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Sample records for prototype naitl detector

  1. Design and performance of a modularized NaI(Tl) detector (the crystal ball prototype)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Y.; Partridge, R.A.; Peck, C.W.

    1977-01-01

    A prototype NaI(Tl) detector (the Cluster of 54) of spherical geometry subtending a solid angle of 7.5 percent of 4π at its center, has recently been assembled and tested. This detector consisted of 54 close-packed but optically isolated NaI(Tl) modules and the associated electronic circuitry. The Cluster of 54 is the predecessor of an almost complete spherical detector, the Crystal Ball, which will cover 94 percent of 4π. The latter detector is now under construction and is especially designed for the study of γ-rays produced in electron-positron collisions at colliding beam facilities. The mechanical, optical, and electronic assembly of the prototype system is outlined. Cluster of 54 test data will be presented

  2. Background studies for NaI(Tl) detectors in the ANAIS dark matter project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaré, J.; Borjabad, S.; Cebrián, S.; Cuesta, C.; Fortuño, D.; García, E.; Ginestra, C.; Gómez, H.; Martínez, M.; Oliván, M. A.; Ortigoza, Y.; Solórzano, A. Ortiz de; Pobes, C.; Puimedón, J.; Sarsa, M. L.; Villar, J. A.; Villar, P.

    2013-01-01

    Several large NaI(Tl) detectors, produced by different companies, have been operated in the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC) in the frame of the ANAIS (Annual modulation with NaI Scintillators) project devoted to the direct detection of dark matter. A complete background model has been developed for a 9.6 kg detector (referred as ANAIS-0 prototype) after a long data taking at LSC. Activities from the natural chains of 238 U and 232 Th, and 40 K in the NaI(Tl) crystal were evaluated applying different methods: discrimination of alpha particles vs beta/gamma background by Pulse Shape Analysis for quantifying the content of the natural chains and coincidence techniques for 40 K. Radioactive contaminations in the detector and shielding components were also determined by HPGe spectrometry. Monte Carlo simulations using Geant4 package were carried out to evaluate their contribution. At high energies, most of the measured background is nicely reproduced; at low energy some non-explained components are still present, although some plausible background sources have been analyzed. The 40 K content of the NaI(Tl) crystal has been confirmed to be the dominant contributor to the measured background with this detector. In addition, preliminary results of the background characterization, presently underway at the LSC, of two recently produced NaI(Tl) detectors, with 12.5 kg mass each, will be presented: cosmogenic induced activity has been clearly observed and is being quantified, and 40 K activity at a level ten times lower than in ANAIS-0 has been determined

  3. SiPM-MAROC gamma-camera prototype with monolithic NaI(Tl) scintillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philippov, Dmitry; Ilyin, Andrey; Belyaev, Vladimir; Popova, Elan [National Research Nuclear University, Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Buzhan, Pavel; Stifutkin, Alexei [Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (Russian Federation)

    2015-05-18

    A full-body gamma-camera based on SiPM readout is currently under development as a part of MEPHI R activity supported in the framework of Russian Megagrants program. A goal of this development is a fast upgrade of existing medical equipment with minor changes in a system design and construction in order to combine SPECT and MR instruments. A monolithic NaI(Tl) scintillator commonly used for conventional PMT-based gamma cameras has been chosen for this study. SiPMs will be coupled with the scintillator via an optical guide. To cover scintillator surface thousands of SiPMs are required, together with multichannel front-end electronics. That means that readout electronics have to be very compact, with low power consumption and low cost. 64 – channel ASIC MAROC from Weeroc provides individual readout of each SiPM and has been considered as the best choice among electronics solutions available on the market. As the photodetector parameters are the key issues here, KETEK SiPMs with high detection efficiency, low crosstalk and low noise have been chosen for this study. In order to study the proposed detection system in detail and obtain detector module parameters, required for MC simulation, a 64-channel small prototype with 6x6mm{sup 2} SiPMs has been constructed and tested. SiPMs in SMD packages have been assembled as a matrix of 8x8 elements and readout by MAROC-based board. Prototype has been tested with different shape NaI(Tl) scintillators and gammas with different energy. Dedicated algorithms for extraction of gamma-event’s energy and position are under development. They are based on fitting a matrix of individual SiPMs responses by an analytical function F(x,y). They will be tested with GEANT-simulated events and experimental data. Development of the next (engineering) prototype of SiPM’s module for gamma-camera will be started soon.

  4. SiPM-MAROC gamma-camera prototype with monolithic NaI(Tl) scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippov, Dmitry; Ilyin, Andrey; Belyaev, Vladimir; Popova, Elan; Buzhan, Pavel; Stifutkin, Alexei

    2015-01-01

    A full-body gamma-camera based on SiPM readout is currently under development as a part of MEPHI R activity supported in the framework of Russian Megagrants program. A goal of this development is a fast upgrade of existing medical equipment with minor changes in a system design and construction in order to combine SPECT and MR instruments. A monolithic NaI(Tl) scintillator commonly used for conventional PMT-based gamma cameras has been chosen for this study. SiPMs will be coupled with the scintillator via an optical guide. To cover scintillator surface thousands of SiPMs are required, together with multichannel front-end electronics. That means that readout electronics have to be very compact, with low power consumption and low cost. 64 – channel ASIC MAROC from Weeroc provides individual readout of each SiPM and has been considered as the best choice among electronics solutions available on the market. As the photodetector parameters are the key issues here, KETEK SiPMs with high detection efficiency, low crosstalk and low noise have been chosen for this study. In order to study the proposed detection system in detail and obtain detector module parameters, required for MC simulation, a 64-channel small prototype with 6x6mm 2 SiPMs has been constructed and tested. SiPMs in SMD packages have been assembled as a matrix of 8x8 elements and readout by MAROC-based board. Prototype has been tested with different shape NaI(Tl) scintillators and gammas with different energy. Dedicated algorithms for extraction of gamma-event’s energy and position are under development. They are based on fitting a matrix of individual SiPMs responses by an analytical function F(x,y). They will be tested with GEANT-simulated events and experimental data. Development of the next (engineering) prototype of SiPM’s module for gamma-camera will be started soon.

  5. The nonlinear light output of NaI(Tl) detectors in the Modular Total Absorption Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasco, B.C., E-mail: crasco@lsu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Fijałkowska, A.; Karny, M. [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 5, PL-02093 Warszawa (Poland); Rykaczewski, K.P. [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Wolińska-Cichocka, M. [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Heavy Ion Laboratory, University of Warsaw, Warsaw PL-02-093 (Poland); Grzywacz, R.; Goetz, K.C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37966 (United States)

    2015-07-11

    A new detector array, the Modular Total Absorption Spectrometer (MTAS), was commissioned at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL). Total absorption gamma spectra measured with MTAS are expected to improve beta-feeding patterns and beta strength functions in fission products. MTAS is constructed out of hexagonal NaI(Tl) detectors with a unique central module surrounded by 18 identical crystals assembled in three rings. The total NaI(Tl) mass of MTAS is over 1000 kg. The response of the central and other 18 MTAS modules to γ-radiation was simulated using the GEANT4 toolkit modified to analyze the nonlinear light output of NaI(Tl). A detailed description of the GEANT4 modifications made is discussed. Simulated energy resolution of MTAS modules is found to agree well with the measurements for single γ transitions of 662 keV ({sup 137}Cs) with 8.2% full width half maximum (FWHM), 835 keV ({sup 54}Mn) with FWHM of 7.5% FWHM, and 1115 keV ({sup 65}Zn) with FWHM of 6.5%. Simulations of single and multiple γ-rays from {sup 60}Co are also discussed.

  6. UA1 prototype detector

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    Prototype of UA1 central detector inside a plexi tube. The UA1 experiment ran at CERN's Super Proton Synchrotron and made the Nobel Prize winning discovery of W and Z particles in 1983. The UA1 central detector was crucial to understanding the complex topology of proton-antiproton events. It played a most important role in identifying a handful of Ws and Zs among billions of collisions. The detector was essentially a wire chamber - a 6-chamber cylindrical assembly 5.8 m long and 2.3 m in diameter, the largest imaging drift chamber of its day. It recorded the tracks of charged particles curving in a 0.7 Tesla magnetic field, measuring their momentum, the sign of their electric charge and their rate of energy loss (dE/dx). Atoms in the argon-ethane gas mixture filling the chambers were ionised by the passage of charged particles. The electrons which were released drifted along an electric field shaped by field wires and were collected on sense wires. The geometrical arrangement of the 17000 field wires and 6...

  7. Gamma spectra analysis from a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector using a micro-computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levinson, S.

    1990-01-01

    A software package of programs was devloped for qualitative and quantitative evaluation of gamma ray spectra obtained from a NaI(Tl) scintilation counter, by means of a micro-computer. The programs can easily be transformed for use with a Ge(Li) detector. The various algorithms enable automatic analyzing of a spectrum and also interactive or manual mode. The graphic programs display the measured spectrum as well as spectra of standard radionuclides which helps in the determination of peaks and related radionuclides in the spectrum. The peak search is carried out on a smoothed spectrum and is done by checking the behaviour of the second and third derivatives. The algorithm solves the problem of overlapping peaks and performs gaussian fitting, if necessary. Determination of the various radionuclides in the spectrum is done by linear minimum least squares techniques. Overall analysis of the radionuclides activities in the spectrum is obtained for samples of various counting geometries. In addition, a model was developed for efficiency calibration of flat 3X3 inch NaI(Tl) detectors for different samples measured in various counting geometries. It is based on point source experimental efficiency curve fitting. (author)

  8. Response function of NaI(Tl) detectors and multiple backscattering of gamma rays in aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabharwal, Arvind D.; Singh, Manpreet; Singh, Bhajan; Sandhu, B.S.

    2008-01-01

    The response function, converting the observed pulse-height distribution of a NaI(Tl) detector to a true photon spectrum, is obtained experimentally with the help of an inverse matrix approach. The energy of gamma-ray photons continuously decreases as the number of scatterings increases in a sample having finite dimensions when one deals with the depth of the sample. The present experiments are undertaken to study the effect of target thickness on intensity distribution of gamma photons multiply backscattered from an aluminium target. A NaI(Tl) gamma-ray detector detects the photons backscattered from the aluminium target. The subtraction of analytically estimated singly scattered distribution from the observed intensity distribution (originating from interactions of primary gamma-ray photons with the target) results in multiply backscattered events. We observe that for each incident gamma photon energy, the number of multiply backscattered photons increases with increase in target thickness and then saturates at a particular target thickness called the saturation thickness (depth). Saturation thickness for multiply backscattering of gamma photons is found to decrease with increase in energy of incident gamma-ray photons

  9. Expanding of FOV of NaI(Tl) gamma camera detectors-Is it possible?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gayshan, Vadim L.; Gektin, A.V.; Boyarintsev, A.; Pedash, V.

    2006-01-01

    Every gamma camera detector used for medical imaging of conventional design faces the problem of distorted or no information readout at the areas closer to the edge of detectors. Obtaining position and energy information becomes almost impossible at distance 0-12 of PMT size from the edge. Therefore, in some designs were proposed losing of edge energy resolution while improving in spatial uniformity when it comes to imaging at the edges. This work is dedicated to understanding of the problem, mathematical simulations, practical tests and recommendations to build detectors with larger usable FOV without increasing in dimensions. To study the problem we built the test jig with linear motion source and readout electronics to simulate gamma cameras of PMTs. Based on simulation results the idea of modifying of crystal shape combined with specific light redirection system of baffles was tested and allowed to expand usable FOV. The results are presented and showed that for traditional NaI(Tl) scintillators using 2'' PMT may be possible to obtain relatively good spatial resolution starting from 4-5mm from the edge of a detector. The question of economical efficiency of proposed method is being investigated and a special detector manufacturing technology must be developed to accommodate this. While we believe that achieved results are very important for small size detectors (<20cm) they could be beneficial even for larger detectors used in whole body imaging systems

  10. Characterization and analysis of NaI(Tl) and BGO detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    There have been many studies concerning the performance characteristics of NaI(Tl) and BGO scintillating crystals, most of which generate data by algorithms rather than from experimentation. Those studies which do deal with collected data, however, usually test only a few detecting units. It was, therefore, the purpose of this project to develop a characterization method and to characterize a large number of scintillators of various sizes and histories as well as to create a performance profile based on the data collected. The energy ranges at which the detectors show relatively good resolution % and photo peak efficiency was also desired for future reference. Enough statistical data was collected and analyzed so that a differentiation between those detectors which perform well and those that do not can be made

  11. Pulse shaper for scintillation detectors with NaI(Tl) or CsI(Tl) crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novisov, B.S.; Maksimenko, A.S.; Baryshev, A.V.; Zhukov, A.V.

    1978-01-01

    The basic circuit of a signal shaper for scintillation detectors with NaI(Tl) and CsI(Tl) crystals is described. To increase amplitude resolution, it is suggested to integrate not the whole charge at the photomultiplier output, but a part of the charge during the initial 100 ns of the current pulse; the remaining part of the current signal is compensated directly at the photomultiplier anode by means of an electric circuit. The principal elements of the spectrometric signal shaper include an input transistor amplifier, a compensation circuit, a key element, a shaper amplifier of time pulses, a shaper of signal duration for controlling the key element, and an output spectrometric amplifier. This device, being used, one can shape pulses at durations of 100 ns and more. The shaper restoration time does not exceed 50 ns. When the shaper operates with NaI(Tl) crystals and at counting rate of 10 6 pulse/s, the amplitude resolution with and without the compensation circuit is 17% and 21% respectively

  12. Frequency Domain Multiplexing for Use With NaI[Tl] Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belling, Samuel; Coherent Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    A process used in many forms of signal communication known as multiplexing is adapted for the purpose of combining signals from NaI[Tl] detectors so that fewer digitizer channels can be used to process the signal information from large experiments within the COHERENT collaboration. Each signal is passed through a ringing circuit to modulate it with a characteristic frequency. Information about the signal can be extracted from its amplitude, frequency, and phase. Simulations in LTSpice show that an operational amplifier circuit with a parallel LRC feedback loop can serve as the modulating circuit. Several such circuits can be constructed and housed compactly in a unit, and fed to an inverting, summing amplifier with tunable gain, such that the signals are carried by one cable. The signals are analyzed based on a Fourier transform after being digitized. The results show that the energy, channel, and time of the original interaction can be recovered by this process. In some cases it is possible through filtering and deconvolution to recover the shape of the original signal. The effort is ongoing, but with the design presented it is possible to multiplex 10 detectors into a single digitizer channel. NSF REU Program at Duke University.

  13. A Comparison between HPGe and NaI(Tl) detectors performance for gamma-spectrometry of low level measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poursiamy, N. H.; Tajikahmadi, H.; Mirshojaei, S. F.

    2005-01-01

    According to progressive usage of nuclear technology, it's important to prevent the contamination of the environment by man-made radioisotopes and exposures of human being. Radioisotopes can enter the human body by inhalation and ingestion which are the most important ways to internal exposures. Measurement of radiation level in foodstuff is one of the most important parameters in environmental safety which is performed according to constitution and standard tests in most countries such as Iran. Gamma spectrometry is carried out by NaI(Tl) and HPGe detector systems for foodstuffs. In this research operation of HPGe and NaI(Tl) detectors in gamma spectrometry with a standard radioactive source are investigated and compared. Also the result of NaI superiority in foodstuff radiation measurement given

  14. Theoretical calibration of a NaI(Tl) detector for the measurement of 131I in a thyroid phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venturini, Luzia

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the theoretical calibration of a NaI(Tl) detector using Monte Carlo Method, for the measurement of 131 I in a thyroid phantom. The thyroid is represented by the region between two concentric cylinders, where the inner one represents the trachea and the outer one represents the neck. 133 Ba was used for experimental calibration. The results shows that the calibration procedure is suitable for 131 I measurements. (author)

  15. The OPAL vertex detector prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roney, J.M.; Armitage, J.C.; Carnegie, R.K.; Giles, G.L.; Hemingway, R.J.; McPherson, A.C.; Pinfold, J.L.; Waterhouse, J.; Godfrey, L.; Hargrove, C.K.

    1989-01-01

    The prototype test results of a high resolution charged particle tracking detector are reported. The detector is designed to measure vertex topologies of particles produced in the e + e - collisions of the OPAL experiment at LEP. The OPAL vertex detector is a 1 m long, 0.46 m diameter cylindrical drift chamber consisting of an axial and stereo layer each of which is divided into 36 jet cells. A prototype chamber containing four axial and two stereo cells was studied using a pion test beam at CERN. The studies examined the prototype under a variety of operating conditions. An r-Φ resolution of 60 μm was obtained when the chamber was operated with argon (50%)-ethane (50%) at 3.75 bar, and when CO 2 (80%)-isobutane (20%) at 2.5 bar was used a 25 μm resolution was achieved. A z measurement using end-to-end time difference has a resolution of 3.5 cm. The details of these prototype studies are discussed in this paper. (orig.)

  16. Determination of the full energy peak efficiency of NaI(Tl) detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesana, A.; Terrani, M.

    1978-01-01

    A simple procedure for the accurate evaluation of the full energy peak efficiency of NaI(Tl) crystals is described. Particular attention is given to the peak to total ratio determination for which a new method is proposed. (author)

  17. Photopeak efficiency response function of an underwater gamma-ray NaI(Tl) detector using MCNP-X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salgado, William L.; Silva, Ademir X.; Salgado, Cesar M.

    2015-01-01

    This work presents a study to calculate the response function of a 1.5″ x 1″ NaI(Tl) scintillation detector when it is used in the marine environment in the energy range from 20 keV to 662 keV. The method takes into account both the scattering of photons in the water and the detection mechanism of the detector. In addition, the calculation of the response function of the whole system is essential for suppressing the background of the measurement and for estimating the concentration of the involved radionuclides, especially given the greater probability of primary gamma photons undergoing multiple scattering events before they interact with the detector. The experimental photopeak efficiency measurements for point sources were compared with the simulated results under the same conditions of the experimental setup to validate the simulation of the detector. Monte Carlo simulations were performed using the MCNP-X code for the investigation of gamma-ray absorption in water in different brines. The energy resolution curve was used to improve the response of the mathematical simulation of the detector. The detector’s simulation was based on information obtained from the gammagraphy technique. Both dimensions and materials were used for the calculation with the MCNP-X code. The photopeak efficiency of a NaI(Tl) detector for different radionuclides in the aquatic environment with different salinities was calculated. (author)

  18. Measurement of radioactive tracer microsphere blood from with NaI(Tl)- and Ge-well type detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, B.; Staemmler, G.; Schaper, W.; Frank, J.; Langsdorf, S.

    1982-01-01

    An intrinsic Ge-well type detector was applied for the detection of gamma rays from labeled tracer microspheres. The high energy resolution and the large peak-to-Compton ratio of this spectrometer ensures the application of all available differently labeled tracer microspheres in one experiment. The superior energy resolution of the Ge-detector was documented with the separated photopeak regions of 103-Ru and 85-Sr-labeled tracer microspheres, which result in a single photopeak when an NaI(Tl) detector is used. The Ge-well type detector was compared with an NaI(Tl) spectrometer by counting samples of cardiac muscle in either spectrometer systems. Regression analysis between both spectrometer systems demonstrate identical flow values in these samples for 5 differently labeled tracer microspheres which were administered in 5 dogs. The high sensitivity of the Ge-well-type detector together with a suitable technique for sampling of myocardial tissue accomplishes a high spatial resolution of myocardial perfusion for all available differently labeled tracer microspheres. (orig.)

  19. A study of the effect of Al2O3 reflector on response function of NaI(Tl) detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tam, Hoang Duc; Chuong, Huynh Dinh; Thanh, Tran Thien; Van Tao, Chau

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to assess the effect of Al 2 O 3 reflector surrounding the NaI(Tl) crystal on the detector response function, based on Monte Carlo simulation, which can verify the precise model of the NaI(Tl) detector. The method used in determining the suitable thickness of Al 2 O 3 reflector is to compare the calculated and experimental values of full-energy peak efficiency. The results show that the Al 2 O 3 reflector should have a thickness of 0.8–1.2 mm for the maximum deviation between the experimental and simulated efficiency of 3.2% at all concerning energies. In addition, the obtained results are in good agreement with the response function of simulation and experimental spectra. - Highlights: • The study was conducted to verify the model of Monte Carlo simulation. • The effect of Al 2 O 3 reflector on the detector response function was investigated. • The optimum thickness of Al 2 O 3 reflector is suggested.

  20. Application of the dose conversion factor for a NaI(Tl) detector to the radwaste drum assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Young-Yong; Hong, Dae-Seok; Kim, Tae-Kuk; Kwak, Kyung-Kil; Ryu, Woo-Seog

    2011-01-01

    The dose-to-curie (DTC) conversion method has been known that there could be extremely high uncertainty associated with establishing the radioactivity of gamma emitters in a drum. However, the DTC conversion method is still an effective assay method to calculate the radioisotope inventory because of the simple and easy procedures to be applied. In order to make the DTC conversion method practical, numerous assumptions and limitations placed on its use. These assumptions and limitations are related to the dose rate measurement and the relative abundance of gamma emitters in a drum. However, these two variables were generally obtained from the different detection mechanisms even using the different radwaste each other. Unfortunately, that expanded the limitation of using the DTC conversion method. In order to obtain two variables in a drum to be assayed at once, the dose conversion factor for a NaI(Tl) detector was first calculated from the MCNP code. The pulse height spectrum from a simulated drum inserted into a standard source was measured by a NaI(Tl) detector, and then, two variables were calculated from the dose conversion factor and the net count rate of detected gamma emitters in the pulse height spectrum.

  1. Investigation and optimisation of mobile NaI(Tl) and 3He-based neutron detectors for finding point sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Jonas M.C.; Finck, Robert R.; Rääf, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Neutron radiation produces high-energy gamma radiation through (n,γ) reactions in matter. This can be used to detect neutron sources indirectly using gamma spectrometers. The sensitivity of a gamma spectrometer to neutrons can be amplified by surrounding it with polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The hydrogen in the PVC acts as a moderator and the chlorine emits prompt gammas when a neutron is captured. A 4.7-l 3 He-based mobile neutron detector was compared to a 4-l NaI(Tl)-detector covered with PVC using this principle. Methods were also developed to optimise the measurement parameters of the systems. The detector systems were compared with regard to their ability to find 241 AmBe, 252 Cf and 238 Pu– 13 C neutron sources. Results from stationary measurements were used to calculate optimal integration times as well as minimum detectable neutron emission rates. It was found that the 3 He-based detector was more sensitive to 252 Cf sources whereas the NaI(Tl) detector was more sensitive to 241 AmBe and 238 Pu– 13 C sources. The results also indicated that the sensitivity of the detectors to sources at known distances could theoretically be improved by 60% by changing from fixed integration times to list mode in mobile surveys

  2. Application of NaI(Tl) scintillation detector to measurement of tritium concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishizawa, Kazushige; Endo, Yoshio; Shinagawa, Mutsuaki

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of tritium concentration in various media have been successfully performed by detecting with an ordinary NaI(Tl) scintillation counter the bremsstrahlung emitted from tritium decay. To distinguish meaningful signals from noises emanating mainly from thermoelectrons present in the phototube, differences in rise time were discriminated by means of an electronic circuit, instead of separation by pulse height analysis. This pulse-shape discriminator successfully reduced noise counts below 18 keV in a multichannel analyzer from 100 cpm to 4 cpm, which permitted direct counting of tritiated water as dilute as 1 μCi/ml, without requiring any complicated preparation. (auth.)

  3. Response function study of a scintillator detector of NaI(Tl); Estudo da funcao resposta de um detector cintilador de NaI(Tl)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villa, Marcelo Barros; Costa, Alessandro Martins da, E-mail: amcosta@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FFCLRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras. Dept. de Fisica

    2014-07-01

    In measurements of gamma rays with Nai (Tl) scintillator, the detectors output data are pulse height spectra, that corresponding to distorted information about the radiation source due to various errors associated with the crystal scintillation process and electronics associated, instead of power spectra photons. Pulse height spectra are related to the real power spectra by means of scintillator detector response function NaI (Tl). In this work, the response function for a cylindrical crystal of Nal (Tl) of 7,62 x 7,62 cm (diameter x length) was studied, by Monte Carlo method, using the EGSnrc tool to model the transport of radiation, combined with experimental measurements. An inverse response matrix, even with the energy of the square root, which transforms the pulse height spectrum of photon energy spectrum was obtained. The results of this transformation of pulse height spectrum for photon energy spectrum is presented, showing that the methodology employed in this study is suitable.

  4. Determination of the response of a NaI(Tl) detector; Determinacion de la respuesta de un detector de NaI(Tl)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega C, H.R.; Manzanares A, E.; Hernandez D, V.M.; Chacon R, A. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, A.P. 336, 98000 Zacatecas (Mexico)]. e-mail: fermineutron@yahoo.com

    2006-07-01

    By means of Monte Carlo calculations it was determined the response of a scintillator of NaI (Tl) of 7.62 {phi} x 7.62 cm to monoenergetic gamma rays of 0.2 to 3.5 MeV. The response allows to determine the spectra of height of pulses of the monoenergetic photons. This type of calculations was also carried out for photons emitted by sources of Cs-137, Co-60, Na-22, Na-24 and {sup 239} PuBe, with the purpose of reproducing the gamma spectra obtained with this type of detecting. In the calculations the detector was modelled as a NaI cylinder with Al cover and the base of lucite; due to the absence of reliable information on the quantity of thallium in the calculations this information was omitted: for photons whose energy is greater to 1.022 MeV the presence of the gamma peak of the simple escape and twice is observed. The source was modelled as punctual and was located to 5 cm along the axial axis of the detector. To verify the calculations its were carried out measurements with a spectrometer with a scintillator of 7.62 {phi} x 7.62 cm. In the measured spectra the sum peak is observed, while in those calculated it doesn't appear; because the simultaneous detection of photons of different energy doesn't happen each photon since, in single form, it is followed until its complete absorption in the scintillator or when it escapes from the volume of the detector. To reproduce the sum peak and to obtain height spectra of pulses similar to those measured, the sum photons were introduced in the calculations. With the purpose of that Monte Carlo calculation it reproduces the scattering around the photopeak it was used a gaussian function in each photopeak whose characteristics were obtained starting from the experimental data. The calculation of the response of a scintillator allows to establish the capacity of the measurement of the gamma radiation as well as to distinguish the real events of those that appear by the limitations of the detection process. (Author)

  5. NaI(Tl) scintillator detectors stripping procedure for air kerma measurements of diagnostic X-ray beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, L. S. R.; Conti, C. C.; Amorim, A. S.; Balthar, M. C. V.

    2013-03-01

    Air kerma is an essential quantity for the calibration of national standards used in diagnostic radiology and the measurement of operating parameters used in radiation protection. Its measurement within the appropriate limits of accuracy, uncertainty and reproducibility is important for the characterization and control of the radiation field for the dosimetry of the patients submitted to diagnostic radiology and, also, for the assessment of the system which produces radiological images. Only the incident beam must be considered for the calculation of the air kerma. Therefore, for energy spectrum, counts apart the total energy deposition in the detector must be subtracted. It is necessary to establish a procedure to sort out the different contributions to the original spectrum and remove the counts representing scattered photons in the detector's materials, partial energy deposition due to the interactions in the detector active volume and, also, the escape peaks contributions. The main goal of this work is to present spectrum stripping procedure, using the MCNP Monte Carlo computer code, for NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors to calculate the air kerma due to an X-ray beam usually used in medical radiology. The comparison between the spectrum before stripping procedure against the reference value showed a discrepancy of more than 63%, while the comparison with the same spectrum after the stripping procedure showed a discrepancy of less than 0.2%.

  6. NaI(Tl) scintillator detectors stripping procedure for air kerma measurements of diagnostic X-ray beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, L.S.R. [Centro Tecnológico do Exército, CTEx (Brazilian Army Technological Center), Av. das Américas n° 28705, 23085-470 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Instituto de Radioprotecão e Dosimetria, CNEN/IRD (Institute for Radioprotection and Dosimetry, CNEN/IRD), Av. Salvador Allende s/no, P.O. Box 37750, 22783-127 Barra da Tijuca, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Conti, C.C., E-mail: ccconti@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecão e Dosimetria, CNEN/IRD (Institute for Radioprotection and Dosimetry, CNEN/IRD), Av. Salvador Allende s/no, P.O. Box 37750, 22783-127 Barra da Tijuca, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Amorim, A.S.; Balthar, M.C.V. [Centro Tecnológico do Exército, CTEx (Brazilian Army Technological Center), Av. das Américas n° 28705, 23085-470 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2013-03-21

    Air kerma is an essential quantity for the calibration of national standards used in diagnostic radiology and the measurement of operating parameters used in radiation protection. Its measurement within the appropriate limits of accuracy, uncertainty and reproducibility is important for the characterization and control of the radiation field for the dosimetry of the patients submitted to diagnostic radiology and, also, for the assessment of the system which produces radiological images. Only the incident beam must be considered for the calculation of the air kerma. Therefore, for energy spectrum, counts apart the total energy deposition in the detector must be subtracted. It is necessary to establish a procedure to sort out the different contributions to the original spectrum and remove the counts representing scattered photons in the detector’s materials, partial energy deposition due to the interactions in the detector active volume and, also, the escape peaks contributions. The main goal of this work is to present spectrum stripping procedure, using the MCNP Monte Carlo computer code, for NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors to calculate the air kerma due to an X-ray beam usually used in medical radiology. The comparison between the spectrum before stripping procedure against the reference value showed a discrepancy of more than 63%, while the comparison with the same spectrum after the stripping procedure showed a discrepancy of less than 0.2%.

  7. Experimental response function of NaI(Tl) scintillation detector for gamma photons and tomographic measurements for defect detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Amandeep; Singh, Karamjit; Singh, Bhajan; Sandhu, B.S.

    2011-01-01

    The response function of gamma detector is an important factor for spectrum analysis because some photons and secondary electrons may escape the detector volume before fully depositing their energy, of course destroys the ideal delta function response. An inverse matrix approach, for unfolding of observed pulse-height distribution to a true photon spectrum, is used for construction of experimental response function by formulating a 40 x 40 matrix with bin mesh (E 1/2 ) of 0.025 (MeV) 1/2 for the present measurements. A tomographic scanner system, operating in a non-destructive and non-invasive way, is also presented for inspection of density variation in any object. The incoherent scattered intensity of 662 keV gamma photons, obtained by unfolding (deconvolution) the experimental pulse-height distribution of NaI(Tl) scintillation detector, provides the desired information. The method is quite sensitive, for showing inclusion of medium Z (atomic number) material (iron) in low Z material (aluminium) and detecting a void of ∼2 mm in size for iron block, to investigate the inhomogeneities in the object. Also, the grey scale images (using 'MATLAB') are shown to visualise the presence of defects/inclusion in metal samples.

  8. Comparison of multi-pole shaping and delay line clipping pre-amplifiers for position sensitive NaI(Tl) detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freifelder, R.; Karp, J.S.; Wear, J.A.; Lockyer, N.S.; Newcomer, F.M.; Surti, S.; Berg, R. van

    1998-01-01

    NaI(Tl) position sensitive detectors have been used in medical imaging for many years. For PET applications without collimators, the high counting rates place severe demands on such large area detectors. The NaI(Tl) detectors in the PENN-PET scanners are read-out via photomultiplier tubes and preamplifiers. Those preamplifiers use a delay-line clipping technique to shorten the characteristic 240 ns fall time of the NaI(Tl) signal. As an alternative, the authors have investigated a pole-zero network to shorten the signal followed by a multi-pole shaper to produce a symmetric signal suitable for high counting rates. This has been compared to the current design by measuring the energy and spatial resolution of a single detector as a function of different preamplifier designs. Data were taken over a range of ADC integration times and countrates. The new design shows improved energy resolution with short integration times. Effects on spatial resolution and deadtime are reported for large position sensitive detectors at different countrates

  9. Towards the use of small amounts of activated charcoal along with well-type NaI(Tl) detector for indoor radon measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Azmi, D.

    2006-01-01

    The feasibility of using small quantities of activated charcoal and a 7.6 cm x 7.6 cm NaI(Tl) well-type detector was investigated for indoor radon measurements. Vials, filled with 10 g of charcoal, were exposed for different indoor radon concentration levels typical of Kuwait dwellings. After exposure, the vials were sealed and kept for 3 h to allow radon to come into radioactive equilibrium with its progenies and were then analysed by gamma-ray spectrometry using the well-type NaI(Tl) detector. The variation of radon absorption by the vials filled with charcoal with exposure time was also studied. A comparative study of the present technique with the standard technique of using 70 g charcoal canisters and flat NaI detector was also performed. After establishing the suitability of the technique, the charcoal vials were then used to investigate the effect of air-ventilation on the concentration levels of the indoor radon. Results show that there is a reduction in the radon concentration level (up to 25%) when the air-ventilation system was switched on. The paper presents the results of the study on the feasibility of combining small amounts of activated charcoal with a well-type NaI(Tl) detector in the measurement of indoor radon concentrations. (authors)

  10. Characterisation of an AGATA symmetric prototype detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, L.; Dimmock, M.R.; Boston, A.J.; Boston, H.C.; Cresswell, J.R.; Nolan, P.J.; Lazarus, I.; Simpson, J.; Medina, P.; Santos, C.; Parisel, C.

    2007-01-01

    The Advanced GAmma Tracking Array (AGATA) symmetric prototype detector has been tested at University of Liverpool. A 137 Ce source, collimated to a 2 mm diameter, was scanned across the front face of the detector and data were acquired utilising digital electronics. Pulse shapes from a selection of well-defined photon interaction positions have been analysed to investigate the position sensitivity of the detector. Furthermore, the application of the electric field simulation software, Multi Geometry Simulation (MGS) to generate theoretical pulse shapes for AGATA detectors has been presented

  11. Characterisation of an AGATA symmetric prototype detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, L. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: ln@ns.ph.liv.ac.uk; Dimmock, M.R. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: mrd@ns.ph.liv.ac.uk; Boston, A.J. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: ajb@ns.ph.liv.ac.uk; Boston, H.C. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Cresswell, J.R. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Nolan, P.J. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Lazarus, I. [CCLRC Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Simpson, J. [CCLRC Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Medina, P. [Institut de Recherches Subatomiques, Strasbourg BP28 67037 (France); Santos, C. [Institut de Recherches Subatomiques, Strasbourg BP28 67037 (France); Parisel, C. [Institut de Recherches Subatomiques, Strasbourg BP28 67037 (France)

    2007-04-01

    The Advanced GAmma Tracking Array (AGATA) symmetric prototype detector has been tested at University of Liverpool. A {sup 137}Ce source, collimated to a 2 mm diameter, was scanned across the front face of the detector and data were acquired utilising digital electronics. Pulse shapes from a selection of well-defined photon interaction positions have been analysed to investigate the position sensitivity of the detector. Furthermore, the application of the electric field simulation software, Multi Geometry Simulation (MGS) to generate theoretical pulse shapes for AGATA detectors has been presented.

  12. Evaluation of prototype silicon drift detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellison, J.; Hall, G.; Roe, S.; Lucas, A.

    1988-01-01

    Operating characteristics of several prototypes of silicon drift detectors are investigated. Detectors are made of unpolished silicon produced by the zone melting method and characterized by n-type conductivity and specific resistance of 3.6-4.6 kOhmxcm. The detectors comprise 40 parallel bands of 200 μm width and 1 cm length separated by 50 μm intervals. Data characterizing the potential distribution near anodes under the operating bias voltage, dependences of capacities and leakage as well as the detector space resolution

  13. A silicon pixel detector prototype for the CLIC vertex detector

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00714258

    2017-01-01

    A silicon pixel detector prototype for CLIC, currently under study for the innermost detector surrounding the collision point. The detector is made of a High-Voltage CMOS sensor (top) and a CLICpix2 readout chip (bottom) that are glued to each other. Both parts have a size of 3.3 x 4.0 $mm^2$ and consist of an array of 128 x 128 pixels of 25 x 25 $\\micro m^2$ size.

  14. Dependence of NaI(Tl) detector intrinsic efficiency on source ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    on source–detector distance, energy and off-axis distance: Their ... This d/R value at which minimum efficiency occurs approaches zero as off- axis distance ... It should be noted at this point that from the point of view of radiation protection ...

  15. Response functions of NaI(Tl) detectors to terrestrial gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyurcsak, J.; Lenda, A.

    1978-01-01

    Computer programs, serving for calculation of detector efficiency and energy deposition spectrum for scintillation crystals irradiated by isotropic or half-isotropic gamma-ray fields were elaborated. The Monte-Carlo models used in calculations are valid for gamma-ray energies 2 π geometry by the 1.5'' x 2'' probe with experimental results is given. (author)

  16. Calculation of total counting efficiency of a NaI(Tl) detector by hybrid Monte-Carlo method for point and disk sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yalcin, S. [Education Faculty, Kastamonu University, 37200 Kastamonu (Turkey)], E-mail: yalcin@gazi.edu.tr; Gurler, O.; Kaynak, G. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Uludag University, Gorukle Campus, 16059 Bursa (Turkey); Gundogdu, O. [Department of Physics, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2007-10-15

    This paper presents results on the total gamma counting efficiency of a NaI(Tl) detector from point and disk sources. The directions of photons emitted from the source were determined by Monte-Carlo techniques and the photon path lengths in the detector were determined by analytic equations depending on photon directions. This is called the hybrid Monte-Carlo method where analytical expressions are incorporated into the Monte-Carlo simulations. A major advantage of this technique is the short computation time compared to other techniques on similar computational platforms. Another advantage is the flexibility for inputting detector-related parameters (such as source-detector distance, detector radius, source radius, detector linear attenuation coefficient) into the algorithm developed, thus making it an easy and flexible method to apply to other detector systems and configurations. The results of the total counting efficiency model put forward for point and disc sources were compared with the previous work reported in the literature.

  17. Calculation of total counting efficiency of a NaI(Tl) detector by hybrid Monte-Carlo method for point and disk sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yalcin, S.; Gurler, O.; Kaynak, G.; Gundogdu, O.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents results on the total gamma counting efficiency of a NaI(Tl) detector from point and disk sources. The directions of photons emitted from the source were determined by Monte-Carlo techniques and the photon path lengths in the detector were determined by analytic equations depending on photon directions. This is called the hybrid Monte-Carlo method where analytical expressions are incorporated into the Monte-Carlo simulations. A major advantage of this technique is the short computation time compared to other techniques on similar computational platforms. Another advantage is the flexibility for inputting detector-related parameters (such as source-detector distance, detector radius, source radius, detector linear attenuation coefficient) into the algorithm developed, thus making it an easy and flexible method to apply to other detector systems and configurations. The results of the total counting efficiency model put forward for point and disc sources were compared with the previous work reported in the literature

  18. NaI(Tl) detectors modeling in MCNP-X and Gate/Geant4 codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Affonso, Renato Raoni Werneck; Silva, Ademir Xavier da, E-mail: raoniwa@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: ademir@nuclear.ufrj.br [Coordenacao de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa de Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Salgado, Cesar Marques, E-mail: otero@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    NaI (Tl) detectors are widely used in gamma-ray densitometry, but their modeling in Monte Carlo codes, such as MCNP-X and Gate/Geant4, needs a lot of work and does not yield comparable results with experimental arrangements, possibly due to non-simulated physical phenomena, such as light transport within the scintillator. Therefore, it is necessary a methodology that positively impacts the results of the simulations while maintaining the real dimensions of the detectors and other objects to allow validating a modeling that matches up with the experimental arrangement. Thus, the objective of this paper is to present the studies conducted with the MCNPX and Gate/Geant4 codes, in which the comparisons of their results were satisfactory, showing that both can be used for the same purposes. (author)

  19. Response function study of a scintillator detector of NaI(Tl)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villa, Marcelo Barros; Costa, Alessandro Martins da

    2014-01-01

    In measurements of gamma rays with Nai (Tl) scintillator, the detectors output data are pulse height spectra, that corresponding to distorted information about the radiation source due to various errors associated with the crystal scintillation process and electronics associated, instead of power spectra photons. Pulse height spectra are related to the real power spectra by means of scintillator detector response function NaI (Tl). In this work, the response function for a cylindrical crystal of Nal (Tl) of 7,62 x 7,62 cm (diameter x length) was studied, by Monte Carlo method, using the EGSnrc tool to model the transport of radiation, combined with experimental measurements. An inverse response matrix, even with the energy of the square root, which transforms the pulse height spectrum of photon energy spectrum was obtained. The results of this transformation of pulse height spectrum for photon energy spectrum is presented, showing that the methodology employed in this study is suitable

  20. The signal shape from the LHCb vertex locator prototype detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles, M.

    2003-01-01

    Measurements of the SCT128A ASIC pulse shape, when reading out non-irradiated and irradiated prototype detectors for the LHCb VELO, are presented. The detectors studied were two n-on-n prototype detectors fabricated by Hamamatsu, and a p-on-n prototype detector fabricated by MICRON

  1. Determination of the response of a NaI(Tl) detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega C, H.R.; Manzanares A, E.; Hernandez D, V.M.; Chacon R, A.

    2006-01-01

    By means of Monte Carlo calculations it was determined the response of a scintillator of NaI (Tl) of 7.62 Φ x 7.62 cm to monoenergetic gamma rays of 0.2 to 3.5 MeV. The response allows to determine the spectra of height of pulses of the monoenergetic photons. This type of calculations was also carried out for photons emitted by sources of Cs-137, Co-60, Na-22, Na-24 and 239 PuBe, with the purpose of reproducing the gamma spectra obtained with this type of detecting. In the calculations the detector was modelled as a NaI cylinder with Al cover and the base of lucite; due to the absence of reliable information on the quantity of thallium in the calculations this information was omitted: for photons whose energy is greater to 1.022 MeV the presence of the gamma peak of the simple escape and twice is observed. The source was modelled as punctual and was located to 5 cm along the axial axis of the detector. To verify the calculations its were carried out measurements with a spectrometer with a scintillator of 7.62 Φ x 7.62 cm. In the measured spectra the sum peak is observed, while in those calculated it doesn't appear; because the simultaneous detection of photons of different energy doesn't happen each photon since, in single form, it is followed until its complete absorption in the scintillator or when it escapes from the volume of the detector. To reproduce the sum peak and to obtain height spectra of pulses similar to those measured, the sum photons were introduced in the calculations. With the purpose of that Monte Carlo calculation it reproduces the scattering around the photopeak it was used a gaussian function in each photopeak whose characteristics were obtained starting from the experimental data. The calculation of the response of a scintillator allows to establish the capacity of the measurement of the gamma radiation as well as to distinguish the real events of those that appear by the limitations of the detection process. (Author)

  2. Collisions of neutrons and of gamma rays in Bi4Ge3O12 (BGO) and NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushneriuk, S.A.; Lone, M.A.; Hausser, O.; Wong, P.Y.

    1983-06-01

    The role of collision/escape probabilities in establishing the prompt response of bismuth germanate and NaI(Tl) scintillators is investigated. A possible approximation to the collision probability is discussed. Exact expressions for the probability of escape of radiation from finite, right circular cylindrical and rectangular parallelepiped-shaped detectors are derived from an exponential-like spatial distribution of the source in the detector medium and a parametrized angular distribution of emission of the source. Fairly extensive tables of collision probabilities calculated for these bodies are given. For purposes of comparison some results obtained previously in a Monte Carlo calculation are also presented and discussed

  3. The ZEUS vertex detector: Design and prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvisi, C.; Anzivino, G.; Arzarello, F.; Barbagli, G.; Bari, G.; Basile, M.; Bellagamba, L.; Boscherini, D.; Bruni, G.; Bruni, P.; Camerini, U.; Cara Romeo, G.; Castellini, G.; Chiarini, M.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Ciralli, F.; Contin, A.; Costa, M.; D'Auria, S.; Del Papa, C.; De Pasquale, S.; Fiori, F.; Forte, A.; Frasconi, F.; Giusti, P.; Iacobucci, G.; Laurenti, G.; Lisowski, B.; Maccarrone, G.; Margotti, A.; Massam, T.; Nania, R.; O'Shea, V.; Palmonari, F.; Pelfer, P.; Pilastrini, R.; Qian, S.; Sartorelli, G.; Schioppa, M.; Susinno, G.; Timellini, R.; Zichichi, A.; Bologna Univ.; Cosenza Univ.; Florence Univ.; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bologna; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Florence; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Frascati; Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Florence

    1991-01-01

    A gas vertex detector, operated with dimethylether (DME) at atmospheric pressure, is presently being built for the ZEUS experiment at HERA. Its main design features, together with the performances of a prototype measured at various operating voltages, particle rates and geometrical conditions on a CERN Proton Synchrotron test beam, are presented. A spatial resolution down to 35 μm and an average wire efficiency of 96% have been achieved, for a 3 mm gas gap relative to each sense wire. (orig.)

  4. (99m)Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy of the hand: comparing the use of novel cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) and routine NaI(Tl) detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulikov, Victoria; Lerman, Hedva; Kesler, Mikhail; Even-Sapir, Einat

    2015-12-01

    Cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) solid-state detectors have been recently introduced in the field of nuclear medicine in cardiology and breast imaging. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the performance of the novel detectors (CZT) compared to that of the routine NaI(Tl) in bone scintigraphy. A dual-headed CZT-based camera dedicated originally to breast imaging has been used, and in view of the limited size of the detectors, the hands were chosen as the organ for assessment. This is a clinical study. Fifty-eight consecutive patients (total 116 hands) referred for bone scan for suspected hand pathology gave their informed consent to have two acquisitions, using the routine camera and the CZT-based camera. The latter was divided into full-dose full-acquisition time (FD CZT) and reduced-dose short-acquisition time (RD CZT) on CZT technology, so three image sets were available for analysis. Data analysis included comparing the detection of hot lesions and identification of the metacarpophalangeal, proximal interphalangeal, and distal interphalangeal joints. A total of 69 hot lesions were detected on the CZT image sets; of these, 61 were identified as focal sites of uptake on NaI(Tl) data. On FD CZT data, 385 joints were identified compared to 168 on NaI(Tl) data (p < 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in delineation of joints between FD and RD CZT data as the latter identified 383 joints. Bone scintigraphy using a CZT-based gamma camera is associated with improved lesion detection and anatomic definition. The superior physical characteristics of this technique raised a potential reduction in administered dose and/or acquisition time without compromising image quality.

  5. Mobile robot prototype detector of gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez C, R.M.; Duran V, M. D.; Jardon M, C. I.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper the technological development of a mobile robot prototype detector of gamma radiation is shown. This prototype has been developed for the purpose of algorithms implementation for the applications of terrestrial radiation monitoring of exposed sources, search for missing radioactive sources, identification and delineation of radioactive contamination areas and distribution maps generating of radioactive exposure. Mobile robot detector of radiation is an experimental technology development platform to operate in laboratory environment or flat floor facilities. The prototype integrates a driving section of differential configuration robot on wheels, a support mechanism and rotation of shielded detector, actuator controller cards, acquisition and processing of sensor data, detection algorithms programming and control actuators, data recording (Data Logger) and data transmission in wireless way. The robot in this first phase is remotely operated in wireless way with a range of approximately 150 m line of sight and can extend that range to 300 m or more with the use of signal repeaters. The gamma radiation detection is performed using a Geiger detector shielded. Scan detection is performed at various time sampling periods and diverse positions of discrete or continuous angular orientation on the horizon. The captured data are geographical coordinates of robot GPS (latitude and longitude), orientation angle of shield, counting by sampling time, date, hours, minutes and seconds. The data is saved in a file in the Micro Sd memory on the robot. They are also sent in wireless way by an X Bee card to a remote station that receives for their online monitoring on a laptop through an acquisition program by serial port on Mat Lab. Additionally a voice synthesizing card with a horn, both in the robot, periodically pronounced in Spanish, data length, latitude, orientation angle of shield and detected accounts. (Author)

  6. A new NaI(Tl) four-detector layout for field contamination assessment using artificial neural networks and the Monte Carlo method for system calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, M.C.F.; Conti, C.C.; Schirru, R.

    2010-01-01

    An NaI(Tl) multidetector layout combined with the use of Monte Carlo (MC) calculations and artificial neural networks(ANN) is proposed to assess the radioactive contamination of urban and semi-urban environment surfaces. A very simple urban environment like a model street composed of a wall on either side and the ground surface was the study case. A layout of four NaI(Tl) detectors was used, and the data corresponding to the response of the detectors were obtained by the Monte Carlo method. Two additional data sets with random values for the contamination and for detectors' response were also produced to test the ANNs. For this work, 18 feedforward topologies with backpropagation learning algorithm ANNs were chosen and trained. The results showed that some trained ANNs were able to accurately predict the contamination on the three urban surfaces when submitted to values within the training range. Other results showed that generalization outside the training range of values could not be achieved. The use of Monte Carlo calculations in combination with ANNs has been proven to be a powerful tool to perform detection calibration for highly complicated detection geometries.

  7. A new NaI(Tl) four-detector layout for field contamination assessment using artificial neural networks and the Monte Carlo method for system calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, M.C.F., E-mail: marcos@ird.gov.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, COPPE, Programa de Engenharia Nuclear, Laboratorio de Monitoracao de Processos (Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, COPPE, Nuclear Engineering Program, Process Monitoring Laboratory), P.O. Box 68509, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, CNEN/IRD (Radiation Protection and Dosimetry Institute, CNEN/IRD), Av. Salvador Allende s/no, P.O. Box 37750, 22780-160 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Conti, C.C. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, CNEN/IRD (Radiation Protection and Dosimetry Institute, CNEN/IRD), Av. Salvador Allende s/no, P.O. Box 37750, 22780-160 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Schirru, R. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, COPPE, Programa de Engenharia Nuclear, Laboratorio de Monitoracao de Processos (Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, COPPE, Nuclear Engineering Program, Process Monitoring Laboratory), P.O. Box 68509, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2010-09-21

    An NaI(Tl) multidetector layout combined with the use of Monte Carlo (MC) calculations and artificial neural networks(ANN) is proposed to assess the radioactive contamination of urban and semi-urban environment surfaces. A very simple urban environment like a model street composed of a wall on either side and the ground surface was the study case. A layout of four NaI(Tl) detectors was used, and the data corresponding to the response of the detectors were obtained by the Monte Carlo method. Two additional data sets with random values for the contamination and for detectors' response were also produced to test the ANNs. For this work, 18 feedforward topologies with backpropagation learning algorithm ANNs were chosen and trained. The results showed that some trained ANNs were able to accurately predict the contamination on the three urban surfaces when submitted to values within the training range. Other results showed that generalization outside the training range of values could not be achieved. The use of Monte Carlo calculations in combination with ANNs has been proven to be a powerful tool to perform detection calibration for highly complicated detection geometries.

  8. Efficiency calibration and coincidence summing correction for large arrays of NaI(Tl) detectors in soccer-ball and castle geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anil Kumar, G.; Mazumdar, I.; Gothe, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    Efficiency calibration and coincidence summing correction have been performed for two large arrays of NaI(Tl) detectors in two different configurations. They are, a compact array of 32 conical detectors of pentagonal and hexagonal shapes in soccer-ball geometry and an array of 14 straight hexagonal NaI(Tl) detectors in castle geometry. Both of these arrays provide a large solid angle of detection, leading to considerable coincidence summing of gamma rays. The present work aims to understand the effect of coincidence summing of gamma rays while determining the energy dependence of efficiencies of these two arrays. We have carried out extensive GEANT4 simulations with radio-nuclides that decay with a two-step cascade, considering both arrays in their realistic geometries. The absolute efficiencies have been simulated for gamma energies from 700 to 2800 keV using four different double-photon emitters, namely, 60 Co, 46 Sc, 94 Nb and 24 Na. The efficiencies so obtained have been corrected for coincidence summing using the method proposed by Vidmar et al. . The simulations have also been carried out for the same energies assuming mono-energetic point sources, for comparison. Experimental measurements have also been carried out using calibrated point sources of 137 Cs and 60 Co. The simulated and the experimental results are found to be in good agreement. This demonstrates the reliability of the correction method for efficiency calibration of two large arrays in very different configurations.

  9. Efficiency calibration and coincidence summing correction for large arrays of NaI(Tl) detectors in soccer-ball and castle geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anil Kumar, G., E-mail: anilg@tifr.res.i [Department of Nuclear and Atomic Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005 (India); Mazumdar, I.; Gothe, D.A. [Department of Nuclear and Atomic Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005 (India)

    2009-11-21

    Efficiency calibration and coincidence summing correction have been performed for two large arrays of NaI(Tl) detectors in two different configurations. They are, a compact array of 32 conical detectors of pentagonal and hexagonal shapes in soccer-ball geometry and an array of 14 straight hexagonal NaI(Tl) detectors in castle geometry. Both of these arrays provide a large solid angle of detection, leading to considerable coincidence summing of gamma rays. The present work aims to understand the effect of coincidence summing of gamma rays while determining the energy dependence of efficiencies of these two arrays. We have carried out extensive GEANT4 simulations with radio-nuclides that decay with a two-step cascade, considering both arrays in their realistic geometries. The absolute efficiencies have been simulated for gamma energies from 700 to 2800 keV using four different double-photon emitters, namely, {sup 60}Co, {sup 46}Sc, {sup 94}Nb and {sup 24}Na. The efficiencies so obtained have been corrected for coincidence summing using the method proposed by Vidmar et al. . The simulations have also been carried out for the same energies assuming mono-energetic point sources, for comparison. Experimental measurements have also been carried out using calibrated point sources of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co. The simulated and the experimental results are found to be in good agreement. This demonstrates the reliability of the correction method for efficiency calibration of two large arrays in very different configurations.

  10. Ground level cosmic ray pulse height spectrum of a 7. 5 cm diameter spherical NaI(Tl) scintillation detector for energy region below 5 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagaoka, Toshi; Saito, Kimiaki; Moriuchi, Shigeru

    1988-09-01

    Ground level cosmic ray pulse height spectrum of a 7.5 cm diameter spherical NaI(Tl) scintillation detector was evaluated through stripping operation based on a pulse height spectrum measured on the sea and high precision response functions of the detector for U-series, Th-series and /sup 40/K. The exposure rate calculated from the determined cosmic ray pulse height spectrum was 0.21 R/h eq., which agreed well with that obtained from another method. The shape of the pulse height spectrum showed similarity to that measured at the altitude of 16,000 ft, especially in the energy region of 0 to 3 MeV. The principle of the adopted method is rather plain, however, the reliability of the spectrum is satisfactory. As the pulse height spectrum is a common information to any analytical method for environmental gamma ray using NaI(Tl) scintillation detector, it is expected to be used for simple and precise separation of cosmic ray component involved in the enviromental pulse height spectrum.

  11. A New Approach for the Determination of Dose Rate and Radioactivity for Detected Gamma Nuclides Using an Environmental Radiation Monitor Based on an NaI(Tl) Detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Young-Yong; Kim, Chang-Jong; Lim, Kyo-Sun; Lee, Wanno; Chang, Hyon-Sock; Chung, Kun Ho

    2017-10-01

    To expand the application of dose rate spectroscopy to the environment, the method using an environmental radiation monitor (ERM) based on a 3' × 3' NaI(Tl) detector was used to perform real-time monitoring of the dose rate and radioactivity for detected gamma nuclides in the ground around an ERM. Full-energy absorption peaks in the energy spectrum for dose rate were first identified to calculate the individual dose rates of Bi, Ac, Tl, and K distributed in the ground through interference correction because of the finite energy resolution of the NaI(Tl) detector used in an ERM. The radioactivity of the four natural radionuclides was then calculated from the in situ calibration factor-that is, the dose rate per unit curie-of the used ERM for the geometry of the ground in infinite half-space, which was theoretically estimated by Monte Carlo simulation. By an intercomparison using a portable HPGe and samples taken from the ground around an ERM, this method to calculate the dose rate and radioactivity of four nuclides using an ERM was experimentally verified and finally applied to remotely monitor them in real-time in the area in which the ERM had been installed.

  12. Calibration of a single hexagonal NaI(Tl) detector using a new numerical method based on the efficiency transfer method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas, Mahmoud I., E-mail: mabbas@physicist.net [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, 21511 Alexandria (Egypt); Badawi, M.S. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, 21511 Alexandria (Egypt); Ruskov, I.N. [Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); El-Khatib, A.M. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, 21511 Alexandria (Egypt); Grozdanov, D.N. [Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Thabet, A.A. [Department of Medical Equipment Technology, Faculty of Allied Medical Sciences, Pharos University in Alexandria (Egypt); Kopatch, Yu.N. [Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Gouda, M.M. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, 21511 Alexandria (Egypt); Skoy, V.R. [Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2015-01-21

    Gamma-ray detector systems are important instruments in a broad range of science and new setup are continually developing. The most recent step in the evolution of detectors for nuclear spectroscopy is the construction of large arrays of detectors of different forms (for example, conical, pentagonal, hexagonal, etc.) and sizes, where the performance and the efficiency can be increased. In this work, a new direct numerical method (NAM), in an integral form and based on the efficiency transfer (ET) method, is used to calculate the full-energy peak efficiency of a single hexagonal NaI(Tl) detector. The algorithms and the calculations of the effective solid angle ratios for a point (isotropic irradiating) gamma-source situated coaxially at different distances from the detector front-end surface, taking into account the attenuation of the gamma-rays in the detector's material, end-cap and the other materials in-between the gamma-source and the detector, are considered as the core of this (ET) method. The calculated full-energy peak efficiency values by the (NAM) are found to be in a good agreement with the measured experimental data.

  13. Design and performance of modularized NaI(Tl) detectors with rectangular crystal elements: An array of 49 and the Crystal Box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, S.L.; Hofstadter, R.; Hughes, E.B.; Lin, Y.C.; Parks, R.; Rolfe, J.; Bolton, R.D.; Bowman, J.D.; Cooper, M.D.; Hoffman, C.M.; Hogan, G.E.; Mariam, F.G.; Mischke, R.E.; Nagle, D.E.; Piilonen, L.E.; Sandberg, V.D.; Sanders, G.H.; Werbeck, R.; Williams, R.A.; Frank, J.S.; Hallin, A.L.; Matis, H.S.; Sennhauser, U.; Wright, S.C.

    1988-01-01

    An array of 49 NaI(Tl) modules each 20 inch in depth and 2.5 inch x 2.5 inch in cross section has been constructed and its properties, especially energy resolution, explored for positrons in the range 20 MeV - 18 GeV. A subsequent much larger detector, the Crystal Box, has also been constructed from 396 modules of the same cross section, but mostly 12 inch in depth, and operated as a γ-ray and positron detector in a search for rare muon decays. The calibration procedure used for the Crystal Box and its characteristic resolutions in energy, impact point and time are described. (orig.)

  14. Fabrication of prototypes of Ge(li) semiconductor detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, W.M.S.; Marti, G.V.; Rizzo, P.; Barros, S. de.

    1987-01-01

    The fabrication process of Ge(Li) semiconductor detector prototypes, from specific chemical treatments of doped monocrystal with receptor impurities (p + semicondutor) is presented. The detector characteristics, such as resulotion and operation tension are shown. (M.C.K.) [pt

  15. Application of the dose rate spectroscopy to the dose-to-curie conversion method using a NaI(Tl) detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JI, Young-Yong; Chung, Kun Ho; Kim, Chang-Jong; Kang, Mun Ja; Park, Sang Tae

    2015-01-01

    Dose rate spectroscopy is a very useful method to directly calculate the individual dose rate from the converted energy spectrum for the dose rate using the G-factor which is related to the used detector response function. A DTC conversion method for the estimation of the radioactivity based on the measured dose rate from the radioactive materials can then be modified into a simple equation using the dose rate spectroscopy. In order to make the method validation of the modified DTC conversion method, experimental verifications using a 3″φx3″ NaI(Tl) detector were conducted at the simple geometry of the point source located onto a detector and more complex geometries which mean the assay of the simulated radioactive material. In addition, the linearity about the results from the modified DTC conversion method was also estimated by increasing the distance between source positions and a detector to confirm the method validation in the energy, dose rate, and distance range of the gamma nuclides. - Highlights: • A modified DTC conversion method using the dose rate spectroscopy was established. • In-situ calibration factors were calculated from the MCNP simulation. • Radioactivities of the disk sources were accurately calculated using a modified DTC conversion method. • A modified DTC conversion method was applied to the assay of the radioactive material

  16. Theoretical calibration of a NaI(Tl) detector for the measurement of {sup 131}I in a thyroid phantom; Calibracao teorica de um detetor NaI(Tl) para a determinacao de {sup 131}I em um simulador de tireoide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venturini, Luzia [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Metrologia das Radiacoes]. E-mail: lventur@net.ipen.br

    2002-07-01

    This paper describes the theoretical calibration of a NaI(Tl) detector using Monte Carlo Method, for the measurement of {sup 131} I in a thyroid phantom. The thyroid is represented by the region between two concentric cylinders, where the inner one represents the trachea and the outer one represents the neck. {sup 133} Ba was used for experimental calibration. The results shows that the calibration procedure is suitable for {sup 131} I measurements. (author)

  17. Multichannel prototype of coordinate detector based on segmented straws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusakov, Yu.V.; Davkov, V.I.; Davkov, K.I.; Zhukov, I.A.; Lutsenko, V.M.; Myalkovskij, V.V.; Peshekhonov, V.D.; Savenkov, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    The design and assembly technology of a detector prototype based on segmented straws is considered. The granularity of the prototype is 4 cm 2 . The prototype has a sensitive area of 400 x 200 mm, and contains two straw planes displaced against each other by 2 mm. The number of registration channels is 360. Preliminary results of the bench study of the prototype are presented

  18. MCNP-X Monte Carlo Code Application for Mass Attenuation Coefficients of Concrete at Different Energies by Modeling 3 × 3 Inch NaI(Tl Detector and Comparison with XCOM and Monte Carlo Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Ozan Tekin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gamma-ray measurements in various research fields require efficient detectors. One of these research fields is mass attenuation coefficients of different materials. Apart from experimental studies, the Monte Carlo (MC method has become one of the most popular tools in detector studies. An NaI(Tl detector has been modeled, and, for a validation study of the modeled NaI(Tl detector, the absolute efficiency of 3 × 3 inch cylindrical NaI(Tl detector has been calculated by using the general purpose Monte Carlo code MCNP-X (version 2.4.0 and compared with previous studies in literature in the range of 661–2620 keV. In the present work, the applicability of MCNP-X Monte Carlo code for mass attenuation of concrete sample material as building material at photon energies 59.5 keV, 80 keV, 356 keV, 661.6 keV, 1173.2 keV, and 1332.5 keV has been tested by using validated NaI(Tl detector. The mass attenuation coefficients of concrete sample have been calculated. The calculated results agreed well with experimental and some other theoretical results. The results specify that this process can be followed to determine the data on the attenuation of gamma-rays with other required energies in other materials or in new complex materials. It can be concluded that data from Monte Carlo is a strong tool not only for efficiency studies but also for mass attenuation coefficients calculations.

  19. Measurements on a prototype segmented Clover detector

    CERN Document Server

    Shepherd, S L; Cullen, D M; Appelbe, D E; Simpson, J; Gerl, J; Kaspar, M; Kleinböhl, A; Peter, I; Rejmund, M; Schaffner, H; Schlegel, C; France, G D

    1999-01-01

    The performance of a segmented Clover germanium detector has been measured. The segmented Clover detector is a composite germanium detector, consisting of four individual germanium crystals in the configuration of a four-leaf Clover, housed in a single cryostat. Each crystal is electrically segmented on its outer surface into four quadrants, with separate energy read-outs from nine crystal zones. Signals are also taken from the inner contact of each crystal. This effectively produces a detector with 16 active elements. One of the purposes of this segmentation is to improve the overall spectral resolution when detecting gamma radiation emitted following a nuclear reaction, by minimising Doppler broadening caused by the opening angle subtended by each detector element. Results of the tests with sources and in beam will be presented. The improved granularity of the detector also leads to an improved isolated hit probability compared with an unsegmented Clover detector. (author)

  20. Performance of a prototype water Cherenkov detector for LHAASO project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Q.; Bai, Y.X.; Bi, X.J.; Cao, Z.; Cao, Zhe; Chang, J.F.; Chen, G.; Chen, L.H.; Chen, M.J.; Chen, T.L.; Chen, Y.T.; Cui, S.W.; Dai, B.Z.; Danzengluobu; Feng, C.F.; Gao, B.; Gu, M.H.; Hao, X.J.; He, H.H.; Hu, H.B.

    2011-01-01

    A large high-altitude air shower observatory is to be built at Yang-Ba-Jing, Tibet, China. One of its main purposes is to survey the northern sky for very-high-energy (above 100 GeV) gamma ray sources via its ground-based water Cherenkov detector array. To gain full knowledge of water Cherenkov technique in detecting air showers, a prototype water Cherenkov detector is built at the Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing. The performance of the prototype water Cherenkov detector is studied by measuring its response to cosmic muons. The results are compared with those from a full Monte Carlo simulation to provide a series of information regarding the prototype detector in guiding electronics design and detector optimization.

  1. Design and Construction of Prototype Dark Matter Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Fisher

    2012-03-23

    The Lepton Quark Studies (LQS) group is engaged in searching for dark matter using the Dark Matter Time Projection Chamber (DMTPC) at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) (Carlsbad, NM). DMTPC is a direction-sensitive dark matter detector designed to measure the recoil direction and energy deposited by fluorine nuclei recoiling from the interaction with incident WIMPs. In the past year, the major areas of progress have been: to publish the first dark matter search results from a surface run of the DMTPC prototype detector, to build and install the 10L prototype in the underground laboratory at WIPP which will house the 1 m{sup 3} detector, and to demonstrate charge and PMT readout of the TPC using prototype detectors, which allow triggering and {Delta}z measurement to be used in the 1 m{sup 3} detector under development.

  2. Full energy peak efficiency of NaI(Tl) gamma detectors and its analytical and semi-empirical representations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudarshan, M.; Joseph, J.; Singh, R.

