permitted to demonstrate the economic feasibility of its construction. (Author)

  11. Hadron therapy information sharing prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Roman, Faustin Laurentiu; Kanellopoulos, Vassiliki; Amoros, Gabriel; Davies, Jim; Dosanjh, Manjit; Jena, Raj; Kirkby, Norman; Peach, Ken; Salt, Jose

    2013-01-01

    The European PARTNER project developed a prototypical system for sharing hadron therapy data. This system allows doctors and patients to record and report treatment-related events during and after hadron therapy. It presents doctors and statisticians with an integrated view of adverse events across institutions, using open-source components for data federation, semantics, and analysis. There is a particular emphasis upon semantic consistency, achieved through intelligent, annotated form designs. The system as presented is ready for use in a clinical setting, and amenable to further customization. The essential contribution of the work reported here lies in the novel data integration and reporting methods, as well as the approach to software sustainability achieved through the use of community-supported open-source components.

  12. PEP-II prototype klystron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowkes, W.R.; Caryotakis, G.; Lee, T.G.; Pearson, C.; Wright, E.L.

    1993-04-01

    A 540-kW continuous-wave (cw) klystron operating at 476 MHz was developed for use as a power source for testing PEP-II rf accelerating cavities and rf windows. It also serves as a prototype for a 1.2 MW cw klystron presently being developed as a potential rf source for asymmetric colliding ring use. The design incorporates the concepts and many of the parts used in the original 353 MHz PEP klystron developed sixteen years ago. The superior computer simulation codes available today result in improved performance with the cavity frequencies, drift lengths, and output circuit optimized for the higher frequency.The design and operating results of this tube are described with particular emphasis on the factors which affect efficiency and stability

  13. Evaluation of ternary blended cements for use in transportation concrete structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, Amanda Louise

    This thesis investigates the use of ternary blended cement concrete mixtures for transportation structures. The study documents technical properties of three concrete mixtures used in federally funded transportation projects in Utah, Kansas, and Michigan that used ternary blended cement concrete mixtures. Data were also collected from laboratory trial batches of ternary blended cement concrete mixtures with mixture designs similar to those of the field projects. The study presents the technical, economic, and environmental advantages of ternary blended cement mixtures. Different barriers of implementation for using ternary blended cement concrete mixtures in transportation projects are addressed. It was concluded that there are no technical, economic, or environmental barriers that exist when using most ternary blended cement concrete mixtures. The technical performance of the ternary blended concrete mixtures that were studied was always better than ordinary portland cement concrete mixtures. The ternary blended cements showed increased durability against chloride ion penetration, alkali silica reaction, and reaction to sulfates. These blends also had less linear shrinkage than ordinary portland cement concrete and met all strength requirements. The increased durability would likely reduce life cycle costs associated with concrete pavement and concrete bridge decks. The initial cost of ternary mixtures can be higher or lower than ordinary portland cement, depending on the supplementary cementitious materials used. Ternary blended cement concrete mixtures produce less carbon dioxide emissions than ordinary portland cement mixtures. This reduces the carbon footprint of construction projects. The barriers associated with implementing ternary blended cement concrete for transportation projects are not significant. Supplying fly ash returns any investment costs for the ready mix plant, including silos and other associated equipment. State specifications can make

  14. The Yucca Mountain Project Prototype Testing Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    The Yucca Mountain Project is conducting a Prototype Testing Program to ensure that the Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF) tests can be completed in the time available and to develop instruments, equipment, and procedures so the ESF tests can collect reliable and representative site characterization data. This report summarizes the prototype tests and their status and location and emphasizes prototype ESF and surface tests, which are required in the early stages of the ESF site characterization tests. 14 figs

  15. Test case preparation using a prototype

    OpenAIRE

    Treharne, Helen; Draper, J.; Schneider, Steve A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports on the preparation of test cases using a prototype within the context of a formal development. It describes an approach to building a prototype using an example. It discusses how a prototype contributes to the testing activity as part of a lifecycle based on the use of formal methods. The results of applying the approach to an embedded avionics case study are also presented.

  16. A prototype for JDEM science data processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottschalk, Erik E

    2011-01-01

    Fermilab is developing a prototype science data processing and data quality monitoring system for dark energy science. The purpose of the prototype is to demonstrate distributed data processing capabilities for astrophysics applications, and to evaluate candidate technologies for trade-off studies. We present the architecture and technical aspects of the prototype, including an open source scientific execution and application development framework, distributed data processing, and publish/subscribe message passing for quality control.

  17. Rapid prototyping using CBCT: an initial experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yovchev, D.; Deliverska, E.; Indjova, J.; Ugrinov, R.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents a case of fibrous dysplasia in the left lower jaw of a 12-year-old girl, scanned with CBCT. On the basis of CBCT scan a model of affected jaw was produced using a rapid-prototyping three-dimensional printer. The case demonstrates the possibility to get a prototype by CBCT data. Prototypes can be used to support the diagnosis, planning, training (students and postgraduates) and to obtain informed consent from the patient.

  18. Prototype calorimeters for the NA3 experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    The NA3 Experiment was set-up on the North Area of the SPS by the CERN/ Ecole Polytechnique/College de France/ Orsay/Saclay Collaboration, to study high transverse momentum leptons and hadrons from hadron collisions. The calorimeters measured the energy of hadrons (prototype on the right) and leptons (prototype on the left). They used a new type of plastic scintillator (plexipop). (see CERN Courier of November 1975) energy (prototype on the right)

  19. A microstructure-composition map of a ternary liquid/liquid/particle system with partially-wetting particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Junyi; Roell, David; Echavarria, Martin; Velankar, Sachin S

    2017-11-22

    We examine the effect of composition on the morphology of a ternary mixture comprising two molten polymeric liquid phases (polyisobutylene and polyethylene oxide) and micron-scale spherical silica particles. The silica particles were treated with silanes to make them partially wetted by both polymers. Particle loadings up to 30 vol% are examined while varying the fluid phase ratios across a wide range. Numerous effects of particle addition are catalogued, stabilization of Pickering emulsions and of interfacially-jammed co-continuous microstructures, meniscus-bridging of particles, particle-induced coalescence of the dispersed phase, and significant shifts in the phase inversion composition. Many of the effects are asymmetric, for example particle-induced coalescence is more severe and drop sizes are larger when polyisobutylene is the continuous phase, and particles promote phase continuity of the polyethylene oxide. These asymmetries are likely attributable to a slight preferential wettability of the particles towards the polyethylene oxide. A state map is constructed which classifies the various microstructures within a triangular composition diagram. Comparisons are made between this diagram vs. a previous one constructed for the case when particles are fully-wetted by polyethylene oxide.

  20. Solution processed ternary blend nano-composite charge regulation layer to enhance inverted OLED performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaçar, Rifat; Mucur, Selin Pıravadılı; Yıldız, Fikret; Dabak, Salih; Tekin, Emine

    2018-04-01

    Inverted bottom-emission organic light emitting diodes (IBOLEDs) have attracted increasing attention due to their exceptional air stability and applications in active-matrix displays. For gaining high IBOLED device efficiencies, it is crucial to develop an effective strategy to make the bottom electrode easy for charge injection and transport. Charge selectivity, blocking the carrier flow towards the unfavourable side, plays an important role in determining charge carrier balance and accordingly radiative recombination efficiency. It is therefore highly desirable to functionalize an interfacial layer which will perform many different tasks simultaneously. Here, we contribute to the hole-blocking ability of the zinc oxide/polyethyleneimine (ZnO:PEI) nano-composite (NC) interlayer with the intention of increasing the OLED device efficiency. With this purpose in mind, a small amount of 1,3,5-tris(N-phenylbenzimidazol-2-yl)benzene (TPBi) was added as a hole-blocking molecule into the binary blend of ZnO and PEI solution. The device with a ternary ZnO:PEI:TPBi NC interlayer achieved a maximum current efficiency of 38.20 cd A-1 and a power efficiency of 34.29 lm W-1 with a luminance of 123 200 cd m-2, which are high performance parameters for inverted device architecture. The direct comparisons of device performances incorporating ZnO only, ZnO/PEI bilayers, and ZnO:PEI binary NC counterparts were also performed, which shed light on the origin of device performance enhancement.

