WorldWideScience

Sample records for proton parton distribution

  1. Comparison of parton distributions and structure functions for the proton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramowicz, H.; Charchula, K.; Krawczyk, M.; Levy, A.

    1990-09-01

    A comparative study of the most popular parton parametrizations is presented. The individual parton distributions as well as the F 2 structure function are discussed with a particular emphasis on the low x region, 10 -4 -2 . The predictions of these parametrizations for the F 2 structure function have a wide spread which persists also in the HERA kinematical region. (orig.)

  2. Neural network and parton two fireball model for pseudo-rapidity distribution in proton-proton collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Bakry, M.Y.

    2000-01-01

    Pseudo-Rapidity distribution of created pions from proton-proton (p-p) interaction has been studied in the framework of artificial neural network (ANN) and the parton two fireball model (PTFM). The predicted distributions from the ANN based model and the parton two fireball model is compared with the corresponding experimental results. The ANN model has proved better matching for experimental data specially at high energies where the conventional two fireball model representation deteriorates

  3. The package PAKPDF 1.1 of parameterizations of parton distribution functions in the proton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charchula, K.

    1992-01-01

    A FORTRAN package containing parameterizations of parton distribution functions (PDFs) in the proton is described, allows an easy access to PDFs provided by several recent parameterizations and to some parameters characterizing particular parameterization. Some comments about the use of various parameterizations are also included. (orig.)

  4. The package PAKPDF ver. 1.1 of parametrizations of parton distribution functions in the proton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charchula, K.

    1991-08-01

    A FORTRAN package containing parametrizations of parton distribution functions (PDFS) in the proton is described. It allows an easy access to PDFS provided by several recent parametrizations and to some parameters characterizing particular parametrization. Some comments about the use of various parametrizations are also included. (orig.)

  5. Nuclear parton distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulagin S. A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We review a microscopic model of the nuclear parton distribution functions, which accounts for a number of nuclear effects including Fermi motion and nuclear binding, nuclear meson-exchange currents, off-shell corrections to bound nucleon distributions and nuclear shadowing. We also discuss applications of this model to a number of processes including lepton-nucleus deep inelastic scattering, proton-nucleus Drell-Yan lepton pair production at Fermilab, as well as W± and Z0 boson production in proton-lead collisions at the LHC.

  6. Sensitivity of the LHC isolated-gamma+jet data to the parton distribution functions of the proton

    CERN Document Server

    Carminati, L.; D'Enterria, D.; Koletsou, I.; Marchiori, G.; Rojo, J.; Stockton, M.; Tartarelli, F.

    2013-01-01

    We study the impact of differential isolated-photon+jet cross sections measured in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of sqrt{s} = 7 TeV on the parton distribution functions (PDF) of the proton. Next-to-leading order perturbative QCD (pQCD) calculations complemented with the NNPDF2.1 parton densities, and a Bayesian PDF reweighting method are employed. We find that although the current data provide only mild constraints to the parton densities, future gamma-jet measurements with reduced experimental uncertainties can improve our knowledge of the gluon density over a wide range of parton fractional momenta x as well as of the quarks at low-x.

  7. Novel applications of Lattice QCD: Parton Distributions, proton charge radius and neutron electric dipole moment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandrou Constantia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We briefly discuss the current status of lattice QCD simulations and review selective results on nucleon observables focusing on recent developments in the lattice QCD evaluation of the nucleon form factors and radii, parton distribution functions and their moments, and the neutron electric dipole moment. Nucleon charges and moments of parton distribution functions are presented using simulations generated at physical values of the quark masses, while exploratory studies are performed for the parton distribution functions and the neutron electric dipole moment at heavier than physical value of the pion mass.

  8. Structure functions and parton distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olness, F.; Tung, Wu-Ki

    1991-04-01

    Activities of the structure functions and parton distributions group is summarized. The impact of scheme-dependence of parton distributions (especially sea-quarks and gluons) on the quantitative formulation of the QCD parton model is highlighted. Recent progress on the global analysis of parton distributions is summarized. Issues on the proper use of the next-to-leading parton distributions are stressed

  9. Are Parton Distributions Positive?

    CERN Document Server

    Forte, Stefano; Ridolfi, Giovanni; Altarelli, Guido; Forte, Stefano; Ridolfi, Giovanni

    1999-01-01

    We show that the naive positivity conditions on polarized parton distributions which follow from their probabilistic interpretation in the naive parton model are reproduced in perturbative QCD at the leading log level if the quark and gluon distribution are defined in terms of physical processes. We show how these conditions are modified at the next-to-leading level, and discuss their phenomenological implications, in particular in view of the determination of the polarized gluon distribution

  10. Are parton distributions positive?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forte, Stefano; Altarelli, Guido; Ridolfi, Giovanni

    1999-01-01

    We show that the naive positivity conditions on polarized parton distributions which follow from their probabilistic interpretation in the naive parton model are reproduced in perturbative QCD at the leading log level if the quark and gluon distribution are defined in terms of physical processes. We show how these conditions are modified at the next-to-leading level, and discuss their phenomenological implications, in particular in view of the determination of the polarized gluon distribution

  11. Parton Distributions Working Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbaro, L. de; Keller, S. A.; Kuhlmann, S.; Schellman, H.; Tung, W.-K.

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Parton Distributions Working Group of the QCD and Weak Boson Physics workshop held in preparation for Run II at the Fermilab Tevatron. The main focus of this working group was to investigate the different issues associated with the development of quantitative tools to estimate parton distribution functions uncertainties. In the conclusion, the authors introduce a Manifesto that describes an optimal method for reporting data

  12. From form factors to generalized parton distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, Markus

    2013-06-15

    I present an extraction of generalized parton distributions from selected data on the electromagnetic nucleon form factors. The extracted distributions can in particular be used to quantify the contribution to the proton spin from the total angular momentum carried by valence quarks, as well as their transverse spatial distribution inside the proton.

  13. Determination of the parton distributions and structure functions of the proton from neutrino and antineutrino reactions on hydrogen and deuterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G. T.; Jones, R. W. L.; Kennedy, B. W.; Klein, H.; Morrison, D. R. O.; Wachsmuth, H.; Miller, D. B.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Wainstein, S.; Aderholz, M.; Hantke, D.; Katz, U. F.; Kern, J.; Schmitz, N.; Wittek, W.; Borner, H. P.; Myatt, G.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Guy, J.; Venus, W.; Bullock, F. W.; Burke, S.

    1994-12-01

    This analysis is based on data from neutrino and antineutrino scattering on hydrogen and deuterium, obtained with BEBC in the (anti) neutrino wideband beam of the CERN SPS. The parton momentum distributions in the proton and the proton structure functions are determined in the range 0.01distributions. The QCD predictions are taken into account using the Altarelli-Parisi equations, with a resulting scale parameter 10052_2005_Article_BF01574161_TeX2GIFE1.gif Λ = left( {192 ± 40(stat.) ± {}_{108}^{222} (syst.)} right)MeV.

  14. Parton distributions with LHC data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ball, R.D.; Deans, C.S.; Del Debbio, L.

    2013-01-01

    We present the first determination of parton distributions of the nucleon at NLO and NNLO based on a global data set which includes LHC data: NNPDF2.3. Our data set includes, besides the deep inelastic, Drell-Yan, gauge boson production and jet data already used in previous global PDF determinati......We present the first determination of parton distributions of the nucleon at NLO and NNLO based on a global data set which includes LHC data: NNPDF2.3. Our data set includes, besides the deep inelastic, Drell-Yan, gauge boson production and jet data already used in previous global PDF...... fraction of the proton. We also present collider PDF sets, constructed using only data from HERA, the Tevatron and the LHC, but find that this data set is neither precise nor complete enough for a competitive PDF determination....

  15. Positivity bounds on double parton distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, Markus; Kasemets, Tomas

    2013-03-01

    Double hard scattering in proton-proton collisions is described in terms of double parton distributions. We derive bounds on these distributions that follow from their interpretation as probability densities, taking into account all possible spin correlations between two partons in an unpolarized proton. These bounds constrain the size of the polarized distributions and can for instance be used to set upper limits on the effects of spin correlations in double hard scattering. We show that the bounds are stable under leading-order DGLAP evolution to higher scales.

  16. Cross Sections for the Exclusive Photon Electroproduction on the Proton and Generalized Parton Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, H. S.; Girod, F. X.; Avakian, H.; Burkert, V. D.; Garçon, M.; Guidal, M.; Kubarovsky, V.; Niccolai, S.; Stoler, P.; Adhikari, K. P.; Adikaram, D.; Amaryan, M. J.; Anderson, M. D.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Ball, J.; Baltzell, N. A.; Battaglieri, M.; Batourine, V.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Biselli, A. S.; Boiarinov, S.; Briscoe, W. J.; Brooks, W. K.; Carman, D. S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Charles, G.; Colaneri, L.; Cole, P. L.; Compton, N.; Contalbrigo, M.; Crede, V.; D'Angelo, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Dupre, R.; Alaoui, A. El; Fassi, L. El; Elouadrhiri, L.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Filippi, A.; Fleming, J. A.; Garillon, B.; Gevorgyan, N.; Ghandilyan, Y.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Goetz, J. T.; Golovatch, E.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guegan, B.; Guler, N.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Hakobyan, H.; Harrison, N.; Hattawy, M.; Hicks, K.; Hirlinger Saylor, N.; Ho, D.; Holtrop, M.; Hughes, S. M.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Jenkins, D.; Joo, K.; Joosten, S.; Keller, D.; Khachatryan, G.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Klein, F. J.; Kuhn, S. E.; Kuleshov, S. V.; Lenisa, P.; Livingston, K.; Lu, H. Y.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; McKinnon, B.; Meziani, Z. E.; Mirazita, M.; Mokeev, V.; Montgomery, R. A.; Moutarde, H.; Movsisyan, A.; Munevar, E.; Munoz Camacho, C.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Net, L. A.; Niculescu, G.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Paolone, M.; Park, K.; Pasyuk, E.; Phillips, J. J.; Pisano, S.; Pogorelko, O.; Price, J. W.; Procureur, S.; Prok, Y.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Raue, B. A.; Ripani, M.; Rizzo, A.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Roy, P.; Sabatié, F.; Salgado, C.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Seder, E.; Simonyan, A.; Skorodumina, Iu.; Smith, G. D.; Sokhan, D.; Sparveris, N.; Stepanyan, S.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Strauch, S.; Sytnik, V.; Tian, Ye; Tkachenko, S.; Ungaro, M.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N. K.; Watts, D. P.; Wei, X.; Weinstein, L. B.; Wood, M. H.; Zachariou, N.; Zana, L.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, Z. W.; Zonta, I.; CLAS Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    Unpolarized and beam-polarized fourfold cross sections (d4σ /d Q2d xBd t d ϕ ) for the e p →e'p'γ reaction were measured using the CLAS detector and the 5.75-GeV polarized electron beam of the Jefferson Lab accelerator, for 110 (Q2,xB,t ) bins over the widest phase space ever explored in the valence-quark region. Several models of generalized parton distributions (GPDs) describe the data well at most of our kinematics. This increases our confidence that we understand the GPD H , expected to be the dominant contributor to these observables. Through a leading-twist extraction of Compton form factors, these results support the model predictions of a larger nucleon size at lower quark-momentum fraction xB.