    1992-01-01

    The validity of various analytical functions and semi-empirical formulae proposed for representing the full energy peak efficiency (FEPE) curves of Ge(Li) and HPGe detectors has been tested for the FEPE of 7.6 cm x 7.6 cm and 5 cm x 5 cm Nal(Tl) detectors in the gamma energy range from 59.5 to 1408.03 keV. The functions proposed by East, and McNelles and Campbell provide by far the best representations of the present data. The semi-empirical formula of Mowatt describes the present data very well. The present investigation shows that some of the analytical functions and semi-empirical formulae, which represent the FEPE of the Ge(Li) and HPGe detectors very well, can be quite fruitfully used for Nal(Tl) detectors. (Author)

  3. Fabrication of ATLAS pixel detector prototypes at IRST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boscardin, M.; Betta, G.-F. Dalla; Gregori, P.; Zen, M.; Zorzi, N.

    2001-01-01

    We report on the development of a fabrication technology for n-on-n silicon pixel detectors oriented to the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The main processing issues and some selected results from the electrical characterization of detector prototypes and related test structures are presented and discussed

  4. NaI(Tl) electron energy resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Mengesha, W

    2002-01-01

    NaI(Tl) electron energy resolution eta sub e was measured using the Modified Compton Coincidence Technique (MCCT). The MCCT allowed detection of nearly monoenergetic internal electrons resulting from the scattering of incident 662 keV gamma rays within a primary NaI(Tl) detector. Scattered gamma rays were detected using a secondary HPGe detector in a coincidence mode. Measurements were carried out for electron energies ranging from 16 to 438 keV, by varying the scattering angle. Measured HPGe coincidence spectra were deconvolved to determine the scattered energy spectra from the NaI(Tl) detector. Subsequently, the NaI(Tl) electron energy spectra were determined by subtracting the energy of scattered spectra from the incident source energy (662 keV). Using chi-squared minimization, iterative deconvolution of the internal electron energy spectra from the measured NaI(Tl) spectra was then used to determine eta sub e at the electron energy of interest. eta sub e values determined using this technique represent va...

  5. Recommendations for the measurement 131I in human thyroid using a detector of NaI(Tl)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puerta Yepes, N.; Rojo, A.M.; Andres, P.A.

    2010-01-01

    The Argentine Total Body Counter Laboratory of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority participated in the last regional intercomparison Exercise organized in the frame of the IAEA Project RLA 9/066 related with in vivo measurements of 131 I in the thyroid. There were identified some difficulties in determining the efficiency and calibration factor (CF) for the 131 I when a source of 133 Ba and a detector of NaI (Tl) are used in the calibration process. Independent measurements were performed for two calibration sources of known activity ( 133 Ba and 131 I) with identical geometry pattern and using a gamma spectrometry system with NaI(Ti) detector. It was found that the region of interest (ROI) which, both in the spectrum of 133 Ba as in the spectrum of 131 I, had the same efficiency. It was determined the activity of the source of 133 Ba , distributed in the intercomparison, and the calibrated source of 131 I using different values of efficiency and FC obtained. It was analyzed the conditions under which the use of 133 Ba as a source of calibration is effective for the measurement of 131 I. (authors) [es

  6. Prototype Performance of Novel Muon Telescope Detector at STAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan, L.

    2008-01-01

    Research on a large-area, cost-effective Muon Telescope Detector (MTD) has been carried out for RHIC and for next generation detectors at future QCD Lab. We utilize state-of-the-art multi-gap resistive plate chambers with large modules and long readout strips in detector design. The results from cosmic ray and beam test will be presented to address intrinsic timing and spatial resolution for a Long-MRPC. The prototype performance of a novel muon telescope detector at STAR will be reported, including muon identification capability, timing and spatial resolution

  7. Prototype performance of novel muon telescope detector at STAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan, L.; Ames, V.

    2011-01-01

    Research on a large-area, cost-effective Muon Telescope Detector has been carried out for RHIC and for next generation detectors at future QCD Lab. We utilize state-of-the-art multi-gap resistive plate chambers with large modules and long readout strips in detector design. The results from cosmic ray and beam test will be presented to address intrinsic timing and spatial resolution for a Long-MRPC. The prototype performance of a novel muon telescope detector at STAR will be reported, including muon identification capability, timing and spatial resolution. (author)

  8. The 150 ns detector project: Prototype preamplifier results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, W. K.; Russell, S. R.; Kleinfelder, Stuart A.

    1994-08-01

    The long-term goal of the 150 ns detector project is to develop a pixel area detector capable of 6 MHz frame rates (150 ns/frame). Our milestones toward this goal are: a single pixel, 1×256 1D and 8×8 2D detectors, 256×256 2D detectors and, finally, 1024 × 1024 2D detectors. The design strategy is to supply a complete electronics chain (resetting preamp, selectable gain amplifier, analog-to-digital converter (ADC), and memory) for each pixel. In the final detectors these will all be custom integrated circuits. The front-end preamplifiers are integrated first, since their design and performance are the most unusual and also critical to the project's success. Similarly, our early work is concentrated on devising and perfecting detector structures. In this paper we demonstrate the performance of prototypes of our integrated preamplifiers. While the final design will have 64 preamps to a chip, including a switchable gain stage, the prototypes were integrated 8 channels to a "Tiny Chip" and tested in 4 configurations (feedback capacitor Cf equal 2.5 or 4.0 pF, output directly or through a source follower). These devices have been tested thoroughly for reset settling times, gain, linearity, and electronic noise. They generally work as designed, being fast enough to easily integrate detector charge, settle, and reset in 150 ns. Gain and linearity appear to be acceptable. Current values of electronic noise, in double-sampling mode, are about twice the design goal of {2}/{3} of a single photon at 6 keV. We expect this figure to improve with the addition of the onboard amplifier stage and improved packaging. Our next test chip will include these improvements and allow testing with our first detector samples, which will be 1×256 (50 μm wide pixels) and 8×8 (1 mm 2 pixels) element detector on 1 mm thick silicon.

  9. CERN-built prototype RICH detector back from the USA

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    In summer 1999, a ring-imaging Cherenkov detector (RICH) developed, constructed and tested at CERN was dismantled and sent to the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) where it was used to extend the particle identification range of the STAR detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The RICH was a prototype of part of the ALICE-HMPID detector. Here we see members of the STAR-RICH team from ALICE-HMPID group with the detector, still in its shipping crates, back from BNL. L. to r.: A.Braem, E. Schyns, D. Fraissard, C. David, A. Di Mauro, J. van Beelen, G. Paic, Y. Lesenechal, F. Piuz, P. Martinengo, D. Di Bari, G. De Cataldo, Y. Andres, M. Davenport, V. Barozier, E. Nappi, T. D. Williams.

  10. Test-beam results of a SOI pixel detector prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Bugiel, Roma; Dannheim, Dominik; Fiergolski, Adrian; Hynds, Daniel; Idzik, Marek; Kapusta, P; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Munker, Ruth Magdalena; Nurnberg, Andreas Matthias

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents the test-beam results of a monolithic pixel-detector prototype fabricated in 200 nm Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) CMOS technology. The SOI detector was tested at the CERN SPS H6 beam line. The detector is fabricated on a 500 μm thick high-resistivity float- zone n-type (FZ-n) wafer. The pixel size is 30 μm × 30 μm and its readout uses a source- follower configuration. The test-beam data are analysed in order to compute the spatial resolution and detector efficiency. The analysis chain includes pedestal and noise calculation, cluster reconstruction, as well as alignment and η-correction for non-linear charge sharing. The results show a spatial resolution of about 4.3 μm.

  11. Ground level cosmic ray pulse height spectrum of a 7.5 cm diameter spherical NaI(Tl) scintillation detector for energy region below 5 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaoka, Toshi; Saito, Kimiaki; Moriuchi, Shigeru

    1988-01-01

    Ground level cosmic ray pulse height spectrum of a 7.5 cm diameter spherical NaI(Tl) scintillation detector was evaluated through stripping operation based on a pulse height spectrum measured on the sea and high precision response functions of the detector for U-series, Th-series and 40 K. The exposure rate calculated from the determined cosmic ray pulse height spectrum was 0.21 μR/h eq., which agreed well with that obtained from another method. The shape of the pulse height spectrum showed similarity to that measured at the altitude of 16,000 ft, especially in the energy region of 0 to 3 MeV. The principle of the adopted method is rather plain, however, the reliability of the spectrum is satisfactory. As the pulse height spectrum is a common information to any analytical method for environmental gamma ray using NaI(Tl) scintillation detector, it is expected to be used for simple and precise separation of cosmic ray component involved in the enviromental pulse height spectrum. (author)

  12. New prototype scintillator detector for the Tibet ASγ experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Gou, Q.-B.; Cai, H.; Chen, T.-L.; Danzengluobu; Feng, C.-F.; Feng, Y.-L.; Feng, Z.-Y.; Gao, Q.; Gao, X.-J.; Guo, Y.-Q.; Guo, Y.-Y.; Hou, Y.-Y.; Hu, H.-B.; Jin, C.; Li, H.-J.; Liu, C.; Liu, M.-Y.; Qian, X.-L.; Tian, Z.; Wang, Z.; Xue, L.; Zhang, X.-Y.; Zhang, Xi-Ying

    2017-11-01

    The hybrid Tibet AS array was successfully constructed in 2014. It has 4500 m2 underground water Cherenkov pools used as the muon detector (MD) and 789 scintillator detectors covering 36900 m2 as the surface array. At 100 TeV, cosmic-ray background events can be rejected by approximately 99.99%, according to the full Monte Carlo (MC) simulation for γ-ray observations. In order to use the muon detector efficiently, we propose to extend the surface array area to 72900 m2 by adding 120 scintillator detectors around the current array to increase the effective detection area. A new prototype scintillator detector is developed via optimizing the detector geometry and its optical surface, by selecting the reflective material and adopting dynode readout. {This detector can meet our physics requirements with a positional non-uniformity of the output charge within 10% (with reference to the center of the scintillator), time resolution FWHM of ~2.2 ns, and dynamic range from 1 to 500 minimum ionization particles}.

  13. NeuRad detector prototype pulse shape study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzalevsky, I.; Chudoba, V.; Belogurov, S.; Kiselev, O.; Bezbakh, A.; Fomichev, A.; Krupko, S.; Slepnev, R.; Kostyleva, D.; Gorshkov, A.; Ovcharenko, E.; Schetinin, V.

    2018-04-01

    The EXPERT setup located at the Super-FRS facility, the part of the FAIR complex in Darmstadt, Germany, is intended for investigation of properties of light exotic nuclei. One of its modules, the high granularity neutron detector NeuRad assembled from a large number of the scintillating fiber is intended for registration of neutrons emitted by investigated nuclei in low-energy decays. Feasibility of the detector strongly depends on its timing properties defined by the spatial distribution of ionization, light propagation inside the fibers, light emission kinetics and transition time jitter in the multi-anode photomultiplier tube. The first attempt of understanding the pulse formation in the prototype of the NeuRad detector by comparing experimental results and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations is reported in this paper.

  14. First results with prototype ISIS devices for ILC vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damerell, C.; Zhang, Z.; Gao, R.; John John, Jaya; Li, Y.; Nomerotski, A.; Holland, A.; Seabroke, G.; Havranek, M.; Stefanov, K.; Kar-Roy, A.; Bell, R.; Burt, D.; Pool, P.

    2010-01-01

    The vertex detectors at the International Linear Collider (ILC) (there will be two of them, one for each of two general purpose detectors) will certainly be built with silicon pixel detectors, either monolithic or perhaps vertically integrated. However, beyond this general statement, there is a wide range of options supported by active R and D programmes all over the world. Pixel-based vertex detectors build on the experience at the SLAC large detector (SLD) operating at the SLAC linear collider (SLC), where a 307 Mpixel detector permitted the highest physics performance at LEP or SLC. For ILC, machine conditions demand much faster readout than at SLC, something like 20 time slices during the 1 ms bunch train. The approach of the image sensor with in-situ storage (ISIS) is unique in offering this capability while avoiding the undesirable requirement of 'pulsed power'. First results from a prototype device that approaches the pixel size of 20 μm square, needed for physics, are reported. The dimensional challenge is met by using a 0.18 μm imaging CMOS process, instead of a conventional CCD process.

  15. First results with prototype ISIS devices for ILC vertex detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damerell, C., E-mail: c.damerell@rl.ac.u [RAL, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Zhang, Z. [RAL, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Gao, R.; John John, Jaya; Li, Y.; Nomerotski, A. [Oxford U (United Kingdom); Holland, A.; Seabroke, G. [Centre for Electronic Imaging, Open U (United Kingdom); Havranek, M. [Czech Technical University in Prague (Czech Republic); Stefanov, K. [Sentec Ltd, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Kar-Roy, A. [Jazz Semiconductors, California (United States); Bell, R.; Burt, D.; Pool, P. [e2V Technologies, Chelmsford (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-11

    The vertex detectors at the International Linear Collider (ILC) (there will be two of them, one for each of two general purpose detectors) will certainly be built with silicon pixel detectors, either monolithic or perhaps vertically integrated. However, beyond this general statement, there is a wide range of options supported by active R and D programmes all over the world. Pixel-based vertex detectors build on the experience at the SLAC large detector (SLD) operating at the SLAC linear collider (SLC), where a 307 Mpixel detector permitted the highest physics performance at LEP or SLC. For ILC, machine conditions demand much faster readout than at SLC, something like 20 time slices during the 1 ms bunch train. The approach of the image sensor with in-situ storage (ISIS) is unique in offering this capability while avoiding the undesirable requirement of 'pulsed power'. First results from a prototype device that approaches the pixel size of 20 {mu}m square, needed for physics, are reported. The dimensional challenge is met by using a 0.18 {mu}m imaging CMOS process, instead of a conventional CCD process.

  16. WIMP search and a Cherenkov detector prototype for ILC polarimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartels, Christoph

    2011-10-15

    The planned International Linear Collider (ILC) will be an essential experiment to precisely determine the properties and structure of physics at the TeV scale. An important feature of the ILC is the possibility to use polarized electrons and positrons. In part 1 of this thesis, a model independent search for Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) at ILC is presented. The signal channel under study is direct WIMP pair production with associated Initial State Radiation (ISR), e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} {chi}{chi}{gamma}, where the WIMPs leave the detector without any further interaction, and only the emitted photon is detected. From the energy spectrum of the detected photons the coupling structure, cross sections, masses and the quantum number of the dominant partial wave in the production process can be inferred. The analysis includes the dominant SM, as well as machine-induced backgrounds, and is performed using a full simulation of the ILD detector concept. For an integrated luminosity of L=500 fb{sup -1}, the signal cross sections can be measured to a precision of 3%, dominated by systematic uncertainties on the polarization measurement of the initial electrons and positrons. Masses can be measured to a precision of up to 2% by a comparison of the data photon spectrum to parametrized template spectra. In part 2 of this thesis, a Cherenkov detector prototype for Compton polarimetry at ILC is presented. For the polarization measurement a systematic uncertainty of {delta} P/P = 0.25% or better is envisioned. To achieve this goal, the Cherenkov detector has to be precisely aligned with the fan of Compton scattered electrons and its signal response needs to be highly linear. For the detector prototype data driven alignment strategies have been developed by comparing data recorded at the Elsa accelerator in Bonn, Germany, with detailed Geant4 simulations. With the use of multi-anode photomultipliers, data driven alignment strategies promise to provide the

  17. WIMP search and a Cherenkov detector prototype for ILC polarimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartels, Christoph

    2011-10-01

    The planned International Linear Collider (ILC) will be an essential experiment to precisely determine the properties and structure of physics at the TeV scale. An important feature of the ILC is the possibility to use polarized electrons and positrons. In part 1 of this thesis, a model independent search for Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) at ILC is presented. The signal channel under study is direct WIMP pair production with associated Initial State Radiation (ISR), e + e - → χχγ, where the WIMPs leave the detector without any further interaction, and only the emitted photon is detected. From the energy spectrum of the detected photons the coupling structure, cross sections, masses and the quantum number of the dominant partial wave in the production process can be inferred. The analysis includes the dominant SM, as well as machine-induced backgrounds, and is performed using a full simulation of the ILD detector concept. For an integrated luminosity of L=500 fb -1 , the signal cross sections can be measured to a precision of 3%, dominated by systematic uncertainties on the polarization measurement of the initial electrons and positrons. Masses can be measured to a precision of up to 2% by a comparison of the data photon spectrum to parametrized template spectra. In part 2 of this thesis, a Cherenkov detector prototype for Compton polarimetry at ILC is presented. For the polarization measurement a systematic uncertainty of δ P/P = 0.25% or better is envisioned. To achieve this goal, the Cherenkov detector has to be precisely aligned with the fan of Compton scattered electrons and its signal response needs to be highly linear. For the detector prototype data driven alignment strategies have been developed by comparing data recorded at the Elsa accelerator in Bonn, Germany, with detailed Geant4 simulations. With the use of multi-anode photomultipliers, data driven alignment strategies promise to provide the required precision. At ILC, these

  18. A new prototype for the PANDA disc DIRC detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieke, Julian; Dueren, Michael; Hayrapetyan, Avetik; Foehl, Klaus; Kroeck, Benno; Merle, Oliver; Etzelmueller, Erik; Biguenko, Klim [Justus Liebig Universitaet, Giessen (Germany); Collaboration: PANDA-Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    The PANDA experiment at the future FAIR facility needs excellent particle identification to do precision studies of antiproton-proton reactions in the 1.5-15 GeV/c momentum range. To fulfill this need, two Cherenkov detectors will be installed in the PANDA target spectrometer, both based on the DIRC concept that uses internally reflected Cherenkov light to perform particle identification, with a focus on the separation of pions and kaons. The Disc-DIRC is designed to cap the forward region of theta angles between 5 and 22 degrees. It will be the first time that a 3D-Disc-DIRC is used for PID in a real physics experiment beyond prototyping. A new prototyping Disc-DIRC apparatus has been constructed at the JLU Giessen. Unlike previous prototypes, this one features a radiator as well as focusing elements made out of fused silica. The Cherenkov light is detected with 22 multi-anode-phototubes and 4 MCP-PMTs, totalling 608 individual pixels. Timing information for each of the latter is generated using the novel TRB3 system developed at GSI. The entire prototype was tested with an electron beam of several GeV/c provided by DESY in Hamburg. The components, their setup and a first analysis of the recorded data will be presented.

  19. Performance of hybrid photon detector prototypes with encapsulated silicon pixel detector and readout for the RICH counters of LHCb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, M.; George, K.A.; Girone, M.; Gys, T.; Jolly, S.; Piedigrossi, D.; Riedler, P.; Rozema, P.; Snoeys, W.; Wyllie, K.

    2003-01-01

    These proceedings report on the performance of the latest prototype pixel hybrid photon detector in preparation for the LHCb Ring Imaging Cherenkov detectors. The prototype encapsulates a silicon pixel detector bump-bonded to a binary read-out chip with short (25 ns) peaking time and low ( - ) detection threshold. A brief description of the prototype is given, followed by the preliminary results of the characterisation of the prototype behaviour when tested using a low intensity pulsed light emitting diode. The results obtained are in good agreement with those obtained using previous prototypes. The proceedings conclude with a summary of the current status and future plans

  20. Neutron irradiation test of depleted CMOS pixel detector prototypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandić, I.; Cindro, V.; Gorišek, A.; Hiti, B.; Kramberger, G.; Mikuž, M.; Zavrtanik, M.; Hemperek, T.; Daas, M.; Hügging, F.; Krüger, H.; Pohl, D.-L.; Wermes, N.; Gonella, L.

    2017-01-01

    Charge collection properties of depleted CMOS pixel detector prototypes produced on p-type substrate of 2 kΩ cm initial resistivity (by LFoundry 150 nm process) were studied using Edge-TCT method before and after neutron irradiation. The test structures were produced for investigation of CMOS technology in tracking detectors for experiments at HL-LHC upgrade. Measurements were made with passive detector structures in which current pulses induced on charge collecting electrodes could be directly observed. Thickness of depleted layer was estimated and studied as function of neutron irradiation fluence. An increase of depletion thickness was observed after first two irradiation steps to 1 · 10 13 n/cm 2 and 5 · 10 13 n/cm 2 and attributed to initial acceptor removal. At higher fluences the depletion thickness at given voltage decreases with increasing fluence because of radiation induced defects contributing to the effective space charge concentration. The behaviour is consistent with that of high resistivity silicon used for standard particle detectors. The measured thickness of the depleted layer after irradiation with 1 · 10 15 n/cm 2 is more than 50 μm at 100 V bias. This is sufficient to guarantee satisfactory signal/noise performance on outer layers of pixel trackers in HL-LHC experiments.

  1. Test beam results of Silicon Drift Detector prototypes for the ALICE experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nouais, D.; Bonvicini, V.; Busso, L.; Cerello, P.; Giubellino, P.; Gregorio, A.; Hernandez-Montoya, R.; Idzik, M.; Kolojvari, A.; Mazza, G.; Montano, L. M.; Nilsen, B.S.; Petta, C.; Randazzo, N.; Rashevsky, A.; Reito, S.; Rivetti, A.; Tosello, F.; Trzaska, W.H.; Vacchi, A

    1999-08-01

    We report preliminary beam test results of linear Silicon Drift Detector prototypes for the ALICE experiment. Linearity, resolution, charge transport and collection, and efficiency have been studied using a minimum ionizing particle beam for a very large area detector prototype read out with the OLA preamplifier/shaper and for another detector read out using a new transimpedance amplifier with a non linear response.

  2. Petalet prototype for the ATLAS silicon strip detector upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sperlich, Dennis [Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin (Germany); Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Bloch, Ingo; Keller, John Stakely; Lohwasser, Kristin; Poley, Louise; Zakharchuk, Nataliia; Diez Cornell, Sergio [DESY (Germany); Hauser, Marc Manuel; Mori, Riccardo; Kuehl, Susanne; Parzefall, Ulrich [Albert-Ludwigs Universitaet Freiburg (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    To achieve more precise measurements and to search new physics phenomena, the luminosity at the LHC is expected to be increased during a series of upgrades in the next years. The latest scheduled upgrade, called the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) is proposed to provide instantaneous luminosity of 5 x 10{sup 34} cm{sup 2}s{sup -1}. The increased luminosity and the radiation damage will affect the current Inner Tracker. In order to cope with the higher radiation dose and occupancy, the ATLAS experiment plans to replace the current Inner Detector with a new all-silicon tracker consisting of ∝8 m{sup 2} pixel and ∝192 m{sup 2} strip detectors. In response to the needs, highly modular structures will be used for the strip system, called Staves for the barrel region and Petals for the end-caps region. A small-scaled prototype for the Petal, the Petalet, is built to study some specialties of this complex wedge-shaped structures. The Petalet consists of one large and two small sized sensors. This report focuses on the recent progress in the prototyping of the Petalet and their electrical performances.

  3. Proto-2, an ALICE detector prototype, part of the STAR experiment at the Brookhaven National Laboratory

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Proto-2, an LAICE detector prototype, overcame its prototype status to become a real part of the SDTAR, epxeriment at the US Brookhaven National Laboratory. After more than two years across the ocean, it has just arrived back at CERN.

  4. Eight plane IPND [Integration Prototype Near Detector] mechanical testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, A.; Guarino, V.; Wood, K.; Nephew, T.; Ayres, D.

    2008-01-01

    A mechanical test of an 8 plane IPND mechanical prototype, which was constructed using extrusions from the testing/tryout of the 16 cell prototype extrusion die in Argonne National Laboratory, was conducted. There were 4 vertical and 4 horizontal planes in this 8 plane IPND prototype. Each vertical plane had four 16 cell extrusions, while each horizontal plane had six 16 cell extrusions. Each plane was glued together using the formulation of Devcon adhesive, Devcon 60. The vertical extrusions used in the vertical planes shares the same dimensions as the horizontal extrusions in the horizontal planes with the average web thickness of 2.1 mm and the average wall thickness of 3.1 mm. This mechanical prototype was constructed with end-seals on the both ends of the vertical extrusions. The gaps were filled with epoxy between extrusions and end-seals. The overall dimension of IPND is 154.8 by 103.1 by 21.7 inches with the weight of approximately 1200 kg, as shown in a figure. Two similar mechanical tests of 3 layer and 11 layer prototypes have been done in order to evaluate the strength of the adhesive joint between extrusions in the NOvA detector. The test showed that the IPND prototype was able to sustain under the loading of weight of itself and scintillator. Two FEA models were built to verify the measurement data from the test. The prediction from FEA slice model seems correlated reasonably well to the test result, even under a 'rough' estimated condition for the wall thickness (from an untuned die) and an unknown property of 'garage type' extrusion. A full size of FEA 3-D model also agrees very well with the test data from strain gage readings. It is worthy to point out that the stress distribution of the structure is predominantly determined by the internal pressure, while the buckling stability relies more on the loading weight from the extrusions themselves and scintillate. Results of conducted internal pressure tests, including 3- cell, 11-cell and the IPND

  5. A low-energy antiproton detector prototype for AFIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Lingxin; Greenwald, Daniel; Hahn, Alexander; Hauptmann, Philipp; Konorov, Igor; Losekamm, Martin; Paul, Stephan; Poeschl, Thomas; Renker, Dieter [Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    Antiprotons are produced in interactions of primary cosmic rays with earth's exosphere, where a fraction of them will be confined in the geomagnetic field in the inner van Allen Belt. The antiproton-to-proton flux ratio predicted by theory is in good agreement with recent results from the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) published by the PAMELA collaboration. We have designed the AFIS (Antiproton Flux in Space) project in order to extend the measurable range of antiprotons towards the low-energy region. In scope of this project a small antiproton detector consisting of scintillating fibers and silicon photomultipliers is being developed as payload for a CubeSat traversing the SAA in Low Earth Orbit. For the proof of concept we have built a prototype called ''CubeZero'' which completed its first test using pion and proton beams at PSI, Switzerland. Our primary goal was to investigate on the performance of tracking and Bragg peak identification in hardware and software. Analysis of detector performance based on data taken during this beam test is presented in this talk.

  6. Design and construction of the prototype synchrotron radiation detector

    CERN Document Server

    Anderhub, H; Baetzner, D; Baumgartner, S; Biland, A; Camps, C; Capell, M; Commichau, V; Djambazov, L; Fanchiang, Y J; Flügge, G; Fritschi, M; Grimm, O; Hangarter, K; Hofer, H; Horisberger, Urs; Kan, R; Kaestli, W; Kenney, G P; Kim, G N; Kim, K S; Koutsenko, V F; Kraeber, M; Kuipers, J; Lebedev, A; Lee, M W; Lee, S C; Lewis, R; Lustermann, W; Pauss, Felicitas; Rauber, T; Ren, D; Ren, Z L; Röser, U; Son, D; Ting, Samuel C C; Tiwari, A N; Viertel, Gert M; Gunten, H V; Wicki, S W; Wang, T S; Yang, J; Zimmermann, B

    2002-01-01

    The Prototype Synchrotron Radiation Detector (PSRD) is a small-scale experiment designed to measure the rate of low-energy charged particles and photons in near the Earth's orbit. It is a precursor to the Synchrotron Radiation Detector (SRD), a proposed addition to the upgraded version of the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS-02). The SRD will use the Earth's magnetic field to identify the charge sign of electrons and positrons with energies above 1 TeV by detecting the synchrotron radiation they emit in this field. The differential energy spectrum of these particles is astrophysically interesting and not well covered by the remaining components of AMS-02. Precise measurements of this spectrum offer the possibility to gain information on the acceleration mechanism and characteristics of all cosmic rays in our galactic neighbourhood. The SRD will discriminate against protons as they radiate only weakly. Both the number and energy of the synchrotron photons that the SRD needs to detect are small. The identificat...

  7. A prototype station for ARIANNA: A detector for cosmic neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerhardt, Lisa; Klein, Spencer; Stezelberger, Thorsten; Barwick, Steve; Dookayka, Kamlesh; Hanson, Jordan; Nichol, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    The Antarctic Ross Ice Shelf Antenna Neutrino Array (ARIANNA) is a proposed detector for ultra-high energy astrophysical neutrinos. It will detect coherent radio Cherenkov emission from the particle showers produced by neutrinos with energies above about 10 17 eV. ARIANNA will be built on the Ross Ice Shelf just off the coast of Antarctica, where it will eventually cover about 900 km 2 in surface area. There, the ice-water interface below the shelf reflects radio waves, giving ARIANNA sensitivity to downward-going neutrinos and improving its sensitivity to horizontally incident neutrinos. ARIANNA detector stations each will contain 4-8 antennas, which search for pulses of 50 MHz to 1 GHz radio emission from neutrino interactions. We describe a prototype station for ARIANNA, which was deployed in Moore's Bay on the Ross Ice Shelf in December 2009, discuss the design and deployment, and present some initial figures on performance. The ice shelf thickness was measured to be 572±6 m at the deployment site.

  8. Mobile robot prototype detector of gamma radiation; Prototipo de robot movil detector de radiacion gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez C, R.M. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Duran V, M. D.; Jardon M, C. I., E-mail: raulmario.vazquez@inin.gob.mx [Tecnologico de Estudios Superiores de Villa Guerrero, Carretera Federal Toluca-Ixtapan de la Sal Km. 64.5, La Finca Villa Guerrero, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    In this paper the technological development of a mobile robot prototype detector of gamma radiation is shown. This prototype has been developed for the purpose of algorithms implementation for the applications of terrestrial radiation monitoring of exposed sources, search for missing radioactive sources, identification and delineation of radioactive contamination areas and distribution maps generating of radioactive exposure. Mobile robot detector of radiation is an experimental technology development platform to operate in laboratory environment or flat floor facilities. The prototype integrates a driving section of differential configuration robot on wheels, a support mechanism and rotation of shielded detector, actuator controller cards, acquisition and processing of sensor data, detection algorithms programming and control actuators, data recording (Data Logger) and data transmission in wireless way. The robot in this first phase is remotely operated in wireless way with a range of approximately 150 m line of sight and can extend that range to 300 m or more with the use of signal repeaters. The gamma radiation detection is performed using a Geiger detector shielded. Scan detection is performed at various time sampling periods and diverse positions of discrete or continuous angular orientation on the horizon. The captured data are geographical coordinates of robot GPS (latitude and longitude), orientation angle of shield, counting by sampling time, date, hours, minutes and seconds. The data is saved in a file in the Micro Sd memory on the robot. They are also sent in wireless way by an X Bee card to a remote station that receives for their online monitoring on a laptop through an acquisition program by serial port on Mat Lab. Additionally a voice synthesizing card with a horn, both in the robot, periodically pronounced in Spanish, data length, latitude, orientation angle of shield and detected accounts. (Author)

  9. Test beam results of silicon drift detector prototypes for the ALICE experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Nouais, D; Busso, L; Cerello, P G; Giubellino, P; Gregorio, A; Hernández-Montoya, R; Idzik, M; Kolojvari, A A; Mazza, G; Montaño-Zetina, L M; Nilsson, B S; Petta, C; Randazzo, N; Rashevsky, A; Reito, S; Rivetti, A; Tosello, F; Trzaska, W H; Vacchi, A

    1999-01-01

    We report preliminary beam test results of linear silicon drift detector prototypes for the ALICE experiment. Linearity, resolution, charge transport and collection, and efficiency have been studied using a minimum ionizing particle beam for a very large area detector prototype read out with the OLA preamplifier/shaper and for another detector read out using a new transimpedance amplifier with a nonlinear response. (14 refs).

  10. NaI(Tl) response functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega C, H. R.; Ortiz R, J. M.; Benites R, J. L.; De Leon M, H. A.

    2015-09-01

    The response functions of a NaI(Tl) detector have been estimated using Monte Carlo methods. Response functions were calculated for monoenergetic photon sources (0.05 to 3 MeV). Responses were calculated for point-like sources and for sources distributed in Portland cement cylinders. The responses were used to calculate the efficiency functions in term of photon energy. Commonly, sources used for calibration are point-like, and eventually sources to be measured have different features. In order to use the calibrated sources corrections due to solid angle, self-absorption and scattering, must be carried out. However, some of these corrections are not easy to perform. In this work, the calculated responses were used to estimate the detector efficiency of point-like sources, and sources distributed in Portland type cement. Samples of Portland paste were prepared and were exposed to photoneutrons produced by a 15 MV linac. Some of the elements in the cement were activated producing γ-emitting radionuclides that were measured with a NaI(Tl) gamma-ray spectrometer, that was calibrated with point-like sources. In order to determine the specific activity in the induced radioisotopes calculated efficiencies were used to make corrections due to the differences between the solid angle, photon absorption and photon scattering in the point-like calibration sources and the sources distributed in cement. During the interaction between photoneutrons and the cement samples three radioisotopes were induced: 56 Mn, 24 Na, and 28 Al. (Author)

  11. Stability of detecting system using NaI(Tl)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuo Yunshang; Lei Zhangyun; Zen Yu; Gong Hua

    1996-01-01

    A detecting system using NaI(Tl) is widely used in research and industry of nuclear science and other fields. For providing the high accuracy and working well under inclement environment, the stability of detecting system using NaI(Tl) is very important. The variation of environment temperature, the change of counting rate and long time continuous working of detector will cause un-negligible effect on the measurement. Three approaches were used. They are: 1) temperature control (It makes the effect of the variation of environment temperature on the measurement negligible.); 2) spectrum stabilizing (It adjust the peak position of the spectrum when the counting rate changes.); and 3) auto-checking and adjusting (It adjusts the drift of the NaI(Tl) detecting system when it works continuously)

  12. Small-Scale Readout System Prototype for the STAR PIXEL Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szelezniak, Michal; Anderssen, Eric; Greiner, Leo; Matis, Howard; Ritter, Hans Georg; Stezelberger, Thorsten; Sun, Xiangming; Thomas, James; Vu, Chinh; Wieman, Howard

    2008-01-01

    Development and prototyping efforts directed towards construction of a new vertex detector for the STAR experiment at the RHIC accelerator at BNL are presented. This new detector will extend the physics range of STAR by allowing for precision measurements of yields and spectra of particles containing heavy quarks. The innermost central part of the new detector is a high resolution pixel-type detector (PIXEL). PIXEL requirements are discussed as well as a conceptual mechanical design, a sensor development path, and a detector readout architecture. Selected progress with sensor prototypes dedicated to the PIXEL detector is summarized and the approach chosen for the readout system architecture validated in tests of hardware prototypes is discussed

  13. Prototype of the stacked CdZnTe semiconductor detector for 16N measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishizawa, Hiroshi; Inujima, Hiroshi; Fujiwara, Hirotsugu; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2001-01-01

    Prototype of the Stacked CdZnTe Semiconductor Detector for Measurement The prototype model of the stacked CdZnTe semiconductor detector, which is able to measure the 6.13 MeV γ-ray from 16 N, was fabricated. The prototype's response calculation was carried out by Monte-Carlo method. The result of the response calculation agreed with the experiment data of check sources of 137 Cs and 60 Co, and 16 N which was measured at vicinity of the primary cooling water pipe of the nuclear reactor. The source spectra were unfolded with detector's response function obtained by simulation, and it is indicated that the incident γ-ray energy and its intensity ratio was identified and that the energy of 6 MeV γ-ray could be measured by the prototype of the stacked detector. (author)

  14. Proto-2, an ALICE detector prototype, went to the United States (during transport)

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Proto-2, an ALICE detector prototype, overcame its prototype status to become a real part of the STAR experiment at the US Brookhaven National Laboratory.After more than two years across the ocean, it has just arrived back at CERN

  15. Prototype of high resolution PET using resistive electrode position sensitive CdTe detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Yohei; Ishii, Keizo; Matsuyama, Shigeo; Yamazaki, Hiromichi

    2008-01-01

    Downsizing detector elements makes it possible that spatial resolutions of positron emission tomography (PET) cameras are improved very much. From this point of view, semiconductor detectors are preferable. To obtain high resolution, the pixel type or the multi strip type of semiconductor detectors can be used. However, in this case, there is a low packing ratio problem, because a dead area between detector arrays cannot be neglected. Here, we propose the use of position sensitive semiconductor detectors with resistive electrode. The CdTe detector is promising as a detector for PET camera because of its high sensitivity. In this paper, we report development of prototype of high resolution PET using resistive electrode position sensitive CdTe detectors. We made 1-dimensional position sensitive CdTe detectors experimentally by changing the electrode thickness. We obtained 750 A as an appropriate thickness of position sensitive detectors, and evaluated the performance of the detector using a collimated 241 Am source. A good position resolution of 1.2 mm full width half maximum (FWHM) was obtained. On the basis of the fundamental development of resistive electrode position sensitive detectors, we constructed a prototype of high resolution PET which was a dual head type and was consisted of thirty-two 1-dimensional position sensitive detectors. In conclusion, we obtained high resolutions which are 0.75 mm (FWHM) in transaxial, and 1.5 mm (FWHM) in axial. (author)

  16. Beam Test Results for Single- and Double-Sided Silicon Detector Prototypes of the CMS Central Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Adriani, O

    1997-01-01

    We report the results of two beam tests performed in July and September 1995 at CERN using silicon microstrip detectors of various types: single sided, double sided with small angle stereo strips, double sided with orthogonal strips, double sided with pads. For the read-out electronics use was made of Preshape32, Premux128 and VA1 chips. The signal to noise ratio and the resolution of the detectors was studied for different incident angles of the incoming particles and for different values of the detector bias voltage. The goal of these tests was to check and improve the performances of the prototypes for the CMS Central Detector.

  17. A Prototype RICH Detector Using Multi-Anode Photo Multiplier Tubes and Hybrid Photo-Diodes

    CERN Document Server

    Albrecht, E; Bibby, J H; Brook, N H; Doucas, G; Duane, A; Easo, S; Eklund, L; French, M; Gibson, V; Gys, Thierry; Halley, A W; Harnew, N; John, M; Piedigrossi, D; Rademacker, J; Simmons, B; Smale, N J; Teixeira-Dias, P; Toudup, L W; Websdale, David M; Wilkinson, G R; Wotton, S A

    2001-01-01

    The performance of a prototype Ring Imaging Cherenkov Detector is studied using a charged particle beam. The detector performance, using CF4 and air as radiators, is described. Cherenkov angle precision and photoelectron yield using hybrid photo-diodes and multi-anode PMTs agree with simulations and are assessed in terms of the requirements of the LHCb experiment.

  18. Development of a 3D CZT detector prototype for Laue Lens telescope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caroli, Ezio; Auricchio, Natalia; Del Sordo, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    We report on the development of a 3D position sensitive prototype suitable as focal plane detector for Laue lens telescope. The basic sensitive unit is a drift strip detector based on a CZT crystal, (~19×8 mm2 area, 2.4 mm thick), irradiated transversally to the electric field direction. The anode...

  19. Compton suppression tests on Ge and BGO prototype detectors for GAMMASPHERE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, A M [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia); Khoo, T L; Bleich, M E; Carpenter, M P; Ahmad, I; Janssens, R V.F.; Moore, E F [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Bearden, I G [Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States); Beene, J R; Lee, I Y [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1992-08-01

    In this paper, we report on measurements of the Compton suppression and overall P/T ratio of two Ge detectors in a BGO shield of the honeycomb pattern. These were the first prototype CSG detector assemblies for GAMMASPHERE. A more detailed description of these results will be published later. (author). 4 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Construction and performance of a prototype detector for the ATLAS new small wheel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Tai-Hua; Schott, Matthias; Valderanis, Chrysostomos; Duedder, Andreas [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Collaboration: ATLAS-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    One of the upgrades of ATLAS detector for its phase II of operation is the replacement of the inner part of end cap muon spectrometer with resistive micromegas detectors. In this talk we discuss the very first working prototype, a quadruplets detector with an area of 0.5 m{sup 2} per plane in a trapezoid shape. The detailed construction of the prototype which includes the drift and readout layers gluing, gas flowing system mounting and etc. ls presented. The prototype was tested at the Mainz Microtron and with cosmic rays and results are presented. Finally we report on its installation of the prototype to the ATLAS cavern and on the plans for future measurements with it.

  1. Construction of a self-powered neutron detector prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pombo, J.B.S.M.; Correa, R.F.

    1986-01-01

    Description and testing of a self-powered neutron detector and related current measurement electronics, in construction at Centro de Desenvolviemnto da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), are presented. The cylindrical detector has a 9-wires cobalt emitter, Inconel 600 tubing collector and sinterized alumina electrical insulation. The bifilar signal cable is plugged to the detector through a SHV connector. Preliminary testing has giving information about dielectrical properties of the set and impurities of the materials (by means of activation analysis). The main tests, done in a 100 KW Triga Reactor, allowed the verification of the detector response to the neutron flux, the stability and reproducibility of this response, and also the evaluation of sensitivity to gamma radiation. The detector performance is considered good. (Author) [pt

  2. NaI(Tl) response functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega C, H. R.; Ortiz R, J. M. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Benites R, J. L. [Centro Estatal de Cancerologia de Nayarit, Calz. de la Cruz 118 Sur, Tepic, Nayarit (Mexico); De Leon M, H. A., E-mail: fermineutron@yahoo.com.mx [Instituto Tecnologico de Aguascalientes, Av. Adolfo Lopez Mateos 1801 Ote., 20155 Aguascalientes, Ags. (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    The response functions of a NaI(Tl) detector have been estimated using Monte Carlo methods. Response functions were calculated for monoenergetic photon sources (0.05 to 3 MeV). Responses were calculated for point-like sources and for sources distributed in Portland cement cylinders. The responses were used to calculate the efficiency functions in term of photon energy. Commonly, sources used for calibration are point-like, and eventually sources to be measured have different features. In order to use the calibrated sources corrections due to solid angle, self-absorption and scattering, must be carried out. However, some of these corrections are not easy to perform. In this work, the calculated responses were used to estimate the detector efficiency of point-like sources, and sources distributed in Portland type cement. Samples of Portland paste were prepared and were exposed to photoneutrons produced by a 15 MV linac. Some of the elements in the cement were activated producing γ-emitting radionuclides that were measured with a NaI(Tl) gamma-ray spectrometer, that was calibrated with point-like sources. In order to determine the specific activity in the induced radioisotopes calculated efficiencies were used to make corrections due to the differences between the solid angle, photon absorption and photon scattering in the point-like calibration sources and the sources distributed in cement. During the interaction between photoneutrons and the cement samples three radioisotopes were induced: {sup 56}Mn, {sup 24}Na, and {sup 28}Al. (Author)

  3. Studies on the prototype of the transition-radiation detector for the Zeus experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munde, A.

    1991-04-01

    The Zeus detector is currently being built for HERA at Hamburg. One part of the inner detector is the transition radiation detector (TRD). It will identify single electrons inside hadronic jets of deep inelastic ep-collisions. To test the chamber performance and to improve mechanical tools, a prototype of the smallest detector modul (TRD-1) was built. The gasgain of this prototype was measured under several high voltage conditions. The gasgain is about 1.5x10 3 up to 8x10 3 in Argon/Methane 90/10. To test the function of this prototype, the test beam facility at the Bonn 2.5 GeV electron synchrotron was used. The same relative amplification was measured by comparing the beam results with those obtained with a Fe 55 -source. (orig.) [de

  4. Study by Monte Carlo methods of an explosives detection system made up with a D-D neutron generator and NaI(Tl) gamma detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevallos Robalino, Lenin E; García Fernández, Gonzalo Felipe; Gallego, Eduardo; Guzmán-García, Karen A; Vega-Carrillo, Hector Rene

    2018-02-17

    Detection of hidden explosives is of utmost importance for homeland security. Several configurations of an Explosives Detection System (EDS) to intercept hidden threats, made up with a Deuterium-Deuterium (D-D) compact neutron generator and NaI (Tl) scintillation detectors, have been evaluated using MCNP6 code. The system's response to various samples of explosives, such as RDX and Ammonium Nitrate, is analysed. The D-D generator is able to produce fast neutrons with 2.5 MeV energy in a maximum yield of 10 10 n/s. It is surrounded by high-density polyethylene to thermalize the fast neutrons and to optimize interactions with the sample inspected, whose emission of gamma rays gives a characteristic spectrum of the elements that constitute it. This procedure allows to determine its chemical composition and to identify the type of substance. The necessary shielding is evaluated to estimate its thicknesses depending on the admissible dose of operation, using lead and polyethylene. The results show that its functionality is promising in the field of national security for explosives inspection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Practical prototype of a cluster-counting transition radiation detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabjan, C W; Willis, W [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland); Gavrilenko, I; Maiburov, S; Shmeleva, A; Vasiliev, P [AN SSSR, Moscow. Fizicheskij Inst.; Chernyatin, V; Dolgoshein, B; Kantserov, V; Nevski, P [Moskovskij Inzhenerno-Fizicheskij Inst. (USSR)

    1981-06-15

    A transition radiation detector using a method of cluster counting measurements has been tested. The performance is considerably better than with the usual method of total charge measurements, as well as offering advantages in simplicity of construction and operation.

  6. Performance of an LPD prototype detector at MHz frame rates under Synchrotron and FEL radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, A.; Hart, M.; Nicholls, T.; Angelsen, C.; Coughlan, J.; French, M.; Hauf, S.; Kuster, M.; Sztuk-Dambietz, J.; Turcato, M.; Carini, G. A.; Chollet, M.; Herrmann, S. C.; Lemke, H. T.; Nelson, S.; Song, S.; Weaver, M.; Zhu, D.; Meents, A.; Fischer, P.

    2013-11-01

    A MHz frame rate X-ray area detector (LPD — Large Pixel Detector) is under development by the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory for the European XFEL. The detector will have 1 million pixels and allows analogue storage of 512 images taken at 4.5 MHz in the detector front end. The LPD detector has 500 μm thick silicon sensor tiles that are bump bonded to a readout ASIC. The ASIC's preamplifier provides relatively low noise at high speed which results in a high dynamic range of 105 photons over an energy range of 5-20 keV. Small scale prototypes of 32 × 256 pixels (LPD 2-Tile detector) and 256 × 256 pixels (LPD supermodule detector) are now available for X-ray tests. The performance of prototypes of the detector is reported for first tests under synchrotron radiation (PETRA III at DESY) and Free-Electron-Laser radiation (LCLS at SLAC). The initial performance of the detector in terms of signal range and noise, radiation hardness and spatial and temporal response are reported. The main result is that the 4.5 MHz sampling detection chain is reliably working, including the analogue on-chip memory concept. The detector is at least radiation hard up to 5 MGy at 12 keV. In addition the multiple gain concept has been demonstrated over a dynamic range to 104 at 12 keV with a readout noise equivalent to < 1 photon rms in its most sensitive mode.

  7. Musculoskeletal imaging with a prototype photon-counting detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, M; Homolka, P; Chmeissani, M; Uffmann, M; Pretterklieber, M; Kainberger, F

    2012-01-01

    To test a digital imaging X-ray device based on the direct capture of X-ray photons with pixel detectors, which are coupled with photon-counting readout electronics. The chip consists of a matrix of 256 × 256 pixels with a pixel pitch of 55 μm. A monolithic image of 11.2 cm × 7 cm was obtained by the consecutive displacement approach. Images of embalmed anatomical specimens of eight human hands were obtained at four different dose levels (skin dose 2.4, 6, 12, 25 μGy) with the new detector, as well as with a flat-panel detector. The overall rating scores for the evaluated anatomical regions ranged from 5.23 at the lowest dose level, 6.32 at approximately 6 μGy, 6.70 at 12 μGy, to 6.99 at the highest dose level with the photon-counting system. The corresponding rating scores for the flat-panel detector were 3.84, 5.39, 6.64, and 7.34. When images obtained at the same dose were compared, the new system outperformed the conventional DR system at the two lowest dose levels. At the higher dose levels, there were no significant differences between the two systems. The photon-counting detector has great potential to obtain musculoskeletal images of excellent quality at very low dose levels.

  8. Test-beam Results from a RICH Detector Prototype Using Aerogel Radiator and Pixel Hybrid Photon Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Aglieri-Rinella, G; Van Lysebetten, A; Piedigrossi, D; Wyllie, K; Bellunato, T F; Calvi, M; Matteuzzi, C; Musy, M; Perego, D L; Somerville, L P; Newby, C; Easo, S; Wotton, S

    2006-01-01

    A test-beam study was performed at CERN with a Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) prototype using three pixel Hybrid Photon Detectors. Results on the photon yield and Cherenkov angle resolution are presented here, for the Aerogel radiator and also for reference runs taken with Nitrogen radiator.

  9. Study of a prototype detector for the Daya Bay neutrino experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhimin; Yang Changgen; Guan Mengyun; Zhong Weili; Liu Jinchang; Zhang Zhiyong; Ding Yayun; Wang Ruiguang; Cao Jun; Wang Yifang; Lu Haoqi

    2009-01-01

    The Daya Bay reactor neutrino experiment is designed to precisely measure the neutrino mixing angle θ 13 . In order to study the details of the detector response and finalize the detector design, a prototype neutrino detector with a scale of 1/3 in diameter is constructed at the Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP), Beijing. The detector is viewed by 45 8'' photomultipliers, which are calibrated by LED light pulse. The energy response of the detector, including the resolution, linearity, spatial uniformity, etc., is studied by radioactive sources 133 Ba, 137 Cs, 60 Co, and 22 Na at various locations of the detector. The measurement shows that the detector, particularly the specially designed optical reflectors, works as expected. A Monte Carlo simulation based on the Geant4 package shows a good agreement with the experimental data.

  10. The performance of prototype position-sensitive neutron detectors on SXD at ISIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, C.C.

    1989-02-01

    The performance of two position-sensitive neutron detector designed for use on the single crystal diffractometer (SXD) at ISIS is assessed. The two detectors examined were the Anger camera 6 Li-glass scintillator PSD and a prototype fibre-optic encoded PSD based on 6 Li-doped ZnS plastic scintillator. The latter detector is found to be both simpler to fabricate and to produce better results on the evidence to date. A summary of some of the expected science from SXD and the performance of the detectors with respect to this is also given. (author)

  11. Beam tests of prototype fiber detectors for the H1 forward proton spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baehr, J.; Hiller, K.; Hoffmann, B.; Luedecke, H.; Menchikov, A.; Nahnhauer, R.; Roloff, H.E.; Tonisch, F.; Voelkert, R.

    1994-07-01

    Different prototypes of fiber detectors with an internal trigger system were tested in a 5 GeV electron beam at DESY. A silicon microstrip telescope was used for an external reference measurement of the beam to study the spatial resolution of the fiber detectors. On average 75% of all crossing electron tracks could be reconstructed with a precision better than 150 μm. These successful methodical investigations led to the installation of similar detectors in the proton beamline 81 m downstream of the central H1-detector at HERA as part of a forward proton spectrometer in spring 1994. (orig.)

  12. Beam tests of prototype fiber detectors for the H1 forward proton spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baehr, J.; Hiller, K.; Hoffmann, B.; Luedecke, H.; Menchikov, A.; Nahnhauer, R.; Roloff, H.E.; Tonisch, F.; Voelkert, R.

    1995-01-01

    Different prototypes of fiber detectors with an internal trigger system were tested in a 5 GeV electron beam at DESY. A silicon microstrip telescope was used for an external reference measurement of the beam to study the spatial resolution of the fiber detectors. On average 75% of all crossing electron tracks could be reconstructed with a precision better than 150 μm. These successful methodical investigations led to the installation of similar detectors in the proton beamline 81 m downstream of the central H1-detector at HERA as part of a forward proton spectrometer in spring 1994. (orig.)

  13. Study of the Quasi-Elastic Scattering in the NOvA Detector Prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betancourt, Minerba [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2013-06-01

    NOvA is a 810 km long base-line neutrino oscillation experiment with two detectors (far 14 KTon and near detector 300 Ton) currently being installed in the NUMI o -axis neutrino beam produced at Fermilab. A 222 Ton prototype NOvA detector (NDOS) was built and operated in the neutrino beam for over a year to understand the response of the detector and its construction. The goal of this thesis is to study the muon neutrino interaction data collected in this test, specifically the identification of quasi-elastic charged-current interactions and measure the behavior of the quasi-elastic muon neutrino cross section.

  14. Proposal for SPS beam time for the baby MIND and TASD neutrino detector prototypes

    CERN Document Server

    Asfandiyarov, R.; Blondel, A.; Bogomilov, M.; Bross, A.; Cadoux, F.; Cervera, A.; Izmaylov, A.; Karadzhov, Y.; Karpikov, I.; Khabibulin, M.; Khotyantsev, A.; Kopylov, A.; Kudenko, Y.; Matev, R.; Mineev, O.; Musienko, Y.; Nessi, M.; Noah, E.; Rubbia, A.; Shaykiev, A.; Soler, P.; Tsenov, R.; Vankova-Kirilova, G.; Yershov, N.

    2015-01-01

    The design, construction and testing of neutrino detector prototypes at CERN are ongoing activities. This document reports on the design of solid state baby MIND and TASD detector prototypes and outlines requirements for a test beam at CERN to test these, tentatively planned on the H8 beamline in the North Area, which is equipped with a large aperture magnet. It is hoped that this will allow for the current proposal to be considered in light of the recently approved projects related to neutrino activities with the SPS in the North Area in the medium term 2015-2020.

  15. First Compton telescope prototype based on continuous LaBr3-SiPM detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llosá, G.; Cabello, J.; Callier, S.; Gillam, J.E.; Lacasta, C.; Rafecas, M.; Raux, L.; Solaz, C.; Stankova, V.; La Taille, C. de; Trovato, M.; Barrio, J.

    2013-01-01

    A first prototype of a Compton camera based on continuous scintillator crystals coupled to silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) arrays has been successfully developed and operated. The prototype is made of two detector planes. The first detector is made of a continuous 16×18×5 mm 3 LaBr 3 crystal coupled to a 16-elements SiPM array. The elements have a size of 3×3 mm 3 in a 4.5×4.05 mm 2 pitch. The second detector, selected by availability, consists of a continuous 16×18×5 mm 3 LYSO crystal coupled to a similar SiPM array. The SPIROC1 ASIC is employed in the readout electronics. Data have been taken with a 22 Na source placed at different positions and images have been reconstructed with the simulated one-pass list-mode (SOPL) algorithm. Detector development for the construction of a second prototype with three detector planes is underway. LaBr 3 crystals of 32×36 mm 2 size and 5/10 mm thickness have been acquired and tested with a PMT. The resolution obtained is 3.5% FWHM at 511 keV. Each crystal will be coupled to four MPPC arrays. Different options are being tested for the prototype readout

  16. Tests of MVD prototype pad detector with a β- source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeol Kim, Sang; Gook Kim, Young; Su Ryu, Sang; Hwan Kang, Ju; Simon-Gillo, Jehanne; Sullivan, John P.; Heck, Hubert W. van; Xu Guanghua

    1999-01-01

    The MVD group has been testing two versions of silicon pad detectors. One design uses a single metal layer for readout trace routing. The second type uses two layers of metal, allowing for greatly simplified signal routing. However, because the readout traces for the pads pass over the other pads in the same column (separated by an oxide layer), the double-metal design introduces crosstalk into the system. A simple test stand using a 90 Sr β - source with scintillator triggers was made to estimate the crosstalk. The crosstalk between pads in the same column of the pad detector was 1.6-3.1%. The values measured between pads in different columns were very close to zero. The measured crosstalk was below our maximum allowed value of 7.8%

  17. A prototype of wireless power and data acquisition system for large detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Lurgio, P. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Djurcic, Z., E-mail: zdjurcic@anl.gov [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Drake, G. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Hashemian, R. [Northern Illinois University, Dekalb, IL 60115 (United States); Kreps, A.; Oberling, M. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Pearson, T. [Northern Illinois University, Dekalb, IL 60115 (United States); Sahoo, H. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2015-06-11

    We have developed a prototype detector and data acquisition module that incorporates wireless power and wireless data transmission techniques. The module has no electrical connections. It receives power using photovoltaic devices, and communicates control, timing, trigger, and data using the 802.11n wireless communication standard. The work is part of a study for building a large detector having many readout channels, where it is desirable to reduce the cable plant and infrastructure. The system could also be deployed in smaller detectors that require mobility or are difficult to cable due to extreme conditions. We describe the design and operation of the prototype module, including benchmark performance measurements, and discuss aspect and issues in extrapolating to a large detector system.

  18. A prototype of wireless power and data acquisition system for large detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Lurgio, P.; Djurcic, Z.; Drake, G.; Hashemian, R.; Kreps, A.; Oberling, M.; Pearson, T.; Sahoo, H.

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a prototype detector and data acquisition module that incorporates wireless power and wireless data transmission techniques. The module has no electrical connections. It receives power using photovoltaic devices, and communicates control, timing, trigger, and data using the 802.11n wireless communication standard. The work is part of a study for building a large detector having many readout channels, where it is desirable to reduce the cable plant and infrastructure. The system could also be deployed in smaller detectors that require mobility or are difficult to cable due to extreme conditions. We describe the design and operation of the prototype module, including benchmark performance measurements, and discuss aspect and issues in extrapolating to a large detector system

  19. Method for calibration of the NaI(Tl) 3''x 3'' detector for in vivo measurements in patients undergoing radioiodine therapy and occupationally exposed individuals to 131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xavier, A.C.S.; Oliveira, M.L.; Lima, F.F.; Lima, F.R.A.; Lacerda, I.V.B.; Universidade Federal de Pernambuco

    2012-01-01

    According to studies by the Instituto Nacional do Cancer (INCA), in recent years the incidence of thyroid cancer is the fastest growing in relation to other types. For the treatment is required the exact amount of 131 I isotope for each patient resulting on manipulation of this isotope in nuclear medicine services by individuals who are considered occupationally exposed (OEI). This work aims to establish the methodology for calibration of the detection system used to determine the therapeutic activity of 131 I, required to release the desired absorbed dose in the thyroid gland, as well as in monitoring OEI that manipulate this radionuclide in nuclear medicine services. This is one of the early stages of implementation of Laboratorio de Dosimetria Interna at the Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE). The detector system consists of a NaI(Tl) 3'' x 3'' associated with electronic devices and Genie 2000 software. Sources of 60 Co, 137 Cs and 133 Ba were utilized for calibration. Firstly, measurements were carried out in non-exposed individuals for obtaining the Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA) and then Minimum Detectable Incorporation (MDI) and the Minimum Effective Dose Detectable (MEDD) were determined through biokinetic models provided by the ICRP 67 and edited by the AIDE software version 6 to workers and patients. The values for the MEDD were 3.57 x 10 -2 mSv, 5.56 x 10 -2 mSv and 10.7 x 10 -2 mSv to 1, 7 and 14 days, respectively, after 131 I incorporation by workers. As for patients, MEDD were 3.44 x 10 -2 mSv, 5.63 x 10 -2 mSv and 10.9 x 10 -2 mSv for the same periods of time. It is applicable to the assessment of dose OEI, since it presents less than the recommended minimum of 1 mSv. The technique also has adequate sensitivity for evaluation of activity present in the thyroid of patients with thyroid dysfunction. (author)

  20. A Prototype Large Area Detector Module for Muon Scattering Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steer, C.A.; Boakes, J.; Burns, J.; Snow, S.; Stapleton, M.; Thompson, L.F.; Quillin, S. [AWE Aldermaston, Reading, Berkshire, RG7 4PR (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-01

    Abstract-Shielded special nuclear materials (SNM) are of concern as some fissile isotopes have low gamma and neutron emission rates. These materials are also easily shielded to the point where their passive emissions are comparable to background. Consequently, shielded SNM is very challenging for passive radiation detection portals which scan cargo containers. One potential solution for this is to utilise the natural cosmic ray muon background and examine how these muons scatter from materials inside the container volume, terms; the muon scattering tomography (MST) technique measures the three-dimensional localised scattering at all points within a cargo container, providing a degree of material discrimination. There is the additional benefit that the MST signal increases with the presence of more high density shielding materials, in contrast to passive radiation detection. Simulations and calculations suggest that the effectiveness of the technique is sensitive to the tracking accuracy amongst other parameters, motivating the need to develop practical detector systems that are capable of tracking cosmic ray muons. To this end, we have constructed and tested a 2 m by 2 m demonstration module based on gaseous drift chambers and triggered by a large area scintillator-based detector, which is readout by wavelength shifting fibres. We discuss its design, construction, characterisation and operational challenges. (authors)

  1. A prototype detector using the neutron image intensifier and multi-anode type photomultiplier tube for pulsed neutron imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Hirotaku; Sato, Hirotaka; Hara, Kaoru Y.; Kamiyama, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    We developed a neutron two-dimensional (2-D) detector for pulsed neutron imaging as a prototype detector, which was composed of a neutron image intensifier and a multi-anode type photomultiplier tube. A neutron transmission spectrum of α-Fe plate was measured by the prototype detector, and compared with the one measured by a typical neutron 2-D detector. The spectrum was in reasonable agreement with the one measured by the typical detector in the neutron wavelength region above 0.15 nm. In addition, a neutron transmission image of a cadmium indicator was obtained by the prototype detector. The usefulness of the prototype detector for pulsed neutron imaging was demonstrated. (author)

  2. Study of method of efficiency transference using detectors NaI(Ti); Estudo de método de transferência de eficiência usando detectores NaI(Tl)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Thiago L.; Salgado, César M., E-mail: thiago_lins-ramos@hotmail.com, E-mail: otero@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The use of NaI (Tl) scintillation detectors for measurements implies the determination of the detection efficiency as a function of the energy of the incident photons. The efficiency curve can be obtained experimentally with the use of several mono-energy sources calibrated with emission energies covering the whole range of interest or using the Monte Carlo method. The Institute of Nuclear Engineering develops several methodologies using these detectors as they are robust, inexpensive and do not need cooling for their use. The assembly of an experimental arrangement is usually complex, since several factors influence the result affecting reproducibility in measurements, such as: parallelism between source and detector, alignment between source and detector, and accuracy of source-detector distance. In view of such difficulties, an automated positioning system was developed for the source-detector set controlled by a micro controller based on the ARDUINO language in order to guarantee the reproducibility in the experimental arrangements. In the initial phase of this study, a mathematical model was developed in the MCNP-X code using a NaI (Tl) detector. A theoretical validation using the Efficiency Transfer Method was performed at three different positions on the detector's axial axis (10.6 cm, 11.3 cm and 12.0 cm). This method is based on the ratio of effective solid angles. The experimental validation presented maximum relative errors of 7.74% for the position 11.3 cm.

  3. Prototypes of Self-Powered Radiation Detectors Employing Intrinsic High-Energy Current (HEC) (POSTPRINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    neutron sensi- tivities of a Pt self - powered detector ,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 25, 292–295 (1978). 6T. A. Dellin, R. E. Huddleston, and C. J...Gamma-sensitive self - powered detectors and their use for in-core flux -mapping,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 28, 752–757 (1981). 9E. A. Burke and J. Wall...AFCEC-CX-TY-TP-2016-0006 PROTOTYPES OF SELF - POWERED RADIATION DETECTORS EMPLOYING INTRINSIC HIGH-ENERGY CURRENT (HEC) (POSTPRINT) Piotr

  4. Test beam performance of a tracking TRD [Transition Radiation Detector] prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shank, J.T.; Whitaker, J.S.; Polychronakos, V.A.; Radeka, V.; Stephani, D.; Beker, H.; Bock, R.K.; Botlo, M.; Fabjan, C.W.; Pfennig, J.; Price, M.J.; Willis, W.J.; Akesson, T.; Chernyatin, V.; Dolgoshein, B.; Nevsky, P.; Potekhin, M.; Romanjuk, A.; Sosnovtsev, V.; Gavrilenko, I.; Muravjev, S.; Shmeleva, A.

    1990-01-01

    A Tracking Transition Radiation Detector prototype has been constructed and tested. It consists of 240 straw tubes, 4 mm in diameter, imbedded in a polyethylene block acting as the radiator. Its performance as an electron identifier as well as a tracking device for minimum ionizing particles has been determined. 2 refs., 6 figs

  5. Concept of data storage prototype for Super-C-Tau factory detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maximov, D.A.

    2017-01-01

    The physics program of experiments at the Super- c τ factory with a peak luminosity of 10 35 cm −2 s −1 leads to high requrements for Data Acquisition and Data Storage systems. Detector data storage is one of the key component of the detector infrastructure, so it must be reliable, highly available and fault tolerant shared storage. It is mostly oriented (from end user point of view) for sequential but mixed read and write operations and is planed to store large data blocks (files). According to CDR of Super-C-Tau factory detector data storage must have very high performance (up to 1 Tbps in both directions simultaneously) and have significant volume (tens and hundreds of Petabytes). It is decided to build a series of prototypes with growing capabilities to investigate storage and neighboring technologies. First prototype of data storage is aimed to develop and test basic components of detector data storage system such as storage devices, networks and software. This prototype is designed to be capable to work with data rate of order 10 Gbps. It is estimated that about 5 modern computers with about 50 disks in total should be enough to archive required performance. The prototype will be based on Ceph storage technology. Ceph is a distributed storage system which allows to create storage solutions with very flexible design, high availability and scalability.

