WorldWideScience

Sample records for proton rigidity spectra

  1. On the reason for the kink in the rigidity spectra of cosmic-ray protons and helium nuclei near 230 GV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loznikov, V. M., E-mail: loznikov@yandex.ru; Erokhin, N. S.; Zol’nikova, N. N.; Mikhailovskaya, L. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Space Research Institute (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-15

    A three-component phenomenological model describing the specific features of the spectrum of cosmic-ray protons and helium nuclei in the rigidity range of 30–2×10{sup 5} GV is proposed. The first component corresponds to the constant background; the second, to the variable “soft” (30–500 GV) heliospheric source; and the third, to the variable “hard” (0.5–200 TV) source located inside a local bubble. The existence and variability of both sources are provided by the corresponding “surfatron accelerators,” whose operation requires the presence of an extended region with an almost uniform (in both magnitude and direction) magnetic field, orthogonally (or obliquely) to which electromagnetic waves propagate. The maximum energy to which cosmic rays can be accelerated is determined by the source size. The soft source with a size of ∼100 AU is located at the periphery of the heliosphere, behind the front of the solar wind shock wave. The hard source with a size of >0.1 pc is located near the boundary of an interstellar cloud at a distance of ∼0.01 pc from the Sun. The presence of a kink in the rigidity spectra of p and He near 230 GV is related to the variability of the physical conditions in the acceleration region and depends on the relation between the amplitudes and power-law exponents in the dependences of the background, soft heliospheric source, and hard near galactic source. The ultrarelativistic acceleration of p and He by an electromagnetic wave propagating in space plasma across the external magnetic field is numerically analyzed. Conditions for particle trapping by the wave and the dynamics of the particle velocity and momentum components are considered. The calculations show that, in contrast to electrons and positrons (e{sup +}), the trapped protons relatively rapidly escape from the effective potential well and cease to accelerate. Due to this effect, the p and He spectra are softer than that of e{sup +}. The possibility that the

  2. Energetic Proton Spectra Measured by the Van Allen Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Danny; Shi, Run; Engebretson, Mark J.; Oksavik, Kjellmar; Manweiler, Jerry W.; Mitchell, Donald G.

    2017-10-01

    We test the hypothesis that pitch angle scattering by electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves can limit ring current proton fluxes. For two chosen magnetic storms, during 17-20 March 2013 and 17-20 March 2015, we measure proton energy spectra in the region 3 ≤ L ≤ 6 using the RBSPICE-B instrument on the Van Allen Probes. The most intense proton spectra are observed to occur during the recovery periods of the respective storms. Using proton precipitation data from the POES (NOAA and MetOp) spacecraft, we deduce that EMIC wave action was prevalent at the times and L-shell locations of the most intense proton spectra. We calculate limiting ring current proton energy spectra from recently developed theory. Comparisons between the observed proton energy spectra and the theoretical limiting spectra show reasonable agreement. We conclude that the measurements of the most intense proton spectra are consistent with self-limiting by EMIC wave scattering.

  3. Two-proton energy spectra of 12O nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teruya, N.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The two-proton radioactivity has attracted stimulating discussion concerning the competing mechanisms for the decay process. Some nuclei (like 45 Fe, 41 Ni and 54 Zn are considered as genuine ground-state two-proton emitter because the only possibility is the simultaneous channel, but others nuclei (as 12 O) can also have the sequential decay, in this case, the energy levels of the intermediary one-proton emitter nuclei plays an important role to the competition with the simultaneous decay mode. In this work we have calculated the energy spectra of 12 O, including ground state and excited states up to 5 MeV of energy, and the two-proton energy difference spectrum for the ground state decay. Our preliminary results estimates the energy peak and width of resonant excited states and contributions of simultaneous and sequential channels for ground state decay. The calculation method is based on the statistical analysis for two-proton decaying modes presented in previous work. For events generated by sequential channels, the energy levels of intermediary 11 N nucleus can dominate the first proton emission, depending on the proximity between the ground states of both nuclei, 11 N and 12 O , in particular, if the ground state of 11 N is broad and its energy is far away from that of 12 O, the sequential decay occurs via the tail of the ground state of 11 O. The decay of 12 O resonant ground state and higher energy excited resonances are investigated through the analysis of the experimental data for the two-proton emission process. The two proton decay spectra have been considered in a statistical calculation framework, by using the decay energy distribution and taken into account the intermediate states of 11 N resonant structures for the sequential channels. For simultaneous decay channel we construct a symmetric distribution similarly to Goldansky's proposition in Nucl. Phys. A19, 482 (1960). (author)

  4. Handbook of proton-NMR spectra and data index

    CERN Document Server

    Asahi Research Center Co, Ltd

    2013-01-01

    Handbook of Proton-NMR Spectra and Data: Index to Volumes 1-10 compiles four types of indexes used in charting the proton-NMR spectral database -Chemical Name Index, Molecular Formula Index, Substructure Index, and Chemical Shift Index. The Chemical Name Index compiles all chemical names in alphabetical order, followed by a spectrum number. When the desired organic compound cannot be found in the Chemical Name Index or its nomenclature is unclear, it becomes necessary to look for a compound by means of its molecular formula, hence the Molecular Formula Index. A unique notation system for repre

  5. Inclusive spectra of hadrons in proton-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gevorkyan, S.R.; Gulkanyan, G.R.; Kotzinyan, A.M.; Zhamkochyan, V.M.

    1985-01-01

    A model is proposed, which allows one to describe all exprimental data on inclusive spectra of different hadrons produced on nuclei. The model is based on the following assumptions. After the first inelastic collision with nucleon in the nucleus the proton transforms into some excited system H, which collides with the other nucleons during its passage through the nucleus. Since in inelastic collisions the slow sea partons play the dominant role, the valence quarks of this system H coincide with those of proton. Fragmentation of H into hadrons (as well as into proton) is dilated in the lab system by the Lorentz factor E/m >> 1 and so it takes place out of the nucleus. Using the methods of multiple scattering theory one can receive the connection between inclusive spectra on nuclei and those on nucleons. The calculations of inclusive spectra of different hadrons (p, p, πsup(-+), ksup(+-)) were done, and a satisfactory description of the experimental data was obtained. It should be noted that this description was done without introduction of any free parameters. Analogous models are discussed, and their diffference from the method proposed is outlined

  6. Proton and Helium Spectra from the CREAM-III Flight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Y. S.; Han, J. H.; Kim, K. C.; Kim, M. H.; Lee, M. H.; Lee, S. E. [Institute for Physical Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 20742 (United States); Anderson, T.; Conklin, N. B.; Coutu, S.; Mognet, S. I. [Department of Physics, Penn State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Barrau, A.; Derome, L. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et Cosmologie, Grenoble (France); Jeon, J. A.; Lee, H. Y.; Lee, J.; Park, I. H. [Department of Physics, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 16419 (Korea, Republic of); Link, J. T.; Mitchell, J. W. [Astrophysics Space Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Menchaca-Rocha, A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Nutter, S. [Department of Physics, Northern Kentucky University, Highland Heights, KY 41099 (United States); and others

    2017-04-10

    Primary cosmic-ray elemental spectra have been measured with the balloon-borne Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM) experiment since 2004. The third CREAM payload (CREAM-III) flew for 29 days during the 2007–2008 Antarctic season. Energies of incident particles above 1 TeV are measured with a calorimeter. Individual elements are clearly separated with a charge resolution of ∼0.12 e (in charge units) and ∼0.14 e for protons and helium nuclei, respectively, using two layers of silicon charge detectors. The measured proton and helium energy spectra at the top of the atmosphere are harder than other existing measurements at a few tens of GeV. The relative abundance of protons to helium nuclei is 9.53 ± 0.03 for the range of 1 TeV/n to 63 TeV/n. This ratio is considerably smaller than other measurements at a few tens of GeV/n. The spectra become softer above ∼20 TeV. However, our statistical uncertainties are large at these energies and more data are needed.

  7. EBS/C proton spectra from a virgin diamond crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erich, M., E-mail: marko.erich@gmail.com [Laboratory of Physics, Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, PO Box 552, Belgrade (Serbia); Kokkoris, M. [Department of Physics, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou Campus 157 80, Athens (Greece); Fazinić, S. [Laboratory for Ion Beam Interactions, Department of Experimental Physics, Institute Ruđer Bošković, Bijenička cesta 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Petrović, S. [Laboratory of Physics, Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, PO Box 552, Belgrade (Serbia)

    2016-08-15

    In the present work, elastic backscattering channeling spectra, EBS/C, of protons in a 〈1 0 0〉 diamond crystal were experimentally and theoretically studied via a new computer simulation code. Proton incident energies for EBS/C spectra were in the energy range from 1.0 MeV to 1.9 MeV. The energy range was chosen in order to explore a distinct strong resonance of the {sup 12}C(p,p{sub 0}){sup 12}C elastic scattering at 1737 keV. The computer simulation code applied for the fitting of the experimental spectra in the random mode was compared with the corresponding SIMNRA results. In the channeling mode, it assumes a Gompertz type sigmoidal dechanneling function, which has two fitting parameters, x{sub c} and k, the dechanneling range and rate, respectively. It also uses α, ratio of the channeling to random energy losses, as a fitting parameter. It was observed that x{sub c} increases, k decreases and α stays relatively constant with the proton incident energy. These observations confirm the physical interpretation of the fitting parameters. Also, they constitute the basics for the further development of the code for the quantification of induced amorphization and depth profiling of implanted ions.

  8. Conformation of antifreeze glycoproteins as determined from conformational energy calculations and fully assigned proton NMR spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush, C.A.; Rao, B.N.N.

    1986-01-01

    The 1 H NMR spectra of AFGP's ranging in molecular weight from 2600 to 30,000 Daltons isolated from several different species of polar fish have been measured. The spectrum of AFGP 1-4 from Pagothenia borchgrevinki with an average of 30 repeating subunits has a single resonance for each proton of the glycotripeptide repeating unit, (ala-[gal-(β-1→3) galNAc-(α--O-]thr-ala)/sub n/. Its 1 H NMR spectrum including resonances of the amide protons has been completely assigned. Coupling constants and nuclear Overhauser enhancements (n.O.e.) between protons on distant residues imply conformational order. The 2600 dalton molecular weight glycopeptides (AFGP-8) have pro in place of ala at certain specific points in the sequence and AFGP-8R of Eleginus gracilis has arg in place of one thr. The resonances of pro and arg were assigned by decoupling. The resonances of the carboxy and amino terminals have distinct chemical shifts and were assigned in AFGP-8 of Boreogadus saida by titration. n.O.e. between α--protons and amide protons of the adjacent residue (sequential n.O.e.) were used in assignments of additional resonances and to assign the distinctive resonances of thr followed by pro. Conformational energy calculations on the repeating glycotripeptide subunit of AFGP show that the α--glucosidic linkage has a fixed conformation while the β--linkage is less rigid. A conformational model for AFGP 1-4, which is based on the calculations has the peptide in an extended left-handed helix with three residues per turn similar to polyproline II. The model is consistent with CD data, amide proton coupling constants, temperature dependence of amide proton chemical shifts

  9. Measurements of proton energy spectra using a radiochromic film stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filkins, T. M.; Steidle, Jessica; Ellison, D. M.; Steidle, Jeffrey; Freeman, C. G.; Padalino, S. J.; Fiksel, G.; Regan, S. P.; Sangster, T. C.

    2014-10-01

    The energy spectrum of protons accelerated from the rear-side of a thin foil illuminated with ultra-intense laser light from the OMEGA EP laser system at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) was measured using a stack of radiochromic film (RCF). The film stack consisted of four layers of Gafchromic HD-V2 film and four layers of Gafchromic MD-V2-55 film. Aluminum foils of various thicknesses were placed between each piece of RCF in the stack. This arrangement allowed protons with energies of 30 MeV to reach the back layer of RCF in the stack. The stack was placed in the detector plane of a Thomson parabola ion energy (TPIE) spectrometer. Each piece of film in the stack was scanned using a commercially available flat-bed scanner (Epson 10000XL). The resulting optical density was converted into proton fluence using an absolute calibration of the RCF obtained at the SUNY Geneseo 1.7 MV Pelletron accelerator laboratory. In these calibration measurements, the sensitivity of the radiochromic film was measured using monoenergetic protons produced by the accelerator. Details of the analysis procedure and the resulting proton energy spectra will be presented. Funded in part by a grant from the DOE through the Laboratory for Laser Energetics.

  10. Very local interstellar spectra for galactic electrons, protons and helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potgieter, Marius S., E-mail: Marius.Potgieter@nwu.ac.za [Centre for Space Research, North-West University (South Africa)

    2014-07-01

    The local interstellar spectra (LIS) for cosmic rays at energies below ∼30 GeV/nuc are increasingly obscured from view at Earth by solar modulation, the lower the energy becomes. These charged particles encounter significant changes in the heliosphere, over an 11-year cycle, which include processes such as convection, diffusion, adiabatic energy losses and gradient, curvature and current sheet drifts. Particle drifts cause charge-sign-dependent modulation and a 22-year cycle, adding complexity to determining the respective very LIS from observations only at Earth. However, with measurements now made by the Voyager 1 spacecraft in the vicinity of the helio pause, it is possible to determine a very LIS for galactic electrons between ∼5 and ∼120 MeV. At these low energies, also galactic protons observed in the outer heliosphere had been completely obscured by the so-called anomalous component which is accelerated inside the helio sheath. Since August 2012, these anomalous cosmic rays are substantially depleted at Voyager 1 so that for cosmic ray ions, it is now possible to obtain a lower limit to their very LIS. Combining numerical modelling of solar modulation with the accurate measurements by the PAMELA mission and with Voyager observations, the lower limit of the very LIS for electrons, protons and helium and other ions can be determined from ∼5 MeV and above. These spectra are called helio pause spectra which is considered to be the lowest possible very LIS. Also, from an astrophysics point of view, the determination of what can be called a very LIS, not just an averaged galactic spectrum, is encouraging. The mentioned aspects are discussed, focusing on a comparison of recent heliospheric observations and corresponding solar modulation modelling. (author)

  11. Measurements of Cosmic-Ray Proton and Helium Spectra from the BESS-Polar Long-Duration Balloon Flights Over Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, K.; Fuke, H.; Haino, S.; Hams, T.; Hasegawa, M.; Horikoshi, A.; Itazaki, A.; Kim, K. C.; Kumazawa, T.; Kusumoto, A.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The BESS-Polar Collaboration measured the energy spectra of cosmic-ray protons and helium during two long-duration balloon flights over Antarctica in December 2004 and December 2007, at substantially different levels of solar modulation. Proton and helium spectra probe the origin and propagation history of cosmic rays in the galaxy, and are essential to calculations of the expected spectra of cosmic-ray antiprotons, positrons, and electrons from interactions of primary cosmic-ray nuclei with the interstellar gas, and to calculations of atmospheric muons and neutrinos. We report absolute spectra at the top of the atmosphere for cosmic-ray protons in the kinetic energy range 0.2-160 GeV and helium nuclei 0.15-80 GeV/nucleon. The corresponding magnetic rigidity ranges are 0.6-160 GV for protons and 1.1-160 GV for helium. These spectra are compared to measurements from previous BESS flights and from ATIC-2, PAMELA, and AMS-02. We also report the ratio of the proton and helium fluxes from 1.1 GV to 160 GV and compare to ratios from PAMELA and AMS-02.

  12. MEASUREMENTS OF COSMIC-RAY PROTON AND HELIUM SPECTRA FROM THE BESS-POLAR LONG-DURATION BALLOON FLIGHTS OVER ANTARCTICA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, K.; Itazaki, A.; Kusumoto, A.; Matsukawa, Y.; Orito, R. [Kobe University, Kobe, Hyogo 657-8501 (Japan); Fuke, H. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (ISAS/JAXA), Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Haino, S.; Hasegawa, M.; Horikoshi, A.; Kumazawa, T.; Makida, Y.; Matsuda, S.; Matsumoto, K.; Nozaki, M. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Hams, T.; Mitchell, J. W. [NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA-GSFC), Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Kim, K. C.; Lee, M. H.; Myers, Z. [IPST, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Nishimura, J., E-mail: Kenichi.Sakai@nasa.gov [The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); and others

    2016-05-10

    The BESS-Polar Collaboration measured the energy spectra of cosmic-ray protons and helium during two long-duration balloon flights over Antarctica in 2004 December and 2007 December at substantially different levels of solar modulation. Proton and helium spectra probe the origin and propagation history of cosmic rays in the galaxy, and are essential to calculations of the expected spectra of cosmic-ray antiprotons, positrons, and electrons from interactions of primary cosmic-ray nuclei with the interstellar gas, and to calculations of atmospheric muons and neutrinos. We report absolute spectra at the top of the atmosphere for cosmic-ray protons in the kinetic energy range 0.2–160 GeV and helium nuclei in the range 0.15–80 GeV/nucleon. The corresponding magnetic-rigidity ranges are 0.6–160 GV for protons and 1.1–160 GV for helium. These spectra are compared to measurements from previous BESS flights and from ATIC-2, PAMELA, and AMS-02. We also report the ratio of the proton and helium fluxes from 1.1 to 160 GV and compare this to the ratios from PAMELA and AMS-02.

  13. Preliminary analysis of proton magnetic resonance 1D spectra of cerebrospinal fluid and brain cancer extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toczylowska, B.; Jozwik, A.; Kierul, K.; Matysiak, Z.; Sidor, M.; Wojcik, J.

    1999-01-01

    In series of cerebrospinal fluid samples from 25 patients proton spectra of magnetic resonance were measured. The spectra were measured also for series of brain tumor tissue extracts received from another 25 patients. This paper presents an attempt to apply statistical methods of image recognition for spectra analysis of the two measured series

  14. The TeV-scale cosmic ray proton and helium spectra: Contributions ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    has been proposed some time ago by Stanev et al [13] and Zatsepin and Sokolskaya .... as a stochastic variable whose probability distribution function p( ) has been studied in ... are independently adjusted to the proton and helium spectra.

  15. Production spectra of π+-, K+-, p+- at large angles in proton-proton collisions in the CERN intersecting storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alper, B.; Boeggild, H.; Booth, P.; Bulos, F.; Carroll, L.J.; Damgaard, G.; Von Dardel, G.; Duff, B.; Hansen, K.H.; Heymann, F.; Jackson, J.N.; Jarlskog, G.; Joensson, L.; Klovning, A.; Leistam, L.; Lillethun, E.; Lohse, E.; Lynch, G.; Manning, G.; Potter, K.; Prentice, M.; Sharp, P.; Sharrock, S.; Oelgaard-Nielsen, S.; Quarrie, D.; Weiss, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    Results are given on the inclusive production of charged pions, kaons, and nucleons, in proton-proton collisions at c.m. energies from √s=23 to 63 GeV at large angles and for the transverse momentum range 0.1 < psub(T) < 4.8 GeV/c. The dependence of the production spectra on the collision energy √s, the transverse momentum psub(T), and the longitudinal rapidity is discussed. (Auth.)

  16. Unusual features of proton and α-spectra from low-energy heavy-ion ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 75; Issue 1. Unusual features ... Keywords. Proton and α-spectra; heavy-ion reaction; broad structures; nuclear level density. ... The broad structures in the -spectra cannot be fully explained within the statistical model even with the enhanced level density. In this case ...

  17. Measurement and calculation of characteristic prompt gamma ray spectra emitted during proton irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polf, J C; Peterson, S; Beddar, S [M D Anderson Cancer Center, Univeristy of Texas, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); McCleskey, M; Roeder, B T; Spiridon, A; Trache, L [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)], E-mail: jcpolf@mdanderson.org

    2009-11-21

    In this paper, we present results of initial measurements and calculations of prompt gamma ray spectra (produced by proton-nucleus interactions) emitted from tissue equivalent phantoms during irradiations with proton beams. Measurements of prompt gamma ray spectra were made using a high-purity germanium detector shielded either with lead (passive shielding), or a Compton suppression system (active shielding). Calculations of the spectra were performed using a model of both the passive and active shielding experimental setups developed using the Geant4 Monte Carlo toolkit. From the measured spectra it was shown that it is possible to distinguish the characteristic emission lines from the major elemental constituent atoms (C, O, Ca) in the irradiated phantoms during delivery of proton doses similar to those delivered during patient treatment. Also, the Monte Carlo spectra were found to be in very good agreement with the measured spectra providing an initial validation of our model for use in further studies of prompt gamma ray emission during proton therapy. (note)

  18. Channeling effect in electronic spectra produced by grazing impact of fast protons on insulator surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archubi, C D; Gravielle, M S, E-mail: archubi@iafe.uba.a, E-mail: msilvia@iafe.uba.a [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Casilla de Correo 67, Sucursal 28, 1428, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2009-11-01

    Electron emission due to grazing scattering of fast protons from LiF and KCl surfaces is studied under axial incidence conditions. The differential emission probability is calculated within a distorted-wave formalism, taking into account axial channeled trajectories. For different emission angles, electronic spectra for proton incidence along the two principal crystal axes ([100] and [110]) are compared with those corresponding to an impact velocity in a random direction, finding effects associated with the channeling conditions.

  19. Proceedings of the symposium on measurements of neutron energy spectra using recoil proton proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urabe, Itsumasa

    1986-01-01

    This is a report of the symposium on measurements of neutron energy spectra using recoil proton proportional counters held at the Research Reactor Institute of Kyoto University on January 27 in 1986. An energy resolution, wall effects of response functions, n · γ discrimination methods and other fundamental properties of recoil proton counters are discussed for a new development of an application of this counter. (author)

  20. Proton spectra from ultraintense laser-plasma interaction with thin foils: Experiments, theory, and simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M.; Sentoku, Y.; Audebert, P.; Fuchs, J.; Gauthier, J.C.; Blazevic, A.; Geissel, M.; Roth, M.; Cowan, T.; Hegelich, M.; Karsch, S.; Morse, E.; Patel, P.K.

    2003-01-01

    A beam of high energy ions and protons is observed from targets irradiated with intensities up to 5x10 19 W/cm 2 . Maximum proton energy is shown to strongly correlate with laser-irradiance on target. Energy spectra from a magnetic spectrometer show a plateau region near the maximum energy cutoff and modulations in the spectrum at approximately 65% of the cutoff energy. Presented two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations suggest that modulations in the proton spectrum are caused by the presence of multiple heavy-ion species in the expanding plasma

  1. Precision Measurement of the Proton Flux in Primary Cosmic Rays from Rigidity 1 GV to 1.8 TV with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, M.; Aisa, D.; Alpat, B.; Alvino, A.; Ambrosi, G.; Andeen, K.; Arruda, L.; Attig, N.; Azzarello, P.; Bachlechner, A.; Barao, F.; Barrau, A.; Barrin, L.; Bartoloni, A.; Basara, L.; Battarbee, M.; Battiston, R.; Bazo, J.; Becker, U.; Behlmann, M.; Beischer, B.; Berdugo, J.; Bertucci, B.; Bigongiari, G.; Bindi, V.; Bizzaglia, S.; Bizzarri, M.; Boella, G.; de Boer, W.; Bollweg, K.; Bonnivard, V.; Borgia, B.; Borsini, S.; Boschini, M. J.; Bourquin, M.; Burger, J.; Cadoux, F.; Cai, X. D.; Capell, M.; Caroff, S.; Casaus, J.; Cascioli, V.; Castellini, G.; Cernuda, I.; Cerreta, D.; Cervelli, F.; Chae, M. J.; Chang, Y. H.; Chen, A. I.; Chen, H.; Cheng, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Cheng, L.; Chou, H. Y.; Choumilov, E.; Choutko, V.; Chung, C. H.; Clark, C.; Clavero, R.; Coignet, G.; Consolandi, C.; Contin, A.; Corti, C.; Gil, E. Cortina; Coste, B.; Creus, W.; Crispoltoni, M.; Cui, Z.; Dai, Y. M.; Delgado, C.; Della Torre, S.; Demirköz, M. B.; Derome, L.; Di Falco, S.; Di Masso, L.; Dimiccoli, F.; Díaz, C.; von Doetinchem, P.; Donnini, F.; Du, W. J.; Duranti, M.; D'Urso, D.; Eline, A.; Eppling, F. J.; Eronen, T.; Fan, Y. Y.; Farnesini, L.; Feng, J.; Fiandrini, E.; Fiasson, A.; Finch, E.; Fisher, P.; Galaktionov, Y.; Gallucci, G.; García, B.; García-López, R.; Gargiulo, C.; Gast, H.; Gebauer, I.; Gervasi, M.; Ghelfi, A.; Gillard, W.; Giovacchini, F.; Goglov, P.; Gong, J.; Goy, C.; Grabski, V.; Grandi, D.; Graziani, M.; Guandalini, C.; Guerri, I.; Guo, K. H.; Haas, D.; Habiby, M.; Haino, S.; Han, K. C.; He, Z. H.; Heil, M.; Hoffman, J.; Hsieh, T. H.; Huang, Z. C.; Huh, C.; Incagli, M.; Ionica, M.; Jang, W. Y.; Jinchi, H.; Kanishev, K.; Kim, G. N.; Kim, K. S.; Kirn, Th.; Kossakowski, R.; Kounina, O.; Kounine, A.; Koutsenko, V.; Krafczyk, M. S.; La Vacca, G.; Laudi, E.; Laurenti, G.; Lazzizzera, I.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, H. T.; Lee, S. C.; Leluc, C.; Levi, G.; Li, H. L.; Li, J. Q.; Li, Q.; Li, Q.; Li, T. X.; Li, W.; Li, Y.; Li, Z. H.; Li, Z. Y.; Lim, S.; Lin, C. H.; Lipari, P.; Lippert, T.; Liu, D.; Liu, H.; Lolli, M.; Lomtadze, T.; Lu, M. J.; Lu, S. Q.; Lu, Y. S.; Luebelsmeyer, K.; Luo, J. Z.; Lv, S. S.; Majka, R.; Mañá, C.; Marín, J.; Martin, T.; Martínez, G.; Masi, N.; Maurin, D.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Meng, Q.; Mo, D. C.; Morescalchi, L.; Mott, P.; Müller, M.; Ni, J. Q.; Nikonov, N.; Nozzoli, F.; Nunes, P.; Obermeier, A.; Oliva, A.; Orcinha, M.; Palmonari, F.; Palomares, C.; Paniccia, M.; Papi, A.; Pauluzzi, M.; Pedreschi, E.; Pensotti, S.; Pereira, R.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Pilo, F.; Piluso, A.; Pizzolotto, C.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Poireau, V.; Postaci, E.; Putze, A.; Quadrani, L.; Qi, X. M.; Qin, X.; Qu, Z. Y.; Räihä, T.; Rancoita, P. G.; Rapin, D.; Ricol, J. S.; Rodríguez, I.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rozhkov, A.; Rozza, D.; Sagdeev, R.; Sandweiss, J.; Saouter, P.; Sbarra, C.; Schael, S.; Schmidt, S. M.; von Dratzig, A. Schulz; Schwering, G.; Scolieri, G.; Seo, E. S.; Shan, B. S.; Shan, Y. H.; Shi, J. Y.; Shi, X. Y.; Shi, Y. M.; Siedenburg, T.; Son, D.; Spada, F.; Spinella, F.; Sun, W.; Sun, W. H.; Tacconi, M.; Tang, C. P.; Tang, X. W.; Tang, Z. C.; Tao, L.; Tescaro, D.; Ting, Samuel C. C.; Ting, S. M.; Tomassetti, N.; Torsti, J.; Türkoǧlu, C.; Urban, T.; Vagelli, V.; Valente, E.; Vannini, C.; Valtonen, E.; Vaurynovich, S.; Vecchi, M.; Velasco, M.; Vialle, J. P.; Vitale, V.; Vitillo, S.; Wang, L. Q.; Wang, N. H.; Wang, Q. L.; Wang, R. S.; Wang, X.; Wang, Z. X.; Weng, Z. L.; Whitman, K.; Wienkenhöver, J.; Wu, H.; Wu, X.; Xia, X.; Xie, M.; Xie, S.; Xiong, R. Q.; Xin, G. M.; Xu, N. S.; Xu, W.; Yan, Q.; Yang, J.; Yang, M.; Ye, Q. H.; Yi, H.; Yu, Y. J.; Yu, Z. Q.; Zeissler, S.; Zhang, J. H.; Zhang, M. T.; Zhang, X. B.; Zhang, Z.; Zheng, Z. M.; Zhuang, H. L.; Zhukov, V.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, N.; Zuccon, P.; Zurbach, C.; AMS Collaboration

    2015-05-01

    A precise measurement of the proton flux in primary cosmic rays with rigidity (momentum/charge) from 1 GV to 1.8 TV is presented based on 300 million events. Knowledge of the rigidity dependence of the proton flux is important in understanding the origin, acceleration, and propagation of cosmic rays. We present the detailed variation with rigidity of the flux spectral index for the first time. The spectral index progressively hardens at high rigidities.

  2. Measurements of LET Spectra of the JINR Phasotron Radiotherapy Proton Beam

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubančák, Ján; Molokanov, A. G.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 2013, č. 6 (2013), s. 90-92 ISSN 1562-6016 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA08002 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : LET spectra * proton beam Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 0.102, year: 2013 http:// vant .kipt.kharkov.ua/ARTICLE/ VANT _2013_6/article_2013_6_90.pdf

  3. The TeV-scale cosmic ray proton and helium spectra

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-07

    Jan 7, 2016 ... Recent measurements of cosmic ray proton and helium spectra show a hardening above a few hundreds of GeV. This excess is hard to understand in the framework of the conventional models of galactic cosmic ray production and propagation. Here, we propose to explain this anomaly by the presence of ...

  4. Event patterns extracted from top quark-related spectra in proton-proton collisions at 8 TeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ya-Hui; Liu, Fu-Hu; Lacey, Roy A.

    2018-02-01

    We analyze the transverse momentum (p T) and rapidity (y) spectra of top quark pairs, hadronic top quarks, and top quarks produced in proton-proton (pp) collisions at center-of-mass energy \\sqrt{s}=8 TeV. For {p}{{T}} spectra, we use the superposition of the inverse power-law suggested by the QCD (quantum chromodynamics) calculus and the Erlang distribution resulting from a multisource thermal model. For y spectra, we use the two-component Gaussian function resulting from the revised Landau hydrodynamic model. The modelling results are in agreement with the experimental data measured at the detector level, in the fiducial phase-space, and in the full phase-space by the ATLAS Collaboration at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Based on the parameter values extracted from p T and y spectra, the event patterns in three-dimensional velocity (βx -βy -βz ), momentum (px -py -pz ), and rapidity (y 1-y 2-y) spaces are obtained, and the probability distributions of these components are also obtained. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11575103, 11747319), the Shanxi Provincial Natural Science Foundation (201701D121005), the Fund for Shanxi “1331 Project” Key Subjects Construction and the US DOE (DE-FG02-87ER40331.A008)

  5. Proton energy spectra during ground level enhancements as measured by EPHIN aboard SOHO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heber, Bernd; Kuehl, Patrick; Klassen, Andreas; Dresing, Nina [Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet zu Kiel, 24118 Kiel (Germany); Gomez-Herrero, Raul [Universidad de Alcala (Spain)

    2016-07-01

    Ground Level Enhancements (GLEs) are solar energetic particle (SEP) events that are recorded by ground-based instrumentation. The energy of the particles is so high that they produce secondary particles in the Earth's atmosphere, i.e. protons and neutrons, which are detected as sudden increases in cosmic ray intensities measured by e.g. neutron monitors. Since the launch of SOHO in December 1995 the neutron monitor network recorded 16 GLEs. The Electron Proton Helium INstrument on board SOHO has been designed to measure protons and helium up to 53 MeV/nucleon as well as electrons up to 8.3 MeV. Above these energies, particles penetrate all detector elements and thus, a separation between different particle species becomes more complicated. Recently we developed a method that allows deriving the energy spectrum for penetrating protons up to more than 1 GeV. In this contribution we present the proton energy spectra and time profiles of above mentioned GLEs and compare them to previous measurements. Although there are differences of up to a factor two the overall shape of the energy spectra agree surprisingly well. Thus it has been demonstrated that EPHIN measurements are a valuable tool for understanding GLE.

  6. Inclusive spectra of mesons with large transverse momenta in proton-nuclear collisions at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lykasov, G.I.; Sherkhonov, B.Kh.

    1982-01-01

    Basing on the proposed earlier quark model of hadron-nucleus processes with large transverse momenta psub(perpendicular) the spectra of π +- , K +- meson production with large psub(perpendicular) in proton-nucleus collisions at high energies are calculated. The performed comparison of their dependence of the nucleus-target atomic number A with experimental data shows a good agreement. Theoretical and experimental ratios of inclusive spectra of K +- and π +- mesons in the are compared. Results of calculations show a rather good description of experimental data on large psub(perpendicular) meson production at high energies

  7. Proton continuum spectra from deuteron break-up at 56 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuoka, N.; Kondo, M.; Shimizu, A.; Saito, T.; Nagamachi, S. [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Research Center for Nuclear Physics; Sakaguchi, H.; Ohtani, F.; Goto, A.; Ikegami, H.; Muraoka, M [eds.

    1980-01-01

    Proton continuum spectra from deuteron break-up have been measured for 14 elements at 56 MeV. Each spectrum shows a prominent bump at forward angles. Projectile break-up calculations reproduce well the spectral shapes and the angular dependence of the bump spectra. The break-up cross section is nearly proportional to (A sup(1/3) + 0.8)/sup 2/. The total break-up cross section amounts to 24 - 35% of the deuteron total reaction cross section.

  8. PMR spectra and proton magnetic relaxation in uranyl nitrate-hexamethylenetetramine-urea-water gel forming system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vashman, A.A.; Pronin, I.S.; Brylkina, T.V.; Makarov, V.M.

    1979-01-01

    PMR spectra and proton relaxation in the nitrate-hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA)-urea-water gelling system are studied. According to PMR spectra products of HMTA chemical decomposition, which are supposed to be formed in the gelling process, have not been detected. Effect of hydrogen exchange upon PMR spectra of urea and water in the presence of HMTA and uranyl nitrate is studied. Periods of spin-lattice and spin-spin relaxations of water and HMTA protons in gels on the base of uranyl nitrate are found. Data on relaxation permitted to make qualitative conclusions upon the gel structure and HMTA molecule distribution over ''phases''. Nonproducibility of the results of period measurements in gels is the result of nonproducibility of the gel structure in the course of transformation of liquid solution into gel. Temperature dependences of proton relaxation in the gels are impossible yet to interpret on the basis of temperature behaviour of one correlation period, controlling dipole-dipole nuclear magnetic relaxation, and obeying Arrhenius dependence on the temperature

  9. Energetic proton analysis at large angle by 200 MeV proton scattering on nuclei: inclusive spectra; proton-gamma coincidence spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Zoubidi, M.

    1984-01-01

    With a large acceptance magnet, both in momentum (300-700 MeV/c) and angle (10 0 ), backward energetic proton inclusive cross sections were measured for 200 MeV protons hitting 6 Li, 27 Al, 28 Si, 58 Ni and 197 Au targets. The data are analysed using the ''Quasi Two Body Scaling'' (QTBS) picture and also compared with the predictions at a standard cascade code. This QTBS approch assumes the dominance of the single scattering mechanism. It is shown that a scaling regime is reached for several data taken at incident energies at about 200 MeV/A. These data are remarkably well reproduced using a universal one nucleon momentum density distribution for A > approximately 20. A (p-γ) coincidence experiment was performed on 28 Si target, at 80 0 . Preliminary results indicates also single nucleon-nucleon collision, but the other low energy nucleon interacts with the residuel nucleus. Excitation energy transferred to the system is about 50 MeV [fr

  10. Anatomising proton NMR spectra with pure shift 2D J-spectroscopy: A cautionary tale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiraly, Peter; Foroozandeh, Mohammadali; Nilsson, Mathias; Morris, Gareth A.

    2017-09-01

    Analysis of proton NMR spectra has been a key tool in structure determination for over 60 years. A classic tool is 2D J-spectroscopy, but common problems are the difficulty of obtaining the absorption mode lineshapes needed for accurate results, and the need for a 45° shear of the final 2D spectrum. A novel 2D NMR method is reported here that allows straightforward determination of homonuclear couplings, using a modified version of the PSYCHE method to suppress couplings in the direct dimension. The method illustrates the need for care when combining pure shift data acquisition with multiple pulse methods.

  11. Proton recoil spectra in spherical proportional counters calculated with finite element and Monte Carlo methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benmosbah, M. [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Rayonnement Alain Chambaudet, UMR CEA E4, Universite de Franche-Comte, 16 route de Gray, 25030 Besancon Cedex (France); Groetz, J.E. [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Rayonnement Alain Chambaudet, UMR CEA E4, Universite de Franche-Comte, 16 route de Gray, 25030 Besancon Cedex (France)], E-mail: jegroetz@univ-fcomte.fr; Crovisier, P. [Service de Protection contre les Rayonnements, CEA Valduc, 21120 Is/Tille (France); Asselineau, B. [Laboratoire de Metrologie et de Dosimetrie des Neutrons, IRSN, Cadarache BP3, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Truffert, H.; Cadiou, A. [AREVA NC, Etablissement de la Hague, DQSSE/PR/E/D, 50444 Beaumont-Hague Cedex (France)

    2008-08-11

    Proton recoil spectra were calculated for various spherical proportional counters using Monte Carlo simulation combined with the finite element method. Electric field lines and strength were calculated by defining an appropriate mesh and solving the Laplace equation with the associated boundary conditions, taking into account the geometry of every counter. Thus, different regions were defined in the counter with various coefficients for the energy deposition in the Monte Carlo transport code MCNPX. Results from the calculations are in good agreement with measurements for three different gas pressures at various neutron energies.

  12. Atmospheric proton and deuterium energy spectra determination with the MASS2 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimani, C.; Brunetti, M.T.; Codino, A.; Finetti, N. [Perugia Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Perugia (Italy); Papini, P.; Massimo Brancaccio, F. [Florence Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Florence (Italy); Basini, G.; Bongiorno, F. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); Golden, R.L. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Particle Astrophysics Lab.; Hof, M. [Siegen Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich Physik

    1995-09-01

    The energy spectra of atmospheric-secondary protons and deuterium nuclei have been measured during the September 23, 1991, balloon flight of the NMSU/Wizard - MASS2 instrument. The apparatus was launched from Fort Sumner, New Mexico. The geomagnetic cutoff at the launch site is about 4.5 GV/c. The instrument was flown for 9.8 hours at an altitude of over 100,000 feet. Particles detected below the geomagnetic cutoff have been produced mainly by the interactions of the primary cosmic rays with the atmosphere. The measurement of cosmic ray energy spectra below the geomagnetic cutoff provide direct insights into the particle production mechanism and allows comparison to atmospheric cascade calculations.

  13. Isotopically decoupled vibrational spectra and proton exchange rates for crystalline NH3 and ammonia hydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Cynthia; Khatkale, M. S.; Devlin, J. Paul

    1981-12-01

    Codeposits of NH3 with ND3 or D2O have been prepared at liquid nitrogen temperatures in the absence of proton exchange. Vibrational data for the anhydrous cubic crystalline ammonia, containing isolated NH3 or ND3, confirm that, relative to water ice, intermolecular coupling in ammonia ice exerts a relatively minor influence on the infrared and Raman spectra. Nevertheless, sizeable decoupling shifts, particularly for ν1, have been observed and attributed to a combination of factors including correlation field and Fermi resonance effects. The Raman polarization data has also affirmed long standing assignments of ν1 and ν3 for ammonia ice. Warming of the ammonia thin films resulted in limited isotopic scrambling at 130 K, apparently possible only through the agency of trace concentrations of water. The vibrational coupling pattern for the resultant NHD2 and NH2D molecules suggest that proton (deuteron) migration away from the exchange centers is impossible at temperatures up to 150 K. By contrast, isotopic scrambling was rapid and complete at 140 K for amorphous ammonia hydrate films (˜35% NH3, ˜65% D2O) which were also prepared without exchange at ˜90 K. The proton (deuteron) exchange rate is much greater for the amorphous ammonia hydrate at 140 K than for pure water ice. Such exchange requires both ion-pair defect formation and proton mobility. Since the NH3 suppresses the H3O+ concentration via formation of NH+4, a suppression the likes of which has been shown to stop proton exchange in water ice, the evidence strongly suggests that NH4+ in ammonia, like H3O+ in water, is an effective proton transfer agent, probably acting through a tunneling mechanism (i.e., H3N+-HṡṡṡNH3→H3NṡṡṡH-N+H3 etc.) to render the proton mobile in the ammonia hydrate. This mobility combined with the greater NH4+ concentration, relative to the H3O+ concentration in H2O ice Ic, results in isotopic scrambling at the reduced temperature.

  14. Towards automatic metabolomic profiling of high-resolution one-dimensional proton NMR spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercier, Pascal; Lewis, Michael J.; Chang, David, E-mail: dchang@chenomx.com [Chenomx Inc (Canada); Baker, David [Pfizer Inc (United States); Wishart, David S. [University of Alberta, Department of Computing Science and Biological Sciences (Canada)

    2011-04-15

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Mass Spectroscopy (MS) are the two most common spectroscopic analytical techniques employed in metabolomics. The large spectral datasets generated by NMR and MS are often analyzed using data reduction techniques like Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Although rapid, these methods are susceptible to solvent and matrix effects, high rates of false positives, lack of reproducibility and limited data transferability from one platform to the next. Given these limitations, a growing trend in both NMR and MS-based metabolomics is towards targeted profiling or 'quantitative' metabolomics, wherein compounds are identified and quantified via spectral fitting prior to any statistical analysis. Despite the obvious advantages of this method, targeted profiling is hindered by the time required to perform manual or computer-assisted spectral fitting. In an effort to increase data analysis throughput for NMR-based metabolomics, we have developed an automatic method for identifying and quantifying metabolites in one-dimensional (1D) proton NMR spectra. This new algorithm is capable of using carefully constructed reference spectra and optimizing thousands of variables to reconstruct experimental NMR spectra of biofluids using rules and concepts derived from physical chemistry and NMR theory. The automated profiling program has been tested against spectra of synthetic mixtures as well as biological spectra of urine, serum and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF). Our results indicate that the algorithm can correctly identify compounds with high fidelity in each biofluid sample (except for urine). Furthermore, the metabolite concentrations exhibit a very high correlation with both simulated and manually-detected values.

  15. Towards automatic metabolomic profiling of high-resolution one-dimensional proton NMR spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercier, Pascal; Lewis, Michael J.; Chang, David; Baker, David; Wishart, David S.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Mass Spectroscopy (MS) are the two most common spectroscopic analytical techniques employed in metabolomics. The large spectral datasets generated by NMR and MS are often analyzed using data reduction techniques like Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Although rapid, these methods are susceptible to solvent and matrix effects, high rates of false positives, lack of reproducibility and limited data transferability from one platform to the next. Given these limitations, a growing trend in both NMR and MS-based metabolomics is towards targeted profiling or “quantitative” metabolomics, wherein compounds are identified and quantified via spectral fitting prior to any statistical analysis. Despite the obvious advantages of this method, targeted profiling is hindered by the time required to perform manual or computer-assisted spectral fitting. In an effort to increase data analysis throughput for NMR-based metabolomics, we have developed an automatic method for identifying and quantifying metabolites in one-dimensional (1D) proton NMR spectra. This new algorithm is capable of using carefully constructed reference spectra and optimizing thousands of variables to reconstruct experimental NMR spectra of biofluids using rules and concepts derived from physical chemistry and NMR theory. The automated profiling program has been tested against spectra of synthetic mixtures as well as biological spectra of urine, serum and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF). Our results indicate that the algorithm can correctly identify compounds with high fidelity in each biofluid sample (except for urine). Furthermore, the metabolite concentrations exhibit a very high correlation with both simulated and manually-detected values.

  16. Measured Neutron Spectra and Dose Equivalents From a Mevion Single-Room, Passively Scattered Proton System Used for Craniospinal Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howell, Rebecca M., E-mail: rhowell@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Burgett, Eric A.; Isaacs, Daniel [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Idaho State University, Pocatello, Idaho (United States); Price Hedrick, Samantha G.; Reilly, Michael P.; Rankine, Leith J.; Grantham, Kevin K.; Perkins, Stephanie; Klein, Eric E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Purpose: To measure, in the setting of typical passively scattered proton craniospinal irradiation (CSI) treatment, the secondary neutron spectra, and use these spectra to calculate dose equivalents for both internal and external neutrons delivered via a Mevion single-room compact proton system. Methods and Materials: Secondary neutron spectra were measured using extended-range Bonner spheres for whole brain, upper spine, and lower spine proton fields. The detector used can discriminate neutrons over the entire range of the energy spectrum encountered in proton therapy. To separately assess internally and externally generated neutrons, each of the fields was delivered with and without a phantom. Average neutron energy, total neutron fluence, and ambient dose equivalent [H* (10)] were calculated for each spectrum. Neutron dose equivalents as a function of depth were estimated by applying published neutron depth–dose data to in-air H* (10) values. Results: For CSI fields, neutron spectra were similar, with a high-energy direct neutron peak, an evaporation peak, a thermal peak, and an intermediate continuum between the evaporation and thermal peaks. Neutrons in the evaporation peak made the largest contribution to dose equivalent. Internal neutrons had a very low to negligible contribution to dose equivalent compared with external neutrons, largely attributed to the measurement location being far outside the primary proton beam. Average energies ranged from 8.6 to 14.5 MeV, whereas fluences ranged from 6.91 × 10{sup 6} to 1.04 × 10{sup 7} n/cm{sup 2}/Gy, and H* (10) ranged from 2.27 to 3.92 mSv/Gy. Conclusions: For CSI treatments delivered with a Mevion single-gantry proton therapy system, we found measured neutron dose was consistent with dose equivalents reported for CSI with other proton beamlines.

  17. Protonation effects on the UV/Vis absorption spectra of imatinib: a theoretical and experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grante, Ilze; Actins, Andris; Orola, Liana

    2014-08-14

    An experimental and theoretical investigation of protonation effects on the UV/Vis absorption spectra of imatinib showed systematic changes of absorption depending on the pH, and a new absorption band appeared below pH 2. These changes in the UV/Vis absorption spectra were interpreted using quantum chemical calculations. The geometry of various imatinib cations in the gas phase and in ethanol solution was optimized with the DFT/B3LYP method. The resultant geometries were compared to the experimentally determined crystal structures of imatinib salts. The semi-empirical ZINDO-CI method was employed to calculate the absorption lines and electronic transitions. Our study suggests that the formation of the extra near-UV absorption band resulted from an increase of imatinib trication concentration in the solution, while the rapid increase of the first absorption maximum could be attributed to both the formation of imatinib trication and tetracation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Analysis of accelerator based neutron spectra for BNCT using proton recoil spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wielopolski, L.; Ludewig, H.; Powell, J.R.; Raparia, D.; Alessi, J.G.; Lowenstein, D.I.

    1998-01-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a promising binary treatment modality for high-grade primary brain tumors (glioblastoma multiforme, GM) and other cancers. BNCT employs a boron-10 containing compound that preferentially accumulates in the cancer cells in the brain. Upon neutron capture by 10 B energetic alpha particles and triton released at the absorption site kill the cancer cell. In order to gain penetration depth in the brain Fairchild proposed, for this purpose, the use of energetic epithermal neutrons at about 10 keV. Phase I/II clinical trials of BNCT for GM are underway at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR) and at the MIT Reactor, using these nuclear reactors as the source for epithermal neutrons. In light of the limitations of new reactor installations, e.g. cost, safety and licensing, and limited capability for modulating the reactor based neutron beam energy spectra alternative neutron sources are being contemplated for wider implementation of this modality in a hospital environment. For example, accelerator based neutron sources offer the possibility of tailoring the neutron beams, in terms of improved depth-dose distributions, to the individual and offer, with relative ease, the capability of modifying the neutron beam energy and port size. In previous work new concepts for compact accelerator/target configuration were published. In this work, using the Van de Graaff accelerator the authors have explored different materials for filtering and reflecting neutron beams produced by irradiating a thick Li target with 1.8 to 2.5 MeV proton beams. However, since the yield and the maximum neutron energy emerging from the Li-7(p,n)Be-7 reaction increase with increase in the proton beam energy, there is a need for optimization of the proton energy versus filter and shielding requirements to obtain the desired epithermal neutron beam. The MCNP-4A computer code was used for the initial design studies that were verified with benchmark experiments

  19. High resolution observed in 800 MHz DNP spectra of extremely rigid type III secretion needles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fricke, Pascal; Mance, Deni; Chevelkov, Veniamin; Giller, Karin; Becker, Stefan; Baldus, Marc; Lange, Adam

    2016-01-01

    The cryogenic temperatures at which dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) solid-state NMR experiments need to be carried out cause line-broadening, an effect that is especially detrimental for crowded protein spectra. By increasing the magnetic field strength from 600 to 800 MHz, the resolution of DNP spectra of type III secretion needles (T3SS) could be improved by 22 %, indicating that inhomogeneous broadening is not the dominant effect that limits the resolution of T3SS needles under DNP conditions. The outstanding spectral resolution of this system under DNP conditions can be attributed to its low overall flexibility.

  20. High resolution observed in 800 MHz DNP spectra of extremely rigid type III secretion needles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, Pascal [Leibniz-Institut für Molekulare Pharmakologie, Department of Molecular Biophysics (Germany); Mance, Deni [Utrecht University, NMR Research Group, Bijvoet Center for Biomolecular Research (Netherlands); Chevelkov, Veniamin [Leibniz-Institut für Molekulare Pharmakologie, Department of Molecular Biophysics (Germany); Giller, Karin; Becker, Stefan [Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Department of NMR-Based Structural Biology (Germany); Baldus, Marc [Utrecht University, NMR Research Group, Bijvoet Center for Biomolecular Research (Netherlands); Lange, Adam, E-mail: alange@fmp-berlin.de [Leibniz-Institut für Molekulare Pharmakologie, Department of Molecular Biophysics (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    The cryogenic temperatures at which dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) solid-state NMR experiments need to be carried out cause line-broadening, an effect that is especially detrimental for crowded protein spectra. By increasing the magnetic field strength from 600 to 800 MHz, the resolution of DNP spectra of type III secretion needles (T3SS) could be improved by 22 %, indicating that inhomogeneous broadening is not the dominant effect that limits the resolution of T3SS needles under DNP conditions. The outstanding spectral resolution of this system under DNP conditions can be attributed to its low overall flexibility.

  1. Production spectra of $\\pi ^{\\pm}$, K$^{\\pm}$, p$^{\\pm}$ at large angles in proton-proton collisions in the CERN intersecting storage rings

    CERN Document Server

    Alper, B; Booth, P; Bulos, F; Carroll, L J; Damgaard, G; Duff, Brian G; Hansen, K H; Heymann, Franz F; Jackson, J N; Jarlskog, G; Jönsson, L B; Klovning, A; Leistam, L; Lillethun, E; Lohse, E; Lynch, G; Manning, Geoffrey; Ølgaard-Nielsen, S; Potter, K; Prentice, M; Quarrie, D; Sharp, P; Sharrock, S; von Dardel, Guy F; Weiss, J M

    1975-01-01

    Results are given on the inclusive production of charged pions, kaons, and nucleons, in proton-proton collisions at c.m. energies from square root s=23 to 63 GeV at large angles and for the transverse momentum range 0.1

    spectra on the collision energy square root s, the transverse momentum p/sub T /, and the longitudinal rapidity is discussed. (19 refs).

  2. Experimental determination of the atmospheric gamma photons spectra at 12 GeV cut-off rigidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, I.M.; Dutra, S.L.G.; Palmeira, R.; Vedrenne, G.; Albernhe, F.

    1974-01-01

    The energy spectrum of atmospheric gamma-rays from 0.9 to 18.0 MeV has been measured as a function of altitude in a series of two balloon flights from Sao Jose dos Campos, Sao Paulo, Brazil (12 GV cut-off rigidity). The detector used was a 4' x 4' NaI (Tl) crystal with a 1 cm thick plastic scintillator anti-coincidence shield, connected to a 128 channel pulse height analyser. Above 20g/cm 2 , the energy spectrum could be fitted to a power law with exponent 1.0 +- -+ 0.1 independent of the altitude. From 20 to 760 g/cm 2 , the spectrum was found to be somewhat steeper with the exponential index being 1.3 +- -+ 0.1. At 3.5 g/cm 2 , the gamma-ray flux was 0.30 photons/cm 2 -s at 1 MeV. These measurements are discussed and compared with calculated results [pt

  3. Proton spectra from 800 MeV protons on selected nuclei. Progress report, January 1, 1979-December 31, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stearns, R.L.

    1979-09-01

    The emission of protons from targets of 6 Li, Li, 12 C, 27 Al, 40 Ca, 51 V, 90 Zr, and Pb under bombardment from 800 MeV protons was studied using the high resolution proton spectrometer at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility. Laboratory scattering angles of 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 20, 25, and 30 0 were measured, with special emphasis on the quasi-free region. Outgoing momenta corresponding to the region of pion production were examined at 11 and 15 0 . Absolute cross sections derived by reference to known (p,p) scattering data at 800 MeV. The quasi-free scattering has been fit with a DWIA analysis by summing over the unobserved (struck) nucleon. The systematics of proton production and the applicability of the DWIA analyses are discussed. 26 references

  4. Measurement of very forward neutron energy spectra for 7 TeV proton--proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Adriani, O.; Bonechi, L.; Bongi, M.; Castellini, G.; D'Alessandro, R.; Del Prete, M.; Haguenauer, M.; Itow, Y.; Kasahara, K.; Kawade, K.; Makino, Y.; Masuda, K.; Matsubayashi, E.; Menjo, H.; Mitsuka, G.; Muraki, Y.; Okuno, Y.; Papini, P.; Perrot, A-L.; Ricciarini, S.; Sako, T.; Sakurai, N.; Sugiura, Y.; Suzuki, T.; Tamura, T.; Tiberio, A.; Torii, S.; Tricomi, A.; Turner, W.C.; Zhou, Q.D.

    2015-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider forward (LHCf) experiment is designed to use the LHC to verify the hadronic-interaction models used in cosmic-ray physics. Forward baryon production is one of the crucial points to understand the development of cosmic-ray showers. We report the neutron-energy spectra for LHC $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV proton--proton collisions with the pseudo-rapidity $\\eta$ ranging from 8.81 to 8.99, from 8.99 to 9.22, and from 10.76 to infinity. The measured energy spectra obtained from the two independent calorimeters of Arm1 and Arm2 show the same characteristic feature before unfolding the difference in the detector responses. We unfolded the measured spectra by using the multidimensional unfolding method based on Bayesian theory, and the unfolded spectra were compared with current hadronic-interaction models. The QGSJET II-03 model predicts a high neutron production rate at the highest pseudo-rapidity range similar to our results and the DPMJET 3.04 model describes our results well at the lower pseudo-...

  5. Accurate classification of brain gliomas by discriminate dictionary learning based on projective dictionary pair learning of proton magnetic resonance spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebileje, Sikiru Afolabi; Ghasemi, Keyvan; Aiyelabegan, Hammed Tanimowo; Saligheh Rad, Hamidreza

    2017-04-01

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy is a powerful noninvasive technique that complements the structural images of cMRI, which aids biomedical and clinical researches, by identifying and visualizing the compositions of various metabolites within the tissues of interest. However, accurate classification of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy is still a challenging issue in clinics due to low signal-to-noise ratio, overlapping peaks of metabolites, and the presence of background macromolecules. This paper evaluates the performance of a discriminate dictionary learning classifiers based on projective dictionary pair learning method for brain gliomas proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy spectra classification task, and the result were compared with the sub-dictionary learning methods. The proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy data contain a total of 150 spectra (74 healthy, 23 grade II, 23 grade III, and 30 grade IV) from two databases. The datasets from both databases were first coupled together, followed by column normalization. The Kennard-Stone algorithm was used to split the datasets into its training and test sets. Performance comparison based on the overall accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and precision was conducted. Based on the overall accuracy of our classification scheme, the dictionary pair learning method was found to outperform the sub-dictionary learning methods 97.78% compared with 68.89%, respectively. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Description of the Rigid Triaxial Deformation at Low Energy in 76Ge with the Proton-Neutron Interacting Model IBM2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Da-Li; Ding Bin-Gang

    2013-01-01

    We investigate properties of the low-lying energy states for 76 Ge within the framework of the proton-neutron interacting model IBM2, considering the validity of the Z = 38 subshell closure 88 Sr 50 as a doubly magic core. By introducing the quadrupole interactions among like bosons to the IBM2 Hamiltonian, the energy levels for both the ground state and γ bands are reproduced well. Particularly, the doublet structure of the γ band and the energy staggering signature fit the experimental data correctly. The ratios of B(E2) transition strengths for some states of the γ band, and the g factors of the 2 1 + , 2 2 + states are very close to the experimental data. The calculation result indicates that the nucleus exhibiting rigid triaxial deformation in the low-lying states can be described rather well by the IBM2

  7. Infrared spectra of proton transfer complexes of the cycleanine alkaloid in solid state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasende, Okuma E.; de Waal, D.

    2003-01-01

    Proton transfer complexes obtained between the cycleanine alkaloid and hydrogen chloride, hydrogen bromide and nitric acids have been investigated by infrared spectroscopic technique between 4000 and 400 cm -1 in KBr. The vibrational perturbations brought about by proton transfer complex formation, discussed in terms of preferred site of interaction, show that the proton of the inorganic acids is transferred to cycleanine through one of its N sites.

  8. Measurement of the transverse momentum spectra of weak vector bosons produced in proton-proton collisions at √s=8 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A.M.; Tumasyan, A. [Yerevan Physics Institute, Yerevan (Armenia); Adam, W. [Institut für Hochenergiephysik der OeAW, Wien (Austria); Collaboration: The CMS collaboration; and others

    2017-02-20

    The transverse momentum spectra of weak vector bosons are measured in the CMS experiment at the LHC. The measurement uses a sample of proton-proton collisions at √s=8 TeV, collected during a special low-luminosity running that corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 18.4±0.5 pb{sup −1}. The production of W bosons is studied in both electron and muon decay modes, while the production of Z bosons is studied using only the dimuon decay channel. The ratios of W{sup −} to W{sup +} and Z to W differential cross sections are also measured. The measured differential cross sections and ratios are compared with theoretical predictions up to next-to-next leading order in QCD.

  9. Proton and alpha evaporation spectra in low energy 12C and 16O ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    75 MeV. The spectra are compared with the statistical model calculations. The shapes of the calculated spectra are in agreement with experimental data except for the alpha spectrum in the 12C+93Nb reaction at 40 MeV. The observed evaporation bump is at ~2. MeV lower energy compared to the calculated one.

  10. Proton and alpha evaporation spectra in low energy 12 C and 16 O ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The spectra are compared with the statistical model calculations. The shapes of the calculated spectra are in agreement with experimental data except for the alpha spectrum in the 12C+93Nb reaction at 40 MeV. The observed evaporation bump is at ∼ 2 MeV lower energy compared to the calculated one. This discrepancy ...

  11. Spallation Neutron Emission Spectra in Some Amphoter Target Nuclei by Proton Beam Up to 140 MeV Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildirim, G.

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, the (p,xn) reaction neutron-emission spectra for some amphoter target nuclei as 27 A l, 64 Z n, 120 S n, and 208 P b were investigated up to 140 MeV incident proton energy. The pre-equilibrium calculations were calculated by using the hybrid model, the geometry dependent hybrid model, the full exciton model and the cascade exciton model. The reaction equilibrium component was calculated with a traditional compound nucleus model developed by Weisskopf Ewing. Calculation results have been discussed and compared with the available experimental data in literature

  12. Measurements of Neutron Spectra Produced from a Thick Iron Target Bombarded with 1.5-GeV Protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meigo, Shin-ichiro; Shigyo, Nobuhiro; Iga, Kiminori; Iwamoto, Yosuke; Kitsuki, Hirohiko; Ishibashi, Kenji; Maehata, Keisuke; Arima, Hidehiko; Nakamoto, Tatsushi; Numajiri, Masaharu

    2005-01-01

    For validation of calculation codes that are employed in the design of accelerator facilities, spectra of neutrons produced from a thick iron target bombarded with 1.5-GeV protons were measured. The calculated results with NMTC/JAM were compared with the present experimental results. It is found that the NMTC/JAM generally shows good agreement with experiment. Furthermore, the calculation gives good agreement with the experiment for the energy region 20 to 80 MeV for iron, whereas the NMTC/JAM gives 50% of the experimental data for the heavy-nuclides such as lead and tungsten

  13. Measurements of neutron spectra produced from a thick iron target bombarded with 1.5 GeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meigo, Shin-ichiro; Takada, Hiroshi

    2001-01-01

    For validation of calculation codes which are employed in the design of accelerator facilities, spectra of neutrons produced from a thick iron target bombarded with 1.5-GeV protons were measured. The calculated results with NMTC/JAM were compared with the present experimental results. It is found the NMTC/JAM generally shows in good agreement with experiment. Furthermore, the calculation gives good agreement with the experiment for the energy region 20-80 MeV, whereas the NMTC/JAM gives 50% of the experimental data for the heavy nuclide target such as lead and tungsten target. (author)

  14. Inclusive proton spectra and total reaction cross sections for proton-nucleus scattering at 800 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGill, J.A.

    1981-08-01

    Current applications of multiple scattering theory to describe the elastic scattering of medium energy protons from nuclei have been shown to be quite successful in reproducing the experimental cross sections. These calculations use the impulse approximation, wherein the scattering from individual nucleons in the nucleus is described by the scattering amplitude for a free nucleon. Such an approximation restricts the inelastic channels to those initiated by nucleon-nucleon scattering. As a first step in determining the nature of p + nucleus scattering at 800 MeV, both total reaction cross sections and (p,p') inclusive cross sections were measured and compared to the free p + p cross sections for hydrogen, deuterium, calcium 40, carbon 12, and lead 208. It is concluded that as much as 85% of all reactions in a nucleus proceed from interactions with a single nucleon in the nucleus, and that the impulse approximation is a good starting point for a microscopic description of p + nucleus interactions at 800 MeV

  15. On unfolding counting-rate spectra of recoil-proton neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeivin, Yehuda

    1983-01-01

    This note proposes a possible scheme for unfolding recoil-proton neutron detector data, in which at first the undistorted proton source spectrum is derived. The main argument in favour of this scheme is that, compared with the conventional scheme, it necessitates somewhat weaker assumptions with respect to the unknown spectrum above the detector's upper energy cutoff, and would therefore be more reliable. We also demonstrate a simple, elementary proof of the wall effect correction for spherical detectors, and, in order to gain insight of the potential merits of the proposed unfolding scheme, illustrate our main argument by considering a hypothetic linear range-energy relation, in which case complete unfolding becomes possible with no assumptions at all on the proton spectrum above the cutoff energy. (author)

  16. Determination of proton and neutron spectra in the LANSCE spallation irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, M.R.; Maloy, S.A.; Sommer, W.F.; Fowler, M.M.; Dry, D.; Ferguson, P.D.; Mueller, G.; Corzine, R.K.

    1999-01-01

    Materials samples were recently irradiated in the Los Alamos Radiation Effects Facility (LASREF) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) to provide data for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project on the effect of irradiation on the mechanical and physical properties of materials. The targets were configured to expose samples to a variety of radiation environments including, high-energy protons, mixed protons and high-energy neutrons, and low-energy neutrons. The samples were irradiated for approximately six months during a ten month period using an 800 MeV proton beam with a circular Gaussian shape of approximately 2σ = 3.0 cm. At the end of this period, the samples were extracted and tested. Activation foils were also extracted that had been placed in proximity to the materials samples. These were used to quantify the fluences in various locations

  17. Study of inclusive proton spectra from 20 MeV deuteron breakup by bismuth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badiger, N.M.; Hallur, B.R.; Madhusoodhanan, T.; Sathyavathiamma, M.P.; Puttaswamy, N.G.; Darshan, V.P.; Sharma, H.; Chintalapudi, S.N.

    1997-01-01

    The breakup of deuteron into proton and neutron has been studied earlier to understand the breakup mechanism. Inclusive measurements show the expected broad bumps near the beam velocity. In the present experiment, the breakup of 20 MeV deuterons by bismuth target has been investigated

  18. Search for physics beyond the standard model in dilepton mass spectra in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knünz, Valentin; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Bansal, Monika; Bansal, Sunil; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Luyckx, Sten; Ochesanu, Silvia; Rougny, Romain; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; Heracleous, Natalie; Keaveney, James; Lowette, Steven; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dobur, Didar; Favart, Laurent; Gay, Arnaud; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Léonard, Alexandre; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Perniè, Luca; Reis, Thomas; Seva, Tomislav; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wang, Jian; Zenoni, Florian; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Crucy, Shannon; Dildick, Sven; Fagot, Alexis; Garcia, Guillaume; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Sigamani, Michael; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Jafari, Abideh; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Perrini, Lucia; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Dos Reis Martins, Thiago; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Pol, Maria Elena; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santaolalla, Javier; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Marinov, Andrey; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Plestina, Roko; Romeo, Francesco; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Zheng; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Mekterovic, Darko; Sudic, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Bodlak, Martin; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Elgammal, Sherif; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Murumaa, Marion; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Talvitie, Joonas; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Favaro, Carlotta; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Dahms, Torsten; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Filipovic, Nicolas; Florent, Alice; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Regnard, Simon; Salerno, Roberto; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Sirois, Yves; Veelken, Christian; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Aubin, Alexandre; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Goetzmann, Christophe; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaupere, Nicolas; Boudoul, Gaelle; Bouvier, Elvire; Brochet, Sébastien; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chasserat, Julien; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fan, Jiawei; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sabes, David; Sgandurra, Louis; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Xiao, Hong; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Bontenackels, Michael; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Hindrichs, Otto; Klein, Katja; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Brodski, Michael; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Erdmann, Martin; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klingebiel, Dennis; Knutzen, Simon; Kreuzer, Peter; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Papacz, Paul; Pook, Tobias; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Weber, Martin; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Heister, Arno; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Künsken, Andreas; Lingemann, Joschka; Nowack, Andreas; Nugent, Ian Michael; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Asin, Ivan; Bartosik, Nazar; Behr, Joerg; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bell, Alan James; Bergholz, Matthias; Bethani, Agni; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Cakir, Altan; Calligaris, Luigi; Campbell, Alan; Choudhury, Somnath; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dooling, Samantha; Dorland, Tyler; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Flucke, Gero; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gunnellini, Paolo; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Horton, Dean; Jung, Hannes; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kieseler, Jan; Kleinwort, Claus; Krücker, Dirk; Lange, Wolfgang; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lobanov, Artur; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lutz, Benjamin; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Nayak, Aruna; Novgorodova, Olga; Ntomari, Eleni; Perrey, Hanno; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Roland, Benoit; Ron, Elias; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Saxena, Pooja; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schröder, Matthias; Seitz, Claudia; Spannagel, Simon; Vargas Trevino, Andrea Del Rocio; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Draeger, Arne-Rasmus; Erfle, Joachim; Garutti, Erika; Goebel, Kristin; Görner, Martin; Haller, Johannes; Hoffmann, Malte; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Kirschenmann, Henning; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Lange, Jörn; Lapsien, Tobias; Lenz, Teresa; Marchesini, Ivan; Ott, Jochen; Peiffer, Thomas; Pietsch, Niklas; Poehlsen, Jennifer; Pöhlsen, Thomas; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Seidel, Markus; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Vanhoefer, Annika; Barth, Christian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Butz, Erik; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Feindt, Michael; Frensch, Felix; Giffels, Manuel; Hartmann, Frank; Hauth, Thomas; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Kornmayer, Andreas; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Nürnberg, Andreas; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Röcker, Steffen; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weiler, Thomas; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Psallidas, Andreas; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Agapitos, Antonis; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Stiliaris, Efstathios; Aslanoglou, Xenofon; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Gupta, Ruchi; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Manjit; Kumar, Ramandeep; Mittal, Monika; Nishu, Nishu; Singh, Jasbir; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Kumar, Ajay; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Varun; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dutta, Suchandra; Gomber, Bhawna; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Modak, Atanu; Mukherjee, Swagata; Roy, Debarati; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Dugad, Shashikant; Ganguly, Sanmay; Ghosh, Saranya; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Kole, Gouranga; Kumar, Sanjeev; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Behnamian, Hadi; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Goldouzian, Reza; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Calabria, Cesare; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Sharma, Archana; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Primavera, Federica; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Gallo, Elisabetta; Gonzi, Sandro; Gori, Valentina; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Ferretti, Roberta; Ferro, Fabrizio; Lo Vetere, Maurizio; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Gerosa, Raffaele; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Martelli, Arabella; Marzocchi, Badder; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Di Guida, Salvatore; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bisello, Dario; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Galanti, Mario; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Giubilato, Piero; Gozzelino, Andrea; Kanishchev, Konstantin; Lacaprara, Stefano; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zucchetta, Alberto; Zumerle, Gianni; Gabusi, Michele; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiezia, Aniello; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Donato, Silvio; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Moon, Chang-Seong; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Squillacioti, Paola; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Vernieri, Caterina; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; D'imperio, Giulia; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Grassi, Marco; Jorda, Clara; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Meridiani, Paolo; Micheli, Francesco; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Soffi, Livia; Traczyk, Piotr; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Casasso, Stefano; Costa, Marco; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Finco, Linda; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Ortona, Giacomo; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Potenza, Alberto; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Tamponi, Umberto; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; La Licata, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Schizzi, Andrea; Umer, Tomo; Zanetti, Anna; Chang, Sunghyun; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Kong, Dae Jung; Lee, Sangeun; Oh, Young Do; Park, Hyangkyu; Sakharov, Alexandre; Son, Dong-Chul; Kim, Tae Jeong; Kim, Jae Yool; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Kyong Sei; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Inkyu; Ryu, Geonmo; Ryu, Min Sang; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Donghyun; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Jongseok; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-de La Cruz, Ivan; Hernandez-Almada, Alberto; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Reucroft, Steve; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khalid, Shoaib; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michał; Wolszczak, Weronika; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nguyen, Federico; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Seixas, Joao; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Konoplyanikov, Viktor; Kozlov, Guennady; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Savina, Maria; Shmatov, Sergey; Shulha, Siarhei; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Zarubin, Anatoli; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Bunichev, Viacheslav; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Perfilov, Maxim; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Ekmedzic, Marko; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Senghi Soares, Mara; Albajar, Carmen; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Moran, Dermot; Brun, Hugues; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Graziano, Alberto; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Benaglia, Andrea; Bendavid, Joshua; Benhabib, Lamia; Benitez, Jose F; Bernet, Colin; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Bondu, Olivier; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cerminara, Gianluca; Colafranceschi, Stefano; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Guio, Federico; De Roeck, Albert; De Visscher, Simon; Di Marco, Emanuele; Dobson, Marc; Dordevic, Milos; Dorney, Brian; Dupont-Sagorin, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Eugster, Jürg; Franzoni, Giovanni; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Girone, Maria; Glege, Frank; Guida, Roberto; Gundacker, Stefan; Guthoff, Moritz; Hammer, Josef; Hansen, Magnus; Harris, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Krajczar, Krisztian; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Magini, Nicolo; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Marrouche, Jad; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moortgat, Filip; Morovic, Srecko; Mulders, Martijn; Musella, Pasquale; Orsini, Luciano; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuelle; Perrozzi, Luca; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Piparo, Danilo; Plagge, Michael; Racz, Attila; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Steggemann, Jan; Stieger, Benjamin; Stoye, Markus; Takahashi, Yuta; Treille, Daniel; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Wardle, Nicholas; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Wollny, Heiner; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Bachmair, Felix; Bäni, Lukas; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Buchmann, Marco-Andrea; Casal, Bruno; Chanon, Nicolas; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Dünser, Marc; Eller, Philipp; Grab, Christoph; Hits, Dmitry; Hoss, Jan; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Masciovecchio, Mario; Meister, Daniel; Mohr, Niklas; Nägeli, Christoph; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pauss, Felicitas; Peruzzi, Marco; Quittnat, Milena; Rebane, Liis; Rossini, Marco; Starodumov, Andrei; Takahashi, Maiko; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Amsler, Claude; Canelli, Maria Florencia; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Cosa, Annapaola; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hreus, Tomas; Kilminster, Benjamin; Lange, Clemens; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Robmann, Peter; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Taroni, Silvia; Verzetti, Mauro; Yang, Yong; Cardaci, Marco; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Ferro, Cristina; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Lin, Willis; Lu, Yun-Ju; Volpe, Roberta; Yu, Shin-Shan; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Dietz, Charles; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Kao, Kai-Yi; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Majumder, Devdatta; Petrakou, Eleni; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Wilken, Rachel; Asavapibhop, Burin; Singh, Gurpreet; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Suwonjandee, Narumon; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Mehmet; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Gamsizkan, Halil; Karapinar, Guler; Ocalan, Kadir; Sekmen, Sezen; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Cankocak, Kerem; Vardarli, Fuat Ilkehan; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Jacob, Jeson; Kreczko, Lukasz; Lucas, Chris; Meng, Zhaoxia; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Poll, Anthony; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Vincent J; Williams, Thomas; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Womersley, William John; Worm, Steven; Baber, Mark; Bainbridge, Robert; Buchmuller, Oliver; Burton, Darren; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Dunne, Patrick; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Gilbert, Andrew; Hall, Geoffrey; Iles, Gregory; Jarvis, Martyn; Karapostoli, Georgia; Kenzie, Matthew; Lane, Rebecca; Lucas, Robyn; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Malik, Sarah; Mathias, Bryn; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Pela, Joao; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Raymond, David Mark; Rogerson, Samuel; Rose, Andrew; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Tapper, Alexander; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leggat, Duncan; Leslie, Dawn; Martin, William; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Kasmi, Azeddine; Liu, Hongxuan; Scarborough, Tara; Charaf, Otman; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Fantasia, Cory; Lawson, Philip; Richardson, Clint; Rohlf, James; St John, Jason; Sulak, Lawrence; Alimena, Juliette; Berry, Edmund; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Christopher, Grant; Cutts, David; Demiragli, Zeynep; Dhingra, Nitish; Ferapontov, Alexey; Garabedian, Alex; Heintz, Ulrich; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Luk, Michael; Narain, Meenakshi; Segala, Michael; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Speer, Thomas; Swanson, Joshua; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Gardner, Michael; Ko, Winston; Lander, Richard; Miceli, Tia; Mulhearn, Michael; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Searle, Matthew; Shalhout, Shalhout; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Stolp, Dustin; Tripathi, Mani; Wilbur, Scott; Yohay, Rachel; Cousins, Robert; Everaerts, Pieter; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Rakness, Gregory; Takasugi, Eric; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Hanson, Gail; Heilman, Jesse; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Jandir, Pawandeep; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Lacroix, Florent; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Malberti, Martina; Nguyen, Harold; Olmedo Negrete, Manuel; Shrinivas, Amithabh; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wimpenny, Stephen; Andrews, Warren; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Evans, David; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Klein, Daniel; Lebourgeois, Matthew; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Olivito, Dominick; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Sudano, Elizabeth; Tadel, Matevz; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Welke, Charles; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Barge, Derek; Bradmiller-Feld, John; Campagnari, Claudio; Danielson, Thomas; Dishaw, Adam; Dutta, Valentina; Flowers, Kristen; Franco Sevilla, Manuel; Geffert, Paul; George, Christopher; Golf, Frank; Gouskos, Loukas; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Mccoll, Nickolas; Richman, Jeffrey; Stuart, David; To, Wing; West, Christopher; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Duarte, Javier; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Pena, Cristian; Rogan, Christopher; Spiropulu, Maria; Timciuc, Vladlen; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Wilkinson, Richard; Xie, Si; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Azzolini, Virginia; Calamba, Aristotle; Carlson, Benjamin; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Nauenberg, Uriel; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Chu, Jennifer; Dittmer, Susan; Eggert, Nicholas; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Ryd, Anders; Salvati, Emmanuele; Skinnari, Louise; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Tucker, Jordan; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Apollinari, Giorgio; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bolla, Gino; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gao, Yanyan; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Hare, Daryl; Harris, Robert M; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Kaadze, Ketino; Klima, Boaz; Kreis, Benjamin; Kwan, Simon; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Tiehui; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena Ingrid; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Merkel, Petra; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Nahn, Steve; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Prokofyev, Oleg; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitbeck, Andrew; Whitmore, Juliana; Yang, Fan; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Carver, Matthew; Cheng, Tongguang; Curry, David; Das, Souvik; De Gruttola, Michele; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Field, Richard D; Fisher, Matthew; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Hugon, Justin; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kypreos, Theodore; Low, Jia Fu; Matchev, Konstantin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Shchutska, Lesya; Snowball, Matthew; Sperka, David; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Hewamanage, Samantha; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Diamond, Brendan; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Prosper, Harrison; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatyan, Samvel; Kurt, Pelin; Moon, Dong Ho; O'Brien, Christine; Silkworth, Christopher; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Duru, Firdevs; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sen, Sercan; Tan, Ping; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bolognesi, Sara; Fehling, David; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Martin, Christopher; Swartz, Morris; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Bruner, Christopher; Kenny III, Raymond Patrick; Malek, Magdalena; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Sanders, Stephen; Sekaric, Jadranka; Stringer, Robert; Wang, Quan; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Shrestha, Shruti; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Svintradze, Irakli; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Belloni, Alberto; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G; Kolberg, Ted; Lu, Ying; Marionneau, Matthieu; Mignerey, Alice; Pedro, Kevin; Skuja, Andris; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Apyan, Aram; Barbieri, Richard; Bauer, Gerry; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Gulhan, Doga; Klute, Markus; Lai, Yue Shi; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Stephans, George; Stöckli, Fabian; Sumorok, Konstanty; Velicanu, Dragos; Veverka, Jan; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Zanetti, Marco; Zhukova, Victoria; Dahmes, Bryan; Gude, Alexander; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Pastika, Nathaniel; Rusack, Roger; Singovsky, Alexander; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Keller, Jason; Knowlton, Dan; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Malik, Sudhir; Meier, Frank; Snow, Gregory R; Zvada, Marian; Dolen, James; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Haley, Joseph; Massironi, Andrea; Morse, David Michael; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Trocino, Daniele; Wang, Ren-Jie; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kubik, Andrew; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Stoynev, Stoyan; Sung, Kevin; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Chan, Kwok Ming; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Lannon, Kevin; Luo, Wuming; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Pearson, Tessa; Planer, Michael; Ruchti, Randy; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Antonelli, Louis; Brinson, Jessica; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Hart, Andrew; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Puigh, Darren; Rodenburg, Marissa; Smith, Geoffrey; Winer, Brian L; Wolfe, Homer; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Driga, Olga; Elmer, Peter; Hebda, Philip; Hunt, Adam; Koay, Sue Ann; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zuranski, Andrzej; Brownson, Eric; Mendez, Hector; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Barnes, Virgil E; Benedetti, Daniele; Bortoletto, Daniela; De Mattia, Marco; Gutay, Laszlo; Hu, Zhen; Jha, Manoj; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Kurt; Kress, Matthew; Leonardo, Nuno; Lopes Pegna, David; Maroussov, Vassili; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shi, Xin; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Wang, Fuqiang; Xie, Wei; Xu, Lingshan; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zablocki, Jakub; Zheng, Yu; Parashar, Neeti; Stupak, John; Adair, Antony; Akgun, Bora; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Covarelli, Roberto; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Ferbel, Thomas; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Petrillo, Gianluca; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Ciesielski, Robert; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Lungu, Gheorghe; Mesropian, Christina; Arora, Sanjay; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Duggan, Daniel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Kaplan, Steven; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Patel, Rishi; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; York, Andrew; Bouhali, Othmane; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo; Eusebi, Ricardo; Flanagan, Will; Gilmore, Jason; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Montalvo, Roy; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Perloff, Alexx; Roe, Jeffrey; Rose, Anthony; Safonov, Alexei; Sakuma, Tai; Suarez, Indara; Tatarinov, Aysen; Akchurin, Nural; Cowden, Christopher; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Kunori, Shuichi; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Volobouev, Igor; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, Andrés G; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Mao, Yaxian; Melo, Andrew; Sharma, Monika; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Boutle, Sarah; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Wood, John; Clarke, Christopher; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sturdy, Jared; Belknap, Donald; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Friis, Evan; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Levine, Aaron; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Perry, Thomas; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ross, Ian; Sarangi, Tapas; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H; Taylor, Devin; Verwilligen, Piet; Vuosalo, Carl; Woods, Nathaniel

    2015-04-07

    Dimuon and dielectron mass spectra, obtained from data resulting from proton-proton collisions at 8 TeV and recorded by the CMS experiment, are used to search for both narrow resonances and broad deviations from standard model predictions. The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 20.6 (19.7) fb$^{-1}$ for the dimuon (dielectron) channel. No evidence for non-standard-model physics is observed and 95% confidence level limits are set on parameters from a number of new physics models. The narrow resonance analyses exclude a Sequential Standard Model $\\mathrm{Z'_{SSM}}$ resonance lighter than 2.90 TeV, a superstring-inspired $\\mathrm{Z'_{\\psi}}$ lighter than 2.57 TeV and Randall--Sundrum Kaluza--Klein gravitons with masses below 2.73, 2.35, and 1.27 TeV for couplings of 0.10, 0.05, and 0.01, respectively. A notable feature is that the limits have been calculated in a model-independent way to enable straightforward reinterpretation in any model predicting a resonance structure. The observed events are als...