  17. Measurement of the triple-differential dijet cross section in proton-proton collisions at √(s) = 8 TeV and constraints on parton distribution functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirunyan, A.M.; Tumasyan, A. [Yerevan Physics Institute, Yerevan (Armenia); Adam, W. [Institut fuer Hochenergiephysik, Vienna (Austria); Collaboration: CMS Collaboration; and others

    2017-11-15

    A measurement is presented of the triple-differential dijet cross section at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV using 19.7 fb{sup -1} of data collected with the CMS detector in proton-proton collisions at the LHC. The cross section is measured as a function of the average transverse momentum, half the rapidity separation, and the boost of the two leading jets in the event. The cross section is corrected for detector effects and compared to calculations in perturbative quantum chromodynamics at next-to-leading order accuracy, complemented with electroweak and nonperturbative corrections. New constraints on parton distribution functions are obtained and the inferred value of the strong coupling constant is α{sub S}(M{sub Z}) = 0.1199 ± 0.0015(exp){sub -0.0020}{sup +0.0031}(theo), where M{sub Z} is the mass of the Z boson. (orig.)

  18. Parton distributions with QED corrections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collaboration, The NNPDF; Ball, Richard D.; Bertone, Valerio; Carrazza, Stefano; Debbio, Luigi Del; Forte, Stefano; Guffanti, Alberto; Hartland, Nathan P.; Rojo, Juan

    2013-01-01

    We present a set of parton distribution functions (PDFs), based on the NNPDF2.3 set, which includes a photon PDF, and QED contributions to parton evolution. We describe the implementation of the combined QCD+QED evolution in the NNPDF framework. We then provide a first determination of the full set

  19. Parton distribution in relativistic hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopeliovich, B.Z.; Lapidus, L.I.; Zamolodchikov, Al.B.

    1979-01-01

    The distribution in the slow-parton number in the relativistic hadron is considered as a function of its rapidity (y). Neglecting corrections due to the tarton chain recombination the equation is derived and its explicit solution is found. It describes this distribution depending on the initial distribution at y approximately 1. Comparison with the reggeon diagrams results in relations between the parton model and the regaeon field theory parameters. The interpretation of the cutting rules in the framework of the parton model is presented. The numerical estimation of the parton model parameters is performed. It is shown that the slow-parton density corresponding to accessible energies seems to be close to the saturated density. Therefore, the enhanced graphs contributions turn out to be of considerable importance

  20. Multi parton interactions and multi parton distributions in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, M.

    2012-01-01

    After a brief recapitulation of the general interest of parton densities, we discuss multiple hard interactions and multi parton distributions. We report on recent theoretical progress in their QCD description, on outstanding conceptual problems and on possibilities to use multi parton distributions as a laboratory to test and improve our understanding of hadron structure. (author)

  1. Parton distribution functions in the context of parton showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, Zoltán; Soper, Davison E.

    2014-01-01

    When the initial state evolution of a parton shower is organized according to the standard “backward evolution” prescription, ratios of parton distribution functions appear in the splitting probabilities. The shower thus organized evolves from a hard scale to a soft cutoff scale. At the end of the shower, one expects that only the parton distributions at the soft scale should affect the results. The other effects of the parton distributions should have cancelled. This means that the kernels for parton evolution should be related to the shower splitting functions. If the initial state partons can have non-zero masses, this requires that the evolution kernels cannot be the usual (MS)-bar kernels. We work out what the parton evolution kernels should be to match the shower evolution contained in the parton shower event generator DEDUCTOR, in which the b and c quarks have non-zero masses.

  2. On positivity of parton distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altarelli, G.; Forte, S.; Ridolfi, G.

    1998-01-01

    We discuss the bounds on polarized parton distributions which follow from their definition in terms of cross section asymmetries. We spell out how the bounds obtained in the naive parton model can be derived within perturbative QCD at leading order when all quark and gluon distributions are defined in terms of suitable physical processes. We specify a convenient physical definition for the polarized and unpolarized gluon distributions in terms of Higgs production from gluon fusion. We show that these bounds are modified by subleading corrections, and we determine them up to NLO. We examine the ensuing phenomenological implications, in particular in view of the determination of the polarized gluon distribution. (orig.)

  3. On positivity of parton distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Altarelli, Guido; Ridolfi, G; Altarelli, Guido; Forte, Stefano; Ridolfi, Giovanni

    1998-01-01

    We discuss the bounds on polarized parton distributions which follow from their definition in terms of cross section asymmetries. We spell out how the bounds obtained in the naive parton model can be derived within perturbative QCD at leading order when all quark and gluon distributions are defined in terms of suitable physical processes. We specify a convenient physical definition for the polarized and unpolarized gluon distributions in terms of Higgs production from gluon fusion. We show that these bounds are modified by subleading corrections, and we determine them up to NLO. We examine the ensuing phenomenological implications, in particular in view of the determination of the polarized gluon distribution.

  4. New information on parton distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, A.D.; Stirling, W.J.; Roberts, R.G.

    1992-04-01

    New data on structure functions from deep-inelastic scattering provide new information on parton distributions, particularly in the 0.01 2 data from the New Muon Collaboration (NMC) and its implications for other processes, and the evidence for SU(2) symmetry breaking in the light quark sea. We show that although good fits can be obtained with or without this symmetry breaking, more physically reasonable parton distributions are obtained if we allow d-bar > u-bar at small x. With the inclusion of the latest deep-inelastic data we find α s (M Z ) = 0.111 -0.005 +0.004 . We also show how W, Z and Drell-Yan production at p-barp colliders can give information on parton distributions. (Author)

  5. Parton Distributions and the LHC W and Z Production

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, A D; Stirling, William James; Thorne, R S

    2000-01-01

    W and Z bosons will be produced copiously at the LHC proton-proton collider. We study the parton distribution dependence of the total production cross sections and rapidity distributions, paying particular attention to the uncertainties arising from uncertainties in the parton distributions themselves. Variations in the gluon, the strong coupling, the sea quarks and the overall normalisation are shown to lead to small but non-negligible variations in the cross section predictions. Ultimately, therefore, the measurement of these cross sections will provide a powerful cross check on our knowledge of parton distributions and their evolution.

  6. Parton distributions with LHC data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ball, Richard D.; Bertone, Valerio; Carrazza, Stefano; Deans, Christopher S.; Debbio, Luigi Del; Forte, Stefano; Guffanti, Alberto; Hartland, Nathan P.; Latorre, Jose I.; Rojo, Juan; Ubiali, Maria

    2013-01-01

    We present the first determination of parton distributions of the nucleon at NLO and NNLO based on a global data set which includes LHC data: NNPDF2.3. Our data set includes, besides the deep inelastic, Drell-Yan, gauge boson production and jet data already used in previous global PDF

  7. Momentum transfer dependence of generalized parton distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Neetika [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Mohali, S.A.S. Nagar, Punjab (India)

    2016-11-15

    We revisit the model for parametrization of the momentum dependence of nucleon generalized parton distributions in the light of recent MRST measurements of parton distribution functions (A.D. Martin et al., Eur. Phys. J. C 63, 189 (2009)). Our parametrization method with a minimum set of free parameters give a sufficiently good description of data for Dirac and Pauli electromagnetic form factors of proton and neutron at small and intermediate values of momentum transfer. We also calculate the GPDs for up- and down-quarks by decomposing the electromagnetic form factors for the nucleon using the charge and isospin symmetry and also study the evolution of GPDs to a higher scale. We further investigate the transverse charge densities for both the unpolarized and transversely polarized nucleon and compare our results with Kelly's distribution. (orig.)

  8. Structure functions and parton distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, A.D.; Stirling, W.J.; Roberts, R.G.

    1995-01-01

    The MRS parton distribution analysis is described. The latest sets are shown to give an excellent description of a wide range of deep-inelastic and other hard scattering data. Two important theoretical issues-the behavior of the distributions at small x and the flavor structure of the quark sea-are discussed in detail. A comparison with the new structure function data from HERA is made, and the outlook for the future is discussed

  9. Parton Distributions in the Higgs Boson Era

    CERN Document Server

    Rojo, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Parton distributions are an essential ingredient of the LHC program. PDFs are relevant for precision Standard Model measurements, for Higgs boson characterization as well as for New Physics searches. In this contribution I review recent progress in the determination of the parton distributions of the proton during the last year. Important developments include the impact of new LHC measurements to pin down poorly known PDFs, studies of theoretical uncertainties, higher order calculations for processes relevant for PDF determinations, PDF benchmarking exercises with LHC data, as well as methodological and statistical improvements in the global analysis framework. I conclude with some speculative considerations about future directions in PDF determinations from the theory point of view.

  10. Parton distributions with threshold resummation

    CERN Document Server

    Bonvini, Marco; Rojo, Juan; Rottoli, Luca; Ubiali, Maria; Ball, Richard D.; Bertone, Valerio; Carrazza, Stefano; Hartland, Nathan P.

    2015-01-01

    We construct a set of parton distribution functions (PDFs) in which fixed-order NLO and NNLO calculations are supplemented with soft-gluon (threshold) resummation up to NLL and NNLL accuracy respectively, suitable for use in conjunction with any QCD calculation in which threshold resummation is included at the level of partonic cross sections. These resummed PDF sets, based on the NNPDF3.0 analysis, are extracted from deep-inelastic scattering, Drell-Yan, and top quark pair production data, for which resummed calculations can be consistently used. We find that, close to threshold, the inclusion of resummed PDFs can partially compensate the enhancement in resummed matrix elements, leading to resummed hadronic cross-sections closer to the fixed-order calculation. On the other hand, far from threshold, resummed PDFs reduce to their fixed-order counterparts. Our results demonstrate the need for a consistent use of resummed PDFs in resummed calculations.

  11. Effects of next-to-leading order DGLAP evolution on generalized parton distributions of the proton and deeply virtual Compton scattering at high energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanpour, Hamzeh [University of Science and Technology of Mazandaran, Department of Physics, Behshahr (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), School of Particles and Accelerators, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Goharipour, Muhammad [Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), School of Particles and Accelerators, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Guzey, Vadim [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (PNPI), National Research Center ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Gatchina (Russian Federation)

    2018-01-15

    We studied the effects of NLO Q{sup 2} evolution of generalized parton distributions (GPDs) using the aligned-jet model for the singlet quark and gluon GPDs at an initial evolution scale. We found that the skewness ratio for quarks is a slow logarithmic function of Q{sup 2}, reaching r{sup S} = 1.5-2 at Q{sup 2} = 100 GeV{sup 2} and r{sup g} ∼ 1 for gluons in a wide range of Q{sup 2}. Using the resulting GPDs, we calculated the DVCS cross section on the proton in NLO pQCD and found that this model in conjunction with modern parameterizations of proton PDFs (CJ15 and CT14) provides a good description of the available H1 and ZEUS data in a wide kinematic range. (orig.)

  12. Endpoint singularities in unintegrated parton distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Hautmann, F

    2007-01-01

    We examine the singular behavior from the endpoint region x -> 1 in parton distributions unintegrated in both longitudinal and transverse momenta. We identify and regularize the singularities by using the subtraction method, and compare this with the cut-off regularization method. The counterterms for the distributions with subtractive regularization are given in coordinate space by compact all-order expressions in terms of eikonal-line operators. We carry out an explicit calculation at one loop for the unintegrated quark distribution. We discuss the relation of the unintegrated parton distributions in subtractive regularization with the ordinary parton distributions.

  13. Parton Distribution Benchmarking with LHC Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ball, Richard D.; Carrazza, Stefano; Debbio, Luigi Del; Forte, Stefano; Gao, Jun; Hartland, Nathan; Huston, Joey; Nadolsky, Pavel; Rojo, Juan; Stump, Daniel; Thorne, Robert S.; Yuan, C. -P.