  6. Method for calibration of the NaI(Tl) 3''x 3'' detector for in vivo measurements in patients undergoing radioiodine therapy and occupationally exposed individuals to {sup 131}I; Metodologia para calibracao do detector de NaI(Tl) 3''x 3''para medicoes in vivo em pacientes submetidos a radioiodoterapia e individuos ocupacionalmente expostos ao {sup 131}I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xavier, A.C.S.; Oliveira, M.L.; Lima, F.F.; Lima, F.R.A. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Lacerda, I.V.B., E-mail: line_c7@hotmail.com [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Tecnologias Energeticas e Nucleares

    2012-07-01

    According to studies by the Instituto Nacional do Cancer (INCA), in recent years the incidence of thyroid cancer is the fastest growing in relation to other types. For the treatment is required the exact amount of {sup 131}I isotope for each patient resulting on manipulation of this isotope in nuclear medicine services by individuals who are considered occupationally exposed (OEI). This work aims to establish the methodology for calibration of the detection system used to determine the therapeutic activity of {sup 131}I, required to release the desired absorbed dose in the thyroid gland, as well as in monitoring OEI that manipulate this radionuclide in nuclear medicine services. This is one of the early stages of implementation of Laboratorio de Dosimetria Interna at the Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE). The detector system consists of a NaI(Tl) 3'' x 3'' associated with electronic devices and Genie 2000 software. Sources of {sup 60}Co, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 133}Ba were utilized for calibration. Firstly, measurements were carried out in non-exposed individuals for obtaining the Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA) and then Minimum Detectable Incorporation (MDI) and the Minimum Effective Dose Detectable (MEDD) were determined through biokinetic models provided by the ICRP 67 and edited by the AIDE software version 6 to workers and patients. The values for the MEDD were 3.57 x 10{sup -2} mSv, 5.56 x 10{sup -2} mSv and 10.7 x 10{sup -2} mSv to 1, 7 and 14 days, respectively, after {sup 131}I incorporation by workers. As for patients, MEDD were 3.44 x 10{sup -2} mSv, 5.63 x 10{sup -2} mSv and 10.9 x 10{sup -2} mSv for the same periods of time. It is applicable to the assessment of dose OEI, since it presents less than the recommended minimum of 1 mSv. The technique also has adequate sensitivity for evaluation of activity present in the thyroid of patients with thyroid dysfunction. (author)

  7. Development of long-life neutron detectors for the prototype heavy water reactor 'Fugen'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohteru, Shigeru; Shirayama, Shimpey.

    1981-01-01

    The development of long-life neutron detectors as the flux monitors for the prototype heavy water reactor has been made. Three kinds of neutron monitors, namely start-up monitor (SUM), power up monitor (PUM) and local power monitor (LPM), are provided. The LPM consists of 4 ion chamber type neutron detectors and a guide tube of power calibration monitor (PCM). This is useful for reactor control and fuel soundness monitor. The improvement of the neutron detectors was made for the operation under high neutron flux and gamma-ray heating. For the long-life operation, U-234 was mixed into U-235 for the conversion in the detectors. The ratio of U-234 to U-235 is 3 to 1. The PCM is also an ion chamber type detector with U-235. The mixing ratio of U-234 to U-235 was determined by a test with the JMTR. The characteristic performance was also investigated by the JMTR. After the completion of Fugen, various tests on the long-life detectors were performed with Fugen. It was hard to test the output linearity of the detectors with a large scale reactor. Therefore, it was tested that the operation range of the detectors is within the linear region of detector output. The voltage-current characteristics and the correlation of output current and saturation current were measured. The variation of the neutron sensitivity of the detectors with the cumulative dose was also studied. (Kato, T.)

  8. Luminosity Measurement at ATLAS Development, Construction and Test of Scintillating Fibre Prototype Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Ask, S; Braem, André; Cheiklali, C; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fournier, D; de La Taille, C; Di Girolamo, B; Grafström, P; Joram, C; Haguenauer, Maurice; Hedberg, V; Lavigne, B; Maio, A; Mapelli, A; Mjörnmark, U; Puzo, P; Rijssenbeek, M; Santos, J; Saraiva, J G; Stenzel, H; Thioye, M; Valladolid, E; Vorobel, V

    2006-01-01

    We are reporting about a scintillating fibre tracking detector which is proposed for the precise determination of the absolute luminosity of the CERN LHC at interaction point 1 where the ATLAS experiment is located. The detector needs to track protons elastically scattered under $\\mu$rad angles in direct vicinity to the LHC beam. It is based on square shaped scintillating plastic fibres read out by multi-anode photomultiplier tubes and is housed in Roman Pots. We describe the design and construction of prototype detectors and the results of a beam test experiment at DESY. The excellent detector performance established in this test validates the detector design and supports the feasibility of the proposed challenging method of luminosity measurement.

  9. Characterizing X-ray detectors for prototype digital breast tomosynthesis systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.-S.; Park, H.-S.; Park, S.-J.; Choi, S.; Lee, H.; Kim, H.-J.; Lee, D.; Choi, Y.-W.

    2016-01-01

    The digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) system is a newly developed 3-D imaging technique that overcomes the tissue superposition problems of conventional mammography. Therefore, it produces fewer false positives. In DBT system, several parameters are involved in image acquisition, including geometric components. A series of projections should be acquired at low exposure. This makes the system strongly dependent on the detector's characteristic performance. This study compares two types of x-ray detectors developed by the Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (KERI). The first prototype DBT system has a CsI (Tl) scintillator/CMOS based flat panel digital detector (2923 MAM, Dexela Ltd.), with a pixel size of 0.0748 mm. The second uses a-Se based direct conversion full field detector (AXS 2430, analogic) with a pixel size of 0.085 mm. The geometry of both systems is same, with a focal spot 665.8 mm from the detector, and a center of rotation 33 mm above the detector surface. The systems were compared with regard to modulation transfer function (MTF), normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS), detective quantum efficiency (DQE) and a new metric, the relative object detectability (ROD). The ROD quantifies the relative performance of each detector at detecting specified objects. The system response function demonstrated excellent linearity (R 2 >0.99). The CMOS-based detector had a high sensitivity, while the Anrad detector had a large dynamic range. The higher MTF and noise power spectrum (NPS) values were measured using an Anrad detector. The maximum DQE value of the Dexela detector was higher than that of the Anrad detector with a low exposure level, considering one projection exposure for tomosynthesis. Overall, the Dexela detector performed better than did the Anrad detector with regard to the simulated Al wires, spheres, test objects of ROD with low exposure level. In this study, we compared the newly developed prototype DBT system with two different types

  10. Beam test performance and simulation of prototypes for the ALICE silicon pixel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrad, J.; Anelli, G.; Antinori, F.

    2007-01-01

    The silicon pixel detector (SPD) of the ALICE experiment in preparation at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is designed to provide the precise vertex reconstruction needed for measuring heavy flavor production in heavy ion collisions at very high energies and high multiplicity. The SPD forms the innermost part of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) which also includes silicon drift and silicon strip detectors. Single assembly prototypes of the ALICE SPD have been tested at the CERN SPS using high energy proton/pion beams in 2002 and 2003. We report on the experimental determination of the spatial precision. We also report on the first combined beam test with prototypes of the other ITS silicon detector technologies at the CERN SPS in November 2004. The issue of SPD simulation is briefly discussed

  11. Prototype Strip Barrel Modules for the ATLAS ITk Strip Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Sawyer, Craig; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The module design for the Phase II Upgrade of the new ATLAS Inner Tracker (ITk) detector at the LHC employs integrated low mass assembly using single-sided flexible circuits with readout ASICs and a powering circuit incorporating control and monitoring of HV, LV and temperature on the module. Both readout and powering circuits are glued directly onto the silicon sensor surface resulting in a fully integrated, extremely low radiation length module which simultaneously reduces the material requirements of the local support structure by allowing a reduced width stave structure to be employed. Such a module concept has now been fully demonstrated using so-called ABC130 and HCC130 ASICs fabricated in 130nm CMOS technology to readout ATLAS12 n+-in-p silicon strip sensors. Low voltage powering for these demonstrator modules has been realised by utilising a DCDC powerboard based around the CERN FEAST ASIC. This powerboard incorporates an HV multiplexing switch based on a Panasonic GaN transistor. Control and monitori...

  12. Detector evaluation of a prototype amorphous selenium-based full field digital mammography system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesneck, Jonathan L.; Saunders, Robert S.; Samei, Ehsan; Xia, Jessie Q.; Lo, Joseph Y.

    2005-04-01

    This study evaluated the physical performance of a selenium-based direct full-field digital mammography prototype detector (Siemens Mammomat NovationDR), including the pixel value vs. exposure linearity, the modulation transfer function (MTF), the normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS), and the detective quantum efficiency (DQE). The current detector is the same model which received an approvable letter from FDA for release to the US market. The results of the current prototype are compared to those of an earlier prototype. Two IEC standard beam qualities (RQA-M2: Mo/Mo, 28 kVp, 2 mm Al; RQA-M4: Mo/Mo, 35 kVp, 2 mm Al) and two additional beam qualities (MW2: W/Rh, 28 kVp, 2 mm Al; MW4: W/Rh, 35 kVp, 2 mm Al) were investigated. To calculate the modulation transfer function (MTF), a 0.1 mm Pt-Ir edge was imaged at each beam quality. Detector pixel values responded linearly against exposure values (R2 0.999). As before, above 6 cycles/mm Mo/Mo MTF was slightly higher along the chest-nipple axis compared to the left-right axis. MTF was comparable to the previously reported prototype, with slightly reduced resolution. The DQE peaks ranged from 0.71 for 3.31 μC/kg (12.83 mR) to 0.4 for 0.48 μC/kg (1.86 mR) at 1.75 cycles/mm for Mo/Mo at 28 kVp. The DQE range for W/Rh at 28 kVP was 0.81 at 2.03 μC/kg (7.87 mR) to 0.50 at 0.50 μC/kg (1.94 mR) at 1 cycle/mm. NNPS tended to increase with greater exposures, while all exposures had a significant low-frequency component. Bloom and detector edge artifacts observed previously were no longer present in this prototype. The new detector shows marked noise improvement, with slightly reduced resolution. There remain artifacts due to imperfect gain calibration, but at a reduced magnitude compared to a prototype detector.

  13. Design and test of a prototype silicon detector module for ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker endcaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, A.G.; Donega, M.; D'Onofrio, M.

    2005-01-01

    The ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) will be a central part of the tracking system of the ATLAS experiment. The SCT consists of four concentric barrels of silicon detectors as well as two silicon endcap detectors formed by nine disks each. The layout of the forward silicon detector module presented in this paper is based on the approved layout of the silicon detectors of the SCT, their geometry and arrangement in disks, but uses otherwise components identical to the barrel modules of the SCT. The module layout is optimized for excellent thermal management and electrical performance, while keeping the assembly simple and adequate for a large scale module production. This paper summarizes the design and layout of the module and present results of a limited prototype production, which has been extensively tested in the laboratory and testbeam. The module design was not finally adopted for series production because a dedicated forward hybrid layout was pursued

  14. Gamma-ray tracking: Characterisation of the AGATA symmetric prototype detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boston, A.J.; Boston, H.C.; Cresswell, J.R.; Dimmock, M.R.; Nelson, L.; Nolan, P.J.; Rigby, S.; Lazarus, I.; Simpson, J.; Medina, P.; Santos, C.; Parisel, C.

    2007-01-01

    Each major technical advance in gamma-ray detection devices has resulted in significant new insights into the structure of atomic nuclei. The next major step in gamma-ray spectroscopy involves achieving the goal of a 4pi ball of Germanium detectors by using the technique of gamma-ray energy tracking in electrically segmented Germanium crystals. The resulting spectrometer will have an unparalleled level of detection power for nuclear electromagnetic radiation. Collaborations have been established in Europe (AGATA) [J. Simpson, Acta Phys. Pol. B 36 (2005) 1383. ] and the USA (GRETA/GRETINA) to build gamma-ray tracking spectrometers. This paper discusses the performance of the AGATA (Advanced Gamma Tracking Array) symmetric prototype detectors that have been tested at University of Liverpool. The use of a fully digital data acquisition system has allowed detector charge pulse shapes from a selection of well defined photon interaction positions to be analysed, yielding important information on the position sensitivity of the detector

  15. Gamma-ray tracking: Characterisation of the AGATA symmetric prototype detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boston, A.J. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: ajboston@liv.ac.uk; Boston, H.C. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Cresswell, J.R. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Dimmock, M.R. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Nelson, L. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Nolan, P.J. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Rigby, S. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Lazarus, I. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Simpson, J. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Medina, P. [Institut de Recherches Subatomiques, Strasbourg BP28 67037 (France); Santos, C. [Institut de Recherches Subatomiques, Strasbourg BP28 67037 (France); Parisel, C. [Institut de Recherches Subatomiques, Strasbourg BP28 67037 (France)

    2007-08-15

    Each major technical advance in gamma-ray detection devices has resulted in significant new insights into the structure of atomic nuclei. The next major step in gamma-ray spectroscopy involves achieving the goal of a 4pi ball of Germanium detectors by using the technique of gamma-ray energy tracking in electrically segmented Germanium crystals. The resulting spectrometer will have an unparalleled level of detection power for nuclear electromagnetic radiation. Collaborations have been established in Europe (AGATA) [J. Simpson, Acta Phys. Pol. B 36 (2005) 1383. ] and the USA (GRETA/GRETINA) to build gamma-ray tracking spectrometers. This paper discusses the performance of the AGATA (Advanced Gamma Tracking Array) symmetric prototype detectors that have been tested at University of Liverpool. The use of a fully digital data acquisition system has allowed detector charge pulse shapes from a selection of well defined photon interaction positions to be analysed, yielding important information on the position sensitivity of the detector.

  16. Further studies on a DTBX prototype for the CMS muon detector at LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barichello, G.; Benvenuti, A.; Cavanna, F.; Cuffiani, M.; Fanin, C.; De Giorgi, M.; Gasparini, F.; Giantin, R.; Martinelli, R.; Piano Mortari, G.; Pitacco, G.; Rossi, A.; Sartori, P.; Verdecchia, M.; Wulz, C.E.; Zanchettin, F.; Zumerle, G.

    1995-01-01

    The performance of a small prototype chamber of the baseline project for the muon barrel detector for CMS has been studied in a muon beam. Its efficiency with different gases and wire diameters, the trigger possibilities and the response in presence of a large number of electromagnetic secondaries associated to the muon are evaluated. The results are compared with a full Monte Carlo simulation. (orig.)

  17. Search for electron decay mode e- → γ + νe with prototype of Borexino detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Back, H.O.; Balata, M.; Bari, A. de.

    2002-01-01

    The prototype of the Borexino detector Counting Test Facility, located in the Gran Sasso laboratory, has been used to obtain a bound on the stability of the electron. The new lower limit on the mean lifetime defined on 32.1 days of data set is τ(e - → γ + ν e ) ≥ 4.6 · 10 26 years (90 % C.L.)

  18. Digital and Analog Electronics for an autonomous, deep-sea, Gamma Ray Burst Neutrino prototype detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manolopoulos K.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available GRBNeT is a Gamma Ray Burst Neutrino Telescope made of autonomously operated arrays of deep-sea light detectors, anchored to the sea-bed without any cabled connection to the shore. This paper presents the digital and analog electronics that we have designed and developed for the GRBNeT prototype. We describe the requirements for these electronics and present their design and functionality. We present low-power analog electronics for the PMTs utilized in the GRBNeT prototype and the FPGA based digital system for data selection and storage. We conclude with preliminary performance measurements of the electronics systems for the GRBNeT prototype.

  19. The performance of a prototype array of water Cherenkov detectors for the LHAASO project

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Q.; Bai, Y. X.; Bi, X. J.; Cao, Z.; Chang, J. F.; Chen, G.; Chen, M. J.; Chen, S. M.; Chen, S. Z.; Chen, T. L.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y. T.; Cui, S. W.; Dai, B. Z.; Du, Q.; Danzengluobu; Feng, C. F.; Feng, S. H.; Gao, B.; Gao, S. Q.; Ge, M. M.; Gu, M. H.; Hao, X. J.; He, H. H.; Hou, C.; Hu, H. B.; Hu, X. B.; Huang, J.; Huang, W. P.; Jia, H. Y.; Jiang, K.; Liu, J.; Liu, J. L.; Liu, J. S.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Y. N.; Li, Q. J.; Li, C.; Li, F.; Li, H. C.; Li, X. R.; Lu, H.; Lv, H. K.; Mao, Y. J.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, X. H.; Shao, J.; Shao, M.; Sheng, X. D.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, Z. B.; Tang, Z. B.; Wu, C. Y.; Wu, H. R.; Wu, Q.; Xiao, G.; Xu, Y.; Yang, Q. Y.; Yang, R.; Yao, Z. G.; You, X. H.; Yuan, A. F.; Zhang, B. K.; Zhang, H. M.; Zhang, S. R.; Zhang, S. S.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, L.; Zhai, L. M.; Zhao, J.; Zhao, L.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zha, M.; Zhou, B.; Zhu, F. R.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhuang, J.; Zuo, X.

    2013-10-01

    A large high-altitude air-shower observatory (LHAASO) is to be built at Shangri-La, Yunnan Province, China. This observatory is intended to conduct sub-TeV gamma astronomy, and as an important component of the LHAASO project, a water Cherenkov detector array (WCDA) is proposed. To investigate engineering issues and fully understand the water Cherenkov technique for detecting air showers, a prototype array at 1% scale of the LHAASO-WCDA has been built at Yang-Ba-Jing, Tibet, China. This paper introduces the prototype array setup and studies its performance by counting rate of each photomultiplier tube (PMT), trigger rates at different PMT multiplicities, and responses to air showers. Finally, the reconstructed shower directions and angular resolutions of the detected showers for the prototype array are given.

  20. Evaluation of FOXFET biased ac-coupled silicon strip detector prototypes for CDF SVX upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laakso, M.

    1992-03-01

    Silicon microstrip detectors for high-precision charged particle position measurements have been used in nuclear and particle physics for years. The detectors have evolved from simple surface barrier strip detectors with metal strips to highly complicated double-sided AC-coupled junction detectors. The feature of AC-coupling the readout electrodes from the diode strips necessitates the manufacture of a separate biasing structure for the strips, which comprises a common bias line together with a means for preventing the signal from one strip from spreading to its neighbors through the bias line. The obvious solution to this is to bias the strips through individual high value resistors. These resistors can be integrated on the detector wafer by depositing a layer of resistive polycrystalline silicon and patterning it to form the individual resistors. To circumvent the extra processing step required for polysilicon resistor processing and the rather difficult tuning of the process to obtain uniform and high enough resistance values throughout the large detector area, alternative methods for strip biasing have been devised. These include the usage of electron accumulation layer resistance for N + - strips or the usage of the phenomenon known as the punch-through effect for P + - strips. In this paper we present measurement results about the operation and radiation resistance of detectors with a punch-through effect based biasing structure known as a Field OXide Field-Effect Transistor (FOXFET), and present a model describing the FOXFET behavior. The studied detectors were prototypes for detectors to be used in the CDF silicon vertex detector upgrade

  1. Evaluation of FOXFET biased ac-coupled silicon strip detector prototypes for CDF SVX upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laakso, M. (Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States) Research Inst. for High Energy Physics (SEFT), Helsinki (Finland))

    1992-03-01

    Silicon microstrip detectors for high-precision charged particle position measurements have been used in nuclear and particle physics for years. The detectors have evolved from simple surface barrier strip detectors with metal strips to highly complicated double-sided AC-coupled junction detectors. The feature of AC-coupling the readout electrodes from the diode strips necessitates the manufacture of a separate biasing structure for the strips, which comprises a common bias line together with a means for preventing the signal from one strip from spreading to its neighbors through the bias line. The obvious solution to this is to bias the strips through individual high value resistors. These resistors can be integrated on the detector wafer by depositing a layer of resistive polycrystalline silicon and patterning it to form the individual resistors. To circumvent the extra processing step required for polysilicon resistor processing and the rather difficult tuning of the process to obtain uniform and high enough resistance values throughout the large detector area, alternative methods for strip biasing have been devised. These include the usage of electron accumulation layer resistance for N{sup +}{minus} strips or the usage of the phenomenon known as the punch-through effect for P{sup +}{minus} strips. In this paper we present measurement results about the operation and radiation resistance of detectors with a punch-through effect based biasing structure known as a Field OXide Field-Effect Transistor (FOXFET), and present a model describing the FOXFET behavior. The studied detectors were prototypes for detectors to be used in the CDF silicon vertex detector upgrade.

  2. Portable in situ NaI(Tl) γ spectroscopy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bairong; Dong Binjiang; Zeng Liping; Shen Tingyun

    2000-01-01

    The author describes a portable in situ NaI(Tl) γ spectroscopy system, which consists of a NaI (Tl) scintillation detector, an integrative spectroscopy card, a notebook computer and spectroscopy software. The spectrometer addresses applications in environmental or nuclear accident in situ γ spectroscopy measurements, and gives valid quantitative results of radionuclide concentrations per unit volume (Bq/kg) or unit area (Bq/cm 2 ) in the soil and absorbed dose rate in air at 1 m above ground (Gy/h)

  3. Test-beam and laboratory characterisation of the TORCH prototype detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ros, A; Castillo-Garcia, L; Conneely, T; Cussans, D; Foehl, K; Forty, R; Frei, C; Gao, R; Gys, T; Harnew, N; Milnes, J; Piedigrossi, D; Rademacker, J; Van Dijk, M

    2017-01-01

    The TORCH time-of-flight (TOF) detector is being developed to provide particle identification up to a momentum of 10 GeV/c over a flight distance of 10 m. It has a DIRC-like construction with View the MathML source10mm thick synthetic amorphous fused-silica plates as a Cherenkov radiator. Photons propagate by total internal reflection to the plate periphery where they are focused onto an array of customised position-sensitive micro-channel plate (MCP) detectors. The goal is to achieve a 15 ps time-of-flight resolution per incident particle by combining arrival times from multiple photons. The MCPs have pixels of effective size 0.4 mm×6.6 mm2 in the vertical and horizontal directions, respectively, by incorporating a novel charge-sharing technique to improve the spatial resolution to better than the pitch of the readout anodes. Prototype photon detectors and readout electronics have been tested and calibrated in the laboratory. Preliminary results from testbeam measurements of a prototype TORCH detector are a...

  4. Development of prototype luminosity detector modules for future experiments on linear colliders

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2081248; Idzik, Marek

    The main objective of this dissertation is to develop and validate the prototype module of the LumiCal luminosity detector. The dissertation presents the works executed from the first detector concept, through all subsequent R&D stages, ending with the test beam results obtained using the complete detector module. Firstly, the linear electron positron colliders and planned experiments are introduced, together with their role in our understanding of the basis of matter and sensing for the New Physics. The signal extraction from radiation sensors and further signal processing techniques are discussed in chapter 2. Besides the commonly accepted techniques of amplitude and time measurements, a novel readout implementation, utilizing digital signal processing and deconvolution principle, is proposed, and its properties are analyzed in details. The architecture, design, and measurements of the LumiCal readout chain components are presented in chapter 3. A dedicated test setups prepared for their parameterizatio...

  5. The Belle II DEPFET pixel vertex detector. Development of a full-scale module prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemarenko, Mikhail

    2013-11-01

    The Belle II experiment, which will start after 2015 at the SuperKEKB accelerator in Japan, will focus on the precision measurement of the CP-violation mechanism and on the search for physics beyond the Standard Model. A new detection system with an excellent spatial resolution and capable of coping with considerably increased background is required. To address this challenge, a pixel detector based on DEPFET technology has been proposed. A new all silicon integrated circuit, called Data Handling Processor (DHP), is implemented in 65 nm CMOS technology. It is designed to steer the detector and preprocess the generated data. The scope of this thesis covers DHP tests and optimization as well the development of its test environment, which is the first Full-Scale Module Prototype of the DEPFET Pixel Vertex detector.

  6. Beam tests of an integrated prototype of the ATLAS Forward Proton detector

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00397348

    2016-09-19

    The ATLAS Forward Proton (AFP) detector is intended to measure protons scattered at small angles from the ATLAS interaction point. To this end, a combination of 3D Silicon pixel tracking modules and Quartz-Cherenkov time-of-flight (ToF) detectors is installed 210m away from the interaction point at both sides of ATLAS. Beam tests with an AFP prototype detector combining tracking and timing sub-detectors and a common readout have been performed at the CERN-SPS test-beam facility in November 2014 and September 2015 to complete the system integration and to study the detector performance. The successful tracking-timing integration was demonstrated. Good tracker hit efficiencies above 99.9% at a sensor tilt of 14{\\deg}, as foreseen for AFP, were observed. Spatial resolutions in the short pixel direction with 50 {\\mu}m pitch of 5.5 +/- 0.5 {\\mu}m per pixel plane and of 2.8 +/- 0.5 {\\mu}m for the full four-plane tracker at 14{\\deg} were found, largely surpassing the AFP requirement of 10 {\\mu}m. The timing detector...

  7. Prototyping of Silicon Strip Detectors for the Inner Tracker of the ALICE Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Sokolov, Oleksiy

    2006-01-01

    The ALICE experiment at CERN will study heavy ion collisions at a center-of-mass energy 5.5∼TeV per nucleon. Particle tracking around the interaction region at radii r<45 cm is done by the Inner Tracking System (ITS), consisting of six cylindrical layers of silicon detectors. The outer two layers of the ITS use double-sided silicon strip detectors. This thesis focuses on testing of these detectors and performance studies of the detector module prototypes at the beam test. Silicon strip detector layers will require about 20 thousand HAL25 front-end readout chips and about 3.5 thousand hybrids each containing 6 HAL25 chips. During the assembly procedure, chips are bonded on a patterned TAB aluminium microcables which connect to all the chip input and output pads, and then the chips are assembled on the hybrids. Bonding failures at the chip or hybrid level may either render the component non-functional or deteriorate its the performance such that it can not be used for the module production. After each bond...

  8. Performance of hybrid photon detector prototypes with 80% active area for the rich counters of LHCB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, E.; Alemi, M.; Barber, G.; Bibby, J.; Campbell, M.; Duane, A.; Gys, T.; Montenegro, J.; Piedigrossi, D.; Schomaker, R.; Snoeys, W.; Wotton, S.; Wyllie, K.

    2000-01-01

    We report on the ongoing work towards a hybrid photon detector with integrated silicon pixel readout for the ring imaging Cherenkov detectors of the LHCb experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. The photon detector is based on an electrostatically focussed image intensifier tube geometry where the image is de-magnified by a factor of ∼5. The anode consists of a silicon pixel array, bump-bonded to a binary readout chip with matching pixel electronics. The performance of full-scale prototypes equipped with 61-pixel anodes and external analogue readout is presented. The average signal-to-noise ratio is ∼11 with a peaking time of 1.2 μs. The tube active-to-total surface ratio is 81.7%, which meets the LHCb requirements. The spatial precision is measured to be better than 90 μm. A cluster of three such tubes has been installed in the LHCb RICH 1 prototype where Cherenkov gas rings have been successfully detected. Progress towards the encapsulation of new pixel electronics into a tube is also reported. In particular, the status of the development of a binary readout chip with a peaking time of 25 ns and a low and uniform detection threshold is summarized

  9. Performance of hybrid photon detector prototypes with 80% active area for the rich counters of LHCB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, E.; Alemi, M.; Barber, G.; Bibby, J.; Campbell, M.; Duane, A.; Gys, T. E-mail: thierry.gys@cern.ch; Montenegro, J.; Piedigrossi, D.; Schomaker, R.; Snoeys, W.; Wotton, S.; Wyllie, K

    2000-03-11

    We report on the ongoing work towards a hybrid photon detector with integrated silicon pixel readout for the ring imaging Cherenkov detectors of the LHCb experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. The photon detector is based on an electrostatically focussed image intensifier tube geometry where the image is de-magnified by a factor of {approx}5. The anode consists of a silicon pixel array, bump-bonded to a binary readout chip with matching pixel electronics. The performance of full-scale prototypes equipped with 61-pixel anodes and external analogue readout is presented. The average signal-to-noise ratio is {approx}11 with a peaking time of 1.2 {mu}s. The tube active-to-total surface ratio is 81.7%, which meets the LHCb requirements. The spatial precision is measured to be better than 90 {mu}m. A cluster of three such tubes has been installed in the LHCb RICH 1 prototype where Cherenkov gas rings have been successfully detected. Progress towards the encapsulation of new pixel electronics into a tube is also reported. In particular, the status of the development of a binary readout chip with a peaking time of 25 ns and a low and uniform detection threshold is summarized.

  10. A portable in situ NaI(Tl) γ spectroscopy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bairong; Dong Binjiang; Zeng Liping

    1999-01-01

    The author describes a portable in situ NaI(Tl) γ spectroscopy system, which consists of a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector, an integrative spectroscopy card, a notebook computer and the spectroscopy software. The spectrometer addresses applications in environmental or nuclear accident in situ γ spectroscopy measurements, and gives valid quantitative results of radionuclide concentrations per unit volume (Bq/kg) or per unit area (Bq/cm 2 ) in the soil and absorbed dose rate in air 1 m above ground (Gy/h)

  11. The unfolding of NaI(Tl) γ-ray spectrum based on maximum likelihood method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qingxian; Ge Liangquan; Gu Yi; Zeng Guoqiang; Lin Yanchang; Wang Guangxi

    2011-01-01

    NaI(Tl) detectors, having a good detection efficiency, are used to detect gamma rays in field surveys. But the poor energy resolution hinders their applications, despite the use of traditional methods to resolve the overlapped gamma-ray peaks. In this paper, the maximum likelihood (ML) solution is used to resolve the spectrum. The ML method,which is capable of decomposing the peaks in energy difference of over 2/3 FWHM, is applied to scale NaI(Tl) the spectrometer. The result shows that the net area is in proportion to the content of isotopes and the precision of scaling is better than the stripping ration method. (authors)

  12. To Test a Prototype of a Proton Lifetime Detector in a Neutrino Beam at the PS

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    In order to test the performances of the calorimeter method in a nucleon lifetime experiment, a 3 ton prototype calorimeter made of iron and polystyrene scintillator sandwiches and of fine-grain counters has been designed by our collaboration. The energy and angular resolution will be tested by exposing this prototype to charged particles ($e, \\mu , \\pi$) in the 0.5 GeV/c range at Orsay and at CERN in Summer 1980. Since an unavoidable background to any experiment on nucleon decay consists of atmospheric neutrino events, which could in some cases simulate a nucleon decay, the knowledge of the configuration of such events in our detector is essential. It has been shown that the energy distribution of the $\

  13. Study of the neutrino electromagnetic properties with prototype of Borexino detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Back, H.O.; Balata, M.; Bari, A. de

    2002-01-01

    Results of background measurements with the prototype of the Borexino detector have been used to obtain upper bound on neutrino magnetic moment μ ν and lifetime of radiative neutrino decay ν H → ν L + γ. The new upper limit for μ ν of pp and 7 Be neutrino is 5.5 · 10 -10 μ B and lifetime τ c.m. (ν H → ν L + γ)/m ν ≥ 1.5 · 10 3 s · eV -1 . The latter result is an order of magnitude more restrictive than obtained in previous laboratory experiments

  14. Gas filled prototype of a CdZnTe pixel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, B.; Sharma, D.; Sipila, H.; Gostilo, V.; Loupilov, A.

    2001-01-01

    CdZnTe pixel structures are currently the most promising detectors for the focal planes of hard X-ray telescopes, for astronomical observation in the range 5-100 keV. In Sharma et al. (Proc. SPIE 3765 (1999) 822) and Ramsey et al. (Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 458 (2001) 55) we presented preliminary results on the development of prototype 4x4 CdZnTe imaging detectors operated under vacuum. These pixel detectors were installed inside vacuum chambers on three-stage Peltier coolers providing detector temperatures down to -40 deg. C. A miniature sputter ion pump inside each chamber maintained the necessary vacuum of 10 -5 Torr. At a temperature of -20 deg. C we achieved an FWHM energy resolution of between 2% and 3% at 60 keV and ∼15% at 5.9 keV; however, the dependency on temperature was weak and at +20 deg. C the respective resolutions were 3% and 20%. As the detectors could be operated at room temperature without loss of their good characteristics it was possible to exclude the sputter ion pump and fill the chamber with dry nitrogen instead. We have tested a nitrogen-filled CdZnTe (5x5x1 mm 3 ) prototype having 0.65x0.65 mm 2 readout pads on a 0.75 mm pitch. The interpixel resistance at an applied voltage of 10 V was higher than 50 GΩ and the pixel leakage currents at room temperature with a bias of 200 V between each pad and the common electrode did not exceed 0.8 nA. The pixel detector inside the microassembly, which also contained the input stages of the preamplifiers, was installed on a Peltier cooler to maintain the detector temperature at +20 deg. C. To define real leakage currents of the pixels in their switched-on state we have checked the voltage on the preamplifiers feedback resistors. The resulting currents were 10-50 pA at a detector bias of 500 V. Under test, the typical energy resolution per pixel at +20 deg. C was ∼3% at energy 59.6 keV and ∼20% at energy 5.9 keV, which are similar to the values obtained in the vacuum prototype at room temperature

  15. Development and test of a prototype for the PANDA barrel DIRC detector at FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalicy, Grzegorz

    2014-07-01

    The PANDA experiment at FAIR will perform world class physics studies using high-intensity cooled antiproton beams with momenta between 1.5 and 15 GeV/c. A rich physics program requires very good particle identification (PID). Charged hadron PID for the barrel section of the target spectrometer has to cover the angular range of 22-140 and separate pions from kaons for momenta up to 3.5 GeV/c with a separation power of at least 3 standard deviations. The system that will provide it has to be thin and operate in a strong magnetic field. A ring imaging Cherenkov detector using the DIRC principle meets those requirements. The design of the PANDA Barrel DIRC is based on the successful BABAR DIRC counter with several important changes to improve the performance and optimize the costs. The design options are being studied in detailed Monte Carlo simulation, and implemented in increasingly complex system prototypes and tested in particle beams. Before building the full system prototypes the radiator bars and lenses are measured on the test benches. The performance of the DIRC prototype was quantified in terms of the single photon Cherenkov angle resolution and the photon yield. Results for two full system prototypes will be presented. The prototype in 2011 aimed at investigating the full size expansion volume. It was found that the resolution for this configuration is at the level of in good agreement with ray tracing simulation results. A more complex prototype, tested in 2012, provided the first experience with a compact fused silica prism expansion volume, a wide radiator plate, and several advanced lens options for the focusing system. The performance of the baseline configuration of the prototype with a standard lens and an air gap met the requirements for the PANDA PID for most of the polar angle range but failed at polar angles around 90 due to photon loss at the air gap. Measurements with a prototype high-refractive index compound lens without an air gap at a polar

  16. Development and test of a prototype for the PANDA barrel DIRC detector at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalicy, Grzegorz

    2014-01-01

    The PANDA experiment at FAIR will perform world class physics studies using high-intensity cooled antiproton beams with momenta between 1.5 and 15 GeV/c. A rich physics program requires very good particle identification (PID). Charged hadron PID for the barrel section of the target spectrometer has to cover the angular range of 22-140 and separate pions from kaons for momenta up to 3.5 GeV/c with a separation power of at least 3 standard deviations. The system that will provide it has to be thin and operate in a strong magnetic field. A ring imaging Cherenkov detector using the DIRC principle meets those requirements. The design of the PANDA Barrel DIRC is based on the successful BABAR DIRC counter with several important changes to improve the performance and optimize the costs. The design options are being studied in detailed Monte Carlo simulation, and implemented in increasingly complex system prototypes and tested in particle beams. Before building the full system prototypes the radiator bars and lenses are measured on the test benches. The performance of the DIRC prototype was quantified in terms of the single photon Cherenkov angle resolution and the photon yield. Results for two full system prototypes will be presented. The prototype in 2011 aimed at investigating the full size expansion volume. It was found that the resolution for this configuration is at the level of in good agreement with ray tracing simulation results. A more complex prototype, tested in 2012, provided the first experience with a compact fused silica prism expansion volume, a wide radiator plate, and several advanced lens options for the focusing system. The performance of the baseline configuration of the prototype with a standard lens and an air gap met the requirements for the PANDA PID for most of the polar angle range but failed at polar angles around 90 due to photon loss at the air gap. Measurements with a prototype high-refractive index compound lens without an air gap at a polar

  17. Characterization of the first true coaxial 18-fold segmented n-type prototype HPGe detector for the gerda project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abt, I.; Caldwell, A.; Gutknecht, D.; Kroeninger, K.; Lampert, M.; Liu, X.; Majorovits, B.; Quirion, D.; Stelzer, F.; Wendling, P.

    2007-01-01

    The first true coaxial 18-fold segmented n-type HPGe prototype detector produced by Canberra-France for the GERDA neutrinoless double beta-decay project was tested both at Canberra-France and at the Max-Planck-Institut fur Physik in Munich. The main characteristics of the detector are given and measurements concerning detector properties are described. A novel method to establish contacts between the crystal and a Kapton cable is presented

  18. An X-ray scanner prototype based on a novel hybrid gaseous detector

    CERN Document Server

    Iacobaeus, C; Lund-Jensen, B; Peskov, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a prototype of a new type of hybrid X-ray detector. It contains a thin wall (few μm) edge- illuminated lead glass capillary plate (acting as a converter of X-rays photons to primary electrons) combined with a microgap parallel-plate avalanche chamber operating in various gas mixtures at 1 atm. The operation of these converters was studied in a wide range of X-ray energies (from 6 to 60 keV) at incident angles varying from 0° to 90°. The detection efficiency, depending on the geometry, photon's energy, incident angle and the mode of operation, was between a few and 40%. The position resolution achieved was 50 μm in digital form and was practically independent of the photon's energy or gas mixture. The developed detector may open new possibilities for medical imaging, for example in mammography, portal imaging, radiography (including security devices), crystallography and many other applications.

  19. Development and characterization of a DEPFET pixel prototype system for the ILC vertex detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohrs, Robert

    2008-09-15

    For the future TeV-scale linear collider ILC (International Linear Collider) a vertex detector of unprecedented performance is needed to fully exploit its physics potential. By incorporating a field effect transistor into a fully depleted sensor substrate the DEPFET (Depleted Field Effect Transistor) sensor combines radiation detection and in-pixel amplification. For the operation at a linear collider the excellent noise performance of DEPFET pixels allows building very thin detectors with a high spatial resolution and a low power consumption. With this thesis a prototype system consisting of a 64 x 128 pixels sensor, dedicated steering and readout ASICs and a data acquisition board has been developed and successfully operated in the laboratory and under realistic conditions in beam test environments at DESY and CERN. A DEPFET matrix has been successfully read out using the on-chip zero-suppression of the readout chip CURO 2. The results of the system characterization and beam test results are presented. (orig.)

  20. Monitoring the Thermal Power of Nuclear Reactors with a Prototype Cubic Meter Antineutrino Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, A; Bowden, N; Misner, A; Palmer, T

    2007-06-27

    In this paper, we estimate how quickly and how precisely a reactor's operational status and thermal power can be monitored over hour to month time scales, using the antineutrino rate as measured by a cubic meter scale detector. Our results are obtained from a detector we have deployed and operated at 25 meter standoff from a reactor core. This prototype can detect a prompt reactor shutdown within five hours, and monitor relative thermal power to 3.5% within 7 days. Monitoring of short-term power changes in this way may be useful in the context of International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) Reactor Safeguards Regime, or other cooperative monitoring regimes.

  1. Development and characterization of a DEPFET pixel prototype system for the ILC vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohrs, Robert

    2008-09-01

    For the future TeV-scale linear collider ILC (International Linear Collider) a vertex detector of unprecedented performance is needed to fully exploit its physics potential. By incorporating a field effect transistor into a fully depleted sensor substrate the DEPFET (Depleted Field Effect Transistor) sensor combines radiation detection and in-pixel amplification. For the operation at a linear collider the excellent noise performance of DEPFET pixels allows building very thin detectors with a high spatial resolution and a low power consumption. With this thesis a prototype system consisting of a 64 x 128 pixels sensor, dedicated steering and readout ASICs and a data acquisition board has been developed and successfully operated in the laboratory and under realistic conditions in beam test environments at DESY and CERN. A DEPFET matrix has been successfully read out using the on-chip zero-suppression of the readout chip CURO 2. The results of the system characterization and beam test results are presented. (orig.)

  2. Prototyping and performance study of a single crystal diamond detector for operation at high temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Amit; Kumar, Arvind; Topkar, Anita, E-mail: anita@barc.gov.in; Das, D.

    2017-06-21

    Prototype single crystal diamond detectors with different types of metallization and post metallization treatment were fabricated for the applications requiring fast neutron measurements in the Indian Test Blanket Module (TBM) at the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Experiment. The detectors were characterized by leakage current measurements to ascertain that the leakage currents are low and breakdown voltages are higher than the voltage required for full charge collection. The detector response to charged particles was evaluated using a {sup 238+239} Pu dual energy alpha source. The detectors showed an energy resolution of about 2% at 5.5 MeV. In order to study their suitability for the operation at higher temperatures, leakage current variation and alpha response were studied up to 300 °C. At 300 °C, peaks corresponding to 5.156 MeV and 5.499 MeV alphas could be separated and there was no significant degradation of energy resolution. Finally, the detector response to fast neutrons was evaluated using a Deuterium-Tritium (D-T) neutron generator. The observed spectrum showed peaks corresponding to various channels of n-C interactions with a clear isolated peak corresponding to ~8.5 MeV alphas. The detectors also showed high sensitivity of 3.4×10{sup −2} cps/n/(cm{sup 2} s)–4.5×10{sup −2} cps/n/(cm{sup 2} s) and excellent linearity of response in terms of count rate at different neutron flux in the observed range of 3.2×10{sup 5} n/(cm{sup 2} s) to 2.0×10{sup 6} n/(cm{sup 2} s).

  3. Prototyping and performance study of a single crystal diamond detector for operation at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Kumar, Arvind; Topkar, Anita; Das, D.

    2017-06-01

    Prototype single crystal diamond detectors with different types of metallization and post metallization treatment were fabricated for the applications requiring fast neutron measurements in the Indian Test Blanket Module (TBM) at the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Experiment. The detectors were characterized by leakage current measurements to ascertain that the leakage currents are low and breakdown voltages are higher than the voltage required for full charge collection. The detector response to charged particles was evaluated using a 238+239 Pu dual energy alpha source. The detectors showed an energy resolution of about 2% at 5.5 MeV. In order to study their suitability for the operation at higher temperatures, leakage current variation and alpha response were studied up to 300 °C. At 300 °C, peaks corresponding to 5.156 MeV and 5.499 MeV alphas could be separated and there was no significant degradation of energy resolution. Finally, the detector response to fast neutrons was evaluated using a Deuterium-Tritium (D-T) neutron generator. The observed spectrum showed peaks corresponding to various channels of n-C interactions with a clear isolated peak corresponding to 8.5 MeV alphas. The detectors also showed high sensitivity of 3.4×10-2 cps/n/(cm2 s)-4.5×10-2 cps/n/(cm2 s) and excellent linearity of response in terms of count rate at different neutron flux in the observed range of 3.2×105 n/(cm2 s) to 2.0×106 n/(cm2 s).

  4. The performance of a prototype array of water Cherenkov detectors for the LHAASO project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Q. [University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, Beijing 100049 (China); Bai, Y.X.; Bi, X.J.; Cao, Z. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chang, J.F. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen, G.; Chen, M.J. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen, S.M. [Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Chen, S.Z. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen, T.L. [University of Tibet, Lhasa 851600 (China); Chen, X. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen, Y.T. [University of Yunnan, Kunming 650091 (China); Cui, S.W. [Normal University of Hebei, Shijiazhuang 050016 (China); Dai, B.Z. [University of Yunnan, Kunming 650091 (China); Du, Q. [Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Danzengluobu [University of Tibet, Lhasa 851600 (China); Feng, C.F. [University of Shandong, Jinan 250100 (China); Feng, S.H.; Gao, B. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Gao, S.Q. [National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); and others

    2013-10-01

    A large high-altitude air-shower observatory (LHAASO) is to be built at Shangri-La, Yunnan Province, China. This observatory is intended to conduct sub-TeV gamma astronomy, and as an important component of the LHAASO project, a water Cherenkov detector array (WCDA) is proposed. To investigate engineering issues and fully understand the water Cherenkov technique for detecting air showers, a prototype array at 1% scale of the LHAASO-WCDA has been built at Yang-Ba-Jing, Tibet, China. This paper introduces the prototype array setup and studies its performance by counting rate of each photomultiplier tube (PMT), trigger rates at different PMT multiplicities, and responses to air showers. Finally, the reconstructed shower directions and angular resolutions of the detected showers for the prototype array are given. -- Highlights: • The technique of the water Cherenkov array is studied. • Engineering issues of the water Cherenkov array are investigated. • The PMTs and electronics of the water Cherenkov array are tested. • Some key parameters of the water Cherenkov array are measured.

  5. The performance of a prototype array of water Cherenkov detectors for the LHAASO project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Q.; Bai, Y.X.; Bi, X.J.; Cao, Z.; Chang, J.F.; Chen, G.; Chen, M.J.; Chen, S.M.; Chen, S.Z.; Chen, T.L.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.T.; Cui, S.W.; Dai, B.Z.; Du, Q.; Danzengluobu; Feng, C.F.; Feng, S.H.; Gao, B.; Gao, S.Q.

    2013-01-01

    A large high-altitude air-shower observatory (LHAASO) is to be built at Shangri-La, Yunnan Province, China. This observatory is intended to conduct sub-TeV gamma astronomy, and as an important component of the LHAASO project, a water Cherenkov detector array (WCDA) is proposed. To investigate engineering issues and fully understand the water Cherenkov technique for detecting air showers, a prototype array at 1% scale of the LHAASO-WCDA has been built at Yang-Ba-Jing, Tibet, China. This paper introduces the prototype array setup and studies its performance by counting rate of each photomultiplier tube (PMT), trigger rates at different PMT multiplicities, and responses to air showers. Finally, the reconstructed shower directions and angular resolutions of the detected showers for the prototype array are given. -- Highlights: • The technique of the water Cherenkov array is studied. • Engineering issues of the water Cherenkov array are investigated. • The PMTs and electronics of the water Cherenkov array are tested. • Some key parameters of the water Cherenkov array are measured

  6. Performance of a prototype active veto system using liquid scintillator for a dark matter search experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.S. [Center for Underground Physics, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Daejeon 34047 (Korea, Republic of); Adhikari, P.; Adhikari, G.; Oh, S.Y. [Department of Physics, Sejong University, Seoul 05006 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, N.Y. [Center for Underground Physics, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Daejeon 34047 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y.D. [Center for Underground Physics, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Daejeon 34047 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, Sejong University, Seoul 05006 (Korea, Republic of); Ha, C.; Park, K.S. [Center for Underground Physics, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Daejeon 34047 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, H.S., E-mail: hyunsulee@ibs.re.kr [Center for Underground Physics, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Daejeon 34047 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, E.J. [Center for Underground Physics, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Daejeon 34047 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-11

    We report the performance of an active veto system using a liquid scintillator with NaI(Tl) crystals for use in a dark matter search experiment. When a NaI(Tl) crystal is immersed in the prototype detector, the detector tags 48% of the internal {sup 40}K background in the 0–10 keV energy region. We also determined the tagging efficiency for events at 6–20 keV as 26.5±1.7% of the total events, which corresponds to 0.76±0.04 events/keV/kg/day. According to a simulation, approximately 60% of the background events from U, Th, and K radioisotopes in photomultiplier tubes are tagged at energies of 0–10 keV. Full shielding with a 40-cm-thick liquid scintillator can increase the tagging efficiency for both the internal {sup 40}K and external background to approximately 80%.

  7. Investigation of Sn-Pb solder bumps of prototype photo detectors for the LHCb experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Delsante, M L; Arnau-Izquierdo, G

    2004-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is now under construction at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). LHCb is one of the dedicated LHC experiments, allowing high energy proton-proton collisions to be exploited. This paper presents the results of the metallurgic studies carried out on Sn-Pb solder bumps of prototype vacuum photo detectors under development for LHCb, and in particular for the ring imaging Cherenkov-hybrid photo diode (RICH-HPD) project. These detectors encapsulate, in a vacuum tube, an assembly made of two silicon chips bonded together by a matrix of solder bumps. Each bump lies on a suitable system of under-bump metallic layers ensuring mechanical and electrical transition between the chip pad and the solder alloy. During manufacturing of the detector, bump-bonded (BB) assemblies are exposed to severe heat cycles up to 400 degree C inducing, in the present fabrication process, a clear degradation of electrical connectivity. Several investigations such as microstructural observati...

  8. Development of NaI(Tl) scintillating films for imaging soft x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepherd, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    Thin film NaI(Tl) scintillators, of areas of up to 130 cm 2 , have been fabricated and characterized for use on soft x-ray imaging photomultiplier tubes. Relevant parameters of photon-counting imaging detectors are defined and used to predict the performance of several materials, including CsI(Na), CsI(Tl), CaF 2 (Eu), Lu 2 (SiO 4 )O:Ce, and NaI(Tl), as thin film scintillators on fiber optic substrates. Also, x-ray imaging methodologies are compared. The NaI(Tl) films were vapor-deposited onto quartz and fiber optic substrates using a powder flash deposition technique. When compared to single crystal NaI(Tl), the films were found to have equally high light yield but lower energy resolution. Light yield optimization was studied in detail including the effects of substrate temperature, activator concentration in the evaporant, and boat temperature. Spatial resolution as well as parallax errors are discussed and measured for film thicknesses up to 61 μm. A technique is described that can substantially increase the light collection of high index films on fiber optic disks. The light collection was improved by 20% by coating the disk with potassium silicate before the NaI(Tl) deposition. Large area films, up to 130 cm 2 , had a spatial uniformity of response within ±1.5% for count rate and ±3.5% for light yield, and their spatial resolution exceeded 16.6 lp mm -1 when deposited onto fiber optic substrates. The 8-keV x-ray detection efficiency of the microchannel plate imaging photomultiplier tube coupled to a NaI(Tl) film scintillator is predicted to be 88%. Other uses for the films are also described

  9. Results from prototypes of environmental and health alarm devices based on gaseous detectors operating in air in counting mode

    CERN Document Server

    Martinengo, P; Peskov, V; Benaben, P; Charpak, G; Breuil, P

    2011-01-01

    We have developed and successfully tested two prototypes of detectors of dangerous gases based on wire-type counters operating in air in avalanche mode: one is for radon (Rn) detection whereas the other one is for the detection of gases with an ionization potential less than the air components. Due to the operation in pulse counting mode these prototypes have sensitivities comparable to (in the case of the Rn detector) or much higher than (in the case of the detector for low ionization gases) the best commercial devices currently available on the market. We believe that due to their high sensitivity, simplicity and low cost such new detectors will find massive applications. One of them, discussed in this paper, could be the on-line monitoring of Rn for the prediction of earthquakes. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Performance of a cryogenic system prototype for the XENON1T detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aprile, E; Budnik, R; Choi, B; Contreras, H A; Giboni, K L; Goetzke, L W; Lang, R F; Lim, K E; Melgarejo, A J; Plante, G; Rizzo, A; Shagin, P

    2012-01-01

    We have developed an efficient cryogenic system with heat exchange and associated gas purification system as a prototype for the XENON1T experiment. The XENON1T detector will use about 3 tons of liquid xenon (LXe) at a temperature of 175K as target and detection medium for a dark matter search. In this paper we report results on the cryogenic system performance focusing on the dynamics of the gas circulation-purification through a heated getter, at flow rates above 50 Standard Liter per Minute (SLPM). A maximum flow of 114 SLPM has been achieved, and using two heat exchangers in series, a heat exchange efficiency better than 96% has been measured.

  11. Measurements on irradiated L1 sensor prototypes for the D0 Run IIb silicon detector project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahsan, M.; Bolton, T.; Carnes, K.; /Kansas State U.; Demarteau, M.; /Fermilab; Demina, R.; /Rochester U.; Gray, T.; /Kansas State U.; Korjenevski, S.; /Rochester U.; Lehner, F.; /Zurich U.; Lipton, R.; Mao, H.S.; /Fermilab; McCarthy, R.; /SUNY, Stony Brook /Kansas State U. /Fermilab

    2010-01-01

    We report on irradiation studies of Hamamatsu prototype silicon microstrip detectors for layer 1 of the D0 upgrade project for Run IIb. The irradiation was carried out with 10 MeV protons up to proton fluence of 10{sup 14} p/cm{sup 2} at the J.R. Macdonald Laboratory, Manhatten, KS. The flux calibration was carefully checked using different dose normalization techniques. The results based on the obtained sensor leakage currents after irradiation show that the NIEL scaling hypothesis for low energy protons has to be applied with great care. We observe 30-40% less radiation damage in silicon for 10 MeV proton exposure than is expected from the predicted NIEL scaling.

  12. Noise behavior of the Garching 30-meter prototype gravitational-wave detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoemaker, D.; Schilling, R.; Schnupp, L.; Winkler, W.; Maischberger, K.; Ruediger, A.

    1988-01-01

    The prototype gravitational-wave detector at Garching is described: in a laser-illuminated Michelson interferometer having arms 30 m in length, a folded optical path of 3 km is realized. The origin, action, and magnitude of possible noise sources are given. The agreement between the expected and measured noise is good. For a band of astrophysical interest, extending from 1 to 6 kHz, the quantum shot noise corresponding to a light power of P = 0.23 W is dominant. In terms of the dimensionless strain h the best sensitivity in a 1-kHz bandwidth is h = 3 x 10/sup -18/, comparable to the most sensitive Weber-bar-type antennas

  13. The read-out electronics of the AMS prototype RICH detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallin-Martel, L.; Eraud, L.; Pouxe, J.; Aguayo de Hoyos, P.; Marin Munoz, J.; Martinez Botella, G.

    2003-01-01

    A Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) counter dedicated to the AMS experiment is under development. An integrated circuit has been designed with the Austriamicrosystems 0.6 πm CMOS technology to process the signals of the 16 anode PMTs used in the photon detection. To improve the detector compactness, the read out electronics is placed very close to the PMTs. This lead to the design of a detection cell that comprises: a light guide, a PMT, a high voltage divider, an analog front end chip and an analog to digital converter. The analog front-end chips were extensively and successfully tested in a laboratory environment, 96 of them are now mounted on the RICH prototype. Tests with cosmic rays have started. Ion beam tests are planed in a near future. (authors)

  14. Measurements on irradiated L1 sensor prototypes for the D0 Run IIb silicon detector project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahsan, M.; Bolton, T.; Carnes, K.; Demarteau, M.; Demina, R.; Gray, T.; Korjenevski, S.; Lehner, F.; Lipton, R.; Mao, H.S.; McCarthy, R.

    2010-01-01

    We report on irradiation studies of Hamamatsu prototype silicon microstrip detectors for layer 1 of the D0 upgrade project for Run IIb. The irradiation was carried out with 10 MeV protons up to proton fluence of 10 14 p/cm 2 at the J.R. Macdonald Laboratory, Manhatten, KS. The flux calibration was carefully checked using different dose normalization techniques. The results based on the obtained sensor leakage currents after irradiation show that the NIEL scaling hypothesis for low energy protons has to be applied with great care. We observe 30-40% less radiation damage in silicon for 10 MeV proton exposure than is expected from the predicted NIEL scaling.

  15. Prototype detector development for measurement of high altitude Martian dust using a future orbiter platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabari, Jayesh; Patel, Darshil; Chokhawala, Vimmi; Bogavelly, Anvesh

    2016-07-01

    Dust devils mostly occur during the mid of Southern hemisphere summer on Mars and play a key role in the background dust opacity. Due to continuous bombardment of micrometeorites, secondary ejecta come out from the Moons of the Mars and can easily escape. This phenomenon can contribute dust around the Moons and therefore, also around the Mars. Similar to the Moons of the Earth, the surfaces of the Martian Moons get charged and cause the dust levitation to occur, adding to the possible dust source. Also, interplanetary dust particles may be able to reach the Mars and contribute further. It is hypothesized that the high altitude Martian dust could be in the form of a ring or tori around the Mars. However, no such rings have been detected to the present day. Typically, width and height of the dust torus is ~5 Mars radii wide (~16950 km) in both the planes as reported in the literature. Recently, very high altitude dust at about 1000 km has been found by MAVEN mission and it is expected that the dust may be concentrated at about 150 to 500 km. However, a langmuir probe cannot explain the source of such dust particles. It is a puzzling question to the space scientist how dust has reached to such high altitudes. A dedicated dust instrument on future Mars orbiter may be helpful to address such issues. To study origin, abundance, distribution and seasonal variation of Martian dust, a Mars Orbit Dust Experiment (MODEX) is proposed. In order to measure the Martian dust from a future orbiter, design of a prototype of an impact ionization dust detector has been initiated at PRL. This paper presents developmental aspects of the prototype dust detector and initial results. The further work is underway.

  16. Understanding internal backgrounds in NaI(Tl) crystals toward a 200 kg array for the KIMS-NaI experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adhikari, P.; Adhikari, G.; Oh, S.Y. [Sejong University, Department of Physics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, S.; Joo, H.W.; Kim, K.W.; Kim, S.K. [Seoul National University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ha, C.; Jeon, E.J.; Kang, W.G.; Kim, H.O.; Kim, N.Y.; Lee, H.S.; Lee, J.H.; Lee, M.H.; Leonard, D.S.; Li, J.; Olsen, S.L.; Park, H.K.; Park, K.S.; So, J.H.; Yoon, Y.S. [Institute for Basic Science, Center for Underground Physics, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Hahn, I.S. [Ewha Womans University, Department of Science Education, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, H.J. [Kyungpook National University, Department of Physics, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y.D. [Sejong University, Department of Physics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Institute for Basic Science, Center for Underground Physics, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y.H. [Institute for Basic Science, Center for Underground Physics, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, H.S. [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    The Korea Invisible Mass Search (KIMS) collaboration has developed low-background NaI(Tl) crystals that are suitable for the direct detection of WIMP dark matter. Building on experience accumulated during the KIMS-CsI programs, the KIMS-NaI experiment will consist of a 200 kg NaI(Tl) crystal array surrounded by layers of shielding structures and will be operated at the Yangyang underground laboratory. The goal is to provide an unambiguous test of the DAMA/LIBRA annual modulation signature. Measurements of six prototype crystals show progress in the reduction of internal contamination from radioisotopes. Based on our understanding of these measurements, we expect to achieve a background level in the final detector configuration that is less than 1 count/day/keV/kg for recoil energies around 2 keV. The annual modulation sensitivity for the KIMS-NaI experiment shows that an unambiguous 7σ test of the DAMA/LIBRA signature would be possible with a 600 kg year exposure with this system. (orig.)

  17. Design, construction, prototype tests and performance of a vertex chamber for the MAC detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ash, W.W.; Band, H.R.; Bloom, E.D.; Bosman, M.; Camporesi, T.; Chadwick, G.B.; Delfino, M.C.; De Sangro, R.; Ford, W.T.; Gettner, M.W.; Goderre, G.P.; Godfrey, G.L.; Groom, D.E.; Hurst, R.B.; Johnson, J.R.; Lau, K.H.; Lavine, T.L.; Leedy, R.E.; Lippi, I.; Maruyama, T.; Messner, R.L.; Moromisato, J.H.; Moss, L.J.; Muller, F.; Nelson, H.N.; Peruzzi, I.; Piccolo, M.; Prepost, R.; Pyrlik, J.; Qi, N.; Read, A.L. Jr.; Ritson, D.M.; Rosenberg, L.J.; Shambroom, W.D.; Sleeman, J.C.; Smith, J.G.; Venuti, J.P.; Verdini, P.G.; Goeler, E. von; Wald, H.B.; Weinstein, R.; Wiser, D.E.; Zdarko, R.W.; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Frascati; Houston Univ., TX; Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA; Stanford Univ., CA; Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, CA; Utah Univ., Salt Lake City; Wisconsin Univ., Madison

    1987-01-01

    The design considerations, construction techniques, prototype tests and performance characteristics of a pressurized drift chamber used in the MAC detector at PEP are described. The chamber consists of 324 aluminized mylar tubes of 6.9 mm diameter with wall thickness of 100 μm. With appropriate shielding it operates successfully at 4.6 cm from the beam line. It was simple to construct and was configured to permit any malfunctioning tubes to be remotely disconnected without affecting operation. The chamber operated without problems for two years in the PEP environmental with a gas mixture of 49.5% argon, 49.5% CO 2 , 1% CH 4 , at 4 atm absolute pressure. The mean spatial resolution averaged over all tubes was 45 μm. The time to distance relation for this gas mixture, along with the geometric positioning of individual wires relative to the central tracking chamber, was obtained with data from Bhabha scattering events. We also describe resolution studies performed with a prototype chamber in a SLAC test beam. A wide range of gases, gas pressures, and electronic parameters were explored. These studies proved that resolutions in the 10-50 μm range were possible. Our experience demonstrates that chambers of this type provide high precision tracking and are particularly suited for operation in regions with difficult physical access and/or high ambient radiation levels. (orig.)

  18. Design, construction, prototype tests and performance of a vertex chamber for the MAC detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, W. W.; Band, H. R.; Bloom, E. D.; Bosman, M.; Camporesi, T.; Chadwick, G. B.; Delfino, M. C.; De Sangro, R.; Ford, W. T.; Gettner, M. W.; Goderre, G. P.; Godfrey, G. L.; Groom, D. E.; Hurst, R. B.; Johnson, J. R.; Lau, K. H.; Lavine, T. L.; Leedy, R. E.; Lippi, I.; Maruyama, T.; Messner, R. L.; Moromisato, J. H.; Moss, L. J.; Muller, F.; Nelson, H. N.; Peruzzi, I.; Piccolo, M.; Prepost, R.; Pyrlik, J.; Qi, N.; Read, A. L.; Ritson, D. M.; Rosenberg, L. J.; Shambroom, W. D.; Sleeman, J. C.; Smith, J. G.; Venuti, J. P.; Verdini, P. G.; Von Goeler, E.; Wald, H. B.; Weinstein, R.; Wiser, D. E.; Zdarko, R. W.

    1987-11-01

    The design considerations, construction techniques, prototype tests and performance characteristics of a pressurized drift chamber used in the MAC detector at PEP are described. The chamber consists of 324 aluminized mylar tubes of 6.9 mm diameter with wall thickness of 100 μm. With appropriate shielding it operates successfully at 4.6 cm from the beam line. It was simple to construct and was configured to permit any malfunctioning tubes to be remotely disconnected without affecting operation. The chamber operated without problems for two years in the PEP environment with a gas mixture of 49.5% argon, 49.5% CO 2, 1% CH 4, at 4 atm absolute pressure. The mean spatial resolution averaged over all tubes was 45 μm. The time to distance relation for this gas mixture, along with the geometric positioning of individual wires relative to the central tracking chamber, was obtained with data from Bhabha scattering events. We also describe resolution studies performed with a prototype chamber in a SLAC test beam. A wide range of gases, gas pressures, and electronic parameters were explored. These studies proved that resolutions in the 10-50 μm range were possible. Our experience demonstrates that chambers of this type provide high precision tracking and are particularly suited for operation in regions with difficult physical access and/or high ambient radiation levels.

  19. The prototype detection unit of the KM3NeT detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adrian-Martinez, S.; Ardid, M.; Llorens Alvarez, C.D.; Martinez-Mora, J.A.; Saldana, M. [Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Instituto de Investigacion para la Gestion Integrada de las Zonas Costeras, Gandia (Spain); Ageron, M.; Bertin, V.; Beurthey, S.; Billault, M.; Brunner, J.; Caillat, L.; Cosquer, A.; Coyle, P.; Destelle, J.J.; Dornic, D.; Henry, S.; Keller, P.; Lamare, P.; Tezier, D.; Theraube, S. [Aix Marseille Universite CNRS/IN2P3, CPPM UMR 7346, Marseille (France); Aharonian, F.; Drury, L. [DIAS, Dublin (Ireland); Aiello, S.; Giordano, V.; Leonora, E.; Randazzo, N.; Sipala, V. [INFN, Sezione di Catania, Catania (Italy); Albert, A.; Drouhin, D.; Racca, C. [GRPHE, Universite de Haute Alsace, IUT de Colmar, Colmar (France); Ameli, F.; Biagioni, A.; De Bonis, G.; Lonardo, A.; Nicolau, C.A.; Simeone, F.; Vicini, P. [INFN, Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Anassontzis, E.G.; Resvanis, L. [National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Deparment of Physics, Athens (Greece); Androulakis, G.C.; Balasi, K.; Belias, A.; Drakopoulou, E.; Kappos, E.; Manolopoulos, K.; Markou, C.; Pikounis, K.; Rapidis, P.A.; Stavropoulos, G.; Tzamariudaki, E. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, NCSR ' ' Demokritos' ' , Athens (Greece); Anghinolfi, M.; Cereseto, R.; Hugon, C.; Musico, P.; Orzelli, A. [INFN, Sezione di Genova, Genova (Italy); Anton, G.; Classen, L.; Eberl, T.; Gal, T.; Graf, K.; Heid, T.; Herold, B.; Hofestaedt, J.; Hoessl, J.; James, C.W.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.; Lahmann, R.; Reubelt, J.; Schnabel, J.; Seitz, T.; Stransky, D.; Tselengidou, M. [Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erlangen (Germany); Anvar, S.; Chateau, F.; Durand, D.; Le Provost, H.; Louis, F.; Moudden, Y.; Zonca, E. [CEA, Irfu/Sedi, Centre de Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Avgitas, T.; Baret, B.; Baron, S.; Boutonnet, C.; Champion, C.; Coleiro, A.; Colonges, S.; Creusot, A.; Galata, S.; Gracia Ruiz, R.; Kouchner, A.; Lindsey Clark, M.; Loucatos, S.; Van Elewyck, V. [APC,Universite Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3 CEA/IRFU, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris (France); Band, H.; Berbee, E.; Berkien, A.; Beveren, V. van; Boer Rookhuizen, H.; Bouwhuis, M.; D' Amico, A.; Gajanana, D.; Gebyehu, M.; Heijboer, A.; Heine, E.; Hoek, M. van der; Hogenbirk, J.; Jansweijer, P.; Jongen, M.; Kieft, G.; Kok, H.; Koopstra, J.; Korporaal, A.; Melis, K.W.; Michael, T.; Mos, S.; Peek, H.; Schmelling, J.; Steijger, J.; Timmer, P.; Vermeulen, J.; Werneke, P.; Wiggers, L.; Zwart, A. [Nikhef, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Barbarino, G.; Barbato, F.; De Rosa, G.; Di Capua, F.; Garufi, F.; Vivolo, D. [INFN, Sezione di Napoli, Naples (Italy); Universita ' Federico II' , Dipartimento di Fisica, Naples (Italy); Barbarito, E.; Ceres, A.; Circella, M.; Mongelli, M.; Sgura, I. [INFN, Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Barrios, J.; Calvo, D.; Hernandez-Rey, J.J.; Real, D.; Zornoza, J.D.; Zuniga, J. [CSIC-Universitat de Valencia, IFIC-Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Valencia (Spain); Berg, A.M. van den; Dorosti-Hasankiadeh, Q.; Hevinga, M.A.; Kavatsyuk, O.; Loehner, H.; Wooning, R.H.L. van [KVI-CART, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Beverini, N. [INFN, Sezione di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Universita di Pisa, Dipartimento di Fisica, Pisa (Italy); Biagi, S. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Bianucci, S.; Bouhadef, B.; Calamai, M.; Maccioni, E.; Morganti, M.; Raffaelli, F.; Terreni, G. [Universita di Pisa, Dipartimento di Fisica, Pisa (Italy); Birbas, A.; Bourlis, G.; Christopoulou, B.; Gizani, N.; Leisos, A.; Lenis, D.; Tsirigotis, A.; Tzamarias, S. [Hellenic Open University, School of Science and Technology, Patras (Greece); Bormuth, R.; Jong, M. de; Samtleben, D.F.E. [Nikhef, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Leiden University, Leiden Institute of Physics, Leiden (Netherlands); Bouche, V.; Capone, A.; Fermani, P.; Masullo, R.; Perrina, C. [INFN, Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Universita di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); Bozza, C.; Grella, G. [Universita ' Federico II' , Dipartimento di Fisica, Naples (Italy); Universita di Salerno, Dipartimento di Fisica, Fisciano (Italy); Bruijn, R.; Koffeman, E.; Wolf, E. de [Nikhef, Amsterdam (Netherlands); University of Amsterdam, Institute of Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Cacopardo, G.; Caruso, F.; Cocimano, R.; Coniglione, R.; Costa, M.; Cuttone, G.; D' Amato, C.; Distefano, C.; Grasso, R.; Grmek, A.; Imbesi, M.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Larosa, G.; Lattuada, D.; Leismueller, K.P.; Migneco, E.; Miraglia, A.; Musumeci, M.; Orlando, A.; Papaleo, R.; Pellegriti, M.G.; Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration; and others

    2016-02-15

    A prototype detection unit of the KM3NeT deep-sea neutrino telescope has been installed at 3500m depth 80 km offshore the Italian coast. KM3NeT in its final configuration will contain several hundreds of detection units. Each detection unit is a mechanical structure anchored to the sea floor, held vertical by a submerged buoy and supporting optical modules for the detection of Cherenkov light emitted by charged secondary particles emerging from neutrino interactions. This prototype string implements three optical modules with 31 photomultiplier tubes each. These optical modules were developed by the KM3NeT Collaboration to enhance the detection capability of neutrino interactions. The prototype detection unit was operated since its deployment in May 2014 until its decommissioning in July 2015. Reconstruction of the particle trajectories from the data requires a nanosecond accuracy in the time calibration. A procedure for relative time calibration of the photomultiplier tubes contained in each optical module is described. This procedure is based on the measured coincidences produced in the sea by the {sup 40}K background light and can easily be expanded to a detector with several thousands of optical modules. The time offsets between the different optical modules are obtained using LED nanobeacons mounted inside them. A set of data corresponding to 600 h of livetime was analysed. The results show good agreement with Monte Carlo simulations of the expected optical background and the signal from atmospheric muons. An almost background-free sample of muons was selected by filtering the time correlated signals on all the three optical modules. The zenith angle of the selected muons was reconstructed with a precision of about 3 {sup circle}. (orig.)