  19. Galactic cosmic ray spectra during solar cycle 23 and 24. Measurement capabilities of the electron proton helium telescope on board SOHO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehl, Patrick; Dresing, Nina; Gieseler, Jan; Heber, Bernd; Klassen, Andreas [Christian-Albrechts Universitaet zu Kiel (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The solar modulation of galactic cosmic rays (GCR) can be studied in detail by long term variations of the GCR energy spectrum (e.g. on the scales of a solar cycle). With almost 20 years of data, the Electron Proton Helium INstrument (EPHIN) aboard SOHO is well suited for these kind of investigations. Although the design of the instrument is optimized to measure proton and helium isotope spectra up to 50 MeV/nucleon the capability exist that allow to determine energy spectra above 1.5 GeV/nucleon. Therefore we developed a sophisticated inversion method to calculate such proton spectra. The method relies on a GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulation of the instrument and a simplified spacecraft model that calculates the energy response function of EPHIN for electrons, protons and heavier ions. As a result we present galactic cosmic ray spectra from 1995 to 2015. For validation, the derived spectra are compared to AMS, BESS and PAMELA data. Furthermore we discuss the spectra with respect to the solar modulation.

  20. Stopping power measurements with 17-GeV/c protons at the AGS or inclusive proton spectra from proton-nucleus interactions at 17 GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remsberg, L.P.; Barton, D.S.; Bunce, G.

    1984-01-01

    The problem of nuclear stopping power and its importance to the study of nucleus-nucleus collisions at very high energies was brought to general attention one year ago at Quark Matter 83 by Busza and Goldhaber. In this context, nuclear stopping power can be thought of as the rate of energy (or rapidity) loss of a proton traversing nuclear matter. It does not directly address the important question of energy deposition. Busza and Goldhaber showed that knowledge of nuclear stopping power is needed to estimate the minimum center-of-mass energy required in nucleus-nucleus collisions to ensure the production of very high temperatures at low baryon density. At cm energies of about 1 to 10 GeV/A, the stopping power is important in the estimation of the maximum baryon densities attainable in nucleus-nucleus collisions. The data presented are more relevant to this latter point

  1. Proton and pion spectra at large angles in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagamiya, S.; Tanihata, I.; Schnetzer, S.; Anderson, L.; Brueckner, W.; Chamberlain, O.; Shapiro, G.; Steiner, H.

    1977-08-01

    In collisions of 800 MeV/N C on C and Pb, and of 800 MeV/N Ne on NaF, Cu, and Pb, energy and angular distributions of light charged fragments were measured at angles from 15 to 145 0 by a magnetic spectrometer for fragment energies up to a few GeV. The inclusive spectra are presented as well as some results and discussion of future possibilities for two or more particle coincidence experiments

  2. Electron photon spectra at atmospheric depths 260 and 400 gm/cm2 derived from the Goddard primary proton spectrum using Fermilab data and usual cascade theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, D.P.; Gautam, V.P.

    1982-01-01

    The integral electron photon spectra of cosmic rays at airplane altitude and Lenin Peak (altitudes 260 and 400 g-cm -2 air) have been estimated from the primary proton spectrum of Goddard Space Flight Group using Fermilab data of pp→π +- +X and conventional cascade theory. The derived electron-photon spectra fits well the experimental data of Ohta et al. (1975) and Cherdyntseva and Nikol'skii (1976) for energies above 4 TeV

  3. Towards understanding the tandem mass spectra of protonated oligopeptides. 2: The proline effect in collision-induced dissociation of protonated Ala-Ala-Xxx-Pro-Ala (Xxx = Ala, Ser, Leu, Val, Phe, and Trp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleiholder, Christian; Suhai, Sándor; Harrison, Alex G; Paizs, Béla

    2011-06-01

    The product ion spectra of proline-containing peptides are commonly dominated by y(n) ions generated by cleavage at the N-terminal side of proline residues. This proline effect is investigated in the current work by collision-induced dissociation (CID) of protonated Ala-Ala-Xxx-Pro-Ala (Xxx includes Ala, Ser, Leu, Val, Phe, and Trp) in an electrospray/quadrupole/time-of-flight (QqTOF) mass spectrometer and by quantum chemical calculations on protonated Ala-Ala-Ala-Pro-Ala. The CID spectra of all investigated peptides show a dominant y(2) ion (Pro-Ala sequence). Our computational results show that the proline effect mainly arises from the particularly low threshold energy for the amide bond cleavage N-terminal to the proline residue, and from the high proton affinity of the proline-containing C-terminal fragment produced by this cleavage. These theoretical results are qualitatively supported by the experimentally observed y(2)/b(3) abundance ratios for protonated Ala-Ala-Xxx-Pro-Ala (Xxx = Ala, Ser, Leu, Val, Phe, and Trp). In the post-cleavage phase of fragmentation the N-terminal oxazolone fragment with the Ala-Ala-Xxx sequence and Pro-Ala compete for the ionizing proton for these peptides. As the proton affinity of the oxazolone fragment increases, the y(2)/b(3) abundance ratio decreases.

  4. Pattern recognition analysis of proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of brain tissue extracts from rats anesthetized with propofol or isoflurane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Kawaguchi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: General anesthesia is routinely used as a surgical procedure and its safety has been endorsed by clinical outcomes; however, its effects at the molecular level have not been elucidated. General anesthetics influence glucose metabolism in the brain. However, the effects of anesthetics on brain metabolites other than those related to glucose have not been well characterized. We used a pattern recognition analysis of proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectra to visualize the changes in holistic brain metabolic phenotypes in response to the widely used intravenous anesthetic propofol and the volatile anesthetic isoflurane. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Rats were randomized into five groups (n = 7 each group. Propofol and isoflurane were administered to two groups each, for 2 or 6 h. The control group received no anesthesia. Brains were removed directly after anesthesia. Hydrophilic compounds were extracted from excised whole brains and measured by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. All spectral data were processed and analyzed by principal component analysis for comparison of the metabolite profiles. Data were visualized by plotting principal component (PC scores. In the plots, each point represents an individual sample. The propofol and isoflurane groups were clustered separately on the plots, and this separation was especially pronounced when comparing the 6-h groups. The PC scores of the propofol group were clearly distinct from those of the control group, particularly in the 6-h group, whereas the difference in PC scores was more subtle in the isoflurane group and control groups. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results of the present study showed that propofol and isoflurane exerted differential effects on holistic brain metabolism under anesthesia.

  5. A phenomenological biological dose model for proton therapy based on linear energy transfer spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rørvik, Eivind; Thörnqvist, Sara; Stokkevåg, Camilla H; Dahle, Tordis J; Fjaera, Lars Fredrik; Ytre-Hauge, Kristian S

    2017-06-01

    The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of protons varies with the radiation quality, quantified by the linear energy transfer (LET). Most phenomenological models employ a linear dependency of the dose-averaged LET (LET d ) to calculate the biological dose. However, several experiments have indicated a possible non-linear trend. Our aim was to investigate if biological dose models including non-linear LET dependencies should be considered, by introducing a LET spectrum based dose model. The RBE-LET relationship was investigated by fitting of polynomials from 1st to 5th degree to a database of 85 data points from aerobic in vitro experiments. We included both unweighted and weighted regression, the latter taking into account experimental uncertainties. Statistical testing was performed to decide whether higher degree polynomials provided better fits to the data as compared to lower degrees. The newly developed models were compared to three published LET d based models for a simulated spread out Bragg peak (SOBP) scenario. The statistical analysis of the weighted regression analysis favored a non-linear RBE-LET relationship, with the quartic polynomial found to best represent the experimental data (P = 0.010). The results of the unweighted regression analysis were on the borderline of statistical significance for non-linear functions (P = 0.053), and with the current database a linear dependency could not be rejected. For the SOBP scenario, the weighted non-linear model estimated a similar mean RBE value (1.14) compared to the three established models (1.13-1.17). The unweighted model calculated a considerably higher RBE value (1.22). The analysis indicated that non-linear models could give a better representation of the RBE-LET relationship. However, this is not decisive, as inclusion of the experimental uncertainties in the regression analysis had a significant impact on the determination and ranking of the models. As differences between the models were

  6. Experimental diagnostics and modeling of inductive phenomena at low frequencies in impedance spectra of proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivac, Ivan; Šimić, Boris; Barbir, Frano

    2017-10-01

    Representation of fuel cell processes by equivalent circuit models, involving resistance and capacitance elements representing activation losses on both anode and cathode in series with resistance representing ohmic losses, cannot capture and explain the inductive loop that may show up at low frequencies in Nyquist diagram representation of the electrochemical impedance spectra. In an attempt to explain the cause of the low-frequency inductive loop and correlate it with the processes within the fuel cell electrodes, a novel equivalent circuit model of a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell has been proposed and experimentally verified here in detail. The model takes into account both the anode and the cathode, and has an additional resonant loop on each side, comprising of a resistance, capacitance and inductance in parallel representing the processes within the catalyst layer. Using these additional circuit elements, more accurate and better fits to experimental impedance data in the wide frequency range at different current densities, cell temperatures, humidity of gases, air flow stoichiometries and backpressures were obtained.

  7. New insight into hydration and aging mechanisms of paper by the line shape analysis of proton NMR spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallamace, D.; Vasi, S.; Missori, M.; Corsaro, C.

    2016-01-01

    The action of water within biological systems is strictly linked either with their physical chemical properties and with their functions. Cellulose is one of the most studied biopolymers due to its biological importance and its wide use in manufactured products. Among them, paper is mainly constituted by an almost equimolar ratio of cellulose and water. Therefore the study of the behavior of water within pristine and aged paper samples can help to shed light on the degradation mechanisms that irremediably act over time and spoil paper. In this work we present Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) experiments on modern paper samples made of pure cellulose not aged and artificially aged as well as on ancient paper samples made in 1413 in Perpignan (France). The line shape parameters of the proton NMR spectra were studied as a function of the hydration content. Results indicate that water in aged samples is progressively involved in the hydration of the byproducts of cellulose degradation. This enhances the degradation process itself through the progressive consumption of the cellulose amorphous regions.

  8. An experiment to measure the spectra of primary proton, helium and iron nuclei at the 'knee' region at a high altitude

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, X W; Ding, L K; Zhang, C S; Ohnishi, M

    2003-01-01

    The possibility of measuring the energy spectra of some single elements (proton, helium and iron) in primary cosmic rays at the 'knee' energies, by setting up an air shower (AS) core detector in the AS gamma array (4300 m a.s.l., Tibet, China) is investigated. Taking into account the sensitivity and the acceptance needed for this measurement, the feasibility of construction and operation of the apparatus at a high altitude, and the cost, it is shown that this aim can be achieved by a simple AS core detector that mainly measures the high-energy electromagnetic components in AS cores. In this paper, such a detector is described. With a three-year exposure, proton, helium and iron spectra at the 'knee' energy region can be obtained with three event samples selected by an artificial neural network (ANN).

  9. Proton spectra from 6.3 GeV/c deuteron break-up on H, D, C, Al and Bi nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azhgirey, L.S.; Ignatenko, M.A.; Ivanov, V.V.; Kuznetsov, A.S.; Mescheryakov, M.G.; Razin, S.V.; Stoletov, G.D.; Vzorov, I.K.; Zhmyrov, V.N.

    1977-01-01

    The proton spectra from deuteron break-up on H, D, 12 C, 27 Al and 209 Bi nuclei were measured at an angle of 103 mrad (lab. system) in the momentum interval from 2.6 to 3.6 GeV/c. The measurements were made at the JINR synchrophasotron by one-arm magnetic spectrometer on-line with a computer. The extracted 6.3 GeV/c deuteron beam was incident on targets of CH 2 , CD 2 , C, Al and Bi at the thickness from 0.8 to 2 g/cm 2 . The flux of deuteron beam was equal to 5x10 8 -5x10 9 particles/pulse with a typical pulse length of 300 ms. The repetition rate was one pulse every 10 s. Proton peaks with the maximum at about 3.1 GeV/c and 280-300 MeV/c FWHM dominate in all the measured spectra. Experimental proton spectra are compared with calculations with the Reid, the Moravcsik Gartenhaus, the Hulten and the Gauss wave functions. The results, on the whole, are reasonably reproduced in the framework of the Glauber multiple scattering model taking into account the relativistic deformation of the deuteron wave function

  10. A scintillator-based online detector for the angularly resolved measurement of laser-accelerated proton spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metzkes, J.; Kraft, S. D.; Sobiella, M.; Stiller, N.; Zeil, K.; Schramm, U.; Karsch, L.; Schürer, M.; Pawelke, J.; Richter, C.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, a new generation of high repetition rate (∼10 Hz), high power (∼100 TW) laser systems has stimulated intense research on laser-driven sources for fast protons. Considering experimental instrumentation, this development requires online diagnostics for protons to be added to the established offline detection tools such as solid state track detectors or radiochromic films. In this article, we present the design and characterization of a scintillator-based online detector that gives access to the angularly resolved proton distribution along one spatial dimension and resolves 10 different proton energy ranges. Conceived as an online detector for key parameters in laser-proton acceleration, such as the maximum proton energy and the angular distribution, the detector features a spatial resolution of ∼1.3 mm and a spectral resolution better than 1.5 MeV for a maximum proton energy above 12 MeV in the current design. Regarding its areas of application, we consider the detector a useful complement to radiochromic films and Thomson parabola spectrometers, capable to give immediate feedback on the experimental performance. The detector was characterized at an electrostatic Van de Graaff tandetron accelerator and tested in a laser-proton acceleration experiment, proving its suitability as a diagnostic device for laser-accelerated protons.

  11. A scintillator-based online detector for the angularly resolved measurement of laser-accelerated proton spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzkes, J; Karsch, L; Kraft, S D; Pawelke, J; Richter, C; Schürer, M; Sobiella, M; Stiller, N; Zeil, K; Schramm, U

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, a new generation of high repetition rate (~10 Hz), high power (~100 TW) laser systems has stimulated intense research on laser-driven sources for fast protons. Considering experimental instrumentation, this development requires online diagnostics for protons to be added to the established offline detection tools such as solid state track detectors or radiochromic films. In this article, we present the design and characterization of a scintillator-based online detector that gives access to the angularly resolved proton distribution along one spatial dimension and resolves 10 different proton energy ranges. Conceived as an online detector for key parameters in laser-proton acceleration, such as the maximum proton energy and the angular distribution, the detector features a spatial resolution of ~1.3 mm and a spectral resolution better than 1.5 MeV for a maximum proton energy above 12 MeV in the current design. Regarding its areas of application, we consider the detector a useful complement to radiochromic films and Thomson parabola spectrometers, capable to give immediate feedback on the experimental performance. The detector was characterized at an electrostatic Van de Graaff tandetron accelerator and tested in a laser-proton acceleration experiment, proving its suitability as a diagnostic device for laser-accelerated protons.

  12. MRI Proton Density Fat Fraction Is Robust Across the Biologically Plausible Range of Triglyceride Spectra in Adults With Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Cheng William; Mamidipalli, Adrija; Hooker, Jonathan C.; Hamilton, Gavin; Wolfson, Tanya; Chen, Dennis H.; Dehkordy, Soudabeh Fazeli; Middleton, Michael S.; Reeder, Scott B.; Loomba, Rohit; Sirlin, Claude B.

    2017-01-01

    Background Proton density fat fraction (PDFF) estimation requires spectral modeling of the hepatic triglyceride (TG) signal. Deviations in the TG spectrum may occur, leading to bias in PDFF quantification. Purpose To investigate the effects of varying six-peak TG spectral models on PDFF estimation bias. Study Type Retrospective secondary analysis of prospectively acquired clinical research data. Population Forty-four adults with biopsy-confirmed nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Field Strength/Sequence Confounder-corrected chemical-shift-encoded 3T MRI (using a 2D multiecho gradient-recalled echo technique with magnitude reconstruction) and MR spectroscopy. Assessment In each patient, 61 pairs of colocalized MRI-PDFF and MRS-PDFF values were estimated: one pair used the standard six-peak spectral model, the other 60 were six-peak variants calculated by adjusting spectral model parameters over their biologically plausible ranges. MRI-PDFF values calculated using each variant model and the standard model were compared, and the agreement between MRI-PDFF and MRS-PDFF was assessed. Statistical Tests MRS-PDFF and MRI-PDFF were summarized descriptively. Bland–Altman (BA) analyses were performed between PDFF values calculated using each variant model and the standard model. Linear regressions were performed between BA biases and mean PDFF values for each variant model, and between MRI-PDFF and MRS-PDFF. Results Using the standard model, mean MRS-PDFF of the study population was 17.9±8.0% (range: 4.1–34.3%). The difference between the highest and lowest mean variant MRI-PDFF values was 1.5%. Relative to the standard model, the model with the greatest absolute BA bias overestimated PDFF by 1.2%. Bias increased with increasing PDFF (P hepatic fat content, PDFF estimation is robust across the biologically plausible range of TG spectra. Although absolute estimation bias increased with higher PDFF, its magnitude was small and unlikely to be clinically meaningful. Level of

  13. Transverse momentum spectra of charged particles in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 900 GeV with ALICE at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Aamodt, K; Abeysekara, U; Abrahantes Quintana, A; Abramyan, A; Adamov, D; Aggarwal, M M; Aglieri Rinella, G; Agocs, A G; Aguilar Salazar, S; Ahammed, Z; Ahmad, A; Ahmad, N; Ahn, S U; Akimoto, R; Akindinov, A; Aleksandrov, D; Alessandro, B; Alfaro Molina, R; Alici, A; Almarz Avia, E; Alme, J; Alt, T; Altini, V; Altinpinar, S; Andrei, C; Andronic, A; Anelli, G; Angelov, V; Anson, C; Anticic, T; Antinori, F; Antinori, S; Antipin, K; Antonczyk, D; Antonioli, P; Anzo, A; Aphecetche, L; Appelshuser, H; Arcelli, S; Arceo, R; Arend, A; Armesto, N; Arnaldi, R; Aronsson, T; Arsene, I C; Asryan, A; Augustinus, A; AverbecK, R; Awes, T C; yst, J; Azmi, M D; Bablok, S; Bach, M; Badal, A; Baek, Y W; Bagnasco, S; Bailhache, R; Bala, R; Baldisseri, A; Baldit, A; Bn, J; Barbera, R; Barnafldi, G G; Barnby, L S; Barret, V; Bartke, J; Barile, F; Basile, M; Basmanov, V; Bastid, N; Bathen, B; Batigne, G; Batyunya, B; Baumann, C; Bearden, I G; Becker, B; Belikov, I; Bellwied, R; Belmont-Moreno, E; Belogianni, A; Benhabib, L; Beole, S; Berceanu, I; Bercuci, A; Berdermann, E; Berdnikov, Y; Betev, L; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bianchi, L; Bianchi, N; Bianchin, C; Bielck, J; Bielckov, J; Bilandzic, A; Bimbot, L; Biolcati, E; Blanc, A; Blanco, F; Blanco, F; Blau, D; Blume, C; Boccioli, M; Bock, N; Bogdanov, A; Bggild, H; Bogolyubsky, M; Bohm, J; Boldizsr, L; Bombara, M; Bombonati, C; Bondila, M; Borel, H; Borisov, A; Bortolin, C; Bose, S; Bosisio, L; Boss, F; Botje, M; Bttger, S; Bourdaud, G; Boyer, B; Braun, M; Braun-Munzinger, P; Bravina, L; Bregant, M; Breitner, T; Bruckner, G; Brun, R; Bruna, E; Bruno, G E; Budnikov, D; Buesching, H; Buncic, P; Busch, O; Buthelezi, Z; Caffarri, D; Cai, X; Caines, H; Calvo, E; Camacho, E; Camerini, P; Campbell, M; Canoa Roman, V; Capitani, G P; Cara Romeo, G; Carena, F; Carena, W; Carminati, F; Casanova Daz, A; Caselle, M; Castillo Castellanos, J; Castillo Hernandez, J F; Catanescu, V; Cattaruzza, E; Cavicchioli, C; Cerello, P; Chambert, V; Chang, B; Chapeland, S; Charpy, A; Charvet, J L; Chattopadhyay, S; Chattopadhyay, S; Cherney, M; Cheshkov, C; Cheynis, B; Chiavassa, E; Chibante Barroso, V; Chinellato, D D; Chochula, P; Choi, K; Chojnacki, M; Christakoglou, P; Christensen, C H; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Chuman, F; Cicalo, C; Cifarelli, L; Cindolo, F; Cleymans, J; Cobanoglu, O; Coffin, J P; Coli, S; Colla, A; Conesa Balbastre, G; Conesa del Valle, Z; Conner, E S; Constantin, P; Contin, G; Contreras, J G; Corrales Morales, Y; Cormier, T M; Cortese, P; Corts Maldonado, I; Cosentino, M R; Costa, F; Cotallo, M E; Crescio, E; Crochet, P; Cuautle, E; Cunqueiro, L; Cussonneau, J; Dainese, A; Dalsgaard, H H; Danu, A; Das, I; Dash, A; Dash, S; de Barros, G O V; De Caro, A; de Cataldo, G; de Cuveland, J; De Falco, A; De Gaspari, M; de Groot, J; De Gruttola, D; De Marco, N; De Pasquale, S; De Remigis, R; de Rooij, R; de Vaux, G; Delagrange, H; Delgado, Y; Dellacasa, G; Deloff, A; Demanov, V; Dnes, E; Deppman, A; D'Erasmo, G; Derkach, D; Devaux, A; Di Bari, D; Di Giglio, C; Di Liberto, S; Di Mauro, A; Di Nezza, P; Dialinas, M; Daz, L; Daz, R; Dietel, T; Divi, R; Djuvsland,; Dobretsov, V; Dobrin, A; Dobrowolski, T; Dnigus, B; Domnguez, I; Dordic, O; Dubey, A K; Dubuisson, J; Ducroux, L; Dupieux, P; Dutta Majumdar, A K; Dutta Majumdar, M R; Elia, D; Emschermann, D; Enokizono, A; Espagnon, B; Estienne, M; Esumi, S; Evans, D; Evrard, S; Eyyubova, G; Fabjan, C W; Fabris, D; Faivre, J; Falchieri, D; Fantoni, A; Fasel, M; Fateev, O; Fearick, R; Fedunov, A; Fehlker, D; Fekete, V; Felea, D; Fenton-Olsen, B; Feofilov, G; Fernndez Tllez, A; Ferreiro, E G; Ferretti, A; Ferretti, R; Figueredo, M A S; Filchagin, S; Fini, R; Fionda, F M; Fiore, E M; Floris, M; Fodor, Z; Foertsch, S; Foka, P; Fokin, S; Formenti, F; Fragiacomo, E; Fragkiadakis, M; Frankenfeld, U; Frolov, A; Fuchs, U; Furano, F; Furget, C; Fusco Girard, M; Gaardhje, J J; Gadrat, S; Gagliardi, M; Gago, A; Gallio, M; Ganoti, P; Ganti, M S; Garabatos, C; Garca Trapaga, C; Gebelein, J; Gemme, R; Germain, M; Gheata, A; Gheata, M; Ghidini, B; Ghosh, P; Giraudo, G; Giubellino, P; Gladysz-Dziadus, E; Glasow, R; Glssel, P; Glenn, A; Gomez Jimnez, R; Gonzlez Santos, H; Gonzlez-Trueba, L H; Gonzlez-Zamora, P; Gorbunov, S; Gorbunov, Y; Gotovac, S; Gottschlag, H; Grabski, V; Grajcarek, R; Grelli, A; Grigoras, A; Grigoras, C; Grigoriev, V; Grigoryan, A; Grigoryan, S; Grinyov, B; Grion, N; Gros, P; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J F; Grossiord, J Y; Grosso, R; Guber, F; Guernane, R; Guerra, C; Guerzoni, B; Gulbrandsen, K; Gulkanyan, H; Gunji, T; Gupta, A; Gupta, R; Gustafsson, H A; Gutbrod, H; Haaland,; Hadjidakis, C; Haiduc, M; Hamagaki, H; Hamar, G; Hamblen, J; Han, B H; Harris, J W; Hartig, M; Harutyunyan, A; Hasch, D; Hasegan, D; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hayrapetyan, A; Heide, M; Heinz, M; Helstrup, H; Herghelegiu, A; Hernndez, C; Herrera Corral, G; Herrmann, N; Hetland, K F; Hicks, B; Hiei, A; Hille, P T; Hippolyte, B; Horaguchi, T; Hori, Y; Hristov, P; Hrivncov, I; Hu, S; Huang, M; Huber, S; Humanic, T J; Hutter, D; Hwang, D S; Ichou, R; Ilkaev, R; Ilkiv, I; Inaba, M; Innocenti, P G; Ippolitov, M; Irfan, M; Ivan, C; Ivanov, A; Ivanov, M; Ivanov, V; Iwasaki, T; Jachokowski, A; Jacobs, P; Jancurov, L; Jangal, S; Janik, R; Jena, C; Jena, S; Jirden, L; Jones, G T; Jones, P G; Jovanovic, P; Jung, H; Jung, W; Jusko, A; Kaidalov, A B; Kalcher, S; Kalink, P; Kalisky, M; Kalliokoski, T; Kalweit, A; Kamal, A; Kamermans, R; Kanaki, K; Kang, E; Kang, J H; Kapitan, J; Kaplin, V; Kapusta, S; Karavichev, O; Karavicheva, T; Karpechev, E; Kazantsev, A; Kebschull, U; Keidel, R; Khan, M M; Khan, S A; Khanzadeev, A; Kharlov, Y; Kikola, D; Kileng, B; Kim, D J; Kim, D S; Kim, D W; Kim, H N; Kim, J; Kim, J H; Kim, J S; Kim, M; Kim, M; Kim, S H; Kim, S; Kim, Y; Kirsch, S; Kisel, I; Kiselev, S; Kisiel, A; Klay, J L; Klein, J; Klein-Bsing, C; Kliemant, M; Klovning, A; Kluge, A; Knichel, M L; Kniege, S; Koch, K; Kolevatov, R; Kolojvari, A; Kondratiev, V; Kondratyeva, N; Konevskih, A; Kornas, E; Kour, R; Kowalski, M; Kox, S; Kozlov, K; Kral, J; Krlik, I; Kramer, F; Kraus, I; Kravckov, A; Krawutschke, T; Krivda, M; Krumbhorn, D; Krus, M; Kryshen, E; Krzewicki, M; Kucheriaev, Y; Kuhn, C; Kuijer, P G; Kumar, L; Kumar, N; Kupczak, R; Kurashvili, P; Kurepin, A; Kurepin, A N; Kuryakin, A; Kushpil, S; Kushpil, V; Kutouski, M; Kvaerno, H; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; La Rocca, P; Lackner, F; Ladron de Guevara, P; Lafage, V; Lal, C; Lara, Camilo; Larsen, D T; Laurenti, G; Lazzeroni, C; Le Bornec, Y; Le Bris, N; Lee, H; Lee, K S; Lee, S C; Lefvre, F; Lenhardt, M; Leistam, L; Lehnert, J; Lenti, V; Leon, H; Leon Monzon, I; Leon Vargas, H; Lvai, P; Li, X; Li, Y; Lietava, R; Lindal, S; Lindenstruth, V; Lippmann, C; Lisa, M A; Liu, L; Loginov, V; Lohn, S; Lopez, X; Lopez Noriega, M; Lopez-Ramrez, R; Lopez Torres, E; Lvhiden, G; Lozea Feijo Soares, A; Lu, S; Luettig, P; Lunardon, M; Luparello, G; Luquin, L; Lutz, J R; Ma, K; Ma, R; Madagodahettige-Don, D M; Maevskaya, A; Mager, M; Mahapatra, D P; Maire, A; Makhlyueva, I; Mal'Kevich, D; Malaev, M; Malagalage, K J; Maldonado Cervantes, I; Malek, M; Malkiewicz, T; Malzacher, P; Mamonov, A; Manceau, L; Mangotra, L; Manko, V; Manso, F; Manzari, V; Mao, Y; Mares, J; Margagliotti, G V; Margotti, A; Marn, A; Martashvili, I; Martinengo, P; Martnez Hernndez, M I; Martnez Davalos, A; Martnez Garca, G; Maruyama, Y; Marzari Chiesa, A; Masciocchi, S; Masera, M; Masetti, M; Masoni, A; Massacrier, L; Mastromarco, M; Mastroserio, A; Matthews, Z L; Matyja, A; Mayani, D; Mazza, G; Mazzoni, M A; Meddi, F; Menchaca-Rocha, A; Mendez Lorenzo, P; Meoni, M; Mercado Prez, J; Mereu, P; Miake, Y; Michalon, A; Miftakhov, N; Milano, L; Milosevic, J; Minafra, F; Mischke, A; Miskowiec, D; Mitu, C; Mizoguchi, K; Mlynarz, J; Mohanty, B; Molnar, L; Mondal, M M; Montao Zetina, L; Monteno, M; Montes, E; Morando, M; Moretto, S; Morsch, A; Moukhanova, T; Muccifora, V; Mudnic, E; Muhuri, S; Mller, H; Munhoz, M G; Munoz, J; Musa, L; Musso, A; Nandi, B K; Nania, R; Nappi, E; Navach, F; Navin, S; Nayak, T K; Nazarenko, S; Nazarov, G; Nedosekin, A; Nendaz, F; Newby, J; Nianine, A; Nicassio, M; Nielsen, B S; Nikolaev, S; Nikolic, V; Nikulin, S; Nikulin, V; Nilsen, B S; Nilsson, M S; Noferini, F; Nomokonov, P; Nooren, G; Novitzky, N; Nyatha, A; Nygaard, C; Nyiri, A; Nystrand, J; Ochirov, A; Odyniec, G; Oeschler, H; Oinonen, M; Okada, K; Okada, Y; Oldenburg, M; Oleniacz, J; Oppedisano, C; Orsini, F; Ortiz Velasquez, A; Ortona, G; Oskarsson, A; Osmic, F; sterman, L; Ostrowski, P; Otterlund, I; Otwinowski, J; Øvrebekk, G; Oyama, K; Ozawa, K; Pachmayer, Y; Pachr, M; Padilla, F; Pagano, P; Paic, G; Painke, F; Pajares, C; Pal, S; Pal, S K; Palaha, A; Palmeri, A; Panse, R; Papikyan, V; Pappalardo, G S; Park, W J; Pastirck, B; Pastore, C; Paticchio, V; Pavlinov, A; Pawlak, T; Peitzmann, T; Pepato, A; Pereira, H; Peressounko, D; Prez, C; Perini, D; Perrino, D; Peryt, W; Peschek, J; Pesci, A; Peskov, V; Pestov, Y; Peters, A J; Petrcek, V; Petridis, A; Petris, M; Petrov, P; Petrovici, M; Petta, C; Peyr, J; Piano, S; Piccotti, A; Pikna, M; Pillot, P; Pinazza, O; Pinsky, L; Pitz, N; Piuz, F; Platt, R; Ploskon, M; Pluta, J; Pocheptsov, T; Pochybova, S; Podesta Lerma, P L M; Poggio, F; Poghosyan, M.G.; Polk, K; Polichtchouk, B; Polozov, P; Polyakov, V; Pommeresch, B; Pop, A; Posa, F; Pospsil, V; Potukuchi, B; Pouthas, J; Prasad, S K; Preghenella, R; Prino, F; Pruneau, C A; Pshenichnov, I; Puddu, G; Pujahari, P; Pulvirenti, A; Punin, A; Punin, V; Putis, M; Putschke, J; Quercigh, E; Rachevski, A; Rademakers, A; Radomski, S; Rih, T S; Rak, J; Rakotozafindrabe, A; Ramello, L; Ramrez Reyes, A; Rammler, M; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Rsnen, S S; Rashevskaya, I; Rath, S; Read, K F; Real, J S; Redlich, K; Renfordt, R; Reolon, A R; Reshetin, A; Rettig, F; Revol, J P; Reygers, K; Ricaud, H; Riccati, L; Ricci, R A; Richter, M; Riedler, P; Riegler, W; Riggi, F; Rivetti, A; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, M; Red, K; Rhrich, D; Romn Lopez, S; Romita, R; Ronchetti, F; Rosinsk, P; Rosnet, P; Rossegger, S; Rossi, A; Roukoutakis, F; Rousseau, S; Roy, C; Roy, P; Rubio-Montero, A J; Rui, R; Rusanov, I; Russo, G; Ryabinkin, E; Rybicki, A; Sadovsky, S; Safark, K; Sahoo, R; Saini, J; Saiz, P; Sakata, D; Salgado, C A; Salgueiro Domingues da Silva, R; Salur, S; Samanta, T; Sambyal, S; Samsonov, V; Sndor, L; Sandoval, A; Sano, M; Sano, S; Santo, R; Santoro, R; Sarkamo, J; Saturnini, P; Scapparone, E; Scarlassara, F; Scharenberg, R P; Schiaua, C; Schicker, R; Schindler, H; Schmidt, C; Schmidt, H R; Schossmaier, K; Schreiner, S; Schuchmann, S; Schukraft, J; Schutz, Y; Schwarz, K; Schweda, K; Scioli, G; Scomparin, E; Scott, P A; Segato, G; Semenov, D; Senyukov, S; Seo, J; Serci, S; Serkin, L; Serradilla, E; Sevcenco, A; Sgura, I; Shabratova, G; Shahoyan, R; Sharkov, G; Sharma, N; Sharma, S; Shigaki, K; Shimomura, M; Shtejer, K; Sibiriak, Y; Siciliano, M; Sicking, E; Siddi, E; Siemiarczuk, T; Silenzi, A; Silvermyr, D; Simili, E; Simonetti, G; Singaraju, R; Singh, R; Singhal, V; Sinha, B C; Sinha, T; Sitar, B; Sitta, M; Skaali, T B; Skjerdal, K; Smakal, R; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R; Snow, H; Sgaard, C; Soloviev, A; Soltveit, H K; Soltz, R; Sommer, W; Son, C W; Son, H; Song, M; Soos, C; Soramel, F; Soyk, D; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M; Srivastava, B K; Stachel, J; Staley, F; Stan, E; Stefanek, G; Stefanini, G; Steinbeck, T; Stenlund, E; Steyn, G; Stocco, D; Stock, R; Stolpovsky, P; Strmen, P; Suaide, A A P; Subieta Vsquez, M A; Sugitate, T; Suire, C; Sumbera, M; Susa, T; Swoboda, D; Symons, J; Szanto de Toledo, A; Szarka, I; Szostak, A; Szuba, M; Tadel, M; Tagridis, C; Takahara, A; Takahashi, J; Tanabe, R; Tapia Takaki, J D; Taureg, H; Tauro, A; Tavlet, M; Tejeda Muoz, G; Telesca, A; Terrevoli, C; Thader, J; Tieulent, R; Tlusty, D; Toia, A; Tolyhy, T; Torcato de Matos, C; Torii, H; Torralba, G; Toscano, L; Tosello, F; Tournaire, A; Traczyk, T; Tribedy, P; Trger, G; Truesdale, D; Trzaska, W H; Tsiledakis, G; Tsilis, E; Tsuji, T; Tumkin, A; Turrisi, R; Turvey, A; Tveter, T S; Tydesj, H; Tywoniuk, K; Ulery, J; Ullaland, K; Uras, A; Urbn, J; Urciuoli, G M; Usai, G L; Vacchi, A; Vala, M; Valencia Palomo, L; Vallero, S; van der Kolk, N; Vande Vyvre, P; van Leeuwen, M; Vannucci, L; Vargas, A; Varma, R; Vasiliev, A; Vassiliev, I; Vasileiou, M; Vechernin, V; Venaruzzo, M; Vercellin, E; Vergara, S; Vernet, R; Verweij, M; Vetlitskiy, I; Vickovic, L; Viesti, G; Vikhlyantsev, O; Vilakazi, Z; Villalobos Baillie, O; Vinogradov, A; Vinogradov, L; Vinogradov, Y; Virgili, T; Viyogi, Y P; Vodopianov, A; Voloshin, K; Voloshin, S; Volpe, G; von Haller, B; Vranic, D; Vrlkov, J; Vulpescu, B; Wagner, B; Wagner, V; Wallet, L; Wan, R; Wang, D; Wang, Y; Wang, Y; Watanabe, K; Wen, Q; Wessels, J; Westerhoff, U; Wiechula, J; Wikne, J; Wilk, A; Wilk, G; Williams, M C S; Willis, N; Windelband, B; Xu, C; Yang, C; Yang, H; Yasnopolskiy, S; Yermia, F; Yi, J; Yin, Z; Yokoyama, H; Yoo, I K; Yuan, X; Yurevich, V; Yushmanov, I; Zabrodin, E; Zagreev, B; Zalite, A; Zampolli, C; Zanevsky, Yu; Zaporozhets, S; Zarochentsev, A; Zvada, P; Zbroszczyk, H; Zelnicek, P; Zenin, A; Zepeda, A; Zgura, I; Zhalov, M; Zhang, X; Zhou, D; Zhou, S; Zhu, J; Zichichi, A; Zinchenko, A; Zinovjev, G; Zoccarato, Y; Zychcek, V; Zynovyev, M

    2010-01-01

    The inclusive charged particle transverse momentum distribution is measured in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 900$~GeV at the LHC using the ALICE detector. The measurement is performed in the central pseudorapidity region $(|\\eta|_{\\rm INEL}=0.483\\pm0.001$~(stat.)~$\\pm0.007$~(syst.)~GeV/$c$ and $\\left_{\\rm NSD}=0.489\\pm0.001$~(stat.)~$\\pm0.007$~(syst.)~GeV/$c$, respectively. The data exhibit a slightly larger $\\left$ than measurements in wider pseudorapidity intervals. The results are compared to simulations with the Monte Carlo event generators PYTHIA and PHOJET.

  14. Measurement of charged particle spectra in minimum-bias events from proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = $ 13 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Pseudorapidity, transverse momentum, and multiplicity distributions are measured in the pseudorapidity range $|{\\eta}| $ 0.5 GeV in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s} = $ 13 TeV. Measurements are presented in three different event categories. The most inclusive of the categories corresponds to an inelastic pp data set, while the other two categories are exclusive subsets of the inelastic sample that are either enhanced or depleted in single diffractive dissociation events. The measurements are compared to predictions from Monte Carlo event generators used to describe high-energy hadronic interactions in collider and cosmic-ray physics.

  15. The investigation of hydrogens bonds between sulphur-bearing heterocyclic and proton-donor compounds by IR absorption spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narziev, B.N.; Nurulloev, M.; Makhkambaev, D.

    1982-01-01

    In this article the results of intermolecular interaction study of sulfur-containing heterocyclic (thiophene, thiophane) and proton-donar (water, alcohol, carbonic acids, chlorophon) molecules for measuring of IR spectrum absorption of protondonar compounds in soluted shape are presented

  16. Measurement of neutron spectra generated from bombardment of 4 to 24 MeV protons on a thick 9Be target and estimation of neutron yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, Sabyasachi; Sahoo, G. S.; Tripathy, S. P.; Sunil, C.; Bandyopadhyay, T.; Sharma, S. C.; Ramjilal,; Ninawe, N. G.; Gupta, A. K.

    2014-01-01

    A systematic study on the measurement of neutron spectra emitted from the interaction of protons of various energies with a thick beryllium target has been carried out. The measurements were carried out in the forward direction (at 0° with respect to the direction of protons) using CR-39 detectors. The doses were estimated using the in-house image analyzing program autoTRAK-n, which works on the principle of luminosity variation in and around the track boundaries. A total of six different proton energies starting from 4 MeV to 24 MeV with an energy gap of 4 MeV were chosen for the study of the neutron yields and the estimation of doses. Nearly, 92% of the recoil tracks developed after chemical etching were circular in nature, but the size distributions of the recoil tracks were not found to be linearly dependent on the projectile energy. The neutron yield and dose values were found to be increasing linearly with increasing projectile energies. The response of CR-39 detector was also investigated at different beam currents at two different proton energies. A linear increase of neutron yield with beam current was observed

  17. Energy spectra of protons emitted in the p+Xe→p+... interactions at 2.34 GeV/c and π-+Xe→p+... at 9 GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovinskij, B.; Mulas, Eh.

    1981-01-01

    The energy spectra of protons (ESP) emitted in reactions p+Xe→kp+... at 2.34 GeV/c (k=1-9) and π - +Xe→kp+... at 9 GeV/c (k=1-17) have been studied. An evidence has been obtained for a unified description of those spectra by an exponential dependence of the invariant cross sections upon the kinetic energy independently of the proton emission angle. It is found that the ESP temperature becomes independent of the proton emission frequency when the energy of the interaction induced hadron is greater than approximately 3 GeV [ru

  18. Calculation of proton and neutron emission spectra from proton reactions with 90Zr and 208Pb to 160 MeV with the GNASH code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, P.G.; Chadwick, M.B.

    1994-01-01

    A number of modifications have been made to the reaction theory code GNASH in order the accuracy of calculations at incident particle energies up to 200 MeV. Direct reaction a level density models appropriate for higher energy calculations are now used in the code, and most importantly, improved preequilibrium models have been incorporated into the code system. The code has been used to calculate proton-induced reactions on 90 Zr and 208 Pb for the International Code and Model Intercomparison for Intermediate Energy Reactions organized by the NEA. Calculations were performed with GNASH at incident proton energies of 25, 45, 80, and 160 mev using both the exciton model and Feshbach-Kerman-Koonin theory for the preequilibrium component. The models and procedures used in the GNASH calculations with the exciton model are described here. The results are compared to experimental data and to results from the GNASH calculations with Feshbach-Kerman-Koonin preequilibrium theory

  19. Measurements of π{sup ±}, K{sup ±}, p and p spectra in proton-proton interactions at 20, 31, 40, 80 and 158 GeV/c with the NA61/SHINE spectrometer at the CERN SPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aduszkiewicz, A.; Dominik, W.; Kuich, M.; Matulewicz, T.; Podlaski, P.; Posiadala, M.; Walewski, M. [University of Warsaw, Warsaw (Poland); Ali, Y.; Brzychczyk, J.; Larsen, D.; Planeta, R.; Richter-Was, E.; Staszel, P.; Wyszynski, O. [Jagiellonian University, Krakow (Poland); Andronov, E.; Feofilov, G.A.; Igolkin, S.; Kondratiev, V.P.; Kovalenko, V.; Merzlaya, A.; Seryakov, A.; Vechernin, V.V.; Vinogradov, L. [St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Anticic, T.; Kadija, K.; Susa, T. [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Baatar, B.; Bunyatov, S.A.; Kireyeu, V.A.; Kolesnikov, V.I.; Krasnoperov, A.; Lyubushkin, V.V.; Malakhov, A.I.; Matveev, V.; Melkumov, G.L.; Tereshchenko, V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Baszczyk, M.; Dorosz, P.; Kucewicz, W.; Mik, L. [University of Science and Technology, Krakow (Poland); Bhosale, S.; Davis, N.; Kielbowicz, M.; Marcinek, A.; Ozvenchuk, V.; Rybicki, A. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow (Poland); Blondel, A.; Bravar, A.; Damyanova, A.; Haesler, A.; Korzenev, A.; Ravonel, M. [University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Bogomilov, M.; Kolev, D.; Tsenov, R. [University of Sofia, Faculty of Physics, Sofia (Bulgaria); Brandin, A.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Strikhanov, M.; Taranenko, A. [National Research Nuclear University (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Moscow (Russian Federation); Busygina, O.; Golubeva, M.; Guber, F.; Ivashkin, A.; Kurepin, A.; Sadovsky, A. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Moscow (Russian Federation); Cherif, H.; Deveaux, M.; Klochkov, V.; Koziel, M.; Renfordt, R.; Snoch, A.; Stroebele, H.; Toia, A. [University of Frankfurt, Frankfurt (Germany); Cirkovic, M.; Knezevic, N.; Manic, D.; Puzovic, J. [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia); Czopowicz, T.; Grebieszkow, K.; Mackowiak-Pawlowska, M.; Maksiak, B.; Slodkowski, M.; Tefelska, A.; Tefelski, D. [Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Dembinski, H.; Engel, R.; Herve, A.E.; Mathes, H.J.; Roth, M.; Szuba, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Veberic, D. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Dumarchez, J. [University of Paris VI and VII, LPNHE, Paris (France); Ereditato, A.; Francois, C.; Pistillo, C.; Wilkinson, C. [University of Bern, Bern (Switzerland); Fodor, Z. [Wigner Research Centre for Physics of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary); University of Wroclaw, Wroclaw (Poland); Garibov, A. [National Nuclear Research Center, Baku (Azerbaijan); Gazdzicki, M. [University of Frankfurt, Frankfurt (Germany); Jan Kochanowski University in Kielce, Kielce (Poland); Hylen, J.; Lundberg, B.; Marchionni, A.; Rameika, R.; Zwaska, R. [Fermilab, Batavia (United States); Johnson, S.R.; Marino, A.D.; Nagai, Y.; Rumberger, B.T.; Zimmerman, E.D. [University of Colorado, Boulder (United States); Kaptur, E.; Kowalski, S.; Lysakowski, B.; Pulawski, S.; Schmidt, K. [University of Silesia, Katowice (Poland); Kowalik, K.; Rondio, E.; Stepaniak, J. [National Centre for Nuclear Research, Warsaw (Poland); Laszlo, A.; Marton, K.; Vesztergombi, G. [Wigner Research Centre for Physics of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary); Lewicki, M.; Naskret, M.; Turko, L. [University of Wroclaw, Wroclaw (Poland); Messerly, B.; Paolone, V.; Wickremasinghe, A. [University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh (United States); Mills, G.B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos (United States); Morozov, S.; Petukhov, O. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Moscow (Russian Federation); Mrowczynski, S.; Rybczynski, M.; Seyboth, P.; Stefanek, G.; Wlodarczyk, Z.; Wojtaszek-Szwarc, A. [Jan Kochanowski University in Kielce, Kielce (Poland); Pavin, M. [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); University of Paris VI and VII, LPNHE, Paris (France); Popov, B.A. [University of Paris VI and VII, LPNHE, Paris (France); Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Rauch, W. [Fachhochschule Frankfurt, Frankfurt (Germany); Roehrich, D. [University of Bergen, Bergen (Norway); Rustamov, A. [National Nuclear Research Center, Baku (Azerbaijan); University of Frankfurt, Frankfurt (Germany); Zambelli, L. [National Nuclear Research Center, Baku (Azerbaijan); University of Paris VI and VII, LPNHE, Paris (France); Collaboration: The NA61/SHINE Collaboration

    2017-10-15

    Measurements of inclusive spectra and mean multiplicities of π{sup ±}, K{sup ±}, p and p produced in inelastic p + p interactions at incident projectile momenta of 20, 31, 40, 80 and 158 GeV/c (√(s) = 6.3, 7.7, 8.8, 12.3 and 17.3 GeV, respectively) were performed at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron using the large acceptance NA61/SHINE hadron spectrometer. Spectra are presented as function of rapidity and transverse momentum and are compared to predictions of current models. The measurements serve as the baseline in the NA61/SHINE study of the properties of the onset of deconfinement and search for the critical point of strongly interacting matter. (orig.)

  20. Measurements of π±, K±, p and p spectra in proton-proton interactions at 20, 31, 40, 80 and 158 GeV/c with the NA61/SHINE spectrometer at the CERN SPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aduszkiewicz, A.; Dominik, W.; Kuich, M.; Matulewicz, T.; Podlaski, P.; Posiadala, M.; Walewski, M.; Ali, Y.; Brzychczyk, J.; Larsen, D.; Planeta, R.; Richter-Was, E.; Staszel, P.; Wyszynski, O.; Andronov, E.; Feofilov, G.A.; Igolkin, S.; Kondratiev, V.P.; Kovalenko, V.; Merzlaya, A.; Seryakov, A.; Vechernin, V.V.; Vinogradov, L.; Anticic, T.; Kadija, K.; Susa, T.; Baatar, B.; Bunyatov, S.A.; Kireyeu, V.A.; Kolesnikov, V.I.; Krasnoperov, A.; Lyubushkin, V.V.; Malakhov, A.I.; Matveev, V.; Melkumov, G.L.; Tereshchenko, V.; Baszczyk, M.; Dorosz, P.; Kucewicz, W.; Mik, L.; Bhosale, S.; Davis, N.; Kielbowicz, M.; Marcinek, A.; Ozvenchuk, V.; Rybicki, A.; Blondel, A.; Bravar, A.; Damyanova, A.; Haesler, A.; Korzenev, A.; Ravonel, M.; Bogomilov, M.; Kolev, D.; Tsenov, R.; Brandin, A.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Strikhanov, M.; Taranenko, A.; Busygina, O.; Golubeva, M.; Guber, F.; Ivashkin, A.; Kurepin, A.; Sadovsky, A.; Cherif, H.; Deveaux, M.; Klochkov, V.; Koziel, M.; Renfordt, R.; Snoch, A.; Stroebele, H.; Toia, A.; Cirkovic, M.; Knezevic, N.; Manic, D.; Puzovic, J.; Czopowicz, T.; Grebieszkow, K.; Mackowiak-Pawlowska, M.; Maksiak, B.; Slodkowski, M.; Tefelska, A.; Tefelski, D.; Dembinski, H.; Engel, R.; Herve, A.E.; Mathes, H.J.; Roth, M.; Szuba, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Veberic, D.; Dumarchez, J.; Ereditato, A.; Francois, C.; Pistillo, C.; Wilkinson, C.; Fodor, Z.; Garibov, A.; Gazdzicki, M.; Hylen, J.; Lundberg, B.; Marchionni, A.; Rameika, R.; Zwaska, R.; Johnson, S.R.; Marino, A.D.; Nagai, Y.; Rumberger, B.T.; Zimmerman, E.D.; Kaptur, E.; Kowalski, S.; Lysakowski, B.; Pulawski, S.; Schmidt, K.; Kowalik, K.; Rondio, E.; Stepaniak, J.; Laszlo, A.; Marton, K.; Vesztergombi, G.; Lewicki, M.; Naskret, M.; Turko, L.; Messerly, B.; Paolone, V.; Wickremasinghe, A.; Mills, G.B.; Morozov, S.; Petukhov, O.; Mrowczynski, S.; Rybczynski, M.; Seyboth, P.; Stefanek, G.; Wlodarczyk, Z.; Wojtaszek-Szwarc, A.; Pavin, M.; Popov, B.A.; Rauch, W.; Roehrich, D.; Rustamov, A.; Zambelli, L.

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of inclusive spectra and mean multiplicities of π ± , K ± , p and p produced in inelastic p + p interactions at incident projectile momenta of 20, 31, 40, 80 and 158 GeV/c (√(s) = 6.3, 7.7, 8.8, 12.3 and 17.3 GeV, respectively) were performed at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron using the large acceptance NA61/SHINE hadron spectrometer. Spectra are presented as function of rapidity and transverse momentum and are compared to predictions of current models. The measurements serve as the baseline in the NA61/SHINE study of the properties of the onset of deconfinement and search for the critical point of strongly interacting matter. (orig.)

  1. π± meson and proton spectra in central and peripheral collisions of p, 12C, 22Ne with photoemulsion nuclei at 4.5A GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vokal, S.; Tolstov, K.D.; Shabratova, G.S.; Leskin, V.A.

    1989-01-01

    Spectra of relativistic π ± mesons and protons undergoing interaction in inelastic collisions of p, 12 C, 22 Ne with photoemulsion nuclei are considered. The ratios of particle yields in g-fragment ensemble of 22 Ne nuclei at rest have been found. Experimental results are compared with the predictions of the cascade-evaporation model for 22 Ne+emulsion interactions. It is shown that the p tr spectra of π ± mesons and protons consist of two components. The average transverse momentum of the highly excited proton source in 22 Ne+emulsion interactions is equal to that in events of Ag total disintegration. The thermalization feature is fulfilled for protons from these events. The π ± meson yield per proton is 50% higher than it is in peripheral collisions

  2. A lower limit to the altitude of coronal particle storage regions deduced from solar proton energy spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krimigis, S. M.

    1973-01-01

    The spectrum of low energy protons observed at 1 AU following solar flares shows little or no evidence of energy degradation down to approximately 0.3 MeV. Such observations may be used to set a lower limit on the altitude of hypothetical coronal particle storage regions, ranging from 2 to 7 R sub s. It is pointed out that closed coronal magnetic loop structures are observed to extend to 2R sub s, so that long-term storage of low energy protons does not take place in the immediate vicinity of the sun. It is further suggested that in the few cases where the proton spectrum appears to be degraded at low energies, the energy loss may be due to adiabatic deceleration in the expanding solar wind. The alternative of continual acceleration is suggested as a plausible substitute for the particle storage hypothesis.

  3. Correlation of infrared spectra and phase transitions in annealed proton-exchanged MgO doped LiNbO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Jian; Xu, Chang-qing

    2015-01-01

    Infrared spectra of OH − groups in annealed proton-exchanged (APE) 5 mol. % MgO-doped LiNbO 3 (MgO:LiNbO 3 ) crystals were studied using the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy technique. Samples were prepared by benzoic acid proton-exchange followed with thermal annealing in oxygen. Evolutions of absorption peaks in APE MgO:LiNbO 3 crystals were recorded and analyzed. Comparing with none-doped APE LiNbO 3 crystals, a different phase transition behavior was found during thermal annealing. A periodically poled MgO:LiNbO 3 slab waveguide was prepared using identical procedures, and the second harmonic generation (SHG) signals were measured. Comparing the obtained SHG results with the infrared spectra, relationships between the phase transitions and the recovery of second-order nonlinear coefficients during thermal annealing were investigated. Finally, a method for optimizing the performance of MgO:LiNbO 3 waveguides was proposed

  4. LET spectra behind high-density titanium and stainless steel hip implants irradiated with a therapeutic proton beam

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oancea, Cristina; Ambrožová, Iva; Popescu, A. I.; Mytsin, G. V.; Vondráček, V.; Davídková, Marie

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 110, č. 3 (2018), s. 7-13 ISSN 1350-4487 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EF16_013/0001677 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : proton therapy * metallic hip implant * titanium * stainless steel * track etched detectors Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders OBOR OECD: Nuclear physics Impact factor: 1.442, year: 2016

  5. Ring-Substituted Benzohydroxamic Acids: 1H, 13C and 15N NMR Spectra and NHOH Proton Exchange

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schraml, Jan; Tkadlecová, M.; Pataridis, S.; Soukupová, Ludmila; Blechta, Vratislav; Roithová, Jana; Exner, Otto

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 7 (2005), s. 535-542 ISSN 0749-1581 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/03/1566; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA4072605; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA4072005; GA MŠk(CZ) LB98233 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : proton exchange * substituent effects * chemical shifts Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.553, year: 2005

  6. Spectra of the linear energy transfer measured with a track etch spectrometer in the beam of 1 GeV protons and the contribution of secondary charged particles to the dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurny, F.; Vlcek, B.; Bamblevskij, V.P.; Timoshenko, G.N.

    1999-01-01

    A spectrometer of the linear energy transfer (LET) on the base of CR-39 detector was used to establish the spectra of LET in the beam of protons with the primary energy of 1 GeV. It was found out that the LET spectra of secondary charged particles between 100 and 7000 MeV cm 2 g -1 do not depend on the radiator. The average quality factors for the LET region mentioned were obtained about 11.6 with ICRP 26 quality factors and about 14.0 with ICRP 60 quality factors. The spectra obtained permitted to calculate the contributions of these secondary charged particles to the dosimetric quantities. It was observed that these contributions were about 7.0% for the total absorbed dose of protons and close 90% in the case of the equivalent doses. It is more than it was found out for few hundred MeV protons

  7. Single particle inclusive spectra resulting from the collision of relativistic protons, deuterons, alpha particles, and carbon ions with nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papp, J.

    1975-05-01

    The yields of positive and negative particles resulting from the collision of 1.05 GeV/nucleon and 2.1 GeV/nucleon protons, deuterons, alpha particles, and 1.05 GeV/nucleon carbon nuclei with various targets have been measured. Single particle inclusive cross sections for production of π + , π - , p, d, 3 H, 3 He, and 4 He at 2.5 0 (lab) were obtained. How the results bear on the concepts of limiting fragmentation and scaling, the structure of the alpha particle and deuteron, and the possibility of ''coherent'' production of pions by heavy ions are discussed. (U.S.)

  8. Measurements of neutron spectra produced from a thick tungsten target bombarded with 5 and 15 GeV protons

    CERN Document Server

    Meigo, S; Shigyo, N; Iga, K; Iwamoto, Y; Kitsuki, H; Ishibashi, K; Maehata, K; Arima, H; Nakamo, T; Numajiri, M

    2002-01-01

    For validation of calculation codes that are employed in the design of a pulse spallation neutron source and accelerator driven system, the spectrum of neutrons produced from a thick target plays an important role. However, appropriate experimental data were scarce for incident energies higher than 0.8 GeV. In this study, the spectrum from a thick tungsten target was measured. The experiment was carried out at the pi 2 beam line of the 12-GeV proton synchrotron at KEK. The tungsten target was bombarded by 0.5- and 1.5-GeV secondary protons. The spectrum of neutrons was measured by the time-of-flight technique using organic scintillators of NE213. The calculated result with NMTC/JAM and MCNP-4A is compared with the measured data. It is found that the NMTC/JAM generally gives a good agreement with experiment. The NMTC/JAM, however, gives 50% lower neutron flux in the energy region 20~80 MeV, which is consistent with the results in a previous comparison of a lead target. For the neutrons between 20 and 80 MeV, t...

  9. Classification of spectra and search for bio-makers in prostate tumours form proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parfait, S.

