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Sample records for proton surviving colonies

  1. Parent–offspring resemblance in colony-specific adult survival of cliff swallows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Charles R.; Roche, Erin A.; Brown, Mary Bomberger

    2015-01-01

    Survival is a key component of fitness. Species that occupy discrete breeding colonies with different characteristics are often exposed to varying costs and benefits associated with group size or environmental conditions, and survival is an integrative net measure of these effects. We investigated the extent to which survival probability of adult (≥1-year old) cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) occupying different colonies resembled that of their parental cohort and thus whether the natal colony had long-term effects on individuals. Individuals were cross-fostered between colonies soon after hatching and their presence as breeders monitored at colonies in the western Nebraska study area for the subsequent decade. Colony-specific adult survival probabilities of offspring born and reared in the same colony, and those cross-fostered away from their natal colony soon after birth, were positively and significantly related to subsequent adult survival of the parental cohort from the natal colony. This result held when controlling for the effect of natal colony size and the age composition of the parental cohort. In contrast, colony-specific adult survival of offspring cross-fostered to a site was unrelated to that of their foster parent cohort or to the cohort of non-fostered offspring with whom they were reared. Adult survival at a colony varied inversely with fecundity, as measured by mean brood size, providing evidence for a survival–fecundity trade-off in this species. The results suggest some heritable variation in adult survival, likely maintained by negative correlations between fitness components. The study provides additional evidence that colonies represent non-random collections of individuals.

  2. Nutritional ecology of the Formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae): growth and survival of incipient colonies feeding on preferred wood species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Ramos, Juan A; Rojas, M Guadalupe

    2003-02-01

    The wood of 11 plant species was evaluated as a food source significantly impacting the growth and survival of incipient colonies of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). Colonies of C. formosanus feeding on pecan, Carya illinoensis (Wangenh.), and red gum, Liquidambar styraciflua L., produced significantly more progeny than colonies feeding on other wood species tested. Progeny of colonies feeding on pecan and American ash, Fraxinus americana L., had significantly greater survival than progeny of colonies feeding on other wood species. Colonies feeding on a nutritionally supplemented cellulose based matrix showed similar fitness characteristics as colonies feeding on the best wood treatments. These results indicate that differences observed in colony fitness can be partially explained by nutritional value of the food treatment, raising the possibility that wood from different tree species have different nutritional values to the Formosan subterranean termites. Colonies feeding on loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., and ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Laws., had significantly lower survival and produced significantly fewer workers and soldiers than colonies feeding on other wood species. Colony survival from 90 to 180 d of age and from 90 to 360 d of age was significantly correlated with the number of workers present at 90 d of colony age, indicating that colony survival depends on the presence of workers. Wood consumption in a multiple-choice study was significantly correlated with colony fitness value. This suggests that feeding preference of C. formosanus is at least partially influenced by the nutritional value of the food source.

  3. Disease and colony foundation in the dampwood termite Zootermopsis angusticollis: The survival advantage of nestmate pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calleri, Daniel V.; Rosengaus, Rebeca B.; Traniello, James F. A.

    2005-06-01

    To determine the impact of inbreeding and outbreeding on disease resistance and survival during colony foundation, nestmate (NM) and non-nestmate (NON) primary reproductives of the dampwood termite Zootermopsis angusticollis were exposed to a single or double dose of conidia of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae. Male and female primary reproductive pairs originating from the same parent colony had higher survivorship than NON pairs in control and conidia-exposure treatments. The survival advantage of NM primary reproductives increased with the intensity of pathogen challenge and was significantly greater in the single- and double-dose treatments than in the controls. Although NM pairs had significantly lower mortality than NON pairs, the survivorship of colonies stabilized as they matured and inbred and outbred colonies did not differ in offspring production. These results demonstrate that colony foundation by NON male and female reproductives may have a disease-related survival cost during this critical phase of their life cycle. There may also be a cost associated with lower offspring heterozygosity, but in the first generation this does not appear to significantly impact colony growth.

  4. Linking Measures of Colony and Individual Honey Bee Health to Survival among Apiaries Exposed to Varying Agricultural Land Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Matthew; Pettis, Jeff; Rice, Nathan; Browning, Zac; Spivak, Marla

    2016-01-01

    We previously characterized and quantified the influence of land use on survival and productivity of colonies positioned in six apiaries and found that colonies in apiaries surrounded by more land in uncultivated forage experienced greater annual survival, and generally more honey production. Here, detailed metrics of honey bee health were assessed over three years in colonies positioned in the same six apiaries. The colonies were located in North Dakota during the summer months and were transported to California for almond pollination every winter. Our aim was to identify relationships among measures of colony and individual bee health that impacted and predicted overwintering survival of colonies. We tested the hypothesis that colonies in apiaries surrounded by more favorable land use conditions would experience improved health. We modeled colony and individual bee health indices at a critical time point (autumn, prior to overwintering) and related them to eventual spring survival for California almond pollination. Colony measures that predicted overwintering apiary survival included the amount of pollen collected, brood production, and Varroa destructor mite levels. At the individual bee level, expression of vitellogenin, defensin1, and lysozyme2 were important markers of overwinter survival. This study is a novel first step toward identifying pertinent physiological responses in honey bees that result from their positioning near varying landscape features in intensive agricultural environments.

  5. Linking Measures of Colony and Individual Honey Bee Health to Survival among Apiaries Exposed to Varying Agricultural Land Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Matthew; Pettis, Jeff; Rice, Nathan; Browning, Zac; Spivak, Marla

    2016-01-01

    We previously characterized and quantified the influence of land use on survival and productivity of colonies positioned in six apiaries and found that colonies in apiaries surrounded by more land in uncultivated forage experienced greater annual survival, and generally more honey production. Here, detailed metrics of honey bee health were assessed over three years in colonies positioned in the same six apiaries. The colonies were located in North Dakota during the summer months and were transported to California for almond pollination every winter. Our aim was to identify relationships among measures of colony and individual bee health that impacted and predicted overwintering survival of colonies. We tested the hypothesis that colonies in apiaries surrounded by more favorable land use conditions would experience improved health. We modeled colony and individual bee health indices at a critical time point (autumn, prior to overwintering) and related them to eventual spring survival for California almond pollination. Colony measures that predicted overwintering apiary survival included the amount of pollen collected, brood production, and Varroa destructor mite levels. At the individual bee level, expression of vitellogenin, defensin1, and lysozyme2 were important markers of overwinter survival. This study is a novel first step toward identifying pertinent physiological responses in honey bees that result from their positioning near varying landscape features in intensive agricultural environments. PMID:27027871

  6. Linking Measures of Colony and Individual Honey Bee Health to Survival among Apiaries Exposed to Varying Agricultural Land Use.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Smart

    Full Text Available We previously characterized and quantified the influence of land use on survival and productivity of colonies positioned in six apiaries and found that colonies in apiaries surrounded by more land in uncultivated forage experienced greater annual survival, and generally more honey production. Here, detailed metrics of honey bee health were assessed over three years in colonies positioned in the same six apiaries. The colonies were located in North Dakota during the summer months and were transported to California for almond pollination every winter. Our aim was to identify relationships among measures of colony and individual bee health that impacted and predicted overwintering survival of colonies. We tested the hypothesis that colonies in apiaries surrounded by more favorable land use conditions would experience improved health. We modeled colony and individual bee health indices at a critical time point (autumn, prior to overwintering and related them to eventual spring survival for California almond pollination. Colony measures that predicted overwintering apiary survival included the amount of pollen collected, brood production, and Varroa destructor mite levels. At the individual bee level, expression of vitellogenin, defensin1, and lysozyme2 were important markers of overwinter survival. This study is a novel first step toward identifying pertinent physiological responses in honey bees that result from their positioning near varying landscape features in intensive agricultural environments.

  7. Nest survival is influenced by parental behaviour and heterospecifics in a mixed-species colony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brussee, Brianne E.; Coates, Peter S.; Hothem, Roger L.; Howe, Kristy; Casazza, Michael L.; Eadie, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Studies of avian nest success often focus on examining influences of variation in environmental and seasonal factors. However, in-depth evaluations can also incorporate variation in individual incubation behaviour to further advance our understanding of avian reproductive ecology. We examined these relationships in colonially nesting Black-crowned Night-Herons Nycticorax nycticorax using intensive video-monitoring methods to quantify incubation behaviours. We modelled nest survival as a function of both extrinsic factors and incubation behaviours over a 3-year period (2010–12) on Alcatraz Island, USA. Model-averaged parameter estimates indicated that nest survival increased as a function of greater incubation constancy (% of time spent incubating eggs within a 24-h period), and average daily precipitation throughout the nesting stage. Common Ravens Corvus corax are the only known nest predator of Night-Herons on Alcatraz Island, as on many other coastal Pacific islands. We also investigated the effects of heterospecific nesting of California Gulls Larus californicus and Western Gulls Larus occidentalis in a mixed-species colony with Night-Herons, based on nesting proximity data collected over a 2-year period (2011–12). This second analysis indicated that, in addition to incubation behaviours, nesting heterospecifics are an important factor for explaining variation in Night-Heron nest survival. However, contrary to our original expectation, we found that Night-Herons experienced increased nest survival with increasing distance from gull colony boundaries. These results may apply to other areas with multiple colonial nesting species and similar predator communities and climatic patterns.

  8. Winter Survival of Individual Honey Bees and Honey Bee Colonies Depends on Level of Varroa destructor Infestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dooremalen, Coby; Gerritsen, Lonne; Cornelissen, Bram; van der Steen, Jozef J. M.; van Langevelde, Frank; Blacquière, Tjeerd

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent elevated winter loss of honey bee colonies is a major concern. The presence of the mite Varroa destructor in colonies places an important pressure on bee health. V. destructor shortens the lifespan of individual bees, while long lifespan during winter is a primary requirement to survive until the next spring. We investigated in two subsequent years the effects of different levels of V. destructor infestation during the transition from short-lived summer bees to long-lived winter bees on the lifespan of individual bees and the survival of bee colonies during winter. Colonies treated earlier in the season to reduce V. destructor infestation during the development of winter bees were expected to have longer bee lifespan and higher colony survival after winter. Methodology/Principal Findings Mite infestation was reduced using acaricide treatments during different months (July, August, September, or not treated). We found that the number of capped brood cells decreased drastically between August and November, while at the same time, the lifespan of the bees (marked cohorts) increased indicating the transition to winter bees. Low V. destructor infestation levels before and during the transition to winter bees resulted in an increase in lifespan of bees and higher colony survival compared to colonies that were not treated and that had higher infestation levels. A variety of stress-related factors could have contributed to the variation in longevity and winter survival that we found between years. Conclusions/Significance This study contributes to theory about the multiple causes for the recent elevated colony losses in honey bees. Our study shows the correlation between long lifespan of winter bees and colony loss in spring. Moreover, we show that colonies treated earlier in the season had reduced V. destructor infestation during the development of winter bees resulting in longer bee lifespan and higher colony survival after winter. PMID:22558421

  9. Adult survival of Black-legged Kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla in a Pacific colony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Scott A.; Roberts, Bay D.; Fadely, Brian S.

    1993-01-01

    Breeding Black-legged Kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla survived at a mean annual rate of 0.926 in four years at a colony in Alaska. Survival rates observed in sexed males (0.930) and females (0.937) did not differ significantly. The rate of return among nonbreeding Kittiwakes (0.839) was lower than that of known breeders, presumably because more nonbreeders moved away from the study plots where they were marked. Individual nonbreeders frequented sites up to 5 km apart on the same island, while a few established breeders moved up to 2.5 km between years. Mate retention in breeding Kittiwakes averaged 69% in three years. Among pairs that split, the cause of changing mates was about equally divided between death (46%) and divorce (54%). Average adult life expectancy was estimated at 13.0 years. Combined with annual productivity averaging 0.17 chick per nest, the observed survival was insufficient for maintaining population size. Rather, an irregular decline observed in the study colony since 1981 is consistent with the model of a closed population with little or no recruitment. Compared to their Atlantic counterparts, Pacific Kittiwakes have low productivity and high survival. The question arises whether differences reflect phenotypic plasticity or genetically determined variation in population parameters.

  10. How Honey Bee Colonies Survive in the Wild: Testing the Importance of Small Nests and Frequent Swarming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Carter Loftus

    Full Text Available The ectoparasitic mite, Varroa destructor, and the viruses that it transmits, kill the colonies of European honey bees (Apis mellifera kept by beekeepers unless the bees are treated with miticides. Nevertheless, there exist populations of wild colonies of European honey bees that are persisting without being treated with miticides. We hypothesized that the persistence of these wild colonies is due in part to their habits of nesting in small cavities and swarming frequently. We tested this hypothesis by establishing two groups of colonies living either in small hives (42 L without swarm-control treatments or in large hives (up to 168 L with swarm-control treatments. We followed the colonies for two years and compared the two groups with respect to swarming frequency, Varroa infesttion rate, disease incidence, and colony survival. Colonies in small hives swarmed more often, had lower Varroa infestation rates, had less disease, and had higher survival compared to colonies in large hives. These results indicate that the smaller nest cavities and more frequent swarming of wild colonies contribute to their persistence without mite treatments.

  11. How Honey Bee Colonies Survive in the Wild: Testing the Importance of Small Nests and Frequent Swarming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus, J. Carter; Smith, Michael L.; Seeley, Thomas D.

    2016-01-01

    The ectoparasitic mite, Varroa destructor, and the viruses that it transmits, kill the colonies of European honey bees (Apis mellifera) kept by beekeepers unless the bees are treated with miticides. Nevertheless, there exist populations of wild colonies of European honey bees that are persisting without being treated with miticides. We hypothesized that the persistence of these wild colonies is due in part to their habits of nesting in small cavities and swarming frequently. We tested this hypothesis by establishing two groups of colonies living either in small hives (42 L) without swarm-control treatments or in large hives (up to 168 L) with swarm-control treatments. We followed the colonies for two years and compared the two groups with respect to swarming frequency, Varroa infesttion rate, disease incidence, and colony survival. Colonies in small hives swarmed more often, had lower Varroa infestation rates, had less disease, and had higher survival compared to colonies in large hives. These results indicate that the smaller nest cavities and more frequent swarming of wild colonies contribute to their persistence without mite treatments. PMID:26968000

  12. Predicting bat colony survival under controls targeting multiple transmission routes of white-nose syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, A D; Stevens, D F; Blackwood, J C

    2016-11-21

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a lethal infection of bats caused by the psychrophilic fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd). Since the first cases of WNS were documented in 2006, it is estimated that as many as 5.5million bats have succumbed in the United States-one of the fastest mammalian die-offs due to disease ever observed, and the first known sustained epizootic of bats. WNS is contagious between bats, and mounting evidence suggests that a persistent environmental reservoir of Pd plays a significant role in transmission as well. It is unclear, however, the relative contributions of bat-to-bat and environment-to-bat transmission to disease propagation within a colony. We analyze a mathematical model to investigate the consequences of both avenues of transmission on colony survival in addition to the efficacy of disease control strategies. Our model shows that selection of the most effective control strategies is highly dependent on the primary route of WNS transmission. Under all scenarios, however, generalized culling is ineffective and while targeted culling of infected bats may be effective under idealized conditions, it primarily has negative consequences. Thus, understanding the significance of environment-to-bat transmission is paramount to designing effective management plans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Black fungal colonies as units of survival: hyphal mycosporines synthesized by rock-dwelling microcolonial fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbushina, A.A.; Whitehead, K.; Dornieden, T.; Niesse, A.; Schulte, A.; Hedges, J.I.

    2003-01-01

    Microcolonial fungi, long-living modified mycelia frequently occurring on desert and pseudodesert rock surfaces, are exposed to strong ultraviolet (UV) radiation, desiccation, and nutrient scarcity. They lack ascospores; all their cells grow by mitotic cell divisions and possess a thick melanized cell wall. Colonies of several randomly selected microcolonial strains were cultured and their structure was examined by cryo-scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Extracts of nine strains were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography interfaced with mass spectrometry for the presence of mycosporines. These UV-absorbing compounds, common in spores and other survival structures, were thought to be limited to reproductive morphogenesis and unknown in growing hyphae. Mycosporines were present in eight of the strains, and mycosporine-glutaminol-glucoside (λmax = 310 nm; MH+ = 465) was the major mycosporine detected. Mycosporines present in the vegetative fungal microcolonies may be associated with the high survival potential, nonexpansive intracolonial growth; and longevity of these fungi. Intrahyphal growth and recolonization of old cells by new ones were observed in all strains investigated. (author)

  14. Black fungal colonies as units of survival: hyphal mycosporines synthesized by rock-dwelling microcolonial fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorbushina, A.A. [Geomicrobiology, Inst. for Chemistry and Biology of the Marine Environment, Oldenburg (Germany); Whitehead, K. [Univ. of Washington, School of Oceanography, Seattle, Washington (United States); Dornieden, T.; Niesse, A.; Schulte, A. [Geomicrobiology, Inst. for Chemistry and Biology of the Marine Environment, Oldenburg (Germany); Hedges, J.I. [Univ. of Washington, School of Oceanography, Seattle, Washington (United States)

    2003-02-01

    Microcolonial fungi, long-living modified mycelia frequently occurring on desert and pseudodesert rock surfaces, are exposed to strong ultraviolet (UV) radiation, desiccation, and nutrient scarcity. They lack ascospores; all their cells grow by mitotic cell divisions and possess a thick melanized cell wall. Colonies of several randomly selected microcolonial strains were cultured and their structure was examined by cryo-scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Extracts of nine strains were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography interfaced with mass spectrometry for the presence of mycosporines. These UV-absorbing compounds, common in spores and other survival structures, were thought to be limited to reproductive morphogenesis and unknown in growing hyphae. Mycosporines were present in eight of the strains, and mycosporine-glutaminol-glucoside ({lambda}max = 310 nm; MH+ = 465) was the major mycosporine detected. Mycosporines present in the vegetative fungal microcolonies may be associated with the high survival potential, nonexpansive intracolonial growth; and longevity of these fungi. Intrahyphal growth and recolonization of old cells by new ones were observed in all strains investigated. (author)

  15. Area-based cell colony surviving fraction evaluation: A novel fully automatic approach using general-purpose acquisition hardware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Militello, Carmelo; Rundo, Leonardo; Conti, Vincenzo; Minafra, Luigi; Cammarata, Francesco Paolo; Mauri, Giancarlo; Gilardi, Maria Carla; Porcino, Nunziatina

    2017-10-01

    The current methodology for the Surviving Fraction (SF) measurement in clonogenic assay, which is a technique to study the anti-proliferative effect of treatments on cell cultures, involves manual counting of cell colony forming units. This procedure is operator-dependent and error-prone. Moreover, the identification of the exact colony number is often not feasible due to the high growth rate leading to the adjacent colony merging. As a matter of fact, conventional assessment does not deal with the colony size, which is generally correlated with the delivered radiation dose or the administered cytotoxic agent. Considering that the Area Covered by Colony (ACC) is proportional to the colony number and size as well as to the growth rate, we propose a novel fully automatic approach exploiting Circle Hough Transform, to automatically detect the wells in the plate, and local adaptive thresholding, which calculates the percentage of ACC for the SF quantification. This measurement relies just on this covering percentage and does not consider the colony number, preventing inconsistencies due to intra- and inter-operator variability. To evaluate the accuracy of the proposed approach, we compared the SFs obtained by our automatic ACC-based method against the conventional counting procedure. The achieved results (r = 0.9791 and r = 0.9682 on MCF7 and MCF10A cells, respectively) showed values highly correlated with the measurements using the traditional approach based on colony number alone. The proposed computer-assisted methodology could be integrated in laboratory practice as an expert system for the SF evaluation in clonogenic assays. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Chronic exposure of imidacloprid and clothianidin reduce queen survival, foraging, and nectar storing in colonies of Bombus impatiens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamison Scholer

    Full Text Available In an 11-week greenhouse study, caged queenright colonies of Bombus impatiens Cresson, were fed treatments of 0 (0 ppb actual residue I, imidacloprid; C, clothianidin, 10 (14 I, 9 C, 20 (16 I, 17C, 50 (71 I, 39 C and 100 (127 I, 76 C ppb imidacloprid or clothianidin in sugar syrup (50%. These treatments overlapped the residue levels found in pollen and nectar of many crops and landscape plants, which have higher residue levels than seed-treated crops (less than 10 ppb, corn, canola and sunflower. At 6 weeks, queen mortality was significantly higher in 50 ppb and 100 ppb and by 11 weeks in 20 ppb-100 ppb neonicotinyl-treated colonies. The largest impact for both neonicotinyls starting at 20 (16 I, 17 C ppb was the statistically significant reduction in queen survival (37% I, 56% C ppb, worker movement, colony consumption, and colony weight compared to 0 ppb treatments. Bees at feeders flew back to the nest box so it appears that only a few workers were collecting syrup in the flight box and returning the syrup to the nest. The majority of the workers sat immobilized for weeks on the floor of the flight box without moving to fed at sugar syrup feeders. Neonicotinyl residues were lower in wax pots in the nest than in the sugar syrup that was provided. At 10 (14 ppb I and 50 (39 ppb C, fewer males were produced by the workers, but queens continued to invest in queen production which was similar among treatments. Feeding on imidacloprid and clothianidin can cause changes in behavior (reduced worker movement, consumption, wax pot production, and nectar storage that result in detrimental effects on colonies (queen survival and colony weight. Wild bumblebees depending on foraging workers can be negatively impacted by chronic neonicotinyl exposure at 20 ppb.

  17. Chronic exposure of imidacloprid and clothianidin reduce queen survival, foraging, and nectar storing in colonies of Bombus impatiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholer, Jamison; Krischik, Vera

    2014-01-01

    In an 11-week greenhouse study, caged queenright colonies of Bombus impatiens Cresson, were fed treatments of 0 (0 ppb actual residue I, imidacloprid; C, clothianidin), 10 (14 I, 9 C), 20 (16 I, 17C), 50 (71 I, 39 C) and 100 (127 I, 76 C) ppb imidacloprid or clothianidin in sugar syrup (50%). These treatments overlapped the residue levels found in pollen and nectar of many crops and landscape plants, which have higher residue levels than seed-treated crops (less than 10 ppb, corn, canola and sunflower). At 6 weeks, queen mortality was significantly higher in 50 ppb and 100 ppb and by 11 weeks in 20 ppb-100 ppb neonicotinyl-treated colonies. The largest impact for both neonicotinyls starting at 20 (16 I, 17 C) ppb was the statistically significant reduction in queen survival (37% I, 56% C) ppb, worker movement, colony consumption, and colony weight compared to 0 ppb treatments. Bees at feeders flew back to the nest box so it appears that only a few workers were collecting syrup in the flight box and returning the syrup to the nest. The majority of the workers sat immobilized for weeks on the floor of the flight box without moving to fed at sugar syrup feeders. Neonicotinyl residues were lower in wax pots in the nest than in the sugar syrup that was provided. At 10 (14) ppb I and 50 (39) ppb C, fewer males were produced by the workers, but queens continued to invest in queen production which was similar among treatments. Feeding on imidacloprid and clothianidin can cause changes in behavior (reduced worker movement, consumption, wax pot production, and nectar storage) that result in detrimental effects on colonies (queen survival and colony weight). Wild bumblebees depending on foraging workers can be negatively impacted by chronic neonicotinyl exposure at 20 ppb.

  18. Chronic Exposure of Imidacloprid and Clothianidin Reduce Queen Survival, Foraging, and Nectar Storing in Colonies of Bombus impatiens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholer, Jamison; Krischik, Vera

    2014-01-01

    In an 11-week greenhouse study, caged queenright colonies of Bombus impatiens Cresson, were fed treatments of 0 (0 ppb actual residue I, imidacloprid; C, clothianidin), 10 (14 I, 9 C), 20 (16 I, 17C), 50 (71 I, 39 C) and 100 (127 I, 76 C) ppb imidacloprid or clothianidin in sugar syrup (50%). These treatments overlapped the residue levels found in pollen and nectar of many crops and landscape plants, which have higher residue levels than seed-treated crops (less than 10 ppb, corn, canola and sunflower). At 6 weeks, queen mortality was significantly higher in 50 ppb and 100 ppb and by 11 weeks in 20 ppb–100 ppb neonicotinyl-treated colonies. The largest impact for both neonicotinyls starting at 20 (16 I, 17 C) ppb was the statistically significant reduction in queen survival (37% I, 56% C) ppb, worker movement, colony consumption, and colony weight compared to 0 ppb treatments. Bees at feeders flew back to the nest box so it appears that only a few workers were collecting syrup in the flight box and returning the syrup to the nest. The majority of the workers sat immobilized for weeks on the floor of the flight box without moving to fed at sugar syrup feeders. Neonicotinyl residues were lower in wax pots in the nest than in the sugar syrup that was provided. At 10 (14) ppb I and 50 (39) ppb C, fewer males were produced by the workers, but queens continued to invest in queen production which was similar among treatments. Feeding on imidacloprid and clothianidin can cause changes in behavior (reduced worker movement, consumption, wax pot production, and nectar storage) that result in detrimental effects on colonies (queen survival and colony weight). Wild bumblebees depending on foraging workers can be negatively impacted by chronic neonicotinyl exposure at 20 ppb. PMID:24643057

  19. Survival of tumor cells after proton irradiation with ultra-high dose rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auer, Susanne; Hable, Volker; Greubel, Christoph; Drexler, Guido A; Schmid, Thomas E; Belka, Claus; Dollinger, Günther; Friedl, Anna A

    2011-01-01

    Laser acceleration of protons and heavy ions may in the future be used in radiation therapy. Laser-driven particle beams are pulsed and ultra high dose rates of >10 9 Gy s -1 may be achieved. Here we compare the radiobiological effects of pulsed and continuous proton beams. The ion microbeam SNAKE at the Munich tandem accelerator was used to directly compare a pulsed and a continuous 20 MeV proton beam, which delivered a dose of 3 Gy to a HeLa cell monolayer within < 1 ns or 100 ms, respectively. Investigated endpoints were G2 phase cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and colony formation. At 10 h after pulsed irradiation, the fraction of G2 cells was significantly lower than after irradiation with the continuous beam, while all other endpoints including colony formation were not significantly different. We determined the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for pulsed and continuous proton beams relative to x-irradiation as 0.91 ± 0.26 and 0.86 ± 0.33 (mean and SD), respectively. At the dose rates investigated here, which are expected to correspond to those in radiation therapy using laser-driven particles, the RBE of the pulsed and the (conventional) continuous irradiation mode do not differ significantly

  20. Highly Expressed Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) and Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor Receptor (G-CSFR) in Human Gastric Cancer Leads to Poor Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhisong; Li, Yong; Zhao, Qun; Fan, Liqiao; Tan, Bibo; Zuo, Jing; Hua, Kelei; Ji, Qiang

    2018-03-23

    BACKGROUND Chemotherapy for advanced gastric cancer (GC) patients has been the mainstay of therapy for many years. Although adding anti-angiogenic drugs to chemotherapy improves patient survival slightly, identifying anti-angiogenic therapy-sensitive patients remains challenging for oncologists. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) promotes tumor growth and angiogenesis, which can be minimized with the anti-G-CSF antibody. Thus, G-CSF might be a potential tumor marker. However, the effects of G-CSF and G-CSFR expression on GC patient survival remain unclear. MATERIAL AND METHODS Seventy GC tissue samples were collected for G-CSF and G-CSFR detection by immunohistochemistry. A total of 40 paired GC tissues and matched adjacent mucosa were used to measure the G-CSF and G-CSFR levels by ELISA. Correlations between G-CSF/G-CSFR and clinical characteristics, VEGF-A levels and overall survival were analyzed. Biological function and underlying mechanistic investigations were carried out using SGC7901 cell lines, and the effects of G-CSF on tumor proliferation, migration, and tube formation were examined. RESULTS The levels of G-CSFR were upregulated in GC tissues compared to normal mucosa tissues. Higher G-CSF expression was associated with later tumor stages and higher tumor VEGF-A and serum CA724 levels, whereas higher G-CSFR expression was associated with lymph node metastasis. Patients with higher G-CSF expression had shorter overall survival times. In vitro, G-CSF stimulated SGC7901 proliferation and migration through the JAK2/STAT3 pathway and accelerated HUVEC tube formation. CONCLUSIONS These data suggest that increased G-CSF and G-CSFR in tumors leads to unfavorable outcomes for GC patients by stimulating tumor proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis, indicating that these factors are potential tumor targets for cancer treatment.

  1. Risk indicators affecting honeybee colony survival in Europe: one year of surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacques, Antoine; Laurent, Marion; Bougeard, Stéphanie

    2016-01-01

    The first pan-European harmonized active epidemiological surveillance program on honeybee colony mortality (EPILOBEE) was set up across 17 European Member States to estimate honeybee colony mortality over winter and during the beekeeping season. In nine Member States, overwinter losses were higher...... and statistically different from the empirical level of 10 % under which the level of overwinter mortality was considered as acceptable with usual beekeeping conditions. In four other countries, these losses were lower. Using multivariable Poisson regression models, it was showed that the size of the operation...

  2. Temporal dynamics of European bat Lyssavirus type 1 and survival of Myotis myotis bats in natural colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amengual, Blanca; Bourhy, Hervé; López-Roig, Marc; Serra-Cobo, Jordi

    2007-06-27

    Many emerging RNA viruses of public health concern have recently been detected in bats. However, the dynamics of these viruses in natural bat colonies is presently unknown. Consequently, prediction of the spread of these viruses and the establishment of appropriate control measures are hindered by a lack of information. To this aim, we collected epidemiological, virological and ecological data during a twelve-year longitudinal study in two colonies of insectivorous bats (Myotis myotis) located in Spain and infected by the most common bat lyssavirus found in Europe, the European bat lyssavirus subtype 1 (EBLV-1). This active survey demonstrates that cyclic lyssavirus infections occurred with periodic oscillations in the number of susceptible, immune and infected bats. Persistence of immunity for more than one year was detected in some individuals. These data were further used to feed models to analyze the temporal dynamics of EBLV-1 and the survival rate of bats. According to these models, the infection is characterized by a predicted low basic reproductive rate (R(0) = 1.706) and a short infectious period (D = 5.1 days). In contrast to observations in most non-flying animals infected with rabies, the survival model shows no variation in mortality after EBLV-1 infection of M. myotis. These findings have considerable public health implications in terms of management of colonies where lyssavirus-positive bats have been recorded and confirm the potential risk of rabies transmission to humans. A greater understanding of the dynamics of lyssavirus in bat colonies also provides a model to study how bats contribute to the maintenance and transmission of other viruses of public health concern.

  3. Temporal dynamics of European bat Lyssavirus type 1 and survival of Myotis myotis bats in natural colonies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Amengual

    Full Text Available Many emerging RNA viruses of public health concern have recently been detected in bats. However, the dynamics of these viruses in natural bat colonies is presently unknown. Consequently, prediction of the spread of these viruses and the establishment of appropriate control measures are hindered by a lack of information. To this aim, we collected epidemiological, virological and ecological data during a twelve-year longitudinal study in two colonies of insectivorous bats (Myotis myotis located in Spain and infected by the most common bat lyssavirus found in Europe, the European bat lyssavirus subtype 1 (EBLV-1. This active survey demonstrates that cyclic lyssavirus infections occurred with periodic oscillations in the number of susceptible, immune and infected bats. Persistence of immunity for more than one year was detected in some individuals. These data were further used to feed models to analyze the temporal dynamics of EBLV-1 and the survival rate of bats. According to these models, the infection is characterized by a predicted low basic reproductive rate (R(0 = 1.706 and a short infectious period (D = 5.1 days. In contrast to observations in most non-flying animals infected with rabies, the survival model shows no variation in mortality after EBLV-1 infection of M. myotis. These findings have considerable public health implications in terms of management of colonies where lyssavirus-positive bats have been recorded and confirm the potential risk of rabies transmission to humans. A greater understanding of the dynamics of lyssavirus in bat colonies also provides a model to study how bats contribute to the maintenance and transmission of other viruses of public health concern.

  4. How to survive within a yeast colony?: Change metabolism or cope with stress?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čáp, M.; Váchová, Libuše; Palková, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 2 (2010), s. 198-200 ISSN 1942-0889 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/08/0718; GA MŠk(CZ) LC531 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : yeast colonies * stress defense and metabolic adaption * differentiation Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  5. Brood temperature, task division and colony survival in honeybees : A model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becher, Matthias A.; Hildenbrandt, Hanno; Hemelrijk, Charlotte K.; Moritz, Robin F. A.

    2010-01-01

    One of the mechanisms by which honeybees regulate division of labour among their colony members is age polyethism. Here the younger bees perform in-hive tasks such as heating and the older ones carry out tasks outside the hive such as foraging. Recently it has been shown that the higher

  6. Ecophysiology of gelatinous Nostoc colonies: unprecedented slow growth and survival in resource-poor and harsh environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sand-Jensen, Kaj

    2014-07-01

    structural substances in large Nostoc colonies cause lower quantum efficiency and assimilation number and higher light compensation points than in unicells and other aquatic macrophytes. Extremely low growth and mortality rates of N. zetterstedtii reflect stress-selected adaptation to nutrient- and DIC-poor temperate lakes, while N. pruniforme exhibits a mixed ruderal- and stress-selected strategy with slow growth and year-long survival prevailing in sub-Arctic lakes and faster growth and shorter longevity in temperate lakes. Nostoc commune and its close relative N. flagelliforme have a mixed stress-disturbance strategy not found among higher plants, with stress selection to limiting water and nutrients and disturbance selection in quiescent dry or frozen stages. Despite profound ecological differences between species, active growth of temperate specimens is mostly restricted to the same temperature range (0-35 °C; maximum at 25 °C). Future studies should aim to unravel the processes behind the extreme persistence and low metabolism of Nostoc species under ambient resource supply on sediment and soil surfaces. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Biological intercomparison using gut crypt survivals for proton and carbon ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uzawa, Akiko; Ando, Koichi; Furusawa, Yoshiya

    2006-01-01

    Charged particle therapy depends on biological information for the dose prescription. Relative biological effectiveness or relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for this requirement could basically be provided by experimental data. As RBE values of protons and carbon ions depend on several factors such as cell/tissue type, endpoint, dose and fractionation schedule, a single RBE value could not function as a master key to open all rooms filled with guests of different radiosensitivities. However, any biological model with accurate reproducibility is useful for comparing biological effectiveness between different facilities. We used mouse gut crypt survivals as endpoint, and compared the cell killing efficiency of proton beams at three Japanese facilities. Three Linac X-ray machines with 4 and 6 MeV were used as reference beams, and there was only a small variation (coefficient of variance <2%) in biological effectiveness among them. The RBE values of protons relative to Linac X-rays ranged from 1.0 to 1.11 at the middle of a 6-cm SOBP (spread-out Bragg peak) and from 0.96 to 1.01 at the entrance plateau. The coefficient of variance for protons ranged between 4.0 and 5.1%. The biological comparison of carbon ions showed fairly good agreement in that the difference in biological effectiveness between National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS)/Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) and Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI)/Heavy Ion Synchrotron (SIS) was 1% for three positions within the 6-cm SOBP. The coefficient of variance was <1.7, <0.6 and <1.6% for proximal, middle and distal SOBP, respectively. We conclude that the inter-institutional variation of biological effectiveness is smaller for carbon ions than protons, and that beam-spreading methods of carbon ions do not critically influence gut crypt survival. (author)

  8. Biological intercomparison using gut crypt survivals for proton and carbon-ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uzawa, Akiko; Ando, Koichi; Furusawa, Yoshiya

    2007-01-01

    Charged particle therapy depends on biological information for the dose prescription. Relative biological effectiveness or RBE for this requirement could basically be provided by experimental data. As RBE values of protons and carbon ions depend on several factors such as cell/tissue type, biological endpoint, dose and fractionation schedule, a single RBE value could not deal with all different radiosensitivities. However, any biological model with accurate reproducibility is useful for comparing biological effectiveness between different facilities. We used mouse gut crypt survivals as endpoint, and compared the cell killing efficiency of proton beams at three Japanese facilities. Three Linac X-ray machines with 4 and 6 MeV were used as reference beams, and there was only a small variation (coefficient of variance<2%) in biological effectiveness among them. The RBE values of protons relative to Linac X-rays ranged from 1.0 to 1.11 at the middle of a 6-cm SOBP (spread-out Bragg peak) and from 0.96 to 1.01 at the entrance plateau. The coefficient of variance for protons ranged between 4.0 and 5.1%. The biological comparison of carbon ions showed fairly good agreement in that the difference in biological effectiveness between National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS)/ Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) and Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI)/Heavy Ion Synchrotron (SIS) was 1% for three positions within the 6-cm SOBP. The coefficient of variance was <1.7, <0.6 and <1.6% for proximal, middle and distal SOBP, respectively. We conclude that the inter-institutional variation of biological effectiveness is smaller for carbon ions than protons, and that beam-spreading methods of carbon ions do not critically influence gut crypt survival. (author)

  9. Yeast Colony Survival Depends on Metabolic Adaptation and Cell Differentiation Rather Than on Stress Defense

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čáp, M.; Váchová, Libuše; Palková, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 284, č. 47 (2009), s. 32572-32581 ISSN 0021-9258 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA525/05/0297; GA ČR GA204/08/0718; GA MŠk(CZ) LC531 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : LONG-TERM SURVIVAL * SACCHAROMYCES-CEREVISIAE * SUPEROXIDE-DISMUTASE Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 5.328, year: 2009

  10. Influence of radiation fractionation on survival of mice and spleen colony-forming units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronkite, E.P.; Bullis, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    C57B1/6 mice were given Gy X-rays fractionated in several ways. There was a cyclical pattern of animal survival which was correlated to the fractionation interval and which indicated a periodicity of 6 h. Ten grays given a single dose is fatal to 100% of the mice and depresses the CFU-S to about one per leg with no evidence of proliferation during the remaining life. Ten grays given in 2.5-Gy increments at 24-h intervals causes no fatalities and results in a similar CFU-S depression but is followed by an exponential increase in CFU-S over the ensuing 12 days. Although bone marrow from survivors of such treatment was comparable to control marrow in its capacity for short-term rescue, it was clearly, inferior in its capability for long-term rescue. The periodicity of 6 h suggests that the cells responsible for survival of the mice have been synchronized into more or less radiosensitive and radioresistant stages of the cell cycle as a result of the time between the 25-Gy increments. Implications for the CFU-S and long-term repopulating cells are discussed. 22 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  11. Monte Carlo model to simulate the effects of DNA damage resulting from accumulation of 125I decays during development of colonies and clonogenic survival assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobachevsky, P.; Karagiannis, T.; Martin, R.F.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Exposure of cultured cells to an internal source of ionising radiation, such as a radioactive isotope, differs substantially from external irradiation in the determination of delivered dose. In some cases, the radioactive isotope cannot be quickly and completely removed from cells before plating for clonogenic survival assay. This provides an additional dose of irradiation which is not easy to calculate. The contribution of this phenomenon to the cell survival is especially important if a radioactive isotope is incorporated into DNA, or a DNA-binding ligand is labelled with the isotope. The correction of the cell survival due to additional dose cannot be calculated using a simple analytical expression, since the isotope is present in the cells during colony growth. We have developed a Monte Carlo model which simulates the process of the colony growth, and takes into account the extent of damage from isotope decays accumulated between consequent cell divisions. The model considers such factors as cell cycle time, radiosensitivity, colony growth inhibition, isotope specific (per cell) activity, partition of isotope in daughter cells, isotope half-life time, isotope efflux. The model allows estimation of the impact of the irradiation during colony formation on the distribution of colony size, and on the calculation of the survival correction factor, which depends mainly on the isotope cell-specific activity. We applied the model to interpret the difference in survival of K652 cells exposed to 125 I decays with various cell-specific activities: 0.45, 3.21 and 7.42 decays/cell/hour. The cells were treated with 125 I - labelled Hoechst 33258 which binds to DNA in cell nucleus. After accumulation of 125 I decays under non-growth conditions, cells were plated for clonogenic survival assay. The survival correction factors calculated from the model for the given values of 125 I cell-specific activity are in good correlation with differences between experimental

  12. Land use in the Northern Great Plains region of the U.S. influences the survival and productivity of honey bee colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Matthew; Pettis, Jeff S.; Euliss, Ned H. Jr.; Spivak, Marla S.

    2016-01-01

    The Northern Great Plains region of the US annually hosts a large portion of commercially managed U.S. honey bee colonies each summer. Changing land use patterns over the last several decades have contributed to declines in the availability of bee forage across the region, and the future sustainability of the region to support honey bee colonies is unclear. We examined the influence of varying land use on the survivorship and productivity of honey bee colonies located in six apiaries within the Northern Great Plains state of North Dakota, an area of intensive agriculture and high density of beekeeping operations. Land use surrounding the apiaries was quantified over three years, 2010–2012, and survival and productivity of honey bee colonies were determined in response to the amount of bee forage land within a 3.2-km radius of each apiary. The area of uncultivated forage land (including pasture, USDA conservation program fields, fallow land, flowering woody plants, grassland, hay land, and roadside ditches) exerted a positive impact on annual apiary survival and honey production. Taxonomic diversity of bee-collected pollen and pesticide residues contained therein varied seasonally among apiaries, but overall were not correlated to large-scale land use patterns or survival and honey production. The predominant flowering plants utilized by honey bee colonies for pollen were volunteer species present in unmanaged (for honey bees), and often ephemeral, lands; thus placing honey bee colonies in a precarious situation for acquiring forage and nutrients over the entire growing season. We discuss the implications for land management, conservation, and beekeeper site selection in the Northern Great Plains to adequately support honey bee colonies and insure long term security for pollinator-dependent crops across the entire country.

  13. The Small Colony Variant of Listeria monocytogenes Is More Tolerant to Antibiotics and Has Altered Survival in RAW 264.7 Murine Macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curtis, Thomas; Gram, Lone; Knudsen, Gitte Maegaard

    2016-01-01

    Small Colony Variant (SCV) cells of bacteria are a slow-growing phenotype that result from specific defects in the electron transport chain. They form pinpoint colonies on agar plates and have a variety of phenotypic characteristics, such as altered carbon metabolism, decreased toxin and lytic...... monocytogenes (strain SCV E18), similar to the high persister mutant phenotype, survived significantly better than the wild type when exposed over a 48-h period to concentrations above Minimal Inhibitory Concentration for most tested antibiotics. SCV E18 survived more poorly than the wildtype in unactivated RAW......264.7 macrophage cells, presumably because of its reduced listeriolysin O expression, however, it survived better in reactive oxygen species producing, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-activated macrophages. Although SCV E18 was sensitive to oxygen as it entered the stationary phase...

  14. Winter Survival of Individual Honey Bees and Honey Bee Colonies Depends on Level of Varroa destructor Infestation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dooremalen, van C.; Gerritsen, L.J.M.; Cornelissen, B.; Steen, van der J.J.M.; Langevelde, van F.; Blacquiere, T.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Recent elevated winter loss of honey bee colonies is a major concern. The presence of the mite Varroa destructor in colonies places an important pressure on bee health. V. destructor shortens the lifespan of individual bees, while long lifespan during winter is a primary requirement to

  15. Energy related germination and survival rates of water-imbibed Arabidopsis seeds irradiated with protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, H.L.; Xue, J.M.; Lai, J.N.; Wang, J.Y.; Zhang, W.M.; Miao, Q.; Yan, S.; Zhao, W.J.; He, F.; Gu, H.Y.; Wang, Y.G.

    2006-01-01

    In order to investigate the influence of ion energy on the germination and survival rates, water-imbibed Arabidopsis seeds were irradiated with protons in atmosphere. The ion fluence used in this experiment was in the range of 4 x 10 9 -1 x 10 14 ions/cm 2 . The ion energy is from 1.1 MeV to 6.5 MeV. According to the structure of the seed and TRIM simulation, the ions with the energy of 6.5 MeV can irradiate the shoot apical meristem directly whereas the ions with the energy of 1.1 MeV cannot. The results showed that both the germination and survival rates decrease while increasing the ion fluence, and the fluence-respond curve for each energy has different character. Besides the shoot apical meristem (SAM), which is generally considered as the main radiobiological target, the existence of a secondary target around SAM is proposed in this paper

  16. Energy related germination and survival rates of water-imbibed Arabidopsis seeds irradiated with protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, H.L. [Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Physics, MOE, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Xue, J.M. [Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Physics, MOE, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Lai, J.N. [Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Physics, MOE, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Wang, J.Y. [Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Physics, MOE, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhang, W.M. [Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Physics, MOE, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Miao, Q. [Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Physics, MOE, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Yan, S. [Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Physics, MOE, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhao, W.J. [Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Physics, MOE, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); He, F. [School of Life Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Gu, H.Y. [School of Life Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Wang, Y.G. [Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Physics, MOE, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)]. E-mail: ygwang@pku.edu.cn

    2006-04-15

    In order to investigate the influence of ion energy on the germination and survival rates, water-imbibed Arabidopsis seeds were irradiated with protons in atmosphere. The ion fluence used in this experiment was in the range of 4 x 10{sup 9}-1 x 10{sup 14} ions/cm{sup 2}. The ion energy is from 1.1 MeV to 6.5 MeV. According to the structure of the seed and TRIM simulation, the ions with the energy of 6.5 MeV can irradiate the shoot apical meristem directly whereas the ions with the energy of 1.1 MeV cannot. The results showed that both the germination and survival rates decrease while increasing the ion fluence, and the fluence-respond curve for each energy has different character. Besides the shoot apical meristem (SAM), which is generally considered as the main radiobiological target, the existence of a secondary target around SAM is proposed in this paper.

  17. Virus Status, Varroa Levels, and Survival of 20 Managed Honey Bee Colonies Monitored in Luxembourg Between the Summer of 2011 and the Spring of 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clermont Antoine

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty managed honey bee colonies, split between 5 apiaries with 4 hives each, were monitored between the summer of 2011 and spring of 2013. Living bees were sampled in July 2011, July 2012, and August 2012. Twenty-five, medium-aged bees, free of varroa mites, were pooled per colony and date, to form one sample. Unlike in France and Belgium, Chronic Bee Paralysis Virus (CBPV has not been found in Luxembourg. Slow Bee Paralysis Virus (SBPV and Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus (IAPV levels were below detection limits. Traces of Kashmir Bee Virus (KBV were amplified. Black Queen Cell Virus (BQCV, Varroa destructor Virus-1 (VDV-1, and SacBrood Virus (SBV were detected in all samples and are reported from Luxembourg for the first time. Varroa destructor Macula- Like Virus (VdMLV, Deformed Wing Virus (DWV, and Acute Bee Paralysis Virus (ABPV were detected at all locations, and in most but not all samples. There was a significant increase in VDV-1 and DWV levels within the observation period. A principal component analysis was unable to separate the bees of colonies that survived the following winter from bees that died, based on their virus contents in summer. The number of dead varroa mites found below colonies was elevated in colonies that died in the following winter. Significant positive relationships were found between the log-transformed virus levels of the bees and the log-transformed number of mites found below the colonies per week, for VDV-1 and DWV. Sacbrood virus levels were independent of varroa levels, suggesting a neutral or competitive relationship between this virus and varroa.

  18. Ratios of colony mass to thermal conductance of tree and man-made nest enclosures of Apis mellifera: implications for survival, clustering, humidity regulation and Varroa destructor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Derek

    2016-05-01

    In the absence of human intervention, the honeybee ( Apis mellifera L.) usually constructs its nest in a tree within a tall, narrow, thick-walled cavity high above the ground (the enclosure); however, most research and apiculture is conducted in the thin-walled, squat wooden enclosures we know as hives. This experimental research, using various hives and thermal models of trees, has found that the heat transfer rate is approximately four to seven times greater in the hives in common use, compared to a typical tree enclosure in winter configuration. This gives a ratio of colony mass to lumped enclosure thermal conductance (MCR) of less than 0.8 kgW-1 K for wooden hives and greater than 5 kgW-1 K for tree enclosures. This result for tree enclosures implies higher levels of humidity in the nest, increased survival of smaller colonies and lower Varroa destructor breeding success. Many honeybee behaviours previously thought to be intrinsic may only be a coping mechanism for human intervention; for example, at an MCR of above 2 kgW-1 K, clustering in a tree enclosure may be an optional, rare, heat conservation behaviour for established colonies, rather than the compulsory, frequent, life-saving behaviour that is in the hives in common use. The implied improved survival in hives with thermal properties of tree nests may help to solve some of the problems honeybees are currently facing in apiculture.

  19. The sea, the ship, the batle: survival of forms in 'Antologia da memória poética da Guerra Colonial'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Carvalho Vasconcellos

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The book Antologia da memória poética da guerra colonial was published in 2011 by Roberto Vecchi and Margarida Calafate Ribeiro. As a poetry anthology, its purpose was to collect and give meaning to the poetical ma­terial that was created and inspired by the wars that have taken place in 1962-74 between Portugal and it´s old colonies. Among the many themes and problems proposed by the poems compiled in the volume, the review and the reclaim of the ancient Portuguese literary tradition is the one that interest us. In Antologia da memória poética da guerra colonial, the old lite­rary forms – the Galician-Portuguese love lyric, the navigation chronicles, The Lusiads’, the historical figures and heroic myths – are revisited in a creative and imaginative way. Our hypothesis is that the presence of archaic and traditional elements in the Antologia indicates a form of survival (Na­chleben of past forms and tensions (cf. Aby Warburg, they are the traces of a literary tradition that renews itself from the same points (the sea, the conquer, the lost and the destruction.

  20. A pan-European epidemiological study reveals honey bee colony survival depends on beekeeper education and disease control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Jacques

    Full Text Available Reports of honey bee population decline has spurred many national efforts to understand the extent of the problem and to identify causative or associated factors. However, our collective understanding of the factors has been hampered by a lack of joined up trans-national effort. Moreover, the impacts of beekeeper knowledge and beekeeping management practices have often been overlooked, despite honey bees being a managed pollinator. Here, we established a standardised active monitoring network for 5 798 apiaries over two consecutive years to quantify honey bee colony mortality across 17 European countries. Our data demonstrate that overwinter losses ranged between 2% and 32%, and that high summer losses were likely to follow high winter losses. Multivariate Poisson regression models revealed that hobbyist beekeepers with small apiaries and little experience in beekeeping had double the winter mortality rate when compared to professional beekeepers. Furthermore, honey bees kept by professional beekeepers never showed signs of disease, unlike apiaries from hobbyist beekeepers that had symptoms of bacterial infection and heavy Varroa infestation. Our data highlight beekeeper background and apicultural practices as major drivers of honey bee colony losses. The benefits of conducting trans-national monitoring schemes and improving beekeeper training are discussed.

  1. High Expression of Colony-Stimulating Factor 1 Receptor Associates with Unfavorable Cancer-Specific Survival of Patients with Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liu; Liu, Yidong; An, Huimin; Chang, Yuan; Zhang, Weijuan; Zhu, Yu; Xu, Le; Xu, Jiejie

    2016-03-01

    Colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF-1R), a single-pass type III transmembrane tyrosine-protein kinase, is mainly involved in inflammation and immune regulation to facilitate the progression of solid tumors. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of CSF-1R expression on clinical outcome of patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) after surgery. We retrospectively enrolled 268 patients with ccRCC undergoing nephrectomy between 2001 and 2004. Clinicopathologic features and cancer-specific survival (CSS) were collected. Western blot analysis was performed in the pairwise comparisons of CSF-1R expression in peritumor and tumor tissues of patients with ccRCC. Immunohistochemistry was conducted to determine CSF-1R expression level in tumor specimens. Survival analysis was performed by the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox regression models were used to evaluate the impact of prognostic factors on CSS. A concordance index was calculated to measure prognostic accuracy. A prognostic nomogram was constructed on the basis of the identified independent prognostic factors. CSF-1R expression in tumor tissues was higher than in peritumor tissues in 71.4% (5 of 7) patients. CSF-1R expression of tumor tissues was positively associated with metastasis, tumor, node, metastasis classification system (TNM) stage, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score and poor CSS. CSF-1R expression was determined as an independent prognostic factor for CSS in patients with ccRCC. Furthermore, extension of the well-established prognostic models with CSF-1R expression presented significantly improved prognostic accuracy. An efficient prognostic nomogram was constructed on the basis of the independent prognostic factors. High CSF-1R expression is a potential independent adverse prognostic factor for CSS in patients with ccRCC.

  2. Method of monolayer cultures of the guinea pig spleen used to evaluate the radioprotective action of mexamine on the survival of colony-forming cells. [Method of monolayer cultures, quantitative estimation of radioprotective action of drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baisogolov, G D; Rudakova, S F; Rudakov, I A; Konoplyannikov, A G [Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Obninsk. Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Meditsinskoj Radiologii

    1976-01-01

    Dose dependent survival of colony-forming splenic cells of guinea pigs has been studied after ..gamma..-irradiation in vitro. The average lethal dose (D/sub 0/) for colony-forming cells is 245 rads, the extrapolation number - 1.5. Radiosensitivity of the splenic cells is markedly lower than that of the bone marrow cells (128 rads). After intraperitoneal administration of mexamine (150 mg/kg) to guinea pigs 10-15 min before irradiation, D/sub 0/ increases up to 319 rads, extrapolation number is 1.4, and DRF is 1.3.

  3. Clinical Outcomes Among Children With Standard-Risk Medulloblastoma Treated With Proton and Photon Radiation Therapy: A Comparison of Disease Control and Overall Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Bree R; Esiashvili, Natia; Kim, Sungjin; Weyman, Elizabeth A; Thornton, Lauren T; Mazewski, Claire; MacDonald, Tobey; Ebb, David; MacDonald, Shannon M; Tarbell, Nancy J; Yock, Torunn I

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare long-term disease control and overall survival between children treated with proton and photon radiation therapy (RT) for standard-risk medulloblastoma. This multi-institution cohort study includes 88 children treated with chemotherapy and proton (n=45) or photon (n=43) RT between 2000 and 2009. Overall survival (OS), recurrence-free survival (RFS), and patterns of failure were compared between the 2 cohorts. Median (range) age was 6 years old at diagnosis (3-21 years) for proton patients versus 8 years (3-19 years) for photon patients (P=.011). Cohorts were similar with respect to sex, histology, extent of surgical resection, craniospinal irradiation (CSI) RT dose, total RT dose, whether the RT boost was delivered to the posterior fossa (PF) or tumor bed (TB), time from surgery to RT start, or total duration of RT. RT consisted of a median (range) CSI dose of 23.4 Gy (18-27 Gy) and a boost of 30.6 Gy (27-37.8 Gy). Median follow-up time is 6.2 years (95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.1-6.6 years) for proton patients versus 7.0 years (95% CI: 5.8-8.9 years) for photon patients. There was no significant difference in RFS or OS between patients treated with proton versus photon RT; 6-year RFS was 78.8% versus 76.5% (P=.948) and 6-year OS was 82.0% versus 87.6%, respectively (P=.285). On multivariate analysis, there was a trend for longer RFS with females (P=.058) and higher CSI dose (P=.096) and for longer OS with females (P=.093). Patterns of failure were similar between the 2 cohorts (P=.908). Disease control with proton and photon radiation therapy appears equivalent for standard risk medulloblastoma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Relative survival of hybrid x-ray-resistant, and normally sensitive mammalian cells exposed to x rays and protons under aerobic and hypoxic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.R.; Gould, R.G.; Flynn, D.; Robertson, J.B.; Little, J.B.

    1978-01-01

    Survival of an x-ray-resistant hybrid cell line (HD 1 ) and a normally responsive cell line (H 4 ) have been compared when irradiated under induced hypoxia by both protons and X rays. The two cell lines are similarly protected when irradiated under hypoxic conditions with oxygen enhancement ratios of 2.8 and 2.7, respectively. The protection is consistent with a dose-modifying factor. No statistically significant difference is observed between cell inactivation by x rays and protons in either cell line, whether irradiated under aerobic or hypoxic conditions

  5. Response of thyroid follicular cells to gamma irradiation compared to proton irradiation. I. Initial characterization of DNA damage, micronucleus formation, apoptosis, cell survival, and cell cycle phase redistribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, L. M.; Murray, D. K.; Bant, A. M.; Kazarians, G.; Moyers, M. F.; Nelson, G. A.; Tran, D. T.

    2001-01-01

    The RBE of protons has been assumed to be equivalent to that of photons. The objective of this study was to determine whether radiation-induced DNA and chromosome damage, apoptosis, cell killing and cell cycling in organized epithelial cells was influenced by radiation quality. Thyroid-stimulating hormone-dependent Fischer rat thyroid cells, established as follicles, were exposed to gamma rays or proton beams delivered acutely over a range of physical doses. Gamma-irradiated cells were able to repair DNA damage relatively rapidly so that by 1 h postirradiation they had approximately 20% fewer exposed 3' ends than their counterparts that had been irradiated with proton beams. The persistence of free ends of DNA in the samples irradiated with the proton beam implies that either more initial breaks or a quantitatively different type of damage had occurred. These results were further supported by an increased frequency of chromosomal damage as measured by the presence of micronuclei. Proton-beam irradiation induced micronuclei at a rate of 2.4% per gray, which at 12 Gy translated to 40% more micronuclei than in comparable gamma-irradiated cultures. The higher rate of micronucleus formation and the presence of larger micronuclei in proton-irradiated cells was further evidence that a qualitatively more severe class of damage had been induced than was induced by gamma rays. Differences in the type of damage produced were detected in the apoptosis assay, wherein a significant lag in the induction of apoptosis occurred after gamma irradiation that did not occur with protons. The more immediate expression of apoptotic cells in the cultures irradiated with the proton beam suggests that the damage inflicted was more severe. Alternatively, the cell cycle checkpoint mechanisms required for recovery from such damage might not have been invoked. Differences based on radiation quality were also evident in the alpha components of cell survival curves (0.05 Gy(-1) for gamma rays, 0

  6. A study of V79 cell survival after for proton and carbon ion beams as represented by the parameters of Katz' track structure model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grzanka, Leszek; Waligórski, M. P. R.; Bassler, Niels

    different sets of data obtained for the same cell line and different ions, measured at different laboratories, we have fitted model parameters to a set of carbon-irradiated V79 cells, published by Furusawa et al. (2), and to a set of proton-irradiated V79 cells, published by Wouters et al. (3), separately....... We found that values of model parameters best fitted to the carbon data of Furusawa et al. yielded predictions of V79 survival after proton irradiation which did not match the V79 proton data of Wouters et al. Fitting parameters to both sets combined did not improve the accuracy of model predictions...... carbon irradiation. 1. Katz, R., Track structure in radiobiology and in radiation detection. Nuclear Track Detection 2: 1-28 (1978). 2. Furusawa Y. et al. Inactivation of aerobic and hypoxic cells from three different cell lines by accelerated 3He-, 12C- and 20Ne beams. Radiat Res. 2012 Jan; 177...

  7. Inhibitory Effects of Salinomycin on Cell Survival, Colony Growth, Migration, and Invasion of Human Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer A549 and LNM35: Involvement of NAG-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kholoud Arafat

    Full Text Available A major challenge for oncologists and pharmacologists is to develop more potent and less toxic drugs that will decrease the tumor growth and improve the survival of lung cancer patients. Salinomycin is a polyether antibiotic used to kill gram-positive bacteria including mycobacteria, protozoans such as plasmodium falciparum, and the parasites responsible for the poultry disease coccidiosis. This old agent is now a serious anti-cancer drug candidate that selectively inhibits the growth of cancer stem cells. We investigated the impact of salinomycin on survival, colony growth, migration and invasion of the differentiated human non-small cell lung cancer lines LNM35 and A549. Salinomycin caused concentration- and time-dependent reduction in viability of LNM35 and A549 cells through a caspase 3/7-associated cell death pathway. Similarly, salinomycin (2.5-5 µM for 7 days significantly decreased the growth of LNM35 and A549 colonies in soft agar. Metastasis is the main cause of death related to lung cancer. In this context, salinomycin induced a time- and concentration-dependent inhibition of cell migration and invasion. We also demonstrated for the first time that salinomycin induced a marked increase in the expression of the pro-apoptotic protein NAG-1 leading to the inhibition of lung cancer cell invasion but not cell survival. These findings identify salinomycin as a promising novel therapeutic agent for lung cancer.