  20. The prototype detection unit of the KM3NeT detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adrian-Martinez, S.; Ardid, M.; Llorens Alvarez, C.D.; Martinez-Mora, J.A.; Saldana, M.; Ageron, M.; Bertin, V.; Beurthey, S.; Billault, M.; Brunner, J.; Caillat, L.; Cosquer, A.; Coyle, P.; Destelle, J.J.; Dornic, D.; Henry, S.; Keller, P.; Lamare, P.; Tezier, D.; Theraube, S.; Aharonian, F.; Drury, L.; Aiello, S.; Giordano, V.; Leonora, E.; Randazzo, N.; Sipala, V.; Albert, A.; Drouhin, D.; Racca, C.; Ameli, F.; Biagioni, A.; De Bonis, G.; Lonardo, A.; Nicolau, C.A.; Simeone, F.; Vicini, P.; Anassontzis, E.G.; Resvanis, L.; Androulakis, G.C.; Balasi, K.; Belias, A.; Drakopoulou, E.; Kappos, E.; Manolopoulos, K.; Markou, C.; Pikounis, K.; Rapidis, P.A.; Stavropoulos, G.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Anghinolfi, M.; Cereseto, R.; Hugon, C.; Musico, P.; Orzelli, A.; Anton, G.; Classen, L.; Eberl, T.; Gal, T.; Graf, K.; Heid, T.; Herold, B.; Hofestaedt, J.; Hoessl, J.; James, C.W.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.; Lahmann, R.; Reubelt, J.; Schnabel, J.; Seitz, T.; Stransky, D.; Tselengidou, M.; Anvar, S.; Chateau, F.; Durand, D.; Le Provost, H.; Louis, F.; Moudden, Y.; Zonca, E.; Avgitas, T.; Baret, B.; Baron, S.; Boutonnet, C.; Champion, C.; Coleiro, A.; Colonges, S.; Creusot, A.; Galata, S.; Gracia Ruiz, R.; Kouchner, A.; Lindsey Clark, M.; Loucatos, S.; Van Elewyck, V.; Band, H.; Berbee, E.; Berkien, A.; Beveren, V. van; Boer Rookhuizen, H.; Bouwhuis, M.; D'Amico, A.; Gajanana, D.; Gebyehu, M.; Heijboer, A.; Heine, E.; Hoek, M. van der; Hogenbirk, J.; Jansweijer, P.; Jongen, M.; Kieft, G.; Kok, H.; Koopstra, J.; Korporaal, A.; Melis, K.W.; Michael, T.; Mos, S.; Peek, H.; Schmelling, J.; Steijger, J.; Timmer, P.; Vermeulen, J.; Werneke, P.; Wiggers, L.; Zwart, A.; Barbarino, G.; Barbato, F.; De Rosa, G.; Di Capua, F.; Garufi, F.; Vivolo, D.; Barbarito, E.; Ceres, A.; Circella, M.; Mongelli, M.; Sgura, I.; Barrios, J.; Calvo, D.; Hernandez-Rey, J.J.; Real, D.; Zornoza, J.D.; Zuniga, J.; Berg, A.M. van den; Dorosti-Hasankiadeh, Q.; Hevinga, M.A.; Kavatsyuk, O.; Loehner, H.; Wooning, R.H.L. van; Beverini, N.; Biagi, S.; Bianucci, S.; Bouhadef, B.; Calamai, M.; Maccioni, E.; Morganti, M.; Raffaelli, F.; Terreni, G.; Birbas, A.; Bourlis, G.; Christopoulou, B.; Gizani, N.; Leisos, A.; Lenis, D.; Tsirigotis, A.; Tzamarias, S.; Bormuth, R.; Jong, M. de; Samtleben, D.F.E.; Bouche, V.; Capone, A.; Fermani, P.; Masullo, R.; Perrina, C.; Bozza, C.; Grella, G.; Bruijn, R.; Koffeman, E.; Wolf, E. de; Cacopardo, G.; Caruso, F.; Cocimano, R.; Coniglione, R.; Costa, M.; Cuttone, G.; D'Amato, C.; Distefano, C.; Grasso, R.; Grmek, A.; Imbesi, M.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Larosa, G.; Lattuada, D.; Leismueller, K.P.; Migneco, E.; Miraglia, A.; Musumeci, M.; Orlando, A.; Papaleo, R.; Pellegriti, M.G.

    2016-01-01

    A prototype detection unit of the KM3NeT deep-sea neutrino telescope has been installed at 3500m depth 80 km offshore the Italian coast. KM3NeT in its final configuration will contain several hundreds of detection units. Each detection unit is a mechanical structure anchored to the sea floor, held vertical by a submerged buoy and supporting optical modules for the detection of Cherenkov light emitted by charged secondary particles emerging from neutrino interactions. This prototype string implements three optical modules with 31 photomultiplier tubes each. These optical modules were developed by the KM3NeT Collaboration to enhance the detection capability of neutrino interactions. The prototype detection unit was operated since its deployment in May 2014 until its decommissioning in July 2015. Reconstruction of the particle trajectories from the data requires a nanosecond accuracy in the time calibration. A procedure for relative time calibration of the photomultiplier tubes contained in each optical module is described. This procedure is based on the measured coincidences produced in the sea by the 40 K background light and can easily be expanded to a detector with several thousands of optical modules. The time offsets between the different optical modules are obtained using LED nanobeacons mounted inside them. A set of data corresponding to 600 h of livetime was analysed. The results show good agreement with Monte Carlo simulations of the expected optical background and the signal from atmospheric muons. An almost background-free sample of muons was selected by filtering the time correlated signals on all the three optical modules. The zenith angle of the selected muons was reconstructed with a precision of about 3 circle . (orig.)

  1. The prototype detection unit of the KM3NeT detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Ageron, M.; Aharonian, F.; Aiello, S.; Albert, A.; Ameli, F.; Anassontzis, E. G.; Androulakis, G. C.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Avgitas, T.; Balasi, K.; Band, H.; Barbarino, G.; Barbarito, E.; Barbato, F.; Baret, B.; Baron, S.; Barrios, J.; Belias, A.; Berbee, E.; van den Berg, A. M.; Berkien, A.; Bertin, V.; Beurthey, S.; van Beveren, V.; Beverini, N.; Biagi, S.; Biagioni, A.; Bianucci, S.; Billault, M.; Birbas, A.; Boer Rookhuizen, H.; Bormuth, R.; Bouché, V.; Bouhadef, B.; Bourlis, G.; Boutonnet, C.; Bouwhuis, M.; Bozza, C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Cacopardo, G.; Caillat, L.; Calamai, M.; Calvo, D.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, F.; Cecchini, S.; Ceres, A.; Cereseto, R.; Champion, C.; Château, F.; Chiarusi, T.; Christopoulou, B.; Circella, M.; Classen, L.; Cocimano, R.; Coleiro, A.; Colonges, S.; Coniglione, R.; Cosquer, A.; Costa, M.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Cuttone, G.; D'Amato, C.; D'Amico, A.; De Bonis, G.; De Rosa, G.; Deniskina, N.; Destelle, J.-J.; Distefano, C.; Di Capua, F.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti-Hasankiadeh, Q.; Drakopoulou, E.; Drouhin, D.; Drury, L.; Durand, D.; Eberl, T.; Elsaesser, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Fermani, P.; Fusco, L. A.; Gajanana, D.; Gal, T.; Galatà, S.; Garufi, F.; Gebyehu, M.; Giordano, V.; Gizani, N.; Gracia Ruiz, R.; Graf, K.; Grasso, R.; Grella, G.; Grmek, A.; Habel, R.; van Haren, H.; Heid, T.; Heijboer, A.; Heine, E.; Henry, S.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Hevinga, M. A.; van der Hoek, M.; Hofestädt, J.; Hogenbirk, J.; Hugon, C.; Hößl, J.; Imbesi, M.; James, C. W.; Jansweijer, P.; Jochum, J.; de Jong, M.; Jongen, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Kappos, E.; Katz, U.; Kavatsyuk, O.; Keller, P.; Kieft, G.; Koffeman, E.; Kok, H.; Kooijman, P.; Koopstra, J.; Korporaal, A.; Kouchner, A.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lamare, P.; Larosa, G.; Lattuada, D.; Le Provost, H.; Leismüller, K. P.; Leisos, A.; Lenis, D.; Leonora, E.; Lindsey Clark, M.; Llorens Alvarez, C. D.; Löhner, H.; Lonardo, A.; Loucatos, S.; Louis, F.; Maccioni, E.; Mannheim, K.; Manolopoulos, K.; Margiotta, A.; Mariş, O.; Markou, C.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Martini, A.; Masullo, R.; Melis, K. W.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Migneco, E.; Miraglia, A.; Mollo, C. M.; Mongelli, M.; Morganti, M.; Mos, S.; Moudden, Y.; Musico, P.; Musumeci, M.; Nicolaou, C.; Nicolau, C. A.; Orlando, A.; Orzelli, A.; Papaikonomou, A.; Papaleo, R.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Peek, H.; Pellegrino, C.; Pellegriti, M. G.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Pikounis, K.; Popa, V.; Pradier, Th.; Priede, M.; Pühlhofer, G.; Pulvirenti, S.; Racca, C.; Raffaelli, F.; Randazzo, N.; Rapidis, P. A.; Razis, P.; Real, D.; Resvanis, L.; Reubelt, J.; Riccobene, G.; Rovelli, A.; Saldaña, M.; Samtleben, D. F. E.; Sanguineti, M.; Santangelo, A.; Sapienza, P.; Schmelling, J.; Schnabel, J.; Sciacca, V.; Sedita, M.; Seitz, T.; Sgura, I.; Simeone, F.; Sipala, V.; Spitaleri, A.; Spurio, M.; Stavropoulos, G.; Steijger, J.; Stolarczyk, T.; Stransky, D.; Taiuti, M.; Terreni, G.; Tézier, D.; Théraube, S.; Thompson, L. F.; Timmer, P.; Trasatti, L.; Trovato, A.; Tselengidou, M.; Tsirigotis, A.; Tzamarias, S.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Vallage, B.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vermeulen, J.; Vernin, P.; Vicini, P.; Viola, S.; Vivolo, D.; Werneke, P.; Wiggers, L.; Wilms, J.; de Wolf, E.; van Wooning, R. H. L.; Zonca, E.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.; Zwart, A.

    2016-02-01

    A prototype detection unit of the KM3NeT deep-sea neutrino telescope has been installed at 3500m depth 80 km offshore the Italian coast. KM3NeT in its final configuration will contain several hundreds of detection units. Each detection unit is a mechanical structure anchored to the sea floor, held vertical by a submerged buoy and supporting optical modules for the detection of Cherenkov light emitted by charged secondary particles emerging from neutrino interactions. This prototype string implements three optical modules with 31 photomultiplier tubes each. These optical modules were developed by the KM3NeT Collaboration to enhance the detection capability of neutrino interactions. The prototype detection unit was operated since its deployment in May 2014 until its decommissioning in July 2015. Reconstruction of the particle trajectories from the data requires a nanosecond accuracy in the time calibration. A procedure for relative time calibration of the photomultiplier tubes contained in each optical module is described. This procedure is based on the measured coincidences produced in the sea by the ^{40}K background light and can easily be expanded to a detector with several thousands of optical modules. The time offsets between the different optical modules are obtained using LED nanobeacons mounted inside them. A set of data corresponding to 600 h of livetime was analysed. The results show good agreement with Monte Carlo simulations of the expected optical background and the signal from atmospheric muons. An almost background-free sample of muons was selected by filtering the time correlated signals on all the three optical modules. The zenith angle of the selected muons was reconstructed with a precision of about 3°.

  2. Prototyping the read-out chain of the CBM Microvertex Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klaus, P.; Wiebusch, M.; Amar-Youcef, S.; Deveaux, M.; Koziel, M.; Michel, J.; Milanovic, B.; Müntz, C.; Tischler, T.; Stroth, J.

    2016-01-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) Experiment at the future FAIR (Darmstadt/Germany) will study the phase diagram of hadronic matter in the regime of highest net-baryon densities. The fixed target experiment will explore the nuclear fireballs created in violent heavy ion reactions with a rich number of probes. To reconstruct the decay topologies of open-charm particles as well as to track low-momentum particles, an ultra-light and precise Microvertex Detector (MVD) is required. The necessary performance in terms of spatial resolution, material budget and rate capability will be reached by equipping the MVD with highly granular, radiation-hard CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (CPS) developped at IPHC Strasbourg, which are operated in the target vacuum of the experiment. This contribution introduces the concept of the MVD and puts a focus on the latest results obtained from the R and D of the electronics and read-out chain of the device. Moreover, we briefly introduce the PRESTO project, which realises a prototype of a full size quadrant of an MVD detector station

  3. An asynchronous data-driven readout prototype for CEPC vertex detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ping; Sun, Xiangming; Huang, Guangming; Xiao, Le; Gao, Chaosong; Huang, Xing; Zhou, Wei; Ren, Weiping; Li, Yashu; Liu, Jianchao; You, Bihui; Zhang, Li

    2017-12-01

    The Circular Electron Positron Collider (CEPC) is proposed as a Higgs boson and/or Z boson factory for high-precision measurements on the Higgs boson. The precision of secondary vertex impact parameter plays an important role in such measurements which typically rely on flavor-tagging. Thus silicon CMOS Pixel Sensors (CPS) are the most promising technology candidate for a CEPC vertex detector, which can most likely feature a high position resolution, a low power consumption and a fast readout simultaneously. For the R&D of the CEPC vertex detector, we have developed a prototype MIC4 in the Towerjazz 180 nm CMOS Image Sensor (CIS) process. We have proposed and implemented a new architecture of asynchronous zero-suppression data-driven readout inside the matrix combined with a binary front-end inside the pixel. The matrix contains 128 rows and 64 columns with a small pixel pitch of 25 μm. The readout architecture has implemented the traditional OR-gate chain inside a super pixel combined with a priority arbiter tree between the super pixels, only reading out relevant pixels. The MIC4 architecture will be introduced in more detail in this paper. It will be taped out in May and will be characterized when the chip comes back.

  4. Study on a prototype and by simulation of an antineutrino detector based on a lithium 6 scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ait-Boubker, S.

    1989-01-01

    A detector based on Lithium-6 loaded liquid scintillator has been developed by the BUGEY collaboration in order to study neutrino's fundamental properties. This thesis reports on a study concerning a prototype cell of size 85x8.5x8.5 cm 3 , of the discrimination properties between neutrons and gammas and thermal neutron identification. Monte-Carlo simulation has allowed us to precise the light collection features in the cell. The last part of this memorandum deals with a cosmic detector presenting 2.5 m 2 active surface. We have obtained for this detector a very good homogenization of light response [fr

  5. Experiences with radiation portal detectors for international rail transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromswold, D. C.; McCormick, K.; Todd, L.; Ashbaker, E. D.; Evans, J. C.

    2006-08-01

    Radiation detectors monitored trains at two international borders to evaluate the performance of NaI(Tl) and plastic (polyvinyltoluene: PVT) gamma-ray detectors to characterize rail cargo. The detectors included a prototype NaI(Tl) radiation-portal-monitor panel having four large detectors (10-cm × 10-cm × 41-cm) and a PVT panel with a 41 cm × 173 cm × 3.8-cm detector. Spectral data from the NaI(Tl) and PVT detectors were recorded. Of particular emphasis was the identification of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) and the resultant frequency of nuisance alarms. For rail monitoring, the difficulty in stopping trains to perform secondary inspection on alarming cars creates a need for reliable identification of NORM during initial screening. Approximately 30 trains were monitored, and the commodities in individual railcars were ascertained from manifest information. At one test site, the trains carried inter-modal containers that had been unloaded from ships, and at the other site, the trains contained bulk cargo in tanker cars and hopper cars or individual items in boxcars or flatbeds. NORM encountered included potash, liquefied petroleum gas, fireworks, televisions, and clay-based products (e.g., pottery). Analysis of the spectral data included the use of the template-fitting portion of the program GADRAS developed at Sandia National Laboratories. For most of the NORM, the NaI(Tl) data produced a correct identification of the radionuclides present in the railcars. The same analysis was also used for PVT data in which the spectral information (no peaks but only gradual spectral changes including Compton edges) was limited. However, the PVT analysis provided correct identification of 40K and 226Ra in many cases.

  6. Experiences with radiation portal detectors for international rail transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stromswold, David C.; McCormick, Kathleen R.; Todd, Lindsay C.; Ashbaker, Eric D.; Evans, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    Radiation detectors monitored trains at two international borders to evaluate the performance of NaI(Tl) and plastic (polyvinyltoluene: PVT) gamma-ray detectors to characterize rail cargo. The detectors included a prototype NaI(Tl) radiation-portal-monitor panel having four large detectors (10-cm x 10-cm x 41-cm) and a PVT panel with a 41 cm x 173 cm x 3.8-cm detector. Spectral data from the NaI(Tl) and PVT detectors were recorded. Of particular emphasis was the identification of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) and the resultant frequency of nuisance alarms. For rail monitoring, the difficulty in stopping trains to perform secondary inspection on alarming cars creates a need for reliable identification of NORM during initial screening. Approximately 30 trains were monitored, and the commodities in individual railcars were ascertained from manifest information. At one test site the trains carried inter-modal containers that had been unloaded from ships, and at the other site the trains contained bulk cargo or individual items in boxcars or flatbeds. NORM encountered included potash, liquefied petroleum gas, fireworks, televisions, and clay-based products (e.g., pottery). Analysis of the spectral data included the use of the template-fitting program GADRAS/FitToDB from Sandia National Laboratories. For much of the NORM the NaI(Tl) data produced a correct identification of the radionuclides present in the railcars. The same analysis was also used for PVT data in which the spectral information (no peaks but only gradual spectral changes including Compton edges) was limited. However, the PVT analysis provided correct identification of 40K and 226Ra in many cases

  7. Prototyping of Silicon Strip Detectors for the Inner Tracker of the ALICE Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Oleksiy

    2006-04-01

    The ALICE experiment at CERN will study heavy ion collisions at a center-of-mass energy 5.5˜TeV per nucleon. Particle tracking around the interaction region at radii rrequire about 20 thousand HAL25 front-end readout chips and about 3.5 thousand hybrids each containing 6 HAL25 chips. During the assembly procedure, chips are bonded on a patterned TAB aluminium microcables which connect to all the chip input and output pads, and then the chips are assembled on the hybrids. Bonding failures at the chip or hybrid level may either render the component non-functional or deteriorate its the performance such that it can not be used for the module production. After each bonding operation, the component testing is done to reject the non-functional or poorly performing chips and hybrids. The LabView-controlled test station for this operation has been built at Utrecht University and was successfully used for mass production acceptance tests of chips and hybrids at three production labs. The functionality of the chip registers, bonding quality and analogue functionality of the chips and hybrids are addressed in the test. The test routines were optimized to minimize the testing time to make sure that testing is not a bottleneck of the mass production. For testing of complete modules the laser scanning station with 1060 nm diode laser has been assembled at Utrecht University. The testing method relies of the fact that a response of the detector module to a short collimated laser beam pulse resembles a response to a minimum ionizing particle. A small beam spot size (˜7 μm ) allows to deposit the charge in a narrow region and measure the response of individual detector channels. First several module prototypes have been studied with this setup, the strip gain and charge sharing function have been measured, the later is compared with the model predictions. It was also shown that for a laser beam of a high monochromaticity, interference in the sensor bulk significantly modulates

  8. Simulation of the peak efficiency for a stacked NaI(Tl) spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, H; Murohka, H; Anami, K; Nohtomi, A; Uozumi, Y; Sakae, T; Matoba, M [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Koori, N; Maki, T

    1996-07-01

    A stacked NaI(Tl) spectrometer has been developed to measure proton spectra in wide energy range. In the measurement of charged particles with intermediate energy, the detecting efficiency of the spectrometer decreases considerably due to nuclear reactions or out-scattering in the detector material. A Monte Carlo simulation code has been developed to estimate the peak efficiency (peak-to-total ratio) of the spectrometer. The calculated efficiency for intermediate energy is in good agreement with the experimental one. (author)

  9. Small animal positron emission tomography with gas detectors. Simulations, prototyping, and quantitative image reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vernekohl, Don

    2014-04-15

    The physical background of limiting factors on spatial resolution and coincidence sensitivity were introduced, and details about the first sub-millimeter resolution preclinical PET scanner, the HIDAC, were described in this thesis. As the coincidence sensitivity of the HIDAC is rather moderate, the first subject of investigation was to study the sensitivity optimization potential of the HIDAC converter concept. The HIDAC photon converters consist of a stack of alternating conversion and insulation foils perforated with a dense matrix of holes. First, photon conversion and detection probabilities for different converter geometries were systematically explored with a Geant4 model of the HIDAC, which uses Monte-Carlo methods. Additionally, new charge transport in gas and detection models were developed, and their results for different hole dimensions were combined with the conversion probability outcomes. In a next step, it was explored whether the optimized converter hole patterns prospected by the simulations can be manufactured. In conclusion, currently only etching, screen printing, and drilling are potential methods for producing large-scale converters. Second, a test-bench was established to examine differently produced converter prototypes and to test the performance of newly developed readout electronics for the desired application. It was possible to verify that the developer version of the SPADIC works well if coupled to a MWPC/HIDAC-converter detector setup. In this combination, the setup was able to detect the majority of ionization clusters. This was validated by exploring the impact of drift thickness on the count rate. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the test-bench is able to distinguish relative efficiency differences of converter prototypes with a precision of around 10%, if it was equipped with an extra drift layer. Additionally, single-lead-layer-converters were investigated, whereby the relative count rate difference between structured and

  10. Detector, collimator and real-time reconstructor for a new scanning-beam digital x-ray (SBDX) prototype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speidel, Michael A; Tomkowiak, Michael T; Raval, Amish N; Dunkerley, David A P; Slagowski, Jordan M; Kahn, Paul; Ku, Jamie; Funk, Tobias

    Scanning-beam digital x-ray (SBDX) is an inverse geometry fluoroscopy system for low dose cardiac imaging. The use of a narrow scanned x-ray beam in SBDX reduces detected x-ray scatter and improves dose efficiency, however the tight beam collimation also limits the maximum achievable x-ray fluence. To increase the fluence available for imaging, we have constructed a new SBDX prototype with a wider x-ray beam, larger-area detector, and new real-time image reconstructor. Imaging is performed with a scanning source that generates 40,328 narrow overlapping projections from 71 × 71 focal spot positions for every 1/15 s scan period. A high speed 2-mm thick CdTe photon counting detector was constructed with 320×160 elements and 10.6 cm × 5.3 cm area (full readout every 1.28 μs), providing an 86% increase in area over the previous SBDX prototype. A matching multihole collimator was fabricated from layers of tungsten, brass, and lead, and a multi-GPU reconstructor was assembled to reconstruct the stream of captured detector images into full field-of-view images in real time. Thirty-two tomosynthetic planes spaced by 5 mm plus a multiplane composite image are produced for each scan frame. Noise equivalent quanta on the new SBDX prototype measured 63%-71% higher than the previous prototype. X-ray scatter fraction was 3.9-7.8% when imaging 23.3-32.6 cm acrylic phantoms, versus 2.3-4.2% with the previous prototype. Coronary angiographic imaging at 15 frame/s was successfully performed on the new SBDX prototype, with live display of either a multiplane composite or single plane image.

  11. Latest developments on the highly granular Silicon-Tungsten Electromagnetic Calorimeter technological prototype for the International Large Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Irles, Adrián

    2017-01-01

    High precision physics at future colliders requires unprecedented highly granular calorimeters for the application of the Particle Flow (PF) algorithm. The physical proof of concept was given in the previous campaign of beam tests of physic prototypes within the CALICE collaboration. We present here the latest beam and laboratory test results and R&D developments for the Silicon-Tungsten Electromagnetic Calorimeter technological prototype with fully embedded very front-end (VFE) electronics for the International Large Detector at the International Linear Collider project.

  12. arXiv Photon detector system performance in the DUNE 35-ton prototype liquid argon time projection chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, D.L.; Anderson, J.T.; Bagby, L.; Baird, M.; Barr, G.; Barros, N.; Biery, K.; Blake, A.; Blaufuss, E.; Boone, T.; Booth, A.; Brailsford, D.; Buchanan, N.; Chatterjee, A.; Convery, M.; Davies, J.; Dealtry, T.; DeLurgio, P.; Deuerling, G.; Dharmapalan, R.; Djurcic, Z.; Drake, G.; Eberly, B.; Freeman, J.; Glavin, S.; Gomes, R.A.; Goodman, M.C.; Graham, M.; Hahn, A.; Haigh, J.T.; Hartnell, J.; Higuera, A.; Himmel, A.; Insler, J.; Jacobsen, J.; Junk, T.; Kirby, B.; Klein, J.; Kudryavtsev, V.A.; Kutter, T.; Li, Y.; Li, X.; Lin, S.; Martin-Albo, J.; McConkey, N.; Moura, C.A.; Mufson, S.; Nicholls, T.C.; Nowak, J.; Oberling, M.; Paley, J.; Qian, X.; Raaf, J.L.; Rivera, D.; Santucci, G.; Sinev, G.; Spooner, N.J. C.; Stancari, M.; Stancu, I.; Stefan, D.; Stewart, J.; Stock, J.; Strauss, T.; Sulej, R.; Sun, Y.; Thiesse, M.; Thompson, L.F.; Tsai, Y.T.; Wallbank, M.; Warburton, T.K.; Warner, D.; Whittington, D.; Wilson, R.J.; Worcester, M.; Worcester, E.; Yang, T.; Zhang, C.

    The 35-ton prototype for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment far detector was a single-phase liquid argon time projection chamber with an integrated photon detector system, all situated inside a membrane cryostat. The detector took cosmic-ray data for six weeks during the period of February 1, 2016 to March 12, 2016. The performance of the photon detection system was checked with these data. An installed photon detector was demonstrated to measure the arrival times of cosmic-ray muons with a resolution better than 32 ns, limited by the timing of the trigger system. A measurement of the timing resolution using closely-spaced calibration pulses yielded a resolution of 15 ns for pulses at a level of 6 photo-electrons. Scintillation light from cosmic-ray muons was observed to be attenuated with increasing distance with a characteristic length of $155 \\pm 28$ cm.

  13. First operation of a hybrid photon detector prototype with electrostatic cross-focussing and integrated silicon pixel readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alemi, M.; Campbell, M.; Gys, T.; Mikulec, B.; Piedigrossi, D.; Puertolas, D.; Rosso, E.; Schomaker, R.; Snoeys, W.; Wyllie, K.

    2000-01-01

    We report on the first operation of a hybrid photon detector prototype with integrated silicon pixel readout for the ring imaging Cherenkov detectors of the LHCb experiment. The photon detector is based on a cross-focussed image intensifier tube geometry where the image is de-magnified by a factor of 4. The anode consists of a silicon pixel array, bump-bonded to a binary readout chip with matching pixel electronics. The prototype has been characterized using a low-intensity light-emitting diode operated in pulsed mode. Its performance in terms of single-photoelectron detection efficiency and imaging properties is presented. A model of photoelectron detection is proposed, and is shown to be in good agreement with the experimental data. It includes an estimate of the charge signal generated in the silicon detector, and the combined effects of the comparator threshold spread of the pixel readout chip, charge sharing at the pixel boundaries and back-scattering of the photoelectrons at the silicon detector surface

  14. First operation of a hybrid photon detector prototype with electrostatic cross-focussing and integrated silicon pixel readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alemi, M.; Campbell, M.; Gys, T. E-mail: thierry.gys@cern.ch; Mikulec, B.; Piedigrossi, D.; Puertolas, D.; Rosso, E.; Schomaker, R.; Snoeys, W.; Wyllie, K

    2000-07-11

    We report on the first operation of a hybrid photon detector prototype with integrated silicon pixel readout for the ring imaging Cherenkov detectors of the LHCb experiment. The photon detector is based on a cross-focussed image intensifier tube geometry where the image is de-magnified by a factor of 4. The anode consists of a silicon pixel array, bump-bonded to a binary readout chip with matching pixel electronics. The prototype has been characterized using a low-intensity light-emitting diode operated in pulsed mode. Its performance in terms of single-photoelectron detection efficiency and imaging properties is presented. A model of photoelectron detection is proposed, and is shown to be in good agreement with the experimental data. It includes an estimate of the charge signal generated in the silicon detector, and the combined effects of the comparator threshold spread of the pixel readout chip, charge sharing at the pixel boundaries and back-scattering of the photoelectrons at the silicon detector surface.

  15. Prototyping of petalets for the Phase-II upgrade of the silicon strip tracking detector of the ATLAS experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, S.; Benítez, V.; Fernández-Tejero, J.; Fleta, C.; Lozano, M.; Ullán, M.; Lacker, H.; Rehnisch, L.; Sperlich, D.; Ariza, D.; Bloch, I.; Díez, S.; Gregor, I.; Keller, J.; Lohwasser, K.; Poley, L.; Prahl, V.; Zakharchuk, N.; Hauser, M.; Jakobs, K.; Mahboubi, K.; Mori, R.; Parzefall, U.; Bernabéu, J.; Lacasta, C.; Marco-Hernandez, R.; Rodriguez Rodriguez, D.; Santoyo, D.; Solaz Contell, C.; Soldevila Serrano, U.; Affolder, T.; Greenall, A.; Gallop, B.; Phillips, P. W.; Cindro, V.

    2018-03-01

    In the high luminosity era of the Large Hadron Collider, the instantaneous luminosity is expected to reach unprecedented values, resulting in about 200 proton-proton interactions in a typical bunch crossing. To cope with the resultant increase in occupancy, bandwidth and radiation damage, the ATLAS Inner Detector will be replaced by an all-silicon system, the Inner Tracker (ITk). The ITk consists of a silicon pixel and a strip detector and exploits the concept of modularity. Prototyping and testing of various strip detector components has been carried out. This paper presents the developments and results obtained with reduced-size structures equivalent to those foreseen to be used in the forward region of the silicon strip detector. Referred to as petalets, these structures are built around a composite sandwich with embedded cooling pipes and electrical tapes for routing the signals and power. Detector modules built using electronic flex boards and silicon strip sensors are glued on both the front and back side surfaces of the carbon structure. Details are given on the assembly, testing and evaluation of several petalets. Measurement results of both mechanical and electrical quantities are shown. Moreover, an outlook is given for improved prototyping plans for large structures.

  16. Pulse-shape discrimination between electron and nuclear recoils in a NaI(Tl) crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H.S. [Department of Physics, Ewha Womans University,Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of); Adhikari, G.; Adhikari, P. [Department of Physics, Sejong University,Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University,Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Hahn, I.S. [Department of Science Education, Ewha Womans University,Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-18

    We report on the response of a high light-output NaI(Tl) crystal to nuclear recoils induced by neutrons from an Am-Be source and compare the results with the response to electron recoils produced by Compton-scattered 662 keV γ-rays from a {sup 137}Cs source. The measured pulse-shape discrimination (PSD) power of the NaI(Tl) crystal is found to be significantly improved because of the high light output of the NaI(Tl) detector. We quantify the PSD power with a quality factor and estimate the sensitivity to the interaction rate for weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) with nucleons, and the result is compared with the annual modulation amplitude observed by the DAMA/LIBRA experiment. The sensitivity to spin-independent WIMP-nucleon interactions based on 100 kg⋅year of data from NaI detectors is estimated with simulated experiments, using the standard halo model.

  17. Pulse-shape discrimination between electron and nuclear recoils in a NaI(Tl) crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.S.; Adhikari, G.; Adhikari, P.; Choi, S.; Hahn, I.S.

    2015-01-01

    We report on the response of a high light-output NaI(Tl) crystal to nuclear recoils induced by neutrons from an Am-Be source and compare the results with the response to electron recoils produced by Compton-scattered 662 keV γ-rays from a 137 Cs source. The measured pulse-shape discrimination (PSD) power of the NaI(Tl) crystal is found to be significantly improved because of the high light output of the NaI(Tl) detector. We quantify the PSD power with a quality factor and estimate the sensitivity to the interaction rate for weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) with nucleons, and the result is compared with the annual modulation amplitude observed by the DAMA/LIBRA experiment. The sensitivity to spin-independent WIMP-nucleon interactions based on 100 kg⋅year of data from NaI detectors is estimated with simulated experiments, using the standard halo model.

  18. Measurement of integrated flux of cosmic ray muons at sea level using the INO-ICAL prototype detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, S.; Acharya, B.S.; Majumder, G.; Mondal, N.K.; Samuel, D.; Satyanarayana, B.

    2012-01-01

    The India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) collaboration is planning to set-up a magnetized Iron-CALorimeter (ICAL) to study atmospheric neutrino oscillations with precise measurements of oscillations parameters. The ICAL uses 50 kton iron as target mass and about 28800 Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) of 2 m × 2 m in area as active detector elements. As part of its R and D program, a prototype detector stack comprising 12 layers of RPCs of 1 m × 1 m in area has been set-up at Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR) to study the detector parameters using cosmic ray muons. We present here a study of muon flux measurement at sea level and lower latitude. (Site latitude: 18°54'N, longitude: 72°48'E.)

  19. VHMPID RICH prototype using pressurized C{sub 4}F{sub 8}O radiator gas and VUV photon detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acconcia, T.V. [UNICAMP, University of Campinas, Campinas (Brazil); Agócs, A.G. [Wigner RCP of the HAS, Budapest (Hungary); Barile, F. [INFN Sezione di Bari and Universitá degli Studi di Bari, Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica M. Merlin, Bari (Italy); Barnaföldi, G.G. [Wigner RCP of the HAS, Budapest (Hungary); Bellwied, R. [University of Houston, Houston (United States); Bencédi, G. [Wigner RCP of the HAS, Budapest (Hungary); Bencze, G., E-mail: Gyorgy.Bencze@cern.ch [Wigner RCP of the HAS, Budapest (Hungary); Berényi, D.; Boldizsár, L. [Wigner RCP of the HAS, Budapest (Hungary); Chattopadhyay, S. [Saha Institute, Kolkata (India); Chinellato, D.D. [University of Houston, Houston (United States); Cindolo, F. [University of Salerno, Salerno (Italy); Cossyleon, K. [Chicago State University, Chicago, IL (United States); Das, D.; Das, K.; Das-Bose, L. [Saha Institute, Kolkata (India); Dash, A.K. [UNICAMP, University of Campinas, Campinas (Brazil); D' Ambrosio, S. [University of Salerno, Salerno (Italy); De Cataldo, G. [INFN Sezione di Bari and Universitá degli Studi di Bari, Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica M. Merlin, Bari (Italy); De Pasquale, S. [University of Salerno, Salerno (Italy); and others

    2014-12-11

    A small-size prototype of a new Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detector using for the first time pressurized C4F8O radiator gas and a photon detector consisting of MWPC equipped with a CsI photocathode has been built and tested at the PS accelerator at CERN. It contained all the functional elements of the detector proposed as Very High Momentum Particle Identification (VHMPID) upgrade for the ALICE experiment at LHC to provide charged hadron track-by-track identification in the momentum range starting from 5 potentially up to 25 GeV/c. In the paper the equipment and its elements are described and some characteristic test results are shown.

  20. Prototyping of larger structures for the Phase-II upgrade of the pixel detector of the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez Feito, Diego; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    For the high luminosity era of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) it is forseen to replace the current inner tracker of the ATLAS experiment with a new detector to cope with the occuring increase in occupancy, bandwidth and radiation damage. It will consist of an inner pixel and outer strip detector aiming to provide tracking coverage up to |η|<4. The layout of the pixel detector is foreseen to consist of five layers of pixel silicon sensor modules in the central region and several ring-shaped layers in the forward region. It results in up to 14 m² of silicon depending on the selected layout. Beside the challenge of radiation hardness and high-rate capable silicon sensors and readout electronics many system aspects have to be considered for a fully functional detector. Both stable and low mass mechanical structures and services are important. Within the collaboration a large effort is started to prototype larger detector structures for both the central and forward region of the detector. The aspect of sy...

  1. Evaluation of Position Resolution for a Prototype Whole-Body PET Detector Based on Suppressing Backgrounds by Compton Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujihara, Kento; Emoto, Yusaku; Ito, Hiroshi; Kaneko, Naomi; Kaneko, Hideyuki; Kawai, Hideyuki; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Mizuno, Takahiro

    2018-01-01

    Existing PET (Positron Emission Tomography) systems make clear images in demonstration (measuring small PET reagent in pure water), however images in real diagnosis become unclear. The authors suspected that this problem was caused by Compton scattering in a detector. When PET systems observe plural photomultiplier tube outputs, an original emission point is regarded as centroid of the outputs. However, even if plural emission in Compton scattering occur, these systems calculate original point in the same way as single emission. Therefore, the authors considered that rejecting Compton scattering events makes PET systems much better, and made prototype counter. Main components of the prototype counter are plate-like high-growth-rate (HGR) La-GPS scintillators and wavelength shifting fibers (WLSF). HGR crystals grow 10 times as fast as a mono-crystal (a normal mono-crystal grows at 2 - 3 mm an hour). Thus, it includes microbubble and its transparency get worth. Consequently, HGR crystals usually are not used in radiation measuring instruments. However, this time they are used on the purpose. Because of their low transparency, scintillation lights come out right above and right under of emission position. Therefore, Compton scattering events is rejected easily. The prototype detector has an effective area of 300 by 300 square mm. The detector consists of 24 layers. One layer consists of HGR La-GPS scintillator of 1 mm thickness. Top and bottom surface of scintillator were covered by dual sheets of WLSF with a diameter of 0.2 mm. Sheets of WLSF on top and bottom of the scintillator make a right angle with each other, and measure X- and Y-components. Z-component is measured by difference of WLSF outputs between top and bottom. If plural layers output signals, this counter regards the event as Compton scattering event, and reject the event. Even if only a layer output signals, the event is rejected when number output signals from WLSF is more than 1.5 times of single

  2. Study of a high spatial resolution {sup 10}B-based thermal neutron detector for application in neutron reflectometry: the Multi-Blade prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piscitelli, F; Buffet, J C; Clergeau, J F; Cuccaro, S; Guérard, B; Khaplanov, A; Manna, Q La; Rigal, J M; Esch, P Van, E-mail: piscitelli@ill.fr [Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL), 6, Jules Horowitz, 38042, Grenoble (France)

    2014-03-01

    Although for large area detectors it is crucial to find an alternative to detect thermal neutrons because of the {sup 3}He shortage, this is not the case for small area detectors. Neutron scattering science is still growing its instruments' power and the neutron flux a detector must tolerate is increasing. For small area detectors the main effort is to expand the detectors' performances. At Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) we developed the Multi-Blade detector which wants to increase the spatial resolution of {sup 3}He-based detectors for high flux applications. We developed a high spatial resolution prototype suitable for neutron reflectometry instruments. It exploits solid {sup 10}B-films employed in a proportional gas chamber. Two prototypes have been constructed at ILL and the results obtained on our monochromatic test beam line are presented here.

  3. Prototype readout system for a multi Mpixels UV single-photon imaging detector capable of space flight operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seljak, A.; Cumming, H. S.; Varner, G.; Vallerga, J.; Raffanti, R.; Virta, V.

    2018-02-01

    Our collaboration works on the development of a large aperture, high resolution, UV single-photon imaging detector, funded through NASA's Strategic Astrophysics Technology (SAT) program. The detector uses a microchannel plate for charge multiplication, and orthogonal cross strip (XS) anodes for charge readout. Our target is to make an advancement in the technology readiness level (TRL), which enables real scale prototypes to be tested for future NASA missions. The baseline detector has an aperture of 50×50 mm and requires 160 low-noise charge-sensitive channels, in order to extrapolate the incoming photon position with a spatial resolution of about 20 μm FWHM. Technologies involving space flight require highly integrated electronic systems operating at very low power. We have designed two ASICs which enable the construction of such readout system. First, a charge sensitive amplifier (CSAv3) ASIC provides an equivalent noise charge (ENC) of around 600 e-, and a baseline gain of 10 mV/fC. The second, a Giga Sample per Second (GSPS) ASIC, called HalfGRAPH, is a 12-bit analog to digital converter. Its architecture is based on waveform sampling capacitor arrays and has about 8 μs of analog storage memory per channel. Both chips encapsulate 16 measurement channels. Using these chips, a small scale prototype readout system has been constructed on a FPGA Mezzanine Board (FMC), equipped with 32 measurement channels for system evaluation. We describe the construction of HalfGRAPH ASIC, detector's readout system concept and obtained results from the prototype system. As part of the space flight qualification, these chips were irradiated with a Cobalt gamma-ray source, to verify functional operation under ionizing radiation exposure.

  4. Study of the background neutron and gamma components of the ββ(0ν) decay in the NEMO2 prototype detector. Consequences for the NEMO3 detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquet, Christine

    1999-01-01

    Neutrinoless double beta decay ββ(0ν) is a test of physics beyond the Standard Model by involving the existence of a massive Majorana neutrino (ν = ν-bar). To try to observe such a process with a sensitivity of 0.1 eV on the neutrino effective mass ( ν >), NEMO collaboration build the NEMO3 detector, able to measure half-lives greater than 10 24 years, corresponding to a few detected events per year. For that, it is necessary to know and master all background sources. This work was first dedicated to the study of external (to the double beta source) background with crossing electrons recorded with NEMO2 prototype detector and then to the simulation of this background in NEMO3 detector. Comparison between NEMO2 data and results of gamma and neutron simulations for different shieldings, with and without neutron source, has allowed to determine background contributions of radon, thoron, 208 Tl contaminations in materials, photon flux produced in laboratory and neutrons. This study, which has required improvements in the MICAP neutron simulation code by developing a photon generator, proved that radiative capture of fast neutrons thermalized in the detector was the source of events in the energy domain of the ββ(0ν) signal. In order to reach the required sensitivity on ν > mass, it has been shown that both a neutron shielding and magnetic field are necessary for NEMO3 detector. (author) [fr

  5. Initial testing of a pixelated silicon detector prototype in proton therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wroe, Andrew J; McAuley, Grant; Teran, Anthony V; Wong, Jeannie; Petasecca, Marco; Lerch, Michael; Slater, James M; Rozenfeld, Anatoly B

    2017-09-01

    As technology continues to develop, external beam radiation therapy is being employed, with increased conformity, to treat smaller targets. As this occurs, the dosimetry methods and tools employed to quantify these fields for treatment also have to evolve to provide increased spatial resolution. The team at the University of Wollongong has developed a pixelated silicon detector prototype known as the dose magnifying glass (DMG) for real-time small-field metrology. This device has been tested in photon fields and IMRT. The purpose of this work was to conduct the initial performance tests with proton radiation, using beam energies and modulations typically associated with proton radiosurgery. Depth dose and lateral beam profiles were measured and compared with those collected using a PTW parallel-plate ionization chamber, a PTW proton-specific dosimetry diode, EBT3 Gafchromic film, and Monte Carlo simulations. Measurements of the depth dose profile yielded good agreement when compared with Monte Carlo, diode and ionization chamber. Bragg peak location was measured accurately by the DMG by scanning along the depth dose profile, and the relative response of the DMG at the center of modulation was within 2.5% of that for the PTW dosimetry diode for all energy and modulation combinations tested. Real-time beam profile measurements of a 5 mm 127 MeV proton beam also yielded FWHM and FW90 within ±1 channel (0.1 mm) of the Monte Carlo and EBT3 film data across all depths tested. The DMG tested here proved to be a useful device at measuring depth dose profiles in proton therapy with a stable response across the entire proton spread-out Bragg peak. In addition, the linear array of small sensitive volumes allowed for accurate point and high spatial resolution one-dimensional profile measurements of small radiation fields in real time to be completed with minimal impact from partial volume averaging. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published

  6. Prototypes for components of a control system for the ATLAS pixel detector at the HL-LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Püllen, Lukas; Boek, Jennifer; Kersten, Susanne; Kind, Peter; Mättig, Peter; Zeitnitz, Christian

    2013-01-01

    In the years around 2020 an upgrade of the LHC to the HL-LHC is scheduled, which will increase the accelerator's instantaneous luminosity by a factor of 5 and the integrated luminosity by a factor of 10. In the context of this upgrade, the inner detector (including the pixel detector) of the ATLAS experiment will be replaced. This new pixel detector requires a specific control system which complies with strict requirements in terms of radiation hardness, material budget and space for the electronics in the ATLAS experiment. The University of Wuppertal is developing a concept for a DCS (Detector Control System) network consisting of two kinds of ASICs. The first ASIC is the DCS chip which is located on the pixel detector, very close to the interaction point. The second ASIC is the DCS Controller which is controlling 4×4 DCS chips from the outer regions of ATLAS via differential data lines. Both ASICs are manufactured in 130 nm deep sub-micron technology. We present results from reliability measurements under irradiation from new prototypes of components for the DCS network.

  7. Prototypes for components of a control system for the ATLAS pixel detector at the HL-LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boek, J; Kersten, S; Kind, P; Mättig, P; Püllen, L; Zeitnitz, C

    2013-01-01

    In the years around 2020 an upgrade of the LHC to the HL-LHC is scheduled, which will increase the accelerators luminosity by a factor of 10. In the context of this upgrade, the inner detector of the ATLAS experiment will be replaced entirely including the pixel detector. This new pixel detector requires a specific control system which complies with the strict requirements in terms of radiation hardness, material budget and space for the electronics in the ATLAS experiment. The University of Wuppertal is developing a concept for a DCS (Detector Control System) network consisting of two kinds of ASICs. The first ASIC is the DCS Chip which is located on the pixel detector, very close to the interaction point. The second ASIC is the DCS Controller which is controlling 4x4 DCS Chips from the outer regions of ATLAS via differential data lines. Both ASICs are manufactured in 130 nm deep sub micron technology. We present results from measurements from new prototypes of components for the DCS network.

  8. Design of a current based readout chip and development of a DEPFET pixel prototype system for the ILC vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trimpl, M.

    2005-12-01

    The future TeV-scale linear collider ILC (International Linear Collider) offers a large variety of precision measurements complementary to the discovery potential of the LHC (Large Hadron Collider). To fully exploit its physics potential, a vertex detector with unprecedented performance is needed. One proposed technology for the ILC vertex detector is the DEPFET active pixel sensor. The DEPFET sensor offers particle detection with in-pixel amplification by incorporating a field effect transistor into a fully depleted high-ohmic silicon substrate. The device provides an excellent signal-to-noise ratio and a good spatial resolution at the same time. To establish a very fast readout of a DEPFET pixel matrix with row rates of 20 MHz and more, the 128 channel CURO II ASIC has been designed and fabricated. The architecture of the chip is completely based on current mode techniques (SI) perfectly adapted to the current signal of the sensor. For the ILC vertex detector a prototype system with a 64 x 128 DEPFET pixel matrix read out by the CURO II chip has been developed. The design issues and the standalone performance of the readout chip as well as first results with the prototype system will be presented. (orig.)

  9. Design of a current based readout chip and development of a DEPFET pixel prototype system for the ILC vertex detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trimpl, M.

    2005-12-15

    The future TeV-scale linear collider ILC (International Linear Collider) offers a large variety of precision measurements complementary to the discovery potential of the LHC (Large Hadron Collider). To fully exploit its physics potential, a vertex detector with unprecedented performance is needed. One proposed technology for the ILC vertex detector is the DEPFET active pixel sensor. The DEPFET sensor offers particle detection with in-pixel amplification by incorporating a field effect transistor into a fully depleted high-ohmic silicon substrate. The device provides an excellent signal-to-noise ratio and a good spatial resolution at the same time. To establish a very fast readout of a DEPFET pixel matrix with row rates of 20 MHz and more, the 128 channel CURO II ASIC has been designed and fabricated. The architecture of the chip is completely based on current mode techniques (SI) perfectly adapted to the current signal of the sensor. For the ILC vertex detector a prototype system with a 64 x 128 DEPFET pixel matrix read out by the CURO II chip has been developed. The design issues and the standalone performance of the readout chip as well as first results with the prototype system will be presented. (orig.)

  10. Prototyping and tests for an MRPC-based time-of-flight detector for 1 GeV neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakorev, D. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany); Aumann, T. [GSI Helmholtz zentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany); Bemmerer, D., E-mail: d.bemmerer@hzdr.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany); Boretzky, K. [GSI Helmholtz zentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Caesar, C. [GSI Helmholtz zentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany); Ciobanu, M. [GSI Helmholtz zentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Cowan, T.; Elekes, Z. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany); Elvers, M. [Universitaet zu Koeln (Germany); Gonzalez Diaz, D. [GSI Helmholtz zentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany); Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Hannaske, R. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany); Hehner, J.; Heil, M. [GSI Helmholtz zentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Kempe, M. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany); Maroussov, V. [Universitaet zu Koeln (Germany); Nusair, O. [GSI Helmholtz zentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Al Balqa' Applied University, Salt (Jordan); Simon, H. [GSI Helmholtz zentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Sobiella, M.; Stach, D.; Wagner, A. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany); and others

    2011-10-21

    The NeuLAND detector at the R{sup 3}B experiment at the future FAIR facility in Darmstadt aims to detect fast neutrons (0.2-1.0 GeV) with high time and spatial resolutions ({sigma}{sub t}<100ps,{sigma}{sub x,y,z}<1cm). This task can be performed either with a scintillator or based on the multigap resistive plate chamber (MRPC) technology. Here, prototyping and test for an MRPC-based solution are discussed. In order to reach 90% detection efficiency, the final detector must consist of 50 consecutive MRPC stacks. Each stack contains a 4 mm thick anode made of iron converter material, with an additional 4 mm of converter material between two stacks. The secondary charged particles stemming from hadronic interactions of the high energetic neutrons in the converter will be detected in the MRPCs. As part of the ongoing development effort, a number of prototypes for this detector have been developed and built. They have been tested in experiments with a single-electron beam with picosecond resolution at the superconducting linac ELBE (Dresden, Germany). The results of the tests are presented here, and an outlook is given.

  11. Operation of the Electronics for the AMS-02RICH Detector Prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguayo, P.; Aguilar, M.; Berdugo, J.; Casaus, J.; Delgado, C.; Diaz, C.; Fernandez, C.; Garcia-Tabares, L.; Lanciotti, E.; Mana, C.; Marin, J.; Martinez, G.; Palomares, C.; Sanchez, E.; Sevilla, I.; Torrento, A.; Wilmott, C.; Yanez, J.

    2002-07-01

    The operation and behaviour of the RICH prototype electronics developed for the AMS-02 experiment is presented. It includes results and conclusions obtained from experimental tests data with cosmic rays. (Author)

  12. Observations of sensor bias dependent cluster centroid shifts in a prototype sensor for the LHCb Vertex Locator detector

    CERN Document Server

    Papadelis, Aras

    2006-01-01

    We present results from a recent beam test of a prototype sensor for the LHCb Vertex Locator detector, read out with the Beetle 1.3 front-end chip. We have studied the effect of the sensor bias voltage on the reconstructed cluster positions in a sensor placed in a 120GeV pion beam at a 10° incidence angle. We find an unexplained sysematic shift in the reconstructed cluster centroid when increasing the bias voltage on an already overdepleted sensor. The shift is independent of strip pitch and sensor thickness.

  13. Tests of prototype magnets and study on a MCP based proton detector for the neutron lifetime experiment PENeLOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Materne, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The precision experiment PENeLOPE will store ultra-cold neutrons in a magnetic trap and determine the neutron lifetime via the time-resolved counting of the decay-protons. The thesis reports on training and performance tests of prototypes of the superconducting coils. Additionally, a magnetic field mapper for PENeLOPE was characterized. In the second part of the thesis, microchannel plates (MCPs) were studied with alpha particles and protons as a possible candidate for the decay particle detector in PENeLOPE.

  14. Test-Beam Results on <100> Silicon Prototype Detectors with APV6 Front-End Chip Readout

    CERN Document Server

    Winkler, Matthias

    2000-01-01

    Results are presented using data collected during the X5 test-beam performed in August 1999. To achieve a good estimate of signal and noise values, the raw data are processed off-line by a dedicated reconstruction program. In particular, an efficient algorithm for pedestal, noise and common mode calculation was developed and tested. The intrinsic performances of an AC-coupled CMS silicon micro-strip multi-geometry prototype detector, with a <100> crystal orientation and a low resistivity ( 1~k Omega cm), are investigated. This detector was exposed to an irradiation fluence of 3 imes10^{14} p/cm ^2 , equivalent to 10 years of operation at LHC. The signal-to-noise ratio and the ghost rates per strip and per cm ^2 are presented, as a function of the bias voltage.

  15. Development of a super B-factory monolithic active pixel detector-the Continuous Acquisition Pixel (CAP) prototypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varner, G.; Barbero, M.; Bozek, A.; Browder, T.; Fang, F.; Hazumi, M.; Igarashi, A.; Iwaida, S.; Kennedy, J.; Kent, N.; Olsen, S.; Palka, H.; Rosen, M.; Ruckman, L.; Stanic, S.; Trabelsi, K.; Tsuboyama, T.; Uchida, K.

    2005-01-01

    Over the last few years great progress has been made in the technological development of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) such that upgrades to existing vertex detectors using this technology are now actively being considered. Future vertex detection at an upgraded KEK-B factory, already the highest luminosity collider in the world, will require a detector technology capable of withstanding the increased track densities and larger radiation exposures. Near the beam pipe the current silicon strip detectors have projected occupancies in excess of 100%. Deep sub-micron MAPS look very promising to address this problem. In the context of an upgrade to the Belle vertex detector, the major obstacles to realizing such a device have been concerns about radiation hardness and readout speed. Two prototypes implemented in the TSMC 0.35 μm process have been developed to address these issues. Denoted the Continuous Acquisition Pixel, or CAP, the two variants of this architecture are distinguished in that CAP2 includes an 8-deep sampling pipeline within each 22.5 μm 2 pixel. Preliminary test results and remaining R and D issues are presented

  16. Mechanical and thermal behavior of a prototype support structure for a large silicon vertex detector (BCD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulderink, H.; Michels, N.; Joestlein, H.

    1989-01-01

    The Bottom Collider Detector (BCD) has been proposed as a device to study large numbers of events containing B mesons. To identify secondary vertices in hadronic events it will employ the most ambitious silicon strip tracking detector proposed to-date. This report will discuss results from measurements on a first mechanical/thermal model of the vertex detector support structure. The model that was built and used for the studies described here is made of brass. Brass was used because it is readily available and easily assembled by soft soldering, and, for appropriate thicknesses, it will behave similarly to the beryllium that will be used in the actual detector. The trough was built to full scale with the reinforcement webbing and the cooling channels in place. There were no detector modules in place. We plan, however, to install modules in the trough in the future. The purpose of the model was to address two concerns that have arisen about the proposed structure of the detector. The first is whether or not the trough will be stable enough. The trough must be very light in weight yet have a high degree of rigidity. Because of the 3m length of the detector there is question as to the stiffness of the proposed trough. The main concern is that there will sagging or movement of the trough in the middle region. The second problem is the heat load. There will be a great deal of heat generated by the electronics attached to the detector modules. So the question arises as to whether or not the silicon detectors can be kept cool enough so that when the actual experiment is run the readings will be valid. The heat may also induce motion by differential expansion of support components. 26 figs

  17. Prototype of a hybrid cosmic ray detector at the Pico de Orizaba: First stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponce, E.; Perez, E.; Villasenor, L.; Garipov, G.; Salazar, H.; Martinez, O.; Moreno, E.; Pedraza, I.; Cotzomi, J.; Khrenov, B.

    2003-01-01

    In this work we present a progress report of the project of a high energy cosmic ray observatory located at Pico de Orizaba mountain. One of the goals of this facility will be to contribute to the understanding of the origin of the cosmic rays at energies around the feature known as the knee. To achieve this goal we plan to use a hybrid detector composed of a surface detector array and a fluorescence telescope. The design and expected performance of the fluorescent detector is presented

  18. Study of prototypes of LFoundry active CMOS pixels sensors for the ATLAS detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigani, L.; Bortoletto, D.; Ambroz, L.; Plackett, R.; Hemperek, T.; Rymaszewski, P.; Wang, T.; Krueger, H.; Hirono, T.; Caicedo Sierra, I.; Wermes, N.; Barbero, M.; Bhat, S.; Breugnon, P.; Chen, Z.; Godiot, S.; Pangaud, P.; Rozanov, A.

    2018-02-01

    Current high energy particle physics experiments at the LHC use hybrid silicon detectors, in both pixel and strip configurations, for their inner trackers. These detectors have proven to be very reliable and performant. Nevertheless, there is great interest in depleted CMOS silicon detectors, which could achieve a similar performance at lower cost of production. We present recent developments of this technology in the framework of the ATLAS CMOS demonstrator project. In particular, studies of two active sensors from LFoundry, CCPD_LF and LFCPIX, are shown.

  19. Study of prototypes of LFoundry active CMOS pixels sensors for the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Vigani, L.; Ambroz, L.; Plackett, R.; Hemperek, T.; Rymaszewski, P.; Wang, T.; Krueger, H.; Hirono, T.; Caicedo Sierra, I.; Wermes, N.; Barbero, M.; Bhat, S.; Breugnon, P.; Chen, Z.; Godiot, S.; Pangaud, P.; Rozanov, A.

    2018-01-01

    Current high energy particle physics experiments at the LHC use hybrid silicon detectors, in both pixel and strip configurations, for their inner trackers. These detectors have proven to be very reliable and performant. Nevertheless, there is great interest in depleted CMOS silicon detectors, which could achieve a similar performance at lower cost of production. We present recent developments of this technology in the framework of the ATLAS CMOS demonstrator project. In particular, studies of two active sensors from LFoundry, CCPD_LF and LFCPIX, are shown.

  20. First Results with the Prototype Detectors of the Si/W ECAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strom, D; Frey, R.; /Oregon U.; Breidenbach, M.; Deng, J.; Freytag, D.; Graf, N.; Haller, G.; /SLAC; Radeka, V.; /Brookhaven

    2005-07-12

    Measurements on the prototype silicon sensors for use with an electromagnetic calorimeter with tungsten absorber are reported. The prototype sensors are based on a hexagonal geometry that optimally utilizes the space available on 6 inch silicon wafers. The sensors are segmented into approximately 750 5mm hexagonal pixels, which are connected to a bump-bonding array located at the center of the sensors. We report on those properties of the sensors that are important for linear collider applications including depletion voltage, stray capacitance and series resistance.

  1. A prototype silicon detector system for space cosmic-ray charge measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fei; Fan, Rui-Rui; Peng, Wen-Xi; Dong, Yi-Fa; Gong, Ke; Liang, Xiao-Hua; Liu, Ya-Qing; Wang, Huan-Yu

    2014-06-01

    A readout electronics system used for space cosmic-ray charge measurement for multi-channel silicon detectors is introduced in this paper, including performance measurements. A 64-channel charge sensitive ASIC (VA140) from the IDEAS company is used. With its features of low power consumption, low noise, large dynamic range, and high integration, it can be used in future particle detecting experiments based on silicon detectors.

  2. Design and Test of a Signal Packet Router Prototype for the ATLAS NSW sTGC Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Xueye; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Abstract– The New Small Wheel (NSW) small-strip thin-gap chambers (sTGC) detector will be installed in Large Hadron Collider (LHC) during ATLAS Phase-I upgrade. For sTGC detector, it requires very high-speed electronic triggering of signal events. On detecting a signal peak, sTGC front-end trigger logic will send out serialized track information on twinax fast serial copper wires to the signal packet Router on the periphery of the new small wheel. The signal packet Router boards handle all incoming traffic from the TDS chips (4.8 Gbps), serving as a very fast switching-yard between incoming active TDS signals and a limited number of optoelectronic outputs. There are several design requirements on router: radiation-hard (9kRad), high-speed serial link and low fixed latency in FPGA (field-programmable gate array) data processing. To meet those requirements, a router prototype has been developed for demonstration purpose. The components used in router prototype have been tested in radiation environment to m...

  3. ProtoDUNE-DP---PROTOtype for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment - Dual Phase detector (Electrostatic Simulations and Performance Studies)

    CERN Document Server

    Chiu, Pin-Jung

    In search of answers to the biggest missing puzzle in the field of neutrino physics, large- scale Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers (LAr-TPCs) have been postulated to be the most attractive instruments for next generation neutrino observations. A state-of-the- art experiment, the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE), which will utilize this LAr-TPC technology for the studies of neutrino science and proton decay, is currently in the stage of design and prototyping. This thesis reports on the behavior studies of a 6 × 6 × 6 m^3 prototype, ProtoDUNE, in the context of DUNE from the electrostatic’s point of view. Electrostatic simulations had been performed on the whole detector in order to verify the uniformity of the electric field, and to assure that all local electric fields within the detector are below a certain value to avoid any electrical breakdown phenomena. Additionally, to characterize the performance of the 2D anode used for charge readout in the experiment, some simulations and measur...

  4. The prototype detection unit of the KM3NeT detector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adrian-Martinez, S.; Ageron, M.; Aharonian, F.; Aiello, S.; Albert, A.; Ameli, F.; Anassontzis, E. G.; Androulakis, G. C.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Avgitas, T.; Balasi, K.; Band, H.; Barbarino, G.; Barbarito, E.; Barbato, F.; Baret, B.; Baron, S.; Barrios, J.; Belias, A.; Berbee, E.; van den Berg, A. M.; Berkien, A.; Bertin, V.; Beurthey, S.; van Beveren, V.; Beverini, N.; Biagi, S.; Biagioni, A.; Bianucci, S.; Billault, M.; Birbas, A.; Rookhuizen, H. Boer; Bormuth, R.; Bouche, V.; Bouhadef, B.; Bourlis, G.; Boutonnet, C.; Bouwhuis, M.; Bozza, C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Cacopardo, G.; Dorosti-Hasankiadeh, Q.; Hevinga, M. A.; Kavatsyuk, O.; Löhner, H.; van Wooning, R. H. L.

    2016-01-01

    A prototype detection unit of the KM3NeT deep-sea neutrino telescope has been installed at 3500m depth 80 km offshore the Italian coast. KM3NeT in its final configuration will contain several hundreds of detection units. Each detection unit is a mechanical structure anchored to the sea floor, held

  5. Analysis of test-beam data with hybrid pixel detector prototypes for the Compact LInear Collider (CLIC) vertex detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Pequegnot, Anne-Laure

    2013-01-01

    The LHC is currently the most powerful accelerator in the world. This proton-proton collider is now stoppped to increase significantly its luminosity and energy, which would provide a larger discovery potential in 2014 and beyond. A high-energy $e^{+}e^{-}$ collider, such as CLIC, is an option to complement and to extend the LHC physics programme. Indeed, a lepton collider gives access to additional physics processes, beyond those observable at the LHC, and therefore provides new discovery potential. It can also provide complementary and/or more precise information about new physics uncovered at the LHC. Many essential features of a detector are required to deliver the full physics potential of this CLIC machine. In this present report, I present my work on the vertex detector R\\&D for this future linear collider, which aims at developping highly granular and ultra-thin position sensitive detection devices with very low power consumption and fast time-stamping capability. We tested here thin silicon pixel...