    2010-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men over 50 years. Current detection methods either lack sensitivity or specificity or are unpleasant for the patient. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy allows the study of metabolism in vivo. The use of a high field machine (>3 T) has allowed us to dispense with the use of an endorectal coil, which is particularly uncomfortable for the patient. The objective of this work is to create an automatic method to detect cancer by processing data obtained through magnetic resonance spectroscopy. MRS is a complex phenomenon, very sensitive to acquisition conditions. First, we have studied how to improve and optimise signal acquisition. However, even with a very good quality signal, it must still undergo further post-processing to be analysed automatically by a classification method. Further work was therefore needed to investigate which post-processing steps were required in order to optimize the spectra for classification. We then investigated the optimal classification method for this problem. A particular set of steps (signal acquisition, processing and spectral classification data) allows us to highlight the presence of prostate tumors with an overall error rate of less than 12%. In a second step, we searched for new bio-markers within the spectra. These bio-markers could be a metabolite or a specific frequency range corresponding to several metabolites. We did not find any additional significant attributes other than choline and citrate, however, some frequency bands seem to participate in improving the error rate. Finally, we expanded our investigation by attempting to apply these techniques to the rat. Technical constraints related to acquisition did not allow us to obtain a sufficient number of spectra in the pre-clinical cases. Nonetheless, we have validated the feasibility of MRS in rodents and its relevance in the brain. The technique, however, must be improved in order to be validated in the case of prostate cancer in

  10. Search for narrow resonances in dilepton mass spectra in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = $ 13 TeV and combination with 8 TeV data

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Aşılar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Brondolin, Erica; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Flechl, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; König, Axel; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Matsushita, Takashi; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rad, Navid; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Strauss, Josef; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Lauwers, Jasper; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; De Bruyn, Isabelle; Deroover, Kevin; Heracleous, Natalie; Lowette, Steven; Moortgat, Seth; Moreels, Lieselotte; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Parijs, Isis; Brun, Hugues; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Delannoy, Hugo; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Goldouzian, Reza; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lenzi, Thomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Luetic, Jelena; Maerschalk, Thierry; Marinov, Andrey; Randle-conde, Aidan; Seva, Tomislav; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Yonamine, Ryo; Zenoni, Florian; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Cimmino, Anna; Cornelis, Tom; Dobur, Didar; Fagot, Alexis; Garcia, Guillaume; Gul, Muhammad; Poyraz, Deniz; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Schöfbeck, Robert; Sharma, Archana; Tytgat, Michael; Van Driessche, Ward; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Beluffi, Camille; Bondu, Olivier; Brochet, Sébastien; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Adrien; De Visscher, Simon; Delaere, Christophe; Delcourt, Martin; Francois, Brieuc; Giammanco, Andrea; Jafari, Abideh; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Magitteri, Alessio; Mertens, Alexandre; Musich, Marco; Nuttens, Claude; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Wertz, Sébastien; Beliy, Nikita; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Fábio Lúcio; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Hensel, Carsten; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Huertas Guativa, Lina Milena; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Moon, Chang-Seong; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Romero Abad, David; Ruiz Vargas, José Cupertino; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Fang, Wenxing; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Chen, Ye; Cheng, Tongguang; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Leggat, Duncan; Liu, Zhenan; Romeo, Francesco; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Spiezia, Aniello; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhao, Jingzhou; Ban, Yong; Chen, Geng; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; González Hernández, Carlos Felipe; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Puljak, Ivica; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Sculac, Toni; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Ferencek, Dinko; Kadija, Kreso; Micanovic, Sasa; Sudic, Lucija; Susa, Tatjana; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Carrera Jarrin, Edgar; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Calpas, Betty; Kadastik, Mario; Murumaa, Marion; Perrini, Lucia; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Veelken, Christian; Eerola, Paula; Pekkanen, Juska; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Talvitie, Joonas; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Favaro, Carlotta; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Ghosh, Saranya; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Kucher, Inna; Locci, Elizabeth; Machet, Martina; Malcles, Julie; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Zghiche, Amina; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Antropov, Iurii; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Cadamuro, Luca; Chapon, Emilien; Charlot, Claude; Davignon, Olivier; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Jo, Mihee; Lisniak, Stanislav; Miné, Philippe; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Ortona, Giacomo; Paganini, Pascal; Pigard, Philipp; Regnard, Simon; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Strebler, Thomas; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Aubin, Alexandre; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Buttignol, Michael; Chabert, Eric Christian; Chanon, Nicolas; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Coubez, Xavier; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Skovpen, Kirill; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Bernet, Colin; Boudoul, Gaelle; Bouvier, Elvire; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Courbon, Benoit; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fan, Jiawei; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Grenier, Gérald; Ille, Bernard; Lagarde, Francois; Laktineh, Imad Baptiste; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Pequegnot, Anne-Laure; Perries, Stephane; Popov, Andrey; Sabes, David; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Toriashvili, Tengizi; Rurua, Lali; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Feld, Lutz; Heister, Arno; Kiesel, Maximilian Knut; Klein, Katja; Lipinski, Martin; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Preuten, Marius; Raupach, Frank; Schael, Stefan; Schomakers, Christian; Schulte, Jan-Frederik; Schulz, Johannes; Verlage, Tobias; Weber, Hendrik; Zhukov, Valery; Brodski, Michael; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Endres, Matthias; Erdmann, Martin; Erdweg, Sören; Esch, Thomas; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hamer, Matthias; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Knutzen, Simon; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Mukherjee, Swagata; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Pook, Tobias; Radziej, Markus; Reithler, Hans; Rieger, Marcel; Scheuch, Florian; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Flügge, Günter; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Künsken, Andreas; Lingemann, Joschka; Müller, Thomas; Nehrkorn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Nugent, Ian Michael; Pistone, Claudia; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Beernaert, Kelly; Behnke, Olaf; Behrens, Ulf; Bin Anuar, Afiq Aizuddin; Borras, Kerstin; Campbell, Alan; Connor, Patrick; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dolinska, Ganna; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eren, Engin; Gallo, Elisabetta; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gizhko, Andrii; Grados Luyando, Juan Manuel; Gunnellini, Paolo; Harb, Ali; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Jung, Hannes; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Karacheban, Olena; Kasemann, Matthias; Keaveney, James; Kleinwort, Claus; Korol, Ievgen; Krücker, Dirk; Lange, Wolfgang; Lelek, Aleksandra; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lobanov, Artur; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Ntomari, Eleni; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Roland, Benoit; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Saxena, Pooja; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Seitz, Claudia; Spannagel, Simon; Stefaniuk, Nazar; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Draeger, Arne-Rasmus; Dreyer, Torben; Garutti, Erika; Gonzalez, Daniel; Haller, Johannes; Hoffmann, Malte; Junkes, Alexandra; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Kovalchuk, Nataliia; Lapsien, Tobias; Lenz, Teresa; Marchesini, Ivan; Marconi, Daniele; Meyer, Mareike; Niedziela, Marek; Nowatschin, Dominik; Pantaleo, Felice; Peiffer, Thomas; Perieanu, Adrian; Poehlsen, Jennifer; Sander, Christian; Scharf, Christian; Schleper, Peter; Schmidt, Alexander; Schumann, Svenja; Schwandt, Joern; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Stöver, Marc; Tholen, Heiner; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Vanhoefer, Annika; Vormwald, Benedikt; Barth, Christian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Butz, Erik; Chwalek, Thorsten; Colombo, Fabio; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Fink, Simon; Friese, Raphael; Giffels, Manuel; Gilbert, Andrew; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Haitz, Dominik; Hartmann, Frank; Heindl, Stefan Michael; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Maier, Benedikt; Mildner, Hannes; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Plagge, Michael; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Röcker, Steffen; Roscher, Frank; Schröder, Matthias; Shvetsov, Ivan; Sieber, Georg; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weber, Marc; Weiler, Thomas; Williamson, Shawn; Wöhrmann, Clemens; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Tziaferi, Eirini; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Loukas, Nikitas; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Filipovic, Nicolas; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Makovec, Alajos; Molnar, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Bartók, Márton; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Bahinipati, Seema; Choudhury, Somnath; Mal, Prolay; Mandal, Koushik; Nayak, Aruna; Sahoo, Deepak Kumar; Sahoo, Niladribihari; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chawla, Ridhi; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Anterpreet; Kaur, Manjit; Kumar, Ramandeep; Mehta, Ankita; Mittal, Monika; Singh, Jasbir; Walia, Genius; Kumar, Ashok; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Garg, Rocky Bala; Keshri, Sumit; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Nishu, Nishu; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Ramkrishna; Sharma, Varun; Bhattacharya, Rajarshi; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dey, Sourav; Dutt, Suneel; Dutta, Suchandra; Ghosh, Shamik; Majumdar, Nayana; Modak, Atanu; Mondal, Kuntal; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Nandan, Saswati; Purohit, Arnab; Roy, Ashim; Roy, Debarati; Roy Chowdhury, Suvankar; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Thakur, Shalini; Behera, Prafulla Kumar; Chudasama, Ruchi; Dutta, Dipanwita; Jha, Vishwajeet; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Netrakanti, Pawan Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Dugad, Shashikant; Kole, Gouranga; Mahakud, Bibhuprasad; Mitra, Soureek; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sur, Nairit; Sutar, Bajrang; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Ganguly, Sanmay; Guchait, Monoranjan; Jain, Sandhya; Kumar, Sanjeev; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Sarkar, Tanmay; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Chauhan, Shubhanshu; Dube, Sourabh; Hegde, Vinay; Kapoor, Anshul; Kothekar, Kunal; Rane, Aditee; Sharma, Seema; Behnamian, Hadi; Chenarani, Shirin; Eskandari Tadavani, Esmaeel; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Calabria, Cesare; Caputo, Claudio; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; Cristella, Leonardo; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Miniello, Giorgia; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Ranieri, Antonio; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Verwilligen, Piet; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Battilana, Carlo; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Albergo, Sebastiano; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Gori, Valentina; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Viliani, Lorenzo; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Primavera, Federica; Calvelli, Valerio; Ferro, Fabrizio; Lo Vetere, Maurizio; Monge, Maria Roberta; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Brianza, Luca; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Malberti, Martina; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Marzocchi, Badder; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Pigazzini, Simone; Ragazzi, Stefano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; De Nardo, Guglielmo; Di Guida, Salvatore; Esposito, Marco; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lanza, Giuseppe; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Sciacca, Crisostomo; Thyssen, Filip; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Benato, Lisa; Bisello, Dario; Boletti, Alessio; Carlin, Roberto; Carvalho Antunes De Oliveira, Alexandra; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; De Castro Manzano, Pablo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Lacaprara, Stefano; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Zanetti, Marco; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zucchetta, Alberto; Zumerle, Gianni; Braghieri, Alessandro; Magnani, Alice; Montagna, Paolo; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vai, Ilaria; Vitulo, Paolo; Alunni Solestizi, Luisa; Bilei, Gian Mario; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Leonardi, Roberto; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Donato, Silvio; Fedi, Giacomo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Cipriani, Marco; D'imperio, Giulia; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Gelli, Simone; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Meridiani, Paolo; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Preiato, Federico; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bartosik, Nazar; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Costa, Marco; Cotto, Giorgio; Covarelli, Roberto; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Finco, Linda; Kiani, Bilal; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Monteil, Ennio; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Ravera, Fabio; Romero, Alessandra; Rotondo, Francesco; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Sola, Valentina; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Traczyk, Piotr; Belforte, Stefano; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; La Licata, Chiara; Schizzi, Andrea; Zanetti, Anna; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Lee, Sangeun; Lee, Seh Wook; Oh, Young Do; Sekmen, Sezen; Son, Dong-Chul; Yang, Yu Chul; Lee, Ari; Kim, Hyunchul; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Kim, Tae Jeong; Cho, Sungwoong; Choi, Suyong; Go, Yeonju; Gyun, Dooyeon; Ha, Seungkyu; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Youngkwon; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Kisoo; Lee, Kyong Sei; Lee, Songkyo; Lim, Jaehoon; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Almond, John; Kim, Junho; Lee, Haneol; Lee, Kyeongpil; Nam, Kyungwook; Oh, Sung Bin; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Seo, Seon-hee; Yang, Unki; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Yu, Geum Bong; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jason Sang Hun; Park, Inkyu; Ryu, Geonmo; Ryu, Min Sang; Choi, Young-Il; Goh, Junghwan; Hwang, Chanwook; Lee, Jongseok; Yu, Intae; Dudenas, Vytautas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Vaitkus, Juozas; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Mohamad Idris, Faridah; Wan Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin; Yusli, Mohd Nizam; Zolkapli, Zukhaimira; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-De La Cruz, Ivan; Hernandez-Almada, Alberto; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Magaña Villalba, Ricardo; Mejia Guisao, Jhovanny; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Carpinteyro, Severiano; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Uribe Estrada, Cecilia; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khan, Wajid Ali; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Waqas, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Zalewski, Piotr; Bunkowski, Karol; Byszuk, Adrian; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michal; Walczak, Marek; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Di Francesco, Agostino; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Hollar, Jonathan; Leonardo, Nuno; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nemallapudi, Mythra Varun; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Seixas, Joao; Toldaiev, Oleksii; Vadruccio, Daniele; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Belotelov, Ivan; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Savina, Maria; Shmatov, Sergey; Shulha, Siarhei; Smirnov, Vitaly; Voytishin, Nikolay; Zarubin, Anatoli; Chtchipounov, Leonid; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Sulimov, Valentin; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Karneyeu, Anton; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Spiridonov, Alexander; Toms, Maria; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Bylinkin, Alexander; Chadeeva, Marina; Popova, Elena; Tarkovskii, Evgenii; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Rusakov, Sergey V; Terkulov, Adel; Baskakov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Miagkov, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Blinov, Vladimir; Skovpen, Yuri; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Elumakhov, Dmitry; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Cirkovic, Predrag; Devetak, Damir; Dordevic, Milos; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Barrio Luna, Mar; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Senghi Soares, Mara; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Moran, Dermot; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; González Fernández, Juan Rodrigo; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Sanchez Cruz, Sergio; Suárez Andrés, Ignacio; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Castiñeiras De Saa, Juan Ramon; Curras, Esteban; Fernandez, Marcos; Garcia-Ferrero, Juan; Gomez, Gervasio; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Trevisani, Nicolò; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Botta, Cristina; Camporesi, Tiziano; Castello, Roberto; Cepeda, Maria; Cerminara, Gianluca; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; Daponte, Vincenzo; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Gruttola, Michele; De Roeck, Albert; Di Marco, Emanuele; Dobson, Marc; Dorney, Brian; Du Pree, Tristan; Duggan, Daniel; Dünser, Marc; Dupont, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Fartoukh, Stephane; Franzoni, Giovanni; Fulcher, Jonathan; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Girone, Maria; Glege, Frank; Gulhan, Doga; Gundacker, Stefan; Guthoff, Moritz; Hammer, Josef; Harris, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kieseler, Jan; Kirschenmann, Henning; Knünz, Valentin; Kornmayer, Andreas; Kortelainen, Matti J; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Krammer, Manfred; Lange, Clemens; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Martelli, Arabella; Meijers, Frans; Merlin, Jeremie Alexandre; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moortgat, Filip; Morovic, Srecko; Mulders, Martijn; Neugebauer, Hannes; Orfanelli, Styliani; Orsini, Luciano; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuelle; Peruzzi, Marco; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Racz, Attila; Reis, Thomas; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Ruan, Manqi; Sakulin, Hannes; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Seidel, Markus; Sharma, Archana; Silva, Pedro; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Steggemann, Jan; Stoye, Markus; Takahashi, Yuta; Tosi, Mia; Treille, Daniel; Triossi, Andrea; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veckalns, Viesturs; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Wardle, Nicholas; Zagoździńska, Agnieszka; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Rohe, Tilman; Bachmair, Felix; Bäni, Lukas; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Casal, Bruno; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Eller, Philipp; Grab, Christoph; Heidegger, Constantin; Hits, Dmitry; Hoss, Jan; Kasieczka, Gregor; Lecomte, Pierre; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marionneau, Matthieu; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Masciovecchio, Mario; Meinhard, Maren Tabea; Meister, Daniel; Micheli, Francesco; Musella, Pasquale; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pata, Joosep; Pauss, Felicitas; Perrin, Gaël; Perrozzi, Luca; Quittnat, Milena; Rossini, Marco; Schönenberger, Myriam; Starodumov, Andrei; Tavolaro, Vittorio Raoul; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Wallny, Rainer; Aarrestad, Thea Klaeboe; Amsler, Claude; Caminada, Lea; Canelli, Maria Florencia; De Cosa, Annapaola; Galloni, Camilla; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hreus, Tomas; Kilminster, Benjamin; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Pinna, Deborah; Rauco, Giorgia; Robmann, Peter; Salerno, Daniel; Yang, Yong; Candelise, Vieri; Doan, Thi Hien; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Konyushikhin, Maxim; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Lin, Willis; Lu, Yun-Ju; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Yu, Shin-Shan; Kumar, Arun; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Dietz, Charles; Fiori, Francesco; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Paganis, Efstathios; Psallidas, Andreas; Tsai, Jui-fa; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Asavapibhop, Burin; Singh, Gurpreet; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Suwonjandee, Narumon; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Damarseckin, Serdal; Demiroglu, Zuhal Seyma; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Guler, Yalcin; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Kara, Ozgun; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Kiminsu, Ugur; Oglakci, Mehmet; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Tali, Bayram; Turkcapar, Semra; Zorbakir, Ibrahim Soner; Zorbilmez, Caglar; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Isildak, Bora; Karapinar, Guler; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Yetkin, Elif Asli; Yetkin, Taylan; Cakir, Altan; Cankocak, Kerem; Sen, Sercan; Grynyov, Boris; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Aggleton, Robin; Ball, Fionn; Beck, Lana; Brooke, James John; Burns, Douglas; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Jacob, Jeson; Kreczko, Lukasz; Lucas, Chris; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Poll, Anthony; Sakuma, Tai; Seif El Nasr-storey, Sarah; Smith, Dominic; Smith, Vincent J; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Calligaris, Luigi; Cieri, Davide; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Williams, Thomas; Baber, Mark; Bainbridge, Robert; Buchmuller, Oliver; Bundock, Aaron; Burton, Darren; Casasso, Stefano; Citron, Matthew; Colling, David; Corpe, Louie; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; De Wit, Adinda; Della Negra, Michel; Di Maria, Riccardo; Dunne, Patrick; Elwood, Adam; Futyan, David; Haddad, Yacine; Hall, Geoffrey; Iles, Gregory; James, Thomas; Lane, Rebecca; Laner, Christian; Lucas, Robyn; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Malik, Sarah; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Pela, Joao; Penning, Bjoern; Pesaresi, Mark; Raymond, David Mark; Richards, Alexander; Rose, Andrew; Seez, Christopher; Summers, Sioni; Tapper, Alexander; Uchida, Kirika; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wright, Jack; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leslie, Dawn; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Borzou, Ahmad; Call, Kenneth; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Pastika, Nathaniel; Charaf, Otman; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; West, Christopher; Arcaro, Daniel; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Gastler, Daniel; Rankin, Dylan; Richardson, Clint; Rohlf, James; Sulak, Lawrence; Zou, David; Benelli, Gabriele; Berry, Edmund; Cutts, David; Garabedian, Alex; Hakala, John; Heintz, Ulrich; Hogan, Julie Managan; Jesus, Orduna; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Mao, Zaixing; Narain, Meenakshi; Piperov, Stefan; Sagir, Sinan; Spencer, Eric; Syarif, Rizki; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Burns, Dustin; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Flores, Chad; Funk, Garrett; Gardner, Michael; Ko, Winston; Lander, Richard; Mclean, Christine; Mulhearn, Michael; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Shalhout, Shalhout; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Stolp, Dustin; Tripathi, Mani; Wilbur, Scott; Yohay, Rachel; Cousins, Robert; Everaerts, Pieter; Florent, Alice; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Saltzberg, David; Schnaible, Christian; Takasugi, Eric; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Hanson, Gail; Heilman, Jesse; Jandir, Pawandeep; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Lacroix, Florent; Long, Owen Rosser; Olmedo Negrete, Manuel; Paneva, Mirena Ivova; Shrinivas, Amithabh; Si, Weinan; Wei, Hua; Wimpenny, Stephen; Yates, Brent; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; Derdzinski, Mark; Gerosa, Raffaele; Holzner, André; Klein, Daniel; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Olivito, Dominick; Padhi, Sanjay; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tadel, Matevz; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Welke, Charles; Wood, John; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Zevi Della Porta, Giovanni; Bhandari, Rohan; Bradmiller-Feld, John; Campagnari, Claudio; Dishaw, Adam; Dutta, Valentina; Flowers, Kristen; Franco Sevilla, Manuel; Geffert, Paul; George, Christopher; Golf, Frank; Gouskos, Loukas; Gran, Jason; Heller, Ryan; Incandela, Joe; Mccoll, Nickolas; Mullin, Sam Daniel; Ovcharova, Ana; Richman, Jeffrey; Stuart, David; Suarez, Indara; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Anderson, Dustin; Apresyan, Artur; Bendavid, Joshua; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Duarte, Javier; Lawhorn, Jay Mathew; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Pena, Cristian; Spiropulu, Maria; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Xie, Si; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Andrews, Michael Benjamin; Azzolini, Virginia; Ferguson, Thomas; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Sun, Menglei; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Ford, William T; Jensen, Frank; Johnson, Andrew; Krohn, Michael; Mulholland, Troy; Stenson, Kevin; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chaves, Jorge; Chu, Jennifer; Dittmer, Susan; Mcdermott, Kevin; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Ryd, Anders; Skinnari, Louise; Soffi, Livia; Tan, Shao Min; Tao, Zhengcheng; Thom, Julia; Tucker, Jordan; Wittich, Peter; Zientek, Margaret; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Apollinari, Giorgio; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bolla, Gino; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Cremonesi, Matteo; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hare, Daryl; Harris, Robert M; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hirschauer, James; Hu, Zhen; Jayatilaka, Bodhitha; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Klima, Boaz; Kreis, Benjamin; Lammel, Stephan; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Tiehui; Lopes De Sá, Rafael; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Magini, Nicolo; Marraffino, John Michael; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Merkel, Petra; Mrenna, Stephen; Nahn, Steve; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Pedro, Kevin; Prokofyev, Oleg; Rakness, Gregory; Ristori, Luciano; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Stoynev, Stoyan; Strobbe, Nadja; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vernieri, Caterina; Verzocchi, Marco; Vidal, Richard; Wang, Michael; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Whitbeck, Andrew; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Carnes, Andrew; Carver, Matthew; Curry, David; Das, Souvik; Field, Richard D; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Ma, Peisen; Matchev, Konstantin; Mei, Hualin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Rank, Douglas; Shchutska, Lesya; Sperka, David; Thomas, Laurent; Wang, Jian; Wang, Sean-Jiun; Yelton, John; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Ackert, Andrew; Adams, Jordon Rowe; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bein, Samuel; Diamond, Brendan; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Khatiwada, Ajeeta; Prosper, Harrison; Santra, Arka; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Bhopatkar, Vallary; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Hohlmann, Marcus; Noonan, Daniel; Roy, Titas; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Kurt, Pelin; O'Brien, Christine; Sandoval Gonzalez, Irving Daniel; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; Wang, Hui; Wu, Zhenbin; Zakaria, Mohammed; Zhang, Jingyu; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Durgut, Süleyman; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Khristenko, Viktor; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Snyder, Christina; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yi, Kai; Anderson, Ian; Blumenfeld, Barry; Cocoros, Alice; Eminizer, Nicholas; Fehling, David; Feng, Lei; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Osherson, Marc; Roskes, Jeffrey; Sarica, Ulascan; Swartz, Morris; Xiao, Meng; Xin, Yongjie; You, Can; Al-bataineh, Ayman; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Boren, Samuel; Bowen, James; Bruner, Christopher; Castle, James; Forthomme, Laurent; Kenny III, Raymond Patrick; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Majumder, Devdatta; Mcbrayer, William; Murray, Michael; Sanders, Stephen; Stringer, Robert; Tapia Takaki, Daniel; Wang, Quan; Ivanov, Andrew; Kaadze, Ketino; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Toda, Sachiko; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Anelli, Christopher; Baden, Drew; Baron, Owen; Belloni, Alberto; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ferraioli, Charles; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kellogg, Richard G; Kolberg, Ted; Kunkle, Joshua; Lu, Ying; Mignerey, Alice; Shin, Young Ho; Skuja, Andris; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Abercrombie, Daniel; Allen, Brandon; Apyan, Aram; Barbieri, Richard; Baty, Austin; Bi, Ran; Bierwagen, Katharina; Brandt, Stephanie; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; Demiragli, Zeynep; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Hsu, Dylan; Iiyama, Yutaro; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Klute, Markus; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krajczar, Krisztian; Lai, Yue Shi; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Mcginn, Christopher; Mironov, Camelia; Narayanan, Siddharth; Niu, Xinmei; Paus, Christoph; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Stephans, George; Sumorok, Konstanty; Tatar, Kaya; Varma, Mukund; Velicanu, Dragos; Veverka, Jan; Wang, Jing; Wang, Ta-Wei; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Zhukova, Victoria; Benvenuti, Alberto; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Evans, Andrew; Finkel, Alexey; Gude, Alexander; Hansen, Peter; Kalafut, Sean; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Kubota, Yuichi; Lesko, Zachary; Mans, Jeremy; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rusack, Roger; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bartek, Rachel; Bloom, Kenneth; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Fangmeier, Caleb; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kamalieddin, Rami; Kravchenko, Ilya; Malta Rodrigues, Alan; Meier, Frank; Monroy, Jose; Siado, Joaquin Emilo; Snow, Gregory R; Stieger, Benjamin; Alyari, Maral; Dolen, James; George, Jimin; Godshalk, Andrew; Harrington, Charles; Iashvili, Ia; Kaisen, Josh; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Parker, Ashley; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Roozbahani, Bahareh; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Hortiangtham, Apichart; Massironi, Andrea; Morse, David Michael; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Teixeira De Lima, Rafael; Trocino, Daniele; Wang, Ren-Jie; Wood, Darien; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kubik, Andrew; Kumar, Ajay; Low, Jia Fu; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Pollack, Brian; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Sung, Kevin; Trovato, Marco; Velasco, Mayda; Dev, Nabarun; Hildreth, Michael; Hurtado Anampa, Kenyi; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Lannon, Kevin; Marinelli, Nancy; Meng, Fanbo; Mueller, Charles; Musienko, Yuri; Planer, Michael; Reinsvold, Allison; Ruchti, Randy; Smith, Geoffrey; Taroni, Silvia; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Alimena, Juliette; Antonelli, Louis; Brinson, Jessica; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Francis, Brian; Hart, Andrew; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Ji, Weifeng; Liu, Bingxuan; Luo, Wuming; Puigh, Darren; Winer, Brian L; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Cooperstein, Stephane; Driga, Olga; Elmer, Peter; Hardenbrook, Joshua; Hebda, Philip; Lange, David; Luo, Jingyu; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mei, Kelvin; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Palmer, Christopher; Piroué, Pierre; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Zuranski, Andrzej; Malik, Sudhir; Barker, Anthony; Barnes, Virgil E; Folgueras, Santiago; Gutay, Laszlo; Jha, Manoj; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Andreas Werner; Jung, Kurt; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Shi, Xin; Sun, Jian; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Wang, Fuqiang; Xie, Wei; Xu, Lingshan; Parashar, Neeti; Stupak, John; Adair, Antony; Akgun, Bora; Chen, Zhenyu; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Guilbaud, Maxime; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Northup, Michael; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Rorie, Jamal; Tu, Zhoudunming; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Duh, Yi-ting; Ferbel, Thomas; Galanti, Mario; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Han, Jiyeon; Hindrichs, Otto; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Lo, Kin Ho; Tan, Ping; Verzetti, Mauro; Agapitos, Antonis; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Gershtein, Yuri; Gómez Espinosa, Tirso Alejandro; Halkiadakis, Eva; Heindl, Maximilian; Hidas, Dean; Hughes, Elliot; Kaplan, Steven; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, Raghav; Kyriacou, Savvas; Lath, Amitabh; Nash, Kevin; Saka, Halil; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Sheffield, David; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Foerster, Mark; Heideman, Joseph; Riley, Grant; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; Thapa, Krishna; Bouhali, Othmane; Celik, Ali; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; De Mattia, Marco; Delgado, Andrea; Dildick, Sven; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gilmore, Jason; Huang, Tao; Juska, Evaldas; Kamon, Teruki; Mueller, Ryan; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Patel, Rishi; Perloff, Alexx; Perniè, Luca; Rathjens, Denis; Rose, Anthony; Safonov, Alexei; Tatarinov, Aysen; Ulmer, Keith; Akchurin, Nural; Cowden, Christopher; Damgov, Jordan; De Guio, Federico; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Kunori, Shuichi; Lamichhane, Kamal; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Peltola, Timo; Undleeb, Sonaina; Volobouev, Igor; Wang, Zhixing; Delannoy, Andrés G; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Janjam, Ravi; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Ni, Hong; Sheldon, Paul; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Xu, Qiao; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Barria, Patrizia; Cox, Bradley; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Neu, Christopher; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Sun, Xin; Wang, Yanchu; Wolfe, Evan; Xia, Fan; Clarke, Christopher; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sturdy, Jared; Belknap, Donald; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Gomber, Bhawna; Grothe, Monika; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Levine, Aaron; Long, Kenneth; Loveless, Richard; Ojalvo, Isabel; Perry, Thomas; Polese, Giovanni; Ruggles, Tyler; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Nicholas; Smith, Wesley H; Taylor, Devin; Woods, Nathaniel

    2017-05-10

    A search for narrow resonances in dielectron and dimuon invariant mass spectra has been performed using data obtained from proton-proton collisions at $ \\sqrt{s} = $ 13 TeV collected with the CMS detector. The integrated luminosity for the dielectron sample is 2.7 fb$^{-1}$ and for the dimuon sample 2.9 fb$^{-1}$. The sensitivity of the search is increased by combining these data with a previously analysed set of data obtained at $ \\sqrt{s} = $ 8 TeV and corresponding to a luminosity of 20 fb$^{-1}$. No evidence for non-standard-model physics is found, either in the 13 TeV data set alone, or in the combined data set. Upper limits on the product of production cross section and branching fraction have also been calculated in a model-independent manner to enable interpretation in models predicting a narrow dielectron or dimuon resonance structure. Limits are set on the masses of hypothetical particles that could appear in new-physics scenarios. For the $\\mathrm{Z}'_{\\text{SSM}}$ particle, which arises in the seq...

  11. One-azabicyclic compounds. 22. Stereochemistry and /sup 13/C NMR spectra of salts of pyrrolizidine and its homologs with protonic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subbotin, O.A.; Skvortsov, I.M.

    1986-06-01

    /sup 13/C NMR spectra were obtained for pyrrolizidinium salts and their homologs and their signals were assigned. With the exception of highly strained cis-3,8-H-cis-5,8-H-3,5-dimethylpyrrolizidine (VI), all the bases studied upon their direct mixing with CF/sub 3/CO/sub 2/H form salts only with cis-fused rings in the cation. Mixtures of salts with cis- and trans-fused pyrrolizidinium fragments are formed upon the reaction of cis-3,8-H-methyl- (III) and cis-3,8-H-cis-5,8-H-3,5-dimethylpyrrolizidine (VI) under conditions close to those for kinetically-controlled amine protonation. The /sup 13/C NMR spectra of the isomeric pyrrolizidinium salts obtained as a result of the absorption of base VI by sulfuric acid were used to evaluate the conformational equilibrium in the starting compound VI. The /sup 13/C NMR chemical shifts of unsubstituted trans-fused pyrrolizidinium salts were predicted.

  12. Measurements of Cross Sections and Charged Pion Spectra in Proton-Carbon Interactions at 31 GeV/c

    CERN Document Server

    Abgrall, N; Andrieu, B; Anticic, T; Antoniou, N; Argyriades, J; Asryan, A G; Baatar, B; Blondel, A; Blumer, J; Bogusz, M; Boldizsar, L; Bravar, A; Brooks, W; Brzychczyk, J; Bubak, A; Bunyatov, S A; Busygina, O; Cetner, T; Choi, K -U; Christakoglou, P; Chung, P; Czopowicz, T; Davis, N; Diakonos, F; Di Luise, S; Dominik, W; Dumarchez, J; Engel, R; Ereditato, A; Esposito, L S; Feofilov, G A; Fodor, Z; Ferrero, A; Fulop, A; Garrido, X; Gazdzicki, M; Golubeva, M; Grebieszkow, K; Grzeszczuk, A; Guber, F; Hakobyan, H; Hasegawa, T; Igolkin, S; Ivanov, A S; Ivanov, Y; Ivashkin, A; Kadija, K; Kapoyannis, A; Katrynska, N N; Kielczewska, D; Kikola, D; Kim, J -H; Kirejczyk, M; Kisiel, J; Kobayashi, T; Kochebina, O; Kolesnikov, V I; Kolev, D; Kondratiev, V P; Korzenev, A; Kowalski, S; Kuleshov, S; Kurepin, A; Lacey, R; Lagoda, J; Laszlo, A; Lyubushkin, V V; Mackowiak, M; Majka, Z; Malakhov, A I; Marchionni, A; Marcinek, A; Maris, I; Marin, V; Matulewicz, T; Matveev, V; Melkumov, G L; Meregaglia, A; Messina, M; Mrowczynski, St; Murphy, S; Nakadaira, T; Naumenko, P A; Nishikawa, K; Palczewski, T; Palla, G; Panagiotou, A D; Peryt, W; Petukhov, O; Planeta, R.; Pluta, J; Popov, B A; Posiadala, M; Pu lawski, S; Rauch, W; Ravonel, M; Renfordt, R; Robert, A; Rohrich, D; Rondio, E; Rossi, B; Roth, M; Rubbia, A; Rybczynski, M; Sadovsky, A; Sakashita, K; Sekiguchi, T; Seyboth, P; Shibata, M; Sissakian, A N; Skrzypczak, E; Slodkowski, M.; Sorin, A S; Staszel, P; Stefanek, G; Stepaniak, J; Strabel, C; Strobele, H; Susa, T; Szaik, P; Szuba, M; Tada, M; Taranenko, A; Tsenov, R; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Vassiliou, M; Vechernin, V V; Vesztergombi, G; Wilczek, A; lodarczyk, Z W; Wojtaszek, A; Yi, J -G; Yoo, I -K; Zipper, W

    2011-01-01

    Interaction cross sections and charged pion spectra in p+C interactions at 31 GeV/c were measured with the large acceptance NA61/SHINE spectrometer at the CERN SPS. These data are required to improve predictions of the neutrino flux for the T2K long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment in Japan. A set of data collected during the first NA61/SHINE run in 2007 with an isotropic graphite target with a thickness of 4% of a nuclear interaction length was used for the analysis. The measured p+C inelastic and production cross sections are 257.2 +- 1.9 +- 8.9 mb and 229.3 +- 1.9 +- 9.0 mb, respectively. Inclusive production cross sections for negatively and positively charged pions are presented as a function of laboratory momentum in 10 intervals of the laboratory polar angle covering the range from 0 up to 420 mrad. The spectra are compared with predictions of several hadron production models.

  13. Primary proton and helium spectra at energy range from 50 TeV to 1015 eV observed with the new Tibet AS core detector array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Jing

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A new EAS hybrid experiment has been designed by constructing a YAC (Yangbajing Air shower Core detector array inside the existing Tibet-III air shower array. The first step of YAC, called “YAC-I” has been successfully carried out in 2009–2010 together with Tibet-III air-shower array. YAC-II has also been operated from 2011. Preliminary results of YAC-I and performance of YAC-II are presented in this paper. The primary proton and helium spectra at energy range from50 TeV to 1015 eV derived from YAC-I data based on QGSJET2 and SIBYLL2.1 are reported. The obtained P+He spectrum is smoothly connected with directobservation data below 100 TeV and also with our previously reported results at higher energies within statistical error s. Based on these results and the sharp kneeof all-particle energy spectrum observed by our experiment, the possible origin of the sharp knee is discussed. See the published papers.

  14. The n,{gamma} discrimination in recoil-proton proportional counters. Application to the measurement of fast neutron spectra; Discrimination n,{gamma} dans les compteurs proportionnels a protons de recul. Application a la mesure des spectres de neutrons rapides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeandidier, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    A description is given of a spectrometry chain working in the energy range of a few keV to 1 MeV, and designed for measurement of fast neutron spectra. It consists of detectors, recoil proton proportional counters built especially for this work by R. COMTE (DEG/SER) and which make it possible to cover the energy range and also associated electronic equipment. A brief description is first given of the physical processes involved: (n,p) collisions in the gas, influence of {gamma} radiation; the method of discrimination is then presented. It is based on the difference in the rise-times of the pulses. In the experiments described here the use of a bi-parametric system made it possible to employ the most simple discrimination device, based on the fact that the high frequency gamma pulse components are, at a given energy, weaker than those of the neutron pulses. Results are given of measurements carried out on the Van der Graaff (mono-energetic neutrons for testing the linearity of the chain and the resolving power of the counters), and of those made in a sub-critical system Hug at Cadarache. (author) [French] On decrit une chaine de spectrometrie travaillant dans le domaine d'energie de quelques keV a 1 MeV destinee a la mesure des spectres de neutrons rapides. Elle comprend les detecteurs, compteurs proportionnels a protons de recul, realises specialement pour cette etude par M. R. COMTE (DEG/SER), permettant de couvrir la gamme d'energie et l'electronique associee. Apres un rappel des processus physiques mis en jeu: chocs (n,p) dans les gaz, influence des rayonnements {gamma}, on expose la methode de discrimination utilisee. Celle-ci est basee sur la difference des temps de montee des impulsions. Au cours des experiences rapportees ici, la mise en oeuvre d'un ensemble bi-parametrique a permis d'utiliser le dispositif de discrimination le plus simple, base sur la remarque que les composantes a haute frequence des impulsions {gamma} sont, a energie egale, plus faibles

  15. The n,{gamma} discrimination in recoil-proton proportional counters. Application to the measurement of fast neutron spectra; Discrimination n,{gamma} dans les compteurs proportionnels a protons de recul. Application a la mesure des spectres de neutrons rapides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeandidier, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    A description is given of a spectrometry chain working in the energy range of a few keV to 1 MeV, and designed for measurement of fast neutron spectra. It consists of detectors, recoil proton proportional counters built especially for this work by R. COMTE (DEG/SER) and which make it possible to cover the energy range and also associated electronic equipment. A brief description is first given of the physical processes involved: (n,p) collisions in the gas, influence of {gamma} radiation; the method of discrimination is then presented. It is based on the difference in the rise-times of the pulses. In the experiments described here the use of a bi-parametric system made it possible to employ the most simple discrimination device, based on the fact that the high frequency gamma pulse components are, at a given energy, weaker than those of the neutron pulses. Results are given of measurements carried out on the Van der Graaff (mono-energetic neutrons for testing the linearity of the chain and the resolving power of the counters), and of those made in a sub-critical system Hug at Cadarache. (author) [French] On decrit une chaine de spectrometrie travaillant dans le domaine d'energie de quelques keV a 1 MeV destinee a la mesure des spectres de neutrons rapides. Elle comprend les detecteurs, compteurs proportionnels a protons de recul, realises specialement pour cette etude par M. R. COMTE (DEG/SER), permettant de couvrir la gamme d'energie et l'electronique associee. Apres un rappel des processus physiques mis en jeu: chocs (n,p) dans les gaz, influence des rayonnements {gamma}, on expose la methode de discrimination utilisee. Celle-ci est basee sur la difference des temps de montee des impulsions. Au cours des experiences rapportees ici, la mise en oeuvre d'un ensemble bi-parametrique a permis d'utiliser le dispositif de discrimination le plus simple, base sur la remarque que les composantes a haute frequence des impulsions {gamma} sont, a

  16. Search for narrow resonances in dilepton mass spectra in proton–proton collisions at s=13 TeV and combination with 8 TeV data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Khachatryan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A search for narrow resonances in dielectron and dimuon invariant mass spectra has been performed using data obtained from proton–proton collisions at s=13 TeV collected with the CMS detector. The integrated luminosity for the dielectron sample is 2.7 fb−1 and for the dimuon sample 2.9 fb−1. The sensitivity of the search is increased by combining these data with a previously analyzed set of data obtained at s=8 TeV and corresponding to a luminosity of 20 fb−1. No evidence for non-standard-model physics is found, either in the 13 TeV data set alone, or in the combined data set. Upper limits on the product of production cross section and branching fraction have also been calculated in a model-independent manner to enable interpretation in models predicting a narrow dielectron or dimuon resonance structure. Limits are set on the masses of hypothetical particles that could appear in new-physics scenarios. For the ZSSM′ particle, which arises in the sequential standard model, and for the superstring inspired Zψ′ particle, 95% confidence level lower mass limits for the combined data sets and combined channels are found to be 3.37 and 2.82 TeV, respectively. The corresponding limits for the lightest Kaluza–Klein graviton arising in the Randall–Sundrum model of extra dimensions with coupling parameters 0.01 and 0.10 are 1.46 and 3.11 TeV, respectively. These results significantly exceed the limits based on the 8 TeV LHC data.

  17. GEANT4 hadronic cascade models analysis of proton and charged pion transverse momentum spectra from p plus Cu and Pb collisions at 3, 8, and 15 GeV/c

    CERN Document Server

    Abdel-Waged, Khaled; Uzhinskii, V V

    2011-01-01

    We describe how various hadronic cascade models, which are implemented in the GEANT4 toolkit, describe proton and charged pion transverse momentum spectra from p + Cu and Pb collisions at 3, 8, and 15 GeV/c, recently measured in the hadron production (HARP) experiment at CERN. The Binary, ultrarelativistic quantum molecular dynamics (UrQMD) and modified FRITIOF (FTF) hadronic cascade models are chosen for investigation. The first two models are based on limited (Binary) and branched (UrQMD) binary scattering between cascade particles which can be either a baryon or meson, in the three-dimensional space of the nucleus, while the latter (FTF) considers collective interactions between nucleons only, on the plane of impact parameter. It is found that the slow (p(T) 0.3 GeV/c) proton spectra are not strongly affected by the differences between the FTF and UrQMD models. It is also shown that the UrQMD and FTF combined with Binary (FTFB) models could reproduce both proton and charged pion spectra from p + Cu and Pb...

  18. Baryon production in proton-proton collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, F.M.; Werner, K.

    2002-01-01

    Motivated by the recent rapidity spectra of baryons and antibaryons in pp collisions at 158 GeV and the Ω-bar/Ω ratio discussion, we reviewed string formation mechanism and some string models. This investigation told us how color strings are formed in ultrarelativistic proton-proton collisions

  19. Measurement of the energy spectra relative to neutrons produced at very small angle in $\\mathrm{\\sqrt{s} = 13 ~ TeV}$ proton-proton collisions using the LHCf Arm2 detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00533910

    In the last years, several ground-based experiments have measured flux and composition of ultra high energy cosmic rays - i.e. cosmic rays having energies above $10^{18} ~ eV$ - up to the GZK cutoff region. Nevertheless, these analyses suffer of large uncertainties due to the fact that they must rely on hadronic interaction models, that exhibit very different behavior in the forward region due to the lack of high energy calibration data. To provide measurements that can be useful to tune these models is exactly the main aim of the LHC-forward (LHCf) experiment. Thanks to two small sampling calorimeter, Arm1 and Arm2, installed at $\\pm 140 ~ m$ from LHC IP1, LHCf can detect neutral particles produced in the very forward region ($\\eta > 8.4$) by proton-proton and proton-ion high energy collisions (proton-proton interaction at $\\sqrt{s} = 14 ~ TeV$ is equivalent to the collision of a $10^{17} ~ eV$ proton with a proton at rest, hence it is possible to perform measurements at an energy close to the typical one of...

  20. Rigidity and symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Weiss, Asia; Whiteley, Walter

    2014-01-01

    This book contains recent contributions to the fields of rigidity and symmetry with two primary focuses: to present the mathematically rigorous treatment of rigidity of structures, and to explore the interaction of geometry, algebra, and combinatorics. Overall, the book shows how researchers from diverse backgrounds explore connections among the various discrete structures with symmetry as the unifying theme.  Contributions present recent trends and advances in discrete geometry, particularly in the theory of polytopes. The rapid development of abstract polytope theory has resulted in a rich theory featuring an attractive interplay of methods and tools from discrete geometry, group theory, classical geometry, hyperbolic geometry and topology.  The volume will also be a valuable source as an introduction to the ideas of both combinatorial and geometric rigidity theory and its applications, incorporating the surprising impact of symmetry. It will appeal to students at both the advanced undergraduate and gradu...

  1. Birationally rigid varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Pukhlikov, Aleksandr

    2013-01-01

    Birational rigidity is a striking and mysterious phenomenon in higher-dimensional algebraic geometry. It turns out that certain natural families of algebraic varieties (for example, three-dimensional quartics) belong to the same classification type as the projective space but have radically different birational geometric properties. In particular, they admit no non-trivial birational self-maps and cannot be fibred into rational varieties by a rational map. The origins of the theory of birational rigidity are in the work of Max Noether and Fano; however, it was only in 1970 that Iskovskikh and Manin proved birational superrigidity of quartic three-folds. This book gives a systematic exposition of, and a comprehensive introduction to, the theory of birational rigidity, presenting in a uniform way, ideas, techniques, and results that so far could only be found in journal papers. The recent rapid progress in birational geometry and the widening interaction with the neighboring areas generate the growing interest ...

  2. Spectra of fast protons produced in the pA → pX reaction at the angle of 62 mrad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barabash, L.Z.; Buklej, A.E.; Gavrilov, V.B.

    1982-01-01

    Within the framework of a program of investigations into yields of secondary particles form internal targets of an accelerator obtained were experimetnal data on inclusive production of protons in pA interactions at 62 mradn angle at initial momenta of 4.0; 6.6; 9.5 GeV/c. The data obtained on differential cross sections of proton yields are tabulated. A- and t-dependences of quasi-elastic proton scattering with nuclei are discussed. A-dependence of cross sections of inelastic quasi-free reactions both in the region of isobar production and on the left of this region within the errors is the same as for quasi-elastic peak, α approximately 0.45. This α value is markedly less than a value characteristic of the A-dependence of total cross sections

  3. Effect of resonance production and diffraction on the inclusive spectra of pions and protons in 19 GeV/c pn interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baken, V.; Breivik, F.O.; Jacobsen, T. (Oslo Univ. (Norway). Fysisk Inst.)

    1984-01-01

    Bubble chamber data on pn interactions at 19 GeV/c are used to investigate the effects of nucleon diffraction and resonance production on the inclusive x- and psub(T)/sup 2/-distributions of protons and pions. We determine the differential distributions of p, ..pi../sup -/ and ..pi../sup +/ due to neutron and proton diffraction and similarly the distributions from the decay of the strong resonances ..delta../sup + +/(1232) and ..delta../sup -/(1232) and from rho/sup 0/(770). The x-distributions of the protons in the two c.m. hemispheres become quite similar when the effect of diffraction and ..delta../sup + +/ is subtracted. The psub(T)/sup 2/-distributions can then be described by a single exponential in the whole kinematic region. The net effect on the shapes of the x-distributions of the pions due to diffraction, ..delta../sup + +//..delta../sup -/ and rho/sup 0/ production is rather small. The separate effects of these processes on the particle ratio ..pi../sup -//..pi../sup +/ is investigated. By excluding the diffraction and ..delta../sup + +//..delta../sup -/ production, the strength of the low-psub(T)/sup 2/ component of the psub(T)/sup 2/-distributions of the pions is reduced, but it seems that diffraction and resonance production cannot account for all of this low-psub(T)/sup 2/ enhancement.

  4. Protonation of pyridine. Vol. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahran, N F; Ghoniem, H; Helal, A I [Physics Dept., Nuclear Research Center, AEA., Cairo, (Egypt); Rasheed, N [Nuclear Material Authority, Cairo, (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    Field ionization mass spectra of pyridine is measured using 10{mu}m activated wire. protonation of pyridine, is observed as an intense peak in the mass spectra. Charge distribution of pyridine molecule is calculated using the modified neglect of diatomic overlap (MNDO) technique, and consequently proton attachment is proposed to be on the nitrogen atom. Temperature dependence of (M+H){sup +} ion is investigated and discussed. MNDO calculations of the protonated species are done, and the proton affinity of pyridine molecule is estimated. Time dependence of the field ionization process of pyridine and protonated ions are observed and discussed. 5 figs.

  5. Energy Spectra of Abundant Cosmic-ray Nuclei in Sources, According to the ATIC Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panov, A. D.; Sokolskaya, N. V.; Zatsepin, V. I., E-mail: panov@dec1.sinp.msu.ru [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-01

    One of the main results of the ATIC (Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter) experiment is a collection of energy spectra of abundant cosmic-ray nuclei: protons, He, C, O, Ne, Mg, Si, and Fe measured in terms of energy per particle in the energy range from 50 GeV to tens of teraelectronvolts. In this paper, the ATIC energy spectra of abundant primary nuclei are back-propagated to the spectra in sources in terms of magnetic rigidity using a leaky-box approximation of three different GALPROP-based diffusion models of propagation that fit the latest B/C data of the AMS-02 experiment. It is shown that the results of a comparison of the slopes of the spectra in sources are weakly model dependent; therefore the differences of spectral indices are reliable data. A regular growth of the steepness of spectra in sources in the range of magnetic rigidity of 50–1350 GV is found for a charge range from helium to iron. This conclusion is statistically reliable with significance better than 3.2 standard deviations. The results are discussed and compared to the data of other modern experiments.

  6. Rigid supersymmetry with boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belyaev, D.V. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Van Nieuwenhuizen, P. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). C.N. Yang Inst. for Theoretical Physics

    2008-01-15

    We construct rigidly supersymmetric bulk-plus-boundary actions, both in x-space and in superspace. For each standard supersymmetric bulk action a minimal supersymmetric bulk-plus-boundary action follows from an extended F- or D-term formula. Additional separately supersymmetric boundary actions can be systematically constructed using co-dimension one multiplets (boundary superfields). We also discuss the orbit of boundary conditions which follow from the Euler-Lagrange variational principle. (orig.)

  7. Measurements of $$\\pi ^\\pm $$ π ± , K $$^\\pm $$ ± , p and $${\\bar{\\text {p}}}$$ p ¯ spectra in proton-proton interactions at 20, 31, 40, 80 and 158  $$\\text{ GeV }/c$$ GeV / c with the NA61/SHINE spectrometer at the CERN SPS: The NA61/SHINE Collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aduszkiewicz, A.; Ali, Y.; Andronov, E.; Antićić, T.; Baatar, B.; Baszczyk, M.; Bhosale, S.; Blondel, A.; Bogomilov, M.; Brandin, A.; Bravar, A.; Brzychczyk, J.; Bunyatov, S. A.; Busygina, O.; Cherif, H.; Ćirković, M.; Czopowicz, T.; Damyanova, A.; Davis, N.; Dembinski, H.; Deveaux, M.; Dominik, W.; Dorosz, P.; Dumarchez, J.; Engel, R.; Ereditato, A.; Feofilov, G. A.; Fodor, Z.; Francois, C.; Garibov, A.; Gaździcki, M.; Golubeva, M.; Grebieszkow, K.; Guber, F.; Haesler, A.; Hervé, A. E.; Hylen, J.; Igolkin, S.; Ivashkin, A.; Johnson, S. R.; Kadija, K.; Kaptur, E.; Kiełbowicz, M.; Kireyeu, V. A.; Klochkov, V.; Knezević, N.; Kolesnikov, V. I.; Kolev, D.; Kondratiev, V. P.; Korzenev, A.; Kovalenko, V.; Kowalik, K.; Kowalski, S.; Koziel, M.; Krasnoperov, A.; Kucewicz, W.; Kuich, M.; Kurepin, A.; Larsen, D.; László, A.; Lewicki, M.; Lundberg, B.; Lyubushkin, V. V.; Łysakowski, B.; Maćkowiak-Pawłowska, M.; Maksiak, B.; Malakhov, A. I.; Manić, D.; Marchionni, A.; Marcinek, A.; Marino, A. D.; Marton, K.; Mathes, H. -J.; Matulewicz, T.; Matveev, V.; Melkumov, G. L.; Merzlaya, A.; Messerly, B.; Mik, Ł.; Mills, G. B.; Morozov, S.; Mrówczyński, S.; Nagai, Y.; Naskręt, M.; Ozvenchuk, V.; Paolone, V.; Pavin, M.; Petukhov, O.; Pistillo, C.; Płaneta, R.; Podlaski, P.; Popov, B. A.; Posiadała, M.; Puławski, S.; Puzović, J.; Rameika, R.; Rauch, W.; Ravonel, M.; Renfordt, R.; Richter-Wąs, E.; Röhrich, D.; Rondio, E.; Roth, M.; Rumberger, B. T.; Rustamov, A.; Rybczynski, M.; Rybicki, A.; Sadovsky, A.; Schmidt, K.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Seryakov, A.; Seyboth, P.; Słodkowski, M.; Snoch, A.; Staszel, P.; Stefanek, G.; Stepaniak, J.; Strikhanov, M.; Ströbele, H.; Šuša, T.; Szuba, M.; Taranenko, A.; Tefelska, A.; Tefelski, D.; Tereshchenko, V.; Toia, A.; Tsenov, R.; Turko, L.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Veberič, D.; Vechernin, V. V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vinogradov, L.; Walewski, M.; Wickremasinghe, A.; Wilkinson, C.; Włodarczyk, Z.; Wojtaszek-Szwarc, A.; Wyszyński, O.; Zambelli, L.; Zimmerman, E. D.; Zwaska, R.

    2017-10-01

    Measurements of inclusive spectra and mean multiplicities of $\\pi^\\pm$, K$^\\pm$, p and $\\bar{\\textrm{p}}$ produced in inelastic p+p interactions at incident projectile momenta of 20, 31, 40, 80 and 158 GeV/c ($\\sqrt{s} = $ 6.3, 7.7, 8.8, 12.3 and 17.3 GeV, respectively) were performed at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron using the large acceptance NA61/SHINE hadron spectrometer. Spectra are presented as function of rapidity and transverse momentum and are compared to predictions of current models. The measurements serve as the baseline in the NA61/SHINE study of the properties of the onset of deconfinement and search for the critical point of strongly interacting matter.

  8. The absolute flux of protons and helium at the top of the atmosphere using IMAX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menn, W.; Hof, M.; Reimer, O.

    2000-01-01

    isotopes using a superconducting magnet spectrometer together with scintillators, a time-of-flight system, and Cherenkov detectors. Using redundant detectors, an extensive examination of the instrument efficiency was carried out. We present here the absolute spectra of protons and helium corrected...... to the top of the atmosphere and to interstellar space. If demodulated with a solar modulation parameter of phi = 750 MV, the measured interstellar spectra between 20 and 200 GV can be represented by a power law in rigidity, with (1.42 +/- 0.21) x 10(4)R(-2.71+/-0.04) (m(2) GV s sr)(-1) for protons and (3.......15 +/- 1.03) x 10(3)R(-2.79+/-0.08) (m(2) GV s sr)(-1) for helium....

  9. The effect of resonance production and diffraction on the inclusive spectra of pions and protons in 19 GeV/c pn interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakken, V.; Breivik, F.O.; Jacobsen, T.

    1984-01-01

    Bubble chamber data on pn interactions at 19 GeV/c are used to investigate the effects of nucleon diffraction and resonance production on the inclusive x- and psub(T)sup(2)-distributions of protons and pions. The differential distributions of p, π - and distributions from the decay of the strong resonances Δsup(++)(1232) and Δ - (1232) and from rho 0 (770) are determined. The x-distributions of the protons in the two c.m. hemispheres become quite similar when the effect of diffraction and Δsup(++) is subtracted. The psub(T)sup(2)-distributions can then be described by a single exponential in the whole kinematic region. The net effect on the shape of the x-distributions of the pions due to diffraction, effect of these processes on the particle ratio π - /π + is investigated. By excluding the diffraction and Δsup(++)/Δ - production, the strength of the low-psub(T)sup(2) component of the psub(T)sup(2)-distributions of the pions is reduced, but it seems that diffraction and resonance production cannot account for all oft his low-psub(T)sup(2) enhancement

  10. Measurements of neutron spectra produced from a thick tungsten target bombarded with 0.5- and 1.5-GeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meigo, Shin-ichiro; Takada, Hiroshi

    2002-01-01

    For validation of calculation codes that are employed in the design of pulse spallation neutron source and accelerator driven system, spectrum of neutrons produced from a thick target plays an important role. However, appropriate experimental data were scarce for the incident energies higher than 0.8 GeV. In this study, the spectrum from a thick tungsten target was measured. The experiment was carried out at the π2 beam line of the 12-GeV proton synchrotron at KEK. The tungsten target was bombarded by the 0.5- and 1.5-GeV secondary protons. Spectrum of neutrons was measured by the time-of-flight technique using organic scintillators of NE213. The calculated result with NMTC/JAM and MCNP-4A is compared with the measured data. It is found that the NMTC/JAM generally gives a good agreement with experiment. The NMTC/JAM, however, gives 50% lower neutron flux in the energy region 20∼80 MeV, which is consistent with the results in previous comparison of lead target. For the neutrons between 20 and 80 MeV, the calculation using with the in-medium nucleon-nucleon cross sections reproduced the experiment fairly well. (author)

  11. Proton and electron impact on molecular and atomic oxygen: I. High resolution fluorescence spectra in the visible and VUV spectral range and emission cross-sections for dissociative ionisation and excitation of O2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelmi, O.; Schartner, K.H.

    2000-01-01

    For pt.II see ibid., vol.11, p.45-58, 2000. Molecular oxygen O 2 was dissociated in collisions with protons and electrons in the intermediate velocity range (p + -energies: 17-800 keV, e - -energies: 0.2-2 keV). Fluorescence from excited atomic and singly ionised fragments and from singly ionised molecules was detected in the VUV and in the visible and near UV spectral range. Highly resolved spectra are presented for the VUV (46-131 nm) and the near UV/visible (340-605 nm) spectral range. Absolute emission cross-sections have been determined for dissociative ionisation and excitation leading to fluorescence in the VUV. Results are compared with published data. (orig.)

  12. Proton-proton bremsstrahlung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fearing, H.W.

    1990-01-01

    We summarize some of the information about the nucleon-nucleon force which has been obtained by comparing recent calculations of proton-proton bremsstrahlung with cross section and analyzing power data from the new TRIUMF bremsstrahlung experiment. Some comments are made as to how these results can be extended to neutron-proton bremsstrahlung. (Author) 17 refs., 6 figs

  13. Proton, deuteron, and triton emission at target rapidity in Au+Au collisions at 10.20A GeV: Spectra and directed flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashktorab, K.; Beavis, D.; Chasman, C.; Chen, Z.; Chu, Y.Y.; Cumming, J.B.; Debbe, R.; Gonin, M.; Gushue, S.; Levine, M.; Moskowitz, B.; Olness, J.; Remsberg, L.P.; Tannenbaum, M.J.; Videbaek, F.; Zhu, F.; Crawford, H.J.; Engelage, J.; Judd, E.; Chang, J.; Eldredge, W.; Fung, S.Y.; Seto, R.; Xu, G.; Zhu, Q.; Chi, C.; Cole, B.A.; Moulson, M.; Nagamiya, S.; Nayak, T.K.; Wang, F.Q.; Wang, Y.; Wu, Y.; Zajc, W.A.; Akiba, Y.; Hamagaki, H.; Homma, S.; Sako, H.; Kaneko, H.; Britt, H.C.; Cianciolo, V.; Luke, J.; Namboodiri, M.N.; Sangster, T.C.; Soltz, R.; Thomas, J.H.; Tonse, S.R.; Ahle, L.; Baker, M.D.; Heintzelman, G.; Ogilvie, C.A.; Steadman, S.G.; Stephans, G.S.; Sung, T.; Woodruff, D.S.; Zachary, D.; Hayano, R.S.; Shigaki, K.; Kumagai, A.; Kurita, K.; Miake, Y.; Ueno-Hayashi, S.; Yagi, K.; Kang, J.H.; Gaardhoje, J.J.; Hansen, A.G.; Hansen, L.

    1998-01-01

    Systematic results are presented on proton, deuteron, and triton emission from the target spectator region in collisions of 10.20A GeV gold projectiles with a gold target. A forward hodoscope utilizes detection of projectile spectator fragments to determine the orientation of the reaction plane, event by event. The directed flow left-angle p x right-angle is determined as a function of pseudorapidity. Projectile spectator energy is used to estimate impact parameters. Results are compared to current theoretical models ARC, ART, and RQMD. In all cases good agreement with theory is obtained for calculations utilizing a pure cascade without nuclear potential contributions. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  14. Correlation measurements of the proton spectra in the backward hemisphere in the reaction pd→ppn at 1.2--1.7 GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, V.P.; Dobyrn, V.V.; Kravtsov, A.V.

    1985-01-01

    The reaction pd→ppn with emission of one of the nucleons into the backward hemisphere has been studied in a deuterium bubble chamber at eight energies. In contrast to high energies, an energy dependence of the slope of the invariant cross section is observed, which may indicate a dying out of the isobaric mechanism which may be responsible for a constant contribution in the region above 1 GeV. On the other hand, at large backward angles this mechanism remains important also in the region studied. Investigation of angular correlations and momentum spectra made it possible to identify the regions of dominance of the various diagrams. In the spectrum of the effective masses M/sub p/n a peak is observed which can be interpreted as a candidate for a dibaryon resonance

  15. Microstructural evolution in modified 9Cr-1Mo ferritic/martensitic steel irradiated with mixed high-energy proton and neutron spectra at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sencer, B.H.; Garner, F.A.; Gelles, D.S.; Bond, G.M.; Maloy, S.A.

    2002-01-01

    Modified 9Cr-1Mo ferritic/martensitic steel was exposed at 32-57 deg. C to a mixed proton/neutron particle flux and spectrum at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The microstructure of unirradiated 9Cr-1Mo consists of laths, dislocations and carbides. Examination of electron diffraction patterns obtained from extraction replicas of unirradiated 9Cr-1Mo revealed that the precipitate microstructure was primarily dominated by M 23 C 6 carbides. The post-irradiation microstructure contained black-spot damage in addition to precipitates and dislocations. Examination of electron diffraction patterns revealed diffuse rings from M 23 C 6 carbides, indicating amorphization and/or nanocrystallinity. Crystalline MC carbides were also found. No cavity formation was found although a significant amount of helium and hydrogen generation had been generated. TEM-EDS examination of extraction replicas for carbides from unirradiated and irradiated samples did not show any detectable changes in composition of either M 23 C 6 or MC carbides. There was also no evident change in carbide size. Lattice images of M 23 C 6 carbides revealed an amorphous microstructure following irradiation, but MC carbides were still crystalline

  16. Computation of cosmic radiation spectra and application to aircrew dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Song Jae

    2002-02-01

    Using the Monte Carlo radiation transport code FLUKA- 99, secondary cosmic radiation energy spectra and intensities of neutrons, protons, photons, electrons, and muons were calculated for different geographical latitude and longitude at the commercial jet's altitudes ranging from 27000 ft to 41000 ft. The Badhwar's proton model was used to construct the primary cosmic radiation spectrum and effect of the vertical cutoff rigidity was considered after spectra similar to those given in literature were resulted. By applying the effective dose conversion factors, a calculation tool for aircrew doses was developed. According to the resulting dose rate distribution, effective dose rate over North pole region is around three times of that over equator region due to the geomagnetical shielding effect. Illustrative assessments of aircrew doses were made for four distinctive routes of Korean airliners : Seoul - New York (USA), London (UK), Sydney (Australia) and Mumbai(India). The effective doses to aircrew incurred from a round trip were 0.047, 0.055, 0.018, and 0.018μSv, respectively. If aircrew work 500 hour s a year at the cruise altitude of a international airline, the individual dose would reach 2 mSv which is about the same size as the average annual dose of workers at a nuclear power plant

  17. Influence of protonation or alkylation of the phosphate group on the e. s. r. spectra and on the rate of phosphate elimination from 2-methoxyethyl phosphate 2-yl radicals. [. gamma. rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrens, G; Koltzenburg, G; Ritter, A; Schulte-Frohlinde, D [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kohlenforschung, Muelheim an der Ruhr (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Strahlenchemie

    1978-02-01

    The e.s.r. spectra of l-yl, 2-yl and 3'-yl methoxethyl phosphate radicals derived from CH/sub 3/OCH/sub 2/CH/sub 2/-OPO/sub 3/H/sub 2/ by hydrogen abstraction have been measured in aqueous solutions and the hyperfine constants determined. The coupling constants vary strongly with protonation or alkylation of the phosphate group. The 2-yl radicals eliminate phosphate. The rate-constants for the elimination (ksub(e)) have been estimated by e.s.r. measurements and by product studies as a function of pH using /sup 60/Co ..gamma..-radiolysis. The ksub(e) values vary from approximately 0.3 s/sup -1/ for the CH/sub 3/OCHCH/sub 2/OPO/sub 3//sup - -/ radical and approximately 10/sup 3/s/sup -1/ for CH/sub 3/OCHCH/sub 2/OPO/sub 3/H/sup -/, to approximately 3 x 10/sup 6/s/sup -1/ for CH/sub 3/OCHCH/sub 2/OPO/sub 3/H/sub 2/. Alkylation of the phosphate group increased the elimination rate-constant to a similar extent as protonation. The results support a recent mechanism which described the OH-radical-induced single-strand breaks of DNA in aqueous solution starting from the C-4' radical of the sugar moiety. It is further concluded the C-4' radical of DNA eliminates the 3'-phosphate group faster than the 5'-phosphate group.

  18. Torsional Rigidity of Minimal Submanifolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen; Palmer, Vicente

    2006-01-01

    We prove explicit upper bounds for the torsional rigidity of extrinsic domains of minimal submanifolds $P^m$ in ambient Riemannian manifolds $N^n$ with a pole $p$. The upper bounds are given in terms of the torsional rigidities of corresponding Schwarz symmetrizations of the domains in warped...

  19. Quantum charged rigid membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordero, Ruben [Departamento de Fisica, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas del I.P.N., Unidad Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Edificio 9, 07738 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Molgado, Alberto [Unidad Academica de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Zacatecas Zac. (Mexico); Rojas, Efrain, E-mail: cordero@esfm.ipn.mx, E-mail: amolgado@fisica.uaz.edu.mx, E-mail: efrojas@uv.mx [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Fisica e Inteligencia Artificial, Universidad Veracruzana, 91000 Xalapa, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2011-03-21

    The early Dirac proposal to model the electron as a charged membrane is reviewed. A rigidity term, instead of the natural membrane tension, involving linearly the extrinsic curvature of the worldvolume swept out by the membrane is considered in the action modeling the bubble in the presence of an electromagnetic field. We set up this model as a genuine second-order derivative theory by considering a non-trivial boundary term which plays a relevant part in our formulation. The Lagrangian in question is linear in the bubble acceleration and by means of the Ostrogradski-Hamiltonian approach, we observed that the theory comprises the management of both first- and second-class constraints. We thus show that our second-order approach is robust allowing for a proper quantization. We found an effective quantum potential which permits us to compute bounded states for the system. We comment on the possibility of describing brane world universes by invoking this kind of second-order correction terms.

  20. Quantum charged rigid membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordero, Ruben; Molgado, Alberto; Rojas, Efrain

    2011-01-01

    The early Dirac proposal to model the electron as a charged membrane is reviewed. A rigidity term, instead of the natural membrane tension, involving linearly the extrinsic curvature of the worldvolume swept out by the membrane is considered in the action modeling the bubble in the presence of an electromagnetic field. We set up this model as a genuine second-order derivative theory by considering a non-trivial boundary term which plays a relevant part in our formulation. The Lagrangian in question is linear in the bubble acceleration and by means of the Ostrogradski-Hamiltonian approach, we observed that the theory comprises the management of both first- and second-class constraints. We thus show that our second-order approach is robust allowing for a proper quantization. We found an effective quantum potential which permits us to compute bounded states for the system. We comment on the possibility of describing brane world universes by invoking this kind of second-order correction terms.

  1. Proton diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Den Besten, J.L.; Jamieson, D.N.; Allen, L.J.

    1998-01-01

    The Lindhard theory on ion channeling in crystals has been widely accepted throughout ion beam analysis for use in simulating such experiments. The simulations use a Monte Carlo method developed by Barret, which utilises the classical 'billiard ball' theory of ions 'bouncing' between planes or tubes of atoms in the crystal. This theory is not valid for 'thin' crystals where the planes or strings of atoms can no longer be assumed to be of infinite proportions. We propose that a theory similar to that used for high energy electron diffraction can be applied to MeV ions, especially protons, in thin crystals to simulate the intensities of transmission channeling and of RBS spectra. The diffraction theory is based on a Bloch wave solution of the Schroedinger equation for an ion passing through the periodic crystal potential. The widely used universal potential for proton-nucleus scattering is used to construct the crystal potential. Absorption due to thermal diffuse scattering is included. Experimental parameters such as convergence angle, beam tilt and scanning directions are considered in our calculations. Comparison between theory and experiment is encouraging and suggests that further work is justified. (authors)

  2. On flexible and rigid nouns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2010-01-01

    classes. Finally this article wants to claim that the distinction between rigid and flexible noun categories (a) adds a new dimension to current classifications of parts of speech systems, (b) correlates with certain grammatical phenomena (e.g. so-called number discord), and (c) helps to explain the parts......This article argues that in addition to the major flexible lexical categories in Hengeveld’s classification of parts of speech systems (Contentive, Non-Verb, Modifier), there are also flexible word classes within the rigid lexical category Noun (Set Noun, Sort Noun, General Noun). Members...... by the flexible item in the external world. I will then argue that flexible word classes constitute a proper category (i.e. they are not the result of a merger of some rigid word classes) in that members of flexible word categories display the same properties regarding category membership as members of rigid word...

  3. Proton Pulse Radiolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, H C; Nilsson, G; Reitberger, T; Thuomas, K A

    1973-03-15

    A 5 MeV proton accelerator (Van de Graaff) has been used for pulse radiolysis of a number of organic gases and the transient spectra obtained from the alkanes methane, ethane, propane, n-butane and neopentane have tentatively been assigned to alkyl radicals. Some methodological aspects of this new technique are discussed

  4. Rigid multibody system dynamics with uncertain rigid bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batou, A., E-mail: anas.batou@univ-paris-est.fr; Soize, C., E-mail: christian.soize@univ-paris-est.fr [Universite Paris-Est, Laboratoire Modelisation et Simulation Multi Echelle, MSME UMR 8208 CNRS (France)

    2012-03-15

    This paper is devoted to the construction of a probabilistic model of uncertain rigid bodies for multibody system dynamics. We first construct a stochastic model of an uncertain rigid body by replacing the mass, the center of mass, and the tensor of inertia by random variables. The prior probability distributions of the stochastic model are constructed using the maximum entropy principle under the constraints defined by the available information. The generators of independent realizations corresponding to the prior probability distribution of these random quantities are further developed. Then several uncertain rigid bodies can be linked to each other in order to calculate the random response of a multibody dynamical system. An application is proposed to illustrate the theoretical development.

  5. Rigidity of Glasses and Macromolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, M. F.

    1998-03-01

    The simple yet powerful ideas of percolation theory have found their way into many different areas of research. In this talk we show how RIGIDITY PERCOLATION can be studied at a similar level of sophistication, using a powerful new program THE PEBBLE GAME (D. J. Jacobs and M. F. Thorpe, Phys. Rev. E) 53, 3682 (1996). that uses an integer algorithm. This program can analyse the rigidity of two and three dimensional networks containing more than one million bars and joints. We find the total number of floppy modes, and find the critical behavior as the network goes from floppy to rigid as more bars are added. We discuss the relevance of this work to network glasses, and how it relates to experiments that involve the mechanical properties like hardness and elasticity of covalent glassy networks like Ge_xAs_ySe_1-x-y and dicuss recent experiments that suggest that the rigidity transition may be first order (Xingwei Feng, W. J.Bresser and P. Boolchand, Phys. Rev. Lett 78), 4422 (1997).. This approach is also useful in macromolecules and proteins, where detailed information about the rigid domain structure can be obtained.

  6. BETA SPECTRA. I. Negatrons spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau Malonda, A.; Garcia-Torano, E.

    1978-01-01

    Using the Fermi theory of beta decay, the beta spectra for 62 negatrons emitters have been computed introducing a correction factor for unique forbidden transitions. These spectra are plotted vs. energy, once normal i sed, and tabulated with the related Fermi functions. The average and median energies are calculated. (Author)

  7. Rigidly foldable origami gadgets and tessellations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Thomas A.; Lang, Robert J.; Magleby, Spencer P.; Howell, Larry L.

    2015-01-01

    Rigidly foldable origami allows for motion where all deflection occurs at the crease lines and facilitates the application of origami in materials other than paper. In this paper, we use a recently discovered method for determining rigid foldability to identify existing flat-foldable rigidly foldable tessellations, which are also categorized. We introduce rigidly foldable origami gadgets which may be used to modify existing tessellations or to create new tessellations. Several modified and new rigidly foldable tessellations are presented. PMID:26473037

  8. Rigidity-tuning conductive elastomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Wanliang; Diller, Stuart; Tutcuoglu, Abbas; Majidi, Carmel

    2015-06-01

    We introduce a conductive propylene-based elastomer (cPBE) that rapidly and reversibly changes its mechanical rigidity when powered with electrical current. The elastomer is rigid in its natural state, with an elastic (Young’s) modulus of 175.5 MPa, and softens when electrically activated. By embedding the cPBE in an electrically insulating sheet of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), we create a cPBE-PDMS composite that can reversibly change its tensile modulus between 37 and 1.5 MPa. The rigidity change takes ˜6 s and is initiated when a 100 V voltage drop is applied across the two ends of the cPBE film. This magnitude of change in elastic rigidity is similar to that observed in natural skeletal muscle and catch connective tissue. We characterize the tunable load-bearing capability of the cPBE-PDMS composite with a motorized tensile test and deadweight experiment. Lastly, we demonstrate the ability to control the routing of internal forces by embedding several cPBE-PDMS ‘active tendons’ into a soft robotic pneumatic bending actuator. Selectively activating the artificial tendons controls the neutral axis and direction of bending during inflation.

  9. Rigidity-tuning conductive elastomer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan, Wanliang; Diller, Stuart; Tutcuoglu, Abbas; Majidi, Carmel

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a conductive propylene-based elastomer (cPBE) that rapidly and reversibly changes its mechanical rigidity when powered with electrical current. The elastomer is rigid in its natural state, with an elastic (Young’s) modulus of 175.5 MPa, and softens when electrically activated. By embedding the cPBE in an electrically insulating sheet of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), we create a cPBE–PDMS composite that can reversibly change its tensile modulus between 37 and 1.5 MPa. The rigidity change takes ∼6 s and is initiated when a 100 V voltage drop is applied across the two ends of the cPBE film. This magnitude of change in elastic rigidity is similar to that observed in natural skeletal muscle and catch connective tissue. We characterize the tunable load-bearing capability of the cPBE–PDMS composite with a motorized tensile test and deadweight experiment. Lastly, we demonstrate the ability to control the routing of internal forces by embedding several cPBE–PDMS ‘active tendons’ into a soft robotic pneumatic bending actuator. Selectively activating the artificial tendons controls the neutral axis and direction of bending during inflation. (paper)

  10. Energy dependence of negatively charged pion production in proton-proton interactions at the CERN SPS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)663936; Dominik, Wojciech; Gaździck, Marek

    2016-01-01

    This thesis presents inclusive spectra of the negatively charged pions produced in inelastic proton-proton interactions measured at five beam momenta: 20, 31, 40, 80 and 158 GeV/c. The measurements were conducted in the NA61/SHINE experiment at CERN using a system of five Time Projection Chambers. The negatively charged pion spectra were calculated based on the negatively charged hadron spectra. Contribution of hadrons other than the primary pions was removed using EPOS simulations. The results were corrected for effects related to detection, acceptance, reconstruction efficiency and the analysis technique. Two-dimensional spectra were derived as a function of rapidity and transverse momentum or transverse mass. The spectra were parametrised by widths of the rapidity distributions, inverse slope parameters of the transverse mass distributions, mean transverse masses and the total pion multiplicities. The negatively charged pion spectra in proton-proton interactions belong to a broad NA61/SHINE programme of se...

  11. On flexible and rigid nouns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Studies in Language 32-3 (2008), 727-752. Special issue: Parts of Speech: Descriptive tools, theoretical constructs Jan Rijkhoff - On flexible and rigid nouns This article argues that in addition to the flexible lexical categories in Hengeveld’s classification of parts-of-speech systems (Contentive......, Non-Verb, Modifier), there are also flexible word classes within the rigid lexical category Noun (Set Noun, Sort Noun, General Noun). Members of flexible word classes are characterized by their vague semantics, which in the case of nouns means that values for the semantic features Shape...... and Homogeneity are either left undetermined or they are specified in such a way that they do not quite match the properties of the kind of entity denoted by the flexible item in the external world. I will then argue that flexible word classes constitute a proper category (i.e. they are not the result of a merger...

  12. Elasticity of Relativistic Rigid Bodies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smarandache, Florentin

    2013-10-01

    In the classical Twin Paradox, according to the Special Theory of Relativity, when the traveling twin blasts off from the Earth to a relative velocity v =√{/3 } 2 c with respect to the Earth, his measuring stick and other physical objects in the direction of relative motion shrink to half their lengths. How is that possible in the real physical world to have let's say a rigid rocket shrinking to half and then later elongated back to normal as an elastic material when it stops? What is the explanation for the traveler's measuring stick and other physical objects, in effect, return to the same length to their original length in the Stay-At-Home, but there is no record of their having shrunk? If it's a rigid (not elastic) object, how can it shrink and then elongate back to normal? It might get broken in such situation.

  13. Functionally rigid bistable [2]rotaxanes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Sune; Leung, Ken C-F; Aprahamian, Ivan

    2007-01-01

    defines an unambiguous distance of 1.5 nm over which the ring moves between the MPTTF and NP units. The degenerate NP/NP [2]rotaxane was used to investigate the shuttling barrier by dynamic 1H NMR spectroscopy for the movement of the CBPQT4+ ring across the new rigid spacer. It is evident from...... better control over the position of the ring component in the ground state but also for control over the location of the CBPQT4+ ring during solution-state switching experiments, triggered either chemically (1H NMR) or electrochemically (cyclic voltammetry). In this instance, the use of the rigid spacer......Two-station [2]rotaxanes in the shape of a degenerate naphthalene (NP) shuttle and a nondegenerate monopyrrolotetrathiafulvalene (MPTTF)/NP redox-controllable switch have been synthesized and characterized in solution. Their dumbbell-shaped components are composed of polyether chains interrupted...

  14. Rigid body dynamics of mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Hahn, Hubert

    2003-01-01

    The second volume of Rigid Body Dynamics of Mechanisms covers applications via a systematic method for deriving model equations of planar and spatial mechanisms. The necessary theoretical foundations have been laid in the first volume that introduces the theoretical mechanical aspects of mechatronic systems. Here the focus is on the application of the modeling methodology to various examples of rigid-body mechanisms, simple planar ones as well as more challenging spatial problems. A rich variety of joint models, active constraints, plus active and passive force elements is treated. The book is intended for self-study by working engineers and students concerned with the control of mechanical systems, i.e. robotics, mechatronics, vehicles, and machine tools. The examples included are a likely source from which to choose models for university lectures.

  15. Associative memory through rigid origami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, Arvind; Brenner, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Mechanisms such as Miura Ori have proven useful in diverse contexts since they have only one degree of freedom that is easily controlled. We combine the theory of rigid origami and associative memory in frustrated neural networks to create structures that can ``learn'' multiple generic folding mechanisms and yet can be robustly controlled. We show that such rigid origami structures can ``recall'' a specific learned mechanism when induced by a physical impulse that only need resemble the desired mechanism (i.e. robust recall through association). Such associative memory in matter, seen before in self-assembly, arises due to a balance between local promiscuity (i.e., many local degrees of freedom) and global frustration which minimizes interference between different learned behaviors. Origami with associative memory can lead to a new class of deployable structures and kinetic architectures with multiple context-dependent behaviors.

  16. Rigidity spectrum of Forbush decrease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakakibara, S.; Munakata, K.; Nagashima, K.