  8. Clinical Outcomes Among Children With Standard-Risk Medulloblastoma Treated With Proton and Photon Radiation Therapy: A Comparison of Disease Control and Overall Survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaton, Bree R.; Esiashvili, Natia; Kim, Sungjin; Weyman, Elizabeth A.; Thornton, Lauren T.; Mazewski, Claire; MacDonald, Tobey; Ebb, David; MacDonald, Shannon M.; Tarbell, Nancy J.; Yock, Torunn I.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare long-term disease control and overall survival between children treated with proton and photon radiation therapy (RT) for standard-risk medulloblastoma. Methods and Materials: This multi-institution cohort study includes 88 children treated with chemotherapy and proton (n=45) or photon (n=43) RT between 2000 and 2009. Overall survival (OS), recurrence-free survival (RFS), and patterns of failure were compared between the 2 cohorts. Results: Median (range) age was 6 years old at diagnosis (3-21 years) for proton patients versus 8 years (3-19 years) for photon patients (P=.011). Cohorts were similar with respect to sex, histology, extent of surgical resection, craniospinal irradiation (CSI) RT dose, total RT dose, whether the RT boost was delivered to the posterior fossa (PF) or tumor bed (TB), time from surgery to RT start, or total duration of RT. RT consisted of a median (range) CSI dose of 23.4 Gy (18-27 Gy) and a boost of 30.6 Gy (27-37.8 Gy). Median follow-up time is 6.2 years (95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.1-6.6 years) for proton patients versus 7.0 years (95% CI: 5.8-8.9 years) for photon patients. There was no significant difference in RFS or OS between patients treated with proton versus photon RT; 6-year RFS was 78.8% versus 76.5% (P=.948) and 6-year OS was 82.0% versus 87.6%, respectively (P=.285). On multivariate analysis, there was a trend for longer RFS with females (P=.058) and higher CSI dose (P=.096) and for longer OS with females (P=.093). Patterns of failure were similar between the 2 cohorts (P=.908). Conclusions: Disease control with proton and photon radiation therapy appears equivalent for standard risk medulloblastoma.

  9. Colonial Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAtackney, Laura; Palmer, Russell

    2016-01-01

    and the USA which reveal that the study of colonial institutions should not be limited to the functional life of these institutions—or solely those that take the form of monumental architecture—but should include the long shadow of “imperial debris” (Stoler 2008) and immaterial institutions....

  10. First biological experiments at a vertical proton beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Distel, L; Distel, B; Roessner, B; Schwotzer, G; Sauer, R [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie; Eyrich, W; Fritsch, M; Teufel, A [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.; Besserer, J; Boer, J de; Moosburger, M; Quicken, P [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Sektion Physik

    1997-09-01

    At the tandem accelerator laboratories in Munich and Erlangen vertical beamlines were installed last year. The advantage of a vertical beamline is that cells can be irradiated in a medium at 37 C and with simultaneous gassing, therefore also in physiological conditions. First experiments were carried out at the accelerator in Munich with a proton energy of 25 MeV. Chinese Hamster cells B14 were irradiated in Petri dishes where the base was of 1 mm polystyrol or 2 {mu}m hostaphan foils. The cell survival was measured by the cell survival assay and the repopulation of the colonies by the total colony volume. A solution of DNA with protein was irradiated to study DNA double strand breaks by constant field gel electrophoresis and DNA protein crosslinks by the nitrocellulose filter assay. For cell survival, total colony volume and DNA double-strand breaks X-rays and protons gave corresponding results, while with protons, higher yields of DNA-protein crosslinks were observed than with X-rays. (orig.)

  11. First biological experiments at a vertical proton beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distel, L.; Distel, B.; Roessner, B.; Schwotzer, G.; Sauer, R.; Eyrich, W.; Fritsch, M.; Teufel, A.; Besserer, J.; Boer, J. de; Moosburger, M.; Quicken, P.

    1997-01-01

    At the tandem accelerator laboratories in Munich and Erlangen vertical beamlines were installed last year. The advantage of a vertical beamline is that cells can be irradiated in a medium at 37 C and with simultaneous gassing, therefore also in physiological conditions. First experiments were carried out at the accelerator in Munich with a proton energy of 25 MeV. Chinese Hamster cells B14 were irradiated in Petri dishes where the base was of 1 mm polystyrol or 2 μm hostaphan foils. The cell survival was measured by the cell survival assay and the repopulation of the colonies by the total colony volume. A solution of DNA with protein was irradiated to study DNA double strand breaks by constant field gel electrophoresis and DNA protein crosslinks by the nitrocellulose filter assay. For cell survival, total colony volume and DNA double-strand breaks X-rays and protons gave corresponding results, while with protons, higher yields of DNA-protein crosslinks were observed than with X-rays. (orig.)

  12. Single cell time-lapse analysis reveals that podoplanin enhances cell survival and colony formation capacity of squamous cell carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, Tomoyuki; Higuchi, Youichi; Kojima, Motohiro; Ochiai, Atsushi; Ishii, Genichiro

    2017-01-06

    Tumor initiating cells (TICs) are characterized by high clonal expansion capacity. We previously reported that podoplanin is a TIC-specific marker for the human squamous cell carcinoma cell line A431. The aim of this study is to explore the molecular mechanism underlying the high clonal expansion potential of podoplanin-positive A431cells using Fucci imaging. Single podoplanin-positive cells created large colonies at a significantly higher frequency than single podoplanin-negative cells, whereas no difference was observed between the two types of cells with respect to cell cycle status. Conversely, the cell death ratio of progenies derived from podoplanin-positive single cell was significantly lower than that of cells derived from podoplanin-negative cells. Single A431 cells, whose podoplanin expression was suppressed by RNA interference, exhibited increased cell death ratios and decreased frequency of large colony forming. Moreover, the frequency of large colony forming decreased significantly when podoplanin-positive single cells was treated with a ROCK (Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase) inhibitor, whereas no difference was observed in single podoplanin-negative cells. Our current study cleared that high clonal expansion capacity of podoplanin-positive TICs populations was the result of reduced cell death by podoplanin-mediated signaling. Therefore, podoplanin activity may be a therapeutic target in the treatment of squamous cell carcinomas.

  13. Genetic diversity affects colony survivorship in commercial honey bee colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarpy, David R.; vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Pettis, Jeffrey S.

    2013-08-01

    Honey bee ( Apis mellifera) queens mate with unusually high numbers of males (average of approximately 12 drones), although there is much variation among queens. One main consequence of such extreme polyandry is an increased diversity of worker genotypes within a colony, which has been shown empirically to confer significant adaptive advantages that result in higher colony productivity and survival. Moreover, honey bees are the primary insect pollinators used in modern commercial production agriculture, and their populations have been in decline worldwide. Here, we compare the mating frequencies of queens, and therefore, intracolony genetic diversity, in three commercial beekeeping operations to determine how they correlate with various measures of colony health and productivity, particularly the likelihood of queen supersedure and colony survival in functional, intensively managed beehives. We found the average effective paternity frequency ( m e ) of this population of honey bee queens to be 13.6 ± 6.76, which was not significantly different between colonies that superseded their queen and those that did not. However, colonies that were less genetically diverse (headed by queens with m e ≤ 7.0) were 2.86 times more likely to die by the end of the study when compared to colonies that were more genetically diverse (headed by queens with m e > 7.0). The stark contrast in colony survival based on increased genetic diversity suggests that there are important tangible benefits of increased queen mating number in managed honey bees, although the exact mechanism(s) that govern these benefits have not been fully elucidated.

  14. The Gottingen minipig is a model of the hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome: G-colony stimulating factor stimulates hematopoiesis and enhances survival from lethal total-body γ-irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroni, Maria; Ngudiankama, Barbara F; Christensen, Christine; Olsen, Cara H; Owens, Rossitsa; Lombardini, Eric D; Holt, Rebecca K; Whitnall, Mark H

    2013-08-01

    We are characterizing the Gottingen minipig as an additional large animal model for advanced drug testing for the acute radiation syndrome (ARS) to enhance the discovery and development of novel radiation countermeasures. Among the advantages provided by this model, the similarities to human hematologic parameters and dynamics of cell loss/recovery after irradiation provide a convenient means to compare the efficacy of drugs known to affect bone marrow cellularity and hematopoiesis. Male Gottingen minipigs, 4 to 5 months old and weighing 9 to 11 kg, were used for this study. We tested the standard off-label treatment for ARS, rhG-CSF (Neupogen, 10 μg/kg/day for 17 days), at the estimated LD70/30 total-body γ-irradiation (TBI) radiation dose for the hematopoietic syndrome, starting 24 hours after irradiation. The results indicated that granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) enhanced survival, stimulated recovery from neutropenia, and induced mobilization of hematopoietic progenitor cells. In addition, the administration of G-CSF resulted in maturation of monocytes/macrophages. These results support continuing efforts toward validation of the minipig as a large animal model for advanced testing of radiation countermeasures and characterization of the pathophysiology of ARS, and they suggest that the efficacy of G-CSF in improving survival after total body irradiation may involve mechanisms other than increasing the numbers of circulating granulocytes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. The Gottingen Minipig Is a Model of the Hematopoietic Acute Radiation Syndrome: G-Colony Stimulating Factor Stimulates Hematopoiesis and Enhances Survival From Lethal Total-Body γ-Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moroni, Maria, E-mail: maria.moroni@usuhs.edu [Radiation Countermeasures Program, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Ngudiankama, Barbara F. [Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Christensen, Christine [Division of Comparative Pathology, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Olsen, Cara H. [Biostatistics Consulting Center, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Owens, Rossitsa [Radiation Countermeasures Program, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Lombardini, Eric D. [Veterinary Medicine Department, Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangkok (Thailand); Holt, Rebecca K. [Veterinary Science Department, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Whitnall, Mark H. [Radiation Countermeasures Program, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: We are characterizing the Gottingen minipig as an additional large animal model for advanced drug testing for the acute radiation syndrome (ARS) to enhance the discovery and development of novel radiation countermeasures. Among the advantages provided by this model, the similarities to human hematologic parameters and dynamics of cell loss/recovery after irradiation provide a convenient means to compare the efficacy of drugs known to affect bone marrow cellularity and hematopoiesis. Methods and Materials: Male Gottingen minipigs, 4 to 5 months old and weighing 9 to 11 kg, were used for this study. We tested the standard off-label treatment for ARS, rhG-CSF (Neupogen, 10 μg/kg/day for 17 days), at the estimated LD70/30 total-body γ-irradiation (TBI) radiation dose for the hematopoietic syndrome, starting 24 hours after irradiation. Results: The results indicated that granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) enhanced survival, stimulated recovery from neutropenia, and induced mobilization of hematopoietic progenitor cells. In addition, the administration of G-CSF resulted in maturation of monocytes/macrophages. Conclusions: These results support continuing efforts toward validation of the minipig as a large animal model for advanced testing of radiation countermeasures and characterization of the pathophysiology of ARS, and they suggest that the efficacy of G-CSF in improving survival after total body irradiation may involve mechanisms other than increasing the numbers of circulating granulocytes.

  16. The Gottingen Minipig Is a Model of the Hematopoietic Acute Radiation Syndrome: G-Colony Stimulating Factor Stimulates Hematopoiesis and Enhances Survival From Lethal Total-Body γ-Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moroni, Maria; Ngudiankama, Barbara F.; Christensen, Christine; Olsen, Cara H.; Owens, Rossitsa; Lombardini, Eric D.; Holt, Rebecca K.; Whitnall, Mark H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: We are characterizing the Gottingen minipig as an additional large animal model for advanced drug testing for the acute radiation syndrome (ARS) to enhance the discovery and development of novel radiation countermeasures. Among the advantages provided by this model, the similarities to human hematologic parameters and dynamics of cell loss/recovery after irradiation provide a convenient means to compare the efficacy of drugs known to affect bone marrow cellularity and hematopoiesis. Methods and Materials: Male Gottingen minipigs, 4 to 5 months old and weighing 9 to 11 kg, were used for this study. We tested the standard off-label treatment for ARS, rhG-CSF (Neupogen, 10 μg/kg/day for 17 days), at the estimated LD70/30 total-body γ-irradiation (TBI) radiation dose for the hematopoietic syndrome, starting 24 hours after irradiation. Results: The results indicated that granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) enhanced survival, stimulated recovery from neutropenia, and induced mobilization of hematopoietic progenitor cells. In addition, the administration of G-CSF resulted in maturation of monocytes/macrophages. Conclusions: These results support continuing efforts toward validation of the minipig as a large animal model for advanced testing of radiation countermeasures and characterization of the pathophysiology of ARS, and they suggest that the efficacy of G-CSF in improving survival after total body irradiation may involve mechanisms other than increasing the numbers of circulating granulocytes

  17. Longitudinal survey of two serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus maternity colonies exposed to EBLV-1 (European Bat Lyssavirus type 1: Assessment of survival and serological status variations using capture-recapture models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Robardet

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study describes two longitudinal serological surveys of European Bat Lyssavirus type 1 (EBLV-1 antibodies in serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus maternity colonies located in the North-East of France. This species is currently considered as the main EBLV-1 reservoir. Multievent capture-recapture models were used to determine the factors influencing bat rabies transmission as this method accounts for imperfect detection and uncertainty in disease states. Considering the period of study, analyses revealed that survival and recapture probabilities were not affected by the serological status of individuals, confirming the capacity of bats to be exposed to lyssaviruses without dying. Five bats have been found with EBLV-1 RNA in the saliva at the start of the study, suggesting they were caught during virus excretion period. Among these bats, one was interestingly recaptured one year later and harbored a seropositive status. Along the survey, some others bats have been observed to both seroconvert (i.e. move from a negative to a positive serological status and serorevert (i.e. move from a positive to a negative serological status. Peak of seroprevalence reached 34% and 70% in site A and B respectively. On one of the 2 sites, global decrease of seroprevalence was observed all along the study period nuanced by oscillation intervals of approximately 2-3 years supporting the oscillation infection dynamics hypothesized during a previous EBLV-1 study in a Myotis myotis colony. Seroprevalence were affected by significantly higher seroprevalence in summer than in spring. The maximum time observed between successive positive serological statuses of a bat demonstrated the potential persistence of neutralizing antibodies for at least 4 years. At last, EBLV-1 serological status transitions have been shown driven by age category with higher seroreversion frequencies in adults than in juvenile. Juveniles and female adults seemed indeed acting as distinct drivers

  18. Longitudinal survey of two serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus) maternity colonies exposed to EBLV-1 (European Bat Lyssavirus type 1): Assessment of survival and serological status variations using capture-recapture models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robardet, Emmanuelle; Borel, Christophe; Moinet, Marie; Jouan, Dorothée; Wasniewski, Marine; Barrat, Jacques; Boué, Franck; Montchâtre-Leroy, Elodie; Servat, Alexandre; Gimenez, Olivier; Cliquet, Florence; Picard-Meyer, Evelyne

    2017-11-01

    This study describes two longitudinal serological surveys of European Bat Lyssavirus type 1 (EBLV-1) antibodies in serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus) maternity colonies located in the North-East of France. This species is currently considered as the main EBLV-1 reservoir. Multievent capture-recapture models were used to determine the factors influencing bat rabies transmission as this method accounts for imperfect detection and uncertainty in disease states. Considering the period of study, analyses revealed that survival and recapture probabilities were not affected by the serological status of individuals, confirming the capacity of bats to be exposed to lyssaviruses without dying. Five bats have been found with EBLV-1 RNA in the saliva at the start of the study, suggesting they were caught during virus excretion period. Among these bats, one was interestingly recaptured one year later and harbored a seropositive status. Along the survey, some others bats have been observed to both seroconvert (i.e. move from a negative to a positive serological status) and serorevert (i.e. move from a positive to a negative serological status). Peak of seroprevalence reached 34% and 70% in site A and B respectively. On one of the 2 sites, global decrease of seroprevalence was observed all along the study period nuanced by oscillation intervals of approximately 2-3 years supporting the oscillation infection dynamics hypothesized during a previous EBLV-1 study in a Myotis myotis colony. Seroprevalence were affected by significantly higher seroprevalence in summer than in spring. The maximum time observed between successive positive serological statuses of a bat demonstrated the potential persistence of neutralizing antibodies for at least 4 years. At last, EBLV-1 serological status transitions have been shown driven by age category with higher seroreversion frequencies in adults than in juvenile. Juveniles and female adults seemed indeed acting as distinct drivers of the rabies

  19. Proton-proton bremsstrahlung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fearing, H.W.

    1990-01-01

    We summarize some of the information about the nucleon-nucleon force which has been obtained by comparing recent calculations of proton-proton bremsstrahlung with cross section and analyzing power data from the new TRIUMF bremsstrahlung experiment. Some comments are made as to how these results can be extended to neutron-proton bremsstrahlung. (Author) 17 refs., 6 figs

  20. On colonial grounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dommelen, Peter Alexander René van

    1998-01-01

    As a study of the colonial situations of first millennium BC Sardinia, this book is as much an investigation into colonialism as a sociological category, as it explores the specific historical conditions of a particular region. Taking a fresh look at colonialism in Mediterranean archaeology from a

  1. Colony form variation of Bacillus pumilus E601 after cultured and neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiaoming; Wei Baoli; Zhang Jianguo

    2008-01-01

    The distribution of two colony forms of Bacillus pumilus E601 and the effect of neutron irradiation on the colony form were reported. The translucent and opaque colonies were cultured several generations to observe the proportion of two form colonies. The spores of opaque colony were irradiated at 80, 800 and 2000 Gy of fast neutron from CFBR-II pulse pile, and the survivors of opaque colony were irradiated again at the same doses. The results showed that: (1) Bacillus pumilus E601 observed two types of colony form: translucent and opaque colony; (2) the translucent colony could produce both translucent and opaque colonies in equal, while the opaque colony couldn't produce translucent colony generally; (3) neutron irradiation could affect the colony form distribution. The ratio of survival translucent colony was increased with the increase of the first neutron irradiation doses, and the second neutron irradiation also increased the ratio of translucent colony. It was concluded that the instability of translucent colony was the main reason to produce two colony forms of Bacillus pumilus E601. The strain of translucent colony had a stronger ability to resist neutron irradiation than the opaque colony. (authors)

  2. Relative biological effectiveness of the therapeutic proton beams at NIRS and Tsukuba University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Koichi; Koike, Sachiko; Kawachi, Kiyomitsu

    1985-01-01

    Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of proton beams dedicated to radiotherapy was examined using a method of simultaneous irradiation. Mice received i.v. transplantation of syngeneic fibrosarcoma (NFSa) cells. These mice were divided into 3 groups on the following day, and thorax was simultaneously irradiated with one of the following beams: 70MeV proton beam at National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), 250 MeV Proton beam at Tsukuba University (PARMS) and 60 Co γ ray. Ten to 13 days thereafter, lungs were removed for colony counts to give dose-cell survival relationships. RBE of NIRS proton was ranging from 1.01 to 1.12 with an average of 1.06 while that of PARMS proton was ranging from 1.03 to 1.09 with an average of 1.06 at surviving fraction of 0.01. The simultaneous irradiation for RBE study was found to be reliable at large dose-low survival regions. (author)

  3. Tumor Cells Surviving Exposure to Proton or Photon Radiation Share a Common Immunogenic Modulation Signature, Rendering Them More Sensitive to T Cell–Mediated Killing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gameiro, Sofia R.; Malamas, Anthony S. [Laboratory of Tumor Immunology and Biology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Bernstein, Michael B. [Division of Radiation Oncology, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Tsang, Kwong Y. [Laboratory of Tumor Immunology and Biology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Vassantachart, April; Sahoo, Narayan; Tailor, Ramesh; Pidikiti, Rajesh [Division of Radiation Oncology, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Guha, Chandan P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, New York (United States); Hahn, Stephen M.; Krishnan, Sunil [Division of Radiation Oncology, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Hodge, James W., E-mail: jh241d@nih.gov [Laboratory of Tumor Immunology and Biology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Purpose: To provide the foundation for combining immunotherapy to induce tumor antigen–specific T cells with proton radiation therapy to exploit the activity of those T cells. Methods and Materials: Using cell lines of tumors frequently treated with proton radiation, such as prostate, breast, lung, and chordoma, we examined the effect of proton radiation on the viability and induction of immunogenic modulation in tumor cells by flow cytometric and immunofluorescent analysis of surface phenotype and the functional immune consequences. Results: These studies show for the first time that (1) proton and photon radiation induced comparable up-regulation of surface molecules involved in immune recognition (histocompatibility leukocyte antigen, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, and the tumor-associated antigens carcinoembryonic antigen and mucin 1); (2) proton radiation mediated calreticulin cell-surface expression, increasing sensitivity to cytotoxic T-lymphocyte killing of tumor cells; and (3) cancer stem cells, which are resistant to the direct cytolytic activity of proton radiation, nonetheless up-regulated calreticulin after radiation in a manner similar to non-cancer stem cells. Conclusions: These findings offer a rationale for the use of proton radiation in combination with immunotherapy, including for patients who have failed radiation therapy alone or have limited treatment options.

  4. Scott Richard Lyons, X-marks: Native Signatures of Assent. , Steve Russell, Sequoyah Rising: Problems in Post-Colonial Tribal Governance. , Sean Kicummah Teuton, Red Land, Red Power: Grounding Knowledge in the American Indian Novel. , Gerald Vizenor, Native Liberty: Natural Reason and Cultural Survivance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Mackay

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available That American Indian nations have survived into the 21st century should be an occasion for celebration, given how truly close Native America came to a total obliteration. A combination of disease, vicious colonial warfare and the use of education as a weapon to “kill the Indian, save the man” had by the beginning of the 19th century reduced the number of people in the United States willing to claim Native ancestry in the census to just 250,000. (There were, of course, many more, but Indian bl...

  5. [Neoplastic transformation of mouse fibroblasts under the influence of high-energy protons and gamma-rays].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voskanian, K Sh

    2004-01-01

    Oncoginic transformations of mouse fibroblasts C3H10T1/2 after exposure to proton energies 150 and 584 MeV were compared with fibroblast effects of gamma-radiation. Prior to exposure, cell populations (2.7 x 10(3) cells/cm2) were inoculated in plastic vials with the surface area of 75 cm2 and cultivated 11 days. Survivability was determined by comparing the number of cell colonies in irradiated and non-irradiated (control) vials. Transformation rate was calculated by dividing the total transformation focus number by the number of survived cells in a vial. Rate of oncogenic transformations after gamma- and proton (584 MeV) irradiation was essentially identical, i.e. the parameter grew rapidly at the doses 1 Gy. In the dose interval between 1 and 5 Gy, transformation rate for proton energy 150 MeV was found low compared with gamma-radiation and proton energy 584 MeV. It is hypothesized that the different transformation rate after exposure to proton energy 150 MeV is linked with the high linear energy transfer as compared with the proton energy of 584 MeV and gamma-radiation.

  6. Development rate and brood production in haplo- and pleometrotic colonies of Oecophylla smaragdina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offenberg, Joachim; Peng, Renkang; Nielsen, Mogens Gissel

    2012-01-01

    Pleometrosis (colony founding by multiple queens) may improve life history characteristics that are important for early colony survival. When queens unite their initial brood, the number of workers present when incipient colonies open may be higher than for single queen colonies. Further, the time...... until the first worker emerges may shorten. For territorial species and species that rob brood from neighbouring colonies, a faster production of more workers may improve the chance of surviving intraspecific competition. In this study, the time from the nuptial flight to the emergence of the first...

  7. Dynamics of the Presence of Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus in Honey Bee Colonies with Colony Collapse Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunsheng Hou

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The determinants of Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD, a particular case of collapse of honey bee colonies, are still unresolved. Viruses including the Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV were associated with CCD. We found an apiary with colonies showing typical CCD characteristics that bore high loads of IAPV, recovered some colonies from collapse and tested the hypothesis if IAPV was actively replicating in them and infectious to healthy bees. We found that IAPV was the dominant pathogen and it replicated actively in the colonies: viral titers decreased from April to September and increased from September to December. IAPV extracted from infected bees was highly infectious to healthy pupae: they showed several-fold amplification of the viral genome and synthesis of the virion protein VP3. The health of recovered colonies was seriously compromised. Interestingly, a rise of IAPV genomic copies in two colonies coincided with their subsequent collapse. Our results do not imply IAPV as the cause of CCD but indicate that once acquired and induced to replication it acts as an infectious factor that affects the health of the colonies and may determine their survival. This is the first follow up outside the US of CCD-colonies bearing IAPV under natural conditions.

  8. Specters of Colonialism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muhr, Sara Louise; Azad, Salam

    2013-01-01

    at the same time they always are bound to fail to become ‘Swedish’ because of the same foreign origins. Although Swedish culture – partly by distancing itself from having a colonial past – has successfully built up an image of openness, we argue that without acknowledging and confronting the role...

  9. Definitive Reirradiation for Locoregionally Recurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer With Proton Beam Therapy or Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy: Predictors of High-Grade Toxicity and Survival Outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAvoy, Sarah; Ciura, Katherine; Wei, Caimiao; Rineer, Justin; Liao, Zhongxing; Chang, Joe Y.; Palmer, Matthew B.; Cox, James D.; Komaki, Ritsuko; Gomez, Daniel R., E-mail: DGomez@mdanderson.org

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: Intrathoracic recurrence of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after initial treatment remains a dominant cause of death. We report our experience using proton beam therapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy for reirradiation in such cases, focusing on patterns of failure, criteria for patient selection, and predictors of toxicity. Methods and Materials: A total of 102 patients underwent reirradiation for intrathoracic recurrent NSCLC at a single institution. All doses were recalculated to an equivalent dose in 2-Gy fractions (EQD2). All patients had received radiation therapy for NSCLC (median initial dose of 70 EQD2 Gy), with median interval to reirradiation of 17 months and median reirradiation dose of 60.48 EQD2 Gy. Median follow-up time was 6.5 months (range, 0-72 months). Results: Ninety-nine patients (97%) completed reirradiation. Median local failure-free survival, distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), and overall survival times were 11.43 months (range, 8.6-22.66 months), 11.43 months (range, 6.83-23.84 months), and 14.71 (range, 10.34-20.56 months), respectively. Toxicity was acceptable, with rates of grade ≥3 esophageal toxicity of 7% and grade ≥3 pulmonary toxicity of 10%. Of the patients who developed local failure after reirradiation, 88% had failure in either the original or the reirradiation field. Poor local control was associated with T4 disease, squamous histology, and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score >1. Concurrent chemotherapy improved DMFS, but T4 disease was associated with poor DMFS. Higher T status, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status ≥1, squamous histology, and larger reirradiation target volumes led to worse overall survival; receipt of concurrent chemotherapy and higher EQD2 were associated with improved OS. Conclusions: Intensity modulated radiation therapy and proton beam therapy are options for treating recurrent non-small cell lung cancer. However, rates of

  10. BIANCA, a biophysical model of cell survival and chromosome damage by protons, C-ions and He-ions at energies and doses used in hadrontherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietro Carante, Mario; Aimè, Chiara; Tello Cajiao, John James; Ballarini, Francesca

    2018-04-01

    An upgraded version of the BIANCA II biophysical model, which describes more realistically interphase chromosome organization and the link between chromosome aberrations and cell death, was applied to V79 and AG01522 cells exposed to protons, C-ions and He-ions over a wide LET interval (0.6–502 keV µm‑1), as well as proton-irradiated U87 cells. The model assumes that (i) ionizing radiation induces DNA ‘cluster lesions’ (CLs), where by definition each CL produces two independent chromosome fragments; (ii) fragment (distance-dependent) mis-rejoining, or un-rejoining, produces chromosome aberrations; (iii) some aberrations lead to cell death. The CL yield, which mainly depends on radiation quality but is also modulated by the target cell, is an adjustable parameter. The fragment un-rejoining probability, f, is the second, and last, parameter. The value of f, which is assumed to depend on the cell type but not on radiation quality, was taken from previous studies, and only the CL yield was adjusted in the present work. Good agreement between simulations and experimental data was obtained, suggesting that BIANCA II is suitable for calculating the biological effectiveness of hadrontherapy beams. For both V79 and AG01522 cells, the mean number of CLs per micrometer was found to increase with LET in a linear-quadratic fashion before the over-killing region, where a less rapid increase, with a tendency to saturation, was observed. Although the over-killing region deserves further investigation, the possibility of fitting the CL yields is an important feature for hadrontherapy, because it allows performing predictions also at LET values where experimental data are not available. Finally, an approach was proposed to predict the ion-response of the cell line(s) of interest from the ion-response of a reference cell line and the photon response of both. A pilot study on proton-irradiated AG01522 and U87 cells, taking V79 cells as a reference, showed encouraging

  11. Proton dynamics in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Veronica; De Milito, Angelo; Harguindey, Salvador; Reshkin, Stephan J; Wahl, Miriam L; Rauch, Cyril; Chiesi, Antonio; Pouysségur, Jacques; Gatenby, Robert A; Rivoltini, Licia; Fais, Stefano

    2010-06-15

    Cancer remains a leading cause of death in the world today. Despite decades of research to identify novel therapeutic approaches, durable regressions of metastatic disease are still scanty and survival benefits often negligible. While the current strategy is mostly converging on target-therapies aimed at selectively affecting altered molecular pathways in tumor cells, evidences are in parallel pointing to cell metabolism as a potential Achilles' heel of cancer, to be disrupted for achieving therapeutic benefit. Critical differences in the metabolism of tumor versus normal cells, which include abnormal glycolysis, high lactic acid production, protons accumulation and reversed intra-extracellular pH gradients, make tumor site a hostile microenvironment where only cancer cells can proliferate and survive. Inhibiting these pathways by blocking proton pumps and transporters may deprive cancer cells of a key mechanism of detoxification and thus represent a novel strategy for a pleiotropic and multifaceted suppression of cancer cell growth.Research groups scattered all over the world have recently started to investigate various aspects of proton dynamics in cancer cells with quite encouraging preliminary results. The intent of unifying investigators involved in this research line led to the formation of the "International Society for Proton Dynamics in Cancer" (ISPDC) in January 2010. This is the manifesto of the newly formed society where both basic and clinical investigators are called to foster translational research and stimulate interdisciplinary collaboration for the development of more specific and less toxic therapeutic strategies based on proton dynamics in tumor cell biology.

  12. Proton dynamics in cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouysségur Jacques

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cancer remains a leading cause of death in the world today. Despite decades of research to identify novel therapeutic approaches, durable regressions of metastatic disease are still scanty and survival benefits often negligible. While the current strategy is mostly converging on target-therapies aimed at selectively affecting altered molecular pathways in tumor cells, evidences are in parallel pointing to cell metabolism as a potential Achilles' heel of cancer, to be disrupted for achieving therapeutic benefit. Critical differences in the metabolism of tumor versus normal cells, which include abnormal glycolysis, high lactic acid production, protons accumulation and reversed intra-extracellular pH gradients, make tumor site a hostile microenvironment where only cancer cells can proliferate and survive. Inhibiting these pathways by blocking proton pumps and transporters may deprive cancer cells of a key mechanism of detoxification and thus represent a novel strategy for a pleiotropic and multifaceted suppression of cancer cell growth. Research groups scattered all over the world have recently started to investigate various aspects of proton dynamics in cancer cells with quite encouraging preliminary results. The intent of unifying investigators involved in this research line led to the formation of the "International Society for Proton Dynamics in Cancer" (ISPDC in January 2010. This is the manifesto of the newly formed society where both basic and clinical investigators are called to foster translational research and stimulate interdisciplinary collaboration for the development of more specific and less toxic therapeutic strategies based on proton dynamics in tumor cell biology.

  13. Stimulated human fibroblast cell survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, B.P.; Gale, K.L.; Einspenner, M.; Greenstock, C.L.; Gentner, N.E.

    1992-01-01

    Techniques for cloning cultured mammalian cells have supported the most universally-accepted method for measuring the induction of lethality by geno-toxicants such as ionizing radiation: the 'survival of colony-forming ability (CFA)' assay. Since most cultured human cell lines exhibit plating efficiency (i.e. the percentage of cells that are capable of reproductively surviving and dividing to form visible colonies) well below 100%, such assays are in essence 'survival of plating efficiency' assays, since they are referred to the plating (or cloning) efficiency of control (i.e. unirradiated) cells. (author). 8 refs., 2 figs

  14. Laser-driven proton beams applied to radiobiological experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yogo, Akifumi

    2012-01-01

    The proton accelerators based on the high intensity laser system generate shorter and higher pulse beams compared to the conventional particle accelerators used for the cancer therapy. To demonstrate the radiobiological effects of the new proton beams, the program to develop a biological irradiation instrument for the DNA double-strand break was started in the fiscal year 2008. A prototype instrument was made by making use of the J-KAREN (JAEA Kansai Advanced Relativistic Engineering) laser beam. Polyimide thin film targets were used to irradiate A-549 cells. The DNA double-strand break was tested by the fluorescence spectrometry. In the second year the quantitative yield of the DNA double-strand break and its proton dose dependence were measured. The results indicated that they were comparative to the cases of the conventional particle accelerators. In the fiscal year of 2010 the design of the magnetic field for the energy selection has been changed. The new irradiation instrument, the main part of which is only about 40 cm in length as illustrated in the figure, has been constructed and tested. The experiment has been carried out using the human cancer cells (HSG) and the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) has been quantitatively evaluated by the colony assay for varied distribution of the proton beam energy. The survival fractions plotted against the dose were in good agreement with the case of 3 He beam. RBE was found not to be changed up to 1x10 7 Gy/s. Stability of the energy peak, half width and the proton density has been confirmed for this very compact instrument. (S. Funahashi)

  15. Kant's Second Thoughts on Colonialism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleingeld, Pauline; Flikschuh, Katrin; Ypi, Lea

    2014-01-01

    Kant is widely regarded as a fierce critic of colonialism. In Toward Perpetual Peace and the Metaphysics of Morals, for example, he forcefully condemns European conduct in the colonies as a flagrant violation of the principles of right. His earlier views on colonialism have not yet received much

  16. Proton therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Alfred R

    2006-01-01

    Proton therapy has become a subject of considerable interest in the radiation oncology community and it is expected that there will be a substantial growth in proton treatment facilities during the next decade. I was asked to write a historical review of proton therapy based on my personal experiences, which have all occurred in the United States, so therefore I have a somewhat parochial point of view. Space requirements did not permit me to mention all of the existing proton therapy facilities or the names of all of those who have contributed to proton therapy. (review)

  17. A critical number of workers in a honeybee colony triggers investment in reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael L; Ostwald, Madeleine M; Loftus, J Carter; Seeley, Thomas D

    2014-10-01

    Social insect colonies, like individual organisms, must decide as they develop how to allocate optimally their resources among survival, growth, and reproduction. Only when colonies reach a certain state do they switch from investing purely in survival and growth to investing also in reproduction. But how do worker bees within a colony detect that their colony has reached the state where it is adaptive to begin investing in reproduction? Previous work has shown that larger honeybee colonies invest more in reproduction (i.e., the production of drones and queens), however, the term 'larger' encompasses multiple colony parameters including number of adult workers, size of the nest, amount of brood, and size of the honey stores. These colony parameters were independently increased in this study to test which one(s) would increase a colony's investment in reproduction via males. This was assayed by measuring the construction of drone comb, the special type of comb in which drones are reared. Only an increase in the number of workers stimulated construction of drone comb. Colonies with over 4,000 workers began building drone comb, independent of the other colony parameters. These results show that attaining a critical number of workers is the key parameter for honeybee colonies to start to shift resources towards reproduction. These findings are relevant to other social systems in which a group's members must adjust their behavior as a function of the group's size.

  18. A critical number of workers in a honeybee colony triggers investment in reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael L.; Ostwald, Madeleine M.; Loftus, J. Carter; Seeley, Thomas D.

    2014-10-01

    Social insect colonies, like individual organisms, must decide as they develop how to allocate optimally their resources among survival, growth, and reproduction. Only when colonies reach a certain state do they switch from investing purely in survival and growth to investing also in reproduction. But how do worker bees within a colony detect that their colony has reached the state where it is adaptive to begin investing in reproduction? Previous work has shown that larger honeybee colonies invest more in reproduction (i.e., the production of drones and queens), however, the term `larger' encompasses multiple colony parameters including number of adult workers, size of the nest, amount of brood, and size of the honey stores. These colony parameters were independently increased in this study to test which one(s) would increase a colony's investment in reproduction via males. This was assayed by measuring the construction of drone comb, the special type of comb in which drones are reared. Only an increase in the number of workers stimulated construction of drone comb. Colonies with over 4,000 workers began building drone comb, independent of the other colony parameters. These results show that attaining a critical number of workers is the key parameter for honeybee colonies to start to shift resources towards reproduction. These findings are relevant to other social systems in which a group's members must adjust their behavior as a function of the group's size.

  19. HONEY BEE COLONY PHEROMONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Dražić

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Pheromones are chemicals produced as liquids by specialised cells or glands and transmitted into the environment as liquids or gases. In contrary to hormones, which are excreted in organism and have effect exclusively on organism that produced them, pheromones are excreted outside organism and effect on different individuals of the same species. Pheromones mediate nearly all aspects of honeybee colony life including social defence, brood care, mating, orientation, foraging and reproduction. Pheromone investigation has high economic importance. With use of pheromones it is possible to manipulate with pest insects on crops or to direct honeybees during pollination on target plants.

  20. Analysis of Colonial Currency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurkowski, Michael; Cangany, Catherine; Jordan, Louis; Manukyan, Khachatur; Schultz, Zachary; Wiescher, Michael

    2017-09-01

    This project entailed studying the cellulose in paper, the ink, colorants, and other materials used to produce American colonial currency. The technique primarily used in this project was X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (XRF). XRF mapping was used to provide both elemental analysis of large-scale objects as well as microscopic examination of individual pigment particles in ink, in addition to the inorganic additives used to prepare paper. The combination of elemental mapping with Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Raman Spectroscopies permits an efficient analysis of the currency. These spectroscopic methods help identify the molecular composition of the pigments. This combination of atomic and molecular analytical techniques provided an in-depth characterization of the paper currency on the macro, micro, and molecular levels. We have identified several of pigments that were used in the preparation of inks and colorants. Also, different inorganic crystals, such as alumina-silicates, have been detected in different papers. The FTIR spectroscopy allowed us to determine the type of cellulose fiber used in the production of paper currency. Our future research will be directed toward revealing important historical relationships between currencies printed throughout the colonies. ISLA Da Vinci Grant.

  1. Seabird Colonies in Western Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boertmann, D.; Mosbech, A.; Falk, K.

    About 1 million seabirds (indvs) breed in 1032 colonies distributed along the coasts of western Greenland (Fig. 1). However, this figure does not include the little auk colonies in Avanersuaq. These colonies are roughly estimated to hold about 20 mill. pairs. All the basic information on seabird...... colonies in Greenland is compiled in a database maintained by NERI-AE. This report presents data on distribution, population numbers and population trends of 19 species of breeding colonial seabirds in western Greenland. Distributions are depicted on maps in Fig. 18-39. It is apparent that the major...... colonies are found in the northern part of the region, viz. Upernavik and Avanersuaq. The numbers of birds recorded in the database for each species are presented in Tab. 4, and on the basis of these figures estimates of the populations in western Greenland are given (Tab. 5). The most numerous species...

  2. Relationship of colony-stimulating activity to apparent kill of human colony-forming cells by irradiation and hydroxyurea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broxmeyer, H.E.; Galbraith, P.R.; Baker, F.L.

    1976-01-01

    Suspensions of human bone marrow cells were subjected to 137 Cs irradiation in vitro and then cultured in semisolid agar medium. Cultures of irradiated cells were stimulated with colony-stimulating activity (CSA) of different potencies, and it was found that the amount of stimulation applied to cultures influenced the apparent kill of colony-forming cells (CFC). It was also found that the effects of irradiation on colony formation were not confined to CFC kill since medium conditioned by cells during irradiation exhibited stimulatory and inhibitory properties after treatment by 600 and 1000 rads, respectively. Studies in which irradiated cells were pretreated with hydroxyurea indicated that CFC in the DNA synthetic phase of the cell cycle were particularly sensitive to low doses of irradiation. The proliferative capacity of CFC surviving 1000 rads was undiminished as judged by their ability to form large colonies. Estimates of CFC kill by hydroxyurea were also affected by the level of CSA

  3. Colony Dimorphism in Bradyrhizobium Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester-Bradley, Rosemary; Thornton, Philip; Jones, Peter

    1988-01-01

    Ten isolates of Bradyrhizobium spp. which form two colony types were studied; the isolates originated from a range of legume species. The two colony types differed in the amount of gum formed or size or both, depending on the strain. Whole 7-day-old colonies of each type were subcultured to determine the proportion of cells which had changed to the other type. An iterative computerized procedure was used to determine the rate of switching per generation between the two types and to predict proportions reached at equilibrium for each strain. The predicted proportions of the wetter (more gummy) or larger colony type at equilibrium differed significantly between strains, ranging from 0.9999 (strain CIAT 2383) to 0.0216 (strain CIAT 2469), because some strains switched faster from dry to wet (or small to large) and others switched faster from wet to dry (or large to small). Predicted equilibrium was reached after about 140 generations in strain USDA 76. In all but one strain (CIAT 3030) the growth rate of the wetter colony type was greater than or similar to that of the drier type. The mean difference in generation time between the two colony types was 0.37 h. Doubling times calculated for either colony type after 7 days of growth on the agar surface ranged from 6.0 to 7.3 h. The formation of two persistent colony types by one strain (clonal or colony dimorphism) may be a common phenomenon among Bradyrhizobium strains. Images PMID:16347599

  4. Growth Mechanism of Microbial Colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Minhui; Martini, K. Michael; Kim, Neil H.; Sherer, Nicholas; Lee, Jia Gloria; Kuhlman, Thomas; Goldenfeld, Nigel

    Experiments on nutrient-limited E. coli colonies, growing on agar gel from single cells reveal a power-law distribution of sizes, both during the growth process and in the final stage when growth has ceased. We developed a Python simulation to study the growth mechanism of the bacterial population and thus understand the broad details of the experimental findings. The simulation takes into account nutrient uptake, metabolic function, growth and cell division. Bacteria are modeled in two dimensions as hard circle-capped cylinders with steric interactions and elastic stress dependent growth characteristics. Nutrient is able to diffuse within and between the colonies. The mechanism of microbial colony growth involves reproduction of cells within the colonies and the merging of different colonies. We report results on the dynamic scaling laws and final state size distribution, that capture in semi-quantitative detail the trends observed in experiment. Supported by NSF Grant 0822613.

  5. Agar Technique for the Cultivation In Vitro of Bone-Marrow Colonies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metcalf, D. [Walter and Eliza Hall Institute, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne, VIC (Australia)

    1969-07-15

    In solid-state agar cultures certain haemopoietic cells proliferate and form discrete colonies of 200 - 4000 cells. Colony formation is dependent on stimulation by the colony-stimulating factor, and this is achieved by (1) the use of a cell feeder layer, (2) the addition of conditioned medium, or (3) the addition of human or mouse serum or urine containing the factor. All colonies initially contain granulocytic cells which differentiate from myeloblasts to polymorphs as colony growth proceeds. Later colonies develop a second population of phagocytic mononuclear cells (macrophages). The colony-forming-system is simple, readily quantitated and highly reproducible. Linear dose responses occur between the dose of colony-stimulating factor and the number and size of colonies developing from a standard number of bone-marrow cells. In-vitro colony formation has been achieved with haemopoietic cells of the following species: mouse, rat, hamster, guinea pig, rabbit and human. In the adult mouse, colony-forming cells are located in the bone marrow, spleen and blood and in the embryo, in the yolk sac, liver and spleen. The colony-forming cell appears to be an early member of the granulocytic series. The colony-forming system has been used as a quantitative assay system: (1) to assay levels of colony-stimulating factor in serum and urine and in the chemical- characterization and purification of the factor; and (2) to enumerate the number of colony-forming cells in haemopoietic tissues in response to a variety of experimental procedures and disease states. Since the system is applicable to human bone-marrow cells, it should prove of value in the quantitative assay of (1) survival of human bone marrow on storage, and (2) bone-marrow content of granulocytic precursor cells in various disease states and following various types of therapy. The system is not suitable for the mass production in vitro of haemopoietic cells for therapeutic use. (author)

  6. Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin, Volume XIII; Appraisal of System-Wide Survival Estimation of Snake River Yearling Chinook Salmon Released in 1997 and 1988, Using PIT-Tags Recovered from Caspian Tern and Double-Crested Cormorant Breeding Colonies on Rice Island, 1997-1998 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skalski, John R.; Perez-Comas, Jose A. (University of Washington, School of Fisheries, Seattle, WA)

    2000-05-01

    PIT-tags recovered from tern and cormorant breeding colonies at Rice Island and observations from the interrogation systems at John Day and Bonneville Dams were incorporated into survival analyses. Whether the estimates for the upper reaches of the system, between Lower Granite and McNary Dams were as expected (with weighted averages S{sub LGR-LGS} = 0.996, S{sub LGS-LMN} = 0.837, and S{sub LMN-McN} = 0.941), those for the lower reaches, between John Day and Bonneville Dams, appeared positively biased with survival estimates typically greater than 1. Their weighted averages were S{sub McN-JDA} = 0.707 and S{sub JDA-BON} = 1.792 for 1997 releases. For the 1998 releases, they were S{sub McN-JDA} = 0.795 and S{sub JDA-BON} = 1.312. If the estimates for the lower reaches were biased, the estimates for the whole project would also be biased (S{sub LGR-BON} = 0.819). We determined that bias could have arisen if the terns and cormorants of Rice Island fished for salmon yearlings in waters of the BON-Rice reach at low rates (M{sub BON-Rice} {le} 0.2), and the rates of tag-deposition and tag-detection were low (R{sub D} x R{sub R} {le} 0.4). Moreover, unknown levels of uncensored post-detection mortality and scavenging of previously dead salmon yearlings may have also added to the bias.

  7. Colonial Figures: Memories of Street Traders in the Colonial and Early Post-colonial Periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri Lynn Gibbings

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores post-colonial memories about street traders among individuals who lived in the former colony of the Dutch East Indies. It argues that these narratives romanticize the relationship between Europeans and indigenous peoples. Street vendors are also used to differentiate between periods within colonial and post-colonial history. The nostalgic representation of interracial contact between Europeans and traders is contrasted with representations of other figures such as the Japanese and the nationalist. A recurring feature of these representations is the ability of Europeans to speak with street traders and imagine what they wanted and needed. The traders are remembered as a social type that transgressed politics and represented the neutrality of the economic sphere as a place for shared communication. The article concludes that the figure of the street vendor contributes to the nostalgic reinvention of the colony but is also used in narratives to differentiate between and mark changes across the colonial and post-colonial periods.

  8. Effects of x-ray and neutron irradiation on spherical colonies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aramaki, Ryoji

    1980-01-01

    Responses of in vitro cultured mammalian cells in spherical colonies to 200 kVp x-rays and D-T neutrons were studied using reproductive capacity as a criterion for survival. Cell lines used were FM3A, L5 and Chinese hamster V79. The spherical colonies exposed to x-rays exhibited two-component survival curves. All cells used were more radio-resistant in spherical colonies than in single cell suspensions. It was suggested that this difference in response was attributable to the presence of hypoxic cells in spherical colonies. Dose-modifying Factor (DMF), the ratios of D 0 of the second slopes of the curves for spherical colonies to those for single cells, were 1.6 for FM3A, 1.8 for L5, and 1.7 for Chinese hamster V79. The hypoxic cell fractions in spherical colonies for FM3A, L5, and Chinese hamster V79, were 0.1, 0.6 and 0.4, respectively, resulting in variations in cell survival in spherical colonies following x-radiation. No significant difference was observed between responses of spherical colonies and single cell suspensions to D-T neutrons. FM3A and Chinese hamster V79 showed two-component survival curves when irradiated with neutrons at 37 0 C, but not at 25 0 C. The repair of potentially lethal and sub-lethal damage was also investigated using FM3A in spherical colonies. No detectable repair of potentially lethal damage was observed for x-rays and D-T neutrons. The effect of neutron fractionation was considerably smaller for spherical colonies as compared to single cells. (author)

  9. Assessment of Chronic Sublethal Effects of Imidacloprid on Honey Bee Colony Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dively, Galen P.; Embrey, Michael S.; Kamel, Alaa; Hawthorne, David J.; Pettis, Jeffery S.

    2015-01-01

    Here we present results of a three-year study to determine the fate of imidacloprid residues in hive matrices and to assess chronic sublethal effects on whole honey bee colonies fed supplemental pollen diet containing imidacloprid at 5, 20 and 100 μg/kg over multiple brood cycles. Various endpoints of colony performance and foraging behavior were measured during and after exposure, including winter survival. Imidacloprid residues became diluted or non-detectable within colonies due to the processing of beebread and honey and the rapid metabolism of the chemical. Imidacloprid exposure doses up to 100 μg/kg had no significant effects on foraging activity or other colony performance indicators during and shortly after exposure. Diseases and pest species did not affect colony health but infestations of Varroa mites were significantly higher in exposed colonies. Honey stores indicated that exposed colonies may have avoided the contaminated food. Imidacloprid dose effects was delayed later in the summer, when colonies exposed to 20 and 100 μg/kg experienced higher rates of queen failure and broodless periods, which led to weaker colonies going into the winter. Pooled over two years, winter survival of colonies averaged 85.7, 72.4, 61.2 and 59.2% in the control, 5, 20 and 100 μg/kg treatment groups, respectively. Analysis of colony survival data showed a significant dose effect, and all contrast tests comparing survival between control and treatment groups were significant, except for colonies exposed to 5 μg/kg. Given the weight of evidence, chronic exposure to imidacloprid at the higher range of field doses (20 to 100 μg/kg) in pollen of certain treated crops could cause negative impacts on honey bee colony health and reduced overwintering success, but the most likely encountered high range of field doses relevant for seed-treated crops (5 μg/kg) had negligible effects on colony health and are unlikely a sole cause of colony declines. PMID:25786127

  10. The Future Lunar Flora Colony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, E. G.; Guven, U. G.

    2017-10-01

    A constructional design for the primary establishment for a lunar colony using the micrometeorite rich soil is proposed. It highlights the potential of lunar regolith combined with Earth technology for water and oxygen for human outposts on the Moon.

  11. Proton decay theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciano, W.J.

    1983-01-01

    Topics include minimal SU(5) predictions, gauge boson mediated proton decay, uncertainties in tau/sub p/, Higgs scalar effects, proton decay via Higgs scalars, supersymmetric SU(5), dimension 5 operators and proton decay, and Higgs scalars and proton decay

  12. UV survival of human mycoplasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Shigeji; Ito, Shoko; Watanabe, Takehiko

    1979-01-01

    The inactivation by ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation of mycoplasma cells of five human strains was monitored by investigating the colony-forming ability. The survival curves of five strains tested indicated that the cells of Mycoplasma buccale only are single and homogenously susceptible to UV light. The effect of the repair inhibitor, caffeine, on the colony-forming ability of UV-irradiated cells was investigated with M. buccale because of its homogeneous susceptibility to UV light. The colony formation of irradiated cells was markedly depressed by post-irradiation treatment with caffeine at concentration that had little or no effect on the colony formation of unirradiated cells. The colony-forming units (CFU) of UV-irradiated cells which were kept in broth without caffeine in the dark increased without a lag as the time in the dark increased. The colony-forming ability of the irradiated cells completely recovered after 3 hr in the dark. However, when irradiated cells were kept in the presence of caffeine, no increase in their CFU was observed. The mode of action of caffeine on UV-irradiated cells closely resembles that described for other organisms which possess dark reactivation systems for UV-induced damage in deoxyribonucleic acid. Thus, the results obtained provide evidence for the existence of a dark repair function in M. buccale. (author)

  13. Proton therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jongen, Y.

    1995-01-01

    Ideal radiotherapy deposits a large amount of energy in the tumour volume, and none in the surrounding healthy tissues. Proton therapy comes closer to this goal because of a greater concentration of dose, well defined proton ranges and points of energy release which are precisely known - the Bragg peak1. In the past, the development of clinical proton therapy has been hampered by complexity, size, and cost. To be clinically effective, energies of several hundred MeV are required; these were previously unavailable for hospital installations, and pioneering institutions had to work with complex, inadequate equipment originally intended for nuclear physics research. Recently a number of specialist organizations and commercial companies have been working on dedicated systems for proton therapy. One, IBA of Belgium, has equipment for inhouse hospital operation which encompasses a complete therapy centre, delivered as a turnkey package and incorporating a compact, automated, higher energy cyclotron with isocentric gantries. Their system will be installed at Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston. The proton therapy system comprises: - a 235 MeV isochronous cyclotron to deliver beams of up to 1.5 microamps, but with a hardware limitation to restrict the maximum possible dose; - variable energy beam (235 to 70 MeV ) with energy spread and emittance verification; - a beam transport and switching system to connect the exit of the energy selection system to the entrances of a number of gantries and fixed beamlines. Along the beam transport system, the beam characteristics are monitored with non-interceptive multiwire ionization chambers for automatic tuning; - gantries fitted with nozzles and beamline elements for beam control; both beam scattering and beam wobbling techniques are available for shaping the beam;

  14. The clinical case for proton beam therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foote Robert L

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Over the past 20 years, several proton beam treatment programs have been implemented throughout the United States. Increasingly, the number of new programs under development is growing. Proton beam therapy has the potential for improving tumor control and survival through dose escalation. It also has potential for reducing harm to normal organs through dose reduction. However, proton beam therapy is more costly than conventional x-ray therapy. This increased cost may be offset by improved function, improved quality of life, and reduced costs related to treating the late effects of therapy. Clinical research opportunities are abundant to determine which patients will gain the most benefit from proton beam therapy. We review the clinical case for proton beam therapy. Summary sentence Proton beam therapy is a technically advanced and promising form of radiation therapy.

  15. The clinical case for proton beam therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foote, Robert L; Haddock, Michael G; Yan, Elizabeth; Laack, Nadia N; Arndt, Carola A S

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, several proton beam treatment programs have been implemented throughout the United States. Increasingly, the number of new programs under development is growing. Proton beam therapy has the potential for improving tumor control and survival through dose escalation. It also has potential for reducing harm to normal organs through dose reduction. However, proton beam therapy is more costly than conventional x-ray therapy. This increased cost may be offset by improved function, improved quality of life, and reduced costs related to treating the late effects of therapy. Clinical research opportunities are abundant to determine which patients will gain the most benefit from proton beam therapy. We review the clinical case for proton beam therapy. Proton beam therapy is a technically advanced and promising form of radiation therapy

  16. Changes in learning and foraging behaviour within developing bumble bee (Bombus terrestris colonies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa J Evans

    Full Text Available Organisation in eusocial insect colonies emerges from the decisions and actions of its individual members. In turn, these decisions and actions are influenced by the individual's behaviour (or temperament. Although there is variation in the behaviour of individuals within a colony, we know surprisingly little about how (or indeed if the types of behaviour present in a colony change over time. Here, for the first time, we assessed potential changes in the behavioural type of foragers during colony development. Using an ecologically relevant foraging task, we measured the decision speed and learning ability of bumble bees (Bombus terrestris at different stages of colony development. We determined whether individuals that forage early in the colony life cycle (the queen and early emerging workers behaved differently from workers that emerge and forage at the end of colony development. Whilst we found no overall change in the foraging behaviour of workers with colony development, there were strong differences in foraging behaviour between queens and their workers. Queens appeared to forage more cautiously than their workers and were also quicker to learn. These behaviours could allow queens to maximise their nectar collecting efficiency whilst avoiding predation. Because the foundress queen is crucial to the survival and success of a bumble bee colony, more efficient foraging behaviour in queens may have strong adaptive value.

  17. Colonial army recruitment patterns and post-colonial Military Coups ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since time immemorial, societies, states and state builders have been challenged and transformed by the need and quest for military manpower. European states relied on conscript armies to 'pacify' and retain colonies in parts of the non-European world. These facts underscore the meticulous attention paid by the British to ...

  18. Colonial Bilingual Heritage and Post-Colonial Myths in Cameroon's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, the study traces and shows that an uncritical support of the existing school bilingualism, a aspect of the general political objective of national unity and integration, hinges on a fictitious collective post-colonial dream about using the bilingual heritage of French and English, and the cultures that lie behind them, ...

  19. Proton radiography to improve proton therapy treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takatsu, J.; van der Graaf, E. R.; van Goethem, Marc-Jan; van Beuzekom, M.; Klaver, T.; Visser, Jan; Brandenburg, S.; Biegun, A. K.

    The quality of cancer treatment with protons critically depends on an accurate prediction of the proton stopping powers for the tissues traversed by the protons. Today, treatment planning in proton radiotherapy is based on stopping power calculations from densities of X-ray Computed Tomography (CT)

  20. A framework for analysis of abortive colony size distributions using a model of branching processes in irradiated normal human fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakashita, Tetsuya; Hamada, Nobuyuki; Kawaguchi, Isao; Ouchi, Noriyuki B; Hara, Takamitsu; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Saito, Kimiaki

    2013-01-01

    Clonogenicity gives important information about the cellular reproductive potential following ionizing irradiation, but an abortive colony that fails to continue to grow remains poorly characterized. It was recently reported that the fraction of abortive colonies increases with increasing dose. Thus, we set out to investigate the production kinetics of abortive colonies using a model of branching processes. We firstly plotted the experimentally determined colony size distribution of abortive colonies in irradiated normal human fibroblasts, and found the linear relationship on the log-linear or log-log plot. By applying the simple model of branching processes to the linear relationship, we found the persistent reproductive cell death (RCD) over several generations following irradiation. To verify the estimated probability of RCD, abortive colony size distribution (≤ 15 cells) and the surviving fraction were simulated by the Monte Carlo computational approach for colony expansion. Parameters estimated from the log-log fit demonstrated the good performance in both simulations than those from the log-linear fit. Radiation-induced RCD, i.e. excess probability, lasted over 16 generations and mainly consisted of two components in the early (probability over 5 generations, whereas abortive colony size distribution was robust against it. These results suggest that, whereas short-term RCD is critical to the abortive colony size distribution, long-lasting RCD is important for the dose response of the surviving fraction. Our present model provides a single framework for understanding the behavior of primary cell colonies in culture following irradiation.