  6. Results from the NA62 Gigatracker Prototype: A Low-Mass and sub-ns Time Resolution Silicon Pixel Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, M.; Rinella, G. Aglieri; Carassiti, V.; Ceccucci, A.; Gil, E. Cortina; Ramusino, A. Cotta; Dellacasa, G.; Garbolino, S.; Jarron, P.; Kaplon, J.; Kluge, A.; Marchetto, F.; Mapelli, A.; Martin, E.; Mazza, G.; Morel, M.; Noy, M.; Nuessle, G.; Petagna, P.; Petrucci, F.; Perktold, L.; Riedler, P.; Rivetti, A.; Statera, M.; Velghe, B.

    The Gigatracker (GTK) is a hybrid silicon pixel detector developed for NA62, the experiment aimed at studying ultra-rare kaon decays at the CERN SPS. Three GTK stations will provide precise momentum and angular measurements on every track of the high intensity NA62 hadron beam with a time-tagging resolution of 150 ps. Multiple scattering and hadronic interactions of beam particles in the GTK have to be minimized to keep background events at acceptable levels, hence the total material budget is fixed to 0.5% X0 per station. In addition the calculated fluence for 100 days of running is 2×1014 1 MeV neq/cm2, comparable to the one expected for the inner trackers of LHC detectors in 10 years of operation. These requirements pose challenges for the development of an efficient and low-mass cooling system, to be operated in vacuum, and on the thinning of read-out chips to 100 μm or less. The most challenging requirement is represented by the time resolution, which can be achieved by carefully compensating for the discriminator time-walk. For this purpose, two complementary read-out architectures have been designed and produced as small-scale prototypes: the first is based on the use of a Time-over-Threshold circuit followed by a TDC shared by a group of pixels, while the other uses a constant-fraction discriminator followed by an on-pixel TDC. The readout pixel ASICs are produced in 130 nm IBM CMOS technology and bump-bonded to 200 μm thick silicon sensors. The Gigatracker detector system is described with particular emphasis on recent experimental results obtained from laboratory and beam tests of prototype bump-bonded assemblies, which show a time resolution of less than 200 ps for single hits.

  7. Evaluation of a prototype correction algorithm to reduce metal artefacts in flat detector computed tomography of scaphoid fixation screws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filli, Lukas; Marcon, Magda; Scholz, Bernhard; Calcagni, Maurizio; Finkenstädt, Tim; Andreisek, Gustav; Guggenberger, Roman

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a prototype correction algorithm to reduce metal artefacts in flat detector computed tomography (FDCT) of scaphoid fixation screws. FDCT has gained interest in imaging small anatomic structures of the appendicular skeleton. Angiographic C-arm systems with flat detectors allow fluoroscopy and FDCT imaging in a one-stop procedure emphasizing their role as an ideal intraoperative imaging tool. However, FDCT imaging can be significantly impaired by artefacts induced by fixation screws. Following ethical board approval, commercially available scaphoid fixation screws were inserted into six cadaveric specimens in order to fix artificially induced scaphoid fractures. FDCT images corrected with the algorithm were compared to uncorrected images both quantitatively and qualitatively by two independent radiologists in terms of artefacts, screw contour, fracture line visibility, bone visibility, and soft tissue definition. Normal distribution of variables was evaluated using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. In case of normal distribution, quantitative variables were compared using paired Student's t tests. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used for quantitative variables without normal distribution and all qualitative variables. A p value of < 0.05 was considered to indicate statistically significant differences. Metal artefacts were significantly reduced by the correction algorithm (p < 0.001), and the fracture line was more clearly defined (p < 0.01). The inter-observer reliability was "almost perfect" (intra-class correlation coefficient 0.85, p < 0.001). The prototype correction algorithm in FDCT for metal artefacts induced by scaphoid fixation screws may facilitate intra- and postoperative follow-up imaging. Flat detector computed tomography (FDCT) is a helpful imaging tool for scaphoid fixation. The correction algorithm significantly reduces artefacts in FDCT induced by scaphoid fixation screws. This may facilitate intra

  8. Test beam results from the prototype L3 silicon microvertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, A.; Adriani, O.; Ahlen, S.

    1993-11-01

    We report test beam results on the overall system performance of two modules of the L3 Silicon Microvertex Detector exposed to a 50 GeV pion beam. Each module consists of two AC coupled double-sided silicon strip detectors equipped with VLSI readout electronics. The associated data acquisition system comprises an 8 bit FADC, an optical data transmission circuit, a specialized data reduction processor and a synchronization module. A spatial resolution of 7.5 μm and 14 μm for the two coordinates and a detection efficiency in excess of 99% are measured. (orig.)

  9. The prototype opto-mechanical system for the Fluorescence detector Array of Single-pixel Telescopes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mandát, Dušan; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Schovánek, Petr; Trávníček, Petr; Nozka, L.; Hrabovský, M.; Horvath, P.; Fujii, T.; Privitera, P.; Malacari, M.; Farmer, J.; Galimova, A.; Matalon, A.; Merolle, M.; Ni, X.; Bellido, J.A.; Matthews, J.N.; Thomas, S.B.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 12, Jul (2017), 1-10, č. článku T07001. ISSN 1748-0221 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015038; GA MŠk LG15014; GA MŠk LE13012 Grant - others:OP VVV - AUGER-CZ(XE) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/16_013/0001402 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : large detector systems for particle and astroparticle physics * particle detectors Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics OBOR OECD: Particles and field physics Impact factor: 1.220, year: 2016

  10. Prototype muon detectors for the AMIGA component of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Blažek, Jiří; Boháčová, Martina; Chudoba, Jiří; Ebr, Jan; Mandát, Dušan; Nečesal, Petr; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Řídký, Jan; Schovánek, Petr; Trávníček, Petr; Vícha, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 11, Feb (2016), 1-27, č. článku P02012. ISSN 1748-0221 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13007; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14AR005; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-17501S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : detector design and construction technologies and materials * particle detectors * overall mechanics design Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.220, year: 2016

  11. Design and Construction of a First Prototype Muon Tomography System with GEM Detectors for the Detection of Nuclear Contraband

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2074269; Grasso, L; Locke, J B; Quintero, A; Mitra, D

    2009-01-01

    Current radiation portal monitors at sea ports and international borders that employ standard radiation detection techniques are not very sensitive to nuclear contraband that is well shielded to absorb emanating radiation. Muon Tomography (MT) based on the measurement of multiple scattering of atmospheric cosmic ray muons traversing cargo or vehicles that contain high-Z material is a promising passive interrogation technique for solving this problem. We report on the design and construction of compact Micro-Pattern Gas Detectors for a small prototype MT station. This station will employ 10 tracking stations based on 30cm x 30cm low-mass triple-GEM detectors with 2D readout. Due to the excellent spatial resolution of GEMs it is sufficient to use a gap of only a few cm between tracking stations. Together with the compact size of the GEM detectors this allows the GEM MT station to be an order of magnitude more compact than MT stations using traditional drift tubes. We present details of the production and assemb...

  12. Development of high quantum efficiency, flat panel, thick detectors for megavoltage x-ray imaging: An experimental study of a single-pixel prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei, X.; Pang, G.

    2005-01-01

    Our overall goal is to develop a new generation of electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) with a quantum efficiency (QE) more than an order of magnitude higher and a spatial resolution equivalent to that of EPIDs currently used for portal imaging. A novel design of such a high QE flat-panel based EPID was introduced recently and its feasibility was investigated theoretically [see Pang and Rowlands, Med. Phys. 31, 3004 (2004)]. In this work, we constructed a prototype single-pixel detector based on the novel design. Some fundamental imaging properties including the QE, spatial resolution, and sensitivity of the prototype detector were measured with a 6 MV beam. It has been shown that the experimental results agree well with theoretical predictions and further development based on the novel design including the construction of a prototype area detector is warranted

  13. Benchmarking NaI(Tl) Electron Energy Resolution Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mengesha, Wondwosen; Valentine, J D.

    2002-01-01

    A technique for validating electron energy resolution results measured using the modified Compton coincidence technique (MCCT) has been developed. This technique relies on comparing measured gamma-ray energy resolution with calculated values that were determined using the measured electron energy resolution results. These gamma-ray energy resolution calculations were based on Monte Carlo photon transport simulations, the measured NaI(Tl) electron response, a simplified cascade sequence, and the measured electron energy resolution results. To demonstrate this technique, MCCT-measured NaI(Tl) electron energy resolution results were used along with measured gamma-ray energy resolution results from the same NaI(Tl) crystal. Agreement to within 5% was observed for all energies considered between the calculated and measured gamma-ray energy resolution results for the NaI(Tl) crystal characterized. The calculated gamma-ray energy resolution results were also compared with previously published gamma-ray energy resolution measurements with good agreement (<10%). In addition to describing the validation technique that was developed in this study and the results, a brief review of the electron energy resolution measurements made using the MCCT is provided. Based on the results of this study, it is believed that the MCCT-measured electron energy resolution results are reliable. Thus, the MCCT and this validation technique can be used in the future to characterize the electron energy resolution of other scintillators and to determine NaI(Tl) intrinsic energy resolution

  14. Prototyping of Silicon Strip Detectors for the Inner Tracker of the ALICE Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sokolov, Oleksiy

    2006-01-01

    The ALICE experiment at CERN will study heavy ion collisions at a center-of-mass energy 5.5∼TeV per nucleon. Particle tracking around the interaction region at radii r<45 cm is done by the Inner Tracking System (ITS), consisting of six cylindrical layers of silicon detectors. The outer two layers of

  15. Prototype Si microstrip sensors for the CDF-II ISL detector

    CERN Document Server

    Hara, K; Kanao, K; Kim, S; Ogasawara, M; Ohsugi, T; Shimojima, M; Takikawa, K

    1999-01-01

    Prototype Si microstrip sensors for the CDF-II ISL were fabricated by Hamamatsu Photonics and SEIKO Instruments using 4'' technology. The sensor is AC coupled and double-sided forming a stereo angle of 1.207 degree sign . The strip pitch is 112 mu m on both sides. The main differences between the two manufacturers lie on the technologies of passivation and the structure of coupling capacitors. We describe the design of the sensor and evaluation results of the performance. The evaluations include the total and individual strip currents and interstrip capacitance measured before and after sup 6 sup 0 Co gamma irradiation. (author)

  16. NeuLAND MRPC-based detector prototypes tested with fast neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caesar, C., E-mail: c.caesar@gsi.de [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Aumann, T. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Bemmerer, D. [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Boretzky, K. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Elekes, Z. [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); ATOMKI, Debrecen (Hungary); Gonzalez-Diaz, D.; Hehner, J.; Heil, M. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Kempe, M. [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Maroussov, V. [Universitaet zu Koeln, Koeln (Germany); Nusair, O. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Al-Balqa Applied University, Salt (Jordan); Reifarth, R.; Rossi, D.; Simon, H. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Stach, D.; Wagner, A.; Yakorev, D. [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Zilges, A. [ATOMKI, Debrecen (Hungary)

    2012-01-01

    Recent results from a first irradiation of multi-gap resistive plate chambers with fast neutrons are presented. The counters have been built at GSI and FZD. The experiment was performed at the 'The Svedberg Laboratory' (TSL) in Uppsala, Sweden, utilizing a quasi-monoenergetic neutron beam with an energy E{sub n}=175 MeV. For a 2 Multiplication-Sign 4 gap prototype operated at E=100 kV/cm, an efficiency of (0.77 {+-}0.33)% was measured.

  17. High resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy at high count rates with a prototype High Purity Germanium detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, R. J.; Amman, M.; Vetter, K.

    2018-04-01

    High-resolution gamma-ray spectrometers are required for applications in nuclear safeguards, emergency response, and fundamental nuclear physics. To overcome one of the shortcomings of conventional High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors, we have developed a prototype device capable of achieving high event throughput and high energy resolution at very high count rates. This device, the design of which we have previously reported on, features a planar HPGe crystal with a reduced-capacitance strip electrode geometry. This design is intended to provide good energy resolution at the short shaping or digital filter times that are required for high rate operation and which are enabled by the fast charge collection afforded by the planar geometry crystal. In this work, we report on the initial performance of the system at count rates up to and including two million counts per second.

  18. Test beam measurement of the first prototype of the fast silicon pixel monolithic detector for the TT-PET project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolozzi, L.; Bandi, Y.; Benoit, M.; Cardarelli, R.; Débieux, S.; Forshaw, D.; Hayakawa, D.; Iacobucci, G.; Kaynak, M.; Miucci, A.; Nessi, M.; Ratib, O.; Ripiccini, E.; Rücker, H.; Valerio, P.; Weber, M.

    2018-04-01

    The TT-PET collaboration is developing a PET scanner for small animals with 30 ps time-of-flight resolution and sub-millimetre 3D detection granularity. The sensitive element of the scanner is a monolithic silicon pixel detector based on state-of-the-art SiGe BiCMOS technology. The first ASIC prototype for the TT-PET was produced and tested in the laboratory and with minimum ionizing particles. The electronics exhibit an equivalent noise charge below 600 e‑ RMS and a pulse rise time of less than 2 ns , in accordance with the simulations. The pixels with a capacitance of 0.8 pF were measured to have a detection efficiency greater than 99% and, although in the absence of the post-processing, a time resolution of approximately 200 ps .

  19. Evaluation of a prototype correction algorithm to reduce metal artefacts in flat detector computed tomography of scaphoid fixation screws

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filli, Lukas; Finkenstaedt, Tim; Andreisek, Gustav; Guggenberger, Roman [University Hospital of Zurich, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Marcon, Magda [University Hospital of Zurich, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); University of Udine, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Department of Medical and Biological Sciences, Udine (Italy); Scholz, Bernhard [Imaging and Therapy Division, Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, Forchheim (Germany); Calcagni, Maurizio [University Hospital of Zurich, Division of Plastic Surgery and Hand Surgery, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-12-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a prototype correction algorithm to reduce metal artefacts in flat detector computed tomography (FDCT) of scaphoid fixation screws. FDCT has gained interest in imaging small anatomic structures of the appendicular skeleton. Angiographic C-arm systems with flat detectors allow fluoroscopy and FDCT imaging in a one-stop procedure emphasizing their role as an ideal intraoperative imaging tool. However, FDCT imaging can be significantly impaired by artefacts induced by fixation screws. Following ethical board approval, commercially available scaphoid fixation screws were inserted into six cadaveric specimens in order to fix artificially induced scaphoid fractures. FDCT images corrected with the algorithm were compared to uncorrected images both quantitatively and qualitatively by two independent radiologists in terms of artefacts, screw contour, fracture line visibility, bone visibility, and soft tissue definition. Normal distribution of variables was evaluated using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. In case of normal distribution, quantitative variables were compared using paired Student's t tests. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used for quantitative variables without normal distribution and all qualitative variables. A p value of < 0.05 was considered to indicate statistically significant differences. Metal artefacts were significantly reduced by the correction algorithm (p < 0.001), and the fracture line was more clearly defined (p < 0.01). The inter-observer reliability was ''almost perfect'' (intra-class correlation coefficient 0.85, p < 0.001). The prototype correction algorithm in FDCT for metal artefacts induced by scaphoid fixation screws may facilitate intra- and postoperative follow-up imaging. (orig.)

  20. Evaluation of a prototype correction algorithm to reduce metal artefacts in flat detector computed tomography of scaphoid fixation screws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filli, Lukas; Finkenstaedt, Tim; Andreisek, Gustav; Guggenberger, Roman; Marcon, Magda; Scholz, Bernhard; Calcagni, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a prototype correction algorithm to reduce metal artefacts in flat detector computed tomography (FDCT) of scaphoid fixation screws. FDCT has gained interest in imaging small anatomic structures of the appendicular skeleton. Angiographic C-arm systems with flat detectors allow fluoroscopy and FDCT imaging in a one-stop procedure emphasizing their role as an ideal intraoperative imaging tool. However, FDCT imaging can be significantly impaired by artefacts induced by fixation screws. Following ethical board approval, commercially available scaphoid fixation screws were inserted into six cadaveric specimens in order to fix artificially induced scaphoid fractures. FDCT images corrected with the algorithm were compared to uncorrected images both quantitatively and qualitatively by two independent radiologists in terms of artefacts, screw contour, fracture line visibility, bone visibility, and soft tissue definition. Normal distribution of variables was evaluated using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. In case of normal distribution, quantitative variables were compared using paired Student's t tests. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used for quantitative variables without normal distribution and all qualitative variables. A p value of < 0.05 was considered to indicate statistically significant differences. Metal artefacts were significantly reduced by the correction algorithm (p < 0.001), and the fracture line was more clearly defined (p < 0.01). The inter-observer reliability was ''almost perfect'' (intra-class correlation coefficient 0.85, p < 0.001). The prototype correction algorithm in FDCT for metal artefacts induced by scaphoid fixation screws may facilitate intra- and postoperative follow-up imaging. (orig.)

  1. Photonics-oriented data transmission network for the KM3NeT prototype detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoek, M. van der; Mos, S.; Schmelling, J.W.; Hogenbirk, J.; Heine, E.; Jansweijer, P.; Kieft, G.; Peek, H.; Timmer, P.; Wolf, E. de; Zwart, A.

    2013-01-01

    The design of the readout and data acquisition system of the future KM3NeT neutrino telescope employs 10 Gbps photonic technologies for data transmission to shore. The photonic architecture can handle standard transmission protocols. The generic scheme is based on DWDM technology using lasers on shore and optical modulators in each of the 12,800 Digital Optical Modules arranged on several hundred vertical detection units anchored to the seabed. Each module will house 31 photomultipliers together with auxiliary instrumentation and readout electronics. A 100 km electro-optical fibre cable will connect the optical modules to the store. The readout system will guarantee an individual optical connection between each optical module and the shore. A small-scale prototype of a detection unit with four optical modules is in a realization phase and will allow for in situ testing of the data transmission network. We will present results of laboratory tests of the photonics-oriented transmission layer of the network that have been realized for the prototype detection unit

  2. A Prototype Combination TPC Cherenkov Detector with GEM Readout for Tracking and Particle Identification and its Potential Use at an Electron Ion Collider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woody Craig

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A prototype detector is being developed which combines the functions of a Time Projection Chamber for charged particle tracking and a Cherenkov detector for particle identification. The TPC consists of a 10×10×10 cm3 drift volume where the charge is drifted to a 10×10 cm2 triple GEM detector. The charge is measured on a readout plane consisting of 2×10 mm2 chevron pads which provide a spatial resolution ∼ 100 μm per point in the chevron direction along with dE/dx information. The Cherenkov portion of the detector consists of a second 10×10 cm2 triple GEM with a photosensitive CsI photocathode on the top layer. This detector measures Cherenkov light produced in the drift gas of the TPC by high velocity particles which are above threshold. CF4 or CF4 mixtures will be used as the drift gas which are highly transparent to UV light and can provide excellent efficiency for detecting Cherenkov photons. The drift gas is also used as the operating gas for both GEM detectors. The prototype detector has been constructed and is currently being tested in the lab with sources and cosmic rays, and additional tests are planned in the future to study the detector in a test beam.

  3. A Prototype Combination TPC Cherenkov Detector with GEM Readout for Tracking and Particle Identification and its Potential Use at an Electron Ion Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Craig; Azmoun, Babak; Majka, Richard; Phipps, Michael; Purschke, Martin; Smirnov, Nikolai

    2018-02-01

    A prototype detector is being developed which combines the functions of a Time Projection Chamber for charged particle tracking and a Cherenkov detector for particle identification. The TPC consists of a 10×10×10 cm3 drift volume where the charge is drifted to a 10×10 cm2 triple GEM detector. The charge is measured on a readout plane consisting of 2×10 mm2 chevron pads which provide a spatial resolution ˜ 100 μm per point in the chevron direction along with dE/dx information. The Cherenkov portion of the detector consists of a second 10×10 cm2 triple GEM with a photosensitive CsI photocathode on the top layer. This detector measures Cherenkov light produced in the drift gas of the TPC by high velocity particles which are above threshold. CF4 or CF4 mixtures will be used as the drift gas which are highly transparent to UV light and can provide excellent efficiency for detecting Cherenkov photons. The drift gas is also used as the operating gas for both GEM detectors. The prototype detector has been constructed and is currently being tested in the lab with sources and cosmic rays, and additional tests are planned in the future to study the detector in a test beam.

  4. Characterization of silicon microstrip sensors, front-end electronics, and prototype tracking detectors for the CBM experiment at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorokin, Iurii

    2013-01-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment will explore the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter in the region of high net baryonic densities. The matter at the extreme conditions will be studied in collisions of a heavy ion beam with a fixed heavy element target. The present work is devoted to the development of the main component of the CBM experiment - the Silicon Tracking System (STS). The STS has to enable reconstruction of up to 1000 charged particle tracks per nucleus-nucleus interaction at the rate of up to 10 MHz, provide a momentum resolution Δp/p of 1 %, and withstand the radiation load of up to 10 14 n eq /cm 2 (n eq -neutron equivalent). The STS will be based on double-sided silicon microstrip sensors, that will be arranged in 8 planes in the aperture of the dipole magnet. Selftriggering readout electronics will be located on the periphery of the detecting planes, and connected to the sensors with low mass microcables. In the stage of R and D, as well as in the stages of pre-series and series production, characterization of the sensors, of the front-end electronics, and of the complete detector modules has to be performed. In the present work the required techniques were developed, and the performance of the latest detector prototypes was evaluated. A particular attention is paid to evaluation of the signal amplitude, as it is one of the most important detector characteristics. Techniques for measuring the passive electrical characteristics of the sensors were developed. These include: the coupling and the interstrip capacitances, the interstrip resistance, the bias resistance, the strip leakage current, the bulk capacitance, and the bulk leakage current. The techniques will be applied for the quality assurance of the sensors during the pre-series and the series production. Extensive characterization of the prototype readout chip, n-XYTER, was performed. The register settings were optimized, and the dependence of the amplitude response on

  5. Characterization of silicon microstrip sensors, front-end electronics, and prototype tracking detectors for the CBM experiment at FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorokin, Iurii

    2013-07-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment will explore the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter in the region of high net baryonic densities. The matter at the extreme conditions will be studied in collisions of a heavy ion beam with a fixed heavy element target. The present work is devoted to the development of the main component of the CBM experiment - the Silicon Tracking System (STS). The STS has to enable reconstruction of up to 1000 charged particle tracks per nucleus-nucleus interaction at the rate of up to 10 MHz, provide a momentum resolution Δp/p of 1 %, and withstand the radiation load of up to 10{sup 14} n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2} (n{sub eq}-neutron equivalent). The STS will be based on double-sided silicon microstrip sensors, that will be arranged in 8 planes in the aperture of the dipole magnet. Selftriggering readout electronics will be located on the periphery of the detecting planes, and connected to the sensors with low mass microcables. In the stage of R and D, as well as in the stages of pre-series and series production, characterization of the sensors, of the front-end electronics, and of the complete detector modules has to be performed. In the present work the required techniques were developed, and the performance of the latest detector prototypes was evaluated. A particular attention is paid to evaluation of the signal amplitude, as it is one of the most important detector characteristics. Techniques for measuring the passive electrical characteristics of the sensors were developed. These include: the coupling and the interstrip capacitances, the interstrip resistance, the bias resistance, the strip leakage current, the bulk capacitance, and the bulk leakage current. The techniques will be applied for the quality assurance of the sensors during the pre-series and the series production. Extensive characterization of the prototype readout chip, n-XYTER, was performed. The register settings were optimized, and the dependence of the

  6. Prototype of IGZO-TFT preamplifier and analog counter for pixel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimazoe, K.; Koyama, A.; Takahashi, H.; Shindoh, T.; Miyoshi, H.

    2017-01-01

    IGZO-TFT (Indium Galium Zinc Oxide-Thin Film Transistor) is a promising technology for controlling large display areas and large area sensors because of its very low leakage current in the off state and relatively low cost. IGZO has been used as a switching gate for a large area flat-panel detector. The photon counting capability for X-ray medical imaging has been investigated and expected for low-dose exposure and material determination. Here the design and fabrication of a charge sensitive preamplifier and analog counter using IGZO-TFT processes and its performance are reported for the first time to be used for radiation photon counting applications.

  7. Optical properties studies of glass samples for prototyping a TORCH detector module

    CERN Multimedia

    Castillo García, L

    2014-01-01

    TORCH (Time Of internally Reflected CHerenkov light) ) is a proposed particle identification system to achieve positive π/K/p separation at a ≥3σ level in the momentum range below 10 GeV/c. Cherenkov photons are generated from charged particle tracks crossing a 1cm-thick quartz plate. They propagate by total internal reflection to the edge and are focused onto an array of micro-channel plate photon detectors. Their position and arrival time are recorded. This allows the reconstruction of the photon trajectory and the particle crossing time. Results on optical tests are presented.

  8. Imaging performance of a full-ring prototype PET-MRI system based on four-layer DOI-PET detectors integrated with a RF coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishikido, Fumihiko; Tashima, Hideaki [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Suga, Mikio [Chiba University, Chiba (Japan); Inadama, Naoko; Eiji, Yoshida; Obata, Takayuki; Yamaya, Taiga [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    2015-05-18

    We are developing a PET system integrated with a birdcage RF-coil for PET-MRI in order to realize both high sensitivity and high spatial resolution of the PET image by using the 4-layered depth-of-interaction (DOI) PET detector. We constructed a full-ring prototype system and evaluated performances, especially imaging performance, of the prototype system in simultaneous measurement. The prototype system consists of eight four-layer DOI-PET detectors and a prototype birdcage RF-coil developed for the proposed system. The PET detectors consist of six monolithic multi-pixel photon counter array (S11064-050P), a readout circuit, fourlayer DOI scintillator arrays and a shielding box made of 35 μm thick copper foil. The crystal array consists of 2.0 mm x 2.0 mm x 5.0 mm LYSO crystals arranged in 38 x 6 x 4 layer. The RF-coil has eight coil elements and the eight PET detectors are positioned at each element gap. The diameter of the RF-coil elements is 261 mm. We conducted performance tests of the prototype system with a 3.0 T MRI (MAGNETOM Verio). Only the PET detectors, the RF-coil and the cables were in an MRI room during measurements. A data acquisition system and power supplies for the MPPCs and preamplifiers were outside the MRI room and connected to all the detectors through a penetration panel. As a result, the spatial resolutions of a Na-22 point source in the PET image were lower than 1.6 mm in whole the FOV due to the DOI capability. In addition, the influence of the simultaneous measurements on the PET performance is negligible. On the other hand, the SNR of the phantom image in the magnitude images was degraded from 259.7 to 209.4 due to noise contamination from the power supplies.

  9. Imaging performance of a full-ring prototype PET-MRI system based on four-layer DOI-PET detectors integrated with a RF coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikido, Fumihiko; Tashima, Hideaki; Suga, Mikio; Inadama, Naoko; Eiji, Yoshida; Obata, Takayuki; Yamaya, Taiga

    2015-01-01

    We are developing a PET system integrated with a birdcage RF-coil for PET-MRI in order to realize both high sensitivity and high spatial resolution of the PET image by using the 4-layered depth-of-interaction (DOI) PET detector. We constructed a full-ring prototype system and evaluated performances, especially imaging performance, of the prototype system in simultaneous measurement. The prototype system consists of eight four-layer DOI-PET detectors and a prototype birdcage RF-coil developed for the proposed system. The PET detectors consist of six monolithic multi-pixel photon counter array (S11064-050P), a readout circuit, fourlayer DOI scintillator arrays and a shielding box made of 35 μm thick copper foil. The crystal array consists of 2.0 mm x 2.0 mm x 5.0 mm LYSO crystals arranged in 38 x 6 x 4 layer. The RF-coil has eight coil elements and the eight PET detectors are positioned at each element gap. The diameter of the RF-coil elements is 261 mm. We conducted performance tests of the prototype system with a 3.0 T MRI (MAGNETOM Verio). Only the PET detectors, the RF-coil and the cables were in an MRI room during measurements. A data acquisition system and power supplies for the MPPCs and preamplifiers were outside the MRI room and connected to all the detectors through a penetration panel. As a result, the spatial resolutions of a Na-22 point source in the PET image were lower than 1.6 mm in whole the FOV due to the DOI capability. In addition, the influence of the simultaneous measurements on the PET performance is negligible. On the other hand, the SNR of the phantom image in the magnitude images was degraded from 259.7 to 209.4 due to noise contamination from the power supplies.

  10. Preamplifier-shaper prototype for the Fast Transition Detector of the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at FAIR

    CERN Document Server

    Soltveit, Hans Kristian

    2007-01-01

    In this work a preamplifier-shaper prototype for the Fast Transition Detector of the Compressed BaryonicMatter (CBM) experiment at FAIR fabricated using a 0.35 μm CMOS technology will be presented. The ASIC integrates 16 identical Charge Sensitive Amplifiers (CSA) followed by a Pole-Zero network, two bridged-T filters, Common-Mode FeedBack (CMFB) network and two non-inverting level shifting stages. The circuit is optimized for a detector capacitance Cd of (5-10)pF. Measurement results confirm the noise of 330 e− + 12 e−/pF obtained in simulations for a pulse with a Full Width Half Maximum (FWHM) of 71 ns. The circuit recovers to the baseline within 200 ns. The conversion gain is 12.64 mV/fC. An integral nonlinearity of 0.7% is also achieved. The maximum output swing is 2 V. The power consumption is 16 mW/channel where the main contributors are the input transistor and the level shifting stage with 5.3 mW and 6.6 mW, respectively. The total area of the chip is 12 mm2. Although the circuit was designed for...

  11. Detector tests in a high magnetic field and muon spectrometer triggering studies on a small prototype for an LHC experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosi, G; Basile, M; Battiston, R; Bergsma, F; Castro, H; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Contin, A; De Pasquale, S; Gálvez, J; Gentile, S; Giusti, P; Laurent, G; Levi, G; Lin, Q; Maccarrone, G D; Mattern, D; Nania, R; Rivera, F; Schioppa, M; Sharma, A; CERN. Geneva. Detector Research and Development Committee

    1990-01-01

    The "Large Area Devices" group of the LAA project is working on R&D for muon detection at a future super-collider. New detectors are under development and the design of a muon spectrometer for an LHC experiment is under study. Our present choice is for a compact, high field, air-core toroidal muon spectrometer. Good momentum resolution is achievable in this compact solution, with at least one plane of detection elements inside the high field region. A new detector, the Blade Chamber, making use of blades instead of wires, has been developed for the forward and backward regions of the spectrometer, where polar coordinate readings are desirable.The assembling of a CERN high energy beam line, equipped with high resolution drift chambers and a strong field magnet could give us the opportunity to test our chambers in a high magnetic field and to study the muon trigger capabilities of a spectrometer, like the one proposed, on a small prototype.

  12. Performance of CMS TOB Silicon Detector Modules on a Double Sided Prototype ROD

    CERN Document Server

    Valls, Juan

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we summarize results of the performance of CMS TOB silicon detector modules mounted on the first assembled double-sided rod at CERN. Results are given in terms of noise, noise occupancies, signal to noise ratios and signal efficiencies. The noise figures from the rod optical setup are compared to the single module setup with electrical read out. Both test setups show a small or negligible common mode noise picked up by the modules. Similar noise results are obtained in both setups after full calibration gain values are applied. We measure total noise values of ~1600 electrons in peak mode and ~2600 electrons in deconvolution mode. Signal to noise ratios of the order of 15 (25) for deconvolution (peak) operation modes are found. The noise occupancies on the modules have important implications for the zero suppression algorithms which the CMS Tracker FEDs will use to reduce t he data volume flowing to the DAQ. The detector signal efficiencies and noise occupancies are also shown as a function of t...

  13. Development and construction of a large TPC prototype for the ILC and study of τ polarisation in τ decays with the ILD detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schade, Peter

    2009-11-01

    This thesis presents two studies which have been made in the framework of the detector development for the International Large Detector (ILD). In the preparation phase for the ILD, prototype studies are performed to develop and optimise the sub-detector technologies which will come into operation. Complementary to these hardware studies, expected physics scenarios are being investigated in full detector simulations. These simulations demonstrate the physics potential of the detector concept and are a benchmark for the detector and the accelerator design. The first part of this thesis gives an introduction to the physics questions addressed to the ILC. Also, the machine and the ILD detector concept are presented. The second part is dedicated to the development and the construction to a large Time Projection Chamber (TPC) prototype (LP). A TPC is foreseen as one of ILD's sub-detectors and shall measure the trajectories of charged particles with an accuracy unprecedented by TPCs operated before. The new prototype offers an infrastructure for the development of modern TPC readout structures which can fulfil the required criteria. Before construction, the design plans of the LP have been optimised for a low material budget of the structure and a very homogeneous drift field. During the manufacturing of the LP, experience with construction techniques has been gained for the construction of the ILD TPC. The third part deals with a simulation study for a polarisation measurement of τ leptons in the process e + e - → τ 1 τ 1 → χ 1 0 χ 1 0 ττ. Here, the τ 1 is the supersymmetric partner of the τ lepton. This simulation study shows the feasibility of the measurement in the chosen SUSY scenario and estimates the accuracy to be expected. Both studies address in particular the track reconstruction capabilities of the ILD detector. Conclusions of the discussed studies and an outlook are presented in part IV. (orig.)

  14. Microcalcification detectability using a bench-top prototype photon-counting breast CT based on a Si strip detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyo-Min; Ding, Huanjun; Barber, William C; Iwanczyk, Jan S; Molloi, Sabee

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the feasibility of detecting breast microcalcification (μCa) with a dedicated breast computed tomography (CT) system based on energy-resolved photon-counting silicon (Si) strip detectors. The proposed photon-counting breast CT system and a bench-top prototype photon-counting breast CT system were simulated using a simulation package written in matlab to determine the smallest detectable μCa. A 14 cm diameter cylindrical phantom made of breast tissue with 20% glandularity was used to simulate an average-sized breast. Five different size groups of calcium carbonate grains, from 100 to 180 μm in diameter, were simulated inside of the cylindrical phantom. The images were acquired with a mean glandular dose (MGD) in the range of 0.7-8 mGy. A total of 400 images was used to perform a reader study. Another simulation study was performed using a 1.6 cm diameter cylindrical phantom to validate the experimental results from a bench-top prototype breast CT system. In the experimental study, a bench-top prototype CT system was constructed using a tungsten anode x-ray source and a single line 256-pixels Si strip photon-counting detector with a pixel pitch of 100 μm. Calcium carbonate grains, with diameter in the range of 105-215 μm, were embedded in a cylindrical plastic resin phantom to simulate μCas. The physical phantoms were imaged at 65 kVp with an entrance exposure in the range of 0.6-8 mGy. A total of 500 images was used to perform another reader study. The images were displayed in random order to three blinded observers, who were asked to give a 4-point confidence rating on each image regarding the presence of μCa. The μCa detectability for each image was evaluated by using the average area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) across the readers. The simulation results using a 14 cm diameter breast phantom showed that the proposed photon-counting breast CT system can achieve high detection accuracy with an average AUC greater

  15. Position dependence of charge collection in prototype sensors for the CMS pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Rohe, Tilman; Chiochia, Vincenzo; Cremaldi, Lucien M; Cucciarelli, Susanna; Dorokhov, Andrei; Konecki, Marcin; Prokofiev, Kirill; Regenfus, Christian; Sanders, David A; Son Seung Hee; Speer, Thomas; Swartz, Morris

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on the sensor R&D activity for the CMS pixel detector. Devices featuring several design and technology options have been irradiated up to a proton fluence1 of 1 multiplied by 10**1**5 n //e//q/cm**2 at the CERN PS. Afterward, they were bump bonded to unirradiated readout chips and tested using high energy pions in the H2 beam line of the CERN SPS. The readout chip allows a nonzero suppressed full analogue readout and therefore a good characterization of the sensors in terms of noise and charge collection properties. The position dependence of signal is presented and the differences between the two sensor options are discussed. 20 Refs.

  16. refining of scintillation detector signals relying on interpolated wavelets on a FPGA prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboshosha, A.; Sayed, M.; Ashour, M.; Safwat, A.

    2010-01-01

    in this article, a signal processing core based on field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) is developed for processing of scintillation detector signals. this core is implemented to apply the forward wavelet transfrom and interpolation technique. the main purpose of that is to de-noise, compress and reconstruct these signals by which the processing speed and storage will be optimized. moreover, this technique gives us all important features of the acquired signals such as counting, shaping and pulse height. A new contribution of our framework arises from employing the interpolation techniques to reconstruct the signal where the mother wavelet and details are not required. The hardware design is implemented using hardware description language (HDL) and is implemented practically on the FPGA. The performance of the design has been tested in simulation mode on Model sim benchmark and in real time mode on XC2S 50 spartan- II FPGA.

  17. A profile-based gaseous detector with capacitive pad readout as the prototype of the shower maximum detector for the end-cap electromagnetic calorimeter for the STAR experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Averichev, G.; Chernenko, S.; Matyushevskij, E.

    1997-01-01

    The results of testing the full-scale prototype of a profile-based shower maximum detector with external pick-up pads for the end-cap electromagnetic calorimeter (EMC) for the STAR experiment at RHIC are presented. It is shown that the plastic streamer tubes with coverless profile operating in the proportional mode with low gain are a suitable basic unit for the shower maximum detector

  18. Simulations and Data analysis for the 35 ton Liquid Argon detector as a prototype for the DUNE experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warburton, Thomas Karl [Sheffield U.

    2017-01-01

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) is a next-generation neutrino experiment which will be built at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF), and will receive a wide-band neutrino beam from Fermilab, 1300~km away. At this baseline DUNE will be able to study many of the properties of neutrino mixing, including the neutrino mass hierarchy and the value of the CP-violating complex phase ($\\delta_{CP}$). DUNE will utilise Liquid Argon (LAr) Time Projection Chamber (TPC) (LArTPC) technology, and the Far Detector (FD) will consist of four modules, each containing 17.1~kt of LAr with a fiducial mass of around 10~kt. Each of these FD modules represents around an order of magnitude increase in size, when compared to existing LArTPC experiments. \\\\ The 35 ton detector is the first DUNE prototype for the single (LAr) phase design of the FD. There were two running periods, one from November 2013 to February 2014, and a second from November 2015 to March 2016. During t he second running period, a system of TPCs was installed, and cosmic-ray data were collected. A method of particle identification was developed using simulations, though this was not applied to the data due to the higher than expected noise level. A new method of determining the interaction time of a track, using the effects of longitudinal diffusion, was developed using the cosmic-ray data. A camera system was also installed in the detector for monitoring purposes, and to look for high voltage breakdowns. \\\\ Simulations concerning the muon-induced background rate to nucleon decay are performed, following the incorporation of the MUon Simulations UNderground (MUSUN) generator into the DUNE software framework. A series of cuts which are based on Monte Carlo truth information is developed, designed to reject simulated background events, whilst preserving simulated signal events in the $n \\rightarrow K^{+} + e^{-}$ decay channel. No background events are seen to survive the app lication of

  19. Study of the cosmogenic activation in NaI(Tl) crystals within the ANAIS experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, P.; Amaré, J.; Cebrián, S.; Coarasa, I.; García, E.; Martínez, M.; Oliván, M. A.; Ortigoza, Y.; Ortiz de Solórzano, A.; Puimedón, J.; Sarsa, M. L.; Villar, J. A.

    2018-03-01

    The direct detection of galactic dark matter particles requires ultra-low background conditions. NaI(Tl) crystals are applied in the search for these dark matter particles through their interactions in the detector by measuring the scintillation signal produced. The production of long-lived isotopes in materials due to the exposure to cosmic rays on Earth’s surface can be an hazard for these ultra-low background demanding experiments, typically performed underground. Therefore, production rates of cosmogenic isotopes in all the materials present in the experimental set-up, as well as the corresponding cosmic rays exposure history, must be both well-known in order to assess the relevance of this effect in the achievable sensitivity of a given experiment. Here, analysis of the cosmogenic studies developed from the ANAIS experiment NaI(Tl) detectors are presented. Installed inside a convenient shielding at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory just after finishing surface exposure to cosmic rays and thanks to the prompt data taking developed, identification and quantification of isotopes with half-lives of the order of tens of days were allowed, and thanks to the long-term operation of the detectors long-lived isotopes have been also identified and quantified. Main results for the activation yields of iodine and tellurium isotopes, 22Na, 113Sn, 109Cd, and tritium are presented in this work, together with the estimate of the production rates for their activation by cosmic nucleons while on Earth’s surface based on a selection of excitation functions over the entire energy range of cosmic nucleons.

  20. Electronics for a prototype variable field of view PET camera using the PMT-quadrant-sharing detector array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.; Wong, Wai-Hoi; Zhang, N.; Wang, J.; Uribe, J.; Baghaei, H.; Yokoyama, S.

    1999-06-01

    Electronics for a prototype high-resolution PET camera with eight position-sensitive detector modules has been developed. Each module has 16 BGO (Bi/sub 4/Ge/sub 3/O/sub 12/) blocks (each block is composed of 49 crystals). The design goals are component and space reduction. The electronics is composed of five parts: front-end analog processing, digital position decoding, fast timing, coincidence processing and master data acquisition. The front-end analog circuit is a zone-based structure (each zone has 3/spl times/3 PMTs). Nine ADCs digitize integration signals of an active zone identified by eight trigger clusters; each cluster is composed of six photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). A trigger corresponding to a gamma ray is sent to a fast timing board to obtain a time-mark, and the nine digitized signals are passed to the position decoding board, where a real block (four PMTs) can be picked out from the zone for position decoding. Lookup tables are used for energy discrimination and to identify the gamma-hit crystal location. The coincidence board opens a 70-ns initial timing window, followed by two 20-ns true/accidental time-mark lookup table windows. The data output from the coincidence board can be acquired either in sinogram mode or in list mode with a Motorola/IRONICS VME-based system.

  1. Construction of a full-length prototype of the BESIII drift chamber and on-detector test for the BESIII drift chamber electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Zhonghua; Wu Linghui; Liu Jianbei; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Yan Zhikang; Hunan Univ., Changsha; Chen Yuanbo; Chen Chang; Xu Meihang; Wang Lan; Ma Xiaoyan; Jin Yan; Liu Rongguang; Tang Xiao; Zhang Guifang; Zhu Qiming; Sheng Huayi; Zhu Kejun

    2007-01-01

    A full-length prototype of the BESIII drift chamber was built. The experience gained on gas sealing, high voltage supply and front-end electronics installation should be greatly beneficial to the successful construction of the BESIII drift chamber. An on-detector test of the BESIII drift chamber electronics was carried out with the constructed prototype chamber. The noise performance, drift time and charge measurements, and electronics gains were examined specifically. The final test results indicate that the electronics have a good performance and can satisfy their design requirements. (authors)

  2. Imaging of high-Z material for nuclear contraband detection with a minimal prototype of a muon tomography station based on GEM detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnanvo, Kondo, E-mail: kgnanvo@fit.edu [Department of Physics and Space Sciences, Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, FL 32901 (United States); Grasso, Leonard V.; Hohlmann, Marcus; Locke, Judson B.; Quintero, Amilkar [Department of Physics and Space Sciences, Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, FL 32901 (United States); Mitra, Debasis [Department of Computer Sciences, Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, FL 32901 (United States)

    2011-10-01

    Muon Tomography based on the measurement of multiple scattering of atmospheric cosmic ray muons in matter is a promising technique for detecting heavily shielded high-Z radioactive materials (U, Pu) in cargo or vehicles. The technique uses the deflection of cosmic ray muons in matter to perform tomographic imaging of high-Z material inside a probed volume. A Muon Tomography Station (MTS) requires position-sensitive detectors with high spatial resolution for optimal tracking of incoming and outgoing cosmic ray muons. Micro Pattern Gaseous Detector (MPGD) technologies such as Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors are excellent candidates for this application. We have built and operated a minimal MTS prototype based on 30 cmx30 cm GEM detectors for probing targets with various Z values inside the MTS volume. We report the first successful detection and imaging of medium-Z and high-Z targets of small volumes ({approx}0.03 L) using GEM-based Muon Tomography.

  3. Imaging of high-Z material for nuclear contraband detection with a minimal prototype of a muon tomography station based on GEM detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnanvo, Kondo; Grasso, Leonard V.; Hohlmann, Marcus; Locke, Judson B.; Quintero, Amilkar; Mitra, Debasis

    2011-01-01

    Muon Tomography based on the measurement of multiple scattering of atmospheric cosmic ray muons in matter is a promising technique for detecting heavily shielded high-Z radioactive materials (U, Pu) in cargo or vehicles. The technique uses the deflection of cosmic ray muons in matter to perform tomographic imaging of high-Z material inside a probed volume. A Muon Tomography Station (MTS) requires position-sensitive detectors with high spatial resolution for optimal tracking of incoming and outgoing cosmic ray muons. Micro Pattern Gaseous Detector (MPGD) technologies such as Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors are excellent candidates for this application. We have built and operated a minimal MTS prototype based on 30 cmx30 cm GEM detectors for probing targets with various Z values inside the MTS volume. We report the first successful detection and imaging of medium-Z and high-Z targets of small volumes (∼0.03 L) using GEM-based Muon Tomography.

  4. Detection limits of the NaI(Tl) shielded HPGe spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bikit, I.; Slivka, J.; Krmar, M.; Durcic, Z.; Zikic, N.; Conkic, Lj.; Veskovic, M.; Anicin, I.

    1999-01-01

    The results of a detailed study of the low-level performance of a NaI(Tl) shield added to an iron shielded HPGe spectrometer are presented. Both the 'slow' and the 'fast' anticoincidence gating modes were tested, the 'slow' mode being found better suited for general low-level spectroscopy applications. In long runs the stability of the system in this mode is satisfactory. The anticoincidence action of the NaI(T1) shield lowers the integral background of the iron shielded HPGe detector in the energy range from 30 keV to 2 MeV by a factor of 6.5, and suppresses the continuum above 150 keV by a factor larger than 10

  5. arXiv Performance of a full scale prototype detector at the BR2 reactor for the SoLid experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, Y.; Arnold, L.; Ban, G.; Beaumont, W.; Bongrand, M.; Boursette, D.; Castle, B.C.; Clark, K.; Coupé, B.; Cussans, D.; De Roeck, A.; D'Hondt, J.; Durand, D.; Fallot, M.; Ghys, L.; Giot, L.; Guillon, B.; Ihantola, S.; Janssen, X.; Kalcheva, S.; Kalousis, L.N.; Koonen, E.; Labare, M.; Lehaut, G.; Manzanillas, L.; Mermans, J.; Michiels, I.; Moortgat, C.; Newbold, D.; Park, J.; Pestel, V.; Petridis, K.; Piñera, I.; Pommery, G.; Popescu, L.; Pronost, G.; Rademacker, J.; Ryckbosch, D.; Ryder, N.; Saunders, D.; Schune, M.-H.; Simard, L.; Vacheret, A.; Van Dyck, S.; Van Mulders, P.; van Remortel, N.; Vercaemer, S.; Verstraeten, M.; Weber, A.; Yermia, F.

    2018-05-03

    The SoLid collaboration has developed a new detector technology to detect electron anti-neutrinos at close proximity to the Belgian BR2 reactor at surface level. A 288 kg prototype detector was deployed in 2015 and collected data during the operational period of the reactor and during reactor shut-down. Dedicated calibration campaigns were also performed with gamma and neutron sources. This paper describes the construction of the prototype detector with a high control on its proton content and the stability of its operation over a period of several months after deployment at the BR2 reactor site. All detector cells provide sufficient light yields to achieve a target energy resolution of better than 20%/√E(MeV). The capability of the detector to track muons is exploited to equalize the light response of a large number of channels to a precision of 3% and to demonstrate the stability of the energy scale over time. Particle identification based on pulse-shape discrimination is demonstrated with calibration so...

  6. A review of the developments of radioxenon detectors for nuclear explosion monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivels, Ciara B.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Bowyer, Theodore W.; Kalinowski, Martin B.; Pozzi, Sara A.

    2017-09-27

    Developments in radioxenon monitoring since the implementation of the International Monitoring System are reviewed with emphasis on the most current technologies to improve detector sensitivity and resolution. The nuclear detectors reviewed include combinations of plastic and NaI(Tl) detectors, high purity germanium detectors, silicon detectors, and phoswich detectors. The minimum detectable activity and calibration methods for the various detectors are also discussed.

  7. Use of microcontroller in gamma-ray spectrometer construction using NaI(Tl) sensor, with emphasis in multichannel analyzer, to applications in nuclear and environmental geophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Nilton

    2005-01-01

    In this work of nuclear geophysical instrumentation the main purpose was the development of a gamma-ray spectrometer prototype with multi channel analyzer, since the spectroscopic amplifier until your firmware. The heart of the digital part was an ATMEL 8 bits microcontroller (AT89S8252). All circuits were made and assembled in the Laboratory of Applied Geophysical Instrumentation (LIGA) of IAG-USP. A microcontroller software was completely developed in C ANSI language using the Small Device C Compiler version 2.4.8, that is a free software distributed under General Public License (GPL). At first, microcontroller was used to change all digital circuit of one classic SCINTREX GAD-6 differential gamma-ray spectrometer. Measurement times with order of 2 days became possible, and it could work in non climate ambient. Then, after this stage, had been started the development of a multichannel analyzer (MCA) working in pulse height analyzer mode with 4096 channels capacity, to use in many kinds of nuclear detection. Besides it, was developed an automatic gain system for photopeak stabilization, by the use of one radioactive source ( 133 Ba). This automatic gain system is very important in the case of NaI(Tl) scintillometric detectors, due PMT sensitivity with temperature and aging of some laboratory electronic circuits. Two power supplies with high stability, using pulse width modulation (PWM) techniques were developed, in order to all system became free of electrical line break off. One PWM power polarizes a photo multiplier tube (PMT) with high voltage and another supplies remaining developed circuits. Calibration in energy using standards sources 137 Cs and 60 Co showed that gamma detector developed has a good linearity and low thermal drift, even working in absent of air-conditioned. Concentrations measurements of K, U and Th were made in samples of soils, vegetables, etc. (author)'

  8. Dynamic myocardial perfusion in a porcine balloon-induced ischemia model using a prototype spectral detector CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahmi, Rachid; Eck, Brendan L.; Fares, Anas; Levi, Jacob; Wu, Hao; Vembar, Mani; Dhanantwari, Amar; Bezerra, Hiram G.; Wilson, David L.

    2015-03-01

    Myocardial CT perfusion (CTP) imaging is an application that should greatly benefit from spectral CT through the significant reduction of beam hardening (BH) artifacts using mono-energetic (monoE) image reconstructions. We used a prototype spectral detector CT (SDCT) scanner (Philips Healthcare) and developed advanced processing tools (registration, segmentation, and deconvolution-based flow estimation) for quantitative myocardial CTP in a porcine ischemia model with different degrees of coronary occlusion using a balloon catheter. The occlusion severity was adjusted with fractional flow reserve (FFR) measurements. The SDCT scanner is a single source, dual-layer detector system, which allows simultaneous acquisitions of low and high energy projections, hence enabling accurate projection-based material decomposition and effective reduction of BH-artifacts. In addition, the SDCT scanner eliminates partial scan artifacts with fast (0.27s), full gantry rotation acquisitions. We acquired CTP data under different hemodynamic conditions and reconstructed conventional 120kVp images and projection-based monoenergetic (monoE) images for energies ranging from 55keV-to-120keV. We computed and compared myocardial blood flow (MBF) between different reconstructions. With balloon completely deflated (FFR=1), we compared the mean attenuation in a myocardial region of interest before iodine arrival and at peak iodine enhancement in the left ventricle (LV), and we found that monoE images at 70keV effectively minimized the difference in attenuation, due to BH, to less than 1 HU compared to 14 HU with conventional 120kVp images. Flow maps under baseline condition (FFR=1) were more uniform throughout the myocardial wall at 70keV, whereas with 120kVp data about 12% reduction in blood flow was noticed on BH-hypoattenuated areas compared to other myocardial regions. We compared MBF maps at different keVs under an ischemic condition (FFR < 0.7), and we found that flow

  9. Observation of Muon Neutrino Charged Current Events in an Off-Axis Horn-Focused Neutrino Beam Using the NOvA Prototype Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, Enrique Arrieta [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The NOνA is a long base-line neutrino oscillation experiment. It will study the oscillations between muon and electron neutrinos through the Earth. NOνA consists of two detectors separated by 810 km. Each detector will measure the electron neutrino content of the neutrino (NuMI) beam. Differences between the measurements will reveal details about the oscillation channel. The NOνA collaboration built a prototype detector on the surface at Fermilab in order to develop calibration, simulation, and reconstruction tools, using real data. This 220 ton detector is 110 mrad off the NuMI beam axis. This off-axis location allows the observation of neutrino interactions with energies around 2 GeV, where neutrinos come predominantly from charged kaon decays. During the period between October 2011 and April 2012, the prototype detector collected neutrino data from 1.67 × 1020 protons on target delivered by the NuMI beam. This analysis selected a number of candidate charged current muon neutrino events from the prototype data, which is 30% lower than predicted by the NOνA Monte Carlo simulation. The analysis suggests that the discrepancy comes from an over estimation of the neutrino flux in the Monte Carlo simulation, and in particular, from neutrinos generated in charged kaon decays. The ratio of measured divided by the simulated flux of muon neutrinos coming from charged kaon decays is: 0.70+0.108 -0.094. The NOνA collaboration may use the findings of this analysis to introduce a more accurate prediction of the neutrino flux produced by the NuMI beam in future Monte Carlo simulations.

  10. Studies on multigap resistive plate chamber prototypes for the new NeuLAND detector at the R3B experiment at FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elvers, Michael; Endres, Janis; Zilges, Andreas [IKP, Universitaet Koeln (Germany); Aumann, Tom; Boretzky, Konstanze; Hehner, Joerg; Heil, Michael; Prokopowicz, Wawrczek; Reifarth, Rene; Schrieder, Gerhard [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt (Germany); Bemmerer, Daniel; Stach, Daniel; Wagner, Andreas; Yakorev, Dmitry [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (FZD), Dresden (Germany); Kratz, Jens Volker; Rossi, Dominic [Johannes-Gutenberg-Universitaet, Mainz (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The NeuLAND detector is part of the R3B experiment at FAIR and will detect neutrons between 0.2 and 1 GeV. The high energy neutrons are converted to charged particles, mainly protons, which are detected by Multigap Resistive Plate Chambers (MRPC). For the detector, a time resolution of {sigma}{sub t} < 100 ps and a position resolution of {sigma}{sub x,y,z} {approx}1 cm is required for given flight paths in the range from 10 to 35 m. An active area of 2 x 2 m{sup 2} of the neutron detector at a distance of 12.5 m to the target will match the angular acceptance of {+-}80 mrad for the neutrons defined by the gap of the superconducting dipole magnet. The salient features of the prototypes are described, as well as electrical measurements and studies with cosmic rays.

  11. Development of a Geant4 application to characterise a prototype neutron detector based on three orthogonal 3He tubes inside an HDPE sphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracanin, V; Guatelli, S; Prokopovich, D; Rosenfeld, A B; Berry, A

    2017-01-01

    The Bonner Sphere Spectrometer (BSS) system is a well-established technique for neutron dosimetry that involves detection of thermal neutrons within a range of hydrogenous moderators. BSS detectors are often used to perform neutron field surveys in order to determine the ambient dose equivalent H*(10) and estimate health risk to personnel. There is a potential limitation of existing neutron survey techniques, since some detectors do not consider the direction of the neutron field, which can result in overly conservative estimates of dose in neutron fields. This paper shows the development of a Geant4 simulation application to characterise a prototype neutron detector based on three orthogonal 3 He tubes inside a single HDPE sphere built at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO). The Geant4 simulation has been validated with respect to experimental measurements performed with an Am-Be source. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Stopping power accuracy and achievable spatial resolution of helium ion imaging using a prototype particle CT detector system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volz Lennart

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A precise relative stopping power map of the patient is crucial for accurate particle therapy. Charged particle imaging determines the stopping power either tomographically – particle computed tomography (pCT – or by combining prior knowledge from particle radiography (pRad and x-ray CT. Generally, multiple Coulomb scattering limits the spatial resolution. Compared to protons, heavier particles scatter less due to their lower charge/mass ratio. A theoretical framework to predict the most likely trajectory of particles in matter was developed for light ions up to carbon and was found to be the most accurate for helium comparing for fixed initial velocity. To further investigate the potential of helium in particle imaging, helium computed tomography (HeCT and radiography (HeRad were studied at the Heidel-berg Ion-Beam Therapy Centre (HIT using a prototype pCT detector system registering individual particles, originally developed by the U.S. pCT collaboration. Several phantoms were investigated: modules of the Catphan QA phantom for analysis of spatial resolution and achievable stopping power accuracy, a paediatric head phantom (CIRS and a custom-made phantom comprised of animal meat enclosed in a 2 % agarose mixture representing human tissue. The pCT images were reconstructed applying the CARP iterative reconstruction algorithm. The MTF10% was investigated using a sharp edge gradient technique. HeRad provides a spatial resolution above that of protons (MTF1010%=6.07 lp/cm for HeRad versus MTF10%=3.35 lp/cm for proton radiography. For HeCT, the spatial resolution was limited by the number of projections acquired (90 projections for a full scan. The RSP accuracy for all inserts of the Catphan CTP404 module was found to be 2.5% or better and is subject to further optimisation. In conclusion, helium imaging appears to offer higher spatial resolution compared to proton imaging. In future studies, the advantage of helium imaging compared to other

  13. Use of microcontroller in gamma-ray spectrometer construction using NaI(Tl) sensor, with emphasis in multichannel analyzer, to applications in nuclear and environmental geophysics; Uso de microcontrolador na construcao de espectrometro gama com sensor de NaI(Tl), com enfase em analisador multicanal, para aplicacao em geofisica nuclear e ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Nilton

    2005-07-01

    In this work of nuclear geophysical instrumentation the main purpose was the development of a gamma-ray spectrometer prototype with multi channel analyzer, since the spectroscopic amplifier until your firmware. The heart of the digital part was an ATMEL 8 bits microcontroller (AT89S8252). All circuits were made and assembled in the Laboratory of Applied Geophysical Instrumentation (LIGA) of IAG-USP. A microcontroller software was completely developed in C ANSI language using the Small Device C Compiler version 2.4.8, that is a free software distributed under General Public License (GPL). At first, microcontroller was used to change all digital circuit of one classic SCINTREX GAD-6 differential gamma-ray spectrometer. Measurement times with order of 2 days became possible, and it could work in non climate ambient. Then, after this stage, had been started the development of a multichannel analyzer (MCA) working in pulse height analyzer mode with 4096 channels capacity, to use in many kinds of nuclear detection. Besides it, was developed an automatic gain system for photopeak stabilization, by the use of one radioactive source ({sup 133}Ba). This automatic gain system is very important in the case of NaI(Tl) scintillometric detectors, due PMT sensitivity with temperature and aging of some laboratory electronic circuits. Two power supplies with high stability, using pulse width modulation (PWM) techniques were developed, in order to all system became free of electrical line break off. One PWM power polarizes a photo multiplier tube (PMT) with high voltage and another supplies remaining developed circuits. Calibration in energy using standards sources {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co showed that gamma detector developed has a good linearity and low thermal drift, even working in absent of air-conditioned. Concentrations measurements of K, U and Th were made in samples of soils, vegetables, etc. (author)'

  14. Comparison of total experimental and theoretical absolute γ-ray detection efficiencies of a cylindrical NaI(Tl) crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uosif, M.A.; El-Taher, A.

    2005-01-01

    A new fit function has been developed to calculate theoretically the absolute gamma ray detection efficiencies (ηTh) of a cylindrical NaI(Tl) crystal, for calculating the absolute efficiency at any interesting gamma energy in the energy range between 10 and 1300 keV and distance between 0 and 8 cm. The total absolute gamma ray detection efficiencies have been calculated for five detectors, four are 2x2 and one is 3x 3 inches NaI(Tl) crystal at different distances. The absolute efficiency of the different detectors was calculated at the specific energy of the standard sources for each measuring distances. In this calculation, experimental (ηExp) and theoretical (ηTh) have been calculated. The uncertainties of efficiency calibration have been calculated also for quality control. Measurements were performed with calibrated point source. Gamma-ray energies under consideration were 0.356, 0.662, 1.17 and 1.33 MeV. The differences between (ηExp) and (ηTh) at these energies are 1.30E-06, 7.99E-05, 2.29E-04 and 2.42E-04 respectively. The results obtained on the basis of (ηExp) and (ηTh) seem to be in very good agreement

  15. Proposal for a Full-Scale Prototype Single-Phase Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber and Detector Beam Test at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Kutter, T

    2015-01-01

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) will use a large liquid argon (LAr) detector to measure the CP violating phase, determine the neutrino mass hier- archy and perform precision tests of the three-flavor paradigm in long-baseline neutrino oscillations. The detector will consist of four modules each with a fiducial mass of 10 kt of LAr and due to its unprecedented size will allow sensitive searches for proton decay and the detection and measurement of electron neutrinos from core collapse supernovae [1]. The first 10 kt module will use single-phase LAr detection technique and be itself modular in design. The successful manufacturing, installation and operation of several full-scale detector components in a suitable configuration represents a critical engineering milestone prior to the construction and operation of the first full 10 kt DUNE detector module at the SURF underground site. A charged particle beam test of a prototype detector will provide critical calibration measurements as well as inva...

  16. Technical Design Report for large-scale neutrino detectors prototyping and phased performance assessment in view of a long-baseline oscillation experiment

    CERN Document Server

    De Bonis, I.; Duchesneau, D.; Pessard, H.; Bordoni, S.; Ieva, M.; Lux, T.; Sanchez, F.; Jipa, A.; Lazanu, I.; Calin, M.; Esanu, T.; Ristea, O.; Ristea, C.; Nita, L.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Nessi, M.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Blondel, A.; Bravar, A.; Cadoux, F.; Haesler, A.; Karadzhov, Y.; Korzenev, A.; Martin, C.; Noah, E.; Ravonel, M.; Rayner, M.; Scantamburlo, E.; Bayes, R.; Soler, F.J.P.; Nuijten, G.A.; Loo, K.; Maalampi, J.; Slupecki, M.; Trzaska, W.H.; Campanelli, M.; Blebea-Apostu, A.M.; Chesneanu, D.; Gomoiu, M.C; Mitrica, B.; Margineanu, R.M.; Stanca, D.L.; Colino, N.; Gil-Botella, I.; Novella, P.; Palomares, C.; Santorelli, R.; Verdugo, A.; Karpikov, I.; Khotjantsev, A.; Kudenko, Y.; Mefodiev, A.; Mineev, O.; Ovsiannikova, T.; Yershov, N.; Enqvist, T.; Kuusiniemi, P.; De La Taille, C.; Dulucq, F.; Martin-Chassard, G.; Andrieu, B.; Dumarchez, J.; Giganti, C.; Levy, J.-M.; Popov, B.; Robert, A.; Agostino, L.; Buizza-Avanzini, M.; Dawson, J.; Franco, D.; Gorodetzky, P.; Kryn, D.; Patzak, T.; Tonazzo, A.; Vannucci, F.; Bésida, O.; Bolognesi, S.; Delbart, A.; Emery, S.; Galymov, V.; Mazzucato, E.; Vasseur, G.; Zito, M.; Bogomilov, M.; Tsenov, R.; Vankova-Kirilova, G.; Friend, M.; Hasegawa, T.; Nakadaira, T.; Sakashita, K.; Zambelli, L.; Autiero, D.; Caiulo, D.; Chaussard, L.; Déclais, Y.; Franco, D.; Marteau, J.; Pennacchio, E.; Bay, F.; Cantini, C.; Crivelli, P.; Epprecht, L.; Gendotti, A.; Di Luise, S.; Horikawa, S.; Murphy, S.; Nikolics, K.; Periale, L.; Regenfus, C.; Rubbia, A.; Sgalaberna, D.; Viant, T.; Wu, S.; Sergiampietri, F.; CERN. Geneva. SPS and PS Experiments Committee; SPSC

    2014-01-01

    In June 2012, an Expression of Interest for a long-baseline experiment (LBNO, CERN-SPSC-EOI-007) has been submitted to the CERN SPSC and is presently under review. LBNO considers three types of neutrino detector technologies: a double-phase liquid argon (LAr) TPC and a magnetised iron detector as far detectors. For the near detector, a high-pressure gas TPC embedded in a calorimeter and a magnet is the baseline design. A mandatory milestone in view of any future long baseline experiment is a concrete prototyping effort towards the envisioned large-scale detectors, and an accompanying campaign of measurements aimed at assessing the systematic errors that will be affecting their intended physics programme. Following an encouraging feedback from 108th SPSC on the technology choices, we have defined as priority the construction and operation of a $6\\times 6\\times 6$m$^3$ (active volume) double-phase liquid argon (DLAr) demonstrator, and a parallel development of the technologies necessary for large magnetised MIN...

  17. Simulation results for PLATO: a prototype hybrid X-ray photon counting detector with a low energy threshold for fusion plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, A.; Menouni, M.; Pangaud, P.; Morel, C.; Fenzi, C.; Colledani, G.; Moureau, G.; Escarguel, A.