    1985-01-01

    Using data from neutron monitors and muon telescopes at surface and underground stations, the average rigidity spectrum of Forbush decreases (Fds) during the period of 1978-1982 were obtained. Thirty eight Ed-events are classified into two groups, Hard Fd and Soft FD according to size of Fd at the Sakashita station. It is found that a spectral form of a fractional-power type (P to the-gamma sub 1 (P+P sub c) to the -gamma sub2) is more suitable than that of a power-exponential type or of a power type with an upper limiting rigidity. The best fitted spectrum of the fractional-power type is expressed by gamma sub1 = 0.37, gamma sub2 = 0.89 and P subc = 10 GV for Hard Fd and gamma sub1 = 0.77, gamma sub2 = 1.02 and P sub c - 14GV for Soft Fd

  17. Signature of Thermal Rigidity Percolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huerta, Adrián

    2013-01-01

    To explore the role that temperature and percolation of rigidity play in determining the macroscopic properties, we propose a model that adds translational degrees of freedom to the spins of the well known Ising hamiltonian. In particular, the Ising model illustrate the longstanding idea that the growth of correlations on approach to a critical point could be describable in terms of the percolation of some sort of p hysical cluster . For certain parameters of this model we observe two well defined peaks of C V , that suggest the existence of two kinds of p hysical percolation , namely connectivity and rigidity percolation. Thermal fluctuations give rise to two different kinds of elementary excitations, i.e. droplets and configuron, as suggested by Angell in the framework of a bond lattice model approach. The later is reflected in the fluctuations of redundant constraints that gives stability to the structure and correlate with the order parameter

  18. Torsional rigidity, isospectrality and quantum graphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colladay, Don; McDonald, Patrick; Kaganovskiy, Leon

    2017-01-01

    We study torsional rigidity for graph and quantum graph analogs of well-known pairs of isospectral non-isometric planar domains. We prove that such isospectral pairs are distinguished by torsional rigidity. (paper)

  19. Proton therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Alfred R

    2006-01-01

    Proton therapy has become a subject of considerable interest in the radiation oncology community and it is expected that there will be a substantial growth in proton treatment facilities during the next decade. I was asked to write a historical review of proton therapy based on my personal experiences, which have all occurred in the United States, so therefore I have a somewhat parochial point of view. Space requirements did not permit me to mention all of the existing proton therapy facilities or the names of all of those who have contributed to proton therapy. (review)

  20. Rigidity of monodromies for Appell's hypergeometric functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshishige Haraoka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For monodromy representations of holonomic systems, the rigidity can be defined. We examine the rigidity of the monodromy representations for Appell's hypergeometric functions, and get the representations explicitly. The results show how the topology of the singular locus and the spectral types of the local monodromies work for the study of the rigidity.

  1. Dynamic response characteristics of steel portal frames having semi-rigid joints under sinusoidal wave excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Abdul Qadir

    2017-12-01

    To demonstrate the characteristics of the nonlinear response of steel frames, an elastic dynamic response analysis of the semi-rigid frame is performed under the harmonic wave. The semi-rigid contact is represented by the alternating spring which is given stiffness by a three-parameter energy model which approaches the hysterical curve by hardening model. The properties of spectra and hysteric curves are presented. This study shows that (1) the greater the acceleration input capacitance the smaller the instant connection capability and the smaller is the response. (2) However, by allowing an extreme increase in capacitance input acceleration, response spectra can be increased as the contact stiffness results near zero.

  2. Geometry, rigidity, and group actions

    CERN Document Server

    Farb, Benson; Zimmer, Robert J

    2011-01-01

    The study of group actions is more than a hundred years old but remains to this day a vibrant and widely studied topic in a variety of mathematic fields. A central development in the last fifty years is the phenomenon of rigidity, whereby one can classify actions of certain groups, such as lattices in semi-simple Lie groups. This provides a way to classify all possible symmetries of important spaces and all spaces admitting given symmetries. Paradigmatic results can be found in the seminal work of George Mostow, Gergory Margulis, and Robert J. Zimmer, among others.The p

  3. Precision Measurement of the Helium Flux in Primary Cosmic Rays of Rigidities 1.9 GV to 3 TV with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, M.; Aisa, D.; Alpat, B.; Alvino, A.; Ambrosi, G.; Andeen, K.; Arruda, L.; Attig, N.; Azzarello, P.; Bachlechner, A.; Barao, F.; Barrau, A.; Barrin, L.; Bartoloni, A.; Basara, L.; Battarbee, M.; Battiston, R.; Bazo, J.; Becker, U.; Behlmann, M.; Beischer, B.; Berdugo, J.; Bertucci, B.; Bindi, V.; Bizzaglia, S.; Bizzarri, M.; Boella, G.; de Boer, W.; Bollweg, K.; Bonnivard, V.; Borgia, B.; Borsini, S.; Boschini, M. J.; Bourquin, M.; Burger, J.; Cadoux, F.; Cai, X. D.; Capell, M.; Caroff, S.; Casaus, J.; Castellini, G.; Cernuda, I.; Cerreta, D.; Cervelli, F.; Chae, M. J.; Chang, Y. H.; Chen, A. I.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H.; Chen, H. S.; Cheng, L.; Chou, H. Y.; Choumilov, E.; Choutko, V.; Chung, C. H.; Clark, C.; Clavero, R.; Coignet, G.; Consolandi, C.; Contin, A.; Corti, C.; Gil, E. Cortina; Coste, B.; Creus, W.; Crispoltoni, M.; Cui, Z.; Dai, Y. M.; Delgado, C.; Della Torre, S.; Demirköz, M. B.; Derome, L.; Di Falco, S.; Di Masso, L.; Dimiccoli, F.; Díaz, C.; von Doetinchem, P.; Donnini, F.; Duranti, M.; D'Urso, D.; Egorov, A.; Eline, A.; Eppling, F. J.; Eronen, T.; Fan, Y. Y.; Farnesini, L.; Feng, J.; Fiandrini, E.; Fiasson, A.; Finch, E.; Fisher, P.; Formato, V.; Galaktionov, Y.; Gallucci, G.; García, B.; García-López, R.; Gargiulo, C.; Gast, H.; Gebauer, I.; Gervasi, M.; Ghelfi, A.; Giovacchini, F.; Goglov, P.; Gong, J.; Goy, C.; Grabski, V.; Grandi, D.; Graziani, M.; Guandalini, C.; Guerri, I.; Guo, K. H.; Haas, D.; Habiby, M.; Haino, S.; Han, K. C.; He, Z. H.; Heil, M.; Hoffman, J.; Hsieh, T. H.; Huang, Z. C.; Huh, C.; Incagli, M.; Ionica, M.; Jang, W. Y.; Jinchi, H.; Kanishev, K.; Kim, G. N.; Kim, K. S.; Kirn, Th.; Korkmaz, M. A.; Kossakowski, R.; Kounina, O.; Kounine, A.; Koutsenko, V.; Krafczyk, M. S.; La Vacca, G.; Laudi, E.; Laurenti, G.; Lazzizzera, I.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, H. T.; Lee, S. C.; Leluc, C.; Li, H. L.; Li, J. Q.; Li, J. Q.; Li, Q.; Li, Q.; Li, T. X.; Li, W.; Li, Y.; Li, Z. H.; Li, Z. Y.; Lim, S.; Lin, C. H.; Lipari, P.; Lippert, T.; Liu, D.; Liu, H.; Liu, Hu; Lolli, M.; Lomtadze, T.; Lu, M. J.; Lu, S. Q.; Lu, Y. S.; Luebelsmeyer, K.; Luo, F.; Luo, J. Z.; Lv, S. S.; Majka, R.; Mañá, C.; Marín, J.; Martin, T.; Martínez, G.; Masi, N.; Maurin, D.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Meng, Q.; Mo, D. C.; Morescalchi, L.; Mott, P.; Müller, M.; Nelson, T.; Ni, J. Q.; Nikonov, N.; Nozzoli, F.; Nunes, P.; Obermeier, A.; Oliva, A.; Orcinha, M.; Palmonari, F.; Palomares, C.; Paniccia, M.; Papi, A.; Pauluzzi, M.; Pedreschi, E.; Pensotti, S.; Pereira, R.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Pilo, F.; Piluso, A.; Pizzolotto, C.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Poireau, V.; Putze, A.; Quadrani, L.; Qi, X. M.; Qin, X.; Qu, Z. Y.; Räihä, T.; Rancoita, P. G.; Rapin, D.; Ricol, J. S.; Rodríguez, I.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rozhkov, A.; Rozza, D.; Sagdeev, R.; Sandweiss, J.; Saouter, P.; Schael, S.; Schmidt, S. M.; von Dratzig, A. Schulz; Schwering, G.; Scolieri, G.; Seo, E. S.; Shan, B. S.; Shan, Y. H.; Shi, J. Y.; Shi, X. Y.; Shi, Y. M.; Siedenburg, T.; Son, D.; Song, J. W.; Spada, F.; Spinella, F.; Sun, W.; Sun, W. H.; Tacconi, M.; Tang, C. P.; Tang, X. W.; Tang, Z. C.; Tao, L.; Tescaro, D.; Ting, Samuel C. C.; Ting, S. M.; Tomassetti, N.; Torsti, J.; Türkoǧlu, C.; Urban, T.; Vagelli, V.; Valente, E.; Vannini, C.; Valtonen, E.; Vaurynovich, S.; Vecchi, M.; Velasco, M.; Vialle, J. P.; Vitale, V.; Vitillo, S.; Wang, L. Q.; Wang, N. H.; Wang, Q. L.; Wang, R. S.; Wang, X.; Wang, Z. X.; Weng, Z. L.; Whitman, K.; Wienkenhöver, J.; Willenbrock, M.; Wu, H.; Wu, X.; Xia, X.; Xie, M.; Xie, S.; Xiong, R. Q.; Xu, N. S.; Xu, W.; Yan, Q.; Yang, J.; Yang, M.; Yang, Y.; Ye, Q. H.; Yi, H.; Yu, Y. J.; Yu, Z. Q.; Zeissler, S.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, J. H.; Zhang, M. T.; Zhang, S. D.; Zhang, S. W.; Zhang, X. B.; Zhang, Z.; Zheng, Z. M.; Zhuang, H. L.; Zhukov, V.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, N.; Zuccon, P.; AMS Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    Knowledge of the precise rigidity dependence of the helium flux is important in understanding the origin, acceleration, and propagation of cosmic rays. A precise measurement of the helium flux in primary cosmic rays with rigidity (momentum/charge) from 1.9 GV to 3 TV based on 50 million events is presented and compared to the proton flux. The detailed variation with rigidity of the helium flux spectral index is presented for the first time. The spectral index progressively hardens at rigidities larger than 100 GV. The rigidity dependence of the helium flux spectral index is similar to that of the proton spectral index though the magnitudes are different. Remarkably, the spectral index of the proton to helium flux ratio increases with rigidity up to 45 GV and then becomes constant; the flux ratio above 45 GV is well described by a single power law.

  4. Study of proton and carbon 13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of an allyl phenol derivatives series; Estudo de espectros de ressonancia magnetica nuclear protonica e de carbono 13 de uma serie de derivados de alilfenois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Thais Horta Alvares da [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia. Dept. de Produtos Farmaceuticos; Oliveira, Alaide Braga de [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    1991-12-31

    Quaternary ammonium salt derivates of natural ally phenols were synthesized with the purpose of obtaining peripheral analgesics. Eugenol, O-methyleugenol and safrole were submitted to nitration, reduction, per methylation. The amines were also transformed into their hydro chlorides. The {sup 1} HNMR spectra of the nitro compounds, amines, amine hydro chlorides, quaternary ammonium salts and dymethylamines were analysed, as well as the {sup 13} C NMR spectra of the nitro compounds and of the quaternary ammonium salts. (author). 8 refs., 4 tabs.

  5. Excited state Intramolecular Proton Transfer in Anthralin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Andersen, Kristine B.; Spanget-Larsen, Jens

    1998-01-01

    Quantum chemical calculations performed on anthralin (1,8-dihydroxy-9(10H)-anthracenone) predict the possibility of an excited-state intramolecular proton transfer process. Fluorescence excitation and emission spectra of the compound dissolved in n-hexane at ambient temperature results in an unus......Quantum chemical calculations performed on anthralin (1,8-dihydroxy-9(10H)-anthracenone) predict the possibility of an excited-state intramolecular proton transfer process. Fluorescence excitation and emission spectra of the compound dissolved in n-hexane at ambient temperature results......, associated with an excited-state intramolecular proton transfer process....

  6. Observation of the Identical Rigidity Dependence of He, C, and O Cosmic Rays at High Rigidities by the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, M.; Ali Cavasonza, L.; Alpat, B.; Ambrosi, G.; Arruda, L.; Attig, N.; Aupetit, S.; Azzarello, P.; Bachlechner, A.; Barao, F.; Barrau, A.; Barrin, L.; Bartoloni, A.; Basara, L.; Başeǧmez-du Pree, S.; Battarbee, M.; Battiston, R.; Becker, U.; Behlmann, M.; Beischer, B.; Berdugo, J.; Bertucci, B.; Bindel, K. F.; Bindi, V.; de Boer, W.; Bollweg, K.; Bonnivard, V.; Borgia, B.; Boschini, M. J.; Bourquin, M.; Bueno, E. F.; Burger, J.; Burger, W. J.; Cadoux, F.; Cai, X. D.; Capell, M.; Caroff, S.; Casaus, J.; Castellini, G.; Cervelli, F.; Chae, M. J.; Chang, Y. H.; Chen, A. I.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Cheng, L.; Chou, H. Y.; Choumilov, E.; Choutko, V.; Chung, C. H.; Clark, C.; Clavero, R.; Coignet, G.; Consolandi, C.; Contin, A.; Corti, C.; Creus, W.; Crispoltoni, M.; Cui, Z.; Dadzie, K.; Dai, Y. M.; Datta, A.; Delgado, C.; Della Torre, S.; Demakov, O.; Demirköz, M. B.; Derome, L.; Di Falco, S.; Dimiccoli, F.; Díaz, C.; von Doetinchem, P.; Dong, F.; Donnini, F.; Duranti, M.; D'Urso, D.; Egorov, A.; Eline, A.; Eronen, T.; Feng, J.; Fiandrini, E.; Fisher, P.; Formato, V.; Galaktionov, Y.; Gallucci, G.; García-López, R. J.; Gargiulo, C.; Gast, H.; Gebauer, I.; Gervasi, M.; Ghelfi, A.; Giovacchini, F.; Gómez-Coral, D. M.; Gong, J.; Goy, C.; Grabski, V.; Grandi, D.; Graziani, M.; Guo, K. H.; Haino, S.; Han, K. C.; He, Z. H.; Heil, M.; Hoffman, J.; Hsieh, T. H.; Huang, H.; Huang, Z. C.; Huh, C.; Incagli, M.; Ionica, M.; Jang, W. Y.; Jia, Yi; Jinchi, H.; Kang, S. C.; Kanishev, K.; Khiali, B.; Kim, G. N.; Kim, K. S.; Kirn, Th.; Konak, C.; Kounina, O.; Kounine, A.; Koutsenko, V.; Kulemzin, A.; La Vacca, G.; Laudi, E.; Laurenti, G.; Lazzizzera, I.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, H. T.; Lee, S. C.; Leluc, C.; Li, H. S.; Li, J. Q.; Li, Q.; Li, T. X.; Li, Y.; Li, Z. H.; Li, Z. Y.; Lim, S.; Lin, C. H.; Lipari, P.; Lippert, T.; Liu, D.; Liu, Hu; Lordello, V. D.; Lu, S. Q.; Lu, Y. S.; Luebelsmeyer, K.; Luo, F.; Luo, J. Z.; Lyu, S. S.; Machate, F.; Mañá, C.; Marín, J.; Martin, T.; Martínez, G.; Masi, N.; Maurin, D.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Meng, Q.; Mikuni, V. M.; Mo, D. C.; Mott, P.; Nelson, T.; Ni, J. Q.; Nikonov, N.; Nozzoli, F.; Oliva, A.; Orcinha, M.; Palmonari, F.; Palomares, C.; Paniccia, M.; Pauluzzi, M.; Pensotti, S.; Perrina, C.; Phan, H. D.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Pilo, F.; Pizzolotto, C.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Poireau, V.; Quadrani, L.; Qi, X. M.; Qin, X.; Qu, Z. Y.; Räihä, T.; Rancoita, P. G.; Rapin, D.; Ricol, J. S.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rozhkov, A.; Rozza, D.; Sagdeev, R.; Schael, S.; Schmidt, S. M.; Schulz von Dratzig, A.; Schwering, G.; Seo, E. S.; Shan, B. S.; Shi, J. Y.; Siedenburg, T.; Son, D.; Song, J. W.; Tacconi, M.; Tang, X. W.; Tang, Z. C.; Tescaro, D.; Ting, Samuel C. C.; Ting, S. M.; Tomassetti, N.; Torsti, J.; Türkoǧlu, C.; Urban, T.; Vagelli, V.; Valente, E.; Valtonen, E.; Vázquez Acosta, M.; Vecchi, M.; Velasco, M.; Vialle, J. P.; Vitale, V.; Vitillo, S.; Wang, L. Q.; Wang, N. H.; Wang, Q. L.; Wang, X.; Wang, X. Q.; Wang, Z. X.; Wei, C. C.; Weng, Z. L.; Whitman, K.; Wu, H.; Wu, X.; Xiong, R. Q.; Xu, W.; Yan, Q.; Yang, J.; Yang, M.; Yang, Y.; Yi, H.; Yu, Y. J.; Yu, Z. Q.; Zannoni, M.; Zeissler, S.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J. H.; Zhang, S. W.; Zhang, Z.; Zheng, Z. M.; Zhuang, H. L.; Zhukov, V.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, N.; Zuccon, P.; AMS Collaboration

    2017-12-01

    We report the observation of new properties of primary cosmic rays He, C, and O measured in the rigidity (momentum/charge) range 2 GV to 3 TV with 90 ×106 helium, 8.4 ×106 carbon, and 7.0 ×106 oxygen nuclei collected by the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) during the first five years of operation. Above 60 GV, these three spectra have identical rigidity dependence. They all deviate from a single power law above 200 GV and harden in an identical way.

  7. Rigidity spectrum of Forbush decrease calculated by neutron monitors data corrected and uncorrected for geomagnetic disturbances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alania, M V; Wawrzynczak, A; Sdobnov, V E; Kravtsova, M V

    2013-01-01

    Forbush decreases (Fd) of the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) intensity and geomagnetic storms are observed almost at the same time. Geomagnetic storm is a reason of significant disturbances of the magnetic cut off rigidity causing the distortion of the time profile of the Fd of the GCR intensity. We show some differences in the temporal changes of the rigidity spectra of Fd calculated by neutron monitors experimental data corrected and uncorrected for the changes of the geomagnetic cut off rigidity. Nevertheless, the general features of the temporal changes of the rigidity spectrum of Fd maintain as it was found in our previous investigations. Namely, at the beginning phase of Fd rigidity spectrum is relatively soft and gradually becomes hard up to reaching the minimum level of the GCR intensity; then the rigidity spectrum gradually becomes soft during the recovery phase of Fd. We also confirm that for the established temporal profiles of the rigidity spectrum of Fd a structural changes of the interplanetary magnetic field turbulence in the range of frequencies, 10 −-6 ÷10 −-5 Hz are responsible.

  8. Surface proton transport of fully protonated poly(aspartic acid) thin films on quartz substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Yuki; Kubo, Takahiro

    2014-12-01

    Thin film structure and the proton transport property of fully protonated poly(aspartic acid) (P-Asp100) have been investigated. An earlier study assessed partially protonated poly(aspartic acid), highly oriented thin film structure and enhancement of the internal proton transport. In this study of P-Asp100, IR p-polarized multiple-angle incidence resolution (P-MAIR) spectra were measured to investigate the thin film structure. The obtained thin films, with thicknesses of 120-670 nm, had no oriented structure. Relative humidity dependence of the resistance, proton conductivity, and normalized resistance were examined to ascertain the proton transport property of P-Asp100 thin films. The obtained data showed that the proton transport of P-Asp100 thin films might occur on the surface, not inside of the thin film. This phenomenon might be related with the proton transport of the biological system.

  9. Proton Beam Writing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajta, I.; Szilasi, S.Z.; Csige, I.; Baradacs, E.

    2005-01-01

    flow channel, which were also implanted at the same irradiation. During the porous Si formation we developed the sample 6-8 μm deeper than the implanting ion range damaged the crystal. Due to the isotropic nature of the porous Si etching, the thick sidewall blocks are still connected to the crystal while the thin membranes detached from the bottom, and they are only connected to one of the sidewalls. The other construction utilized the goniometer facility mounted on the microbeam chamber, we implanted the samples at 40 degrees tilt, and developed the samples not as deep as the ion range. This way both the sidewalls and the membranes are attached to the bottom of the sample. The SEM images of the samples showed that both of these types of valves can be actively working, however, the thickness of the moving membrane requires extremely large force according to the fluidic tests. In order to achieve a successful demonstration of the functionality, the membrane rigidity should be reduced by decreasing the wall thickness. Reduction of optimal fluence by CO 2 treatment after exposure and vacuum effects in proton beam micromachining of CR-39 CR-39 has been shown to be a suitable material as a thick resist for Proton Beam Writing [5]. These samples are normally used to detect single alpha particles in normal air conditions. However, to use this material as proton or alpha micromachinable resists, we need to irradiate the samples in vacuum. In this work, we investigated the effects of vacuum on the micromachinable properties of CR-39. Our investigations proved that there were no drawbacks of the vacuum storage of the samples, so we concluded that CR-39 is a suitable material as a PBM resist in this respect, too. Another part of the current work concentrated on the effect of post-irradiaton CO 2 treatment of the samples. Such a treatment increased the radiation sensitivity of CR-39, i.e. decreased the necessary optimal ion fluence. We have found that approximately 60% of fluence

  10. Delayed protons and properties of proton-rich nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karnaukhov, V.A.

    1976-01-01

    The object of the investigation is to study the properties of proton-rich nuclei. The emphasis in the proposed survey is made on investigations in the range of Z > 50. Measurement of the total energy in emission of delayed protons (DP) enables one to determine the difference between the masses of initial and final isotopes. The statistical model of the DP emission is used for describing the proton spectrum. A comparison of the DP experimental and theoretical spectra shows that the presence of local resonances in the strength functions of the β dacay is rather a rule than an exception. Studies into the fine structure of the proton spectra supply information of the density of nuclei considerably removed from the β-stability line at the excitation energies of 3-7 MeV. The aproaches for retrieval of nuclear information with the aid of proton radiators developed so far can serve as a good basis for systematic investigation over a wide range of A and Z

  11. Topological orders in rigid states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, X.G.

    1990-01-01

    The authors study a new kind of ordering topological order in rigid states (the states with no local gapless excitations). This paper concentrates on characterization of the different topological orders. As an example the authors discuss in detail chiral spin states of 2+1 dimensional spin systems. Chiral spin states are described by the topological Chern-Simons theories in the continuum limit. The authors show that the topological orders can be characterized by a non-Abelian gauge structure over the moduli space which parametrizes a family of the model Hamiltonians supporting topologically ordered ground states. In 2 + 1 dimensions, the non-Abelian gauge structure determines possible fractional statistics of the quasi-particle excitations over the topologically ordered ground states. The dynamics of the low lying global excitations is shown to be independent of random spatial dependent perturbations. The ground state degeneracy and the non-Abelian gauge structures discussed in this paper are very robust, even against those perturbations that break translation symmetry. The authors also discuss the symmetry properties of the degenerate ground states of chiral spin states. The authors find that some degenerate ground states of chiral spin states on torus carry non-trivial quantum numbers of the 90 degrees rotation

  12. Temperatures of fragment kinetic energy spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, W.

    1995-01-01

    Multifragmentation reactions without large compression in the initial state (proton-induced reactions, reverse kinematics, projectile fragmentation) are examined, and it is verified quantitatively that the high temperatures obtained from fragment kinetic energy spectra and lower temperatures obtained from observables such as level population or isotope ratios can be understood in a common framework

  13. Scaling properties of the transverse mass spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaffner-Bielich, J.

    2002-01-01

    Motivated from the formation of an initial state of gluon-saturated matter, we discuss scaling relations for the transverse mass spectra at BNL's relativistic heavy-ion collider (RHIC). We show on linear plots, that the transverse mass spectra for various hadrons can be described by an universal function in m t . The transverse mass spectra for different centralities can be rescaled into each other. Finally, we demonstrate that m t -scaling is also present in proton-antiproton collider data and compare it to m t -scaling at RHIC. (orig.)

  14. Measurement of the spin asymmetry of the beam in the polarized virtual Compton scattering on the proton. Study of the nucleon's energy spectra through the QCD-type potential model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensafa, I.K.

    2006-05-01

    The first part of this work presents the analysis and results of the VCS-SSA (virtual Compton scattering - single spin asymmetry) experiment at MAMI (Mainz). It was carried out with beam energy 883 MeV and longitudinal polarization (about 80%), at virtual photon four-momentum transfer squared (Q 2 = 0.35 GeV 2 ) to measure the beam asymmetry in the ep → epγ and ep → epπ 0 reactions. The asymmetry obtained in photon (resp. pion) electro-production is between 0-15% (resp. 0-2%). The dispersion relation model for virtual Compton scattering and MAID model (for π 0 ) reproduce the amplitude globally but not completely the shape of the asymmetry. Perhaps this discrepancy is due to an imperfect parameterization of some pion production multipoles (γ * N → πN). The second part is dedicated to the study of the nucleon energy spectrum in ground-state L=0 and excited-state L=1 in the quark model, using the Coulomb + linear potential type (CL) and a relativistic correction. The hyperfine correction is applied to discriminate the nucleon masses. The values of the mass found for the proton and the Δ(1232) are respectively equal to (968 MeV, 1168 MeV), and the masses of the excited states are between 1564 - 1607 MeV. This part is completed by an application of the CL model to an approximate calculation of generalized polarizabilities of the proton. (author)

  15. Identified hadron spectra from PHOBOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veres, Gábor I.; the PHOBOS Collaboration; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Becker, B.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; Gburek, T.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Harrington, A. S.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Khan, N.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lee, J. W.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sedykh, I.; Skulski, W.; Smith, C. E.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Wozniak, K.; Wysłouch, B.; Zhang, J.

    2004-08-01

    Transverse momentum spectra of pions, kaons and protons, as well as antiparticle to particle ratios near mid-rapidity from d+Au collisions at \\sqrt{sNN} = 200 GeV have been measured by the PHOBOS experiment at RHIC. The transverse momentum range of particle identification was extended to beyond 3 GeV/c using the TOF detector and a new trigger system. The pseudorapidity dependence of the nuclear modification factor for charged hadrons in d+Au collisions is presented.

  16. Stochastic response of rigid foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pais, A.L.; Kausel, E.

    1986-01-01

    While the study of Kinematic Interaction effects calls, in general, for advanced analytical and numerical techniques, an excellent approximation was proposed recently by Iguchi. This approximation was used by the authors to analyze embedded foundations subjected to spatially random SH-wave fields, i.e., motions that exhibit some degree of incoherence. The wave fields considered ranged from perfectly coherent motions (resulting from seismic waves arriving from a single direction) to chaotic motions resulting from waves arriving simultaneously from all directions. Additional parameters considered were the shape of the foundation (cylindrical, rectangular) and the degree of embedment. It was found that kinematic interaction usually reduces the severity of the motions transmitted to the structure, and that incoherent motions do not exhibit the frequency selectivity (i.e., narrow valleys in the foundation response spectra) that coherent motions do

  17. Investigation of Neutron Spectra and Transmutation of ^{129}I, ^{237}Np and Other Nuclides with 1.5 GeV Protons from the Dubna Nuclotron Using the Electronuclear Setup "Energy plus Transmutation"

    CERN Document Server

    Krivopustov, M I; Balabekyan, A R; Batusov, Yu A; Bielewicz, M; Brandt, R; Chaloun, P; Chultem, D; Dwivedi, K K; Elishev, A F; Fragopoulou, M; Henzl, V; Henzlová, D; Kalinnikov, V G; Kievets, M K; Krása, A; Krizek, F; Kugler, A; Manolopoulou, Metaxia; Mariin, I I; Nourreddine, A; Odoj, R; Pavliouk, A V; Pronskikh, V S; Robotham, H; Siemon, K; Szuta, M; Stegailov, V I; Solnyshkin, A A; Sosnin, A N; Stoulos, S; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, V M; Tumendelger, T; Wojecehowski, A; Wagner, V; Wan, J S; Westmeier, W; Zamani-Valasiadou, M; Kumawat, H; Kumar, V; Zaverioukha, O S; Zhuk, I V

    2004-01-01

    Experiments which are part of the scientific program "Investigations of physical aspects of electronuclear method of energy production and transmutation for radioactive waste of atomic energetics using relativistic beams from the JINR Synchrophasotron/Nuclotron" (project "Energy plus Transmutation") are described. A large lead target surrounded by a four-section uranium blanket with total weight of 206.4 kg natural uranium was irradiated with 1.5 GeV protons from the new cryogenic accelerator Nuclotron. Radiochemical sensors were exposed to the secondary particle fluences inside and on top of the target assembly. Two long-lived radioactive waste of atomic energetics sensors ^{129}I and ^{237}Np (approximately 1 g weight each) and stable nuclides ^{27}Al, ^{59}Co, ^{127}I, ^{139}La, ^{197}Au and ^{209}Bi as well as natural and enriched uranium were used. In addition, various solid state nuclear track detectors and nuclear emulsions were exposed simultaneously. The experimental results confirm the theoretical e...

  18. Surface proton transport of fully protonated poly(aspartic acid) thin films on quartz substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagao, Yuki, E-mail: ynagao@jaist.ac.jp; Kubo, Takahiro

    2014-12-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Proton transport of fully protonated poly(aspartic acid) thin film was investigated. • The thin film structure differed greatly from the partially protonated one. • Proton transport occurs on the surface, not inside of the thin film. • This result contributes to biological transport systems such as bacteriorhodopsin. - Abstract: Thin film structure and the proton transport property of fully protonated poly(aspartic acid) (P-Asp100) have been investigated. An earlier study assessed partially protonated poly(aspartic acid), highly oriented thin film structure and enhancement of the internal proton transport. In this study of P-Asp100, IR p-polarized multiple-angle incidence resolution (P-MAIR) spectra were measured to investigate the thin film structure. The obtained thin films, with thicknesses of 120–670 nm, had no oriented structure. Relative humidity dependence of the resistance, proton conductivity, and normalized resistance were examined to ascertain the proton transport property of P-Asp100 thin films. The obtained data showed that the proton transport of P-Asp100 thin films might occur on the surface, not inside of the thin film. This phenomenon might be related with the proton transport of the biological system.

  19. Surface proton transport of fully protonated poly(aspartic acid) thin films on quartz substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagao, Yuki; Kubo, Takahiro

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Proton transport of fully protonated poly(aspartic acid) thin film was investigated. • The thin film structure differed greatly from the partially protonated one. • Proton transport occurs on the surface, not inside of the thin film. • This result contributes to biological transport systems such as bacteriorhodopsin. - Abstract: Thin film structure and the proton transport property of fully protonated poly(aspartic acid) (P-Asp100) have been investigated. An earlier study assessed partially protonated poly(aspartic acid), highly oriented thin film structure and enhancement of the internal proton transport. In this study of P-Asp100, IR p-polarized multiple-angle incidence resolution (P-MAIR) spectra were measured to investigate the thin film structure. The obtained thin films, with thicknesses of 120–670 nm, had no oriented structure. Relative humidity dependence of the resistance, proton conductivity, and normalized resistance were examined to ascertain the proton transport property of P-Asp100 thin films. The obtained data showed that the proton transport of P-Asp100 thin films might occur on the surface, not inside of the thin film. This phenomenon might be related with the proton transport of the biological system

  20. Deciphering the Local Interstellar Spectra of Primary Cosmic-Ray Species with HELMOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschini, M. J.; Della Torre, S.; Gervasi, M.; Grandi, D.; Jóhannesson, G.; La Vacca, G.; Masi, N.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Pensotti, S.; Porter, T. A.; Quadrani, L.; Rancoita, P. G.; Rozza, D.; Tacconi, M.

    2018-05-01

    Local interstellar spectra (LIS) of primary cosmic ray (CR) nuclei, such as helium, oxygen, and mostly primary carbon are derived for the rigidity range from 10 MV to ∼200 TV using the most recent experimental results combined with the state-of-the-art models for CR propagation in the Galaxy and in the heliosphere. Two propagation packages, GALPROP and HELMOD, are combined into a single framework that is used to reproduce direct measurements of CR species at different modulation levels, and at both polarities of the solar magnetic field. The developed iterative maximum-likelihood method uses GALPROP-predicted LIS as input to HELMOD, which provides the modulated spectra for specific time periods of the selected experiments for model–data comparison. The interstellar and heliospheric propagation parameters derived in this study are consistent with our prior analyses using the same methodology for propagation of CR protons, helium, antiprotons, and electrons. The resulting LIS accommodate a variety of measurements made in the local interstellar space (Voyager 1) and deep inside the heliosphere at low (ACE/CRIS, HEAO-3) and high energies (PAMELA, AMS-02).

  1. Nanoscale measurements of proton tracks using fluorescent nuclear track detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawakuchi, Gabriel O., E-mail: gsawakuchi@mdanderson.org; Sahoo, Narayan [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 and Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Texas, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Ferreira, Felisberto A. [Department of Nuclear Physics, University of Sao Paulo, SP 05508-090 (Brazil); McFadden, Conor H. [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Hallacy, Timothy M. [Biophysics Program, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Granville, Dal A. [Department of Medical Physics, The Ottawa Hospital Cancer Centre, Ottawa, Ontario K1H 8L6 (Canada); Akselrod, Mark S. [Crystal Growth Division, Landauer, Inc., Stillwater, Oklahoma 74074 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Purpose: The authors describe a method in which fluorescence nuclear track detectors (FNTDs), novel track detectors with nanoscale spatial resolution, are used to determine the linear energy transfer (LET) of individual proton tracks from proton therapy beams by allowing visualization and 3D reconstruction of such tracks. Methods: FNTDs were exposed to proton therapy beams with nominal energies ranging from 100 to 250 MeV. Proton track images were then recorded by confocal microscopy of the FNTDs. Proton tracks in the FNTD images were fit by using a Gaussian function to extract fluorescence amplitudes. Histograms of fluorescence amplitudes were then compared with LET spectra. Results: The authors successfully used FNTDs to register individual proton tracks from high-energy proton therapy beams, allowing reconstruction of 3D images of proton tracks along with delta rays. The track amplitudes from FNTDs could be used to parameterize LET spectra, allowing the LET of individual proton tracks from therapeutic proton beams to be determined. Conclusions: FNTDs can be used to directly visualize proton tracks and their delta rays at the nanoscale level. Because the track intensities in the FNTDs correlate with LET, they could be used further to measure LET of individual proton tracks. This method may be useful for measuring nanoscale radiation quantities and for measuring the LET of individual proton tracks in radiation biology experiments.

  2. Analysis of Switched-Rigid Floating Oscillator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar R. Marur

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In explicit finite element simulations, a technique called deformable-to-rigid (D2R switching is used routinely to reduce the computation time. Using the D2R option, the deformable parts in the model can be switched to rigid and reverted back to deformable when needed during the analysis. The time of activation of D2R however influences the overall dynamics of the system being analyzed. In this paper, a theoretical basis for the selection of time of rigid switching based on system energy is established. A floating oscillator problem is investigated for this purpose and closed-form analytical expressions are derived for different phases in rigid switching. The analytical expressions are validated by comparing the theoretical results with numerical computations.

  3. Rigid pricing and rationally inattentive consumer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějka, Filip

    158 B, July (2015), s. 656-678 ISSN 0022-0531 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : rational inattention * imperfect information * nominal rigidity Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.097, year: 2015

  4. Rigid pricing and rationally inattentive consumer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějka, Filip

    158 B, July (2015), s. 656-678 ISSN 0022-0531 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : rational inattention * imperfect information * nominal rigidity Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.097, year: 2015

  5. Soft soils reinforced by rigid vertical inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia-Victoria NEAGOE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Reinforcement of soft soils by rigid vertical inclusions is an increasingly used technique over the last few years. The system consists of rigid or semi-rigid vertical inclusions and a granular platform for the loads transfer from the structure to the inclusions. This technique aims to reduce the differential settlements both at ground level as below the structure. Reinforcement by rigid inclusions is mainly used for foundation works for large commercial and industrial platforms, storage tanks, wastewater treatment plants, wind farms, bridges, roads, railway embankments. The subject is one of interest as it proves the recently concerns at international level in research and design; however, most studies deal more with the static behavior and less with the dynamic one.

  6. Proton decay theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciano, W.J.

    1983-01-01

    Topics include minimal SU(5) predictions, gauge boson mediated proton decay, uncertainties in tau/sub p/, Higgs scalar effects, proton decay via Higgs scalars, supersymmetric SU(5), dimension 5 operators and proton decay, and Higgs scalars and proton decay

  7. Flexible and rigid cystoscopy in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Jason R; Waterman, Bradley J; Jarrard, David F; Hedican, Sean P; Bruskewitz, Reginald C; Nakada, Stephen Y

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have evaluated the tolerability of rigid versus flexible cystoscopy in men. Similar studies, however, have not been performed in women. We sought to determine whether office-based flexible cystoscopy was better tolerated than rigid cystoscopy in women. Following full IRB approval, women were prospectively randomized in a single-blind manner. Patients were randomized to flexible or rigid cystoscopy and draped in the lithotomy position to maintain blinding of the study. Questionnaires evaluated discomfort before, during, and after cystoscopy. Thirty-six women were randomized to flexible (18) or rigid (18) cystoscopy. Indications were surveillance (16), hematuria (15), recurrent UTIs (2), voiding dysfunction (1), and other (2). All questionnaires were returned by 31/36 women. Using a 10-point visual analog scale (VAS), median discomfort during the procedure for flexible and rigid cystoscopy were 1.4 and 1.8, respectively, in patients perceiving pain. Median recalled pain 1 week later was similar at 0.8 and 1.15, respectively. None of these differences were statistically significant. Flexible and rigid cystoscopy are well tolerated in women. Discomfort during and after the procedure is minimal in both groups. Urologists should perform either procedure in women based on their preference and skill level.

  8. Effect of isospin degree of freedom on transverse momentum spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Sukhjit; Swati

    2013-01-01

    We study the effect of isospin degree of freedom, incident energy as well as system mass on the behavior of transverse momentum spectra, dN/p t dp t , of neutrons and protons. We find that most of the nucleons suffer soft collisions. The effect of isospin degree of freedom on transverse spectra diminishes with the increase in the incident energy. In Fermi energy region, transverse momentum spectra of both protons and neutrons show sensitivity toward the density dependence of symmetry energy. (author)

  9. Proton therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jongen, Y.

    1995-01-01

    Ideal radiotherapy deposits a large amount of energy in the tumour volume, and none in the surrounding healthy tissues. Proton therapy comes closer to this goal because of a greater concentration of dose, well defined proton ranges and points of energy release which are precisely known - the Bragg peak1. In the past, the development of clinical proton therapy has been hampered by complexity, size, and cost. To be clinically effective, energies of several hundred MeV are required; these were previously unavailable for hospital installations, and pioneering institutions had to work with complex, inadequate equipment originally intended for nuclear physics research. Recently a number of specialist organizations and commercial companies have been working on dedicated systems for proton therapy. One, IBA of Belgium, has equipment for inhouse hospital operation which encompasses a complete therapy centre, delivered as a turnkey package and incorporating a compact, automated, higher energy cyclotron with isocentric gantries. Their system will be installed at Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston. The proton therapy system comprises: - a 235 MeV isochronous cyclotron to deliver beams of up to 1.5 microamps, but with a hardware limitation to restrict the maximum possible dose; - variable energy beam (235 to 70 MeV ) with energy spread and emittance verification; - a beam transport and switching system to connect the exit of the energy selection system to the entrances of a number of gantries and fixed beamlines. Along the beam transport system, the beam characteristics are monitored with non-interceptive multiwire ionization chambers for automatic tuning; - gantries fitted with nozzles and beamline elements for beam control; both beam scattering and beam wobbling techniques are available for shaping the beam;

  10. Inclusive sum rules and spectra of neutrons at the ISR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoryan, A.A.

    1975-01-01

    Neutron spectra in pp collisions at ISR energies are studied in the framework of sum rules for inclusive processes. The contributions of protons, π- and E- mesons to the energy sum rule are calculated at √5 = 53 GeV. It is shown by means of this sum rule that the spectra of neutrons at the ISR are in contradiction with the spectra of other particles also measured at the ISR

  11. Rigid Body Sampling and Individual Time Stepping for Rigid-Fluid Coupling of Fluid Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaokun Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an efficient and simple rigid-fluid coupling scheme with scientific programming algorithms for particle-based fluid simulation and three-dimensional visualization. Our approach samples the surface of rigid bodies with boundary particles that interact with fluids. It contains two procedures, that is, surface sampling and sampling relaxation, which insures uniform distribution of particles with less iterations. Furthermore, we present a rigid-fluid coupling scheme integrating individual time stepping to rigid-fluid coupling, which gains an obvious speedup compared to previous method. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.

  12. Proton radiography to improve proton therapy treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takatsu, J.; van der Graaf, E. R.; van Goethem, Marc-Jan; van Beuzekom, M.; Klaver, T.; Visser, Jan; Brandenburg, S.; Biegun, A. K.

    The quality of cancer treatment with protons critically depends on an accurate prediction of the proton stopping powers for the tissues traversed by the protons. Today, treatment planning in proton radiotherapy is based on stopping power calculations from densities of X-ray Computed Tomography (CT)

  13. Proton chemical shift tensors determined by 3D ultrafast MAS double-quantum NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Rongchun; Mroue, Kamal H.; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2015-01-01

    Proton NMR spectroscopy in the solid state has recently attracted much attention owing to the significant enhancement in spectral resolution afforded by the remarkable advances in ultrafast magic angle spinning (MAS) capabilities. In particular, proton chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) has become an important tool for obtaining specific insights into inter/intra-molecular hydrogen bonding. However, even at the highest currently feasible spinning frequencies (110–120 kHz), 1 H MAS NMR spectra of rigid solids still suffer from poor resolution and severe peak overlap caused by the strong 1 H– 1 H homonuclear dipolar couplings and narrow 1 H chemical shift (CS) ranges, which render it difficult to determine the CSA of specific proton sites in the standard CSA/single-quantum (SQ) chemical shift correlation experiment. Herein, we propose a three-dimensional (3D) 1 H double-quantum (DQ) chemical shift/CSA/SQ chemical shift correlation experiment to extract the CS tensors of proton sites whose signals are not well resolved along the single-quantum chemical shift dimension. As extracted from the 3D spectrum, the F1/F3 (DQ/SQ) projection provides valuable information about 1 H– 1 H proximities, which might also reveal the hydrogen-bonding connectivities. In addition, the F2/F3 (CSA/SQ) correlation spectrum, which is similar to the regular 2D CSA/SQ correlation experiment, yields chemical shift anisotropic line shapes at different isotropic chemical shifts. More importantly, since the F2/F1 (CSA/DQ) spectrum correlates the CSA with the DQ signal induced by two neighboring proton sites, the CSA spectrum sliced at a specific DQ chemical shift position contains the CSA information of two neighboring spins indicated by the DQ chemical shift. If these two spins have different CS tensors, both tensors can be extracted by numerical fitting. We believe that this robust and elegant single-channel proton-based 3D experiment provides useful atomistic-level structural and dynamical

  14. Identifying Floppy and Rigid Regions in Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, D. J.; Thorpe, M. F.; Kuhn, L. A.

    1998-03-01

    In proteins it is possible to separate hard covalent forces involving bond lengths and bond angles from other weak forces. We model the microstructure of the protein as a generic bar-joint truss framework, where the hard covalent forces and strong hydrogen bonds are regarded as rigid bar constraints. We study the mechanical stability of proteins using FIRST (Floppy Inclusions and Rigid Substructure Topography) based on a recently developed combinatorial constraint counting algorithm (the 3D Pebble Game), which is a generalization of the 2D pebble game (D. J. Jacobs and M. F. Thorpe, ``Generic Rigidity: The Pebble Game'', Phys. Rev. Lett.) 75, 4051-4054 (1995) for the special class of bond-bending networks (D. J. Jacobs, "Generic Rigidity in Three Dimensional Bond-bending Networks", Preprint Aug (1997)). This approach is useful in identifying rigid motifs and flexible linkages in proteins, and thereby determines the essential degrees of freedom. We will show some preliminary results from the FIRST analysis on the myohemerythrin and lyozyme proteins.

  15. Quantum mechanics of a generalised rigid body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gripaios, Ben; Sutherland, Dave

    2016-01-01

    We consider the quantum version of Arnold’s generalisation of a rigid body in classical mechanics. Thus, we quantise the motion on an arbitrary Lie group manifold of a particle whose classical trajectories correspond to the geodesics of any one-sided-invariant metric. We show how the derivation of the spectrum of energy eigenstates can be simplified by making use of automorphisms of the Lie algebra and (for groups of type I) by methods of harmonic analysis. We show how the method can be extended to cosets, generalising the linear rigid rotor. As examples, we consider all connected and simply connected Lie groups up to dimension 3. This includes the universal cover of the archetypical rigid body, along with a number of new exactly solvable models. We also discuss a possible application to the topical problem of quantising a perfect fluid. (paper)

  16. Durable bistable auxetics made of rigid solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Xiao; Liu, Lu; Rafsanjani, Ahmad; Pasini, Damiano

    2018-02-01

    Bistable Auxetic Metamaterials (BAMs) are a class of monolithic perforated periodic structures with negative Poisson's ratio. Under tension, a BAM can expand and reach a second state of equilibrium through a globally large shape transformation that is ensured by the flexibility of its elastomeric base material. However, if made from a rigid polymer, or metal, BAM ceases to function due to the inevitable rupture of its ligaments. The goal of this work is to extend the unique functionality of the original kirigami architecture of BAM to a rigid solid base material. We use experiments and numerical simulations to assess performance, bistability and durability of rigid BAMs at 10,000 cycles. Geometric maps are presented to elucidate the role of the main descriptors of BAM architecture. The proposed design enables the realization of BAM from a large palette of materials, including elastic-perfectly plastic materials and potentially brittle materials.

  17. Virtual photon spectra for finite nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolynec, E.; Martins, M.N.

    1988-01-01

    The experimental results of an isochromat of the virtual photon spectrum, obtained by measuring the number of ground-state protons emitted by the 16.28 MeV isobaric analogue state in 90 Zr as a function of electron incident energy in the range 17-105 MeV, are compared with the values predicted by a calculation of the E1 DWBA virtual photon spectra for finite nuclei. It is found that the calculations are in excellent agreement with the experimental results. The DWBA virtual photon spectra for finite nuclei for E2 and M1 multipoles are also assessed. (author) [pt

  18. What can we learn from inclusive spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagamiya, S.

    1981-05-01

    The present experimental status on single particle inclusive measurements is described. Then, the geometrical aspect of the collision is discussed from the data of total integrated cross sections of nuclear charge or mass. The dynamical aspect of the collision, especially that for the participating region is discussed in connection with proton spectra, composite fragment spectra, pion production, ratios of π - /π + , n/p and t/ 3 He, and production of strange particles. The spectator physics is described from the data on projectile fragments

  19. Beta spectra. II-Positron spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau, A.; Garcia-Torano, E.

    1981-01-01

    Using the Fermi theory of beta decay, the beta spectra for 30 positron emitters have been computed, introducing a correction factor for unique forbidden transitions. The spectra are ploted vs. energy, once normalised, and tabulated with the related Fermi functions. The average and median energies are calculated. (author)

  20. Effect of rigid inclusions on sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahaman, M.N.; De Jonghe, L.C.

    1988-01-01

    The predictions of recent theoretical studies on the effect of inert, rigid inclusions on the sintering of ceramic powder matrices are examined and compared with experimental data. The densification of glass matrix composites with inclusion volume fractions of ≤0.15 can be adequately explained by Scherer's theory for viscous sintering with rigid inclusions. Inclusions cause a vast reduction in the densification rates of polycrystalline matrix composites even at low inclusion volume fractions. Models put forward to explain the sintering of polycrystalline matrix composites are discussed

  1. Type number and rigidity of fibred surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markov, P E

    2001-01-01

    Infinitesimal l-th order bendings, 1≤l≤∞, of higher-dimensional surfaces are considered in higher-dimensional flat spaces (for l=∞ an infinitesimal bending is assumed to be an analytic bending). In terms of the Allendoerfer type number, criteria are established for the (r,l)-rigidity (in the terminology of Sabitov) of such surfaces. In particular, an (r,l)-infinitesimal analogue is proved of the classical theorem of Allendoerfer on the unbendability of surfaces with type number ≥3 and the class of (r,l)-rigid fibred surfaces is distinguished

  2. Rigid origami vertices: conditions and forcing sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary Abel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We develop an intrinsic necessary and sufficient condition for single-vertex origami crease patterns to be able to fold rigidly.  We classify such patterns in the case where the creases are pre-assigned to be mountains and valleys as well as in the unassigned case.  We also illustrate the utility of this result by applying it to the new concept of minimal forcing sets for rigid origami models, which are the smallest collection of creases that, when folded, will force all the other creases to fold in a prescribed way.

  3. Evaluating a method for automated rigid registration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darkner, Sune; Vester-Christensen, Martin; Larsen, Rasmus

    2007-01-01

    to point distance. T-test for common mean are used to determine the performance of the two methods (supported by a Wilcoxon signed rank test). The performance influence of sampling density, sampling quantity, and norms is analyzed using a similar method.......We evaluate a novel method for fully automated rigid registration of 2D manifolds in 3D space based on distance maps, the Gibbs sampler and Iterated Conditional Modes (ICM). The method is tested against the ICP considered as the gold standard for automated rigid registration. Furthermore...

  4. Beta-delayed proton decay in the lanthanide region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitschke, J.M.; Wilmarth, P.A.; Gilat, J.; Moeller, P.; Toth, K.S.

    1987-09-01

    A total of 24 new β-delayed proton precursors and several new decay branches in the region of 56 151 Yb, 149 Er, and 147 Dy, pronounced structure in the proton spectra has been observed. An interpretation of this structure in the framework of ''doorway'' states is proposed. 25 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  5. Beta-delayed proton activities: 147Dy and 149Er

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, K.S.; Moltz, D.M.; Schloemer, E.C.; Cable, M.D.; Avignone, F.T. III; Ellis-Akovali, Y.A.

    1984-01-01

    The present paper discusses mainly the β-delayed proton spectra of 147 Dy and of the hitherto unknown isotope, 149 Er. However, following the submittal of the abstract for this conference we have now observed delayed protons following the decay of 145 Dy. Additionally, we have identified a 0.5-s delayed-proton emitter and tentatively assign it to the new isotope, 151 Yb

  6. Geometric integrators for stochastic rigid body dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Tretyakov, Mikhail

    2016-01-05

    Geometric integrators play an important role in simulating dynamical systems on long time intervals with high accuracy. We will illustrate geometric integration ideas within the stochastic context, mostly on examples of stochastic thermostats for rigid body dynamics. The talk will be mainly based on joint recent work with Rusland Davidchak and Tom Ouldridge.

  7. Combinatorial and Algorithmic Rigidity: Beyond Two Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    44]. Theorems of Maxwell- Laman type were ob- tained in [9, 15, 43]. 2 3. Counting and Enumeration. As anticipated in the project, we relied on methods...decompositions. Graphs and Combinatorics, 25:219–238, 2009. [43] I. Streinu and L. Theran. Slider-pinning rigidity: a Maxwell- Laman -type theorem. Discrete and

  8. Birationally rigid varieties. I. Fano varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pukhlikov, A V

    2007-01-01

    The theory of birational rigidity of rationally connected varieties generalises the classical rationality problem. This paper gives a survey of the current state of this theory and traces its history from Noether's theorem and the Lueroth problem to the latest results on the birational superrigidity of higher-dimensional Fano varieties. The main components of the method of maximal singularities are considered.

  9. Rigid polyurethane and kenaf core composite foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigid polyurethane foams are valuable in many construction applications. Kenaf is a bast fiber plant where the surface stem skin provides bast fibers whose strength-to-weight ratio competes with glass fiber. The higher volume product of the kenaf core is an under-investigated area in composite appli...

  10. Geometric integrators for stochastic rigid body dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Tretyakov, Mikhail

    2016-01-01

    Geometric integrators play an important role in simulating dynamical systems on long time intervals with high accuracy. We will illustrate geometric integration ideas within the stochastic context, mostly on examples of stochastic thermostats for rigid body dynamics. The talk will be mainly based on joint recent work with Rusland Davidchak and Tom Ouldridge.

  11. Rigidity Sensing Explained by Active Matter Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Marcq, Philippe; Yoshinaga, Natsuhiko; Prost, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    The magnitude of traction forces exerted by living animal cells on their environment is a monotonically increasing and approximately sigmoidal function of the stiffness of the external medium. We rationalize this observation using active matter theory, and propose that adaptation to substrate rigidity results from an interplay between passive elasticity and active contractility.

  12. About deformation and rigidity in relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coll, Bartolome

    2007-01-01

    The notion of deformation involves that of rigidity. In relativity, starting from Born's early definition of rigidity, some other ones have been proposed, offering more or less interesting aspects but also accompanied of undesired or even pathological properties. In order to clarify the origin of these difficulties presented by the notion of rigidity in relativity, we analyze with some detail significant aspects of the unambiguous classical, Newtonian, notion. In particular, the relative character of its kinetic definition is pointed out, allowing to predict and to understand the limitations imposed by Herglotz-Noether theorem. Also, its equivalent dynamic definition is obtained and, in contrast, its absolute character is shown. But in spite of this absolute character, the dynamic definition is shown to be not extensible to relativity. The metric deformation of Minkowski space by the presence of a gravitational field is interpreted as a universal deformation, and it is shown that, under natural conditions, only a simple deformation law is possible, relating locally, but in an one-to-one way, gravitational fields and gauge classes of two-forms. We argue that fields of unit vectors associated to the internal gauge class of two-forms of every space-time (and, in particular, of Minkowski space-time) are the relativistic analogues of the classical accelerated observers, i.e. of the classical rigid motions. Some other consequences of the universal law of gravitational deformation are commented

  13. Rigid pricing and rationally inattentive consumer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějka, Filip

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 2 (2010), s. 1-40 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : rational inattention * nominal rigidity Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp409.pdf

  14. Cracking of open traffic rigid pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niken Chatarina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The research is done by observing the growth of real structure cracking in Natar, Lampung, Indonesia compared to C. Niken’s et al research and literature study. The rigid pavement was done with open traffic system. There are two main crack types on Natar rigid pavement: cracks cross the road, and cracks spreads on rigid pavement surface. The observation of cracks was analyzed by analyzing material, casting, curing, loading and shrinkage mechanism. The relationship between these analysis and shrinkage mechanism was studied in concrete micro structure. Open traffic make hydration process occur under vibration; therefore, fresh concrete was compressed and tensioned alternately since beginning. High temperature together with compression, cement dissociation, the growth of Ca2+ at very early age leads abnormal swelling. No prevention from outside water movement leads hydration process occur with limited water which caused spreads fine cracks. Limited water improves shrinkage and plastic phase becomes shorter; therefore, rigid pavement can’t accommodate the abnormal swelling and shrinking alternately and creates the spread of cracks. Discontinuing casting the concrete makes both mix under different condition, the first is shrink and the second is swell and creates weak line on the border; so, the cracks appear as cracks across the road.

  15. Analysis of the spatial structure of rigid polyphenylene dendrimers by small-angle neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenfeldt, S.; Dingenouts, N.; Poetschke, D.; Ballauff, M.; Berresheim, A.J.; Muellen, K.; Lindner, P.; Saalwaechter, K.

    2005-01-01

    The analysis of the spatial structure of a rigid polyphenylene dendrimer G4-M of fourth generation by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) is presented. This dendrimer is composed of phenyl units and is therefore devoid of any flexible unit. The scattering intensity of dilute solutions of the dendrimer was measured by SANS at different contrast which was adjusted by mixtures of protonated and deuterated toluene. Hence, the method of contrast variation could be applied and the data yield the scattering function extrapolated to infinite contrast. The comparison of this data with simulations demonstrates that the scaffold of the dendrimer is rigid as expected from its chemical structure. The positions of the various units setting up consecutive shells of the dendrimer are relatively well localized and the entire structure cannot be modeled in terms of spherically symmetric models. No backfolding of the terminal groups can occur and the model calculations demonstrate that higher generations of this dendritic scaffold must exhibit a dense shell and a congestion of the terminal groups. This finding is directly corroborated by recent solid-state NMR data. All results show that the rigid dendrimer investigated here presents the first example for a dendritic structure whose segment density does not have its maximum at the center. Rigid scaffolds are therefore the only way to achieve the goal of a 'dense-shell' dendrimer whereas flexible scaffolds leads invariably to the 'dense-core' case

  16. Rigid Spine Syndrome among Children in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan Koul

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Rigidity of the spine is common in adults but is rarely observed in children. The aim of this study was to report on rigid spine syndrome (RSS among children in Oman. Methods: Data on children diagnosed with RSS were collected consecutively at presentation between 1996 and 2014 at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH in Muscat, Oman. A diagnosis of RSS was based on the patient’s history, clinical examination, biochemical investigations, electrophysiological findings, neuro-imaging and muscle biopsy. Atrophy of the paraspinal muscles, particularly the erector spinae, was the diagnostic feature; this was noted using magnetic resonance imaging of the spine. Children with disease onset in the paraspinal muscles were labelled as having primary RSS or rigid spinal muscular dystrophy. Secondary RSS was classified as RSS due to the late involvement of other muscle diseases. Results: Over the 18-year period, 12 children were included in the study, with a maleto- female ratio of 9:3. A total of 10 children were found to have primary RSS or rigid spinal muscular dystrophy syndrome while two had secondary RSS. Onset of the disease ranged from birth to 18 months of age. A family history was noted, with two siblings from one family and three siblings from another (n = 5. On examination, children with primary RSS had typical features of severe spine rigidity at onset, with the rest of the neurological examination being normal. Conclusion: RSS is a rare disease with only 12 reported cases found at SQUH during the study period. Cases of primary RSS should be differentiated from the secondary type.

  17. Schottky spectra and crystalline beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pestrikov, D.V.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we revise the current dependence of the Schottky noise power of a cooled proton beam previously measured at NAP-M. More careful study of experimental data indicates a linear decrease in the inverse Schottky noise power with an increase in the beam intensity (N). The root of this function determines a threshold current which occurs at N = N th ≅1.2 x 10 8 particles. The inspection of measured Schottky spectra shows that this threshold does not correspond to some collective instability of the measured harmonic of the linear beam density. The found value of N th does not depend on the longitudinal beam temperature. For the case of NAP-M lattice, the study of the spectral properties of the Schottky noise in the crystalline string predicts the current dependence of the equilibrium momentum spread of the beam, which qualitatively agrees with that, recalculated from the NAP-M data. (orig.)

  18. Dielectric constant and low-frequency infrared spectra for liquid water and ice Ih within the E3B model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, L.; Ni, Y.; Drews, S. E. P.; Skinner, J. L. [Theoretical Chemistry Institute and Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2014-08-28

    Two intrinsic difficulties in modeling condensed-phase water with conventional rigid non-polarizable water models are: reproducing the static dielectric constants for liquid water and ice Ih, and generating the peak at about 200 cm{sup −1} in the low-frequency infrared spectrum for liquid water. The primary physical reason for these failures is believed to be the missing polarization effect in these models, and consequently various sophisticated polarizable water models have been developed. However, in this work we pursue a different strategy and propose a simple empirical scheme to include the polarization effect only on the dipole surface (without modifying a model's intermolecular interaction potential). We implement this strategy for our explicit three-body (E3B) model. Our calculated static dielectric constants and low-frequency infrared spectra are in good agreement with experiment for both liquid water and ice Ih over wide temperature ranges, albeit with one fitting parameter for each phase. The success of our modeling also suggests that thermal fluctuations about local minima and the energy differences between different proton-disordered configurations play minor roles in the static dielectric constant of ice Ih. Our analysis shows that the polarization effect is important in resolving the two difficulties mentioned above and sheds some light on the origin of several features in the low-frequency infrared spectra for liquid water and ice Ih.

  19. The two-body problem of a pseudo-rigid body and a rigid sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Kristian Uldall; Vereshchagin, M.; Gózdziewski, K.

    2012-01-01

    n this paper we consider the two-body problem of a spherical pseudo-rigid body and a rigid sphere. Due to the rotational and "re-labelling" symmetries, the system is shown to possess conservation of angular momentum and circulation. We follow a reduction procedure similar to that undertaken...... in the study of the two-body problem of a rigid body and a sphere so that the computed reduced non-canonical Hamiltonian takes a similar form. We then consider relative equilibria and show that the notions of locally central and planar equilibria coincide. Finally, we show that Riemann's theorem on pseudo......-rigid bodies has an extension to this system for planar relative equilibria....

  20. Poster - 25: Neutron Spectral Measurements around a Scanning Proton Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kildea, John; Enger, Shirin; Maglieri, Robert; Mirzakhanian, Lalageh; Dahlgren, Christina Vallhagen; Dubeau, Jacques; Witharana, Sanjeeva [Medical Physics Unit, McGill University Health Centre, Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Skandion Clinic, Detec Inc., Gatineau, Quebec, Detec Inc., Gatineau, Quebec (Canada)

    2016-08-15

    We describe the measurements of neutron spectra that we undertook around a scanning proton beam at the Skandion proton therapy clinic in Uppsala, Sweden. Measurements were undertaken using an extended energy range Nested Neutron Spectrometer (NNS, Detec Inc., Gatineau, QC) operated in pulsed and current mode. Spectra were measured as a function of location in the treatment room and for various Bragg peak depths. Our preliminary unfolded data clearly show the direct, evaporation and thermal neutron peaks and we can show the effect on the neutron spectrum of a water phantom in the primary proton beam.

  1. Proton imaging apparatus for proton therapy application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sipala, V.; Lo Presti, D.; Brianzi, M.; Civinini, C.; Bruzzi, M.; Scaringella, M.; Talamonti, C.; Bucciolini, M.; Cirrone, G.A.P.; Cuttone, G.; Randazzo, N.; Stancampiano, C.; Tesi, M.

    2011-01-01

    Radiotherapy with protons, due to the physical properties of these particles, offers several advantages for cancer therapy as compared to the traditional radiotherapy and photons. In the clinical use of proton beams, a p CT (Proton Computer Tomography) apparatus can contribute to improve the accuracy of the patient positioning and dose distribution calculation. In this paper a p CT apparatus built by the Prima (Proton Imaging) Italian Collaboration will be presented and the preliminary results will be discussed.

  2. Proton radioactivity from proton-rich nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman, F.; Goncalves, M.; Tavares, O.A.P.; Duarte, S.B.; Garcia, F.; Rodriguez, O.

    1999-03-01

    Half-lives for proton emission from proton-rich nuclei have been calculated by using the effective liquid drop model of heavy-particle decay of nuclei. It is shown that this model is able to offer results or spontaneous proton-emission half-life-values in excellent agreement with the existing experimental data. Predictions of half-life-values for other possible proton-emission cases are present for null orbital angular momentum. (author)

  3. From Wage Rigidities to Labour Market Rigidities: A Turning-Point in Explaining Equilibrium Unemployment?

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Guerrazzi; Nicola Meccheri

    2009-01-01

    This paper offers a critical discussion of the concept of labour market rigidity relevant to explaining unemployment. Starting from Keynes’s own view, we discuss how the concept of labour market flexibility has changed over time, involving nominal or real wage flexibility, contract flexibility or labour market institution flexibility. We also provide a critical assessment of the factors that lead the search framework highlighting labour market rigidities (frictions) to challenge the more wide...

  4. Financial Constraints and Nominal Price Rigidities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menno, Dominik Francesco; Balleer, Almut; Hristov, Nikolay

    This paper investigates how financial market imperfections and the frequency of price adjustment interact. Based on new firm-level evidence for Germany, we document that financially constrained firms adjust prices more often than their unconstrained counterparts, both upwards and downwards. We show...... that these empirical patterns are consistent with a partial equilibrium menu-cost model with a working capital constraint. We then use the model to show how the presence of financial frictions changes profits and the price distribution of firms compared to a model without financial frictions. Our results suggest...... that tighter financial constraints are associated with higher nominal rigidities, higher prices and lower output. Moreover, in response to aggregate shocks, aggregate price rigidity moves substantially, the response of inflation is dampened, while output reacts more in the presence of financial frictions...

  5. Rigidity of the magic pentagram game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalev, Amir; Miller, Carl A.

    2018-01-01

    A game is rigid if a near-optimal score guarantees, under the sole assumption of the validity of quantum mechanics, that the players are using an approximately unique quantum strategy. Rigidity has a vital role in quantum cryptography as it permits a strictly classical user to trust behavior in the quantum realm. This property can be traced back as far as 1998 (Mayers and Yao) and has been proved for multiple classes of games. In this paper we prove ridigity for the magic pentagram game, a simple binary constraint satisfaction game involving two players, five clauses and ten variables. We show that all near-optimal strategies for the pentagram game are approximately equivalent to a unique strategy involving real Pauli measurements on three maximally-entangled qubit pairs.

  6. Rigidity of the magic pentagram game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalev, Amir; Miller, Carl A

    2018-01-01

    A game is rigid if a near-optimal score guarantees, under the sole assumption of the validity of quantum mechanics, that the players are using an approximately unique quantum strategy. Rigidity has a vital role in quantum cryptography as it permits a strictly classical user to trust behavior in the quantum realm. This property can be traced back as far as 1998 (Mayers and Yao) and has been proved for multiple classes of games. In this paper we prove ridigity for the magic pentagram game, a simple binary constraint satisfaction game involving two players, five clauses and ten variables. We show that all near-optimal strategies for the pentagram game are approximately equivalent to a unique strategy involving real Pauli measurements on three maximally-entangled qubit pairs.

  7. Rigid cohomology over Laurent series fields

    CERN Document Server

    Lazda, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    In this monograph, the authors develop a new theory of p-adic cohomology for varieties over Laurent series fields in positive characteristic, based on Berthelot's theory of rigid cohomology. Many major fundamental properties of these cohomology groups are proven, such as finite dimensionality and cohomological descent, as well as interpretations in terms of Monsky-Washnitzer cohomology and Le Stum's overconvergent site. Applications of this new theory to arithmetic questions, such as l-independence and the weight monodromy conjecture, are also discussed. The construction of these cohomology groups, analogous to the Galois representations associated to varieties over local fields in mixed characteristic, fills a major gap in the study of arithmetic cohomology theories over function fields. By extending the scope of existing methods, the results presented here also serve as a first step towards a more general theory of p-adic cohomology over non-perfect ground fields. Rigid Cohomology over Laurent Series Fields...

  8. Performance of drift chambers in a magnetic rigidity spectrometer for measuring the cosmic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hof, M.; Bremerich, M.; Menn, W.; Pfeifer, C.; Reimer, O.; Simon, M.; Mitchell, J.W.; Barbier, L.M.; Christian, E.R.; Ormes, J.F.; Streitmatter, R.E.; Golden, R.L.; Stochaj, S.J.

    1994-01-01

    A drift chamber tracking system was developed and flown as part of the IMAX balloon-borne magnetic spectrometer. The drift chamber uses a hexagonal drift-cell structure and is filled with pure CO 2 gas. It operated with high efficiency in the strong and inhomogenous field of a superconducting magnet, demonstrating a spatial resolution of better than 100 μm over most of the drift path for singly charged particles, as well as for helium and lithium nuclei. The drift chamber portion of the spectrometer achieved a maximum detectable rigidity of 175 and 250 GV/c for protons and helium respectively. ((orig.))

  9. Modeling the Flexural Rigidity of Rod Photoreceptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeri, Mohammad; Knox, Barry E.; Ahmadi, Aphrodite

    2013-01-01

    In vertebrate eyes, the rod photoreceptor has a modified cilium with an extended cylindrical structure specialized for phototransduction called the outer segment (OS). The OS has numerous stacked membrane disks and can bend or break when subjected to mechanical forces. The OS exhibits axial structural variation, with extended bands composed of a few hundred membrane disks whose thickness is diurnally modulated. Using high-resolution confocal microscopy, we have observed OS flexing and disruption in live transgenic Xenopus rods. Based on the experimental observations, we introduce a coarse-grained model of OS mechanical rigidity using elasticity theory, representing the axial OS banding explicitly via a spring-bead model. We calculate a bending stiffness of ∼105 nN⋅μm2, which is seven orders-of-magnitude larger than that of typical cilia and flagella. This bending stiffness has a quadratic relation to OS radius, so that thinner OS have lower fragility. Furthermore, we find that increasing the spatial frequency of axial OS banding decreases OS rigidity, reducing its fragility. Moreover, the model predicts a tendency for OS to break in bands with higher spring number density, analogous to the experimental observation that transgenic rods tended to break preferentially in bands of high fluorescence. We discuss how pathological alterations of disk membrane properties by mutant proteins may lead to increased OS rigidity and thus increased breakage, ultimately contributing to retinal degeneration. PMID:23442852

  10. Blast wave interaction with a rigid surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josey, T.; Whitehouse, D.R.; Ripley, R.C.; Dionne, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    A simple model used to investigate blast wave interactions with a rigid surface is presented. The model uses a constant volume energy source analogue to predict pressure histories at gauges located directly above the charge. A series of two-dimensional axi-symmetric CFD calculations were performed, varying the height of the charge relative to the ground. Pressure histories, along with isopycnic plots are presented to evaluate the effects of placing a charge in close proximity to a rigid surface. When a charge is placed near a solid surface the pressure histories experienced at gauges above the charge indicate the presence of two distinct pressure peaks. The first peak is caused by the primary shock and the second peak is a result of the wave reflections from the rigid surface. As the distance from the charge to the wall is increased the magnitude of the second pressure peak is reduced, provided that the distance between the charge and the gauge is maintained constant. The simple model presented is able to capture significant, predictable flow features. (author)

  11. Lateral rigidity of cracked concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellani, A.; Chesi, C.

    1979-01-01

    Numerical results are discussed on the lateral rigidity of reinforced concrete structures with a given crack distribution. They have been favourably checked with experimental results for cylindrical shells under the effect of a thermal gradient producing vertical cracking or vertical plus horizontal cracking. The main effects characterizing the concrete behaviour are: (1) The shear transfer across a crack; (2) The shear transfer degradation after cyclic loading; (3) The tension stiffening provided by the concrete between crack and crack, in the normal stress transfer; (4) The temperature effect on the elastic moduli of concrete, when cracks are of thermal origin. Only the 1st effect is discussed on an experimental basis. Two broad cathegories of reinforced concrete structures have been investigated in this respect: shear walls of buildings and cylindrical containment structures. The main conclusions so far reached are: (1) Vertical cracks are unlikely to decrease the lateral rigidity to less than 80% of the original one, and to less than 90% when they do not involve the entire thickness of the wall; (2) The appearence of horizontal cracks can reduce the lateral rigidity by some 30% or more; (3) A noticeable but not yet evaluated influence is shown by cyclic loading. (orig.)

  12. Stresses in Circular Plates with Rigid Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velikanov, N. L.; Koryagin, S. I.; Sharkov, O. V.

    2018-05-01

    Calculations of residual stress fields are carried out by numerical and static methods, using the flat cross-section hypothesis. The failure of metal when exposed to residual stresses is, in most cases, brittle. The presence in the engineering structures of rigid elements often leads to the crack initiation and structure failure. This is due to the fact that rigid elements under the influence of external stresses are stress concentrators. In addition, if these elements are fixed by welding, the residual welding stresses can lead to an increase in stress concentration and, ultimately, to failure. The development of design schemes for such structures is a very urgent task for complex technical systems. To determine the stresses in a circular plate with a welded circular rigid insert under the influence of an external load, one can use the solution of the plane stress problem for annular plates in polar coordinates. The polar coordinates of the points are the polar radius and the polar angle, and the stress state is determined by normal radial stresses, tangential and shearing stresses. The use of the above mentioned design schemes, formulas, will allow more accurate determination of residual stresses in annular welded structures. This will help to establish the most likely directions of failure and take measures at the stages of designing, manufacturing and repairing engineering structures to prevent these failures. However, it must be taken into account that the external load, the presence of insulation can lead to a change in the residual stress field.

  13. Energy dissipation process for 100-MeV protons and the nucleon-nucleon interactions in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowley, A.A.; Chang, C.C.; Holmgren, H.D.; Silk, J.D.; Hendrie, D.L.; Koontz, R.W.; Roos, P.G.; Samanta, C.; Wu, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    Coincidence studies of two protons emitted from p+ 58 Ni at 100 MeV have been carried out. The proton spectra in coincidence with scattered protons suffering an average energy loss of 60 MeV are similar to those resulting from 60-MeV incident protons. This suggests that the initial interaction of the incident proton is with a bound nucleon and that one or both of these nucleons are emitted or initiates a cascade leading to more complex states

  14. Proton movies

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    A humorous short film made by three secondary school students received an award at a Geneva film festival. Even without millions of dollars or Hollywood stars at your disposal, it is still possible to make a good science fiction film about CERN. That is what three students from the Collège Madame de Staël in Carouge, near Geneva, demonstrated. For their amateur short film on the LHC, they were commended by the jury of the video and multimedia festival for schools organised by the "Media in education" service of the Canton of Geneva’s Public Education Department. The film is a spoof of a television news report on the LHC start-up. In sequences full of humour and imagination, the reporter conducts interviews with a very serious "Professor Sairne", some protons preparing for their voyage and even the neutrons that were rejected by the LHC. "We got the idea of making a film about CERN at the end of the summer," explains Lucinda Päsche, one of the three students. "We did o...