  1. Predation of artificial ground nests on white-tailed prairie dog colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, B.W.; Stanley, T.R.; Sedgwick, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    Prairie dog (Cynomys spp.) colonies are unique to prairie and shrub-steppe landscapes. However, widespread eradication, habitat loss, and sylvatic plague (Yersinia pestis) have reduced their numbers by 98% since historical times. Birds associated with prairie dogs also are declining. Potential nest predators, such as coyotes (Canis latrans), swift foxes (Vulpes velox), and badgers (Taxidea taxus), may be attracted to colonies where a high concentration of prairie dogs serve as available prey. Increased abundance of small mammals, including prairie dogs, also may increase the risk of predation for birds nesting on colonies. Finally, because grazing by prairie dogs may decrease vegetation height and canopy cover, bird nests may be easier for predators to locate. In this study, we placed 1,444 artificial ground nests on and off 74 white-tailed prairie dog (C. leucurus) colonies to test the hypothesis that nest predation rates are higher on colonies than at nearby off sites (i.e., uncolonized habitat). We sampled colonies from 27 May to 16 July 1997 at the following 3 complexes: Coyote Basin, Utah and Colorado; Moxa Arch, Wyoming; and Shirley Basin, Wyoming. Differences in daily predation rates between colonies and paired off sites averaged 1.0% (P = 0.060). When converted to a typical 14-day incubation period, predation rates averaged 14% higher on colonies (57.7 ?? 2.7%; ?? ?? SE) than at off sites (50.4 ?? 3.1%). Comparisons of habitat variables on colonies to off sites showed percent canopy cover of vegetation was similar (P = 0.114), percent bare ground was higher on colonies (P 0.288). Although we found the risk of nest predation was higher on white-tailed prairie dog colonies than at off sites, fitness of birds nesting on colonies might depend on other factors that influence foraging success, reproductive success, or nestling survival.

  2. Social Immunity: Emergence and Evolution of Colony-Level Disease Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Sylvia; Pull, Christopher D; Fürst, Matthias A

    2018-01-07

    Social insect colonies have evolved many collectively performed adaptations that reduce the impact of infectious disease and that are expected to maximize their fitness. This colony-level protection is termed social immunity, and it enhances the health and survival of the colony. In this review, we address how social immunity emerges from its mechanistic components to produce colony-level disease avoidance, resistance, and tolerance. To understand the evolutionary causes and consequences of social immunity, we highlight the need for studies that evaluate the effects of social immunity on colony fitness. We discuss the roles that host life history and ecology have on predicted eco-evolutionary dynamics, which differ among the social insect lineages. Throughout the review, we highlight current gaps in our knowledge and promising avenues for future research, which we hope will bring us closer to an integrated understanding of socio-eco-evo-immunology.

  3. Dutch Colonial Nostalgia Across Decolonisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijl, P.

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that nostalgia for colonialism in the Netherlands, the so called tempo doeloe culture, is not a specifically postcolonial phenomenon caused by the collapse of the Dutch empire in Asia. In fact, nostalgia for the Dutch East Indies can be traced back to the nineteenth century, when

  4. Colonial adventures in tropical agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buelens, Frans; Frankema, Ewout

    2016-01-01

    How profitable were foreign investments in plantation agriculture in the Netherlands Indies during the late colonial era? We use a new dataset of monthly quoted stock prices and dividends of international companies at the Brussels stock exchange to estimate the returns to investment in tropical

  5. Affective Politics and Colonial Heritage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Britta Timm; Andersen, Casper

    2017-01-01

    The article analyses the spatial entanglement of colonial heritage struggles through a study of the Rhodes Must Fall student movement at the University of Cape Town and the University of Oxford. We explore affective politics and the role heritage can play in the landscape of body politics. We aim...

  6. Ant Colony Optimization for Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Ast, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    The very basis of this thesis is the collective behavior of ants in colonies. Ants are an excellent example of how rather simple behavior on a local level can lead to complex behavior on a global level that is beneficial for the individuals. The key in the self-organization of ants is communication

  7. Queen promiscuity lowers disease within honeybee colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, Thomas D; Tarpy, David R

    2006-01-01

    Most species of social insects have singly mated queens, but in some species each queen mates with numerous males to create a colony with a genetically diverse worker force. The adaptive significance of polyandry by social insect queens remains an evolutionary puzzle. Using the honeybee (Apis mellifera), we tested the hypothesis that polyandry improves a colony's resistance to disease. We established colonies headed by queens that had been artificially inseminated by either one or 10 drones. Later, we inoculated these colonies with spores of Paenibacillus larvae, the bacterium that causes a highly virulent disease of honeybee larvae (American foulbrood). We found that, on average, colonies headed by multiple-drone inseminated queens had markedly lower disease intensity and higher colony strength at the end of the summer relative to colonies headed by single-drone inseminated queens. These findings support the hypothesis that polyandry by social insect queens is an adaptation to counter disease within their colonies. PMID:17015336

  8. Proton diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Den Besten, J.L.; Jamieson, D.N.; Allen, L.J.

    1998-01-01

    The Lindhard theory on ion channeling in crystals has been widely accepted throughout ion beam analysis for use in simulating such experiments. The simulations use a Monte Carlo method developed by Barret, which utilises the classical 'billiard ball' theory of ions 'bouncing' between planes or tubes of atoms in the crystal. This theory is not valid for 'thin' crystals where the planes or strings of atoms can no longer be assumed to be of infinite proportions. We propose that a theory similar to that used for high energy electron diffraction can be applied to MeV ions, especially protons, in thin crystals to simulate the intensities of transmission channeling and of RBS spectra. The diffraction theory is based on a Bloch wave solution of the Schroedinger equation for an ion passing through the periodic crystal potential. The widely used universal potential for proton-nucleus scattering is used to construct the crystal potential. Absorption due to thermal diffuse scattering is included. Experimental parameters such as convergence angle, beam tilt and scanning directions are considered in our calculations. Comparison between theory and experiment is encouraging and suggests that further work is justified. (authors)

  9. Relationship between lung colony and in situ assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, K.; Koike, S.

    1985-01-01

    The relationship between different assays: tumor control, tumor growth delay and lung colony formation was examined after fast neutron and γ ray irradiations. Fibrosarcomas (NFSa) in syngeneic C3Hf mice were irradiated locally with 60 Co γ rays, fast neutrons or mixed beams (γ rays and fast neutrons). A comparison between the lung colony assay and the TRT 50 (50% tumor growth delay time) assay when cells were exposed to single doses of fast neutrons or γ rays, resulted in identical growth delay times. The fraction of cells surviving a single dose of fast neutrons, was 10 times higher than the surviving fraction of cells after a single dose of γ rays. Both doses resulted in the same tumor control probability (TCD 50 assay). Neither repair of potentially lethal damage nor tumor bed effect was sufficient to explain the difference between cell survival and tumor control probability. The surviving fraction of cells following fractionated irradiations of γ rays and fast neutrons were identical at 50% tumor control probabilities

  10. Recent Honey Bee Colony Declines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-20

    podcasts.psu.edu/taxonomy/term/62]. Staple crops such as wheat , corn, and rice do not rely on insect pollination and are mostly wind pollinated...are interacting to weaken bee colonies and are allowing stress-related pathogens, such as fungi , thus causing a final collapse.27 Others note the...possible role of miticide resistance in bees. High levels of bacteria, viruses, and fungi have been found in the guts of the recoverable dead bees

  11. Modelling survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashauer, Roman; Albert, Carlo; Augustine, Starrlight

    2016-01-01

    The General Unified Threshold model for Survival (GUTS) integrates previously published toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic models and estimates survival with explicitly defined assumptions. Importantly, GUTS accounts for time-variable exposure to the stressor. We performed three studies to test...

  12. Honeybee immunity and colony losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nazzi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The decline of honeybee colonies and their eventual collapse is a widespread phenomenon in the Northern hemisphere of the globe, which severely limits the beekeeping industry. This dramatic event is associated with an enhanced impact of parasites and pathogens on honeybees, which is indicative of reduced immunocompetence. The parasitic mite Varroa destructor and the vectored viral pathogens appear to play a key-role in the induction of this complex syndrome. In particular, the Deformed Wing Virus (DWV is widespread and is now considered, along with Varroa, one of the major causes of bee colony losses. Several lines of evidence indicate that this mite/DWV association severely affects the immune system of honeybees and makes them more sensitive to the action of other stress factors. The molecular mechanisms underpinning these complex interactions are currently being investigated and the emerging information has allowed the development of a new functional model, describing how different stress factors may synergistically concur in the induction of bee immune alteration and health decline. This provides a new logical framework in which to interpret the proposed multifactorial origin of bee colony losses and sets the stage for a more comprehensive and integrated analysis of the effect that multiple stress agents may have on honeybees.

  13. Lifetime effects of single-event proton exposures in rhesus monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, D.H.; Yochmowitz, M.G.; Salmon, Y.L.

    1986-01-01

    The US School of Aerospace Medicine studies of the lifetime effects of proton irradiation in rhesus monkeys have been conducted. Life-span shortening has been associated with proton energies of 55 MeV and above, as well as with doses greater than 360 rads. Female rhesus monkeys have a higher mortality than males as a result of high incidence of endometriosis in the irradiated animals. A dose ordering effect is apparent. Mortality rates began to accelerate at eight years after doses of 360 to 400 rads; at two years, after 500 to 650 rads; and less than one year, after 800 rads. Malignant tumors accounted for 18% of the deaths in the proton-exposed animals. Endometriosis was the cause of 25% of the deaths in this group. Energy-specific effects were observed. Eight malignant brain tumors occurred in animals exposed to 55-MeV protons and in no other group. Cataract incidence was highest in animals exposed to 32 and 55 MeV. These observations suggest a positive relationship with the Bragg peak energy distribution in the area of the brain and crystalline lens. Glucose tolerance was lowest in the animals exposed to totally penetrating radiation, where the fraction of the surface dose reaching the pancreas was highest. Age-matched control animals have yet to pass their median survival time, and the colony continues to be a valuable source of data on the relationship of total-body radiation to age-related diseases in captive monkeys. 16 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  14. Survival analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badwe, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    The primary endpoint in the majority of the studies has been either disease recurrence or death. This kind of analysis requires a special method since all patients in the study experience the endpoint. The standard method for estimating such survival distribution is Kaplan Meier method. The survival function is defined as the proportion of individuals who survive beyond certain time. Multi-variate comparison for survival has been carried out with Cox's proportional hazard model

  15. Proton imaging apparatus for proton therapy application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sipala, V.; Lo Presti, D.; Brianzi, M.; Civinini, C.; Bruzzi, M.; Scaringella, M.; Talamonti, C.; Bucciolini, M.; Cirrone, G.A.P.; Cuttone, G.; Randazzo, N.; Stancampiano, C.; Tesi, M.

    2011-01-01

    Radiotherapy with protons, due to the physical properties of these particles, offers several advantages for cancer therapy as compared to the traditional radiotherapy and photons. In the clinical use of proton beams, a p CT (Proton Computer Tomography) apparatus can contribute to improve the accuracy of the patient positioning and dose distribution calculation. In this paper a p CT apparatus built by the Prima (Proton Imaging) Italian Collaboration will be presented and the preliminary results will be discussed.

  16. Proton radioactivity from proton-rich nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman, F.; Goncalves, M.; Tavares, O.A.P.; Duarte, S.B.; Garcia, F.; Rodriguez, O.

    1999-03-01

    Half-lives for proton emission from proton-rich nuclei have been calculated by using the effective liquid drop model of heavy-particle decay of nuclei. It is shown that this model is able to offer results or spontaneous proton-emission half-life-values in excellent agreement with the existing experimental data. Predictions of half-life-values for other possible proton-emission cases are present for null orbital angular momentum. (author)

  17. Proton movies

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    A humorous short film made by three secondary school students received an award at a Geneva film festival. Even without millions of dollars or Hollywood stars at your disposal, it is still possible to make a good science fiction film about CERN. That is what three students from the Collège Madame de Staël in Carouge, near Geneva, demonstrated. For their amateur short film on the LHC, they were commended by the jury of the video and multimedia festival for schools organised by the "Media in education" service of the Canton of Geneva’s Public Education Department. The film is a spoof of a television news report on the LHC start-up. In sequences full of humour and imagination, the reporter conducts interviews with a very serious "Professor Sairne", some protons preparing for their voyage and even the neutrons that were rejected by the LHC. "We got the idea of making a film about CERN at the end of the summer," explains Lucinda Päsche, one of the three students. "We did o...

  18. WE-E-BRE-07: High-Throughput Mapping of Proton Biologic Effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronk, L; Guan, F; Kerr, M; Dinh, J; Titt, U; Mirkovic, D; Lin, S; Mohan, R; Grosshans, D [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To systematically relate the relative biological effectives (RBE) of proton therapy to beam linear energy transfer (LET) and dose. Methods: Using a custom irradiation apparatus previously characterized by our group, H460 NSCLCs were irradiated using a clinical 80MeV spot scanning proton beam. Utilizing this system allowed for high-throughput clonogenic assays performed in 96-well tissue culture plates as opposed to the traditional 6-well technique. Each column in the 96-well plate received a set LET-dose combination. By altering the total number of dose repaintings, numerous dose-LET configurations were examined to effectively generate surviving fraction (SF) data over the entire Bragg peak. The clonogenic assay was performed post-irradiation using an INCell Analyzer for colony quantification. SF data were fit to the linear-quadratic model for analysis. Results: Irradiation with increasing LETs resulted in decreased cell survival largely independent of dose. A significant correlation between LET and SF was identified by two-way ANOVA and the extra sum-of-squares F test. This trend was obscured at the lower LET values in the plateau region of the Bragg peak; however, it was clear for LET values at and beyond the Bragg peak. Data fits revealed the SF at a dose of 2Gy (SF2) to be 0.48 for the lowest tested LET (1.55keV/um), 0.47 at the end of the plateau region (4.74keV/um) and 0.33 for protons at the Bragg peak (10.35keV/um). Beyond the Bragg peak we measured SF2s of 0.16 for 15.01keV/um, 0.02 for 16.79keV/um, and 0.004 for 18.06keV/um. Conclusion: We have shown that our methodology enables high-content automated screening for proton irradiations over a range of LETs. The observed decrease in cellular SF in high LET regions confirms an increased RBE of the radiation and suggests further evaluation of proton RBE values is necessary to optimize clinical outcomes. Rosalie B. Hite Graduate Fellowship in Cancer Research, NIH Program Project Grant P01CA021239.

  19. Alternative Modernities for Colonial Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sunyoung Park. The Proletarian Wave: Literature and Leftist Culture in Colonial Korea, 1910–1945. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2015. 348 pp. $50 (cloth. Vladimir Tikhonov. Modern Korea and Its Others: Perceptions of the Neighbouring Countries and Korean Modernity. London: Routledge, 2016. 218 pp. $160 (cloth. It has become a global scholarly undertaking: how to rethink modernity so as to decouple it from Westernization (Chakrabarty 2000. Strategies have included foregrounding the plurality of history to disrupt linear progress; positing non-Western centers of modernity in, say, Moscow or Shanghai; and tracing anticolonial circuits connecting Asia to Africa to Latin America. The two recent books under review here add colonial-era Korea to such far-reaching discussions by situating the country across national boundaries. Interestingly, one connecting thread here is the alternative world system provided by the interwar, Soviet-oriented Left. The result is an unsettling of binaries that subsequently became entrenched during the Cold War: for example, north-south, socialist-nationalist, and, for literature, realist-modernist. But more broadly, pervading both books is the sense that history could have turned out differently—that revisiting northeast Asia’s porous borders in the early twentieth century reveals the Korean peninsula’s lost, internationalist potential...

  20. Escalated convergent artificial bee colony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadon, Shimpi Singh; Bansal, Jagdish Chand; Tiwari, Ritu

    2016-03-01

    Artificial bee colony (ABC) optimisation algorithm is a recent, fast and easy-to-implement population-based meta heuristic for optimisation. ABC has been proved a rival algorithm with some popular swarm intelligence-based algorithms such as particle swarm optimisation, firefly algorithm and ant colony optimisation. The solution search equation of ABC is influenced by a random quantity which helps its search process in exploration at the cost of exploitation. In order to find a fast convergent behaviour of ABC while exploitation capability is maintained, in this paper basic ABC is modified in two ways. First, to improve exploitation capability, two local search strategies, namely classical unidimensional local search and levy flight random walk-based local search are incorporated with ABC. Furthermore, a new solution search strategy, namely stochastic diffusion scout search is proposed and incorporated into the scout bee phase to provide more chance to abandon solution to improve itself. Efficiency of the proposed algorithm is tested on 20 benchmark test functions of different complexities and characteristics. Results are very promising and they prove it to be a competitive algorithm in the field of swarm intelligence-based algorithms.

  1. Spatial variation in age structure among colonies of a marine snake: the influence of ectothermy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Xavier; Brischoux, François; Pinaud, David; Michel, Catherine Louise; Clobert, Jean; Shine, Richard; Fauvel, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    Several tetrapod lineages that have evolved to exploit marine environments (e.g. seals, seabirds, sea kraits) continue to rely upon land for reproduction and, thus, form dense colonies on suitable islands. In birds and mammals (endotherms), the offspring cannot survive without their parents. Terrestrial colonies contain all age classes. In reptiles (ectotherms), this constraint is relaxed, because offspring are independent from birth. Hence, each age class has the potential to select sites with characteristics that favour them. Our studies of sea snakes (sea kraits) in the lagoon of New Caledonia reveal marked spatial heterogeneity in age structure among colonies. Sea krait colonies exhibit the endothermic 'seal-seabird' pattern (mixed-age classes within populations) only where the lagoon is narrow. Where the lagoon is wide, most snake colonies are comprised primarily of a single age cohort. Nurseries are located near the coast, adult colonies offshore and mixed colonies in-between. We suggest that ectothermy allows individuals to utilize habitats that are best suited to their own ecological requirements, a flexibility not available to endothermic marine taxa with obligate parental care. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2015 British Ecological Society.

  2. Resilience of honeybee colonies via common stomach: A model of self-regulation of foraging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Schmickl

    Full Text Available We propose a new regulation mechanism based on the idea of the "common stomach" to explain several aspects of the resilience and homeostatic regulation of honeybee colonies. This mechanism exploits shared pools of substances (pollen, nectar, workers, brood that modulate recruitment, abandonment and allocation patterns at the colony-level and enable bees to perform several survival strategies to cope with difficult circumstances: Lack of proteins leads to reduced feeding of young brood, to early capping of old brood and to regaining of already spent proteins through brood cannibalism. We modeled this system by linear interaction terms and mass-action law. To test the predictive power of the model of this regulatory mechanism we compared our model predictions to experimental data of several studies. These comparisons show that the proposed regulation mechanism can explain a variety of colony level behaviors. Detailed analysis of the model revealed that these mechanisms could explain the resilience, stability and self-regulation observed in honeybee colonies. We found that manipulation of material flow and applying sudden perturbations to colony stocks are quickly compensated by a resulting counter-acting shift in task selection. Selective analysis of feedback loops allowed us to discriminate the importance of different feedback loops in self-regulation of honeybee colonies. We stress that a network of simple proximate mechanisms can explain significant colony-level abilities that can also be seen as ultimate reasoning of the evolutionary trajectory of honeybees.

  3. MeV single-ion beam irradiation of mammalian cells using the Surrey vertical nanobeam, compared with broad proton beam and X-ray irradiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakrajang, K. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Faculty of Science, Maejo University, Chiang Mai 50290 (Thailand); Jeynes, J.C.G.; Merchant, M.J.; Kirkby, K.; Kirkby, N. [Surrey Ion Beam Center, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Science, University of Surrey, Guildford Surrey, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Thopan, P. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Yu, L.D., E-mail: yuld@fnrf.science.cmu.ac.th [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: •Recently completed nanobeam at the Surrey Ion Beam Centre was used. •3.8-MeV single and broad proton beams irradiated Chinese hamster cells. •Cell survival curves were measured and compared with 300-kV X-ray irradiation. •Single ion irradiation had a lower survival part at ultra-low dose. •It implies hypersensitivity, bystander effect and cell cycle phase of cell death. -- Abstract: As a part of a systematic study on mechanisms involved in physical cancer therapies, this work investigated response of mammalian cells to ultra-low-dose ion beam irradiation. The ion beam irradiation was performed using the recently completed nanobeam facility at the Surrey Ion Beam Centre. A scanning focused vertical ion nano-beam was applied to irradiate Chinese hamster V79 cells. The V79 cells were irradiated in two different beam modes, namely, focused single ion beam and defocused scanning broad ion beam of 3.8-MeV protons. The single ion beam was capable of irradiating a single cell with a precisely controlled number of the ions to extremely low doses. After irradiation and cell incubation, the number of surviving colonies as a function of the number of the irradiating ions was measured for the cell survival fraction curve. A lower survival for the single ion beam irradiation than that of the broad beam case implied the hypersensitivity and bystander effect. The ion-beam-induced cell survival curves were compared with that from 300-kV X-ray irradiation. Theoretical studies indicated that the cell death in single ion irradiation mainly occurred in the cell cycle phases of cell division and intervals between the cell division and the DNA replication. The success in the experiment demonstrated the Surrey vertical nanobeam successfully completed.

  4. Queen promiscuity lowers disease within honeybee colonies

    OpenAIRE

    Seeley, Thomas D; Tarpy, David R

    2006-01-01

    Most species of social insects have singly mated queens, but in some species each queen mates with numerous males to create a colony with a genetically diverse worker force. The adaptive significance of polyandry by social insect queens remains an evolutionary puzzle. Using the honeybee (Apis mellifera), we tested the hypothesis that polyandry improves a colony's resistance to disease. We established colonies headed by queens that had been artificially inseminated by either one or 10 drones. ...

  5. An observation study on the effects of queen age on some characteristics of honey bee colonies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Çakmak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of the queen’s age on performance of the honeybee (A. mellifera anatoliaca colonies at nomad beekeeping conditions. Performances of the colonies, which had 0, 1, 2 and 3 year-old queens, were compared. The number of combs, brood areas, wintering ability survival rate and honey yield were determined as performance criteria. The average number of combs with bees throughout the experiment in Group I, Group II, Group III and Group IV was 10.92±0.78, 14.68±0.55, 10.10±0.60, 7.88±0.45 number combs/colony; the average of brood areas was 3078±372.5 cm2, 3668±460.3 cm2, 2215±294.0 cm2, 1665.38±241.8 cm2; the average of wintering ability was 84.3±2.9%, 88.0±3.7%, 46.6±19.0%, 26.8±16.5%; the survival rate was 100%, 100%, 60%, 40%; and the average of honey yields was 31.4±1.89 kg, 41.5±1.05 kg, 20.4±2.62 kg and 12.0±1.41 kg per colony, respectively. A significant and negative correlation between queen age and brood production (r=-80.2, colony strength (r=-62.5, wintering ability (r=-66 and honey yield (r=-75.6 were calculated (P<0.01. The colonies headed by young queens had more brood areas, longer worker colony population, better wintering ability and greater honey yield in comparison to colonies headed by old queens.

  6. Radiosensitivity of Patient-Derived Glioma Stem Cell 3-Dimensional Cultures to Photon, Proton, and Carbon Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiblak, Sara; Tang, Zili [German Cancer Consortium, Heidelberg (Germany); Molecular and Translational Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center, Heidelberg Institute of Radiation Oncology, University of Heidelberg Medical School and National Center for Tumor Diseases, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Campos, Benito; Gal, Zoltan; Unterberg, Andreas [Division of Neurological Research, Department of Neurosurgery, University of Heidelberg Medical School, Heidelberg (Germany); Debus, Jürgen [German Cancer Consortium, Heidelberg (Germany); Molecular and Translational Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center, Heidelberg Institute of Radiation Oncology, University of Heidelberg Medical School and National Center for Tumor Diseases, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Herold-Mende, Christel [Division of Neurological Research, Department of Neurosurgery, University of Heidelberg Medical School, Heidelberg (Germany); Abdollahi, Amir, E-mail: a.amir@dkfz.de [German Cancer Consortium, Heidelberg (Germany); Molecular and Translational Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center, Heidelberg Institute of Radiation Oncology, University of Heidelberg Medical School and National Center for Tumor Diseases, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-05-01

    Purpose: To investigate the radiosensitivity of primary glioma stem cell (GSC) cultures with different CD133 status in a 3-dimensional (3D) model after photon versus proton versus carbon irradiation. Methods and Materials: Human primary GSC spheroid cultures were established from tumor specimens of six consented glioblastoma patients. Human U87MG was used as a classical glioblastoma radioresistant cell line. Cell suspensions were generated by mechanical dissociation of GSC spheroids and embedded in a semi-solid 3D matrix before irradiation. Spheroid-like colonies were manually counted by microscopy. Cells were also recovered and quantified by fluorescence. CD133 expression and DNA damage were evaluated by flow cytometry. Results: The fraction of CD133{sup +} cells varied between 0.014% and 96% in the six GSC cultures and showed a nonsignificant correlation with plating efficiency and survival fractions. The 4 most photon-radioresistant GSC cultures were NCH644, NCH421k, NCH441, and NCH636. Clonogenic survival for proton irradiation revealed relative biologic effectiveness (RBE) in the range of 0.7-1.20. However, carbon irradiation rendered the photon-resistant GSC cultures sensitive, with average RBE of 1.87-3.44. This effect was partly attributed to impaired capability of GSC to repair carbon ion–induced DNA double-strand breaks as determined by residual DNA repair foci. Interestingly, radiosensitivity of U87 cells was comparable to GSC cultures using clonogenic survival as the standard readout. Conclusions: Carbon irradiation is effective in GSC eradication with similar RBE ranges approximately 2-3 as compared with non-stem GSC cultures (U87). Our data strongly suggest further exploration of GSC using classic radiobiology endpoints such as the here-used 3D clonogenic survival assay and integration of additional GSC-specific markers.

  7. Radiosensitivity of Patient-Derived Glioma Stem Cell 3-Dimensional Cultures to Photon, Proton, and Carbon Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiblak, Sara; Tang, Zili; Campos, Benito; Gal, Zoltan; Unterberg, Andreas; Debus, Jürgen; Herold-Mende, Christel; Abdollahi, Amir

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the radiosensitivity of primary glioma stem cell (GSC) cultures with different CD133 status in a 3-dimensional (3D) model after photon versus proton versus carbon irradiation. Methods and Materials: Human primary GSC spheroid cultures were established from tumor specimens of six consented glioblastoma patients. Human U87MG was used as a classical glioblastoma radioresistant cell line. Cell suspensions were generated by mechanical dissociation of GSC spheroids and embedded in a semi-solid 3D matrix before irradiation. Spheroid-like colonies were manually counted by microscopy. Cells were also recovered and quantified by fluorescence. CD133 expression and DNA damage were evaluated by flow cytometry. Results: The fraction of CD133"+ cells varied between 0.014% and 96% in the six GSC cultures and showed a nonsignificant correlation with plating efficiency and survival fractions. The 4 most photon-radioresistant GSC cultures were NCH644, NCH421k, NCH441, and NCH636. Clonogenic survival for proton irradiation revealed relative biologic effectiveness (RBE) in the range of 0.7-1.20. However, carbon irradiation rendered the photon-resistant GSC cultures sensitive, with average RBE of 1.87-3.44. This effect was partly attributed to impaired capability of GSC to repair carbon ion–induced DNA double-strand breaks as determined by residual DNA repair foci. Interestingly, radiosensitivity of U87 cells was comparable to GSC cultures using clonogenic survival as the standard readout. Conclusions: Carbon irradiation is effective in GSC eradication with similar RBE ranges approximately 2-3 as compared with non-stem GSC cultures (U87). Our data strongly suggest further exploration of GSC using classic radiobiology endpoints such as the here-used 3D clonogenic survival assay and integration of additional GSC-specific markers.

  8. Proton-air and proton-proton cross sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Ralf

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Different attempts to measure hadronic cross sections with cosmic ray data are reviewed. The major results are compared to each other and the differences in the corresponding analyses are discussed. Besides some important differences, it is crucial to see that all analyses are based on the same fundamental relation of longitudinal air shower development to the observed fluctuation of experimental observables. Furthermore, the relation of the measured proton-air to the more fundamental proton-proton cross section is discussed. The current global picture combines hadronic proton-proton cross section data from accelerator and cosmic ray measurements and indicates a good consistency with predictions of models up to the highest energies.

  9. Norwegian honey bees surviving Varroa destructor mite infestations by means of natural selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A.Y. Oddie

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Managed, feral and wild populations of European honey bee subspecies, Apis mellifera, are currently facing severe colony losses globally. There is consensus that the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor, that switched hosts from the Eastern honey bee Apis cerana to the Western honey bee A. mellifera, is a key factor driving these losses. For >20 years, breeding efforts have not produced European honey bee colonies that can survive infestations without the need for mite control. However, at least three populations of European honey bees have developed this ability by means of natural selection and have been surviving for >10 years without mite treatments. Reduced mite reproductive success has been suggested as a key factor explaining this natural survival. Here, we report a managed A. mellifera population in Norway, that has been naturally surviving consistent V. destructor infestations for >17 years. Methods Surviving colonies and local susceptible controls were evaluated for mite infestation levels, mite reproductive success and two potential mechanisms explaining colony survival: grooming of adult worker bees and Varroa Sensitive Hygiene (VSH: adult workers specifically detecting and removing mite-infested brood. Results Mite infestation levels were significantly lower in surviving colonies and mite reproductive success was reduced by 30% when compared to the controls. No significant differences were found between surviving and control colonies for either grooming or VSH. Discussion Our data confirm that reduced mite reproductive success seems to be a key factor for natural survival of infested A. mellifera colonies. However, neither grooming nor VSH seem to explain colony survival. Instead, other behaviors of the adult bees seem to be sufficient to hinder mite reproductive success, because brood for this experiment was taken from susceptible donor colonies only. To mitigate the global impact of V. destructor, we suggest learning

  10. Norwegian honey bees surviving Varroa destructor mite infestations by means of natural selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddie, Melissa A Y; Dahle, Bjørn; Neumann, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Managed, feral and wild populations of European honey bee subspecies, Apis mellifera , are currently facing severe colony losses globally. There is consensus that the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor , that switched hosts from the Eastern honey bee Apis cerana to the Western honey bee A. mellifera , is a key factor driving these losses. For >20 years, breeding efforts have not produced European honey bee colonies that can survive infestations without the need for mite control. However, at least three populations of European honey bees have developed this ability by means of natural selection and have been surviving for >10 years without mite treatments. Reduced mite reproductive success has been suggested as a key factor explaining this natural survival. Here, we report a managed A. mellifera population in Norway, that has been naturally surviving consistent V. destructor infestations for >17 years. Surviving colonies and local susceptible controls were evaluated for mite infestation levels, mite reproductive success and two potential mechanisms explaining colony survival: grooming of adult worker bees and Varroa Sensitive Hygiene (VSH): adult workers specifically detecting and removing mite-infested brood. Mite infestation levels were significantly lower in surviving colonies and mite reproductive success was reduced by 30% when compared to the controls. No significant differences were found between surviving and control colonies for either grooming or VSH. Our data confirm that reduced mite reproductive success seems to be a key factor for natural survival of infested A. mellifera colonies. However, neither grooming nor VSH seem to explain colony survival. Instead, other behaviors of the adult bees seem to be sufficient to hinder mite reproductive success, because brood for this experiment was taken from susceptible donor colonies only. To mitigate the global impact of V. destructor , we suggest learning more from nature, i.e., identifying the obviously

  11. Nerve growth factor promotes human hemopoietic colony growth and differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, H.; Coughlin, M.D.; Bienenstock, J.; Denburg, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a neurotropic polypeptide necessary for the survival and growth of some central neurons, as well as sensory afferent and sympathetic neurons. Much is now known of the structural and functional characteristics of NGF, whose gene has recently been clones. Since it is synthesized in largest amounts by the male mouse submandibular gland, its role exclusively in nerve growth is questionable. These experiments indicate that NGF causes a significant stimulation of granulocyte colonies grown from human peripheral blood in standard hemopoietic methylcellulose assays. Further, NGF appears to act in a relatively selective fashion to induce the differentiation of eosinophils and basophils/mast cells. Depletion experiments show that the NGF effect may be T-cell dependent and that NGF augments the colony-stimulating effect of supernatants from the leukemic T-cell (Mo) line. The hemopoietic activity of NGF is blocked by 125 I-polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies to NGF. The authors conclude that NGF may indirectly act as a local growth factor in tissues other than those of the nervous system by causing T cells to synthesize or secrete molecules with colony-stimulating activity. In view of the synthesis of NGF in tissue injury, the involvement of basophils/mast cells and eosinophils in allergic and other inflammatory processes, and the association of mast cells with fibrosis and tissue repair, they postulate that NGF plays an important biological role in a variety of repair processes

  12. Proton therapy device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tronc, D.

    1994-01-01

    The invention concerns a proton therapy device using a proton linear accelerator which produces a proton beam with high energies and intensities. The invention lies in actual fact that the proton beam which is produced by the linear accelerator is deflected from 270 deg in its plan by a deflecting magnetic device towards a patient support including a bed the longitudinal axis of which is parallel to the proton beam leaving the linear accelerator. The patient support and the deflecting device turn together around the proton beam axis while the bed stays in an horizontal position. The invention applies to radiotherapy. 6 refs., 5 figs

  13. Understanding Long-Run African Growth : Colonial Institutions or Colonial Education?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolt, J.; Bezemer, D.J.

    2009-01-01

    Long-term growth in developing countries has been explained in four frameworks: 'extractive colonial institutions' (Acemoglu et al., 2001), 'colonial legal origin' (La Porta et al., 2004), 'geography' (Gallup et al., 1998) and 'colonial human capital' (Glaeser et al., 2004). In this paper we test

  14. Post-Colonialism Perspectives on Educational Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chuan-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Educational competition has always been the puzzle issue of educational researches. In this article, I analyze several aspects of educational competition within the perspective of post-colonialism discourse. In the political aspect, Taiwanese education is linked with political power, to present the post-colonial spirit by continuing dynastic…

  15. [Notes about other epidemics in Colonial Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laval, Enrique

    2015-10-01

    In chronicles or in the historiography of the Colony in Chile there are few references about epidemics different to smallpox; like typhus, typhoid fever, dysentery, etc. Almost all, fast spreading in the country and some with high lethality, which led to overflowing the capacity of hospitals in the Chilean colonial period.

  16. Long-term population dynamics of a managed burrowing owl colony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, John H.; Korfanta, Nicole M.; Kauffman, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    We analyzed the population dynamics of a burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia) colony at Mineta San Jose International Airport in San Jose, California, USA from 1990-2007. This colony was managed by using artificial burrows to reduce the occurrence of nesting owls along runways and within major airport improvement projects during the study period. We estimated annual reproduction in natural and artificial burrows and age-specific survival rates with mark-recapture techniques, and we estimated the relative contribution of these vital rates to population dynamics using a life table response experiment. The breeding colony showed 2 distinct periods of change: high population growth from 7 nesting pairs in 1991 to 40 pairs in 2002 and population decline to 17 pairs in 2007. Reproduction was highly variable: annual nesting success (pairs that raised =1 young) averaged 79% and ranged from 36% to 100%, whereas fecundity averaged 3.36 juveniles/pair and ranged from 1.43 juveniles/pair to 4.54 juveniles/pair. We estimated annual adult survival at 0.710 during the period of colony increase from 1996 to 2001 and 0.465 during decline from 2002 to 2007, but there was no change in annual survival of juveniles between the 2 time periods. Long-term population growth rate (lambda) estimated from average vital rates was lambdaa=1.072 with lambdai=1.288 during colony increase and lambdad=0.921 (DELTA lambda=0.368) during decline. A life table response experiment showed that change in adult survival rate during increasing and declining phases explained more than twice the variation in growth rate than other vital rates. Our findings suggest that management and conservation of declining burrowing owl populations should address factors that influence adult survival.

  17. Elastic proton-proton scattering at RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yip, K.

    2011-09-03

    Here we describe elastic proton+proton (p+p) scattering measurements at RHIC in p+p collisions with a special optics run of {beta}* {approx} 21 m at STAR, at the center-of-mass energy {radical}s = 200 GeV during the last week of the RHIC 2009 run. We present preliminary results of single and double spin asymmetries.

  18. Baryon production in proton-proton collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, F.M.; Werner, K.

    2002-01-01

    Motivated by the recent rapidity spectra of baryons and antibaryons in pp collisions at 158 GeV and the Ω-bar/Ω ratio discussion, we reviewed string formation mechanism and some string models. This investigation told us how color strings are formed in ultrarelativistic proton-proton collisions

  19. Hegemony and Accommodation in the History Curriculum in Colonial Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafela, Lily

    2014-01-01

    A reanalysis of colonial education is necessary in order to highlight its multifaceted and hybrid nature in specific colonial contexts. Although in general, colonial education served the socio-political needs of the colonial machinery, the colonial government's hegemonic authority over the school curriculum did not operate as a totalising project.…

  20. Proton: the particle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suit, Herman

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to review briefly the nature of protons: creation at the Big Bang, abundance, physical characteristics, internal components, and life span. Several particle discoveries by proton as the experimental tool are considered. Protons play important roles in science, medicine, and industry. This article was prompted by my experience in the curative treatment of cancer patients by protons and my interest in the nature of protons as particles. The latter has been stimulated by many discussions with particle physicists and reading related books and journals. Protons in our universe number ≈10(80). Protons were created at 10(-6) -1 second after the Big Bang at ≈1.37 × 10(10) years beforethe present. Proton life span has been experimentally determined to be ≥10(34) years; that is, the age of the universe is 10(-24)th of the minimum life span of a proton. The abundance of the elements is hydrogen, ≈74%; helium, ≈24%; and heavier atoms, ≈2%. Accordingly, protons are the dominant baryonic subatomic particle in the universe because ≈87% are protons. They are in each atom in our universe and thus involved in virtually every activity of matter in the visible universe, including life on our planet. Protons were discovered in 1919. In 1968, they were determined to be composed of even smaller particles, principally quarks and gluons. Protons have been the experimental tool in the discoveries of quarks (charm, bottom, and top), bosons (W(+), W(-), Z(0), and Higgs), antiprotons, and antineutrons. Industrial applications of protons are numerous and important. Additionally, protons are well appreciated in medicine for their role in radiation oncology and in magnetic resonance imaging. Protons are the dominant baryonic subatomic particle in the visible universe, comprising ≈87% of the particle mass. They are present in each atom of our universe and thus a participant in every activity involving matter. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All

  1. Proton: The Particle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suit, Herman

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to review briefly the nature of protons: creation at the Big Bang, abundance, physical characteristics, internal components, and life span. Several particle discoveries by proton as the experimental tool are considered. Protons play important roles in science, medicine, and industry. This article was prompted by my experience in the curative treatment of cancer patients by protons and my interest in the nature of protons as particles. The latter has been stimulated by many discussions with particle physicists and reading related books and journals. Protons in our universe number ≈10{sup 80}. Protons were created at 10{sup −6} –1 second after the Big Bang at ≈1.37 × 10{sup 10} years beforethe present. Proton life span has been experimentally determined to be ≥10{sup 34} years; that is, the age of the universe is 10{sup −24}th of the minimum life span of a proton. The abundance of the elements is hydrogen, ≈74%; helium, ≈24%; and heavier atoms, ≈2%. Accordingly, protons are the dominant baryonic subatomic particle in the universe because ≈87% are protons. They are in each atom in our universe and thus involved in virtually every activity of matter in the visible universe, including life on our planet. Protons were discovered in 1919. In 1968, they were determined to be composed of even smaller particles, principally quarks and gluons. Protons have been the experimental tool in the discoveries of quarks (charm, bottom, and top), bosons (W{sup +}, W{sup −}, Z{sup 0}, and Higgs), antiprotons, and antineutrons. Industrial applications of protons are numerous and important. Additionally, protons are well appreciated in medicine for their role in radiation oncology and in magnetic resonance imaging. Protons are the dominant baryonic subatomic particle in the visible universe, comprising ≈87% of the particle mass. They are present in each atom of our universe and thus a participant in every activity involving matter.

  2. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and leukemogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Lobo de Figueiredo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available THE granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF plays an important role in normal granulopoiesis. Its functions are mediated by specific receptors on the surface of responsive cells and, upon ligand binding, several cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases are activated. The cytoplasmic region proximal to the membrane of the G-CSF receptor (G-CSF-R transduces proliferative and survival signals, whereas the distal carboxy-terminal region transduces maturation signals and suppresses the receptor's proliferative signals. Mutations in the G-CSF-R gene resulting in truncation of the carboxy-terminal region have been detected in a subset of patients with severe congenital neutropenia who developed acute myelogenous leukemia (AML. In addition, the AML1-ETO fusion protein, expressed in leukemic cells harboring the t(8;21, disrupt the physiological function of transcription factors such as C/EBPα and C/EBPε, which in turn deregulate G-CSF-R expression. The resulting high levels of G-CSF-R and G-CSF-dependent cell proliferation may be associated with pathogenesis of AML with t(8;21. Moreover, in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated that G-CSF may act as a co-stimulus augmenting the response of PML-RARα acute promyelocytic leukemia cells to all-trans-retinoic acid treatment. Finally, in the PLZF-RARα acute promyelocytic leukemia transgenic model, G-CSF deficiency suppressed leukemia development. Altogether, these data suggest that the G-CSF signaling pathway may play a role in leukemogenesis.

  3. Mating frequencies of honey bee queens (Apis mellifera L.) in a population of feral colonies in the Northeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarpy, David R; Delaney, Deborah A; Seeley, Thomas D

    2015-01-01

    Across their introduced range in North America, populations of feral honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies have supposedly declined in recent decades as a result of exotic parasites, most notably the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor. Nonetheless, recent studies have documented several wild populations of colonies that have persisted. The extreme polyandry of honey bee queens-and the increased intracolony genetic diversity it confers-has been attributed, in part, to improved disease resistance and may be a factor in the survival of these populations of feral colonies. We estimated the mating frequencies of queens in feral colonies in the Arnot Forest in New York State to determine if the level of polyandry of these queens is especially high and so might contribute to their survival success. We genotyped the worker offspring from 10 feral colonies in the Arnot Forest of upstate New York, as well as those from 20 managed colonies closest to this forest. We found no significant differences in mean mating frequency between the feral and managed queens, suggesting that queens in the remote, low-density population of colonies in the Arnot Forest are neither mate-limited nor adapted to mate at an especially high frequency. These findings support the hypothesis that the hyperpolyandry of honey bees has been shaped on an evolutionary timescale rather than on an ecological one.

  4. Mating frequencies of honey bee queens (Apis mellifera L. in a population of feral colonies in the Northeastern United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R Tarpy

    Full Text Available Across their introduced range in North America, populations of feral honey bee (Apis mellifera L. colonies have supposedly declined in recent decades as a result of exotic parasites, most notably the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor. Nonetheless, recent studies have documented several wild populations of colonies that have persisted. The extreme polyandry of honey bee queens-and the increased intracolony genetic diversity it confers-has been attributed, in part, to improved disease resistance and may be a factor in the survival of these populations of feral colonies. We estimated the mating frequencies of queens in feral colonies in the Arnot Forest in New York State to determine if the level of polyandry of these queens is especially high and so might contribute to their survival success. We genotyped the worker offspring from 10 feral colonies in the Arnot Forest of upstate New York, as well as those from 20 managed colonies closest to this forest. We found no significant differences in mean mating frequency between the feral and managed queens, suggesting that queens in the remote, low-density population of colonies in the Arnot Forest are neither mate-limited nor adapted to mate at an especially high frequency. These findings support the hypothesis that the hyperpolyandry of honey bees has been shaped on an evolutionary timescale rather than on an ecological one.

  5. Mating Frequencies of Honey Bee Queens (Apis mellifera L.) in a Population of Feral Colonies in the Northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarpy, David R.; Delaney, Deborah A.; Seeley, Thomas D.

    2015-01-01

    Across their introduced range in North America, populations of feral honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies have supposedly declined in recent decades as a result of exotic parasites, most notably the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor. Nonetheless, recent studies have documented several wild populations of colonies that have persisted. The extreme polyandry of honey bee queens—and the increased intracolony genetic diversity it confers—has been attributed, in part, to improved disease resistance and may be a factor in the survival of these populations of feral colonies. We estimated the mating frequencies of queens in feral colonies in the Arnot Forest in New York State to determine if the level of polyandry of these queens is especially high and so might contribute to their survival success. We genotyped the worker offspring from 10 feral colonies in the Arnot Forest of upstate New York, as well as those from 20 managed colonies closest to this forest. We found no significant differences in mean mating frequency between the feral and managed queens, suggesting that queens in the remote, low-density population of colonies in the Arnot Forest are neither mate-limited nor adapted to mate at an especially high frequency. These findings support the hypothesis that the hyperpolyandry of honey bees has been shaped on an evolutionary timescale rather than on an ecological one. PMID:25775410

  6. Proton channels and exchangers in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spugnini, Enrico Pierluigi; Sonveaux, Pierre; Stock, Christian; Perez-Sayans, Mario; De Milito, Angelo; Avnet, Sofia; Garcìa, Abel Garcìa; Harguindey, Salvador; Fais, Stefano

    2015-10-01

    Although cancer is characterized by an intratumoral genetic heterogeneity, a totally deranged pH control is a common feature of most cancer histotypes. Major determinants of aberrant pH gradient in cancer are proton exchangers and transporters, including V-ATPase, Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE), monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) and carbonic anhydrases (CAs). Thanks to the activity of these proton transporters and exchangers, cancer becomes isolated and/or protected not only from the body reaction against the growing tumor, but also from the vast majority of drugs that when protonated into the acidic tumor microenvironment do not enter into cancer cells. Proton transporters and exchangers represent a key feature tumor cells use to survive in the very hostile microenvironmental conditions that they create and maintain. Detoxifying mechanisms may thus represent both a key survival option and a selection outcome for cells that behave as unicellular microorganisms rather than belonging to an organ, compartment or body. It is, in fact, typical of malignant tumors that, after a clinically measurable yet transient initial response to a therapy, resistant tumor clones emerge and proliferate, thus bursting a more malignant behavior and rapid tumor progression. This review critically presents the background of a novel and efficient approach that aims to fight cancer through blocking or inhibiting well characterized proton exchangers and transporters active in human cancer cells. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane channels and transporters in cancers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Population and colony-level determinants of tertiary sex ratio in the declining barn swallow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Saino

    Full Text Available Sex ratio of adults (tertiary sex ratio, TSR is a major feature of animal populations with consequences for their behaviour, genetic structure and viability. Spatial and temporal variation in TSR occurs within species but the mechanisms behind it are poorly understood. In this long-term study of a declining population of a socially monogamous, colonial, migratory bird, the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica, we first analyzed population-level variation in TSR ( =  proportion of males of yearlings at sexual maturation in relation to ecological conditions as gauged by annual survival rate of adults. TSR was male-biased both among yearlings and older individuals, but male bias of yearlings was more pronounced after years with larger decline in adult survival. Thus, male offspring were less susceptible to the adverse ecological conditions that cause increased mortality. Dispersal and settling site decisions can have major consequences on fitness via the effects of local TSR on mating and sperm competition. Breeding barn swallows are highly philopatric while natal dispersal is high and, together with mortality, is the main determinant of colony TSR. We thus also investigated the mechanisms of breeding colony choice by yearlings and found that TSR of new-settlers in a given colony and year was negatively predicted by TSR of returning, early arriving older individuals in that year, but not by overall TSR at the colony in the previous year. This suggests that in our male-biased population new-settler males respond to local TSR upon arrival to choose the sites with larger breeding opportunities. Hence, variation in ecological conditions as reflected by adult survival can shift the TSR of individuals recruiting into a local population, with potentially various demographic consequences. However, breeding site choice based on TSR tends to homogenize TSR at a population level likely by facilitating settling of dispersing males in colonies with less male

  8. Yeast Colonies: A Model for Studies of Aging, Environmental Adaptation, and Longevity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libuše Váchová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available When growing on solid surfaces, yeast, like other microorganisms, develops organized multicellular populations (colonies and biofilms that are composed of differentiated cells with specialized functions. Life within these populations is a prevalent form of microbial existence in natural settings that provides the cells with capabilities to effectively defend against environmental attacks as well as efficiently adapt and survive long periods of starvation and other stresses. Under such circumstances, the fate of an individual yeast cell is subordinated to the profit of the whole population. In the past decade, yeast colonies, with their complicated structure and high complexity that are also developed under laboratory conditions, have become an excellent model for studies of various basic cellular processes such as cell interaction, signaling, and differentiation. In this paper, we summarize current knowledge on the processes related to chronological aging, adaptation, and longevity of a colony cell population and of its differentiated cell constituents. These processes contribute to the colony ability to survive long periods of starvation and mostly differ from the survival strategies of individual yeast cells.

  9. Evaluation of the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute beagle dog closed breeding colony: a progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lustgarten, C.S.; Hobbs, C.H.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Benjamin, S.A.; Slauson, D.O.; Hahn, F.F.

    1974-01-01

    Since early 1968, a closed breeding colony has been in operation at the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute to produce experimental dogs for inhalation toxicology studies and to replace colony breeding stock for producing dogs with a stable gene pool. From March 1, 1968 through July 15, 1974, 123 bitches were bred 613 times, resulting in 540 litters and 2809 puppies: a conception rate for this period of 88.9 percent. An average of 3.74 pups survived to one year of age. (U.S.)

  10. Family strategies against the jesuits in colonial Argentina: Catamarca, 1683-1767

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Troisi Melean

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on a lawsuit, I will conduct a detailed study of the strategies of Catamarca´s colonial settlers to deal with Society of Jesus, the most powerful institution of the time.Three families were fighting for survival in a small colonial town in a middle of intercontinental fight between a forceful Spanish Crown and a hesitant Catholic Church. In the gaps of that struggle, each family negotiated their identity against a multiplicity of interests in play, seeking the best of possibilities in a world that was rapidly changing.

  11. Spherical proton emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, S.; Semmes, P.B.; Nazarewicz, W.

    1997-01-01

    Various theoretical approaches to proton emission from spherical nuclei are investigated, and it is found that all the methods employed give very similar results. The calculated decay widths are found to be qualitatively insensitive to the parameters of the proton-nucleus potential, i.e., changing the potential parameters over a fairly large range typically changes the decay width by no more than a factor of ∼3. Proton half-lives of observed heavy proton emitters are, in general, well reproduced by spherical calculations with the spectroscopic factors calculated in the independent quasiparticle approximation. The quantitative agreement with experimental data obtained in our study requires that the parameters of the proton-nucleus potential be chosen carefully. It also suggests that deformed proton emitters will provide invaluable spectroscopic information on the angular momentum decomposition of single-proton orbitals in deformed nuclei. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  12. Proton therapy physics

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Proton Therapy Physics goes beyond current books on proton therapy to provide an in-depth overview of the physics aspects of this radiation therapy modality, eliminating the need to dig through information scattered in the medical physics literature. After tracing the history of proton therapy, the book summarizes the atomic and nuclear physics background necessary for understanding proton interactions with tissue. It describes the physics of proton accelerators, the parameters of clinical proton beams, and the mechanisms to generate a conformal dose distribution in a patient. The text then covers detector systems and measuring techniques for reference dosimetry, outlines basic quality assurance and commissioning guidelines, and gives examples of Monte Carlo simulations in proton therapy. The book moves on to discussions of treatment planning for single- and multiple-field uniform doses, dose calculation concepts and algorithms, and precision and uncertainties for nonmoving and moving targets. It also exami...

  13. Proton solvation and proton transfer in chemical and electrochemical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lengyel, S.; Conway, B.E.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter examines the proton solvation and characterization of the H 3 O + ion, proton transfer in chemical ionization processes in solution, continuous proton transfer in conductance processes, and proton transfer in electrode processes. Topics considered include the condition of the proton in solution, the molecular structure of the H 3 O + ion, thermodynamics of proton solvation, overall hydration energy of the proton, hydration of H 3 O + , deuteron solvation, partial molal entropy and volume and the entropy of proton hydration, proton solvation in alcoholic solutions, analogies to electrons in semiconductors, continuous proton transfer in conductance, definition and phenomenology of the unusual mobility of the proton in solution, solvent structure changes in relation to anomalous proton mobility, the kinetics of the proton-transfer event, theories of abnormal proton conductance, and the general theory of the contribution of transfer reactions to overall transport processes

  14. Study of proton radioactivities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davids, C.N.; Back, B.B.; Henderson, D.J. [and others

    1995-08-01

    About a dozen nuclei are currently known to accomplish their radioactive decay by emitting a proton. These nuclei are situated far from the valley of stability, and mark the very limits of existence for proton-rich nuclei: the proton drip line. A new 39-ms proton radioactivity was observed following the bombardment of a {sup 96}Ru target by a beam of 420-MeV {sup 78}Kr. Using the double-sided Si strip detector implantation system at the FMA, a proton group having an energy of 1.05 MeV was observed, correlated with the implantation of ions having mass 167. The subsequent daughter decay was identified as {sup 166}Os by its characteristic alpha decay, and therefore the proton emitter is assigned to the {sup 167}Ir nucleus. Further analysis showed that a second weak proton group from the same nucleus is present, indicating an isomeric state. Two other proton emitters were discovered recently at the FMA: {sup 171}Au and {sup 185}Bi, which is the heaviest known proton radioactivity. The measured decay energies and half-lives will enable the angular momentum of the emitted protons to be determined, thus providing spectroscopic information on nuclei that are beyond the proton drip line. In addition, the decay energy yields the mass of the nucleus, providing a sensitive test of mass models in this extremely proton-rich region of the chart of the nuclides. Additional searches for proton emitters will be conducted in the future, in order to extend our knowledge of the location of the proton drip line.

  15. Fluctuating survival selection explains variation in avian group size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Charles R; Brown, Mary Bomberger; Roche, Erin A; O'Brien, Valerie A; Page, Catherine E

    2016-05-03

    Most animal groups vary extensively in size. Because individuals in certain sizes of groups often have higher apparent fitness than those in other groups, why wide group size variation persists in most populations remains unexplained. We used a 30-y mark-recapture study of colonially breeding cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) to show that the survival advantages of different colony sizes fluctuated among years. Colony size was under both stabilizing and directional selection in different years, and reversals in the sign of directional selection regularly occurred. Directional selection was predicted in part by drought conditions: birds in larger colonies tended to be favored in cooler and wetter years, and birds in smaller colonies in hotter and drier years. Oscillating selection on colony size likely reflected annual differences in food availability and the consequent importance of information transfer, and/or the level of ectoparasitism, with the net benefit of sociality varying under these different conditions. Averaged across years, there was no net directional change in selection on colony size. The wide range in cliff swallow group size is probably maintained by fluctuating survival selection and represents the first case, to our knowledge, in which fitness advantages of different group sizes regularly oscillate over time in a natural vertebrate population.

  16. 21 CFR 866.2170 - Automated colony counter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2170 Automated colony counter. (a) Identification. An automated colony counter is a mechanical device intended for medical...

  17. Survival Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Rupert G

    2011-01-01

    A concise summary of the statistical methods used in the analysis of survival data with censoring. Emphasizes recently developed nonparametric techniques. Outlines methods in detail and illustrates them with actual data. Discusses the theory behind each method. Includes numerous worked problems and numerical exercises.

  18. Colonial Taxation, Corruption and Resistance in Igbominaland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Colonial Taxation, Corruption and Resistance in Igbominaland. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL · RESOURCES ... While taxation definitely stimulated economic activities in Igbominaland at ...

  19. Post-colonial identity in Greenland?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Ulrik Pram

    2009-01-01

    could be furthered by bringing politics back in. Based on a discourse analysis of the Greenlandic debate on language, this paper makes three claims: First, the identity projects promoted in Greenland are based on an essentialist conception of identity. Secondly, Greenlandic identity discourse combines......In the gradual unravelling of Greenland’s colonial relationship to Denmark, an essentialist conceptualization of Greenlandic identity has played a significant role. However, both our scholarly understanding of post-colonial Greenlandic identity and the process towards independence for Greenland...... elements of traditional Inuit culture and elements of colonial modernity. Thirdly, monolingual Greenlanders are those with the most to gain from abandoning the dichotomy of essentialist identities. Strategically, the paper suggests a post-post-colonial Greenlandic identity as a means of avoiding...

  20. Post-Colonial Theory and Action Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Parsons

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores connections between post-colonial theory and action research. Post-colonial theory is committed to addressing the plague of colonialism. Action research, at its core, promises to problematize uncontested ‘colonial’ hegemonies of any form. Both post-colonial theory and action research engage dialogic, critically reflective and collaborative values to offer a fuller range of human wisdom. The authors contend that post-colonialism theory calls for justice and seeks to speak to social and psychological suffering, exploitation, violence and enslavement done to the powerless victims of colonization around the world by challenging the superiority of dominant perspectives and seeking to re-position and empower the marginalized and subordinated. In similar ways, action research works to eradicate oppression, powerlessness and worthlessness by affirming solidarity with the oppressed, helping humans move from passive to active and by fundamentally reshaping power. Because both post-colonial theory and action research position the insider or oppressed in an ethic of efficacy, it values community, relationships, communication and equality, and is committed to reciprocity, reflexivity and reflection. Thus, both hold the potential to help reconstruct conditions for a more democratic and just society

  1. Post-Colonial Theory and Action Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim B. Parsons

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores connections between post-colonial theory and action research. Post-colonial theory is committed to addressing the plague of colonialism. Action research, at its core, promises to problematize uncontested ‘colonial’ hegemonies of any form. Both post-colonial theory and action research engage dialogic, critically reflective and collaborative values to offer a fuller range of human wisdom. The authors contend that post-colonialism theory calls for justice and seeks to speak to social and psychological suffering, exploitation, violence and enslavement done to the powerless victims of colonization around the world by challenging the superiority of dominant perspectives and seeking to re-position and empower the marginalized and subordinated. In similar ways, action research works to eradicate oppression, powerlessness and worthlessness by affirming solidarity with the oppressed, helping humans move from passive to active and by fundamentally reshaping power. Because both post-colonial theory and action research position the insider or oppressed in an ethic of efficacy, it values community, relationships, communication and equality, and is committed to reciprocity, reflexivity and reflection. Thus, both hold the potential to help reconstruct conditions for a more democratic and just society.

  2. Proton-Proton and Proton-Antiproton Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Scandale, Walter

    2014-01-01

    In the last five decades, proton–proton and proton–antiproton colliders have been the most powerful tools for high energy physics investigations. They have also deeply catalyzed innovation in accelerator physics and technology. Among the large number of proposed colliders, only four have really succeeded in becoming operational: the ISR, the SppbarS, the Tevatron and the LHC. Another hadron collider, RHIC, originally conceived for ion–ion collisions, has also been operated part-time with polarized protons. Although a vast literature documenting them is available, this paper is intended to provide a quick synthesis of their main features and key performance.

  3. Music from Ground Zero. The coloniality of theory and musical analysis at the university.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Jovanna Holguín

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to answer the influence of the coloniality of knowledge, the cleansing of blood and the hybris of the zero ground in the conception of the theory and musical analysis which is taught in our Latin American universities. The aim is to examine the survival of coloniality in the imaginary of musical theory and analysis in order to recognize the predominant hegemonic discourses and propose some options to decolonize these disciplines of professional music education. The rationale is based on the presentation of some concepts of decolonial studies, research on the conservatory model and the ideology of theory and analysis.The article is divided into three parts. In the first one, an approximation is made to the concept of coloniality and its categories. The second takes the categories to review the ideology of the chosen fields of musical knowledge and the third proposes some options to decolonize our conceptions in higher education.

  4. Rapidity gap survival in enhanced Pomeron scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostapchenko, Sergey [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Moscow State University, D.V. Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bleicher, Marcus [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Goethe-Universitat, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2018-01-15

    We apply the phenomenological Reggeon field theory framework to investigate rapidity gap survival (RGS) probability for diffractive dijet production in proton-proton collisions. In particular, we study in some detail rapidity gap suppression due to elastic rescatterings of intermediate partons in the underlying parton cascades, described by enhanced (Pomeron-Pomeron interaction) diagrams. We demonstrate that such contributions play a subdominant role, compared to the usual, so-called ''eikonal'', rapidity gap suppression due to elastic rescatterings of constituent partons of the colliding protons. On the other hand, the overall RGS factor proves to be sensitive to color fluctuations in the proton. Hence, experimental data on diffractive dijet production can be used to constrain the respective model approaches. (orig.)