    2017-01-01

    PLATO is a prototype hybrid X-ray photon counting detector that has been designed to meet the specifications for plasma diagnostics for the WEST tokamak platform (Tungsten (W) Environment in Steady-state Tokamak) in southern France, with potential perspectives for ITER. PLATO represents a customized solution that fulfills high sensitivity, low dispersion and high photon counting rate. The PLATO prototype matrix is composed of 16 × 18 pixels with a 70 μm pixel pitch. New techniques have been used in analog sensitive blocks to minimize noise coupling through supply rails and substrate, and to suppress threshold dispersion across the matrix. The PLATO ASIC is designed in CMOS 0.13 μm technology and was submitted for a fabrication run in June 2016. The chip is designed to be bump-bonded to a silicon sensor. This paper presents pixel architecture as well as simulation results while highlighting novel solutions.

  18. Comparison of PVT and NaI(Tl) scintillators for vehicle portal monitor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siciliano, E.R.; Ely, J.H.; Kouzes, R.T.; Milbrath, B.D.; Schweppe, J.E.; Stromswold, D.C.

    2005-01-01

    The demand for radiation portal monitor (RPM) systems has increased, and their capabilities are being further scrutinized as they are being applied to the task of detecting nuclear weapons, special nuclear material, and radiation dispersal device materials that could appear at borders. The requirements and constraints on RPM systems deployed at high-volume border crossings are significantly different from those at weapons facilities or steel recycling plants, where RPMs have been historically employed. In this new homeland security application, RPM systems must rapidly detect localized sources of radiation with a very high detection probability and low false-alarm rate, while screening all of the traffic without impeding the flow of commerce. In light of this new Department of Homeland Security application, the capabilities of two popular gamma-ray-detector materials as applied to these needs are re-examined. Both experimental data and computer simulations, together with practical deployment experience, are used to assess currently available polyvinyltoluene and NaI(Tl) gamma-ray detectors for border applications

  19. ATLAS ITk Short Strip Prototype Module with Integrated DCDC Powering and Control Phase II Upgrade of the ATLAS Inner Tracker detector at the HL - LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Greenall, Ashley; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The prototype Barrel module design, for the Phase II upgrade of the of the new Inner Tracker (ITk) detector at the LHC, has adopted an integrated low mass assembly featuring single-sided flexible circuits, with readout ASICs, glued to the silicon strip sensor. Further integration has been achieved by the attachment of module DCDC powering, HV sensor biasing switch and autonomous monitoring and control to the sensor. This low mass, integrated module approach benefits further in a reduced width stave structure to which the modules are attached. The results of preliminary electrical tests of such an integrated module will be presented.

  20. Development of a measurement device, using a Geiger-Mueller type detector, for the determination of the activity in a 99mTc generator prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urquizo, Rafael; Gago, Javier; Mendoza, Pablo; Cruz-Saco, Cesar; Rojas, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the implementation of a measurement system using a Geiger-Mueller detector (GM) in order to adapt it into a 99m Tc generator prototype. The response signal of the measurement system designed in terms of count rate is linearly proportional to the variation of the activity measured between 280 and 170 mCi of 99m Tc with a relative error of ± 2,8 %. However, further tests are needed to evaluate the correlation for an activity level lower than 20 mCi in order to obtain an adequate range of use. (authors).

  1. Development, simulation and test of transition radiation detector prototypes for the compressed baryonic matter experiment at the facility for antiproton and ion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergmann, Cyrano S.H.

    2014-07-01

    The focus of this thesis is the development of a Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) for the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at FAIR. The TRD sub-detector will contribute to the global particle identification and track reconstruction of charged particles. The technical design goal for the TRD is to identify 90% electrons with a maximum pion contamination of 1%. The TRD and Ring Image CHerenkov (RICH) detector should reach a common pion rejection of 10{sup 4}, in order to measure charmonium and low-mass vector mesons. The position resolution should be between 200 and 300 μm in the anode wire direction. The most demanding aspect of the CBM TRD design is the high interaction rate of up to 10{sup 7} Hz resulting in a charged particle rate of up to 100 kHz/cm{sup 2} in the central part of the detector planes at SIS300 conditions. It is crucial to find the optimal radiator detector combination with a minimum material budget to limit scattering and background due to conversions and at the same time reach a sufficient pion rejection and position resolution. In this thesis it is confirmed that a Multi-Wire Proportional Counter (MWPC) with a Xe/CO{sub 2} gas thickness of 12mm provides sufficient absorption probability for TR-photons in combination with self-supporting low density PE foam or micro-structured foil radiators. A continuous investigation aiming at an optimal wire and pad-plane geometry, as well as a minimization of the material budget between active gas and radiator has been presented in hard- and software. A minimum photon absorption cross-section of the entrance window was realized with a thermally stretched aluminized Kapton foil, glued to a G11 support grid support frame. This structure limits the mechanical deformation of the entire window to 1mm/mbar. All MWPC prototypes include two wire planes. A symmetric amplification region of 2 x (3, 3.5 or 4)mm is followed by a short drift region of 6, 5 or 4 mm. The drift region reduces the gain

  2. Development, simulation and test of transition radiation detector prototypes for the compressed baryonic matter experiment at the facility for antiproton and ion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, Cyrano S.H.

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this thesis is the development of a Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) for the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at FAIR. The TRD sub-detector will contribute to the global particle identification and track reconstruction of charged particles. The technical design goal for the TRD is to identify 90% electrons with a maximum pion contamination of 1%. The TRD and Ring Image CHerenkov (RICH) detector should reach a common pion rejection of 10 4 , in order to measure charmonium and low-mass vector mesons. The position resolution should be between 200 and 300 μm in the anode wire direction. The most demanding aspect of the CBM TRD design is the high interaction rate of up to 10 7 Hz resulting in a charged particle rate of up to 100 kHz/cm 2 in the central part of the detector planes at SIS300 conditions. It is crucial to find the optimal radiator detector combination with a minimum material budget to limit scattering and background due to conversions and at the same time reach a sufficient pion rejection and position resolution. In this thesis it is confirmed that a Multi-Wire Proportional Counter (MWPC) with a Xe/CO 2 gas thickness of 12mm provides sufficient absorption probability for TR-photons in combination with self-supporting low density PE foam or micro-structured foil radiators. A continuous investigation aiming at an optimal wire and pad-plane geometry, as well as a minimization of the material budget between active gas and radiator has been presented in hard- and software. A minimum photon absorption cross-section of the entrance window was realized with a thermally stretched aluminized Kapton foil, glued to a G11 support grid support frame. This structure limits the mechanical deformation of the entire window to 1mm/mbar. All MWPC prototypes include two wire planes. A symmetric amplification region of 2 x (3, 3.5 or 4)mm is followed by a short drift region of 6, 5 or 4 mm. The drift region reduces the gain variation due to

  3. Search for magnetic monopoles with the MoEDAL prototype trapping detector in 8 TeV proton-proton collisions at the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The MoEDAL experiment is designed to search for magnetic monopoles and other highly-ionising particles produced in high-energy collisions at the LHC. The largely passive MoEDAL detector, deployed at Interaction Point 8 on the LHC ring, relies on two dedicated direct detection techniques. The first technique is based on stacks of nuclear-track detectors with surface area ∼18 m2, sensitive to particle ionisation exceeding a high threshold. These detectors are analysed offline by optical scanning microscopes. The second technique is based on the trapping of charged particles in an array of roughly 800 kg of aluminium samples. These samples are monitored offline for the presence of trapped magnetic charge at a remote superconducting magnetometer facility. We present here the results of a search for magnetic monopoles using a 160 kg prototype MoEDAL trapping detector exposed to 8 TeV proton-proton collisions at the LHC, for an integrated luminosity of 0.75 fb−1. No magnetic charge exceeding 0.5gD (where gD is ...

  4. Search for magnetic monopoles with the MoEDAL prototype trapping detector in 8 TeV proton-proton collisions at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Acharya, B.

    2016-08-10

    The MoEDAL experiment is designed to search for magnetic monopoles and other highly-ionising particles produced in high-energy collisions at the LHC. The largely passive MoEDAL detector, deployed at Interaction Point 8 on the LHC ring, relies on two dedicated direct detection techniques. The first technique is based on stacks of nuclear-track detectors with surface area $\\sim$18 m$^2$, sensitive to particle ionisation exceeding a high threshold. These detectors are analysed offline by optical scanning microscopes. The second technique is based on the trapping of charged particles in an array of roughly 800 kg of aluminium samples. These samples are monitored offline for the presence of trapped magnetic charge at a remote superconducting magnetometer facility. We present here the results of a search for magnetic monopoles using a 160 kg prototype MoEDAL trapping detector exposed to 8 TeV proton-proton collisions at the LHC, for an integrated luminosity of 0.75 fb$^{-1}$. No magnetic charge exceeding $0.5g_{\\rm...

  5. New gas electron-multiplier detectors for the endcap muon system of the CMS experiment at the high-luminosity LHC design and prototype performance

    CERN Document Server

    Gruchala, Marek Michal

    2016-01-01

    The high luminosity LHC will require new detectors in the CMS endcap muon system to suppress the trigger rate of background events, to maintain high trigger efficiency for low transverse momentum muons, to enhance the robustness of muon detection in the high-flux environment of the endcap, and to extend the geometrical acceptance. We report on the design and recent progress towards implementing a new system of large-area, triple-foil gas electron-multiplier (GEM) detectors that will be installed in the first three of five muon detector stations in each endcap, the first station being closest to the interaction point. The first station will extend the geometric acceptance in pseudo-rapidity to eta lt 3.0 from the current limit of eta lt 2.4. The second and third stations will enhance the performance in the range 1.6 lt eta lt 2.4. We describe the design of the chambers and readout electronics and report on the performance of prototype systems in tests with cosmic ray muons, high-energy particlebeams, a...

  6. Response of parylene-coated NaI(Tl scintillators at low temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coron Noël

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite that it is widely used as a scintillator at room temperature, the hygroscopicity of NaI complicates its handling and limits its application for many purposes, for example as a cryogenic detector. To overcome this problem we study coating materials that can act as humidity barriers, in particular parylene, a polymer that can be deposited in very radiopure, thin and conformal layers. In this work, several NaI(Tl samples coated with 2-5 µm parylene-C were tested at low temperature. Luminescence spectra under X-ray excitation are presented at several temperatures as well as the light output vs temperature at 1.5-300 K. Several thermoluminescence peaks were observed at around 60, 95 and 150 K during warm up to room temperature. The mechanical resistance of the coating under thermal cycles was also investigated, and we observed a degradation of the optical appearance and the light output after cooling down to about 100 mK, which compromises the reusability of the samples.

  7. A Prototype of a New Generation Readout ASIC in 65 nm CMOS for Pixel Detectors at HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Pacher, L.; Paternò, A; Panati, S; Demaria, L; Rivetti, A; Da Rocha Rolo, M; Dellacasa, G; Mazza, G; Rotondo, F; Wheadon, R; Loddo, F; Licciulli, F; Ciciriello, F; Marzocca, C; Gaioni, L; Traversi, G; Re, V; De Canio, F; Ratti, L; Marconi, S; Placidi, P; Magazzù, G; Stabile, A; Mattiazzo, S

    2018-01-01

    The prototype is composed of a matrix of 64×64 pixels with 50 μm × 50 μm cells featuring a compact design, low-noise and low-power performance. The pixel array integrates two diffe- rent analogue front-end architectures working in parallel, one with asynchronous and one with synchronous hit discriminators. Common characteristics are a compact layout able to fit int...

  8. Detection of nuclear recoils in prototype dark matter detectors, made from Al, Sn and Zn superheated superconducting granules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abplanalp, M.; Van den Brandt, B.; Konter, J.A.; Mango, S.

    1995-01-01

    This work is part of an ongoing project to develop a superheated superconducting granule (SSG) detector for cold dark matter and neutrinos. The response of SSG devices to nuclear recoils has been explored irradiating SSG detectors with a 70 MeV neutron beam. The aim of the experiment was to test the sensitivity of Sn, Al and Zn SSG detectors to nuclear recoil energies down to a few keV. The detector consisted of a hollow teflon cylinder (0.1 cm 3 inner volume) filled with tiny superconducting metastable granules embedded in a dielectric medium. The nuclear recoil energies deposited in the SSG were determined measuring the neutron scattering angles with a neutron hodoscope. Coincidences in time between the SSG and the hodoscope signals have been clearly established. In this paper the results of the neutron irradiation experiments at different SSG intrinsic thresholds are discussed and compared to Monte Carlo simulations. The results show that SSG are sensitive to recoil energies down to similar 1 keV. The limited angular resolution of the neutron hodoscope prevented us from measuring the SSG sensitivity to even lower recoil energies. (orig.)

  9. Search for magnetic monopoles with the MoEDAL prototype trapping detector in 8 TeV proton-proton collisions at the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, B.; Alexandre, J.; Bendtz, K.; Benes, P.; Bernabéu, J.; Campbell, M.; Cecchini, S.; Chwastowski, J.; Chatterjee, A.; de Montigny, M.; Derendarz, D.; De Roeck, A.; Ellis, J. R.; Fairbairn, M.; Felea, D.; Frank, M.; Frekers, D.; Garcia, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Hasegan, D.; Kalliokoski, M.; Katre, A.; Kim, D.-W.; King, M. G. L.; Kinoshita, K.; Lacarrère, D. H.; Lee, S. C.; Leroy, C.; Lionti, A.; Margiotta, A.; Mauri, N.; Mavromatos, N. E.; Mermod, P.; Milstead, D.; Mitsou, V. A.; Orava, R.; Parker, B.; Pasqualini, L.; Patrizii, L.; Păvălas, G. E.; Pinfold, J. L.; Platkevič, M.; Popa, V.; Pozzato, M.; Pospisil, S.; Rajantie, A.; Sahnoun, Z.; Sakellariadou, M.; Sarkar, S.; Semenoff, G.; Sirri, G.; Sliwa, K.; Soluk, R.; Spurio, M.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Staszewski, R.; Suk, M.; Swain, J.; Tenti, M.; Togo, V.; Trzebinski, M.; Tuszynski, J. A.; Vento, V.; Vives, O.; Vykydal, Z.; Whyntie, T.; Widom, A.; Willems, G.; Yoon, J. H.

    2016-08-01

    The MoEDAL experiment is designed to search for magnetic monopoles and other highly-ionising particles produced in high-energy collisions at the LHC. The largely passive MoEDAL detector, deployed at Interaction Point 8 on the LHC ring, relies on two dedicated direct detection techniques. The first technique is based on stacks of nucleartrack detectors with surface area ~18m2, sensitive to particle ionisation exceeding a high threshold. These detectors are analysed offline by optical scanning microscopes. The second technique is based on the trapping of charged particles in an array of roughly 800 kg of aluminium samples. These samples are monitored offline for the presence of trapped magnetic charge at a remote superconducting magnetometer facility. We present here the results of a search for magnetic monopoles using a 160 kg prototype MoEDAL trapping detector exposed to 8TeV proton-proton collisions at the LHC, for an integrated luminosity of 0.75 fb-1. No magnetic charge exceeding 0:5 g D (where g D is the Dirac magnetic charge) is measured in any of the exposed samples, allowing limits to be placed on monopole production in the mass range 100 GeV≤ m ≤ 3500 GeV. Model-independent cross-section limits are presented in fiducial regions of monopole energy and direction for 1 g D ≤ | g| ≤ 6 g D, and model-dependent cross-section limits are obtained for Drell-Yan pair production of spin-1/2 and spin-0 monopoles for 1 g D ≤ | g| ≤ 4 g D. Under the assumption of Drell-Yan cross sections, mass limits are derived for | g| = 2 g D and | g| = 3 g D for the first time at the LHC, surpassing the results from previous collider experiments.

  10. Simulation of a detector prototype with direct SiPM read-out and comparison with measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Kunsken, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    The features of a novel muon detection system are studied in this thesis with the help of GEANT4 simulations. The detector consists of a 10 cm×10 cm scintillator on whose top 3 mm×3 mm silicon photomultipliers are mounted. The scintillator may optionally be wrapped in a reflector. In the simulations various properties of the scintillator and the wrapping are varied like the scintillator thickness or the kind of wrapping and its reflectivity. Subsequently, the number of photons arriving at the SiPM is analyzed to determine the influence of the varied properties. Finally, the results of the simulations are compared to results that come from measurements with the detector setup.

  11. ANUSANSKAR: a 16 channel frontend electronics (FEE) ASIC targeted for silicon pixel array detector based prototype Alice FOCAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sourav; Chandratre, V.B.; Sukhwani, Menka; Pithawa, C.K.; Singaraju, Ramnarayan; Muhuri, Sanjib; Nayak, T.; Khan, S.A.; Saini, Jogendra

    2013-01-01

    ANUSANSKAR is a 16 channel pulse processing ASIC with analog multiplexed output designed in 0.7 um standard CMOS technology with each channel consisting of CSA, Semi Gaussian pulse shaper, DC cancellation and pedestal control, track and hold, output buffer blocks. The ASIC's analog multiplexed output can be read serially in daisy-chain topology. Testing, characterization and validation of ANUSANSKAR ASIC as readout for prototype ALICE forward calorimeter (FOCAL) has been carried out in PS beam line at CERN with up to 6 GeV of pion and electron beam. This paper describes the ANUSANSKAR ASIC along with the experimental results. (author)

  12. arXiv Test beam measurement of the first prototype of the fast silicon pixel monolithic detector for the TT-PET project

    CERN Document Server

    Paolozzi, L.; Benoit, M.; Cardarelli, R.; Débieux, S.; Forshaw, D.; Hayakawa, D.; Iacobucci, G.; Kaynak, M.; Miucci, A.; Nessi, M.; Ratib, O.; Ripiccini, E.; Rücker, H.; Valerio, P.; Weber, M.

    2018-04-12

    The TT-PET collaboration is developing a PET scanner for small animals with  30 ps  time-of-flight resolution and sub-millimetre 3D detection granularity. The sensitive element of the scanner is a monolithic silicon pixel detector based on state-of-the-art SiGe BiCMOS technology. The first ASIC prototype for the TT-PET was produced and tested in the laboratory and with minimum ionizing particles. The electronics exhibit an equivalent noise charge below  600 e− RMS  and a pulse rise time of less than  2 ns , in accordance with the simulations. The pixels with a capacitance of  0.8 pF  were measured to have a detection efficiency greater than  99%  and, although in the absence of the post-processing, a time resolution of approximately  200 ps .

  13. Study of a prototype module of a precision time-of-flight detector for particle identification at low momentum

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00388630

    In this thesis, Time Of internally Reflected Cherenkov light detector (TORCH), proposed for the LHCb Upgrade to perform three-sigma separation between kaon and pion up to 10$\\ \\rm{GeV}/\\textit{c}$, was studied. TORCH is designed to add significant particle identification capability to the existing LHCb system based on two gas Ring Imaging Cherenkov detectors. TORCH would be placed at $\\sim$ 10 m from the interaction point, where the flight time difference between a primary pion and kaon is 37.5 ps. TORCH will give a pion-kaon separation of three sigma at 10$\\ \\rm{GeV}/\\textit{c}$ from the flight time using the Cherenkov photons generated by the charged particle in a 1 cm-thick quartz plate. In order to calculate accurately the flight time in a busy LHCb environment, Cherenkov angle and photon detection time information, as well as the momentum information from the tracking detector are included in the analysis. For the required TORCH performance, the flight time difference must be measured with a resolution o...

  14. MIND performance and prototyping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervera-Villanueva, A.

    2008-01-01

    The performance of MIND (Magnetised Iron Neutrino Detector) at a neutrino factory has been revisited in a new analysis. In particular, the low neutrino energy region is studied, obtaining an efficiency plateau around 5 GeV for a background level below 10 -3 . A first look has been given into the detector optimisation and prototyping

  15. Prototype ATLAS straw tracker

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1998-01-01

    This is an early prototype of the straw tracking device for the ATLAS detector at CERN. This detector will be part of the LHC project, scheduled to start operation in 2008. The straw tracker will consist of thousands of gas-filled straws, each containing a wire, allowing the tracks of particles to be followed.

  16. Submission of the First Full Scale Prototype Chip for Upgraded ATLAS Pixel Detector at LHC, FE-I4A

    CERN Document Server

    Barbero, M; The ATLAS collaboration; Beccherle, R; Darbo, G; Dube, S; Elledge, D; Fleury, J; Fougeron, D; Garcia-Sciveres, M; Gensolen, F; Gnani, D; Gromov, V; Jensen, F; Hemperek, T; Karagounis, M; Kluit, R; Kruth, A; Mekkaoui, A; Menouni, M; Schipper, JD; Wermes, N; Zivkovic, V

    2010-01-01

    A new ATLAS pixel chip FE-I4 is being developed for use in upgraded LHC luminosity environments, including the near-term Insertable B-Layer (IBL) upgrade. FE-I4 is designed in a 130nm CMOS technology, presenting advantages in terms of radiation tolerance and digital logic density compared to the 250nm CMOS technology used for the current ATLAS pixel IC, FE-I3. The FE-I4 architecture is based on an array of 80x336 pixels, each 50x250um^2, consisting of analog and digital sections. In the summer 2010, a first full scale prototype FE-I4A was submitted for an engineering run. This IC features the full scale pixel array as well as the complex periphery of the future full-size FE-I4. The FE-I4A contains also various extra test features which should prove very useful for the chip characterization, but deviate from the needs for standard operation of the final FE-I4 for IBL. In this paper, focus will be brought to the various features implemented in the FE-I4A submission, while also underlining the main differences b...

  17. The Cryogenic Anti-Coincidence detector for ATHENA X-IFU: pulse analysis of the AC-S7 single pixel prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andrea, M.; Argan, A.; Lotti, S.; Macculi, C.; Piro, L.; Biasotti, M.; Corsini, D.; Gatti, F.; Torrioli, G.

    2016-07-01

    The ATHENA observatory is the second large-class mission in ESA Cosmic Vision 2015-2025, with a launch foreseen in 2028 towards the L2 orbit. The mission addresses the science theme "The Hot and Energetic Universe", by coupling a high-performance X-ray Telescope with two complementary focal-plane instruments. One of these is the X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU): it is a TES based kilo-pixel order array able to provide spatially resolved high-resolution spectroscopy (2.5 eV at 6 keV) over a 5 arcmin FoV. The X-IFU sensitivity is degraded by the particles background expected at L2 orbit, which is induced by primary protons of both galactic and solar origin, and mostly by secondary electrons. To reduce the background level and enable the mission science goals, a Cryogenic Anticoincidence (CryoAC) detector is placed address the final design of the CryoAC. It will verify some representative requirements at single-pixel level, especially the detector operation at 50 mK thermal bath and the threshold energy at 20 keV. To reach the final DM design we have developed and tested the AC-S7 prototype, with 1 cm2 absorber area sensed by 65 Ir TESes. Here we will discuss the pulse analysis of this detector, which has been illuminated by the 60 keV line from a 241Am source. First, we will present the analysis performed to investigate pulses timings and spectrum, and to disentangle the athermal component of the pulses from the thermal one. Furthermore, we will show the application to our dataset of an alternative method of pulse processing, based upon Principal Component Analysis (PCA). This kind of analysis allow us to recover better energy spectra than achievable with traditional methods, improving the evaluation of the detector threshold energy, a fundamental parameter characterizing the CryoAC particle rejection efficiency.

  18. Search for magnetic monopoles with the MoEDAL prototype trapping detector in 8 TeV proton-proton collisions at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acharya, B. [Theoretical Particle Physics & Cosmology Group, Physics Dept., King’s College London (United Kingdom); International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Alexandre, J. [Theoretical Particle Physics & Cosmology Group, Physics Dept., King’s College London (United Kingdom); Bendtz, K. [Physics Department, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Benes, P. [IEAP, Czech Technical University in Prague (Czech Republic); Collaboration: The MoEDAL collaboration; and others

    2016-08-10

    The MoEDAL experiment is designed to search for magnetic monopoles and other highly-ionising particles produced in high-energy collisions at the LHC. The largely passive MoEDAL detector, deployed at Interaction Point 8 on the LHC ring, relies on two dedicated direct detection techniques. The first technique is based on stacks of nuclear-track detectors with surface area ∼18 m{sup 2}, sensitive to particle ionisation exceeding a high threshold. These detectors are analysed offline by optical scanning microscopes. The second technique is based on the trapping of charged particles in an array of roughly 800 kg of aluminium samples. These samples are monitored offline for the presence of trapped magnetic charge at a remote superconducting magnetometer facility. We present here the results of a search for magnetic monopoles using a 160 kg prototype MoEDAL trapping detector exposed to 8 TeV proton-proton collisions at the LHC, for an integrated luminosity of 0.75 fb{sup −1}. No magnetic charge exceeding 0.5g{sub D} (where g{sub D} is the Dirac magnetic charge) is measured in any of the exposed samples, allowing limits to be placed on monopole production in the mass range 100 GeV≤m≤ 3500 GeV. Model-independent cross-section limits are presented in fiducial regions of monopole energy and direction for 1g{sub D}≤|g|≤6g{sub D}, and model-dependent cross-section limits are obtained for Drell-Yan pair production of spin-1/2 and spin-0 monopoles for 1g{sub D}≤|g|≤4g{sub D}. Under the assumption of Drell-Yan cross sections, mass limits are derived for |g|=2g{sub D} and |g|=3g{sub D} for the first time at the LHC, surpassing the results from previous collider experiments.

  19. Isotropic irradiation of detectors from point sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aage, Helle Karina

    1997-01-01

    NaI(Tl) scintillator detectors have been exposed to gamma rays from 8 different point sources from different directions. Background and backscatter of gamma-rays from the surroundings have been subtracted in order to produce clean spectra. By adding spectra obtained from exposures from different ...

  20. Calibration of the central jet chamber of the OPAL detector with UV laser beams: Methods and results on jet chamber prototypes (FSP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauschild, M.

    1988-11-01

    The central tracking device of the OPAL experiment at the LEP e + e - -collider consists of a pictorial jet chamber with a diameter of 4 m and 4 m length. The calibration of such a large detector is performed by the help of a UV laser system generating straight tracks even in the presence of magnetic fields. Intensive investigations of the laser calibration power and performance were done at the Full Scale Prototype (FSP) of the OPAL jet chamber. Laser double tracks with a precisely known distance are used to determine the drift velocity with an accuracy of 0.1%. From the measured deviations of a straight laser track electronic time offsets, wire positions and field distortions are derived. These calibration constants were applied to correct the measured drift times of test beam events. The sagitta and momentum resolutions of the thus corrected tracks have been obtained in the range from 6 GeV/c to 50 GeV/c. Extrapolating the results to the final OPAL jet chamber, a momentum resolution of σ-p/p = 6% is expected for 50 GeV/c tracks in a magnetic field of 4 kG. (orig.) [de

  1. Gossipo-3 A prototype of a Front-End Pixel Chip for Read-Out of Micro-Pattern Gas Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Brezina, Christpoh; van der Graaf, Haryy; Gromov, Vladimir; Kluit, Ruud; Kruth, Andre; Zappon, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    In a joint effort of Nikhef (Amsterdam) and the University of Bonn, the Gossipo-3 integrated circuit (IC) has been developed. This circuit is a prototype of a chip dedicated for read-out of various types of position sensitive Micro-Pattern Gas detectors (MPGD). The Gossipo-3 is defined as a set of building blocks to be used in a future highly granulated (60 μm) chip. The pixel circuit can operate in two modes. In Time mode every readout pixel measures the hit arrival time and the charge deposit. For this purpose it has been equipped with a high resolution TDC (1.7 ns) covering dynamic range up to 102 μs. Charge collected by the pixel will be measured using Time-over- Threshold method in the range from 400 e- to 28000 e- with accuracy of 200 e- (standard deviation). In Counting mode every pixel operates as a 24-bit counter, counting the number of incoming hits. The circuit is also optimized to operate at low power consumption (100 mW/cm2) that is required to avoid the need for massive power transport and coo...

  2. OPAL Jet Chamber Prototype

    CERN Multimedia

    OPAL was one of the four experiments installed at the LEP particle accelerator from 1989 - 2000. OPAL's central tracking system consists of (in order of increasing radius) a silicon microvertex detector, a vertex detector, a jet chamber, and z-chambers. All the tracking detectors work by observing the ionization of atoms by charged particles passing by: when the atoms are ionized, electrons are knocked out of their atomic orbitals, and are then able to move freely in the detector. These ionization electrons are detected in the dirfferent parts of the tracking system. This piece is a prototype of the jet chambers

  3. Architectural prototyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind; Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2004-01-01

    A major part of software architecture design is learning how specific architectural designs balance the concerns of stakeholders. We explore the notion of "architectural prototypes", correspondingly architectural prototyping, as a means of using executable prototypes to investigate stakeholders...

  4. Prototype Demonstration of Gamma- Blind Tensioned Metastable Fluid Neutron/Multiplicity/Alpha Detector – Real Time Methods for Advanced Fuel Cycle Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDeavitt, Sean M. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2016-12-20

    The content of this report summarizes a multi-year effort to develop prototype detection equipment using the Tensioned Metastable Fluid Detector (TMFD) technology developed by Taleyarkhan [1]. The context of this development effort was to create new methods for evaluating and developing advanced methods for safeguarding nuclear materials along with instrumentation in various stages of the fuel cycle, especially in material balance areas (MBAs) and during reprocessing of used nuclear fuel. One of the challenges related to the implementation of any type of MBA and/or reprocessing technology (e.g., PUREX or UREX) is the real-time quantification and control of the transuranic (TRU) isotopes as they move through the process. Monitoring of higher actinides from their neutron emission (including multiplicity) and alpha signatures during transit in MBAs and in aqueous separations is a critical research area. By providing on-line real-time materials accountability, diversion of the materials becomes much more difficult. The Tensioned Metastable Fluid Detector (TMFD) is a transformational technology that is uniquely capable of both alpha and neutron spectroscopy while being “blind” to the intense gamma field that typically accompanies used fuel – simultaneously with the ability to provide multiplicity information as well [1-3]. The TMFD technology was proven (lab-scale) as part of a 2008 NERI-C program [1-7]. The bulk of this report describes the advancements and demonstrations made in TMFD technology. One final point to present before turning to the TMFD demonstrations is the context for discussing real-time monitoring of SNM. It is useful to review the spectrum of isotopes generated within nuclear fuel during reactor operations. Used nuclear fuel (UNF) from a light water reactor (LWR) contains fission products as well as TRU elements formed through neutron absorption/decay chains. The majority of the fission products are gamma and beta emitters and they represent the

  5. Gamma-ray detectors for intelligent, hand-held radiation monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehlau, P.E.

    1983-01-01

    Small radiation detectors based on HgI 2 , bismuth germanate (BGO), plastic, or NaI(Tl) detector materials were evaluated for use in small, lighweight radiation monitors. The two denser materials, HgI 2 and BGO, had poor resolution at low-energy and thus performed less well than NaI(Tl) in detecting low-energy gamma rays from bare, enriched uranium. The plastic scintillator, a Compton recoil detector, also performed less well at low gamma-ray energy. Two small NaI(Tl) detectors were suitable for detecting bare uranium and sheilded plutonium. One became part of a new lightweight hand-held monitor and the other found uses as a pole-mounted detector for monitoring hard-to-reach locations

  6. An intercomparison of detectors for measurement of background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, S.P.; Boetter-Jensen, L.

    1981-04-01

    Measurements of the background radiation were made in 1978 at 14 locations with a high-pressure ionization chamber, thermoluminiscence dosimeters (TLD's), two NaI(Tl) detectors, and a Ge(Li) spectrometer system. Simultaneous measurements with the ionization chamber and the spectrometer system provide reliable estimates of the total background exposure rate, of the individual contributors to the terrestrial exposure rate, and of the exposure rate from the secondary cosmic radiation. The TLD results agree with those of the ionization chamber. The NaI(Tl) detector results show that accurate estimates of the terrestrial exposure rate can be obtained if empirical corrections are applied. (author)

  7. Evaluation of 1cm dose equivalent rate using a NaI(Tl) scintilation spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Hideharu

    1990-01-01

    A method for evaluating 1 cm dose equivalent rates from a pulse height distribution obtained by a 76.2mmφ spherical NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometer was described. Weak leakage radiation from nuclear facilities were also measured and dose equivalent conversion factor and effective energy of leakage radiation were evaluated from 1 cm dose equivalent rate and exposure rate. (author)

  8. Study of the functional characteristics of a NaI(Tl) scintillator gamma spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesus Barbosa, S. de.

    1983-01-01

    Functional characteristics (resolution, stability, linearity, counting efficiency) of a NaI(Tl) scintillator gamma spectrometer were studied. Diagrams were plotted and several standard sources ( 241 Am, 109 Cd, 57 Co, 137 Cs, 54 Mn, 22 Na) with gamma energies ranging from 60 to 1275 KeV were used. (C.L.B.) [pt

  9. Pulse shaping for fast coincidence with NaI(Tl) detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, S.; Sinha, B.K.; Bhattacharya, R.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of multiple limiting of the anode pulses of the photomultiplier tubes on the resolving time of an NaI(Tl)-NaI(Tl) fast coincidence set up is investigated with the help of a simple transistored limiter circuit. The performance of the set up for different energy ranges selected in the side channels is also investigated. (orig.)

  10. NaI Detector Network at Aragats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avakyan, Karen; Arakelyan, Karen; Chilingarian, Ashot; Daryan, Ara; Kozliner, Lev; Mailyan, Bagrat; Hovsepyan, Gagik; Pokhsraryan, David; Sargsyan, David

    2013-01-01

    The Aragats Space Environmental Center (ASEC) provides monitoring of different species of secondary cosmic rays and consists of two high altitude research stations on Mt. Aragats in Armenia. Along with solar modulation effects, ASEC detectors register several coherent enhancements associated with thunderstorm activity. The experimental techniques used allowed for the first time to simultaneously measure fluxes of the electrons, muons, gamma rays, and neutrons correlated with thunderstorm activity. Ground-based observations by a complex of surface particle detectors, measuring in systematically and repeatable fashion, gamma quanta, electrons, muons and neutrons from atmospheric sources are necessary for proving the theory of particle acceleration and multiplication during thunderstorms. Energy spectra and correlations between fluxes of different particles, measured on Earth's surface address the important issues of research of the solar modulation effects and the atmospheric high-energy phenomena. In May 26 2011, launched 5 NaI(Tl) (thallium-doped sodium iodide) scintillation detectors and 1 plastic one in the new ASEC laboratory on Aragats to detect low energy gamma rays from the thunderclouds and short particle bursts. Including NaI(Tl) detectors in ASEC detectors system is of great importance for investigation thunderstorm phenomena because NaI(Tl) detectors have high efficiency of gamma ray detecting in comparison with plastic ones.

  11. Very low background gamma spectrometer mounted in anti-Compton with NaI(Tl) for the study of glaciers and sediment samples; Spectrometrie gamma a tres bas niveau avec anti-Compton NaI(Tl), pour l`etude des glaciers et des sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinglot, J.F.; Pourchet, M. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 38 - Grenoble (France). Lab. de Glaciologie

    1994-05-01

    The determination of natural and artificial radioactivities of snow (glaciers, polar ice-caps) or sediment samples (lakes, oceans), takes great benefit with the use of the superior resolution of high purity germanium detector, N type, in a broad energy range( 10 keV up to 1.6 MeV). This detector (relative efficiency: 20%), very low background specified, is mounted in anti-Compton with a 9`x 8` NaI(Tl) scintillator, also with low background. International standards, used with a quantitative software allows the determination of the efficiency curve and the isotopes identification and specific activity. The anti-Compton suppressed spectrometer exhibits a decrease of the background by a factor of ten, without any change in efficiencies. Applications of this spectrometer deal with samples from lake Titicaca and a glacier from Spitsbergen. (authors). 6 figs., 7 refs.

  12. Collaborative Prototyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogers, Marcel; Horst, Willem

    2014-01-01

    of the prototyping process, the actual prototype was used as a tool for communication or development, thus serving as a platform for the cross-fertilization of knowledge. In this way, collaborative prototyping leads to a better balance between functionality and usability; it translates usability problems into design......This paper presents an inductive study that shows how collaborative prototyping across functional, hierarchical, and organizational boundaries can improve the overall prototyping process. Our combined action research and case study approach provides new insights into how collaborative prototyping...... can provide a platform for prototype-driven problem solving in early new product development (NPD). Our findings have important implications for how to facilitate multistakeholder collaboration in prototyping and problem solving, and more generally for how to organize collaborative and open innovation...

  13. Construction of prototype of on-line analyzer detection system for coal on belt conveyor using neutron activation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rony Djokorayono; Agus Cahyono; MP Indarzah; SG Usep; Sukandar

    2015-01-01

    The use of on-line neutron activation technique for coal analysis is proposed as an alternative method for analysis based on sampling technique. Compared to this conventional technique, the on-line neutron activation technique has much shorter time of analysis and more accurate results. The construction of detection system prototype for the on-line analyzer is described in this paper. This on-line analyzer consists of detection system, data acquisition system, and computer console. This detection system comprises several modules, i.e. NaI(Tl) scintillation detector completed with a photomultiplier tube (PMT), pre-amplifier, single channel analyzer (SCA), and analog signal transmitter and pulse counter processor. The construction processes of these four modules include the development of configuration block, lay out, and selection of electronic components. The modules have been integrated and tested. This detection system was tested using radioactive element Zn-65 having energy of 1115.5 keV and activity of 1 μCi. The test results show that the prototype of the on-line analyzer detection system has functioned as expected. (author)

  14. Technology for computer-stabilized peak of NaI(Tl) gamma spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jianzhen; Guo Lanying; Ling Qiu; Qu Guopu; Zhao Lihong; Hu Chuangye

    2005-01-01

    An improved technology for spectrum stabilization of NaI(Tl) gamma spectrum was introduced. This technology is based on the system using a reference peak, which is equivalent gamma peak of 241 Am source. The computer seeks peak's position deviation and computes adjust value of programmable amplifier and controls programmable amplifier to stabilize spectrum by digital PID. This is a technology of spectrum stabilizing with 'hardware + reference-peak + software' and has high stability and fast speed of spectrum stabilizing. (author)

  15. Evaluation of the angular response of LaBr{sub 3}(Ce) and NaI(Tl) radiological identifiers for emergency situations attendance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izidório, Ana C.A.C.; Cardoso, Domingos D’O.; Oliveira, Luciano S.R.; Balthar, Mario C.V.; Amorim, Aneuri S. de; Santos, Avelino dos; Guimarães Junior, Walter J.; Arbach, Mayara N., E-mail: carolizidorio@hotmail.com, E-mail: domingos.oliveiralvr71@gmail.com, E-mail: walter_guimaraes@ime.eb.br, E-mail: lucianosantarita@gmail.com, E-mail: mariobalthar@gmail.com, E-mail: aneurideamorim@gmail.com, E-mail: hiperav@gmail.com, E-mail: mayaraarbach@gmail.com [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Instituto de Defesa Química, Biológica, Radiológica e Nuclear (IDQBRN/CTEx), Barra de Guaratiba, RJ (Brazil); Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    The Institute of Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Defense (IDQBRN) of the Brazilian Army has been developing activities aimed at characterizing radiological detectors for use during emergency situations and radiological incidents and also for research and academic activities. This work describes the experiments performed in order to evaluate the angular response of LaBr{sub 3}(Ce) and NaI(Tl) portable radiological identifiers (PRI) with scintillator crystal detectors measuring 1.5” x 1.5” and 3.0” x 1.5”, respectively. A {sup 137}Cs source with corrected activity of 2.623 GBq (July 29, 2017) supplied the beam for the experiments. It was positioned at a distance of 1.00 m from the PRIs, together with attenuators, in order to yield different ambient dose equivalent rate, H⁎(10), thus allowing the adjustment of the counting statistics and the analysis of the responses obtained. The objective of this work was to evaluate the angular dependence of the response of LaBr{sub 3}(Ce) and NaI(Tl) PRIs exposed to a {sup 137}Cs source by azimuthally varying the angle of incidence of the primary beam within the 0° ± 30° range, measured from the center of the sensitive volume of the scintillators. The PRIs were programmed to reach a maximum count of 10{sup 6} in order to ensure that the relative uncertainty of the measured data would be negligible which led to improved angular response data, in addition to higher correlation factors and greater reliability in the responses obtained with LaBr{sub 3}(Ce) and NaI(T1) portable radiological identifiers. (author)

  16. Understanding NaI(Tl) crystal background for dark matter searches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adhikari, G.; Adhikari, P.; Kong, S.Y.; Oh, S.Y. [Sejong University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ha, C.; Jeon, E.J.; Kim, N.Y.; Lee, H.S.; Park, J.S.; Park, K.S. [Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Center for Underground Physics, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y.D. [Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Center for Underground Physics, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Sejong University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    We have developed ultra-low-background NaI(Tl) crystals to reproduce the DAMA results with the ultimate goal of achieving purity levels that are comparable to or better than those of the DAMA/LIBRA crystals. Even though the achieved background level does not approach that of DAMA/LIBRA, it is crucial to have a quantitative understanding of the backgrounds. We have studied background simulations toward a deeper understanding of the backgrounds and developed background models for a 9.16-kg NaI(Tl) crystal used in the test arrangement. In this paper we describe the contributions of background sources quantitatively by performing Geant4 Monte Carlo simulations that are fitted to the measured data to quantify the unknown fractions of the background compositions. In the fitted results, the overall simulated background spectrum well describes the measured data with a 9.16-kg NaI(Tl) crystal and shows that the background sources are dominated by surface {sup 210}Pb and internal {sup 40}K in the 2-6-keV energy interval, which produce 2.4 counts/day/keV/kg (dru) and 0.5 dru, respectively. (orig.)

  17. Prototyping Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Tamke, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the role of the prototyping in digital architecture. During the past decade, a new research field has emerged exploring the digital technology’s impact on the way we think, design and build our environment. In this practice the prototype, the pavilion, installation or demonstr......This paper examines the role of the prototyping in digital architecture. During the past decade, a new research field has emerged exploring the digital technology’s impact on the way we think, design and build our environment. In this practice the prototype, the pavilion, installation...

  18. Computerized operation of a multi detector spectrometry system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levinson, S; Messing, M; Gilad, Y; Ballon, I; Peled, O; German, U [Israel Atomic Energy Commission, Beersheba (Israel). Nuclear Research Center-Negev

    1996-12-01

    A spectrometry System consisting of a PCA-II (Personal Computer Analyzer) and a DEAR (Digital Mixer Router) of Nucleus Inc. is operated to collect spectra from 8 NaI(Tl) detectors. As most of the functions including calibration, counting and data handling are similar for all the detectors, the option of automatic tasks is a natural choice. An external computer program which controls tile operation and data handling of tile 8 spectrometer system was developed (authors).

  19. Unikabeton Prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Asbjørn; Dombernowsky, Per

    2011-01-01

    The Unikabeton prototype structure was developed as the finalization of the cross-disciplinary research project Unikabeton, exploring the architectural potential in linking the computational process of topology optimisation with robot fabrication of concrete casting moulds. The project was elabor......The Unikabeton prototype structure was developed as the finalization of the cross-disciplinary research project Unikabeton, exploring the architectural potential in linking the computational process of topology optimisation with robot fabrication of concrete casting moulds. The project...... of Architecture was to develop a series of optimisation experiments, concluding in the design and optimisation of a full scale prototype concrete structure....

  20. Solution Prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Efeoglu, Arkin; Møller, Charles; Serie, Michel

    2013-01-01

    This paper outlines an artifact building and evaluation proposal. Design Science Research (DSR) studies usually consider encapsulated artifact that have relationships with other artifacts. The solution prototype as a composed artifact demands for a more comprehensive consideration in its systematic...... environment. The solution prototype that is composed from blending product and service prototype has particular impacts on the dualism of DSR’s “Build” and “Evaluate”. Since the mix between product and service prototyping can be varied, there is a demand for a more agile and iterative framework. Van de Ven......’s research framework seems to fit this purpose. Van de Ven allows for an iterative research approach to problem solving with flexible starting point. The research activity is the result between the iteration of two dimensions. This framework focuses on the natural evaluation, particularly on ex...

  1. Scintillation efficiency measurement of Na recoils in NaI(Tl) below the DAMA/LIBRA energy threshold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Jingke; Shields, Emily; Calaprice, Frank; Westerdale, Shawn; Froborg, Francis; Suerfu, Burkhant; Alexander, Thomas; Aprahamian, Ani; Back, Henning O.; Casarella, Clark; Fang, Xiao; Gupta, Yogesh K.; Ianni, Aldo; Lamere, Edward; Lippincott, W. Hugh; Liu, Qian; Lyons, Stephanie; Siegl, Kevin; Smith, Mallory; Tan, Wanpeng; Kolk, Bryant Vande

    2015-07-01

    The dark matter interpretation of the DAMA modulation signal depends on the NaI(Tl) scintillation efficiency of nuclear recoils. Previous measurements for Na recoils have large discrepancies, especially in the DAMA/LIBRA modulation energy region. We report a quenching effect measurement of Na recoils in NaI(Tl) from 3 to 52 keVnr, covering the whole DAMA/LIBRA energy region for dark matter-Na scattering interpretations. By using a low-energy, pulsed neutron beam, a double time-of-flight technique, and pulse-shape discrimination methods, we obtained the most accurate measurement of this kind for NaI(Tl) to date. The results differ significantly from the DAMA reported values at low energies but fall between the other previous measurements. We present the implications of the new quenching results for the dark matter interpretation of the DAMA modulation signal.

  2. Development of low background CsI(Tl) and NaI(Tl) crystals for WIMP search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyun Su [Department of Physics, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-17

    We have developed low background CsI(Tl) and NaI(Tl) crystals to search for weakly interacting massive particles as well as to verify the origin of the annual modulation signal observed by the DAMA/LIBRA experiment. Extensive studies about the contamination mechanisim of {sup 137}Cs in CsI powder lead to the growth of ultra-low-background CsI(Tl) crystals. Similar approaches for NaI(Tl) crystals have been applied to reduce internal backgrounds to less than 0.5 counts/kg/day/keV. Status and understanding of backgrounds and background reduction in NaI(Tl) crystals will be discussed.

  3. Design and development of a prototype hot spot identification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Amit; Thakur, Vaishali M.; Anilkumar, Rekha; Sawant, Pravin; Chaudhury, Probal; Pradeepkumar, K.S.

    2015-01-01

    The proper assessment of radiological environments inside nuclear facilities require accurate spatial mapping of the gamma ray field. A prototype Hotspot Identification System has been designed and developed in-house for gamma ray imaging by combining a gamma spectrometer with a pinhole collimator and a digital camera. The system can rapidly determine the location, distribution and intensity of gamma ray sources by carrying a scan of the suspected locations. The measured data was compared with simulated values for NaI(Tl) response, generated using the MCNP 4B Transport code. The data obtained by experimental and theoretical method are in good agreement. (author)

  4. Software Prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Fiol, Guilherme; Hanseler, Haley; Crouch, Barbara Insley; Cummins, Mollie R.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Health information exchange (HIE) between Poison Control Centers (PCCs) and Emergency Departments (EDs) could improve care of poisoned patients. However, PCC information systems are not designed to facilitate HIE with EDs; therefore, we are developing specialized software to support HIE within the normal workflow of the PCC using user-centered design and rapid prototyping. Objective To describe the design of an HIE dashboard and the refinement of user requirements through rapid prototyping. Methods Using previously elicited user requirements, we designed low-fidelity sketches of designs on paper with iterative refinement. Next, we designed an interactive high-fidelity prototype and conducted scenario-based usability tests with end users. Users were asked to think aloud while accomplishing tasks related to a case vignette. After testing, the users provided feedback and evaluated the prototype using the System Usability Scale (SUS). Results Survey results from three users provided useful feedback that was then incorporated into the design. After achieving a stable design, we used the prototype itself as the specification for development of the actual software. Benefits of prototyping included having 1) subject-matter experts heavily involved with the design; 2) flexibility to make rapid changes, 3) the ability to minimize software development efforts early in the design stage; 4) rapid finalization of requirements; 5) early visualization of designs; 6) and a powerful vehicle for communication of the design to the programmers. Challenges included 1) time and effort to develop the prototypes and case scenarios; 2) no simulation of system performance; 3) not having all proposed functionality available in the final product; and 4) missing needed data elements in the PCC information system. PMID:27081404

  5. Possibility of observation by the Antares telescope of the gamma ray point sources observed by the Egret detector and study of a prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saouter, S.

    2004-09-01

    The ANTARES collaboration aims to install an underwater neutrino telescope at 2 500 m deep and 40 km away from Toulon (France). The neutrinos are detected thanks to their interaction by charged current in the medium surrounding the telescope which can be rock or water. The produced muon emits Tcherenkov light along its path in water. This light is detected by a three-dimensional network of 900 photomultipliers divided into 12 independent lines. To validate the chosen techniques, a prototype made up of a fifth of line was deployed in 2003. A reconstruction algorithm was developed on simulated data whose results are presented. However, a technical failure made the data recorded by the prototype unsuitable. The detection potential of Antares to gamma ray sources observed by Egret is studied. Indeed, under the assumption of a gamma ray production via high-energy hadrons, a comparable flux of neutrinos associated is predicted. By supposing the two fluxes equal and an energy spectrum varying as E -2 eleven sources are potentially detectable in one year. The Antares sensitivity to such a spectrum depends on the declination of the source with an optimum of 3.6 10 -4 m -2 s -1 GeV -1 in one year at 90% of confidence level for a declination of - 90 deg C. (author)

  6. Gamma radiation detectors for safeguards applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carchon, R.; Moeslinger, M.; Bourva, L.; Bass, C.; Zendel, M.

    2007-01-01

    The IAEA uses extensively a variety of gamma radiation detectors to verify nuclear material. These detectors are part of standardized spectrometry systems: germanium detectors for High-Resolution Gamma Spectrometry (HRGS); Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detectors for Room Temperature Gamma Spectrometry (RTGS); and NaI(Tl) detectors for Low Resolution Gamma Spectrometry (LRGS). HRGS with high-purity Germanium (HpGe) detectors cooled by liquid nitrogen is widely used in nuclear safeguards to verify the isotopic composition of plutonium or uranium in non-irradiated material. Alternative cooling systems have been evaluated and electrically cooled HpGe detectors show a potential added value, especially for unattended measurements. The spectrometric performance of CZT detectors, their robustness and simplicity are key to the successful verification of irradiated materials. Further development, such as limiting the charge trapping effects in CZT to provide improved sensitivity and energy resolution are discussed. NaI(Tl) detectors have many applications-specifically in hand-held radioisotope identification devices (RID) which are used to detect the presence of radioactive material where a lower resolution is sufficient, as they benefit from a generally higher sensitivity. The Agency is also continuously involved in the review and evaluation of new and emerging technologies in the field of radiation detection such as: Peltier-cooled CdTe detectors; semiconductor detectors operating at room temperature such as HgI 2 and GaAs; and, scintillator detectors using glass fibres or LaBr 3 . A final conclusion, proposing recommendations for future action, is made

  7. Comparison measure of natural radioactivity in environment specimen using HPGe and NaI(Tl) γ-ray spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Chunlin; Han Feng; Li Tiantuo; Ma Wenyan; Di Yuming; Guo Huiping; Wu Yuelei

    2000-01-01

    The author reports the comparison results on natural radioactive nuclide contents of soil specimen from an uranium diggings with HPGe and NaI(Tl) γ-ray spectrometer. Relative method and athwart matrix method are used to analyze natural radioactive nuclide contents in samples of soil. The results are compared and are proven to be in accordance with each other

  8. Monte Carlo calculation of the photo-fraction R(E) of NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Guo Chun Ying; Lin Yuan Ge

    2002-01-01

    The detecting principle of NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometer is briefly analysed and the photo-fraction of the spectrometer to various point sources is calculated by using the MCNP code. Besides, comparison of the calculated results with experiment data available is made, and the reason why the calculated results are usually higher is also given

  9. Pulse-shape discrimination of high-energy neutrons and gamma rays in NaI(Tl)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Share, G.H.; Kurfess, J.D.; Theus, R.B.

    1978-01-01

    Pulse-shape discrimination can be used to separate neutron and gamma-ray interactions depositing energies up to in excess of 50 MeV in NaI(Tl) crystals. The secondary alpha particles, deuterons and protons produced in the neutron interactions are also resolvable. (Auth.)

  10. OPAL jet chamber full-scale prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, H M; Hauschild, M; Hartmann, H; Hegerath, A; Boerner, H; Burckhart, H J; Dittmar, M; Hammarstroem, R; Heuer, R D; Mazzone, L

    1986-12-01

    The concept of a jet chamber for the central detector of OPAL was tested with a full scale prototype. The design of this prototype, its mechanical and electrical structure and its support system for high voltage, gas, laser calibration, and readout are described. Operating experience was gathered since summer 1984. The chamber performance in terms of spatial resolution and particle identification capability is given.

  11. Production of 16N and obtaining of its gamma spectrum in order to calibrate detectors or determination of fluorine in geological specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rey-Ronco, M.A.; Alonso-Sanchez, T.; Castro-Garcia, M.P.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we show a procedure for producing 16 N and a method to obtain its gamma spectrum with a NaI(Tl) detector. We also demonstrate the interest of this radioactive element for the purpose of NaI(Tl) detector calibration and for the determination of fluorine in geological specimens using an Alpha Beryllium neutron source. This work consists of a theoretical study which analyzes the characteristics of 16 N and nuclear reactions that originate from an Americium Beryllium source of 1Ci activity. We justify our choice of reaction 19 F(n,α) 16 N and the use of fluorspar as a source of fluorine. The mathematical procedure followed to obtain the gamma rays spectrum produced by 16 N in a NaI(Tl) detector is shown.

  12. Production of {sup 16}N and obtaining of its gamma spectrum in order to calibrate detectors or determination of fluorine in geological specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rey-Ronco, M.A., E-mail: rey@uniovi.e [Departamento de Energia, Universidad de Oviedo, 33004 Oviedo (Spain); Alonso-Sanchez, T., E-mail: tjalonso@uniovi.e [Departamento de Explotacion y Prospeccion de Minas, Universidad de Oviedo, 33004 Oviedo (Spain); Castro-Garcia, M.P., E-mail: UO21947@uniovi.e [Departamento de Explotacion y Prospeccion de Minas, Universidad de Oviedo, 33004 Oviedo (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    In this paper, we show a procedure for producing {sup 16}N and a method to obtain its gamma spectrum with a NaI(Tl) detector. We also demonstrate the interest of this radioactive element for the purpose of NaI(Tl) detector calibration and for the determination of fluorine in geological specimens using an Alpha Beryllium neutron source. This work consists of a theoretical study which analyzes the characteristics of {sup 16}N and nuclear reactions that originate from an Americium Beryllium source of 1Ci activity. We justify our choice of reaction {sup 19}F(n,{alpha}){sup 16}N and the use of fluorspar as a source of fluorine. The mathematical procedure followed to obtain the gamma rays spectrum produced by {sup 16}N in a NaI(Tl) detector is shown.

  13. Study of polystyrene scintillators-WLS fiber elements and scintillating tile-WLS prototypes for New CHOD detector of CERN NA-62 experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Semenov, Vitaliy; Gorin, Aleksandr; Khudyakov, Aleksey; Rykalin, Vladimir; Yushchenko, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    We measured the light output and the time resolution of few sets comprised of polystyrene scintillator and wavelength shifting (WLS) fibers as readout. The samples of different thickness (7-30 mm) have been made in the shape of bricks and plates with the areas of 25×80, 108×134 and 108×268 of mm2. In addition to samples of “ordinary” scintillator with additions of 2% p- Terphenyl + 0.05% POPOP, the rapid ultraviolet scintillator with single 2% additive PBD was tested. For the light collection WLS-fibers BCF92, Y11 and scintillation fiber SCSF-78M as reemitting were checked. The fibers were glued into the grooves on the front surface of scintillators. As the photo detectors silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) produced by CPTA (Russia) and SensL (Ireland) were used. It is shown that the dependence of light output on the thickness of scintillator is nonlinear and close to the square root function, which is also confirmed by the calculations carried out by Monte Carlo. The measured value of a light output make...

  14. Detectors - Electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bregeault, J.; Gabriel, J.L.; Hierle, G.; Lebotlan, P.; Leconte, A.; Lelandais, J.; Mosrin, P.; Munsch, P.; Saur, H.; Tillier, J.

    1998-01-01

    The reports presents the main results obtained in the fields of radiation detectors and associated electronics. In the domain of X-ray gas detectors for the keV range efforts were undertaken to rise the detector efficiency. Multiple gap parallel plate chambers of different types as well as different types of X → e - converters were tested to improve the efficiency (values of 2.4% at 60 KeV were reached). In the field of scintillators a study of new crystals has been carried out (among which Lutetium orthosilicate). CdTe diode strips for obtaining X-ray imaging were studied. The complete study of a linear array of 8 CdTe pixels has been performed and certified. The results are encouraging and point to this method as a satisfying solution. Also, a large dimension programmable chamber was used to study the influence of temperature on the inorganic scintillators in an interval from -40 deg. C to +150 deg. C. Temperature effects on other detectors and electronic circuits were also investigated. In the report mentioned is also the work carried out for the realization of the DEMON neutron multidetector. For neutron halo experiments different large area Si detectors associated with solid and gas position detectors were realized. In the frame of a contract with COGEMA a systematic study of Li doped glasses was undertaken aiming at replacing with a neutron probe the 3 He counters presently utilized in pollution monitoring. An industrial prototype has been realised. Other studies were related to integrated analog chains, materials for Cherenkov detectors, scintillation probes for experiments on fundamental processes, gas position sensitive detectors, etc. In the field of associated electronics there are mentioned the works related to the multidetector INDRA, data acquisition, software gamma spectrometry, automatic gas pressure regulation in detectors, etc

  15. Developments on RICH detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besson, P.; Bourgeois, P.

    1996-01-01

    The RICH (ring imaging Cherenkov) detector which is dedicated to Cherenkov radiation detection is described. An improvement made by replacing photo sensible vapor with solid photocathode is studied. A RICH detector prototype with a CsI photocathode has been built in Saclay and used with Saturne. The first results are presented. (A.C.)

  16. EUSO-TA prototype telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisconti, Francesca, E-mail: francesca.bisconti@kit.edu

    2016-07-11

    EUSO-TA is one of the prototypes developed for the JEM-EUSO project, a space-based large field-of-view telescope to observe the fluorescence light emitted by cosmic ray air showers in the atmosphere. EUSO-TA is a ground-based prototype located at the Telescope Array (TA) site in Utah, USA, where an Electron Light Source and a Central Laser Facility are installed. The purpose of the EUSO-TA project is to calibrate the prototype with the TA fluorescence detector in presence of well-known light sources and cosmic ray air showers. In 2015, the detector started the first measurements and tests using the mentioned light sources have been performed successfully. A first cosmic ray candidate has been observed, as well as stars of different magnitude and color index. Since Silicon Photo-Multipliers (SiPMs) are very promising for fluorescence telescopes of next generation, they are under consideration for the realization of a new prototype of EUSO Photo Detector Module (PDM). The response of this sensor type is under investigation through simulations and laboratory experimentation.

  17. EUSO-TA prototype telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisconti, Francesca; JEM-EUSO Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    EUSO-TA is one of the prototypes developed for the JEM-EUSO project, a space-based large field-of-view telescope to observe the fluorescence light emitted by cosmic ray air showers in the atmosphere. EUSO-TA is a ground-based prototype located at the Telescope Array (TA) site in Utah, USA, where an Electron Light Source and a Central Laser Facility are installed. The purpose of the EUSO-TA project is to calibrate the prototype with the TA fluorescence detector in presence of well-known light sources and cosmic ray air showers. In 2015, the detector started the first measurements and tests using the mentioned light sources have been performed successfully. A first cosmic ray candidate has been observed, as well as stars of different magnitude and color index. Since Silicon Photo-Multipliers (SiPMs) are very promising for fluorescence telescopes of next generation, they are under consideration for the realization of a new prototype of EUSO Photo Detector Module (PDM). The response of this sensor type is under investigation through simulations and laboratory experimentation.

  18. Status and first Results of the CBM TRD Prototype Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arend, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The measurement of decay products from rare particles in the CBM experiment defines the requirements for the used detector systems. This report describes the approaches for the Transition Radiation Detector to fulfil these requirements and presents the current status of the prototype development. First results from beam tests with these prototypes are discussed.

  19. Study on Silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gervino, G.; Boero, M.; Manfredotti, C.; Icardi, M.; Gabutti, A.; Bagnolatti, E.; Monticone, E.

    1990-01-01

    Prototypes of Silicon microstrip detectors and Silicon large area detectors (3x2 cm 2 ), realized directly by our group, either by ion implantation or by diffusion are presented. The physical detector characteristics and their performances determined by exposing them to different radioactive sources and the results of extensive tests on passivation, where new technological ways have been investigated, are discussed. The calculation of the different terms contributing to the total dark current is reported

  20. Sensitivity of LDEF foil analyses using ultra-low background germanium vs. large NaI(Tl) multidimensional spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, J.H.; Arthur, R.J.; Brodzinski, R.L.

    1992-06-01

    Cobalt foils and stainless steel samples were analyzed for induced 6O Co activity with both an ultra-low background germanium gamma-ray spectrometer and with a large NaI(Tl) multidimensional spectrometer, both of which use electronic anticoincidence shielding to reduce background counts resulting from cosmic rays. Aluminum samples were analyzed for 22 Na. The results, in addition to the relative sensitivities and precisions afforded by the two methods, are presented

  1. MCNP analysis and optimization of a triple crystal phoswich detector

    CERN Document Server

    Childress, N L

    2002-01-01

    Researchers at the University of Missouri-Columbia have designed a triple crystal phoswich detector that allows for simultaneous detection of alpha, beta, and gamma radiation. A ZnS:Ag layer detects alpha particles, a CaF sub 2 :Eu scintillator preferentially interacts with beta particles, and a NaI:Tl cell is used for gamma detection. The detector output is digitally collected, processed, and analyzed by a personal computer using custom software. Monte Carlo N-Particle version 4C simulations of this detector found that the phoswich design has inherent minimum energy limits of 250 keV E sub m sub a sub x for beta particles and 50 keV for gamma-rays. For a 2.54 cm thick NaI:Tl crystal, intrinsic gamma efficiency for photons ranges from a maximum of 80% at 100 keV to 26% for 2 MeV photons. Mischaracterized gamma events in the CaF sub 2 :Eu crystal above 175 keV can be corrected by subtracting 26+-4% of the total number of counts in the NaI:Tl crystal from the CaF sub 2 :Eu response. Beta induced events in the N...

  2. A scintillation detector signal processing technique with active pileup prevention for extending scintillation count rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, W.H.; Li, H.

    1998-01-01

    A new method for processing signals from scintillation detectors is proposed for very high count-rate situations where multiple-event pileups are the norm. This method is designed to sort out and recover every impinging event from multiple-event pileups while maximizing the collection of scintillation signal for every event to achieve optimal accuracy in determining the energy of the event. For every detected event, this method cancels the remnant signals from previous events, and excludes the pileup of signals from following events. With this technique, pileup events can be recovered and the energy of every recovered event can be optimally measured despite multiple pileups. A prototype circuit demonstrated that the maximum count rates have been increased by more than 10 times, comparing to the standard pulse-shaping method, while the energy resolution is as good as that of the pulse shaping (or the fixed integration) method at normal count rates. At 2 x 10 6 events/sec for NaI(Tl), the true counts acquired are 3 times more than the delay-line clipping method (commonly used in fast processing designs) due to events recovered from pileups. Pulse-height spectra up to 3.5 x 10 6 events/sec have been studied

  3. Performance assessment of a NaI(Tl) gamma counter for PET applications with methods for improved quantitative accuracy and greater standardization

    OpenAIRE

    Lodge, Martin A; Holt, Daniel P; Kinahan, Paul E; Wong, Dean F; Wahl, Richard L

    2015-01-01

    Background Although NaI(Tl) gamma counters play an important role in many quantitative positron emission tomography (PET) protocols, their calibration for positron-emitting samples has not been standardized across imaging sites. In this study, we characterized the operational range of a gamma counter specifically for positron-emitting radionuclides, and we assessed the role of traceable 68Ge/68Ga sources for standardizing system calibration. Methods A NaI(Tl) gamma counter was characterized w...

  4. Prototyping the PANDA Barrel DIRC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, C., E-mail: C.Schwarz@gsi.de [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Kalicy, G.; Dzhygadlo, R.; Gerhardt, A.; Götzen, K.; Hohler, R.; Kumawat, H.; Lehmann, D.; Lewandowski, B.; Patsyuk, M.; Peters, K.; Schepers, G.; Schmitt, L.; Schwiening, J.; Traxler, M.; Zühlsdorf, M. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Dodokhov, V.Kh. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Britting, A.; Eyrich, W.; Lehmann, A. [Friedrich Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen (Germany); and others

    2014-12-01

    The design of the Barrel DIRC detector for the future PANDA experiment at FAIR contains several important improvements compared to the successful BABAR DIRC, such as focusing and fast timing. To test those improvements as well as other design options a prototype was build and successfully tested in 2012 with particle beams at CERN. The prototype comprises a radiator bar, focusing lens, mirror, and a prism shaped expansion volume made of synthetic fused silica. An array of micro-channel plate photomultiplier tubes measures the location and arrival time of the Cherenkov photons with sub-nanosecond resolution. The development of a fast reconstruction algorithm allowed to tune construction details of the detector setup with test beam data and Monte-Carlo simulations.

  5. MPACT Fast Neutron Multiplicity System Prototype Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.L. Chichester; S.A. Pozzi; J.L. Dolan; M.T. Kinlaw; S.J. Thompson; A.C. Kaplan; M. Flaska; A. Enqvist; J.T. Johnson; S.M. Watson

    2013-09-01

    This document serves as both an FY2103 End-of-Year and End-of-Project report on efforts that resulted in the design of a prototype fast neutron multiplicity counter leveraged upon the findings of previous project efforts. The prototype design includes 32 liquid scintillator detectors with cubic volumes 7.62 cm in dimension configured into 4 stacked rings of 8 detectors. Detector signal collection for the system is handled with a pair of Struck Innovative Systeme 16-channel digitizers controlled by in-house developed software with built-in multiplicity analysis algorithms. Initial testing and familiarization of the currently obtained prototype components is underway, however full prototype construction is required for further optimization. Monte Carlo models of the prototype system were performed to estimate die-away and efficiency values. Analysis of these models resulted in the development of a software package capable of determining the effects of nearest-neighbor rejection methods for elimination of detector cross talk. A parameter study was performed using previously developed analytical methods for the estimation of assay mass variance for use as a figure-of-merit for system performance. A software package was developed to automate these calculations and ensure accuracy. The results of the parameter study show that the prototype fast neutron multiplicity counter design is very nearly optimized under the restraints of the parameter space.