  15. 49 CFR 587.18 - Dimensions of fixed rigid barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) DEFORMABLE BARRIERS Offset Deformable Barrier § 587.18 Dimensions of fixed rigid barrier. (a) The fixed rigid barrier has a mass of not... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dimensions of fixed rigid barrier. 587.18 Section...

  16. CT-3DRA registration for radiosurgery treatments: a comparison among rigid, affine and non rigid approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stancanello, J.; Loeckx, D.; Francescon, P.; Calvedon, C.; Avanzo, M.; Cora, S.; Scalchi, P.; Cerveri, P.; Ferrigno, G.

    2004-01-01

    This work aims at comparing rigid, affine and Local Non Rigid (LNR) CT-3D Rotational Angiography (CT-3DRA) registrations based on mutual information. 10 cranial and 1 spinal cases have been registered by rigid and affine transformations; while LNR has been applied to the cases where residual deformation must be corrected. An example of CT-3DRA registration without regularization term and an example of LNR using the similarity criterion and the regularization term as well as 3D superposition of the 3DRA before and after the registration without the regularization term are presented. All the registrations performed by rigid transformation converged to an acceptable solution. The results about the robustness test in axial direction are reported. Conclusions: For cranial cases, affine transformation endowed with threshold-segmentation pre-processing can be considered the most favourable solution for almost all registrations; for some cases, LNR provides more accurate results. For the spinal case rigid transformation is the most suitable when immobilizing patient during examinations; in this case the increase of accuracy by using LNR registrations seems to be not significant

  17. An Expansion Method to Unfold Proton Recoil Spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kockum, J

    1970-07-01

    A method is given to obtain a good estimate of the input neutron spectrum from a pulse-height distribution measured with proportional counters filled with a hydrogenous gas. The method consists of expanding the sought estimate as a product of two functions where one is obtained by differentiating the pulse-height distribution and the other is a power series of the neutron energy. The coefficients of this series are determined by a least-squares fit of the calculated pulse-height distribution to the measured one. The method has been tested on pulse-height distributions obtained by calculations from a realistic neutron spectrum and response functions for a spherical counter 3. 94 cm in diameter and filled with 7 atm. of methane and 1 atm. of hydrogen, respectively. In the former case it is possible with the method described, to unfold pulse-height distributions up to a neutron energy of about 3 MeV to within 10 % of the input spectrum. The differentiating procedure included in the method ensures that all spectral details not smoothed out by the finite resolution of the counter, are kept in the spectrum estimate. A realistic estimate of the statistical uncertainty of each neutron spectrum value is given. Some of the possible systematical errors caused by uncertainties in input data have been investigated.

  18. Proton magnetic resonance spectra of metal ammine complexes, 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taura, Toshiaki; Sakaguchi, Ushio; Yoneda, Hayami

    1976-01-01

    The rates of amine hydrogen isotopic exchange in the [Co(O) 2 (N) 4 ] + complex ions, where (O) 2 represents carbonate, oxalate, or malonate ions, and (N) 4 , tetraamine, bis(ethylenediamine), or bis(trimethylenediamine), were measured in D 2 O at 35 0 C by the PMR technique. It was found that: (1) the rates for trans (to oxygen) amines are faster than those for cis amines; (2) the rates, especially for trans amines, in the carbonato complexes are slower than those in the oxalato and malonato analogs, and (3) the difference between the rates for cis and trans amines is smaller in the bis(diamine) complexes than in the tetraammine complexes. These results are discussed in terms of the influence of the chelate geometry in the complex on the exchange reaction. (auth.)

  19. Influence of flock coating on bending rigidity of woven fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, O.; Kesimci, M. O.

    2017-10-01

    This work presents the preliminary results of our efforts that focused on the effect of the flock coating on the bending rigidity of woven fabrics. For this objective, a laboratory scale flocking unit is designed and flocked samples of controlled flock density are produced. Bending rigidity of the samples with different flock densities are measured on both flocked and unflocked sides. It is shown that the bending rigidity depends on both flock density and whether the side to be measured is flocked or not. Adhesive layer thickness on the bending rigidity is shown to be dramatic. And at higher basis weights, flock density gets less effective on bending rigidity.

  20. Understanding geological processes: Visualization of rigid and non-rigid transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipley, T. F.; Atit, K.; Manduca, C. A.; Ormand, C. J.; Resnick, I.; Tikoff, B.

    2012-12-01

    Visualizations are used in the geological sciences to support reasoning about structures and events. Research in cognitive sciences offers insights into the range of skills of different users, and ultimately how visualizations might support different users. To understand the range of skills needed to reason about earth processes we have developed a program of research that is grounded in the geosciences' careful description of the spatial and spatiotemporal patterns associated with earth processes. In particular, we are pursuing a research program that identifies specific spatial skills and investigates whether and how they are related to each other. For this study, we focus on a specific question: Is there an important distinction in the geosciences between rigid and non-rigid deformation? To study a general spatial thinking skill we employed displays with non-geological objects that had been altered by rigid change (rotation), and two types of non-rigid change ("brittle" (or discontinuous) and "ductile" (or continuous) deformation). Disciplinary scientists (geosciences and chemistry faculty), and novices (non-science faculty and undergraduate psychology students) answered questions that required them to visualize the appearance of the object before the change. In one study, geologists and chemists were found to be superior to non-science faculty in reasoning about rigid rotations (e.g., what an object would look like from a different perspective). Geologists were superior to chemists in reasoning about brittle deformations (e.g., what an object looked like before it was broken - here the object was a word cut into many fragments displaced in different directions). This finding is consistent with two hypotheses: 1) Experts are good at visualizing the types of changes required for their domain; and 2) Visualization of rigid and non-rigid changes are not the same skill. An additional important finding is that there was a broad range of skill in both rigid and non-rigid

  1. Modeling the Proton Radiation Belt With Van Allen Probes Relativistic Electron-Proton Telescope Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selesnick, R. S.; Baker, D. N.; Kanekal, S. G.; Hoxie, V. C.; Li, X.

    2018-01-01

    An empirical model of the proton radiation belt is constructed from data taken during 2013-2017 by the Relativistic Electron-Proton Telescopes on the Van Allen Probes satellites. The model intensity is a function of time, kinetic energy in the range 18-600 MeV, equatorial pitch angle, and L shell of proton guiding centers. Data are selected, on the basis of energy deposits in each of the nine silicon detectors, to reduce background caused by hard proton energy spectra at low L. Instrument response functions are computed by Monte Carlo integration, using simulated proton paths through a simplified structural model, to account for energy loss in shielding material for protons outside the nominal field of view. Overlap of energy channels, their wide angular response, and changing satellite orientation require the model dependencies on all three independent variables be determined simultaneously. This is done by least squares minimization with a customized steepest descent algorithm. Model uncertainty accounts for statistical data error and systematic error in the simulated instrument response. A proton energy spectrum is also computed from data taken during the 8 January 2014 solar event, to illustrate methods for the simpler case of an isotropic and homogeneous model distribution. Radiation belt and solar proton results are compared to intensities computed with a simplified, on-axis response that can provide a good approximation under limited circumstances.

  2. Heteronuclear proton assisted recoupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paëpe, Gaël; Lewandowski, Józef R.; Loquet, Antoine; Eddy, Matt; Megy, Simon; Böckmann, Anja; Griffin, Robert G.

    2011-03-01

    We describe a theoretical framework for understanding the heteronuclear version of the third spin assisted recoupling polarization transfer mechanism and demonstrate its potential for detecting long-distance intramolecular and intermolecular 15N-13C contacts in biomolecular systems. The pulse sequence, proton assisted insensitive nuclei cross polarization (PAIN-CP) relies on a cross term between 1H-15N and 1H-13C dipolar couplings to mediate zero- and/or double-quantum 15N-13C recoupling. In particular, using average Hamiltonian theory we derive effective Hamiltonians for PAIN-CP and show that the transfer is mediated by trilinear terms of the form N±C∓Hz (ZQ) or N±C±Hz (DQ) depending on the rf field strengths employed. We use analytical and numerical simulations to explain the structure of the PAIN-CP optimization maps and to delineate the appropriate matching conditions. We also detail the dependence of the PAIN-CP polarization transfer with respect to local molecular geometry and explain the observed reduction in dipolar truncation. In addition, we demonstrate the utility of PAIN-CP in structural studies with 15N-13C spectra of two uniformly 13C,15N labeled model microcrystalline proteins—GB1, a 56 amino acid peptide, and Crh, a 85 amino acid domain swapped dimer (MW = 2 × 10.4 kDa). The spectra acquired at high magic angle spinning frequencies (ωr/2π > 20 kHz) and magnetic fields (ω0H/2π = 700-900 MHz) using moderate rf fields, yield multiple long-distance intramonomer and intermonomer 15N-13C contacts. We use these distance restraints, in combination with the available x-ray structure as a homology model, to perform a calculation of the monomer subunit of the Crh protein.

  3. Proton-air and proton-proton cross sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Ralf

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Different attempts to measure hadronic cross sections with cosmic ray data are reviewed. The major results are compared to each other and the differences in the corresponding analyses are discussed. Besides some important differences, it is crucial to see that all analyses are based on the same fundamental relation of longitudinal air shower development to the observed fluctuation of experimental observables. Furthermore, the relation of the measured proton-air to the more fundamental proton-proton cross section is discussed. The current global picture combines hadronic proton-proton cross section data from accelerator and cosmic ray measurements and indicates a good consistency with predictions of models up to the highest energies.

  4. Microscopic study of low-lying yrast spectra and deformation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    73, No. 4. — journal of. October 2009 physics pp. 657–668. Microscopic study of low-lying yrast spectra and deformation systematics in neutron-rich. 98−106Sr isotopes ... with a large and rigid moment of inertia. 98Sr is predicted to have a ... 2 energy as neutron number N changes from 58 to 60. The onset of deformation in ...

  5. Spectra of Graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, A.E.; Haemers, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    This book gives an elementary treatment of the basic material about graph spectra, both for ordinary, and Laplace and Seidel spectra. The text progresses systematically, by covering standard topics before presenting some new material on trees, strongly regular graphs, two-graphs, association

  6. Spectra of alkali atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoso, Budi; Arumbinang, Haryono.

    1981-01-01

    Emission spectra of alkali atoms has been determined by using spectrometer at the ultraviolet to infra red waves range. The spectra emission can be obtained by absorption spectrophotometric analysis. Comparative evaluations between experimental data and data handbook obtained by spark method were also presented. (author tr.)

  7. A rigid porous filter and filtration method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Ta-Kuan; Straub, Douglas, Straub L.; Dennis, Richard A.

    1998-12-01

    The present invention involves a porous rigid filter comprising a plurality of concentric filtration elements having internal flow passages and forming external flow passages there between. The present invention also involves a pressure vessel containing the filter for the removal of particulate from high pressure particulate containing gases, and further involves a method for using the filter to remove such particulate. The present filter has the advantage of requiring fewer filter elements due to the high surface area- to-volume ratio provided by the filter, requires a reduced pressure vessel size, and exhibits enhanced mechanical design properties, improved cleaning properties, configuration options, modularity and ease of fabrication.

  8. Mechanical Characterization of Rigid Polyurethane Foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Wei-Yang [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Mechanics of Materials

    2014-12-01

    Foam materials are used to protect sensitive components from impact loading. In order to predict and simulate the foam performance under various loading conditions, a validated foam model is needed and the mechanical properties of foams need to be characterized. Uniaxial compression and tension tests were conducted for different densities of foams under various temperatures and loading rates. Crush stress, tensile strength, and elastic modulus were obtained. A newly developed confined compression experiment provided data for investigating the foam flow direction. A biaxial tension experiment was also developed to explore the damage surface of a rigid polyurethane foam.

  9. Rigidity of complete generic shrinking Ricci solitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yawei; Zhou, Jundong; Wang, Xue

    2018-01-01

    Let (Mn , g , X) be a complete generic shrinking Ricci soliton of dimension n ≥ 3. In this paper, by employing curvature inequalities, the formula of X-Laplacian for the norm square of the trace-free curvature tensor, the weak maximum principle and the estimate of the scalar curvature of (Mn , g) , we prove some rigidity results for (Mn , g , X) . In particular, it is showed that (Mn , g , X) is isometric to Rn or a finite quotient of Sn under a pointwise pinching condition. Moreover, we establish several optimal inequalities and classify those shrinking solitons for equalities.

  10. Nonplanar tertiary amides in rigid chiral tricyclic dilactams. Peptide group distortions and vibrational optical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazderková, Markéta; Profant, Václav; Hodačová, Jana; Sebestík, Jaroslav; Pazderka, Tomáš; Novotná, Pavlína; Urbanová, Marie; Safařík, Martin; Buděšínský, Miloš; Tichý, Miloš; Bednárová, Lucie; Baumruk, Vladimír; Maloň, Petr

    2013-08-22

    We investigate amide nonplanarity in vibrational optical activity (VOA) spectra of tricyclic spirodilactams 5,8-diazatricyclo[6,3,0,0(1,5)]undecan-4,9-dione (I) and its 6,6',7,7'-tetradeuterio derivative (II). These rigid molecules constrain amide groups to nonplanar geometries with twisted pyramidal arrangements of bonds to amide nitrogen atoms. We have collected a full range vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) and Raman optical activity (ROA) spectra including signals of C-H and C-D stretching vibrations. We report normal-mode analysis and a comparison of calculated to experimental VCD and ROA. The data provide band-to-band assignment and offer a possibility to evaluate roles of constrained nonplanar tertiary amide groups and rigid chiral skeletons. Nonplanarity shows as single-signed VCD and ROA amide I signals, prevailing the couplets expected to arise from the amide-amide interaction. Amide-amide coupling dominates amide II (mainly C'-N stretching, modified in tertiary amides by the absence of a N-H bond) transitions (strong couplet in VCD, no significant ROA) probably due to the close proximity of amide nitrogen atoms. At lower wavenumbers, ROA spectra exhibit another likely manifestation of amide nonplanarity, showing signals of amide V (δ(oop)(N-C) at ~570 cm(-1)) and amide VI (δ(oop)(C'═O) at ~700 cm(-1) and ~650 cm(-1)) vibrations.

  11. Measurement of the thickness of thin films by backscattered protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samaniego, L.E.Q.

    1976-07-01

    The method of backscattered protons has been used to measure the thickness of thin films. A monoenergetic beam of protons is directed on the film to be measured and the backscattered protons are detected with a particle detector. The film thickness is calculated from the energy spectrum of the protons. In the case of films consisting of several layers of elements with well separated atomic masses, it is possible to separate the spectra of protons scattered from the different elements, permitting a measurement of the thicknesses of the different layers. The method consists of calculating the energy loss of the protons throughout their trajectory, from the point of incidence on the film to the final detection. Thicknesses were measured for the following film combinations: gold on mylar, chromium on mylar, gold on chromium on mylar, and pure mylar. (Author) [pt

  12. Proton therapy device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tronc, D.

    1994-01-01

    The invention concerns a proton therapy device using a proton linear accelerator which produces a proton beam with high energies and intensities. The invention lies in actual fact that the proton beam which is produced by the linear accelerator is deflected from 270 deg in its plan by a deflecting magnetic device towards a patient support including a bed the longitudinal axis of which is parallel to the proton beam leaving the linear accelerator. The patient support and the deflecting device turn together around the proton beam axis while the bed stays in an horizontal position. The invention applies to radiotherapy. 6 refs., 5 figs

  13. Public policies targeting labour market rigidities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Claudia ŞERBAN

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Labour market rigidity becomes an issue of increasing importance under conditions of shocks associated with the economic crisis due to the need to increase the adaptability and responsiveness to them. Thus, labour market policies must be directed towards mitigating rigidities caused by institutional or demographic factors or certain mismatch between demand and supply of education qualifications. This paper highlights the major role of the active labour market policies targeting the increase of labour flexibility, stressing the importance and impact on the ability to adapt quickly and effectively to macroeconomic shocks. Located on a declining trend in the years preceding the crisis, spending on labour market policies increased in 2009 in all the Member States of the European Union. Spending differences are significant between countries, Romania being at the lowest end of the European Union. This requires special attention because the increased adaptability of workers through training, as active measure, is of major importance considering the increased speed of changes in the labour market.

  14. Vertebral Column Resection for Rigid Spinal Deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifi, Comron; Laratta, Joseph L; Petridis, Petros; Shillingford, Jamal N; Lehman, Ronald A; Lenke, Lawrence G

    2017-05-01

    Broad narrative review. To review the evolution, operative technique, outcomes, and complications associated with posterior vertebral column resection. A literature review of posterior vertebral column resection was performed. The authors' surgical technique is outlined in detail. The authors' experience and the literature regarding vertebral column resection are discussed at length. Treatment of severe, rigid coronal and/or sagittal malalignment with posterior vertebral column resection results in approximately 50-70% correction depending on the type of deformity. Surgical site infection rates range from 2.9% to 9.7%. Transient and permanent neurologic injury rates range from 0% to 13.8% and 0% to 6.3%, respectively. Although there are significant variations in EBL throughout the literature, it can be minimized by utilizing tranexamic acid intraoperatively. The ability to correct a rigid deformity in the spine relies on osteotomies. Each osteotomy is associated with a particular magnitude of correction at a single level. Posterior vertebral column resection is the most powerful posterior osteotomy method providing a successful correction of fixed complex deformities. Despite meticulous surgical technique and precision, this robust osteotomy technique can be associated with significant morbidity even in the most experienced hands.

  15. Optimized imaging using non-rigid registration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkels, Benjamin; Binev, Peter; Blom, Douglas A.; Dahmen, Wolfgang; Sharpley, Robert C.; Vogt, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The extraordinary improvements of modern imaging devices offer access to data with unprecedented information content. However, widely used image processing methodologies fall far short of exploiting the full breadth of information offered by numerous types of scanning probe, optical, and electron microscopies. In many applications, it is necessary to keep measurement intensities below a desired threshold. We propose a methodology for extracting an increased level of information by processing a series of data sets suffering, in particular, from high degree of spatial uncertainty caused by complex multiscale motion during the acquisition process. An important role is played by a non-rigid pixel-wise registration method that can cope with low signal-to-noise ratios. This is accompanied by formulating objective quality measures which replace human intervention and visual inspection in the processing chain. Scanning transmission electron microscopy of siliceous zeolite material exhibits the above-mentioned obstructions and therefore serves as orientation and a test of our procedures. - Highlights: • Developed a new process for extracting more information from a series of STEM images. • An objective non-rigid registration process copes with distortions. • Images of zeolite Y show retrieval of all information available from the data set. • Quantitative measures of registration quality were implemented. • Applicable to any serially acquired data, e.g. STM, AFM, STXM, etc

  16. Elastic proton-proton scattering at RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yip, K.

    2011-09-03

    Here we describe elastic proton+proton (p+p) scattering measurements at RHIC in p+p collisions with a special optics run of {beta}* {approx} 21 m at STAR, at the center-of-mass energy {radical}s = 200 GeV during the last week of the RHIC 2009 run. We present preliminary results of single and double spin asymmetries.

  17. Characterization of proton in Y-doped SrZrO3 polycrystal by IR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibino, T.; Mizutani, K.; Yajima, T.; Iwahara, H.

    1992-01-01

    To characterize proton in Y-doped SrZrO 3 polycrystal, protonic conductivities and infrared spectra were measured. IR spectra exhibited 2 OH bands in 3500-2800 and 2650-2300 cm -1 regions, indicating that proton was bound to lattice oxide ion and that its strength of bonding was rather weak. The decrease in conductivity by replacing H + with D + suggested that the conducting ion was not hydroxide but proton and that it migrated via the dissociation of O-H bond. (author). 15 refs., 5 figs

  18. Proton: the particle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suit, Herman

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to review briefly the nature of protons: creation at the Big Bang, abundance, physical characteristics, internal components, and life span. Several particle discoveries by proton as the experimental tool are considered. Protons play important roles in science, medicine, and industry. This article was prompted by my experience in the curative treatment of cancer patients by protons and my interest in the nature of protons as particles. The latter has been stimulated by many discussions with particle physicists and reading related books and journals. Protons in our universe number ≈10(80). Protons were created at 10(-6) -1 second after the Big Bang at ≈1.37 × 10(10) years beforethe present. Proton life span has been experimentally determined to be ≥10(34) years; that is, the age of the universe is 10(-24)th of the minimum life span of a proton. The abundance of the elements is hydrogen, ≈74%; helium, ≈24%; and heavier atoms, ≈2%. Accordingly, protons are the dominant baryonic subatomic particle in the universe because ≈87% are protons. They are in each atom in our universe and thus involved in virtually every activity of matter in the visible universe, including life on our planet. Protons were discovered in 1919. In 1968, they were determined to be composed of even smaller particles, principally quarks and gluons. Protons have been the experimental tool in the discoveries of quarks (charm, bottom, and top), bosons (W(+), W(-), Z(0), and Higgs), antiprotons, and antineutrons. Industrial applications of protons are numerous and important. Additionally, protons are well appreciated in medicine for their role in radiation oncology and in magnetic resonance imaging. Protons are the dominant baryonic subatomic particle in the visible universe, comprising ≈87% of the particle mass. They are present in each atom of our universe and thus a participant in every activity involving matter. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All

  19. Proton: The Particle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suit, Herman

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to review briefly the nature of protons: creation at the Big Bang, abundance, physical characteristics, internal components, and life span. Several particle discoveries by proton as the experimental tool are considered. Protons play important roles in science, medicine, and industry. This article was prompted by my experience in the curative treatment of cancer patients by protons and my interest in the nature of protons as particles. The latter has been stimulated by many discussions with particle physicists and reading related books and journals. Protons in our universe number ≈10{sup 80}. Protons were created at 10{sup −6} –1 second after the Big Bang at ≈1.37 × 10{sup 10} years beforethe present. Proton life span has been experimentally determined to be ≥10{sup 34} years; that is, the age of the universe is 10{sup −24}th of the minimum life span of a proton. The abundance of the elements is hydrogen, ≈74%; helium, ≈24%; and heavier atoms, ≈2%. Accordingly, protons are the dominant baryonic subatomic particle in the universe because ≈87% are protons. They are in each atom in our universe and thus involved in virtually every activity of matter in the visible universe, including life on our planet. Protons were discovered in 1919. In 1968, they were determined to be composed of even smaller particles, principally quarks and gluons. Protons have been the experimental tool in the discoveries of quarks (charm, bottom, and top), bosons (W{sup +}, W{sup −}, Z{sup 0}, and Higgs), antiprotons, and antineutrons. Industrial applications of protons are numerous and important. Additionally, protons are well appreciated in medicine for their role in radiation oncology and in magnetic resonance imaging. Protons are the dominant baryonic subatomic particle in the visible universe, comprising ≈87% of the particle mass. They are present in each atom of our universe and thus a participant in every activity involving matter.

  20. Thermostability in rubredoxin and its relationship to mechanical rigidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, A. J.

    2010-03-01

    The source of increased stability in proteins from organisms that thrive in extreme thermal environments is not well understood. Previous experimental and theoretical studies have suggested many different features possibly responsible for such thermostability. Many of these thermostabilizing mechanisms can be accounted for in terms of structural rigidity. Thus a plausible hypothesis accounting for this remarkable stability in thermophilic enzymes states that these enzymes have enhanced conformational rigidity at temperatures below their native, functioning temperature. Experimental evidence exists to both support and contradict this supposition. We computationally investigate the relationship between thermostability and rigidity using rubredoxin as a case study. The mechanical rigidity is calculated using atomic models of homologous rubredoxin structures from the hyperthermophile Pyrococcus furiosus and mesophile Clostridium pasteurianum using the FIRST software. A global increase in structural rigidity (equivalently a decrease in flexibility) corresponds to an increase in thermostability. Locally, rigidity differences (between mesophilic and thermophilic structures) agree with differences in protection factors.

  1. Thermostability in rubredoxin and its relationship to mechanical rigidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rader, A J

    2010-01-01

    The source of increased stability in proteins from organisms that thrive in extreme thermal environments is not well understood. Previous experimental and theoretical studies have suggested many different features possibly responsible for such thermostability. Many of these thermostabilizing mechanisms can be accounted for in terms of structural rigidity. Thus a plausible hypothesis accounting for this remarkable stability in thermophilic enzymes states that these enzymes have enhanced conformational rigidity at temperatures below their native, functioning temperature. Experimental evidence exists to both support and contradict this supposition. We computationally investigate the relationship between thermostability and rigidity using rubredoxin as a case study. The mechanical rigidity is calculated using atomic models of homologous rubredoxin structures from the hyperthermophile Pyrococcus furiosus and mesophile Clostridium pasteurianum using the FIRST software. A global increase in structural rigidity (equivalently a decrease in flexibility) corresponds to an increase in thermostability. Locally, rigidity differences (between mesophilic and thermophilic structures) agree with differences in protection factors

  2. Coherent distributions for the rigid rotator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigorescu, Marius [CP 15-645, Bucharest 014700 (Romania)

    2016-06-15

    Coherent solutions of the classical Liouville equation for the rigid rotator are presented as positive phase-space distributions localized on the Lagrangian submanifolds of Hamilton-Jacobi theory. These solutions become Wigner-type quasiprobability distributions by a formal discretization of the left-invariant vector fields from their Fourier transform in angular momentum. The results are consistent with the usual quantization of the anisotropic rotator, but the expected value of the Hamiltonian contains a finite “zero point” energy term. It is shown that during the time when a quasiprobability distribution evolves according to the Liouville equation, the related quantum wave function should satisfy the time-dependent Schrödinger equation.

  3. Static friction between rigid fractal surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Marroquin, Fernando; Huang, Pengyu; Hanaor, Dorian A H; Flores-Johnson, E A; Proust, Gwénaëlle; Gan, Yixiang; Shen, Luming

    2015-09-01

    Using spheropolygon-based simulations and contact slope analysis, we investigate the effects of surface topography and atomic scale friction on the macroscopically observed friction between rigid blocks with fractal surface structures. From our mathematical derivation, the angle of macroscopic friction is the result of the sum of the angle of atomic friction and the slope angle between the contact surfaces. The latter is obtained from the determination of all possible contact slopes between the two surface profiles through an alternative signature function. Our theory is validated through numerical simulations of spheropolygons with fractal Koch surfaces and is applied to the description of frictional properties of Weierstrass-Mandelbrot surfaces. The agreement between simulations and theory suggests that for interpreting macroscopic frictional behavior, the descriptors of surface morphology should be defined from the signature function rather than from the slopes of the contacting surfaces.

  4. Observational properties of rigidly rotating dust configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilyas, Batyr; Malafarina, Daniele [Nazarbayev University, Department of Physics, Astana (Kazakhstan); Yang, Jinye [Fudan University, Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics and Department of Physics, Shanghai (China); Bambi, Cosimo [Fudan University, Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics and Department of Physics, Shanghai (China); Eberhard-Karls Universitaet Tuebingen, Theoretical Astrophysics, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2017-07-15

    We study the observational properties of a class of exact solutions of Einstein's field equations describing stationary, axially symmetric, rigidly rotating dust (i.e. non-interacting particles). We ask the question whether such solutions can describe astrophysical rotating dark matter clouds near the center of galaxies and we probe the possibility that they may constitute an alternative to supermassive black holes at the center of galaxies. We show that light emission from accretion disks made of ordinary baryonic matter in this space-time has several differences with respect to the emission of light from similar accretion disks around black holes. The shape of the iron Kα line in the reflection spectrum of accretion disks can potentially distinguish this class of solutions from the Kerr metric, but this may not be possible with current X-ray missions. (orig.)

  5. On real structures on rigid surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulikov, Vik S; Kharlamov, V M

    2002-01-01

    We construct examples of rigid surfaces (that is, surfaces whose deformation class consists of a unique surface) with a particular behaviour with respect to real structures. In one example the surface has no real structure. In another it has a unique real structure, which is not maximal with respect to the Smith-Thom inequality. These examples give negative answers to the following problems: the existence of real surfaces in each deformation class of complex surfaces, and the existence of maximal real surfaces in every complex deformation class that contains real surfaces. Moreover, we prove that there are no real surfaces among surfaces of general type with p g =q=0 and K 2 =9. These surfaces also provide new counterexamples to the 'Dif = Def' problem

  6. On real structures on rigid surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulikov, Vik S [Steklov Mathematical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation); Kharlamov, V M [Institut de Recherche Matematique Avanee Universite Louis Pasteur et CNRS 7 rue Rene Descartes (France)

    2002-02-28

    We construct examples of rigid surfaces (that is, surfaces whose deformation class consists of a unique surface) with a particular behaviour with respect to real structures. In one example the surface has no real structure. In another it has a unique real structure, which is not maximal with respect to the Smith-Thom inequality. These examples give negative answers to the following problems: the existence of real surfaces in each deformation class of complex surfaces, and the existence of maximal real surfaces in every complex deformation class that contains real surfaces. Moreover, we prove that there are no real surfaces among surfaces of general type with p{sub g}=q=0 and K{sup 2}=9. These surfaces also provide new counterexamples to the 'Dif = Def' problem.

  7. Management of rigid post-traumatic kyphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S S; Hwa, S Y; Lin, L C; Pai, W M; Chen, P Q; Au, M K

    1996-10-01

    Rigid post-traumatic kyphosis after fracture of the thoracolumbar and lumbar spine represents a failure of initial management of the injury. Kyphosis moves the center of gravity anterior. The kyphosis and instability may result in pain, deformity, and increased neurologic deficits. Management for symptomatic post-traumatic kyphosis always has presented a challenge to orthopedic surgeons. To evaluate the surgical results of one stage posterior correction for rigid symptomatic post-traumatic kyphosis of the thoracolumbar and lumbar spine. The management for post-traumatic kyphosis remains controversial. Anterior, posterior, or combined anterior and posterior procedures have been advocated by different authors and show various degrees of success. One vertebra immediately above and below the level of the deformity was instrumented posteriorly by a transpedicular system (internal fixator AO). Posterior decompression was performed by excision of the spinal process and bilateral laminectomy. With the deformed vertebra through the pedicle, the vertebral body carefully is removed around the pedicle level, approximating a wedge shape. The extent to which the deformed vertebral body should be removed is determined by the attempted correction. Correction of the deformity is achieved by manipulation of the operating table and compression of the adjacent Schanz screws above and below the lesion. Thirteen patients with post-traumatic kyphosis with symptoms of fatigue and pain caused by slow progression of kyphotic deformities received posterior decompression, correction, and stabilization as a definitive treatment. The precorrection kyphosis ranged from 30-60 degrees, with a mean of 40 degrees +/- 10.8 degrees. After correction, kyphosis was reduced to an average of 1.5 degrees +/- 3.8 degrees, with a range from -5 degrees to 5 degrees. The average angle of correction was 38.8 degrees +/- 10.4 degrees, with a range from 25 degrees to 60 degrees. Significant difference was found

  8. Dual Quaternion Variational Integrator for Rigid Body Dynamic Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Jiafeng; Halse, Karl Henning

    2016-01-01

    In rigid body dynamic simulations, often the algorithm is required to deal with general situations where both reference point and inertia matrix are arbitrarily de- fined. We introduce a novel Lie group variational integrator using dual quaternion for simulating rigid body dynamics in all six degrees of freedom. Dual quaternion is used to represent rigid body kinematics and one-step Lie group method is used to derive dynamic equations. The combination of these two becomes the first Lie group ...

  9. Charm production in proton-proton collisions at the LHC with the ALICE detector

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, Andrea

    The ALICE experiment at CERN will study the medium formed in very high energy lead-lead collisions at the LHC. According to the Quantum Chromo Dynamics theory of the strong interaction, a phase transition to a state where quarks and gluons are not confined into hadrons (Quark-Gluon Plasma) can occur in these collisions. Heavy quarks (charm and beauty) are produced in hard scattering processes in the first stages of the collisions. While travelling through the medium they can lose energy by means of gluon radiation. This affects the momentum spectra of the hadrons produced in the subsequent hadronization. To study the energy loss mechanism and its dependence on the parton nature (quark/gluon) and mass (light/heavy quark), hadron momentum spectra observed in heavy-ion collisions are compared to the same spectra observed in proton-proton collisions, where the formation of a thermalized medium is not expected. In this thesis, the measurement of charm production in proton-proton collisions via the exclusive recons...

  10. Proton location in metal hydrides using electron spin resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venturini, E.L.

    1979-01-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) of dilute paramagnetic ions establishes the site symmetry of these ions. In the case of metal hydrides the site symmetry is determined by the number and location of neighboring protons. Typical ESR spectra for trivalent erbium in scandium and yttrium hydrides are presented and analyzed, and this technique is shown to be a versatile microscopic probe of the location, net charge and occupation probability of nearby protons

  11. Tile-based rigidization surface parametric design study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giner Munoz, Laura; Luntz, Jonathan; Brei, Diann; Kim, Wonhee

    2018-03-01

    Inflatable technologies have proven useful in consumer goods as well as in more recent applications including civil structures, aerospace, medical, and robotics. However, inflatable technologies are typically lacking in their ability to provide rigid structural support. Particle jamming improves upon this by providing structures which are normally flexible and moldable but become rigid when air is removed. Because these are based on an airtight bladder filled with loose particles, they always occupy the full volume of its rigid state, even when not rigidized. More recent developments in layer jamming have created thin, compact rigidizing surfaces replacing the loose volume of particles with thinly layered surface materials. Work in this area has been applied to several specific applications with positive results but have not generally provided the broader understanding of the rigidization performance as a function of design parameters required for directly adapting layer rigidization technology to other applications. This paper presents a parametric design study of a new layer jamming vacuum rigidization architecture: tile-based vacuum rigidization. This form of rigidization is based on layers of tiles contained within a thin vacuum bladder which can be bent, rolled, or otherwise compactly stowed, but when deployed flat, can be vacuumed and form a large, flat, rigid plate capable of supporting large forces both localized and distributed over the surface. The general architecture and operation detailing rigidization and compliance mechanisms is introduced. To quantitatively characterize the rigidization behavior, prototypes rigidization surfaces are fabricated and an experimental technique is developed based on a 3-point bending test. Performance evaluation metrics are developed to describe the stiffness, load-bearing capacity, and internal slippage of tested prototypes. A set of experimental parametric studies are performed to better understand the impact of

  12. Efficient transfer of large-area graphene films onto rigid substrates by hot pressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Junmo; Hwang, Soonhwi; Kim, Jae Hwan; Kim, Min Hyeok; Ryu, Jaechul; Seo, Sang Jae; Hong, Byung Hee; Kim, Moon Ki; Choi, Jae-Boong

    2012-06-26

    Graphene films grown on metal substrates by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method have to be safely transferred onto desired substrates for further applications. Recently, a roll-to-roll (R2R) method has been developed for large-area transfer, which is particularly efficient for flexible target substrates. However, in the case of rigid substrates such as glass or wafers, the roll-based method is found to induce considerable mechanical damages on graphene films during the transfer process, resulting in the degradation of electrical property. Here we introduce an improved dry transfer technique based on a hot-pressing method that can minimize damage on graphene by neutralizing mechanical stress. Thus, we enhanced the transfer efficiency of the large-area graphene films on a substrate with arbitrary thickness and rigidity, evidenced by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) images, Raman spectra, and various electrical characterizations. We also performed a theoretical multiscale simulation from continuum to atomic level to compare the mechanical stresses caused by the R2R and the hot-pressing methods, which also supports our conclusion. Consequently, we believe that the proposed hot-pressing method will be immediately useful for display and solar cell applications that currently require rigid and large substrates.

  13. Different catalysts for new polyols for rigid PUR-PIR foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liszkowska Joanna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available New polyols were synthesized with 2-hydroxypropane-1.2.3-tricarboxylic acid and butane-1,4-diol (1.4-BD. The synthesis was performed using different catalysts in the amount of 0.1%. Used catalyst: Tyzor TPT, tin(II acetate, sulfuric(IV acid. The fourth reaction was conducted without the use of a catalyst. The polyols’ properties were evaluated with regards to the usefulness in rigid polyurethane-polyisocyanurate (PUR-PIR foams (acid value, density, pH and solubility, FTIR spectra. Based on the research, it was evaluated that only the polyol synthesized using Tyzor TPT (E6 was useful in production of rigid PUR-PIR foams. Its hydroxyl number was 496 mgKOH/g and its viscosity was about 14 552 mPa · s. A series of five foams P6.1–P6.5 was produced with this polyol. Rigid foams test results indicated that the amount of this compound in the foam substantially affects its compressive strength, density and their retention. The foams have low brittleness values.

  14. Vibration-rotation band intensities in the IR spectra of polyatomic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El'kin, M.D.; Kosterina, E.K.; Berezin

    1995-01-01

    Using the curvilinear vibrational coordinates for a nuclear subsystem, expressions for the effective dipole-moment operators are derived in order to analyze the vibrational-rotational transitions in the IR spectra of polyatomic rigid molecules. The explicit expressions obtained for the intensities of hot bands allow one to estimate the influence of the vibration-rotation interaction within the framework of the adopted molecular-vibration model. The suggested method is shown to be suitable for Raman spectra analysis. 12 refs

  15. Spherical proton emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, S.; Semmes, P.B.; Nazarewicz, W.

    1997-01-01

    Various theoretical approaches to proton emission from spherical nuclei are investigated, and it is found that all the methods employed give very similar results. The calculated decay widths are found to be qualitatively insensitive to the parameters of the proton-nucleus potential, i.e., changing the potential parameters over a fairly large range typically changes the decay width by no more than a factor of ∼3. Proton half-lives of observed heavy proton emitters are, in general, well reproduced by spherical calculations with the spectroscopic factors calculated in the independent quasiparticle approximation. The quantitative agreement with experimental data obtained in our study requires that the parameters of the proton-nucleus potential be chosen carefully. It also suggests that deformed proton emitters will provide invaluable spectroscopic information on the angular momentum decomposition of single-proton orbitals in deformed nuclei. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  16. Proton therapy physics

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Proton Therapy Physics goes beyond current books on proton therapy to provide an in-depth overview of the physics aspects of this radiation therapy modality, eliminating the need to dig through information scattered in the medical physics literature. After tracing the history of proton therapy, the book summarizes the atomic and nuclear physics background necessary for understanding proton interactions with tissue. It describes the physics of proton accelerators, the parameters of clinical proton beams, and the mechanisms to generate a conformal dose distribution in a patient. The text then covers detector systems and measuring techniques for reference dosimetry, outlines basic quality assurance and commissioning guidelines, and gives examples of Monte Carlo simulations in proton therapy. The book moves on to discussions of treatment planning for single- and multiple-field uniform doses, dose calculation concepts and algorithms, and precision and uncertainties for nonmoving and moving targets. It also exami...

  17. Proton solvation and proton transfer in chemical and electrochemical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lengyel, S.; Conway, B.E.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter examines the proton solvation and characterization of the H 3 O + ion, proton transfer in chemical ionization processes in solution, continuous proton transfer in conductance processes, and proton transfer in electrode processes. Topics considered include the condition of the proton in solution, the molecular structure of the H 3 O + ion, thermodynamics of proton solvation, overall hydration energy of the proton, hydration of H 3 O + , deuteron solvation, partial molal entropy and volume and the entropy of proton hydration, proton solvation in alcoholic solutions, analogies to electrons in semiconductors, continuous proton transfer in conductance, definition and phenomenology of the unusual mobility of the proton in solution, solvent structure changes in relation to anomalous proton mobility, the kinetics of the proton-transfer event, theories of abnormal proton conductance, and the general theory of the contribution of transfer reactions to overall transport processes

  18. Study of proton radioactivities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davids, C.N.; Back, B.B.; Henderson, D.J. [and others

    1995-08-01

    About a dozen nuclei are currently known to accomplish their radioactive decay by emitting a proton. These nuclei are situated far from the valley of stability, and mark the very limits of existence for proton-rich nuclei: the proton drip line. A new 39-ms proton radioactivity was observed following the bombardment of a {sup 96}Ru target by a beam of 420-MeV {sup 78}Kr. Using the double-sided Si strip detector implantation system at the FMA, a proton group having an energy of 1.05 MeV was observed, correlated with the implantation of ions having mass 167. The subsequent daughter decay was identified as {sup 166}Os by its characteristic alpha decay, and therefore the proton emitter is assigned to the {sup 167}Ir nucleus. Further analysis showed that a second weak proton group from the same nucleus is present, indicating an isomeric state. Two other proton emitters were discovered recently at the FMA: {sup 171}Au and {sup 185}Bi, which is the heaviest known proton radioactivity. The measured decay energies and half-lives will enable the angular momentum of the emitted protons to be determined, thus providing spectroscopic information on nuclei that are beyond the proton drip line. In addition, the decay energy yields the mass of the nucleus, providing a sensitive test of mass models in this extremely proton-rich region of the chart of the nuclides. Additional searches for proton emitters will be conducted in the future, in order to extend our knowledge of the location of the proton drip line.

  19. Solar Energetic Particle Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, J. M.; Boezio, M.; Bravar, U.; Bruno, A.; Christian, E. R.; de Nolfo, G. A.; Martucci, M.; Mergè, M.; Munini, R.; Ricci, M.; Sparvoli, R.; Stochaj, S.

    2017-12-01

    We report updated event-integrated spectra from several SEP events measured with PAMELA. The measurements were made from 2006 to 2014 in the energy range starting at 80 MeV and extending well above the neutron monitor threshold. The PAMELA instrument is in a high inclination, low Earth orbit and has access to SEPs when at high latitudes. Spectra have been assembled from these high-latitude measurements. The field of view of PAMELA is small and during the high-latitude passes it scans a wide range of asymptotic directions as the spacecraft orbits. Correcting for data gaps, solid angle effects and improved background corrections, we have compiled event-integrated intensity spectra for twenty-eight SEP events. Where statistics permit, the spectra exhibit power law shapes in energy with a high-energy exponential roll over. The events analyzed include two genuine ground level enhancements (GLE). In those cases the roll-over energy lies above the neutron monitor threshold ( 1 GV) while the others are lower. We see no qualitative difference between the spectra of GLE vs. non-GLE events, i.e., all roll over in an exponential fashion with rapidly decreasing intensity at high energies.

  20. GEANT4 simulations for low energy proton computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milhoretto, Edney; Schelin, Hugo R.; Setti, Joao A.P.; Denyak, Valery; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Evseev, Ivan G.; Assis, Joaquim T. de; Yevseyeva, O.; Lopes, Ricardo T.; Vinagre Filho, Ubirajara M.

    2010-01-01

    This work presents the recent results of computer simulations for the low energy proton beam tomographic scanner installed at the cyclotron CV-28 of IEN/CNEN. New computer simulations were performed in order to adjust the parameters of previous simulation within the first experimental results and to understand some specific effects that affected the form of the final proton energy spectra. To do this, the energy and angular spread of the initial proton beam were added, and the virtual phantom geometry was specified more accurately in relation to the real one. As a result, a more realistic view on the measurements was achieved.

  1. GEANT4 simulations for low energy proton computerized tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milhoretto, Edney [Federal University of Technology-Parana, UTFPR, Av. Sete de Setembro 3165, Curitiba-PR (Brazil); Schelin, Hugo R. [Federal University of Technology-Parana, UTFPR, Av. Sete de Setembro 3165, Curitiba-PR (Brazil)], E-mail: schelin@utfpr.edu.br; Setti, Joao A.P.; Denyak, Valery; Paschuk, Sergei A. [Federal University of Technology-Parana, UTFPR, Av. Sete de Setembro 3165, Curitiba-PR (Brazil); Evseev, Ivan G.; Assis, Joaquim T. de; Yevseyeva, O. [Polytechnic Institute/UERJ, Rua Alberto Rangel s/n, N. Friburgo, RJ, Brazil 28630-050 (Brazil); Lopes, Ricardo T. [Nuclear Instr. Lab./COPPE/UFRJ, Av. Horacio Macedo 2030, Rio de Janeiro-RJ (Brazil); Vinagre Filho, Ubirajara M. [Institute of Nuclear Engineering-IEN/CNEN, Rua Helio de Almeida 75, Rio de Janeiro-RJ (Brazil)

    2010-04-15

    This work presents the recent results of computer simulations for the low energy proton beam tomographic scanner installed at the cyclotron CV-28 of IEN/CNEN. New computer simulations were performed in order to adjust the parameters of previous simulation within the first experimental results and to understand some specific effects that affected the form of the final proton energy spectra. To do this, the energy and angular spread of the initial proton beam were added, and the virtual phantom geometry was specified more accurately in relation to the real one. As a result, a more realistic view on the measurements was achieved.

  2. Relativistic force field: parametric computations of proton-proton coupling constants in (1)H NMR spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutateladze, Andrei G; Mukhina, Olga A

    2014-09-05

    Spin-spin coupling constants in (1)H NMR carry a wealth of structural information and offer a powerful tool for deciphering molecular structures. However, accurate ab initio or DFT calculations of spin-spin coupling constants have been very challenging and expensive. Scaling of (easy) Fermi contacts, fc, especially in the context of recent findings by Bally and Rablen (Bally, T.; Rablen, P. R. J. Org. Chem. 2011, 76, 4818), offers a framework for achieving practical evaluation of spin-spin coupling constants. We report a faster and more precise parametrization approach utilizing a new basis set for hydrogen atoms optimized in conjunction with (i) inexpensive B3LYP/6-31G(d) molecular geometries, (ii) inexpensive 4-31G basis set for carbon atoms in fc calculations, and (iii) individual parametrization for different atom types/hybridizations, not unlike a force field in molecular mechanics, but designed for the fc's. With the training set of 608 experimental constants we achieved rmsd <0.19 Hz. The methodology performs very well as we illustrate with a set of complex organic natural products, including strychnine (rmsd 0.19 Hz), morphine (rmsd 0.24 Hz), etc. This precision is achieved with much shorter computational times: accurate spin-spin coupling constants for the two conformers of strychnine were computed in parallel on two 16-core nodes of a Linux cluster within 10 min.

  3. Algebraic Methods for Counting Euclidean Embeddings of Rigid Graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.Z. Emiris; E.P. Tsigaridas; A. Varvitsiotis (Antonios); E.R. Gasner

    2009-01-01

    textabstract The study of (minimally) rigid graphs is motivated by numerous applications, mostly in robotics and bioinformatics. A major open problem concerns the number of embeddings of such graphs, up to rigid motions, in Euclidean space. We capture embeddability by polynomial systems

  4. Determination of the fast neutrons spectra by the Elastic scattering method (n, p)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elizalde D, J.

    1973-01-01

    This work consists in determining the fast neutron spectra emitted by a Pu-Be isotopic source. The implemented technique is based in the spectrometry (n, p). This consists in making to fall on a fast neutrons beams (polyenergetic) over a thin film of hydrogenated material, detecting the spectra of emitted protons at a fix angle. The polyethylene film and the used solid state detector are inside of a vacuum chamber. The detector is placed at 30 degree with respect to direction of the incident neutrons beam. The protons spectra is stored in a multichannel. the energy is obtained with the prior calibration of the system. The data processing involves the transformation of the protons spectra observed at the falling on neutrons spectra over the film. The energy of the neutrons is related with that of the protons, according to the collision kinematical equations. The cross section of elastic collision of the neutrons with the hydrogen atoms is obtained from literature. Applying these relations to the observed spectra it is obtained the falling on neutron spectra over the film. (Author)

  5. Radical pair formation in γ-irradiated 2-methyltetrahydrofuran rigid solutions of polynitrobenzenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, S.; Hoshino, M.; Imamura, M.

    1981-01-01

    The γ-irradiated MTHF (2-methyltetrahydrofuran) rigid solutions of mDNB (m-dinitrobenzene) and sTNB (s-trinitrobenzene) showed at 77 K ESR spectra characteristic of triplet species in addition to the spectra of doublet species, whereas no triplet ESR spectra were observed for the mononitrobenzene and o- and p-di-nitrobenzene solutions. The distances of the unpaired spins evaluated from the observed fine structure constants by using a point-dipole approximation are 4.3 and 4.6 A for the mDNB solution and 3.9 and 4.7 A for the sTNB solution. The detection of only the solute anion radicals by the optical absorption spectra of the irradiated solutions and the difference of the rate of formation for the triplet species and the solute anion strongly suggest that the triplet species are ascribed to the solute anion-solvent radical pairs. Such radical pairs are most likely to be formed through the migration of a MTHF cation radical, i.e., so-called hole migration, to a specific site between the two nitro groups on the meta positions of a solute anion followed by the production of a stable solvent radical, which is paired with the solute anion

  6. THE RIGIDITY OF THE EARTH'S INNER CORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. BULLEN

    1953-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine and assess, in the
    light of recent evidence, the theory lliat the Earth's inner core has
    a significant rigidity.
    The presenee of an inner core in the Earth is revealed from
    observations of the seismie pliase PKP in the « sliadow zone » for
    which the epicentral distance A lies in the range 105" < A < 143".
    Miss I. Lehmann (r in 1936, followed by Gutenberg and Richter (2
    in 1938, atlrihuted these observations to tlie presence of an inner
    core; and Jeffreys (3 in 1939 applied Airy's theory of diffraetion
    near a caustic to sliow that the alternative theory of diffraetion
    round the outer boundary of the centrai core was not capable of
    explaining tlie observations in the shadow zone. The existence of the
    inner core has been fairly generallv accepted sinee tliis ealculation
    of Jeffreys.

  7. The theory of pseudo-rigid bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Harley

    1988-01-01

    This monograph concerns the development, analysis, and application of the theory of pseudo-rigid bodies. It collects together our work on that subject over the last five years. While some results have appeared else­ where, much of the work is new. Our objective in writing this mono­ graph has been to present a new theory of the deformation of bodies, one that has not only a firm theoretical basis, but also the simplicity to serve as an effective tool in practical problems. Consequently, the main body of the treatise is a multifaceted development of the theory, from foundations to explicit solutions to linearizations to methods of approximation. The fact that this variety of aspects, each examined in considerable detail, can be collected together in a single, unified treat­ ment gives this theory an elegance that we feel sets it apart from many others. While our goal has always been to give a complete treatment of the theory as it now stands, the work here is not meant to be definitive. Theories are not ent...

  8. Almost Poisson integration of rigid body systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austin, M.A.; Krishnaprasad, P.S.; Li-Sheng Wang

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the numerical integration of Lie-Poisson systems using the mid-point rule. Since such systems result from the reduction of hamiltonian systems with symmetry by lie group actions, we also present examples of reconstruction rules for the full dynamics. A primary motivation is to preserve in the integration process, various conserved quantities of the original dynamics. A main result of this paper is an O(h 3 ) error estimate for the Lie-Poisson structure, where h is the integration step-size. We note that Lie-Poisson systems appear naturally in many areas of physical science and engineering, including theoretical mechanics of fluids and plasmas, satellite dynamics, and polarization dynamics. In the present paper we consider a series of progressively complicated examples related to rigid body systems. We also consider a dissipative example associated to a Lie-Poisson system. The behavior of the mid-point rule and an associated reconstruction rule is numerically explored. 24 refs., 9 figs

  9. Rigid multipodal platforms for metal surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Valášek

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this review the recent progress in molecular platforms that form rigid and well-defined contact to a metal surface are discussed. Most of the presented examples have at least three anchoring units in order to control the spatial arrangement of the protruding molecular subunit. Another interesting feature is the lateral orientation of these foot structures which, depending on the particular application, is equally important as the spatial arrangement of the molecules. The numerous approaches towards assembling and organizing functional molecules into specific architectures on metal substrates are reviewed here. Particular attention is paid to variations of both, the core structures and the anchoring groups. Furthermore, the analytical methods enabling the investigation of individual molecules as well as monomolecular layers of ordered platform structures are summarized. The presented multipodal platforms bearing several anchoring groups form considerably more stable molecule–metal contacts than corresponding monopodal analogues and exhibit an enlarged separation of the functional molecules due to the increased footprint, as well as restrict tilting of the functional termini with respect to the metal surface. These platforms are thus ideally suited to tune important properties of the molecule–metal interface. On a single-molecule level, several of these platforms enable the control over the arrangement of the protruding rod-type molecular structures (e.g., molecular wires, switches, rotors, sensors with respect to the surface of the substrate.

  10. Inflatable Tubular Structures Rigidized with Foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, Michael L.; Schnell, Andrew R.

    2010-01-01

    Inflatable tubular structures that have annular cross sections rigidized with foams, and the means of erecting such structures in the field, are undergoing development. Although the development effort has focused on lightweight structural booms to be transported in compact form and deployed in outer space, the principles of design and fabrication are also potentially applicable to terrestrial structures, including components of ultralightweight aircraft, lightweight storage buildings and shelters, lightweight insulation, and sales displays. The use of foams to deploy and harden inflatable structures was first proposed as early as the 1960s, and has been investigated in recent years by NASA, the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory, industry, and academia. In cases of deployable booms, most of the investigation in recent years has focused on solid cross sections, because they can be constructed relatively easily. However, solid-section foam-filled booms can be much too heavy for some applications. In contrast, booms with annular cross sections according to the present innovation can be tailored to obtain desired combinations of stiffness and weight through choice of diameters, wall thicknesses, and foam densities. By far the most compelling advantage afforded by this innovation is the possibility of drastically reducing weights while retaining or increasing the stiffnesses, relative to comparable booms that have solid foamfilled cross sections. A typical boom according to this innovation includes inner and outer polyimide film sleeves to contain foam that is injected between them during deployment.

  11. Spontaneous droplet trampolining on rigid superhydrophobic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutzius, Thomas M.; Jung, Stefan; Maitra, Tanmoy; Graeber, Gustav; Köhme, Moritz; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2015-11-01

    Spontaneous removal of condensed matter from surfaces is exploited in nature and in a broad range of technologies to achieve self-cleaning, anti-icing and condensation control. But despite much progress, our understanding of the phenomena leading to such behaviour remains incomplete, which makes it challenging to rationally design surfaces that benefit from its manifestation. Here we show that water droplets resting on superhydrophobic textured surfaces in a low-pressure environment can self-remove through sudden spontaneous levitation and subsequent trampoline-like bouncing behaviour, in which sequential collisions with the surface accelerate the droplets. These collisions have restitution coefficients (ratios of relative speeds after and before collision) greater than unity despite complete rigidity of the surface, and thus seemingly violate the second law of thermodynamics. However, these restitution coefficients result from an overpressure beneath the droplet produced by fast droplet vaporization while substrate adhesion and surface texture restrict vapour flow. We also show that the high vaporization rates experienced by the droplets and the associated cooling can result in freezing from a supercooled state that triggers a sudden increase in vaporization, which in turn boosts the levitation process. This effect can spontaneously remove surface icing by lifting away icy drops the moment they freeze. Although these observations are relevant only to systems in a low-pressure environment, they show how surface texturing can produce droplet-surface interactions that prohibit liquid and freezing water-droplet retention on surfaces.

  12. Proton-Proton and Proton-Antiproton Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Scandale, Walter

    2014-01-01

    In the last five decades, proton–proton and proton–antiproton colliders have been the most powerful tools for high energy physics investigations. They have also deeply catalyzed innovation in accelerator physics and technology. Among the large number of proposed colliders, only four have really succeeded in becoming operational: the ISR, the SppbarS, the Tevatron and the LHC. Another hadron collider, RHIC, originally conceived for ion–ion collisions, has also been operated part-time with polarized protons. Although a vast literature documenting them is available, this paper is intended to provide a quick synthesis of their main features and key performance.

  13. Proton induced luminescence of minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo del Castillo, H.; Millan, A.; Calderon, T. [Depto. Geologia y Geoquimica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Ctra. Colmenar, km. 15, 28049, Madrid (Spain); Beneitez, P. [Departamento Quimica Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Ruvalcaba S, J.L. [lFUNAM, Circuito de la lnvestigacion Cientifica s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents a summary of Ionoluminescence (IL) for several minerals commonly found in jewellery pieces and/or artefacts of historical interest. Samples including silicates and non-silicates (native elements, halide, oxide, carbonate and phosphate groups) have been excited with a 1.8 MeV proton beam, and IL spectra in the range of 200- 900 nm have been collected for each one using a fiber optic coupled spectrometer. Light emissions have been related to Cr{sup 3+}, Mn{sup 2+} and Pr{sup 3+} ions, as well as intrinsic defects in these minerals. Results show the potential of IL for impurity characterization with high detection limits, local symmetry studies, and the study of the origin of minerals. (Author)

  14. Advances in compact proton spectrometers for inertial-confinement fusion and plasma nuclear science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguin, F H; Sinenian, N; Rosenberg, M; Zylstra, A; Manuel, M J-E; Sio, H; Waugh, C; Rinderknecht, H G; Johnson, M Gatu; Frenje, J; Li, C K; Petrasso, R; Sangster, T C; Roberts, S

    2012-10-01

    Compact wedge-range-filter proton spectrometers cover proton energies ∼3-20 MeV. They have been used at the OMEGA laser facility for more than a decade for measuring spectra of primary D(3)He protons in D(3)He implosions, secondary D(3)He protons in DD implosions, and ablator protons in DT implosions; they are now being used also at the National Ignition Facility. The spectra are used to determine proton yields, shell areal density at shock-bang time and compression-bang time, fuel areal density, and implosion symmetry. There have been changes in fabrication and in analysis algorithms, resulting in a wider energy range, better accuracy and precision, and better robustness for survivability with indirect-drive inertial-confinement-fusion experiments.

  15. Parameterization of rotational spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Chunmei; Liu Tong

    1992-01-01

    The rotational spectra of the strongly deformed nuclei with low rotational frequencies and weak band mixture are analyzed. The strongly deformed nuclei are commonly encountered in the rare-earth region (e. g., 150 220). A lot of rotational band knowledge are presented

  16. Atomic Spectra Database (ASD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 78 NIST Atomic Spectra Database (ASD) (Web, free access)   This database provides access and search capability for NIST critically evaluated data on atomic energy levels, wavelengths, and transition probabilities that are reasonably up-to-date. The NIST Atomic Spectroscopy Data Center has carried out these critical compilations.

  17. Electronic and vibrational circular dichroism spectra of (R)-(-)-apomorphine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbate, Sergio, E-mail: abbate@med.unibs.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche e Biotecnologie, Universita di Brescia, Viale Europa 11, 25123 Brescia (Italy); CNISM, Consorzio Interuniversitario Scienze Fisiche della Materia, Via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Roma (Italy); Longhi, Giovanna; Lebon, France [Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche e Biotecnologie, Universita di Brescia, Viale Europa 11, 25123 Brescia (Italy); CNISM, Consorzio Interuniversitario Scienze Fisiche della Materia, Via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Roma (Italy); Tommasini, Matteo [Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica ' G. Natta' , Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Consorzio Interuniversitario per la Scienza e Tecnologia dei Materiali (INSTM), Unita di Ricerca del Politecnico di Milano (Dip. CMIC), Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2012-09-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ECD and VCD Spectra of (R)-(-)-apomorphine measured in various solvents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DFT calculations allow to study the protonation state and conformations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Contributions from catechol OH vibrations to the VCD spectra is studied. -- Abstract: Apomorphine is a chiral drug molecule; notwithstanding its extraordinary importance, little attention has been paid to the characterization of its chiroptical properties. Here we report on its electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra, recorded in methanol and water, and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) in methanol and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solutions. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations have allowed us to interpret the spectra and to evaluate the role of possible conformations, charge-states and interactions with counter ions.

  18. RIGIDITY, SENSITIVITY AND QUALITY OF ATTACHMENT - THE ROLE OF MATERNAL RIGIDITY IN THE EARLY SOCIOEMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF PREMATURE-INFANTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BUTCHER, PR; KALVERBOER, A; MINDERAA, RB; VANDOORMAAL, EF; TENWOLDE, Y

    1993-01-01

    The associations between a mother's rigidity, her sensitivity in early (3 month) interaction and the quality of her premature infant's attachment at 13 months were investigated. Rigidity as a personality characteristic was not found to be significantly associated with sensitivity or quality of

  19. Proton Fast Ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key, M H; Freeman, R R; Hatchett, S P; MacKinnon, A J; Patel, P K; Snavely, R A; Stephens, R B

    2006-04-01

    Fast ignition (FI) by a laser generated ballistically focused proton beam is a more recently proposed alternative to the original concept of FI by a laser generated beam of relativistic electrons. It has potential advantages in less complex energy transport into dense plasma. Recent successful target heating experiments motivate further investigation of the feasibility of proton fast ignition. The concept, the physics and characteristics of the proton beams, the recent experimental work on focusing of the beams and heating of solid targets and the overall prospects for proton FI are discussed

  20. PROTONATED POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS REVISITED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricca, Alessandra; Bauschlicher, Charles W. Jr; Allamandola, Louis J.

    2011-01-01

    We reconsider the contribution that singly protonated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; HPAH + s) might make to the Class A component of the 6.2 μm interstellar emission feature in light of the recent experimental measurements of protonated naphthalene and coronene. Our calculations on the small HPAH + s have a band near 6.2 μm, as found in experiment. While the larger HPAH + s still have emission near 6.2 μm, the much larger intensity of the band near 6.3 μm overwhelms the weaker band at 6.2 μm, so that the 6.2 μm band is barely visible. Since the large PAHs are more representative of those in the interstellar medium, our work suggests that large HPAH + s cannot be major contributors to the observed emission at 6.2 μm (i.e., Class A species). Saturating large PAH cations with hydrogen atoms retains the 6.2 μm Class A band position, but the rest of the spectrum is inconsistent with observed spectra.

  1. Study of proton and 2 protons emission from light neutron deficient nuclei around A=20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerguerras, T.

    2001-09-01

    Proton and two proton emission from light neutron deficient nuclei around A=20 have been studied. A radioactive beam of 18 Ne, 17 F and 20 Mg, produced at the Grand Accelerateur National d'Ions Lourds by fragmentation of a 24 Mg primary beam at 95 MeV/A, bombarded a 9 Be target to form unbound states. Proton(s) and nuclei from the decay were detected respectively in the MUST array and the SPEG spectrometer. From energy and angle measurements, the invariant mass of the decaying nucleus could be reconstructed. Double coincidence events between a proton and 17 F, 16 O, 15 O, 14 O and 18 Ne were registered to obtain excitation energy spectra of 18 Ne, 17 F, 16 F, 15 F et 19 Na. Generally, the masses measures are in agreement with previous experiments. In the case of 18 Ne, excitation energy and angular distributions agree well with the predictions of a break up model calculation. From 17 Ne proton coincidences, a first experimental measurement of the ground state mass excess of 18 Na has been obtained and yields 24,19(0,15)MeV. Two proton emission from 17 Ne and 18 Ne excited states and the 19 Mg ground state was studied through triple coincidences between two proton and 15 O, 16 O and 17 Ne respectively. In the first case, the proton-proton relative angle distribution in the center of mass has been compared with model calculation. Sequential emission from excited states of 17 Ne, above the proton emission threshold, through 16 F is dominant but a 2 He decay channel could not be excluded. No 2 He emission from the 1.288 MeV 17 Ne state, or from the 6.15 MeV 18 Ne state has been observed. Only one coincidence event between 17 Ne and two proton was registered, the value of the one neutron stripping reaction cross section of 20 Mg being much lower than predicted. (author)

  2. Measurement of pion, kaon and proton production in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, Jaroslav; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca; Agnello, Michelangelo; Agrawal, Neelima; Ahammed, Zubayer; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ahn, Sang Un; Aimo, Ilaria; Aiola, Salvatore; Ajaz, Muhammad; Akindinov, Alexander; Alam, Sk Noor; Aleksandrov, Dmitry; Alessandro, Bruno; Alexandre, Didier; Alfaro Molina, Jose Ruben; Alici, Andrea; Alkin, Anton; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Altinpinar, Sedat; Altsybeev, Igor; Alves Garcia Prado, Caio; Andrei, Cristian; Andronic, Anton; Anguelov, Venelin; Anielski, Jonas; Anticic, Tome; Antinori, Federico; Antonioli, Pietro; Aphecetche, Laurent Bernard; Appelshaeuser, Harald; Arcelli, Silvia; Armesto Perez, Nestor; Arnaldi, Roberta; Aronsson, Tomas; Arsene, Ionut Cristian; Arslandok, Mesut; Augustinus, Andre; Averbeck, Ralf Peter; Azmi, Mohd Danish; Bach, Matthias Jakob; Badala, Angela; Baek, Yong Wook; Bagnasco, Stefano; Bailhache, Raphaelle Marie; Bala, Renu; Baldisseri, Alberto; Ball, Markus; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, Fernando; Baral, Rama Chandra; Barbano, Anastasia Maria; Barbera, Roberto; Barile, Francesco; Barnafoldi, Gergely Gabor; Barnby, Lee Stuart; Ramillien Barret, Valerie; Bartalini, Paolo; Bartke, Jerzy Gustaw; Bartsch, Esther; Basile, Maurizio; Bastid, Nicole; Basu, Sumit; Bathen, Bastian; Batigne, Guillaume; Batista Camejo, Arianna; Batyunya, Boris; Batzing, Paul Christoph; Bearden, Ian Gardner; Beck, Hans; Bedda, Cristina; Behera, Nirbhay Kumar; Belikov, Iouri; Bellini, Francesca; Bello Martinez, Hector; Bellwied, Rene; Belmont Iii, Ronald John; Belmont Moreno, Ernesto; Belyaev, Vladimir; Bencedi, Gyula; Beole, Stefania; Berceanu, Ionela; Bercuci, Alexandru; Berdnikov, Yaroslav; Berenyi, Daniel; Bertens, Redmer Alexander; Berzano, Dario; Betev, Latchezar; Bhasin, Anju; Bhat, Inayat Rasool; Bhati, Ashok Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Buddhadeb; Bhom, Jihyun; Bianchi, Livio; Bianchi, Nicola; Bianchin, Chiara; Bielcik, Jaroslav; Bielcikova, Jana; Bilandzic, Ante; Biswas, Saikat; Bjelogrlic, Sandro; Blanco, Fernando; Blau, Dmitry; Blume, Christoph; Bock, Friederike; Bogdanov, Alexey; Boggild, Hans; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Bombara, Marek; Book, Julian Heinz; Borel, Herve; Borissov, Alexander; Borri, Marcello; Bossu, Francesco; Botje, Michiel; Botta, Elena; Boettger, Stefan; Braun-Munzinger, Peter; Bregant, Marco; Breitner, Timo Gunther; Broker, Theo Alexander; Browning, Tyler Allen; Broz, Michal; Brucken, Erik Jens; Bruna, Elena; Bruno, Giuseppe Eugenio; Budnikov, Dmitry; Buesching, Henner; Bufalino, Stefania; Buncic, Predrag; Busch, Oliver; Buthelezi, Edith Zinhle; Buxton, Jesse Thomas; Caffarri, Davide; Cai, Xu; Caines, Helen Louise; Calero Diaz, Liliet; Caliva, Alberto; Calvo Villar, Ernesto; Camerini, Paolo; Carena, Francesco; Carena, Wisla; Castillo Castellanos, Javier Ernesto; Castro, Andrew John; Casula, Ester Anna Rita; Cavicchioli, Costanza; Ceballos Sanchez, Cesar; Cepila, Jan; Cerello, Piergiorgio; Chang, Beomsu; Chapeland, Sylvain; Chartier, Marielle; Charvet, Jean-Luc Fernand; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Sukalyan; Chelnokov, Volodymyr; Cherney, Michael Gerard; Cheshkov, Cvetan Valeriev; Cheynis, Brigitte; Chibante Barroso, Vasco Miguel; Dobrigkeit Chinellato, David; Chochula, Peter; Choi, Kyungeon; Chojnacki, Marek; Choudhury, Subikash; Christakoglou, Panagiotis; Christensen, Christian Holm; Christiansen, Peter; Chujo, Tatsuya; Chung, Suh-Urk; Cicalo, Corrado; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, Federico; Cleymans, Jean Willy Andre; Colamaria, Fabio Filippo; Colella, Domenico; Collu, Alberto; Colocci, Manuel; Conesa Balbastre, Gustavo; Conesa Del Valle, Zaida; Connors, Megan Elizabeth; Contreras Nuno, Jesus Guillermo; Cormier, Thomas Michael; Corrales Morales, Yasser; Cortes Maldonado, Ismael; Cortese, Pietro; Cosentino, Mauro Rogerio; Costa, Filippo; Crochet, Philippe; Cruz Albino, Rigoberto; Cuautle Flores, Eleazar; Cunqueiro Mendez, Leticia; Dahms, Torsten; Dainese, Andrea; Danu, Andrea; Das, Debasish; Das, Indranil; Das, Supriya; Dash, Ajay Kumar; Dash, Sadhana; De, Sudipan; De Caro, Annalisa; De Cataldo, Giacinto; 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Margotti, Anselmo; Margutti, Jacopo; Marin, Ana Maria; Markert, Christina; Marquard, Marco; Martin, Nicole Alice; Martin Blanco, Javier; Martinengo, Paolo; Martinez Hernandez, Mario Ivan; Martinez-Garcia, Gines; Martinez Pedreira, Miguel; Martynov, Yevgen; Mas, Alexis Jean-Michel; Masciocchi, Silvia; Masera, Massimo; Masoni, Alberto; Massacrier, Laure Marie; Mastroserio, Annalisa; Masui, Hiroshi; Matyja, Adam Tomasz; Mayer, Christoph; Mazer, Joel Anthony; Mazzoni, Alessandra Maria; Mcdonald, Daniel; Meddi, Franco; Menchaca-Rocha, Arturo Alejandro; Meninno, Elisa; Mercado-Perez, Jorge; Meres, Michal; Miake, Yasuo; Mieskolainen, Matti Mikael; Mikhaylov, Konstantin; Milano, Leonardo; Milosevic, Jovan; Minervini, Lazzaro Manlio; Mischke, Andre; Mishra, Aditya Nath; Miskowiec, Dariusz Czeslaw; Mitra, Jubin; Mitu, Ciprian Mihai; Mohammadi, Naghmeh; Mohanty, Bedangadas; Molnar, Levente; Montano Zetina, Luis Manuel; Montes Prado, Esther; Morando, Maurizio; Moreira De Godoy, Denise Aparecida; Moretto, Sandra; Morreale, Astrid; Morsch, Andreas; Muccifora, Valeria; Mudnic, Eugen; Muhlheim, Daniel Michael; Muhuri, Sanjib; Mukherjee, Maitreyee; Muller, Hans; Mulligan, James Declan; Gameiro Munhoz, Marcelo; Murray, Sean; Musa, Luciano; Musinsky, Jan; Nandi, Basanta Kumar; Nania, Rosario; Nappi, Eugenio; Naru, Muhammad Umair; Nattrass, Christine; Nayak, Kishora; Nayak, Tapan Kumar; Nazarenko, Sergey; Nedosekin, Alexander; Nellen, Lukas; Ng, Fabian; Nicassio, Maria; Niculescu, Mihai; Niedziela, Jeremi; Nielsen, Borge Svane; Nikolaev, Sergey; Nikulin, Sergey; Nikulin, Vladimir; Noferini, Francesco; Nomokonov, Petr; Nooren, Gerardus; Norman, Jaime; Nyanin, Alexander; Nystrand, Joakim Ingemar; Oeschler, Helmut Oskar; Oh, Saehanseul; Oh, Sun Kun; Ohlson, Alice Elisabeth; Okatan, Ali; Okubo, Tsubasa; Olah, Laszlo; Oleniacz, Janusz; Oliveira Da Silva, Antonio Carlos; Oliver, Michael Henry; Onderwaater, Jacobus; Oppedisano, Chiara; Ortiz Velasquez, Antonio; Oskarsson, Anders Nils Erik; Otwinowski, Jacek Tomasz; Oyama, Ken; Ozdemir, Mahmut; Pachmayer, Yvonne Chiara; Pagano, Paola; Paic, Guy; Pajares Vales, Carlos; Pal, Susanta Kumar; Pan, Jinjin; Pant, Divyash; Papikyan, Vardanush; Pappalardo, Giuseppe; Pareek, Pooja; Park, Woojin; Parmar, Sonia; Passfeld, Annika; Paticchio, Vincenzo; Paul, Biswarup; Pawlak, Tomasz Jan; Peitzmann, Thomas; Pereira Da Costa, Hugo Denis Antonio; Pereira De Oliveira Filho, Elienos; Peresunko, Dmitry Yurevich; Perez Lara, Carlos Eugenio; Peskov, Vladimir; Pestov, Yury; Petracek, Vojtech; Petrov, Viacheslav; Petrovici, Mihai; Petta, Catia; Piano, Stefano; Pikna, Miroslav; Pillot, Philippe; Pinazza, Ombretta; Pinsky, Lawrence; Piyarathna, Danthasinghe; Ploskon, Mateusz Andrzej; Planinic, Mirko; Pluta, Jan Marian; Pochybova, Sona; Podesta Lerma, Pedro Luis Manuel; Poghosyan, Martin; Polishchuk, Boris; Poljak, Nikola; Poonsawat, Wanchaloem; Pop, Amalia; Porteboeuf, Sarah Julie; Porter, R Jefferson; Pospisil, Jan; Prasad, Sidharth Kumar; Preghenella, Roberto; Prino, Francesco; 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Scott, Rebecca Michelle; Seeder, Karin Soraya; Seger, Janet Elizabeth; Sekiguchi, Yuko; Selyuzhenkov, Ilya; Senosi, Kgotlaesele; Seo, Jeewon; Serradilla Rodriguez, Eulogio; Sevcenco, Adrian; Shabanov, Arseniy; Shabetai, Alexandre; Shadura, Oksana; Shahoyan, Ruben; Shangaraev, Artem; Sharma, Ankita; Sharma, Natasha; Shigaki, Kenta; Shtejer Diaz, Katherin; Sibiryak, Yury; Siddhanta, Sabyasachi; Sielewicz, Krzysztof Marek; Siemiarczuk, Teodor; Silvermyr, David Olle Rickard; Silvestre, Catherine Micaela; Simatovic, Goran; Simonetti, Giuseppe; Singaraju, Rama Narayana; Singh, Ranbir; Singha, Subhash; Singhal, Vikas; Sinha, Bikash; Sarkar - Sinha, Tinku; Sitar, Branislav; Sitta, Mario; Skaali, Bernhard; Slupecki, Maciej; Smirnov, Nikolai; Snellings, Raimond; Snellman, Tomas Wilhelm; Soegaard, Carsten; Soltz, Ron Ariel; Song, Jihye; Song, Myunggeun; Song, Zixuan; Soramel, Francesca; Sorensen, Soren Pontoppidan; Spacek, Michal; Spiriti, Eleuterio; Sputowska, Iwona Anna; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, Martha; 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Wang, Hongkai; Wang, Mengliang; Wang, Yifei; Watanabe, Daisuke; Weber, Michael; Weber, Steffen Georg; Wessels, Johannes Peter; Westerhoff, Uwe; Wiechula, Jens; Wikne, Jon; Wilde, Martin Rudolf; Wilk, Grzegorz Andrzej; Wilkinson, Jeremy John; Williams, Crispin; Windelband, Bernd Stefan; Winn, Michael Andreas; Yaldo, Chris G; Yamaguchi, Yorito; Yang, Hongyan; Yang, Ping; Yano, Satoshi; Yasnopolskiy, Stanislav; Yin, Zhongbao; Yokohama, Hiroki; Yoo, In-Kwon; Yurchenko, Volodymyr; Yushmanov, Igor; Zaborowska, Anna; Zaccolo, Valentina; Zaman, Ali; Zampolli, Chiara; Correia Zanoli, Henrique Jose; Zaporozhets, Sergey; Zarochentsev, Andrey; Zavada, Petr; Zavyalov, Nikolay; Zbroszczyk, Hanna Paulina; Zgura, Sorin Ion; Zhalov, Mikhail; Zhang, Haitao; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yonghong; Zhao, Chengxin; Zhigareva, Natalia; Zhou, Daicui; Zhou, You; Zhou, Zhuo; Zhu, Hongsheng; Zhu, Jianhui; Zhu, Xiangrong; Zichichi, Antonino; Zimmermann, Alice; Zimmermann, Markus Bernhard; Zinovjev, Gennady; Zyzak, Maksym

    2015-05-27

    The measurement of primary $\\pi^{\\pm}$, K$^{\\pm}$, p and $\\overline{p}$ production at mid-rapidity ($|y| <$ 0.5) in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 7$ TeV performed with ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is reported. Particle identification is performed using the specific ionization energy loss and time-of-flight information, the ring-imaging Cherenkov technique and the kink-topology identification of weak decays of charged kaons. Transverse momentum spectra are measured from 0.1 up to 3 GeV/$c$ for pions, from 0.2 up to 6 GeV/$c$ for kaons and from 0.3 up to 6 GeV/$c$ for protons. The measured spectra and particle ratios are compared with QCD-inspired models, tuned to reproduce also the earlier measurements performed at the LHC. Furthermore, the integrated particle yields and ratios as well as the average transverse momenta are compared with results at lower collision energies.