  5. Proton Fast Ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key, M H; Freeman, R R; Hatchett, S P; MacKinnon, A J; Patel, P K; Snavely, R A; Stephens, R B

    2006-04-01

    Fast ignition (FI) by a laser generated ballistically focused proton beam is a more recently proposed alternative to the original concept of FI by a laser generated beam of relativistic electrons. It has potential advantages in less complex energy transport into dense plasma. Recent successful target heating experiments motivate further investigation of the feasibility of proton fast ignition. The concept, the physics and characteristics of the proton beams, the recent experimental work on focusing of the beams and heating of solid targets and the overall prospects for proton FI are discussed

  6. Botryllus schlosseri (Tunicata) whole colony irradiation: Do senescent zooid resorption and immunological resorption involve similar recognition events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinkevich, B.; Weissman, I.L.

    1990-01-01

    The colonial tunicate Botryllus schlosseri undergoes cyclic blastogenesis where feeding zooids are senescened and resorbed and a new generation of zooids takes over the colony. When non-identical colonies come into direct contact, they either reject each other or fuse. Fusion is usually followed by the resorption of one of the partners in the chimera (immunological resorption). The striking morphological similarities between the two resorption phenomena suggest that both may involve tissue destruction following self-nonself recognition events. Here we attempt to modify these two events by whole colony gamma irradiation assays. Three sets of experiments were performed: (1) different doses of whole colony irradiation for determination of irradiation effects (110 colonies); (2) pairs of irradiated-nonirradiated isografts of clonal replicates for the potential of reconstruction of the irradiated partners (23 pairs); (3) chimeras of irradiated-nonirradiated partners for analysis of resorption hierarchy. Mortality increased with the irradiation dose. All colonies exposed to more than 5,000 rads died within 19 days, while no colony died below 2,000 rads. The average mortality periods, in days, for doses of 6,000-8,000, 5,000, and 2,500-4,000 rads were 14.4 +/- 3.1 (n = 24), 19.8 +/- 6.0 (n = 15), and 19.6 + 5.1 (n = 22), respectively. Younger colonies (3-6 months old) may survive radiation better than older ones (more than 13 months). Many morphological alterations were recorded in irradiated colonies: ampullar contraction and/or dilation, accumulation of pigment cells within ampullae, abnormal bleeding from blood vessels, sluggish blood circulation, necrotic zones, reduction in bud number, and irregularities in zooid and system structures. With doses of 3,000-4,000 rads and above, irradiation arrested the formation of new buds and interrupted normal takeover

  7. Colony structure in a plant-ant: behavioural, chemical and genetic study of polydomy in Cataulacus mckeyi (Myrmicinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debout, Gabriel; Provost, Erick; Renucci, Marielle; Tirard, Alain; Schatz, Bertrand; McKey, Doyle

    2003-10-01

    Social organisation of colonies of obligate plant-ants can affect their interaction with myrmecophyte hosts and with other ants competing for the resources they offer. An important parameter of social organisation is whether nest sites of a colony include one or several host individuals. We determined colony boundaries in a plant-ant associated with the rainforest understorey tree Leonardoxa africana subsp. africana, found in coastal forests of Cameroon (Central Africa). This myrmecophyte is strictly associated with two ants, Petalomyrmex phylax and Cataulacus mckeyi. Plants provide food and nesting sites for P. phylax, which protects young leaves against insect herbivores. This mutualism is often parasitised by C. mckeyi, which uses but does not protect the host. The presence of C. mckeyi on a tree excludes the mutualistic ant. Because Petalomyrmex-occupied trees are better protected, their growth and survival are superior to those of Cataulacus-occupied trees, giving P. phylax an advantage in occupation of nest sites. C. mckeyi often colonises trees that have lost their initial associate P. phylax, as a result of injury to the tree caused by disturbance. Polydomy may allow C. mckeyi to occupy small clumps of trees, without the necessity of claustral colony foundation in each tree. Investigating both the proximate (behavioural repertoire, colony odour) and the ultimate factors (genetic structure) that may influence colony closure, we precisely defined colony boundaries. We show that colonies of C. mckeyi are monogynous and facultatively polydomous, i.e. a colony occupies one to several Leonardoxa trees. Workers do not produce males. Thus, the hypothesis that polydomy allows workers in queenless nests to evade queen control for their reproduction is not supported in this instance. This particular colony structure may confer on C. mckeyi an advantage in short-distance dispersal, and this could help explain its persistence within the dynamic Leonardoxa system.

  8. CFAssay: statistical analysis of the colony formation assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braselmann, Herbert; Michna, Agata; Heß, Julia; Unger, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Colony formation assay is the gold standard to determine cell reproductive death after treatment with ionizing radiation, applied for different cell lines or in combination with other treatment modalities. Associated linear-quadratic cell survival curves can be calculated with different methods. For easy code exchange and methodological standardisation among collaborating laboratories a software package CFAssay for R (R Core Team, R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing, 2014) was established to perform thorough statistical analysis of linear-quadratic cell survival curves after treatment with ionizing radiation and of two-way designs of experiments with chemical treatments only. CFAssay offers maximum likelihood and related methods by default and the least squares or weighted least squares method can be optionally chosen. A test for comparision of cell survival curves and an ANOVA test for experimental two-way designs are provided. For the two presented examples estimated parameters do not differ much between maximum-likelihood and least squares. However the dispersion parameter of the quasi-likelihood method is much more sensitive for statistical variation in the data than the multiple R 2 coefficient of determination from the least squares method. The dispersion parameter for goodness of fit and different plot functions in CFAssay help to evaluate experimental data quality. As open source software interlaboratory code sharing between users is facilitated

  9. The Mediterranean stony coral Cladocora caespitosa (Linnaeus, 1767) as habitat provider for molluscs: colony size effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitacco, Valentina; Crocetta, Fabio; Orlando-Bonaca, Martina; Mavrič, Borut; Lipej, Lovrenc

    2017-11-01

    The stony coral Cladocora caespitosa (Linnaeus, 1767) is an important Mediterranean habitat builder, whose survival is now being threatened by human activities and possibly natural events such as mass mortality and bleaching. We characterized the mollusc assemblage associated with colonies in the Gulf of Trieste (northern Adriatic Sea) and then tested whether the number of mollusc species increases in relation with colony size, following a Species-Area Relationship (SAR) model. At least 62 taxa were found in association with coral colonies, with bivalves constituting the dominant group. More than half of the 3034 specimens encountered were juveniles. Mollusc taxa richness increased with increasing C. caespitosa colony size according to the power-function model, whilst the analyses of trophic and functional groups supports the hypothesis of at least two factors underlying SAR (area per se and habitat diversity). Our results confirmed the importance of C. caespitosa for benthic communities, indicating that larger colonies support higher biodiversity, and suggesting that C. caespitosa is the most important habit builder among Mediterranean cnidarians, having also an influential function as a natural nursery ground. These results underline the necessity of new investigations aimed at filling gaps in our knowledge and planning new measures to protect the species.

  10. Proton decay: spectroscopic probe beyond the proton drip line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seweryniak, D; Davids, C N; Robinson, A; Woods, P J; Blank, B; Carpenter, M P; Davinson, T; Freeman, S J; Hammond, N; Hoteling, N; Janssens, R V F; Khoo, T L; Liu, Z; Mukherjee, G; Shergur, J; Sinha, S; Sonzogni, A A; Walters, W B; Woehr, A

    2005-01-01

    Proton decay has been transformed in recent years from an exotic phenomenon into a powerful spectroscopic tool. The frontiers of experimental and theoretical proton-decay studies will be reviewed. Different aspects of proton decay will be illustrated with recent results on the deformed proton emitter 135 Tb, the odd-odd deformed proton emitter 130 Eu, the complex fine structure in the odd-odd 146 Tm nucleus and on excited states in the transitional proton emitter 145 Tm

  11. Review of inelastic proton-proton reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Morrison, Douglas Robert Ogston

    1973-01-01

    The most important new results on inelastic proton-proton scattering obtained with the new machines, I.S.R. and N.A.L., are: (1) The inelastic cross-section increases monotonically with energy from threshold to 1500 GeV/c. Above 6 GeV/c the energy variation has a s /sup +0.04/ behaviour. (2) Scaling is observed at I.S.R. energies in pion production. Confirmation is obtained of the hypothesis of limiting fragmentation. (3) The results are in general, consistent with the two-component model-one class of events being produced by diffraction dissociation and the other by a short-range-order process (e.g. the multiperipheral model). (4) There are indications that the protons have a granular structure; this from observation of secondaries of large transverse momenta. (33 refs).

  12. Colony formation in the cyanobacterium Microcystis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Man; Li, Ming; Reynolds, Colin S

    2018-02-22

    Morphological evolution from a unicellular to multicellular state provides greater opportunities for organisms to attain larger and more complex living forms. As the most common freshwater cyanobacterial genus, Microcystis is a unicellular microorganism, with high phenotypic plasticity, which forms colonies and blooms in lakes and reservoirs worldwide. We conducted a systematic review of field studies from the 1990s to 2017 where Microcystis was dominant. Microcystis was detected as the dominant genus in waterbodies from temperate to subtropical and tropical zones. Unicellular Microcystis spp. can be induced to form colonies by adjusting biotic and abiotic factors in laboratory. Colony formation by cell division has been induced by zooplankton filtrate, high Pb 2+ concentration, the presence of another cyanobacterium (Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii), heterotrophic bacteria, and by low temperature and light intensity. Colony formation by cell adhesion can be induced by zooplankton grazing, high Ca 2+ concentration, and microcystins. We hypothesise that single cells of all Microcystis morphospecies initially form colonies with a similar morphology to those found in the early spring. These colonies gradually change their morphology to that of M. ichthyoblabe, M. wesenbergii and M. aeruginosa with changing environmental conditions. Colony formation provides Microcystis with many ecological advantages, including adaption to varying light, sustained growth under poor nutrient supply, protection from chemical stressors and protection from grazing. These benefits represent passive tactics responding to environmental stress. Microcystis colonies form at the cost of decreased specific growth rates compared with a unicellular habit. Large colony size allows Microcystis to attain rapid floating velocities (maximum recorded for a single colony, ∼ 10.08 m h -1 ) that enable them to develop and maintain a large biomass near the surface of eutrophic lakes, where they may shade

  13. Comparative study on the dynamics and performances of Apis mellifera jemenitica and imported hybrid honeybee colonies in southwestern Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghamdi, Ahmad A; Adgaba, Nuru; Tadesse, Yilma; Getachew, Awraris; Al-Maktary, Anwer A

    2017-07-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the seasonal population dynamics and evaluate the performance of Apis mellifera jemenitica (local bee) and introduced hybrid honeybee colonies in the lowlands and highlands of southwestern Saudi Arabia. Data regarding the performance and population dynamics parameters such as brood and adult bee population, amounts of stored pollen and nectar were gathered from the two races (25 colonies of each) for one year (April 2013 through March 2014), and statistically tested. The results indicated that at low lands, local bee colonies maintained relatively high brood and adult bee populations ( P  bee colonies were able to hoard three times more ( P  pollen and built more ( P  bees in both the low and highland areas. The annual survival rate of local bee colonies was almost double ( P  bees had greater ( P  bee and brood populations than imported, throughout the year. The relatively good performance of local colonies could be due to their long year's adaptation to cope with resource scarcity and unpredictable environmental conditions of the regions. The possible reasons for the dwindling of the imported hybrid colonies could be due to continuing to exhibit adaptive characteristics of their original that might not fit well with the new environment.

  14. Physical Forces Modulate Oxidative Status and Stress Defense Meditated Metabolic Adaptation of Yeast Colonies: Spaceflight and Microgravity Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Timothy G.; Allen, Patricia L.; Gunter, Margaret A.; Chiang, Jennifer; Giaever, Guri; Nislow, Corey; Birdsall, Holly H.

    2018-05-01

    Baker's yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae) has broad genetic homology to human cells. Although typically grown as 1-2mm diameter colonies under certain conditions yeast can form very large (10 + mm in diameter) or `giant' colonies on agar. Giant yeast colonies have been used to study diverse biomedical processes such as cell survival, aging, and the response to cancer pharmacogenomics. Such colonies evolve dynamically into complex stratified structures that respond differentially to environmental cues. Ammonia production, gravity driven ammonia convection, and shear defense responses are key differentiation signals for cell death and reactive oxygen system pathways in these colonies. The response to these signals can be modulated by experimental interventions such as agar composition, gene deletion and application of pharmaceuticals. In this study we used physical factors including colony rotation and microgravity to modify ammonia convection and shear stress as environmental cues and observed differences in the responses of both ammonia dependent and stress response dependent pathways We found that the effects of random positioning are distinct from rotation. Furthermore, both true and simulated microgravity exacerbated both cellular redox responses and apoptosis. These changes were largely shear-response dependent but each model had a unique response signature as measured by shear stress genes and the promoter set which regulates them These physical techniques permitted a graded manipulation of both convection and ammonia signaling and are primed to substantially contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms of drug action, cell aging, and colony differentiation.

  15. Physical Forces Modulate Oxidative Status and Stress Defense Meditated Metabolic Adaptation of Yeast Colonies: Spaceflight and Microgravity Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Timothy G.; Allen, Patricia L.; Gunter, Margaret A.; Chiang, Jennifer; Giaever, Guri; Nislow, Corey; Birdsall, Holly H.

    2017-12-01

    Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) has broad genetic homology to human cells. Although typically grown as 1-2mm diameter colonies under certain conditions yeast can form very large (10 + mm in diameter) or `giant' colonies on agar. Giant yeast colonies have been used to study diverse biomedical processes such as cell survival, aging, and the response to cancer pharmacogenomics. Such colonies evolve dynamically into complex stratified structures that respond differentially to environmental cues. Ammonia production, gravity driven ammonia convection, and shear defense responses are key differentiation signals for cell death and reactive oxygen system pathways in these colonies. The response to these signals can be modulated by experimental interventions such as agar composition, gene deletion and application of pharmaceuticals. In this study we used physical factors including colony rotation and microgravity to modify ammonia convection and shear stress as environmental cues and observed differences in the responses of both ammonia dependent and stress response dependent pathways We found that the effects of random positioning are distinct from rotation. Furthermore, both true and simulated microgravity exacerbated both cellular redox responses and apoptosis. These changes were largely shear-response dependent but each model had a unique response signature as measured by shear stress genes and the promoter set which regulates them These physical techniques permitted a graded manipulation of both convection and ammonia signaling and are primed to substantially contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms of drug action, cell aging, and colony differentiation.

  16. Colonialism, customary law and the post-colonial state in Africa: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Colonialism became a fact of life in many African countries. An effect of colonialism especially in the former British colonized countries was the transplantation of the British legal system, which led to recognition of both systems and the gradual relegation of the indigenous system otherwise called customary law. The use and ...

  17. Colonial Legal Reasoning in the Post-Colonial African State: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Colonial Legal Reasoning in the Post-Colonial African State: A Critique and a Defense of the Argument from African Metaphysical Epistemology. ... Africa, as it has the advantageous result of helping in the search for truth concerning such offences, thereby promoting the delivery of effective legal justice, and thus contributing ...

  18. Review Essay A history of colonialism through post-colonial lenses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review Essay A history of colonialism through post-colonial lenses: reading Mahmood Mamdani's citizen and subject. Sanya Osha. Abstract. No Abstract. The Nigerian Journal of Economic History Vol. 2, 1999: 155-161. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  19. Synthetic quorum sensing in model microcapsule colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shum, Henry; Balazs, Anna C.

    2017-08-01

    Biological quorum sensing refers to the ability of cells to gauge their population density and collectively initiate a new behavior once a critical density is reached. Designing synthetic materials systems that exhibit quorum sensing-like behavior could enable the fabrication of devices with both self-recognition and self-regulating functionality. Herein, we develop models for a colony of synthetic microcapsules that communicate by producing and releasing signaling molecules. Production of the chemicals is regulated by a biomimetic negative feedback loop, the “repressilator” network. Through theory and simulation, we show that the chemical behavior of such capsules is sensitive to both the density and number of capsules in the colony. For example, decreasing the spacing between a fixed number of capsules can trigger a transition in chemical activity from the steady, repressed state to large-amplitude oscillations in chemical production. Alternatively, for a fixed density, an increase in the number of capsules in the colony can also promote a transition into the oscillatory state. This configuration-dependent behavior of the capsule colony exemplifies quorum-sensing behavior. Using our theoretical model, we predict the transitions from the steady state to oscillatory behavior as a function of the colony size and capsule density.

  20. Colony collapse disorder: a descriptive study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Vanengelsdorp

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over the last two winters, there have been large-scale, unexplained losses of managed honey bee (Apis mellifera L. colonies in the United States. In the absence of a known cause, this syndrome was named Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD because the main trait was a rapid loss of adult worker bees. We initiated a descriptive epizootiological study in order to better characterize CCD and compare risk factor exposure between populations afflicted by and not afflicted by CCD. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Of 61 quantified variables (including adult bee physiology, pathogen loads, and pesticide levels, no single measure emerged as a most-likely cause of CCD. Bees in CCD colonies had higher pathogen loads and were co-infected with a greater number of pathogens than control populations, suggesting either an increased exposure to pathogens or a reduced resistance of bees toward pathogens. Levels of the synthetic acaricide coumaphos (used by beekeepers to control the parasitic mite Varroa destructor were higher in control colonies than CCD-affected colonies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first comprehensive survey of CCD-affected bee populations that suggests CCD involves an interaction between pathogens and other stress factors. We present evidence that this condition is contagious or the result of exposure to a common risk factor. Potentially important areas for future hypothesis-driven research, including the possible legacy effect of mite parasitism and the role of honey bee resistance to pesticides, are highlighted.

  1. Protons and how they are transported by proton pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch-Pedersen, Morten Jeppe; Pedersen, Bjørn Panyella; Nissen, Poul

    2008-01-01

    molecular components that allow the plasma membrane proton H(+)-ATPase to carry out proton transport against large membrane potentials. When divergent proton pumps such as the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase, bacteriorhodopsin, and F(O)F(1) ATP synthase are compared, unifying mechanistic premises for biological...... proton pumps emerge. Most notably, the minimal pumping apparatus of all pumps consists of a central proton acceptor/donor, a positively charged residue to control pK (a) changes of the proton acceptor/donor, and bound water molecules to facilitate rapid proton transport along proton wires....

  2. Giving Protons a Boost

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The first of LHC's superconducting radio-frequency cavity modules has passed its final test at full power in the test area of building SM18. These modules carry an oscillating electric field that will accelerate protons around the LHC ring and help maintain the stability of the proton beams.

  3. On the proton decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonda, L.; Ghirardi, G.C.; Weber, T.

    1983-07-01

    The problem of the proton decay is considered taking into account that in actual experiments there is an interaction of the proton with its environment which could imply an increase of its theoretical lifetime. It is seen that, by application of the time-energy uncertainty relation, no prolongation of the lifetime is obtained in this case. (author)

  4. Metal contaminant accumulation in the hive: Consequences for whole-colony health and brood production in the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladun, Kristen R; Di, Ning; Liu, Tong-Xian; Trumble, John T

    2016-02-01

    Metal pollution has been increasing rapidly over the past century, and at the same time, the human population has continued to rise and produce contaminants that may negatively impact pollinators. Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) forage over large areas and can collect contaminants from the environment. The primary objective of the present study was to determine whether the metal contaminants cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and selenium (Se) can have a detrimental effect on whole-colony health in the managed pollinator A. mellifera. The authors isolated small nucleus colonies under large cages and fed them an exclusive diet of sugar syrup and pollen patty spiked with Cd, Cu, Pb, and Se or a control (no additional metal). Treatment levels were based on concentrations in honey and pollen from contaminated hives around the world. They measured whole-colony health including wax, honey, and brood production; colony weight; brood survival; and metal accumulation in various life stages. Colonies treated with Cd or Cu contained more dead pupae within capped cells compared with control, and Se-treated colonies had lower total worker weights compared to control. Lead had a minimal effect on colony performance, although many members of the hive accumulated significant quantities of the metal. By examining the honey bee as a social organism through whole-colony assessments of toxicity, the authors found that the distribution of toxicants throughout the colony varied from metal to metal, some caste members were more susceptible to certain metals, and the colony's ability to grow over time may have been reduced in the presence of Se. Apiaries residing near metal-contaminated areas may be at risk and can suffer changes in colony dynamics and survival. © 2015 SETAC.

  5. Is colonialism history? The declining impact of colonial legacies on African institutional and economic development : The declining impact of colonial legacies on African institutional and economic development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maseland, Robbert

    2018-01-01

    This paper investigates the claim that colonial history has left an enduring imprint on Africa's institutional and economic development. The literature following Acemoglu, Johnson and Robinson (2001) and Sokoloff and Engerman (2000) maintains that different types of colonialism affected the

  6. PS proton source

    CERN Multimedia

    1959-01-01

    The first proton source used at CERN's Proton Synchrotron (PS) which started operation in 1959. This is CERN's oldest accelerator still functioning today (2018). It is part of the accelerator chain that supplies proton beams to the Large Hadron Collider. The source is a Thonemann type. In order to extract and accelerate the protons at high energy, a high frequency electrical field is used (140Mhz). The field is transmitted by a coil around a discharge tube in order to maintain the gas hydrogen in an ionised state. An electrical field pulse, in the order of 15kV, is then applied via an impulse transformer between anode and cathode of the discharge tube. The electrons and protons of the plasma formed in the ionised gas in the tube, are then separated. Currents in the order of 200mA during 100 microseconds have benn obtained with this type of source.

  7. Clinical equipoise: protons and the child with craniopharyngioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conroy, Ruth; Owen, Catherine; Ahern, Verity; Gomes, Lavier; Buchsbaum, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Childhood craniopharyngioma is a complex condition to manage. Survival figures are high but the potential for long-term morbidity is great. There is much debate regarding the best management for these tumours with increasing interest in the use of proton beam therapy. We have therefore reviewed our radiotherapy (RT) practice at Westmead Hospital and the literature regarding the use of protons for these children. Three children have received fractionated stereotactic RT for craniopharyngioma at Westmead Hospital since 2007. Each RT plan was reviewed and additional organs at risk were contoured to enable comparison with published proton data. Planning target volume coverage was similar with all modalities: with the conformity index ranging from 0.70 to 0.78 in our patients compared with 0.50–0.84 in the published data. RT dose to temporal lobes, hippocampi and whole brain was also similar with protons and photons. Proton beam therapy may give lower dose to the Circle of Willis than stereotactic RT. Currently there is no clear evidence that proton beam therapy will improve survival or reduce morbidity for children with craniopharyngioma. However, proton therapy has the potential to reduce RT dose to the Circle of Willis, which may reduce the risk of future cerebrovascular complications. We propose that more resources should be allocated to ensuring these patients are managed by experienced multidisciplinary teams through the continuum from diagnosis to long-term follow-up.

  8. Clinical equipoise: Protons and the child with craniopharyngioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Ruth; Gomes, Lavier; Owen, Catherine; Buchsbaum, Jeffrey; Ahern, Verity

    2015-06-01

    Childhood craniopharyngioma is a complex condition to manage. Survival figures are high but the potential for long-term morbidity is great. There is much debate regarding the best management for these tumours with increasing interest in the use of proton beam therapy. We have therefore reviewed our radiotherapy (RT) practice at Westmead Hospital and the literature regarding the use of protons for these children. Three children have received fractionated stereotactic RT for craniopharyngioma at Westmead Hospital since 2007. Each RT plan was reviewed and additional organs at risk were contoured to enable comparison with published proton data. Planning target volume coverage was similar with all modalities: with the conformity index ranging from 0.70 to 0.78 in our patients compared with 0.50-0.84 in the published data. RT dose to temporal lobes, hippocampi and whole brain was also similar with protons and photons. Proton beam therapy may give lower dose to the Circle of Willis than stereotactic RT. Currently there is no clear evidence that proton beam therapy will improve survival or reduce morbidity for children with craniopharyngioma. However, proton therapy has the potential to reduce RT dose to the Circle of Willis, which may reduce the risk of future cerebrovascular complications. We propose that more resources should be allocated to ensuring these patients are managed by experienced multidisciplinary teams through the continuum from diagnosis to long-term follow-up. © 2014 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  9. Yeast Colonies: A Model for Studies of Aging, Environmental Adaptation, and Longevity

    OpenAIRE

    Libuše Váchová; Michal Čáp; Zdena Palková

    2012-01-01

    When growing on solid surfaces, yeast, like other microorganisms, develops organized multicellular populations (colonies and biofilms) that are composed of differentiated cells with specialized functions. Life within these populations is a prevalent form of microbial existence in natural settings that provides the cells with capabilities to effectively defend against environmental attacks as well as efficiently adapt and survive long periods of starvation and other stresses. Under such circum...

  10. Proton-Beam Therapy for Olfactory Neuroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Hideki; Ogino, Takashi; Kawashima, Mitsuhiko; Nihei, Keiji; Arahira, Satoko; Onozawa, Masakatsu; Katsuta, Shoichi; Nishio, Teiji

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the feasibility and efficacy of proton-beam therapy (PBT) for olfactory neuroblastoma (ONB) as a definitive treatment, by reviewing our preliminary experience. Olfactory neuroblastoma is a rare disease, and a standard treatment strategy has not been established. Radiation therapy for ONB is challenging because of the proximity of ONBs to critical organs. Proton-beam therapy can provide better dose distribution compared with X-ray irradiation because of its physical characteristics, and is deemed to be a feasible treatment modality. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review was performed on 14 patients who underwent PBT for ONB as definitive treatment at the National Cancer Center Hospital East (Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan) from November 1999 to February 2005. A total dose of PBT was 65 cobalt Gray equivalents (Gy E ), with 2.5-Gy E once-daily fractionations. Results: The median follow-up period for surviving patients was 40 months. One patient died from disseminated disease. There were two persistent diseases, one of which was successfully salvaged with surgery. The 5-year overall survival rate was 93%, the 5-year local progression-free survival rate was 84%, and the 5-year relapse-free survival rate was 71%. Liquorrhea was observed in one patient with Kadish's stage C disease (widely destroying the skull base). Most patients experienced Grade 1 to 2 dermatitis in the acute phase. No other adverse events of Grade 3 or greater were observed according to the RTOG/EORTC acute and late morbidity scoring system. Conclusions: Our preliminary results of PBT for ONB achieved excellent local control and survival outcomes without serious adverse effects. Proton-beam therapy is considered a safe and effective modality that warrants further study

  11. The Australian National Proton Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, M.; Rozenfeld, A.; Bishop, J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Protons have been used in the treatment of cancer since 1954 and over 30,000 patients have been treated around the world. Their precise dose distribution allows the treatment of small tumours in critical locations such as the base of skull and orbit and is an alternative to stereotactic radiotherapy in other sites. With the development of hospital-based systems in the 1990's, common tumours such as prostate, breast and lung cancer can now also be treated using simple techniques. The therapeutic ratio is improved as the dose to the tumour can be increased while sparing normal tissues. The well defined high dose region and low integral dose compared with photon treatments is a particular advantage in children and other situations where long-term survival is expected and when used in combination with chemotherapy. In January 2002, the NSW Health Department initiated a Feasibility Study for an Australian National Proton Facility. This Study will address the complex medical, scientific, engineering, commercial and legal issues required to design and build a proton facility in Australia. The Facility will be mainly designed for patient treatment but will also provide facilities for biological, physical and engineering research. The proposed facility will have a combination of fixed and rotating beams with an energy range of 70-250 MeV. Such a centre will enable the conduct of randomised clinical trials and a comparison with other radiotherapy techniques such as Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy. Cost-utility comparisons with other medical treatments will also be made and further facilities developed if the expected benefit is confirmed. When patients are not being treated, the beam will be available for commercial and research purposes. This presentation will summarize the progress of the Study and discuss the important issues that need to be resolved before the Facility is approved and constructed

  12. Proton-proton colliding beam facility ISABELLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, H.

    1980-01-01

    This paper attempts to present the status of the ISABELLE construction project, which has the objective of building a 400 + 400 GeV proton colliding beam facility. The major technical features of the superconducting accelerators with their projected performance are described. Progress made so far, difficulties encountered, and the program until completion in 1986 is briefly reviewed

  13. Queen Quality and the Impact of Honey Bee Diseases on Queen Health: Potential for Interactions between Two Major Threats to Colony Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeil Amiri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Western honey bees, Apis mellifera, live in highly eusocial colonies that are each typically headed by a single queen. The queen is the sole reproductive female in a healthy colony, and because long-term colony survival depends on her ability to produce a large number of offspring, queen health is essential for colony success. Honey bees have recently been experiencing considerable declines in colony health. Among a number of biotic and abiotic factors known to impact colony health, disease and queen failure are repeatedly reported as important factors underlying colony losses. Surprisingly, there are relatively few studies on the relationship and interaction between honey bee diseases and queen quality. It is critical to understand the negative impacts of pests and pathogens on queen health, how queen problems might enable disease, and how both factors influence colony health. Here, we review the current literature on queen reproductive potential and the impacts of honey bee parasites and pathogens on queens. We conclude by highlighting gaps in our knowledge on the combination of disease and queen failure to provide a perspective and prioritize further research to mitigate disease, improve queen quality, and ensure colony health.

  14. Abyssal fiction: common shares, colonial cleavages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Montaury

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to develop a reflection on the interaction between the legacies of colonialism and traditional symbolic and cultural practices in African Portuguese-speaking spaces. From a preliminary analysis of fictional texts of wide circulation in Brazil, aims to examine the cleavages, or “abyssal lines” that constitute experiences printed in the daily life of the former Portuguese colony of Cape Verde, Mozambique and Angola.---DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21881/abriluff.2016n17a378

  15. Early Developmental Program Shapes Colony Morphology in Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gideon Mamou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available When grown on a solid surface, bacteria form highly organized colonies, yet little is known about the earliest stages of colony establishment. Following Bacillus subtilis colony development from a single progenitor cell, a sequence of highly ordered spatiotemporal events was revealed. Colony was initiated by the formation of leading-cell chains, deriving from the colony center and extending in multiple directions, typically in a “Y-shaped” structure. By eradicating particular cells during these early stages, we could influence the shape of the resulting colony and demonstrate that Y-arm extension defines colony size. A mutant in ymdB encoding a phosphodiesterase displayed unordered developmental patterns, indicating a role in guiding these initial events. Finally, we provide evidence that intercellular nanotubes contribute to proper colony formation. In summary, we reveal a “construction plan” for building a colony and provide the initial molecular basis for this process.

  16. Behavioral Modulation of Infestation by Varroa destructor in Bee Colonies. Implications for Colony Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Figueiró Santos, Joyce; Coelho, Flávio Codeço; Bliman, Pierre-Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) has become a global problem for beekeepers and for the crops that depend on bee pollination. While many factors are known to increase the risk of colony collapse, the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor is considered to be the most serious one. Although this mite is unlikely to cause the collapse of hives itself, it is the vector for many viral diseases which are among the likely causes for Colony Collapse Disorder. The effects of V. destructor infestation differ from one part of the world to another, with greater morbidity and higher colony losses in European honey bees (EHB) in Europe, Asia and North America. Although this mite has been present in Brazil for many years, there have been no reports of colony losses amongst Africanized Honey Bees (AHB). Studies carried out in Mexico have highlighted different behavioral responses by the AHB to the presence of the mite, notably as far as grooming and hygienic behavior are concerned. Could these explain why the AHB are less susceptible to Colony Collapse Disorder? In order to answer this question, we have developed a mathematical model of the infestation dynamics to analyze the role of resistance behavior by bees in the overall health of the colony, and as a consequence, its ability to face epidemiological challenges.

  17. Behavioral Modulation of Infestation by Varroa destructor in Bee Colonies. Implications for Colony Stability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce de Figueiró Santos

    Full Text Available Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD has become a global problem for beekeepers and for the crops that depend on bee pollination. While many factors are known to increase the risk of colony collapse, the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor is considered to be the most serious one. Although this mite is unlikely to cause the collapse of hives itself, it is the vector for many viral diseases which are among the likely causes for Colony Collapse Disorder. The effects of V. destructor infestation differ from one part of the world to another, with greater morbidity and higher colony losses in European honey bees (EHB in Europe, Asia and North America. Although this mite has been present in Brazil for many years, there have been no reports of colony losses amongst Africanized Honey Bees (AHB. Studies carried out in Mexico have highlighted different behavioral responses by the AHB to the presence of the mite, notably as far as grooming and hygienic behavior are concerned. Could these explain why the AHB are less susceptible to Colony Collapse Disorder? In order to answer this question, we have developed a mathematical model of the infestation dynamics to analyze the role of resistance behavior by bees in the overall health of the colony, and as a consequence, its ability to face epidemiological challenges.

  18. Comparative study on the dynamics and performances of Apis mellifera jemenitica and imported hybrid honeybee colonies in southwestern Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad A. Al-Ghamdi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to assess the seasonal population dynamics and evaluate the performance of Apis mellifera jemenitica (local bee and introduced hybrid honeybee colonies in the lowlands and highlands of southwestern Saudi Arabia. Data regarding the performance and population dynamics parameters such as brood and adult bee population, amounts of stored pollen and nectar were gathered from the two races (25 colonies of each for one year (April 2013 through March 2014, and statistically tested. The results indicated that at low lands, local bee colonies maintained relatively high brood and adult bee populations (P < 0.05 than introduced honeybee colonies and produced more (P < 0.05 honey. The local bee colonies were able to hoard three times more (P < 0.05 pollen and built more (P < 0.05 queen cells than introduced bees in both the low and highland areas. The annual survival rate of local bee colonies was almost double (P < 0.05 than that of introduced honeybee colonies. Moreover, local bees had greater (P < 0.05 adult bee and brood populations than imported, throughout the year. The relatively good performance of local colonies could be due to their long year’s adaptation to cope with resource scarcity and unpredictable environmental conditions of the regions. The possible reasons for the dwindling of the imported hybrid colonies could be due to continuing to exhibit adaptive characteristics of their original that might not fit well with the new environment.

  19. Population Change in a Marine Bird Colony is Driven By Changes in Recruitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J. Gaston

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The population dynamics of long-lived birds are thought to be very sensitive to changes in adult survival. However, where natal philopatry is low, recruitment from the larger metapopulation may have the strongest effect on population growth rate even in long-lived species. Here, we illustrate such a situation where changes in a seabird colony size appeared to be the consequence of changes in recruitment. We studied the population dynamics of a declining colony of Ancient Murrelets (Synthliboramphus antiquus at East Limestone Island, British Columbia. During 1990-2010, Ancient Murrelet chicks were trapped at East Limestone Island while departing to sea, using a standard trapping method carried on throughout the departure period. Adult murrelets were trapped while departing from the colony during 1990-2003. Numbers of chicks trapped declined during 1990-1995, probably because of raccoon predation, increased slightly from 1995-2000 and subsequently declined again. Reproductive success was 30% lower during 2000-2003 than in earlier years, mainly because of an increase in desertions. The proportion of nonbreeders among adult birds trapped at night also declined over the study period. Mortality of adult birds, thought to be mainly prebreeders, from predators more than doubled over the same period. Apparent adult survival of breeders remained constant during 1991-2002 once the first year after banding was excluded, but the apparent survival rates in the first year after banding fell and the survival of birds banded as chicks to age three halved over the same period. A matrix model of population dynamics suggested that even during the early part of the study immigration from other breeding areas must have been substantial, supporting earlier observations that natal philopatry in this species is low. The general colony decline after 2000 probably was related to diminished recruitment, as evidenced by the lower proportion of nonbreeders in the trapped

  20. Proton storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rau, R.R.

    1978-04-01

    A discussion is given of proton storage ring beam dynamic characteristics. Topics considered include: (1) beam energy; (2) beam luminosity; (3) limits on beam current; (4) beam site; (5) crossing angle; (6) beam--beam interaction; (7) longitudinal instability; (8) effects of scattering processes; (9) beam production; and (10) high magnetic fields. Much of the discussion is related to the design parameters of ISABELLE, a 400 x 400 GeV proton---proton intersecting storage accelerator to be built at Brookhaven National Laboratory

  1. ATLAS Forward Proton Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Grieco, Chiara; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the ATLAS Forward Proton (AFP) detector system is the measurement of protons scattered diffractively or electromagnetically at very small angles. The full two-arm setup was installed during the 2016/2017 EYETS. This allows measurements of processes with two forward protons: central diffraction, exclusive production, and two-photon processes. In 2017, AFP participated in the ATLAS high-luminosity data taking on the day-by-day basis. In addition, several special runs with reduced luminosity were taken. The poster will present the AFP detectors and the lessons learned from the last year operation and some performance from 2016 and 2017.

  2. Project Final Report: HPC-Colony II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Terry R [ORNL; Kale, Laxmikant V [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Moreira, Jose [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center

    2013-11-01

    This report recounts the HPC Colony II Project which was a computer science effort funded by DOE's Advanced Scientific Computing Research office. The project included researchers from ORNL, IBM, and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The topic of the effort was adaptive system software for extreme scale parallel machines. A description of findings is included.

  3. English Literatures in Post-Colonial Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dass, Rozita

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of a vibrant literary, culture and arts scene promotes Singapore's claims as a hub for arts and culture in the Asian region, and as a global arts city by the 21st century. The richness and variety of Singapore literature from the early post-colonial years are evident in the evolution of a Singapore literary culture. The diaspora of…

  4. Latin America: Essays Interpretating Colonial Legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pia López

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A large part of the Latin–American literature of the 19th and 20th century tried to deal with the national question intertwining different dimensions: the weight of colonial legacy, the cultural peculiarity of the nation and the inner relations between social classes and ethnic groups. Thinking the nation implied, in any case, to think the difference and the conflict with others, as well as the inner conflict and the logic of local colonialism. Analyzing some of these essays that played a central role in such process of recasting the origin of the nation, the author moves around three main axes: the formulation of dualist writings (colonial/national; white /indigenous; civilization/wilderness, the issue of language (the language inherited from the colonial experience versus the multilingual nature of indigenous Latin American societies, and the hypothesis about the birth of the nation – appointed to different groups – and its normal functioning as legitimization of the order sprung from independences.

  5. Teaching the History of Colonial Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Leon G.

    1981-01-01

    Presents a bibliographic review essay on the topic of colonial Peru organized according to the following topics: Pre-Columbian Peru, 5500 B.C.- 1532; the conquest of Peru, 1532-1572; Peru under the Hapsburgs, 1516-1700; Bourbon Peru, 1700-1808; and the coming of independence, 1808-1821. The essay is based on a bibliography composed largely of…

  6. PRE-COLONIAL TRANSPORT SYSTEMS: A VERITABLE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FBL

    ideas between places and over-time and mediate relationship and interactions between individuals and ... International Journal of Development and Management Review (INJODEMAR) Vol. 9, No 1 ..... Colonial Times, “Ahiajoku Lecture Series, Owerri: Ministry of Information, Youth and Sports Government Press. Afigbo A.E ...

  7. Policing native pleasures: a colonial history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbar, Naheem

    2012-12-01

    The moral modality of colonial power is still with us when it comes to the recreation of sexual norms of traditional or feudal society. We can examine the emergent properties of colonial knowledge anew by exploring how the colonial regime's strategic attention of regulating brothels in India differed from the analytic of power Foucault described for sexuality in European society. It turns out that amongst other things, public anxieties about the failure of adaptation by South Asians are incapable of leaving sexuality aside as a key interpretive device for their culture. The British preoccupation with reproducing the dynamics of the bourgeois matrimonial market on foreign soil in the mid-nineteenth century similarly necessitated a sociological pretext for racial purity. However, the kind of knowledge a typical traveller and employee of the East India Company brought to the Victorian public from his own researches in the brothels and streets of colonial India, which revealed how popular prostitution was as a vice amongst the officer class, was also more than a welcome imaginary relief from Christian morality; it was an alternative vision of modernity. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2012.

  8. Hyphal growth and colony expansion (Forum Commentary)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggen, van A.H.C.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Semenov, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    Bailey et al. have used a quite simple but elegant experimental method and developed innovative concepts about phase transitions in colony behavior based on non-linearity of invasion probability with distance between substrate particles. This proves again the old adage that significant scientific

  9. 128 COLONIALISM: NEXUS FOR MYRIAD RELIGIOUS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In recent times, the version of Christians we have, who also practice ATR is ... Colonialism is not a new concept in the history of Africa. .... of their kits and kin still living. ..... believe that God could be reached through different media. ..... Hornby, A.S., (2006), Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary of Current English, New York,.

  10. Buckling instability in ordered bacterial colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Denis; Mather, William; Mondragón-Palomino, Octavio; Orozco-Fuentes, Sirio; Danino, Tal; Hasty, Jeff; Tsimring, Lev S.

    2011-04-01

    Bacterial colonies often exhibit complex spatio-temporal organization. This collective behavior is affected by a multitude of factors ranging from the properties of individual cells (shape, motility, membrane structure) to chemotaxis and other means of cell-cell communication. One of the important but often overlooked mechanisms of spatio-temporal organization is direct mechanical contact among cells in dense colonies such as biofilms. While in natural habitats all these different mechanisms and factors act in concert, one can use laboratory cell cultures to study certain mechanisms in isolation. Recent work demonstrated that growth and ensuing expansion flow of rod-like bacteria Escherichia coli in confined environments leads to orientation of cells along the flow direction and thus to ordering of cells. However, the cell orientational ordering remained imperfect. In this paper we study one mechanism responsible for the persistence of disorder in growing cell populations. We demonstrate experimentally that a growing colony of nematically ordered cells is prone to the buckling instability. Our theoretical analysis and discrete-element simulations suggest that the nature of this instability is related to the anisotropy of the stress tensor in the ordered cell colony.

  11. Buckling instability in ordered bacterial colonies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, Denis; Mather, William; Mondragón-Palomino, Octavio; Danino, Tal; Hasty, Jeff; Orozco-Fuentes, Sirio; Tsimring, Lev S

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial colonies often exhibit complex spatio-temporal organization. This collective behavior is affected by a multitude of factors ranging from the properties of individual cells (shape, motility, membrane structure) to chemotaxis and other means of cell–cell communication. One of the important but often overlooked mechanisms of spatio-temporal organization is direct mechanical contact among cells in dense colonies such as biofilms. While in natural habitats all these different mechanisms and factors act in concert, one can use laboratory cell cultures to study certain mechanisms in isolation. Recent work demonstrated that growth and ensuing expansion flow of rod-like bacteria Escherichia coli in confined environments leads to orientation of cells along the flow direction and thus to ordering of cells. However, the cell orientational ordering remained imperfect. In this paper we study one mechanism responsible for the persistence of disorder in growing cell populations. We demonstrate experimentally that a growing colony of nematically ordered cells is prone to the buckling instability. Our theoretical analysis and discrete-element simulations suggest that the nature of this instability is related to the anisotropy of the stress tensor in the ordered cell colony

  12. A catalog of Louisiana's nesting seabird colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenot, William R.; Cardiff, Steve W.; DeMay, Richard A.; Dittmann, Donna L.; Hartley, Stephen B.; Jeske, Clinton W.; Lorenz, Nicole; Michot, Thomas C.; Purrington, Robert Dan; Seymour, Michael; Vermillion, William G.

    2012-01-01

    Summarizing his colonial nesting waterbird survey experiences along the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico in a paper presented to the Colonial Waterbird Group of the Waterbird Society (Portnoy 1978), bird biologist John W. Portnoy stated, “This huge concentration of nesting waterbirds, restricted almost entirely to the wetlands and estuaries of southern Louisiana, is unmatched in all of North America; for example, a 1975 inventory of wading birds along the Atlantic Coast from Maine to Florida [Custer and Osborn, in press], tallied 250,000 breeding [waterbirds] of 14 species, in contrast with the 650,000 birds of 15 species just from Sabine Pass to Mobile Bay.” The “650,000 birds” to which Portnoy referred, were tallied by him in a 1976 survey of coastal Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama (see below, under “Major Surveys” section). According to the National Atlas of Coastal Waterbird Colonies in the Contiguous United States: 1976-82 (Spendelow and Patton 1988), the percentages of the total U.S. populations of Laughing Gull (11%), Forster's Tern (52%), Royal Tern (16%), Sandwich Tern (77%), and Black Skimmer (44%) which annually nest in Louisiana are significant – perhaps crucially so in the cases of Forster's Tern, Sandwich Tern, and Black Skimmer. Nearly three decades after Spendelow and Patton's determinations above, coastal Louisiana still stands out as the major center of colonial wading bird and seabird nesting in all of the United States. Within those three intervening decades, however, the

  13. 178 MULTIPLE COLONIALISM IN WESTERN SAHARA Macharia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Civil War, the colony had also been a possible bargaining chip with Adolph Hitler when ... Morocco gave rise to an Army of Liberation that inspired the Sahrawi to fight ..... or defense, matters, and promised the Sahrawi the right to vote for their ...

  14. Coral restoration Bonaire : an evaluation of growth, regeneration and survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meesters, H.W.G.; Boomstra, B.; Hurtado-Lopez, N.; Montbrun, A.; Virdis, F.

    2015-01-01

    The Coral restoration of Staghorn (Acropora cervicornis) and Elkhorn (A. palmata) as practiced by the Coral Restoration Foundation Bonaire (CRFB) is shown to be highly successful in terms of growth and survival of new colonies, in both nurseries and transplant locations. Coral restoration is

  15. Surviving Sengstaken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, S; Odulaja, A; Patel, S; Davenport, M; Ade-Ajayi, N

    2015-07-01

    To report the outcomes of children who underwent Sengstaken-Blakemore tube (SBT) insertion for life-threatening haemetemesis. Single institution retrospective review (1997-2012) of children managed with SBT insertion. Patient demographics, diagnosis and outcomes were noted. Data are expressed as median (range). 19 children [10 male, age 1 (0.4-16) yr] were identified; 18 had gastro-oesophageal varices and 1 aorto-oesophageal fistula. Varices were secondary to: biliary atresia (n=8), portal vein thrombosis (n=5), alpha-1-anti-trypsin deficiency (n=1), cystic fibrosis (n=1), intrahepatic cholestasis (n=1), sclerosing cholangitis (n=1) and nodular hyperplasia with arterio-portal shunt (n=1). Three children deteriorated rapidly and did not survive to have post-SBT endoscopy. The child with an aortooesophageal fistula underwent aortic stent insertion and subsequently oesophageal replacement. Complications included gastric mucosal ulceration (n=3, 16%), pressure necrosis at lips and cheeks (n=6, 31%) and SBT dislodgment (n=1, 6%). Six (31%) children died. The remaining 13 have been followed up for 62 (2-165) months; five required liver transplantation, two underwent a mesocaval shunt procedure and 6 have completed endoscopic variceal obliteration and are under surveillance. SBT can be an effective, albeit temporary, life-saving manoeuvre in children with catastrophic haematemesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Proton computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, K.M.

    1978-01-01

    The use of protons or other heavy charged particles instead of x rays in computed tomography (CT) is explored. The results of an experimental implementation of proton CT are presented. High quality CT reconstructions are obtained at an average dose reduction factor compared with an EMI 5005 x-ray scanner of 10:1 for a 30-cm-diameter phantom and 3.5:1 for a 20-cm diameter. The spatial resolution is limited by multiple Coulomb scattering to about 3.7 mm FWHM. Further studies are planned in which proton and x-ray images of fresh human specimens will be compared. Design considerations indicate that a clinically useful proton CT scanner is eminently feasible

  17. Electron - proton colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiik, B.H.

    1985-01-01

    Electron-proton storage rings allow us to study the interaction between the two basic constituents of matter, electrons and quarks at very short distances. Such machines were first discussed in connection with the ISR but the idea was abandoned because of the anticipated low counting rate. The interest in electron-proton storage rings was rekindeled by the discovery of large pointlike cross sections in lepton-hardon interactions and several/sup 2-15/ projects have been discussed during the past decade. However, despite a glorious past, which includes the discovery of quarks and neutral currents, and a multitude of proposals no electron-proton storage ring has ever been built. What we might learn by studying electron-proton collisions at high energies is discussed. After some brief comments on present proposals the proposed DESY ep project HERA is described as an example of how to realize such a machine

  18. Apparatus for proton radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.L.

    1976-01-01

    An apparatus for effecting diagnostic proton radiography of patients in hospitals comprises a source of negative hydrogen ions, a synchrotron for accelerating the negative hydrogen ions to a predetermined energy, a plurality of stations for stripping extraction of a radiography beam of protons, means for sweeping the extracted beam to cover a target, and means for measuring the residual range, residual energy, or percentage transmission of protons that pass through the target. The combination of information identifying the position of the beam with information about particles traversing the subject and the back absorber is performed with the aid of a computer to provide a proton radiograph of the subject. In an alternate embodiment of the invention, a back absorber comprises a plurality of scintillators which are coupled to detectors. 10 claims, 7 drawing figures

  19. Plant proton pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaxiola, Roberto A.; Palmgren, Michael Gjedde; Schumacher, Karin

    2007-01-01

    Chemiosmotic circuits of plant cells are driven by proton (H+) gradients that mediate secondary active transport of compounds across plasma and endosomal membranes. Furthermore, regulation of endosomal acidification is critical for endocytic and secretory pathways. For plants to react...

  20. Inauguration of Proton Synchrotron

    CERN Multimedia

    1960-01-01

    On 5 February 1960, the Proton Synchrotron (PS) was formally inaugurated. The great Danish physicist, Niels Bohr, releases a bottle of champagne against a shielding block to launch the PS on its voyage in physics.

  1. An American termite in Paris: temporal colony dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudouin, Guillaume; Dedeine, Franck; Bech, Nicolas; Bankhead-Dronnet, Stéphanie; Dupont, Simon; Bagnères, Anne-Geneviève

    2017-12-01

    Termites of the genus Reticulitermes are widespread invaders, particularly in urban habitats. Their cryptic and subterranean lifestyle makes them difficult to detect, and we know little about their colony dynamics over time. In this study we examined the persistence of Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) colonies in the city of Paris over a period of 15 years. The aim was (1) to define the boundaries of colonies sampled within the same four areas over two sampling periods, (2) to determine whether the colonies identified during the first sampling period persisted to the second sampling period, and (3) to compare the results obtained when colonies were delineated using a standard population genetic approach versus a Bayesian clustering method that combined both spatial and genetic information. Herein, colony delineations were inferred from genetic differences at nine microsatellite loci and one mitochondrial locus. Four of the 18 identified colonies did not show significant differences in their genotype distributions between the two sampling periods. While allelic richness was low, making it hard to reliably distinguish colony family type, most colonies appeared to retain the same breeding structure over time. These large and expansive colonies showed an important ability to fuse (39% were mixed-family colonies), contained hundreds of reproductives and displayed evidence of isolation-by-distance, suggesting budding dispersal. These traits, which favor colony persistence over time, present a challenge for pest control efforts, which apply treatment locally. The other colonies showed significant differences, but we cannot exclude the possibility that their genotype distributions simply changed over time.

  2. Colonial Army Formats in Africa and Post-Colonial Military Coups:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSOS USER

    The centralised and autocratic features of Caliphate rule were .... latter's participation in the affairs of their respective societies, and leadership ..... deployment of the army by the NPC for internal colonial-style repression duties in the Middle Belt ...

  3. Proton beam therapy facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    It is proposed to build a regional outpatient medical clinic at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), Batavia, Illinois, to exploit the unique therapeutic characteristics of high energy proton beams. The Fermilab location for a proton therapy facility (PTF) is being chosen for reasons ranging from lower total construction and operating costs and the availability of sophisticated technical support to a location with good access to patients from the Chicago area and from the entire nation. 9 refs., 4 figs., 26 tabs

  4. Proton beam therapy facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-10-09

    It is proposed to build a regional outpatient medical clinic at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), Batavia, Illinois, to exploit the unique therapeutic characteristics of high energy proton beams. The Fermilab location for a proton therapy facility (PTF) is being chosen for reasons ranging from lower total construction and operating costs and the availability of sophisticated technical support to a location with good access to patients from the Chicago area and from the entire nation. 9 refs., 4 figs., 26 tabs.

  5. JAX Colony Management System (JCMS): an extensible colony and phenotype data management system

    OpenAIRE

    Donnelly, Chuck J.; McFarland, Mike; Ames, Abigail; Sundberg, Beth; Springer, Dave; Blauth, Peter; Bult, Carol J.

    2010-01-01

    The Jackson Laboratory Colony Management System (JCMS) is a software application for managing data and information related to research mouse colonies, associated biospecimens, and experimental protocols. JCMS runs directly on computers that run one of the PC Windows® operating systems, but can be accessed via web browser interfaces from any computer running a Windows, Macintosh®, or Linux® operating system. JCMS can be configured for a single user or multiple users in small- to medium-size wo...

  6. Ireland – a test case of Post-colonialism / Post colonialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Murray

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Contextualisation This review attempts to set the stage for post-colonial theorising, in the light of alternative representations of ‘whiteness’, on issues of gender, race and language within the discourse of equality. In this paper Ireland and the Irish provide a backdrop against which the nature and impact of colonialism on the colonised and the coloniser are explored. Many challenging questions emerge about the ideological basis of post colonial theory, not least when traditional paradigms of racism, as conveyed by the black / white dichotomy, are examined: Ireland presents a context, it is argued, where subjugation is of white on white. Linked to this is the language of the coloniser, a powerful hegemonic force which, in some situations, has been nurtured by the colonised and later developed into a text which is unique, producing a new literature which, it is asserted, truly invokes the ‘post colonial’. Abstract: Post-colonialism – essentially a critique of colonialism, is characterised by a process of disengagement from the colonial epoch and has taken many forms. In this article a set of phenomena are examined that have become inscribed in the cultures of the colonised with a view to identifying alternative cultural origins and dispositions recovered in this post-colonial era. Ireland and the Irish provide the background context of this exploration into perspectives generated by the peripheral or post-colonial nations. Globalisation, too, has had a role to play in the increasing de-territorialisation of communities as a result of cross-frontier mobility, increased intra-community mobility and new communication technologies. A critical reflection on the process of disengagement leads the author to conclude that we must come to recognise new cultural forms which are accepting of a heterogeneous and inclusive society: one which is not characterised by difference.

  7. PROTON MICROSCOPY AT FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrill, F. E.; Mariam, F. G.; Golubev, A. A.; Turtikov, V. I.; Varentsov, D.

    2009-01-01

    Proton radiography was invented in the 1990's at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) as a diagnostic to study dynamic material properties under extreme pressures, strain and strain rate. Since this time hundreds of dynamic proton radiography experiments have been performed at LANL and a facility has been commissioned at the Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP) in Russia for similar applications in dynamic material studies. Recently an international effort has investigated a new proton radiography capability for the study of dynamic material properties at the Facility for Anti-proton and Ion Research (FAIR) located in Darmstadt, Germany. This new Proton microscope for FAIR(PRIOR) will provide radiographic imaging of dynamic systems with unprecedented spatial, temporal and density resolution, resulting in a window for understanding dynamic material properties at new length scales. It is also proposed to install the PRIOR system at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung before installation at FAIR for dynamic experiments with different drivers including high explosives, pulsed power and lasers. The design of the proton microscope and expected radiographic performance is presented.

  8. Multicavity proton cyclotron accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Hirshfield

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available A mechanism for acceleration of protons is described, in which energy gain occurs near cyclotron resonance as protons drift through a sequence of rotating-mode TE_{111} cylindrical cavities in a strong nearly uniform axial magnetic field. Cavity resonance frequencies decrease in sequence from one another with a fixed frequency interval Δf between cavities, so that synchronism can be maintained between the rf fields and proton bunches injected at intervals of 1/Δf. An example is presented in which a 122 mA, 1 MeV proton beam is accelerated to 961 MeV using a cascade of eight cavities in an 8.1 T magnetic field, with the first cavity resonant at 120 MHz and with Δf=8 MHz. Average acceleration gradient exceeds 40 MV/m, average effective shunt impedance is 223 MΩ/m, but maximum surface field in the cavities does not exceed 7.2 MV/m. These features occur because protons make many orbital turns in each cavity and thus experience acceleration from each cavity field many times. Longitudinal and transverse stability appear to be intrinsic properties of the acceleration mechanism, and an example to illustrate this is presented. This acceleration concept could be developed into a proton accelerator for a high-power neutron spallation source, such as that required for transmutation of nuclear waste or driving a subcritical fission burner, provided a number of significant practical issues can be addressed.

  9. Repeated proton beam therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Takayuki; Tokuuye, Koichi; Fukumitsu, Nobuyoshi; Igaki, Hiroshi; Hata, Masaharu; Kagei, Kenji; Sugahara, Shinji; Ohara, Kiyoshi; Matsuzaki, Yasushi; Akine, Yasuyuki

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the safety and effectiveness of repeated proton beam therapy for newly developed or recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods and Materials: From June 1989 through July 2000, 225 patients with HCC underwent their first course of proton beam therapy at University of Tsukuba. Of them, 27 with 68 lesions who had undergone two or more courses were retrospectively reviewed in this study. Median interval between the first and second course was 24.5 months (range 3.3-79.8 months). Median total dose of 72 Gy in 16 fractions and 66 Gy in 16 fractions were given for the first course and the rest of the courses, respectively. Results: The 5-year survival rate and median survival period from the beginning of the first course for the 27 patients were 55.6% and 62.2 months, respectively. Five-year local control rate for the 68 lesions was 87.8%. Of the patients, 1 with Child-Pugh class B and another with class C before the last course suffered from acute hepatic failure. Conclusions: Repeated proton beam therapy for HCC is safe when the patient has a target in the peripheral region of the liver and liver function is Child-Pugh class A

  10. A queen pheromone induces workers to kill sexual larvae in colonies of the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klobuchar, Emily; Deslippe, Richard

    2002-05-01

    We conducted five bioassays to study how queens control the execution of sexual larvae by workers in colonies of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. In each assay, subset colonies were made from many large polygyne colonies, and the 20 sexual larvae they contained were monitored over time. Sexual larvae mostly survived in queenless colonies, but were mostly killed in colonies with a single dealated queen, regardless of whether or not the queen was fertilized. The larvae were also killed when fresh corpses of queens were added to queenless colonies. Whereas acetone extracts of queens did not produce a significant increase in killings, extracts in buffered saline induced workers to execute most sexual larvae, indicating successful extraction of an execution pheromone. We identified the probable storage location of the chemical as the poison sac, and found both fresh (1 day) and old (21 day) extracts of poison sacs to be equally effective in inducing executions. The pheromone is stable at room temperature, perhaps because venom alkaloids also present in the extracts keep the pheromone from degrading. It is apparently either proteinaceous or associated with a proteinaceous molecule, a novel finding, as no queen pheromone of a proteinaceous nature has been previously demonstrated in ants.

  11. 21 CFR 866.2180 - Manual colony counter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2180 Manual colony counter. (a) Identification. A manual colony counter is a device intended for medical purposes that consists...

  12. Hybrid Bee Ant Colony Algorithm for Effective Load Balancing And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA

    Ant Colony algorithm is used in this hybrid Bee Ant Colony algorithm to solve load balancing issues ... Genetic Algorithm (MO-GA) for dynamic job scheduling that .... Information Networking and Applications Workshops. [7]. M. Dorigo & T.