  6. Majorana Thermosyphon Prototype Experimental Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast, James E.; Reid, Douglas J.; Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao

    2010-01-01

    The Majorana demonstrator will operate at liquid Nitrogen temperatures to ensure optimal spectrometric performance of its High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector modules. In order to transfer the heat load of the detector module, the Majorana demonstrator requires a cooling system that will maintain a stable liquid nitrogen temperature. This cooling system is required to transport the heat from the detector chamber outside the shield. One approach is to use the two phase liquid-gas equilibrium to ensure constant temperature. This cooling technique is used in a thermosyphon. The thermosyphon can be designed so the vaporization/condensing process transfers heat through the shield while maintaining a stable operating temperature. A prototype of such system has been built at PNNL. This document presents the experimental results of the prototype and evaluates the heat transfer performance of the system. The cool down time, temperature gradient in the thermosyphon, and heat transfer analysis are studied in this document with different heat load applied to the prototype.

  7. OPAL jet chamber full scale prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, H M; Hauschild, M; Hartmann, H; Hegerath, A; Boerner, H; Burckhart, H J; Dittmar, M; Hammarstroem, R; Heuer, R D; Mazzone, L

    1986-12-01

    The concept of a jet chamber for the central detector of OPAL has been tested with a full scale prototype. The design of this prototype, its mechanical and electrical structure and its support system for high voltage, gas, laser calibration and readout are described. Operating experience has been gathered since summer 1984. The chamber performance in terms of spatial resolution and particle identification capability is given.

  8. OPAL jet chamber full scale prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, H M; Hauschild, M; Hartmann, H; Hegerath, A; Boerner, H; Burckhart, H J; Dittmar, M; Hammarstreom, R; Heuer, R D; Mazzone, L

    1986-05-22

    The concept of a jet chamber for the central detector of OPAL has been tested with a full scale prototype. The design of this prototype, its mechanical and electrical structure and its support system for high voltage, gas, laser calibration and readout are described. The operating experience gathered since the summer of 1984 and the chamber performance as measured by its spatial resolution and ability to identify particles are also given.

  9. Development of an application specific scintimammography detector based on a crystal scintillator array and a PSPMT

    CERN Document Server

    Majewski, S; Goode, A; Kross, B J; Steinbach, D; Weisenberger, A; Williams, M; Wojci, R

    1998-01-01

    We report the results of studies conducted with small field of view scintimammography camera based on a position-sensitive photomultiplier tube (5'' Hamamatsu R3292) and several pixelized crystal scintillator arrays made of YAP, CsI(Na) and NaI(Tl) scintillators. Laboratory tests and pre-clinical phantom studies were conducted to compare and optimize the performances of the prototypes with special emphasis on spatial resolution (approx 2-3mm) and sufficient energy resolution for scatter rejection.

  10. A high count rate position decoding and energy measuring method for nuclear cameras using Anger logic detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, W.H.; Li, H.; Uribe, J.

    1998-01-01

    A new method for processing signals from Anger position-sensitive detectors used in gamma cameras and PET is proposed for very high count-rate imaging where multiple-event pileups are the norm. This method is designed to sort out and recover every impinging event from multiple-event pileups while maximizing the collection of scintillation signal for every event to achieve optimal accuracy in the measurement of energy and position. For every detected event, this method cancels the remnant signals from previous events, and excludes the pileup of signals from following events. The remnant subtraction is exact even for multiple pileup events. A prototype circuit for energy recovery demonstrated that the maximum count rates can be increased by more than 10 times comparing to the pulse-shaping method, and the energy resolution is as good as pulse shaping (or fixed integration) at low count rates. At 2 x 10 6 events/sec on NaI(Tl), the true counts acquired with this method is 3.3 times more than the delay-line clipping method (256 ns clipping) due to events recovered from pileups. Pulse-height spectra up to 3.5 x 10 6 events/sec have been studied. Monte Carlo simulation studies have been performed for image-quality comparisons between different processing methods

  11. Results from the FDIRC prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, D.A., E-mail: roberts@umd.edu [University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Arnaud, N. [Laboratoire de l’Accélérateur Linéaire, Centre Scientifique d’Orsay, F-91898 Orsay Cedex (France); Dey, B. [University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Borsato, M. [Laboratoire de l’Accélérateur Linéaire, Centre Scientifique d’Orsay, F-91898 Orsay Cedex (France); Leith, D.W.G.S.; Nishimura, K.; Ratcliff, B.N. [SLAC, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA 94309 (United States); Varner, G. [University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Va’vra, J. [SLAC, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA 94309 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    We present results from a novel Cherenkov imaging detector called the Focusing DIRC (FDIRC). This detector was designed as a prototype of the particle identification system for the SuperB experiment, and comprises 1/12 of the SuperB barrel azimuthal coverage with partial electronics implementation. The prototype was tested in the SLAC Cosmic Ray Telescope (CRT) which provides 3-D muon tracking with an angular resolution of ∼1.5 mrad, track position resolution of 5–6 mm, start time resolution of 70 ps, and a muon low-energy cutoff of ∼2 GeV provided by an iron range stack. The quartz focusing photon camera couples to a full-size BaBar DIRC bar box and is read out by 12 Hamamatsu H8500 MaPMTs providing 768 pixels. We used IRS2 waveform digitizing electronics to read out the MaPMTs. We present several results from our on-going development activities that demonstrate that the new optics design works very well, including: (a) single photon Cherenkov angle resolutions with and without chromatic corrections, (b) S/N ratio between the Cherenkov peak and background, which consists primarily of ambiguities in possible photon paths to a given pixel, (c) dTOP=TOP{sub measured}–TOP{sub expected} resolutions, and (d) performance of the detector in the presence of high-rate backgrounds. We also describe data analysis methods and point out limits of the present performance. - Highlights: • We present results from a novel Cherenkov imaging detector called the Focusing DIRC (FDIRC). • The prototype was tested in the SLAC Cosmic Ray Telescope (CRT) which provides 3-D muon tracking. • We present several results from our on-going development activities that demonstrate that new optics design works very well. • We describe data analysis methods and point out limits of the present performance.

  12. STAR Vertex Detector Upgrade Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, Leo C.; Matis, Howard S.; Stezelberger, Thorsten; Vu, Chinh Q.; Wieman, Howard; Szelezniak, Michal; Sun, Xiangming

    2008-01-01

    We report on the development and prototyping efforts undertaken with the goal of producing a micro-vertex detector for the STAR experiment at the RHIC accelerator at BNL. We present the basic detector requirements and show a sensor development path, conceptual mechanical design candidates and readout architecture. Prototyping and beam test results with current generation MimoSTAR-2 sensors and a readout system featuring FPGA based on-the-fly hit finding and data sparsification are also presented

  13. Virtual point detector: On the interpolation and extrapolation of scintillation detectors counting efficiencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presler, Oren; German, Uzi; Pushkarsky, Vitaly; Alfassi, Zeev B.

    2006-01-01

    The concept of transforming the detector volume to a virtual point detector, in order to facilitate efficiency evaluations for different source locations, was proposed in the past for HPGe and Ge(Li) detectors. The validity of this model for NaI(Tl) and BGO scintillation detectors was studied in the present work. It was found that for both scintillation detectors, the point detector model does not seem to fit too well to the experimental data, for the whole range of source-to-detector distances; however, for source-to-detector cap distances larger than 4 cm, the accuracy was found to be high. A two-parameter polynomial expression describing the dependence of the normalized count rate versus the source-to-detector distance was fitted to the experimental data. For this fit, the maximum deviations are up to about 12%. These deviations are much smaller than the values obtained by applying the virtual point concept, even for distances greater than 4 cm, thus the polynomial fitting is to be preferred for scintillation detectors

  14. Liquid xenon detector engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, E.; Chen, M.; Gaudreau, M.P.J.; Montgomery, D.B.; Pelly, J.D.; Shotkin, S.; Sullivan, J.D.; Sumorok, K.; Yan, X.; Zhang, X.; Lebedenko, V.

    1991-01-01

    The design, engineering constraints and R and D status of a 15 m 3 precision liquid xenon, electromagnetic calorimeter for the Superconducting Super Collider are discussed in this paper. Several prototype liquid xenon detectors have been built, and preliminary results are described. The design of a conical 7 cell by 7 cell detector capable of measuring fully contained high energy electron showers is described in detail

  15. First search for a dark matter annual modulation signal with NaI(Tl) in the Southern Hemisphere by DM-Ice17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa de Souza, E.; Cherwinka, J.; Cole, A.; Ezeribe, A. C.; Grant, D.; Halzen, F.; Heeger, K. M.; Hsu, L.; Hubbard, A. J. F.; Jo, J. H.; Karle, A.; Kauer, M.; Kudryavtsev, V. A.; Lim, K. E.; Macdonald, C.; Maruyama, R. H.; Mouton, F.; Paling, S. M.; Pettus, W.; Pierpoint, Z. P.; Reilly, B. N.; Robinson, M.; Rogers, F. R.; Sandstrom, P.; Scarff, A.; Spooner, N. J. C.; Telfer, S.; Yang, L.

    2017-02-28

    The first search for a dark matter annual modulation signal with NaI(Tl) target material in the Southern Hemisphere conducted with the DM-Ice17 experiment is presented. DM-Ice17 consists of 17 kg of NaI(Tl) scintillating crystal under 2200 m.w.e. overburden of Antarctic glacial ice. The analysis presented here utilizes a 60.8 kg yr exposure. While unable to exclude the signal reported by DAMA/LIBRA, the DM-Ice17 data are consistent with no modulation in the energy range of 4-20 keV, providing the strongest limits on WIMP candidates from a direct detection experiment located in the Southern Hemisphere. Additionally, the successful deployment and stable operation of 17 kg of NaI(Tl) crystal over 3.5 years establishes the South Pole ice as a viable location for future underground, low-background experiments.

  16. A prototype PET/SPECT/X-rays scanner dedicated for whole body small animal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouchota, Maritina; Georgiou, Maria; Fysikopoulos, Eleftherios; Fragogeorgi, Eirini; Mikropoulos, Konstantinos; Papadimitroulas, Panagiotis; Kagadis, George; Loudos, George

    2017-01-01

    To present a prototype tri-modal imaging system, consisting of a single photon emission computed tomography (SPET), a positron emission tomography (PET), and a computed tomography (CT) subsystem, evaluated in planar mode. The subsystems are mounted on a rotating gantry, so as to be able to allow tomographic imaging in the future. The system, designed and constructed by our group, allows whole body mouse imaging of competent performance and is currently, to the best of our knowledge, unequaled in a national and regional level. The SPET camera is based on two Position Sensitive Photomultiplier Tubes (PSPMT), coupled to a pixilated Sodium Iodide activated with Thallium (NaI(Tl)) scintillator, having an active area of 5x10cm 2 . The dual head PET camera is also based on two pairs of PSPMT, coupled to pixelated berillium germanium oxide (BGO) scintillators, having an active area of 5x10cm 2 . The X-rays system consists of a micro focus X-rays tube and a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) detector, having an active area of 12x12cm 2 . The scintigraphic mode has a spatial resolution of 1.88mm full width at half maximum (FWHM) and a sensitivity of 107.5cpm/0.037MBq at the collimator surface. The coincidence PET mode has an average spatial resolution of 3.5mm (FWHM) and a peak sensitivity of 29.9cpm/0.037MBq. The X-rays spatial resolution is 3.5lp/mm and the contrast discrimination function value is lower than 2%. A compact tri-modal system was successfully built and evaluated for planar mode operation. The system has an efficient performance, allowing accurate and informative anatomical and functional imaging, as well as semi-quantitative results. Compared to other available systems, it provides a moderate but comparable performance, at a fraction of the cost and complexity. It is fully open, scalable and its main purpose is to support groups on a national and regional level and provide an open technological platform to study different detector components and

  17. The study of CP violation in the B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup +}D{sup -} by means of the BABAR detector. Measurement of the performances of DIRC Cherenkov detector of BABAR: Prototype-II and final detector; L'etude de la violation de CP dans le canal B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup +}D{sup -} a l'aide du detecteur BABAR. La mesure des performances du detecteur Cerenkov DIRC de BABAR: Prototype -II et detecteur final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benkebil, Mehdi [Lab. de l' Accelerateur Lineaire, Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)

    1999-04-16

    The work presented in this thesis is divided into two parts: the physics analysis of the decay mode B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup +}D{sup -} and the performance obtained with a new type of a particle identification detector using the Cherenkov effect technique: the DIRC. The analysis of this decay mode has been performed with data generated from fast simulation and a preliminary version of the reconstruction program. The branching ratio of this channel is predicted to be 4.5 x 10{sup -4}. The uncertainty in the sin 2 {beta} measurement obtained with this mode is: {sigma}(sin 2{beta})0.19 and 0.32 for fast simulation and preliminary version of the reconstruction program, respectively. The comparison of this result with the one obtained in the B{sup 0} {yields} J/{psi}K{sub s}{sup 0} mode will bring very useful theoretical insights. The performance study of the DIRC has been done on the prototype-II and the final detector. The beam-test results in terms resolution on the {theta}{sub c} angle and number of Cherenkov photons are the following: {sigma}({theta}{sub c}) = 10.2 {+-} 0.1 mrad per photon, {sigma}({theta}{sub c}) = 3.2 {+-} 0.2 mrad per track and N{sub {gamma}} 15.7 {+-} 0.1 at {theta}{sub dip} = 20 angle and 0 transmission in the bar. The analysis of the first cosmic data collected by the BABAR detector has allowed to study the DIRC in its final configuration. Among all the results obtained, we give the following ones: {sigma}({theta}{sub c}) = 10.09 {+-} 0.06 mrad per photon, {sigma}({theta}{sub c}) = 4.71 {+-} 0.14 mrad per track and N{sub {gamma}} 35.2 {+-} 3.8 at {theta}{sub dip} = 20 angle and 0 transmission in the bar. The extrapolation to the real condition of BABAR for all these results shows that the DIRC will run with performances similar to the nominal values. A detailed study of the background shows that, even though it will not be negligible, it will not compromise the DIRC performances in BABAR.

  18. The study of CP violation in the B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup +}D{sup -} by means of the BABAR detector. Measurement of the performances of DIRC Cherenkov detector of BABAR: Prototype-II and final detector; L'etude de la violation de CP dans le canal B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup +}D{sup -} a l'aide du detecteur BABAR. La mesure des performances du detecteur Cerenkov DIRC de BABAR: Prototype -II et detecteur final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benkebil, Mehdi [Lab. de l' Accelerateur Lineaire, Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)

    1999-04-16

    The work presented in this thesis is divided into two parts: the physics analysis of the decay mode B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup +}D{sup -} and the performance obtained with a new type of a particle identification detector using the Cherenkov effect technique: the DIRC. The analysis of this decay mode has been performed with data generated from fast simulation and a preliminary version of the reconstruction program. The branching ratio of this channel is predicted to be 4.5 x 10{sup -4}. The uncertainty in the sin 2 {beta} measurement obtained with this mode is: {sigma}(sin 2{beta})0.19 and 0.32 for fast simulation and preliminary version of the reconstruction program, respectively. The comparison of this result with the one obtained in the B{sup 0} {yields} J/{psi}K{sub s}{sup 0} mode will bring very useful theoretical insights. The performance study of the DIRC has been done on the prototype-II and the final detector. The beam-test results in terms resolution on the {theta}{sub c} angle and number of Cherenkov photons are the following: {sigma}({theta}{sub c}) = 10.2 {+-} 0.1 mrad per photon, {sigma}({theta}{sub c}) = 3.2 {+-} 0.2 mrad per track and N{sub {gamma}} 15.7 {+-} 0.1 at {theta}{sub dip} = 20 angle and 0 transmission in the bar. The analysis of the first cosmic data collected by the BABAR detector has allowed to study the DIRC in its final configuration. Among all the results obtained, we give the following ones: {sigma}({theta}{sub c}) = 10.09 {+-} 0.06 mrad per photon, {sigma}({theta}{sub c}) = 4.71 {+-} 0.14 mrad per track and N{sub {gamma}} 35.2 {+-} 3.8 at {theta}{sub dip} = 20 angle and 0 transmission in the bar. The extrapolation to the real condition of BABAR for all these results shows that the DIRC will run with performances similar to the nominal values. A detailed study of the background shows that, even though it will not be negligible, it will not compromise the DIRC performances in BABAR.

  19. The VENUS detector at TRISTAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Shojiro

    1983-01-01

    The design of the VENUS detector is described. In this paper, emphasis is placed on the central tracking chamber and the electromagnetic shower calorimeters. Referring to computer simulations and test measurements with prototypes, the expected performance of our detector system is discussed. The contents are, for the most part, taken from the VENUS proposal /2/. (author)

  20. The Clover detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, F A; Byrski, Th; Durien, D; Duchene, G; France, G de; Kharraja, B; Wei, L [Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires; Butler, P; Jones, G; Jones, P [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Oliver Lodge Lab.; Hannachi, F [Daresbury Lab. (United Kingdom)

    1992-08-01

    The EUROGAM Phase I device is almost running for experiments and new technical developments are in progress for its second phase. For example, a composite Ge detector should enable: a very large photopeak efficiency with good energy and timing resolutions; and, the covering, with Ge, of a large portion of 4{pi}-Str. The Clover detector, proposed by the CRN, Strasbourg, is one of this new generation of Ge detectors. It is currently developed in France by the EUROGAM collaboration. The design, the technical characteristics of the counter and the first results of the prototype tests are discussed in this contribution. (author). 1 ref., 2 tabs., 2 refs.

  1. Evaluation of moderately cooled pure NaI as a scintillator for position-sensitive PET detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wear, J.A.; Karp, J.S.; Haigh, A.T.; Freifelder, R.

    1996-01-01

    A new evaluation of pure NaI has been performed to determine if moderate cooling would lead to better performance than that of existing, activated NaI(Tl) position-sensitive detectors, particularly at high countrates. Using a freezer, an initial effort was performed to cool the crystal assembly to -90 C (183 K). At this temperature, pure NaI has a decay constant of 35 nsec, a light output which is about 20% that of room temperature NaI(Tl), and an energy resolution of 15%. For the PET applications the signal of room temperature (25 C) NaI(Tl) is normally pulse clipped, reducing the light output to 40% of the unclipped signal and yielding an energy resolution of 10.5%. Since the long decay of NaI(Tl) causes it to suffer more significantly than pure NaI from pre-pulse pileup, the difference in energy resolution between the two crystals at high countrates will be reduced. Also, a significantly shorter trigger deadtime with pure NaI will lead to a reduction in coincidence deadtime losses in PET. Computer simulations of large-area crystals operating at high countrates have been performed to quantify their trigger deadtime behavior and position resolution as a function of light output and pulse decay time. Having gained experience with the practical issues of cooling large crystals, measurements of position resolution have been performed with a NaI bar detector of similar geometry to the NaI(Tl) detectors in use in the PENN-PET scanner

  2. Whole body detectors for clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silar, J.

    The requirements are presented on the parameters of whole-body detectors suitable for clinical retention assays and the detector-patient configuration described. A whole-body detector was developed with an axial configuration of two pairs of large-volume scintillation detectors with NaI(Tl) crystals. One pair is placed under the bed, the other above the bed on which the patient is being examined. The axes of the crystals are located at a distance of 90 cm apart. The field of vision of the detector is described for the application of a 137 Cs source in the air and in a 24 cm layer of water. The positive characteristics of the detector are listed as being homogeneous sensitivity, energy resolution, long-term stability of signal pulse amplitude and average pulse rate in the integral mode. The results obtained show that the detector may be used to evaluate the level of contamination of persons by gamma emitters within the region of approximately 800 Bq to 74 MBq. The error in converting the number of signal pulses in the integral mode does not exceed 50% for gamma emitters with a photon energy above 30O keV. (J.B.)

  3. ATLAS Detector Interface Group

    CERN Multimedia

    Mapelli, L

    Originally organised as a sub-system in the DAQ/EF-1 Prototype Project, the Detector Interface Group (DIG) was an information exchange channel between the Detector systems and the Data Acquisition to provide critical detector information for prototype design and detector integration. After the reorganisation of the Trigger/DAQ Project and of Technical Coordination, the necessity to provide an adequate context for integration of detectors with the Trigger and DAQ lead to organisation of the DIG as one of the activities of Technical Coordination. Such an organisation emphasises the ATLAS wide coordination of the Trigger and DAQ exploitation aspects, which go beyond the domain of the Trigger/DAQ project itself. As part of Technical Coordination, the DIG provides the natural environment for the common work of Trigger/DAQ and detector experts. A DIG forum for a wide discussion of all the detector and Trigger/DAQ integration issues. A more restricted DIG group for the practical organisation and implementation o...

  4. Virtual Prototyping at CERN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennaro, Silvano De

    The VENUS (Virtual Environment Navigation in the Underground Sites) project is probably the largest Virtual Reality application to Engineering design in the world. VENUS is just over one year old and offers a fully immersive and stereoscopic "flythru" of the LHC pits for the proposed experiments, including the experimental area equipment and the surface models that are being prepared for a territorial impact study. VENUS' Virtual Prototypes are an ideal replacement for the wooden models traditionally build for the past CERN machines, as they are generated directly from the EUCLID CAD files, therefore they are totally reliable, they can be updated in a matter of minutes, and they allow designers to explore them from inside, in a one-to-one scale. Navigation can be performed on the computer screen, on a stereoscopic large projection screen, or in immersive conditions, with an helmet and 3D mouse. By using specialised collision detection software, the computer can find optimal paths to lower each detector part into the pits and position it to destination, letting us visualize the whole assembly probess. During construction, these paths can be fed to a robot controller, which can operate the bridge cranes and build LHC almost without human intervention. VENUS is currently developing a multiplatform VR browser that will let the whole HEP community access LHC's Virtual Protoypes over the web. Many interesting things took place during the conference on Virtual Reality. For more information please refer to the Virtual Reality section.

  5. New developments on silicon drift detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashevsky, A.

    1996-01-01

    In the frame of the project to develop large-area linear drift detectors few prototypes have been designed and produced. the function of these prototypes is to allow the evaluation of the solutions chosen for the geometry of the on-board electrodes and the production process. On these prototypes it is studied the static characteristics and measured time of-flight and charge collection injecting charges with an IR laser source. It is report the results from one of the prototypes

  6. Rethink! prototyping transdisciplinary concepts of prototyping

    CERN Document Server

    Nagy, Emilia; Stark, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    In this book, the authors describe the findings derived from interaction and cooperation between scientific actors employing diverse practices. They reflect on distinct prototyping concepts and examine the transformation of development culture in their fusion to hybrid approaches and solutions. The products of tomorrow are going to be multifunctional, interactive systems – and already are to some degree today. Collaboration across multiple disciplines is the only way to grasp their complexity in design concepts. This underscores the importance of reconsidering the prototyping process for the development of these systems, particularly in transdisciplinary research teams. “Rethinking Prototyping – new hybrid concepts for prototyping” was a transdisciplinary project that took up this challenge. The aim of this programmatic rethinking was to come up with a general concept of prototyping by combining innovative prototyping concepts, which had been researched and developed in three sub-projects: “Hybrid P...

  7. Architectures of prototypes and architectural prototyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius; Christensen, Michael; Sandvad, Elmer

    1998-01-01

    together as a team, but developed a prototype that more than fulfilled the expectations of the shipping company. The prototype should: - complete the first major phase within 10 weeks, - be highly vertical illustrating future work practice, - continuously live up to new requirements from prototyping......This paper reports from experience obtained through development of a prototype of a global customer service system in a project involving a large shipping company and a university research group. The research group had no previous knowledge of the complex business of shipping and had never worked...... sessions with users, - evolve over a long period of time to contain more functionality - allow for 6-7 developers working intensively in parallel. Explicit focus on the software architecture and letting the architecture evolve with the prototype played a major role in resolving these conflicting...

  8. Test Beam Results Obtained with the Q4 Prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Alberdi, J.; Cerrada, M.; Colino, N.; Daniel, M.; Fouz, M. c.; Marin, J.; Mocholi, J.; Oller, J. C.; Puerta, J.; Romero, L.; Salicio, J. M.

    2000-07-01

    A prototype of the CMS Barrel Muon Detector incorporating all the features of the final chambers was built at CIEMAT using the mass production assembly procedures and tools. The performance of this prototype was studied in a muon test beam at CERN and the results obtained are presented here. (Author)

  9. Construction of a drift chamber prototype for the CMS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdugo, J.; Cerrada, M.; Daniel, M.; Martin, F.; Mocholi, J.; Romero, L.

    1997-01-01

    General design features of a small size drift chamber prototype are described in this report. Prototype construction has taken place at CIEMAT and we explain in detail the assembly procedure. This activity is part of a long term project to mass produce chambers for the muon barrel detector of the CMS experiment which will be installed at CERN. (Author)

  10. Test beam results obtained with the Q4 prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Alberdi, J.; Cerrada, M.; Colino, N.; Daniel, M.; Fouz, M.C.; Marin, J.; Mocholi, J.; Oller, J. C.; Puerta, J.; Romero, L.; Salicio, J. M.; Willmott, C.

    2000-10-01

    A prototype of the CMS Barrel Muon Detector incorporating all the features of the final chambers was built at CIEMAT using the mass production assembly procedures and tools. The performance of this prototype was studied in a muon test beam at CERN and the results obtained are presented here. (Author)

  11. Undepleted silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rancoita, P.G.; Seidman, A.

    1985-01-01

    Large-size silicon detectors employing relatively low resistivity material can be used in electromagnetic calorimetry. They can operate in strong magnetic fields, under geometric constraints and with microstrip detectors a high resolution can be achieved. Low noise large capacitance oriented electronics was developed to enable good signal-to-noise ratio for single relativistic particles traversing large area detectors. In undepleted silicon detectors, the charge migration from the field-free region has been investigated by comparing the expected peak position (from the depleted layer only) of the energy-loss of relativistic electrons with the measured one. Furthermore, the undepleted detectors have been employed in a prototype of Si/W electromagnetic colorimeter. The sensitive layer was found to be systematically larger than the depleted one

  12. Pixelated CdZnTe drift detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuvvetli, Irfan; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl

    2005-01-01

    A technique, the so-called Drift Strip Method (DSM), for improving the CdZnTe detector energy response to hard X-rays and gamma-rays was applied as a pixel geometry. First tests have confirmed that this detector type provides excellent energy resolution and imaging performance. We specifically...... report on the performance of 3 mm thick prototype CZT drift pixel detectors fabricated using material from eV-products. We discuss issues associated with detector module performance. Characterization results obtained from several prototype drift pixel detectors are presented. Results of position...

  13. Results from the crystal ball detector at SPEAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, E.D.

    1979-11-01

    The Crystal Ball detector is a device particularly suited to the measurement of photons with energies lower than 1 GeV. The detector has as its principal component a 16 radiation length thick, highly segmented shell of NaI(Tl) surrounding cylindrical, proportional, and magnetostrictive spark chambers. The main Ball and various elements of the central chambers cover 94% of 4π sr. Segmented endcap NaI(Tl) detectors of 20 radiation lengths behind magneto strictive spark chambers supplement the main Ball. The Ball and endcaps close the solid angle for charged particle and photon detection to 98% of 4π sr. In addition, detectors of interspersed iron and proportional tubes provide for μ-π separation over 15% of 4π sr, about theta/sub CM/ = 90 0 . In this report preliminary results are presented from the data obtained. In particular, QED at E/sub CM/ = 6.5 GeV, R/sub hadron/ and related inclusive distributions, eta branching fractions at J/psi and psi'', and a detailed study of the psionium system are discussed

  14. A mobile antineutrino detector with plastic scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, Y.; Oguri, S.; Kato, Y.; Nakata, R.; Inoue, Y.; Ito, C.; Minowa, M.

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new type segmented antineutrino detector made of plastic scintillators for the nuclear safeguard application. A small prototype was built and tested to measure background events. A satisfactory unmanned field operation of the detector system was demonstrated. Besides, a detailed Monte Carlo simulation code was developed to estimate the antineutrino detection efficiency of the detector.

  15. Radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This sixth chapter presents the operational principles of the radiation detectors; detection using photographic emulsions; thermoluminescent detectors; gas detectors; scintillation detectors; liquid scintillation detectors; detectors using semiconductor materials; calibration of detectors; Bragg-Gray theory; measurement chain and uncertainties associated to measurements

  16. Use of a low energy proton accelerator for calibrating a large NaI(Tl) array in a high energy physics experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkbride, G.I.; O'Reilly, J.G.; Tompkins, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    The use of a 500 keV Van de Graaff proton accelerator to produce γ-rays in the range 4 - 18 MeV via nuclear reactions for the purpose of calibrating a large NaI(Tl) crystal array is reported. Data analysis indicates an energy calibration to approx. 1% over this range

  17. Determination of absolute detection efficiencies for detectors of interest in homeland security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayaz-Maierhafer, Birsen; DeVol, Timothy A.

    2007-01-01

    The absolute total and absolute peak detection efficiencies of gamma ray detector materials NaI:Tl, CdZnTe, HPGe, HPXe, LaBr 3 :Ce and LaCl 3 :Ce were simulated and compared to that of polyvinyltoluene (PVT). The dimensions of the PVT detector were 188.82 cmx60.96 cmx5.08 cm, which is a typical size for a single-panel portal monitor. The absolute total and peak detection efficiencies for these detector materials for the point, line and spherical source geometries of 60 Co (1332 keV), 137 Cs (662 keV) and 241 Am (59.5 keV) were simulated at various source-to-detector distances using the Monte Carlo N-Particle software (MCNP5-V1.30). The comparison of the absolute total detection efficiencies for a point, line and spherical source geometry of 60 Co and 137 Cs at different source-to-detector distance showed that the absolute detection efficiency for PVT is higher relative to the other detectors of typical dimensions for that material. However, the absolute peak detection efficiency of some of these detectors are higher relative to PVT, for example the absolute peak detection efficiency of NaI:Tl (7.62 cm diameterx7.62 cm long), HPGe (7.62 cm diameterx7.62 cm long), HPXe (11.43 cm diameterx60.96 cm long), and LaCl 3 :Ce (5.08 cm diameterx5.08 cm long) are all greater than that of a 188.82 cmx60.96 cmx5.08 cm PVT detector for 60 Co and 137 Cs for all geometries studied. The absolute total and absolute peak detection efficiencies of a right circular cylinder of NaI:Tl with various diameters and thicknesses were determined for a point source. The effect of changing the solid angle on the NaI:Tl detectors showed that with increasing solid angle and detector thickness, the absolute efficiency increases. This work establishes a common basis for differentiating detector materials for passive portal monitoring of gamma ray radiation

  18. Time of gamma radiation transport in NaI(Tl) scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matarrita, A.S.

    1976-01-01

    The distribution of time intervals in function of the energy, ocurred between the incidence of a gamma radiation in the face of a scintillation crystal and the arrival of the correspondent scintillation at photocathode, is calculated. The mean square fluctuation these time interval, relating to resolution of the detector system is determined. The calculations are done for NaI (Tl) cylindrical crystals with the radiation source placed in the symmetry axis, in two situations: para axial incidence and oblique incidence, indicating a good agreement with experimental data. (M.C.K.) [pt

  19. High-Resolution PET Detector. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karp, Joel

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this project was to develop an understanding of the limits of performance for a high resolution PET detector using an approach based on continuous scintillation crystals rather than pixelated crystals. The overall goal was to design a high-resolution detector, which requires both high spatial resolution and high sensitivity for 511 keV gammas. Continuous scintillation detectors (Anger cameras) have been used extensively for both single-photon and PET scanners, however, these instruments were based on NaI(Tl) scintillators using relatively large, individual photo-multipliers. In this project we investigated the potential of this type of detector technology to achieve higher spatial resolution through the use of improved scintillator materials and photo-sensors, and modification of the detector surface to optimize the light response function.We achieved an average spatial resolution of 3-mm for a 25-mm thick, LYSO continuous detector using a maximum likelihood position algorithm and shallow slots cut into the entrance surface

  20. Tests of a Roman Pot Prototype for the TOTEM Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Deile, M.; Alagoz, E.; Anelli, G.M.; Antchev, G.A.; Ayache, M.; Caspers, F.; Dimovasili, E.; Dinapoli, R.; Drouhin, F.D.; Eggert, K.; Escourrou, L.; Fochler, O.; Gill, K.; Grabit, R.; Haug, F.

    2005-01-01

    The TOTEM collaboration has developed and tested the first prototype of its Roman Pots to be operated in the LHC. TOTEM Roman Pots contain stacks of 10 silicon detectors with strips oriented in two orthogonal directions. To measure proton scattering angles of a few microradians, the detectors will approach the beam centre to a distance of 10 sigma + 0.5 mm (= 1.3 mm). Dead space near the detector edge is minimised by using two novel "edgeless" detector technologies. The silicon detectors are ...

  1. Performance of prototype segmented CdZnTe arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, A.; Palmer, D.M.; Kurczynski, P.; Barbier, L.; Barthelmy, S.; Bartlett, L.; Gehrels, N.; Krizmanic, J.; Stahle, C.M.; Tueller, J.; Teegarden, B.

    1998-01-01

    The Burst and All Sky Imaging Survey (BASIS) is a proposed mission to provide ∼3 arc second locations of approximately 90 Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) per year. The BASIS coded aperture imaging system requires a segmented detector plane able to detect the interaction position of (10--150 keV) photons to less than 100 microm. To develop prototype detector arrays with such fine position resolution the authors have fabricated many 15 mm x 15 mm x 2 mm 100 microm pitch CdZnTe strip detectors. They have assembled these fine pitch CdZnTe strip detectors into prototype 2 x 2 and 6 x 6 element arrays read out by ASIC electronics. The assembly and electronics readout of the 6 x 6 flight prototype array will be discussed, and preliminary data illustrating the uniformity and efficiency of the array will be presented

  2. Miniature silicon diode matrix-detector for in vivo measurement of 133xenon disappearance in the canine myocardium following local tissue injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Rasmussen, H B; Damgaard, Y

    1992-01-01

    recording appearing from the gamma-energy of the photopeak. The detector matrix concept allows elimination of motion artefacts and indicator distribution in the myocardial tissue. Due to the uniformity and low cost of Si-diodes the perspective may be the introduction as a disposable transducer useful during......After local tissue depositioning of 133Xenon (133Xe) the regional washout is usually registered by a NaI(Tl) detector. The residual radioactivity of 133Xe is usually measured at its 81 keV photopeak. However, using small Silicon (Si) photodiodes it is feasible to measure only the low-energy...... activity in the X-ray energy range. In the myocardium of open chest dogs 133Xe washout measurements by a matrix of Si diodes composed in a 4 x 4 array and a conventional NaI(Tl) detector were carried out simultaneously. Fourteen separate pairs of measurements were performed in 3 dogs. When the Si...

  3. Calibration with MCNP of NaI detector for the determination of natural radioactivity levels in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinelli, Giorgia; Tositti, Laura; Mostacci, Domiziano; Baré, Jonathan

    2016-05-01

    In view of assessing natural radioactivity with on-site quantitative gamma spectrometry, efficiency calibration of NaI(Tl) detectors is investigated. A calibration based on Monte Carlo simulation of detector response is proposed, to render reliable quantitative analysis practicable in field campaigns. The method is developed with reference to contact geometry, in which measurements are taken placing the NaI(Tl) probe directly against the solid source to be analyzed. The Monte Carlo code used for the simulations was MCNP. Experimental verification of the calibration goodness is obtained by comparison with appropriate standards, as reported. On-site measurements yield a quick quantitative assessment of natural radioactivity levels present ((40)K, (238)U and (232)Th). On-site gamma spectrometry can prove particularly useful insofar as it provides information on materials from which samples cannot be taken. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Integrated double-sided silicon microstrip detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perevertailo V. L.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The problems of design, technology and manufacturing double-sided silicon microstrip detectors using standard equipment production line in mass production of silicon integrated circuits are considered. The design of prototype high-energy particles detector for experiment ALICE (CERN is presented. The parameters of fabricated detectors are comparable with those of similar foreign detectors, but they are distinguished by lesser cost.

  5. Detector performance tests for the CBM TRD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohn, Martin [Institut fuer Kernphysik, WWU Muenster (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment is a fixed target heavy-ion experiment at the future FAIR accelerator facility. The CBM Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) is one of the key detectors to provide electron identification and charged particle tracking. With the construction phase of the detector nearing, we will present results of the detector obtained with a close to final prototype. These results were achieved in measurements at CERN PS in 2014 and SPS in 2015.

  6. Imagining the prototype

    OpenAIRE

    Brouwer, C. E.; Bhomer, ten, M.; Melkas, H.; Buur, J.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on the analysis of a design session, employing conversation analysis. In the design session three experts and a designer discuss a prototype of a shirt, which has been developed with the input from these experts. The analysis focuses on the type of involvement of the participants with the prototype and how they explicate the points they make in the discussion with or without making use of the prototype. Three techniques for explicating design issues that exploit the proto...

  7. Prototype detection unit for the CHIPS experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfützner, Maciej M.

    2017-09-01

    CHIPS (CHerenkov detectors In mine PitS) is an R&D project aiming to develop novel cost-effective neutrino detectors, focused on measuring the CP-violating neutrino mixing phase (δ CP). A single detector module, containing an enclosed volume of purified water, would be submerged in an existing lake, located in a neutrino beam. A staged approach is proposed with first detectors deployed in a flooded mine pit in Northern Minnesota, 7 mrad off-axis from the existing NuMI beam. A small proof-of-principle model (CHIPS-M) has already been tested and the first stage of a fully functional 10 kt module (CHIPS-10) is planned for 2018. One of the instruments submerged on board of CHIPS-M in autumn 2015 was a prototype detection unit, constructed at Nikhef. The unit contains hardware borrowed from the KM3NeT experiment, including 16 3 inch photomultiplier tubes and readout electronics. In addition to testing the mechanical design and data acquisition, the detector was used to record a large sample of cosmic ray muon events. The collected data is valuable for characterising the cosmic muon background and validating a Monte Carlo simulation used to optimise future designs. This paper introduces the CHIPS project, describes the design of the prototype unit, and presents the results of a preliminary data analysis.

  8. Development of a sealed source radiation detector system for gamma ray scanning of petroleum distillation columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasquez Salvador, Pablo Antonio

    2004-01-01

    Gamma Ray Scanning is an online technique to 'view' the hydraulic performance of an operating column, with no disruption to operating processes conditions (pressure and temperature), as a cost-effective solution. The principle of this methodology consists of a small suitably sealed gamma radiation source and a radiation detector experimentally positioned to the column, moving concurrently in small increments on opposite sides and the quantity of gamma transmitted. The source-detector system consists of: a sealed ''6 0 Co radioactive source in a panoramic lead radiator, a scintillator detector coupled to a ratemeter / analyzer and a mobile system. In this work, a gamma scanning sealed source-detector system for distillation columns, was developed, comparing two scintillator detectors: NaI(Tl) (commercial) and CsI(Tl) (IPEN). In order to project the system, a simulated model of a tray-type distillation column was used. The equipment developed was tested in an industrial column for water treatment (6.5 m diameter and 40 m height). The required activities of 6 ''0Co, laboratory (11.1 MBq) and industrial works (1.48 TBq) were calculated by simulation software. Both, the NaI(Tl) and the CsI(Tl) detectors showed good proprieties for gamma scanning applications, determining the position and presence or absence of trays. (author)

  9. A prototype ionization profile monitor for RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, R.; Cameron, P.; Ryan, W.

    1997-01-01

    Transverse beam profiles in the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) will be measured with ionization profile monitors (IPM's). Each IPM collects and measures the distribution of electrons in the beamline resulting from residual gas ionization during bunch passage. The electrons are swept transversely from the beamline and collected on strip anodes oriented parallel to the beam axis. At each bunch passage the charge pulses are amplified, integrated, and digitized for display as a profile histogram. A prototype detector was tested in the injection line during the RHIC Sextant Test. This paper describes the detector and gives results from the beam tests

  10. A prototype BPM electronics module for RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, W.A.; Shea, T.J.; Cerniglia, P.; Degen, C.M.

    1993-01-01

    Prototype components of the VXI-based Beam Position Monitor Electronics for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider have been constructed and tested for accuracy, resolution and linearity. The detector, designed solely for single-bunch acquisition, consists of a homodyne detector followed by a sample and hold and Analog-to-Digital Converter. In the final modules, an on-board Digital Signal Processor will provide turn by turn data correction, continuously updated closed-orbit averaging, and circular buffer maintenance. A timing processor allows synchronization of modules to enable correlated data collection

  11. A prototype ionization profile monitor for RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, R.; Cameron, P.; Ryan, W. [and others

    1997-07-01

    Transverse beam profiles in the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) will be measured with ionization profile monitors (IPM`s). Each IPM collects and measures the distribution of electrons in the beamline resulting from residual gas ionization during bunch passage. The electrons are swept transversely from the beamline and collected on strip anodes oriented parallel to the beam axis. At each bunch passage the charge pulses are amplified, integrated, and digitized for display as a profile histogram. A prototype detector was tested in the injection line during the RHIC Sextant Test. This paper describes the detector and gives results from the beam tests.

  12. Rapid Prototyping Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ARDEC Rapid Prototyping (RP) Laboratory was established in December 1992 to provide low cost RP capabilities to the ARDEC engineering community. The Stratasys,...

  13. Fabrication and Prototyping Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The Fabrication and Prototyping Lab for composite structures provides a wide variety of fabrication capabilities critical to enabling hands-on research and...

  14. Calibration of angle response of a NaI(Tl) airborne spectrometer to 137Cs and 60Co point sources on the ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xinhua; Zhang Yongxing; Gu Renkang; Shen Ensheng

    1998-01-01

    The angle response function F(φ,θ) is a basic calibration of airborne spectrometers in airborne surveying for nuclear emergency monitoring. The author describes the method and results of angle response function calibration of a NaI(Tl) airborne spectrometer for 137 Cs and 60 Co point sources on the ground, with less than 20% uncertainty. By using the results, the calibration factors of the NaI(Tl) airborne spectrometer fixed in Yun-5 plane at different flying heights are calculated by numerical integral method for 137 Cs uniform area source on ground surface, with less than 25% uncertainty. The minimum detection limits (L D ) are calculated at 90 m and 120 m flying heights in the range of over Shijiazhuang airborne surveying for 137 Cs uniform area source on ground surface to be 3.83 and 5.62 kBq/m 2 , respectively

  15. Ionization detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, D.S.

    1987-01-01

    An ionization detector having an array of detectors has, for example, grounding pads positioned in the spaces between some detectors (data detectors) and other detectors (reference detectors). The grounding pads are kept at zero electric potential, i.e. grounded. The grounding serves to drain away electrons and thereby prevent an unwanted accumulation of charge in the spaces, and cause the electric field lines to be more perpendicular to the detectors in regions near the grounding pads. Alternatively, no empty space is provided there being additional, grounded, detectors provided between the data and reference detectors. (author)

  16. High sensitivity isotope analysis with a 252Cf--235U fueled subcritical multiplier and low background photon detector systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wogman, N.A.; Rieck, H.G. Jr.; Laul, J.C.; MacMurdo, K.W.

    1976-09-01

    A 252 Cf activation analysis facility has been developed for routine multielement analysis of a wide variety of solid and liquid samples. The facility contains six sources of 252 Cf totaling slightly over 100 mg. These sources are placed in a 93 percent 235 U-enriched uranium core which is subcritical with a K effective of 0.985 (multiplication factor of 66). The system produces a thermal flux on the order of 10 +1 neutrons per square centimeter per second. A pneumatic rabbit system permits automatic irradiation, decay, and counting regimes to be performed unattended on the samples. The activated isotopes are analyzed through their photon emissions with state-of-the-art intrinsic Ge detectors, Ge(Li) detectors, and NaI(Tl) multidimensional gamma ray spectrometers. High efficiency (25 percent), low background, anticoincidence shielded Ge(Li) gamma ray detector systems have been constructed to provide the lowest possible background, yet maintain a peak to Compton ratio of greater than 1000 to 1. The multidimensional gamma ray spectrometer systems are composed of 23 cm diameter x 20 cm thick NaI(Tl) crystals surrounded by NaI(Tl) anticoincidence shields. The detection limits for over 65 elements have been determined for this system. Over 40 elements are detectable at the 1 part per million level at a precision of +-10 percent

  17. NeuLAND prototype: response to fast neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaehrling, Simon; Scheit, Heiko [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany); Aumann, Thomas [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Boretzky, Konstanze; Heil, Michael; Kresan, Dmytro; Simon, Haik [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Gasparic, Igor [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany); Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Collaboration: R3B-Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    Within the R3B collaboration (Reactions with Relativistic Radioactive Beams), a new neutron detector NeuLAND (New Large Area Neutron Detector) is being developed. It will be a fully active scintillation detector consisting of 3000 scintillator bars, arranged in 30 double layers. Within a double layer 50 bars are horizontal and 50 vertical orientated. The whole detector measures 2.5 x 2.5 x 3 m{sup 3}. A prototype with 150 NeuLAND bars was tested at GSI using quasi-mono-energetic neutrons with different energies from 200 to 1500 MeV stemming from quasi-free deuteron breakup reactions on a CH{sub 2} target. The experimental setup is described, and preliminary results for the time resolution and efficiency of the NeuLAND prototype detector are presented.

  18. Performance of a Microgap Chamber Prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeva, B.; Gomez, F.; Nunez, T.; Pazos, A.; Plo, M.; Santamaria, C.; Vazquez, P.; Navarro, Z.

    1998-01-01

    We describe the construction and performance of a novel type of detector concept for ionizing particles, the Microgap Gas Chamber (MGC). A prototype was a built on a SiO 2 substrate with Aluminium electrodes by a collaboration between the C.N.M. (Centro nacional de Microelectronica) in Barcelona and the Grupo de Altas Energias of the University of Santiago de Compostela. Some of the operation characteristics are discussed. (Author) 8 refs

  19. Prototype ALICE front-end card

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    This circuit board is a prototype 48-channel front end digitizer card for the ALICE time projection chamber (TPC), which takes electrical signals from the wire sensors in the TPC and shapes the data before converting the analogue signal to digital data. A total of 4356 cards will be required to process the data from the ALICE TPC, the largest of this type of detector in the world.

  20. Design of a decade scaler prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rill Isaris; Widodo Priyodiprojo.

    1976-01-01

    A prototype of a simple decade scaler made of devices and components available in the local market, is described. The constituents of the system, consisting of an amplifier, pulse shaper, counting system, low voltage and high voltage supply, are also described. The number of pulses counted are indicated on six digits, varying to a maximum of 999999 counts, using LED device. This apparatus may be interconnected with scintillation and Geiger Muller detectors. (author)

  1. Implementation of a laboratory apparatus based on a NaI(Tl) spectrometer: application to the characterization of soil radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrianjafitrimo

    2001-01-01

    A laboratory apparatus based on a NaI(Tl) γ-ray spectrometer for the assessment of radionuclides naturally occurring in environmental samples was established. This detection system is devoted to the quantitative determination of uranium, thorium and potassium in soils and rocks samples.The IAEA reference materials, RG S ET was used for calibration of the spectrometer. The photopics at 1460, 1765 and 2614 keV due to 40 K, 238 U and 232 Th, respectively, were used for the corresponding activity measurements. The radioactivity characterization of soils was performed on primordial radionuclides distribution and radon emanation according to the grain-size. Because of social and economical interest that present the collected samples (mineralized sands and soils rich in uranium), their radiation protection aspects was considered in this work. Discussions was made on factors restricting the approach based on scintillation spectrometry, such as radioactive equilibrium and radon encapsulation in the one hand, and in the other hand, on the assessment of soils characterization, among other things, grain-size effects. The present work has also shown that radioactivity levels of building and fabrication materials can be reduced by the removal of fines or fraction having higher concentrations by sieving. [fr

  2. Designing and testing prototypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vereijken, P.; Wijnands, F.; Stol, W.

    1995-01-01

    This second progress report focuses on designing a theoretical prototype by linking parameters to methods and designing the methods in this context until they are ready for initial testing. The report focuses also on testing and improving the prototype in general and the methods in particular until

  3. EUCLID ARCHIVE SYSTEM PROTOTYPE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belikov, Andrey; Williams, Owen; Droge, Bob; Tsyganov, Andrey; Boxhoorn, Danny; McFarland, John; Verdoes Kleijn, Gijs; Valentijn, E; Altieri, Bruno; Dabin, Christophe; Pasian, F.; Osuna, Pedro; Soille, P.; Marchetti, P.G.

    2014-01-01

    The Euclid Archive System prototype is a functional information system which is used to address the numerous challenges in the development of fully functional data processing system for Euclid. The prototype must support the highly distributed nature of the Euclid Science Ground System, with Science

  4. Specifications in software prototyping

    OpenAIRE

    Luqi; Chang, Carl K.; Zhu, Hong

    1998-01-01

    We explore the use of software speci®cations for software prototyping. This paper describes a process model for software prototyping, and shows how specifications can be used to support such a process via a cellular mobile phone switch example.

  5. EPCiR prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    A prototype of a residential pervasive computing platform based on OSGi involving among other a mock-up of an health care bandage.......A prototype of a residential pervasive computing platform based on OSGi involving among other a mock-up of an health care bandage....

  6. Detector Control System for CMS RPC at GIF++

    CERN Document Server

    Gul, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    In the framework of the High Luminosity LHC upgrade program, the CMS muon groupbuilt several different RPC prototypes that are now under test at the new CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF++). A dedicated Detector Control System has been developed using the WinCC-OA tool to control and monitor these prototype detectors and to store the measured parameters data.

  7. Development of data acquisition system for CSNS 3He detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Dongxu; Zhang Hongyu

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces the research and development of data acquisition system of CSNS 3 He detector prototype. This system provides high performance data acquisition capability of CSNS 3 He detector, as well as several performance tests of electronics prototype. This data acquisition system establishes foundation for the later data acquisition development. (authors)

  8. Investigations of portable cadmium telluride (CdTe(Cl)) detectors for clinical studies with radioactive indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bojsen, J.

    1985-01-01

    The combination of small, portable γ-radiation-sensitive Cadmium Telluride (CdTE(Cl)) crystal detectors and portable solid state data storage memories makes it feasible to extend the measuring period in a number of clinical investigations based on the use of various radioisotopes and external detection. Blood sampling can be avoided in some cases. Continuous ambulatory monitoring of relevant physiological parameters is practicable, e.g. kidney function (GFR), left ventricular ejection fraction, subcutaneous blood flow, muscle blood flow and insulin absorption in diabetic patients. In the present methodological study the applicability of the 133-Xe washout technique to subcutaneous (s.c.) adipose tissue blood flow (SBF) has been investigated and adapted to the use of CdTe(Cl) detectors attached to the skin surface for the measurement of local 133-Xe-disappearance rate constants (k). Physical characterization of CdTe(Cl) detectors as γ-sensitive devices has been performed, and adequate counting sensitivities were found without detector energy-resolution properties. The CdTe(Cl) detectors are therefore suitable for single indicator studies. The measuring geometry of CdTe(Cl) detectors was studied and compared with that of stationary Sodium Iodide (NaI(Tl)) detectors in both phantom and in vivo investigations. The spatial properties of CdTe(Cl) detectors could to some extent be adjusted by pulse height discrimination and lead collimation. When long-term measurements were complicated by for instance physical activity of the patients, the small CdTe(Cl) detectors in general showed equal or better performance than the heavy and voluminous NaI(Tl) detectors. The free movement of the ambulatory patient and the avoidance of cable connections to stationary data-collecting systems gave improved possibilities for measurements of the relevant parameters. From this point of view, portable CdTe(Cl) detectors must be considered an important advance for radioactivity studies in

  9. Cooperative Prototyping Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Grønbæk, Kaj

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes experiments with a design technique that we denote cooperative prototyping. The experiments consider design of a patient case record system for municipal dental clinics in which we used HyperCard, an off the shelf programming environment for the Macintosh. In the ecperiments we...... tried to achieve a fluent work-like evaluation of prototypes where users envisioned future work with a computer tool, at the same time as we made on-line modifications of prototypes in cooperation with the users when breakdown occur in their work-like evaluation. The experiments showed...... that it was possible to make a number of direct manipulation changes of prototypes in cooperation with the users, in interplay with their fluent work-like evaluation of these. However, breakdown occurred in the prototyping process when we reached the limits of the direct manipulation support for modification. From...

  10. Silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klanner, R.

    1984-08-01

    The status and recent progress of silicon detectors for high energy physics is reviewed. Emphasis is put on detectors with high spatial resolution and the use of silicon detectors in calorimeters. (orig.)

  11. Investigations on Important Properties of the 10 cm x 10 cm GEM Prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Saenboonruang, Kiadtisak; Kulasri, Kittipong; Ritthirong, Anawat

    2015-01-01

    The Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detector is one of promising particle and radiation detectors that has been improved greatly from previous gas detectors. The improvement includes better spatial resolutions, higher detection rate capabilities, and flexibilities in designs. In particular, the 10 cm x 10 cm GEM prototype is designed and provided by the Gas Detectors Development group (GDD) at CERN, Switzerland. With its simplicity in operations and designs, while still maintaining high qualities, the GEM prototype is suitable for both start-up and advanced researches. This article aims to report the investigations on some important properties of the 10 cm x 10 cm GEM detector using current measurement and signal counting. Results have shown that gains of the GEM prototype exponentially increase as voltage supplied to the detector increases, while the detector reaches full efficiency (plateau region) when the voltage is greater than 4100 V. In terms of signal sharing between X and Y strips of the readout, X str...

  12. Department of Detectors and Nuclear Electronics - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzik, Z.

    2010-01-01

    comparative study of 3 x 3 NaI(Tl), BGO and LaBr 3 scintillators in the detection of gamma rays, up to 10 MeV energy, was carried out. A continuation of a study of new neutron detectors was addressed to the optimization of gamma ray suppression in liquid scintillators and the study of inorganic crystals like LiCaF. This study was of particular importance because of an urgent problem to find a replacement for He-3 detectors because of the diminishing supply of He-3 on the world market. Besides that a model of an X-radiation detector and a demonstrator prototype for X-radiography, part of the A(and)D project, are under development. Also, the first model of a DSP digital spectrometry channel was successfully developed and tested in gamma spectrometry. Advanced studies related to data visualization and presentation are being conducted. Moreover, collaboration with the IAEA in Vienna, supported by Research Contract No. 14360, concerning monitoring of State borders was continued. Several scientific contracts were realized for European industry. The Department was involved in scientific collaborations with a number of international centers, such as CERN, Royal Institute of Technology and Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, University of Tennessee, USA, University of Tohoku, Japan, GSI Darmstadt, and companies such as Saint-Gobain, Scionix in Holland, ICx (formerly Target) in Germany, Siemens (formerly CTI) in the USA, Hamamatsu Photonics K. K. and Furukawa Co. Ltd., Japan. Our work in the area of High Energy Physics was focused on the LHCb experiment in CERN, GSI (Darmstadt) - Panda and DESY (Hamburg) - XFEL. Complicated apparatus designed in our department is successfully running in the LHCb experiment at the LHC collider. We also continued the collaboration with the PANDA detector in GSI. Our work is concentrated on the DCS system for the experiment. Our activities concerning development of new generation State-of-the-Art multi-channel analysers are very advanced and fruitful. More

  13. Pulse Rise Time Characterization of a High Pressure Xenon Gamma Detector for use in Resolution Enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Troyer, G L

    2000-01-01

    High pressure xenon ionization chamber detectors are possible alternatives to traditional thallium doped sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)) and hyperpure germanium as gamma spectrometers in certain applications. Xenon detectors incorporating a Frisch grid exhibit energy resolutions comparable to cadmium/zinc/telluride (CZT) (e.g. 2% (at) 662keV) but with far greater sensitive volumes. The Frisch grid reduces the position dependence of the anode pulse risetimes, but it also increases the detector vibration sensitivity, anode capacitance, voltage requirements and mechanical complexity. We have been investigating the possibility of eliminating the grid electrode in high-pressure xenon detectors and preserving the high energy resolution using electronic risetime compensation methods. A two-electrode cylindrical high pressure xenon gamma detector coupled to time-to-amplitude conversion electronics was used to characterize the pulse rise time of deposited gamma photons. Time discrimination was used to characterize the pulse r...

  14. Construction and testing of a large scale prototype of a silicon tungsten electromagnetic calorimeter for a future lepton collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouëné, Jérémy

    2013-01-01

    The CALICE collaboration is preparing large scale prototypes of highly granular calorimeters for detectors to be operated at a future linear electron positron collider. After several beam campaigns at DESY, CERN and FNAL, the CALICE collaboration has demonstrated the principle of highly granular electromagnetic calorimeters with a first prototype called physics prototype. The next prototype, called technological prototype, addresses the engineering challenges which come along with the realisation of highly granular calorimeters. This prototype will comprise 30 layers where each layer is composed of four 9×9 cm 2 silicon wafers. The front end electronics is integrated into the detector layers. The size of each pixel is 5×5 mm 2 . This prototype enters its construction phase. We present results of the first layers of the technological prototype obtained during beam test campaigns in spring and summer 2012. According to these results the signal over noise ratio of the detector exceeds the R and D goal of 10:1

  15. Detectors - Electronics; Detecteurs - Electronique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bregeault, J.; Gabriel, J.L.; Hierle, G.; Lebotlan, P.; Leconte, A.; Lelandais, J.; Mosrin, P.; Munsch, P.; Saur, H.; Tillier, J. [Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire, Caen Univ., 14 (France)

    1998-04-01

    The reports presents the main results obtained in the fields of radiation detectors and associated electronics. In the domain of X-ray gas detectors for the keV range efforts were undertaken to rise the detector efficiency. Multiple gap parallel plate chambers of different types as well as different types of X {yields} e{sup -} converters were tested to improve the efficiency (values of 2.4% at 60 KeV were reached). In the field of scintillators a study of new crystals has been carried out (among which Lutetium orthosilicate). CdTe diode strips for obtaining X-ray imaging were studied. The complete study of a linear array of 8 CdTe pixels has been performed and certified. The results are encouraging and point to this method as a satisfying solution. Also, a large dimension programmable chamber was used to study the influence of temperature on the inorganic scintillators in an interval from -40 deg. C to +150 deg. C. Temperature effects on other detectors and electronic circuits were also investigated. In the report mentioned is also the work carried out for the realization of the DEMON neutron multidetector. For neutron halo experiments different large area Si detectors associated with solid and gas position detectors were realized. In the frame of a contract with COGEMA a systematic study of Li doped glasses was undertaken aiming at replacing with a neutron probe the {sup 3}He counters presently utilized in pollution monitoring. An industrial prototype has been realised. Other studies were related to integrated analog chains, materials for Cherenkov detectors, scintillation probes for experiments on fundamental processes, gas position sensitive detectors, etc. In the field of associated electronics there are mentioned the works related to the multidetector INDRA, data acquisition, software gamma spectrometry, automatic gas pressure regulation in detectors, etc

  16. PRMS Data Warehousing Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guruvadoo, Eranna K.

    2002-01-01

    Project and Resource Management System (PRMS) is a web-based, mid-level management tool developed at KSC to provide a unified enterprise framework for Project and Mission management. The addition of a data warehouse as a strategic component to the PRMS is investigated through the analysis, design and implementation processes of a data warehouse prototype. As a proof of concept, a demonstration of the prototype with its OLAP's technology for multidimensional data analysis is made. The results of the data analysis and the design constraints are discussed. The prototype can be used to motivate interest and support for an operational data warehouse.

  17. Possibility of observation by the Antares telescope of the gamma ray point sources observed by the Egret detector and study of a prototype; Possibilite d'observation par le telescope Antares des sources ponctuelles de rayons gamma observees par le detecteur Egret et etude d'un prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saouter, S

    2004-09-01

    The ANTARES collaboration aims to install an underwater neutrino telescope at 2 500 m deep and 40 km away from Toulon (France). The neutrinos are detected thanks to their interaction by charged current in the medium surrounding the telescope which can be rock or water. The produced muon emits Tcherenkov light along its path in water. This light is detected by a three-dimensional network of 900 photomultipliers divided into 12 independent lines. To validate the chosen techniques, a prototype made up of a fifth of line was deployed in 2003. A reconstruction algorithm was developed on simulated data whose results are presented. However, a technical failure made the data recorded by the prototype unsuitable. The detection potential of Antares to gamma ray sources observed by Egret is studied. Indeed, under the assumption of a gamma ray production via high-energy hadrons, a comparable flux of neutrinos associated is predicted. By supposing the two fluxes equal and an energy spectrum varying as E{sup -2} eleven sources are potentially detectable in one year. The Antares sensitivity to such a spectrum depends on the declination of the source with an optimum of 3.6 10{sup -4} m{sup -2} s{sup -1} GeV{sup -1} in one year at 90% of confidence level for a declination of - 90 deg C. (author)

  18. Possibility of observation by the Antares telescope of the gamma ray point sources observed by the Egret detector and study of a prototype; Possibilite d'observation par le telescope Antares des sources ponctuelles de rayons gamma observees par le detecteur Egret et etude d'un prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saouter, S

    2004-09-01

    The ANTARES collaboration aims to install an underwater neutrino telescope at 2 500 m deep and 40 km away from Toulon (France). The neutrinos are detected thanks to their interaction by charged current in the medium surrounding the telescope which can be rock or water. The produced muon emits Tcherenkov light along its path in water. This light is detected by a three-dimensional network of 900 photomultipliers divided into 12 independent lines. To validate the chosen techniques, a prototype made up of a fifth of line was deployed in 2003. A reconstruction algorithm was developed on simulated data whose results are presented. However, a technical failure made the data recorded by the prototype unsuitable. The detection potential of Antares to gamma ray sources observed by Egret is studied. Indeed, under the assumption of a gamma ray production via high-energy hadrons, a comparable flux of neutrinos associated is predicted. By supposing the two fluxes equal and an energy spectrum varying as E{sup -2} eleven sources are potentially detectable in one year. The Antares sensitivity to such a spectrum depends on the declination of the source with an optimum of 3.6 10{sup -4} m{sup -2} s{sup -1} GeV{sup -1} in one year at 90% of confidence level for a declination of - 90 deg C. (author)

  19. ALICE Transition Radiation Detector (TRD), test beam.

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Electrons and positrons can be discriminated from other charged particles using the emission of transition radiation - X-rays emitted when the particles cross many layers of thin materials. To develop such a Transition Radiation Detector(TRD) for ALICE many detector prototypes were tested in mixed beams of pions and electrons, as in the example shown here.

  20. Evaluation of Irradiated Barrel Detector Modules for the Upgrade of the CMS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Sibille, Jennifer Ann

    2013-01-01

    Prototype detector modules comprising sensors and the new readout chips were assembled and irradiated with protons at the CERN PS, and readout chips without sensors have been irradiated with protons at the Karls...

  1. Silicon Drift Detectors - A Novel Technology for Vertex Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, D.

    1996-10-01

    Silicon Drift Detectors (SDD) are novel position sensing silicon detectors which operate in a manner analogous to gas drift detectors. Single SDD's were shown in the CERN NA45 experiment to permit excellent spatial resolution (pseudo-rapidity. Over the last three years we undertook a concentrated R+D effort to optimize the performance of the detector by minimizing the inactive area, the operating voltage and the data volume. We will present test results from several wafer prototypes. The charge produced by the passage of ionizing particles through the bulk of the detectors is collected on segmented anodes, with a pitch of 250 μm, on the far edges of the detector. The anodes are wire-bonded to a thick film multi-chip module which contains preamplifier/shaper chips and CMOS based switched capacitor arrays used as an analog memory pipeline. The ADC is located off-detector. The complete readout chain from the wafer to the DAQ will be presented. Finally we will show physics performance simulations based on the resolution achieved by the SVT prototypes.

  2. Fabrication of prototype imaging arrays for SCUBA-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilton, G.C.; Beall, J.A.; Doriese, W.B.; Duncan, W.D.; Ferreira, L.S.; Irwin, K.D.; Reintsema, C.D.; Ullom, J.N.; Vale, L.R.; Xu, Y.; Zink, B.L.; Parkes, W.; Bunting, A.S.; Dunare, C.C.; Gundlach, A.M.; Stevenson, J.T.M.; Walton, A.J.; Schulte, E.; Corrales, E.; Sienicki, J.P.; Bintley, Dan; Ade, P.A.R.; Sudiwala, Rashmi V.; Woodcraft, Adam L.; Halpern, Mark; Holland, W.; Audley, M.D.; MacIntosh, M.