  3. Measurement of pion, kaon and proton production in proton-proton collisions at [Formula: see text] TeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

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Belmont, R; Belmont-Moreno, E; Belyaev, V; Bencedi, G; Beole, S; Berceanu, I; Bercuci, A; Berdnikov, Y; Berenyi, D; Bertens, R A; Berzano, D; Betev, L; Bhasin, A; Bhat, I R; Bhati, A K; Bhattacharjee, B; Bhom, J; Bianchi, L; Bianchi, N; Bianchin, C; Bielčík, J; Bielčíková, J; Bilandzic, A; Biswas, S; Bjelogrlic, S; Blanco, F; Blau, D; Blume, C; Bock, F; Bogdanov, A; Bøggild, H; Boldizsár, L; Bombara, M; Book, J; Borel, H; Borissov, A; Borri, M; Bossú, F; Botje, M; Botta, E; Böttger, S; Braun-Munzinger, P; Bregant, M; Breitner, T; Broker, T A; Browning, T A; Broz, M; Brucken, E J; Bruna, E; Bruno, G E; Budnikov, D; Buesching, H; Bufalino, S; Buncic, P; Busch, O; Buthelezi, Z; Buxton, J T; Caffarri, D; Cai, X; Caines, H; Diaz, L Calero; Caliva, A; Villar, E Calvo; Camerini, P; Carena, F; Carena, W; Castellanos, J Castillo; Castro, A J; Casula, E A R; Cavicchioli, C; Sanchez, C Ceballos; Cepila, J; Cerello, P; Chang, B; Chapeland, S; Chartier, M; Charvet, J L; Chattopadhyay, S; Chattopadhyay, S; Chelnokov, V; Cherney, M; Cheshkov, C; Cheynis, B; Barroso, V Chibante; Chinellato, D D; Chochula, P; Choi, K; Chojnacki, M; Choudhury, S; Christakoglou, P; Christensen, C H; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Chung, S U; Cicalo, C; Cifarelli, L; Cindolo, F; Cleymans, J; Colamaria, F; Colella, D; Collu, A; Colocci, M; Balbastre, G Conesa; Valle, Z Conesa Del; Connors, M E; Contreras, J G; Cormier, T M; Morales, Y Corrales; Maldonado, I Cortés; Cortese, P; Cosentino, M R; Costa, F; Crochet, P; Albino, R Cruz; Cuautle, E; Cunqueiro, L; Dahms, T; Dainese, A; Danu, A; Das, D; Das, I; Das, S; Dash, A; Dash, S; De, S; Caro, A De; Cataldo, G de; Cuveland, J de; Falco, A De; Gruttola, D De; Marco, N De; Pasquale, S De; Deisting, A; Deloff, A; Dénes, E; D'Erasmo, G; Bari, D Di; Mauro, A Di; Nezza, P Di; Corchero, M A Diaz; Dietel, T; Dillenseger, P; Divià, R; Djuvsland, Ø; Dobrin, A; Dobrowolski, T; Gimenez, D Domenicis; Dönigus, B; Dordic, O; Dubey, A K; Dubla, A; Ducroux, L; Dupieux, P; Ehlers, R J; Elia, D; Engel, H; Erazmus, B; Erhardt, F; Eschweiler, D; Espagnon, B; Estienne, M; Esumi, S; Eum, J; Evans, D; Evdokimov, S; Eyyubova, G; Fabbietti, L; Fabris, D; Faivre, J; Fantoni, A; Fasel, M; Feldkamp, L; Felea, D; Feliciello, A; Feofilov, G; Ferencei, J; Téllez, A Fernández; Ferreiro, E G; Ferretti, A; Festanti, A; Figiel, J; Figueredo, M A S; Filchagin, S; Finogeev, D; Fionda, F M; Fiore, E M; Fleck, M G; Floris, M; Foertsch, S; Foka, P; Fokin, S; Fragiacomo, E; Francescon, A; Frankenfeld, U; Fuchs, U; Furget, C; Furs, A; Girard, M Fusco; Gaardhøje, J J; Gagliardi, M; Gago, A M; Gallio, M; Gangadharan, D R; Ganoti, P; Gao, C; Garabatos, C; Garcia-Solis, E; Gargiulo, C; Gasik, P; Germain, M; Gheata, A; Gheata, M; Ghosh, P; Ghosh, S K; Gianotti, P; Giubellino, P; Giubilato, P; Dziadus, E Gladysz; Glässel, P; Ramirez, A Gomez; Zamora, P González; Gorbunov, S; Görlich, L; Gotovac, S; Grabski, V; Graczykowski, L K; Grelli, A; Grigoras, A; Grigoras, C; Grigoriev, V; Grigoryan, A; Grigoryan, S; Grinyov, B; Grion, N; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J F; Grossiord, J-Y; Grosso, R; Guber, F; Guernane, R; Guerzoni, B; Gulbrandsen, K; Gulkanyan, H; Gunji, T; Gupta, A; Gupta, R; Haake, R; Haaland, Ø; Hadjidakis, C; Haiduc, M; Hamagaki, H; Hamar, G; Hanratty, L D; Hansen, A; Harris, J W; Hartmann, H; Harton, A; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hayashi, S; Heckel, S T; Heide, M; Helstrup, H; Herghelegiu, A; Corral, G Herrera; Hess, B A; Hetland, K F; Hilden, T E; Hillemanns, H; Hippolyte, B; Hristov, P; Huang, M; Humanic, T J; Hussain, N; Hussain, T; Hutter, D; Hwang, D S; Ilkaev, R; Ilkiv, I; Inaba, M; Ionita, C; Ippolitov, M; Irfan, M; Ivanov, M; Ivanov, V; Izucheev, V; Jacobs, P M; Jahnke, C; Jang, H J; Janik, M A; Jayarathna, P H S Y; Jena, C; Jena, S; Bustamante, R T Jimenez; Jones, P G; Jung, H; Jusko, A; Kalinak, P; Kalweit, A; Kamin, J; Kang, J H; Kaplin, V; Kar, S; Uysal, A Karasu; Karavichev, O; Karavicheva, T; Karpechev, E; Kebschull, U; Keidel, R; Keijdener, D L D; Keil, M; Khan, K H; Khan, M M; Khan, P; Khan, S A; Khanzadeev, A; Kharlov, Y; Kileng, B; Kim, B; Kim, D W; Kim, D J; Kim, H; Kim, J S; Kim, M; Kim, M; Kim, S; Kim, T; Kirsch, S; Kisel, I; Kiselev, S; Kisiel, A; Kiss, G; Klay, J L; Klein, C; Klein, J; Klein-Bösing, C; Kluge, A; Knichel, M L; Knospe, A G; Kobayashi, T; Kobdaj, C; Kofarago, M; Köhler, M K; Kollegger, T; Kolojvari, A; Kondratiev, V; Kondratyeva, N; Kondratyuk, E; Konevskikh, A; Kouzinopoulos, C; Kovalenko, O; Kovalenko, V; Kowalski, M; Kox, S; Meethaleveedu, G Koyithatta; Kral, J; Králik, I; Kravčáková, A; Krelina, M; Kretz, M; Krivda, M; Krizek, F; Kryshen, E; Krzewicki, M; Kubera, A M; Kučera, V; Kucheriaev, Y; Kugathasan, T; Kuhn, C; Kuijer, P G; Kulakov, I; Kumar, J; Kumar, L; Kurashvili, P; Kurepin, A; Kurepin, A B; Kuryakin, A; Kushpil, S; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; Pointe, S L La; Rocca, P La; Fernandes, C Lagana; Lakomov, I; Langoy, R; Lara, C; Lardeux, A; Lattuca, A; Laudi, E; Lea, R; Leardini, L; Lee, G R; Lee, S; Legrand, I; Lehnert, J; Lemmon, R C; Lenti, V; Leogrande, E; Monzón, I León; Leoncino, M; Lévai, P; Li, S; Li, X; Lien, J; Lietava, R; Lindal, S; Lindenstruth, V; Lippmann, C; Lisa, M A; Ljunggren, H M; Lodato, D F; Loenne, P I; Loggins, V R; Loginov, V; Loizides, C; Lopez, X; Torres, E López; Lowe, A; Lu, X-G; Luettig, P; Lunardon, M; Luparello, G; Maevskaya, A; Mager, M; Mahajan, S; Mahmood, S M; Maire, A; Majka, R D; Malaev, M; Cervantes, I Maldonado; Malinina, L; Mal'Kevich, D; Malzacher, P; Mamonov, A; Manceau, L; Manko, V; Manso, F; Manzari, V; Marchisone, M; Mareš, J; Margagliotti, G V; Margotti, A; Margutti, J; Marín, A; Markert, C; Marquard, M; Martin, N A; Blanco, J Martin; Martinengo, P; Martínez, M I; Martínez García, G; Pedreira, M Martinez; Martynov, Y; Mas, A; Masciocchi, S; Masera, M; Masoni, A; Massacrier, L; Mastroserio, A; Masui, H; Matyja, A; Mayer, C; Mazer, J; Mazzoni, M A; Mcdonald, D; Meddi, F; Menchaca-Rocha, A; Meninno, E; Pérez, J Mercado; Meres, M; Miake, Y; Mieskolainen, M M; Mikhaylov, K; Milano, L; Milosevic, J; Minervini, L M; Mischke, A; Mishra, A N; Miśkowiec, D; Mitra, J; Mitu, C M; Mohammadi, N; Mohanty, B; Molnar, L; Zetina, L Montaño; Montes, E; Morando, M; Godoy, D A Moreira De; Moretto, S; Morreale, A; Morsch, A; Muccifora, V; Mudnic, E; Mühlheim, D; Muhuri, S; Mukherjee, M; Müller, H; Mulligan, J D; Munhoz, M G; Murray, S; Musa, L; Musinsky, J; Nandi, B K; Nania, R; Nappi, E; Naru, M U; Nattrass, C; Nayak, K; Nayak, T K; Nazarenko, S; Nedosekin, A; Nellen, L; Ng, F; Nicassio, M; Niculescu, M; Niedziela, J; Nielsen, B S; Nikolaev, S; Nikulin, S; Nikulin, V; Noferini, F; Nomokonov, P; Nooren, G; Norman, J; Nyanin, A; Nystrand, J; Oeschler, H; Oh, S; Oh, S K; Ohlson, A; Okatan, A; Okubo, T; Olah, L; Oleniacz, J; Silva, A C Oliveira Da; Oliver, M H; Onderwaater, J; Oppedisano, C; Velasquez, A Ortiz; Oskarsson, A; Otwinowski, J; Oyama, K; Ozdemir, M; Pachmayer, Y; Pagano, P; Paić, G; Pajares, C; Pal, S K; Pan, J; Pandey, A K; Pant, D; Papikyan, V; Pappalardo, G S; Pareek, P; Park, W J; Parmar, S; Passfeld, A; Paticchio, V; Paul, B; Pawlak, T; Peitzmann, T; Costa, H Pereira Da; Filho, E Pereira De Oliveira; Peresunko, D; Lara, C E Pérez; Peskov, V; Pestov, Y; Petráček, V; Petrov, V; Petrovici, M; Petta, C; Piano, S; Pikna, M; Pillot, P; Pinazza, O; Pinsky, L; Piyarathna, D B; Płoskoń, M; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Pochybova, S; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Poghosyan, M G; Polichtchouk, B; Poljak, N; Poonsawat, W; Pop, A; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S; Porter, J; Pospisil, J; Prasad, S K; Preghenella, R; Prino, F; Pruneau, C A; Pshenichnov, I; Puccio, M; Puddu, G; Pujahari, P; Punin, V; Putschke, J; Qvigstad, H; Rachevski, A; Raha, S; Rajput, S; Rak, J; Rakotozafindrabe, A; Ramello, L; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Räsänen, S S; Rascanu, B T; Rathee, D; Razazi, V; Read, K F; Real, J S; Redlich, K; Reed, R J; Rehman, A; Reichelt, P; Reicher, M; Reidt, F; Ren, X; Renfordt, R; Reolon, A R; Reshetin, A; Rettig, F; Revol, J-P; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Ricci, R A; Richert, T; Richter, M; Riedler, P; Riegler, W; Riggi, F; Ristea, C; Rivetti, A; Rocco, E; Cahuantzi, M Rodríguez; Manso, A Rodriguez; Røed, K; Rogochaya, E; Rohr, D; Röhrich, D; Romita, R; Ronchetti, F; Ronflette, L; Rosnet, P; Rossi, A; Roukoutakis, F; Roy, A; Roy, C; Roy, P; Montero, A J Rubio; Rui, R; Russo, R; Ryabinkin, E; Ryabov, Y; Rybicki, A; Sadovsky, S; Šafařík, K; Sahlmuller, B; Sahoo, P; Sahoo, R; Sahoo, S; Sahu, P K; Saini, J; Sakai, S; Saleh, M A; Salgado, C A; Salzwedel, J; Sambyal, S; Samsonov, V; Castro, X Sanchez; Šándor, L; Sandoval, A; Sano, M; Santagati, G; Sarkar, D; Scapparone, E; Scarlassara, F; Scharenberg, R P; Schiaua, C; Schicker, R; Schmidt, C; Schmidt, H R; Schuchmann, S; Schukraft, J; Schulc, M; Schuster, T; Schutz, Y; Schwarz, K; Schweda, K; Scioli, G; Scomparin, E; Scott, R; Seeder, K S; Seger, J E; Sekiguchi, Y; Selyuzhenkov, I; Senosi, K; Seo, J; Serradilla, E; Sevcenco, A; Shabanov, A; Shabetai, A; Shadura, O; Shahoyan, R; Shangaraev, A; Sharma, A; Sharma, N; Shigaki, K; Shtejer, K; Sibiriak, Y; Siddhanta, S; Sielewicz, K M; Siemiarczuk, T; Silvermyr, D; Silvestre, C; Simatovic, G; Simonetti, G; Singaraju, R; Singh, R; Singha, S; Singhal, V; Sinha, B C; Sinha, T; Sitar, B; Sitta, M; Skaali, T B; Slupecki, M; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R J M; Snellman, T W; Søgaard, C; Soltz, R; Song, J; Song, M; Song, Z; Soramel, F; Sorensen, S; Spacek, M; Spiriti, E; Sputowska, I; Stassinaki, M Spyropoulou; Srivastava, B K; Stachel, J; Stan, I; Stefanek, G; Steinpreis, M; Stenlund, E; Steyn, G; Stiller, J H; Stocco, D; Strmen, P; Suaide, A A P; Sugitate, T; Suire, C; Suleymanov, M; Sultanov, R; Šumbera, M; Symons, T J M; Szabo, A; Toledo, A Szanto de; Szarka, I; Szczepankiewicz, A; Szymanski, M; Takahashi, J; Tanaka, N; Tangaro, M A; Takaki, J D Tapia; Peloni, A Tarantola; Tariq, M; Tarzila, M G; Tauro, A; Muñoz, G Tejeda; Telesca, A; Terasaki, K; Terrevoli, C; Teyssier, B; Thäder, J; Thomas, D; Tieulent, R; Timmins, A R; Toia, A; Trogolo, S; Trubnikov, V; Trzaska, W H; Tsuji, T; Tumkin, A; Turrisi, R; Tveter, T S; Ullaland, K; Uras, A; Usai, G L; Utrobicic, A; Vajzer, M; Vala, M; Palomo, L Valencia; Vallero, S; Maarel, J Van Der; Hoorne, J W Van; Leeuwen, M van; Vanat, T; Vyvre, P Vande; Varga, D; Vargas, A; Vargyas, M; Varma, R; Vasileiou, M; Vasiliev, A; Vauthier, A; Vechernin, V; Veen, A M; Veldhoen, M; Velure, A; Venaruzzo, M; Vercellin, E; Limón, S Vergara; Vernet, R; Verweij, M; Vickovic, L; Viesti, G; Viinikainen, J; Vilakazi, Z; Baillie, O Villalobos; Vinogradov, A; Vinogradov, L; Vinogradov, Y; Virgili, T; Vislavicius, V; Viyogi, Y P; Vodopyanov, A; Völkl, M A; Voloshin, K; Voloshin, S A; Volpe, G; Haller, B von; Vorobyev, I; Vranic, D; Vrláková, J; Vulpescu, B; Vyushin, A; Wagner, B; Wagner, J; Wang, H; Wang, M; Wang, Y; Watanabe, D; Weber, M; Weber, S G; Wessels, J P; Westerhoff, U; Wiechula, J; Wikne, J; Wilde, M; Wilk, G; Wilkinson, J; Williams, M C S; Windelband, B; Winn, M; Yaldo, C G; Yamaguchi, Y; Yang, H; Yang, P; Yano, S; Yasnopolskiy, S; Yin, Z; Yokoyama, H; Yoo, I-K; Yurchenko, V; Yushmanov, I; Zaborowska, A; Zaccolo, V; Zaman, A; Zampolli, C; Zanoli, H J C; Zaporozhets, S; Zarochentsev, A; Závada, P; Zaviyalov, N; Zbroszczyk, H; Zgura, I S; Zhalov, M; Zhang, H; Zhang, X; Zhang, Y; Zhao, C; Zhigareva, N; Zhou, D; Zhou, Y; Zhou, Z; Zhu, H; Zhu, J; Zhu, X; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, A; Zimmermann, M B; Zinovjev, G; Zyzak, M

    The measurement of primary [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] production at mid-rapidity ([Formula: see text] 0.5) in proton-proton collisions at [Formula: see text][Formula: see text] 7 TeV performed with a large ion collider experiment at the large hadron collider (LHC) is reported. Particle identification is performed using the specific ionisation energy-loss and time-of-flight information, the ring-imaging Cherenkov technique and the kink-topology identification of weak decays of charged kaons. Transverse momentum spectra are measured from 0.1 up to 3 GeV/[Formula: see text] for pions, from 0.2 up to 6 GeV/[Formula: see text] for kaons and from 0.3 up to 6 GeV/[Formula: see text] for protons. The measured spectra and particle ratios are compared with quantum chromodynamics-inspired models, tuned to reproduce also the earlier measurements performed at the LHC. Furthermore, the integrated particle yields and ratios as well as the average transverse momenta are compared with results at lower collision energies.

  4. X-ray absorption spectra and emission spectra of plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Yonglun; Yang Li; Wang Minsheng; Li Jiaming

    2002-01-01

    The author reports a theoretical method to calculate the resolved absorption spectra and emission spectra (optically thin) of hot dense plasmas. Due to its fully relativistic treatment incorporated with the quantum defect theory, it calculates the absorption spectra and emission spectra for single element or multi-element plasmas with little computational efforts. The calculated absorption spectra of LTE gold plasmas agree well with the experimental ones. It also calculates the optical thin emission spectra of LTE gold plasmas, which is helpful to diagnose the plasmas of relevant ICF plasmas. It can also provide the relevant parameters such as population density of various ionic stages, precise radiative properties for ICF studies

  5. Proton-nucleus interactions at 640 MeV accompanied by backward emission of energetic protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarov, V.I.; Kosarev, E.G.; Mueller, H.; Netzband, D.; Toneev, V.D.; Stiehler, T.; Tesch, S.; Gudima, K.K.; Mashnik, S.G.

    1979-03-01

    Spectra of protons of energies between 50 and 145 MeV emitted from carbon have been measured at angles from 105 0 to 160 0 with respect to the 640 MeV proton beam. The measurements have been carried out both inclusively and in coincidence with protons emitted at forward angles up to +- 40 0 with energies from 255 to 330 MeV. This energy interval has been chosen in accordance with the kinematics of quasifree scattering on two-nucleon groups. Inclusive differential cross sections at 140 0 and coincidence cross sections at the angle pair (-12 0 , 122 0 ) have also been measured with Be, Al, Cu and Pb targets. The data have been compared with the predictions of several models. (author)

  6. Proton decay: spectroscopic probe beyond the proton drip line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seweryniak, D; Davids, C N; Robinson, A; Woods, P J; Blank, B; Carpenter, M P; Davinson, T; Freeman, S J; Hammond, N; Hoteling, N; Janssens, R V F; Khoo, T L; Liu, Z; Mukherjee, G; Shergur, J; Sinha, S; Sonzogni, A A; Walters, W B; Woehr, A

    2005-01-01

    Proton decay has been transformed in recent years from an exotic phenomenon into a powerful spectroscopic tool. The frontiers of experimental and theoretical proton-decay studies will be reviewed. Different aspects of proton decay will be illustrated with recent results on the deformed proton emitter 135 Tb, the odd-odd deformed proton emitter 130 Eu, the complex fine structure in the odd-odd 146 Tm nucleus and on excited states in the transitional proton emitter 145 Tm

  7. Review of inelastic proton-proton reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Morrison, Douglas Robert Ogston

    1973-01-01

    The most important new results on inelastic proton-proton scattering obtained with the new machines, I.S.R. and N.A.L., are: (1) The inelastic cross-section increases monotonically with energy from threshold to 1500 GeV/c. Above 6 GeV/c the energy variation has a s /sup +0.04/ behaviour. (2) Scaling is observed at I.S.R. energies in pion production. Confirmation is obtained of the hypothesis of limiting fragmentation. (3) The results are in general, consistent with the two-component model-one class of events being produced by diffraction dissociation and the other by a short-range-order process (e.g. the multiperipheral model). (4) There are indications that the protons have a granular structure; this from observation of secondaries of large transverse momenta. (33 refs).

  8. Lattice vibration spectra. 16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, H.D.; Willich, P.

    1977-01-01

    The FIR absorption spectra of pyrite type compounds RuS 2 , RuSsub(2-x)Sesub(x), RuSe 2 , RuTe 2 , OsS 2 , OsSe 2 , and PtP 2 as well as loellingite type phosphides FeP 2 , RuP 2 , and OsP 2 are reported. For RuS 2 , RuSe 2 , RuTe 2 , OsS 2 , and PtP 2 all of the five infrared allowed modes (k = 0) are observed. As a first result of a numerical normal coordinate treatment vibration forms of pyrite structure are communicated. The spectra show that lattice forces of corresponding sulfides, tellurides, and phosphides are about the same strength, but increase strongly by substitution of iron by ruthenium and especially of ruthenium by osmium. The lattice constants of the RuSsub(2-x)Sesub(x) solid solution obey Vegard's rule. (author)

  9. Deconvoluting double Doppler spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, K.F.; Beling, C.D.; Fung, S.; Chan, K.L.; Tang, H.W.

    2001-01-01

    The successful deconvolution of data from double Doppler broadening of annihilation radiation (D-DBAR) spectroscopy is a promising area of endeavour aimed at producing momentum distributions of a quality comparable to those of the angular correlation technique. The deconvolution procedure we test in the present study is the constrained generalized least square method. Trials with computer simulated DDBAR spectra are generated and deconvoluted in order to find the best form of regularizer and the regularization parameter. For these trials the Neumann (reflective) boundary condition is used to give a single matrix operation in Fourier space. Experimental D-DBAR spectra are also subject to the same type of deconvolution after having carried out a background subtraction and using a symmetrize resolution function obtained from an 85 Sr source with wide coincidence windows. (orig.)

  10. Spectra, Winter 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    additional copies or more information, please email spectra@nrl.navy.mil. LEADINGEDGE 1 Contents 30 Navy Launches UAV from Submerged Submarine 31... multitasking have become mainstream concerns. For example, the New York Times in 2005 and Time magazine in 2006 both reported stories about...interruptions and multitasking , and how they affect performance by increasing human er- ror. In 2005, the information technol- ogy research firm Basex

  11. Thermoluminescence spectra of amethyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Q. [Suzhou Railway Teachers College (China). Dept. of Physics; Yang, B. [Beijing Normal University (China). Dept. of Physics; Wood, R.A.; White, D.R.R.; Townsend, P.D.; Luff, B.J. [Sussex Univ., Brighton (United Kingdom). School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences

    1994-04-01

    Thermoluminescence and cathodoluminescence data from natural and synthetic amethyst and synthetic quartz samples are compared. The spectra include features from the quartz host lattice and from impurity-generated recombination sites. Emission features exist throughout the wavelength range studied, 250-800 nm. The near infrared emission at 740-750 nm appears to be characteristic of the amethyst and is proposed to be due to Fe ion impurity. (Author).

  12. Reversible Rigidity Control Using Low Melting Temperature Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Wanliang; Lu, Tong; Majidi, Carmel

    2013-03-01

    Inspired by nature, materials able to achieve rapid rigidity changes have important applications for human body protection in military and many other areas. This talk presents the fabrication and design of soft-matter technologies that exhibit rapid reversible rigidity control. Fabricated with a masked deposition technique, the soft-matter composite contains liquid-phase and phase-changing metal alloys embedded in a soft and highly stretchable elastomer. The composite material can reversibly change its rigidity by three orders of magnitude and sustain large deformation.

  13. The Almost Periodic Rigidity of Crystallographic Bar-Joint Frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada Badri

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A crystallographic bar-joint framework, C in Rd, is shown to be almost periodically infinitesimally rigid if and only if it is strictly periodically infinitesimally rigid and the rigid unit mode (RUM spectrum, Ω (C, is a singleton. Moreover, the almost periodic infinitesimal flexes of C are characterised in terms of a matrix-valued function, ΦC(z, on the d-torus, Td, determined by a full rank translation symmetry group and an associated motif of joints and bars.

  14. APPLICATION OF RIGID LINKS IN STRUCTURAL DESIGN MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Yu. Fialko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A special finite element modelling rigid links is proposed for the linear static and buckling analysis. Unlike the classical approach based on the theorems of rigid body kinematics, the proposed approach preserves the similarity between the adjacency graph for a sparse matrix and the adjacency graph for nodes of the finite element model, which allows applying sparse direct solvers more effectively. Besides, the proposed approach allows significantly reducing the number of nonzero entries in the factored stiffness matrix in comparison with the classical one, which greatly reduces the duration of the solution. For buckling problems of structures containing rigid bodies, this approach gives correct results. Several examples demonstrate its efficiency.

  15. Protons and how they are transported by proton pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch-Pedersen, Morten Jeppe; Pedersen, Bjørn Panyella; Nissen, Poul

    2008-01-01

    molecular components that allow the plasma membrane proton H(+)-ATPase to carry out proton transport against large membrane potentials. When divergent proton pumps such as the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase, bacteriorhodopsin, and F(O)F(1) ATP synthase are compared, unifying mechanistic premises for biological...... proton pumps emerge. Most notably, the minimal pumping apparatus of all pumps consists of a central proton acceptor/donor, a positively charged residue to control pK (a) changes of the proton acceptor/donor, and bound water molecules to facilitate rapid proton transport along proton wires....

  16. Auger spectra of alkanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rye, R.R.; Jennison, D.R.; Houston, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    The gas-phase Auger line shapes of the linear alkanes C 1 through C 6 and of neopentane are presented and analyzed. The general shape of the spectra are characteristic of carbon in a tetrahedral environment with the major feature in all cases occurring at approx.249 eV. The relatively large spectral changes found between methane and ethane results from the direct interaction of the terminal methyl groups in ethane, and the spectra of the higher alkanes are shown to be a composite of contributions from terminal methyl and interior methylene group carbon atoms. Theoretical analysis based on a one-electron approximation is shown to be capable of making a molecular orbital assignment by comparing calculated vertical transitions to features in the Auger spectra of ethane and propane, and, in the case of ethane, of differentiating between the 2 E/sub g/ and 2 A/sub 1g/ assignment of the ground state of (C 2 H 6 ) + . A one-electron based molecular orbital treatment, however, is shown to partially break down in propane and neopentane. Analysis of neopentane and the observed absence of any noticeable major peak energy shift with increasing molecular size (as predicted by the one-electron treatment) suggests that some Auger final states occur in which both valence holes are localized on the same subunit of the molecule

  17. Pattern recognition in spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebran, M; Paletou, F

    2017-01-01

    We present a new automated procedure that simultaneously derives the effective temperature T eff , surface gravity log g , metallicity [ Fe/H ], and equatorial projected rotational velocity v e sin i for stars. The procedure is inspired by the well-known PCA-based inversion of spectropolarimetric full-Stokes solar data, which was used both for Zeeman and Hanle effects. The efficiency and accuracy of this procedure have been proven for FGK, A, and late type dwarf stars of K and M spectral types. Learning databases are generated from the Elodie stellar spectra library using observed spectra for which fundamental parameters were already evaluated or with synthetic data. The synthetic spectra are calculated using ATLAS9 model atmospheres. This technique helped us to detect many peculiar stars such as Am, Ap, HgMn, SiEuCr and binaries. This fast and efficient technique could be used every time a pattern recognition is needed. One important application is the understanding of the physical properties of planetary surfaces by comparing aboard instrument data to synthetic ones. (paper)

  18. Giving Protons a Boost

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The first of LHC's superconducting radio-frequency cavity modules has passed its final test at full power in the test area of building SM18. These modules carry an oscillating electric field that will accelerate protons around the LHC ring and help maintain the stability of the proton beams.

  19. On the proton decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonda, L.; Ghirardi, G.C.; Weber, T.

    1983-07-01

    The problem of the proton decay is considered taking into account that in actual experiments there is an interaction of the proton with its environment which could imply an increase of its theoretical lifetime. It is seen that, by application of the time-energy uncertainty relation, no prolongation of the lifetime is obtained in this case. (author)

  20. GEANT4 simulations for Proton computed tomography applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yevseyeva, Olga; Assis, Joaquim T. de; Evseev, Ivan; Schelin, Hugo R.; Shtejer Diaz, Katherin; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2011-01-01

    Proton radiation therapy is a highly precise form of cancer treatment. In existing proton treatment centers, dose calculations are performed based on X-ray computed tomography (CT). Alternatively, one could image the tumor directly with proton CT (pCT). Proton beams in medical applications deal with relatively thick targets like the human head or trunk. Thus, the fidelity of proton computed tomography (pCT) simulations as a tool for proton therapy planning depends in the general case on the accuracy of results obtained for the proton interaction with thick absorbers. GEANT4 simulations of proton energy spectra after passing thick absorbers do not agree well with existing experimental data, as showed previously. The spectra simulated for the Bethe-Bloch domain showed an unexpected sensitivity to the choice of low-energy electromagnetic models during the code execution. These observations were done with the GEANT4 version 8.2 during our simulations for pCT. This work describes in more details the simulations of the proton passage through gold absorbers with varied thickness. The simulations were done by modifying only the geometry in the Hadron therapy Example, and for all available choices of the Electromagnetic Physics Models. As the most probable reasons for these effects is some specific feature in the code or some specific implicit parameters in the GEANT4 manual, we continued our study with version 9.2 of the code. Some improvements in comparison with our previous results were obtained. The simulations were performed considering further applications for pCT development. The authors want to thank CNPq, CAPES and 'Fundacao Araucaria' for financial support of this work. (Author)

  1. Particle evaporation spectra with inclusion of thermal shape fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretto, L.G.; Bowman, D.R.

    1987-04-01

    The origin of the substantial sub-Coulomb component observed in proton and 4 He evaporation spectra at high excitation energy is attributed to the thermal excitation of shape degrees of freedom. A critique of the Hauser-Feshbach theory as used in evaporation codes is presented. A new formalism including the thermal excitation of collective modes as well as quantal penetration in the framework of a transition state approach is derived. 5 figs

  2. PS proton source

    CERN Multimedia

    1959-01-01

    The first proton source used at CERN's Proton Synchrotron (PS) which started operation in 1959. This is CERN's oldest accelerator still functioning today (2018). It is part of the accelerator chain that supplies proton beams to the Large Hadron Collider. The source is a Thonemann type. In order to extract and accelerate the protons at high energy, a high frequency electrical field is used (140Mhz). The field is transmitted by a coil around a discharge tube in order to maintain the gas hydrogen in an ionised state. An electrical field pulse, in the order of 15kV, is then applied via an impulse transformer between anode and cathode of the discharge tube. The electrons and protons of the plasma formed in the ionised gas in the tube, are then separated. Currents in the order of 200mA during 100 microseconds have benn obtained with this type of source.

  3. Protonic charge defect structures in floating water bridges observed as Zundel and Eigen solvation arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschke, Omar; de Castro, Jose Roberto; Valente Filho, Juracyr Ferraz; Soares, David Mendez

    2017-10-01

    Protonic arrangements were detected in water bridge structures using confocal Raman microscopy, and the spectra show two formed structures. The measured Raman spectra were modified using the voltage applied to the bridge structure, which changed the proportion of these two species. Initially, for a 6.3 kV applied voltage, there was a measurable increase in the bridge current above the Ohmic contribution and the observed Raman spectrum of this new injected specie corresponded to the computed spectrum for the Zundel protonic arrangement. As the voltage further increases a contribution from the Eigen proton solvation specie is added to the measured spectrum.

  4. Verification of the Rigidity of the Coulomb Field in Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinov, S. V.; Bulyzhenkov, I. É.

    2018-06-01

    Laplace, analyzing the stability of the Solar System, was the first to calculate that the velocity of the motion of force fields can significantly exceed the velocity of light waves. In electrodynamics, the Coulomb field should rigidly accompany its source for instantaneous force action in distant regions. Such rigid motion was recently inferred from experiments at the Frascati Beam Test Facility with short beams of relativistic electrons. The comments of the authors on their observations are at odds with the comments of theoreticians on retarded potentials, which motivates a detailed study of the positions of both sides. Predictions of measurements, based on the Lienard-Wiechert potentials, are used to propose an unambiguous scheme for testing the rigidity of the Coulomb field. Realization of the proposed experimental scheme could independently refute or support the assertions of the Italian physicists regarding the rigid motion of Coulomb fields and likewise the nondual field approach to macroscopic reality.

  5. Oscillations of rigid bar in the special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paiva, F.M.; Teixeira, A.F.F.

    2011-12-01

    In the special relativity, a rigid bar slides on herself, with a extreme oscillating harmonically. We have discovered at the movement amplitude and in the bar length, indispensable for the elimination of non physical solutions

  6. Rigid body motion in stereo 3D simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zabunov, Svetoslav

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the difficulties experienced by first-grade students studying rigid body motion at Sofia University. Most quantities describing the rigid body are in relations that the students find hard to visualize and understand. They also lose the notion of cause-result relations between vector quantities, such as the relation between torque and angular momentum. Consequently, the understanding of physical laws and conservation principles in free rigid body motion is hampered. This paper presents the capabilities of a 3D simulation, which aims to clarify these questions to the students, who are taught mechanics in the general physics course. The rigid body motion simulations may be observed at http://ialms.net/sim/, and are intended to complement traditional learning practices, not replace them, as the author shares the opinion that no simulation may fully resemble reality.

  7. Resin Infusion Rigidized Inflatable Concept Development and Demonstration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A novel concept utilizing resin infusion to rigidize inflatable structures was developed at JSC ES. This ICA project intends to complete manufacturing of a prototype...

  8. Genus Ranges of 4-Regular Rigid Vertex Graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Dorothy; Dolzhenko, Egor; Jonoska, Nataša; Saito, Masahico; Valencia, Karin

    2015-01-01

    A rigid vertex of a graph is one that has a prescribed cyclic order of its incident edges. We study orientable genus ranges of 4-regular rigid vertex graphs. The (orientable) genus range is a set of genera values over all orientable surfaces into which a graph is embedded cellularly, and the embeddings of rigid vertex graphs are required to preserve the prescribed cyclic order of incident edges at every vertex. The genus ranges of 4-regular rigid vertex graphs are sets of consecutive integers, and we address two questions: which intervals of integers appear as genus ranges of such graphs, and what types of graphs realize a given genus range. For graphs with 2 n vertices ( n > 1), we prove that all intervals [ a, b ] for all a genus ranges. For graphs with 2 n - 1 vertices ( n ≥ 1), we prove that all intervals [ a, b ] for all a genus ranges. We also provide constructions of graphs that realize these ranges.

  9. Re-analysis of exponential rigid-rotor astron equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovelace, R.V.; Larrabee, D.A.; Fleischmann, H.H.

    1978-01-01

    Previous studies of exponential rigid-rotor astron equilibria include particles which are not trapped in the self-field of the configuration. The modification of these studies required to exclude untrapped particles is derived

  10. Rigidity theorem for Willmore surfaces in a sphere

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 126; Issue 2. Rigidity ... Center of Mathematical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, People's Republic of China; College of Mathematics and Information Science, Jiangxi Normal University, Nanchang 330022, People's Republic of China ...

  11. Role of Rigid Endoscopic Detorsion in the Management of Sigmoid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    had emergency surgery, with gangrenous bowel noted in 43 (72%) ... of any stable patient with clinical and radiological features ... peritonitis, underwent repeat rigid sigmoidoscopy. ... endoscopic detorsion was successful in all six cases.

  12. Magnetism and magnetostriction in a degenerate rigid band

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulakowski, K.; Barbara, B.

    1990-09-01

    We investigate the influence of the spin-orbit coupling on the magnetic and magnetoelastic phenomena in ferromagnetic band systems. The description is within the Stoner model of a degenerate rigid band, for temperature T = O. (author). 14 refs

  13. Stabilization of Rigid Body Dynamics by Internal and External Torques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bloch, A. M; Krishnaprasad, P. S; Marsden, J. E; Sanchez de Alvarez, G

    1990-01-01

    ...] with quadratic feedback torques for internal rotors. We show that with such torques, the equations for the rigid body with momentum wheels are Hamiltonian with respect to a Lie-Poisson bracket structure. Further...

  14. Anti-synchronization of the rigid body exhibiting chaotic dynamics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on a method derived from nonlinear control theory, we present a ... In this framework, the active control technique is modified and employed to design control ... state space of the two rigid bodies was verified by numerical simulations.

  15. DISCOVERY OF TWO RARE RIGIDLY ROTATING MAGNETOSPHERE STARS IN THE APOGEE SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eikenberry, Stephen S.; Garner, Alan; Chojnowski, S. Drew; Majewski, Steven R.; Whelan, David G.; Borish, H. Jacob; Hearty, Fred; Li, Zhi-Yun; Nidever, David L.; Skrutskie, Michael; Wisniewski, John; Shetrone, Matthew; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Ebelke, Garrett; Davenport, James R. A.; Feuillet, Diane; Holtzman, Jon; Frinchaboy, Peter M.; Mészáros, Sz.; Schneider, Donald P.

    2014-01-01

    The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE)—one of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III programs—is using near-infrared (NIR) spectra of ∼100,000 red giant branch star candidates to study the structure of the Milky Way. In the course of the survey, APOGEE also acquires spectra of hot field stars to serve as telluric calibrators for the primary science targets. We report the serendipitous discovery of two rare, fast-rotating B-stars of the σ Ori E type among those blue field stars observed during the first year of APOGEE operations. Both of the discovered stars display the spectroscopic signatures of rigidly rotating magnetospheres (RRM) common to this class of highly magnetized (B ∼ 10 kGauss) stars, increasing the number of known RRM stars by ∼10%. One (HD 345439) is a main-sequence B-star with unusually strong He absorption (similar to σ Ori E), while the other (HD 23478) fits a ''He-normal'' B3IV classification. We combine the APOGEE discovery spectra with other optical and NIR spectra of these two stars, and of σ Ori E itself, to show how NIR spectroscopy can be a uniquely powerful tool for discovering more of these rare objects, which may show little/no RRM signatures in their optical spectra. We discuss the potential for further discovery of σ Ori E type stars, as well as the implications of our discoveries for the population of these objects and insights into their origin and evolution

  16. DISCOVERY OF TWO RARE RIGIDLY ROTATING MAGNETOSPHERE STARS IN THE APOGEE SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eikenberry, Stephen S.; Garner, Alan [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Chojnowski, S. Drew; Majewski, Steven R.; Whelan, David G.; Borish, H. Jacob; Hearty, Fred; Li, Zhi-Yun; Nidever, David L.; Skrutskie, Michael [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, 530 McCormick Rd, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Wisniewski, John [Department of Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 W. Brooks St., Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Shetrone, Matthew [University of Texas, McDonald Observatory, 3640 Dark Sky Drive, Fort Davis, TX (United States); Bizyaev, Dmitry; Ebelke, Garrett [Apache Point Observatory, 2001 Apache Point Rd, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States); Davenport, James R. A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, U.W., Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); Feuillet, Diane; Holtzman, Jon [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, 1780 E University Ave, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Frinchaboy, Peter M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas Christian University, Box 298840, Fort Worth, TX 76129 (United States); Mészáros, Sz. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Schneider, Donald P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); and others

    2014-04-01

    The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE)—one of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III programs—is using near-infrared (NIR) spectra of ∼100,000 red giant branch star candidates to study the structure of the Milky Way. In the course of the survey, APOGEE also acquires spectra of hot field stars to serve as telluric calibrators for the primary science targets. We report the serendipitous discovery of two rare, fast-rotating B-stars of the σ Ori E type among those blue field stars observed during the first year of APOGEE operations. Both of the discovered stars display the spectroscopic signatures of rigidly rotating magnetospheres (RRM) common to this class of highly magnetized (B ∼ 10 kGauss) stars, increasing the number of known RRM stars by ∼10%. One (HD 345439) is a main-sequence B-star with unusually strong He absorption (similar to σ Ori E), while the other (HD 23478) fits a ''He-normal'' B3IV classification. We combine the APOGEE discovery spectra with other optical and NIR spectra of these two stars, and of σ Ori E itself, to show how NIR spectroscopy can be a uniquely powerful tool for discovering more of these rare objects, which may show little/no RRM signatures in their optical spectra. We discuss the potential for further discovery of σ Ori E type stars, as well as the implications of our discoveries for the population of these objects and insights into their origin and evolution.

  17. Proton-proton colliding beam facility ISABELLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, H.

    1980-01-01

    This paper attempts to present the status of the ISABELLE construction project, which has the objective of building a 400 + 400 GeV proton colliding beam facility. The major technical features of the superconducting accelerators with their projected performance are described. Progress made so far, difficulties encountered, and the program until completion in 1986 is briefly reviewed

  18. Magnetic quadrupoles lens for hot spot proton imaging in inertial confinement fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teng, J. [Science and Technology on Plasma Physics Laboratory, Laser Fusion Research Center, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Gu, Y.Q., E-mail: yqgu@caep.cn [Science and Technology on Plasma Physics Laboratory, Laser Fusion Research Center, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Center for Applied Physics and Technology, HEDPS, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Chen, J.; Zhu, B.; Zhang, B.; Zhang, T.K.; Tan, F.; Hong, W.; Zhang, B.H. [Science and Technology on Plasma Physics Laboratory, Laser Fusion Research Center, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Wang, X.Q. [Academy of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2016-08-01

    Imaging of DD-produced protons from an implosion hot spot region by miniature permanent magnetic quadrupole (PMQ) lens is proposed. Corresponding object-image relation is deduced and an adjust method for this imaging system is discussed. Ideal point-to-point imaging demands a monoenergetic proton source; nevertheless, we proved that the blur of image induced by proton energy spread is a second order effect therefore controllable. A proton imaging system based on miniature PMQ lens is designed for 2.8 MeV DD-protons and the adjust method in case of proton energy shift is proposed. The spatial resolution of this system is better than 10 μm when proton yield is above 10{sup 9} and the spectra width is within 10%.

  19. Local structure of gallate proton conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannici, F; Messana, D; Martorana, A [Universita degli Studi di Palermo, Dipartimento di Chimica Inorganica ed Analitica, Viale delle Scienze, I-90128 Palermo (Italy); Longo, A [CNR, Istituto per lo studio dei materiali nanostrutturati, Via Ugo La Malfa 153, I-90146 Palermo (Italy); Sciortino, L, E-mail: sciortino@pa.ismn.cnr.i

    2009-11-15

    Lanthanum barium gallate proton conductors are based on disconnected GaO{sub 4} groups. The insertion of hydroxyls in the LaBaGaO{sub 4} network proceeds through self-doping with Ba{sup 2+}, consequent O{sup 2-} vacancy formation to fulfill charge neutrality. With a structural investigation on self-doped LaBaGaO{sub 4} oxides using synchrotron XRD and EXAFS on the Ga K-edge, we find that: (a) the GaO{sub 4} tetrahedra retain their size throughout the whole series; (b) the GaO{sub 4} tetrahedra rotate as rigid bodies on hydration, leading to the formation of a network of shorter O-O configurations that are stabilized by hydrogen bonds; (c) contraction of the lattice occurs along the a unit cell axis, as a consequence of an overall structural rearrangement of the hydrated solid.

  20. Local structure of gallate proton conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannici, F; Messana, D; Martorana, A; Longo, A; Sciortino, L

    2009-01-01

    Lanthanum barium gallate proton conductors are based on disconnected GaO 4 groups. The insertion of hydroxyls in the LaBaGaO 4 network proceeds through self-doping with Ba 2+ , consequent O 2- vacancy formation to fulfill charge neutrality. With a structural investigation on self-doped LaBaGaO 4 oxides using synchrotron XRD and EXAFS on the Ga K-edge, we find that: (a) the GaO 4 tetrahedra retain their size throughout the whole series; (b) the GaO 4 tetrahedra rotate as rigid bodies on hydration, leading to the formation of a network of shorter O-O configurations that are stabilized by hydrogen bonds; (c) contraction of the lattice occurs along the a unit cell axis, as a consequence of an overall structural rearrangement of the hydrated solid.

  1. Local structure of gallate proton conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannici, F.; Messana, D.; Longo, A.; Sciortino, L.; Martorana, A.

    2009-11-01

    Lanthanum barium gallate proton conductors are based on disconnected GaO4 groups. The insertion of hydroxyls in the LaBaGaO4 network proceeds through self-doping with Ba2+, consequent O2- vacancy formation to fulfill charge neutrality. With a structural investigation on self-doped LaBaGaO4 oxides using synchrotron XRD and EXAFS on the Ga K-edge, we find that: (a) the GaO4 tetrahedra retain their size throughout the whole series; (b) the GaO4 tetrahedra rotate as rigid bodies on hydration, leading to the formation of a network of shorter O-O configurations that are stabilized by hydrogen bonds; (c) contraction of the lattice occurs along the a unit cell axis, as a consequence of an overall structural rearrangement of the hydrated solid.

  2. Deconvolution of Positrons' Lifetime spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderin Hidalgo, L.; Ortega Villafuerte, Y.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, we explain the iterative method previously develop for the deconvolution of Doppler broadening spectra using the mathematical optimization theory. Also, we start the adaptation and application of this method to the deconvolution of positrons' lifetime annihilation spectra

  3. Combining Fourier phase encoding and broadband inversion toward J-edited spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yulan; Guan, Quanshuai; Su, Jianwei; Chen, Zhong

    2018-06-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra are often utilized for gathering accurate information relevant to molecular structures and composition assignments. In this study, we develop a homonuclear encoding approach based on imparting a discrete phase modulation of the targeted cross peaks, and combine it with a pure shift experiments (PSYCHE) based J-modulated scheme, providing simple 2D J-edited spectra for accurate measurement of scalar coupling networks. Chemical shifts and J coupling constants of protons coupled to the specific protons are demonstrated along the F2 and F1 dimensions, respectively. Polychromatic pulses by Fourier phase encoding were performed to simultaneously detect several coupling networks. Proton-proton scalar couplings are chosen by a polychromatic pulse and a PSYCHE element. Axis peaks and unwanted couplings are complete eradicated by incorporating a selective COSY block as a preparation period. The theoretical principles and the signal processing procedure are laid out, and experimental observations are rationalized on the basis of theoretical analyses.

  4. Vibrational spectra of aminoacetonitrile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bak, B.; Hansen, E.L.; Nicolaisen, F.M.; Nielsen, O.F.

    1975-01-01

    The preparation of pure, stable aminoacetonitrile(1-amino, 1'-cyanomethane)CH 2 NH 2 CN (1) is described. The Raman spectrum, now complete, and a novel infrared spectrum extending over the 50-3600 cm -1 region are reported. A tentative normal vibration analysis is presented and supported by Raman and infrared data from the spectra of CH 2 NHDCN (2) and CH 2 ND 2 CN (3). The predominance of the trans rotamer may be attributed to intramolecular hydrogen bonding but this is too unimportant to influence the vibrational frequencies of gaseous 1, 2, and 3. However, large gas/liquid frequency shifts occur. (author)

  5. Comparison of Monte Carlo simulations with proton experiment for a thick Au absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yevseyeva, Olga; Assis, Joaquim T. de; Diaz, Katherin S.; Hormaza, Joel M.; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2009-01-01

    Proton therapy applications deal with relatively thick targets like the human head or the trunk. Therefore, relatively small differences in the total proton stopping power given, for example, by the different models provided by GEANT4, could lead to significant disagreement in the final proton energy spectra when integrated along lengthy proton trajectories. This work presents a comparison of proton energy spectra for 49.1 MeV protons passing through a couple of Au absorbers with different thicknesses obtained by GEANT4.8.2 simulations using ICRU49, Ziegler1985 and Ziegler2000 models. The comparison was made with the experimental data of Tschalaer, with TRIM/SRIM2008 and MCNPX2.4.0 simulations, and the Payne analytical solution for the transport equation in the Fokker-Plank approximation. It is shown that the simulations reproduce the experimental spectra with some detectable contradictions. It should be noted that all the spectra lay at the proton energies significantly above 2 MeV, i.e. in the so-called 'Bethe-Bloch region'. Therefore the observed disagreements in GEANT4 results, simulated with different models, are somewhat unexpected. Further studies for a better understanding and to obtain definitive conclusions are necessary. (author)

  6. Modification of polycrystalline copper by proton irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia S, F.; Cabral P, A.; Saniger B, J.M.; Banuelos, J.G.; Barragan V, A.

    1997-01-01

    Polished copper samples were irradiated with proton beams of 300 and 700 keV at room temperature and at -150 Centigrade. In this work the obtained results are reported when such copper irradiated samples are analysed with Sem, Tem, AFM. The Sem micrographs showed evident changes in surface of these copper samples, therefore an EDAX microanalysis was done for its characterization. additionally, the Tem micrographs showed heaps formation until 200 nm. Its electron diffraction spectra indicated that these heaps consist of a copper compound. Finally with AFM were observed changes in coloration of the irradiated sample surface, as well as changes in texture and rugosity of them. These results show in general that irradiation process with protons which is known as an innocuo process produces changes in the copper properties. (Author)

  7. Commissioning of a proton-recoil spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, J.C.; Faught, R.T.

    2000-01-01

    Measurements of neutron fluence spectra in fields from bare and heavy-water-moderated 252 Cf were made with a commercially available proton-recoil spectrometer (PRS) that covers 50 keV to 4.5 MeV. Data obtained from these measurements were compared with data from Bonner sphere spectrometry, Monte Carlo simulation and the open literature. Alterations to the input data file used in unfolding recoil-proton pulse-height distributions were made. Understanding the reasons for these changes and considering the effects of some of the results in an appreciation of the significance of parameters used in the unfolding. An uncertainty of 10% is estimated for values of fluence and ambient dose equivalent for the energy region covered by this PRS. (author)

  8. η production in proton-nucleus reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassing, W.; Batko, G.; Vetter, T.; Wolf, G.

    1991-01-01

    The production of η-mesons in proton-nucleus reactions is analysed with respect to primary nucleon-nucleon (NN→NN η ) and secondary pion-nucleon (πN→ηN) production processes on the basis of Hartree-Fock groundstate momentum distributions and free on-shell production processes. The folding model adopted compares well for meson production with more involved simulations based on VUU transport equations. Similar to K + production in proton-nucleus reactions the η-mesons are primarily produced by the πN→ηN channel. However, η-mesons are absorbed in nuclei via excitation of the N * (1535) resonance which leads to strong distortions of the primordial spectra. On the other hand, the experimental mass dependence of the differential cross sections might yield information about the in-medium properties of this resonance. (orig.)

  9. Proton storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rau, R.R.

    1978-04-01

    A discussion is given of proton storage ring beam dynamic characteristics. Topics considered include: (1) beam energy; (2) beam luminosity; (3) limits on beam current; (4) beam site; (5) crossing angle; (6) beam--beam interaction; (7) longitudinal instability; (8) effects of scattering processes; (9) beam production; and (10) high magnetic fields. Much of the discussion is related to the design parameters of ISABELLE, a 400 x 400 GeV proton---proton intersecting storage accelerator to be built at Brookhaven National Laboratory

  10. ATLAS Forward Proton Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Grieco, Chiara; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the ATLAS Forward Proton (AFP) detector system is the measurement of protons scattered diffractively or electromagnetically at very small angles. The full two-arm setup was installed during the 2016/2017 EYETS. This allows measurements of processes with two forward protons: central diffraction, exclusive production, and two-photon processes. In 2017, AFP participated in the ATLAS high-luminosity data taking on the day-by-day basis. In addition, several special runs with reduced luminosity were taken. The poster will present the AFP detectors and the lessons learned from the last year operation and some performance from 2016 and 2017.

  11. Top-Quark p(T) - Spectra at CMS and Flavor Independence of z - Scaling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tokarev, M. V.; Zborovský, Imrich

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 5 (2017), s. 681-686 ISSN 1547-4771 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG15052 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : high energy * proton-proton collisions * self-similarity * top quark spectra Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics OBOR OECD: Atomic, molecular and chemical physics (physics of atoms and molecules including collision, interaction with radiation, magnetic resonances, Mössbauer effect)

  12. Measurement of the spin asymmetry of the beam in the polarized virtual Compton scattering on the proton. Study of the nucleon's energy spectra through the QCD-type potential model; Mesure de l'asymetrie de spin de faisceau en diffusion compton virtuelle polarisee sur le proton. Etude du spectre d'energie du nucleon par le modele de potentiel de type QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bensafa, I.K

    2006-05-15

    The first part of this work presents the analysis and results of the VCS-SSA (virtual Compton scattering - single spin asymmetry) experiment at MAMI (Mainz). It was carried out with beam energy 883 MeV and longitudinal polarization (about 80%), at virtual photon four-momentum transfer squared (Q{sup 2} = 0.35 GeV{sup 2}) to measure the beam asymmetry in the ep {yields} ep{gamma} and ep {yields} ep{pi}{sup 0} reactions. The asymmetry obtained in photon (resp. pion) electro-production is between 0-15% (resp. 0-2%). The dispersion relation model for virtual Compton scattering and MAID model (for {pi}{sup 0}) reproduce the amplitude globally but not completely the shape of the asymmetry. Perhaps this discrepancy is due to an imperfect parameterization of some pion production multipoles ({gamma}{sup *}N {yields} {pi}N). The second part is dedicated to the study of the nucleon energy spectrum in ground-state L=0 and excited-state L=1 in the quark model, using the Coulomb + linear potential type (CL) and a relativistic correction. The hyperfine correction is applied to discriminate the nucleon masses. The values of the mass found for the proton and the {delta}(1232) are respectively equal to (968 MeV, 1168 MeV), and the masses of the excited states are between 1564 - 1607 MeV. This part is completed by an application of the CL model to an approximate calculation of generalized polarizabilities of the proton. (author)

  13. Amide proton exchange rates of a bound pepsin inhibitor determined by isotope-edited proton NMR experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesik, S.W.; Luly, J.R.; Stein, H.H.; BaMaung, N.

    1987-01-01

    From a series of isotope-edited proton NMR spectra, amide proton exchange rates were measured at 20 C, 30 C, and 40 0 C for a tightly bound 15 N-labeled tripeptide inhibitor of porcine pepsin (IC50 = 1.7 X 10(-) M). Markedly different NH exchange rates were observed for the three amide protons of the bound inhibitor. The P1 NH exchanged much more slowly than the P2 NH and P3 NH. These results are discussed in terms of the relative solvent accessibility in the active site and the role of the NH protons of the inhibitor for hydrogen bonding to the enzyme. In this study a useful approach is demonstrated for obtaining NH exchange rates on ligands bound to biomacromolecules, the knowledge of which could be of potential utility in the design of therapeutically useful nonpeptide enzyme inhibitors from peptide leads

  14. Non-adiabatic description of proton emission from the odd-odd nucleus 130Eu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patial Monika

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the non-adiabatic quasiparticle approach for calculating the rotational spectra and decay width of odd-odd proton emitters. The Coriolis effects are incorporated in both the parent and daughter wave functions. Results for the two probable ground states (1+ and 2+ of the proton emitter 130Eu are discussed. With our calculations, we confirm the proton emitting state to be the Iπ = 1+ state, irrespective of the strength of the Coriolis interaction. This study provides us with an opportunity to look into the details of wave functions of deformed odd-odd nuclei to which the proton emission halflives are quite sensitive.

  15. Sydenham's chorea: MRI and proton spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo, M.; Kwock, L.; Arbelaez, A.

    1999-01-01

    We present the MRI and proton spectroscopy findings in a child with clinical diagnosis of Sydenham's chorea. MRI showed high signal in the caudate nuclei and putamina on T2-weighted images. We believe that the spectra showed an abnormality in the number and/or function of neurons, lipids from cellular breakdown (cytolytic effect of antibodies), aminoacids (related to the presence of antibodies in the neostriatum), and sugars (also related to the presence of antibodies). The spectroscopy features correlate well with the histopathology and biochemistry of this rare disorder. (orig.)

  16. The proton dynamics of ethylene glycol

    CERN Document Server

    Novikov, A G; Sobolev, O V

    2002-01-01

    The results of inelastic neutron scattering experiments on ethylene glycol at T=300 K, T=348 K and T=393 K by using the 'direct-geometry' double time-of-flight neutron-scattering spectrometer DIN-2PI (Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, JINR, Dubna) are presented. The quasi-elastic and inelastic components of the neutron scattering have been considered. The diffusion characteristics and generalized frequency distributions for protons of ethylene glycol molecules were obtained from the neutron-scattering spectra. (orig.)

  17. Porphyrin Protonation Studied by Magnetic Circular Dichroism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štěpánek, Petr; Andrushchenko, Valery; Ruud, K.; Bouř, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 116, č. 1 (2012), s. 778-783 ISSN 1089-5639 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP208/11/0105; GA ČR GA203/09/2037; GA ČR GAP208/10/0559; GA MŠk(CZ) LH11033 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : magnetic circular dichroism ( MCD ) * TPPS * spectra simulations * porphyrin protonation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.771, year: 2012

  18. Proton computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, K.M.

    1978-01-01

    The use of protons or other heavy charged particles instead of x rays in computed tomography (CT) is explored. The results of an experimental implementation of proton CT are presented. High quality CT reconstructions are obtained at an average dose reduction factor compared with an EMI 5005 x-ray scanner of 10:1 for a 30-cm-diameter phantom and 3.5:1 for a 20-cm diameter. The spatial resolution is limited by multiple Coulomb scattering to about 3.7 mm FWHM. Further studies are planned in which proton and x-ray images of fresh human specimens will be compared. Design considerations indicate that a clinically useful proton CT scanner is eminently feasible

  19. Electron - proton colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiik, B.H.

    1985-01-01

    Electron-proton storage rings allow us to study the interaction between the two basic constituents of matter, electrons and quarks at very short distances. Such machines were first discussed in connection with the ISR but the idea was abandoned because of the anticipated low counting rate. The interest in electron-proton storage rings was rekindeled by the discovery of large pointlike cross sections in lepton-hardon interactions and several/sup 2-15/ projects have been discussed during the past decade. However, despite a glorious past, which includes the discovery of quarks and neutral currents, and a multitude of proposals no electron-proton storage ring has ever been built. What we might learn by studying electron-proton collisions at high energies is discussed. After some brief comments on present proposals the proposed DESY ep project HERA is described as an example of how to realize such a machine

  20. Apparatus for proton radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.L.

    1976-01-01

    An apparatus for effecting diagnostic proton radiography of patients in hospitals comprises a source of negative hydrogen ions, a synchrotron for accelerating the negative hydrogen ions to a predetermined energy, a plurality of stations for stripping extraction of a radiography beam of protons, means for sweeping the extracted beam to cover a target, and means for measuring the residual range, residual energy, or percentage transmission of protons that pass through the target. The combination of information identifying the position of the beam with information about particles traversing the subject and the back absorber is performed with the aid of a computer to provide a proton radiograph of the subject. In an alternate embodiment of the invention, a back absorber comprises a plurality of scintillators which are coupled to detectors. 10 claims, 7 drawing figures

  1. Plant proton pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaxiola, Roberto A.; Palmgren, Michael Gjedde; Schumacher, Karin

    2007-01-01

    Chemiosmotic circuits of plant cells are driven by proton (H+) gradients that mediate secondary active transport of compounds across plasma and endosomal membranes. Furthermore, regulation of endosomal acidification is critical for endocytic and secretory pathways. For plants to react...

  2. Inauguration of Proton Synchrotron

    CERN Multimedia

    1960-01-01

    On 5 February 1960, the Proton Synchrotron (PS) was formally inaugurated. The great Danish physicist, Niels Bohr, releases a bottle of champagne against a shielding block to launch the PS on its voyage in physics.

  3. Proton beam therapy facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    It is proposed to build a regional outpatient medical clinic at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), Batavia, Illinois, to exploit the unique therapeutic characteristics of high energy proton beams. The Fermilab location for a proton therapy facility (PTF) is being chosen for reasons ranging from lower total construction and operating costs and the availability of sophisticated technical support to a location with good access to patients from the Chicago area and from the entire nation. 9 refs., 4 figs., 26 tabs

  4. Proton beam therapy facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-10-09

    It is proposed to build a regional outpatient medical clinic at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), Batavia, Illinois, to exploit the unique therapeutic characteristics of high energy proton beams. The Fermilab location for a proton therapy facility (PTF) is being chosen for reasons ranging from lower total construction and operating costs and the availability of sophisticated technical support to a location with good access to patients from the Chicago area and from the entire nation. 9 refs., 4 figs., 26 tabs.

  5. Proton-neutron correlations in a broken-pair model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akkermans, J.N.L.

    1981-01-01

    In this thesis nuclear-structure calculations are reported which were performed with the broken-pair model. The model which is developed, is an extension of existing broken-pair models in so far that it includes both proton and neutron valence pairs. The relevant formalisms are presented. In contrast to the number-non-conserving model, a proton-neutron broken-pair model is well suited to study the correlations which are produced by the proton-neutron interaction. It is shown that the proton-neutron force has large matrix elements which mix the proton- with neutron broken-pair configurations. This occurs especially for Jsup(PI)=2 + and 3 - pairs. This property of the proton-neutron force is used to improve the spectra of single-closed shell nuclei, where particle-hole excitations of the closed shell are a special case of broken-pair configurations. Using Kr and Te isotopes it is demonstrated that the proton-neutron force gives rise to correlated pair structures, which remain remarkably constant with varying nucleon numbers. (Auth.)

  6. Catalogue of neutron spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buxerolle, M.; Massoutie, M.; Kurdjian, J.

    1987-09-01

    Neutron dosimetry problems have arisen as a result of developments in the applications of nuclear energy. The largest number of possible irradiation situations has been collected: they are presented in the form of a compilation of 44 neutron spectra. Diagrams show the variations of energy fluence and energy fluence weighted by the dose equivalent/fluence conversion factor, with the logarithm of the corresponding energy. The equivalent dose distributions are presented as percentages for the following energy bins: 0.01 eV/0.5 eV/50 keV/1 MeV/5 MeV/15 MeV. The dose equivalent, the mean energy and the effective energy for the dose equivalent for 1 neutron cm -2 are also given [fr

  7. PROTON MICROSCOPY AT FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrill, F. E.; Mariam, F. G.; Golubev, A. A.; Turtikov, V. I.; Varentsov, D.

    2009-01-01

    Proton radiography was invented in the 1990's at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) as a diagnostic to study dynamic material properties under extreme pressures, strain and strain rate. Since this time hundreds of dynamic proton radiography experiments have been performed at LANL and a facility has been commissioned at the Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP) in Russia for similar applications in dynamic material studies. Recently an international effort has investigated a new proton radiography capability for the study of dynamic material properties at the Facility for Anti-proton and Ion Research (FAIR) located in Darmstadt, Germany. This new Proton microscope for FAIR(PRIOR) will provide radiographic imaging of dynamic systems with unprecedented spatial, temporal and density resolution, resulting in a window for understanding dynamic material properties at new length scales. It is also proposed to install the PRIOR system at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung before installation at FAIR for dynamic experiments with different drivers including high explosives, pulsed power and lasers. The design of the proton microscope and expected radiographic performance is presented.

  8. Multicavity proton cyclotron accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Hirshfield

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available A mechanism for acceleration of protons is described, in which energy gain occurs near cyclotron resonance as protons drift through a sequence of rotating-mode TE_{111} cylindrical cavities in a strong nearly uniform axial magnetic field. Cavity resonance frequencies decrease in sequence from one another with a fixed frequency interval Δf between cavities, so that synchronism can be maintained between the rf fields and proton bunches injected at intervals of 1/Δf. An example is presented in which a 122 mA, 1 MeV proton beam is accelerated to 961 MeV using a cascade of eight cavities in an 8.1 T magnetic field, with the first cavity resonant at 120 MHz and with Δf=8 MHz. Average acceleration gradient exceeds 40 MV/m, average effective shunt impedance is 223 MΩ/m, but maximum surface field in the cavities does not exceed 7.2 MV/m. These features occur because protons make many orbital turns in each cavity and thus experience acceleration from each cavity field many times. Longitudinal and transverse stability appear to be intrinsic properties of the acceleration mechanism, and an example to illustrate this is presented. This acceleration concept could be developed into a proton accelerator for a high-power neutron spallation source, such as that required for transmutation of nuclear waste or driving a subcritical fission burner, provided a number of significant practical issues can be addressed.

  9. High-resolution proton and carbon-13 NMR of membranes: why sonicate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldfield, E.; Bowers, J.L.; Forbes, J.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have obtained high-field (11.7-T) proton and carbon-13 Fourier transform (FT) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of egg lecithin and egg lecithin-chloresterol (1:1) multibilayers, using magic-angle sample spinning (MASS) techniques, and sonicated egg lecithin and egg lecithin-cholesterol (1:1) vesicles, using conventional FT NMR methods. Resolution of the proton and carbon-13 MASS NMR spectra of the pure egg lecithin samples is essentially identical with that of sonicated samples, but spectra of the unsonicated lipid, using MASS, can be obtained very much faster than with the more dilute, sonicated systems. With the 1:1 lecithin-cholesterol system, proton MASS NMR spectra are virtually identical with conventional FT spectra of sonicated samples, while the 13 C NMR, the authors demonstrate that most 13 C nuclei in the cholesterol moiety can be monitored, even though these same nuclei are essentially invisible, i.e., are severely broadened, in the corresponding sonicated systems. In addition, 13 C MASS NMR spectra can again be recorded much faster than with sonicated samples, due to concentration effects. Taken together, these results strongly suggest there will seldom be need in the future to resort to ultransonic disruption of lipid bilayer membranes in order to obtain high-resolution proton or carbon-13 NMR spectra

  10. Orbital energies and structural non-rigidity of complex hydrides according to data on ab initio calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boldyrev, A I; Sukhanov, L P; Charkin, O P [AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Novykh Khimicheskikh Problem

    1982-01-01

    In approximation by the Hartree-Fock-Routine method using several Gauss type bases ionization potentials of complex hydrides LiBeH/sub 3/, NaBeH/sub 3/, LiMgH/sub 3/, LiBH/sub 4/, NaBH/sub 4/ and LiAlH/sub 4/ have been calculated. A problem of the show of structural non-rigidity of complex molecules L(MX/sub 4/) with tetrahedral anions (MX/sub 4/)/sup -/ in photoelectron spectra is considered.

  11. Proton Radiography to Improve Proton Radiotherapy : Simulation Study at Different Proton Beam Energies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biegun, Aleksandra; Takatsu, Jun; van Goethem, Marc-Jan; van der Graaf, Emiel; van Beuzekom, Martin; Visser, Jan; Brandenburg, Sijtze

    To improve the quality of cancer treatment with protons, a translation of X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) images into a map of the proton stopping powers needs to be more accurate. Proton stopping powers determined from CT images have systematic uncertainties in the calculated proton range in a

  12. Soft-matter composites with electrically tunable elastic rigidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan, Wanliang; Lu, Tong; Majidi, Carmel

    2013-01-01

    We use a phase-changing metal alloy to reversibly tune the elastic rigidity of an elastomer composite. The elastomer is embedded with a sheet of low-melting-point Field’s metal and an electric Joule heater composed of a serpentine channel of liquid-phase gallium–indium–tin (Galinstan ® ) alloy. At room temperature, the embedded Field’s metal is solid and the composite remains elastically rigid. Joule heating causes the Field’s metal to melt and allows the surrounding elastomer to freely stretch and bend. Using a tensile testing machine, we measure that the effective elastic modulus of the composite reversibly changes by four orders of magnitude when powered on and off. This dramatic change in rigidity is accurately predicted with a model for an elastic composite. Reversible rigidity control is also accomplished by replacing the Field’s metal with shape memory polymer. In addition to demonstrating electrically tunable rigidity with an elastomer, we also introduce a new technique to rapidly produce soft-matter electronics and multifunctional materials in several minutes with laser-patterned adhesive film and masked deposition of liquid-phase metal alloy. (paper)

  13. Soft-matter composites with electrically tunable elastic rigidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Wanliang; Lu, Tong; Majidi, Carmel

    2013-08-01

    We use a phase-changing metal alloy to reversibly tune the elastic rigidity of an elastomer composite. The elastomer is embedded with a sheet of low-melting-point Field’s metal and an electric Joule heater composed of a serpentine channel of liquid-phase gallium-indium-tin (Galinstan®) alloy. At room temperature, the embedded Field’s metal is solid and the composite remains elastically rigid. Joule heating causes the Field’s metal to melt and allows the surrounding elastomer to freely stretch and bend. Using a tensile testing machine, we measure that the effective elastic modulus of the composite reversibly changes by four orders of magnitude when powered on and off. This dramatic change in rigidity is accurately predicted with a model for an elastic composite. Reversible rigidity control is also accomplished by replacing the Field’s metal with shape memory polymer. In addition to demonstrating electrically tunable rigidity with an elastomer, we also introduce a new technique to rapidly produce soft-matter electronics and multifunctional materials in several minutes with laser-patterned adhesive film and masked deposition of liquid-phase metal alloy.