  1. About the nanostructure of the ternary system water - [BMIm]PF6 - TX-100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgili, Harun; Bürger, Matthias; Stubenrauch, Cosima; Porada, Jan H

    2016-12-15

    Many efforts have been made to formulate water-IL microemulsions. One of the most intensely studied systems is H 2 O - 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([BMIm]PF 6 ) - 4-octylphenol polyethoxylate (TX-100) and it is not questioned that this system forms microemulsions. The nanostructures observed for traditional microemulsions are postulated with the surfactant being adsorbed at the interface such that the hydrophilic EO sides intrude into the water domains, while the hydrophobic hydrocarbon chains are immersed into [BMIm]PF 6 . However, the high polarity of [BMIm]PF 6 and the observation that [BMIm]PF 6 mixes well with oligoethylene oxides but hardly with non-polar solvents like toluene or alkanes are not in line with this picture. We re-studied the ternary system H 2 O - [BMIm]PF 6 - TX-100 by measuring phase diagrams, determining tie-lines, and carrying out ROESY NMR and PFG NMR measurements. We found that the hydrophobic part of the surfactant interacts neither with water nor with [BMIm]PF 6 , while both solvents interact with the hydrophilic part of the surfactant. We suggest that the surfactant is not adsorbed at the interface between water and the IL, but forms normal spherical or elongated micelles or even continuous aggregates with the hydrocarbon chains forming the interior of the aggregates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Thermal Annealing Effect on Poly(3-hexylthiophene: Fullerene:Copper-Phthalocyanine Ternary Photoactive Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Derouiche

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We have fabricated poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT/copper phthalocyanine (CuPc/fullerene (C60 ternary blend films. This photoactive layer is sandwiched between an indium tin oxide (ITO/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:poly(styrene sulfonate (PEDOT/PSS photoanode and a bathocuproine (BCP/aluminium photocathode. The thin films have been characterized by atomic force microscope (AFM and ultraviolet/visible spectroscopy in order to study the influence of P3HT doping on the morphological and optical properties of the photoactive layer. We have also compared the characteristics of three different organic solar cells: ITO/PEDOT:PSS/CuPc0.5:C600.5/BCP/Al and ITO/PEDOT:PSS/P3HT0.3:CuPc0.3:C600.4/BCP/Al with and without annealing. Both structures show good photovoltaic behaviour. Indeed, the incorporation of P3HT into CuPc:C60 thin film improves all the photovoltaic characteristics. We have also seen that thermal annealing significantly improves the optical absorption ability and stabilizes the organic solar cells making it more robust to chemical degradation.

  3. Light-Triggered Ternary Device and Inverter Based on Heterojunction of van der Waals Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jaewoo; Jo, Seo-Hyeon; Kim, Minwoo; Song, Young Jae; Kim, Jeehwan; Park, Jin-Hong

    2017-06-27

    Multivalued logic (MVL) devices/circuits have received considerable attention because the binary logic used in current Si complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology cannot handle the predicted information throughputs and energy demands of the future. To realize MVL, the conventional transistor platform needs to be redesigned to have two or more distinctive threshold voltages (V TH s). Here, we report a finding: the photoinduced drain current in graphene/WSe 2 heterojunction transistors unusually decreases with increasing gate voltage under illumination, which we refer to as the light-induced negative differential transconductance (L-NDT) phenomenon. We also prove that such L-NDT phenomenon in specific bias ranges originates from a variable potential barrier at a graphene/WSe 2 junction due to a gate-controllable graphene electrode. This finding allows us to conceive graphene/WSe 2 -based MVL logic circuits by using the I D -V G characteristics with two distinctive V TH s. Based on this finding, we further demonstrate a light-triggered ternary inverter circuit with three stable logical states (ΔV out of each state <0.05 V). Our study offers the pathway to substantialize MVL systems.

  4. Synthesis and magnetic property of T4 virus-supported gold-coated iron ternary nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Ziming; Sun Hongjing; Gao Faming, E-mail: fmgao@ysu.edu.cn; Hou Li; Li Na [Yanshan University, Key Laboratory of Applied Chemistry (China)

    2012-12-15

    Herein, we present a novel method based on the use of the symmetrical T4 bacteriophage capsid as a scaffold for preparing the gold-coated iron ternary core/shell nanostructure. Results showed that the thick gold shell was obtained to effectively protect Fe core from oxidation. Magnetic measurements showed that the nanocomposites were superparamagnetic at room temperature with a blocking temperature of about 35 K. At 3 K, its coercivity of 1142.86 Oe was larger than the existing experimental values. The magnetic property of Au/T4 was also tested, demonstrating the source of the magnetic sample arising from the Fe core only. The absorption spectrum of the Fe-Au/T4 complex was measured and compared with gold/virus. Different thickness gold shells were controlled in the synthesis by tuning the Au salt addition. On the basis of results and discussion, we further speculated the general growing mechanism of the template-supported Fe-Au process.

  5. Synthesis and magnetic property of T4 virus-supported gold-coated iron ternary nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ziming; Sun, Hongjing; Gao, Faming; Hou, Li; Li, Na

    2012-12-01

    Herein, we present a novel method based on the use of the symmetrical T4 bacteriophage capsid as a scaffold for preparing the gold-coated iron ternary core/shell nanostructure. Results showed that the thick gold shell was obtained to effectively protect Fe core from oxidation. Magnetic measurements showed that the nanocomposites were superparamagnetic at room temperature with a blocking temperature of about 35 K. At 3 K, its coercivity of 1142.86 Oe was larger than the existing experimental values. The magnetic property of Au/T4 was also tested, demonstrating the source of the magnetic sample arising from the Fe core only. The absorption spectrum of the Fe@Au/T4 complex was measured and compared with gold/virus. Different thickness gold shells were controlled in the synthesis by tuning the Au salt addition. On the basis of results and discussion, we further speculated the general growing mechanism of the template-supported Fe@Au process.

  6. Sequential character of low-energy ternary and quaternary nuclear fission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadmensky, S. G., E-mail: kadmensky@phys.vsu.ru; Bulychev, A. O. [Voronezh State University (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-15

    An analysis of low-energy true ternary (quaternary) nuclear fission leads to the conclusion that these fission modes have a sequential two-step (three-step) character such that the emission of a third particle (third and fourth particles) and the separation of fission fragments occur at distinctly different instants, in contrast to the simultaneous emergence of all fission products in the case of onestep ternary (quaternary) fission. This conclusion relies on the following arguments. First, the emission of a third particle (third and fourth particles) from a fissile nucleus is due to a nonevaporative mechanism associated with a nonadiabatic character of the collective deformation motion of this nucleus at the stages preceding its scission. Second, the axial symmetry of the deformed fissile compound nucleus and the direction of its symmetry axis both remain unchanged at all stages of ternary (quaternary) fission. This circumstancemakes it possible to explain themechanism of the appearance of observed anisotropies and T — odd asymmeries in the angular distributions of products of ternary (quaternary) nuclear fission. Third, the T —odd asymmetry discovered experimentally in ternary nuclear fission induced by cold polarized neutrons obeys the T —invariance condition only in the case of a sequential two-step (three-step) character of true ternary (quaternary) nuclear fission. At the same time, this asymmetry is not a T —invariant quantity in the case of the simultaneous emission of products of true ternary (quaternary) nuclear fission from the fissile compound nucleus.

  7. Sequential character of low-energy ternary and quaternary nuclear fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadmensky, S. G.; Bulychev, A. O.

    2016-01-01

    An analysis of low-energy true ternary (quaternary) nuclear fission leads to the conclusion that these fission modes have a sequential two-step (three-step) character such that the emission of a third particle (third and fourth particles) and the separation of fission fragments occur at distinctly different instants, in contrast to the simultaneous emergence of all fission products in the case of onestep ternary (quaternary) fission. This conclusion relies on the following arguments. First, the emission of a third particle (third and fourth particles) from a fissile nucleus is due to a nonevaporative mechanism associated with a nonadiabatic character of the collective deformation motion of this nucleus at the stages preceding its scission. Second, the axial symmetry of the deformed fissile compound nucleus and the direction of its symmetry axis both remain unchanged at all stages of ternary (quaternary) fission. This circumstancemakes it possible to explain themechanism of the appearance of observed anisotropies and T — odd asymmeries in the angular distributions of products of ternary (quaternary) nuclear fission. Third, the T —odd asymmetry discovered experimentally in ternary nuclear fission induced by cold polarized neutrons obeys the T —invariance condition only in the case of a sequential two-step (three-step) character of true ternary (quaternary) nuclear fission. At the same time, this asymmetry is not a T —invariant quantity in the case of the simultaneous emission of products of true ternary (quaternary) nuclear fission from the fissile compound nucleus.

  8. He and Be ternary spontaneous fission of sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, J K; Ramayya, A V; Hamilton, J H

    2002-01-01

    Ternary and binary fission studies of sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf have been carried out by using the Gammasphere detector array with light charged particle (LCD) detectors. The relative sup 4 He and sup 5 He ternary fission yields were determined. The kinetic energies of the sup 5 He and sup 4 He ternary particles were found to be approximately 11 and 16 MeV, respectively. The sup 5 He particles contribute 10-20 % to the total observed alpha ternary yield. The data indicate that in nuclei with octupole deformations the population for the negative parity bands might be enhanced in the alpha ternary fission. >From LCP-gamma double gated spectra, neutron multiplicity distributions for alpha ternary fission pairs were measured. The average neutron multiplicity decreases about 0.7 AMU in going from the binary to alpha ternary fission in the approximately same mass splittings (104-146). From the analysis of the gamma-gamma matrix gated on the sup 1 sup 0 Be particles, the two fragment pairs of sup 1 sup 3 sup 8 Xe - sup 1...