    2012-01-01

    We present a detailed comparison of the most recent sets of NNLO PDFs from the ABM, CT, HERAPDF, MSTW and NNPDF collaborations. We compare parton distributions at low and high scales and parton luminosities relevant for LHC phenomenology. We study the PDF dependence of LHC benchmark inclusive cross

  14. Parton distributions with LHC data

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Richard D.; Carrazza, Stefano; Deans, Christopher S.; Del Debbio, Luigi; Forte, Stefano; Guffanti, Alberto; Hartland, Nathan P.; Latorre, Jose I.; Rojo, Juan; Ubiali, Maria

    2013-01-01

    We present the first determination of parton distributions of the nucleon at NLO and NNLO based on a global data set which includes LHC data: NNPDF2.3. Our data set includes, besides the deep inelastic, Drell-Yan, gauge boson production and jet data already used in previous global PDF determinations, all the relevant LHC data for which experimental systematic uncertainties are currently available: ATLAS and LHCb W and Z lepton rapidity distributions from the 2010 run, CMS W electron asymmetry data from the 2011 run, and ATLAS inclusive jet cross-sections from the 2010 run. We introduce an improved implementation of the FastKernel method which allows us to fit to this extended data set, and also to adopt a more effective minimization methodology. We present the NNPDF2.3 PDF sets, and compare them to the NNPDF2.1 sets to assess the impact of the LHC data. We find that all the LHC data are broadly consistent with each other and with all the older data sets included in the fit. We present predictions for various ...

  15. Parton Distributions at a 100 TeV Hadron Collider

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rojo, Juan

    2016-01-01

    The determination of the parton distribution functions (PDFs) of the proton will be an essential input for the physics program of a future 100 TeV hadron collider. The unprecedented center-of-mass energy will require knowledge of PDFs in currently unexplored kinematical regions such as the ultra

  16. Parton distributions from SMC and SLAC data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, G.P.

    1996-01-01

    We have extracted spin-weighted parton distributions in a proton from recent data at CERN and SLAC. The valence, sea quark and Antiquark spin-weighted distributions are determined separately. The data are all consistent with a small to moderate polarized gluon distribution, so that the anomaly term is not significant in the determination of the constituent contributions to the spin of the proton. We have analyzed the consistency of the results obtained from various sets of data and the Biorken sum rule. Although all data are consistent with the sum rule, the polarized distributions from different experiments vary, even with higher order QCD corrections taken into account. Results split into two models, one set implying a large polarized strange sea which violates the positivity bound, and the other set yielding a smaller polarized strange sea. Only further experiments which extract information about the polarized sea will reconcile these differences. We suggest specific experiments which can be performed to determine the size of the polarized sea and gluons

  17. Dual parametrization of the proton generalized parton distribution functions H and E, and description of the deeply virtual Compton scattering cross sections and asymmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzey, V.; Teckentrup, T.

    2006-01-01

    We develop the minimal model of a new leading order parametrization of generalized parton distributions (GPDs) introduced by Polyakov and Shuvaev. The model for GPDs H and E is formulated in terms of the forward quark distributions, the Gegenbauer moments of the D-term, and the forward limit of the GPD E. The model is designed primarily for small and medium-size values of x B , x B ≤0.2. We examine two different models of the t dependence of the GPDs: the factorized exponential model and the nonfactorized Regge-motivated model. Using our model, we successfully described the deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) cross section measured by H1 and ZEUS, the moments of the beam-spin A LU sinφ , the beam-charge A C cosφ , and the transversely polarized target A UT sinφcosφ DVCS asymmetries measured by HERMES and A LU sinφ measured by CLAS. The data on A C cosφ prefer the Regge-motivated model of the t dependence of the GPDs. The data on A UT sinφcosφ indicate that the u and d quarks carry only a small fraction of the proton total angular momentum

  18. Parton distributions beyond the leading order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chyla, J.

    1993-01-01

    The importance of properly taking into account the factorization scheme dependence of parton distribution functions is emphasized. A serious error in the usual handling of this topic is pointed out and the correct procedure for transforming parton distribution functions from one factorization scheme to another recalled. It is shown that the conventional M bar S and DIS definitions thereof are ill defined due to the lack of distinction between the factorization scheme dependence of parton distribution functions and renormalization scheme dependence of the strong coupling constant α s . A novel definition of parton distribution functions is suggested and its role in the construction of consistent next-to-leading-order event generators briefly outlined

  19. Unraveling hadron structure with generalized parton distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrei Belitsky; Anatoly Radyushkin

    2004-10-01

    The recently introduced generalized parton distributions have emerged as a universal tool to describe hadrons in terms of quark and gluonic degrees of freedom. They combine the features of form factors, parton densities and distribution amplitudes - the functions used for a long time in studies of hadronic structure. Generalized parton distributions are analogous to the phase-space Wigner quasi-probability function of non-relativistic quantum mechanics which encodes full information on a quantum-mechanical system. We give an extensive review of main achievements in the development of this formalism. We discuss physical interpretation and basic properties of generalized parton distributions, their modeling and QCD evolution in the leading and next-to-leading orders. We describe how these functions enter a wide class of exclusive reactions, such as electro- and photo-production of photons, lepton pairs, or mesons.

  20. Neutron to proton mass difference, parton distribution functions and baryon resonances from dynamics on the Lie group u(3)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinhammer, Ole

    PiMinus invariant mass in B decays. We give a controversial prediction of the relative neutron to proton mass difference 0.138 % as originating in period doublings of certain parametric states. The group space dynamics communicates with real space via the exterior derivative which projects out quark and gluon...

  1. Complex conjugate poles and parton distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiburzi, B.C.; Detmold, W.; Miller, G.A.

    2003-01-01

    We calculate parton and generalized parton distributions in Minkowski space using a scalar propagator with a pair of complex conjugate poles. Correct spectral and support properties are obtained only after careful analytic continuation from Euclidean space. Alternately the quark distribution function can be calculated from modified cutting rules, which put the intermediate state on its complex mass shells. Distribution functions agree with those resulting from the model's Euclidean space double distribution which we calculate via nondiagonal matrix elements of twist-two operators. Thus one can use a wide class of analytic parametrizations of the quark propagator to connect Euclidean space Green functions to light-cone dominated amplitudes

  2. Nucleon parton distributions in chiral perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moiseeva, Alena

    2013-01-01

    Properties of the chiral expansion of nucleon light-cone operators have been studied. In the framework of the chiral perturbation theory we have demonstrated that convergency of the chiral expansion of nucleon parton distributions strongly depends on the value of the variable x. Three regions in x with essentially different analytical properties of the resulting chiral expansion for parton distributions were found. For each of the regions we have elaborated special power counting rules corresponding to the partial resummation of the chiral series. The nonlocal effective operators for the vector and the axial nucleon parton distributions have been constructed at the zeroth and the first chiral order. Using the derived nonlocal operators and the derived power counting rules we have obtained the second order expressions for the nucleon GPDs H(x,ξ,Δ 2 ), H(x,ξ,Δ 2 ),E(x,ξ,Δ 2 ) valid in the region x>or similar a 2 χ .

  3. Triple parton scatterings in high-energy proton-proton collisions arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    d'Enterria, David

    2017-01-01

    A generic expression to compute triple parton scattering cross sections in high-energy proton-proton (pp) collisions is presented as a function of the corresponding single parton cross sections and the transverse parton profile of the proton encoded in an effective parameter σeff,TPS. The value of σeff,TPS is closely related to the similar effective cross section that characterizes double parton scatterings, and amounts to σeff,TPS=12.5±4.5  mb. Estimates for triple charm (cc¯) and bottom (bb¯) production in pp collisions at LHC and FCC energies are presented based on next-to-next-to-leading-order perturbative calculations for single cc¯, bb¯ cross sections. At s≈100  TeV, about 15% of the pp collisions produce three cc¯ pairs from three different parton-parton scatterings.

  4. Parton distribution and Tevatron jet data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekhin, S.; Bluemlein, J.; Moch, S.

    2011-05-01

    We study the impact of Tevatron jet data on a global fit of parton distribution functions and on the determination of the value of the strong coupling constant α s (M Z ). The consequences are illustrated for cross sections of Higgs boson production at Tevatron and the LHC. (orig.)

  5. An introduction to the Generalized Parton Distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel Garcon

    2002-01-01

    The concepts of Generalized Parton Distributions (GPD) are reviewed in an introductory and phenomenological fashion. These distributions provide a rich and unifying picture of the nucleon structure. Their physical meaning is discussed. The GPD are in principle measurable through exclusive deeply virtual production of photons (DVCS) or of mesons (DVMP). Experiments are starting to test the validity of these concepts. First results are discussed and new experimental projects presented, with an emphasis on this program at Jefferson Lab

  6. Charge symmetry breaking in parton distribution functions from lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horsley, R.; Zanotti, J.M. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Nakamura, Y. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Center for Computational Sciences; Pleiter, D. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Rakow, P.E.L. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Div.; Schierholz, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Stueben, H. [Konrad-Zuse-Zentrum fuer Informationstechnik Berlin (Germany); Thomas, A.W.; Young, R.D. [Adelaide Univ. SA (Australia). School of Physics and Chemistry; Winter, F. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2010-12-15

    By determining the quark momentum fractions of the octet baryons from N{sub f}=2+1 lattice simulations, we are able to predict the degree of charge symmetry violation in the parton distribution functions of the nucleon. This is of importance, not only as a probe of our understanding of the non-perturbative structure of the proton but also because such a violation constrains the accuracy of global ts to parton distribution functions and hence the accuracy with which, for example, cross sections at the LHC can be predicted. A violation of charge symmetry may also be critical in cases where symmetries are used to guide the search for physics beyond the Standard Model. (orig.)

  7. Charge symmetry breaking in parton distribution functions from lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horsley, R.; Zanotti, J.M.; Rakow, P.E.L.; Stueben, H.; Thomas, A.W.; Young, R.D.; Winter, F.; Regensburg Univ.

    2010-12-01

    By determining the quark momentum fractions of the octet baryons from N f =2+1 lattice simulations, we are able to predict the degree of charge symmetry violation in the parton distribution functions of the nucleon. This is of importance, not only as a probe of our understanding of the non-perturbative structure of the proton but also because such a violation constrains the accuracy of global ts to parton distribution functions and hence the accuracy with which, for example, cross sections at the LHC can be predicted. A violation of charge symmetry may also be critical in cases where symmetries are used to guide the search for physics beyond the Standard Model. (orig.)

  8. Constraints on the Parton Density Functions of the Proton by Measurements with the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Sutton, Mark; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Parton distribution functions (PDFs) are crucial ingredients for measurements at hadron colliders, since they describe the initial states and therefore critically impact the precision of cross section predictions for observables. This talk will review recent precision analyses, where the PDFs play an important role and discuss the impact of several new ATLAS cross-section measurements on PDFs of the proton. Particular emphasis will be given to the determination of the strange and the gluon content of the proton.