  14. Unified Creep Plasticity Damage (UCPD) Model for Rigid Polyurethane Foams.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neilsen, Michael K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lu, Wei-Yang [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Scherzinger, William M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hinnerichs, Terry D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lo, Chi S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Numerous experiments were performed to characterize the mechanical response of several different rigid polyurethane foams (FR3712, PMDI10, PMDI20, and TufFoam35) to large deformation. In these experiments, the effects of load path, loading rate, and temperature were investigated. Results from these experiments indicated that rigid polyurethane foams exhibit significant volumetric and deviatoric plasticity when they are compressed. Rigid polyurethane foams were also found to be very strain-rate and temperature dependent. These foams are also rather brittle and crack when loaded to small strains in tension or to larger strains in compression. Thus, a new Unified Creep Plasticity Damage (UCPD) model was developed and implemented into SIERRA with the name Foam Damage to describe the mechanical response of these foams to large deformation at a variety of temperatures and strain rates. This report includes a description of recent experiments and experimental findings. Next, development of a UCPD model for rigid, polyurethane foams is described. Selection of material parameters for a variety of rigid polyurethane foams is then discussed and finite element simulations with the new UCPD model are compared with experimental results to show behavior that can be captured with this model.

  15. Evaluation for rigidity of box construction of nuclear reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamakawa, Tetsuo

    1979-01-01

    A huge box-shaped structure (hereafter, called box construction) of reinforced concrete is presently utilized as the reactor building structure in nuclear power plants. Evaluation of the rigidity of the huge box construction is required for making a vibration analysis model of nuclear reactor buildings. It is necessary to handle the box construction as the plates to which the force in plane is applied. This paper describes that the bending theory in elementary beam theory is equivalent to a peculiar, orthogonally anisotropic plate, the shearing rigidity and film rigidity in y direction of which are put to infinity and the Poisson's ratio is put to zero, viewed from the two-dimensional theory of elasticity. The form factor of 1.2 for shearing deformation in rectangular cross section was calculated from the parabolic distribution of shearing stress intensity, and it is the maximum value. The factor is equal to 1.2 for slender beams, but smaller than 1.2 for short and thick beams, having tendency to converge to 1.0. The non-conformity of boundary conditions regarding the shearing force at the both ends of cantilevers does not affect very seriously the evaluation of shearing rigidity. From the above results, it was found that the application of the theory to the box construction was able to give the rigidity evaluation with sufficient engineering accuracy. The theory can also be applied to the evaluation of tube type ultrahigh buildings. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  16. Beta-delayed proton emission in neutron-deficient lanthanide isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmarth, P.A.

    1988-01-01

    Forty-two β-delayed proton precursors with 56≤Z≤71 and 63≤N≤83 were produced in heavy-ion reactions at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory SuperHILAC and their radioactive decay properties studied at the on-line mass separation facility OASIS. Twenty-five isotopes and eight delayed proton branches were identified for the first time. Delayed proton energy spectra and proton coincident γ-ray and x-ray spectra were measured for all precursors. In a few cases, proton branching ratios were also determined. The precursor mass numbers were determined by the separator, while the proton coincident x-ray energies provided unambiguous Z identifications. The proton coincident γ-ray intensities were used to extract final state branching ratios. Proton emission from ground and isomeric states was observed in many cases. The majority of the delayed proton spectra exhibited the smooth bell-shaped distribution expected for heavy mass precursors. The experimental results were compared to statistical model calculations using standard parameter sets. Calculations using Nilsson model/RPA β-strength functions were found to reproduce the spectral shapes and branching ratios better than calculations using either constant or gross theory β-strength functions. Precursor half-life predictions from the Nilsson model/RPA β-strength functions were also in better agreement with the measured half-lives than were gross theory predictions. The ratios of positron coincident proton intensities to total proton intensities were used to determine Q/sub EC/-B/sub p/ values for several precursors near N=82. The statistical model calculations were not able to reproduce the experimental results for N=81 precursors. 154 refs., 82 figs., 19 tabs

  17. Research of electronic absorption spectra of benzazols derivatives by ab initio calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irgibaeva, I. S.; Birimzhanova, D. A.; Barashkov, N. N.

    Using the method of density functional theory in approximating B3LYP with the basis set 6-31G* the computations of structures and UV-vis spectra (TDDFT method) of benzazols derivatives were performed. The comparison of estimated electron spectra with the observed ones was made indicating good agreement of theoretically obtained results with experiment. Moreover these compounds have distinctive spectral-luminescent properties (large stokes shift) because of intramolecular proton transfer in excited state.

  18. Rigid external maxillary distraction and rhinoplasty for pyknodysostosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varol, Altan; Sabuncuoglu, Fidan Alakus; Sencimen, Metin; Akcam, Timur; Olmez, Hüseyin; Basa, Selçuk

    2011-05-01

    This article reports the treatment of an 33-year-old female patient with pyknodysostosis by rigid external distraction II midface distraction system. The patient with pyknodysostosis described in this report had severe midfacial hypoplasia. Correction of this by use of routine orthognathic surgery would require osteosynthesis and bone grafting. Risk of infection and/or nonunion after such a surgical procedure was considered too great, and therefore the possibility of treatment by distraction osteogenesis of the maxilla was evaluated. The rigid external distraction II midface distraction system was used to relocate the hypoplastic maxilla at anterior-inferior projection. Distraction osteogenesis should be considered as the primary reconstructive method for maxillofacial deformities in patients with sclerosing bone dysplasias, since this is the second reported case treated successfully with rigid external distraction.

  19. Rigidity of outermost MOTS: the initial data version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Gregory J.

    2018-03-01

    In the paper Commun Anal Geom 16(1):217-229, 2008, a rigidity result was obtained for outermost marginally outer trapped surfaces (MOTSs) that do not admit metrics of positive scalar curvature. This allowed one to treat the "borderline case" in the author's work with R. Schoen concerning the topology of higher dimensional black holes (Commun Math Phys 266(2):571-576, 2006). The proof of this rigidity result involved bending the initial data manifold in the vicinity of the MOTS within the ambient spacetime. In this note we show how to circumvent this step, and thereby obtain a pure initial data version of this rigidity result and its consequence concerning the topology of black holes.

  20. Authoritarianism, cognitive rigidity, and the processing of ambiguous visual information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Lauren E; Peterson, Bill E

    2014-01-01

    Intolerance of ambiguity and cognitive rigidity are unifying aspects of authoritarianism as defined by Adorno, Frenkel-Brunswik, Levinson, and Sanford (1982/1950), who hypothesized that authoritarians view the world in absolute terms (e.g., good or evil). Past studies have documented the relationship between authoritarianism and intolerance of ambiguity and rigidity. Frenkel-Brunswik (1949) hypothesized that this desire for absolutism was rooted in perceptual processes. We present a study with three samples that directly tests the relationship between right wing authoritarianism (RWA) and the processing of ideologically neutral but ambiguous visual stimuli. As hypothesized, in all three samples we found that RWA was related to the slower processing of visual information that required participants to recategorize objects. In a fourth sample, RWA was unrelated to speed of processing visual information that did not require recategorization. Overall, results suggest a relationship between RWA and rigidity in categorization.

  1. Mitral stenosis due to pannus overgrowth after rigid ring annuloplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Takeshi; Kato, Seiya; Tayama, Eiki; Fukunaga, Shuji; Akashi, Hidetoshi; Aoyagi, Shigeaki

    2010-03-01

    Although mitral stenosis (MS) due to pannus overgrowth after mitral valve repair for rheumatic mitral regurgitation (MR) is not uncommon, it is extremely rare in relation to non-rheumatic mitral regurgitation. Whilst it has been suggested that the rigid annuloplasty ring induces pannus overgrowth in the same manner as the flexible ring, to date only in cases using the flexible ring has pannus formation been confirmed by a pathological examination after redo surgery. The case is described of a woman who had undergone mitral valve repair using a 28 mm rigid ring three years previously because of non-rheumatic MR, and subsequently suffered from MS due to pannus formation over the annuloplasty ring. To the present authors' knowledge, this is the first report of MS due to pannus formation after mitral valve repair using a rigid annuloplasty ring to treat non-rheumatic MR documented at reoperation.

  2. Rigid-plastic seismic design of reinforced concrete structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, Joao Domingues; Bento, R.; Levtchitch, V.

    2007-01-01

    structural strength with respect to a pre-defined performance parameter using a rigid-plastic response spectrum, which is characteristic of the ground motion alone. The maximum strength demand at any point is solely dependent on the intensity of the ground motion, which facilitates the task of distributing......In this paper a new seismic design procedure for Reinforced Concrete (R/C) structures is proposed-the Rigid-Plastic Seismic Design (RPSD) method. This is a design procedure based on Non-Linear Time-History Analysis (NLTHA) for systems expected to perform in the non-linear range during a lifetime...... earthquake event. The theoretical background is the Theory of Plasticity (Rigid-Plastic Structures). Firstly, a collapse mechanism is chosen and the corresponding stress field is made safe outside the regions where plastic behaviour takes place. It is shown that this allows the determination of the required...

  3. A concise introduction to mechanics of rigid bodies multidisciplinary engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, L

    2017-01-01

    This updated second edition broadens the explanation of rotational kinematics and dynamics — the most important aspect of rigid body motion in three-dimensional space and a topic of much greater complexity than linear motion. It expands treatment of vector and matrix, and includes quaternion operations to describe and analyze rigid body motion which are found in robot control, trajectory planning, 3D vision system calibration, and hand-eye coordination of robots in assembly work, etc. It features updated treatments of concepts in all chapters and case studies. The textbook retains its comprehensiveness in coverage and compactness in size, which make it easily accessible to the readers from multidisciplinary areas who want to grasp the key concepts of rigid body mechanics which are usually scattered in multiple volumes of traditional textbooks. Theoretical concepts are explained through examples taken from across engineering disciplines and links to applications and more advanced courses (e.g. industrial rob...

  4. Evidence for an anisotropic contact shift. Proton NMR study of line shapes in uranocene and (C5H5)3UCl powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGarvey, B.R.; Nagy, S.

    1987-01-01

    The proton NMR spectra of solid powders of uranocene and (C 5 H 5 ) 3 UCl were measured from 90 to 298 K. The line shapes of both systems became increasingly anisotropic as the temperature was lowered. The cyclooctatetraene rings in uranocene were found to be rotating at a frequency greater than 100 kHz down to 90 K. The (C 5 H 5 ) 3 UCl molecules were found to be reorienting rapidly above 220 K, but below 140 K the NMR spectra were characteristic of a rigid lattice with no rotation of the cyclopentadienyl rings. The spectra of both compounds could be simulated by assuming an axial paramagnetic shift tensor and an orientation-dependent line width. Comparison of the experimental shift tensor with that calculated for a point dipolar interaction revealed a large and very anisotropic paramagnetic shift for uranocene due to unpaired spin transferred into the ligand orbitals. The shift was large when the magnetic field was along the 8-fold symmetry axis of the molecule and nearly zero perpendicular to the axis. It appears conclusive that the contact shift in uranocene is not isotropic at all. A similar anisotropy in the contact shift associated with the cyclopentadienyl rings is evident also in the results for (C 5 H 5 )UCl. The average solid-state shift of uranocene agreed with the solution shift, within experimental error, but the solid state shift of (C 5 H 5 ) 3 UCl was 42 ppm greater than the solution shift at 298 K, indicating a difference in molecular geometry between the crystalline state and solution. 32 references, 8 figures, 3 tables

  5. Design energy spectra for Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    López Almansa, Francisco; Yazgan, Ahmet Utku; Benavent Climent, Amadeo

    2012-01-01

    This work proposes design energy spectra in terms of velocity, derived through linear dynamic analyses on Turkish registers and intended for regions with design peak acceleration 0.3 g or higher. In the long and mid period ranges the analyses are linear, taking profit of the rather insensitivity of the spectra to the structural parameters other than the fundamental period; in the short period range, the spectra are more sensitive to the structural parameters and nonlinear analyses would be re...

  6. Topology-Preserving Rigid Transformation of 2D Digital Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Phuc; Passat, Nicolas; Kenmochi, Yukiko; Talbot, Hugues

    2014-02-01

    We provide conditions under which 2D digital images preserve their topological properties under rigid transformations. We consider the two most common digital topology models, namely dual adjacency and well-composedness. This paper leads to the proposal of optimal preprocessing strategies that ensure the topological invariance of images under arbitrary rigid transformations. These results and methods are proved to be valid for various kinds of images (binary, gray-level, label), thus providing generic and efficient tools, which can be used in particular in the context of image registration and warping.

  7. Non-rigid image registration using bone growth model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro-Nielsen, Morten; Gramkow, Claus; Kreiborg, Sven

    1997-01-01

    Non-rigid registration has traditionally used physical models like elasticity and fluids. These models are very seldom valid models of the difference between the registered images. This paper presents a non-rigid registration algorithm, which uses a model of bone growth as a model of the change...... between time sequence images of the human mandible. By being able to register the images, this paper at the same time contributes to the validation of the growth model, which is based on the currently available medical theories and knowledge...

  8. Rigid particle revisited: Extrinsic curvature yields the Dirac equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deriglazov, Alexei, E-mail: alexei.deriglazov@ufjf.edu.br [Depto. de Matemática, ICE, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Laboratory of Mathematical Physics, Tomsk Polytechnic University, 634050 Tomsk, Lenin Ave. 30 (Russian Federation); Nersessian, Armen, E-mail: arnerses@ysu.am [Yerevan State University, 1 Alex Manoogian St., Yerevan 0025 (Armenia); Laboratory of Mathematical Physics, Tomsk Polytechnic University, 634050 Tomsk, Lenin Ave. 30 (Russian Federation)

    2014-03-01

    We reexamine the model of relativistic particle with higher-derivative linear term on the first extrinsic curvature (rigidity). The passage from classical to quantum theory requires a number of rather unexpected steps which we report here. We found that, contrary to common opinion, quantization of the model in terms of so(3.2)-algebra yields massive Dirac equation. -- Highlights: •New way of canonical quantization of relativistic rigid particle is proposed. •Quantization made in terms of so(3.2) angular momentum algebra. •Quantization yields massive Dirac equation.

  9. Elastic properties of rigid fiber-reinforced composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.; Thorpe, M. F.; Davis, L. C.

    1995-05-01

    We study the elastic properties of rigid fiber-reinforced composites with perfect bonding between fibers and matrix, and also with sliding boundary conditions. In the dilute region, there exists an exact analytical solution. Around the rigidity threshold we find the elastic moduli and Poisson's ratio by decomposing the deformation into a compression mode and a rotation mode. For perfect bonding, both modes are important, whereas only the compression mode is operative for sliding boundary conditions. We employ the digital-image-based method and a finite element analysis to perform computer simulations which confirm our analytical predictions.

  10. Extremal surfaces and the rigidity of null geodesic incompleteness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, I P Costa e; Flores, J L

    2015-01-01

    An important, if relatively less well known aspect of the singularity theorems in Lorentzian geometry, is to understand how their conclusions fare upon weakening or suppression of one or more of their hypotheses. Then, theorems with modified conclusion may arise, showing that those conclusions will fail only in special cases, at least some of which may be described. These are the so-called rigidity theorems, and have many important examples in the specialized literature. In this paper, we prove rigidity results for generalized plane waves and certain globally hyperbolic spacetimes in the presence of extremal compact surfaces. (paper)

  11. Proton therapy in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, M.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Proton therapy has been in use since 1954 and over 25,000 patients have been treated worldwide. Until recently most patients were treated at physics research facilities but with the development of more compact and reliable accelerators it is now possible to realistically plan for proton therapy in an Australian hospital. The Australian National Proton Project has been formed to look at the feasibility of a facility which would be primarily for patient treatment but would also be suitable for research and commercial applications. A detailed report will be produced by the end of the year. The initial clinical experience was mainly with small tumours and other lesions close to critical organs. Large numbers of eye tumours have also been treated. Protons have a well-defined role in these situations and are now being used in the treatment of more common cancers. With the development of hospital-based facilities, over 2,500 patients with prostate cancer have been treated using a simple technique which gives results at least as good as radical surgery, external beam radiotherapy or brachytherapy. Importantly, the incidence of severe complications is very low. There are encouraging results in many disease sites including lung, liver, soft tissue sarcomas and oesophagus. As proton therapy becomes more widely available, randomised trials comparing it with conventional radiotherapy or Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) will be possible. In most situations the use of protons will enable a higher dose to be given safely but in situations where local control rates are already satisfactory, protons are expected to produce less complications than conventional treatment. The initial costs of a proton facility are high but the recurrent costs are similar to other forms of high technology radiotherapy. . Simple treatment techniques with only a few fields are usually possible and proton therapy avoids the high integral doses associated with IMRT. This reduction in

  12. Spectra of chemical trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramanian, K.

    1982-01-01

    A method is developed for obtaining the spectra of trees of NMR and chemical interests. The characteristic polynomials of branched trees can be obtained in terms of the characteristic polynomials of unbranched trees and branches by pruning the tree at the joints. The unbranched trees can also be broken down further until a tree containing just two vertices is obtained. The effectively reduces the order of the secular determinant of the tree used at the beginning to determinants of orders atmost equal to the number of vertices in the branch containing the largest number of vertices. An illustrative example of a NMR graph is given for which the 22 x 22 secular determinant is reduced to determinants of orders atmost 4 x 4 in just the second step of the algorithm. The tree pruning algorithm can be applied even to trees with no symmetry elements and such a factoring can be achieved. Methods developed here can be elegantly used to find if two trees are cospectral and to construct cospectral trees

  13. Sequencing BPS spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gukov, Sergei [Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology,1200 E California Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Max-Planck-Institut für Mathematik,Vivatsgasse 7, D-53111 Bonn (Germany); Nawata, Satoshi [Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology,1200 E California Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Centre for Quantum Geometry of Moduli Spaces, University of Aarhus,Nordre Ringgade 1, DK-8000 (Denmark); Saberi, Ingmar [Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology,1200 E California Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stošić, Marko [CAMGSD, Departamento de Matemática, Instituto Superior Técnico,Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Mathematical Institute SANU,Knez Mihajlova 36, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Sułkowski, Piotr [Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology,1200 E California Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw,ul. Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland)

    2016-03-02

    This paper provides both a detailed study of color-dependence of link homologies, as realized in physics as certain spaces of BPS states, and a broad study of the behavior of BPS states in general. We consider how the spectrum of BPS states varies as continuous parameters of a theory are perturbed. This question can be posed in a wide variety of physical contexts, and we answer it by proposing that the relationship between unperturbed and perturbed BPS spectra is described by a spectral sequence. These general considerations unify previous applications of spectral sequence techniques to physics, and explain from a physical standpoint the appearance of many spectral sequences relating various link homology theories to one another. We also study structural properties of colored HOMFLY homology for links and evaluate Poincaré polynomials in numerous examples. Among these structural properties is a novel “sliding” property, which can be explained by using (refined) modular S-matrix. This leads to the identification of modular transformations in Chern-Simons theory and 3d N=2 theory via the 3d/3d correspondence. Lastly, we introduce the notion of associated varieties as classical limits of recursion relations of colored superpolynomials of links, and study their properties.

  14. Sequencing BPS spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gukov, Sergei; Nawata, Satoshi; Saberi, Ingmar; Stošić, Marko; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides both a detailed study of color-dependence of link homologies, as realized in physics as certain spaces of BPS states, and a broad study of the behavior of BPS states in general. We consider how the spectrum of BPS states varies as continuous parameters of a theory are perturbed. This question can be posed in a wide variety of physical contexts, and we answer it by proposing that the relationship between unperturbed and perturbed BPS spectra is described by a spectral sequence. These general considerations unify previous applications of spectral sequence techniques to physics, and explain from a physical standpoint the appearance of many spectral sequences relating various link homology theories to one another. We also study structural properties of colored HOMFLY homology for links and evaluate Poincaré polynomials in numerous examples. Among these structural properties is a novel “sliding” property, which can be explained by using (refined) modular S-matrix. This leads to the identification of modular transformations in Chern-Simons theory and 3d N=2 theory via the 3d/3d correspondence. Lastly, we introduce the notion of associated varieties as classical limits of recursion relations of colored superpolynomials of links, and study their properties.

  15. Proton dynamics in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Veronica; De Milito, Angelo; Harguindey, Salvador; Reshkin, Stephan J; Wahl, Miriam L; Rauch, Cyril; Chiesi, Antonio; Pouysségur, Jacques; Gatenby, Robert A; Rivoltini, Licia; Fais, Stefano

    2010-06-15

    Cancer remains a leading cause of death in the world today. Despite decades of research to identify novel therapeutic approaches, durable regressions of metastatic disease are still scanty and survival benefits often negligible. While the current strategy is mostly converging on target-therapies aimed at selectively affecting altered molecular pathways in tumor cells, evidences are in parallel pointing to cell metabolism as a potential Achilles' heel of cancer, to be disrupted for achieving therapeutic benefit. Critical differences in the metabolism of tumor versus normal cells, which include abnormal glycolysis, high lactic acid production, protons accumulation and reversed intra-extracellular pH gradients, make tumor site a hostile microenvironment where only cancer cells can proliferate and survive. Inhibiting these pathways by blocking proton pumps and transporters may deprive cancer cells of a key mechanism of detoxification and thus represent a novel strategy for a pleiotropic and multifaceted suppression of cancer cell growth.Research groups scattered all over the world have recently started to investigate various aspects of proton dynamics in cancer cells with quite encouraging preliminary results. The intent of unifying investigators involved in this research line led to the formation of the "International Society for Proton Dynamics in Cancer" (ISPDC) in January 2010. This is the manifesto of the newly formed society where both basic and clinical investigators are called to foster translational research and stimulate interdisciplinary collaboration for the development of more specific and less toxic therapeutic strategies based on proton dynamics in tumor cell biology.

  16. Proton dynamics in cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouysségur Jacques

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cancer remains a leading cause of death in the world today. Despite decades of research to identify novel therapeutic approaches, durable regressions of metastatic disease are still scanty and survival benefits often negligible. While the current strategy is mostly converging on target-therapies aimed at selectively affecting altered molecular pathways in tumor cells, evidences are in parallel pointing to cell metabolism as a potential Achilles' heel of cancer, to be disrupted for achieving therapeutic benefit. Critical differences in the metabolism of tumor versus normal cells, which include abnormal glycolysis, high lactic acid production, protons accumulation and reversed intra-extracellular pH gradients, make tumor site a hostile microenvironment where only cancer cells can proliferate and survive. Inhibiting these pathways by blocking proton pumps and transporters may deprive cancer cells of a key mechanism of detoxification and thus represent a novel strategy for a pleiotropic and multifaceted suppression of cancer cell growth. Research groups scattered all over the world have recently started to investigate various aspects of proton dynamics in cancer cells with quite encouraging preliminary results. The intent of unifying investigators involved in this research line led to the formation of the "International Society for Proton Dynamics in Cancer" (ISPDC in January 2010. This is the manifesto of the newly formed society where both basic and clinical investigators are called to foster translational research and stimulate interdisciplinary collaboration for the development of more specific and less toxic therapeutic strategies based on proton dynamics in tumor cell biology.

  17. Polarized proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.

    1995-01-01

    The acceleration of polarized proton beams in circular accelerators is complicated by the presence of numerous depolarizing spin resonances. Careful and tedious minimization of polarization loss at each of these resonances allowed acceleration of polarized proton beams up to 22 GeV. It has been the hope that Siberian Snakes, which are local spin rotators inserted into ring accelerators, would eliminate these resonances and allow acceleration of polarized beams with the same ease and efficiency that is now routine for unpolarized beams. First tests at IUCF with a full Siberian Snake showed that the spin dynamics with a Snake can be understood in detail. The author now has results of the first tests of a partial Siberian Snake at the AGS, accelerating polarized protons to an energy of about 25 GeV. These successful tests of storage and acceleration of polarized proton beams open up new possibilities such as stored polarized beams for internal target experiments and high energy polarized proton colliders

  18. Journal of Proton Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Office

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Journal of Proton Therapy (JPT is an international open access, peer-reviewed journal, which publishes original research, technical reports, reviews, case reports, editorials, and other materials on proton therapy with focus on radiation oncology, medical physics, medical dosimetry, and radiation therapy.No article processing/submission feeNo publication feePeer-review completion within 3-6 weeksImmediate publication after the completion of final author proofreadDOI assignment for each published articleFree access to published articles for all readers without any access barriers or subscriptionThe views and opinions expressed in articles are those of the author/s and do not necessarily reflect the policies of the Journal of Proton Therapy.Authors are encouraged to submit articles for publication in the inaugural issue of the Journal of Proton Therapy by online or email to editor@protonjournal.comOfficial Website of Journal of Proton Therapy: http://www.protonjournal.org/

  19. Medical Proton Accelerator Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comsan, M.N.H.

    2008-01-01

    A project for a medical proton accelerator for cancer treatment is outlined. The project is motivated by the need for a precise modality for cancer curing especially in children. Proton therapy is known by its superior radiation and biological effectiveness as compared to photon or electron therapy. With 26 proton and 3 heavy-ion therapy complexes operating worldwide only one (p) exists in South Africa, and none in south Asia and the Middle East. The accelerator of choice should provide protons with energy 75 MeV for eye treatment and 250 MeV for body treatment. Four treatment rooms are suggested: two with isocentric gantries, one with fixed beams and one for development. Passive scanning is recommended. The project can serve Middle East and North Africa with ∼ 400 million populations. The annual capacity of the project is estimated as 1,100 to be compared with expected radiation cases eligible for proton cancer treatment of not less than 200,000

  20. Proton relativistic model; Modelo relativistico do proton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Wilson Roberto Barbosa de

    1996-12-31

    In this dissertation, we present a model for the nucleon, which is composed by three relativistic quarks interacting through a contract force. The nucleon wave-function was obtained from the Faddeev equation in the null-plane. The covariance of the model under kinematical null-plane boots is discussed. The electric proton form-factor, calculated from the Faddeev wave-function, was in agreement with the data for low-momentum transfers and described qualitatively the asymptotic region for momentum transfers around 2 GeV. (author) 42 refs., 22 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Synchrotron radiation from protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutt, S.K.

    1992-12-01

    Synchrotron radiation from protons, though described by the same equations as the radiation from electrons, exhibits a number of interesting features on account of the parameters reached in praxis. In this presentation, we shall point out some of the features relating to (i) normal synchrotron radiation from dipoles in proton machines such as the High Energy Booster and the Superconducting Super Collider; (ii) synchrotron radiation from short dipoles, and its application to light monitors for proton machines, and (iii) synchrotron radiation from undulators in the limit when, the deflection parameter is much smaller than unity. The material for this presentation is taken largely from the work of Hofmann, Coisson, Bossart, and their collaborators, and from a paper by Kim. We shall emphasize the qualitative aspects of synchrotron radiation in the cases mentioned above, making, when possible, simple arguments for estimating the spectral and angular properties of the radiation. Detailed analyses can be found in the literature

  2. Polarized proton colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.

    1995-01-01

    High energy polarized beam collisions will open up the unique physics opportunities of studying spin effects in hard processes. This will allow the study of the spin structure of the proton and also the verification of the many well documented expectations of spin effects in perturbative QCD and parity violation in W and Z production. Proposals for polarized proton acceleration for several high energy colliders have been developed. A partial Siberian Snake in the AGS has recently been successfully tested and full Siberian Snakes, spin rotators, and polarimeters for RHIC are being developed to make the acceleration of polarized beams to 250 GeV possible. This allows for the unique possibility of colliding two 250 GeV polarized proton beams at luminosities of up to 2 x 10 32 cm -2 s -1

  3. Current-current interaction picture for proton-proton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, D.J.; Lo, S.Y.

    1979-01-01

    The authors propose that color current - color current interaction is reponsible for small angle elastic proton proton scattering at asymptotic energy. Excellent fits are obtained for all data above 12 GeV/c which covers twelve orders of magnitude

  4. Protons and how they are transported by proton pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch-Pedersen, Morten Jeppe; Pedersen, Bjørn Panyella; Veierskov, Bjarke

    2008-01-01

    The very high mobility of protons in aqueous solutions demands special features of membrane proton transporters to sustain efficient yet regulated proton transport across biological membranes. By the use of the chemical energy of ATP, plasma-membrane-embedded ATPases extrude protons from cells...... of plants and fungi to generate electrochemical proton gradients. The recently published crystal structure of a plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase contributes to our knowledge about the mechanism of these essential enzymes. Taking the biochemical and structural data together, we are now able to describe the basic...... molecular components that allow the plasma membrane proton H(+)-ATPase to carry out proton transport against large membrane potentials. When divergent proton pumps such as the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase, bacteriorhodopsin, and F(O)F(1) ATP synthase are compared, unifying mechanistic premises for biological...

  5. Producing Lignin-Based Polyols through Microwave-Assisted Liquefaction for Rigid Polyurethane Foam Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai-Liang Xue

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Lignin-based polyols were synthesized through microwave-assisted liquefaction under different microwave heating times (5–30 min. The liquefaction reactions were carried out using polyethylene glycol (PEG-400/glycerol as liquefying solvents and 97 wt% sulfur acid as a catalyst at 140 °C. The polyols obtained were analyzed for their yield, composition and structural characteristics using gel permeation chromatography (GPC, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectra. FT-IR and NMR spectra showed that the liquefying solvents reacted with the phenol hydroxyl groups of the lignin in the liquefied product. With increasing microwave heating time, the viscosity of polyols was slightly increased and their corresponding molecular weight (MW was gradually reduced. The optimal condition at the microwave heating time (5 min ensured a high liquefaction yield (97.47% and polyol with a suitable hydroxyl number (8.628 mmol/g. Polyurethane (PU foams were prepared by polyols and methylene diphenylene diisocyanate (MDI using the one-shot method. With the isocyanate/hydroxyl group ([NCO]/[OH] ratio increasing from 0.6 to 1.0, their mechanical properties were gradually increased. This study provided some insight into the microwave-assisted liquefied lignin polyols for the production of rigid PU foam.

  6. Proton tunneling in solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, J.

    1998-10-01

    The tunneling rate of the proton and its isotopes between interstitial sites in solids is studied theoretically. The phonons and/or the electrons in the solid have two effects on the tunneling phenomenon. First, they suppress the transfer integral between two neighbouring states. Second, they give rise to a finite lifetime of the proton state. Usually the second effect is large and the tunneling probability per unit time (tunneling rate) can be defined. In some cases, however, a coherent tunneling is expected and actually observed. (author)

  7. Proton irradiation and endometriosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, D.H.; Yochmowitz, M.G.; Salmon, Y.L.; Eason, R.L.; Boster, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    It was found that female rhesus monkeys given single total-body exposures of protons of varying energies developed endometriosis at a frequency significantly higher than that of nonirradiated animals of the same age. The minimum latency period was determined to be 7 years after the proton exposure. The doses and energies of the radiation received by the experimental animals were within the range that could be received by an aircrew member in near-earth orbit during a random solar flare event. It is concluded that endometriosis should be a consideration in assessing the risk of delayed radiation effects in female crew members. 15 references

  8. Diagnosis by proton bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steward, V.W.; Koehler, A.M.

    1976-01-01

    Beams of monoenergetic protons or other charged ions are passed through the living human body to detect abnormalities and obstructions in body tissue, which abnormalities and obstructions are visualized as density variations in the particle image emerging from the body part under investigation. The particles used are preferably protons having an energy of 100 to 300 MeV, more especially 200 to 300 MeV. The method is of use in detecting inter alia tumors, blood clots, infarcts, soft tissue lesions and multiple sclerosis in patients without exposure to high radiation dosages. 6 claims, 2 drawing figures

  9. Do protons decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litchfield, P.J.

    1984-09-01

    The experimental status of proton decay is reviewed after the Leipzig International conference, July 1984. A brief comparative description of the currently active experiments is given. From the overall samples of contained events it can be concluded that the experiments are working well and broadly agree with each other. The candidates for proton decay from each experiment are examined. Although several experiments report candidates at a higher rate than expected from background calculations, the validity of these calculations is still open to doubt. (author)

  10. Proton tunneling in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, J.

    1998-01-01

    The tunneling rate of the proton and its isotopes between interstitial sites in solids is studied theoretically. The phonons and/or the electrons in the solid have two effects on the tunneling phenomenon. First, they suppress the transfer integral between two neighbouring states. Second, they give rise to a finite lifetime of the proton state. Usually the second effect is large and the tunneling probability per unit time (tunneling rate) can be defined. In some cases, however, a coherent tunneling is expected and actually observed. (author)

  11. Modification of polycrystalline copper by proton irradiation; Modificacion de cobre policristalino por irradiacion con protones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia S, F.; Cabral P, A. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Hipodromo Condesa, 06100 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Saniger B, J.M.; Banuelos, J.G. [UNAM Centro de Instrumentos, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Barragan V, A. [UNAM Instituto de Fisica, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1997-07-01

    Polished copper samples were irradiated with proton beams of 300 and 700 keV at room temperature and at -150 Centigrade. In this work the obtained results are reported when such copper irradiated samples are analysed with Sem, Tem, AFM. The Sem micrographs showed evident changes in surface of these copper samples, therefore an EDAX microanalysis was done for its characterization. additionally, the Tem micrographs showed heaps formation until 200 nm. Its electron diffraction spectra indicated that these heaps consist of a copper compound. Finally with AFM were observed changes in coloration of the irradiated sample surface, as well as changes in texture and rugosity of them. These results show in general that irradiation process with protons which is known as an innocuo process produces changes in the copper properties. (Author)

  12. Viscoelastic materials with anisotropic rigid particles: stress-deformation behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sagis, L.M.C.; Linden, van der E.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we have derived constitutive equations for the stress tensor of a viscoelastic material with anisotropic rigid particles. We have assumed that the material has fading memory. The expressions are valid for slow and small deformations from equilibrium, and for systems that are nearly

  13. Rigidity and bradykinesia reduce interlimb coordination in Parkinsonian gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winogrodzka, Ania; Wagenaar, Robert C.; Booij, Jan; Wolters, Eric C.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the influence of rigidity and bradykinesia and the extent of dopaminergic degeneration on interlimb coordination during walking in early, drug-naive patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Design: The interlimb coordination was examined during a systematic manipulation of

  14. Calculating ensemble averaged descriptions of protein rigidity without sampling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis C González

    Full Text Available Previous works have demonstrated that protein rigidity is related to thermodynamic stability, especially under conditions that favor formation of native structure. Mechanical network rigidity properties of a single conformation are efficiently calculated using the integer body-bar Pebble Game (PG algorithm. However, thermodynamic properties require averaging over many samples from the ensemble of accessible conformations to accurately account for fluctuations in network topology. We have developed a mean field Virtual Pebble Game (VPG that represents the ensemble of networks by a single effective network. That is, all possible number of distance constraints (or bars that can form between a pair of rigid bodies is replaced by the average number. The resulting effective network is viewed as having weighted edges, where the weight of an edge quantifies its capacity to absorb degrees of freedom. The VPG is interpreted as a flow problem on this effective network, which eliminates the need to sample. Across a nonredundant dataset of 272 protein structures, we apply the VPG to proteins for the first time. Our results show numerically and visually that the rigidity characterizations of the VPG accurately reflect the ensemble averaged [Formula: see text] properties. This result positions the VPG as an efficient alternative to understand the mechanical role that chemical interactions play in maintaining protein stability.

  15. Calculating ensemble averaged descriptions of protein rigidity without sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Luis C; Wang, Hui; Livesay, Dennis R; Jacobs, Donald J

    2012-01-01

    Previous works have demonstrated that protein rigidity is related to thermodynamic stability, especially under conditions that favor formation of native structure. Mechanical network rigidity properties of a single conformation are efficiently calculated using the integer body-bar Pebble Game (PG) algorithm. However, thermodynamic properties require averaging over many samples from the ensemble of accessible conformations to accurately account for fluctuations in network topology. We have developed a mean field Virtual Pebble Game (VPG) that represents the ensemble of networks by a single effective network. That is, all possible number of distance constraints (or bars) that can form between a pair of rigid bodies is replaced by the average number. The resulting effective network is viewed as having weighted edges, where the weight of an edge quantifies its capacity to absorb degrees of freedom. The VPG is interpreted as a flow problem on this effective network, which eliminates the need to sample. Across a nonredundant dataset of 272 protein structures, we apply the VPG to proteins for the first time. Our results show numerically and visually that the rigidity characterizations of the VPG accurately reflect the ensemble averaged [Formula: see text] properties. This result positions the VPG as an efficient alternative to understand the mechanical role that chemical interactions play in maintaining protein stability.

  16. Patient satisfaction related to rigid external distraction osteogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eggermont, Bas; Jansma, J.; Bierman, M. W. J.; Stegenga, B.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate satisfaction with treatment among cleft lip and palate patients who underwent maxillary advancement using a rigid external distraction (RED) device. Nine patients (four boys, five girls), mean age 17.7 years (SD 4.0), were included in the study. Outcome measures

  17. Short Communication: Statistical determination of the rigidity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From the graph of load against displacement, the rigidity in flexion at different moisture levels was determined from which the Young modulus was calculated. Linear regression models were fitted to the data and the results showed significant correlation coefficients between the Young modulus and moisture content for each ...

  18. Connect-disconnect coupling for preadjusted rigid shafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajkowski, F. W.; Holmberg, A.

    1969-01-01

    Coupling device enables a rigid shaft to be connected to or disconnected from a fixed base without disturbing the point of adjustment of the shaft in a socket or causing the shaft to rotate. The coupling consists of an externally threaded, internally slotted boss extending from the fixed base.

  19. Rigidity percolation in dispersions with a structured viscoelastic matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilbrink, M.W.L.; Michels, M.A.J.; Vellinga, W.P.; Meijer, H.E.H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with rigidity percolation in composite materials consisting of a dispersion of mineral particles in a microstructured viscoelastic matrix. The viscoelastic matrix in this specific case is a hydrocarbon refinery residue. In a set of model random composites the mean interparticle

  20. Centrifuge modelling of rigid piles in soft clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinkvort, R.T.; Poder, M.; Truong, P.

    2016-01-01

    of this study is to employ centrifuge modelling in order to derive experimental p-y curves for rigid piles embedded in over-consolidated soft clay. A kaolin clay sample was prepared and pre-consolidated by applying a constant pressure at the soil surface, while different over-consolidation ratios were achieved...

  1. Customizable rigid head fixation for infants: technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udayakumaran, Suhas; Onyia, Chiazor U

    2016-01-01

    The need and advantages of rigid fixation of the head in cranial surgeries are well documented (Berryhill et al., Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 121:269-273, 1999). Head fixation for neurosurgical procedures in infants and in early years has been a challenge and is fraught with risk. Despite the fact that pediatric pins are designed, rigid head fixation involving direct application of pins to the head of infants and slightly older children is still generally not safe (Agrawal and Steinbok, Childs Nerv Syst 22:1473-1474, 2006). Yet, there are some surgeries in which some form of rigid fixation is required (Agrawal and Steinbok, Childs Nerv Syst 22:1473-1474, 2006). We describe a simple technique to achieve rigid fixation of the head in infants for neurosurgical procedures. This involves applying a head band made of Plaster of Paris (POP) around the head and then applying the fixation pins of the fixation frame directly on to the POP. We have used this technique of head fixation successfully for infants with no complications.

  2. Study of rigidity of semiconducting vanadate glasses and its ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These parameters along with the coordination number of the glasses affect the glass transition temperature. The correlation between the elastic moduli and thermal properties of these samples showed that 0.25MoO3–0.25PbO–0.5V2O5 glass is the most rigid and has an applicable glass transition temperature for coating.

  3. Rigidity theorem for Willmore surfaces in a sphere

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (Math. Sci.) Vol. 126, No. 2, May 2016, pp. 253–260. c Indian Academy of Sciences. Rigidity theorem for Willmore surfaces in a sphere. HONGWEI XU1 and DENGYUN YANG2,∗. 1Center of Mathematical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027,. People's Republic of China. 2College of Mathematics and ...

  4. Accuracy limit of rigid 3-point water models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadi, Saeed; Onufriev, Alexey V.

    2016-08-01

    Classical 3-point rigid water models are most widely used due to their computational efficiency. Recently, we introduced a new approach to constructing classical rigid water models [S. Izadi et al., J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5, 3863 (2014)], which permits a virtually exhaustive search for globally optimal model parameters in the sub-space that is most relevant to the electrostatic properties of the water molecule in liquid phase. Here we apply the approach to develop a 3-point Optimal Point Charge (OPC3) water model. OPC3 is significantly more accurate than the commonly used water models of same class (TIP3P and SPCE) in reproducing a comprehensive set of liquid bulk properties, over a wide range of temperatures. Beyond bulk properties, we show that OPC3 predicts the intrinsic charge hydration asymmetry (CHA) of water — a characteristic dependence of hydration free energy on the sign of the solute charge — in very close agreement with experiment. Two other recent 3-point rigid water models, TIP3PFB and H2ODC, each developed by its own, completely different optimization method, approach the global accuracy optimum represented by OPC3 in both the parameter space and accuracy of bulk properties. Thus, we argue that an accuracy limit of practical 3-point rigid non-polarizable models has effectively been reached; remaining accuracy issues are discussed.

  5. Rigid rod spaced fullerene as building block for nanoclusters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    By using phenylacetylene based rigid-rod linkers (PhA), we have successfully synthesized two fullerene derivatives, C60-PhA and C60-PhA-C60. The absorption spectral features of C60, as well as that of the phenylacetylene moiety are retained in the monomeric forms of these fullerene derivatives, ruling out the possibility ...

  6. Hydrodynamics of a flexible plate between pitching rigid plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junyoung; Kim, Daegyoum

    2017-11-01

    The dynamics of a flexible plate have been studied as a model problem in swimming and flying of animals and fluid-structure interaction of plants and flags. Motivated by fish schooling and an array of sea grasses, we investigate the dynamics of a flexible plate closely placed between two pitching rigid plates. In most studies on passive deformation of the flexible plate, the plate is immersed in a uniform flow or a wavy flow. However, in this study, the flexible plate experiences periodic deformation by the oscillatory flow generated by the prescribed pitching motion of the rigid plates. In our model, the pitching axes of the rigid plates and the clamping position of the flexible plate are aligned on the same line. The flexible plate shows various responses depending on length and pitching frequency of rigid plates, thickness of a flexible plate, and free-stream velocity. To find the effect of each variable on the response of the flexible plate, amplitude of a trailing edge and modal contribution of a flapping motion are compared, and flow structure around the flexible plate is examined.

  7. Flexible (Polyactive®) versus rigid (hydroxyapatite) dental implants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, G.J.; Heethaar, J.; Cune, M.S.; de Putter, C.; van Blitterswijk, Clemens

    1997-01-01

    In a beagle dog study, the peri-implant bone changes around flexible (Polyactive®) and rigid hydroxyapatite (HA) implants were investigated radiographically by quantitative digital subtraction analysis and by assessment of marginal bone height, with the aid of a computerized method. A loss of

  8. "Mind the trap": mindfulness practice reduces cognitive rigidity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Greenberg

    Full Text Available Two experiments examined the relation between mindfulness practice and cognitive rigidity by using a variation of the Einstellung water jar task. Participants were required to use three hypothetical jars to obtain a specific amount of water. Initial problems were solvable by the same complex formula, but in later problems ("critical" or "trap" problems solving was possible by an additional much simpler formula. A rigidity score was compiled through perseverance of the complex formula. In Experiment 1, experienced mindfulness meditators received significantly lower rigidity scores than non-meditators who had registered for their first meditation retreat. Similar results were obtained in randomized controlled Experiment 2 comparing non-meditators who underwent an eight meeting mindfulness program with a waiting list group. The authors conclude that mindfulness meditation reduces cognitive rigidity via the tendency to be "blinded" by experience. Results are discussed in light of the benefits of mindfulness practice regarding a reduced tendency to overlook novel and adaptive ways of responding due to past experience, both in and out of the clinical setting.

  9. A survey on stability and rigidity results for Lie algebras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crainic, Marius; Schätz, Florian; Struchiner, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    We give simple and unified proofs of the known stability and rigidity results for Lie algebras, Lie subalgebras and Lie algebra homomorphisms. Moreover, we investigate when a Lie algebra homomorphism is stable under all automorphisms of the codomain (including outer automorphisms).

  10. 21 CFR 886.5916 - Rigid gas permeable contact lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rigid gas permeable contact lens. 886.5916 Section 886.5916 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... against the cornea of the eye to correct vision conditions. The device is made of various materials, such...

  11. Knowledge-In-Action: An Example with Rigid Body Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Costa, Sayonara Salvador Cabral; Moreira, Marco Antonio

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports the analysis of the resolution of a paper-and-pencil problem, by eight undergraduate students majoring in engineering (six) and physics (two) at the Pontifcia Universidade Catlica do Rio Grande do Sul, in Porto Alegre, Brazil. The problem concerns kinetics of a rigid body, and the analysis was done in the light of Johnson-Lairds…

  12. Non-rigid registration by geometry-constrained diffusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Per Rønsholt; Nielsen, Mads

    1999-01-01

    Assume that only partial knowledge about a non-rigid registration is given so that certain point, curves, or surfaces in one 3D image map to certain points, curves, or surfaces in another 3D image. We are facing the aperture problem because along the curves and surfaces, point correspondences...

  13. Proton-proton bremsstrahlung in a relativistic covariant model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinus, Gerard Henk

    1998-01-01

    Proton-proton bremsstrahlung is one of the simplest processes involving the half off-shell NN interaction. Since protons are equally-charged particles with the same mass, electric-dipole radiation is suppressed and higher-order effects play an important role. Thus it is possible to get information

  14. Predictions of diffractive cross sections in proton-proton collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goulianos, Konstantin [Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    We review our pre-LHC predictions of the total, elastic, total-inelastic, and diffractive components of proton-proton cross sections at high energies, expressed in the form of unitarized expressions based on a special parton-model approach to diffraction employing inclusive proton parton distribution functions and QCD color factors and compare with recent LHC results.

  15. Longitudinal-momentum distributions for positive particles produced at small angles in proton-proton collisions at a cm energy of 446 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Albrow, M G; Bogaerts, A; Bosnjakovic, B; Brooks, J R; Clegg, A B; Erné, F C; Gee, C N P; Kanaris, A D; Locke, D H; Loebinger, F K; Murphy, P G; Rudge, A; Sens, Johannes C; Terwilliger, K M; Van der Veen, F

    1973-01-01

    Longitudinal-momentum spectra are presented for the production of K /sup +/ and pi /sup +/ mesons at the CERN ISR at a transverse momentum of 0.8 GeV/c and a total c.m. energy of 44.6 GeV. Proton spectra for transverse momenta between 0.7 and 1.2 GeV/c are also given. The spectra cover a range of 0.2 to 1.0 in the Feynman variable x=2p/sub L // square root s. The pi /sup +/ spectrum agrees well with scaling when compared with accelerator data, while the K/sup +/ spectrum is consistently above the scaling prediction. The proton spectra have pronounced peaks at x=1, minima near x=0.9 and broad maxima at x=0.6. The data are compared with triple-Regge and diffraction dissociation models. (9 refs).

  16. Neutron spectra measurements and neutron flux monitoring for radiation damage purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmera, B.; Petr, J.; Racek, J.; Rumler, C.; Turzik, Z.; Franc, L.; Holman, M.; Hogel, J.; Kovarik, K.; Marik, P.; Vespalec, R.; Albert, D.; Hansen, V.; Vogel, W.

    1979-09-01

    Neutron spectra were measured for the TR-0, WWR-S and SR-0 experimental reactors using the recoil proton method, 6 Li spectrometry, scintillation spectrometry and activation detectors in a variety of conditions. Neutron fluence was also measured and calculated. (M.S.)

  17. Electrochemical synthesis of polyaniline in the presence of poly(amidosulfonic acid)s with different rigidity of polymer backbone and characterization of the films obtained

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nekrasov, A.A.; Gribkova, O.L.; Eremina, T.V.; Isakova, A.A.; Ivanov, V.F.; Tverskoj, V.A.; Vannikov, A.V.

    2008-01-01

    We have studied electrochemical matrix polymerization of aniline in the presence of poly(amidosulfonic acid)s of different nature: poly(2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanosulfonic acid) (PAMPSA, flexible backbone); poly(p,p'-(2,2'-disulfoacid)-diphenylene-iso-phthalamid) (i-PASA, semi-rigid backbone); poly(p,p'-(2,2'-disulfoacid)-diphelylene-tere-phthalamid) (t-PASA, rigid backbone). Also, we have investigated spectral and electrochemical properties of the films obtained, as well as their surface morphology. The matrix polymerization results in the formation of interpolymer complexes of polyaniline (PANI) and the above-cited polyacids. The acceleration of aniline electropolymerization in the presence of poly(amidosulfonic acid)s was observed due to association of aniline molecules to sulfonic groups of the polyacid and higher local concentration of protons near the polyacid backbone. The rigid-chain polyacids interfere with the normal course of the electropolymerization, which manifests itself in the changes of the shape of time dependences of absorbance and charge. Cyclic voltammetry and spectroelectrochemical experiments showed that the formation of interpolymer complex with rigid-chain polyacids distorts spectroelectrochemical characteristics of PANI. This evidently results from steric hindrances in the formation of quinoid units

  18. What can we learn from p perpendicular spectra in heavy-ion collisions at the AGS?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, B.A.

    1994-01-01

    Inclusive and semi-inclusive cross-sections for production of pions, kaons, and protons in Si+Al, Si+Cu, and Si+Au collisions, measured at the nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass rapidity are presented. The functional forms of the spectra are discussed. The centrality dependence of the inverse m perpendicular slopes is shown. Deviations in the spectra from pure exponential-m perpendicular distributions are discussed. The effects of resonance decays on the shape of the pion spectra are studied using previously measured p-p data, Si+Al data from E802, and the ARC model

  19. Re-hardening of hadron transverse mass spectra in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, A.; Otuka, N.; Sahu, P.K.; Isse, M.; Nara, Y.

    2001-01-01

    We analyze the spectra of pions and protons in heavy-ion collisions at relativistic energies from 2 A GeV to 65 + 65 A GeV by using a jet-implemented hadron-string cascade model. In this energy region, hadron transverse mass spectra first show softening until SPS energies, and re-hardening may emerge at RHIC energies. Since hadronic matter is expected to show only softening at higher energy densities, this re-hardening of spectra can be interpreted as a good signature of the quark-gluon plasma formation. (author)

  20. Exploring proton doping in poly-3-methylpyrrole by infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez de la Blanca, E.; Carrillo, I.; Redondo, M.I.; Gonzalez-Tejera, M.J.; Garcia, M.V.

    2007-01-01

    Structural changes induced by electrochemical redox processes or by pH variations on conducting poly-3-methylpyrrole, electrochemically synthesized in NaClO 4 acetonitrile solution, have been studied by infrared spectroscopy. With this aim infrared spectra of perchlorate doped poly-3-methylpyrrole films at different oxidation states as well as after immersion in acid (pH = 1) and basic (pH = 12.6) aqueous solutions have been analysed. The existence of proton-doping mechanism in this polymer has been confirmed from the comparative study of spectra of oxidized/reduced and acid/basic treated polymer

  1. Progresses in proton radioactivity studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, L. S., E-mail: flidia@ist.utl.pt [Center of Physics and Engineering of Advanced Materials, CeFEMA and Departamento de Física, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida Rovisco Pais, P1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Maglione, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “G. Galilei”, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova, Italy and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Padova (Italy)

    2016-07-07

    In the present talk, we will discuss recent progresses in the theoretical study of proton radioactivity and their impact on the present understanding of nuclear structure at the extremes of proton stability.

  2. Proton Radiography (pRad)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The proton radiography project has used 800 MeV protons provided by the LANSCE accelerator facility at LANL, to diagnose more than 300 dynamic experiments in support...

  3. Strategic rigidity and foresight for technology adoption among electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Arsalan Nisar; Palacios, Miguel; Ruiz, Felipe

    2013-01-01

    The variation in the adoption of a technology as a major source of competitive advantage has been attributed to the wide-ranging strategic foresight and the integrative capability of a firm. These possible areas of competitive advantage can exist in the periphery of the firm's strategic vision and can get easily blurred as a result of rigidness and can permeate in the decision-making process of the firm. This article explores how electric utility firms with a renewable energy portfolio can become strategically rigid in terms of adoption of newer technologies. The reluctance or delay in the adoption of new technology can be characterized as strategic rigidness, brought upon as a result of a firm's core competence or core capability in the other, more conventional technology arrangement. This paper explores the implications of such rigidness on the performance of a firm and consequently on the energy eco-system. The paper substantiates the results by emphasizing the case of Iberdrola S.A., an incumbent firm as a wind energy developer and its adoption decision behavior. We illustrate that the very routines that create competitive advantage for firms in the electric utility industry are vulnerable as they might also develop as sources of competitive disadvantage, when firms confront environmental change and uncertainty. - Highlights: • Present a firm-level perspective on technology adoption behavior among electric utilities. • Firms with mature technology can become rigid towards newer technologies. • Case study analysis of a major electric utility firm. • Implications of ‘technology rigidness’ on the energy eco-system

  4. Matrix rigidity regulates cancer cell growth and cellular phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Tilghman

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties of the extracellular matrix have an important role in cell growth and differentiation. However, it is unclear as to what extent cancer cells respond to changes in the mechanical properties (rigidity/stiffness of the microenvironment and how this response varies among cancer cell lines.In this study we used a recently developed 96-well plate system that arrays extracellular matrix-conjugated polyacrylamide gels that increase in stiffness by at least 50-fold across the plate. This plate was used to determine how changes in the rigidity of the extracellular matrix modulate the biological properties of tumor cells. The cell lines tested fall into one of two categories based on their proliferation on substrates of differing stiffness: "rigidity dependent" (those which show an increase in cell growth as extracellular rigidity is increased, and "rigidity independent" (those which grow equally on both soft and stiff substrates. Cells which grew poorly on soft gels also showed decreased spreading and migration under these conditions. More importantly, seeding the cell lines into the lungs of nude mice revealed that the ability of cells to grow on soft gels in vitro correlated with their ability to grow in a soft tissue environment in vivo. The lung carcinoma line A549 responded to culture on soft gels by expressing the differentiated epithelial marker E-cadherin and decreasing the expression of the mesenchymal transcription factor Slug.These observations suggest that the mechanical properties of the matrix environment play a significant role in regulating the proliferation and the morphological properties of cancer cells. Further, the multiwell format of the soft-plate assay is a useful and effective adjunct to established 3-dimensional cell culture models.

  5. Matrix Rigidity Regulates Cancer Cell Growth and Cellular Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilghman, Robert W.; Cowan, Catharine R.; Mih, Justin D.; Koryakina, Yulia; Gioeli, Daniel; Slack-Davis, Jill K.; Blackman, Brett R.; Tschumperlin, Daniel J.; Parsons, J. Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Background The mechanical properties of the extracellular matrix have an important role in cell growth and differentiation. However, it is unclear as to what extent cancer cells respond to changes in the mechanical properties (rigidity/stiffness) of the microenvironment and how this response varies among cancer cell lines. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study we used a recently developed 96-well plate system that arrays extracellular matrix-conjugated polyacrylamide gels that increase in stiffness by at least 50-fold across the plate. This plate was used to determine how changes in the rigidity of the extracellular matrix modulate the biological properties of tumor cells. The cell lines tested fall into one of two categories based on their proliferation on substrates of differing stiffness: “rigidity dependent” (those which show an increase in cell growth as extracellular rigidity is increased), and “rigidity independent” (those which grow equally on both soft and stiff substrates). Cells which grew poorly on soft gels also showed decreased spreading and migration under these conditions. More importantly, seeding the cell lines into the lungs of nude mice revealed that the ability of cells to grow on soft gels in vitro correlated with their ability to grow in a soft tissue environment in vivo. The lung carcinoma line A549 responded to culture on soft gels by expressing the differentiated epithelial marker E-cadherin and decreasing the expression of the mesenchymal transcription factor Slug. Conclusions/Significance These observations suggest that the mechanical properties of the matrix environment play a significant role in regulating the proliferation and the morphological properties of cancer cells. Further, the multiwell format of the soft-plate assay is a useful and effective adjunct to established 3-dimensional cell culture models. PMID:20886123

  6. Initial Development of an Electronic Testis Rigidity Tester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petros Mirilas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to develop our previously presented mechanical device, the Testis Rigidity Tester (TRT, into an electronic system (Electronic Testis Rigidity Tester, ETRT by applying tactile imaging, which has been used successfully with other solid organs. A measuring device, located at the front end of the ETRT incorporates a tactile sensor comprising an array of microsensors. By application of a predetermined deformation of 2 mm, increased pressure alters linearly the resistance of each microsensor, producing changes of voltage. These signals were amplified, filtered, and digitized, and then processed by an electronic collector system, which presented them as a color-filled contour plot of the area of the testis coming into contact with the sensor. Testis models of different rigidity served for initial evaluation of ETRT; their evacuated central spaces contained different, increasing glue masses. An independent method of rigidity measurement, using an electric weight scale and a micrometer, showed that the more the glue injected, the greater the force needed for a 2-mm deformation. In a preliminary test, a single sensor connected to a multimeter showed similar force measurement for the same deformation in these phantoms. For each of the testis models compressed in the same manner, the ETRT system offered a map of pressures, represented by a color scale within the contour plot of the contact area with the sensor. ETRT found certain differences in rigidity between models that had escaped detection by a blind observer. ETRT is easy to use and provides a color-coded “insight“ of the testis internal structure. After experimental testing, it could be valuable in intraoperative evaluation of testes, so that the surgeon can decide about orchectomy or orcheopexy.

  7. Analysis of NMR spectra of sugar chains of glycolipids by multiple relayed COSY and 2D homonuclear Hartman-Hahn spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, F.; Kohda, D.; Kodama, C.; Suzuki, A.

    1987-01-01

    The authors applied multiple relayed COSY and 2D homonuclear Hartman-Hahn spectroscopy to globoside, a glycolipid purified from human red blood cells. The subspectra corresponding to individual sugar components were extracted even from overlapping proton resonances by taking the cross sections of 2D spectra parallel to the F 2 axis at anomeric proton resonances, so that unambiguous assignments of sugar proton resonances were accomplished. (Auth.)

  8. Components of Program for Analysis of Spectra and Their Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Taufer

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The spectral analysis of aqueous solutions of multi-component mixtures is used for identification and distinguishing of individual componentsin the mixture and subsequent determination of protonation constants and absorptivities of differently protonated particles in the solution in steadystate (Meloun and Havel 1985, (Leggett 1985. Apart from that also determined are the distribution diagrams, i.e. concentration proportions ofthe individual components at different pH values. The spectra are measured with various concentrations of the basic components (one or severalpolyvalent weak acids or bases and various pH values within the chosen range of wavelengths. The obtained absorbance response area has to beanalyzed by non-linear regression using specialized algorithms. These algorithms have to meet certain requirements concerning the possibility ofcalculations and the level of outputs. A typical example is the SQUAD(84 program, which was gradually modified and extended, see, e.g., (Melounet al. 1986, (Meloun et al. 2012.

  9. Crystal structure and vibrational spectra of melaminium arsenate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbalagan, G.; Marchewka, M. K.; Pawlus, K.; Kanagathara, N.

    2015-01-01

    The crystals of the new melaminium arsenate (MAS) [C3H7N6+ṡH2AsO4-] were obtained by the slow evaporation of an aqueous solution at room temperature. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that the crystal belongs to triclinic system with centro symmetric space group P-1. The crystals are built up from single protonated melaminium residues and single dissociated arsenate H2AsO4- anions. The protonated melaminium ring is almost planar. A combination of ionic and donor-acceptor hydrogen-bond interactions linking together the melaminium and arsenate residues forms a three-dimensional network. Vibrational spectroscopic analysis is reported on the basis of FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra recorded at room temperature. Hydrogen bonded network present in the crystal gives notable vibrational effect. DSC has also been performed for the crystal shows no phase transition in the studied temperature range (113-293 K).

  10. Violent collisions of spinning protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krisch, A.D. [Michigan Univ., Spin Physics Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2005-07-01

    The author draws the history of polarized proton beams that has relied on experiments that took place in different accelerators like ZGS (zero gradient synchrotron, Argonne), AGS (Brookhaven) and Fermilab from 1973 till today. The first studies of the behavior and spin-manipulation of polarized protons helped in developing polarized beams around the world: Brookhaven now has 200 GeV polarized protons in the RHIC collider, perhaps someday the 7 TeV LHC at CERN might have polarized protons.

  11. AstroBox: A novel detection system for very low-energy protons from β-delayed proton decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollacco, E., E-mail: epollacco@cea.fr [IRFU, CEA Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Trache, L. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3366 (United States); National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest-Magurele, RO-077125 (Romania); Simmons, E.; Spiridon, A.; McCleskey, M. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3366 (United States); Roeder, B.T., E-mail: broeder@comp.tamu.edu [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3366 (United States); Saastamoinen, A.; Tribble, R.E. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3366 (United States); Pascovici, G. [National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest-Magurele, RO-077125 (Romania); Kebbiri, M.; Mols, J.P.; Raillot, M. [IRFU, CEA Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2013-09-21

    An instrument, AstroBox, has been developed to perform low energy proton spectroscopy from β-delayed proton emitters of interest to astrophysics studies. Energetic precursor nuclei are identified and stopped in the gas volume of the detector. The subsequent β or β-proton decay traces ionized paths in the gas. The ionization electrons are drifted in an electric field and are amplified with a Micro Pattern Gas Amplifier Detector (MPGAD). The system was tested in-beam using the β-delayed proton-emitter {sup 23}Al, which was produced with the p({sup 24}Mg,{sup 23}Al)2n reaction and separated with the Momentum Achromat Recoil Spectrometer (MARS) at the Cyclotron Institute at Texas A and M University. Off-beam proton spectra have essentially no β background down to ∼100keV and have a resolution of ∼15keV (fwhm) for proton-decay lines at E{sub p}=197 and 255 keV. Lines with βp-branching as low as 0.02% are observed. In addition, the device also gives good mass and charge resolution for energetic heavy ions measured in-beam.

  12. Observation of correlation between two fast protons in proton-nucleus interactions at 640 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarov, V.I.; Kosarev, G.E.

    1978-01-01

    The measurements have been performed to observe correlations between backward emitted protons (BEP) and forward outgoing protons from quasi-free scattering of the incident proton of 640 MeV on a nucleons pair [pN] within Be, C, Al, Cu and Pb nucleus at the angles 12 deg and 122 deg: p 0 + pN → p 1 + N + p 3 . Here p 1 is a proton detected in coincidence with BEP p 3 and N is a nucleon unobserved under the conditions of this experiment. The differential cross sections for the BEP of energies from 50 to 145 MeV have been measured in coincidence with forward outgoing protons (255 to 330 MeV) by scintillation counter method. The inclusive BEP spectra have been explained by the quasi-elastic backscattering on clusters which do not break up during the interaction. The calculated distribution are remarkably narrower than the experimental anes. The measurements point out that the discussed production of two fast protons is observable with all the targets and the cross section per target nucleon decreases with increasing the target mass number

  13. Neutron-proton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doll, P.

    1990-02-01

    Neutron-proton scattering as fundamental interaction process below and above hundred MeV is discussed. Quark model inspired interactions and phenomenological potential models are described. The seminar also indicates the experimental improvements for achieving new precise scattering data. Concluding remarks indicate the relevance of nucleon-nucleon scattering results to finite nuclei. (orig.) [de

  14. Radiotherapy : proton therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The first phase of proton therapy at the National Accelerator Centre will be the development of a 200 MeV small-field horizontal beam radioneurosurgical facility in the south treatment vault. A progressive expansion of this facility is planned. The patient support and positioning system has been designed and developed by the Departments of Mechanical Engineering and Surveying of the University of Cape Town to ensure the accurate positioning in the proton beam of the lesion to be treated. The basic components of the system are an adjustable chair, a series of video cameras and two computers. The specifications for the proton therapy interlock system require that the inputs to and the outputs from the system be similar to those of the neutron therapy system. Additional facilities such as a full diagnostic system which would assist the operators in the event of an error will also be provided. Dosimeters are required for beam monitoring, for monitor calibration and for determining dose distributions. Several designs of transmission ionization chambers for beam monitoring have been designed and tested, while several types of ionization chambers and diodes have been used for the dose distribution measurements. To facilitate the comparison of measured ranges and energy losses of proton beams in the various materials with tabled values, simple empirical approximations, which are sufficiently accurate for most applications, have been used. 10 refs., 10 fig., 4 tabs

  15. The Melbourne proton microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legge, G.J.F.; McKenzie, C.D.; Mazzolini, A.P.

    1979-01-01

    A scanning proton microprobe is described which operates in ultra-high vacuum with a resolution of ten microns. The operating principles and main features of the design are discussed and the ability of such an instrument to detect trace elements down to a few ppm by mass is illustrated

  16. Proton microanalysis in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrec, J.P.

    Micro-analyses by nuclear reactions and atomic excitation are used to determine the distribution of fluorine and calcium in the needles of Abies Alba. Fluorine is detected by the nuclear reaction 19 F(p,α) 16 O at the 1.35 MeV resonance. Calcium is measured by its characteristic X-rays due to proton excitation [fr

  17. Role of projectile charge state in convoy electron emission by fast protons colliding with LiF(0 0 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldazabal, I. [Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Facultad de Quimicas UPV/EHU, Apartado 1072, 20080 San Sebastian (Spain)]. E-mail: ialdazabal@sq.ehu.es; Gravielle, M.S. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas and Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, C.C. 67, Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Miraglia, J.E. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas and Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, C.C. 67, Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Arnau, A. [Centro Mixto CSIC-UPV/EHU, Apartado 1072, 20080 San Sebastian (Spain); Ponce, V.H. [Donostia International Physics Center DIPC, San Sebastian (Spain); Centro Atomico Bariloche, Bariloche (Argentina)

    2005-05-01

    Target ionization and projectile ionization differential cross sections are used to calculate the electron emission spectra by fast proton impact on ionic crystal surfaces under grazing incidence conditions. Both bare protons and neutral hydrogen species are considered. We use a planar potential approach to determine the projectile trajectory that later on allows us to calculate the charge state fractions. We show that, although the fraction of protons is significantly higher, the contribution from neutral hydrogen ionization has to be considered. The energy and angular dependence of the spectra is analyzed.

  18. Role of projectile charge state in convoy electron emission by fast protons colliding with LiF(0 0 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldazabal, I.; Gravielle, M.S.; Miraglia, J.E.; Arnau, A.; Ponce, V.H.

    2005-01-01

    Target ionization and projectile ionization differential cross sections are used to calculate the electron emission spectra by fast proton impact on ionic crystal surfaces under grazing incidence conditions. Both bare protons and neutral hydrogen species are considered. We use a planar potential approach to determine the projectile trajectory that later on allows us to calculate the charge state fractions. We show that, although the fraction of protons is significantly higher, the contribution from neutral hydrogen ionization has to be considered. The energy and angular dependence of the spectra is analyzed

  19. 1H nmr spectra of dichloro and dihydroxy derivatives of methylcyclosiloxanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavrukhin, B.D.

    1986-01-01

    The authors report on a continuation of an investigation of how the nature of the substituents on the Si atoms influences the character of the spectra. As objects of investigation, the authors took the dichloro and dihydroxy derivatives of cyclosiloxanes with 4 to 8 Si atoms in the ring. Shown are tables of chemical shifts of protons of CH 3 groups in chloromethylcyclosiloxanes, and chemical shifts of protons of CH 3 groups in linear methylsiloxanes and chloromethylsiloxanes. Additivity was demonstrated for chemical shifts of CH 3 group protons in dichloromethylcyclosiloxanes, and the increments of chemical shift were obtained for 8-, 10-, 12-, 14-, and 16-membered rings. It was established that the chemical shifts in the spectra of the dihydroxy derivatives are nonadditive

  20. Prototropic tautomerism of 5-nitrobenzimidazole derivatives in {sup 1}H, {sup 13}C and {sup 15}N NMR spectra; Tautomeria prototropowa pochodnych 5-nitrobenzimidazolu w widmach {sup 1}H, {sup 13}C, {sup 15}N NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiench, J W; Bocian, W; Stefaniak, L [Inst. Chemii Organicznej, Polska Akademia Nauk, Warsaw (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    NMR spectra of 5-nitrobenzimidazole derivatives in DMSO solution show the fast exchange of protons. The line broadening in {sup 1}H,{sup 13}C and {sup 15}N spectra have been observed. The interpretation of the spectra has been done basing on chemical shifts values and couplings between nuclei in the investigated derivatives. 3 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs.

  1. Energy distributions of H+ fragments ejected by fast proton and electron projectiles in collision with H2O molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, A. L. F. de; Lecointre, J.; Luna, H.; Montenegro, E. C.; Shah, M. B.

    2009-01-01

    Experimental measurements of the kinetic energy distribution spectra of H + fragment ions released during radiolysis of water molecules in collision with 20, 50, and 100 keV proton projectiles and 35, 200, 400, and 1000 eV electron projectiles are reported using a pulsed beam and drift tube time-of-flight based velocity measuring technique. The spectra show that H + fragments carrying a substantial amount of energy are released, some having energies well in excess of 20 eV. The majority of the ions lie within the 0-5 eV energy range with the proton spectra showing an almost constant profile between 1.5 and 5 eV and, below this, increasing gradually with decreasing ejection energy up to the near zero energy value while the electron spectra, in contrast, show a broad maximum between 1 and 3 eV and a pronounced dip around 0.25 eV. Beyond 5 eV, both projectile spectra show a decreasing profile with the electron spectra decreasing far more rapidly than the proton spectra. Our measured spectra thus indicate that major differences are present in the collision dynamics between the proton and the electron projectiles interacting with gas phase water molecules.

  2. Proton transfer events in GFP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Donato, M.; van Wilderen, L.J.G.W.; van Stokkum, I.H.M.; Cohen Stuart, T.A.; Kennis, J.T.M.; Hellingwerf, K.J.; van Grondelle, R.; Groot, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    Proton transfer is one of the most important elementary processes in biology. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) serves as an important model system to elucidate the mechanistic details of this reaction, because in GFP proton transfer can be induced by light absorption. Illumination initiates proton

  3. Exogenous control over intracellular acidification: Enhancement via proton caged compounds coupled to gold nanoparticles and an alternative pathway with DMSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilena Carbone

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Proton caged compounds exhibit a characteristic behavior when directly dosed into cells or being coupled to gold nanoparticles prior to the dosing. When irradiated in the near ultraviolet region, they release protons that interact with intracellular HCO3− to yield H2CO3. The dissociation of carbonic acid, then, releases CO2 that can be distinctively singled out in infrared spectra.In the process of searching a pathway to augment the intracellular uptake of proton caged compounds, we probed the association of 1-(2-nitrophenyl-ethylhexadecyl sulfonate (HDNS with DMSO, an agent to enhance the membrane permeability. We found out a different UV-induced protonation mechanism that opens up to new conduits of employing of proton caged compounds. Here, we report the infrared data we collected in this set of experiments. Keywords: Proton caged compounds, DMSO, Intracellular proton release

  4. Investigation of 65Cu by means of the average resonance proton capture method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erlandsson, B.; Nilsson, K.; Piotrowski, J.

    1979-01-01

    The 64 Ni(p,γ) 65 Cu reaction has been studied in the proton energy range E sub(p) = 2.05 - 2.55 MeV. The gamma-ray spectra were recorded with a three-crystal pair spectrometer at proton energy differences of 19 keV covering the proton energy range. An average gamma-ray spectrum was formed by adding all the individual spectra after proper adjustment as a result of the alterations in proton energy. The intensities of the gamma rays to final states with known J sup(π)-values were tested against theoretical calculations based on the Hauser-Feshbach theory with good results and these made it possible to deduce further J sup(π)-values. (author)

  5. Studies of a nitroxide radical by EPR in monocrystal: interaction of protons and electronic relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, A.