  9. Influences of ignition improver additive on ternary (diesel-biodiesel-higher alcohol) blends thermal stability and diesel engine performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imdadul, H.K.; Masjuki, H.H.; Kalam, M.A.; Zulkifli, N.W.M.; Alabdulkarem, Abdullah; Rashed, M.M.; Ashraful, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Ignition improver additives makes the biodiesel-alcohol blends more thermally stable. • Density and cetane number improved significantly with EHN mixing. • BP and BSFC improved by adding ignition improver additives. • Nitric oxides and smoke of the EHN treated blends decreased. • CO and HC increased slightly with EHN addition. - Abstract: Pentanol is a long chain alcohol produced from renewable sources and considered as a promising biofuel as a blending component with diesel or biodiesel blends. However, the lower cetane number of alcohols is a limitation, and it is important to increase the overall cetane number of biodiesel fuel blends for efficient combustion and lower emission. In this consideration, ignition improver additive 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN) were used at a proportion of 1000 and 2000 ppm to diesel-biodiesel-pentanol blends. Experiments were conducted in a single cylinder; water-cooled DI diesel engine operated at full throttle and varying speed condition. The thermal stability of the modified ternary fuel blends was evaluated through thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis, and the physic-chemical properties of the fuel as well as engine characteristics were studied and compared. The addition of EHN to ternary fuel blends enhanced the cetane number significantly without any significant adverse effect on the other properties. TGA and DSC analysis reported about the improvement of thermal characteristics of the modified blends. It was found that, implementing ignition improver make the diesel-biodiesel-alcohol blends more thermally stable. Also, the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), nitric oxides (NO) and smoke emission reduced remarkably with the addition of EHN. Introducing EHN to diesel-biodiesel-alcohol blends increased the cetane number, shorten the ignition delay by increasing the diffusion rate and improve combustion. Hence, the NO and BSFC reduced while, carbon

  10. Formation, Characteristics and Electrocatalytic Properties of Nanoporous Metals Formed by Dealloying of Ternary-Noble Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega Zuniga, Adrian A.

    Nanoporous metals formed by electrochemical dealloying of silver from Ag-Au-Pt alloys, with 77 at.% silver and platinum contents of 1, 2 and 3 at.%, have been studied. The presence of platinum, which is immobile relative to gold, refine the ligament size and stabilized the nanostructure against coarsening, even under experimental conditions that would be expected to promote coarsening (e.g., exposure to high temperature, longer dealloying times). By adding only 1 at.% Pt to the alloy precursor, the ligament/pore size was reduced by 50% with respect to that in nanoporous gold (NPG), which was formed on a Ag-Au alloy with the same silver content as ternary alloys. A further decrease in the ligament size was observed by increasing the platinum content of the precursor; however, most of the improvement occurred with 1 at.% Pt. The adsorbate-induced surface segregation of platinum was also investigated for these nanoporous metals. By exposing freshly-dealloyed nanostructures to moderate temperatures in the presence of air, platinum segregated to the ligament surface; in contrast, in an inert atmosphere (Ar-H 2), platinum mostly reverted to the bulk of the ligaments. This thermally activated process was thermodynamically driven by the interaction between platinum and oxygen; however, at the desorption temperature of oxygen, platinum de-segregated from the surface. Moreover, the co-segregation of platinum and oxygen hindered the thermal coarsening of the ligaments. Finally, the electrocatalytic abilities of these nanostructures were studied towards methanol and ethanol electro-oxidation, in alkaline and acidic media, showing significantly improved response in comparison to that observed in NPG. The synergistic effect between gold and platinum atoms and the smaller feature size of the nanostructures were directly associated with this behaviour. In alkaline electrolyte, the nanostructure formed on the alloy with 1 at.% Pt showed higher catalytic response than the other two

  11. Resource Prospector (RP) - Early Prototyping and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, D.; Colaprete, A.; Quinn, J.; Bluethmann, B.; Trimble, J.

    2015-01-01

    The Resource Prospector (RP) is an In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) technology demonstration mission under study by the NASA Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate's (HEOMD) Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Division. The mission, currently planned to launch in 2020, will demonstrate extraction of oxygen from lunar regolith to validate ISRU capability. The mission will address key Strategic Knowledge Gaps (SKGs) for robotic and human exploration to the Moon, Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs), and ultimately Mars, as well as meet the strategic goals of the Global Exploration Roadmap (GER), offered by the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG). In this roadmap, the use of local resources is specifically addressed relating to human exploration. RP will provide knowledge to inform the selection of future mission destinations, support the development of exploration systems, and reduce the risk associated with human exploration. Expanding human presence beyond low-Earth orbit to asteroids and Mars will require the maximum possible use of local materials, so-called in-situ resources. The moon presents a unique destination to conduct robotic investigations that advance ISRU capabilities, as well as providing significant exploration and science value. Lunar regolith contains useful resources such as oxygen, water, silicon, and light metals, like aluminum and titanium. Oxygen can be separated from the regolith for life support (breathable air), or used to create rocket propellant (oxidizer). Regolith can be used to protect against radiation exposure, be processed into solar cells, or used to manufacture construction materials such as bricks and glass. RP will characterize the constituents and distribution of water and other volatiles at the poles of the Moon, enabling innovative uses of local resources, in addition to validating ISRU capabilities. This capability, as well as a deeper understanding of regolith, will be valuable in the

  12. Enhancing experience prototyping by the help of mixed-fidelity prototypes

    OpenAIRE

    Yasar, Ansar-Ul-Haque

    2007-01-01

    In this research review I undertook the problem related to the usage of a new concept known as the Mixed- Fidelity Prototype which is a mixture of its predecessors Low- and High- Fidelity Prototypes in Experience Prototyping. Experience Prototyping is a good way to explore, communicate and interact with the designs we develop like experiencing cycling on the ice, although the mood, snow conditions, bicycle type and many other factors really matter and tend to change with time. Experience Prot...

  13. Absolute determination by X-ray diffraction of a binary or ternary mixture: nickel oxide and fluoride in a nickel powder (1960); Dosage absolu par diffraction X d'un melange binaire ou ternaire: oxyde et fluorure de nickel dans une poudre de nickel (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charpin, P; Hauptman, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    The method employed is based upon the comparison between computed and measured intensities for conveniently selected X-Ray diffraction lines of each component of the powder. Care must be taken to allow for absorption, both inside each grain and in overall sample. This method has been applied to the determination of nickel oxide and fluoride in a nickel powder. (author) [French] La methode utilisee, dite 'absolue' est basee sur le calcul des intensites theoriques de raies de diffraction convenablement choisies. Elle n'est applicable que si l'absorption est negligeable a travers chaque grain constituant l'echantillon et a travers l'echantillon total. Elle a ete employee pour doser, ensemble ou separement, de l'oxyde et du fluorure de nickel dans une poudre de nickel. (auteur)

  14. Quantum error-correcting code for ternary logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Ritajit; Basu, Saikat; Ghosh, Shibashis; Sur-Kolay, Susmita

    2018-05-01

    Ternary quantum systems are being studied because they provide more computational state space per unit of information, known as qutrit. A qutrit has three basis states, thus a qubit may be considered as a special case of a qutrit where the coefficient of one of the basis states is zero. Hence both (2 ×2 ) -dimensional and (3 ×3 ) -dimensional Pauli errors can occur on qutrits. In this paper, we (i) explore the possible (2 ×2 ) -dimensional as well as (3 ×3 ) -dimensional Pauli errors in qutrits and show that any pairwise bit swap error can be expressed as a linear combination of shift errors and phase errors, (ii) propose a special type of error called a quantum superposition error and show its equivalence to arbitrary rotation, (iii) formulate a nine-qutrit code which can correct a single error in a qutrit, and (iv) provide its stabilizer and circuit realization.

  15. Normal freezing of ideal ternary systems of the pseudobinary type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C. H.

    1972-01-01

    Perfect liquid mixing but no solid diffusion is assumed in normal freezing. In addition, the molar compositions of the freezing solid and remaining liquid, respectively, follow the solidus and liquidus curves of the constitutional diagram. For the linear case, in which both the liquidus and solidus are perfectly straight lines, the normal freezing equation giving the fraction solidified at each melt temperature and the solute concentration profile in the frozen solid was determined as early as 1902, and has since been repeatedly published. Corresponding equations for quadratic, cubic or higher-degree liquidus and solidus lines have also been obtained. The equation of normal freezing for ideal ternary liquid solutions solidified into ideal solid solutions of the pseudobinary type is given. Sample computations with the use of this new equation were made and are given for the Ga-Al-As system.