  9. Generalized Parton Distributions and their Singularities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anatoly Radyushkin

    2011-04-01

    A new approach to building models of generalized parton distributions (GPDs) is discussed that is based on the factorized DD (double distribution) Ansatz within the single-DD formalism. The latter was not used before, because reconstructing GPDs from the forward limit one should start in this case with a very singular function $f(\\beta)/\\beta$ rather than with the usual parton density $f(\\beta)$. This results in a non-integrable singularity at $\\beta=0$ exaggerated by the fact that $f(\\beta)$'s, on their own, have a singular $\\beta^{-a}$ Regge behavior for small $\\beta$. It is shown that the singularity is regulated within the GPD model of Szczepaniak et al., in which the Regge behavior is implanted through a subtracted dispersion relation for the hadron-parton scattering amplitude. It is demonstrated that using proper softening of the quark-hadron vertices in the regions of large parton virtualities results in model GPDs $H(x,\\xi)$ that are finite and continuous at the "border point'' $x=\\xi$. Using a simple input forward distribution, we illustrate the implementation of the new approach for explicit construction of model GPDs. As a further development, a more general method of regulating the $\\beta=0$ singularities is proposed that is based on the separation of the initial single DD $f(\\beta, \\alpha)$ into the "plus'' part $[f(\\beta,\\alpha)]_{+}$ and the $D$-term. It is demonstrated that the "DD+D'' separation method allows to (re)derive GPD sum rules that relate the difference between the forward distribution $f(x)=H(x,0)$ and the border function $H(x,x)$ with the $D$-term function $D(\\alpha)$.

  10. Experimental studies of generalized parton distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabuss, E.M.

    2014-01-01

    Generalized parton distributions (GPD) provide a new way to study the nucleon structure. Experimentally they can be accessed using hard exclusive processes such as deeply virtual Compton scattering and meson production. First insights to GPDs were already obtained from measurements at DESY, JLAB and CERN, while new ambitious studies are planned at the upgraded JLAB at 12 GeV and at CERN. Here, some emphasis will be put onto the planned COMPASS II programme. (author)

  11. Nuclear dependence of parton distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Close, F.E.

    1988-01-01

    The author reviews the emerging information on the way quark, antiquark, and gluon distributions are modified in nuclei relative to free nucleons. He placed particular emphasis on Drell-Yan and phi production on nuclei and caution against premature use of these as signals for quagma in heavy-ion collisions

  12. Nuclear parton distributions with the LHeC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, M.

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear parton distributions are far from being known today because of an infant experimental base. Based on design studies of the LHeC and using new simulations, of the inclusive neutral and charged current cross section measurements and of the strange, charm and beauty densities in nuclei, it is demonstrated how that energy frontier electron-ion collider would unfold the complete set of nuclear parton distributions (nPDFs) in a hugely extended kinematic range of deep inelastic scattering, extending in Bjorken x down to values near to 10 -6 in the perturbative domain. Together with a very precise and complete set of proton PDFs, the LHeC nPDFs will thoroughly change the theoretical understanding of parton dynamics and structure inside hadrons. This contribution is organised as follows: Section 2 summarises the status of the current nPDF determinations and presents a summary of the LHeC data simulation. Section 3 briefly summarises initial results of a study of the determination of PDFs in electron-deuteron scattering. Section 4 presents the nPDF simulation using LHeC data performed within an adapted EPS09 pQCD framework. Section 5 discusses the gluon distribution and the possible search for saturation of the rise of the gluon density towards low x. Section 6 includes the determination of the strange, charm and beauty distributions in nuclei from a future eA operation of the LHeC. A brief summary is presented in Section 7

  13. Testing nuclear parton distributions with pA collisions at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Quiroga-Arias, Paloma; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2010-01-01

    Global perturbative QCD analyses, based on large data sets from electron-proton and hadron collider experiments, provide tight constraints on the parton distribution function (PDF) in the proton. The extension of these analyses to nuclear parton distributions (nPDF) has attracted much interest in recent years. nPDFs are needed as benchmarks for the characterization of hot QCD matter in nucleus-nucleus collisions, and attract further interest since they may show novel signatures of non-linear density-dependent QCD evolution. However, it is not known from first principles whether the factorization of long-range phenomena into process-independent parton distribution, which underlies global PDF extractions for the proton, extends to nuclear effects. As a consequence, assessing the reliability of nPDFs for benchmark calculations goes beyond testing the numerical accuracy of their extraction and requires phenomenological tests of the factorization assumption. Here we argue that a proton-nucleus collision program at...

  14. Testing collinear factorization and nuclear parton distributions with pA collisions at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Quiroga-Arias, Paloma; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2011-01-01

    Global perturbative QCD analyses, based on large data sets from electron-proton and hadron collider experiments, provide tight constraints on the parton distribution function (PDF) in the proton. The extension of these analyses to nuclear parton distributions (nPDF) has attracted much interest in recent years. nPDFs are needed as benchmarks for the characterization of hot QCD matter in nucleus-nucleus collisions, and attract further interest since they may show novel signatures of non- linear density-dependent QCD evolution. However, it is not known from first principles whether the factorization of long-range phenomena into process-independent parton distribution, which underlies global PDF extractions for the proton, extends to nuclear effects. As a consequence, assessing the reliability of nPDFs for benchmark calculations goes beyond testing the numerical accuracy of their extraction and requires phenomenological tests of the factorization assumption. Here we argue that a proton-nucleus collision program a...

  15. Correlations in double parton distributions. Effects of evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, Markus; Keane, Shane; Kasemets, Tomas; Vrije Univ., Amsterdam

    2014-01-01

    We numerically investigate the impact of scale evolution on double parton distributions, which are needed to compute multiple hard scattering processes. Assuming correlations between longitudinal and transverse variables or between the parton spins to be present at a low scale, we study how they are affected by evolution to higher scales, i.e. by repeated parton emission. We find that generically evolution tends to wash out correlations, but with a speed that may be slow or fast depending on kinematics and on the type of correlation. Nontrivial parton correlations may hence persist in double parton distributions at the high scales relevant for hard scattering processes.

  16. Helicity-dependent generalized parton distributions for nonzero skewness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondal, Chandan [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Modern Physics, Lanzhou (China)

    2017-09-15

    We investigate the helicity-dependent generalized parton distributions (GPDs) in momentum as well as transverse position (impact) spaces for the u and d quarks in a proton when the momentum transfer in both the transverse and the longitudinal directions are nonzero. The GPDs are evaluated using the light-front wave functions of a quark-diquark model for nucleon where the wave functions are constructed by the soft-wall AdS/QCD correspondence. We also express the GPDs in the boost-invariant longitudinal position space. (orig.)

  17. ABM11 parton distributions and benchmarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekhin, Sergey; Bluemlein, Johannes; Moch, Sven-Olaf

    2012-08-01

    We present a determination of the nucleon parton distribution functions (PDFs) and of the strong coupling constant α s at next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) in QCD based on the world data for deep-inelastic scattering and the fixed-target data for the Drell-Yan process. The analysis is performed in the fixed-flavor number scheme for n f =3,4,5 and uses the MS scheme for α s and the heavy quark masses. The fit results are compared with other PDFs and used to compute the benchmark cross sections at hadron colliders to the NNLO accuracy.

  18. ABM11 parton distributions and benchmarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekhin, Sergey [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Institut Fiziki Vysokikh Ehnergij, Protvino (Russian Federation); Bluemlein, Johannes; Moch, Sven-Olaf [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    We present a determination of the nucleon parton distribution functions (PDFs) and of the strong coupling constant {alpha}{sub s} at next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) in QCD based on the world data for deep-inelastic scattering and the fixed-target data for the Drell-Yan process. The analysis is performed in the fixed-flavor number scheme for n{sub f}=3,4,5 and uses the MS scheme for {alpha}{sub s} and the heavy quark masses. The fit results are compared with other PDFs and used to compute the benchmark cross sections at hadron colliders to the NNLO accuracy.

  19. Quasi parton distributions and the gradient flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monahan, Christopher; Orginos, Kostas

    2017-01-01

    We propose a new approach to determining quasi parton distribution functions (PDFs) from lattice quantum chromodynamics. By incorporating the gradient flow, this method guarantees that the lattice quasi PDFs are finite in the continuum limit and evades the thorny, and as yet unresolved, issue of the renormalization of quasi PDFs on the lattice. In the limit that the flow time is much smaller than the length scale set by the nucleon momentum, the moments of the smeared quasi PDF are proportional to those of the lightfront PDF. Finally, we use this relation to derive evolution equations for the matching kernel that relates the smeared quasi PDF and the light-front PDF.

  20. A Lattice Calculation of Parton Distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrou, Constantia; Cichy, Krzysztof; Poznan Univ.; Drach, Vincent; Univ. of Southern Denmark, Odense; Garcia-Ramos, Elena; Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin; Hadjiyiannakou, Kyriakos; Jansen, Karl; Steffens, Fernanda; Wiese, Christian

    2015-04-01

    We report on our exploratory study for the direct evaluation of the parton distribution functions from lattice QCD, based on a recently proposed new approach. We present encouraging results using N f =2+1+1 twisted mass fermions with a pion mass of about 370 MeV. The focus of this work is a detailed description of the computation, including the lattice calculation, the matching to an infinite momentum and the nucleon mass correction. In addition, we test the effect of gauge link smearing in the operator to estimate the influence of the Wilson line renormalization, which is yet to be done.

  1. Generalized parton distribution for non zero skewness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Narinder; Dahiya, Harleen; Teryaev, Oleg

    2012-01-01

    In the theory of strong interactions the main open question is how the nucleon and other hadrons are built from quarks and gluons, the fundamental degrees of freedom in QCD. An essential tool to investigate hadron structure is the study of deep inelastic scattering processes, where individual quarks and gluons can be resolved. The parton densities extracted from such processes encode the distribution of longitudinal momentum and polarization carried by quarks, antiquarks and gluons within a fast moving hadron. They have provided much to shape the physical picture of hadron structure. In the recent years, it has become clear that appropriate exclusive scattering processes may provide such information encoded in the general parton distributions (GPDs). Here, we investigate the GPD for deep virtual compton scattering (DVCS) for the non zero skewness. The study has investigated the GPDs by expressing them in terms of overlaps of light front wave functions (LFWFs). The work represented a spin 1/2 system as a composite of spin 1/2 fermion and spin 1 boson with arbitrary masses

  2. Ioffe-time distributions instead of parton momentum distributions in description of deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, V.; Gornicki, P.; Mankiewicz, L.

    1994-10-01

    We argue that parton distributions in coordinate space provide a more natural object for nonperturbative methods compared to the usual momentum distributions in which the physics of different longitudinal distances is being mixed. To illustrate the advantages of the coordinate space formulation, we calculate the coordinate space distributions for valence quarks in the proton using the QCD sum rule approach. A remarkable agreement is found between the calcuulated and the experimentally measured u-quark distribution up to distances of order ∝2 fm in the proton rest frame. The standard calculation completely fails, however, for valence d quarks; the reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. (orig.)

  3. Electromagnetic contribution to charge symmetry violation in parton distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X.G. Wang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We report a calculation of the combined effect of photon radiation and quark mass differences on charge symmetry violation (CSV in the parton distribution functions of the nucleon. Following a recent suggestion of Martin and Ryskin, the initial photon distribution is calculated in terms of coherent radiation from the proton as a whole, while the effect of the quark mass difference is based on a recent lattice QCD simulation. The distributions are then evolved to a scale at which they can be compared with experiment by including both QCD and QED radiation. Overall, at a scale of 5 GeV2, the total CSV effect on the phenomenologically important difference between the d and u-quark distributions is some 20% larger than the value based on quark mass differences alone. In total these sources of CSV account for approximately 40% of the NuTeV anomaly.