  13. Conflict and conflict resolution in Africa: Engaging the colonial factor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    maintaining colonial-style approaches to African conflicts at the expense of a ... Educational Leadership at the College of Education and Human Services, University of .... Colonial rule was the antithesis of democracy, because it was premised.

  14. Honeybee colony marketing and its implications for queen rearing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Honeybee colony marketing and its implications for queen rearing and beekeeping development in Werieleke ... Thus, colony marketing is an important venture in Werieleke district of Tigray region. ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  15. Growth pattern of the surface of fungus Aspergillus colony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Shu; Miyazima, Sasuke

    1992-05-01

    Aspergillus oryzae colonies were grown under various glucose concentrations, temperatures, and agar concentrations, and the effects on the pattern were investigated. Patterns of colony were found to vary from uniform to diffusion-limited aggregation type.

  16. Proton Radiography to Improve Proton Radiotherapy : Simulation Study at Different Proton Beam Energies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biegun, Aleksandra; Takatsu, Jun; van Goethem, Marc-Jan; van der Graaf, Emiel; van Beuzekom, Martin; Visser, Jan; Brandenburg, Sijtze

    To improve the quality of cancer treatment with protons, a translation of X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) images into a map of the proton stopping powers needs to be more accurate. Proton stopping powers determined from CT images have systematic uncertainties in the calculated proton range in a

  17. Worms at war: interspecific parasite competition and host resources alter trematode colony structure and fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouritsen, Kim N; Andersen, Cecillie

    2017-09-01

    Parasites competing over limited host resources are faced with a tradeoff between reproductive success and host overexploitation jeopardizing survival. Surprisingly little is known about the outcome of such competitive scenarios, and we therefore aimed at elucidating interactions between the trematodes Himasthla elongata and Renicola roscovita coinfecting the periwinkle first intermediate host. The results show that the success of Himasthla colonies (rediae) in terms of cercarial emission is unaffected by Renicola competition (sporocysts), whereas deteriating host condition decreases fitness. Furthermore, double infection has no bearing on Himasthla's colony size but elevated the proportion of non-reproductive rediae that play a decisive role in colony defence. Opposite, the development of the Renicola colony (size/maturity), and in turn fitness, is markedly reduced in presence of Himasthla, whereas the nutritional state of the host appears less important. Hence, the intramolluscan competition between Himasthla and Renicola is asymmetrical, Himasthla being the superior competitor. Himasthla not only adjusts its virulence according to the hosts immediate nutritional state, it also nullifies the negative impact of a heterospecific competitor on own fitness. The latter is argued to follow in part from direct predation on the competitor, for which purpose more defensive non-reproductive rediae are strategically produced.

  18. Lysophosphatidic Acid Upregulates Laminin-332 Expression during A431 Cell Colony Dispersal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hironobu Yamashita

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA is a bioactive phospholipid that affects various biological functions, such as cell proliferation, migration, survival, wound healing, and tumor invasion through LPA receptors. Previously, we reported that LPA induces A431 colony dispersal, accompanied by disruption of cell-cell contacts and cell migration. However, it remains unclear how LPA affects cell migration and gene expression during A431 colony dispersal. In this paper, we performed cDNA microarray analysis to investigate this question by comparing gene expression between untreated and LPA-treated A431 cells. Interestingly, these results revealed that LPA treatment upregulates several TGF-β1 target genes, including laminin-332 (Ln-332 components (α3, β3, and γ2 chains. Western blot analysis also showed that LPA increased phosphorylation of Smad2, an event that is carried out by TGF-β1 interactions. Among the genes upregulated, we further addressed the role of Ln-332. Real-time PCR analysis confirmed the transcriptional upregulation of all α3, β3, and γ2 chains of Ln-332 by LPA, corresponding to the protein level increases revealed by western blot. Further, the addition of anti-Ln-332 antibody prevented LPA-treated A431 colonies from dispersing. Taken together, our results suggest that LPA-induced Ln-332 plays a significant role in migration of individual cells from A431 colonies.

  19. The importance of confronting a colonial, patriarchal and racist past ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importance of confronting a colonial, patriarchal and racist past in addressing post-apartheid sexual violence. ... It also needs to redress problems of social and economic inequality that exist in South Africa as hangovers from this country's colonial and apartheid-era past. Keywords: Zuma, rape, Kipling, colonialism, ...

  20. Military labour mobilisation in colonial Lesotho during World War II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 1940, Great Britain's wartime exploitation of the human and material resources of its colonial empire was extended to colonial Lesotho (then known as Basutoland). The aim of this article, therefore, is to trace the four-year military labour mobilisation process in that colony, with special attention to the timing, number and ...

  1. Deconstructive Pedagogy and Ideological Demystification in Post-Colonial Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoor, Asma; Malik, Samina

    2016-01-01

    With post-colonial Pakistan inheriting the British colonial ideological and governmental apparatus, the English literature curriculum implemented at the university level in Pakistan carried the interpellatory baggage of its colonial past. Our interdisciplinary exploration focuses on using deconstructive pedagogy to demystify and subvert the…

  2. The Genesis of Public Relations in British Colonial Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Rosaleen

    2001-01-01

    Demonstrates how the British Colonial Office employed public relations strategies as they administered the British colony of Northern Rhodesia before, during, and after World War II. Demonstrates how civil servants in London and colonial officials implemented public relations policies, strategies, and tactics on an ad hoc basis, covering political…

  3. Particle production and survival in muon acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noble, R.J.

    1992-06-01

    Because of the relative immunity of muons to synchrotron radiation, the idea of using them instead of electrons as probes in high-energy physics experiments has existed for some time, but applications were limited by the short muon lifetime. The production and survival of an adequate supply of low-emittance muons will determine the available luminosity in a high-energy physics collider. In this paper the production of pions by protons, their decay to muons and the survival of muons during acceleration are studied. Based on a combination of the various efficiencies, the number of protons needed at the pion source for every muon required in the final high-energy collider is estimated.

  4. African Economic Development and Colonial Legacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth Austin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews how colonial rule and African actions during the colonial period affected the resources and institutional settings for subsequent economic development south of the Sahara. The issue is seen from the perspective of the dynamics of development in what was in 1900 an overwhelmingly land-abundant region characterised by shortages of labour and capital, by perhaps surprisingly extensive indigenous market activities and by varying but often low levels of political centralisation. The differential impact of French and British rule is explored, but it is argued that a bigger determinant of the differential evolution of poverty, welfare and structural change was the contrast between “settler” and “peasant” economies.

  5. Teaching South Asia beyond Colonial Boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Caton

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Because of the methodological innovations of Subaltern Studies in the 1980s and 1990s, most historians’ familiarity with South Asian history is limited to the colonial or modern period. While the subalternist view is undoubtedly useful, it does not provide much help in thinking about what came before or after the colonial period. This limited context may prove to be a problem for a non-specialist constructing a full course in South Asian history or adding South Asia content to a course that seeks to break down area studies or nation-state boundaries. This article provides a starting point for such an enterprise. It reviews the South Asian history textbooks available in the market and identifies some of the scholarship that would suit courses or units organized by theme or by a larger Asian geography. It also reviews some of the collections of primary sources that could be used in such coursework.

  6. Ant colony optimization and constraint programming

    CERN Document Server

    Solnon, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Ant colony optimization is a metaheuristic which has been successfully applied to a wide range of combinatorial optimization problems. The author describes this metaheuristic and studies its efficiency for solving some hard combinatorial problems, with a specific focus on constraint programming. The text is organized into three parts. The first part introduces constraint programming, which provides high level features to declaratively model problems by means of constraints. It describes the main existing approaches for solving constraint satisfaction problems, including complete tree search

  7. Influence of feeding bee colonies on colony strenght and honey authenticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja KANDOLF BOROVŠAK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available For the natural development of bee colonies, there is the need for appropriate nutrition. Lack of natural honey flow must be supplemented by feeding bee colonies with sugar syrups or candy paste. This supplementary feeding encourages brood breeding and forage activity, whereby stronger colonies collect more honey. Sugar syrups can cause honey adulteration, which is more frequent with the reversing of the brood combs with the bee food, with the combs moved from the brood chamber to the upper chamber. Authentication of honey from the standpoint of the presence of sugar syrup is very complex, because there is no single method by which honey adulteration can be reliably confirmed. Feeding the colonies in spring should result in stronger colonies and hence the collection of more honey in the brood chambers. The objective of the present study was to determine whether this has effects also on honey authenticity, and to discover a simple method for detection of honey adulteration. The colonies were fed with candy paste that had added yeast and blue dye, to provide markers for detection of honey adulteration. The strength of the colonies and quantity of honey in the brood chambers were monitored. The results of the analysis of stable isotope and activity of foreign enzymes were compared with the results of yeast quantity and colour of the honey (absorbance, L*, a*, b* parameters. Detection of yeast in the honey samples and presence of colour as a consequence of added dye appear to be appropriate methods to follow honey adulteration, and further studies are ongoing.

  8. Proton therapy in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, M.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Proton therapy has been in use since 1954 and over 25,000 patients have been treated worldwide. Until recently most patients were treated at physics research facilities but with the development of more compact and reliable accelerators it is now possible to realistically plan for proton therapy in an Australian hospital. The Australian National Proton Project has been formed to look at the feasibility of a facility which would be primarily for patient treatment but would also be suitable for research and commercial applications. A detailed report will be produced by the end of the year. The initial clinical experience was mainly with small tumours and other lesions close to critical organs. Large numbers of eye tumours have also been treated. Protons have a well-defined role in these situations and are now being used in the treatment of more common cancers. With the development of hospital-based facilities, over 2,500 patients with prostate cancer have been treated using a simple technique which gives results at least as good as radical surgery, external beam radiotherapy or brachytherapy. Importantly, the incidence of severe complications is very low. There are encouraging results in many disease sites including lung, liver, soft tissue sarcomas and oesophagus. As proton therapy becomes more widely available, randomised trials comparing it with conventional radiotherapy or Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) will be possible. In most situations the use of protons will enable a higher dose to be given safely but in situations where local control rates are already satisfactory, protons are expected to produce less complications than conventional treatment. The initial costs of a proton facility are high but the recurrent costs are similar to other forms of high technology radiotherapy. . Simple treatment techniques with only a few fields are usually possible and proton therapy avoids the high integral doses associated with IMRT. This reduction in

  9. Review Essay: Governmentality in Late Colonial Korea?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Em

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Takashi Fujitani, Race for Empire: Koreans as Japanese and Japanese as Americans during World War II. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2011. 520 pp. $65 (cloth.Jun Uchida, Brokers of Empire: Japanese Settler Colonialism in Korea, 1876-1945. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2011. 500 pp. $50 (cloth.In South Korea, more so than in most other postcolonial countries, the issue of sovereignty and the colonial past remains a central feature of politics. Most recently, during a televised presidential debate on December 4, 2012, Lee Jung-hee of the Unified Progressive Party said something that likely had never been said on South Korean television: “Takaki Masao signed an oath of loyalty [to the Emperor of Japan], in his own blood, to become an officer in the Japanese [Imperial] Army. You know who he is. His Korean name is Park Chung Hee.” Lee Jung-hee then made the connection between that colonial past and the willingness to sell out the nation’s sovereignty in the present. The conservative candidate Park Geun-hye, the daughter of the late President Park Chung Hee who ruled South Korea from 1961 through 1979, and members of Park’s Saenuri Party, remain true to their “roots”: these “descendants of pro-Japanese collaborators and dictators” (again sold out South Korea’s sovereignty (on November 22, 2011 when they rammed the US-ROK Free Trade Agreement through the National Assembly.

  10. Colony stimulating factors and their clinical implication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Shigetaka

    1989-01-01

    Granulocytes and macrophage are dependent for their production and/or functional activation in vitro on the presence of a family of glycoproteins. They are generally called colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) because of their capacity to stimulate colony formation in semi-solid cultures, and are currently classified into four distinct subtypes, that is, Multi-CSF, GM-CSF, G-CSF and M-CSF, according to the cell type of colonies formed under their stimulation or their target cell specificity. All of the murine and human CSF subtypes and the genes for them have become available in a purified form and in a large scale, and now allow us to investigate their interactions, the mechanisms for their actions, the cell-cell interactions leading to their production and secretion, and their actions in vivo. Furthermore, the preclinical and/or clinical studies which were carried out using the purified CSFs strongly indicate that human CSFs will be effective strategies for preventing and treating opportunistic bacterial and fungal infection as a major cause of death in granulocytopenic patients. (author)

  11. Polarized proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.

    1995-01-01

    The acceleration of polarized proton beams in circular accelerators is complicated by the presence of numerous depolarizing spin resonances. Careful and tedious minimization of polarization loss at each of these resonances allowed acceleration of polarized proton beams up to 22 GeV. It has been the hope that Siberian Snakes, which are local spin rotators inserted into ring accelerators, would eliminate these resonances and allow acceleration of polarized beams with the same ease and efficiency that is now routine for unpolarized beams. First tests at IUCF with a full Siberian Snake showed that the spin dynamics with a Snake can be understood in detail. The author now has results of the first tests of a partial Siberian Snake at the AGS, accelerating polarized protons to an energy of about 25 GeV. These successful tests of storage and acceleration of polarized proton beams open up new possibilities such as stored polarized beams for internal target experiments and high energy polarized proton colliders

  12. Journal of Proton Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Office

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Journal of Proton Therapy (JPT is an international open access, peer-reviewed journal, which publishes original research, technical reports, reviews, case reports, editorials, and other materials on proton therapy with focus on radiation oncology, medical physics, medical dosimetry, and radiation therapy.No article processing/submission feeNo publication feePeer-review completion within 3-6 weeksImmediate publication after the completion of final author proofreadDOI assignment for each published articleFree access to published articles for all readers without any access barriers or subscriptionThe views and opinions expressed in articles are those of the author/s and do not necessarily reflect the policies of the Journal of Proton Therapy.Authors are encouraged to submit articles for publication in the inaugural issue of the Journal of Proton Therapy by online or email to editor@protonjournal.comOfficial Website of Journal of Proton Therapy: http://www.protonjournal.org/

  13. Medical Proton Accelerator Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comsan, M.N.H.

    2008-01-01

    A project for a medical proton accelerator for cancer treatment is outlined. The project is motivated by the need for a precise modality for cancer curing especially in children. Proton therapy is known by its superior radiation and biological effectiveness as compared to photon or electron therapy. With 26 proton and 3 heavy-ion therapy complexes operating worldwide only one (p) exists in South Africa, and none in south Asia and the Middle East. The accelerator of choice should provide protons with energy 75 MeV for eye treatment and 250 MeV for body treatment. Four treatment rooms are suggested: two with isocentric gantries, one with fixed beams and one for development. Passive scanning is recommended. The project can serve Middle East and North Africa with ∼ 400 million populations. The annual capacity of the project is estimated as 1,100 to be compared with expected radiation cases eligible for proton cancer treatment of not less than 200,000

  14. Proton relativistic model; Modelo relativistico do proton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Wilson Roberto Barbosa de

    1996-12-31

    In this dissertation, we present a model for the nucleon, which is composed by three relativistic quarks interacting through a contract force. The nucleon wave-function was obtained from the Faddeev equation in the null-plane. The covariance of the model under kinematical null-plane boots is discussed. The electric proton form-factor, calculated from the Faddeev wave-function, was in agreement with the data for low-momentum transfers and described qualitatively the asymptotic region for momentum transfers around 2 GeV. (author) 42 refs., 22 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Morphological Diversity of the Colony Produced by Bacteria Proteus mirabilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Akio; Shimada, Yuji; Wakita, Jun-ichi; Matsushita, Mitsugu; Matsuyama, Tohey

    1996-08-01

    Morphological changes of colonies have been investigatedfor a bacterial strain of Proteus mirabilis, which is a famous speciesfor producing concentric-ring-like colonies. It was found that colony patterns can be classified into three types,i.e., cyclic spreading, diffusion-limited growth (DLA-like)and three-dimensional growth (inside the agar medium) patterns. Cyclic spreading patterns can further be classifiedinto three subgroups, i.e., concentric-ring, homogeneous and spatiotemporal patterns. These subgroups were classified by examining the development of colony structure after colonies spread all over petri-dishes. Comparison of the results with thoseof another bacterial species Bacillus subtilis is also discussed.

  16. Synchrotron radiation from protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutt, S.K.

    1992-12-01

    Synchrotron radiation from protons, though described by the same equations as the radiation from electrons, exhibits a number of interesting features on account of the parameters reached in praxis. In this presentation, we shall point out some of the features relating to (i) normal synchrotron radiation from dipoles in proton machines such as the High Energy Booster and the Superconducting Super Collider; (ii) synchrotron radiation from short dipoles, and its application to light monitors for proton machines, and (iii) synchrotron radiation from undulators in the limit when, the deflection parameter is much smaller than unity. The material for this presentation is taken largely from the work of Hofmann, Coisson, Bossart, and their collaborators, and from a paper by Kim. We shall emphasize the qualitative aspects of synchrotron radiation in the cases mentioned above, making, when possible, simple arguments for estimating the spectral and angular properties of the radiation. Detailed analyses can be found in the literature

  17. Polarized proton colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.

    1995-01-01

    High energy polarized beam collisions will open up the unique physics opportunities of studying spin effects in hard processes. This will allow the study of the spin structure of the proton and also the verification of the many well documented expectations of spin effects in perturbative QCD and parity violation in W and Z production. Proposals for polarized proton acceleration for several high energy colliders have been developed. A partial Siberian Snake in the AGS has recently been successfully tested and full Siberian Snakes, spin rotators, and polarimeters for RHIC are being developed to make the acceleration of polarized beams to 250 GeV possible. This allows for the unique possibility of colliding two 250 GeV polarized proton beams at luminosities of up to 2 x 10 32 cm -2 s -1

  18. Life in the colonies: learning the alien ways of colonial organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Judith E

    2010-12-01

    Who needs to go to outer space to study alien beings when the oceans of our own planet abound with bizarre and unknown creatures? Many of them belong to sessile clonal and colonial groups, including sponges, hydroids, corals, octocorals, ascidians, bryozoans, and some polychaetes. Their life histories, in many ways unlike our own, are a challenge for biologists. Studying their ecology, behavior, and taxonomy means trying to “think like a colony” to understand the factors important in their lives. Until the 1980s, most marine ecologists ignored these difficult modular organisms. Plant ecologists showed them ways to deal with the two levels of asexually produced modules and genetic individuals, leading to a surge in research on the ecology of clonal and colonial marine invertebrates. Bryozoans make excellent model colonial animals. Their life histories range from ephemeral to perennial. Aspects of their lives such as growth, reproduction, partial mortality due to predation or fouling, and the behavior of both autozooids and polymorphs can be studied at the level of the colony, as well as that of the individual module, in living colonies and over time.

  19. Current-current interaction picture for proton-proton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, D.J.; Lo, S.Y.

    1979-01-01

    The authors propose that color current - color current interaction is reponsible for small angle elastic proton proton scattering at asymptotic energy. Excellent fits are obtained for all data above 12 GeV/c which covers twelve orders of magnitude

  20. Protons and how they are transported by proton pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch-Pedersen, Morten Jeppe; Pedersen, Bjørn Panyella; Veierskov, Bjarke

    2008-01-01

    The very high mobility of protons in aqueous solutions demands special features of membrane proton transporters to sustain efficient yet regulated proton transport across biological membranes. By the use of the chemical energy of ATP, plasma-membrane-embedded ATPases extrude protons from cells...... of plants and fungi to generate electrochemical proton gradients. The recently published crystal structure of a plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase contributes to our knowledge about the mechanism of these essential enzymes. Taking the biochemical and structural data together, we are now able to describe the basic...... molecular components that allow the plasma membrane proton H(+)-ATPase to carry out proton transport against large membrane potentials. When divergent proton pumps such as the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase, bacteriorhodopsin, and F(O)F(1) ATP synthase are compared, unifying mechanistic premises for biological...

  1. Engaging With Colonial Archives: Reflections Of An End-User

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayodeji Olukoju

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Official and/or public archives were a byproduct of colonial rule in Africa. (Archives are a byproduct of administrative governance everywhere. Given the density and diversity of colonial archival records, historians have tended to rely on them for the study of the colonial period. Publications on the use of archives have not captured the perspective of end-users, who often face peculiar challenges in the use of colonial and metropolitan archives. This paper provides an end-user perspective on colonial archives in Nigeria and the United Kingdom. It highlights the challenges of data collection and prospects of optimal use of archival source material. The discussion is of general application to users of colonial archives especially in the former British colonies in Africa.

  2. Experimental Study for Automatic Colony Counting System Based Onimage Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Junlong; Li, Wenzhe; Wang, Guoxin

    Colony counting in many colony experiments is detected by manual method at present, therefore it is difficult for man to execute the method quickly and accurately .A new automatic colony counting system was developed. Making use of image-processing technology, a study was made on the feasibility of distinguishing objectively white bacterial colonies from clear plates according to the RGB color theory. An optimal chromatic value was obtained based upon a lot of experiments on the distribution of the chromatic value. It has been proved that the method greatly improves the accuracy and efficiency of the colony counting and the counting result is not affected by using inoculation, shape or size of the colony. It is revealed that automatic detection of colony quantity using image-processing technology could be an effective way.

  3. Varroa-Virus Interaction in Collapsing Honey Bee Colonies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francis, Roy Mathew; Nielsen, Steen L.; Kryger, Per

    2013-01-01

    Varroa mites and viruses are the currently the high-profile suspects in collapsing bee colonies. Therefore, seasonal variation in varroa load and viruses (Acute-Kashmir-Israeli complex (AKI) and Deformed Wing Virus (DWV)) were monitored in a year-long study. We investigated the viral titres...... in honey bees and varroa mites from 23 colonies (15 apiaries) under three treatment conditions: Organic acids (11 colonies), pyrethroid (9 colonies) and untreated (3 colonies). Approximately 200 bees were sampled every month from April 2011 to October 2011, and April 2012. The 200 bees were split to 10...... subsamples of 20 bees and analysed separately, which allows us to determine the prevalence of virus-infected bees. The treatment efficacy was often low for both treatments. In colonies where varroa treatment reduced the mite load, colonies overwintered successfully, allowing the mites and viruses...

  4. Proton tunneling in solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, J.

    1998-10-01

    The tunneling rate of the proton and its isotopes between interstitial sites in solids is studied theoretically. The phonons and/or the electrons in the solid have two effects on the tunneling phenomenon. First, they suppress the transfer integral between two neighbouring states. Second, they give rise to a finite lifetime of the proton state. Usually the second effect is large and the tunneling probability per unit time (tunneling rate) can be defined. In some cases, however, a coherent tunneling is expected and actually observed. (author)

  5. Proton irradiation and endometriosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, D.H.; Yochmowitz, M.G.; Salmon, Y.L.; Eason, R.L.; Boster, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    It was found that female rhesus monkeys given single total-body exposures of protons of varying energies developed endometriosis at a frequency significantly higher than that of nonirradiated animals of the same age. The minimum latency period was determined to be 7 years after the proton exposure. The doses and energies of the radiation received by the experimental animals were within the range that could be received by an aircrew member in near-earth orbit during a random solar flare event. It is concluded that endometriosis should be a consideration in assessing the risk of delayed radiation effects in female crew members. 15 references

  6. Diagnosis by proton bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steward, V.W.; Koehler, A.M.

    1976-01-01

    Beams of monoenergetic protons or other charged ions are passed through the living human body to detect abnormalities and obstructions in body tissue, which abnormalities and obstructions are visualized as density variations in the particle image emerging from the body part under investigation. The particles used are preferably protons having an energy of 100 to 300 MeV, more especially 200 to 300 MeV. The method is of use in detecting inter alia tumors, blood clots, infarcts, soft tissue lesions and multiple sclerosis in patients without exposure to high radiation dosages. 6 claims, 2 drawing figures

  7. Do protons decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litchfield, P.J.

    1984-09-01

    The experimental status of proton decay is reviewed after the Leipzig International conference, July 1984. A brief comparative description of the currently active experiments is given. From the overall samples of contained events it can be concluded that the experiments are working well and broadly agree with each other. The candidates for proton decay from each experiment are examined. Although several experiments report candidates at a higher rate than expected from background calculations, the validity of these calculations is still open to doubt. (author)

  8. Proton tunneling in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, J.

    1998-01-01

    The tunneling rate of the proton and its isotopes between interstitial sites in solids is studied theoretically. The phonons and/or the electrons in the solid have two effects on the tunneling phenomenon. First, they suppress the transfer integral between two neighbouring states. Second, they give rise to a finite lifetime of the proton state. Usually the second effect is large and the tunneling probability per unit time (tunneling rate) can be defined. In some cases, however, a coherent tunneling is expected and actually observed. (author)

  9. Proton Beam Writing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajta, I.; Szilasi, S.Z.; Csige, I.; Baradacs, E.

    2005-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Refractive index depth profile in PMMA due to proton irradiation Proton Beam Writing has been successfully used to create buried channel waveguides in PMMA, which suggested that proton irradiation increases the refractive index. To investigate this effect, PMMA samples were irradiated by 1.7-2.1 MeV proton beam. Spectroscopic Ellipsometry has been used to investigate the depth profile of the refractive index. An increase of the refractive index was observed in the order of 0.01, which is approximately one order of magnitude higher than the detection limit. The highest increase of the refractive index occurs at the end of range, i.e. we found a good correlation with the Bragg curve of the energy loss. Hardness changes in PMMA due to proton beam micromachining As protons penetrate a target material and lose their energy according to the Bragg curve, the energy loss is different at different depths. This causes depth-dependent changes of some physical properties in the target material (e.g. refractive index, hardness). In order to characterize the changes of hardness and other mechanical properties as a function of beam penetration depth, systematic investigations have been performed on PMMA, the most common resist material used in proton beam micromachining. Silicon check valve made by proton beam micromachining The possible application of Proton Beam Micromachining (PBM) has been demonstrated by a few authors for creating 3D Si microstructures. In this work we present alternative methods for the formation of a simple a non-return valve for microfluidic applications. Two different approaches have been applied, in both cases we exploited characteristic features of the PBM technique and the selective formation and dissolution of porous Si over the implantation damaged areas. In the first case we implanted 10 μm thick cantilever-type membrane of the valve normally to the crystal surface and at 30-60 degrees to the sidewalls of the

  10. Pollen foraging in colonies of Melipona bicolor (Apidae, Meliponini): effects of season, colony size and queen number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilário, S D; Imperatriz-Fonseca, V L

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the ratio between the number of pollen foragers and the total number of bees entering colonies of Melipona bicolor, a facultative polygynous species of stingless bees. The variables considered in our analysis were: seasonality, colony size and the number of physogastric queens in each colony. The pollen forager ratios varied significantly between seasons; the ratio was higher in winter than in summer. However, colony size and number of queens per colony had no significant effect. We conclude that seasonal differences in pollen harvest are related to the production of sexuals and to the number of individuals and their body size.

  11. Proton-proton bremsstrahlung in a relativistic covariant model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinus, Gerard Henk

    1998-01-01

    Proton-proton bremsstrahlung is one of the simplest processes involving the half off-shell NN interaction. Since protons are equally-charged particles with the same mass, electric-dipole radiation is suppressed and higher-order effects play an important role. Thus it is possible to get information

  12. Predictions of diffractive cross sections in proton-proton collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goulianos, Konstantin [Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    We review our pre-LHC predictions of the total, elastic, total-inelastic, and diffractive components of proton-proton cross sections at high energies, expressed in the form of unitarized expressions based on a special parton-model approach to diffraction employing inclusive proton parton distribution functions and QCD color factors and compare with recent LHC results.

  13. National Cancer Database Analysis of Proton Versus Photon Radiation Therapy in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higgins, Kristin A., E-mail: kristin.higgins@emory.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); O' Connell, Kelli [Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Liu, Yuan [Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Gillespie, Theresa W. [Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Department of Surgery, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); McDonald, Mark W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Pillai, Rathi N. [Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Department of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Patel, Kirtesh R.; Patel, Pretesh R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Robinson, Clifford G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Simone, Charles B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Owonikoko, Taofeek K. [Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Department of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Belani, Chandra P. [Penn State Hershey Cancer Institute, Pennsylvania University, Hershey, Pennsylvania (United States); and others

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze outcomes and predictors associated with proton radiation therapy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in the National Cancer Database. Methods and Materials: The National Cancer Database was queried to capture patients with stage I-IV NSCLC treated with thoracic radiation from 2004 to 2012. A logistic regression model was used to determine the predictors for utilization of proton radiation therapy. The univariate and multivariable association with overall survival were assessed by Cox proportional hazards models along with log–rank tests. A propensity score matching method was implemented to balance baseline covariates and eliminate selection bias. Results: A total of 243,822 patients (photon radiation therapy: 243,474; proton radiation therapy: 348) were included in the analysis. Patients in a ZIP code with a median income of <$46,000 per year were less likely to receive proton treatment, with the income cohort of $30,000 to $35,999 least likely to receive proton therapy (odds ratio 0.63 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.44-0.90]; P=.011). On multivariate analysis of all patients, non-proton therapy was associated with significantly worse survival compared with proton therapy (hazard ratio 1.21 [95% CI 1.06-1.39]; P<.01). On propensity matched analysis, proton radiation therapy (n=309) was associated with better 5-year overall survival compared with non-proton radiation therapy (n=1549), 22% versus 16% (P=.025). For stage II and III patients, non-proton radiation therapy was associated with worse survival compared with proton radiation therapy (hazard ratio 1.35 [95% CI 1.10-1.64], P<.01). Conclusions: Thoracic radiation with protons is associated with better survival in this retrospective analysis; further validation in the randomized setting is needed to account for any imbalances in patient characteristics, including positron emission tomography–computed tomography staging.

  14. A connection between colony biomass and death in Caribbean reef-building corals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Thornhill

    Full Text Available Increased sea-surface temperatures linked to warming climate threaten coral reef ecosystems globally. To better understand how corals and their endosymbiotic dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium spp. respond to environmental change, tissue biomass and Symbiodinium density of seven coral species were measured on various reefs approximately every four months for up to thirteen years in the Upper Florida Keys, United States (1994-2007, eleven years in the Exuma Cays, Bahamas (1995-2006, and four years in Puerto Morelos, Mexico (2003-2007. For six out of seven coral species, tissue biomass correlated with Symbiodinium density. Within a particular coral species, tissue biomasses and Symbiodinium densities varied regionally according to the following trends: Mexico≥Florida Keys≥Bahamas. Average tissue biomasses and symbiont cell densities were generally higher in shallow habitats (1-4 m compared to deeper-dwelling conspecifics (12-15 m. Most colonies that were sampled displayed seasonal fluctuations in biomass and endosymbiont density related to annual temperature variations. During the bleaching episodes of 1998 and 2005, five out of seven species that were exposed to unusually high temperatures exhibited significant decreases in symbiotic algae that, in certain cases, preceded further decreases in tissue biomass. Following bleaching, Montastraea spp. colonies with low relative biomass levels died, whereas colonies with higher biomass levels survived. Bleaching- or disease-associated mortality was also observed in Acropora cervicornis colonies; compared to A. palmata, all A. cervicornis colonies experienced low biomass values. Such patterns suggest that Montastraea spp. and possibly other coral species with relatively low biomass experience increased susceptibility to death following bleaching or other stressors than do conspecifics with higher tissue biomass levels.

  15. A connection between colony biomass and death in Caribbean reef-building corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornhill, Daniel J; Rotjan, Randi D; Todd, Brian D; Chilcoat, Geoff C; Iglesias-Prieto, Roberto; Kemp, Dustin W; LaJeunesse, Todd C; Reynolds, Jennifer McCabe; Schmidt, Gregory W; Shannon, Thomas; Warner, Mark E; Fitt, William K

    2011-01-01

    Increased sea-surface temperatures linked to warming climate threaten coral reef ecosystems globally. To better understand how corals and their endosymbiotic dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium spp.) respond to environmental change, tissue biomass and Symbiodinium density of seven coral species were measured on various reefs approximately every four months for up to thirteen years in the Upper Florida Keys, United States (1994-2007), eleven years in the Exuma Cays, Bahamas (1995-2006), and four years in Puerto Morelos, Mexico (2003-2007). For six out of seven coral species, tissue biomass correlated with Symbiodinium density. Within a particular coral species, tissue biomasses and Symbiodinium densities varied regionally according to the following trends: Mexico≥Florida Keys≥Bahamas. Average tissue biomasses and symbiont cell densities were generally higher in shallow habitats (1-4 m) compared to deeper-dwelling conspecifics (12-15 m). Most colonies that were sampled displayed seasonal fluctuations in biomass and endosymbiont density related to annual temperature variations. During the bleaching episodes of 1998 and 2005, five out of seven species that were exposed to unusually high temperatures exhibited significant decreases in symbiotic algae that, in certain cases, preceded further decreases in tissue biomass. Following bleaching, Montastraea spp. colonies with low relative biomass levels died, whereas colonies with higher biomass levels survived. Bleaching- or disease-associated mortality was also observed in Acropora cervicornis colonies; compared to A. palmata, all A. cervicornis colonies experienced low biomass values. Such patterns suggest that Montastraea spp. and possibly other coral species with relatively low biomass experience increased susceptibility to death following bleaching or other stressors than do conspecifics with higher tissue biomass levels. © 2011 Thornhill et al.

  16. Fitness of isogenic colony morphology variants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in murine airway infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elza Rakhimova

    Full Text Available Chronic lung infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa are associated with the diversification of the persisting clone into niche specialists and morphotypes, a phenomenon called 'dissociative behaviour'. To explore the potential of P. aeruginosa to change its morphotype by single step loss-of-function mutagenesis, a signature-tagged mini-Tn5 plasposon library of the cystic fibrosis airway isolate TBCF10839 was screened for colony morphology variants under nine different conditions in vitro. Transposon insertion into 1% of the genome changed colony morphology into eight discernable morphotypes. Half of the 55 targets encode features of primary or secondary metabolism whereby quinolone production was frequently affected. In the other half the transposon had inserted into genes of the functional categories transport, regulation or motility/chemotaxis. To mimic dissociative behaviour of isogenic strains in lungs, pools of 25 colony morphology variants were tested for competitive fitness in an acute murine airway infection model. Six of the 55 mutants either grew better or worse in vivo than in vitro, respectively. Metabolic proficiency of the colony morphology variant was a key determinant for survival in murine airways. The most common morphotype of self-destructive autolysis did unexpectedly not impair fitness. Transposon insertions into homologous genes of strain PAO1 did not reproduce the TBCF10839 mutant morphotypes for 16 of 19 examined loci pointing to an important role of the genetic background on colony morphology. Depending on the chosen P. aeruginosa strain, functional genome scans will explore other areas of the evolutionary landscape. Based on our discordant findings of mutant phenotypes in P. aeruginosa strains PAO1, PA14 and TBCF10839, we conclude that the current focus on few reference strains may miss modes of niche adaptation and dissociative behaviour that are relevant for the microevolution of complex traits in the wild.

  17. Progresses in proton radioactivity studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, L. S., E-mail: flidia@ist.utl.pt [Center of Physics and Engineering of Advanced Materials, CeFEMA and Departamento de Física, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida Rovisco Pais, P1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Maglione, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “G. Galilei”, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova, Italy and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Padova (Italy)

    2016-07-07

    In the present talk, we will discuss recent progresses in the theoretical study of proton radioactivity and their impact on the present understanding of nuclear structure at the extremes of proton stability.

  18. Proton Radiography (pRad)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The proton radiography project has used 800 MeV protons provided by the LANSCE accelerator facility at LANL, to diagnose more than 300 dynamic experiments in support...

  19. Intraspecific Variation among Social Insect Colonies: Persistent Regional and Colony-Level Differences in Fire Ant Foraging Behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison A Bockoven

    Full Text Available Individuals vary within a species in many ecologically important ways, but the causes and consequences of such variation are often poorly understood. Foraging behavior is among the most profitable and risky activities in which organisms engage and is expected to be under strong selection. Among social insects there is evidence that within-colony variation in traits such as foraging behavior can increase colony fitness, but variation between colonies and the potential consequences of such variation are poorly documented. In this study, we tested natural populations of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, for the existence of colony and regional variation in foraging behavior and tested the persistence of this variation over time and across foraging habitats. We also reared single-lineage colonies in standardized environments to explore the contribution of colony lineage. Fire ants from natural populations exhibited significant and persistent colony and regional-level variation in foraging behaviors such as extra-nest activity, exploration, and discovery of and recruitment to resources. Moreover, colony-level variation in extra-nest activity was significantly correlated with colony growth, suggesting that this variation has fitness consequences. Lineage of the colony had a significant effect on extra-nest activity and exploratory activity and explained approximately half of the variation observed in foraging behaviors, suggesting a heritable component to colony-level variation in behavior.

  20. Violent collisions of spinning protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krisch, A.D. [Michigan Univ., Spin Physics Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2005-07-01

    The author draws the history of polarized proton beams that has relied on experiments that took place in different accelerators like ZGS (zero gradient synchrotron, Argonne), AGS (Brookhaven) and Fermilab from 1973 till today. The first studies of the behavior and spin-manipulation of polarized protons helped in developing polarized beams around the world: Brookhaven now has 200 GeV polarized protons in the RHIC collider, perhaps someday the 7 TeV LHC at CERN might have polarized protons.

  1. Neutron-proton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doll, P.

    1990-02-01

    Neutron-proton scattering as fundamental interaction process below and above hundred MeV is discussed. Quark model inspired interactions and phenomenological potential models are described. The seminar also indicates the experimental improvements for achieving new precise scattering data. Concluding remarks indicate the relevance of nucleon-nucleon scattering results to finite nuclei. (orig.) [de

  2. Radiotherapy : proton therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The first phase of proton therapy at the National Accelerator Centre will be the development of a 200 MeV small-field horizontal beam radioneurosurgical facility in the south treatment vault. A progressive expansion of this facility is planned. The patient support and positioning system has been designed and developed by the Departments of Mechanical Engineering and Surveying of the University of Cape Town to ensure the accurate positioning in the proton beam of the lesion to be treated. The basic components of the system are an adjustable chair, a series of video cameras and two computers. The specifications for the proton therapy interlock system require that the inputs to and the outputs from the system be similar to those of the neutron therapy system. Additional facilities such as a full diagnostic system which would assist the operators in the event of an error will also be provided. Dosimeters are required for beam monitoring, for monitor calibration and for determining dose distributions. Several designs of transmission ionization chambers for beam monitoring have been designed and tested, while several types of ionization chambers and diodes have been used for the dose distribution measurements. To facilitate the comparison of measured ranges and energy losses of proton beams in the various materials with tabled values, simple empirical approximations, which are sufficiently accurate for most applications, have been used. 10 refs., 10 fig., 4 tabs

  3. Proton Pulse Radiolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, H C; Nilsson, G; Reitberger, T; Thuomas, K A

    1973-03-15

    A 5 MeV proton accelerator (Van de Graaff) has been used for pulse radiolysis of a number of organic gases and the transient spectra obtained from the alkanes methane, ethane, propane, n-butane and neopentane have tentatively been assigned to alkyl radicals. Some methodological aspects of this new technique are discussed

  4. The Melbourne proton microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legge, G.J.F.; McKenzie, C.D.; Mazzolini, A.P.

    1979-01-01

    A scanning proton microprobe is described which operates in ultra-high vacuum with a resolution of ten microns. The operating principles and main features of the design are discussed and the ability of such an instrument to detect trace elements down to a few ppm by mass is illustrated

  5. Proton microanalysis in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrec, J.P.

    Micro-analyses by nuclear reactions and atomic excitation are used to determine the distribution of fluorine and calcium in the needles of Abies Alba. Fluorine is detected by the nuclear reaction 19 F(p,α) 16 O at the 1.35 MeV resonance. Calcium is measured by its characteristic X-rays due to proton excitation [fr

  6. A branching process model for the analysis of abortive colony size distributions in carbon ion-irradiated normal human fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakashita, Tetsuya; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Hamada, Nobuyuki; Kawaguchi, Isao; Hara, Takamitsu; Saito, Kimiaki

    2014-01-01

    A single cell can form a colony, and ionizing irradiation has long been known to reduce such a cellular clonogenic potential. Analysis of abortive colonies unable to continue to grow should provide important information on the reproductive cell death (RCD) following irradiation. Our previous analysis with a branching process model showed that the RCD in normal human fibroblasts can persist over 16 generations following irradiation with low linear energy transfer (LET) γ-rays. Here we further set out to evaluate the RCD persistency in abortive colonies arising from normal human fibroblasts exposed to high-LET carbon ions (18.3 MeV/u, 108 keV/μm). We found that the abortive colony size distribution determined by biological experiments follows a linear relationship on the log–log plot, and that the Monte Carlo simulation using the RCD probability estimated from such a linear relationship well simulates the experimentally determined surviving fraction and the relative biological effectiveness (RBE). We identified the short-term phase and long-term phase for the persistent RCD following carbon-ion irradiation, which were similar to those previously identified following γ-irradiation. Taken together, our results suggest that subsequent secondary or tertiary colony formation would be invaluable for understanding the long-lasting RCD. All together, our framework for analysis with a branching process model and a colony formation assay is applicable to determination of cellular responses to low- and high-LET radiation, and suggests that the long-lasting RCD is a pivotal determinant of the surviving fraction and the RBE. (author)

  7. Globalization in the post - colonial world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korobeynikova Larisa A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a new interpretation of globalization within the boundaries of the author’s concept of soft globalization, which exploits a normatively attractive alternative to the concept of the Empire. It is argued here that the conditions of development of contemporary post - colonial world communities do not require any unification in the form of the Empire, but instead the creation of a non repressive mechanism of social regulation - the implementation of a form of soft globalization, a globalization with a mental form are expedient here. Historically, globalization occurred in a strict material(i.e. economical and military form that prompted the conditions for the evolution of civilization as the Empire: a case in which the development of the world occurs under the power of a single dominating state. Imperialistic politics leads to colonial politics formation. The history of the phenomena of civilization shows many instances of Empire globalization. Globalization in the Empire form was already observed at the time of the Roman Empire. At this time processes of development inside the Empire were manifestations of globalization in its highest cultural shape. But ancient Rome was also a social and political experiment that acquired the attributes of a purely material globalization in the end, and historically brought about the irreversible crash of the Roman Empire itself. Contemporary fluctuations referring to the process of globalization can be registered in the US’s attempts of material domination inside this or that existing case of civilization, which causes colonialism appearance. The main idea stressed in the paper is that only a mental globalization could succeed in the end.

  8. Combined Final Report for Colony II Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kale, Laxmikant [University of Illinois; Jones, Terry [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Moreira, Jose [IBM Corp.

    2013-10-23

    (This report was originally submmited by the lead PI (Terry Jones, ORNL) on October 22, 2013 to the program manager, Lucy Nowell. It is being submitted from University of Illinois in accordance with instructions). HPC Colony II seeks to provide portable performance for leadership class machines. Our strategy is based on adaptive system software that aims to make the intelligent decisions necessary to allow domain scientists to safely focus on their task at hand and allow the system software stack to adapt their application to the underlying architecture. This report describes the research undertaken towards these objectives and the results obtained over the performance period of the project.

  9. Mamary neoplasia in a closed beagle colony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.N.; Shabestari, L.; Williams, J.; Mays, C.W.; Angus, W.; McFarland, S.

    1975-01-01

    The incidence rate of mammary neoplasia in a large colony of beagles and its relationship to internal skeletal and/or liver radiation, age, relatively late ovariectomy (4 years and older), endometritis, parity status, and adrenal weight was examined. Of these various factors, age was the only condition that was clearly correlated with changes in the mammary tumor incidence. The rate became significant at approximately eight years of age and increased progressively throughout the successively older age classes. Within the female dogs, the incidence of mammary cancer was higher that that of any other form of spontaneous malignancy

  10. Colonial Subjectification: Foucault, Christianity and Governmentality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Petterson

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Foucault’s concept of pastoral power is envisioned as a technique of power developed from the medieval period and carried through into modern political rationalities. As such, it is an old power technique – which originated in Christian institutions – in a new political shape, which he coined governmentality. This article uses Foucault’s genealogy of pastoral power and governmentality to discuss the intersection of domination and technology of self in the Greenlandic colonial context and to bring out the central role of religion in Foucault’s conceptualisation of governmentality.

  11. Image Edge Tracking via Ant Colony Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruowei; Wu, Hongkun; Liu, Shilong; Rahman, M. A.; Liu, Sanchi; Kwok, Ngai Ming

    2018-04-01

    A good edge plot should use continuous thin lines to describe the complete contour of the captured object. However, the detection of weak edges is a challenging task because of the associated low pixel intensities. Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) has been employed by many researchers to address this problem. The algorithm is a meta-heuristic method developed by mimicking the natural behaviour of ants. It uses iterative searches to find the optimal solution that cannot be found via traditional optimization approaches. In this work, ACO is employed to track and repair broken edges obtained via conventional Sobel edge detector to produced a result with more connected edges.

  12. In the Post-Colonial Waiting Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca; Gad, Ulrik Pram

    2017-01-01

    ready for sovereignty. It explores a number of European overseas countries and territories. More specifically, it focuses on French dependencies in the Pacific and Indian Oceans, and North Atlantic Greenland constitutionally connected to Denmark. The immediate aim of anti-colonial struggles was to make...... acknowledge. A number of overseas territories take alternative routes to agency; not by resisting the norm of sovereignty - but by creatively articulating it beyond its claim to represent an 'either/or' distinction. The chapter demonstrates that territories not formally decolonized may very well perform...

  13. Loss of the ability to generate large burst-forming unit-like megakaryocytic colonies from thawed cord blood in semisolid cultures after short term suspension culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskola, M; Bäckman, S; Möttönen, S; Kekomäki, R

    2015-04-01

    Total colony-forming cells from thawed cord blood units (CBUs) include megakaryocytic colony-forming units (CFU-Mks), which survive the freezing process. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether different megakaryocytic progenitors from unseparated CBUs survive the freezing process and a short-term liquid culture. Thawed samples of CBUs were cultured in liquid medium. During the cultures, serial samples were drawn to assess the growth of different megakaryocytic progenitors in a semisolid collagen medium with identical cytokines as in the liquid medium. Megakaryocytic cells were detected using immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. In suspension culture, the megakaryocytic progenitors almost completely lost the ability to generate large (burst-forming unit-like, BFU-like) megakaryocytic colonies in semisolid cultures (large colonies, median count per chamber d0: 7.25 vs. d7: 1.5; P culture in suspension resulted in the decline of small colonies as well (d7: 16.0 vs. d14: 5.75; P = 0.0088). Total CFU-Mk count declined from 23.3 (range 12.5-34.0) at d0 to 7.25 (range 1.0-13.5) at d14 (P culture after a short suspension culture. Small CFU-Mks were observed throughout the cultures. It may be that the BFU-Mk colonies matured and acquired CFU-Mk behaviour. © 2014 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  14. Proton transfer events in GFP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Donato, M.; van Wilderen, L.J.G.W.; van Stokkum, I.H.M.; Cohen Stuart, T.A.; Kennis, J.T.M.; Hellingwerf, K.J.; van Grondelle, R.; Groot, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    Proton transfer is one of the most important elementary processes in biology. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) serves as an important model system to elucidate the mechanistic details of this reaction, because in GFP proton transfer can be induced by light absorption. Illumination initiates proton

  15. CHRISTIANITY AND COLONIALISM IN SOME ENGLISH SHORT STORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatang Iskarna

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Colonial and postcolonial studies are often linked to the power domination of the West upon the East in the way that the East economically, politically, and socially oppressed. Colonialism is often associated with three elements, the explorers dealing with geographical information, missionaries approaching the local people culturally, and the colonial administrators ruling the colony. Gold, glory, and gospel are the European’s concern. However, in representing the relation between Christianity and colonialism there is critical dialectic amongst historians, anthropologists, Christian missions, or cultural critics. Some propose that Christianity is considered to be the religious arm of colonialism. Others state that Christianity is spread without any secular interest as it is a great commandment of Jesus Christ. A few believe that Christianity give critical resistance against colonialism. The relation between Christianity and colonialism cannot be simplified as being neutral, in complicity, or in opposition. So, it is worth-discussing to understand how European writers construct the relation between Christianity and colonialism in their literary work. How Christianity is constructed and how Christianity is related to colonialism will be discussed in this paper. Using postcolonial paradigm, two English short stories will be analyzed in that way. They are Rudyard Kipling’s “Lispeth” and Doris Lessing’s “No Witchcraft for Sale”.

  16. Inbred or Outbred? Genetic Diversity in Laboratory Rodent Colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brekke, Thomas D.; Steele, Katherine A.; Mulley, John F.

    2017-01-01

    Nonmodel rodents are widely used as subjects for both basic and applied biological research, but the genetic diversity of the study individuals is rarely quantified. University-housed colonies tend to be small and subject to founder effects and genetic drift; so they may be highly inbred or show substantial genetic divergence from other colonies, even those derived from the same source. Disregard for the levels of genetic diversity in an animal colony may result in a failure to replicate results if a different colony is used to repeat an experiment, as different colonies may have fixed alternative variants. Here we use high throughput sequencing to demonstrate genetic divergence in three isolated colonies of Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) even though they were all established recently from the same source. We also show that genetic diversity in allegedly “outbred” colonies of nonmodel rodents (gerbils, hamsters, house mice, deer mice, and rats) varies considerably from nearly no segregating diversity to very high levels of polymorphism. We conclude that genetic divergence in isolated colonies may play an important role in the “replication crisis.” In a more positive light, divergent rodent colonies represent an opportunity to leverage genetically distinct individuals in genetic crossing experiments. In sum, awareness of the genetic diversity of an animal colony is paramount as it allows researchers to properly replicate experiments and also to capitalize on other genetically distinct individuals to explore the genetic basis of a trait. PMID:29242387

  17. Norwegian honey bees surviving Varroa destructor mite infestations by means of natural selection

    OpenAIRE

    Oddie, Melissa AY; Dahle, Bjørn Steinar; Neumann, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Background Managed, feral and wild populations of European honey bee subspecies, Apis mellifera, are currently facing severe colony losses globally. There is consensus that the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor, that switched hosts from the Eastern honey bee Apis cerana to the Western honey bee A. mellifera, is a key factor driving these losses. For >20 years, breeding efforts have not produced European honey bee colonies that can survive infestations without the need for mite control....

  18. Political instability and discontinuity in Nigeria: The pre-colonial past and public goods provision under colonial and post-colonial political orders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papaioannou, K.I.; Dalrymple-Smith, A.E.

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the relative importance of pre-colonial institutional capacity and the effects of periods of peace and stability on long-term development outcomes in Nigeria. We use data on education, health, and public works at a provincial level from a variety of colonial and Nigerian state

  19. Effect of fluid motion on colony formation in Microcystis aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Microcystis aeruginosa, generally occurring in large colonies under natural conditions, mainly exists as single cells in laboratory cultures. The mechanisms involved in colony formation in Microcystis aeruginosa and their roles in algal blooms remain unknown. In this study, based on previous research findings that fluid motion may stimulate the colony formation in green algae, culture experiments were conducted under axenic conditions in a circular water chamber where the flow rate, temperature, light, and nutrients were controlled. The number of cells of Microcystis aeruginosa, the number of cells per colony, and the colonial characteristics in various growth phases were observed and measured. The results indicated that the colony formation in Microcystis aeruginosa, which was not observed under stagnant conditions, was evident when there was fluid motion, with the number of cells per largest colony reaching 120 and the proportion of the number of cells in colonial form to the total number of cells and the mean number of cells per colony reaching their peak values at a flow rate of 35 cm/s. Based on the analysis of colony formation process, fluid motion stimulates the colony formation in Microcystis aeruginosa in the lag growth phase, while flushes and disaggregates the colonies in the exponential growth phase. The stimulation effect in the lag growth phase may be attributable to the involvement of fluid motion in a series of physiological processes, including the uptake of trace elements and the synthesis and secretion of polysaccharides. In addition, the experimental groups exhibiting typical colonial characteristics in the lag growth phase were found to have higher cell biomass in the later phase.

  20. Factors influencing survival duration and choice of virgin queens in the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kärcher, Martin H.; Menezes, Cristiano; Alves, Denise A.; Beveridge, Oliver S.; Imperatriz-Fonseca, Vera-Lucia; Ratnieks, Francis L. W.

    2013-06-01

    In Melipona quadrifasciata, about 10 % of the females develop into queens, almost all of which are killed. Occasionally, a new queen replaces or supersedes the mother queen or heads a new colony. We investigated virgin queen fate in queenright and queenless colonies to determine the effects of queen behaviour, body mass, nestmate or non-nestmate status, queenright or queenless colony status, and, when queenless, the effect of the time a colony had been queenless, on survival duration and acceptance. None of 220 virgin queens observed in four observation hives ever attacked another virgin queen nor did any of 88 virgin queens introduced into queenright colonies ever attack the resident queen. A new queen was only accepted in a queenless colony. Factors increasing survival duration and acceptance of virgin queens were to emerge from its cell at 2 h of queenlessness, to hide, and to avoid fights with workers. In this way, a virgin queen was more likely to be available when a colony chooses a new queen, 24-48 h after resident queen removal. Running, walking or resting, antennating or trophallaxis, played little or no role, as did the factors body mass or nestmate. "Queen choice" took about 2 h during which time other virgin queens were still being killed by workers. During this agitated process, the bees congregated around the new queen. She inflated her abdomen and some of the workers deposited a substance on internal nest surfaces including the glass lid of the observation hive.

  1. Transcriptional signatures of parasitization and markers of colony decline in Varroa-infested honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanni, Virginia; Galbraith, David A; Annoscia, Desiderato; Grozinger, Christina M; Nazzi, Francesco

    2017-08-01

    Extensive annual losses of honey bee colonies (Apis mellifera L.) reported in the northern hemisphere represent a global problem for agriculture and biodiversity. The parasitic mite Varroa destructor, in association with deformed wing virus (DWV), plays a key role in this phenomenon, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. To elucidate these mechanisms, we analyzed the gene expression profile of uninfested and mite infested bees, under laboratory and field conditions, highlighting the effects of parasitization on the bee's transcriptome under a variety of conditions and scenarios. Parasitization was significantly correlated with higher viral loads. Honey bees exposed to mite infestation exhibited an altered expression of genes related to stress response, immunity, nervous system function, metabolism and behavioural maturation. Additionally, mite infested young bees showed a gene expression profile resembling that of forager bees. To identify potential molecular markers of colony decline, the expression of genes that were commonly regulated across the experiments were subsequently assessed in colonies experiencing increasing mite infestation levels. These studies suggest that PGRP-2, hymenoptaecin, a glucan recognition protein, UNC93 and a p450 cytocrome maybe suitable general biomarkers of Varroa-induced colony decline. Furthermore, the reliability of vitellogenin, a yolk protein previously identified as a good marker of colony survival, was confirmed here. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Advances in compact proton spectrometers for inertial-confinement fusion and plasma nuclear science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguin, F H; Sinenian, N; Rosenberg, M; Zylstra, A; Manuel, M J-E; Sio, H; Waugh, C; Rinderknecht, H G; Johnson, M Gatu; Frenje, J; Li, C K; Petrasso, R; Sangster, T C; Roberts, S

    2012-10-01

    Compact wedge-range-filter proton spectrometers cover proton energies ∼3-20 MeV. They have been used at the OMEGA laser facility for more than a decade for measuring spectra of primary D(3)He protons in D(3)He implosions, secondary D(3)He protons in DD implosions, and ablator protons in DT implosions; they are now being used also at the National Ignition Facility. The spectra are used to determine proton yields, shell areal density at shock-bang time and compression-bang time, fuel areal density, and implosion symmetry. There have been changes in fabrication and in analysis algorithms, resulting in a wider energy range, better accuracy and precision, and better robustness for survivability with indirect-drive inertial-confinement-fusion experiments.

  3. Photosynthetic planulae and planktonic hydroids: contrasting strategies of propagule survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Pagliara

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Settlement delays can be important to prevent propagule waste when proper settling substrates are not immediately available. Under laboratory conditions, the planulae of Clytia viridicans underwent two alternative developmental patterns. Some settled on the bottom, forming a hydranth-gonotheca complex that produced up to four medusae and later either degenerated or gave rise to a hydroid colony. Other planulae settled right below the air-water interface, forming floating colonies that eventually fell to the bottom and settled. Halecium nanum released planulae with a rich population of symbiotic zooxanthellae that survived into a rearing jar for three months. After a long period of apparent quiescence (possibly fuelled by photosynthetic activities of zooxanthellae the planulae produced new colonies. Both photosynthetic planulae and settlement at the interface air-water allow a delay in the passage from a planktonic to a fully functional benthic life.

  4. Disrupting the Coloniality of Being: Toward De-Colonial Ontologies in Philosophy of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Troy A.

    2012-01-01

    This essay works to bridge conversations in philosophy of education with decolonial theory. The author considers Margonis' (1999, 2011a, b) use of Rousseau (1979) and Heidegger (1962) in developing an ontological attitude that counters social hierarchies and promotes anti-colonial relations. While affirming this effort, the essay outlines a…

  5. The regulation of British colonial lunatic asylums and the origins of colonial psychiatry, 1860-1864.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Sally

    2010-05-01

    In this paper I outline a brief period in the history of the British Empire, during which colonial lunatic asylum policy began to be formulated. I begin with a scandal that erupted in Jamaica and suggest that this set in motion processes that led to critical changes in asylum administration. The first of these processes was an audit of hospitals and asylums in the colonies. The results of the audit and the policy that emerged from it marked the beginning of systematic regulation of lunatic asylum practice across the British Empire. It revealed a formulation of policy that was intended to cut across the self-governing regimes that had up to this point been allowed to evolve. Drawing on the work of Michel Foucault and Nikolas Rose, I argue that the policy and the practices associated with it contribute to an understanding of the emergence of the psy-sciences in colonial settings. They illustrate the establishment of a panoptic gaze on previously neglected insane spaces. Systematic surveillance constituted government at a distance and made colonial lunacy administration a governable discursive space. The regulation of the medical officers, lunatic attendants, and hospital boards began the process of creating a professional psychiatric workforce. I conclude with a discussion of the implications and the mixed impact of this policy change for the mentally ill across the empire, over the ensuing decades.

  6. Economic mobility in a colonial and post-colonial economy: the case of Indonesia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Bas; Földvári, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Despite a consensus about the main factors influencing economic mobility in Indonesia, such as labor-market opportunities and childhood circumstances, virtually nothing is known about how these factors increased economic standing in the colonial and postcolonial periods. The use of height data as a

  7. JAX Colony Management System (JCMS): an extensible colony and phenotype data management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Chuck J; McFarland, Mike; Ames, Abigail; Sundberg, Beth; Springer, Dave; Blauth, Peter; Bult, Carol J

    2010-04-01

    The Jackson Laboratory Colony Management System (JCMS) is a software application for managing data and information related to research mouse colonies, associated biospecimens, and experimental protocols. JCMS runs directly on computers that run one of the PC Windows operating systems, but can be accessed via web browser interfaces from any computer running a Windows, Macintosh, or Linux operating system. JCMS can be configured for a single user or multiple users in small- to medium-size work groups. The target audience for JCMS includes laboratory technicians, animal colony managers, and principal investigators. The application provides operational support for colony management and experimental workflows, sample and data tracking through transaction-based data entry forms, and date-driven work reports. Flexible query forms allow researchers to retrieve database records based on user-defined criteria. Recent advances in handheld computers with integrated barcode readers, middleware technologies, web browsers, and wireless networks add to the utility of JCMS by allowing real-time access to the database from any networked computer.