    2006-01-01

    Prototype imaging subarrays for SCUBA-2 (the Submillimeter Common-User Bolometer Array) have been fabricated and tested. The pixel count (1280) of these wafer-scale imagers is significantly larger than any other low-temperature detectors produced to date, and represents a major step forward for the low-temperature detector community. These transition-edge-sensor (TES) based imagers utilize several innovations including in-focal-plane superconducting quantum intereference device (SQUID) multiplexers, micromachined Si block absorbers, and superconducting wafer hybridization. In this paper, we review the fabrication processes developed for these imagers and present recent optical data from a prototype imaging subarray

  3. Performances and long-term stability of the LHAASO-KM2A prototype array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jia; Sheng XiangDong; He Huihai; Zhao Jing; Chang Jinfan; Gu Minhao; Hou Chao; Lu Hongkui

    2014-01-01

    A prototype array for the LHAASO-KM2A, which consists of 42 detector units and fully overlaps the ARGO-YBJ experiment, was set up at the Yangbajing cosmic ray observatory and has been in stable operation since October 2010. The resulting performances of the KM2A electromagnetic particle detector prototypes fully meet the design requirements. Through hybrid observation of cosmic ray showers with the ARGO-YBJ experiment, the performances and long-term stability of the prototype array are tested and the results are consistent with expectation. The cosmic ray moon shadow observed by the prototype array is also presented. (authors)

  4. Shower maximum detector for SDC calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernwein, J.

    1994-01-01

    A prototype for the SDC end-cap (EM) calorimeter complete with a pre-shower and a shower maximum detector was tested in beams of electrons and Π's at CERN by an SDC subsystem group. The prototype was manufactured from scintillator tiles and strips read out with 1 mm diameter wave-length shifting fibers. The design and construction of the shower maximum detector is described, and results of laboratory tests on light yield and performance of the scintillator-fiber system are given. Preliminary results on energy and position measurements with the shower max detector in the test beam are shown. (authors). 4 refs., 5 figs

  5. A digitalising board for the prototype array of LHAASO WCDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Xinjun; Liu Shubin; Zhao Lei; An Qi

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a digitalising board for readout of PMT signals in the prototype array of WCDA (water Cerenkov detector array) for LHAASO (Large high altitude air shower observatory)is designed. The prototype array is composed of 9 PMTs, including the pulse time and charge measurement from the PMTs, and clock generation and trigger decision. In the digitalising board, FPGA reconfiguration and data readout via VME bus are implemented. Test results show that the performances meet well with the requirements of readout electronics. It has been installed in Yangbajing and tests with the prototype array and DAQ is ongoing. (authors)

  6. Test Plan for Cask Identification Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauch, Eric Benton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-29

    This document serves to outline the testing of a Used Fuel Cask Identification Detector (CID) currently being designed under the DOE-NE MPACT Campaign. A bench-scale prototype detector will be constructed and tested using surrogate neutron sources. The testing will serve to inform the design of the full detector that is to be used as a way of fingerprinting used fuel storage casks based on the neutron signature produced by the used fuel inside the cask.

  7. Transmutation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viererbl, L., E-mail: vie@ujv.c [Research Centre Rez Ltd. (Czech Republic); Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic); Lahodova, Z. [Research Centre Rez Ltd. (Czech Republic); Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic); Klupak, V. [Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic); Sus, F. [Research Centre Rez Ltd. (Czech Republic); Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic); Kucera, J. [Research Centre Rez Ltd. (Czech Republic); Nuclear Physics Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (Czech Republic); Kus, P.; Marek, M. [Research Centre Rez Ltd. (Czech Republic); Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic)

    2011-03-11

    We have designed a new type of detectors, called transmutation detectors, which can be used primarily for neutron fluence measurement. The transmutation detector method differs from the commonly used activation detector method in evaluation of detector response after irradiation. Instead of radionuclide activity measurement using radiometric methods, the concentration of stable non-gaseous nuclides generated by transmutation in the detector is measured using analytical methods like mass spectrometry. Prospective elements and nuclear reactions for transmutation detectors are listed and initial experimental results are given. The transmutation detector method could be used primarily for long-term measurement of neutron fluence in fission nuclear reactors, but in principle it could be used for any type of radiation that can cause transmutation of nuclides in detectors. This method could also be used for measurement in accelerators or fusion reactors.

  8. Transmutation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viererbl, L.; Lahodova, Z.; Klupak, V.; Sus, F.; Kucera, J.; Kus, P.; Marek, M.

    2011-01-01

    We have designed a new type of detectors, called transmutation detectors, which can be used primarily for neutron fluence measurement. The transmutation detector method differs from the commonly used activation detector method in evaluation of detector response after irradiation. Instead of radionuclide activity measurement using radiometric methods, the concentration of stable non-gaseous nuclides generated by transmutation in the detector is measured using analytical methods like mass spectrometry. Prospective elements and nuclear reactions for transmutation detectors are listed and initial experimental results are given. The transmutation detector method could be used primarily for long-term measurement of neutron fluence in fission nuclear reactors, but in principle it could be used for any type of radiation that can cause transmutation of nuclides in detectors. This method could also be used for measurement in accelerators or fusion reactors.

  9. Model-independent evaluation of recoils channeling impact on visible energy spectra in dark matter particles crystalline detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyuldya, S.V.; Bratchenko, M.I.

    2012-01-01

    Proposed is a direct method of Dark Matter crystalline scintillation detectors calibration by means of an atomistic molecular dynamics modeling of their responses to ∼10 keV recoil atoms. Simulations show that the recoils channeling exists in NaI lattice with probabilities of ∼5 - 15 %. It does not affect the mean values of quenching factors but gives rise to high visible energy spectral tails absent in disordered detectors. As a result, the lattice ordering manifests the ∼100 % effect on NaI(Tl) visible energy spectra at 2-6 keV window

  10. A study on the optimization of optical guide of gamma camera detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yong Hyun; Cho, Gyu Seong; Kim, Ho Kyung; Lee, Wan No; Kim, Young Soo

    2000-01-01

    An optical guide, which is a light guide located between NaI(Tl) scintillation-crystal and array of photo-multiplier tubes (PMTs) in the gamma camera detector system, is an essential component to deliver the spatial information recorded in scintillator to the PMTs. Without the optical guide, the spatial information within the range of a single PMT could not be obtained. For the design of the optimal optical guide, it is necessary to characterize its properties, especially sensitivity and spatial resolution of detector. In this study, the thickness and the refractive index of optical guide, which affect not only on the sensitivity but also on the spatial resolution of gamma-camera detector, were investigated by using Monte Carlo simulation. A 12'x12'x3/8' NaI(Tl) and 23 PMTs with each 5' diameter were considered as a gamma-camera detector components. Interactions of optical photons in the scintillator and the optical guide were simulated using a commercial code DETECT97, and the spatial resolution, mainly interfered by the intrinsic inward distortion within the PMT, was investigated using our own ANGER program, which was developed to calculate positions of incident photons in the gamma camera. From the simulation results, it was found that an optical guide with 1.6 of refractive index and 10 mm of thickness give maximum sensitivity and minimum spatial distortion, respectively

  11. First observation of Cherenkov ring images using hybrid photon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, E.; Wilkinson, G.; Bibby, J.H.; Giles, R.; Harnew, N.; Smale, N.; Brook, N.H.; Halley, A.W.; O'Shea, V.; French, M.; Gibson, V.; Wotton, S.A.; Schomaker, R.

    1998-01-01

    A ring-imaging Cherenkov detector, equipped with hybrid photon detectors, has been operated in a charged-particle beam. Focussed ring images from various particle types were detected using silica aerogel, air and C 4 F 10 gas radiators. The detector, a prototype for the CERN LHC-B experiment, is described and first observations are reported. (orig.)

  12. First observation of Cherenkov ring images using hybrid photon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, E.; Wilkinson, G. [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). Div. Particle Physics Experiments; Barber, G.; Duane, A.; John, M.; Miller, D.G.; Websdale, D. [Imperial College of Science Technology and Medicine, Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Bibby, J.H.; Giles, R.; Harnew, N.; Smale, N. [University of Oxford, Department of Nuclear Physics, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Brook, N.H.; Halley, A.W.; O`Shea, V. [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); French, M. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Gibson, V.; Wotton, S.A. [University of Cambridge, Cavendish Laboratory, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Schomaker, R. [Delft Electronic Products BV, 9300 AB Roden (Netherlands)

    1998-07-11

    A ring-imaging Cherenkov detector, equipped with hybrid photon detectors, has been operated in a charged-particle beam. Focussed ring images from various particle types were detected using silica aerogel, air and C{sub 4}F{sub 10} gas radiators. The detector, a prototype for the CERN LHC-B experiment, is described and first observations are reported. (orig.)

  13. Lower bounds on scintillation detector timing performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinthorne, N.H.; Rogers, W.L.; Hero, A.O. III.; Petrick, N.A.

    1990-01-01

    Fundamental method-independent limits on the timing performance of scintillation detectors are useful for identifying regimes in which either present timing methods are nearly optimal or where a considerable performance gain might be realized using better pulse processing techniques. Several types of lower bounds on mean-squared timing error (MSE) performance have been developed and applied to scintillation detectors. The simple Cramer-Rao (CR) bound can be useful in determining the limiting MSE for scintillators having a relatively high rate of photon problction such as BaF 2 and NaI(Tl); however, it tends to overestimate the achievalbe performance for scintillators with lower rates such as BGO. For this reason, alternative bounds have been developed using rate-distortion theory or by assuming that the conversion of energy to scintillation light must pass through excited states which have exponential lifetime densities. The bounds are functions of the mean scintillation pulse shape, the scintillation intensity, and photodetector characteristics; they are simple to evaluate and can be used to conveniently assess the limiting timing performance of scintillation detectors. (orig.)

  14. From prototype to product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tariq Osman; Bansler, Jørgen P.; Kensing, Finn

    2017-01-01

    This paper delves into the challenges of engaging patients, clinicians and industry stakeholders in the participatory design of an mHealth platform for patient-clinician collaboration. It follows the process from the development of a research prototype to a commercial software product. In particu......This paper delves into the challenges of engaging patients, clinicians and industry stakeholders in the participatory design of an mHealth platform for patient-clinician collaboration. It follows the process from the development of a research prototype to a commercial software product....... In particular, we draw attention to four major challenges of (a) aligning the different concerns of patients and clinicians, (b) designing according to clinical accountability, (c) ensuring commercial interest, and (d) dealing with regulatory constraints when prototyping safety critical health Information...... Technology. Using four illustrative cases, we discuss what these challenges entail and the implications they pose to Participatory Design. We conclude the paper by presenting lessons learned....

  15. Neutrino physics-the link between the microcosmos and the macrocosmos, a study in two parts: (1) Theoretical-a look at the tau neutrino mass and other quantum electrodynamical effects in third family lepton interactions and (2) Experimental-underwater astronomy in Hawai'i, the short prototype string of the Deep Underwater Muon and Neutrino Detector project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babson, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    The nineteen eighties has been a time in which Cosmology and Particle Physics have come together. This dissertation reflects that trend. It does so in two ways. First, in Chapters 1 through 3, there is a theoretical investigation into some aspects of generational universality. The consequences of a third lepton, namely the tauon, and an associated tau neutrino, are explored in terms of phenomenology (mass and V-A consistency) that may shed insight into questions of neutrino mass and increased symmetry at higher energies. Second, in Chapters 4 through 11, there is an experimental investigation in the form of constructing and operating the first stage of the DUMAND (Deep Underwater Muon and Neutrino Detection) project which was a ship suspended muon and neutrino telescope called the SPS (Short Prototype String). This detector is of the water Cherenkov type and is the first time such an instrument has been successfully built and tested for use in the ocean. Chapters 6 through 10 are devoted to the detailed documentation of the parts of the SPS and its technology integration that I designed, prototyped, and debugged. In particular, a complete description is given to the command and control communications system of the string, the digital control electronics and associated software for the Optical, Calibration, and Power modules as well as the fast digitizing electronics or String Bottom Controller (SBC). This includes the development of a microcontroller language UHPS (Underwater Hawai'i Programming System). Finally, Chapter 11 is an analysis of SPS data in terms of ascertaining a purely statistically based downward traveling muon rate at a depth of 4.0 Km yielding (2.06 ± 0.68) x 10 -2 Hz

  16. MMSW. A large-size micromegas quadruplet prototype. Reconstruction efficiency and spatial resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Tai-Hua; Duedder, Andreas; Schott, Matthias; Valderanis, Chrysostomos [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Mainz (Germany); Bianco, Michele; Danielsson, Hans; Degrange, Jordan; De Oliveira, Rui; Farina, Edoardo; Kuger, Fabian; Iengo, Paolo; Perez Gomez, Francisco; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Vergain, Maurice; Wotschack, Joerg [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2016-07-01

    One of the upgrades of the ATLAS detector for Run III and beyond is the replacement of the inner part of end cap muon tracking spectrometer with eight layers of resistive micromegas detectors. The performance of two prototype detectors, MMSW (MicroMegas Small Wheel), that adopt the design foreseen for this upgrade was studied. The prototype detectors were tested at the Mainz Microtron for the spatial resolution, with cosmic rays for the reconstruction efficiency and for high rate tests in the new Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF++) at CERN. These measurements with analysis methods and results will be presented. First performance results are consistent with the ATLAS New Small Wheel requirements.

  17. PANDA Muon System Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abazov, Victor; Alexeev, Gennady; Alexeev, Maxim; Frolov, Vladimir; Golovanov, Georgy; Kutuzov, Sergey; Piskun, Alexei; Samartsev, Alexander; Tokmenin, Valeri; Verkheev, Alexander; Vertogradov, Leonid; Zhuravlev, Nikolai

    2018-04-01

    The PANDA Experiment will be one of the key experiments at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) which is under construction now in the territory of the GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research in Darmstadt, Germany. PANDA is aimed to study hadron spectroscopy and various topics of the weak and strong forces. Muon System is chosen as the most suitable technology for detecting the muons. The Prototype of the PANDA Muon System is installed on the test beam line T9 at the Proton Synchrotron (PS) at CERN. Status of the PANDA Muon System prototype is presented with few preliminary results.

  18. Prototyping a Smart City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Henrik; Brynskov, Martin

    In this paper, we argue that by approaching the so-called Smart City as a design challenge, and an interaction design perspective, it is possible to both uncover existing challenges in the interplay between people, technology and society, as well as prototype possible futures. We present a case...... in which we exposed data about the online communication between the citizens and the municipality on a highly visible media facade, while at the same time prototyped a tool that enabled citizens to report ‘bugs’ within the city....

  19. PANDA Muon System Prototype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abazov Victor

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The PANDA Experiment will be one of the key experiments at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR which is under construction now in the territory of the GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research in Darmstadt, Germany. PANDA is aimed to study hadron spectroscopy and various topics of the weak and strong forces. Muon System is chosen as the most suitable technology for detecting the muons. The Prototype of the PANDA Muon System is installed on the test beam line T9 at the Proton Synchrotron (PS at CERN. Status of the PANDA Muon System prototype is presented with few preliminary results.

  20. Prototype HL-LHC magnet undergoes testing

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2016-01-01

    A preliminary short prototype of the quadrupole magnets for the High-Luminosity LHC has passed its first tests.   The first short prototype of the quadrupole magnet for the High Luminosity LHC. (Photo: G. Ambrosio (US-LARP and Fermilab), P. Ferracin and E. Todesco (CERN TE-MSC)) Momentum is gathering behind the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project. In laboratories on either side of the Atlantic, a host of tests are being carried out on the various magnet models. In mid-March, a short prototype of the quadrupole magnet underwent its first testing phase at the Fermilab laboratory in the United States. This magnet is a pre-prototype of the quadrupole magnets that will be installed near to the ATLAS and CMS detectors to squeeze the beams before collisions. Six quadrupole magnets will be installed on each side of each experiment, giving a total of 24 magnets, and will replace the LHC's triplet magnets. Made of superconducting niobium-tin, the magnets will be more powerful than their p...

  1. A prototype imaging second harmonic interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jobes, F.C.; Bretz, N.L.

    1997-01-01

    We have built a prototype imaging second harmonic interferometer, which is intended to test critical elements of a design for a tangential array interferometer on C-Mod 6 . The prototype uses a pulsed, 35 mJ, 10 Hz multimode, Nd:YAG laser, LiB 3 O 5 doublers, a fan beam created by a cylindrical lens, four retroreflector elements, and a CCD camera as a detector. The prototype also uses a polarization scheme in which the interference information is eventually carried by two second harmonic beams with crossed polarization. These are vector summed and differenced, and separated, by a Wollaston prism, to give two spots on the CCD. There is a pair of these spots for each retroreflector used. The phase information is directly available as the ratio of the difference to sum the intensities of the two spots. We have tested a single channel configuration of this prototype, varying the phase by changing the pressure in an air cell, and we have obtained a 5:1 light to dark ratio, and a clear sinusoidal variation of the ratio as a function of pressure change. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  2. Detector Unit

    CERN Multimedia

    1960-01-01

    Original detector unit of the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) BOL project. This detector unit shows that silicon detectors for nuclear physics particle detection were already developed and in use in the 1960's in Amsterdam. Also the idea of putting 'strips' onto the silicon for high spatial resolution of a particle's impact on the detector were implemented in the BOL project which used 64 of these detector units. The IKO BOL project with its silicon particle detectors was designed, built and operated from 1965 to roughly 1977. Detector Unit of the BOL project: These detectors, notably the ‘checkerboard detector’, were developed during the years 1964-1968 in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, by the Natuurkundig Laboratorium of the N.V. Philips Gloeilampen Fabrieken. This was done in close collaboration with the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) where the read-out electronics for their use in the BOL Project was developed and produced.

  3. Detector trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpak, G.

    1986-01-01

    The author describes briefly the development of detectors for high energy physics experiments. Especially considered are semiconductor microstrip detectors, drift tubes, holographic bubble chambers, scintillating fiber optics, and calorimeters. (HSI).

  4. Relative efficiency calculation of a HPGe detector using MCNPX code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeiros, Marcos P.C.; Rebello, Wilson F.; Lopes, Jose M.; Silva, Ademir X.

    2015-01-01

    High-purity germanium detectors (HPGe) are mandatory tools for spectrometry because of their excellent energy resolution. The efficiency of such detectors, quoted in the list of specifications by the manufacturer, frequently refers to the relative full-energy peak efficiency, related to the absolute full-energy peak efficiency of a 7.6 cm x 7.6 cm (diameter x height) NaI(Tl) crystal, based on the 1.33 MeV peak of a 60 Co source positioned 25 cm from the detector. In this study, we used MCNPX code to simulate a HPGe detector (Canberra GC3020), from Real-Time Neutrongraphy Laboratory of UFRJ, to survey the spectrum of a 60 Co source located 25 cm from the detector in order to calculate and confirm the efficiency declared by the manufacturer. Agreement between experimental and simulated data was achieved. The model under development will be used for calculating and comparison purposes with the detector calibration curve from software Genie2000™, also serving as a reference for future studies. (author)

  5. Infrared detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Rogalski, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    This second edition is fully revised and reorganized, with new chapters concerning third generation and quantum dot detectors, THz detectors, cantilever and antenna coupled detectors, and information on radiometry and IR optics materials. Part IV concerning focal plane arrays is significantly expanded. This book, resembling an encyclopedia of IR detectors, is well illustrated and contains many original references … a really comprehensive book.-F. Sizov, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, National Academy of Sciences, Kiev, Ukraine

  6. Design and analysis of a 1-ton prototype of the Jinping Neutrino Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zongyi; Wang, Yuanqing; Wang, Zhe; Chen, Shaomin; Du, Xinxi; Zhang, Tianxiong; Guo, Ziyi; Yuan, Huanxin

    2017-01-01

    The Jinping Neutrino Experiment will perform an in-depth research on solar neutrinos and geo-neutrinos. Two structural options (i.e., cylindrical and spherical schemes) are proposed for the Jinping detector based on other successful underground neutrino detectors. Several key factors in the design are also discussed in detail. A 1-ton prototype of the Jinping experiment is proposed based on physics requirements. Subsequently, the structural design, installation procedure, and mechanical analysis of the neutrino detector prototype are discussed. The results show that the maximum Mises stresses on the acrylic vessel, stainless steel truss, and the tank are all lower than the design values of the strengths. The stability requirement of the stainless steel truss in the detector prototype is satisfied. Consequently, the structural scheme for the 1-ton prototype is safe and reliable.

  7. Design and analysis of a 1-ton prototype of the Jinping Neutrino Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zongyi, E-mail: wangzongyi1990@outlook.com [School of Civil Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Wang, Yuanqing [Key Laboratory of Civil Engineering Safety and Durability of Education Ministry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang, Zhe; Chen, Shaomin [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Du, Xinxi [School of Civil Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Zhang, Tianxiong [School of Civil Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Guo, Ziyi [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Yuan, Huanxin [School of Civil Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2017-05-21

    The Jinping Neutrino Experiment will perform an in-depth research on solar neutrinos and geo-neutrinos. Two structural options (i.e., cylindrical and spherical schemes) are proposed for the Jinping detector based on other successful underground neutrino detectors. Several key factors in the design are also discussed in detail. A 1-ton prototype of the Jinping experiment is proposed based on physics requirements. Subsequently, the structural design, installation procedure, and mechanical analysis of the neutrino detector prototype are discussed. The results show that the maximum Mises stresses on the acrylic vessel, stainless steel truss, and the tank are all lower than the design values of the strengths. The stability requirement of the stainless steel truss in the detector prototype is satisfied. Consequently, the structural scheme for the 1-ton prototype is safe and reliable.

  8. LEP vacuum chamber, prototype

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1983-01-01

    Final prototype for the LEP vacuum chamber, see 8305170 for more details. Here we see the strips of the NEG pump, providing "distributed pumping". The strips are made from a Zr-Ti-Fe alloy. By passing an electrical current, they were heated to 700 deg C.

  9. Imagining the prototype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, C. E.; Bhomer, ten M.; Melkas, H.; Buur, J.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on the analysis of a design session, employing conversation analysis. In the design session three experts and a designer discuss a prototype of a shirt, which has been developed with the input from these experts. The analysis focuses on the type of involvement of the

  10. The prototype fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broomfield, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    The paper concerns the Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR), which is a liquid metal cooled fast reactor power station, situated at Dounreay, Scotland. The principal design features of a Fast Reactor and the PFR are given, along with key points of operating history, and health and safety features. The role of the PFR in the development programme for commercial reactors is discussed. (U.K.)

  11. AGS Booster prototype magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danby, G.; Jackson, J.; Lee, Y.Y.; Phillips, R.; Brodowski, J.; Jablonski, E.; Keohane, G.; McDowell, B.; Rodger, E.

    1987-03-19

    Prototype magnets have been designed and constructed for two half cells of the AGS Booster. The lattice requires 2.4m long dipoles, each curved by 10/sup 0/. The multi-use Booster injector requires several very different standard magnet cycles, capable of instantaneous interchange using computer control from dc up to 10 Hz.

  12. AGS booster prototype magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danby, G.; Jackson, J.; Lee, Y.Y.; Phillips, R.; Brodowski, J.; Jablonski, E.; Keohane, G.; McDowell, B.; Rodger, E.

    1987-01-01

    Prototype magnets have been designed and constructed for two half cells of the AGS Booster. The lattice requires 2.4m long dipoles, each curved by 10 0 . The multi-use Booster injector requires several very different standard magnet cycles, capable of instantaneous interchange using computer control from dc up to 10 Hz

  13. Cockroft Walton accelerator prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutapea, Sumihar.

    1976-01-01

    Prototype of a Cockroft Walton generator using ceramic and plastic capacitors is discussed. Compared to the previous generator, the construction and components are much more improved. Pralon is used for the high voltage insulation column and plastic is used as a dielectric material for the high voltage capacitor. Cockroft Walton generator is used as a high tension supply for an accelerator. (author)

  14. Prompt and Precise Prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    For Sanders Design International, Inc., of Wilton, New Hampshire, every passing second between the concept and realization of a product is essential to succeed in the rapid prototyping industry where amongst heavy competition, faster time-to-market means more business. To separate itself from its rivals, Sanders Design aligned with NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center to develop what it considers to be the most accurate rapid prototyping machine for fabrication of extremely precise tooling prototypes. The company's Rapid ToolMaker System has revolutionized production of high quality, small-to-medium sized prototype patterns and tooling molds with an exactness that surpasses that of computer numerically-controlled (CNC) machining devices. Created with funding and support from Marshall under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract, the Rapid ToolMaker is a dual-use technology with applications in both commercial and military aerospace fields. The advanced technology provides cost savings in the design and manufacturing of automotive, electronic, and medical parts, as well as in other areas of consumer interest, such as jewelry and toys. For aerospace applications, the Rapid ToolMaker enables fabrication of high-quality turbine and compressor blades for jet engines on unmanned air vehicles, aircraft, and missiles.

  15. Surrogates-based prototyping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Du Bois, E.; Horvath, I.

    2014-01-01

    The research is situated in the system development phase of interactive software products. In this detailed design phase, we found a need for fast testable prototyping to achieve qualitative change proposals on the system design. In this paper, we discuss a literature study on current software

  16. Z Andromedae: the prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viotti, R.; Giangrande, A.; Ricciardi, O.; Cassatella, A.

    1982-01-01

    Z And is considered as the ''prototype'' of the symbiotic stars. Besides its symbiotic spectrum, the star is also known for its characteristic light curve (and for the related spectral variations). Since many theoretical speculations on Z And and similar objects have been based on the luminosity and spectral variations of this star, the authors critically analyse the observational data concerning it. (Auth.)

  17. Courthouse Prototype Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malhotra, Mini [ORNL; New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL; Im, Piljae [ORNL

    2018-02-01

    As part of DOE's support of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1 and IECC, researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) apply a suite of prototype buildings covering 80% of the commercial building floor area in the U.S. for new construction. Efforts have started on expanding the prototype building suite to cover 90% of the commercial building floor area in the U.S., by developing prototype models for additional building types including place of worship, public order and safety, public assembly. Courthouse is courthouse is a sub-category under the “Public Order and Safety" building type category; other sub-categories include police station, fire station, and jail, reformatory or penitentiary.ORNL used building design guides, databases, and documented courthouse projects, supplemented by personal communication with courthouse facility planning and design experts, to systematically conduct research on the courthouse building and system characteristics. This report documents the research conducted for the courthouse building type and proposes building and system characteristics for developing a prototype building energy model to be included in the Commercial Building Prototype Model suite. According to the 2012 CBECS, courthouses occupy a total of 436 million sqft of floor space or 0.5% of the total floor space in all commercial buildings in the US, next to fast food (0.35%), grocery store or food market (0.88%), and restaurant or cafeteria (1.2%) building types currently included in the Commercial Prototype Building Model suite. Considering aggregated average, courthouse falls among the larger with a mean floor area of 69,400 sqft smaller fuel consumption intensity building types and an average of 94.7 kBtu/sqft compared to 77.8 kBtu/sqft for office and 80 kBtu/sqft for all commercial buildings.Courthouses range in size from 1000 sqft to over a million square foot building gross square feet and 1 courtroom to over 100 courtrooms. Small courthouses

  18. Prototype tests for a highly granular scintillator-based hadronic calorimeter

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yong; Collaboration, for the CALICE

    2017-01-01

    Within the CALICE collaboration, several concepts for the hadronic calorimeter of a future lepton collider detector are studied. After having demonstrated the capabilities of the measurement methods in "physics prototypes", the focus now lies on improving their implementation in "technological prototypes", that are scalable to the full linear collider detector. The Analogue Hadronic Calorimeter (AHCAL) concept is a sampling calorimeter of tungsten or steel absorber plates and plastic scintill...

  19. Second LaBr3 Compton Telescope Prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llosa, Gabriela; Cabello, Jorge; Gillam, John-E.; Lacasta, Carlos; Oliver, Josep F.; Rafecas, Magdalena; Solaz, Carles; Solevi, Paola; Stankova, Vera; Torres-Espallardo, Irene; Trovato, Marco

    2013-06-01

    A Compton telescope for dose delivery monitoring in hadron therapy is under development at IFIC Valencia within the European project ENVISION. The telescope will consist of three detector planes, each one composed of a LaBr 3 continuous scintillator crystal coupled to four silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) arrays. After the development of a first prototype which served to assess the principle, a second prototype with larger crystals has been assembled and is being tested. The current version of the prototype consists of two detector layers, each one composed of a 32.5 x 35 mm 2 crystal coupled to four SiPM arrays. The VATA64HDR16 ASIC has been employed as front-end electronics. The readout system consists of a custom made data acquisition board. Tests with point-like sources have been carried out in the laboratory, assessing the correct functioning of the device. The system optimization is ongoing. (authors)

  20. Aerogel for FARICH detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnyakov, A.Yu. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lavrentieva 11, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Barnyakov, M.Yu. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lavrentieva 11, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State Technical University, Karl Marks 20, Novosibirsk 630073 (Russian Federation); Bobrovnikov, V.S.; Buzykaev, A.R.; Gulevich, V.V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lavrentieva 11, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Danilyuk, A.F. [Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Lavrentieva 5, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Kononov, S.A.; Kravchenko, E.A. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lavrentieva 11, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Pirogova 2, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Kuyanov, I.A. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lavrentieva 11, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Lopatin, S.A. [Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Lavrentieva 5, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Onuchin, A.P.; Ovtin, I.V.; Podgornov, N.A. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lavrentieva 11, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State Technical University, Karl Marks 20, Novosibirsk 630073 (Russian Federation); Porosev, V.V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lavrentieva 11, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Predein, A.Yu.; Protsenko, R.S. [Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Lavrentieva 5, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-01

    We present our current experience in preparation of focusing aerogels for the Focusing Aerogel RICH detector. Multilayer focusing aerogel tiles have been produced in Novosibirsk by a collaboration of the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics and Boreskov Institute of Catalysis since 2004. We have obtained 2–3–4-layer blocks with the thickness of 30–45 mm. In 2012, the first samples of focusing blocks with continuous density (refractive index) gradient along thickness were produced. This technology can significantly reduce the contribution from the geometric factor of the radiator thickness to the resolution of the measured Cherenkov angle in the FARICH detector. The special installation was used for automatic control of reagents ratio during the synthesis process. The first samples were tested using the digital radiography method and on the electron beam with the FARICH prototype.

  1. Studies on GEM modules for a large prototype TPC for the ILC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsionou, Dimitra

    2016-12-01

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) is a future electron-positron collider with centre of mass energy of 500-1000 GeV. The International Large Detector (ILD) is one of two detector concepts at the ILC. Its high precision tracking system consists of Silicon sub-detectors and a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) equipped with micro-pattern gas detectors (MPGDs). Within the framework of the LCTPC collaboration, a Large Prototype (LP) TPC has been built as a demonstrator. This prototype has been equipped with Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) modules and studied with electron beams of energies 1-6 GeV at the DESY test beam facility. The performance of the prototype detector and the extrapolation to the ILD TPC is presented here. In addition, ongoing optimisation studies and R and D; activities in order to prepare the next GEM module iteration are discussed.

  2. Studies on GEM modules for a Large Prototype TPC for the ILC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsionou, Dimitra, E-mail: dimitra.tsionou@desy.de

    2017-02-11

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) is a future electron–positron collider with centre of mass energy of 500–1000 GeV. The International Large Detector (ILD) is one of two detector concepts at the ILC. Its high precision tracking system consists of Silicon sub-detectors and a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) equipped with micro-pattern gas detectors (MPGDs). Within the framework of the LCTPC collaboration, a Large Prototype (LP) TPC has been built as a demonstrator. This prototype has been equipped with Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) modules and studied with electron beams of energies 1–6 GeV at the DESY test beam facility. The performance of the prototype detector and the extrapolation to the ILD TPC is presented here. In addition, ongoing optimisation studies and R&D activities in order to prepare the next GEM module iteration are discussed.

  3. Studies on GEM modules for a Large Prototype TPC for the ILC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsionou, Dimitra

    2017-01-01

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) is a future electron–positron collider with centre of mass energy of 500–1000 GeV. The International Large Detector (ILD) is one of two detector concepts at the ILC. Its high precision tracking system consists of Silicon sub-detectors and a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) equipped with micro-pattern gas detectors (MPGDs). Within the framework of the LCTPC collaboration, a Large Prototype (LP) TPC has been built as a demonstrator. This prototype has been equipped with Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) modules and studied with electron beams of energies 1–6 GeV at the DESY test beam facility. The performance of the prototype detector and the extrapolation to the ILD TPC is presented here. In addition, ongoing optimisation studies and R&D activities in order to prepare the next GEM module iteration are discussed.

  4. Construction and test of the final CMS Barrel Drift Tube Muon Chamber prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Alberdi, J.; Arneodo, M.; Banicz, K.; Benettoni, M.; Benvenuti, A.; Bethke, S.; Cerrada, M. E-mail: cerrada@ciemat.es; Cirio, R.; Colino, N.; Conti, E.; Dallavalle, M.; Daniel, M.; Dattola, D.; Daudo, F.; De Giorgi, M.; Dosselli, U.; Fanfani, A.; Fanin, C.; Fouz, M.C.; Gasparini, F.; Gasparini, U.; Giacomelli, P.; Giordano, V.; Gonella, F.; Grandi, C.; Guaita, P.; Guerzoni, M.; Lacaprara, S.; Lippi, I.; Marcellini, S.; Marin, J.; Martinelli, R.; Maselli, S.; Meneguzzo, A.; Migliore, E.; Mocholi, J.; Monaco, V.; Montanari, A.; Montanari, C.; Odorici, F.; Oller, J.C.; Paoletti, S.; Passaseo, M.; Pegoraro, M.; Peroni, C.; Puerta, J.; Reithler, H.; Romero, A.; Romero, L.; Ronchese, P.; Rossi, A.M.; Rovelli, T.; Sacchi, R.; Salicio, J.M.; Staiano, A.; Steinbeck, T.; Torassa, E.; Travaglini, R.; Ventura, L.; Ventura, S.; Vitelli, A.; Voetee, F.; Wegner, M.; Willmott, C.; Zotto, P.; Zumerle, G

    2002-03-21

    A prototype of the CMS Barrel Muon Detector incorporating all the features of the final chambers was built using the mass production assembly procedures and tools. The performance of this prototype was studied in a muon test beam at CERN and the results obtained are presented in this paper.

  5. A prototype pixel readout chip for asynchronous detection applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, D.M.; Hall, G.; Lewis, A.J.; Sharp, P.H.

    1991-01-01

    A two-dimensional array of amplifier cells has been fabricated as a prototype readout system for a matching array of silicon diode detectors. Each cell contains a preamplifier, shaping amplifier, comparator and analogue signal storage in an area of 300 μmx320 μm using 3 μm CMOS technology. Full size chips will be bump bonded to pixel detector arrays. Low noise and asynchronous operation are novel design features. With noise levels of less than 250 rms electrons for input capacitances up to 600 fF, pixel detectors will be suitable for autoradiography, synchrotron X-ray and high energy particle detection applications. The design of the prototype chip is presented and future developments and prospects for applications are discussed. (orig.)

  6. Test beam results of LHCb scintillating fibre tracker prototypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachmann, Sebastian; Comerma, Albert; Gerick, David; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Kecke, Matthieu; Leverington, Blake; Mazorra de Cos, Jose; Mitzel, Dominik; Neuner, Max; Uwer, Ulrich; Han, Xiaoxue [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany); Collaboration: LHCb-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    During the Long Shutdown 2 of the LHC, the LHCb detector will undergo a major upgrade to meet the challenges of running at a higher luminosity. The current Inner and Outer Tracking system will not be sufficient to deal with the envisaged increased detector occupancy and higher radiation levels and will be replaced by a single tracking detector based on 0.250 mm diameter plastic scintillating fibres. The fibres are wound to multilayer ribbons 2.4 m long and read out by 128 channel silicon photomultiplier arrays. The Scintillating Fibre (SciFi) tracker will cover a total active area of 360 m{sup 2}, arranged in 12 layers. The performances of prototype modules having 6 and 8 layers of fibre have been tested at the SPS at CERN. This talk focuses on basic properties of the prototype modules such as spatial resolution, single hit efficiency and light yield measured during the test beam campaigns in 2015.

  7. Cosmic-ray-veto detector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.W.; Menlove, H.O.

    1992-12-01

    To reduce the cosmic-ray-induced neutron background, we are testing a cosmic-ray veto option with a neutron detector system that uses plastic scintillator slabs mounted on the outside of a 3 He-tube detector. The scintillator slabs eliminate unwanted cosmic-ray events, enabling the detector to assay low-level plutonium samples, for which a low-background coincident signature is critical. This report describes the design and testing of the prototype cosmic-ray-veto detector system

  8. The DEPFET Mini-matrix Particle Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Scheirich

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The DEPFET is new type of active pixel particle detector. A MOSFET is integrated in each pixel, providing the first amplification stage of the readout electronics. Excellent noise parameters are obtained with this layout. The DEPFET detector will be integrated as an inner detector in the BELLE II and ILC experiment. A flexible measuring system with a wide control cycle range and minimal noise was designed for testing small detector prototypes.Noise of 60 electrons of the equivalent input charge was achieved during the first measurements on the system.

  9. Database Replication Prototype

    OpenAIRE

    Vandewall, R.

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the design of a Replication Framework that facilitates the implementation and com-parison of database replication techniques. Furthermore, it discusses the implementation of a Database Replication Prototype and compares the performance measurements of two replication techniques based on the Atomic Broadcast communication primitive: pessimistic active replication and optimistic active replication. The main contributions of this report can be split into four parts....

  10. Brachial Plexus Blocker Prototype

    OpenAIRE

    Stéphanie Coelho Monteiro

    2017-01-01

    Although the area of surgical simulation has been the subject of study in recent years, it is still necessary to develop artificial experimental models with a perspective to dismiss the use of biological models. Since this makes the simulators more real, transferring the environment of the health professional to a physical or virtual reality, an anesthetic prototype has been developed, where the motor response is replicated when the brachial plexus is subjected to a proximal nervous stimulus....

  11. Prototyping real-time systems

    OpenAIRE

    Clynch, Gary

    1994-01-01

    The traditional software development paradigm, the waterfall life cycle model, is defective when used for developing real-time systems. This thesis puts forward an executable prototyping approach for the development of real-time systems. A prototyping system is proposed which uses ESML (Extended Systems Modelling Language) as a prototype specification language. The prototyping system advocates the translation of non-executable ESML specifications into executable LOOPN (Language of Object ...

  12. Multiagency Urban Search Experiment Detector and Algorithm Test Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Andrew D.; Garishvili, Irakli; Peplow, Douglas E.; Archer, Daniel E.; Ray, William R.; Swinney, Mathew W.; Willis, Michael J.; Davidson, Gregory G.; Cleveland, Steven L.; Patton, Bruce W.; Hornback, Donald E.; Peltz, James J.; McLean, M. S. Lance; Plionis, Alexander A.; Quiter, Brian J.; Bandstra, Mark S.

    2017-07-01

    In order to provide benchmark data sets for radiation detector and algorithm development, a particle transport test bed has been created using experimental data as model input and validation. A detailed radiation measurement campaign at the Combined Arms Collective Training Facility in Fort Indiantown Gap, PA (FTIG), USA, provides sample background radiation levels for a variety of materials present at the site (including cinder block, gravel, asphalt, and soil) using long dwell high-purity germanium (HPGe) measurements. In addition, detailed light detection and ranging data and ground-truth measurements inform model geometry. This paper describes the collected data and the application of these data to create background and injected source synthetic data for an arbitrary gamma-ray detection system using particle transport model detector response calculations and statistical sampling. In the methodology presented here, HPGe measurements inform model source terms while detector response calculations are validated via long dwell measurements using 2"×4"×16" NaI(Tl) detectors at a variety of measurement points. A collection of responses, along with sampling methods and interpolation, can be used to create data sets to gauge radiation detector and algorithm (including detection, identification, and localization) performance under a variety of scenarios. Data collected at the FTIG site are available for query, filtering, visualization, and download at muse.lbl.gov.

  13. MITRE sensor layer prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Francis; McGarry, Donald; Zasada, David; Foote, Scott

    2009-05-01

    The MITRE Sensor Layer Prototype is an initial design effort to enable every sensor to help create new capabilities through collaborative data sharing. By making both upstream (raw) and downstream (processed) sensor data visible, users can access the specific level, type, and quantities of data needed to create new data products that were never anticipated by the original designers of the individual sensors. The major characteristic that sets sensor data services apart from typical enterprise services is the volume (on the order of multiple terabytes) of raw data that can be generated by most sensors. Traditional tightly coupled processing approaches extract pre-determined information from the incoming raw sensor data, format it, and send it to predetermined users. The community is rapidly reaching the conclusion that tightly coupled sensor processing loses too much potentially critical information.1 Hence upstream (raw and partially processed) data must be extracted, rapidly archived, and advertised to the enterprise for unanticipated uses. The authors believe layered sensing net-centric integration can be achieved through a standardize-encapsulate-syndicateaggregate- manipulate-process paradigm. The Sensor Layer Prototype's technical approach focuses on implementing this proof of concept framework to make sensor data visible, accessible and useful to the enterprise. To achieve this, a "raw" data tap between physical transducers associated with sensor arrays and the embedded sensor signal processing hardware and software has been exploited. Second, we encapsulate and expose both raw and partially processed data to the enterprise within the context of a service-oriented architecture. Third, we advertise the presence of multiple types, and multiple layers of data through geographic-enabled Really Simple Syndication (GeoRSS) services. These GeoRSS feeds are aggregated, manipulated, and filtered by a feed aggregator. After filtering these feeds to bring just the type

  14. A prototype analysis of vengeance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elshout, Maartje; Nelissen, Rob; van Beest, Ilja

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined the concept of vengeance from a prototype perspective. In 6 studies, the prototype structure of vengeance was mapped. Sixty-nine features of vengeance were identified (Study 1), and rated on centrality (Study 2). Further studies confirmed the prototype structure. Compared to

  15. Prototype test for the PANDA barrel DIRC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzhygadlo, Roman; Gerhardt, Andreas; Kalicy, Grzegorz; Krebs, Marvin; Lehmann, Dorothe; Schwarz, Carsten; Schwiening, Jochen; Belias, Anastasios; Traxler, Michael [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fur Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Peters, Klaus [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fur Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt (Germany); Collaboration: PANDA-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The Barrel DIRC (Detector of Internally Reflected Cherenkov light) is designed to provide particle identification (PID) for the PANDA experiment at the new Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe (FAIR) at GSI, Darmstadt. It is based on the successful BABAR DIRC detector with several key improvements, such as focusing optics, fast timing, and a compact expansion volume. A large prototype was constructed and tested in a hadronic particle beam at CERN during the summer of 2015 to test the PID performance of different design options. The prototype included a fused silica radiator (either a narrow bar or a wide plate), an optional focusing lens, and a prism-shaped fused silica expansion volume. An array of microchannel-plate photomultiplier tubes measured the location and arrival time of the Cherenkov photons on 960 pixels. Data were collected for two radiator geometries and several types of focusing lenses at different beam momenta and polar angles. Results of the analysis as well as a comparison to the Geant4 simulation are presented.

  16. Determination of a source in a box with two detectors. I. non-absorbing media

    CERN Document Server

    Presler, O; German, U; Leichter, Y; Alfassi, Z B

    2002-01-01

    It was found that the activity and the position of a radioactive point source (hot spot) in a large box containing low absorbing material can be measured accurately using two NaI(Tl) gamma-ray detectors at the opposite sides of the box i.e. at 180 deg. one to another. The harmonic mean of the count rates square roots measured with the two detectors was found to be independent of the hot spot position and depends only on the source activity, the box size and the gamma-rays energy. The activity of the radioactive point source can be calculated from the above-mentioned mean. The position of the point source can be calculated from the ratio of the two detectors count rates.

  17. Optical performance of prototype horn-coupled TES bolometer arrays for SAFARI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audley, Michael D.; de Lange, Gert; Gao, Jian-Rong; Khosropanah, Pourya; Hijmering, Richard; Ridder, Marcel L.

    2016-07-01

    The SAFARI Detector Test Facility is an ultra-low background optical testbed for characterizing ultra-sensitive prototype horn-coupled TES bolmeters for SAFARI, the grating spectrometer on board the proposed SPICA satellite. The testbed contains internal cold and hot black-body illuminators and a light-pipe for illumination with an external source. We have added reimaging optics to facilitate array optical measurements. The system is now being used for optical testing of prototype detector arrays read out with frequency-domain multiplexing. We present our latest optical measurements of prototype arrays and discuss these in terms of the instrument performance.

  18. A lightweight field cage for a large TPC prototype for the ILC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behnke, Ties; Dehmelt, Klaus; Diener, Ralf; Hallermann, Lea; Matsuda, Takeshi; Prahl, Volker; Schade, Peter

    2010-06-15

    We have developed and constructed the field cage of a prototype Time Projection Chamber for research and development studies for a detector at the International Linear Collider. This prototype has an inner diameter of 72 cm and a length of 61 cm. The design of the field cage wall was optimized for a low material budget of 1.21% of a radiation length and a drift field homogeneity of {delta}E/E prototype has been part of a comprehensive test beam setup at DESY and used as a test chamber for the development of Micro Pattern Gas Detector based readout devices. (orig.)

  19. A lightweight field cage for a large TPC prototype for the ILC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behnke, Ties; Dehmelt, Klaus; Diener, Ralf; Hallermann, Lea; Matsuda, Takeshi; Prahl, Volker; Schade, Peter

    2010-06-01

    We have developed and constructed the field cage of a prototype Time Projection Chamber for research and development studies for a detector at the International Linear Collider. This prototype has an inner diameter of 72 cm and a length of 61 cm. The design of the field cage wall was optimized for a low material budget of 1.21% of a radiation length and a drift field homogeneity of ΔE/E -4 . Since November 2008 the prototype has been part of a comprehensive test beam setup at DESY and used as a test chamber for the development of Micro Pattern Gas Detector based readout devices. (orig.)

  20. Tests of a Roman Pot Prototype for the TOTEM Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Deile, M.; Anelli, G.M.; Antchev, G.A.; Ayache, M.; Caspers, F.; Dimovasili, E.; Dinapoli, R.; Drouhin, F.D.; Eggert, K.; Escourrou, L.; Fochler, O.; Gill, K.; Grabit, R.; Haug, F.; Jarron, P.; Kaplon, J.; Kroyer, T.; Luntama, T.; Macina, D.; Mattelon, E.; Mirabito, L.; Niewiadomski, H.; Noschis, E.P.; Oriunno, M.; Park, A.; Perrot, A.L.; Pirotte, O.; Quetsch, J.M.; Regnier, F.; Ruggiero, G.; Saramad, S.; Siegrist, P.; Snoeys, W.; Souissi, T.; Szczygiel, R.; Troska, J.; Vasey, F.; Verdier, A.; Avati, V.; Jarvinen, M.; Kalliokoski, M.; Kalliopuska, J.; Kurvinen, K.; Lauhakangas, R.; Oljemark, F.; Orava, R.; Palmieri, V.; Saarikko, H.; Soininen, A.; Osterberg, K.; Berardi, V.; Catanesi, M.G.; Radicioni, E.; Boccone, V.; Bozzo, M.; Buzzo, A.; Cuneo, S.; Ferro, F.; Macri, M.; Minutoli, S.; Morelli, A.; Musico, P.; Negri, M.; Santroni, A.; Sette, G.; Sobol, A.; Da Via, C.; Hasi, J.; Kok, A.; Watts, S.; Kasper, J.; Kundrat, V.; Lokajicek, M.; Smotlacha, J.

    2005-01-01

    The TOTEM collaboration has developed and tested the first prototype of its Roman Pots to be operated in the LHC. TOTEM Roman Pots contain stacks of 10 silicon detectors with strips oriented in two orthogonal directions. To measure proton scattering angles of a few microradians, the detectors will approach the beam centre to a distance of 10 sigma + 0.5 mm (= 1.3 mm). Dead space near the detector edge is minimised by using two novel "edgeless" detector technologies. The silicon detectors are used both for precise track reconstruction and for triggering. The first full-sized prototypes of both detector technologies as well as their read-out electronics have been developed, built and operated. The tests took place first in a fixed-target muon beam at CERN's SPS, and then in the proton beam-line of the SPS accelerator ring. We present the test beam results demonstrating the successful functionality of the system despite slight technical shortcomings to be improved in the near future.

  1. Tests of a Roman Pot prototype for the TOTEM experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deile, M.; Alagoz, E.; Anelli, G.; Antchev, G.; Ayache, M.; Caspers, F.; Dimovasili, E.; Dinapoli, R.; Drouhin, F.; Eggert, K.; Escourrou, J.L; Fochler, O.; Gill, K.; Grabit, R.; Haung, F.; Jarron, P.; Kaplon, J.; Kroyer, T.; Luntama, T.; Macina, D.; Mattelon, E.; Niewiadomski, H.; Mirabito, L.; Noschis, E.P.; Oriunno, M.; Park, a.; Perrot, A.-L.; Pirotte, O.; Quetsch, J.M.; Regnier, F.; Ruggiero, G.; Saramad, S.; Siegrist, P.; Snoeys, W.; sSouissi, T.; Szczygiel, R.; Troska, J.; Vasey, F.; Verdier, A.; Da Vià, C.; Hasi, J.; Kok, A.; Watts, S.; Kašpar, J.; Kundrát, V.; Lokajíček, M.V.; Smotlacha, J.; Avati, V.; Järvinen, M.; Kalliokoski, M.; Kalliopuska, J.; Kurvinen, K.; Lauhakangas, R.; Oljemark, F.; Orava, R.; Österberg, K.; Palmieri, V.; Saarikko, H.; Soininen, A.; Boccone, V.; Bozzo, M.; Buzzo, A.; Cuneo, S.; Ferro, F.; Macrí, M.; Minutoli, S.; Morelli, A.; Musico, P.; Negri, M.; Santroni, A.; Sette, G.; Sobol, A.; sBerardi, V.; Catanesi, M.G.; Radicioni, E.

    The TOTEM collaboration has developed and tested the first prototype of its Roman Pots to be operated in the LHC. TOTEM Roman Pots contain stacks of 10 silicon detectors with strips oriented in two orthogonal directions. To measure proton scattering angles of a few microradians, the detectors will approach the beam centre to a distance of 10 sigma + 0.5 mm (= 1.3 mm). Dead space near the detector edge is minimised by using two novel "edgeless" detector technologies. The silicon detectors are used both for precise track reconstruction and for triggering. The first full-sized prototypes of both detector technologies as well as their read-out electronics have been developed, built and operated. The tests took place first in a fixed-target muon beam at CERN's SPS, and then in the proton beam-line of the SPS accelerator ring. We present the test beam results demonstrating the successful functionality of the system despite slight technical shortcomings to be improved in the near future.

  2. Pixel Detectors for Particle Physics and Imaging Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wermes, N

    2003-01-01

    Semiconductor pixel detectors offer features for the detection of radiation which are interesting for particle physics detectors as well as for imaging e.g. in biomedical applications (radiography, autoradiography, protein crystallography) or in Xray astronomy. At the present time hybrid pixel detectors are technologically mastered to a large extent and large scale particle detectors are being built. Although the physical requirements are often quite different, imaging applications are emerging and interesting prototype results are available. Monolithic detectors, however, offer interesting features for both fields in future applications. The state of development of hybrid and monolithic pixel detectors, excluding CCDs, and their different suitability for particle detection and imaging, is reviewed.

  3. Evaluation of NaI(TL) and plastic scintillators for use in remote, unattended, and portal monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staples, P.; Audia, J.; Bai, Y.; Briggs, M.; Halbig, J.K.; Ianakiev, K.D.

    1998-01-01

    The authors have evaluated and compared some of the relevant operating characteristics of NaI and plastic scintillators for use in various safeguards monitoring applications. These include a sensitivity analysis of the two scintillators to various radiation fields and scintillator response as affected by environmental temperature. A comparison of experiment and modeling via the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code has been performed to validate the calculational techniques. This then enables complex detector situations to be simulated with increased confidence

  4. SoLid Detector Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labare, Mathieu

    2017-09-01

    SoLid is a reactor anti-neutrino experiment where a novel detector is deployed at a minimum distance of 5.5 m from a nuclear reactor core. The purpose of the experiment is three-fold: to search for neutrino oscillations at a very short baseline; to measure the pure 235U neutrino energy spectrum; and to demonstrate the feasibility of neutrino detectors for reactor monitoring. This report presents the unique features of the SoLid detector technology. The technology has been optimised for a high background environment resulting from low overburden and the vicinity of a nuclear reactor. The versatility of the detector technology is demonstrated with a 288 kg detector prototype which was deployed at the BR2 nuclear reactor in 2015. The data presented includes both reactor on, reactor off and calibration measurements. The measurement results are compared with Monte Carlo simulations. The 1.6t SoLid detector is currently under construction, with an optimised design and upgraded material technology to enhance the detector capabilities. Its deployement on site is planned for the begin of 2017 and offers the prospect to resolve the reactor anomaly within about two years.

  5. Evaluation of scintillators and semiconductor detectors to image three-photon positron annihilation for positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abuelhia, E.; Spyrou, N.M.; Kacperski, K.; College University, Middlesex Hospital, London

    2008-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is rapidly becoming the main nuclear imaging modality of the present century. The future of PET instrumentation relies on semiconductor detectors because of their excellent characteristics. Three-photon positron annihilation has been recently investigated as a novel imaging modality, which demands the crucial high energy resolution of semiconductor detector. In this work the evaluation of the NaI(Tl) scintillator and HPGe and CdZTe semiconductor detectors, to construct a simple three-photon positron annihilation scanner has been explored. The effect of detector and scanner size on spatial resolution (FWHM) is discussed. The characteristics: energy resolution versus count rate and point-spread function of the three-photon positron annihilation image profile from triple coincidence measurements were investigated. (author)

  6. NA48 prototype calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    1990-01-01

    This is a calorimeter, a detector which measures the energy of particles. When in use, it is filled with liquid krypton at -152°C. Electrons and photons passing through interact with the krypton, creating a shower of charged particles which are collected on the copper ribbons. The ribbons are aligned to an accuracy of a tenth of a millimetre. The folding at each end allows them to be kept absolutely flat. Each shower of particles also creates a signal in scintillating material embedded in the support disks. These flashes of light are transmitted to electronics by the optical fibres along the side of the detector. They give the time at which the interaction occurred. The photo shows the calorimeter at NA48, a CERN experiment which is trying to understand the lack of anti-matter in the Universe today.

  7. Prototyping Augmented Reality

    CERN Document Server

    Mullen, Tony

    2011-01-01

    Learn to create augmented reality apps using Processing open-source programming language Augmented reality (AR) is used all over, and you may not even realize it. Smartphones overlay data onto live camera views to show homes for sale, restaurants, or historical sites. American football broadcasts use AR to show the invisible first-down line on the field to TV viewers. Nike and Budweiser, among others, have used AR in ads. Now, you can learn to create AR prototypes using 3D data, Processing open-source programming language, and other languages. This unique book is an easy-to-follow guide on how

  8. Nightshade Prototype Experiments (Silverleaf)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danielson, Jeremy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bauer, Amy L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-12-23

    The Red Sage campaign is a series of subcritical dynamic plutonium experiments designed to measure ejecta. Nightshade, the first experiments in Red Sage scheduled for fiscal year 2019, will measure the amount of ejecta emission into vacuum from a double-­shocked plutonium surface. To address the major technical risks in Nightshade, a Level 2 milestone was developed for fiscal year 2016. Silverleaf, a series of four experiments, was executed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in July and August 2016 to demonstrate a prototype of the Nightshade package and to satisfy this Level 2 milestone. This report is documentation that Red Sage Level 2 milestone requirements were successfully met.

  9. Prototype multiwire proportional chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    Chambers of this type were initially developed within the Alpha project (finally not approved). They were designed such to minimize the radiation length with a view to a mass spectrometer of high resolution meant to replace the Omega detector. The chambers were clearly forerunners for the (drift) chambers later built for R606 with the novel technique of crimping the wires. See also photo 7510039X.

  10. Detector Control System and Efficiency Performance for CMS RPC at GIF++

    CERN Document Server

    Gul, Muhammad; Cimmino, A; Crucy, S; Fagot, A; Rios, A A O; Tytgat, M; Zaganidis, N; Aly, S; Assran, Y; Radi, A; Sayed, A; Singh, G; Abbrescia, M; Iaselli, G; Maggi, M; Pugliese, G; Verwilligen, P; Doninck, W V; Colafranceschi, S; Sharma, A; Benussi, L; Bianco, S; Piccolo, D; Primavera, F; Bhatnagar, V; Kumari, R; Mehta, A; Singh, J; Ahmad, A; Asghar, M I; Muhammad, S; Awan, I A; Hoorani, H R; Ahmed, W; Shahzad, H; Shah, M A; Cho, S W; Choi, S Y; Hong, B; Kang, M H; Lee, K S; Lim, J H; Park, S K; Kim, M; Goutzvitz, M; Grenier, G; Lagarde, F; Estrada, C U; Pedraza, I; Severiano, C B; Carrillo Moreno, S; Vazquez Valencia, F; Pant, L M; Buontempo, S; Cavallo, N; Esposito, M; Fabozzi, F; Lanza, G; Lista, L; Meola, S; Merola, M; Orso, I; Paolucci, P; Thyssen, F; Braghieri, A; Magnani, A; Montagna, P; Riccardi, C; Salvini, P; Vai, I; Vitulo, P; Ban, Y; Qian, S J; Choi, M; Choi, Y; Goh, J; Kim, D; Aleksandrov, A; Hadjiiska, R; Iaydjiev, P; Rodozov, M; Stoykova, S; Sultanov, G; Vutova, M; Dimitrov, A; Litov, L; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Lomidze, D; Bagaturia, I; Avila, C; Cabrera, A; Sanabria, J C; Crotty, I; Vaitkus, J

    2016-01-01

    In the framework of the High Luminosity LHC upgrade program, the CMS muon group built several different RPC prototypes that are now under test at the new CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF++). A dedicated Detector Control System has been developed using the WinCC-OA tool to control and monitor these prototype detectors and to store the measured parameters data.

  11. Gravitational-wave detector realized by a superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishidoshiro, K.; Ando, M.; Takamori, A.; Okada, K.; Tsubono, K.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we present a new gravitational-wave detector based on superconducting magnetic levitation and results of its prototype test. Our detector is composed of the suspended test mass that is rotated by gravitational waves. Gravitational wave signals are readout by monitoring its angular motion. Superconducting magnetic levitation is used for the suspension of the test mass, since it has many advantages, such as zero mechanical loss and resonant frequency around its suspension axis in an ideal situation. For the study of actual performance of such gravitational-wave detector, a prototype detector has been developed. Using the prototype detector, the actual loss factor and resonant frequency are measured as 1.2 x 10 -8 Nms/rad and 5 mHz respectively. A detector noise is also evaluated. The current noise level is determined by the magnetic coupling with external magnetic field and mechanical coupling between translation and angular motion. The prototype detector has already one of the lowest noise levels for gravitational waves at 0.1 Hz among current gravitational-wave detectors. We have succeeded at the demonstration of the advantages of our torsion gravitational-wave detector.

  12. Development of membrane cryostats for large liquid argon neutrino detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Montanari, D; Gendotti, A; Geynisman, M; Hentschel, S; Loew, T; Mladenov, D; Montanari, C; Murphy, S; Nessi, M; Norris, B; Noto, F; Rubbia, A; Sharma, R; Smargianaki, D; Stewart, J; Vignoli, C; Wilson, P; Wu, S

    2015-01-01

    A new collaboration is being formed to develop a multi-kiloton Long-Baseline neutrino experiment that will be located at the Surf Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. In the present design, the detector will be located inside cryostats filled with 68,400 ton of ultrapure liquid argon (less than 100 parts per trillion of oxygen equivalent contamination). To qualify the membrane technology for future very large-scale and underground implementations, a strong prototyping effort is ongoing: several smaller detectors of growing size with associated cryostats and cryogenic systems will be designed and built at Fermilab and CERN. They will take physics data and test different detector elements, filtration systems, design options and installation procedures. In addition, a 35 ton prototype is already operational at Fermilab and will take data with single-phase detector in early 2016. After the prototyping phase, the multi-kton detector will be constructed. After commissioning, it will detect and study ne...

  13. DataCollection Prototyping

    CERN Multimedia

    Beck, H.P.

    DataCollection is a subsystem of the Trigger, DAQ & DCS project responsible for the movement of event data from the ROS to the High Level Triggers. This includes data from Regions of Interest (RoIs) for Level 2, building complete events for the Event Filter and finally transferring accepted events to Mass Storage. It also handles passing the LVL1 RoI pointers and the allocation of Level 2 processors and load balancing of Event Building. During the last 18 months DataCollection has developed a common architecture for the hardware and software required. This involved a radical redesign integrating ideas from separate parts of earlier TDAQ work. An important milestone for this work, now achieved, has been to demonstrate this subsystem in the so-called Phase 2A Integrated Prototype. This prototype comprises the various TDAQ hardware and software components (ROSs, LVL2, etc.) under the control of the TDAQ Online software. The basic functionality has been demonstrated on small testbeds (~8-10 processing nodes)...

  14. OMS FDIR: Initial prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Eric W.; Hanson, Matthew A.

    1990-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP) Operations Management System (OMS) will automate major management functions which coordinate the operations of onboard systems, elements and payloads. The objectives of OMS are to improve safety, reliability and productivity while reducing maintenance and operations cost. This will be accomplished by using advanced automation techniques to automate much of the activity currently performed by the flight crew and ground personnel. OMS requirements have been organized into five task groups: (1) Planning, Execution and Replanning; (2) Data Gathering, Preprocessing and Storage; (3) Testing and Training; (4) Resource Management; and (5) Caution and Warning and Fault Management for onboard subsystems. The scope of this prototyping effort falls within the Fault Management requirements group. The prototyping will be performed in two phases. Phase 1 is the development of an onboard communications network fault detection, isolation, and reconfiguration (FDIR) system. Phase 2 will incorporate global FDIR for onboard systems. Research into the applicability of expert systems, object-oriented programming, fuzzy sets, neural networks and other advanced techniques will be conducted. The goals and technical approach for this new SSFP research project are discussed here.

  15. Live Piloting and Prototyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Rizzo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents current trends in service design research concerning large scale projects aimed at generating changes at a local scale. The strategy adopted to achieve this, is to co-design solutions including future users in the development process, prototyping and testing system of products and services before their actual implementation. On the basis of experience achieved in the European Project Life 2.0, this paper discusses which methods and competencies are applied in the development of these projects, eliciting the lessons learnt especially from the piloting phase in which the participatory design (PD approach plays a major role. In the first part, the topic is introduced jointly with the theoretical background where the user center design and participatory design methods are presented; then the Life 2.0 project development is described; finally the experience is discussed from a service design perspective, eliciting guidelines for piloting and prototyping services in a real context of use. The paper concludes reflecting on the designers’ role and competencies needed in this process.

  16. Design of an ionization diffusion chamber detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiarto, S.

    1976-01-01

    Prototype of an Ionization Diffusion Chamber detector has been made. It is a silindrical glass, 20 cm in diameter, 13,5 cm in height, air gas filled, operated at room pressure and room temperature at the top of this instrument while for the box temperature dry ice (CO 2 solid) temperature is used. This detector is ready for seeing alpha and beta particle tracks. (author)

  17. Design and Prototyping of a High Granularity Scintillator Calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zutshi, Vishnu

    2016-01-01

    A novel approach for constructing fine-granularity scintillator calorimeters, based on the concept of an Integrated Readout Layer (IRL) was developed. The IRL consists of a printed circuit board inside the detector which supports the directly-coupled scintillator tiles, connects to the surface-mount SiPMs and carries the necessary front-end electronics and signal/bias traces. Prototype IRLs using this concept were designed, prototyped and successfully exposed to test beams. Concepts and implementations of an IRL carried out with funds associated with this contract promise to result in the next generation of scintillator calorimeters.

  18. Beam Tests of a Multilayer LumiCal Prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Borysov, O

    2018-01-01

    LumiCal is a sampling electromagnetic calorimeter designed for the precise measurement of in- tegrated luminosity in electron positron linear collider experiments. The present report contains a description and results of the first beam test of a multilayer LumiCal prototype with four sili- con detector planes. A 5 GeV electron beam from the CERN PS T9 facility was used to study the performance of the LumiCal prototype. Presented results are mainly focused on the trans- verse structure of the observed electromagnetic shower and the Molière radius measurement. A comparison with MC simulation is also discussed.

  19. Design and Prototyping of a High Granularity Scintillator Calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zutshi, Vishnu [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2016-03-27

    A novel approach for constructing fine-granularity scintillator calorimeters, based on the concept of an Integrated Readout Layer (IRL) was developed. The IRL consists of a printed circuit board inside the detector which supports the directly-coupled scintillator tiles, connects to the surface-mount SiPMs and carries the necessary front-end electronics and signal/bias traces. Prototype IRLs using this concept were designed, prototyped and successfully exposed to test beams. Concepts and implementations of an IRL carried out with funds associated with this contract promise to result in the next generation of scintillator calorimeters.

  20. Energy resolution of scintillation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moszyński, M., E-mail: M.Moszynski@ncbj.gov.pl; Syntfeld-Każuch, A.; Swiderski, L.; Grodzicka, M.; Iwanowska, J.; Sibczyński, P.; Szczęśniak, T.

    2016-01-01

    According to current knowledge, the non-proportionality of the light yield of scintillators appears to be a fundamental limitation of energy resolution. A good energy resolution is of great importance for most applications of scintillation detectors. Thus, its limitations are discussed below; which arise from the non-proportional response of scintillators to gamma rays and electrons, being of crucial importance to the intrinsic energy resolution of crystals. The important influence of Landau fluctuations and the scattering of secondary electrons (δ-rays) on intrinsic resolution is pointed out here. The study on undoped NaI and CsI at liquid nitrogen temperature with a light readout by avalanche photodiodes strongly suggests that the non-proportionality of many crystals is not their intrinsic property and may be improved by selective co-doping. Finally, several observations that have been collected in the last 15 years on the influence of the slow components of light pulses on energy resolution suggest that more complex processes are taking place in the scintillators. This was observed with CsI(Tl), CsI(Na), ZnSe(Te), and undoped NaI at liquid nitrogen temperature and, finally, for NaI(Tl) at temperatures reduced below 0 °C. A common conclusion of these observations is that the highest energy resolution, and particularly intrinsic resolution measured with the scintillators, characterized by two or more components of the light pulse decay, is obtainable when the spectrometry equipment integrates the whole light of the components. In contrast, the slow components observed in many other crystals degrade the intrinsic resolution. In the limiting case, afterglow could also be considered as a very slow component that spoils the energy resolution. The aim of this work is to summarize all of the above observations by looking for their origin.