    1986-01-01

    The ESR spectra of a nitroxide radical, 4-hydroxi-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TANOL II), introduced as impurity in a diamagnetic host, 4-hydroxi-2,6,6-tetramethylpiperedine (I), were investigated. The use of deuterated radical, 4-hydroxi-2,2,6,6 tetramethylpiperidine-d sub(17) -1, oxyl (PD-TANOL, III) improved the resolution of ESR spectra for most of orientations of magnetic field. The proton interqactions in the neighbourhood of magnetic group N-O were studied and superpyresfine tensors for two strongly coupled protons were determined. In order to study the influence of protons on electronic relaxation of radicals, the relaxation times T sub(1) and T sub(2) were estimated in the temperature range-160 sup(0)C - 25 sup(0)C for several orientations, and comparing data for protonated and deuterated radicals II and III, using the continuous wave saturation method. (author)

  6. Study of proton and 2 protons emission from light neutron deficient nuclei around A=20; Etude de l'emission proton et de deux protons dans les noyaux legers deficients en neutrons de la region A=20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerguerras, T

    2001-09-01

    Proton and two proton emission from light neutron deficient nuclei around A=20 have been studied. A radioactive beam of {sup 18}Ne, {sup 17}F and {sup 20}Mg, produced at the Grand Accelerateur National d'Ions Lourds by fragmentation of a {sup 24}Mg primary beam at 95 MeV/A, bombarded a {sup 9}Be target to form unbound states. Proton(s) and nuclei from the decay were detected respectively in the MUST array and the SPEG spectrometer. From energy and angle measurements, the invariant mass of the decaying nucleus could be reconstructed. Double coincidence events between a proton and {sup 17}F, {sup 16}O, {sup 15}O, {sup 14}O and {sup 18}Ne were registered to obtain excitation energy spectra of {sup 18}Ne, {sup 17}F, {sup 16}F, {sup 15}F et {sup 19}Na. Generally, the masses measures are in agreement with previous experiments. In the case of {sup 18}Ne, excitation energy and angular distributions agree well with the predictions of a break up model calculation. From {sup 17}Ne proton coincidences, a first experimental measurement of the ground state mass excess of {sup 18}Na has been obtained and yields 24,19(0,15)MeV. Two proton emission from {sup 17}Ne and {sup 18}Ne excited states and the {sup 19}Mg ground state was studied through triple coincidences between two proton and {sup 15}O, {sup 16}O and {sup 17}Ne respectively. In the first case, the proton-proton relative angle distribution in the center of mass has been compared with model calculation. Sequential emission from excited states of {sup 17}Ne, above the proton emission threshold, through {sup 16}F is dominant but a {sup 2}He decay channel could not be excluded. No {sup 2}He emission from the 1.288 MeV {sup 17}Ne state, or from the 6.15 MeV {sup 18}Ne state has been observed. Only one coincidence event between {sup 17}Ne and two proton was registered, the value of the one neutron stripping reaction cross section of {sup 20}Mg being much lower than predicted. (author)

  7. Study of proton and 2 protons emission from light neutron deficient nuclei around A=20; Etude de l'emission proton et de deux protons dans les noyaux legers deficients en neutrons de la region A=20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerguerras, T

    2001-09-01

    Proton and two proton emission from light neutron deficient nuclei around A=20 have been studied. A radioactive beam of {sup 18}Ne, {sup 17}F and {sup 20}Mg, produced at the Grand Accelerateur National d'Ions Lourds by fragmentation of a {sup 24}Mg primary beam at 95 MeV/A, bombarded a {sup 9}Be target to form unbound states. Proton(s) and nuclei from the decay were detected respectively in the MUST array and the SPEG spectrometer. From energy and angle measurements, the invariant mass of the decaying nucleus could be reconstructed. Double coincidence events between a proton and {sup 17}F, {sup 16}O, {sup 15}O, {sup 14}O and {sup 18}Ne were registered to obtain excitation energy spectra of {sup 18}Ne, {sup 17}F, {sup 16}F, {sup 15}F et {sup 19}Na. Generally, the masses measures are in agreement with previous experiments. In the case of {sup 18}Ne, excitation energy and angular distributions agree well with the predictions of a break up model calculation. From {sup 17}Ne proton coincidences, a first experimental measurement of the ground state mass excess of {sup 18}Na has been obtained and yields 24,19(0,15)MeV. Two proton emission from {sup 17}Ne and {sup 18}Ne excited states and the {sup 19}Mg ground state was studied through triple coincidences between two proton and {sup 15}O, {sup 16}O and {sup 17}Ne respectively. In the first case, the proton-proton relative angle distribution in the center of mass has been compared with model calculation. Sequential emission from excited states of {sup 17}Ne, above the proton emission threshold, through {sup 16}F is dominant but a {sup 2}He decay channel could not be excluded. No {sup 2}He emission from the 1.288 MeV {sup 17}Ne state, or from the 6.15 MeV {sup 18}Ne state has been observed. Only one coincidence event between {sup 17}Ne and two proton was registered, the value of the one neutron stripping reaction cross section of {sup 20}Mg being much lower than predicted. (author)

  8. Line-narrowing in proton-detected nitrogen-14 NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavadini, Simone; Vitzthum, Veronika; Ulzega, Simone; Abraham, Anuji; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey

    2010-01-01

    In solids spinning at the magic angle, the indirect detection of single-quantum (SQ) and double-quantum (DQ) 14N spectra ( I = 1) via spy nuclei S = 1/2 such as protons can be achieved in the manner of heteronuclear single- or multiple-quantum correlation (HSQC or HMQC) spectroscopy. The HMQC method relies on the excitation of two-spin coherences of the type T11IT11S and T21IT11S at the beginning of the evolution interval t1. The spectra obtained by Fourier transformation from t1 to ω1 may be broadened by the homogenous decay of the transverse terms of the spy nuclei S. This broadening is mostly due to homonuclear dipolar S- S' interactions between the proton spy nuclei. In this work we have investigated the possibility of inserting rotor-synchronized symmetry-based C or R sequences and decoupling schemes such as Phase-Modulated Lee-Goldburg (PMLG) sequences in the evolution period. These schemes reduce the homonuclear proton-proton interactions and lead to an enhancement of the resolution of both SQ and DQ proton-detected 14N HMQC spectra. In addition, we have investigated the combination of HSQC with symmetry-based sequences and PMLG and shown that the highest resolution in the 14N dimension is achieved by using HSQC in combination with symmetry-based sequences of the R-type. We show improvements in resolution in samples of L-alanine and the tripeptide ala-ala-gly (AAG). In particular, for L-alanine the width of the 14N SQ peak is reduced from 2 to 1.2 kHz, in agreement with simulations. We report accurate measurements of quadrupolar coupling constants and asymmetry parameters for amide 14N in AAG peptide bonds.

  9. Cumulative protons in 12C fragmentation at intermediate energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramov, B.M.; Alekseev, P.N.; Borodin, Y.A.; Bulychjov, S.A.; Dukhovskoi, I.A.; Khanov, A.I.; Krutenkova, A.P.; Kulikov, V.V.; Martemianov, M.A.; Matsuk, M.A.; Turdakina, E.N.

    2014-01-01

    In the FRAGM experiment at heavy ion accelerator complex TWAC-ITEP, the proton yields at an angle 3.5 degrees have been measured in fragmentation of carbon ions at T 0 equals 0.3, 0.6, 0.95 and 2.0 GeV/nucleon on beryllium target. The data are presented as invariant proton yields on cumulative variable x in the range 0.9 < x < 2.4. Proton spectra cover six orders of invariant cross section magnitude. They have been analyzed in the framework of quark cluster fragmentation model. Fragmentation functions of quark- gluon string model are used. The probabilities of the existence of multi-quark clusters in carbon nuclei are estimated to be 8 - 12% for six-quark clusters and 0.2 - 0.6% for nine- quark clusters. (authors)

  10. Decoration of dislocations by proton irradiation of halite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, J.R.; Rose, A.; Wilkins, R.W.T.

    1981-01-01

    Proton irradiation of halite (NaCl) at temperatures in the range 150-220 0 C produces a variety of colours from yellow/brown through blue to violet/red. Under suitable conditions, colour bands are formed which decorate dislocations and colour other crystal features. One beam line of the Lucas Heights 3 MV Van de Graaff accelerator has been adapted to permit the measurement of optical absorption spectra during proton irradiation of heated crystals. The results show that colour centre formation is a more complex process than has been previously reported, even for synthetic NaCl crystals. The dependence of absorption at various wavelengths on dose, dose rate, temperature, strain and exposure to light is being used to study the different quasi-equilibrium concentrations of colour centres involved in the decoration process. Proton induced X-ray measurements provide information on the presence of impurities which can have an important influence on colour centre formation. (orig.)

  11. Proton-bound cluster ions in ion mobility spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, R. G.; Eiceman, G. A.; Stone, J. A.

    1999-01-01

    Gaseous oxygen and nitrogen bases, both singly and as binary mixtures, have been introduced into ion mobility spectrometers to study the appearance of protonated molecules, and proton-bound dimers and trimers. At ambient temperature it was possible to simultaneously observe, following the introduction of molecule A, comparable intensities of peaks ascribable to the reactant ion (H2O)nH+, the protonated molecule AH+ and AH+ H2O, and the symmetrical proton bound dimer A2H+. Mass spectral identification confirmed the identifications and also showed that the majority of the protonated molecules were hydrated and that the proton-bound dimers were hydrated to a much lesser extent. No significant peaks ascribable to proton-bound trimers were obtained no matter how high the sample concentration. Binary mixtures containing molecules A and B, in some cases gave not only the peaks unique to the individual compounds but also peaks due to asymmetrical proton bound dimers AHB+. Such ions were always present in the spectra of mixtures of oxygen bases but were not observed for several mixtures of oxygen and nitrogen bases. The dimers, which were not observable, notable for their low hydrogen bond strengths, must have decomposed in their passage from the ion source to the detector, i.e. in a time less than approximately 5 ms. When the temperature was lowered to -20 degrees C, trimers, both homogeneous and mixed, were observed with mixtures of alcohols. The importance of hydrogen bond energy, and hence operating temperature, in determining the degree of solvation of the ions that will be observed in an ion mobility spectrometer is stressed. The possibility is discussed that a displacement reaction involving ambient water plays a role in the dissociation.

  12. Characteristics of trapped proton anisotropy at Space Station Freedom altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, T. W.; Colborn, B. L.; Watts, J. W.

    1990-01-01

    The ionizing radiation dose for spacecraft in low-Earth orbit (LEO) is produced mainly by protons trapped in the Earth's magnetic field. Current data bases describing this trapped radiation environment assume the protons to have an isotropic angular distribution, although the fluxes are actually highly anisotropic in LEO. The general nature of this directionality is understood theoretically and has been observed by several satellites. The anisotropy of the trapped proton exposure has not been an important practical consideration for most previous LEO missions because the random spacecraft orientation during passage through the radiation belt 'averages out' the anisotropy. Thus, in spite of the actual exposure anisotropy, cumulative radiation effects over many orbits can be predicted as if the environment were isotropic when the spacecraft orientation is variable during exposure. However, Space Station Freedom will be gravity gradient stabilized to reduce drag, and, due to this fixed orientation, the cumulative incident proton flux will remain anisotropic. The anisotropy could potentially influence several aspects of Space Station design and operation, such as the appropriate location for radiation sensitive components and experiments, location of workstations and sleeping quarters, and the design and placement of radiation monitors. Also, on-board mass could possible be utilized to counteract the anisotropy effects and reduce the dose exposure. Until recently only omnidirectional data bases for the trapped proton environment were available. However, a method to predict orbit-average, angular dependent ('vector') trapped proton flux spectra has been developed from the standard omnidirectional trapped proton data bases. This method was used to characterize the trapped proton anisotropy for the Space Station orbit (28.5 degree inclination, circular) in terms of its dependence on altitude, solar cycle modulation (solar minimum vs. solar maximum), shielding thickness

  13. Search for dark matter and supersymmetry in the vector boson fusion topology in proton-proton collisions at CMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, A.; Hernandez, A. M. C.; CMS Collaboration

    2017-07-01

    A search for pair production of dark matter candidates and supersymmetry (SUSY) production with two jets in vector-boson fusion (VBF) topology is presented using data collected by the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector in proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Final states with no leptons are expected in pair production of dark matter particles or scalar quarks in SUSY compressed mass-spectra scenarios. Final states with low-energy leptons are expected in the production of charginos and neutralinos in SUSY compressed mass-spectra scenarios. Results for both zero and two lepton final states at 8 TeV are presented with brief prospects at 13 TeV.

  14. Raman spectra of lithium compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelik, V. S.; Bi, Dongxue; Voinov, Y. P.; Vodchits, A. I.; Gorshunov, B. P.; Yurasov, N. I.; Yurasova, I. I.

    2017-11-01

    The paper is devoted to the results of investigating the spontaneous Raman scattering spectra in the lithium compounds crystals in a wide spectral range by the fibre-optic spectroscopy method. We also present the stimulated Raman scattering spectra in the lithium hydroxide and lithium deuteride crystals obtained with the use of powerful laser source. The symmetry properties of the lithium hydroxide, lithium hydroxide monohydrate and lithium deuteride crystals optical modes were analyzed by means of the irreducible representations of the point symmetry groups. We have established the selection rules in the Raman and infrared absorption spectra of LiOH, LiOH·H2O and LiD crystals.

  15. FSFE: Fake Spectra Flux Extractor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Simeon

    2017-10-01

    The fake spectra flux extractor generates simulated quasar absorption spectra from a particle or adaptive mesh-based hydrodynamic simulation. It is implemented as a python module. It can produce both hydrogen and metal line spectra, if the simulation includes metals. The cloudy table for metal ionization fractions is included. Unlike earlier spectral generation codes, it produces absorption from each particle close to the sight-line individually, rather than first producing an average density in each spectral pixel, thus substantially preserving more of the small-scale velocity structure of the gas. The code supports both Gadget (ascl:0003.001) and AREPO.

  16. Proton transfer in malonaldehyde: From reaction path to Schrödinger's Cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillaux, François; Nicolaï, Béatrice

    2005-11-01

    Proton transfer in the chelated form of malonaldehyde is commonly supposed to occur between two tautomers, across a transition state involving changes of the chemical bonding. We show that this view is in conflict with rotational spectra. The molecule is better thought of as a superposition of indistinguishable and non-separable C s tautomers and proton tunneling is totally decoupled from the other degrees of freedom. Double minimum potential functions are determined from experiments and ab initio calculations.

  17. Australian national proton facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, M.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Proton therapy has been in use since 1954 and over 25,000 patients have been treated worldwide. Until recently most patients were treated at physics research facilities and apart from the Harvard Cyclotron Laboratory and some low energy machines for eye treatment, only small numbers of patients were treated in each centre and conditions were less than optimal. Limited beam time and lack of support facilities restricted the type of patient treated and conventional fractionation could not be used. The initial clinical experience was mainly with small tumours and other lesions close to critical organs. Large numbers of eye tumours have also been treated. Protons have a well-defined role in these situations and are now being used in the treatment of more common cancers. Since the development of hospital-based facilities, such as the one in Loma Linda in California, over 2,500 patients with prostate cancer have been treated using a simple technique which gives results at least as good as radical surgery, external beam radiotherapy or brachytherapy. Importantly, the incidence of severe complications is very low. There are encouraging results in many disease sites including lung, liver, soft tissue sarcomas and oesophagus. As proton therapy becomes more widely available, randomised trials comparing it with conventional radiotherapy or intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) will be possible. In most situations the use of protons will enable a higher dose to be given safely but in situations where local control rates are already satisfactory, protons are expected to produce less complications than conventional treatment. The initial costs of a proton facility are high but the recurrent costs are similar to other forms of high technology radiotherapy. Simple treatment techniques with only a few fields are usually possible and proton therapy avoids the high integral doses associated with IMRT. This reduction in the low dose volume is likely to be particularly

  18. External Electric Field Effects on Excited-State Intramolecular Proton Transfer in 4'-N,N-Dimethylamino-3-hydroxyflavone in Poly(methyl methacrylate) Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Kazuki; Hino, Kazuyuki; Yamamoto, Norifumi; Awasthi, Kamlesh; Nakabayashi, Takakazu; Ohta, Nobuhiro; Sekiya, Hiroshi

    2015-09-17

    The external electric field effects on the steady-state electronic spectra and excited-state dynamics were investigated for 4'-N,N-(dimethylamino)-3-hydroxyflavone (DMHF) in a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) film. In the steady-state spectrum, dual emission was observed from the excited states of the normal (N*) and tautomer (T*) forms. Application of an external electric field of 1.0 MV·cm(-1) enhanced the N* emission and reduced the T* emission, indicating that the external electric field suppressed the excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT). The fluorescence decay profiles were measured for the N* and T* forms. The change in the emission intensity ratio N*/T* induced by the external electric field is dominated by ESIPT from the Franck-Condon excited state of the N* form and vibrational cooling in potential wells of the N* and T* forms occurring within tens of picoseconds. Three manifolds of fluorescent states were identified for both the N* and T* forms. The excited-state dynamics of DMHF in PMMA films has been found to be very different from that in solution due to intermolecular interactions in a rigid environment.

  19. NMR experiments for the measurement of proton-proton and carbon-carbon residual dipolar couplings in uniformly labelled oligosaccharides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Pastor, Manuel [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Laboratorio Integral de Estructura de Biomoleculas Jose. R. Carracido, Unidade de Resonancia Magnetica, RIAIDT (Spain)], E-mail: mmartin@usc.es; Canales-Mayordomo, Angeles; Jimenez-Barbero, Jesus [Departamento de Estructura y funcion de proteinas, Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas, CSIC (Spain)], E-mail: jjbarbero@cib.csic.es

    2003-08-15

    A 2D-HSQC-carbon selective/proton selective-constant time COSY, 2D-HSQC-(sel C, sel H)-CT COSY experiment, which is applicable to uniformly {sup 13}C isotopically enriched samples (U-{sup 13}C) of oligosaccharides or oligonucleotides is proposed for the measurement of proton-proton RDC in crowded regions of 2D-spectra. In addition, a heteronuclear constant time-COSY experiment, {sup 13}C-{sup 13}C CT-COSY, is proposed for the measurement of one bond carbon-carbon RDC in these molecules. These two methods provide an extension, to U-{sup 13}C molecules, of the original homonuclear constant time-COSY experiment proposed by Tian et al. (1999) for saccharides. The combination of a number of these RDC with NOE data may provide the method of choice to study oligosaccharide conformation in the free and receptor-bound state.

  20. Proton transfer events in GFP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Donato, Mariangela; van Wilderen, Luuk J G W; Van Stokkum, Ivo H M; Stuart, Thomas Cohen; Kennis, John T M; Hellingwerf, Klaas J; van Grondelle, Rienk; Groot, Marie Louise

    2011-09-28

    Proton transfer is one of the most important elementary processes in biology. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) serves as an important model system to elucidate the mechanistic details of this reaction, because in GFP proton transfer can be induced by light absorption. Illumination initiates proton transfer through a 'proton-wire', formed by the chromophore (the proton donor), water molecule W22, Ser205 and Glu222 (the acceptor), on a picosecond time scale. To obtain a more refined view of this process, we have used a combined approach of time resolved mid-infrared spectroscopy and visible pump-dump-probe spectroscopy to resolve with atomic resolution how and how fast protons move through this wire. Our results indicate that absorption of light by GFP induces in 3 ps (10 ps in D(2)O) a shift of the equilibrium positions of all protons in the H-bonded network, leading to a partial protonation of Glu222 and to a so-called low barrier hydrogen bond (LBHB) for the chromophore's proton, giving rise to dual emission at 475 and 508 nm. This state is followed by a repositioning of the protons on the wire in 10 ps (80 ps in D(2)O), ultimately forming the fully deprotonated chromophore and protonated Glu222.

  1. Observation and Study of Proton Aurora by using Scanning Photometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, T.; Ono, T.; Kadokura, A.; Sato, N.

    2009-12-01

    The proton auroras have significant differences from electron auroras in their spectral shape. They show Doppler-shifted and broadened spectra: the spectra have Doppler-shifted (~0.5 nm shorter) peak and both bluewing (~2-4 nm) and redwing (~1.5 nm) extending. Energy spectra of precipitating protons have been estimated from this shape. Recently it is found that the intensity in the extent of the blue wing reflects more effectively by the change of the mean energy of precipitating protons than the shift of peak wavelength [Lanchester et al., 2003]. Another character of the H-beta aurora is that it is diffuse form because a proton becomes hydrogen atom due to a charge-exchange reaction with atmospheric constituent and then possible to move across the magnetic field line. By using a scanning photometer, the movement of the proton auroral belt and change of a spectrum shape associated with the variation of proton source region due to storm and substorm were reported, however, not discussed in detail yet [Deehr and Lummerzheim, 2001]. The purpose of this study is to obtain the detail characteristics of H-beta aurora for understanding of source region of energetic protons in the magnetosphere. For this purpose, a new meridian-scanning photometer (SPM) was installed at Husafell station in Iceland in last summer season and Syowa Station, Antarctica. It will contribute to investigate the distribution of energetic protons and plasma waves which cause the pitch angle scattering in the magnetosphere. The meridian-scanning photometer is able to observe at five wavelengths for H-beta emission. One channel is to measure the background level. By analyzing the data obtained by the SPM, the H-beta spectrum can be estimated by fitting a model function with it. Then it is possible to obtain distribution of precipitating protons in north-south direction. It is also possible to estimate an energy spectrum of precipitating proton, simultaneously. The instrumental parameters of the SPM is

  2. Infrared spectra of mineral species

    CERN Document Server

    Chukanov, Nikita V

    2014-01-01

    This book details more than 3,000 IR spectra of more than 2,000 mineral species collected during last 30 years. It features full descriptions and analytical data of each sample for which IR spectrum was obtained.

  3. Correlation Functions and Power Spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan

    2006-01-01

    The present lecture note is a supplement to the textbook Digital Signal Processing by J. Proakis and D.G. Manolakis used in the IMM/DTU course 02451 Digital Signal Processing and provides an extended discussion of correlation functions and power spectra. The definitions of correlation functions...... and spectra for discrete-time and continuous-time (analog) signals are pretty similar. Consequently, we confine the discussion mainly to real discrete-time signals. The Appendix contains detailed definitions and properties of correlation functions and spectra for analog as well as discrete-time signals....... It is possible to define correlation functions and associated spectra for aperiodic, periodic and random signals although the interpretation is different. Moreover, we will discuss correlation functions when mixing these basic signal types. In addition, the note include several examples for the purpose...

  4. Solar proton fluxes since 1956

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reedy, R.C.

    1977-01-01

    The fluxes of protons emitted during solar flares since 1956 were evaluated. The depth-versus-activity profiles of 56 Co in several lunar rocks are consistent with the solar-proton fluxes detected by experiments on several satellites. Only about 20% of the solar-proton-induced activities of 22 Na and 55 Fe in lunar rocks from early Apollo missions were produced by protons emitted from the sun during solar cycle 20 (1965--1975). The depth-versus-activity data for these radionuclides in several lunar rocks were used to determine the fluxes of protons during solar cycle 19 (1954--1964). The average proton fluxes for cycle 19 are about five times those for both the last million years and for cycle 20. These solar-proton flux variations correlate with changes in sunspot activity

  5. Solar modulation of hydrogen and helium cosmic ray nuclei spectra above 400 MeV/Nucleon, from 1976 to 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morselli, A.; Picozza, P. [Rome Univ. `Tor Vergata` (Italy)]|[INFN, Rome (Italy); Barbiellini, G. [Trieste Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Sezione Univ.Trieste (Italy); Golden, R.L.; Paradis, P.J.; Stochaj, S.J. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Particle Astrophysics Laboratory; Mauger, B.G.; Horan, S. [Physical Science laboratory, Las Cruces, NM (United States); Badwhar, G.D.; Daniel, R.R. [NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Hydrogen and helium cosmic ray nuclei spectra gathered from 1976 to 1993 have been corrected to the top of the atmosphere and normalized at high rigidities. The variation of these primary cosmic ray fluxes above 400 MeV/nucleon has been examined as a function of the phase of the solar cycle with the force-field approximation model. The intensity of the normalized fluxes between solar maximum and minimum conditions varies by a factor of 6 for hydrogen and a factor of 4.3 for helium at the lowest rigidities considered.

  6. Pediatric mandibular fractures treated by rigid internal fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, G B

    1993-09-01

    Mandibular fractures in the pediatric patient population are relatively uncommon. These patients present with their own unique treatment requirements. Most fractures have been treated conservatively by dental splints. Closed reduction techniques with maxillomandibular fixation (MMF) in very young children can pose several concerns, including cooperation, compliance and adequate nutritional intake. Rigid internal fixation of unstable mandibular fractures using miniplates and screws circumvents the need for MMF and allows immediate jaw mobilization. At major pediatric trauma institutions, there has been an increasing trend toward the use of this treatment when open reduction is necessary. This article presents a report of a five-year-old child who presented with bilateral mandibular fractures and was treated by rigid internal fixation and immediate mandibular mobilization.

  7. Handedness in shearing auxetics creates rigid and compliant structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, Jeffrey Ian; MacCurdy, Robert; Manchester, Zachary; Chin, Lillian; Cellucci, Daniel; Rus, Daniela

    2018-05-01

    In nature, repeated base units produce handed structures that selectively bond to make rigid or compliant materials. Auxetic tilings are scale-independent frameworks made from repeated unit cells that expand under tension. We discovered how to produce handedness in auxetic unit cells that shear as they expand by changing the symmetries and alignments of auxetic tilings. Using the symmetry and alignment rules that we developed, we made handed shearing auxetics that tile planes, cylinders, and spheres. By compositing the handed shearing auxetics in a manner inspired by keratin and collagen, we produce both compliant structures that expand while twisting and deployable structures that can rigidly lock. This work opens up new possibilities in designing chemical frameworks, medical devices like stents, robotic systems, and deployable engineering structures.

  8. Rigid inclusions-Comparison between analytical and numerical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Perez, R.; Melentijevic, S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares different analytical methods for analysis of rigid inclusions with finite element modeling. First of all, the load transfer in the distribution layer is analyzed for its different thicknesses and different inclusion grids to define the range between results obtained by analytical and numerical methods. The interaction between the soft soil and the inclusion in the estimation of settlements is studied as well. Considering different stiffness of the soft soil, settlements obtained analytical and numerically are compared. The influence of the soft soil modulus of elasticity on the neutral point depth was also performed by finite elements. This depth has a great importance for the definition of the total length of rigid inclusion. (Author)

  9. Rigidity of complete noncompact bach-flat n-manifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yawei; Feng, Pinghua

    2012-11-01

    Let (Mn,g) be a complete noncompact Bach-flat n-manifold with the positive Yamabe constant and constant scalar curvature. Assume that the L2-norm of the trace-free Riemannian curvature tensor R∘m is finite. In this paper, we prove that (Mn,g) is a constant curvature space if the L-norm of R∘m is sufficiently small. Moreover, we get a gap theorem for (Mn,g) with positive scalar curvature. This can be viewed as a generalization of our earlier results of 4-dimensional Bach-flat manifolds with constant scalar curvature R≥0 [Y.W. Chu, A rigidity theorem for complete noncompact Bach-flat manifolds, J. Geom. Phys. 61 (2011) 516-521]. Furthermore, when n>9, we derive a rigidity result for R<0.

  10. Rigid-beam model of a high-efficiency magnicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, D.E.; Tallerico, P.J.; Humphries, S.J. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The magnicon is a new type of high-efficiency deflection-modulated amplifier developed at the Institute of Nuclear Physics in Novosibirsk, Russia. The prototype pulsed magnicon achieved an output power of 2.4 MW and an efficiency of 73% at 915 MHz. This paper presents the results of a rigid-beam model for a 700-MHz, 2.5-MW 82%-efficient magnicon. The rigid-beam model allows for characterization of the beam dynamics by tracking only a single electron. The magnicon design presented consists of a drive cavity; passive cavities; a pi-mode, coupled-deflection cavity; and an output cavity. It represents an optimized design. The model is fully self-consistent, and this paper presents the details of the model and calculated performance of a 2.5-MW magnicon

  11. MRS2016: Rigid Moon Rotation Series in the Relativistic Approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashkevich, V. V.

    2017-03-01

    The rigid Moon rotation problem is studied for the relativistic (kinematical) case, in which the geodetic perturbations in the Moon rotation are taken into account. As the result of this research the high-precision Moon Rotation Series MRS2016 in the relativistic approximation was constructed for the first time and the discrepancies between the high-precision numerical and the semi-analytical solutions of the rigid Moon rotation were investigated with respect to the fixed ecliptic of epoch J2000, by the numerical and analytical methods. The residuals between the numerical solution and MRS2016 in the perturbing terms of the physical librations do not exceed 80 mas and 10 arc seconds over 2000 and 6000 years, respectively.

  12. Partial ring currents and cosmic ray magnetic cutoff rigidity variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arens, M.

    1978-01-01

    A short introduction on cosmic ray modulation and a description of the magnetosphere, and of some physical processes occurring within its boundaries are presented. 20 geomagnetic storms are analysed together with the cosmic ray intensities during these storms as measured by Neutron Monitors. Using a semi-empirical method, the variations in the magnetic cutoff rigidity for the mountain stations Pic du Midi and Jungfraujoch are deduced. These stations are the most sensitive for measuring these variations. The analysis shows that all analyzed storms have an asymmetric development phase. Often the asymmetry even continues during part of the recovery phase. It is shown that variations in magnetic cutoff rigidity occur only during the asymmetric phase of the storm. The largest variations are found when the cosmic ray station is located in the late afternoon-midnight sector. (Auth.)

  13. Multifractal spectra in shear flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, L. R.; Deane, Anil E.

    1989-01-01

    Numerical simulations of three-dimensional homogeneous shear flow and fully developed channel flow, are used to calculate the associated multifractal spectra of the energy dissipation field. Only weak parameterization of the results with the nondimensional shear is found, and this only if the flow has reached its asymptotic development state. Multifractal spectra of these flows coincide with those from experiments only at the range alpha less than 1.

  14. Sequential Analysis of Gamma Spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayez-Hassan, M.; Hella, Kh.M.

    2009-01-01

    This work shows how easy one can deal with a huge number of gamma spectra. The method can be used for radiation monitoring. It is based on the macro feature of the windows XP connected to QBASIC software. The routine was used usefully in generating accurate results free from human errors. One hundred measured gamma spectra were fully analyzed in 10 minutes using our fast and automated method controlling the Genie 2000 gamma acquisition analysis software.

  15. Measurement of the Absolute Proton and Helium Flux at the Top of the Atmosphere using IMAX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menn, W.; Hof, M.; Reimer, O.

    1996-01-01

    The balloon-borne experiment IMAX launched from Lynn Lake, Canada in 1992 has been used to measure the cosmic ray proton and helium spectra from 0.2 GV to approximately 100 GV. The IMAX apparatus was designed to search for antiprotons and light isotopes using a superconducting magnet spectrometer...... with ancillary scintillators, time-of-flight, and aerogel cherenkov detectors. High resolution drift chambers and MWPCs were used as the tracking devices. Using redundant detectors, an extensive examination of the instrument efficiency was carried out. We present the absolute spectra of protons and helium...

  16. Constraining gluon distributions in nuclei using dijets in proton-proton and proton-lead collisions at ${\\sqrt {\\smash [b]{s_{_{\\mathrm {NN}}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Sirunyan, Albert M; CMS Collaboration; Adam, Wolfgang; Ambrogi, Federico; Asilar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Flechl, Martin; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Krammer, Natascha; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Madlener, Thomas; Mikulec, Ivan; Rad, Navid; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Schöfbeck, Robert; Spanring, Markus; Spitzbart, Daniel; Taurok, Anton; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wittmann, Johannes; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Zarucki, Mateusz; Chekhovsky, Vladimir; Mossolov, Vladimir; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; De Wolf, Eddi A; Di Croce, Davide; Janssen, Xavier; Lauwers, Jasper; Pieters, Maxim; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; De Bruyn, Isabelle; De Clercq, Jarne; Deroover, Kevin; Flouris, Giannis; Lontkovskyi, Denys; Lowette, Steven; Marchesini, Ivan; Moortgat, Seth; Moreels, Lieselotte; Python, Quentin; Skovpen, Kirill; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Parijs, Isis; Beghin, Diego; Bilin, Bugra; Brun, Hugues; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Delannoy, Hugo; Dorney, Brian; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Goldouzian, Reza; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Lenzi, Thomas; Luetic, Jelena; Postiau, Nicolas; Starling, Elizabeth; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Vannerom, David; Wang, Qun; Cornelis, Tom; Dobur, Didar; Fagot, Alexis; Gul, Muhammad; Khvastunov, Illia; Poyraz, Deniz; Roskas, Christos; Trocino, Daniele; Tytgat, Michael; Verbeke, Willem; Vermassen, Basile; Vit, Martina; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Bondu, Olivier; Brochet, Sébastien; Bruno, Giacomo; Caputo, Claudio; David, Pieter; Delaere, Christophe; Delcourt, Martin; Francois, Brieuc; Giammanco, Andrea; Krintiras, Georgios; Lemaitre, Vincent; Magitteri, Alessio; Mertens, Alexandre; Musich, Marco; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Saggio, Alessia; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Wertz, Sébastien; Zobec, Joze; Alves, Fábio Lúcio; Alves, Gilvan; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Correia Silva, Gilson; Hensel, Carsten; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Coelho, Eduardo; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Melo De Almeida, Miqueias; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Sanchez Rosas, Luis Junior; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Thiel, Mauricio; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Torres Da Silva De Araujo, Felipe; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; Calligaris, Luigi; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Marinov, Andrey; Misheva, Milena; Rodozov, Mircho; Shopova, Mariana; Sultanov, Georgi; Dimitrov, Anton; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Fang, Wenxing; Gao, Xuyang; Yuan, Li; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Chen, Ye; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Leggat, Duncan; Liao, Hongbo; Liu, Zhenan; Romeo, Francesco; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Spiezia, Aniello; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Yazgan, Efe; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Sijing; Zhao, Jingzhou; Ban, Yong; Chen, Geng; Levin, Andrew; Li, Jing; Li, Linwei; Li, Qiang; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Wang, Yi; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; González Hernández, Carlos Felipe; Segura Delgado, Manuel Alejandro; Courbon, Benoit; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Puljak, Ivica; Sculac, Toni; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Ferencek, Dinko; Kadija, Kreso; Mesic, Benjamin; Starodumov, Andrei; Susa, Tatjana; Ather, Mohsan Waseem; Attikis, Alexandros; Kolosova, Marina; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Ayala, Edy; Carrera Jarrin, Edgar; Abdalla, Hassan; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Carvalho Antunes De Oliveira, Alexandra; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Ehataht, Karl; Kadastik, Mario; Raidal, Martti; Veelken, Christian; Eerola, Paula; Kirschenmann, Henning; Pekkanen, Juska; Voutilainen, Mikko; Havukainen, Joona; Heikkilä, Jaana Kristiina; Jarvinen, Terhi; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Laurila, Santeri; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Siikonen, Hannu; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Leloup, Clément; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Negro, Giulia; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Titov, Maksym; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Amendola, Chiara; Antropov, Iurii; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Kucher, Inna; Lobanov, Artur; Martin Blanco, Javier; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Ortona, Giacomo; Pigard, Philipp; Salerno, Roberto; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Sirois, Yves; Stahl Leiton, Andre Govinda; Zabi, Alexandre; Zghiche, Amina; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Chabert, Eric Christian; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Jansová, Markéta; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Tonon, Nicolas; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Bernet, Colin; Boudoul, Gaelle; Chanon, Nicolas; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fay, Jean; Finco, Linda; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Grenier, Gérald; Ille, Bernard; Lagarde, Francois; Laktineh, Imad Baptiste; Lattaud, Hugues; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Pequegnot, Anne-Laure; Perries, Stephane; Popov, Andrey; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Viret, Sébastien; Toriashvili, Tengizi; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Feld, Lutz; Kiesel, Maximilian Knut; Klein, Katja; Lipinski, Martin; Preuten, Marius; Rauch, Max Philip; Schomakers, Christian; Schulz, Johannes; Teroerde, Marius; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Albert, Andreas; Duchardt, Deborah; Endres, Matthias; Erdmann, Martin; Esch, Thomas; Fischer, Robert; Ghosh, Saranya; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Keller, Henning; Knutzen, Simon; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Mukherjee, Swagata; Pook, Tobias; Radziej, Markus; Reithler, Hans; Rieger, Marcel; Scheuch, Florian; Schmidt, Alexander; Teyssier, Daniel; Flügge, Günter; Hlushchenko, Olena; Kress, Thomas; Künsken, Andreas; Müller, Thomas; Nehrkorn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Pistone, Claudia; Pooth, Oliver; Roy, Dennis; Sert, Hale; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Arndt, Till; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Babounikau, Illia; Beernaert, Kelly; Behnke, Olaf; Behrens, Ulf; Bermúdez Martínez, Armando; Bertsche, David; Bin Anuar, Afiq Aizuddin; Borras, Kerstin; Botta, Valeria; Campbell, Alan; Connor, Patrick; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Costanza, Francesco; Danilov, Vladyslav; De Wit, Adinda; Defranchis, Matteo Maria; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Domínguez Damiani, Daniela; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eichhorn, Thomas; Elwood, Adam; Eren, Engin; Gallo, Elisabetta; Geiser, Achim; Grados Luyando, Juan Manuel; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gunnellini, Paolo; Guthoff, Moritz; Haranko, Mykyta; Harb, Ali; Hauk, Johannes; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Keaveney, James; Kleinwort, Claus; Knolle, Joscha; Krücker, Dirk; Lange, Wolfgang; Lelek, Aleksandra; Lenz, Teresa; Lipka, Katerina; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Meyer, Mareike; Missiroli, Marino; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Myronenko, Volodymyr; Pflitsch, Svenja Karen; Pitzl, Daniel; Raspereza, Alexei; Savitskyi, Mykola; Saxena, Pooja; Schütze, Paul; Schwanenberger, Christian; Shevchenko, Rostyslav; Singh, Akshansh; Tholen, Heiner; Turkot, Oleksii; Vagnerini, Antonio; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Walsh, Roberval; Wen, Yiwen; Wichmann, Katarzyna; Wissing, Christoph; Zenaiev, Oleksandr; Aggleton, Robin; Bein, Samuel; Benato, Lisa; Benecke, Anna; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Dreyer, Torben; Garutti, Erika; Gonzalez, Daniel; Haller, Johannes; Hinzmann, Andreas; Karavdina, Anastasia; Kasieczka, Gregor; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Kovalchuk, Nataliia; Kurz, Simon; Kutzner, Viktor; Lange, Johannes; Marconi, Daniele; Multhaup, Jens; Niedziela, Marek; Nowatschin, Dominik; Perieanu, Adrian; Reimers, Arne; Rieger, Oliver; Scharf, Christian; Schleper, Peter; Schumann, Svenja; Schwandt, Joern; Sonneveld, Jory; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Stöver, Marc; Troendle, Daniel; Vanhoefer, Annika; Vormwald, Benedikt; Akbiyik, Melike; Barth, Christian; Baselga, Marta; Baur, Sebastian; Butz, Erik; Caspart, René; Chwalek, Thorsten; Colombo, Fabio; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; El Morabit, Karim; Faltermann, Nils; Freund, Benedikt; Giffels, Manuel; Harrendorf, Marco Alexander; Hartmann, Frank; Heindl, Stefan Michael; Husemann, Ulrich; Kassel, Florian; Katkov, Igor; Kudella, Simon; Mildner, Hannes; Mitra, Soureek; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Plagge, Michael; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Schröder, Matthias; Shvetsov, Ivan; Sieber, Georg; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Ulrich, Ralf; Wayand, Stefan; Weber, Marc; Weiler, Thomas; Williamson, Shawn; Wöhrmann, Clemens; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Paspalaki, Garyfallia; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Karathanasis, George; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Kontaxakis, Pantelis; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Papavergou, Ioanna; Saoulidou, Niki; Tziaferi, Eirini; Vellidis, Konstantinos; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Papakrivopoulos, Ioannis; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Evangelou, Ioannis; Foudas, Costas; Gianneios, Paraskevas; Katsoulis, Panagiotis; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Mallios, Stavros; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Strologas, John; Triantis, Frixos A; Tsitsonis, Dimitrios; Bartók, Márton; Csanad, Mate; Filipovic, Nicolas; Major, Péter; Nagy, Marton Imre; Pasztor, Gabriella; Surányi, Olivér; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Horvath, Dezso; Hunyadi, Ádám; Sikler, Ferenc; Vámi, Tamás Álmos; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Makovec, Alajos; Molnar, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Choudhury, Somnath; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Tiwari, Praveen Chandra; Bahinipati, Seema; Kar, Chandiprasad; Mal, Prolay; Mandal, Koushik; Nayak, Aruna; Sahoo, Deepak Kumar; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chauhan, Sushil; Chawla, Ridhi; Dhingra, Nitish; Gupta, Rajat; Kaur, Anterpreet; Kaur, Amandeep; Kaur, Manjit; Kaur, Sandeep; Kumar, Ramandeep; Kumari, Priyanka; Lohan, Manisha; Mehta, Ankita; Sandeep, Kaur; Sharma, Sandeep; Singh, Jasbir; Walia, Genius; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Garg, Rocky Bala; Gola, Mohit; Keshri, Sumit; Kumar, Ashok; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Priyanka, Priyanka; Ranjan, Kirti; Shah, Aashaq; Sharma, Ramkrishna; Bhardwaj, Rishika; Bharti, Monika; Bhattacharya, Rajarshi; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Bhowmik, Debabrata; Dey, Sourav; Dutt, Suneel; Dutta, Suchandra; Ghosh, Shamik; Mondal, Kuntal; Nandan, Saswati; Purohit, Arnab; Rout, Prasant Kumar; Roy, Ashim; Roy Chowdhury, Suvankar; Saha, Gourab; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Singh, Bipen; Thakur, Shalini; Behera, Prafulla Kumar; Chudasama, Ruchi; Dutta, Dipanwita; Jha, Vishwajeet; Kumar, Vineet; Netrakanti, Pawan Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Aziz, Tariq; Bhat, Muzamil Ahmad; Dugad, Shashikant; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Sur, Nairit; Sutar, Bajrang; Ravindra Kumar Verma, Ravindra; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bhattacharya, Soham; Chatterjee, Suman; Das, Pallabi; Guchait, Monoranjan; Jain, Sandhya; Karmakar, Saikat; Kumar, Sanjeev; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Sahoo, Niladribihari; Sarkar, Tanmay; Chauhan, Shubhanshu; Dube, Sourabh; Hegde, Vinay; Kapoor, Anshul; Kothekar, Kunal; Pandey, Shubham; Rane, Aditee; Sharma, Seema; Chenarani, Shirin; Eskandari Tadavani, Esmaeel; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Calabria, Cesare; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; Cristella, Leonardo; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Di Florio, Adriano; Errico, Filippo; Fiore, Luigi; Gelmi, Andrea; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Ince, Merve; Lezki, Samet; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Miniello, Giorgia; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Ranieri, Antonio; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Sharma, Archana; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Verwilligen, Piet; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Battilana, Carlo; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Borgonovi, Lisa; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Ciocca, Claudia; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Iemmi, Fabio; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Primavera, Federica; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Albergo, Sebastiano; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Latino, Giuseppe; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Russo, Lorenzo; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Strom, Derek; Viliani, Lorenzo; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Ferro, Fabrizio; Ravera, Fabio; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Benaglia, Andrea; Beschi, Andrea; Brianza, Luca; Brivio, Francesco; Ciriolo, Vincenzo; Di Guida, Salvatore; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Malberti, Martina; Malvezzi, Sandra; Massironi, Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Zuolo, Davide; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Di Crescenzo, Antonia; Fabozzi, Francesco; Fienga, Francesco; Galati, Giuliana; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Khan, Wajid Ali; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Sciacca, Crisostomo; Voevodina, Elena; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bisello, Dario; Boletti, Alessio; Bragagnolo, Alberto; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; De Castro Manzano, Pablo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Hoh, Siew Yan; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lujan, Paul; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Pazzini, Jacopo; Ronchese, Paolo; Rossin, Roberto; Simonetto, Franco; Tiko, Andres; Torassa, Ezio; Zanetti, Marco; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zumerle, Gianni; Braghieri, Alessandro; Magnani, Alice; Montagna, Paolo; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Ressegotti, Martina; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vai, Ilaria; Vitulo, Paolo; Alunni Solestizi, Luisa; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Cecchi, Claudia; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Leonardi, Roberto; Manoni, Elisa; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Mariani, Valentina; Menichelli, Mauro; Rossi, Alessandro; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiga, Daniele; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Boccali, Tommaso; Borrello, Laura; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fedi, Giacomo; Fiori, Francesco; Giannini, Leonardo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Manca, Elisabetta; Mandorli, Giulio; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Cipriani, Marco; Daci, Nadir; Del Re, Daniele; Di Marco, Emanuele; Diemoz, Marcella; Gelli, Simone; Longo, Egidio; Marzocchi, Badder; Meridiani, Paolo; Organtini, Giovanni; Pandolfi, Francesco; Paramatti, Riccardo; Preiato, Federico; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bartosik, Nazar; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Cenna, Francesca; Cometti, Simona; Costa, Marco; Covarelli, Roberto; Demaria, Natale; Kiani, Bilal; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Monteil, Ennio; Monteno, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Shchelina, Ksenia; Sola, Valentina; Solano, Ada; Soldi, Dario; Staiano, Amedeo; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Vazzoler, Federico; Zanetti, Anna; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Lee, Jeongeun; Lee, Sangeun; Lee, Seh Wook; Moon, Chang-Seong; Oh, Young Do; Sekmen, Sezen; Son, Dong-Chul; Yang, Yu Chul; Kim, Hyunchul; Moon, Dong Ho; Oh, Geonhee; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Tae Jeong; Cho, Sungwoong; Choi, Suyong; Go, Yeonju; Gyun, Dooyeon; Ha, Seungkyu; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Youngkwon; Lee, Kisoo; Lee, Kyong Sei; Lee, Songkyo; Lim, Jaehoon; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Kim, Hyunsoo; Almond, John; Kim, Junho; Kim, Jae Sung; Lee, Haneol; Lee, Kyeongpil; Nam, Kyungwook; Oh, Sung Bin; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Seo, Seon-hee; Yang, Unki; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Yu, Geum Bong; Jeon, Dajeong; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jason Sang Hun; Park, Inkyu; Choi, Young-Il; Hwang, Chanwook; Lee, Jongseok; Yu, Intae; Dudenas, Vytautas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Vaitkus, Juozas; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Mohamad Idris, Faridah; Wan Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin; Yusli, Mohd Nizam; Zolkapli, Zukhaimira; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Duran-Osuna, Cecilia; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Ramirez-Sanchez, Gabriel; Heredia-De La Cruz, Ivan; Rabadán-Trejo, Raúl Iraq; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Mejia Guisao, Jhovanny; Reyes-Almanza, Rogelio; Ramírez García, Mateo; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Eysermans, Jan; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Uribe Estrada, Cecilia; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Bheesette, Srinidhi; Butler, Philip H; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Saddique, Asif; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Waqas, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bozena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Szleper, Michal; Traczyk, Piotr; Zalewski, Piotr; Bunkowski, Karol; Byszuk, Adrian; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michal; Pyskir, Andrzej; Walczak, Marek; Araujo, Mariana; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Di Francesco, Agostino; Faccioli, Pietro; Galinhas, Bruno; Gallinaro, Michele; Hollar, Jonathan; Leonardo, Nuno; Nemallapudi, Mythra Varun; Seixas, Joao; Strong, Giles; Toldaiev, Oleksii; Vadruccio, Daniele; Varela, Joao; Golunov, Alexey; Golutvin, Igor; Karjavine, Vladimir; Korenkov, Vladimir; Kozlov, Guennady; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Mitsyn, Valeri Valentinovitch; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Shulha, Siarhei; Smirnov, Vitaly; Trofimov, Vladimir; Yuldashev, Bekhzod S; Zarubin, Anatoli; Zhiltsov, Victor; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sosnov, Dmitry; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Karneyeu, Anton; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stepennov, Anton; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Toms, Maria; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Aushev, Tagir; Chadeeva, Marina; Parygin, Pavel; Philippov, Dmitry; Polikarpov, Sergey; Popova, Elena; Rusinov, Vladimir; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Rusakov, Sergey V; Terkulov, Adel; Baskakov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Kaminskiy, Alexandre; Kodolova, Olga; Korotkikh, Vladimir; Lokhtin, Igor; Miagkov, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Vardanyan, Irina; Barnyakov, Alexander; Blinov, Vladimir; Dimova, Tatyana; Kardapoltsev, Leonid; Skovpen, Yuri; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Elumakhov, Dmitry; Godizov, Anton; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Mandrik, Petr; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Slabospitskii, Sergei; Sobol, Andrei; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Babaev, Anton; Baidali, Sergei; Okhotnikov, Vitalii; Adzic, Petar; Cirkovic, Predrag; Devetak, Damir; Dordevic, Milos; Milosevic, Jovan; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Álvarez Fernández, Adrian; Bachiller, Irene; Barrio Luna, Mar; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cerrada, Marcos; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Moran, Dermot; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Senghi Soares, Mara; Triossi, Andrea; Albajar, Carmen; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Cuevas, Javier; Erice, Carlos; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; González Fernández, Juan Rodrigo; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Rodríguez Bouza, Víctor; Sanchez Cruz, Sergio; Vischia, Pietro; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chazin Quero, Barbara; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Fernandez, Marcos; Fernández Manteca, Pedro José; García Alonso, Andrea; Garcia-Ferrero, Juan; Gomez, Gervasio; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Matorras, Francisco; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Prieels, Cédric; Rodrigo, Teresa; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Trevisani, Nicolò; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Akgun, Bora; Auffray, Etiennette; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Bendavid, Joshua; Bianco, Michele; Bocci, Andrea; Botta, Cristina; Brondolin, Erica; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cepeda, Maria; Cerminara, Gianluca; Chapon, Emilien; Chen, Yi; Cucciati, Giacomo; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; Daponte, Vincenzo; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Roeck, Albert; Deelen, Nikkie; Dobson, Marc; Dünser, Marc; Dupont, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Everaerts, Pieter; Fallavollita, Francesco; Fasanella, Daniele; Franzoni, Giovanni; Fulcher, Jonathan; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gilbert, Andrew; Gill, Karl; Glege, Frank; Guilbaud, Maxime; Gulhan, Doga; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Jafari, Abideh; Janot, Patrick; Karacheban, Olena; Kieseler, Jan; Kornmayer, Andreas; Krammer, Manfred; Lange, Clemens; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Meijers, Frans; Merlin, Jeremie Alexandre; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Milenovic, Predrag; Moortgat, Filip; Mulders, Martijn; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Orfanelli, Styliani; Orsini, Luciano; Pantaleo, Felice; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuel; Peruzzi, Marco; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pitters, Florian Michael; Rabady, Dinyar; Racz, Attila; Reis, Thomas; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Seidel, Markus; Selvaggi, Michele; Sharma, Archana; Silva, Pedro; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Stakia, Anna; Steggemann, Jan; Tosi, Mia; Treille, Daniel; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veckalns, Viesturs; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Caminada, Lea; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Rohe, Tilman; Wiederkehr, Stephan Albert; Backhaus, Malte; Bäni, Lukas; Berger, Pirmin; Chernyavskaya, Nadezda; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Dorfer, Christian; Grab, Christoph; Heidegger, Constantin; Hits, Dmitry; Hoss, Jan; Klijnsma, Thomas; Lustermann, Werner; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Marionneau, Matthieu; Meinhard, Maren Tabea; Micheli, Francesco; Musella, Pasquale; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pata, Joosep; Pauss, Felicitas; Perrin, Gaël; Perrozzi, Luca; Pigazzini, Simone; Quittnat, Milena; Ruini, Daniele; Sanz Becerra, Diego Alejandro; Schönenberger, Myriam; Shchutska, Lesya; Tavolaro, Vittorio Raoul; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Vesterbacka Olsson, Minna Leonora; Wallny, Rainer; Zhu, De Hua; Aarrestad, Thea Klaeboe; Amsler, Claude; Brzhechko, Danyyl; Canelli, Maria Florencia; De Cosa, Annapaola; Del Burgo, Riccardo; Donato, Silvio; Galloni, Camilla; Hreus, Tomas; Kilminster, Benjamin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Neutelings, Izaak; Pinna, Deborah; Rauco, Giorgia; Robmann, Peter; Salerno, Daniel; Schweiger, Korbinian; Seitz, Claudia; Takahashi, Yuta; Zucchetta, Alberto; Chang, Yu-Hsiang; Cheng, Kai-yu; Doan, Thi Hien; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Lin, Willis; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Yu, Shin-Shan; Chang, Paoti; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Kumar, Arun; Li, You-ying; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Paganis, Efstathios; Psallidas, Andreas; Steen, Arnaud; Asavapibhop, Burin; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Suwonjandee, Narumon; Bat, Ayse; Boran, Fatma; Cerci, Salim; Damarseckin, Serdal; Demiroglu, Zuhal Seyma; Dolek, Furkan; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Guler, Yalcin; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Isik, Candan; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Kara, Ozgun; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Kiminsu, Ugur; Oglakci, Mehmet; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Tok, Ufuk Guney; Turkcapar, Semra; Zorbakir, Ibrahim Soner; Zorbilmez, Caglar; Isildak, Bora; Karapinar, Guler; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Atakisi, Ismail Okan; Gülmez, Erhan; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Tekten, Sevgi; Yetkin, Elif Asli; Agaras, Merve Nazlim; Atay, Serhat; Cakir, Altan; Cankocak, Kerem; Komurcu, Yildiray; Sen, Sercan; Grynyov, Boris; Levchuk, Leonid; Ball, Fionn; Beck, Lana; Brooke, James John; Burns, Douglas; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Davignon, Olivier; Flacher, Henning; Goldstein, Joel; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Kreczko, Lukasz; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Penning, Bjoern; Sakuma, Tai; Smith, Dominic; Smith, Vincent J; Taylor, Joseph; Titterton, Alexander; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Cieri, Davide; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Linacre, Jacob; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Williams, Thomas; Womersley, William John; Auzinger, Georg; Bainbridge, Robert; Bloch, Philippe; Borg, Johan; Breeze, Shane; Buchmuller, Oliver; Bundock, Aaron; Casasso, Stefano; Colling, David; Corpe, Louie; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Di Maria, Riccardo; Haddad, Yacine; Hall, Geoffrey; Iles, Gregory; James, Thomas; Komm, Matthias; Laner, Christian; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Malik, Sarah; Martelli, Arabella; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Palladino, Vito; Pesaresi, Mark; Richards, Alexander; Rose, Andrew; Scott, Edward; Seez, Christopher; Shtipliyski, Antoni; Singh, Gurpreet; Stoye, Markus; Strebler, Thomas; Summers, Sioni; Tapper, Alexander; Uchida, Kirika; Virdee, Tejinder; Wardle, Nicholas; Winterbottom, Daniel; Wright, Jack; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Mackay, Catherine Kirsty; Morton, Alexander; Reid, Ivan; Teodorescu, Liliana; Zahid, Sema; Call, Kenneth; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Madrid, Christopher; Mcmaster, Brooks; Pastika, Nathaniel; Smith, Caleb; Bartek, Rachel; Dominguez, Aaron; Buccilli, Andrew; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; West, Christopher; Arcaro, Daniel; Bose, Tulika; Gastler, Daniel; Rankin, Dylan; Richardson, Clint; Rohlf, James; Sulak, Lawrence; Zou, David; Benelli, Gabriele; Coubez, Xavier; Cutts, David; Hadley, Mary; Hakala, John; Heintz, Ulrich; Hogan, Julie Managan; Kwok, Ka Hei Martin; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Lee, Jangbae; Mao, Zaixing; Narain, Meenakshi; Piperov, Stefan; Sagir, Sinan; Syarif, Rizki; Usai, Emanuele; Yu, David; Band, Reyer; Brainerd, Christopher; Breedon, Richard; Burns, Dustin; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Flores, Chad; Funk, Garrett; Ko, Winston; Kukral, Ota; Lander, Richard; Mulhearn, Michael; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Shalhout, Shalhout; Shi, Mengyao; Stolp, Dustin; Taylor, Devin; Tos, Kyle; Tripathi, Mani; Wang, Zhangqier; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Bachtis, Michail; Bravo, Cameron; Cousins, Robert; Dasgupta, Abhigyan; Florent, Alice; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Mccoll, Nickolas; Regnard, Simon; Saltzberg, David; Schnaible, Christian; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Bouvier, Elvire; Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Gary, J William; Ghiasi Shirazi, Seyyed Mohammad Amin; Hanson, Gail; Karapostoli, Georgia; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Lacroix, Florent; Long, Owen Rosser; Olmedo Negrete, Manuel; Paneva, Mirena Ivova; Si, Weinan; Wang, Long; Wei, Hua; Wimpenny, Stephen; Yates, Brent; Branson, James G; Cittolin, Sergio; Derdzinski, Mark; Gerosa, Raffaele; Gilbert, Dylan; Hashemi, Bobak; Holzner, André; Klein, Daniel; Kole, Gouranga; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Letts, James; Masciovecchio, Mario; Olivito, Dominick; Padhi, Sanjay; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tadel, Matevz; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Wood, John; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Zevi Della Porta, Giovanni; Amin, Nick; Bhandari, Rohan; Bradmiller-Feld, John; Campagnari, Claudio; Citron, Matthew; Dishaw, Adam; Dutta, Valentina; Franco Sevilla, Manuel; Gouskos, Loukas; Heller, Ryan; Incandela, Joe; Ovcharova, Ana; Qu, Huilin; Richman, Jeffrey; Stuart, David; Suarez, Indara; Wang, Sicheng; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Anderson, Dustin; Bornheim, Adolf; Lawhorn, Jay Mathew; Newman, Harvey B; Nguyen, Thong; Spiropulu, Maria; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Wilkinson, Richard; Xie, Si; Zhang, Zhicai; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Andrews, Michael Benjamin; Ferguson, Thomas; Mudholkar, Tanmay; Paulini, Manfred; Sun, Menglei; Vorobiev, Igor; Weinberg, Marc; Cumalat, John Perry; Ford, William T; Jensen, Frank; Johnson, Andrew; Krohn, Michael; MacDonald, Emily; Mulholland, Troy; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chaves, Jorge; Cheng, Yangyang; Chu, Jennifer; Datta, Abhisek; Mcdermott, Kevin; Mirman, Nathan; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Quach, Dan; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Ryd, Anders; Skinnari, Louise; Soffi, Livia; Tan, Shao Min; Tao, Zhengcheng; Thom, Julia; Tucker, Jordan; Wittich, Peter; Zientek, Margaret; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Alyari, Maral; Apollinari, Giorgio; Apresyan, Artur; Apyan, Aram; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bolla, Gino; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Canepa, Anadi; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cremonesi, Matteo; Duarte, Javier; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Freeman, Jim; Gecse, Zoltan; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Harris, Robert M; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hirschauer, James; Hu, Zhen; Jayatilaka, Bodhitha; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Klima, Boaz; Kortelainen, Matti J; Kreis, Benjamin; Lammel, Stephan; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Tiehui; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Merkel, Petra; Mrenna, Stephen; Nahn, Steve; O'Dell, Vivian; Pedro, Kevin; Pena, Cristian; Prokofyev, Oleg; Rakness, Gregory; Ristori, Luciano; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Schneider, Basil; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Stoynev, Stoyan; Strait, James; Strobbe, Nadja; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vernieri, Caterina; Verzocchi, Marco; Vidal, Richard; Wang, Michael; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Whitbeck, Andrew; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Cadamuro, Luca; Carnes, Andrew; Carver, Matthew; Curry, David; Field, Richard D; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Joshi, Bhargav Madhusudan; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Ma, Peisen; Matchev, Konstantin; Mei, Hualin; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Shi, Kun; Sperka, David; Wang, Jian; Wang, Sean-Jiun; Joshi, Yagya Raj; Linn, Stephan; Ackert, Andrew; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Kolberg, Ted; Martinez, German; Perry, Thomas; Prosper, Harrison; Saha, Anirban; Schiber, Catherine; Sharma, Varun; Yohay, Rachel; Baarmand, Marc M; Bhopatkar, Vallary; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Hohlmann, Marcus; Noonan, Daniel; Rahmani, Mehdi; Roy, Titas; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Cavanaugh, Richard; Chen, Xuan; Dittmer, Susan; Evdokimov, Olga; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hangal, Dhanush Anil; Hofman, David Jonathan; Jung, Kurt; Kamin, Jason; Mills, Corrinne; Sandoval Gonzalez, Irving Daniel; Tonjes, Marguerite; Varelas, Nikos; Wang, Hui; Wang, Xiao; Wu, Zhenbin; Zhang, Jingyu; Alhusseini, Mohammad; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Durgut, Süleyman; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Khristenko, Viktor; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Snyder, Christina; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Blumenfeld, Barry; Cocoros, Alice; Eminizer, Nicholas; Fehling, David; Feng, Lei; Gritsan, Andrei; Hung, Wai Ting; Maksimovic, Petar; Roskes, Jeffrey; Sarica, Ulascan; Swartz, Morris; Xiao, Meng; You, Can; Al-bataineh, Ayman; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Boren, Samuel; Bowen, James; Bylinkin, Alexander; Castle, James; Khalil, Sadia; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Majumder, Devdatta; Mcbrayer, William; Murray, Michael; Rogan, Christopher; Sanders, Stephen; Schmitz, Erich; Tapia Takaki, Daniel; Wang, Quan; Duric, Senka; Ivanov, Andrew; Kaadze, Ketino; Kim, Doyeong; Maravin, Yurii; Mendis, Dalath Rachitha; Mitchell, Tyler; Modak, Atanu; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Baron, Owen; Belloni, Alberto; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Feng, Yongbin; Ferraioli, Charles; Hadley, Nicholas John; Jabeen, Shabnam; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Kellogg, Richard G; Kunkle, Joshua; Mignerey, Alice; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Shin, Young Ho; Skuja, Andris; Tonwar, Suresh C; Wong, Kak; Abercrombie, Daniel; Allen, Brandon; Azzolini, Virginia; Baty, Austin; Bauer, Gerry; Bi, Ran; Brandt, Stephanie; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Demiragli, Zeynep; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Harris, Philip; Hsu, Dylan; Hu, Miao; Iiyama, Yutaro; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Klute, Markus; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Lee, Yen-Jie; Luckey, Paul David; Maier, Benedikt; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Mcginn, Christopher; Mironov, Camelia; Narayanan, Siddharth; Niu, Xinmei; Paus, Christoph; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Stephans, George; Sumorok, Konstanty; Tatar, Kaya; Velicanu, Dragos; Wang, Jing; Wang, Ta-Wei; Wyslouch, Bolek; Zhaozhong, Shi; Benvenuti, Alberto; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Evans, Andrew; Hansen, Peter; Kalafut, Sean; Kubota, Yuichi; Lesko, Zachary; Mans, Jeremy; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rusack, Roger; Turkewitz, Jared; Wadud, Mohammad Abrar; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Claes, Daniel R; Fangmeier, Caleb; Golf, Frank; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kamalieddin, Rami; Kravchenko, Ilya; Monroy, Jose; Siado, Joaquin Emilo; Snow, Gregory R; Stieger, Benjamin; Godshalk, Andrew; Harrington, Charles; Iashvili, Ia; Kharchilava, Avto; Mclean, Christine; Nguyen, Duong; Parker, Ashley; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Roozbahani, Bahareh; Barberis, Emanuela; Freer, Chad; Hortiangtham, Apichart; Morse, David Michael; Orimoto, Toyoko; Teixeira De Lima, Rafael; Wamorkar, Tanvi; Wang, Bingran; Wisecarver, Andrew; Wood, Darien; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Charaf, Otman; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Sung, Kevin; Trovato, Marco; Velasco, Mayda; Bucci, Rachael; Dev, Nabarun; Hildreth, Michael; Hurtado Anampa, Kenyi; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Lannon, Kevin; Li, Wenzhao; Loukas, Nikitas; Marinelli, Nancy; Meng, Fanbo; Mueller, Charles; Musienko, Yuri; Planer, Michael; Reinsvold, Allison; Ruchti, Randy; Siddireddy, Prasanna; Smith, Geoffrey; Taroni, Silvia; Wayne, Mitchell; Wightman, Andrew; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Alimena, Juliette; Antonelli, Louis; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Francis, Brian; Hart, Andrew; Hill, Christopher; Ji, Weifeng; Ling, Ta-Yung; Luo, Wuming; Winer, Brian L; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Cooperstein, Stephane; Elmer, Peter; Hardenbrook, Joshua; Higginbotham, Samuel; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Lange, David; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Luo, Jingyu; Marlow, Daniel; Mei, Kelvin; Ojalvo, Isabel; Olsen, James; Palmer, Christopher; Piroué, Pierre; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Malik, Sudhir; Norberg, Scarlet; Barker, Anthony; Barnes, Virgil E; Das, Souvik; Gutay, Laszlo; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Andreas Werner; Khatiwada, Ajeeta; Mahakud, Bibhuprasad; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Peng, Cheng-Chieh; Qiu, Hao; Schulte, Jan-Frederik; Sun, Jian; Wang, Fuqiang; Xiao, Rui; Xie, Wei; Cheng, Tongguang; Dolen, James; Parashar, Neeti; Chen, Zhenyu; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Freed, Sarah; Geurts, Frank JM; Kilpatrick, Matthew; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Padley, Brian Paul; Roberts, Jay; Rorie, Jamal; Shi, Wei; Tu, Zhoudunming; Zabel, James; Zhang, Aobo; Bodek, Arie; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Duh, Yi-ting; Dulemba, Joseph Lynn; Fallon, Colin; Ferbel, Thomas; Galanti, Mario; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Han, Jiyeon; Hindrichs, Otto; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Lo, Kin Ho; Tan, Ping; Taus, Rhys; Verzetti, Mauro; Agapitos, Antonis; Chou, John Paul; Gershtein, Yuri; Gómez Espinosa, Tirso Alejandro; Halkiadakis, Eva; Heindl, Maximilian; Hughes, Elliot; Kaplan, Steven; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, Raghav; Kyriacou, Savvas; Lath, Amitabh; Montalvo, Roy; Nash, Kevin; Osherson, Marc; Saka, Halil; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Sheffield, David; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Delannoy, Andrés G; Heideman, Joseph; Riley, Grant; Spanier, Stefan; Thapa, Krishna; Bouhali, Othmane; Celik, Ali; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; De Mattia, Marco; Delgado, Andrea; Dildick, Sven; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gilmore, Jason; Huang, Tao; Kamon, Teruki; Luo, Sifu; Mueller, Ryan; Patel, Rishi; Perloff, Alexx; Perniè, Luca; Rathjens, Denis; Safonov, Alexei; Akchurin, Nural; Damgov, Jordan; De Guio, Federico; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Kunori, Shuichi; Lamichhane, Kamal; Lee, Sung Won; Mengke, Tielige; Muthumuni, Samila; Peltola, Timo; Undleeb, Sonaina; Volobouev, Igor; Wang, Zhixing; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Janjam, Ravi; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Ni, Hong; Padeken, Klaas; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sheldon, Paul; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Verweij, Marta; Xu, Qiao; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Barria, Patrizia; Cox, Bradley; Hirosky, Robert; Joyce, Matthew; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Neu, Christopher; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Wang, Yanchu; Wolfe, Evan; Xia, Fan; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Poudyal, Nabin; Sturdy, Jared; Thapa, Prakash; Zaleski, Shawn; Brodski, Michael; Buchanan, James; Caillol, Cécile; Carlsmith, Duncan; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Gomber, Bhawna; Grothe, Monika; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Hussain, Usama; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Long, Kenneth; Loveless, Richard; Ruggles, Tyler; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Nicholas; Smith, Wesley H; Woods, Nathaniel

    2018-01-01

    The pseudorapidity distributions of dijets as a function of their average transverse momentum ($ p_{\\mathrm{T}}^{text{ave}} $) are measured in proton-lead (pPb) and proton-proton (pp) collisions. The data samples were collected by the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC, at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of 5.02 TeV. A significant modification of the pPb spectra with respect to the pp spectra is observed in all $p_{\\mathrm{T}}^{text{ave}}$ intervals investigated. The ratios of the pPb and pp distributions are compared to next-to-leading order perturbative quantum chromodynamics calculations with unbound nucleon and nuclear parton distribution functions (PDFs). These results give the first evidence that the gluon PDF at large Bjorken $x$ in lead ions is strongly suppressed with respect to the PDF in unbound nucleons.

  17. Response spectra in alluvial soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekharan, A.R.; Paul, D.K.

    1975-01-01

    For aseismic design of structures, the ground motion data is assumed either in the form of ground acceleration as a function of time or indirectly in the form of response spectra. Though the response spectra approach has limitations like not being applicable for nonlinear problems, it is usually used for structures like nuclear power plants. Fifty accelerograms recorded at alluvial sites have been processed. Since different empirical formulas relating acceleration with magnitude and distance give a wide scatter of values, peak ground acceleration alone cannot be the parameter as is assumed by a number of authors. The spectra corresponding to 5% damping have been normalised with respect to three parameters, namely, peak ground acceleration, peak ground velocity and a nondimensional quantity ad/v 2 . Envelopee of maxima and minima as well as average response spectra has been obtained. A comparison with the USAEC spectra has been made. A relation between ground acceleration, ground velocity and ad/v 2 has been obtained which would nearly give the same magnification of the response. A design response spectra for alluvial soils has been recommended. (author)

  18. A rigid lamb syndrome in sheep in Rhodesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudert, C P; Lawrence, J A; Foggin, C; Barlow, R M

    1978-04-29

    A syndrome characterised by the birth of lambs with varying degrees of rigidity of the limbs and spine has been encountered on several occasions in Rhodesia. Outbreaks have occurred in autumn-born lambs from Dorper ewes grazing heavily fertilised Star grass cv No 2 (Cynodon aethiopicus) pastures. The condition appears to be exacerbated by the application of sulphur to the pasture and is partly prevented by the administration of selenium and vitamin E to the ewes before lambing. The aetiology is unknown.

  19. Nonlinear dynamics mathematical models for rigid bodies with a liquid

    CERN Document Server

    Lukovsky, Ivan A

    2015-01-01

    This book is devoted to analytically approximate methods in the nonlinear dynamics of a rigid body with cavities partly filled by liquid. It combines several methods and compares the results with experimental data. It is useful for experienced and early-stage readers interested in analytical approaches to fluid-structure interaction problems, the fundamental mathematical background and modeling the dynamics of such complex mechanical systems.

  20. Steady fall of a rigid body in viscous fluid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nečasová, Šárka

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 63, Sp. Is. (2005), s. 2113-2119 ISSN 0362-546X. [Invited Talks from the Fourth World Congress of Nonlinear Analysts (WCNA 2004). Orlando , 30.7.2004-7.8.2004] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA201/02/0684 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1019905 Keywords : steady fall * rigid body * viscous fluid Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.519, year: 2005

  1. NOLB: Nonlinear Rigid Block Normal Mode Analysis Method

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann , Alexandre; Grudinin , Sergei

    2017-01-01

    International audience; We present a new conceptually simple and computationally efficient method for nonlinear normal mode analysis called NOLB. It relies on the rotations-translations of blocks (RTB) theoretical basis developed by Y.-H. Sanejouand and colleagues. We demonstrate how to physically interpret the eigenvalues computed in the RTB basis in terms of angular and linear velocities applied to the rigid blocks and how to construct a nonlinear extrapolation of motion out of these veloci...

  2. Oscillations of manometric tubular springs with rigid end

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherentsov, D. A.; Pirogov, S. P.; Dorofeev, S. M.; Ryabova, Y. S.

    2018-05-01

    The paper presents a mathematical model of attenuating oscillations of manometric tubular springs (MTS) taking into account the rigid tip. The dynamic MTS model is presented in the form of a thin-walled curved rod oscillating in the plane of curvature of the central axis. Equations for MTS oscillations are obtained in accordance with the d’Alembert principle in projections onto the normal and tangential. The Bubnov-Galerkin method is used to solve the equations obtained.

  3. On Polya's inequality for torsional rigidity and first Dirichlet eigenvalue

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, M. van den; Ferone, V.; Nitsch, C.; Trombetti, C.

    2016-01-01

    Let $\\Omega$ be an open set in Euclidean space with finite Lebesgue measure $|\\Omega|$. We obtain some properties of the set function $F:\\Omega\\mapsto \\R^+$ defined by $$ F(\\Omega)=\\frac{T(\\Omega)\\lambda_1(\\Omega)}{|\\Omega|} ,$$ where $T(\\Omega)$ and $\\lambda_1(\\Omega)$ are the torsional rigidity and the first eigenvalue of the Dirichlet Laplacian respectively. We improve the classical P\\'olya bound $F(\\Omega)\\le 1,$ and show that $$F(\\Omega)\\le 1- \

  4. Vortex statistics for turbulence in a container with rigid boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clercx, H.J.H.; Nielsen, A.H.

    2000-01-01

    The evolution of vortex statistics for decaying two-dimensional turbulence in a square container with rigid no-slip walls is compared with a few available experimental results and with the scaling theory of two-dimensional turbulent d