  8. Stable isotope enrichment in laboratory ant colonies: effects of colony age, metamorphosis, diet, and fat storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecologists use stable isotopes to infer diets and trophic levels of animals in food webs, yet some assumptions underlying these inferences have not been thoroughly tested. We used laboratory-reared colonies of Solenopsis invicta Buren (Formicidae: Solenopsidini) to test the effects of metamorphosis,...

  9. Australian national proton facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, M.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Proton therapy has been in use since 1954 and over 25,000 patients have been treated worldwide. Until recently most patients were treated at physics research facilities and apart from the Harvard Cyclotron Laboratory and some low energy machines for eye treatment, only small numbers of patients were treated in each centre and conditions were less than optimal. Limited beam time and lack of support facilities restricted the type of patient treated and conventional fractionation could not be used. The initial clinical experience was mainly with small tumours and other lesions close to critical organs. Large numbers of eye tumours have also been treated. Protons have a well-defined role in these situations and are now being used in the treatment of more common cancers. Since the development of hospital-based facilities, such as the one in Loma Linda in California, over 2,500 patients with prostate cancer have been treated using a simple technique which gives results at least as good as radical surgery, external beam radiotherapy or brachytherapy. Importantly, the incidence of severe complications is very low. There are encouraging results in many disease sites including lung, liver, soft tissue sarcomas and oesophagus. As proton therapy becomes more widely available, randomised trials comparing it with conventional radiotherapy or intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) will be possible. In most situations the use of protons will enable a higher dose to be given safely but in situations where local control rates are already satisfactory, protons are expected to produce less complications than conventional treatment. The initial costs of a proton facility are high but the recurrent costs are similar to other forms of high technology radiotherapy. Simple treatment techniques with only a few fields are usually possible and proton therapy avoids the high integral doses associated with IMRT. This reduction in the low dose volume is likely to be particularly

  10. Gluon saturation: Survival probability for leading neutrons in DIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, Eugene; Tapia, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the example of one rapidity gap process: the inclusive cross sections of the leading neutrons in deep inelastic scattering with protons (DIS). The equations for this process are proposed and solved, giving the example of theoretical calculation of the survival probability for one rapidity gap processes. It turns out that the value of the survival probability is small and it decreases with energy.

  11. The future and progress of proton beam radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujii, Hirohiko

    1994-01-01

    The advantage of proton therapy is reduction of treatment volumes relative to those feasible with conventional photon therapy. The consequence is that the radiation dose to the target can be raised, with a resultant increase in tumor control probability. Proton beams, however, yield no biological gains because their biological properties are similar to conventional low LET radiations. As more sophisticated technologies are needed, there have been many advances which are applicable to photon therapy; 3-D treatment planning, DVH analysis, and systems for positioning, etc. As of January 1994, a total of about 13,000 cases were reported as having had treatments with proton beams in 16 centers world wide. The tumor sites for those include uveal melanoma (30-40%), intra-cranial small targets (40%), and others. Uveal melanomas had been most extensively treated with 70 Gy/5 fx or 60 Gy/4 fx which resulted in local control and survival rates of >96% and 80%, respectively. For chordoma and chondrosarcoma of the skull base and cervical spine, the 5 year local control rates were 65% and 91%, respectively. Promising results are also being obtained for head and neck and pelvic tumors. Deeper-seated tumors have been treated only at Tsukuba University with successful results in some anatomic sites. Among these, inoperable primary hepatocellular carcinomas were effectively treated with a total dose of 75-85 Gy (3.0-4.5 Gy/fx). The 3 year survival rates for all patients, Child A+B patient, and Child A patients were 38%, 47%, and 60%, respectively, which compare favorably to other modalities. These successful results of world wide proton therapy have led us to the conclusion that a hospital-based proton facility will provide opportunities for additional patients to be treated with protons. Thus, new plans are proposed from more than 10 institutions to build a new treatment center or upgrade the energy of currently available proton beams. (author)

  12. Fish skin bacteria: Colonial and cellular hydrophobicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sar, N; Rosenberg, E

    1987-05-01

    Bacteria were desorbed from the skin of healthy, fast-swimming fish by several procedures, including brief exposure to sonic oscillation and treatment with nontoxic surface active agents. The surface properties of these bacteria were studied by measuring their adhesion to hexadecane, as well as by a newly developed, simple method for studying the hydrophobicity of bacterial lawns. This method, referred to as the "Direction of Spreading" (DOS) method, consists of recording the direction to which a water drop spreads when introduced at the border between bacterial lawns and other surfaces. Of the 13 fish skin isolates examined, two strains were as hydrophobic as polystyrene by the DOS method. Suspended cells of one of these strains adhered strongly to hexadecane (84%), whereas cells of the other strain adhered poorly (13%). Another strain which was almost as hydrophobic as polystyrene by the DOS method did not adhere to hexadecane at all. Similarly, lawns of three other strains were more hydrophobic than glass by the DOS method, but cell suspensions prepared from these colonies showed little or no adhesion to hexadecane. The high colonial but relatively low cellular hydrophobicity could be due to a hydrophobic slime that is removed during the suspension and washing procedures. The possibility that specific bacteria assist in fish locomotion by changing the surface properties of the fish skin and by producing drag-reducing polymers is discussed.

  13. Protonation of pyridine. Vol. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahran, N F; Ghoniem, H; Helal, A I [Physics Dept., Nuclear Research Center, AEA., Cairo, (Egypt); Rasheed, N [Nuclear Material Authority, Cairo, (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    Field ionization mass spectra of pyridine is measured using 10{mu}m activated wire. protonation of pyridine, is observed as an intense peak in the mass spectra. Charge distribution of pyridine molecule is calculated using the modified neglect of diatomic overlap (MNDO) technique, and consequently proton attachment is proposed to be on the nitrogen atom. Temperature dependence of (M+H){sup +} ion is investigated and discussed. MNDO calculations of the protonated species are done, and the proton affinity of pyridine molecule is estimated. Time dependence of the field ionization process of pyridine and protonated ions are observed and discussed. 5 figs.

  14. First recorded loss of an emperor penguin colony in the recent period of Antarctic regional warming: implications for other colonies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip N Trathan

    Full Text Available In 1948, a small colony of emperor penguins Aptenodytes forsteri was discovered breeding on Emperor Island (67° 51' 52″ S, 68° 42' 20″ W, in the Dion Islands, close to the West Antarctic Peninsula (Stonehouse 1952. When discovered, the colony comprised approximately 150 breeding pairs; these numbers were maintained until 1970, after which time the colony showed a continuous decline. By 1999 there were fewer than 20 pairs, and in 2009 high-resolution aerial photography revealed no remaining trace of the colony. Here we relate the decline and loss of the Emperor Island colony to a well-documented rise in local mean annual air temperature and coincident decline in seasonal sea ice duration. The loss of this colony provides empirical support for recent studies (Barbraud & Weimerskirch 2001; Jenouvrier et al 2005, 2009; Ainley et al 2010; Barber-Meyer et al 2005 that have highlighted the vulnerability of emperor penguins to changes in sea ice duration and distribution. These studies suggest that continued climate change is likely to impact upon future breeding success and colony viability for this species. Furthermore, a recent circumpolar study by Fretwell & Trathan (2009 highlighted those Antarctic coastal regions where colonies appear most vulnerable to such changes. Here we examine which other colonies might be at risk, discussing various ecological factors, some previously unexplored, that may also contribute to future declines. The implications of this are important for future modelling work and for understanding which colonies actually are most vulnerable.

  15. Coalescing colony model: Mean-field, scaling, and geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carra, Giulia; Mallick, Kirone; Barthelemy, Marc

    2017-12-01

    We analyze the coalescing model where a `primary' colony grows and randomly emits secondary colonies that spread and eventually coalesce with it. This model describes population proliferation in theoretical ecology, tumor growth, and is also of great interest for modeling urban sprawl. Assuming the primary colony to be always circular of radius r (t ) and the emission rate proportional to r (t) θ , where θ >0 , we derive the mean-field equations governing the dynamics of the primary colony, calculate the scaling exponents versus θ , and compare our results with numerical simulations. We then critically test the validity of the circular approximation for the colony shape and show that it is sound for a constant emission rate (θ =0 ). However, when the emission rate is proportional to the perimeter, the circular approximation breaks down and the roughness of the primary colony cannot be discarded, thus modifying the scaling exponents.

  16. Proton transfer events in GFP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Donato, Mariangela; van Wilderen, Luuk J G W; Van Stokkum, Ivo H M; Stuart, Thomas Cohen; Kennis, John T M; Hellingwerf, Klaas J; van Grondelle, Rienk; Groot, Marie Louise

    2011-09-28

    Proton transfer is one of the most important elementary processes in biology. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) serves as an important model system to elucidate the mechanistic details of this reaction, because in GFP proton transfer can be induced by light absorption. Illumination initiates proton transfer through a 'proton-wire', formed by the chromophore (the proton donor), water molecule W22, Ser205 and Glu222 (the acceptor), on a picosecond time scale. To obtain a more refined view of this process, we have used a combined approach of time resolved mid-infrared spectroscopy and visible pump-dump-probe spectroscopy to resolve with atomic resolution how and how fast protons move through this wire. Our results indicate that absorption of light by GFP induces in 3 ps (10 ps in D(2)O) a shift of the equilibrium positions of all protons in the H-bonded network, leading to a partial protonation of Glu222 and to a so-called low barrier hydrogen bond (LBHB) for the chromophore's proton, giving rise to dual emission at 475 and 508 nm. This state is followed by a repositioning of the protons on the wire in 10 ps (80 ps in D(2)O), ultimately forming the fully deprotonated chromophore and protonated Glu222.

  17. Solar proton fluxes since 1956

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reedy, R.C.

    1977-01-01

    The fluxes of protons emitted during solar flares since 1956 were evaluated. The depth-versus-activity profiles of 56 Co in several lunar rocks are consistent with the solar-proton fluxes detected by experiments on several satellites. Only about 20% of the solar-proton-induced activities of 22 Na and 55 Fe in lunar rocks from early Apollo missions were produced by protons emitted from the sun during solar cycle 20 (1965--1975). The depth-versus-activity data for these radionuclides in several lunar rocks were used to determine the fluxes of protons during solar cycle 19 (1954--1964). The average proton fluxes for cycle 19 are about five times those for both the last million years and for cycle 20. These solar-proton flux variations correlate with changes in sunspot activity

  18. Proton mass decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi-Bo; Chen, Ying; Draper, Terrence; Liang, Jian; Liu, Keh-Fei

    2018-03-01

    We report the results on the proton mass decomposition and also on the related quark and glue momentum fractions. The results are based on overlap valence fermions on four ensembles of Nf = 2 + 1 DWF configurations with three lattice spacings and volumes, and several pion masses including the physical pion mass. With 1-loop pertur-bative calculation and proper normalization of the glue operator, we find that the u, d, and s quark masses contribute 9(2)% to the proton mass. The quark energy and glue field energy contribute 31(5)% and 37(5)% respectively in the MS scheme at µ = 2 GeV. The trace anomaly gives the remaining 23(1)% contribution. The u, d, s and glue momentum fractions in the MS scheme are consistent with the global analysis at µ = 2 GeV.

  19. Proton solar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaposhnikova, E.F.

    1979-01-01

    The observations of proton solar flares have been carried out in 1950-1958 using the extrablackout coronograph of the Crimea astrophysical observatory. The experiments permit to determine two characteristic features of flares: the directed motion of plasma injection flux from the solar depths and the appearance of a shock wave moving from the place of the injection along the solar surface. The appearance of the shock wave is accompanied by some phenomena occuring both in the sunspot zone and out of it. The consistent flash of proton flares in the other groups of spots, the disappearance of fibres and the appearance of eruptive prominences is accomplished in the sunspot zone. Beyond the sunspot zone the flares occur above spots, the fibres disintegrate partially or completely and the eruptive prominences appear in the regions close to the pole

  20. Ant- and Ant-Colony-Inspired ALife Visual Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Gary; Machado, Penousal

    2015-01-01

    Ant- and ant-colony-inspired ALife art is characterized by the artistic exploration of the emerging collective behavior of computational agents, developed using ants as a metaphor. We present a chronology that documents the emergence and history of such visual art, contextualize ant- and ant-colony-inspired art within generative art practices, and consider how it relates to other ALife art. We survey many of the algorithms that artists have used in this genre, address some of their aims, and explore the relationships between ant- and ant-colony-inspired art and research on ant and ant colony behavior.

  1. Improved Ant Colony Clustering Algorithm and Its Performance Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Clustering analysis is used in many disciplines and applications; it is an important tool that descriptively identifies homogeneous groups of objects based on attribute values. The ant colony clustering algorithm is a swarm-intelligent method used for clustering problems that is inspired by the behavior of ant colonies that cluster their corpses and sort their larvae. A new abstraction ant colony clustering algorithm using a data combination mechanism is proposed to improve the computational efficiency and accuracy of the ant colony clustering algorithm. The abstraction ant colony clustering algorithm is used to cluster benchmark problems, and its performance is compared with the ant colony clustering algorithm and other methods used in existing literature. Based on similar computational difficulties and complexities, the results show that the abstraction ant colony clustering algorithm produces results that are not only more accurate but also more efficiently determined than the ant colony clustering algorithm and the other methods. Thus, the abstraction ant colony clustering algorithm can be used for efficient multivariate data clustering. PMID:26839533

  2. Neonicotinoid pesticides can reduce honeybee colony genetic diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadège Forfert

    Full Text Available Neonicotinoid insecticides can cause a variety of adverse sub-lethal effects in bees. In social species such as the honeybee, Apis mellifera, queens are essential for reproduction and colony functioning. Therefore, any negative effect of these agricultural chemicals on the mating success of queens may have serious consequences for the fitness of the entire colony. Queens were exposed to the common neonicotinoid pesticides thiamethoxam and clothianidin during their developmental stage. After mating, their spermathecae were dissected to count the number of stored spermatozoa. Furthermore, their worker offspring were genotyped with DNA microsatellites to determine the number of matings and the genotypic composition of the colony. Colonies providing the male mating partners were also inferred. Both neonicotinoid and control queens mated with drones originating from the same drone source colonies, and stored similar number of spermatozoa. However, queens reared in colonies exposed to both neonicotinoids experienced fewer matings. This resulted in a reduction of the genetic diversity in their colonies (i.e. higher intracolonial relatedness. As decreased genetic diversity among worker bees is known to negatively affect colony vitality, neonicotinoids may have a cryptic effect on colony health by reducing the mating frequency of queens.

  3. Laser-induced speckle scatter patterns in Bacillus colonies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huisung eKim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Label-free bacterial colony phenotyping technology called BARDOT (BActerial Rapid Detection using Optical scattering Technology provided successful classification of several different bacteria at the genus, species, and serovar level. Recent experiments with colonies of Bacillus species provided strikingly different characteristics of elastic light scatter (ELS patterns, which were comprised of random speckles compared to other bacteria, which are dominated by concentric rings and spokes. Since this laser-based optical sensor interrogates the whole volume of the colony, 3-D information of micro- and macro-structures are all encoded in the far-field scatter patterns. Here, we present a theoretical model explaining the underlying mechanism of the speckle formation by the colonies from Bacillus species. Except for Bacillus polymyxa, all Bacillus spp. produced random bright spots on the imaging plane, which presumably dependent on the cellular and molecular organization and content within the colony. Our scatter model-based analysis revealed that colony spread resulting in variable surface roughness can modify the wavefront of the scatter field. As the center diameter of the Bacillus spp. colony grew from 500 μm to 900 μm, average speckles area decreased 2-fold and the number of small speckles increased 7-fold. In conclusion, as Bacillus colony grows, the average speckle size in the scatter pattern decreases and the number of smaller speckle increases due to the swarming growth characteristics of bacteria within the colony.

  4. Enhancement of erythroid colony growth in culture by hemin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, P.N.; Meints, R.H.; Mesner, K.

    1979-01-01

    Hemin was found to enhance the growth of murine erythroid colonies in culture. In the presence of 100 mU/ml erythropoietin (EPO), the addition of hemin (0.05-0.2 mM) resulted in the growth of twice as many colonies as were obtained with EPO alone. Hemin also significantly increased erythroid colony formation in culture in the absence of added EPO. Hemoblobin synthesis as measured by the incorporation of 59 Fe into cyclohexanone extractable heme was augmented in culture by hemin. Neither Δ-aminolevulinic acid, a hemin precursor, nor FeCl 3 increased colony number. (author)

  5. Rethinking the Colonial State: Configurations of Power, Violence, and Agency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rud, Søren; Ivarsson, Søren

    2017-01-01

    The main theme of this special volume is the colonial state and its governmental practices. This chapter introduces and contextualizes the contributions by providing a brief induction to recent developments within the study of the colonial state. It then presents the contributions under three per...... perspectives which represent separate yet interrelated themes relevant for the understanding of the colonial state: practices, violence, and agency. Hereby, we also accentuate the value of a non-state-centric approach to the analysis of the colonial state....

  6. The Amsterdam proton microbeam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bos, A.J.J.

    1984-01-01

    The aim of the work presented in this thesis is to develop a microbeam setup such that small beam spot sizes can be produced routinely, and to investigate the capabilities of the setup for micro-PIXE analysis. The development and performance of the Amsterdam proton microbeam setup are described. The capabilities of the setup for micro-PIXE are shown with an investigation into the presence of trace elements in human hair. (Auth.)

  7. Biofilm formation enhances Helicobacter pylori survivability in vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Chow Goon; Loke, Mun Fai; Goh, Khean Lee; Vadivelu, Jamuna; Ho, Bow

    2017-04-01

    To date, the exact route and mode of transmission of Helicobacter pylori remains elusive. The detection of H. pylori in food using molecular approaches has led us to postulate that the gastric pathogen may survive in the extragastric environment for an extended period. In this study, we show that H. pylori prolongs its survival by forming biofilm and micro-colonies on vegetables. The biofilm forming capability of H. pylori is both strain and vegetable dependent. H. pylori strains were classified into high and low biofilm formers based on their highest relative biofilm units (BU). High biofilm formers survived longer on vegetables compared to low biofilm formers. The bacteria survived better on cabbage compared to other vegetables tested. In addition, images captured on scanning electron and confocal laser scanning microscopes revealed that the bacteria were able to form biofilm and reside as micro-colonies on vegetable surfaces, strengthening the notion of possible survival of H. pylori on vegetables for an extended period of time. Taken together, the ability of H. pylori to form biofilm on vegetables (a common food source for human) potentially plays an important role in its survival, serving as a mode of transmission of H. pylori in the extragastric environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The proton radius puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonesini, Maurizio

    2017-12-01

    The FAMU (Fisica degli Atomi Muonici) experiment has the goal to measure precisely the proton Zemach radius, thus contributing to the solution of the so-called proton radius "puzzle". To this aim, it makes use of a high-intensity pulsed muon beam at RIKEN-RAL impinging on a cryogenic hydrogen target with an high-Z gas admixture and a tunable mid-IR high power laser, to measure the hyperfine (HFS) splitting of the 1S state of the muonic hydrogen. From the value of the exciting laser frequency, the energy of the HFS transition may be derived with high precision ( 10-5) and thus, via QED calculations, the Zemach radius of the proton. The experimental apparatus includes a precise fiber-SiPMT beam hodoscope and a crown of eight LaBr3 crystals and a few HPGe detectors for detection of the emitted characteristic X-rays. Preliminary runs to optimize the gas target filling and its operating conditions have been taken in 2014 and 2015-2016. The final run, with the pump laser to drive the HFS transition, is expected in 2018.

  9. Heavy quarks in proton

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)655637

    The measurement of prompt photon associated with a b jet in proton-proton interactions can provide us insight into the inner structure of proton. This is because precision of determination of parton distribution functions of b quark and gluon can be increased by such a measurement. The measurement of cross-section of prompt photon associated with a b jet (process $pp\\longrightarrow \\gamma + b + X$) at $\\sqrt{s}$= 8 TeV with the ATLAS detector is presented. Full 8 TeV dataset collected by ATLAS during the year 2012 was used in this analysis. Corresponding integrated luminosity is 20.3 $fb^{-1}$. Fiducial differential cross-section as a function of photon transverse momentum at particle level was extracted from data and compared with the prediction of leading order event generator Pythia 8. Cross-section extracted from data is normalised independently on the Monte Carlo prediction. Values of data distribution lie above Monte Carlo values. The difference can be explained by presence of higher order effects not ...

  10. Central Asia, Euro-centrism and Colonialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nargis T. Nurulla-Khodzhaeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The following article should not be dismissed as yet another attempt to construct a renewed round ofrevisionism in history. On the contrary, it aims to explore the possibility of scaling down the dominant Eurocentric epistemology that served as a basis for a stereotypical frame of knowledge about Central Asia. The majority of researchers of the region do not deem the need to review the scale of contradictory clashes created by the notion of Eurocentrism. The latter is reflected in numerous articles about the frozen (and sadly deadlock dilemma on why and how were the lands of Tajiks, Uzbeks and Kazakhs divided. By publishing conventional analyses on the region's "clumsy separation", experts illustrate their subaltern, narrowly framed by the colonial world, knowledge and hence, remain as gravestones of the Eurocentric methodology. In the process of such explication, the most important role is allocated to the modern culture, which encouraged the formation of the paradox, represented to us via the paraphrased Soviet aphorism: modernity and coloniality are twin brothers. The initiation of the process of decolonizing the mind within the five republics of the region is possible. One of the solutions involves recognizing the integrity of the pluralist-cycled culture and philosophy of the region. The proposed act will allow shrinking the focus on the knowledge within the limited national units and frames (thus, lessening the degree of'fetishism of the national identity', and rather creating conditions for designing the "bridge", linking different cultures, ideologies and institutional spaces in Central Asia, as a transnational intellectual matrix. The aforementioned theory will provide a basis and structure for empirical facts, and, therefore, drive the researchers from merely constituting to critically thinking, and consequently, inspire to come upon new approaches and fields of study, connecting them with the existing, colonial experiences. It is

  11. Spatial Arrangement of Colonies in Intact Biofilms from a Model Cooling Water System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Taylor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is disagreement among microbiologists about whether Legionella requires a protozoan host in order to replicate. This research sought to determine where in biofilm Legionellae are found and whether all biofilm associated Legionella would be located within protozoan hosts. While it is accepted that Legionella colonizes biofilm, its life cycle and nutritional fastidiousness suggest that Legionella employs multiple survival strategies to persist within microbial systems. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM demonstrated an undulating biofilm surface architecture and a roughly homogenous distribution of heterotrophic bacteria with clusters of protozoa. Legionella displayed 3 distinct spatial arrangements either contained within or directly associated with protozoa, or dispersed in loosely associated clusters or in tightly packed aggregations of cells forming dense colonial clusters. The formation of discreet clusters of tightly packed Legionella suggests that colony formation is influenced by specific environmental conditions allowing for limited extracellular replication. This work represents the first time that an environmentally representative, multispecies biofilm containing Legionella has been fluorescently tagged and Legionella colony morphology noted within a complex microbial system.

  12. Avian cholera, a threat to the viability of an Arctic seabird colony?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Descamps

    Full Text Available Evidence that infectious diseases cause wildlife population extirpation or extinction remains anecdotal and it is unclear whether the impacts of a pathogen at the individual level can scale up to population level so drastically. Here, we quantify the response of a Common eider colony to emerging epidemics of avian cholera, one of the most important infectious diseases affecting wild waterfowl. We show that avian cholera has the potential to drive colony extinction, even over a very short period. Extinction depends on disease severity (the impact of the disease on adult female survival and disease frequency (the number of annual epidemics per decade. In case of epidemics of high severity (i.e., causing >30% mortality of breeding females, more than one outbreak per decade will be unsustainable for the colony and will likely lead to extinction within the next century; more than four outbreaks per decade will drive extinction to within 20 years. Such severity and frequency of avian cholera are already observed, and avian cholera might thus represent a significant threat to viability of breeding populations. However, this will depend on the mechanisms underlying avian cholera transmission, maintenance, and spread, which are currently only poorly known.

  13. Longevity of U cells of differentiated yeast colonies grown on respiratory medium depends on active glycolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čáp, Michal; Váchová, Libuše; Palková, Zdena

    2015-01-01

    Colonies of Saccharomyces cerevisiae laboratory strains pass through specific developmental phases when growing on solid respiratory medium. During entry into the so-called alkali phase, in which ammonia signaling is initiated, 2 prominent cell types are formed within the colonies: U cells in upper colony regions, which have a longevity phenotype and activate the expression of a large number of metabolic genes, and L cells in lower regions, which die more quickly and exhibit a starvation phenotype. Here, we performed a detailed analysis of the activities of enzymes of central carbon metabolism in lysates of both cell types and determined several fermentation end products, showing that previously reported expression differences are reflected in the different enzymatic capabilities of each cell type. Hence, U cells, despite being grown on respiratory medium, behave as fermenting cells, whereas L cells rely on respiratory metabolism and possess active gluconeogenesis. Using a spectrum of different inhibitors, we showed that glycolysis is essential for the formation, and particularly, the survival of U cells. We also showed that β-1,3-glucans that are released from the cell walls of L cells are the most likely source of carbohydrates for U cells.

  14. Virtual Archaeology in an argentina colonial estancia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencia Vázquez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This is a first approach to the application of virtual reconstruction techniques of a colonial house. In Argentina it is still uncommon to perform 3D modeling of archaeological sites and especially in historical archeology. As a first step, we used the Google SketchUp to model the country house located on the banks of the Río de la Plata (Buenos Aires. It has historical significance because it belonged to a Spanish councilman, housed hundreds of slaves and was the place where stayed the troops that carried out the Second British Invasion of Buenos Aires. In this case, the 3D modeling was useful for evaluating the future excavationa and activities of preservation of cultural heritage.

  15. Optic disc detection using ant colony optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Marcy A.; Monteiro, Fernando C.

    2012-09-01

    The retinal fundus images are used in the treatment and diagnosis of several eye diseases, such as diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma. This paper proposes a new method to detect the optic disc (OD) automatically, due to the fact that the knowledge of the OD location is essential to the automatic analysis of retinal images. Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) is an optimization algorithm inspired by the foraging behaviour of some ant species that has been applied in image processing for edge detection. Recently, the ACO was used in fundus images to detect edges, and therefore, to segment the OD and other anatomical retinal structures. We present an algorithm for the detection of OD in the retina which takes advantage of the Gabor wavelet transform, entropy and ACO algorithm. Forty images of the retina from DRIVE database were used to evaluate the performance of our method.

  16. Modelling the morphology of migrating bacterial colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, A.; Tokihiro, T.; Badoual, M.; Grammaticos, B.

    2010-08-01

    We present a model which aims at describing the morphology of colonies of Proteus mirabilis and Bacillus subtilis. Our model is based on a cellular automaton which is obtained by the adequate discretisation of a diffusion-like equation, describing the migration of the bacteria, to which we have added rules simulating the consolidation process. Our basic assumption, following the findings of the group of Chuo University, is that the migration and consolidation processes are controlled by the local density of the bacteria. We show that it is possible within our model to reproduce the morphological diagrams of both bacteria species. Moreover, we model some detailed experiments done by the Chuo University group, obtaining a fine agreement.

  17. [Why proton therapy? And how?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thariat, Juliette; Habrand, Jean Louis; Lesueur, Paul; Chaikh, Abdulhamid; Kammerer, Emmanuel; Lecomte, Delphine; Batalla, Alain; Balosso, Jacques; Tessonnier, Thomas

    2018-03-01

    Proton therapy is a radiotherapy, based on the use of protons, charged subatomic particles that stop at a given depth depending on their initial energy (pristine Bragg peak), avoiding any output beam, unlike the photons used in most of the other modalities of radiotherapy. Proton therapy has been used for 60 years, but has only become ubiquitous in the last decade because of recent major advances in particle accelerator technology. This article reviews the history of clinical implementation of protons, the nature of the technological advances that now allows its expansion at a lower cost. It also addresses the technical and physical specificities of proton therapy and the clinical situations for which proton therapy may be relevant but requires evidence. Different proton therapy techniques are possible. These are explained in terms of their clinical potential by explaining the current terminology (such as cyclotrons, synchrotrons or synchrocyclotrons, using superconducting magnets, fixed line or arm rotary with passive diffusion delivery or active by scanning) in basic words. The requirements associated with proton therapy are increased due to the precision of the depth dose deposit. The learning curve of proton therapy requires that clinical indications be prioritized according to their associated uncertainties (such as range uncertainties and movement in lung tumors). Many clinical indications potentially fall under proton therapy ultimately. Clinical strategies are explained in a paralleled manuscript. Copyright © 2018 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Proton permeation of lipid bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deamer, D W

    1987-10-01

    Proton permeation of the lipid bilayer barrier has two unique features. First, permeability coefficients measured at neutral pH ranges are six to seven orders of magnitude greater than expected from knowledge of other monovalent cations. Second, proton conductance across planar lipid bilayers varies at most by a factor of 10 when pH is varied from near 1 to near 11. Two mechanisms have been proposed to account for this anomalous behavior: proton conductance related to contaminants of lipid bilayers, and proton translocation along transient hydrogen-bonded chains (tHBC) of associated water molecules in the membrane. The weight of evidence suggests that trace contaminants may contribute to proton conductance across planar lipid membranes at certain pH ranges, but cannot account for the anomalous proton flux in liposome systems. Two new results will be reported here which were designed to test the tHBC model. These include measurements of relative proton/potassium permeability in the gramicidin channel, and plots of proton flux against the magnitude of pH gradients. (1) The relative permeabilities of protons and potassium through the gramicidin channel, which contains a single strand of hydrogen-bonded water molecules, were found to differ by at least four orders of magnitude when measured at neutral pH ranges. This result demonstrates that a hydrogen-bonded chain of water molecules can provide substantial discrimination between protons and other cations. It was also possible to calculate that if approximately 7% of bilayer water was present in a transient configuration similar to that of the gramicidin channel, it could account for the measured proton flux. (2) The plot of proton conductance against pH gradient across liposome membranes was superlinear, a result that is consistent with one of three alternative tHBC models for proton conductance described by Nagle elsewhere in this volume.

  19. MUSE: Measuring the proton radius with muon-proton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernauer, Jan Christopher [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The proton radius has been measured so far using electron-proton scattering, electronic Hydrogen spectroscopy and muonic Hydrogen spectroscopy, the latter producing a much more accurate, but seven sigma different, result, leading to the now famous proton radius puzzle. The MUSE collaboration aims to complete the set of measurements by using muon scattering to determine the proton radius and to shed light on possible explanations of the discrepancy. The talk gives an overview of the experiment motivation and design and a status report on the progress.

  20. Vibrational spectroscopy on protons and deuterons in proton conducting perovskites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glerup, M.; Poulsen, F.W.; Berg, R.W.

    2002-01-01

    A short review of IR-spectroscopy on protons in perovskite structure oxides is given. The nature of possible proton sites, libration and combination tones and degree of hydrogen bonding is emphasised. Three new spectroscopic experiments and/or interpretations are presented. An IR-microscopy exper......A short review of IR-spectroscopy on protons in perovskite structure oxides is given. The nature of possible proton sites, libration and combination tones and degree of hydrogen bonding is emphasised. Three new spectroscopic experiments and/or interpretations are presented. An IR...

  1. Collapse, conquest and Maya survival at Lamanai, Belize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Graham

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available The Maya civilization of Central America prompts visions of mysterious stone temples now buried in tropical forest. It is commonly supposed to have collapsed suddenly in the ninth century AD, but some Maya settlements, such as Lamanai, survived into the colonial period. Here a new member of the Institute's academic staff gives a personal account of how working in Belize transformed her understanding of Maya civilization and its aftermath.

  2. Collapse, conquest and Maya survival at Lamanai, Belize

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, Elizabeth

    2000-01-01

    The Maya civilization of Central America prompts visions of mysterious stone temples now buried in tropical forest. It is commonly supposed to have collapsed suddenly in the ninth century AD, but some Maya settlements, such as Lamanai, survived into the colonial period. Here a new member of the Institute's academic staff gives a personal account of how working in Belize transformed her understanding of Maya civilization and its aftermath.

  3. Between Past and Present: The Sociopsychological Constructs of Colonialism, Coloniality and Postcolonialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomicic, Ana; Berardi, Filomena

    2018-03-01

    If one of the major aspirations of postcolonial theory is to re-establish a balance in the relationship between the (former) colonizer and the colonized by engaging the voices of the "subaltern", and on the other hand to illuminate how power relations of the present are embedded in history (Mills 2007), we argue that important theoretical insights might inform research by anchoring post-colonial theory within a sociopsychological framework. While there is a growing corpus of sociopsychological research articles focusing on how major geopolitical events and historical processes bear on people's lives, we aim to investigate the theoretical potential of postcolonial theory within the disciplines aiming at a sociopsychological approach. By focusing on the social dynamics of power imbalances, post-colonial theory finds its operational meaning: the feelings stemming from actions committed in the past are indeed crucial in determining reparatory attitudes and policies towards members of former colonized groups. Firstly, drawing from the sociopsychological scientific production related to consequences of colonial past, seen in recent years as a growing research interest in the field, we will explore patterns and trends through a thematic analysis of literature. Social Psychology as well as adjacent disciplines can greatly benefit from this theoretical fertilization, especially in the way post-colonial ideologies relate to the symbolic promotion versus exclusion of indigenous culture (Sengupta et al., International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 36(4), 506-517, 2012). Furthermore, by comparing and contrasting the ideological cosmologies relating to this particular topic, this study aims to establish the state of knowledge in the field, to identify how research methods and thematic fields are paired, to find "gaps" and create spaces for research that become integrative of postcolonial theory. While focusing on academic production, we also hope to contribute to develop

  4. Critical evaluation of branch polarity and apical dominance as dictators of colony astogeny in a branching coral.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Shaish

    Full Text Available The high morphological resemblance between branching corals and trees, can lead to comparative studies on pattern formation traits, best exemplified in plants and in some cnidarians. Here, 81 branches of similar size of the hermatypic coral Stylophora pistillata were lopped of three different genets, their skeletons marked with alizarin red-S, and divided haphazardly into three morphometric treatment groups: (I upright position; (II horizontal position, intact tip; and (III horizontal position, cut tip. After 1 y of in-situ growth, the 45 surviving ramets were brought to the laboratory, their tissues removed and their architectures analyzed by 22 morphological parameters (MPs. We found that within 1 y, isolated branches developed into small coral colonies by growing new branches from all branch termini, in all directions. No architectural dissimilarity was assigned among the three studied genets of treatment I colonies. However, a major architectural disparity between treatment I colonies and colonies of treatments II and III was documented as the development of mirror structures from both sides of treatments II and III settings as compared to tip-borne architectures in treatment I colonies. We did not observe apical dominance since fragments grew equally from all branch sides without documented dominant polarity along branch axis. In treatment II colonies, no MP for new branches originating either from tips or from branch bases differed significantly. In treatment III colonies, growth from the cut tip areas was significantly lower compared to the base, again, suggesting lack of apical dominance in this species. Changes in branch polarity revealed genet associated plasticity, which in one of the studied genets, led to enhanced growth. Different genets exhibited canalization flexibility of growth patterns towards either lateral growth, or branch axis extension (skeletal weight and not porosity was measured. This study revealed that colony

  5. Measurement of small-angle antiproton-proton and proton-proton elastic scattering at the CERN intersecting storage rings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amos, N.; Block, M.M.; Bobbink, G.J.; Botje, M.A.J.; Favart, D.; Leroy, C.; Linde, F.; Lipnik, P.; Matheys, J-P.; Miller, D.

    1985-01-01

    Antiproton-proton and proton-proton small-angle elastic scattering was measured for centre-of-mass energies at the CERN Intersectung Storage Rings. In addition, proton-proton elastic scattering was measured at . Using the optical theorem, total cross sections are obtained with an accuracy of about

  6. Proton and carbon ion therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Lomax, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Proton and Carbon Ion Therapy is an up-to-date guide to using proton and carbon ion therapy in modern cancer treatment. The book covers the physics and radiobiology basics of proton and ion beams, dosimetry methods and radiation measurements, and treatment delivery systems. It gives practical guidance on patient setup, target localization, and treatment planning for clinical proton and carbon ion therapy. The text also offers detailed reports on the treatment of pediatric cancers, lymphomas, and various other cancers. After an overview, the book focuses on the fundamental aspects of proton and carbon ion therapy equipment, including accelerators, gantries, and delivery systems. It then discusses dosimetry, biology, imaging, and treatment planning basics and provides clinical guidelines on the use of proton and carbon ion therapy for the treatment of specific cancers. Suitable for anyone involved with medical physics and radiation therapy, this book offers a balanced and critical assessment of state-of-the-art...

  7. Emergency networking: famine relief in ant colonies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sendova-Franks, A.B.; Hayward, R.; Wulf, B.; Klimek, T.; James, R.; Planque, R.; Britton, N.F.; Franks, N.R.

    2009-01-01

    Resource distribution is fundamental to social organization, but it poses a dilemma. How to facilitate the spread of useful resources but restrict harmful substances? This dilemma reaches a zenith in famine relief. Survival depends on distributing food fast but that could increase vulnerability to

  8. Reduction in predator defense in the presence of neighbors in a colonial fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska C Schädelin

    Full Text Available Predation pressure has long been considered a leading explanation of colonies, where close neighbors may reduce predation via dilution, alarming or group predator attacks. Attacking predators may be costly in terms of energy and survival, leading to the question of how neighbors contribute to predator deterrence in relationship to each other. Two hypotheses explaining the relative efforts made by neighbors are byproduct-mutualism, which occurs when breeders inadvertently attack predators by defending their nests, and reciprocity, which occurs when breeders deliberately exchange predator defense efforts with neighbors. Most studies investigating group nest defense have been performed with birds. However, colonial fish may constitute a more practical model system for an experimental approach because of the greater ability of researchers to manipulate their environment. We investigated in the colonial fish, Neolamprologus caudopunctatus, whether prospecting pairs preferred to breed near conspecifics or solitarily, and how breeders invested in anti-predator defense in relation to neighbors. In a simple choice test, prospecting pairs selected breeding sites close to neighbors versus a solitary site. Predators were then sequentially presented to the newly established test pairs, the previously established stimulus pairs or in between the two pairs. Test pairs attacked the predator eight times more frequently when they were presented on their non-neighbor side compared to between the two breeding sites, where stimulus pairs maintained high attack rates. Thus, by joining an established pair, test pairs were able to reduce their anti-predator efforts near neighbors, at no apparent cost to the stimulus pairs. These findings are unlikely to be explained by reciprocity or byproduct-mutualism. Our results instead suggest a commensal relationship in which new pairs exploit the high anti-predator efforts of established pairs, which invest similarly with or

  9. Colonial Modernity and the African Worldview: Theorising and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    concept of hegemony and Jean and John Comaroff's concept of cultural and colonial encounters are used to assist in teasing out deeper meaning in the encounter between the Ndebele and the early Christian missionaries prior to inscription of settler colonialism in the area lying between the Limpopo and Zambezi Rivers.

  10. Embodying colonial photography: remembering violence in Tabee Toean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijl, P.

    2011-01-01

    This article is about bodily interactions with photographs. Taking an interview with a veteran from the Dutch colonial army filmed for the documentary Tabee Toean (1995) as its case study, it focuses on the ways in which this man frames these images of colonial warfare through three types of bodily

  11. Mass spectral molecular networking of living microbial colonies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Watrous, J.; Roach, P.; Alexandrov, T.; Heath, B.S.; Yang, J.Y.; Kersten, R.D.; Voort, van der M.; Pogliano, K.; Gross, H.; Raaijmakers, J.; Moore, B.S.; Laskin, J.; Bandeira, N.; Dorrestein, P.C.

    2012-01-01

    Integrating the governing chemistry with the genomics and phenotypes of microbial colonies has been a “holy grail” in microbiology. This work describes a highly sensitive, broadly applicable, and cost-effective approach that allows metabolic profiling of live microbial colonies directly from a Petri

  12. Colony differences in termiticide transfer studies, a role for behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas Shelton

    2010-01-01

    Donor-recipient termiticide transfer laboratory tests were performed by using destructive sampling with two delayed-action non-repellent (DANR) termiticides against each of three colonies of Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar). Two of the three colonies showed no response to indoxacarb, but all three showed a response to chlorantraniliprole. These results indicate that...

  13. Occurrence of Nosema species in honey bee colonies in Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While honey bee colonies in North America and Europe are in decline due to parasites and ... Infections levels were higher in the coastal region than in the interior. ... of the impact of this pathogen to the Kenyan honey bee colonies with a view of ... Senegal (6); Sierra Leone (1); South Africa (96); South Sudan (1); Sudan (3) ...

  14. Colony strength and queen replacement in Melipona marginata (Apidae: Meliponini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. de M. P. Kleinert

    Full Text Available Physogastric queens of Melipona marginata were removed from their colonies in order to verify the acceptance of a new queen by workers. Colony strength was evaluated according to queen oviposition rate and comb diameters. Replacement was observed seven times. Its occurrence and speed related positively to colony strength, independently of queen's age. In weak colonies, queen replacement was observed only once, following colony population increase that occurred after introduction of combs from another colony. Worker oviposition after queen removal was observed three times: in a strong colony with virgin queens and males, and in two of the weak colonies. In the first two or three days of new queen oviposition, during which most of the eggs were eaten by the queen, worker oviposition preceded almost all provisioning and oviposition processes (POPs. After this period, worker oviposition decreased until it reached around 25% of the POPs. Daily oviposition rate of young queens decreased or was even interrupted by hatching of their first brood.

  15. Cormorants as visitors in the Vorsø colony

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnballe, Thomas; Vinas, Marta Mas; Gregersen, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Like other seabirds Great Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis are known to prospect in potential breeding colonies during their first years of life before they settle to breed. Based on daily resightings of colour-ringed cormorants in the old Vorsø colony we examined the difference between...

  16. Colonial Military Intelligence in the Zulu Rebellion, 1906 | Thompson ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the Zulu Rebellion of 1906, the Natal Militia defeated the Zulu rebels without British imperial forces having to intervene in the conflict. The colonial forces were well adapted to the local circumstances, but in one important respect they drew heavily on imperial experience, namely military field intelligence. Colonial military ...

  17. Colonial conquest in central Madagascar : who resisted what?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, S.; Abbink, G.J.; Bruijn, M.E. de.; Walraven, van K.

    2003-01-01

    A rising against French colonial rule in central Madagascar (1895-1898) appeared in the 1970s as a good example of resistance to colonialism, sparked by France's occupation of Madagascar. Like many similar episodes in other parts of Africa, it was a history that appeared, in the light of later

  18. Breeding site selection by colonial waterbirds given various ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The number of active colonial waterbird nests at a series of four small constructed wetlands in Cape Town was counted monthly from 1999 to 2008. In total 491 pairs belonging to 11 waterbird species were involved. Between 1997 and 2004 a number of different artificial structures were used to attract colonial waterbirds to ...

  19. Indian Education in the American Colonies, 1607-1783.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szasz, Margaret Connell

    Indian schooling in colonial America was continuously immersed in the exchange between cultures that involved religion, land ownership, disease, alcohol, and warfare, and was molded by trade in furs and hides, and Indian slaves. In the past two decades American scholars have begun to reinterpret colonial North American Indian history and the…

  20. Generation of mutation hotspots in ageing bacterial colonies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sekowska, Agnieszka; Wendel, Sofie; Nørholm, Morten

    How do ageing bacterial colonies generate adaptive mutants? Over a period of two months, we isolated on ageing colonies outgrowing mutants able to use a new carbon source, and sequenced their genomes. This allowed us to uncover exquisite details on the molecular mechanism behind their adaptation:...

  1. 'Mill's Liberal Project and Defence of Colonialism from a Post ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It aims to show that Mill's views on colonial rule were largely informed by his principle of liberty which, in turn, was based on his qualitative utilitarianism. The driving force behind his colonialism, as with his work in general, was his unwavering belief in the importance of human progress and development. Mill never believed ...

  2. Heralding the Other: Sousa, Simulacra, and Settler Colonialism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Matthew C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the role of music and music education in the perpetuation of settler colonialism (a particular colonial configuration predicated on the expulsion of indigenous people and occupation of indigenous land) within the United States. Using Baudrillard's notion of simulacra, or "false truths," to look at racialized…

  3. Countering Coloniality in Educational Research: From Ownership to Answerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    In this theoretical article, I argue for a relational stance on learning as a way of reckoning with educational research as part of the settler colonial structure of the United States. Because of my geopolitical location to the United States as a settler colony, I begin by contrasting the stances of anticolonial and decolonial. I then analyze the…

  4. Toxoplasmosis in a colony of New World monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietz, H.H.; Henriksen, P.; Bille-Hansen, Vivi

    1997-01-01

    In a colony of New World monkeys five tamarins (Saguinus oedipus, Saguinus labiatus and Leontopithecus rosal. rosal.), three marmosets (Callithrix jacchus and Callithrix pygmaea) and one saki (Pithecia pithecia) died suddenly. The colony comprised 16 marmosets, 10 tamarins and three sakis. The ma...

  5. The challenges of sustainable development in post-colonial African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The challenges of sustainable development in post-colonial African states: a review of Adamu Usman's Sieged. ... This paper discusses and contributes to debates on the critical governance challenges faced by post-colonial African states such as bribery and corruption, lack of democratic and participatory governance, ...

  6. Proton Radiotherapy for Parameningeal Rhabdomyosarcoma: Clinical Outcomes and Late Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childs, Stephanie K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Kozak, Kevin R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Wisconsin Cancer Center Johnson Creek, Madison, WI (United States); Friedmann, Alison M. [Department of Pediatric Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Yeap, Beow Y. [Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Adams, Judith; MacDonald, Shannon M.; Liebsch, Norbert J.; Tarbell, Nancy J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Yock, Torunn I., E-mail: tyock@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To report the clinical outcome and late side effect profile of proton radiotherapy in the treatment of children with parameningeal rhabdomyosarcoma (PM-RMS). Methods and Materials: Seventeen consecutive children with PM-RMS were treated with proton radiotherapy at Massachusetts General Hospital between 1996 and 2005. We reviewed the medical records of all patients and asked referring physicians to report specific side effects of interest. Results: Median patient age at diagnosis was 3.4 years (range, 0.4-17.6). Embryonal (n = 11), alveolar (n = 4), and undifferentiated (n = 2) histologies were represented. Ten patients (59%) had intracranial extension. Median prescribed dose was 50.4 cobalt gray equivalents (GyRBE) (range, 50.4-56.0 GyRBE) delivered in 1.8-2.0-GyRBE daily fractions. Median follow-up was 5.0 years for survivors. The 5-year failure-free survival estimate was 59% (95% confidence interval, 33-79%), and overall survival estimate was 64% (95% confidence interval, 37-82%). Among the 7 patients who failed, sites of first recurrence were local only (n = 2), regional only (n = 2), distant only (n = 2), and local and distant (n = 1). Late effects related to proton radiotherapy in the 10 recurrence-free patients (median follow-up, 5 years) include failure to maintain height velocity (n = 3), endocrinopathies (n = 2), mild facial hypoplasia (n = 7), failure of permanent tooth eruption (n = 3), dental caries (n = 5), and chronic nasal/sinus congestion (n = 2). Conclusions: Proton radiotherapy for patients with PM-RMS yields tumor control and survival comparable to that in historical controls with similar poor prognostic factors. Furthermore, rates of late effects from proton radiotherapy compare favorably to published reports of photon-treated cohorts.

  7. The PIREX proton irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victoria, M.

    1995-01-01

    The proton Irradiation Experiment (PIREX) is a materials irradiation facility installed in a beam line of the 590 MeV proton accelerator at the Paul Scherrer Institute. Its main purpose is the testing of candidate materials for fusion reactor components. Protons of this energy produce simultaneously displacement damage and spallation products, amongst them helium and can therefore simulate any possible synergistic effects of damage and helium, that would be produced by the fusion neutrons

  8. The PIREX proton irradiation facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Victoria, M. [Association EURATOM, Villigen (Switzerland)

    1995-10-01

    The proton Irradiation Experiment (PIREX) is a materials irradiation facility installed in a beam line of the 590 MeV proton accelerator at the Paul Scherrer Institute. Its main purpose is the testing of candidate materials for fusion reactor components. Protons of this energy produce simultaneously displacement damage and spallation products, amongst them helium and can therefore simulate any possible synergistic effects of damage and helium, that would be produced by the fusion neutrons.

  9. Search for proton decay: introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldhaber, M.

    1984-01-01

    In interpreting contained events observed in various proton decay detectors one can sometimes postulate, though usually not unambiguously, a potential decay mode of the proton, called a candidate. It is called a candidate, because for any individual event it is not possible to exclude the possibility that it is instead due to cosmic ray background, chiefly atmospheric neutrinos. Some consistency checks are proposed which could help establish proton decay, if it does occur in the presently accessible lifetime window

  10. Sea Quarks in the Proton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reimer Paul E

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The proton is a composite particle in which the binding force is responsible for the majority of its mass. To understand this structure, the distributions and origins of the quark-antiquark pairs produced by the strong force must be measured. The SeaQuest collaboration is using the Drell-Yan process to elucidate antiquark distributions in the proton and to study their modification when the proton is held within a nucleus.

  11. Survival pathways under stress

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Survival pathways under stress. Bacteria survive by changing gene expression. pattern. Three important pathways will be discussed: Stringent response. Quorum sensing. Proteins performing function to control oxidative damage.

  12. The Colonial Situation: Complicities and Distinctions from the Surrealist Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Pablo Gómez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, taking as baseline the thought of Aimé Césaire and Franz Fanon —keeping in mind the closeness of the Negritude movement with surrealism—, we propose to approach the modernity/coloniality problem, appealing to the denominated surrealist image of beauty. In the first part the colonial situation is approached, in the second the colonial situation from the logic of surrealist image, and in the third the possibility of a decolonial universal or pluriversal is raised. In general terms, exploring the existent link between the “surrealist image” and the colonial structure of modernity —that generates the denominated colonial situation—, we aspire to approach what could be a decolonial aesthetic that, as general problem, will be tackled in later works.

  13. Leisure, economy and colonial urbanism: Darjeeling, 1835–1930

    Science.gov (United States)

    BHATTACHARYA, NANDINI

    2013-01-01

    This article posits that the hill station of Darjeeling was a unique form of colonial urbanism. It shifts historiographical interest from major urban centres in colonial India (such as Bombay or Calcutta) and instead attempts a greater understanding of smaller urban centres. In the process, it also interrogates the category of hill stations, which have been understood as exotic and scenic sites rather than as towns that were integral to the colonial economy. In arguing that hill stations, particularly Darjeeling, were not merely the scenic and healthy ‘other’ of the clamorous, dirty and diseased plains of India, it refutes suggestions that the ‘despoiling’ or overcrowding of Darjeeling was incremental to the purposes of its establishment. Instead, it suggests that Darjeeling was part of the colonial mainstream; its urbanization and inclusion into the greater colonial economy was effected from the time of its establishment. Therefore, a constant tension between its exotic and its functional elements persisted throughout. PMID:24273391

  14. Leisure, economy and colonial urbanism: Darjeeling, 1835-1930.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Nandini

    2013-08-01

    This article posits that the hill station of Darjeeling was a unique form of colonial urbanism. It shifts historiographical interest from major urban centres in colonial India (such as Bombay or Calcutta) and instead attempts a greater understanding of smaller urban centres. In the process, it also interrogates the category of hill stations, which have been understood as exotic and scenic sites rather than as towns that were integral to the colonial economy. In arguing that hill stations, particularly Darjeeling, were not merely the scenic and healthy 'other' of the clamorous, dirty and diseased plains of India, it refutes suggestions that the 'despoiling' or overcrowding of Darjeeling was incremental to the purposes of its establishment. Instead, it suggests that Darjeeling was part of the colonial mainstream; its urbanization and inclusion into the greater colonial economy was effected from the time of its establishment. Therefore, a constant tension between its exotic and its functional elements persisted throughout.

  15. Proton irradiation and endometriosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, D.H.; Yochmowitz, M.G.; Salmon, Y.L.; Eason, R.L.; Boster, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Female rhesus monkeys given single total-body exposures of protons of varying energies developed endometriosis at a frequency significantly higher than that of nonirradiated animals of the same age. The minimum latency period was 7 years after exposure. The doses and energies of the radiation received were within the range that could be received by an aircrew member in near-earth orbit during a random solar flare event, leading to the conclusion that endometriosis should be a consideration in assessing the risk of delayed radiation effects in female crewmembers

  16. Proton nuclear scattering radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchazeaubeneix, J.C.; Faivre, J.C.; Garreta, D.

    1982-10-01

    Nuclear scattering of protons allows to radiograph objects with specific properties: direct 3- dimensional radiography, different information as compared to X-ray technique, hydrogen radiography. Furthermore, it is a well adapted method to gating techniques allowing the radiography of fast periodic moving systems. Results obtained on different objects (light and heavy materials) are shown and discussed. The dose delivery is compatible with clinical use, but at the moment, the irradiation time is too long between 1 and 4 hours. Perspectives to make the radiography faster and to get a practical method are discussed

  17. Proton nuclear scattering radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saudinos, J.

    1982-04-01

    Nuclear scattering of protons allows to radiograph objects with specific properties: 3-dimensional radiography, different information as compared to X-ray technique, hydrogen radiography. Furthermore the nuclear scattering radiography (NSR) is a well adapted method to gating techniques allowing the radiography of fast periodic moving objects. Results obtained on phantoms, formalin fixed head and moving object are shown and discussed. The dose delivery is compatible with clinical use, but at the moment, the irradiation time is too long between 1 and 4 hours. Perspectives to make the radiograph faster and to get a practical method are discussed

  18. Proton relativistic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Wilson Roberto Barbosa de

    1995-01-01

    In this dissertation, we present a model for the nucleon, which is composed by three relativistic quarks interacting through a contract force. The nucleon wave-function was obtained from the Faddeev equation in the null-plane. The covariance of the model under kinematical null-plane boots is discussed. The electric proton form-factor, calculated from the Faddeev wave-function, was in agreement with the data for low-momentum transfers and described qualitatively the asymptotic region for momentum transfers around 2 GeV. (author)

  19. Protective, restorative, and therapeutic properties of recombinant colony-stimulating factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talmadge, J.E.; Tribble, H.; Pennington, R.; Bowersox, O.; Schneider, M.A.; Castelli, P.; Black, P.L.; Abe, F.

    1989-01-01

    Pretreatment of mice with recombinant murine (rM) colony-stimulating factor-granulocyte-macrophage (CSF-gm) or recombinant human (rH) CSF-g provides partial protection from the lethal effects of ionizing radiation or the alkylating agent cyclophosphamide (CTX). In addition, these agents can significantly prolong survival if administered following lethal doses of irradiation or CTX. To induce protective activity, cytokines were injected 20 hours before lethal irradiation or CTX administration. To accelerate recovery from lethal irradiation, the cytokines must be administered shortly following irradiation, and the induction of maximal levels of activity is dependent on chronic administration. In contrast, because of their longer half-lives, accelerated recovery from alkylating agents requires a delay of at least 24 to 48 hours to allow complete clearance of CTX before administration of a CSF. Studies quantitating peripheral blood leukocytes and bone marrow cellularity as well as colony-forming units per culture (CFU-C) frequency and CFU-C per femur revealed a significant correlation between these parameters and the ability to survive lethal irradiation

  20. Rethinking the Combination of Proton Exchanger Inhibitors in Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iessi, Elisabetta; Logozzi, Mariantonia; Mizzoni, Davide; Di Raimo, Rossella; Supuran, Claudiu T; Fais, Stefano

    2017-12-23

    Microenvironmental acidity is becoming a key target for the new age of cancer treatment. In fact, while cancer is characterized by genetic heterogeneity, extracellular acidity is a common phenotype of almost all cancers. To survive and proliferate under acidic conditions, tumor cells up-regulate proton exchangers and transporters (mainly V-ATPase, Na⁺/H⁺ exchanger (NHE), monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs), and carbonic anhydrases (CAs)), that actively extrude excess protons, avoiding intracellular accumulation of toxic molecules, thus becoming a sort of survival option with many similarities compared with unicellular microorganisms. These systems are also involved in the unresponsiveness or resistance to chemotherapy, leading to the protection of cancer cells from the vast majority of drugs, that when protonated in the acidic tumor microenvironment, do not enter into cancer cells. Indeed, as usually occurs in the progression versus malignancy, resistant tumor clones emerge and proliferate, following a transient initial response to a therapy, thus giving rise to more malignant behavior and rapid tumor progression. Recent studies are supporting the use of a cocktail of proton exchanger inhibitors as a new strategy against cancer.

  1. Iridovirus and microsporidian linked to honey bee colony decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromenshenk, Jerry J; Henderson, Colin B; Wick, Charles H; Stanford, Michael F; Zulich, Alan W; Jabbour, Rabih E; Deshpande, Samir V; McCubbin, Patrick E; Seccomb, Robert A; Welch, Phillip M; Williams, Trevor; Firth, David R; Skowronski, Evan; Lehmann, Margaret M; Bilimoria, Shan L; Gress, Joanna; Wanner, Kevin W; Cramer, Robert A

    2010-10-06

    In 2010 Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), again devastated honey bee colonies in the USA, indicating that the problem is neither diminishing nor has it been resolved. Many CCD investigations, using sensitive genome-based methods, have found small RNA bee viruses and the microsporidia, Nosema apis and N. ceranae in healthy and collapsing colonies alike with no single pathogen firmly linked to honey bee losses. We used Mass spectrometry-based proteomics (MSP) to identify and quantify thousands of proteins from healthy and collapsing bee colonies. MSP revealed two unreported RNA viruses in North American honey bees, Varroa destructor-1 virus and Kakugo virus, and identified an invertebrate iridescent virus (IIV) (Iridoviridae) associated with CCD colonies. Prevalence of IIV significantly discriminated among strong, failing, and collapsed colonies. In addition, bees in failing colonies contained not only IIV, but also Nosema. Co-occurrence of these microbes consistently marked CCD in (1) bees from commercial apiaries sampled across the U.S. in 2006-2007, (2) bees sequentially sampled as the disorder progressed in an observation hive colony in 2008, and (3) bees from a recurrence of CCD in Florida in 2009. The pathogen pairing was not observed in samples from colonies with no history of CCD, namely bees from Australia and a large, non-migratory beekeeping business in Montana. Laboratory cage trials with a strain of IIV type 6 and Nosema ceranae confirmed that co-infection with these two pathogens was more lethal to bees than either pathogen alone. These findings implicate co-infection by IIV and Nosema with honey bee colony decline, giving credence to older research pointing to IIV, interacting with Nosema and mites, as probable cause of bee losses in the USA, Europe, and Asia. We next need to characterize the IIV and Nosema that we detected and develop management practices to reduce honey bee losses.