  4. Updated lattice results for parton distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrou, Constantia; Cichy, Krzysztof; Hadjiyiannakou, Kyriakos; Jansen, Karl; Steffens, Fernanda; Wiese, Christian

    2017-07-01

    We provide an analysis of the x-dependence of the bare unpolarized, helicity and transversity iso-vector parton distribution functions (PDFs) from lattice calculations employing (maximally) twisted mass fermions. The x-dependence of the calculated PDFs resembles the one of the phenomenological parameterizations, a feature that makes this approach very promising. Furthermore, we apply momentum smearing for the relevant matrix elements to compute the lattice PDFs and find a large improvement factor when compared to conventional Gaussian smearing. This allows us to extend the lattice computation of the distributions to higher values of the nucleon momentum, which is essential for the prospects of a reliable extraction of the PDFs in the future.

  5. Updated lattice results for parton distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandrou, Constantia [Cyprus Univ., Nicosia (Cyprus). Dept. of Physics; The Cyprus Institute, Nicosia (Cyprus); Cichy, Krzysztof [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Poznan Univ. (Poland). Faculty of Physics; Constantinou, Martha [Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Hadjiyiannakou, Kyriakos [Cyprus Univ., Nicosia (Cyprus). Dept. of Physics; Jansen, Karl; Steffens, Fernanda; Wiese, Christian [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC

    2017-07-15

    We provide an analysis of the x-dependence of the bare unpolarized, helicity and transversity iso-vector parton distribution functions (PDFs) from lattice calculations employing (maximally) twisted mass fermions. The x-dependence of the calculated PDFs resembles the one of the phenomenological parameterizations, a feature that makes this approach very promising. Furthermore, we apply momentum smearing for the relevant matrix elements to compute the lattice PDFs and find a large improvement factor when compared to conventional Gaussian smearing. This allows us to extend the lattice computation of the distributions to higher values of the nucleon momentum, which is essential for the prospects of a reliable extraction of the PDFs in the future.

  6. Probing Transverse Momentum Dependent Parton Distributions in Charmonium and Bottomonium Production

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee, Asmita; Rajesh, Sangem

    2015-01-01

    We propose the study of unpolarized transverse momentum dependent gluon parton distributions as well as the effect of linearly polarized gluons on transverse momentum and rapidity distributions of $J/\\psi$ and $\\Upsilon$ production within the framework of transverse momentum dependent factorization employing color evaporation model (CEM) in unpolarized proton-proton collision. We estimate the transverse momentum and rapidity distributions of $J/\\psi$ and $\\Upsilon$ at LHCb, RHIC and AFTER ene...

  7. Nucleon generalized parton distributions from full lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haegler, P.; Schroers, W.; Bratt, J.; Negele, J.W.; Pochinsky, A.V.

    2007-07-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the lowest moments of nucleon generalized parton distributions in N f =2+1 lattice QCD using domain wall valence quarks and improved staggered sea quarks. Our investigation includes helicity dependent and independent generalized parton distributions for pion masses as low as 350 MeV and volumes as large as (3.5 fm) 3 . (orig.)

  8. On chiral-odd Generalized Parton Distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallon, Samuel [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique d' Orsay - LPT, Bat. 210, Univ. Paris-Sud 11, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); UPMC Univ. Paris 6, Paris (France); Pire, Bernard [Centre de Physique Theorique - CPHT, UMR 7644, Ecole Polytechnique, Bat. 6, RDC, F91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Szymanowski, Lech [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Hoza 69, 00691, Warsaw (Poland)

    2010-07-01

    The chiral-odd transversity generalized parton distributions of the nucleon can be accessed experimentally through the exclusive photoproduction process {gamma} + N {yields} {pi} + {rho} + N', in the kinematics where the meson pair has a large invariant mass and the final nucleon has a small transverse momentum, provided the vector meson is produced in a transversally polarized state. Estimated counting rates show that the experiment is feasible with real or quasi real photon beams expected at JLab at 12 GeV and in the COMPASS experiment. (Phys Letters B688,154,2010) In addition, a consistent classification of the chiral-odd pion GPDs beyond the leading twist 2 is presented. Based on QCD equations of motion and on the invariance under rotation on the light-cone of any scattering amplitude involving such GPDs, we reduce the basis of these chiral-odd GPDs to a minimal set. (author)

  9. Insights into nucleon structure from parton distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melnitchouk, Wally [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2017-05-01

    We review recent progress in understanding the substructure of the nucleon from global QCD analysis of parton distribution functions (PDFs). New high-precision data onW-boson production in p ¯ p collisions have significantly reduced the uncertainty on the d=u PDF ratio at large values of x, indirectly constraining models of the medium modification of bound nucleons. Drell-Yan data from pp and pd scattering reveal new information on the d¯-u¯ asymmetry, clarifying the role of chiral symmetry breaking in the nucleon. In the strange sector, a new chiral SU(3) analysis finds a valence-like component of the strange-quark PDF, giving rise to a nontrivial s- ¯ s asymmetry at moderate x values. We also review recent analyses of charm in the nucleon, which have found conflicting indications of the size of the nonperturbative charm component.

  10. Polarized Parton Distributions at an Electron-Ion Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Richard D.; Guffanti, Alberto; Nocera, Emanuele R.; Ridolfi, Giovanni; Rojo, Juan

    2014-01-01

    We study the potential impact of inclusive deep-inelastic scattering data from a future electron-ion collider (EIC) on longitudinally polarized parton distribution (PDFs). We perform a PDF determination using the NNPDF methodology, based on sets of deep-inelastic EIC pseudodata, for different realistic choices of the electron and proton beam energies. We compare the results to our current polarized PDF set, NNPDFpol1.0, based on a fit to fixed-target inclusive DIS data. We show that the uncertainties on the first moments of the polarized quark singlet and gluon distributions are substantially reduced in comparison to NNPDFpol1.0, but also that more measurements may be needed to ultimately pin down the size of the gluon contribution to the nucleon spin.

  11. Polarized parton distributions at an electron–ion collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, Richard D. [Tait Institute, University of Edinburgh, JCMB, KB, Mayfield Rd, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Forte, Stefano [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano and INFN, Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Guffanti, Alberto [The Niels Bohr International Academy and Discovery Center, The Niels Bohr Institute, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Nocera, Emanuele R. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano and INFN, Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Ridolfi, Giovanni [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Genova and INFN, Sezione di Genova, Genova (Italy); Rojo, Juan [PH Department, TH Unit, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2014-01-20

    We study the potential impact of inclusive deep-inelastic scattering data from a future electron–ion collider (EIC) on longitudinally polarized parton distributions (PDFs). We perform a PDF determination using the NNPDF methodology, based on sets of deep-inelastic EIC pseudodata, for different realistic choices of the electron and proton beam energies. We compare the results to our current polarized PDF set, NNPDFpol1.0, based on a fit to fixed-target inclusive DIS data. We show that the uncertainties on the first moments of the polarized quark singlet and gluon distributions are substantially reduced in comparison to NNPDFpol1.0, but also that more measurements may be needed to ultimately pin down the size of the gluon contribution to the nucleon spin.

  12. Polarized parton distributions at an electron–ion collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, Richard D.; Forte, Stefano; Guffanti, Alberto; Nocera, Emanuele R.; Ridolfi, Giovanni; Rojo, Juan

    2014-01-01

    We study the potential impact of inclusive deep-inelastic scattering data from a future electron–ion collider (EIC) on longitudinally polarized parton distributions (PDFs). We perform a PDF determination using the NNPDF methodology, based on sets of deep-inelastic EIC pseudodata, for different realistic choices of the electron and proton beam energies. We compare the results to our current polarized PDF set, NNPDFpol1.0, based on a fit to fixed-target inclusive DIS data. We show that the uncertainties on the first moments of the polarized quark singlet and gluon distributions are substantially reduced in comparison to NNPDFpol1.0, but also that more measurements may be needed to ultimately pin down the size of the gluon contribution to the nucleon spin

  13. Parton distribution functions with QED corrections in the valon model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottaghizadeh, Marzieh; Taghavi Shahri, Fatemeh; Eslami, Parvin

    2017-10-01

    The parton distribution functions (PDFs) with QED corrections are obtained by solving the QCD ⊗QED DGLAP evolution equations in the framework of the "valon" model at the next-to-leading-order QCD and the leading-order QED approximations. Our results for the PDFs with QED corrections in this phenomenological model are in good agreement with the newly related CT14QED global fits code [Phys. Rev. D 93, 114015 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevD.93.114015] and APFEL (NNPDF2.3QED) program [Comput. Phys. Commun. 185, 1647 (2014), 10.1016/j.cpc.2014.03.007] in a wide range of x =[10-5,1 ] and Q2=[0.283 ,108] GeV2 . The model calculations agree rather well with those codes. In the latter, we proposed a new method for studying the symmetry breaking of the sea quark distribution functions inside the proton.

  14. Proton-antiproton annihilation into a lambdaC-antiLambdaC pair within the generalized parton picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goritschnig, A. T.

    2009-01-01

    The proton-antiproton annihilation into a LambdaC-AntiLambdaC pair is investigated within the handbag approach. It is shown that the dominant dynamical mechanism, characterized by the partonic subprocess anti-u u -> anti-c c, factorizes in the sense that only the subprocess contains highly virtual partons, a gluon to lowest order of perturbative QCD, while the hadronic matrix elements embody only soft scales and can be parameterized in terms of helicity flip and non-flip generalized parton distributions. Modelling these parton distributions by overlaps of light-cone wave functions for the involved baryons were able to predict cross sections and spin correlation parameters for the process of interest. (author) [de

  15. Parton distributions for the LHC Run II

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Richard D.; Carrazza, Stefano; Deans, Christopher S.; Del Debbio, Luigi; Forte, Stefano; Guffanti, Alberto; Hartland, Nathan P.; Latorre, José I.; Rojo, Juan; Ubiali, Maria

    2015-01-01

    We present NNPDF3.0, the first set of parton distribution functions (PDFs) determined with a methodology validated by a closure test. NNPDF3.0 uses a global dataset including HERA-II deep-inelastic inclusive cross-sections, the combined HERA charm data, jet production from ATLAS and CMS, vector boson rapidity and transverse momentum distributions from ATLAS, CMS and LHCb, W+c data from CMS and top quark pair production total cross sections from ATLAS and CMS. Results are based on LO, NLO and NNLO QCD theory and also include electroweak corrections. To validate our methodology, we show that PDFs determined from pseudo-data generated from a known underlying law correctly reproduce the statistical distributions expected on the basis of the assumed experimental uncertainties. This closure test ensures that our methodological uncertainties are negligible in comparison to the generic theoretical and experimental uncertainties of PDF determination. This enables us to determine with confidence PDFs at different pertu...

  16. QCD collinear factorization, its extensions and the partonic distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Szymanowski, Lech

    2012-01-01

    I review the basics of the collinear factorization theorem applied primarily to deep inelastic scattering (DIS) involving forward parton distributions (PDFs) and the extensions of this theorem for exclusive processes probing non-forward parton distributions (GPDs), the generalized distribution amplitudes (GDAs) and the transition distribution amplitudes (TDAs). These QCD factorization theorem is an important tool in the description of hard processes in QCD. Whenever valid, it permits to repre...