  16. Structural study of the continuous medium of spontaneous ternary emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desforge, Christine

    1993-01-01

    This research thesis addresses the study of the structure of a continuous medium of spontaneous ternary emulsions of oil-in-water type, composed of water and octane, and stabilised by means of a cationic surfactant (DDAB, didodecyldimethyl ammonium bromide). It shows that the kinetic stability is due to electrostatic repulsions between octane drops, and that these repulsions are due to the presence of positive charges on the DDAB mono-layer located at the interface between water and oil. Various aspects are highlighted by neutron and X ray scattering. In this study, the DDAB is replaced by a non-ionic surfactant. Its use results in very steady oil/water emulsions [fr

  17. Hardness and Microstructure of Binary and Ternary Nitinol Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Malcolm K.

    2016-01-01

    The hardness and microstructure of twenty-six binary and ternary Nitinol (nickel titanium, nickel titanium hafnium, nickel titanium zirconium and nickel titanium tantalum) compounds were studied. A small (50g) ingot of each compound was produced by vacuum arc remelting. Each ingot was homogenized in vacuum for 48 hr followed by furnace cooling. Specimens from the ingots were then heat treated at 800, 900, 1000 or 1100 degree C for 2 hr followed by water quenching. The hardness and microstructure of each specimen was compared to the baseline material (55-Nitinol, 55 at.% nickel - 45 at.% titanium, after heat treatment at 900 degC). The results show that eleven of the studied compounds had higher hardness values than the baseline material. Moreover, twelve of the studied compounds had measured hardness values greater 600HV at heat treatments from 800 to 900 degree C.

  18. Modeling adsorption of binary and ternary mixtures on microporous media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monsalvo, Matias Alfonso; Shapiro, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    it possible using the same equation of state to describe the thermodynamic properties of the segregated and the bulk phases. For comparison, we also used the ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST) to describe adsorption equilibria. The main advantage of these two models is their capabilities to predict......The goal of this work is to analyze the adsorption of binary and ternary mixtures on the basis of the multicomponent potential theory of adsorption (MPTA). In the MPTA, the adsorbate is considered as a segregated mixture in the external potential field emitted by the solid adsorbent. This makes...... multicomponent adsorption equilibria on the basis of single-component adsorption data. We compare the MPTA and IAST models to a large set of experimental data, obtaining reasonable good agreement with experimental data and high degree of predictability. Some limitations of both models are also discussed....

  19. Site occupancies in ternary C15 ordered Laves phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotula, P.G.; Chu, F.; Thoma, D.J.; Mitchell, T.E.; Anderson, I.M.; Bentley, J.

    1996-01-01

    Site occupancies in three C15-structured AB 2 (X) Laves phases have been determined by Atom Location by CHanneling Enhanced MIcroanalysis (ALCHEMI). In NbCr 2 (V), the results were consistent with exclusive site occupancies of Nb for the A sublattice and Cr and V for the B sublattice. The B-site occupancy of V is not expected from atom size effects alone. In NbCr 2 (Ti), the results were consistent with Ti partitioning mostly to the A sites with some anti-site defects likely. In HfV 2 (Nb), the results were consistent with Nb partitioning between the A and B sites. The results of the ALCHEMI analyses of these ternary C15 Laves phase materials will be discussed with respect to previously determined phase diagrams and first-principles total energy and electronic structure calculations

  20. Quadrupole interaction in ternary chalcopyrite semiconductors experiments and theory

    CERN Document Server

    Dietrich, M; Degering, D; Deicher, M; Kortus, J; Magerle, R; Möller, A; Samokhvalov, V; Unterricker, S; Vianden, R

    2000-01-01

    Electric field gradients have been measured at substitutional lattice sites in ternary semiconductors using perturbed gamma - gamma angular correlation spectroscopy. The experimental results for A/sup I/B/sup III/C/sub 2//sup VI/ chalcopyrite structure compounds and Square Operator A/sup II/B/sub 2//sup III/C/sub 4//sup VI/ defect chalcopyrites are compared with ab-initio calculations. The latter were carried out with the WIEN code that uses the full potential linearized augmented plane wave method within a density functional theory. The agreement between experiment and theory is in most cases very good. Furthermore, the anion displacements in AgGaX/sub 2/- compounds (X: S, Se, Te) have been determined theoretically by determining the minimum of the total energy of the electrons in an elementary cell. (20 refs).

  1. Superconducting properties of a copper-ternary alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.G.; Aleksivskii, N.E.

    1975-01-01

    The superconducting properties of a copper-ternary alloy of the type Cu 93 Nb 5 Sn 2 , subjected to a variety of mechanical and heat treatments, are discussed. The as-cast alloy does not turn superconducting down to 4.5K; but the cold-work and subsequent prescribed heat treatments are found to raise the transition temperature Tsub(c) to values as high as 18.1K and the critical current density Jsub(c) (of the Nb 3 Sn formed during annealing) to a value of 3.6x10 5 Acm -2 (at 4.2K and 30kOe). Various possibilities to improve Jsub(c) of this alloy to still higher values are discussed. The as-cast alloy is ductile, easy to draw, and economical from a technical point of view, and the annealed wires and strips are flexible enough for winding. (author)

  2. Secondary ordering in ternary alloy CuMnPt6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Miwako; Das, Ananda Kumar; Nakamura, Reo; Ohshima, Ken-ichi; Iwasaki, Hiroshi; Shishido, Toetsu

    2006-01-01

    Using the pulsed-neutron diffraction technique, we performed in situ measurements of structural ordering in the ternary alloy CuMnPt 6 . The diffraction patterns at various temperatures give a direct observation of a double-step ordering: disorder to Cu 3 Au type order as an ordering within the fundamental face-centered cubic lattice to subdivide the lattice into two sublattices formed by face-centered sites (first sublattice) and corner sites (second sublattice) at 968degC; and Cu 3 Au type order to ABC 6 type order as an ordering within the second to subdivide the lattice further into two sublattices formed by alternating (111) planes at 746degC. The order parameters for the ABC 6 type structure experimentally estimated by the method of static concentration waves indicate that the primary ordering developed almost completely, but the secondary ordering remained incomplete. (author)

  3. Bond charges and electronic charge transfer in ternary semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietsch, U.

    1986-01-01

    By means of a simple molecule-theoretic model of 'linear superposition of two-electron molecules' the bond charges between nearest neighbours and the effective charges of ions are calculated for ternary zinc-blende structure alloys as well as chalcopyrite semiconductors. Taking into account both, the charge transfer among the ions caused by the differences of electronegativities of atoms used and between the bonds created by the internal stress of the lattice a nearly unvaried averaged bond charge amount of the alloy is found, but rather dramatically changed local bond charge parameters in comparison with the respective values of binary compounds used. This fact should influence the noncentral force interaction in such semiconductors. (author)

  4. A high-throughput search for new ternary superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyshadham, Chandramouli; Hansen, Jacob; Oses, Corey; Curtarolo, Stefano; Hart, Gus

    In 2006 an unexpected new superalloy, Co3[Al,W], was discovered. This new alloy is cobalt-based, in contrast to conventional superalloys, which are nickel-based. Inspired by this new discovery, we performed first-principles calculations, searching through 2224 ternary metallic systems of the form A3[B0.5C0.5], where A = Ni/Co/Fe and [B, C] = all binary combinations of 40 different elements chosen from the periodic table. We found 175 new systems that are better than the Co3[Al, W] superalloy. 75 of these systems are brand new--they have never been reported in experimental literature. These 75 new potential superalloys are good candidates for further experiments. Our calculations are consistent with current experimental literature where data exists. Work supported under: ONR (MURI N00014-13-1-0635).

  5. Enhancement of phononic band gaps in ternary/binary structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, Arafa H.; Mehaney, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Based on the transfer matrix method (TMM) and Bloch theory, the interaction of elastic waves (normal incidence) with 1D phononic crystal had been studied. The transfer matrix method was obtained for both longitudinal and transverse waves by applying the continuity conditions between the consecutive unit cells. Dispersion relations are calculated and plotted for both binary and ternary structures. Also we have investigated the corresponding effects on the band gaps values for the two types of phononic crystals. Furthermore, it can be observed that the complete band gaps are located in the common frequency stop-band regions. Numerical simulations are performed to investigate the effect of different thickness ratios inside each unit cell on the band gap values, as well as unit cells thickness on the central band gap frequency. These phononic band gap materials can be used as a filter for elastic waves at different frequencies values.