  2. Emergence of polymorphic mating strategies in robot colonies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Elfwing

    Full Text Available Polymorphism has fascinated evolutionary biologists since the time of Darwin. Biologists have observed discrete alternative mating strategies in many different species. In this study, we demonstrate that polymorphic mating strategies can emerge in a colony of hermaphrodite robots. We used a survival and reproduction task where the robots maintained their energy levels by capturing energy sources and physically exchanged genotypes for the reproduction of offspring. The reproductive success was dependent on the individuals' energy levels, which created a natural trade-off between the time invested in maintaining a high energy level and the time invested in attracting mating partners. We performed experiments in environments with different density of energy sources and observed a variety in the mating behavior when a robot could see both an energy source and a potential mating partner. The individuals could be classified into two phenotypes: 1 forager, who always chooses to capture energy sources, and 2 tracker, who keeps track of potential mating partners if its energy level is above a threshold. In four out of the seven highest fitness populations in different environments, we found subpopulations with distinct differences in genotype and in behavioral phenotype. We analyzed the fitnesses of the foragers and the trackers by sampling them from each subpopulation and mixing with different ratios in a population. The fitness curves for the two subpopulations crossed at about 25% of foragers in the population, showing the evolutionary stability of the polymorphism. In one of those polymorphic populations, the trackers were further split into two subpopulations: (strong trackers and (weak trackers. Our analyses show that the population consisting of three phenotypes also constituted several stable polymorphic evolutionarily stable states. To our knowledge, our study is the first to demonstrate the emergence of polymorphic evolutionarily stable

  3. For the youth : juvenile delinquency, colonial civil society and the late colonial state in the Netherlands Indies, 1872-1942

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirks, Annelieke

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation project focuses on forced re-education policies for juvenile delinquents in the Netherlands Indies (now Indonesia) and uses this topic to show the interaction between a 'modernizing' Dutch colonial state and the growth of a colonial civil society, between approximately 1872 and

  4. Collective Memories of Portuguese Colonial Action in Africa: Representations of the Colonial Past among Mozambicans and Portuguese Youths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Feijó

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Social representations of the colonization and decolonization processes among young people from a former European colonial power (Portugal and from an African ex-colony (Mozambique were investigated through surveys using open- and closed-ended questions about national history, focusing on the identity functions of collective memories. Hegemonic and contested representations were found of the most prominent events related to Portuguese colonization of Mozambique, arousing a range of collective emotions. A central place is occupied by memories of the Colonial War, which ended with the Carnation Revolution in Portugal and the subsequent independence of the Portuguese African colonies. Overall, the depiction of colonialism was more negative for Mozambican than for Portuguese participants. The violent effects of colonial action were very salient in Mozambican memories, which stressed the most oppressive aspects of the colonial period, associated with slave trade and brutal repression. On the Portuguese side, the idealization of the voyages of discovery persisted, obscuring the most violent effects of colonial expansion. However, collective memories of colonization of former colonizer and former colonized do not simply stand opposed. Both Mozambican and Portuguese participants reported ambivalent feelings towards the colonization process.

  5. Proton-proton bremsstrahlung towards the elastic limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahjour-Shafiei, M.; Amir-Ahmadi, H. R.; Bacelar, J. C. S.; Castelijns, R.; Ermisch, K.; van Garderen, E.; Gašparić, I.; Harakeh, M. N.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kiš, M.; Löhner, H.

    2005-05-01

    In oder to study proton-proton bremsstrahlung moving towards the elastic limit, a detection system, consisting of Plastic-ball and SALAD, was set up and an experiment at 190 MeV incident beam energy was performed. Here, the experimental setup and the data analysis procedure along with some results obtained in the measurement are discussed.

  6. Proton-proton bremsstrahlung towards the elastic limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahjour-Shafiei, M.; Amir-Ahmadi, H.R.; Bacelar, J.C.S.; Castelijns, R.; Ermisch, K.; Garderen, E. van; Harakeh, M.N.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kis, M.; Loehner, H.; Gasparic, I.

    2005-01-01

    In oder to study proton-proton bremsstrahlung moving towards the elastic limit, a detection system, consisting of Plastic-ball and SALAD, was set up and an experiment at 190 MeV incident beam energy was performed. Here, the experimental setup and the data analysis procedure along with some results obtained in the measurement are discussed

  7. Mem and Cookie: The Colonial Kitchen in Malaysia and Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Leong-Salobir

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the emergence of a distinctive colonial cuisine in the British colonies of Malaysia and Singapore beginning in the late nineteenth century. This colonial cuisine evolved over time and was a combination of culinary practices derived from European and Asian foodways, much of which came from colonial India. As in India, this acculturation developed through the reliance of colonizers on their domestic servants for food preparation. While domestic servants (as cooks, or known locally as “cookie” were generally represented as dirty, dishonest and lacking in intelligence according to colonial narratives, they were responsible for the preparation of food for the family. Asian cooks in the colonial home played a much more crucial role than the negative image painted of them by British colonizers and other historians. While the mem (short for memsahib, meaning mistress held the supervisory role of the household, it was the physical contribution of the domestic servants that enabled her to fulfill this function. The large number of servants employed enabled the mem to make the colonial home move seamlessly between the private domain of the home and the official venue for the empire’s tasks. The mem as the head of the household decided on the rituals and tasks that defined the colonial space as home, and as a bastion of white imperialism. In contrast, it was the cooks’ local knowledge that procured food. Most kitchens were fashioned according to the requirements of the servants and the cooks did all the cooking, usually preparing local dishes. The argument is that, had it not been for the servants’ input, the mems would have had to work harder. As it was, the work of the servants not only saved white labour, it helped shape colonial culture, despite the Britons’ best efforts to keep themselves socially distant. Colonial cuisine would not have developed with such distinctive features without the skills and local knowledge of

  8. The FAIR proton linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kester, O.

    2015-01-01

    FAIR - the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe - constructed at GSI in Darmstadt comprises an international centre of heavy ion accelerators that will drive heavy ion and antimatter research. FAIR will provide worldwide unique accelerator and experimental facilities, allowing a large variety of fore-front research in physics and applied science. FAIR will deliver antiproton and ion beams of unprecedented intensities and qualities. The main part of the FAIR facility is a sophisticated accelerator system, which delivers beams to different experiments of the FAIR experimental collaborations - APPA, NuSTAR, CBM and PANDA - in parallel. Modern H-type cavities offer highest shunt impedances of resonant structures of heavy ion linacs at low beam energies < 20 MeV/u and enable the acceleration of intense proton and ion beams. One example is the interdigital H-type structure. The crossed-bar H-cavities extend these properties to high energies even beyond 100 MeV/u. Compared to conventional Alvarez cavities, these crossed-bar (CH) cavities feature much higher shunt impedance at low energies. The design of the proton linac is based on those cavities

  9. Proton minibeam radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girst, Stefanie

    2016-03-08

    The risk of developing adverse side effects in the normal tissue after radiotherapy is often limiting for the dose that can be applied to the tumor. Proton minibeam radiotherapy, a spatially fractionated radiotherapy method using sub-millimeter proton beams, similar to grid therapy or microbeam radiation radiotherapy (MRT) using X-rays, has recently been invented at the ion microprobe SNAKE in Munich. The aim of this new concept is to minimize normal tissue injuries in the entrance channel and especially in the skin by irradiating only a small percentage of the cells in the total irradiation field, while maintaining tumor control via a homogeneous dose in the tumor, just like in conventional broad beam radiotherapy. This can be achieved by optimizing minibeam sizes and distances according to the prevailing tumor size and depth such that after widening of the minibeams due to proton interactions in the tissue, the overlapping minibeams produce a homogeneous dose distribution throughout the tumor. The aim of this work was to elucidate the prospects of minibeam radiation therapy compared to conventional homogeneous broad beam radiotherapy in theory and in experimental studies at the ion microprobe SNAKE. Treatment plans for model tumors of different sizes and depths were created using the planning software LAPCERR, to elaborate suitable minibeam sizes and distances for the individual tumors. Radiotherapy-relevant inter-beam distances required to obtain a homogeneous dose in the target volume were found to be in the millimeter range. First experiments using proton minibeams of only 10 μm and 50 μm size (termed microchannels in the corresponding publication Zlobinskaya et al. 2013) and therapy-conform larger dimensions of 100 μm and 180 μm were performed in the artificial human in-vitro skin model EpiDermFT trademark (MatTek). The corresponding inter-beam distances were 500 μm, 1mm and 1.8 mm, respectively, leading to irradiation of only a few percent of the cells

  10. Berkeley Proton Linear Accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, L. W.; Bradner, H.; Franck, J.; Gordon, H.; Gow, J. D.; Marshall, L. C.; Oppenheimer, F. F.; Panofsky, W. K. H.; Richman, C.; Woodyard, J. R.

    1953-10-13

    A linear accelerator, which increases the energy of protons from a 4 Mev Van de Graaff injector, to a final energy of 31.5 Mev, has been constructed. The accelerator consists of a cavity 40 feet long and 39 inches in diameter, excited at resonance in a longitudinal electric mode with a radio-frequency power of about 2.2 x 10{sup 6} watts peak at 202.5 mc. Acceleration is made possible by the introduction of 46 axial "drift tubes" into the cavity, which is designed such that the particles traverse the distance between the centers of successive tubes in one cycle of the r.f. power. The protons are longitudinally stable as in the synchrotron, and are stabilized transversely by the action of converging fields produced by focusing grids. The electrical cavity is constructed like an inverted airplane fuselage and is supported in a vacuum tank. Power is supplied by 9 high powered oscillators fed from a pulse generator of the artificial transmission line type.

  11. Are Dispersal Mechanisms Changing the Host-Parasite Relationship and Increasing the Virulence of Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata: Varroidae) in Managed Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Colonies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGrandi-Hoffman, Gloria; Ahumada, Fabiana; Graham, Henry

    2017-08-01

    Varroa (Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman) are a serious pest of European honey bees (Apis mellifera L.), and difficult to control in managed colonies. In our 11-mo longitudinal study, we applied multiple miticide treatments, yet mite numbers remained high and colony losses exceeded 55%. High mortality from varroa in managed apiaries is a departure from the effects of the mite in feral colonies where bees and varroa can coexist. Differences in mite survival strategies and dispersal mechanisms may be contributing factors. In feral colonies, mites can disperse through swarming. In managed apiaries, where swarming is reduced, mites disperse on foragers robbing or drifting from infested hives. Using a honey bee-varroa population model, we show that yearly swarming curtails varroa population growth, enabling colony survival for >5 yr. Without swarming, colonies collapsed by the third year. To disperse, varroa must attach to foragers that then enter other hives. We hypothesize that stress from parasitism and virus infection combined with effects that viruses have on cognitive function may contribute to forager drift and mite and virus dispersal. We also hypothesize that drifting foragers with mites can measurably increase mite populations. Simulations initialized with field data indicate that low levels of drifting foragers with mites can create sharp increases in mite populations in the fall and heavily infested colonies in the spring. We suggest new research directions to investigate factors leading to mite dispersal on foragers, and mite management strategies with consideration of varroa as a migratory pest. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  12. Cell survival in a simulated Mars environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Paul; Kurk, Michael Andy; Boland, Eugene; Thomas, David

    2016-07-01

    The most ancient life forms on earth date back comfortably to the time when liquid water was believed to be abundant on Mars. These ancient life forms include cyanobacteria, contemporary autotrophic earth organisms believed to have descended from ancestors present as long as 3.5 billion years ago. Contemporary cyanobacteria have adapted to the earth environment's harshest conditions (long-term drying, high and low temperature), and, being autotrophic, they are among the most likely life forms to withstand space travel and the Mars environment. However, it is unlikely that humans would unwittingly contaminate a planetary spacecraft with these microbes. One the other hand, heterotrophic microbes that co-habit with humans are more likely spacecraft contaminants, as history attests. Indeed, soil samples from the Atacama desert have yielded colony-forming organisms resembling enteric bacteria. There is a need to understand the survivability of cyanobacteria (likely survivors, unlikely contaminants) and heterotrophic eubacteria (unlikely survivors, likely contaminants) under simulated planetary conditions. A 35-day test was performed in a commercial planetary simulation system (Techshot, Inc., Greenville, IN) in which the minimum night-time temperature was -80 C, the maximum daytime temperature was +26 C, the simulated day-night light cycle in earth hours was 12-on and 12-off, and the total pressure of the pure CO _{2} atmosphere was maintained below 11 mbar. Any water present was allowed to equilibrate with the changing temperature and pressure. The gas phase was sampled into a CR1-A low-pressure hygrometer (Buck Technologies, Boulder, CO), and dew/frost point was measured once every hour and recorded on a data logger, along with the varying temperature in the chamber, from which the partial pressure of water was calculated. According to measurements there was no liquid water present throughout the test except during the initial pump-down period when aqueous specimens

  13. Loading pattern optimization using ant colony algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoareau, Fabrice

    2008-01-01

    Electricite de France (EDF) operates 58 nuclear power plants (NPP), of the Pressurized Water Reactor type. The loading pattern optimization of these NPP is currently done by EDF expert engineers. Within this framework, EDF R and D has developed automatic optimization tools that assist the experts. LOOP is an industrial tool, developed by EDF R and D and based on a simulated annealing algorithm. In order to improve the results of such automatic tools, new optimization methods have to be tested. Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) algorithms are recent methods that have given very good results on combinatorial optimization problems. In order to evaluate the performance of such methods on loading pattern optimization, direct comparisons between LOOP and a mock-up based on the Max-Min Ant System algorithm (a particular variant of ACO algorithms) were made on realistic test-cases. It is shown that the results obtained by the ACO mock-up are very similar to those of LOOP. Future research will consist in improving these encouraging results by using parallelization and by hybridizing the ACO algorithm with local search procedures. (author)

  14. ESTUDIOS (INTERCULTURALES EN CLAVE DE-COLONIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Walsh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Los «estudios culturales» en América Latina forman parte de una política de nombrar inscrita en legados y cartografiados frecuentemente como totalidad, ocultando o dejando pasar por alto las diferencias a su interior. Este articula examina desde dónde nacen los estudios culturales en América Latina en general y en la Universidad Andina Simón Bolívar en Quito en particular, con qué política de nombramiento, qué proyecto(s y qué bases y perspectivas de conocimiento. Considera qué implica concebir y construir los estudios culturales como proyecto político-intelectual, inter-cultural, inter-epistémico y de orientación de-colonial y los desafíos y obstáculos al respecto, incluyendo dentro de la problemática misma de la «uni»-versidad.

  15. Selective sweeps in growing microbial colonies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korolev, Kirill S; Müller, Melanie J I; Murray, Andrew W; Nelson, David R; Karahan, Nilay; Hallatschek, Oskar

    2012-01-01

    Evolutionary experiments with microbes are a powerful tool to study mutations and natural selection. These experiments, however, are often limited to the well-mixed environments of a test tube or a chemostat. Since spatial organization can significantly affect evolutionary dynamics, the need is growing for evolutionary experiments in spatially structured environments. The surface of a Petri dish provides such an environment, but a more detailed understanding of microbial growth on Petri dishes is necessary to interpret such experiments. We formulate a simple deterministic reaction–diffusion model, which successfully predicts the spatial patterns created by two competing species during colony expansion. We also derive the shape of these patterns analytically without relying on microscopic details of the model. In particular, we find that the relative fitness of two microbial strains can be estimated from the logarithmic spirals created by selective sweeps. The theory is tested with strains of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for spatial competitions with different initial conditions and for a range of relative fitnesses. The reaction–diffusion model also connects the microscopic parameters like growth rates and diffusion constants with macroscopic spatial patterns and predicts the relationship between fitness in liquid cultures and on Petri dishes, which we confirmed experimentally. Spatial sector patterns therefore provide an alternative fitness assay to the commonly used liquid culture fitness assays. (paper)

  16. Image steganalysis using Artificial Bee Colony algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajedi, Hedieh

    2017-09-01

    Steganography is the science of secure communication where the presence of the communication cannot be detected while steganalysis is the art of discovering the existence of the secret communication. Processing a huge amount of information takes extensive execution time and computational sources most of the time. As a result, it is needed to employ a phase of preprocessing, which can moderate the execution time and computational sources. In this paper, we propose a new feature-based blind steganalysis method for detecting stego images from the cover (clean) images with JPEG format. In this regard, we present a feature selection technique based on an improved Artificial Bee Colony (ABC). ABC algorithm is inspired by honeybees' social behaviour in their search for perfect food sources. In the proposed method, classifier performance and the dimension of the selected feature vector depend on using wrapper-based methods. The experiments are performed using two large data-sets of JPEG images. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed steganalysis technique compared to the other existing techniques.

  17. Selective sweeps in growing microbial colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolev, Kirill S.; Müller, Melanie J. I.; Karahan, Nilay; Murray, Andrew W.; Hallatschek, Oskar; Nelson, David R.

    2012-04-01

    Evolutionary experiments with microbes are a powerful tool to study mutations and natural selection. These experiments, however, are often limited to the well-mixed environments of a test tube or a chemostat. Since spatial organization can significantly affect evolutionary dynamics, the need is growing for evolutionary experiments in spatially structured environments. The surface of a Petri dish provides such an environment, but a more detailed understanding of microbial growth on Petri dishes is necessary to interpret such experiments. We formulate a simple deterministic reaction-diffusion model, which successfully predicts the spatial patterns created by two competing species during colony expansion. We also derive the shape of these patterns analytically without relying on microscopic details of the model. In particular, we find that the relative fitness of two microbial strains can be estimated from the logarithmic spirals created by selective sweeps. The theory is tested with strains of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for spatial competitions with different initial conditions and for a range of relative fitnesses. The reaction-diffusion model also connects the microscopic parameters like growth rates and diffusion constants with macroscopic spatial patterns and predicts the relationship between fitness in liquid cultures and on Petri dishes, which we confirmed experimentally. Spatial sector patterns therefore provide an alternative fitness assay to the commonly used liquid culture fitness assays.

  18. How can bee colony algorithm serve medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehahmadi, Zeinab; Manafi, Amir

    2014-07-01

    Healthcare professionals usually should make complex decisions with far reaching consequences and associated risks in health care fields. As it was demonstrated in other industries, the ability to drill down into pertinent data to explore knowledge behind the data can greatly facilitate superior, informed decisions to ensue the facts. Nature has always inspired researchers to develop models of solving the problems. Bee colony algorithm (BCA), based on the self-organized behavior of social insects is one of the most popular member of the family of population oriented, nature inspired meta-heuristic swarm intelligence method which has been proved its superiority over some other nature inspired algorithms. The objective of this model was to identify valid novel, potentially useful, and understandable correlations and patterns in existing data. This review employs a thematic analysis of online series of academic papers to outline BCA in medical hive, reducing the response and computational time and optimizing the problems. To illustrate the benefits of this model, the cases of disease diagnose system are presented.

  19. Artificial bee colony in neuro - Symbolic integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasihmuddin, Mohd Shareduwan Mohd; Sathasivam, Saratha; Mansor, Mohd. Asyraf

    2017-08-01

    Swarm intelligence is a research area that models the population of the swarm based on natural computation. Artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm is a swarm based metaheuristic algorithm introduced by Karaboga to optimize numerical problem. Pattern-SAT is a pattern reconstruction paradigm that utilized 2SAT logical rule in representing the behavior of the desired pattern. The information of the desired pattern in terms of 2SAT logic is embedded to Hopfield neural network (HNN-P2SAT) and the desired pattern is reconstructed during the retrieval phase. Since the performance of HNN-P2SAT in Pattern-SAT deteriorates when the number of 2SAT clause increased, newly improved ABC is used to reduce the computation burden during the learning phase of HNN-P2SAT (HNN-P2SATABC). The aim of this study is to investigate the performance of Pattern-SAT produced by ABC incorporated with HNN-P2SAT and compare it with conventional standalone HNN. The comparison is examined by using Microsoft Visual Basic C++ 2013 software. The detailed comparison in doing Pattern-SAT is discussed based on global Pattern-SAT, ratio of activated clauses and computation time. The result obtained from computer simulation indicates the beneficial features of HNN-P2SATABC in doing Pattern-SAT. This finding is expected to result in a significant implication on the choice of searching method used to do Pattern-SAT.

  20. Network survivability performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-01

    This technical report has been developed to address the survivability of telecommunications networks including services. It responds to the need for a common understanding of, and assessment techniques for network survivability, availability, integrity, and reliability. It provides a basis for designing and operating telecommunications networks to user expectations for network survivability and a foundation for continuing industry activities in the subject area. This report focuses on the survivability of both public and private networks and covers a wide range of users. Two frameworks are established for quantifying and categorizing service outages, and for classifying network survivability techniques and measures. The performance of the network survivability techniques is considered; however, recommended objectives are not established for network survivability performance.

  1. An improved method for staining cell colonies in clonogenic assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guda, Kishore; Natale, Leanna; Markowitz, Sanford D

    2007-06-01

    Clonogenic assay is a widely used experimental approach to test for the effects of drugs/genes on the growth and proliferative characteristics of cells in vitro. Accurate quantitation of treatment effects in clonogeneic assays depends on the ability to visualize and count cell colonies precisely. We report a novel method (referred as ETeB) for staining cell colonies grown on plastic and specially coated substrates like collagen. Using colon cancer cell lines grown on plastic and collagen, we compared the colony staining efficiencies of the widely used methylene blue, and Ethidium bromide (ETeB) stains. Results show that the ETeB protocol works well on plastic and is extremely effective for staining colonies on collagen when compared to methylene blue. The key features and advantages of ETeB technique are; (a) reduction in background for colonies grown on collagen and possibly other substrates, (b) the whole procedure takes less than a minute, (c) no post-stain washing step is required which eliminates colony losses for cell lines that are loosely adherent, (d) colony visualization and counting can be done immediately following the staining procedure using a standard UV illuminator and software, and (e) the method works across a wide variety of cell lines. The simplicity and robustness of this procedure should warrant its usage in both small and large-scale clonogenic experiments.

  2. The colonial context of Filipino American immigrants' psychological experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, E J R; Nadal, Kevin L

    2013-07-01

    Because of the long colonial history of Filipinos and the highly Americanized climate of postcolonial Philippines, many scholars from various disciplines have speculated that colonialism and its legacies may play major roles in Filipino emigration to the United States. However, there are no known empirical studies in psychology that specifically investigate whether colonialism and its effects have influenced the psychological experiences of Filipino American immigrants prior to their arrival in the United States. Further, there is no existing empirical study that specifically investigates the extent to which colonialism and its legacies continue to influence Filipino American immigrants' mental health. Thus, using interviews (N = 6) and surveys (N = 219) with Filipino American immigrants, two studies found that colonialism and its consequences are important factors to consider when conceptualizing the psychological experiences of Filipino American immigrants. Specifically, the findings suggest that (a) Filipino American immigrants experienced ethnic and cultural denigration in the Philippines prior to their U.S. arrival, (b) ethnic and cultural denigration in the Philippines and in the United States may lead to the development of colonial mentality (CM), and (c) that CM may have negative mental health consequences among Filipino American immigrants. The two studies' findings suggest that the Filipino American immigration experience cannot be completely captured by the voluntary immigrant narrative, as they provide empirical support to the notion that the Filipino American immigration experience needs to be understood in the context of colonialism and its most insidious psychological legacy- CM. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Radioprotective effect of colony-stimulating factor on mice irradiated with 60Co γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Junning; Wang Tao; Xu Changshao; Wang Hongyun

    1995-01-01

    Adult male mice were irradiated with γ-rays 6 Gy once or 3 Gy three times in 7 days and intraperitoneally injected with colony-stimulating factor (CSF) in high doses or low doses. Mice of the control group were injected with normal saline only. Within 30 days after irradiation, the survival rate of mice irradiated with 6 Gy γ-rays once and treated with high dose CSF was 9/25, while that in the control group was 2/25. The survival rate of mice irradiated with 3 Gy three times and treated with high dose CSF was 10/13, while that in the control group was 4/13. Moreover, the survival times of both irradiated groups treated with high dose CSF were much longer than the control groups (p<0.01). This experiment also showed that CSF could reduce the lowering of peripheral blood white blood cell counts and promote their recovery. The number of CFU-S in mice treated with CSF was much higher (23.8 +- 4.82) than in the control group (9.4 +- 4.39) (p<0.01). Therefore, CSF could recover and reconstruct the hematopoietic function of bone marrow, and prolong the survival of irradiated mice

  4. Polarized Proton Collisions at RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Mei; Alekseev, Igor G; Alessi, James; Beebe-Wang, Joanne; Blaskiewicz, Michael; Bravar, Alessandro; Brennan, Joseph M; Bruno, Donald; Bunce, Gerry; Butler, John J; Cameron, Peter; Connolly, Roger; De Long, Joseph; Drees, Angelika; Fischer, Wolfram; Ganetis, George; Gardner, Chris J; Glenn, Joseph; Hayes, Thomas; Hseuh Hsiao Chaun; Huang, Haixin; Ingrassia, Peter; Iriso, Ubaldo; Laster, Jonathan S; Lee, Roger C; Luccio, Alfredo U; Luo, Yun; MacKay, William W; Makdisi, Yousef; Marr, Gregory J; Marusic, Al; McIntyre, Gary; Michnoff, Robert; Montag, Christoph; Morris, John; Nicoletti, Tony; Oddo, Peter; Oerter, Brian; Osamu, Jinnouchi; Pilat, Fulvia Caterina; Ptitsyn, Vadim; Roser, Thomas; Satogata, Todd; Smith, Kevin T; Svirida, Dima; Tepikian, Steven; Tomas, Rogelio; Trbojevic, Dejan; Tsoupas, Nicholaos; Tuozzolo, Joseph; Vetter, Kurt; Wilinski, Michelle; Zaltsman, Alex; Zelenski, Anatoli; Zeno, Keith; Zhang, S Y

    2005-01-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider~(RHIC) provides not only collisions of ions but also collisions of polarized protons. In a circular accelerator, the polarization of polarized proton beam can be partially or fully lost when a spin depolarizing resonance is encountered. To preserve the beam polarization during acceleration, two full Siberian snakes were employed in RHIC to avoid depolarizing resonances. In 2003, polarized proton beams were accelerated to 100~GeV and collided in RHIC. Beams were brought into collisions with longitudinal polarization at the experiments STAR and PHENIX by using spin rotators. RHIC polarized proton run experience demonstrates that optimizing polarization transmission efficiency and improving luminosity performance are significant challenges. Currently, the luminosity lifetime in RHIC is limited by the beam-beam effect. The current state of RHIC polarized proton program, including its dedicated physics run in 2005 and efforts to optimize luminosity production in beam-beam limite...

  5. Polarized proton collider at RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, I.; Allgower, C.; Bai, M.; Batygin, Y.; Bozano, L.; Brown, K.; Bunce, G.; Cameron, P.; Courant, E.; Erin, S.; Escallier, J.; Fischer, W.; Gupta, R.; Hatanaka, K.; Huang, H.; Imai, K.; Ishihara, M.; Jain, A.; Lehrach, A.; Kanavets, V.; Katayama, T.; Kawaguchi, T.; Kelly, E.; Kurita, K.; Lee, S.Y.; Luccio, A.; MacKay, W.W.; Mahler, G.; Makdisi, Y.; Mariam, F.; McGahern, W.; Morgan, G.; Muratore, J.; Okamura, M.; Peggs, S.; Pilat, F.; Ptitsin, V.; Ratner, L.; Roser, T.; Saito, N.; Satoh, H.; Shatunov, Y.; Spinka, H.; Syphers, M.; Tepikian, S.; Tominaka, T.; Tsoupas, N.; Underwood, D.; Vasiliev, A.; Wanderer, P.; Willen, E.; Wu, H.; Yokosawa, A.; Zelenski, A.N.

    2003-01-01

    In addition to heavy ion collisions (RHIC Design Manual, Brookhaven National Laboratory), RHIC will also collide intense beams of polarized protons (I. Alekseev, et al., Design Manual Polarized Proton Collider at RHIC, Brookhaven National Laboratory, 1998, reaching transverse energies where the protons scatter as beams of polarized quarks and gluons. The study of high energy polarized protons beams has been a long term part of the program at BNL with the development of polarized beams in the Booster and AGS rings for fixed target experiments. We have extended this capability to the RHIC machine. In this paper we describe the design and methods for achieving collisions of both longitudinal and transverse polarized protons in RHIC at energies up to √s=500 GeV

  6. Protonic decay of oriented nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadmensky, S.G.

    2002-01-01

    On the basis of the multiparticle theory of protonic decay, the angular distributions of protons emitted by oriented spherical and deformed nuclei in the laboratory frame and in the internal coordinate frame of deformed parent nuclei are constructed with allowance for symmetry with respect to time inversion. It is shown that, because of the deep-subbarrier character of protonic decay, the adiabatic approximation is not applicable to describing the angular distributions of protons emitted by oriented deformed nuclei and that the angular distribution of protons in the laboratory frame does not coincide with that in the internal coordinate frame. It is demonstrated that these angular distributions coincide only if the adiabatic and the semiclassical approximation are simultaneously valid

  7. Protein proton-proton dynamics from amide proton spin flip rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, Daniel S.; Zuiderweg, Erik R. P.

    2009-01-01

    Residue-specific amide proton spin-flip rates K were measured for peptide-free and peptide-bound calmodulin. K approximates the sum of NOE build-up rates between the amide proton and all other protons. This work outlines the theory of multi-proton relaxation, cross relaxation and cross correlation, and how to approximate it with a simple model based on a variable number of equidistant protons. This model is used to extract the sums of K-rates from the experimental data. Error in K is estimated using bootstrap methodology. We define a parameter Q as the ratio of experimental K-rates to theoretical K-rates, where the theoretical K-rates are computed from atomic coordinates. Q is 1 in the case of no local motion, but decreases to values as low as 0.5 with increasing domination of sidechain protons of the same residue to the amide proton flips. This establishes Q as a monotonous measure of local dynamics of the proton network surrounding the amide protons. The method is applied to the study of proton dynamics in Ca 2+ -saturated calmodulin, both free in solution and bound to smMLCK peptide. The mean Q is 0.81 ± 0.02 for free calmodulin and 0.88 ± 0.02 for peptide-bound calmodulin. This novel methodology thus reveals the presence of significant interproton disorder in this protein, while the increase in Q indicates rigidification of the proton network upon peptide binding, confirming the known high entropic cost of this process

  8. Preparation of Single-cohort Colonies and Hormone Treatment of Worker Honeybees to Analyze Physiology Associated with Role and/or Endocrine System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Takayuki; Kawasaki, Kiyoshi; Kubo, Takeo

    2016-09-06

    Honeybee workers are engaged in various tasks related to maintaining colony activity. The tasks of the workers change according to their age (age-related division of labor). Young workers are engaged in nursing the brood (nurse bees), while older workers are engaged in foraging for nectar and pollen (foragers). The physiology of the workers changes in association with this role shift. For example, the main function of the hypopharyngeal glands (HPGs) changes from the secretion of major royal jelly proteins (MRJPs) to the secretion of carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes. Because worker tasks change as the workers age in typical colonies, it is difficult to discriminate the physiological changes that occur with aging from those that occur with the role shift. To study the physiological changes in worker tissues, including the HPGs, in association with the role shift, it would be useful to manipulate the honeybee colony population by preparing single-cohort colonies in which workers of almost the same age perform different tasks. Here we describe a detailed protocol for preparing single-cohort colonies for this analysis. Six to eight days after single-cohort colony preparation, precocious foragers that perform foraging tasks earlier than usual appear in the colony. Representative results indicated role-associated changes in HPG gene expression, suggesting role-associated HPG function. In addition to manipulating the colony population, analysis of the endocrine system is important for investigating role-associated physiology. Here, we also describe a detailed protocol for treating workers with 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), an active form of ecdysone, and methoprene, a juvenile hormone analogue. The survival rate of treated bees was sufficient to examine gene expression in the HPGs. Gene expression changes were observed in response to 20E- and/or methoprene-treatment, suggesting that hormone treatments induce physiological changes of the HPGs. The protocol for hormone

  9. Colonial Networks of Power: The Far Reaches of Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecht, Gabrielle

    2004-01-01

    Thomas Hughes has shown the links which existed between politics and technological and economic changes. From this point of view, the relationship between colonialism and the development of nuclear systems is interesting. There is a significant continuity from the colonial Empires to the uranium supply networks. Americans and the British worked together to prospect and to exploit uranium deposits, in particular in South Africa. On their side, the French had similar activities in Madagascar, Gabon and Niger. In both cases, important post-colonial ties have been maintained based on techno-politics

  10. 'Goodwill Ambassador': the Legacy of Dutch Colonial Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda Jansen Hendriks

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article looks back at the films commissioned and produced by the Dutch governments about their colony in teh East-Indies between 1912 and 1962. The main focus is on the newsreels and documentaries about the colonial war between the Netherlands and Indonesia  from 1945 to 1949. The article reviews these films and the re-use of their footage in later television programs. The programs often look back at the colonial war in ways that go beyond the purpose of the original films and the article aims to show the methods that are used to do this.

  11. Warehouse stocking optimization based on dynamic ant colony genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiaoxu

    2018-04-01

    In view of the various orders of FAW (First Automotive Works) International Logistics Co., Ltd., the SLP method is used to optimize the layout of the warehousing units in the enterprise, thus the warehouse logistics is optimized and the external processing speed of the order is improved. In addition, the relevant intelligent algorithms for optimizing the stocking route problem are analyzed. The ant colony algorithm and genetic algorithm which have good applicability are emphatically studied. The parameters of ant colony algorithm are optimized by genetic algorithm, which improves the performance of ant colony algorithm. A typical path optimization problem model is taken as an example to prove the effectiveness of parameter optimization.

  12. Ant colony algorithm for clustering in portfolio optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subekti, R.; Sari, E. R.; Kusumawati, R.

    2018-03-01

    This research aims to describe portfolio optimization using clustering methods with ant colony approach. Two stock portfolios of LQ45 Indonesia is proposed based on the cluster results obtained from ant colony optimization (ACO). The first portfolio consists of assets with ant colony displacement opportunities beyond the defined probability limits of the researcher, where the weight of each asset is determined by mean-variance method. The second portfolio consists of two assets with the assumption that each asset is a cluster formed from ACO. The first portfolio has a better performance compared to the second portfolio seen from the Sharpe index.

  13. Mathematical Modeling the Geometric Regularity in Proteus Mirabilis Colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Jiang, Yi; Minsu Kim Collaboration

    Proteus Mirabilis colony exhibits striking spatiotemporal regularity, with concentric ring patterns with alternative high and low bacteria density in space, and periodicity for repetition process of growth and swarm in time. We present a simple mathematical model to explain the spatiotemporal regularity of P. Mirabilis colonies. We study a one-dimensional system. Using a reaction-diffusion model with thresholds in cell density and nutrient concentration, we recreated periodic growth and spread patterns, suggesting that the nutrient constraint and cell density regulation might be sufficient to explain the spatiotemporal periodicity in P. Mirabilis colonies. We further verify this result using a cell based model.

  14. Mem y cookie: la cocina colonial en Malasia y Singapur

    OpenAIRE

    Leong-Salobir, Cecilia; Arriola, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Resumen Este trabajo examina el surgimiento de una cocina colonial distintiva en las colonias británicas de Malasia y Singapur desde finales del siglo XIX. La cocina colonial evolucionó con el tiempo y fue una combinación de prácticas culinarias derivadas de costumbres alimentarias europeas y asiáticas, muchas de las cuales llegaron de la India colonial. Al igual que en India, esta aculturación se desarrolló debido a la dependencia de los colonizadores de sus sirvientes domésticos para la pre...

  15. Proton femtoscopy at STAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zbroszczyk, H.P.

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of two-particle femtoscopy provides a powerful tool to study the properties of matter created in heavy-ion collisions. Applied to identical and nonidentical hadron pairs, it makes the study of space-time evolution of the source in femtoscopic scale possible. Baryon femtoscopy allows extraction of the radii of produced sources which can be compared to those deduced from identical pion studies, providing additional information about source characteristics. In this paper we present the correlation functions obtained for protons and antiprotons for Au + Au collisions at √ s NN = 62.4 and 200 GeV. On the other hand, as STAR experiment participates in the Beam Energy Scan (BES) program, we present theoretical predictions of p - p , p-bar - p-bar and p - p-bar femtoscopic measurements, based on UrQMD simulation for √ s NN = 5-39 GeV

  16. Proton synchrotron accelerator theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, E.J.N.

    1977-01-01

    This is the text of a series of lectures given as part of the CERN Academic Training Programme and primarily intended for young engineers and technicians in preparation for the running-in of the 400 GeV Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS). Following the definition of basic quantities, the problems of betatron motion and the effect of momentum spread and orbital errors on the transverse motion of the beam are reviewed. Consideration is then given to multipole fields, chromaticity and non-linear resonances. After dealing with basic relations governing longitudinal beam dynamics, the space-charge, resistive-wall and other collective effects are treated, with reference to precautions in the SPS to prevent their occurrence. (Auth.)

  17. Proton decay: 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciano, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    Employing the current world average Λ/sub MS/ = 0.160 GeV as input, the minimal Georgi-Glashow SU(5) model predicts sin 2 theta/sub W/(m/sub W/) = 0.214, m/sub b//m/sub tau/ approx. = 2.8 and tau/sub p/ approx. = (0.4 approx. 12) x 10 29 yr. The first two predictions are in excellent agreement with experiment; but the implied proton lifetime is already somewhat below the present experimental bound. In this status report, uncertainties in tau/sub p/ are described and effects of appendages to the SU(5) model (such as new fermion generations, scalars, supersymmetry, etc.) are examined

  18. BROOKHAVEN: Proton goal reached

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    On March 30 the 35-year old Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) exceeded its updated design goal of 6 x 10 13 protons per pulse (ppp), by accelerating 6.3 x 10 13 ppp, a world record intensity. This goal was set 11 years ago and achieving it called for the construction of a new booster and the reconstruction of much of the AGS. The booster was completed in 1991, and reached its design intensity of 1.5 x 10 13 ppp in 1993. The AGS reconstruction was finished in 1994, and by July of that year the AGS claimed a new US record intensity for a proton synchrotron of 4 x 10 13 ppp, using four booster pulses. Reaching the design intensity was scheduled for 1995. In 1994, the AGS had seemed to be solidly limited to 4 x 10 13 ppp, but in 1995 the operations crew, working on their own in the quiet of the owl shift, steadily improved the intensity, regularly setting new records, much to the bemusement of the machine physicists. The physicists, however, did contribute. A second harmonic radiofrequency cavity in the booster increased the radiofrequency bucket area for capture, raising the booster intensity from 1.7 to 2.1 x 10 13 ppp. In the AGS, new radiofrequency power supplies raised the available voltage from 8 to 13 kV, greatly enhancing the beam loading capabilities of the system. A powerful new transverse damping system successfully controlled instabilities that otherwise would have destroyed the beam in less than a millisecond. Also in the AGS, 35th harmonic octupole resonances were found

  19. BROOKHAVEN: Proton goal reached

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1995-09-15

    On March 30 the 35-year old Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) exceeded its updated design goal of 6 x 10{sup 13} protons per pulse (ppp), by accelerating 6.3 x 10{sup 13} ppp, a world record intensity. This goal was set 11 years ago and achieving it called for the construction of a new booster and the reconstruction of much of the AGS. The booster was completed in 1991, and reached its design intensity of 1.5 x 10{sup 13} ppp in 1993. The AGS reconstruction was finished in 1994, and by July of that year the AGS claimed a new US record intensity for a proton synchrotron of 4 x 10{sup 13} ppp, using four booster pulses. Reaching the design intensity was scheduled for 1995. In 1994, the AGS had seemed to be solidly limited to 4 x 10{sup 13} ppp, but in 1995 the operations crew, working on their own in the quiet of the owl shift, steadily improved the intensity, regularly setting new records, much to the bemusement of the machine physicists. The physicists, however, did contribute. A second harmonic radiofrequency cavity in the booster increased the radiofrequency bucket area for capture, raising the booster intensity from 1.7 to 2.1 x 10{sup 13} ppp. In the AGS, new radiofrequency power supplies raised the available voltage from 8 to 13 kV, greatly enhancing the beam loading capabilities of the system. A powerful new transverse damping system successfully controlled instabilities that otherwise would have destroyed the beam in less than a millisecond. Also in the AGS, 35th harmonic octupole resonances were found.

  20. The innate immune response may be important for surviving plague in wild Gunnison's prairie dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Joseph D.; Van Andel, Roger; Stone, Nathan E.; Cobble, Kacy R.; Nottingham, Roxanne; Lee, Judy; VerSteeg, Michael; Corcoran, Jeff; Cordova, Jennifer; Van Pelt, William E.; Shuey, Megan M.; Foster, Jeffrey T.; Schupp, James M.; Beckstrom-Sternberg, Stephen; Beckstrom-Sternberg, James; Keim, Paul; Smith, Susan; Rodriguez-Ramos, Julia; Williamson, Judy L.; Rocke, Tonie E.; Wagner, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) are highly susceptible to Yersinia pestis, with ≥99% mortality reported from multiple studies of plague epizootics. A colony of Gunnison's prairie dogs (Cynomys gunnisoni) in the Aubrey Valley (AV) of northern Arizona appears to have survived several regional epizootics of plague, whereas nearby colonies have been severely affected by Y. pestis. To examine potential mechanisms accounting for survival in the AV colony, we conducted a laboratory Y. pestis challenge experiment on 60 wild-caught prairie dogs from AV and from a nearby, large colony with frequent past outbreaks of plague, Espee (n = 30 per colony). Test animals were challenged subcutaneously with the fully virulent Y. pestis strain CO92 at three doses: 50, 5,000, and 50,000 colony-forming units (cfu); this range is lethal in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). Contrary to our expectations, only 40% of the animals died. Although mortality trended higher in the Espee colony (50%) compared with AV (30%), the differences among infectious doses were not statistically significant. Only 39% of the survivors developed moderate to high antibody levels to Y. pestis, indicating that mechanisms other than humoral immunity are important in resistance to plague. The ratio of neutrophils to lymphocytes was not correlated with plague survival in this study. However, several immune proteins with roles in innate immunity (VCAM-1, CXCL-1, and vWF) were upregulated during plague infection and warrant further inquiry into their role for protection against this disease. These results suggest plague resistance exists in wild populations of the Gunnison's prairie dog and provide important directions for future studies.

  1. Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing Proton Beam Radiation Therapy with Transarterial Chemoembolization for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Results of an Interim Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, David A., E-mail: dbush@llu.edu [Department of Radiation Medicine, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, California (United States); Smith, Jason C. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, California (United States); Slater, Jerry D. [Department of Radiation Medicine, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, California (United States); Volk, Michael L. [Transplantation Institute and Liver Center, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, California (United States); Reeves, Mark E. [VA Loma Linda Health Care System, Loma Linda, California (United States); Cheng, Jason [Transplantation Institute and Liver Center, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, California (United States); Grove, Roger [Department of Radiation Medicine, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, California (United States); Vera, Michael E. de [Transplantation Institute and Liver Center, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, California (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Purpose: To describe results of a planned interim analysis of a prospective, randomized clinical trial developed to compare treatment outcomes among patients with newly diagnosed hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods and Materials: Eligible subjects had either clinical or pathologic diagnosis of HCC and met either Milan or San Francisco transplant criteria. Patients were randomly assigned to transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) or to proton beam radiation therapy. Patients randomized to TACE received at least 1 TACE with additional TACE for persistent disease. Proton beam radiation therapy was delivered to all areas of gross disease to a total dose of 70.2 Gy in 15 daily fractions over 3 weeks. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival, with secondary endpoints of overall survival, local tumor control, and treatment-related toxicities as represented by posttreatment days of hospitalization. Results: At the time of this analysis 69 subjects were available for analysis. Of these, 36 were randomized to TACE and 33 to proton. Total days of hospitalization within 30 days of TACE/proton was 166 and 24 days, respectively (P<.001). Ten TACE and 12 proton patients underwent liver transplantation after treatment. Viable tumor identified in the explanted livers after TACE/proton averaged 2.4 and 0.9 cm, respectively. Pathologic complete response after TACE/proton was 10%/25% (P=.38). The 2-year overall survival for all patients was 59%, with no difference between treatment groups. Median survival time was 30 months (95% confidence interval 20.7-39.3 months). There was a trend toward improved 2-year local tumor control (88% vs 45%, P=.06) and progression-free survival (48% vs 31%, P=.06) favoring the proton beam treatment group. Conclusions: This interim analysis indicates similar overall survival rates for proton beam radiation therapy and TACE. There is a trend toward improved local tumor control and progression-free survival with proton beam. There are

  2. Public Heath in Colonial and Post-Colonial Ghana: Lesson-Drawing for The Twenty-First Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adu-Gyamfi, Samuel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Public health in twenty-first century Ghana is mired with several issues ranging from the inadequacy of public health facilities, improper settlement planning, insanitary conditions, and the inadequacy of laws and their implementation. This situation compared to the colonial era is a direct contradiction. Development in the pre-colonial era to the colonial era sought to make the prevention of diseases a priority in the colonial administration. This was begun with the establishment of the health branch in 1909 as a response to the bubonic plague that was fast spreading in the colony. From here public health policies and strategies were enacted to help the diseases prevention cause. Various public health boards, the medical research institute or the laboratory branch, the waste management department, the use of preventive medicine and maintenance of good settlement planning and sanitation were public health measures in the colonial era. This research seeks to analyse the public health system in the colonial era so as to draw basic lessons for twenty-first century Ghana. Archival data and other secondary sources are reviewed and analysed to help draw these lessons. Richard Rose’s lesson-drawing approach was used to draw the lessons.

  3. Honey Bee Colonies Remote Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Gil-Lebrero

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bees are very important for terrestrial ecosystems and, above all, for the subsistence of many crops, due to their ability to pollinate flowers. Currently, the honey bee populations are decreasing due to colony collapse disorder (CCD. The reasons for CCD are not fully known, and as a result, it is essential to obtain all possible information on the environmental conditions surrounding the beehives. On the other hand, it is important to carry out such information gathering as non-intrusively as possible to avoid modifying the bees’ work conditions and to obtain more reliable data. We designed a wireless-sensor networks meet these requirements. We designed a remote monitoring system (called WBee based on a hierarchical three-level model formed by the wireless node, a local data server, and a cloud data server. WBee is a low-cost, fully scalable, easily deployable system with regard to the number and types of sensors and the number of hives and their geographical distribution. WBee saves the data in each of the levels if there are failures in communication. In addition, the nodes include a backup battery, which allows for further data acquisition and storage in the event of a power outage. Unlike other systems that monitor a single point of a hive, the system we present monitors and stores the temperature and relative humidity of the beehive in three different spots. Additionally, the hive is continuously weighed on a weighing scale. Real-time weight measurement is an innovation in wireless beehive—monitoring systems. We designed an adaptation board to facilitate the connection of the sensors to the node. Through the Internet, researchers and beekeepers can access the cloud data server to find out the condition of their hives in real time.

  4. Transits of Venus and Colonial India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochhar, Rajesh

    2012-09-01

    Astronomical expeditions during the colonial period had a political and national significance also. Measuring the earth and mapping the sky were activities worthy of powerful and power- seeking nations. Such was the sanctity of global astronomical activity that many other agendas could be hidden under it. An early astronomy-related expedition turned out to be extremely beneficial, to botany. The expedition sent by the French Government in 1735 to South America under the leadership of Charles Marie de la Condamine (1701--1774) ostensibly for the measurement of an arc of the meridian at Quito in Ecuador surreptitiously collected data that enabled Linnaeus to describe the genus cinchona in 1742. When the pair of transits of Venus occurred in 1761 and 1769, France and England were engaged in a bitter rivalry for control of India. The observation of the transits became a part of the rivalry. A telescope presented by the British to a South Indian King as a decorative toy was borrowed back for actual use. Scientifically the transit observations were a wash out, but the exercise introduced Europe to details of living Indian tradition of eclipse calculations. More significantly, it led to the institutionalization of modern astronomy in India under the auspices of the English East India Company (1787). The transits of Venus of 1874 and 1882 were important not so much for the study of the events as for initiating systematic photography of the Sun. By this, Britain owned most of the world's sunshine, and was expected to help European solar physicists get data from its vast Empire on a regular basis. This and the then genuinely held belief that a study of the sun would help predict failure of monsoons led to the institutionalization of solar physics studies in India (1899). Of course, when the solar physicists learnt that solar activity did not quite determine rainfall in India, they forgot to inform the Government.

  5. Metatranscriptomic analyses of honey bee colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozkar, Cansu Ö; Kence, Meral; Kence, Aykut; Huang, Qiang; Evans, Jay D

    2015-01-01

    Honey bees face numerous biotic threats from viruses to bacteria, fungi, protists, and mites. Here we describe a thorough analysis of microbes harbored by worker honey bees collected from field colonies in geographically distinct regions of Turkey. Turkey is one of the World's most important centers of apiculture, harboring five subspecies of Apis mellifera L., approximately 20% of the honey bee subspecies in the world. We use deep ILLUMINA-based RNA sequencing to capture RNA species for the honey bee and a sampling of all non-endogenous species carried by bees. After trimming and mapping these reads to the honey bee genome, approximately 10% of the sequences (9-10 million reads per library) remained. These were then mapped to a curated set of public sequences containing ca. Sixty megabase-pairs of sequence representing known microbial species associated with honey bees. Levels of key honey bee pathogens were confirmed using quantitative PCR screens. We contrast microbial matches across different sites in Turkey, showing new country recordings of Lake Sinai virus, two Spiroplasma bacterium species, symbionts Candidatus Schmidhempelia bombi, Frischella perrara, Snodgrassella alvi, Gilliamella apicola, Lactobacillus spp.), neogregarines, and a trypanosome species. By using metagenomic analysis, this study also reveals deep molecular evidence for the presence of bacterial pathogens (Melissococcus plutonius, Paenibacillus larvae), Varroa destructor-1 virus, Sacbrood virus, and fungi. Despite this effort we did not detect KBV, SBPV, Tobacco ringspot virus, VdMLV (Varroa Macula like virus), Acarapis spp., Tropilaeleps spp. and Apocephalus (phorid fly). We discuss possible impacts of management practices and honey bee subspecies on microbial retinues. The described workflow and curated microbial database will be generally useful for microbial surveys of healthy and declining honey bees.

  6. Conservation of colonial built heritage: practical considerations and cultural constraints in Rio de Janeiro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B.; Neto, J.; Silva, M.; Warke, P.; Curran, J.

    2003-04-01

    As the 500th anniversary of European arrival in Brazil approached in the year 2000, it provided a stimulus for the country to review the cultural and economic significance of its remaining colonial built heritage. This is not least because of the growing awareness that built heritage is an important attractor for high income tourism and an increasing willingness amongst the population at large to accept colonial artefacts as a legitimate component of national history. Nowhere is this revision more apposite than in the adjacent cities of Rio de Janeiro and Niteroi. In both cities much of the colonial heritage was swept away during the late twentieth century in a tide of reconstruction that was symbolic of self-proclaimed Brazilian modernity and that signified for many a break with their colonial past. Those elements of colonial heritage that have survived have done so largely because of their ownership either by the church or the military. However, whilst this has often protected the overall building, the detailed fabric of such structures has at best been neglected and in many cases abused. As a consequence, stonework, in particular, can exhibit a range of decay features that must be addressed if this heritage is to be preserved and its educational and economic potential realised. In this presentation, we review changing attitudes towards conservation as illustrated by a number of key structures, including the large stone forts that guard the entrance to Guanabara Bay. This is combined with a detailed examination of threats to the integrity of their stonework consequent on prolonged exposure in a humid tropical maritime environment. Most of these structures are built of local, very durable augen gneiss. However, studies of natural rock outcrops show that this rock does weather, and that breakdown can be episodic as localised strength thresholds are breached. Surveys suggest that some buildings may be approaching such threshold conditions, whereby stresses

  7. Multinationals and plant survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold: first, to investigate how different ownership structures affect plant survival, and second, to analyze how the presence of foreign multinational enterprises (MNEs) affects domestic plants’ survival. Using a unique and detailed data set on the Swedish manufacturing...... sector, I am able to separate plants into those owned by foreign MNEs, domestic MNEs, exporting non-MNEs, and purely domestic firms. In line with previous findings, the result, when conditioned on other factors affecting survival, shows that foreign MNE plants have lower survival rates than non......-MNE plants. However, separating the non-MNEs into exporters and non-exporters, the result shows that foreign MNE plants have higher survival rates than non-exporting non-MNEs, while the survival rates of foreign MNE plants and exporting non-MNE plants do not seem to differ. Moreover, the simple non...

  8. Two proton decay in 12O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumawat, M.; Singh, U.K.; Jain, S.K.; Saxena, G.; Kaushik, M.; Aggarwal, Mamta

    2017-01-01

    Two-proton radioactivity was observed experimentally in the decay of 45 Fe, 54 Zn and 48 Ni. From then many theoretical studies of one and two-proton radioactivity have been carried out within the framework of different models including RMF+BCS approach for medium mass region. Towards light mass region proton-proton correlations were observed in two-proton decay of 19 Mg and 16 Ne. Recently, different mechanism of two-proton emission from proton-rich nuclei 23 Al and 22 Mg has been investigated and transition from direct to sequential two-proton decay in sd shell nuclei is observed. Encouraged with these recent studies of two proton emission in light mass nuclei, we have applied our RMF+BCS approach for the study of two proton emission in light mass region and in this paper we present our result of two proton emission in 12 O

  9. Revisiting the effect of colonial institutions on comparative economic development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina A Assenova

    Full Text Available European settler mortality has been proposed as an instrument to predict the causal effect of colonial institutions on differences in economic development. We examine the relationship between mortality, temperature, and economic development in former European colonies in Asia, Africa, and the Americas. We find that (i European settler mortality rates increased with regional temperatures and (ii economic output decreased with regional temperatures. Conditioning on the continent of settlement and accounting for colonies that were not independent as of 1900 undermines the causal effect of colonial institutions on comparative economic development. Our findings run counter to the institutions hypothesis of economic development, showing instead that geography affected both historic mortality rates and present-day economic output.

  10. Counter-Insurgency in the Cape Colony, 1872 - 1882

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unrest and internal conflict were almost endemic in the Cape Colony's area of interest during ... security and defence policy, the policy of direct control of the adjacent tribal territories as well as ...... latter refused to sign the treasury documents.

  11. A Reading of Kwame Nkrumah's Towards Colonial Freedom Atta

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    trajectory that Kwame Nkrumah, in this work, traces towards colonial freedom. ... propelled against their colonising oppressors also seen as wearing a single classless ... political economy: 'It is not the consciousness of men [and women] that ...

  12. The impact of colonial legacies and globalization processes on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of colonial legacies and globalization processes on forced migration in modern Africa. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... On its part, globalization is about pauperizing and victimizing more and more people ...

  13. Post-Colonial Nation Building, Global Governance, Globalisation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Post-Colonial Nation Building, Global Governance, Globalisation and Development in Nigeria and Africa. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... A common route that nations take is that of nation building, especially within the ...

  14. Pidgin in the Colonial Governance of Northern Nigeria Philip Atsu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ANDCORPgh changing the world

    2015-03-15

    Mar 15, 2015 ... 7Arabic literacy for political agents was essential because the language ... Other elements are 'kuku boy' (steward), 'kuku meti' (cook meat), 'ruge' (rogue), ..... The colonized as child: British and French colonial rule in Africa.

  15. Energy Colonialism Powers the Ongoing Unnatural Disaster in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina M. de Onís

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available On September 20, 2017, Hurricane María made landfall in Puerto Rico. Blasting the Caribbean archipelago with 155-mile/h winds, this, in many ways, unnatural disaster exposed the brutal consequences of energy colonialism and an extractivist economy, as well as ongoing and increasing advocacy for decentralized solar infrastructure by many local residents and other renewables supporters. This paper argues that acknowledging colonial power relations and their consequences is essential for studying the interplay of energy systems, environments, and actors. To support this claim, this essay outlines Puerto Rico’s history as a US colony by focusing on key policies and their implications; examines openings for and barriers to decentralized, community solar in Puerto Rico; and concludes by discussing future research directions on just energy transitions and the imperative of uprooting colonialism and agitating for community self-determination and energy justice in these transformations.

  16. Seabird colonies in the Melville Bay, Northwest Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boertmann, David; Huffeldt, Nicholas Per

    This report describes the results of a survey for breeding and colonial seabirds in a hitherto un-surveyed area of Northwest Greenland - the Melville Bay. The results shall be included as background data for oil spill sensitivity mapping, preparation of environmental impact assessments of petroleum...... activities in Baffin Bay and for the regulation (by the Greenland government) of petroleum activities. The survey showed, that compared to other coasts of West Greenland, the Melville Bay holds only few breeding colonies and low numbers of breeding seabirds. The most widespread and numerous species...... is the black guillemot followed by the glaucous gull. However, one colony is of national significance – Sabine Øer, with high numbers of breeding Arctic terns and Sabine’s gulls. Other noteworthy observations were puffins on Thom Ø and many new Iceland gull colonies that extended the known northern breeding...

  17. Colonialism as a Broader Social Determinant of Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Czyzewski

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A proposed broader or Indigenized social determinants of health framework includes "colonialism" along with other global processes. What does it mean to understand Canadian colonialism as a distal determinant of Indigenous health? This paper reviews pertinent discourses surrounding Indigenous mental health in Canada.With an emphasis on the notion of intergenerational trauma, there are real health effects of social, political, and economic marginalization embodied within individuals, which can collectively affect entire communities. Colonialism can also be enacted and reinforced within Indigenous mental health discourse, thus influencing scholarly and popular perceptions. Addressing this distal determinant through policy work necessitates that improving Indigenous health is inherently related to improving these relationships, i.e. eliminating colonial relations, and increasing self-determination.

  18. application of ant colony optimisation in distribution transformer sizing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Keywords: ant colony, optimization, transformer sizing, distribution transformer. 1. INTRODUCTION ... more intensive pheromone and higher probability to be chosen [12]. ..... pp.29-41, 1996. [7] EC global market place, “Technical Parameters”,.

  19. The Historical Taboo: Colonial Discourses and Postcolonial Identities in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobineau Julien

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines so-called colonial discourses in Belgium related to the former Sub-Saharan colony owned by Leopold II of Belgium which today is known as the Democratic Republic of Congo (DR Congo or the Congo-Kinshasa. Having introduced the colonial history of the DR Congo from the 15th century until 1910, the study starts with a discussion of Van den Braembussche’s concept of a ‘historical taboo’ and four ways of engaging with such implicit interdictions. Finally, an empirical analysis of colonial discourses in Belgium from the 1890s until today will be presented in conjunction with Belgium’s linguistic-cultural division, taking into account age-related divergence.

  20. Survival and Recovery of Phaeocystis Antarctica (Prymnesiophyceae) from Prolonged Darkness and Freezing

    Science.gov (United States)

    The colony-forming haptophyte Phaeocystis antarctica is an important primary producer in the Ross Sea, and must survive long periods of darkness and freezing in this extreme environment. We conducted experiments on the responses of P. antarctica-dominated phytoplankton assemblage...

  1. Mountain plover nest survival in relation to prairie dog and fire dynamics in shortgrass steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, David J.; Skagen, Susan K.

    2014-01-01

    Disturbed xeric grasslands with short, sparse vegetation provide breeding habitat for mountain plovers (Charadrius montanus) across the western Great Plains. Maintaining local disturbance regimes through prairie dog conservation and prescribed fire may contribute to the sustainability of recently declining mountain plover populations, but these management approaches can be controversial. We estimated habitat-specific mountain plover densities and nest survival rates on black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies and burns in the shortgrass steppe of northeastern Colorado. Mountain plover densities were similar on prairie dog colonies (5.9 birds/km2; 95% CI = 4.7–7.4) and sites burned during the preceding dormant season (6.7 birds/km2; 95% CI = 4.6–9.6), whereas the 29-day nest survival rate was greater on prairie dog colonies (0.81 in 2011 and 0.39 in 2012) compared to the burned sites (0.64 in 2011 and 0.17 in 2012). Reduced nest survival in 2012 compared to 2011 was associated with higher maximum daily temperatures in 2012, consistent with a previous weather-based model of mountain plover nest survival in the southern Great Plains. Measurements of mountain plover density relative to time since disturbance showed that removal of prairie dog disturbance by sylvatic plague reduced mountain plover density by 70% relative to active prairie dog colonies after 1 year. Plover densities declined at a similar rate (by 78%) at burned sites between the first and second post-burn growing season. Results indicate that black-tailed prairie dog colonies are a particularly important nesting habitat for mountain plovers in the southern Great Plains. In addition, findings suggest that prescribed burning can be a valuable means to create nesting habitat in landscapes where other types of disturbances (such as prairie dog colonies) are limited in distribution and size. 