  17. Improved quasi parton distribution through Wilson line renormalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jiunn-Wei [Department of Physics, Center for Theoretical Sciences, and Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, 106, Taiwan (China); Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Ji, Xiangdong [INPAC, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Maryland Center for Fundamental Physics, Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Zhang, Jian-Hui, E-mail: jianhui.zhang@physik.uni-regensburg.de [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Regensburg, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    Recent developments showed that hadron light-cone parton distributions could be directly extracted from spacelike correlators, known as quasi parton distributions, in the large hadron momentum limit. Unlike the normal light-cone parton distribution, a quasi parton distribution contains ultraviolet (UV) power divergence associated with the Wilson line self energy. We show that to all orders in the coupling expansion, the power divergence can be removed by a “mass” counterterm in the auxiliary z-field formalism, in the same way as the renormalization of power divergence for an open Wilson line. After adding this counterterm, the quasi quark distribution is improved such that it contains at most logarithmic divergences. Based on a simple version of discretized gauge action, we present the one-loop matching kernel between the improved non-singlet quasi quark distribution with a lattice regulator and the corresponding quark distribution in dimensional regularization.

  18. Improved quasi parton distribution through Wilson line renormalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiunn-Wei Chen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments showed that hadron light-cone parton distributions could be directly extracted from spacelike correlators, known as quasi parton distributions, in the large hadron momentum limit. Unlike the normal light-cone parton distribution, a quasi parton distribution contains ultraviolet (UV power divergence associated with the Wilson line self energy. We show that to all orders in the coupling expansion, the power divergence can be removed by a “mass” counterterm in the auxiliary z-field formalism, in the same way as the renormalization of power divergence for an open Wilson line. After adding this counterterm, the quasi quark distribution is improved such that it contains at most logarithmic divergences. Based on a simple version of discretized gauge action, we present the one-loop matching kernel between the improved non-singlet quasi quark distribution with a lattice regulator and the corresponding quark distribution in dimensional regularization.

  19. Nucleon form factors, generalized parton distributions and quark angular momentum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, Markus [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Kroll, Peter [Bergische Univ., Wuppertal (Germany). Fachbereich Physik; Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Institut fuer Theoretische Physik

    2013-02-15

    We extract the individual contributions from u and d quarks to the Dirac and Pauli form factors of the proton, after a critical examination of the available measurements of electromagnetic nucleon form factors. From this data we determine generalized parton distributions for valence quarks, assuming a particular form for their functional dependence. The result allows us to study various aspects of nucleon structure in the valence region. In particular, we evaluate Ji's sum rule and estimate the total angular momentum carried by valence quarks at the scale {mu}=2 GeV to be J{sup u}{sub v}=0.230{sup +0.009}{sub -0.024} and J{sup d}{sub v}=-0.004{sup +0.010}{sub -0.016}.

  20. Nucleon form factors, generalized parton distributions and quark angular momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, Markus; Kroll, Peter; Regensburg Univ.

    2013-02-01

    We extract the individual contributions from u and d quarks to the Dirac and Pauli form factors of the proton, after a critical examination of the available measurements of electromagnetic nucleon form factors. From this data we determine generalized parton distributions for valence quarks, assuming a particular form for their functional dependence. The result allows us to study various aspects of nucleon structure in the valence region. In particular, we evaluate Ji's sum rule and estimate the total angular momentum carried by valence quarks at the scale μ=2 GeV to be J u v =0.230 +0.009 -0.024 and J d v =-0.004 +0.010 -0.016 .

  1. Polarized parton distributions from charged-current deep-inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridolfi, G

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the capabilities of a neutrino factory in the determination of polarized parton distributions from charged-current deep-inelastic scattering experiments, with special attention to the accuracy of this kind of measurements. We show that a neutrino factory would allow to distinguish between different theoretical scenarios for the proton spin structure

  2. Parton distributions with small-x resummation : evidence for BFKL dynamics in HERA data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ball, Richard D.; Bertone, Valerio; Bonvini, Marco; Marzani, Simone; Rojo, Juan; Rottoli, Luca

    2017-01-01

    We present a determination of the parton distribution functions of the proton in which NLO and NNLO fixed-order calculations are supplemented by NLLx small-x resummation. Deep inelastic structure functions are computed consistently at NLO+NLLx or NNLO+NLLx, while for hadronic processes small-x

  3. EPPS16: nuclear parton distributions with LHC data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eskola, Kari J. [University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, University of Jyvaskyla (Finland); Helsinki Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 64, University of Helsinki (Finland); Paakkinen, Petja [University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, University of Jyvaskyla (Finland); Paukkunen, Hannu [University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, University of Jyvaskyla (Finland); Helsinki Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 64, University of Helsinki (Finland); Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Instituto Galego de Fisica de Altas Enerxias (IGFAE), Galicia (Spain); Salgado, Carlos A. [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Instituto Galego de Fisica de Altas Enerxias (IGFAE), Galicia (Spain)

    2017-03-15

    We introduce a global analysis of collinearly factorized nuclear parton distribution functions (PDFs) including, for the first time, data constraints from LHC proton-lead collisions. In comparison to our previous analysis, EPS09, where data only from charged-lepton-nucleus deep inelastic scattering (DIS), Drell-Yan (DY) dilepton production in proton-nucleus collisions and inclusive pion production in deuteron-nucleus collisions were the input, we now increase the variety of data constraints to cover also neutrino-nucleus DIS and low-mass DY production in pion-nucleus collisions. The new LHC data significantly extend the kinematic reach of the data constraints. We now allow much more freedom for the flavor dependence of nuclear effects than in other currently available analyses. As a result, especially the uncertainty estimates are more objective flavor by flavor. The neutrino DIS plays a pivotal role in obtaining a mutually consistent behavior for both up and down valence quarks, and the LHC dijet data clearly constrain gluons at large momentum fraction. Mainly for insufficient statistics, the pion-nucleus DY and heavy-gauge-boson production in proton-lead collisions impose less visible constraints. The outcome - a new set of next-to-leading order nuclear PDFs called EPPS16 - is made available for applications in high-energy nuclear collisions. (orig.)

  4. Polarized parton distributions from charged-current deep-inelastic scattering and future neutrino factories

    CERN Document Server

    Forte, Stefano; Ridolfi, G; Forte, Stefano; Mangano, Michelangelo L.; Ridolfi, Giovanni

    2001-01-01

    We discuss the determination of polarized parton distributions from charged-current deep-inelastic scattering experiments. We summarize the next-to-leading order treatment of charged-current polarized structure functions, their relation to polarized parton distributions and scale dependence, and discuss their description by means of a next-to-leading order evolution code. We discuss current theoretical expectations and positivity constraints on the unmeasured C-odd combinations Delta q-Delta qbar of polarized quark distributions, and their determination in charged-current deep-inelastic scattering experiments. We give estimates of the expected errors on charged-current structure functions at a future neutrino factory, and perform a study of the accuracy in the determination of polarized parton distributions that would be possible at such a facility. We show that these measurements have the potential to distinguish between different theoretical scenarios for the proton spin structure.

  5. Polarized parton distributions from charged-current deep-inelastic scattering and future neutrino factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forte, Stefano; Mangano, Michelangelo L.; Ridolfi, Giovanni

    2001-01-01

    We discuss the determination of polarized parton distributions from charged-current deep-inelastic scattering experiments. We summarize the next-to-leading-order treatment of charged-current polarized structure functions, their relation to polarized parton distributions and scale dependence, and discuss their description by means of a next-to-leading-order evolution code. We discuss current theoretical expectations and positivity constraints on the unmeasured C-odd combinations Δq-Δq-bar of polarized quark distributions, and their determination in charged-current deep-inelastic scattering experiments. We give estimates of the expected errors on charged-current structure functions at a future neutrino factory, and perform a study of the accuracy in the determination of polarized parton distributions that would be possible at such a facility. We show that these measurements have the potential to distinguish between different theoretical scenarios for the proton spin structure

  6. Generalized parton distributions and transversity from full lattice QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göckeler, M.; Hägler, Ph.; Horsley, R.; Pleiter, D.; Rakow, P. E. L.; Schäfer, A.; Schierholz, G.; Zanotti, J. M.; Qcdsf Collaboration

    2005-06-01

    We present here the latest results from the QCDSF collaboration for moments of gener- alized parton distributions and transversity in two-flavour QCD, including a preliminary analysis of the pion mass dependence.

  7. Parton distributions andαs for the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekhin, S.; Bluemlein, J.; Moch, S.O.; Univ. Hamburg

    2013-03-01

    We report on recent determinations of NNLO parton distributions and of α s (M Z ) based on the world deep-inelastic data, supplemented by collider data. Some applications are discussed for semi-inclusive processes at the LHC.

  8. Transverse momentum dependent (TMD) parton distribution functions : status and prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angeles-Martinez, R.; Bacchetta, A.; Balitsky, I.I.; Boer, D.; Boglione, M.; Boussarie, R.; Ceccopieri, F.A.; Cherednikov, I.O.; Connor, P.; Echevarria, M. G.; Ferrera, G.; Luyando, J. Grados; Hautmann, F.; Jung, H.; Kasemets, T.; Kutak, K.; Lansberg, J.P.; Lelek, A.; Lykasov, G.; Martinez, J. D. Madrigal; Mulders, P. J.; Nocera, Emanuele R.; Petreska, E.; Pisano, C.; Placakyte, R.; Radescu, V.; Radici, M.; Schnell, G.; Scimemi, I.; Signori, A.; Szymanowski, L.; Monfared, S. Taheri; van der Veken, F.F.; van Haevermaet, H.J.; van Mechelen, P.; Vladimirov, A.; Wallon, S.

    2015-01-01

    We review transverse momentum dependent (TMD) parton distribution functions, their application to topical issues in high-energy physics phenomenology, and their theoretical connections with QCD resummation, evolution and factorization theorems. We illustrate the use of TMDs via examples of

  9. Nucleon parton distributions in a light-front quark model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutsche, Thomas; Lyubovitskij, Valery E.; Schmidt, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Continuing our analysis of parton distributions in the nucleon, we extend our light-front quark model in order to obtain both the helicity-independent and the helicity-dependent parton distributions, analytically matching the results of global fits at the initial scale μ∝ 1 GeV; they also contain the correct Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi evolution. We also calculate the transverse parton, Wigner and Husimi distributions from a unified point of view, using our light-front wave functions and expressing them in terms of the parton distributions q_v(x) and δq_v(x). Our results are very relevant for the current and future program of the COMPASS experiment at SPS (CERN). (orig.)

  10. Nucleon parton distributions in a light-front quark model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutsche, Thomas [Universitaet Tuebingen, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Kepler Center for Astro and Particle Physics, Tuebingen (Germany); Lyubovitskij, Valery E. [Universitaet Tuebingen, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Kepler Center for Astro and Particle Physics, Tuebingen (Germany); Tomsk State University, Department of Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Tomsk Polytechnic University, Laboratory of Particle Physics, Mathematical Physics Department, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Departamento de Fisica y Centro Cientifico Tecnologico de Valparaiso (CCTVal), Valparaiso (Chile); Schmidt, Ivan [Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Departamento de Fisica y Centro Cientifico Tecnologico de Valparaiso (CCTVal), Valparaiso (Chile)

    2017-02-15

    Continuing our analysis of parton distributions in the nucleon, we extend our light-front quark model in order to obtain both the helicity-independent and the helicity-dependent parton distributions, analytically matching the results of global fits at the initial scale μ∝ 1 GeV; they also contain the correct Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi evolution. We also calculate the transverse parton, Wigner and Husimi distributions from a unified point of view, using our light-front wave functions and expressing them in terms of the parton distributions q{sub v}(x) and δq{sub v}(x). Our results are very relevant for the current and future program of the COMPASS experiment at SPS (CERN). (orig.)