  6. Ternary semitransparent organic solar cells with a laminated top electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makha, Mohammed; Testa, Paolo; Anantharaman, Surendra Babu; Heier, Jakob; Jenatsch, Sandra; Leclaire, Nicolas; Tisserant, Jean-Nicolas; Véron, Anna C; Wang, Lei; Nüesch, Frank; Hany, Roland

    2017-01-01

    Tinted and colour-neutral semitransparent organic photovoltaic elements are of interest for building-integrated applications in windows, on glass roofs or on facades. We demonstrate a semitransparent organic photovoltaic cell with a dry-laminated top electrode that achieves a uniform average visible transmittance of 51% and a power conversion efficiency of 3%. The photo-active material is based on a majority blend composed of a visibly absorbing donor polymer and a fullerene acceptor, to which a selective near-infrared absorbing cyanine dye is added as a minority component. Our results show that organic ternary blends are attractive for the fabrication of semitransparent solar cells in general, because a guest component with a complementary absorption can compensate for the inevitably reduced current generation capability of a high-performing binary blend when applied as a thin, semitransparent film.

  7. New method for the simultaneous condensation of complete ternary alloy systems under ultrahigh vacuum conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrtens, A.; Moske, M.; Samwer, K.

    1988-01-01

    An ultrahigh vacuum apparatus is described for the simultaneous condensation of complete ternary alloy systems. Three singly controlled electron beam evaporation sources provide a constant evaporation rate of the different elements. A specially designed rotating mask guarantees a concentration gradient on the substrate according to a ternary phase diagram. The conversion of the actual concentration profile into a standard ternary phase diagram is done by simple computer calculations. They involve corrections for the beam characteristics of the evaporation sources and for the rotating mask. As an example, measurements for the Zr--Cu--Co system are given. The concentration range for the amorphous phase is compared with thermodynamic predictions using Miedema's parameter

  8. Ternary particles with extreme N/Z ratios from neutron-induced fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koster, U.; Faust, H.; Friedrichs, T.; Oberstedt, S.; Fioni, G.; Grob, M.; Ahmad, I. J.; Devlin, M.; Heinz, A.; Kondev, F. G.; Lauritsen, T.; Sarantites, D. G.; Siem, S.; Sobotka, L. G.; Sonzogni, A.

    2000-01-01

    The existing ternary fission models can well reproduce the yields of the most abundant light charged particles. However, these models tend to significantly overestimate the yields of ternary particles with an extreme N/Z ratio: 3 He, 11 Li, 14 Be, etc. The experimental yields of these isotopes were investigated with the recoil separator LOHENGRIN down to a level of 10 -10 per fission. Results from the fissioning systems 233 U (n th , f), 235 U(n th ,f), 239 Pu(n th ,f) 241 Pu(n th ,f) and 245 Cm(n th ,f) are presented and the implications for the ternary fission models are discussed

  9. Electronic structure and bonding in the ternary silicide YNiSi3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Gi Hong; Kang, Dae Bok

    2003-01-01

    An analysis of the electronic structure and bonding in the ternary silicide YNiSi 3 is made, using extended Hueckel tight-binding calculations. The YNiSi 3 structure consists of Ni-capped Si 2 dimer layers and Si zigzag chains. Significant bonding interactions are present between the silicon atoms in the structure. The oxidation state formalism of (Y 3+ )(Ni 0 )(Si 3 ) 3- for YNiSi 3 constitutes a good starting point to describe its electronic structure. Si atoms receive electrons form the most electropositive Y in YNiSi 3 , and Ni 3d and Si 3p states dominate below the Fermi level. There is an interesting electron balance between the two Si and Ni sublattices. Since the π orbitals in the Si chain and the Ni d and s block levels are almost completely occupied, the charge balance for YNiSi 3 can be rewritten as (Y 3+ )(Ni 2- )(Si 2- )(Si-Si) + , making the Si 2 layers oxidized. These results suggest that the Si zigzag chain contains single bonds and the Si 2 double layer possesses single bonds within a dimer with a partial double bond character. Stronger Si-Si and Ni-Si bonding interactions are important for giving stability to the structure, while essentially no metal-metal bonding exists at all. The 2D metallic behavior of this compound is due to the Si-Si interaction leading to dispersion of the several Si 2 π bands crossing the Fermi level in the plane perpendicular to the crystallographic b axis

  10. Fabrication and electrochemical capacitance of hierarchical graphene/polyaniline/carbon nanotube ternary composite film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xiangjun; Dou Hui; Yang Sudong; Hao Liang; Zhang Luojiang; Shen Laifa; Zhang Fang; Zhang Xiaogang

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A hierarchical film with coaxial polyaniline/carbon nanotube (PANI/CNT) nanocables uniformly sandwiched between graphene (GN) sheets was prepared by filtration of the complex dispersion of graphite oxide (GO) and PANI/CNT. Highlights: → A film composed of GN sheets, PANI and CNTs was fabricated. → The coaxial PANI/CNT nanocables uniformly sandwiched between the GN sheets. → The unique structure facilitates contact between electrolyte and electrode materials. → Each component provides unique function to achieve superior electrochemical properties. - Abstract: A film composed of graphene (GN) sheets, polyaniline (PANI) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has been fabricated by reducing a graphite oxide (GO)/PANI/CNT precursor prepared by flow-directed assembly from a complex dispersion of GO and PANI/CNT, followed by reoxidation and redoping of the reduced PANI in the composite to restore the conducting PANI structure. Scanning electron microscope images indicate that the ternary composite film is a layered structure with coaxial PANI/CNT nanocables uniformly sandwiched between the GN sheets. Such novel hierarchical structure with high electrical conductivity perfectly facilitates contact between electrolyte ions and PANI for faradaic energy storage and efficiently utilizes the double-layer capacitance at the electrode-electrolyte interfaces. The specific capacitance of the GN/PANI/CNT estimated by galvanostatic charge/discharge measurement is 569 F g -1 (or 188 F cm -3 for volumetric capacitance) at a current density of 0.1 A g -1 . In addition, the GN/PANI/CNT exhibits good rate capability (60% capacity retention at 10 A g -1 ) and superior cycling stability (4% fade after 5000 continuous charge/discharge cycles).

  11. Ternary Pt-Ru-Ni catalytic layers for methanol electrooxidation prepared by electrodeposition and galvanic replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios ePapaderakis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ternary Pt-Ru-Ni deposits on glassy carbon substrates, Pt-Ru(Ni/GC, have been formed by initial electrodeposition of Ni layers onto glassy carbon electrodes, followed by their partial exchange for Pt and Ru, upon their immersion into equimolar solutions containing complex ions of the precious metals. The overall morphology and composition of the deposits has been studied by SEM microscopy and EDS spectroscopy. Continuous but nodular films have been confirmed, with a Pt÷Ru÷Ni % bulk atomic composition ratio of 37÷12÷51 (and for binary Pt-Ni control systems of 47÷53. Fine topographical details as well as film thickness have been directly recorded using AFM microscopy. The composition of the outer layers as well as the interactions of the three metals present have been studied by XPS spectroscopy and a Pt÷Ru÷Ni % surface atomic composition ratio of 61÷12÷27 (and for binary Pt-Ni control systems of 85÷15 has been found, indicating the enrichment of the outer layers in Pt; a shift of the Pt binding energy peaks to higher values was only observed in the presence of Ru and points to an electronic effect of Ru on Pt. The surface electrochemistry of the thus prepared Pt-Ru(Ni/GC and Pt(Ni/GC electrodes in deaerated acid solutions (studied by cyclic voltammetry proves the existence of a shell consisting exclusively of Pt-Ru or Pt. The activity of the Pt-Ru(Ni deposits towards methanol oxidation (studied by slow potential sweep voltammetry is higher from that of the Pt(Ni deposit and of pure Pt; this enhancement is attributed both to the well-known Ru synergistic effect due to the presence of its oxides but also (based on the XPS findings to a modification effect of Pt electronic properties.