  2. A prospective study of proton reirradiation for recurrent and secondary soft tissue sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttmann, David M; Frick, Melissa A; Carmona, Ruben; Deville, Curtiland; Levin, William P; Berman, Abigail T; Chinniah, Chidambaram; Hahn, Stephen M; Plastaras, John P; Simone, Charles B

    2017-08-01

    Proton reirradiation for sarcoma has not been previously described. We hypothesized that this strategy would provide favorable toxicity and survival outcomes. Patients with soft tissue sarcoma in a previously-irradiated field were enrolled on a prospective trial of proton reirradiation. The primary endpoint was provider-reported acute toxicity. Secondary endpoints included late toxicities, local control, and overall survival. 23 patients underwent proton reirradiation. Median time between radiation courses was 40.7months (range 10-272). No grade 4-5 toxicities were observed. One patient (4%) experienced acute grade 3 dysphagia. Common grade 2 acute toxicities were fatigue (26%), anorexia (17%), and urinary incontinence (13%). There were two grade 3 late wound infections (10%) and one grade 3 late wound complication (5%). Grade 2 late complications included lymphedema (10%), fracture (5%), and fibrosis (5%). At a median follow-up of 36months, the 3-year cumulative incidence of local failure was 41% (95% CI [20-63%]). Median overall survival and progression-free survival were 44 and 29months, respectively. In extremity patients, amputation was spared in 7/10 (70%). Proton reirradiation of recurrent/secondary soft tissue sarcomas is well tolerated. While longer follow-up is needed, early survival outcomes in this high-risk population are encouraging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Survival of postfledging Forster's terns in relation to mercury exposure in San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Takekawa, John Y.; Iverson, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    We examined factors influencing mercury concentrations in 90 fledgling Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri) and evaluated whether mercury influenced postfledging survival in San Francisco Bay, California. Mercury concentrations (??SE) in chicks 21-29 days old (just before fledging) were 0.33 ?? 0.01 ??g g-1 ww for blood and 6.44 ?? 0.28 ??g g -1 fw for breast feathers. Colony site had an overriding influence on fledgling contamination, however hatching date and age also affected blood, but not feather, mercury concentrations. Blood mercury concentrations decreased by 28% during the 50-day hatching period and increased with chick age by 30% during the last week prior to fledging. Using radio-telemetry, we calculated that cumulative survival during the 35-day postfledging time period was 0.81 ?? 0.09 (SE). Postfledging survival rates increased with size-adjusted mass, and cumulative survival probability was 61% lower for terns with the lowest, compared to the highest, observed masses. Conversely, survival was not influenced by blood mercury concentration, time since fledging, sex, or hatch date. Mercury concentrations in breast feathers of fledglings found dead at nesting colonies also were no different than those in live chicks. Our results indicate that colony site, hatching date, and age influenced mercury concentrations in fledgling Forster's terns, but that mercury did not influence postfledging survival. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  4. An Improved Ant Colony Matching by Using Discrete Curve Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Saadi, Younes; Sari, Eka,; Herawan, Tutut

    2014-01-01

    Part 1: Information & Communication Technology-EurAsia Conference 2014, ICT-EurAsia 2014; International audience; In this paper we present an improved Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) for contour matching, which can be used to match 2D shapes. Discrete Curve Evolution (DCE) technique is used to simplify the extracted contour. In order to find the best correspondence between shapes, the match process is formulated as a Quadratic Assignment Problem (QAP) and resolved by using Ant Colony Optimizati...

  5. An improved method for staining cell colonies in clonogenic assays

    OpenAIRE

    Guda, Kishore; Natale, Leanna; Markowitz, Sanford D.

    2007-01-01

    Clonogenic assay is a widely used experimental approach to test for the effects of drugs/genes on the growth and proliferative characteristics of cells in vitro. Accurate quantitation of treatment effects in clonogeneic assays depends on the ability to visualize and count cell colonies precisely. We report a novel method (referred as ETeB) for staining cell colonies grown on plastic and specially coated substrates like collagen. Using colon cancer cell lines grown on plastic and collagen, we ...

  6. The Psycho-Affective Echoes of Colonialism in Fieldwork Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Garot

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the varieties of relations with African immigrant interviewees in Tuscany as experienced by a white male interviewer from the United States. Franz FANON's discussion of the psycho-affective consequences of colonialism is vital for understanding how naïve and romantic notions of fieldwork relations are disingenuous, counter-productive and perhaps destructive in a neo-colonial landscape. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1401125

  7. Video Bioinformatics Analysis of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Colony Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sabrina; Fonteno, Shawn; Satish, Shruthi; Bhanu, Bir; Talbot, Prue

    2010-01-01

    Because video data are complex and are comprised of many images, mining information from video material is difficult to do without the aid of computer software. Video bioinformatics is a powerful quantitative approach for extracting spatio-temporal data from video images using computer software to perform dating mining and analysis. In this article, we introduce a video bioinformatics method for quantifying the growth of human embryonic stem cells (hESC) by analyzing time-lapse videos collected in a Nikon BioStation CT incubator equipped with a camera for video imaging. In our experiments, hESC colonies that were attached to Matrigel were filmed for 48 hours in the BioStation CT. To determine the rate of growth of these colonies, recipes were developed using CL-Quant software which enables users to extract various types of data from video images. To accurately evaluate colony growth, three recipes were created. The first segmented the image into the colony and background, the second enhanced the image to define colonies throughout the video sequence accurately, and the third measured the number of pixels in the colony over time. The three recipes were run in sequence on video data collected in a BioStation CT to analyze the rate of growth of individual hESC colonies over 48 hours. To verify the truthfulness of the CL-Quant recipes, the same data were analyzed manually using Adobe Photoshop software. When the data obtained using the CL-Quant recipes and Photoshop were compared, results were virtually identical, indicating the CL-Quant recipes were truthful. The method described here could be applied to any video data to measure growth rates of hESC or other cells that grow in colonies. In addition, other video bioinformatics recipes can be developed in the future for other cell processes such as migration, apoptosis, and cell adhesion. PMID:20495527

  8. Colonial Connections: A Review of Redrawing French Empire in Comics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise Tannahill

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The consequences of France's colonial past and wars in Algeria and Indochina are still very relevant in modern, multicultural France. 'Redrawing French Empire In Comics '(2013 examines how this colonial history is depicted in the francophone comic or 'bande dessinée', by authors with links to both the colonised population and the French colonisers and military forces, and how their depictions of events reinforces or diminishes barriers between those on both sides.

  9. High intensity proton accelerator and its application (Proton Engineering Center)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Shun-ichi

    1995-01-01

    A plan called PROTON ENGINEERING CENTER has been proposed in JAERI. The center is a complex composed of research facilities and a beam shape and storage ring based on a proton linac with an energy of 1.5 GeV and an average current of 10 mA. The research facilities planned are OMEGA·Nuclear Energy Development Facility, Neutron Facility for Material Irradiation, Nuclear Data Experiment Facility, Neutron Factory, Meson Factory, Spallation Radioisotope Beam Facility, and Medium Energy Experiment Facility, where high intensity proton beam and secondary particle beams such as neutrons, π-mesons, muons, and unstable isotopes originated from the protons are available for promoting the innovative research of nuclear energy and basic science and technology. (author)

  10. The underlying event in proton-proton collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel, F.

    2009-05-15

    In this thesis, studies of the underlying event in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of {radical}(s) = 10 TeV are presented. Crucial ingredient to underlying event models are multiple parton-parton scatters in single proton-proton collisions. The feasibility of measuring the underlying event was investigated with the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) using charged particles and charged-particle jets. Systematic uncertainties of the underlying event measurement due to detector misalignment and imperfect track reconstruction are found to be negligible after {integral}Ldt=1 pb{sup -1} of data are available. Different model predictions are compared with each other using fully simulated Monte Carlo samples. It is found, that distinct models differ strongly enough to tell them apart with early data. (orig.)

  11. Proton-proton elastic scattering measurements at COSY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagdasarian, Zara [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich (Germany); Tbilisi State University, Tbilisi (Georgia); Collaboration: ANKE-Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    To construct the reliable phase shift analysis (PSA) that can successfully describe the nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction it is necessary to measure variety of experimental observables for both proton-proton (pp) and neutron-proton (np) elastic scattering. The polarized beams and targets at COSY-ANKE facility allow a substantial contribution to the existing database. The experiment was carried out in April 2013 at ANKE using a transversely polarized proton beam incident on an unpolarized hydrogen cluster target. Six beam energies of T{sub p}=0.8,1.6,1.8,2.0,2.2,2.4 GeV were used. The aim of this talk is to present the preliminary results for the analyzing power (A{sub y}) for the pp elastic scattering in the so-far unexplored 5 <θ{sub cm}<30 angular range. Our measurements are also compared to the world data and current partial wave solutions.

  12. Where is the proton's spin?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Close, F.E.

    1988-01-01

    There has been much recent excitement arising from the claim by the EMC collaboration that none of the proton's spin is carried by quarks. There are many textbooks, including those written by some members of this audience, which assert that the proton's spin is carried by quarks. I will review the history of deep inelastic scattering of polarized leptons from polarized protons, culminating in this most recent dramatic claim. I will show that, for the last decade, data have appeared consistent with predictions of the quark model and highlight what the new and potentially exciting data are. I will conclude with suggestions for the future. 33 refs

  13. Acceleration of polarized proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.

    1998-01-01

    The acceleration of polarized beams in circular accelerators is complicated by the numerous depolarizing spin resonances. Using a partial Siberian snake and a rf dipole that ensure stable adiabatic spin motion during acceleration has made it possible to accelerate polarized protons to 25 GeV at the Brookhaven AGS. Full Siberian snakes are being developed for RHIC to make the acceleration of polarized protons to 250 GeV possible. A similar scheme is being studied for the 800 GeV HERA proton accelerator

  14. Where is the proton's spin?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Close, F.E.

    1989-01-01

    There has been much recent excitement arising from the claim by the EMC collaboration that none of the proton's spin is carried by quarks. There are many textbooks, including those written by some members of this audience, which assert that the proton's spin is carried by quarks. I will review the history of deep inelastic scattering of polarized leptons from polarized protons, culminating in this most recent dramatic claim. I will show that, for the last decade, data have appeared consistent with predictions of the quark model and highlight what the new and potentially exciting data are. I will conclude with suggestions for the future

  15. Measurement of proton autoneutralization potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, M.

    1984-09-01

    A proton space charge having multi-MeV kinetic energy was injected through a thin ground plane to extract electrons and produce a time-dependent autoneutralization space potential. An electon-emitting floating-potential resistive divider was used to measure the space potential during 20 ns of the proton current pulse. During this time, proton kinetic energy fell from 10.6 MeV to 8.5 MeV and thus the space potential (taken as 1.09 x the floating potential) fell from 5.8 kV to 4.6 kV

  16. Scattering of intermediate energy protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaumeaux, Alain.

    1980-06-01

    The scattering of 1 GeV protons appears to be a powerful means of investigating nuclear matter. We worked with SPESI and the formalism of Kerman-Mc Manus and Thaler. The amplitude of nucleon-nucleon scattering was studied as were the aspects of 1 GeV proton scattering (multiple scattering, absorption, spin-orbit coupling, N-N amplitude, KMT-Glauber comparison, second order effects). The results of proton scattering on 16 O, the isotopes of calcium, 58 Ni, 90 Zr and 208 Pb are given [fr

  17. Factors of honeybee colony performances on sunflower at apiary scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kretzschmar André

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available An observatory of honeybee colonies (Apis mellifera, consisting of at least 200 colonies, divided into 10 apiaries of 20 colonies, was monitored for three years on sunflower honeyflow (2015–2017. The purpose of this observatory is to understand which factors control colony performance during sunflower honeyflow in south-western France. From the temporal dynamics of weight gain, statistical analysis reveals a hierarchy of factors. First, variability in apiary scale performance is an image of the effect of resource variability. But, in addition to this primordial factor, two other factors contribute very significantly to performance. On the one hand, the amount of capped brood and the number of bees at the time of the installation of the apiary: these two elements testify to the vitality of the colony. The second remarkable factor is the Varroa load, which strongly penalizes performance beyond a certain threshold. The negative effect of the Varroa load on the colony performance is minimized in case of abondant sunflower honey flow.

  18. Structural organisation and dynamics in king penguin colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerum, Richard; Richter, Sebastian; Fabry, Ben; Le Bohec, Céline; Bonadonna, Francesco; Nesterova, Anna; Zitterbart, Daniel P.

    2018-04-01

    During breeding, king penguins do not build nests, however they show strong territorial behaviour and keep a pecking distance to neighbouring penguins. Penguin positions in breeding colonies are highly stable over weeks and appear regularly spaced, but thus far no quantitative analysis of the structural order inside a colony has been performed. In this study, we use the radial distribution function to analyse the spatial coordinates of penguin positions. Coordinates are obtained from aerial images of two colonies that were observed for several years. Our data demonstrate that the structural order in king penguin colonies resembles a 2D liquid of particles with a Lennard-Jones-type interaction potential. We verify this using a molecular dynamics simulation with thermally driven particles, whereby temperature corresponds to penguin movements, the energy well depth ɛ of the attractive potential corresponds to the strength of the colony-forming behaviour, and the repulsive zone corresponds to the pecking radius. We can recapitulate the liquid disorder of the colony, as measured by the radial distribution function, when the particles have a temperature of several (1.4–10) \

  19. No intracolonial nepotism during colony fissioning in honey bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, Juliana; Mattila, Heather R.; Seeley, Thomas D.

    2009-01-01

    Most species of social insects have singly mated queens, but in some species each queen mates with numerous males to create a colony whose workers belong to multiple patrilines. This colony genetic structure creates a potential for intracolonial nepotism. One context with great potential for such nepotism arises in species, like honey bees, whose colonies reproduce by fissioning. During fissioning, workers might nepotistically choose between serving a young (sister) queen or the old (mother) queen, preferring the former if she is a full-sister but the latter if the young queen is only a half-sister. We examined three honeybee colonies that swarmed, and performed paternity analyses on the young (immature) queens and samples of workers who either stayed with the young queens in the nest or left with the mother queen in the swarm. For each colony, we checked whether patrilines represented by immature queens had higher proportions of staying workers than patrilines not represented by immature queens. We found no evidence of this. The absence of intracolonial nepotism during colony fissioning could be because the workers cannot discriminate between full-sister and half-sister queens when they are immature, or because the costs of behaving nepotistically outweigh the benefits. PMID:19692398

  20. Aspects of the fundamental theory of proton-proton scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, A

    1973-01-01

    After recalling the existence of a high energy bound on proton-proton total cross-sections, the author discusses the various phenomena which occur when these cross-sections rise and especially when they have the qualitative behaviour of the bound: rising elastic cross- sections, shrinking diffraction peak, validity of the Pomeranchuk theorem for total and elastic cross-sections, existence of a positive real part of the forward amplitude at high energies. (16 refs).

  1. Proton-proton elastic scattering at ultrahigh energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, M.; Shaukat, M.A.; Fazal-e-Aleem

    1981-01-01

    Recent experimental results on proton-proton elastic scattering at high energies are discussed in the context of the comments by Chou and Yang. There does not appear to be any tendency that the experimental results would agree with the predictions of the geometrical model even at ultrahigh energies. The angular distribution structure as described by using the dipole pomeron is consistent with the experimental data at presently available high energies and predicts results quite different from the geometrical model. (author)

  2. Proton-proton elastic scattering at ultrahigh energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleem, M.; Shaukat, M.A.; Fazal-e-Aleem (University of the Punjab, Lahore (Pakistan). Dept. of Physics)

    1981-05-30

    Recent experimental results on proton-proton elastic scattering at high energies are discussed in the context of the comments by Chou and Yang. There does not appear to be any tendency that the experimental results would agree with the predictions of the geometrical model even at ultrahigh energies. The angular distribution structure as described by using the dipole pomeron is consistent with the experimental data at presently available high energies and predicts results quite different from the geometrical model.

  3. Dealing with water deficit in Atta ant colonies: large ants scout for water while small ants transport it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Da-Silva

    2012-07-01

    Leafcutter ants (Atta sexdens rubropilosa (Forel 1908 have an elaborate social organization, complete with caste divisions. Activities carried out by specialist groups contribute to the overall success and survival of the colony when it is confronted with environmental challenges such as dehydration. Ants detect variations in humidity inside the nest and react by activating several types of behavior that enhance water uptake and decrease water loss, but it is not clear whether or not a single caste collects water regardless of the cost of bringing this resource back to the colony. Accordingly, we investigated water collection activities in three colonies of Atta sexdens rubropilosa experimentally exposed to water stress. Specifically, we analyzed whether or not the same ant caste foraged for water, regardless of the absolute energetic cost (distance of transporting this resource back to the colony. Our experimental design offered water sources at 0 m, 1 m and 10 m from the nest. We studied the body size of ants near the water sources from the initial offer of water (time  =  0 to 120 min, and tested for specialization. We observed a reduction in the average size and variance of ants that corroborated the specialization hypothesis. Although the temporal course of specialization changed with distance, the final outcome was similar among distances. Thus, we conclude that, for this species, a specialist (our use of the word “specialist” does not mean exclusive task force is responsible for collecting water, regardless of the cost of transporting water back to the colony.

  4. ASURV: Astronomical SURVival Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigelson, E. D.; Nelson, P. I.; Isobe, T.; LaValley, M.

    2014-06-01

    ASURV (Astronomical SURVival Statistics) provides astronomy survival analysis for right- and left-censored data including the maximum-likelihood Kaplan-Meier estimator and several univariate two-sample tests, bivariate correlation measures, and linear regressions. ASURV is written in FORTRAN 77, and is stand-alone and does not call any specialized libraries.

  5. Proton radiotherapy: some perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirn, T.F.

    1988-01-01

    A news article highlighting the use of protons in radiotherapy is presented. Development of stereotaxic radiosurgery is the result of contributions from physicists, radiologists, and neurosurgeons, says Jacob Fabrikant, MD, head of the Arteriovenous Malformation Program at the University of California's Lawrence Berkeley laboratory. It also appears to have been the product of Harvard University (Boston) and University of California (Berkeley) cooperation. Robert R. Wilson, PhD, now a professor emeritus at Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, is credited with proposing the medical use of charged particles. Wilson, a physicist, says that the idea occurred to him while he was at Berkeley in the mid-1940's, designing the cyclotron to be built at Harvard. Although he was aware of their work, he does not remember discussing it with Robert Stone, MD, or John Lawrence, MD, who only a few years earlier at Berkeley had begun the initial medical experiments with neutrons. Wilson says that it simply occurred to him that in certain instances charged particles had two advantages over x-rays

  6. Polarized protons at RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tannenbaum, M.J.

    1990-12-01

    The Physics case is presented for the use of polarized protons at RHIC for one or two months each year. This would provide a facility with polarizations of approx-gt 50% high luminosity ∼2.0 x 10 32 cm -2 s -1 , the possibility of both longitudinal and transverse polarization at the interaction regions, and frequent polarization reversal for control of systematic errors. The annual integrated luminosity for such running (∼10 6 sec per year) would be ∫ Ldt = 2 x 10 38 cm -2 -- roughly 20 times the total luminosity integrated in ∼ 10 years of operation of the CERN Collider (∼10 inverse picobarns, 10 37 cm -2 ). This facility would be unique in the ability to perform parity-violating measurements and polarization test of QCD. Also, the existence of p-p collisions in a new energy range would permit the study of ''classical'' reactions like the total cross section and elastic scattering, etc., and serve as a complement to measurements from p-bar p colliders. 11 refs

  7. Microbiome of Trichodesmium Colonies from the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary R. Gradoville

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Filamentous diazotrophic Cyanobacteria of the genus Trichodesmium, often found in colonial form, provide an important source of new nitrogen to tropical and subtropical marine ecosystems. Colonies are composed of several clades of Trichodesmium in association with a diverse community of bacterial and eukaryotic epibionts. We used high-throughput 16S rRNA and nifH gene sequencing, carbon (C and dinitrogen (N2 fixation assays, and metagenomics to describe the diversity and functional potential of the microbiome associated with Trichodesmium colonies collected from the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPSG. The 16S rRNA and nifH gene sequences from hand-picked colonies were predominantly (>99% from Trichodesmium Clade I (i.e., T. thiebautii, which is phylogenetically and ecologically distinct from the Clade III IMS101 isolate used in most laboratory studies. The bacterial epibiont communities were dominated by Bacteroidetes, Alphaproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria, including several taxa with a known preference for surface attachment, and were relatively depleted in the unicellular Cyanobacteria and small photoheterotrophic bacteria that dominate NPSG surface waters. Sequencing the nifH gene (encoding a subcomponent of the nitrogenase enzyme identified non-Trichodesmium diazotrophs that clustered predominantly among the Cluster III nifH sequence-types that includes putative anaerobic diazotrophs. Trichodesmium colonies may represent an important habitat for these Cluster III diazotrophs, which were relatively rare in the surrounding seawater. Sequence analyses of nifH gene transcripts revealed several cyanobacterial groups, including heterocystous Richelia, associated with the colonies. Both the 16S rRNA and nifH datasets indicated strong differences between Trichodesmium epibionts and picoplankton in the surrounding seawater, and also between the epibionts inhabiting Trichodesmium puff and tuft colony morphologies. Metagenomic and 16S r

  8. Proton-proton and deuteron-deuteron correlations in interactions of relativistic helium nuclei with protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galazka-Friedman, J.; Sobczak, T.; Stepaniak, J.; Zielinski, I.P.; Bano, M.; Hlavacova, J.; Martinska, G.; Patocka, J.; Seman, M.; Sandor, L.; Urban, J.

    1993-01-01

    The reactions 4 Hep→pp+X, 3 Hep→pp+X and 4 Hep→ddp have been investigated and the correlation function has been measured for protons and deuterons with small relative momenta. Strong positive correlation has been observed for protons related mainly to the final state interactions in 1 S 0 state. The root mean square radius of the proton source calculated from the correlation function has been found to be equal to (1.7±0.3) fm and (2.1±0.3) fm for 4 He and 3 He respectively. It agrees with the known radii of these nuclei. (orig.)

  9. Dynamics of Anti-Proton -- Protons and Anti-Proton -- Nucleus Reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Galoyan, A; Uzhinsky, V

    2016-01-01

    A short review of simulation results of anti-proton-proton and anti-proton-nucleus interactions within the framework of Geant4 FTF (Fritiof) model is presented. The model uses the main assumptions of the Quark-Gluon-String Model or Dual Parton Model. The model assumes production and fragmentation of quark-anti-quark and diquark-anti-diquark strings in the mentioned interactions. Key ingredients of the model are cross sections of string creation processes and an usage of the LUND string fragmentation algorithm. They allow one to satisfactory describe a large set of experimental data, especially, a strange particle production, Lambda hyperons and K mesons.

  10. Fragmentation in the branching coral Acropora palmata (Lamarck): growth, survivorship, and reproduction of colonies and fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lirman

    2000-08-23

    Acropora palmata, a branching coral abundant on shallow reef environments throughout the Caribbean, is susceptible to physical disturbance caused by storms. Accordingly, the survivorship and propagation of this species are tied to its capability to recover after fragmentation. Fragments of A. palmata comprised 40% of ramets within populations that had experienced recent storms. While the survivorship of A. palmata fragments was not directly related to the size of fragments, removal of fragments from areas where they settled was influenced by size. Survivorship of fragments was also affected by type of substratum; the greatest mortality (58% loss within the first month) was observed on sand, whereas fragments placed on top of live colonies of A. palmata fused to the underlying tissue and did not experience any losses. Fragments created by Hurricane Andrew on a Florida reef in August 1992 began developing new growth (proto-branches) 7 months after the storm. The number of proto-branches on fragments was dependent on size, but growth was not affected by the size of fragments. Growth-rates of proto-branches increased exponentially with time (1.7 cm year(-1) for 1993-1994, 2.7 cm year(-1) for 1994-1995, 4.2 cm year(-1) for 1995-1996, and 6.5 cm year(-1) for 1996-1997), taking over 4 years for proto-branches to achieve rates comparable to those of adult colonies on the same reef (6.9 cm year(-1)). In addition to the initial mortality and reduced growth-rates, fragmentation resulted in a loss of reproductive potential. Neither colonies that experienced severe fragmentation nor fragments contained gametes until 4 years after the initial damage. Although A. palmata may survive periodic fragmentation, the long-term effects of this process will depend ultimately on the balance between the benefits and costs of this process.

  11. Disease in the Society: Infectious Cadavers Result in Collapse of Ant Sub-Colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loreto, Raquel G.; Hughes, David P.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the growing number of experimental studies on mechanisms of social immunity in ant societies, little is known about how social behavior relates to disease progression within the nests of ants. In fact, when empirically studying disease in ant societies, it is common to remove dead ants from experiments to confirm infection by the studied parasite. This unfortunately does not allow disease to progress within the nest as it may be assumed would happen under natural conditions. Therefore, the approach taken so far has resulted in a limited knowledge of diseases dynamics within the nest environment. Here we introduced a single infectious cadaver killed by the fungus Beauveria bassiana into small nests of the ant Camponotus castaneus. We then observed the natural progression of the disease by not removing the corpses of the ants that died following the first entry of the disease. Because some behaviors such as social isolation of sick individuals or the removal of cadavers by nestmates are considered social immune functions and thus adaptations at the colony level that reduce disease spread, we also experimentally confined some sub-colonies to one or two chamber nests to prevent the expression of such behaviors. Based on 51 small nests and survival studies in 1,003 ants we found that a single introduced infectious cadaver was able to transmit within the nest, and social immunity did not prevent the collapse of the small sub-colonies here tested. This was true whether ants did or did not have the option to remove the infectious cadaver. Therefore, we found no evidence that the typically studied social immunity behaviors can reduce disease spread in the conditions here tested. PMID:27529548

  12. Parametric Model for Astrophysical Proton-Proton Interactions and Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, Niklas [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Observations of gamma-rays have been made from celestial sources such as active galaxies, gamma-ray bursts and supernova remnants as well as the Galactic ridge. The study of gamma rays can provide information about production mechanisms and cosmic-ray acceleration. In the high-energy regime, one of the dominant mechanisms for gamma-ray production is the decay of neutral pions produced in interactions of ultra-relativistic cosmic-ray nuclei and interstellar matter. Presented here is a parametric model for calculations of inclusive cross sections and transverse momentum distributions for secondary particles--gamma rays, e±, ve, $\\bar{v}$e, vμ and $\\bar{μ}$e--produced in proton-proton interactions. This parametric model is derived on the proton-proton interaction model proposed by Kamae et al.; it includes the diffraction dissociation process, Feynman-scaling violation and the logarithmically rising inelastic proton-proton cross section. To improve fidelity to experimental data for lower energies, two baryon resonance excitation processes were added; one representing the Δ(1232) and the other multiple resonances with masses around 1600 MeV/c2. The model predicts the power-law spectral index for all secondary particle to be about 0.05 lower in absolute value than that of the incident proton and their inclusive cross sections to be larger than those predicted by previous models based on the Feynman-scaling hypothesis. The applications of the presented model in astrophysics are plentiful. It has been implemented into the Galprop code to calculate the contribution due to pion decays in the Galactic plane. The model has also been used to estimate the cosmic-ray flux in the Large Magellanic Cloud based on HI, CO and gamma-ray observations. The transverse momentum distributions enable calculations when the proton distribution is anisotropic. It is shown that the gamma-ray spectrum and flux due to a

  13. Proton beam monitor chamber calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomà, C; Meer, D; Safai, S; Lorentini, S

    2014-01-01

    The first goal of this paper is to clarify the reference conditions for the reference dosimetry of clinical proton beams. A clear distinction is made between proton beam delivery systems which should be calibrated with a spread-out Bragg peak field and those that should be calibrated with a (pseudo-)monoenergetic proton beam. For the latter, this paper also compares two independent dosimetry techniques to calibrate the beam monitor chambers: absolute dosimetry (of the number of protons exiting the nozzle) with a Faraday cup and reference dosimetry (i.e. determination of the absorbed dose to water under IAEA TRS-398 reference conditions) with an ionization chamber. To compare the two techniques, Monte Carlo simulations were performed to convert dose-to-water to proton fluence. A good agreement was found between the Faraday cup technique and the reference dosimetry with a plane-parallel ionization chamber. The differences—of the order of 3%—were found to be within the uncertainty of the comparison. For cylindrical ionization chambers, however, the agreement was only possible when positioning the effective point of measurement of the chamber at the reference measurement depth—i.e. not complying with IAEA TRS-398 recommendations. In conclusion, for cylindrical ionization chambers, IAEA TRS-398 reference conditions for monoenergetic proton beams led to a systematic error in the determination of the absorbed dose to water, especially relevant for low-energy proton beams. To overcome this problem, the effective point of measurement of cylindrical ionization chambers should be taken into account when positioning the reference point of the chamber. Within the current IAEA TRS-398 recommendations, it seems advisable to use plane-parallel ionization chambers—rather than cylindrical chambers—for the reference dosimetry of pseudo-monoenergetic proton beams. (paper)

  14. On the proton radius problem

    OpenAIRE

    Giannini, M. M.; Santopinto, E.

    2013-01-01

    The recent values of the proton charge radius obtained by means of muonic-hydrogen laser spectroscopy are about $4\\%$ different from the electron scattering data. It has been suggested that the proton radius is actually measured in different frames and that, starting from a non relativistic quark model calculation, the Lorentz transformation of the form factors accounts properly for the discepancy. We shall show that the relation between the charge radii measured in different frames can be de...

  15. Colonie Interim Storage Site annual site environmental report for calendar year 1989, Colonie, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    IN 1984, Congress assigned the cleanup of the National Lead (NL) Industries site in Colonie, New York, to the Department of Energy (DOE) as part of a decontamination research and development project under the 1984 Energy and Water Appropriations Act. DOE then included the site in the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), an existing DOE program to decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive materials remain for the early years of the nation's atomic energy program. DOE instituted an environmental monitoring program at the site in 1984. Results are presented annually in reports such as this. Under FUSRAP, the first environmental monitoring report for this site presented data for calendar year 1984. This report presents the findings of the environmental monitoring program conducted during calendar year 1989. 16 refs., 17 figs., 14 tabs

  16. Colonie Interim Storage Site: Annual environmental report for calendar year 1990, Colonie, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    Environmental monitoring of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Colonie Interim Storage Site (CISS) and surrounding area began in 1984. CISS is part of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), a DOE program to decontaminate or otherwise control sties where residual radioactive materials remain from the early years of the nation's atomic energy program or from commercial operations causing conditions that Congress has authorized DOE to remedy. The routine environmental monitoring program at CISS includes sampling networks for external gamma radiation exposures and for radium-226, throium-232, an total uranium concentrations in surface water, sediment, and groundwater. Additionally, the nonradiological parameters volatile and semivolatile organics, pesticides/polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), metals, total organic carbon (TOC), total organic halides (TOX), specific conductivity, and pH are measured in groundwater. 14 refs., 20 figs., 25 tabs

  17. Colonie Interim Storage Site annual site environmental report for calendar year 1989, Colonie, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-05-01

    IN 1984, Congress assigned the cleanup of the National Lead (NL) Industries site in Colonie, New York, to the Department of Energy (DOE) as part of a decontamination research and development project under the 1984 Energy and Water Appropriations Act. DOE then included the site in the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), an existing DOE program to decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive materials remain for the early years of the nation's atomic energy program. DOE instituted an environmental monitoring program at the site in 1984. Results are presented annually in reports such as this. Under FUSRAP, the first environmental monitoring report for this site presented data for calendar year 1984. This report presents the findings of the environmental monitoring program conducted during calendar year 1989. 16 refs., 17 figs., 14 tabs.

  18. Increased tolerance and resistance to virus infections: a possible factor in the survival of Varroa destructor-resistant honey bees (Apis mellifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Locke

    Full Text Available The honey bee ectoparasitic mite, Varroa destructor, has a world-wide distribution and inflicts more damage than all other known apicultural diseases. However, Varroa-induced colony mortality is more accurately a result of secondary virus infections vectored by the mite. This means that honey bee resistance to Varroa may include resistance or tolerance to virus infections. The aim of this study was to see if this is the case for a unique population of mite-resistant (MR European honey bees on the island of Gotland, Sweden. This population has survived uncontrolled mite infestation for over a decade, developing specific mite-related resistance traits to do so. Using RT-qPCR techniques, we monitored late season virus infections, Varroa mite infestation and honey bee colony population dynamics in the Gotland MR population and compared this to mite-susceptible (MS colonies in a close by apiary. From summer to autumn the deformed wing virus (DWV titres increased similarly between the MR and MS populations, while the black queen cell virus (BQCV and sacbrood virus (SBV titres decreased substantially in the MR population compared to the MS population by several orders of magnitude. The MR colonies all survived the following winter with high mite infestation, high DWV infection, small colony size and low proportions of autumn brood, while the MS colonies all perished. Possible explanations for these changes in virus titres and their relevance to Varroa resistance and colony winter survival are discussed.

  19. Proton therapy project at PSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, K.; Akanuma, A.; Karasawa, K.

    1990-01-01

    Particle radiation which might present steeper dose distribution has received much attention as the third particle facility at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Switzerland. Proton conformation with sharp fall-off is considered to be the radiation beam suitable for confining high doses to a target volume without complications and for verifying which factor out of high RBE or physical dose distribution is more essential for local control in malignant tumors. This paper discusses the current status of the spot scanning method, which allows three dimensional conformation radiotherapy, and preliminary results. Preliminary dose distribution with proton conformation technique was acquired by modifying a computer program for treatment planning in pion treatment. In a patient with prostate carcinoma receiving both proton and pion radiation therapy, proton conformation was found to confine high doses to the target area and spare both the bladder and rectum well; and pion therapy was found to deliver non-homogeneous radiation to these organs. Although there are some obstacles in the proton project at PSI, experimental investigations are encouraging. The dynamic spot scanning method with combination of the kicker magnet, wobbler magnet, range shifter, patient transporter, and position sensitive monitor provides highly confined dose distribution, making it possible to increase total doses and thus to improve local control rate. Proton confirmation is considered to be useful for verifying possible biological effectiveness of negative pion treatment of PSI as well. (N.K.)

  20. When the proton becomes larger

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    The TOTEM experiment at the LHC has just confirmed that, at high energy, protons behave as if they were becoming larger. In more technical terms, their total cross-section – a parameter linked to the proton-proton interaction probability – increases with energy. This phenomenon, expected from previous measurements performed at much lower energy, has now been confirmed for the first time at the LHC’s unprecedented energy.   One arm of a TOTEM T2 detector during its installation at interaction point 5. A composite particle like the proton is a complex system that in no way resembles a static Lego construction: sub-components move inside and interactions keep the whole thing together, but in a very dynamic way. This partly explains why even the very common proton can still be hiding secrets about its nature, decades after its discovery. One way of studying the inner properties of protons is to observe how they interact with each other, which, in technical terms, i...

  1. Mortality of Siberian polecats and black-footed ferrets released onto prairie dog colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggins, D.E.; Miller, B.J.; Hanebury, L.R.; Powell, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) likely were extirpated from the wild in 19851986, and their repatriation depends on captive breeding and reintroduction. Postrelease survival of animals can be affected by behavioral changes induced by captivity. We released neutered Siberian polecats (M. eversmanii), close relatives of ferrets, in 19891990 on black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies in Colorado and Wyoming initially to test rearing and reintroduction techniques. Captive-born polecats were reared in cages or cages plus outdoor pens, released from elevated cages or into burrows, and supplementally fed or not fed. We also translocated wild-born polecats from China in 1990 and released captive-born, cage-reared black-footed ferrets in 1991, the 1st such reintroduction of black-footed ferrets. We documented mortality for 55 of 92 radiotagged animals in these studies, mostly due to predation (46 cases). Coyotes (Canis latrans) killed 31 ferrets and polecats. Supplementally fed polecats survived longer than nonprovisioned polecats. With a model based on deaths per distance moved, survival was highest for wild-born polecats, followed by pen-experienced, then cage-reared groups. Indexes of abundance (from spotlight surveys) for several predators were correlated with mortality rates of polecats and ferrets due to those predators. Released black-footed ferrets had lower survival rates than their ancestral population in Wyoming, and lower survival than wild-born and translocated polecats, emphasizing the influence of captivity. Captive-born polecats lost body mass more rapidly postrelease than did captive-born ferrets. Differences in hunting efficiency and prey selection provide further evidence that these polecats and ferrets are not ecological equivalents in the strict sense. ?? 2011 American Society of Mammalogists.

  2. A dose-surviving fraction curve for mouse colonic mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tucker, S.L.; Thames, H.D. Jr.; Withers, H.R.; Mason, K.A.

    1983-01-01

    A dose-surviving fraction curve representing the response of the mouse colonic mucosa to single doses of 137 Cs gamma radiation was obtained from the results of a multifraction in vivo colony assay. Construction of the curve required an estimated of the average number of clonogens initially present per colonic crypt. The estimated clonogen count (88) was determined by a statistical method based on the use of doses per fraction common to different fractionation protocols. Parameters for the LQ and TC models of cell survival were obtained by weighted least-squares fits to the data. A comparison of the survival characteristics of cells from the mouse colonic and jejunal crypts suggested that the epithelium of the colon is less radiosensitive than that of the jejunum. (author)

  3. Spread of plague among black-tailed prairie dogs is associated with colony spatial characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, T.L.; Cully, J.F.; Collinge, S.K.; Ray, C.; Frey, C.M.; Sandercock, B.K.

    2011-01-01

    Sylvatic plague (Yersinia pestis) is an exotic pathogen that is highly virulent in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) and causes widespread colony losses and individual mortality rates >95%. We investigated colony spatial characteristics that may influence inter-colony transmission of plague at 3 prairie dog colony complexes in the Great Plains. The 4 spatial characteristics we considered include: colony size, Euclidean distance to nearest neighboring colony, colony proximity index, and distance to nearest drainage (dispersal) corridor. We used multi-state mark-recapture models to determine the relationship between these colony characteristics and probability of plague transmission among prairie dog colonies. Annual mapping of colonies and mark-recapture analyses of disease dynamics in natural colonies led to 4 main results: 1) plague outbreaks exhibited high spatial and temporal variation, 2) the site of initiation of epizootic plague may have substantially influenced the subsequent inter-colony spread of plague, 3) the long-term effect of plague on individual colonies differed among sites because of how individuals and colonies were distributed, and 4) colony spatial characteristics were related to the probability of infection at all sites although the relative importance and direction of relationships varied among sites. Our findings suggest that conventional prairie dog conservation management strategies, including promoting large, highly connected colonies, may need to be altered in the presence of plague. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  4. Social interactions in the central nest of Coptotermes formosanus juvenile colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile colonies of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki were investigated to determine the social interactions among all individuals near the central nest of a colony. The behavioral repertoire of whole colonies of subterranean termites has yet to be identified because of their cryptic nests. Colonies w...

  5. Variation in Symbiodinium ITS2 sequence assemblages among coral colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stat, Michael; Bird, Christopher E; Pochon, Xavier; Chasqui, Luis; Chauka, Leonard J; Concepcion, Gregory T; Logan, Dan; Takabayashi, Misaki; Toonen, Robert J; Gates, Ruth D

    2011-01-05

    Endosymbiotic dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium are fundamentally important to the biology of scleractinian corals, as well as to a variety of other marine organisms. The genus Symbiodinium is genetically and functionally diverse and the taxonomic nature of the union between Symbiodinium and corals is implicated as a key trait determining the environmental tolerance of the symbiosis. Surprisingly, the question of how Symbiodinium diversity partitions within a species across spatial scales of meters to kilometers has received little attention, but is important to understanding the intrinsic biological scope of a given coral population and adaptations to the local environment. Here we address this gap by describing the Symbiodinium ITS2 sequence assemblages recovered from colonies of the reef building coral Montipora capitata sampled across Kāne'ohe Bay, Hawai'i. A total of 52 corals were sampled in a nested design of Coral Colony(Site(Region)) reflecting spatial scales of meters to kilometers. A diversity of Symbiodinium ITS2 sequences was recovered with the majority of variance partitioning at the level of the Coral Colony. To confirm this result, the Symbiodinium ITS2 sequence diversity in six M. capitata colonies were analyzed in much greater depth with 35 to 55 clones per colony. The ITS2 sequences and quantitative composition recovered from these colonies varied significantly, indicating that each coral hosted a different assemblage of Symbiodinium. The diversity of Symbiodinium ITS2 sequence assemblages retrieved from individual colonies of M. capitata here highlights the problems inherent in interpreting multi-copy and intra-genomically variable molecular markers, and serves as a context for discussing the utility and biological relevance of assigning species names based on Symbiodinium ITS2 genotyping.

  6. Radiosensitivity of CD4 and CD8 positive human T lymphocytes by an in vitro colony formation assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Nori; Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Akiyama, Mitoshi.

    1989-12-01

    The recent development of an in vitro lymphocyte colony assay provides a new opportunity to examine possible variations in human radiosensitivity using peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) in place of the hitherto used skin fibroblast assay. Our recent study showed that most of the colonies consisted of lymphocytes bearing CD4 or CD8 antigens. Since the fraction of CD4 + and CD8 + cells in PBL differs among individuals, it was suspected that individual radiosensitivity might be biased by the different subset frequencies if the dose-survival curves of the CD4 + and CD8 + cells differed. In the present study, CD4 + lymphocytes (helper/inducer T cells) and CD8 + lymphocytes (suppressor/cytotoxic T cells) were isolated from PBL and their dose-survival curves were determined. The results showed that the D 10 (the dose required to reduce the surviving fraction to 10 %) was quite similar for these two types of cells (3.13 ± 0.10 Gy [mean ±SD] for CD4 + , 3.34 ± 0.50 Gy for CD8 + and 3.07 ± 0.05 Gy for the unsorted cells), supporting the use of a whole PBL population for screening of individuals with altered radiosensitivity. (author)

  7. Clinical results of proton beam therapy for skull base chordoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igaki, Hiroshi; Tokuuye, Koichi; Okumura, Toshiyuki; Sugahara, Shinji; Kagei, Kenji; Hata, Masaharu; Ohara, Kiyoshi; Hashimoto, Takayuki; Tsuboi, Koji; Takano, Shingo; Matsumura, Akira; Akine, Yasuyuki

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate clinical results of proton beam therapy for patients with skull base chordoma. Methods and materials: Thirteen patients with skull base chordoma who were treated with proton beams with or without X-rays at the University of Tsukuba between 1989 and 2000 were retrospectively reviewed. A median total tumor dose of 72.0 Gy (range, 63.0-95.0 Gy) was delivered. The patients were followed for a median period of 69.3 months (range, 14.6-123.4 months). Results: The 5-year local control rate was 46.0%. Cause-specific, overall, and disease-free survival rates at 5 years were 72.2%, 66.7%, and 42.2%, respectively. The local control rate was higher, without statistical significance, for those with preoperative tumors <30 mL. Partial or subtotal tumor removal did not yield better local control rates than for patients who underwent biopsy only as the latest surgery. Conclusion: Proton beam therapy is effective for patients with skull base chordoma, especially for those with small tumors. For a patient with a tumor of <30 mL with no prior treatment, biopsy without tumor removal seems to be appropriate before proton beam therapy

  8. Proteomic analysis of proton beam irradiated human melanoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Kedracka-Krok

    Full Text Available Proton beam irradiation is a form of advanced radiotherapy providing superior distributions of a low LET radiation dose relative to that of photon therapy for the treatment of cancer. Even though this clinical treatment has been developing for several decades, the proton radiobiology critical to the optimization of proton radiotherapy is far from being understood. Proteomic changes were analyzed in human melanoma cells treated with a sublethal dose (3 Gy of proton beam irradiation. The results were compared with untreated cells. Two-dimensional electrophoresis was performed with mass spectrometry to identify the proteins. At the dose of 3 Gy a minimal slowdown in proliferation rate was seen, as well as some DNA damage. After allowing time for damage repair, the proteomic analysis was performed. In total 17 protein levels were found to significantly (more than 1.5 times change: 4 downregulated and 13 upregulated. Functionally, they represent four categories: (i DNA repair and RNA regulation (VCP, MVP, STRAP, FAB-2, Lamine A/C, GAPDH, (ii cell survival and stress response (STRAP, MCM7, Annexin 7, MVP, Caprin-1, PDCD6, VCP, HSP70, (iii cell metabolism (TIM, GAPDH, VCP, and (iv cytoskeleton and motility (Moesin, Actinin 4, FAB-2, Vimentin, Annexin 7, Lamine A/C, Lamine B. A substantial decrease (2.3 x was seen in the level of vimentin, a marker of epithelial to mesenchymal transition and the metastatic properties of melanoma.

  9. Biophysical characterization of a relativistic proton beam for image-guided radiosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhan; Vanstalle, Marie; La Tessa, Chiara; Jiang, Guo-Liang; Durante, Marco

    2012-07-01

    We measured the physical and radiobiological characteristics of 1 GeV protons for possible applications in stereotactic radiosurgery (image-guided plateau-proton radiosurgery). A proton beam was accelerated at 1 GeV at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (Upton, NY) and a target in polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) was used. Clonogenic survival was measured after exposures to 1-10 Gy in three mammalian cell lines. Measurements and simulations demonstrate that the lateral scattering of the beam is very small. The lateral dose profile was measured with or without the 20-cm plastic target, showing no significant differences up to 2 cm from the axis A large number of secondary swift protons are produced in the target and this leads to an increase of approximately 40% in the measured dose on the beam axis at 20 cm depth. The relative biological effectiveness at 10% survival level ranged between 1.0 and 1.2 on the beam axis, and was slightly higher off-axis. The very low lateral scattering of relativistic protons and the possibility of using online proton radiography during the treatment make them attractive for image-guided plateau (non-Bragg peak) stereotactic radiosurgery.

  10. Biophysical characterization of a relativistic proton beam for image-guided radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Z.; Vanstalle, M.; La Tessa, C.; Durante, M.; Jiang Guoliang

    2012-01-01

    We measured the physical and radiobiological characteristics of 1 GeV protons for possible applications in stereotactic radiosurgery (image-guided plateau-proton radiosurgery). A proton beam was accelerated at 1 GeV at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (Upton, NY) and a target in polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) was used. Clonogenic survival was measured after exposures to 1-10 Gy in three mammalian cell lines. Measurements and simulations demonstrate that the lateral scattering of the beam is very small. The lateral dose profile was measured with or without the 20-cm plastic target, showing no significant differences up to 2 cm from the axis A large number of secondary swift protons are produced in the target and this leads to an increase of approximately 40% in the measured dose on the beam axis at 20 cm depth. The relative biological effectiveness at 10% survival level ranged between 1.0 and 1.2 on the beam axis, and was slightly higher off-axis. The very low lateral scattering of relativistic protons and the possibility of using online proton radiography during the treatment make them attractive for image-guided plateau (non-Bragg peak) stereotactic radiosurgery. (author)

  11. California gull chicks raised near colony edges have elevated stress levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Garth; Ackerman, Joshua T.

    2011-01-01

    Coloniality in nesting birds represents an important life history strategy for maximizing reproductive success. Birds nesting near the edge of colonies tend to have lower reproductive success than individuals nesting near colony centers, and offspring of edge-nesting parents may be impaired relative to those of central-nesting parents. We used fecal corticosterone metabolites in California gull chicks (Larus californicus) to examine whether colony size or location within the colony influenced a chick's physiological condition. We found that chicks being raised near colony edges had higher fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations than chicks raised near colony centers, but that colony size (ranging from 150 to 11,554 nests) had no influence on fecal corticosterone levels. Fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations also increased with chick age. Our results suggest that similarly aged California gull chicks raised near colony edges may be more physiologically stressed, as indicated by corticosterone metabolites, than chicks raised near colony centers.

  12. Heteronuclear proton assisted recoupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paëpe, Gaël; Lewandowski, Józef R.; Loquet, Antoine; Eddy, Matt; Megy, Simon; Böckmann, Anja; Griffin, Robert G.

    2011-03-01

    We describe a theoretical framework for understanding the heteronuclear version of the third spin assisted recoupling polarization transfer mechanism and demonstrate its potential for detecting long-distance intramolecular and intermolecular 15N-13C contacts in biomolecular systems. The pulse sequence, proton assisted insensitive nuclei cross polarization (PAIN-CP) relies on a cross term between 1H-15N and 1H-13C dipolar couplings to mediate zero- and/or double-quantum 15N-13C recoupling. In particular, using average Hamiltonian theory we derive effective Hamiltonians for PAIN-CP and show that the transfer is mediated by trilinear terms of the form N±C∓Hz (ZQ) or N±C±Hz (DQ) depending on the rf field strengths employed. We use analytical and numerical simulations to explain the structure of the PAIN-CP optimization maps and to delineate the appropriate matching conditions. We also detail the dependence of the PAIN-CP polarization transfer with respect to local molecular geometry and explain the observed reduction in dipolar truncation. In addition, we demonstrate the utility of PAIN-CP in structural studies with 15N-13C spectra of two uniformly 13C,15N labeled model microcrystalline proteins—GB1, a 56 amino acid peptide, and Crh, a 85 amino acid domain swapped dimer (MW = 2 × 10.4 kDa). The spectra acquired at high magic angle spinning frequencies (ωr/2π > 20 kHz) and magnetic fields (ω0H/2π = 700-900 MHz) using moderate rf fields, yield multiple long-distance intramonomer and intermonomer 15N-13C contacts. We use these distance restraints, in combination with the available x-ray structure as a homology model, to perform a calculation of the monomer subunit of the Crh protein.

  13. Recent Advances of Colony-Stimulating Factor-1 Receptor (CSF-1R) Kinase and Its Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gamal, Mohammed I; Al-Ameen, Shahad K; Al-Koumi, Dania M; Hamad, Mawadda G; Jalal, Nouran A; Oh, Chang-Hyun

    2018-01-17

    Colony stimulation factor-1 receptor (CSF-1R), which is also known as FMS kinase, plays an important role in initiating inflammatory, cancer, and bone disorders when it is overstimulated by its ligand, CSF-1. Innate immunity, as well as macrophage differentiation and survival, are regulated by the stimulation of the CSF-1R. Another ligand, interlukin-34 (IL-34), was recently reported to activate the CSF-1R receptor in a different manner. The relationship between CSF-1R and microglia has been reviewed. Both CSF-1 antibodies and small molecule CSF-1R kinase inhibitors have now been tested in animal models and in humans. In this Perspective, we discuss the role of CSF-1 and IL-34 in producing cancer, bone disorders, and inflammation. We also review the newly discovered and improved small molecule kinase inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies that have shown potent activity toward CSF-1R, reported from 2012 until 2017.

  14. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor protects mice during respiratory virus infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Hermesh

    Full Text Available A burst in the production of pro-inflammatory molecules characterizes the beginning of the host response to infection. Cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors work in concert to control pathogen replication and activate innate and adaptive immune responses. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF mobilizes and activates hematopoietic cells from the bone marrow, and it has been shown to mediate the generation of effective immunity against bacterial and fungal infections. G-CSF is produced at high levels in the lungs during infection with influenza and parainfluenza viruses, but its role during these infections is unknown. Here we show that during infection of mice with a non-lethal dose of influenza or Sendai virus, G-CSF promotes the accumulation of activated Ly6G+ granulocytes that control the extent of the lung pro-inflammatory response. Remarkably, these G-CSF-mediated effects facilitate viral clearance and sustain mouse survival.

  15. Sparse-view proton computed tomography using modulated proton beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jiseoc; Kim, Changhwan; Cho, Seungryong, E-mail: scho@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Min, Byungjun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, 110–746 (Korea, Republic of); Kwak, Jungwon [Department of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, 138–736 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seyjoon; Lee, Se Byeong [Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center, 410–769 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sungyong [Proton Therapy Center, McLaren Cancer Institute, Flint, Michigan 48532 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: Proton imaging that uses a modulated proton beam and an intensity detector allows a relatively fast image acquisition compared to the imaging approach based on a trajectory tracking detector. In addition, it requires a relatively simple implementation in a conventional proton therapy equipment. The model of geometric straight ray assumed in conventional computed tomography (CT) image reconstruction is however challenged by multiple-Coulomb scattering and energy straggling in the proton imaging. Radiation dose to the patient is another important issue that has to be taken care of for practical applications. In this work, the authors have investigated iterative image reconstructions after a deconvolution of the sparsely view-sampled data to address these issues in proton CT. Methods: Proton projection images were acquired using the modulated proton beams and the EBT2 film as an intensity detector. Four electron-density cylinders representing normal soft tissues and bone were used as imaged object and scanned at 40 views that are equally separated over 360°. Digitized film images were converted to water-equivalent thickness by use of an empirically derived conversion curve. For improving the image quality, a deconvolution-based image deblurring with an empirically acquired point spread function was employed. They have implemented iterative image reconstruction algorithms such as adaptive steepest descent-projection onto convex sets (ASD-POCS), superiorization method–projection onto convex sets (SM-POCS), superiorization method–expectation maximization (SM-EM), and expectation maximization-total variation minimization (EM-TV). Performance of the four image reconstruction algorithms was analyzed and compared quantitatively via contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and root-mean-square-error (RMSE). Results: Objects of higher electron density have been reconstructed more accurately than those of lower density objects. The bone, for example, has been reconstructed

  16. Delayed protons and properties of proton-rich nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karnaukhov, V.A.

    1976-01-01

    The object of the investigation is to study the properties of proton-rich nuclei. The emphasis in the proposed survey is made on investigations in the range of Z > 50. Measurement of the total energy in emission of delayed protons (DP) enables one to determine the difference between the masses of initial and final isotopes. The statistical model of the DP emission is used for describing the proton spectrum. A comparison of the DP experimental and theoretical spectra shows that the presence of local resonances in the strength functions of the β dacay is rather a rule than an exception. Studies into the fine structure of the proton spectra supply information of the density of nuclei considerably removed from the β-stability line at the excitation energies of 3-7 MeV. The aproaches for retrieval of nuclear information with the aid of proton radiators developed so far can serve as a good basis for systematic investigation over a wide range of A and Z

  17. Thermally adapted design strategy of colonial houses in Surabaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antaryama, I. G. N.; Ekasiwi, S. N. N.; Mappajaya, A.; Ulum, M. S.

    2018-03-01

    Colonial buildings, including houses, have been considered as a representation of climate-responsive architecture. The design was thought to be a hybrid model of Dutch and tropical architecture. It was created by way of reinventing tropical and Dutch architecture design principles, and expressed in a new form, i.e. neither resembling Dutch nor tropical building. Aside from this new image, colonial house does show good climatic responses. Previous researches on colonial house generally focus on qualitative assessment of climate performance of the building. Yet this kind of study tends to concentrate on building elements, e.g. wall, window, etc. The present study is designed to give more complete picture of architecture design strategy of the house by exploring and analysing thermal performance of colonial buildings and their related architecture design strategies. Field measurements are conducted during the dry season in several colonial building in Surabaya. Air temperature and humidity are both taken, representing internal and external thermal conditions of the building. These data are then evaluated to determine thermal performance of the house. Finally, various design strategies are examined in order to reveal their significant contributions to its thermal performance. Results of the study in Surabaya confirm findings of the previous researches that are conducted in other locations, which stated that thermal performance of the house is generally good. Passive design strategies such as mass effect and ventilation play an important role in determining performance of the building.

  18. Combating Varroa destructor in Honeybee Colonies Using Flumethrin or Fluvalinate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gregorc

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Mite mortality in two apiaries, one with 32 and the other with 15 honeybee (Apis mellifera carnica colonies, was recorded prior to and after flumethrin or fluvalinate treatments and after a control, oxalic-acid application. During the 42- and 51-day pre-treatment periods, the average daily natural mite drop was 0.04 (± 0.04 and 2.82 (± 2.19, respectively, which represents 1.09% (± 1.06 and 3.84% (± 3.04 of the total number of mites found during the experiment. The flumethrin or fluvalinate applications resulted in an average mite mortality at the two apiaries of 214.46 (± 260.02 and 4,098.64 (± 2,508.31. The treatments resulted in a 19.11% (± 14.62 and a 39.28% (± 10.47 reduction in the number of mites in slightly infested colonies and 94.30% (± 4.26 and 96.24% (± 3.14 in highly infested colonies. The difference in treatment efficacy between both apiaries was significant (P < 0.001 and indicates that fluvalinate and flumethrin are highly efficacious in dealing with highly infested honeybee colonies with sealed brood. The importance of effective mite control in colonies with a high level of natural mite mortality is discussed in this study.

  19. Food preparation in colonial America. A Bicentennial study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennion, M

    1976-07-01

    Both regional and national influences have pervaded America's culinary arts from colonial times until the present. In the South, for instance, indigenous foods, such as sweet potatoes--as well as an abundance of fruits and fowl--were commonly served. In the North, maple sirup was a New England product, as was codfish. Throughout the colonies, corn was easily grown and became a staple. Immigrants from the Old World brought their recipes to meld or adapt to conditions they met here. Recounted also is the unfolding of an American cuisine, especially in the southern colonies as it evolved from European food preparation practices. Cooking was done in great fireplaces, with equipment designed to fit. Meat was generally boiled or stewed in pots hung in the fireplace, although it might be slow-roasted on a hand-turned spit. Hot breads, the hallmark of southern cooking, date from colonial days. In the Noth, the Dutch farmer's wife developed real skill in using flour from home-grown wheat and rye, creating pancakes, waffles, doughnuts, crullers, and so on. After the first hard winter, food in New England became more plentiful. Boston brown bread was made from corn, wheat, or rye and probably sweetened with maple sirup. Imports of coffee, tea, and spices from the Orient and fruit from the tropics were later added to the cuisine. Colonial Americans understood well the art of food preparation and appreciated the taste of well prepared, well seasoned dishes.

  20. Creating Central Sulawesi. Mission Intervention, Colonialism and ‘Multiculturality’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Coté

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Creating Central Sulawesi: Mission Intervention, Colonialism and ‘Multiculturality’Central Sulawesi provides an example of how, under colonialism, non-state bodies contributed to the creation of new political identities in the Indonesian archipelago, and how the modern Indonesian state came to be based on these. Arguably, at the beginning of the twentieth century, the region was poised to be incorporated into the structure of one or other of the existing powerful Central and Southern Sulawesi political entities. As such, as just another ‘region’ in the sprawling archipelagic colony subjected to standard colonial policy, it should have been readily incorporated into the Indonesian state, albeit through the ‘Sulawesi Permesta’. Instead, in seeking to establish what one writer has described as a ‘volkskerk’ [people’s church], the ‘Poso mission’ established with colonial support by the Nederlandsche Zendinggenootschap [Netherlands Missionary Society] in 1892, was instrumental in defining new religious, cultural and linguistic boundaries. These acted to effectively isolate the Pamona people from adjacent Christian communities established by other missionary endeavours; from their Islamic neighbours and, arguably, from the ‘nation’. As elsewhere in the archipelago, the subsequent process of this region’s reintegration has formed part of the difficult postcolonial legacy inherited by the Indonesian nation.