  11. Insight into nucleon structure from generalized parton distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.W. Negele; R.C. Brower; P. Dreher; R. Edwards; G. Fleming; Ph. Hagler; Th. Lippert; A.V.Pochinsky; D.B. Renner; D. Richards; K. Schilling; W. Schroers

    2004-01-01

    The lowest three moments of generalized parton distributions are calculated in full QCD and provide new insight into the behavior of nucleon electromagnetic form factors, the origin of the nucleon spin, and the transverse structure of the nucleon

  12. Computation of parton distributions from the quasi-PDF approach at the physical point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrou, Constantia; Bacchio, Simone; Cichy, Krzysztof; Constantinou, Martha; Hadjiyiannakou, Kyriakos; Jansen, Karl; Koutsou, Giannis; Scapellato, Aurora; Steffens, Fernanda

    2018-03-01

    We show the first results for parton distribution functions within the proton at the physical pion mass, employing the method of quasi-distributions. In particular, we present the matrix elements for the iso-vector combination of the unpolarized, helicity and transversity quasi-distributions, obtained with Nf = 2 twisted mass cloverimproved fermions and a proton boosted with momentum |p→| = 0.83 GeV. The momentum smearing technique has been applied to improve the overlap with the proton boosted state. Moreover, we present the renormalized helicity matrix elements in the RI' scheme, following the non-perturbative renormalization prescription recently developed by our group.

  13. Experimental tests of charge symmetry violation in parton distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Londergan, J.T.; Murdock, D.P.; Thomas, A.W.

    2005-01-01

    Recently, a global phenomenological fit to high energy data has included charge symmetry breaking terms, leading to limits on the allowed magnitude of such effects. We discuss two possible experiments that could search for isospin violation in valence parton distributions. We show that, given the magnitude of charge symmetry violation consistent with existing global data, such experiments might expect to see effects at a level of several percent. Alternatively, such experiments could significantly decrease the upper limits on isospin violation in parton distributions

  14. Neural network determination of parton distributions: the nonsinglet case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Debbio, Luigi; Forte, Stefano; Latorre, Jose I.; Piccione, Andrea; Rojo, Joan

    2007-01-01

    We provide a determination of the isotriplet quark distribution from available deep-inelastic data using neural networks. We give a general introduction to the neural network approach to parton distributions, which provides a solution to the problem of constructing a faithful and unbiased probability distribution of parton densities based on available experimental information. We discuss in detail the techniques which are necessary in order to construct a Monte Carlo representation of the data, to construct and evolve neural parton distributions, and to train them in such a way that the correct statistical features of the data are reproduced. We present the results of the application of this method to the determination of the nonsinglet quark distribution up to next-to-next-to-leading order, and compare them with those obtained using other approaches

  15. Imaging partons in exclusive scattering processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, Markus

    2012-06-15

    The spatial distribution of partons in the proton can be probed in suitable exclusive scattering processes. I report on recent performance estimates for parton imaging at a proposed Electron-Ion Collider.

  16. New advances in the statistical parton distributions approach*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soffer Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The quantum statistical parton distributions approach proposed more than one decade ago is revisited by considering a larger set of recent and accurate Deep Inelastic Scattering experimental results. It enables us to improve the description of the data by means of a new determination of the parton distributions. This global next-to-leading order QCD analysis leads to a good description of several structure functions, involving unpolarized parton distributions and helicity distributions, in terms of a rather small number of free parameters. There are many serious challenging issues. The predictions of this theoretical approach will be tested for single-jet production and charge asymmetry in W± production in p̄p and pp collisions up to LHC energies, using recent data and also for forthcoming experimental results.

  17. Testing collinear factorization and nuclear parton distributions with pA collisions at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quiroga-Arias, Paloma [Departamento de Fisica de PartIculas and IGFAE, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela 15706 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Milhano, Jose Guilherme [CENTRA, Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico (IST), Av. Rovisco Pais 1, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Wiedemann, Urs Achim, E-mail: pquiroga@fpaxpl.usc.es [Physics Department, Theory Unit, CERN, CH-1211 Geneve 23 (Switzerland)

    2011-01-01

    Global perturbative QCD analyses, based on large data sets from electron-proton and hadron collider experiments, provide tight constraints on the parton distribution function (PDF) in the proton. The extension of these analyses to nuclear parton distributions (nPDF) has attracted much interest in recent years. nPDFs are needed as benchmarks for the characterization of hot QCD matter in nucleus-nucleus collisions, and attract further interest since they may show novel signatures of non- linear density-dependent QCD evolution. However, it is not known from first principles whether the factorization of long-range phenomena into process-independent parton distribution, which underlies global PDF extractions for the proton, extends to nuclear effects. As a consequence, assessing the reliability of nPDFs for benchmark calculations goes beyond testing the numerical accuracy of their extraction and requires phenomenological tests of the factorization assumption. Here we argue that a proton-nucleus collision program at the LHC would provide a set of measurements allowing for unprecedented tests of the factorization assumption underlying global nPDF fits.

  18. Testing nuclear parton distributions with pA collisions at the TeV scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quiroga-Arias, Paloma; Milhano, Jose Guilherme; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2010-01-01

    Global perturbative QCD analyses, based on large data sets from electron-proton and hadron collider experiments, provide tight constraints on the parton distribution function (PDF) in the proton. The extension of these analyses to nuclear parton distribution functions (nPDFs) has attracted much interest in recent years. nPDFs are needed as benchmarks for the characterization of hot QCD matter in nucleus-nucleus collisions, and attract further interest since they may show novel signatures of nonlinear density-dependent QCD evolution. However, it is not known from first principles whether the factorization of long-range phenomena into process-independent parton distribution, which underlies global PDF extractions for the proton, extends to nuclear effects. As a consequence, assessing the reliability of nPDFs for benchmark calculations goes beyond testing the numerical accuracy of their extraction and requires phenomenological tests of the factorization assumption. Here, we argue that a proton-nucleus collision program at the Large Hadron Collider would provide a set of measurements, which allow for unprecedented tests of the factorization assumption, underlying global nPDF fits.

  19. Reconstruction of Monte Carlo replicas from Hessian parton distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Tie-Jiun [Department of Physics, Southern Methodist University,Dallas, TX 75275-0181 (United States); Gao, Jun [INPAC, Shanghai Key Laboratory for Particle Physics and Cosmology,Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao-Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory,Argonne, Illinois, 60439 (United States); Huston, Joey [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University,East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Nadolsky, Pavel [Department of Physics, Southern Methodist University,Dallas, TX 75275-0181 (United States); Schmidt, Carl; Stump, Daniel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University,East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Wang, Bo-Ting; Xie, Ke Ping [Department of Physics, Southern Methodist University,Dallas, TX 75275-0181 (United States); Dulat, Sayipjamal [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University,East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); School of Physics Science and Technology, Xinjiang University,Urumqi, Xinjiang 830046 (China); Center for Theoretical Physics, Xinjiang University,Urumqi, Xinjiang 830046 (China); Pumplin, Jon; Yuan, C.P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University,East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2017-03-20

    We explore connections between two common methods for quantifying the uncertainty in parton distribution functions (PDFs), based on the Hessian error matrix and Monte-Carlo sampling. CT14 parton distributions in the Hessian representation are converted into Monte-Carlo replicas by a numerical method that reproduces important properties of CT14 Hessian PDFs: the asymmetry of CT14 uncertainties and positivity of individual parton distributions. The ensembles of CT14 Monte-Carlo replicas constructed this way at NNLO and NLO are suitable for various collider applications, such as cross section reweighting. Master formulas for computation of asymmetric standard deviations in the Monte-Carlo representation are derived. A correction is proposed to address a bias in asymmetric uncertainties introduced by the Taylor series approximation. A numerical program is made available for conversion of Hessian PDFs into Monte-Carlo replicas according to normal, log-normal, and Watt-Thorne sampling procedures.

  20. Unbiased determination of polarized parton distributions and their uncertainties

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Richard D.; Guffanti, Alberto; Nocera, Emanuele R.; Ridolfi, Giovanni; Rojo, Juan

    2013-01-01

    We present a determination of a set of polarized parton distributions (PDFs) of the nucleon, at next-to-leading order, from a global set of longitudinally polarized deep-inelastic scattering data: NNPDFpol1.0. The determination is based on the NNPDF methodology: a Monte Carlo approach, with neural networks used as unbiased interpolants, previously applied to the determination of unpolarized parton distributions, and designed to provide a faithful and statistically sound representation of PDF uncertainties. We present our dataset, its statistical features, and its Monte Carlo representation. We summarize the technique used to solve the polarized evolution equations and its benchmarking, and the method used to compute physical observables. We review the NNPDF methodology for parametrization and fitting of neural networks, the algorithm used to determine the optimal fit, and its adaptation to the polarized case. We finally present our set of polarized parton distributions. We discuss its statistical properties, ...

  1. The role of the input scale in parton distribution analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez-Delgado, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    A first systematic study of the effects of the choice of the input scale in global determinations of parton distributions and QCD parameters is presented. It is shown that, although in principle the results should not depend on these choices, in practice a relevant dependence develops as a consequence of what is called procedural bias. This uncertainty should be considered in addition to other theoretical and experimental errors, and a practical procedure for its estimation is proposed. Possible sources of mistakes in the determination of QCD parameter from parton distribution analysis are pointed out.

  2. On the use of the KMR unintegrated parton distribution functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golec-Biernat, Krzysztof; Staśto, Anna M.

    2018-06-01

    We discuss the unintegrated parton distribution functions (UPDFs) introduced by Kimber, Martin and Ryskin (KMR), which are frequently used in phenomenological analyses of hard processes with transverse momenta of partons taken into account. We demonstrate numerically that the commonly used differential definition of the UPDFs leads to erroneous results for large transverse momenta. We identify the reason for that, being the use of the ordinary PDFs instead of the cutoff dependent distribution functions. We show that in phenomenological applications, the integral definition of the UPDFs with the ordinary PDFs can be used.

  3. Parton distributions and lattice QCD calculations: A community white paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Huey-Wen; Nocera, Emanuele R.; Olness, Fred; Orginos, Kostas; Rojo, Juan; Accardi, Alberto; Alexandrou, Constantia; Bacchetta, Alessandro; Bozzi, Giuseppe; Chen, Jiunn-Wei; Collins, Sara; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Constantinou, Martha; Del Debbio, Luigi; Engelhardt, Michael; Green, Jeremy; Gupta, Rajan; Harland-Lang, Lucian A.; Ishikawa, Tomomi; Kusina, Aleksander; Liu, Keh-Fei; Liuti, Simonetta; Monahan, Christopher; Nadolsky, Pavel; Qiu, Jian-Wei; Schienbein, Ingo; Schierholz, Gerrit; Thorne, Robert S.; Vogelsang, Werner; Wittig, Hartmut; Yuan, C.-P.; Zanotti, James

    2018-05-01

    In the framework of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), parton distribution functions (PDFs) quantify how the momentum and spin of a hadron are divided among its quark and gluon constituents. Two main approaches exist to determine PDFs. The first approach, based on QCD factorization theorems, realizes a QCD analysis of a suitable set of hard-scattering measurements, often using a variety of hadronic observables. The second approach, based on first-principle operator definitions of PDFs, uses lattice QCD to compute directly some PDF-related quantities, such as their moments. Motivated by recent progress in both approaches, in this document we present an overview of lattice-QCD and global-analysis techniques used to determine unpolarized and polarized proton PDFs and their moments. We provide benchmark numbers to validate present and future lattice-QCD calculations and we illustrate how they could be used to reduce the PDF uncertainties in current unpolarized and polarized global analyses. This document represents a first step towards establishing a common language between the two communities, to foster dialogue and to further improve our knowledge of PDFs.