  12. Carbon-supported ternary PtSnIr catalysts for direct ethanol fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, J.; Kokoh, K.B.; Coutanceau, C.; Leger, J.-M. [Equipe Electrocatalyse, UMR 6503 CNRS, Universite de Poitiers, 40 avenue du Recteur Pineau 86022 Poitiers Cedex (France); Dos Anjos, D.M. [Equipe Electrocatalyse, UMR 6503 CNRS, Universite de Poitiers, 40 avenue du Recteur Pineau 86022 Poitiers Cedex (France); Instituto de Quimica de Sao Carlos, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 780, 13560-970 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Olivi, P.; De Andrade, A.R. [Departamento de Quimica da Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Bandeirantes, 3900, 14040-901 Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Tremiliosi-Filho, G. [Instituto de Quimica de Sao Carlos, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 780, 13560-970 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2007-08-01

    Binary PtIr, PtSn and ternary PtSnIr electrocatalysts were prepared by the Pechini-Adams modified method on carbon Vulcan XC-72, and these materials were characterized by TEM and XRD. The XRD results showed that the electrocatalysts consisted of the Pt displaced phase, suggesting the formation of solid solutions between the metals Pt/Ir and Pt/Sn. However, the increase in Sn loading promoted phase separation, with the formation of peaks typical of cubic Pt{sub 3}Sn. The electrochemical investigation of these different electrode materials was carried out as a function of the electrocatalyst composition, in a 0.5 mol dm{sup -3} H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution, with either the presence or the absence of ethanol. Cyclic voltammetric measurements and chronoamperometric results obtained at room temperature showed that PtSn/C and PtSnIr/C displayed better electrocatalytic activity for ethanol electrooxidation compared to PtIr/C and Pt/C, mainly at low potentials. The oxidation process was also investigated by in situ infrared reflectance spectroscopy, to identify the adsorbed species. Linearly adsorbed CO and CO{sub 2} were found, indicating that the cleavage of the C-C bond in the ethanol substrate occurred during the oxidation process. At 90 C, the Pt{sub 89}Sn{sub 11}/C and Pt{sub 68}Sn{sub 9}Ir{sub 23}/C electrocatalysts displayed higher current and power performances as anode materials in a direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC). (author)

  13. Crystal chemistry and magnetic properties of ternary rare earth sulfides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plug, C.M.; Rijksuniversiteit Leiden

    1977-01-01

    The results of magnetic measurements on two groups of ternary rare earth sulphides are described, the MLnS 2 (M=Li, Na, K) type of compounds and the series Ln 2 ZrS 5 , where Ln denotes one of the rare earths. None of these compounds is metallic, excluding the possibility of RKKY-interaction. In chapter II a survey of the relevant theory on magnetic properties and crystal field splitting is given. In spite of the similarity in chemical properties of the rare earths, the crystal chemistry of their compounds is rather complex. This is due to the lanthanide contraction. The third chapter deals with the description and classification of the numerous crystal structures of both ternary and binary rare earth sulphides that have been observed. Rather simple relations between various structures are presented using a new method of structure classification. The magnetic interactions expected to be based on superexchange via the anions, which is usually very structure dependent. Experiments to study the crystallographic ordering, applying both X-ray and electron diffraction methods and the results of the magnetic measurements on the compounds MLnS 2 are reported in chapter IV. The compounds Ln 2 ZrS 5 are candidates for a systematic study of the variation of the magnetic properties along the rare earth series. The results of magnetic measurements on these compounds are presented in chapter V, combined with the results of specific heat measurements. Also the magnetic structure of two representatives, Tb 2 ZrS 5 and Dy 2 ZrS 5 , determined by neutron diffraction experiments below the ordering temperature, is reported

  14. Boron-Based Hydrogen Storage: Ternary Borides and Beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vajo, John J. [HRL Laboratories, LLC, Malibu, CA (United States)

    2016-04-28

    DOE continues to seek reversible solid-state hydrogen materials with hydrogen densities of ≥11 wt% and ≥80 g/L that can deliver hydrogen and be recharged at moderate temperatures (≤100 °C) and pressures (≤100 bar) enabling incorporation into hydrogen storage systems suitable for transportation applications. Boron-based hydrogen storage materials have the potential to meet the density requirements given boron’s low atomic weight, high chemical valance, and versatile chemistry. However, the rates of hydrogen exchange in boron-based compounds are thus far much too slow for practical applications. Although contributing to the high hydrogen densities, the high valance of boron also leads to slow rates of hydrogen exchange due to extensive boron-boron atom rearrangements during hydrogen cycling. This rearrangement often leads to multiple solid phases occurring over hydrogen release and recharge cycles. These phases must nucleate and react with each other across solid-solid phase boundaries leading to energy barriers that slow the rates of hydrogen exchange. This project sought to overcome the slow rates of hydrogen exchange in boron-based hydrogen storage materials by minimizing the number of solid phases and the boron atom rearrangement over a hydrogen release and recharge cycle. Two novel approaches were explored: 1) developing matched pairs of ternary borides and mixed-metal borohydrides that could exchange hydrogen with only one hydrogenated phase (the mixed-metal borohydride) and only one dehydrogenated phase (the ternary boride); and 2) developing boranes that could release hydrogen by being lithiated using lithium hydride with no boron-boron atom rearrangement.

  15. Prototyping SOS meta-theory in Maude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mousavi, M.R.; Reniers, M.A.; Mosses, P.D.; Ulidowski, I.

    2006-01-01

    We present a prototype implementation of SOS meta-theory in the Maude term rewriting language. The prototype defines the basic concepts of SOS meta-theory (e.g., transition formulae, deduction rules and transition system specifications) in Maude. Besides the basic definitions, we implement methods

  16. OPAL jet chamber full-scale prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, H M; Hauschild, M; Hartmann, H; Hegerath, A; Boerner, H; Burckhart, H J; Dittmar, M; Hammarstroem, R; Heuer, R D; Mazzone, L

    1986-12-01

    The concept of a jet chamber for the central detector of OPAL was tested with a full scale prototype. The design of this prototype, its mechanical and electrical structure and its support system for high voltage, gas, laser calibration, and readout are described. Operating experience was gathered since summer 1984. The chamber performance in terms of spatial resolution and particle identification capability is given.

  17. Gamification in a Prototype Household Energy Game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fijnheer, J.D.L.; van Oostendorp, H.; Veltkamp, R.C.

    2016-01-01

    Research where gamification is used to influence household energy consumption is an emerging field. This paper reviews design features of the prototype Powersaver Game. The aim of this game is to influence household energy consumption in the long-term. The evaluation of the design of the prototype,

  18. Rapid Prototyping in Instructional Design: Creating Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Carolyn D.

    2010-01-01

    Instructional designers working in rapid prototyping environments currently do not have a list of competencies that help to identify the knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs) required in these workplaces. This qualitative case study used multiple cases in an attempt to identify rapid prototyping competencies required in a rapid prototyping…

  19. Dissipative Prototyping Methods: A Manifesto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beesley, P.

    Taking a designer's unique perspective using examples of practice in experimental installation and digital protoyping, this manifesto acts as provocation for change and unlocking new potential by encouraging changes of perspective about the material realm. Diffusive form-language is proposed as a paradigm for architectural design. This method of design is applied through 3D printing and related digital fabrication methods, offering new qualities that can be implemented in design of realms including present earth and future interplanetary environments. A paradigm shift is encouraged by questioning conventional notions of geometry that minimize interfaces and by proposing the alternatives of maximized interfaces formed by effusive kinds of formal composition. A series of projects from the Canadian research studio of the Hylozoic Architecture group are described, providing examples of component design methods employing diffusive forms within combinations of tension-integrity structural systems integrated with hybrid metabolisms employing synthetic biology. Cultural implications are also discussed, drawing from architectural theory and natural philosophy. The conclusion of this paper suggests that the practice of diffusive prototyping can offer formative strategies contributing to design of future living systems.

  20. A French fuel cell prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    A French prototype of a fuel cell based on the PEM (proton exchange membrane) technology has been designed by Helion, a branch of Technicatome, this fuel cell delivers 300 kW and will be used in naval applications and terrestrial transport. The main advantages of fuel cell are: 1) no contamination, even if the fuel used is natural gas the quantities of CO 2 and CO emitted are respectively 17 and 75 times as little as the maximal quantities allowed by European regulations, 2) efficiency, the electric yield is up to 60 % and can reach 80 % if we include the recovery of heat, 3) silent, the fuel cell itself does not make noise. The present price of fuel cell is the main reason that hampers its industrial development, this price is in fact strongly dependant on the cost of its different components: catalyzers, membranes, bipolar plates and the hydrogen supply. This article gives the technical characteristics of the Helion's fuel cell. (A.C.)

  1. Wireless Augmented Reality Prototype (WARP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devereaux, A. S.

    1999-01-01

    Initiated in January, 1997, under NASA's Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications, the Wireless Augmented Reality Prototype (WARP) is a means to leverage recent advances in communications, displays, imaging sensors, biosensors, voice recognition and microelectronics to develop a hands-free, tetherless system capable of real-time personal display and control of computer system resources. Using WARP, an astronaut may efficiently operate and monitor any computer-controllable activity inside or outside the vehicle or station. The WARP concept is a lightweight, unobtrusive heads-up display with a wireless wearable control unit. Connectivity to the external system is achieved through a high-rate radio link from the WARP personal unit to a base station unit installed into any system PC. The radio link has been specially engineered to operate within the high- interference, high-multipath environment of a space shuttle or space station module. Through this virtual terminal, the astronaut will be able to view and manipulate imagery, text or video, using voice commands to control the terminal operations. WARP's hands-free access to computer-based instruction texts, diagrams and checklists replaces juggling manuals and clipboards, and tetherless computer system access allows free motion throughout a cabin while monitoring and operating equipment.

  2. Virtual Video Prototyping of Pervasive Healthcare Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind; Bossen, Claus; Madsen, Kim Halskov

    2002-01-01

    Virtual studio technology enables the mixing of physical and digital 3D objects and thus expands the way of representing design ideas in terms of virtual video prototypes, which offers new possibilities for designers by combining elements of prototypes, mock-ups, scenarios, and conventional video....... In this article we report our initial experience in the domain of pervasive healthcare with producing virtual video prototypes and using them in a design workshop. Our experience has been predominantly favourable. The production of a virtual video prototype forces the designers to decide very concrete design...... issues, since one cannot avoid paying attention to the physical, real-world constraints and to details in the usage-interaction between users and technology. From the users' perspective, during our evaluation of the virtual video prototype, we experienced how it enabled users to relate...

  3. Virtual Video Prototyping for Healthcare Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind; Bossen, Claus; Lykke-Olesen, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    Virtual studio technology enables the mixing of physical and digital 3D objects and thus expands the way of representing design ideas in terms of virtual video prototypes, which offers new possibilities for designers by combining elements of prototypes, mock-ups, scenarios, and conventional video....... In this article we report our initial experience in the domain of pervasive healthcare with producing virtual video prototypes and using them in a design workshop. Our experience has been predominantly favourable. The production of a virtual video prototype forces the designers to decide very concrete design...... issues, since one cannot avoid paying attention to the physical, real-world constraints and to details in the usage-interaction between users and technology. From the users' perspective, during our evaluation of the virtual video prototype, we experienced how it enabled users to relate...

  4. High confidence in falsely recognizing prototypical faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Cristina; Reinke, Victoria; Mathews, Jeffrey; Swart, Alexandra; Wallinger, Stephen

    2018-06-01

    We applied a metacognitive approach to investigate confidence in recognition of prototypical faces. Participants were presented with sets of faces constructed digitally as deviations from prototype/base faces. Participants were then tested with a simple recognition task (Experiment 1) or a multiple-choice task (Experiment 2) for old and new items plus new prototypes, and they showed a high rate of confident false alarms to the prototypes. Confidence and accuracy relationship in this face recognition paradigm was found to be positive for standard items but negative for the prototypes; thus, it was contingent on the nature of the items used. The data have implications for lineups that employ match-to-suspect strategies.

  5. Synergistic increase of oxygen reduction favourable Fe-N coordination structures in a ternary hybrid of carbon nanospheres/carbon nanotubes/graphene sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shiming; Liu, Bin; Chen, Shengli

    2013-11-14

    A Fe/N co-doped ternary nanocarbon hybrid, with uniform bamboo-like carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in situ grown on/between the single/few-layer graphene sheets interspaced by carbon nanosphere aggregates, was prepared through a one-pot heat treatment of a precursor mixture containing graphene oxide, Vulcan XC-72 carbon nanospheres, nitrogen rich melamine and small amounts of Fe ions. Physical characterization including electron microscopic images, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, pore size distribution, XPS, XRD, Mössbauer spectra, and EDX revealed that the 0-D/1-D/2-D ternary hybrid architecture not only offered an optimized morphology for high dispersion of each nanocarbon moiety, while the carbon nanosphere interspaced graphene sheets have provided a platform for efficient reaction between Fe ions and melamine molecules, resulting in uniform nucleation and growth of CNTs and formation of high density Fe-N coordination assemblies that have been believed to be the active centers for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in carbon-based nonprecious metal electrocatalysts. In the absence of graphene oxides or carbon nanospheres, a similar heat treatment was found to result in large amounts of elemental Fe and Fe carbides and entangled CNTs with wide diameter distributions. As a result, the ternary Fe/N-doped nanocarbon hybrid exhibits ORR activity much higher than the Fe-N doped single or binary nanocarbon materials prepared under similar heat treatment conditions, and approaching that of the state-of-the-art carbon-supported platinum catalyst (Pt/C) in acidic media, as well as superior stability and methanol tolerance to Pt/C.

  6. Synthesis of Cu{sub 2}O/graphene/rutile TiO{sub 2} nanorod ternary composites with enhanced photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Mingxuan, E-mail: mingxuansun@sues.edu.cn; Fang, Yalin; Wang, Ying; Sun, Shanfu; He, Jia; Yan, Zhi

    2015-11-25

    A ternary composite of Cu{sub 2}O, graphene and rutile TiO{sub 2} nanorods was prepared using Cu(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2}·H{sub 2}O, graphene oxide and TiCl{sub 4} as the starting materials and its enhanced photocatalytic performance was demonstrated. Graphene/TiO{sub 2} nanorod composites (GT) were obtained by a simple hydrothermal method and then, Cu{sub 2}O was coupled onto the surface of graphene/rutile TiO{sub 2} to form Cu{sub 2}O/graphene/rutile TiO{sub 2} nanorod (CGT) composites via a chemical bath deposition process. The as-prepared sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), emission field scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), specific surface area analyzer (BET), Raman spectroscopy and ultraviolet–visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV–vis DRS). It is found that the introduction of graphene and Cu{sub 2}O has little effect on the morphology of TiO{sub 2} nanorods with average dimensions of 140 nm (length) × 30 nm (diameter) (L/D ratio ≈5). A red shift of light absorption edge and more absorption in the visible light region were observed for the resulted ternary samples compared with TiO{sub 2} and graphene/TiO{sub 2} composites. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by the photodegradation of methylene blue under visible light irradiation, which showed 2.8 times corresponding enhancement of the degradation efficiency for the ternary composites compared with TiO{sub 2}. This work provides a new strategy to improve the visible light response of TiO{sub 2} and facilitate its application in environmental remediation. - Highlights: • A ternary composite of Cu{sub 2}O/graphene/rutile TiO{sub 2} nanorods were successfully fabricated. • Red shift and more absorption in the visible light region were observed for the ternary composites. • Improved photocatalytic degradation was detected with the introduction of Cu{sub 2}O and graphene. • Both Cu{sub 2}O and graphene played an important role

  7. Organic Solar Cells beyond One Pair of Donor-Acceptor: Ternary Blends and More.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liqiang; Yan, Liang; You, Wei

    2013-06-06

    Ternary solar cells enjoy both an increased light absorption width, and an easy fabrication process associated with their simple structures. Significant progress has been made for such solar cells with demonstrated efficiencies over 7%; however, their fundamental working principles are still under investigation. This Perspective is intended to offer our insights on the three major governing mechanisms in these intriguing ternary solar cells: charge transfer, energy transfer, and parallel-linkage. Through careful analysis of exemplary cases, we summarize the advantages and limitations of these three major mechanisms and suggest future research directions. For example, incorporating additional singlet fission or upconversion materials into the energy transfer dominant ternary solar cells has the potential to break the theoretical efficiency limit in single junction organic solar cells. Clearly, a feedback loop between fundamental understanding and materials selection is in urgent need to accelerate the efficiency improvement of these ternary solar cells.

  8. Experimental investigation of phase equilibria in the Zr-Cu-Ni ternary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Mujin; Wang, Cuiping; Yang, Shuiyuan; Shi, Zhan; Han, Jiajia; Liu, Xingjun

    2017-01-01

    The phase equilibria in the Zr-Cu-Ni ternary system are investigated combined with X-ray diffraction, electron probe micro-analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Two isothermal sections of the Zr-Cu-Ni ternary system at 1 000 C and 1 100 C are experimentally established. Most of the binary intermetallic compounds, e.g. Zr 7 Ni 10 , ZrNi, ZrNi 5 , Zr 14 Cu 51 , and Zr 2 Cu 9 , show a remarkable ternary solubility. A new ternary compound named τ 3 (Zr 31.1-30.7 . Cu 28.5-40.3 Ni 40.4-29.0 ) is detected at 1 000 C and dissolved at 1 020 C because the nearby large liquid phase field further expands. The newly determined phase equilibria will provide important information for both thermodynamic assessment and alloy design of Zr-based metallic glass.

  9. The ternary systems Sc-Sm(Dy)-Si at 870 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotur, B.Ya.; Mokra, I.Ya.; Toporinskij, A.Ya.

    1991-01-01

    Isothermal cross sections of the ternary systems Sc-Sm-Si and Sc-Dy-Si at 870 K have been plotted. Investigation of scandium and disprosium in ternary systems have been examined by X-ray diffraction and microstructure analysis. Besides literary data on binary systems Sc-Si, Sm-Si, Dy-Si have been used. Formation of limited (Sc-Sm-Si, Sc-Dy-Si) and continuous (Sc-Dy-Si) solid solutions based on bisilicides of Sc and Sm(Dy) is discovered. Two and five ternary compounds in Sc-Sm-Si and Sc-Dy-Si systems have been determined and their crystal structure has been established. When investigating of Sc-(rare earth element)-Si ternary systems and should take into account the specific interaction of scandium and samarium with REE

  10. A computer calculation of the ternary Mo-Pd-Rh phase diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerler, R.; Pratt, J.N.

    1993-01-01

    Thermodynamic coefficients for the phases in the binary Mo-Pd, Pd-Rh and Mo-Rh systems were derived by the assessment of the available experimental data using the binary Lukas optimization program. The resulting coefficients were first successfully utilised in reestablishing the binaries. The coefficients thus obtained in the binary computation were combined with ternary descriptions to compute ternary isothermal sections. Although no ternary interaction term was involved in the construction of the isotherms, the section calculated at 1373 K is found to be consistent with the experimentally established isothermal section at the same temperature. The location of three-phase field (bcc+hcp+fcc) and phase boundaries in both isotherms are matching reasonably well. Combining only binary coefficients of these phases, it is possible to construct reasonable isothermal sections at different temperatures. Following this conclusion, isothermal sections ranging from 1373 to 2673 K of the ternary Mo-Pd-Rh system were calculated. (orig.)

  11. Theoretical study of physical properties and oxygen incorporation effect in nanolaminated ternary carbides 211-MAX phases

    KAUST Repository

    Kanoun, Mohammed; Goumri-Said, Souraya

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, we employ ab initio approaches to review some important physical properties of nanolaminated ternary carbides MAX phases. We fi rstly use an all electron full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave method within the generalized

  12. Special quasirandom structures for binary/ternary group IV random alloys

    KAUST Repository

    Chroneos, Alexander I.; Jiang, Chao; Grimes, Robin W.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2010-01-01

    Simulation of defect interactions in binary/ternary group IV semiconductor alloys at the density functional theory level is difficult due to the random distribution of the constituent atoms. The special quasirandom structures approach is a

  13. An evaporation-based model of thermal neutron induced ternary fission of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lestone, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    Ternary fission probabilities for thermal neutron induced fission of plutonium are analyzed within the framework of an evaporation-based model where the complexity of time-varying potentials, associated with the neck collapse, are included in a simplistic fashion. If the nuclear temperature at scission and the fission-neck-collapse time are assumed to be ~ 1.2 MeV and ~ 10 -22 s, respectively, then calculated relative probabilities of ternary-fission light-charged-particle emission follow the trends seen in the experimental data. The ability of this model to reproduce ternary fission probabilities spanning seven orders of magnitude for a wide range of light-particle charges and masses implies that ternary fission is caused by the coupling of an evaporation-like process with the rapid re-arrangement of the nuclear fluid following scission. (author)

  14. Partially fluorinated aarylene polyethers and their ternary blends with PBI and H3PO4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qingfeng; Jensen, Jens Oluf; Pan, Chao

    2008-01-01

    Ternary blend membranes based on sulphonated partially fluorinated arylene polyether, polybenzimidazole (PBI) and phosphoric acid were prepared and characterised as electrolyte for high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Partially fluorinated arylene polyether was first prepared from...

  15. Synthesis and Characterization of Novel Ternary and Quaternary Alkali Metal Thiophosphates

    KAUST Repository

    Alahmary, Fatimah S.

    2014-01-01

    The ongoing development of nonlinear optical (NLO) crystals such as coherent mid-IR sources focuses on various classes of materials such as ternary and quaternary metal chalcophosphates. In case of thiophosphates, the connection between PS4

  16. Prototypical versus contemporary Mediterranean Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizza, W; De Gara, L; Antonelli Incalzi, R; Pedone, C

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the evolution of the Mediterranean Diet (MD) in a delimited area of Southern Italy, by comparing the diet adopted 60-70 years ago (Prototypical Mediterranean Diet, PMD) with the contemporary one (Contemporary Mediterranean Diet, CMD), and to verify to what extent they fitted the recommendations of the Italian and the USDA dietary guidelines. We recruited a total of 106 participants, divided in two groups. PMD group included 52 women aged >80 years, with a good cognitive function and full independence in basic and instrumental activities of daily living. CMD group included 20 men and 34 women aged 50-60 years. Food intake was assessed by administering the EPIC food frequency questionnaire to each participant, and an additional survey to the PMD subjects only. Both PMD and CMD showed adequate intakes of macronutrients, although some deficiencies related to micronutrient requirements were evident. CMD showed a slightly greater use of animal products, processed and sugary foods, and higher intakes of simple sugars, animal proteins (49.6 vs 28.3 g/day), animal lipids (37.8 vs 20.1 g/day), saturated fats (25.0 vs 15.8 g/day) and cholesterol (305.0 vs 258.5 g/day). PMD showed many similarities to the original version of the MD in terms of macronutrients distribution and food choices. The documented evolution of the dietary habits over a 70 years timespan suggests that nowadays Mediterranean regions adhere less strictly to the original MD, although nutrients intakes are adequate to LARN and USDA recommendations. Copyright © 2016 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Validation of a station-prototype designed to integrate temporally soil N2O fluxes: IPNOA Station prototype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laville, Patricia; Volpi, Iride; Bosco, Simona; Virgili, Giorgio; Neri, Simone; Continanza, Davide; Bonari, Enrico

    2016-04-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) flux measurements from agricultural soil surface still accounts for the scientific community as major challenge. The evaluations of integrated soil N2O fluxes are difficult because these emissions are lower than for the other greenhouse gases sources (CO2, CH4). They are also sporadic, because highly dependent on few environmental conditions acting as limiting factors. Within a LIFE project (IPNOA: LIFE11 ENV/IT/00032) a station prototype was developed to integrate annually N2O and CO2 emissions using automatically chamber technique. Main challenge was to develop a device enough durable to be able of measuring in continuous way CO2 and N2O fluxes with sufficient sensitivity to allow make reliable assessments of soil GHG measurements with minimal technical field interventions. The IPNOA station prototype was developed by West System SRL and was set up during 2 years (2014 -2015) in an experimental maize field in Tuscan. The prototype involved six automatic chambers; the complete measurement cycle was of 2 hours. Each chamber was closing during 20 min and biogas accumulations were monitoring in line with IR spectrometers. Auxiliary's measurements including soil temperatures and water contents as weather data were also monitoring. All data were managed remotely with the same acquisition software installed in the prototype control unit. The operation of the prototype during the two cropping years allowed testing its major features: its ability to evaluate the temporal variation of N2O soil fluxes during a long period with weather conditions and agricultural managements and to prove the interest to have continuous measurements of fluxes. The temporal distribution of N2O fluxes indicated that emissions can be very large and discontinuous over short periods less ten days and that during about 70% of the time N2O fluxes were around detection limit of the instrumentation, evaluated to 2 ng N ha-1 day-1. N2O emission factor assessments were 1.9% in 2014

  18. On the application of the NRTL method to ternary (liquid + liquid) equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez Julia, Jorge; Barrero, Carmen R.; Corso, Maria E.; Grande, Maria del Carmen; Marschoff, Carlos M.

    2005-01-01

    The use of the NRTL method for correlating experimental data in ternary (liquid + liquid) equilibria is considered. It is concluded that parameters obtained by direct correlation techniques have not a direct physical meaning. Also, it is shown that the resulting values for these parameters depend on the number of experimental points considered and on the particular calculation method employed. Thus, it is very risky to employ such parameters in predicting equilibria of other ternary mixtures

  19. Structure of the novel ternary hydrides Li4Tt2D (Tt=Si and Ge)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Hui; Rush, J.J.; Maryland Univ., College Park, MD; Hartman, M.R.; Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR; Udovic, T.J.; Zhou Wei; Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia, PA; Bowman, R.C. Jr.; Vajo, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    The crystal structures of newly discovered Li 4 Ge 2 D and Li 4 Si 2 D ternary phases were solved by direct methods using neutron powder diffraction data. Both structures can be described using a Cmmm orthorhombic cell with all hydrogen atoms occupying Li 6 -octahedral interstices. The overall crystal structure and the geometry of these interstices are compared with those of other related phases, and the stabilization of this novel class of ternary hydrides is discussed. (orig.)

  20. Consideration of the Verleur model of far-infrared spectroscopy of ternary compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robouch, B. V.; Kisiel, A.; Sheregii, E. M.

    2001-01-01

    The clustering model proposed by Verleur and Barker [Phys. Rev. 149, 715 (1966)] to interpret far infrared data for face-centered-cubic ternary compounds is critically analyzed. It is shown that their approach, satisfactory for fitting some ternary compound spectral curves, is too restricted by its one-parameter β model to be able to describe preferences (with respect to a random distribution case) for the five tetrahedron configurations