  4. Unbiased Polarised Parton Distribution Functions and their Uncertainties

    CERN Document Server

    Nocera, Emanuele R.; Ridolfi, Giovanni; Rojo, Juan

    2012-01-01

    We present preliminary results on the determination of spin-dependent, or polarised, Parton Distribution Functions (PDFs) from all relevant inclusive polarised DIS data. The analysis is performed within the NNPDF approach, which provides a faithful and statistically sound representation of PDFs and their uncertainties. We describe how the NNPDF methodology has been extended to the polarised case, and compare our results with other recent polarised parton sets. We show that polarised PDF uncertainties can be sizeably underestimated in standard determinations, most notably for the gluon.

  5. Transverse momentum dependent (TMD) parton distribution functions. Status and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angeles-Martinez, R.; Bacchetta, A.; Pavia Univ.; Balitsky, I.I.

    2015-07-01

    We provide a concise overview on transverse momentum dependent (TMD) parton distribution functions, their application to topical issues in high-energy physics phenomenology, and their theoretical connections with QCD resummation, evolution and factorization theorems. We illustrate the use of TMDs via examples of multi-scale problems in hadronic collisions. These include transverse momentum q T spectra of Higgs and vector bosons for low q T , and azimuthal correlations in the production of multiple jets associated with heavy bosons at large jet masses. We discuss computational tools for TMDs, and present an application of a new tool, TMDlib, to parton density fits and parameterizations.

  6. Spin-dependent parton distributions and structure functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentz, W.; Ito, T.; Cloet, I.C.; Thomas, A.W.; Yazaki, K.

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear parton distributions and structure functions are determined in an effective chiral quark theory. We also discuss an extension of our model to fragmentation functions. Presented at the 20th Few-Body Conference, Pisa, Italy, 10-14 September 2007. (author)

  7. The QCD coupling and parton distributions at high precision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluemlein, Johannes

    2010-07-01

    A survey is given on the present status of the nucleon parton distributions and related precision calculations and precision measurements of the strong coupling constant α s (M 2 Z ). We also discuss the impact of these quantities on precision observables at hadron colliders. (orig.)

  8. The QCD coupling and parton distributions at high precision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluemlein, Johannes

    2010-07-15

    A survey is given on the present status of the nucleon parton distributions and related precision calculations and precision measurements of the strong coupling constant {alpha}{sub s}(M{sup 2}{sub Z}). We also discuss the impact of these quantities on precision observables at hadron colliders. (orig.)

  9. Parton distributions and{alpha}{sub s} for the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekhin, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Institut Fiziki Vysokikh Ehnergij, Protvino (Russian Federation); Bluemlein, J. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Moch, S.O. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Univ. Hamburg (Germany). 2. Inst fuer Theoretische Physik

    2013-03-15

    We report on recent determinations of NNLO parton distributions and of {alpha}{sub s}(M{sub Z}) based on the world deep-inelastic data, supplemented by collider data. Some applications are discussed for semi-inclusive processes at the LHC.

  10. Comparative study of the uncertainties in parton distribution functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekhin, S.I.

    2003-01-01

    Comparison of the methods used to extract the uncertainties in parton distributions is given, including their statistical properties and practical issues of implementation. Advantages and disadvantages of different methods are illustrated using the examples based on the analysis of real data. Available PDFs sets with associated uncertainties are reviewed and critically compared

  11. A determination of parton distributions with faithful uncertainty estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, Richard D.; Del Debbio, Luigi; Forte, Stefano; Guffanti, Alberto; Latorre, Jose I.; Piccione, Andrea; Rojo, Juan; Ubiali, Maria

    2009-01-01

    We present the determination of a set of parton distributions of the nucleon, at next-to-leading order, from a global set of deep-inelastic scattering data: NNPDF1.0. The determination is based on a Monte Carlo approach, with neural networks used as unbiased interpolants. This method, previously discussed by us and applied to a determination of the nonsinglet quark distribution, is designed to provide a faithful and statistically sound representation of the uncertainty on parton distributions. We discuss our dataset, its statistical features, and its Monte Carlo representation. We summarize the technique used to solve the evolution equations and its benchmarking, and the method used to compute physical observables. We discuss the parametrization and fitting of neural networks, and the algorithm used to determine the optimal fit. We finally present our set of parton distributions. We discuss its statistical properties, test for its stability upon various modifications of the fitting procedure, and compare it to other recent parton sets. We use it to compute the benchmark W and Z cross sections at the LHC. We discuss issues of delivery and interfacing to commonly used packages such as LHAPDF

  12. Unbiased determination of polarized parton distributions and their uncertainties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, Richard D. [Tait Institute, University of Edinburgh, JCMB, KB, Mayfield Rd, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Forte, Stefano, E-mail: forte@mi.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano and INFN, Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Guffanti, Alberto [The Niels Bohr International Academy and Discovery Center, The Niels Bohr Institute, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Nocera, Emanuele R. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano and INFN, Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Ridolfi, Giovanni [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Genova and INFN, Sezione di Genova, Genova (Italy); Rojo, Juan [PH Department, TH Unit, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2013-09-01

    We present a determination of a set of polarized parton distributions (PDFs) of the nucleon, at next-to-leading order, from a global set of longitudinally polarized deep-inelastic scattering data: NNPDFpol1.0. The determination is based on the NNPDF methodology: a Monte Carlo approach, with neural networks used as unbiased interpolants, previously applied to the determination of unpolarized parton distributions, and designed to provide a faithful and statistically sound representation of PDF uncertainties. We present our dataset, its statistical features, and its Monte Carlo representation. We summarize the technique used to solve the polarized evolution equations and its benchmarking, and the method used to compute physical observables. We review the NNPDF methodology for parametrization and fitting of neural networks, the algorithm used to determine the optimal fit, and its adaptation to the polarized case. We finally present our set of polarized parton distributions. We discuss its statistical properties, test for its stability upon various modifications of the fitting procedure, and compare it to other recent polarized parton sets, and in particular obtain predictions for polarized first moments of PDFs based on it. We find that the uncertainties on the gluon, and to a lesser extent the strange PDF, were substantially underestimated in previous determinations.

  13. Unbiased determination of polarized parton distributions and their uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, Richard D.; Forte, Stefano; Guffanti, Alberto; Nocera, Emanuele R.; Ridolfi, Giovanni; Rojo, Juan

    2013-01-01

    We present a determination of a set of polarized parton distributions (PDFs) of the nucleon, at next-to-leading order, from a global set of longitudinally polarized deep-inelastic scattering data: NNPDFpol1.0. The determination is based on the NNPDF methodology: a Monte Carlo approach, with neural networks used as unbiased interpolants, previously applied to the determination of unpolarized parton distributions, and designed to provide a faithful and statistically sound representation of PDF uncertainties. We present our dataset, its statistical features, and its Monte Carlo representation. We summarize the technique used to solve the polarized evolution equations and its benchmarking, and the method used to compute physical observables. We review the NNPDF methodology for parametrization and fitting of neural networks, the algorithm used to determine the optimal fit, and its adaptation to the polarized case. We finally present our set of polarized parton distributions. We discuss its statistical properties, test for its stability upon various modifications of the fitting procedure, and compare it to other recent polarized parton sets, and in particular obtain predictions for polarized first moments of PDFs based on it. We find that the uncertainties on the gluon, and to a lesser extent the strange PDF, were substantially underestimated in previous determinations

  14. Unintegrated parton distributions and electroweak boson production at hadron colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Watt, G; Ryskin, M G

    2004-01-01

    We describe the use of doubly-unintegrated parton distributions in hadron-hadron collisions, using the (z,k_t)-factorisation prescription where the transverse momentum of the incoming parton is generated in the last evolution step. We apply this formalism to calculate the transverse momentum (P_T) distributions of produced W and Z bosons and compare the predictions to Tevatron Run 1 data. We find that the observed P_T distributions can be generated almost entirely by the leading order q_1 q_2 -> W,Z subprocesses, using known and universal doubly-unintegrated quark distributions. We also calculate the P_T distribution of the Standard Model Higgs boson at the LHC, where the dominant production mechanism is by gluon-gluon fusion.

  15. Global study of nuclear modifications on parton distribution functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A global analysis of nuclear medium modifications of parton distributions is presented using deeply inelastic scattering data of various nuclear targets. Two obtained data sets are provided for quark and gluon nuclear modification factors, referred as nIMParton16. One is from the global fit only to the experimental data of isospin-scalar nuclei (Set A, and the other is from the fit to all the measured nuclear data (Set B. The scale-dependence is described by DGLAP equations with nonlinear corrections in this work. The Fermi motion and off-shell effect, nucleon swelling, and parton–parton recombination are taken into account together for modeling the complicated x-dependence of nuclear modification. The nuclear gluon shadowing in this paper is dynamically generated by the QCD evolution of parton splitting and recombination processes with zero gluon density at the input scale. Sophisticated nuclear dependence of nuclear medium effects is studied with only two free parameters. With the obtained free parameters from the global analysis, the nuclear modifications of parton distribution functions of unmeasured nuclei can be predicted in our model. Nuclear modification of deuteron is also predicted and shown with recent measurement at JLab.

  16. Unpolarized and polarized parton densities in term of Fermi-Dirac distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourrely, C.

    1996-01-01

    A description of quark parton densities of the proton in terms of Fermi-Dirac distributions parametrized with very few parameters is given. It allows a fair description of the NMC, BCDMS, SLAC and HERA data on F 2 p (x,Q 2 ) in a broad range of x and Q 2 . With some simple assumptions unpolarized and polarized quark parton distributions are related which lead to a fair description of the spin-dependent structure functions xg 1 p (x,Q 2 ) and xg 1 n (x,Q 2 ). Finally, several predictions are presented for lepton pair and gauge boson production in pp collisions at energies accessible in the future at RHIC. (author)

  17. Multiplicity distributions in the dual parton model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batunin, A.V.; Tolstenkov, A.N.

    1985-01-01

    Multiplicity distributions are calculated by means of a new mechanism of production of hadrons in a string, which was proposed previously by the authors and takes into account explicitly the valence character of the ends of the string. It is shown that allowance for this greatly improves the description of the low-energy multiplicity distributions. At superhigh energies, the contribution of the ends of the strings becomes negligibly small, but in this case multi-Pomeron contributions must be taken into account

  18. Chiral perturbation theory for nucleon generalized parton distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Manashov, A. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik 1 - Theoretische Physik]|[Sankt-Petersburg State Univ. (Russian Federation). Dept. of Theoretical Physics; Schaefer, A. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik 1 - Theoretische Physik

    2006-08-15

    We analyze the moments of the isosinglet generalized parton distributions H, E, H, E of the nucleon in one-loop order of heavy-baryon chiral perturbation theory. We discuss in detail the construction of the operators in the effective theory that are required to obtain all corrections to a given order in the chiral power counting. The results will serve to improve the extrapolation of lattice results to the chiral limit. (orig.)

  19. Implications of new deep inelastic scattering data for parton distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, A.D.; Stirling, W.J.; Roberts, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    We perform a next-to-leading order structure function F 2 analysis of μN and νN deep inelastic data in an attempt to resolve the disagreement between recent EMC (European muon collaboration effect) and BCDMS measurements of F 2 for μp scattering. Equally acceptable QCD fits are obtained including either set of μN data, but a comparison with Drell-Yan data appears to favour the parton distributions derived from the BCDMS data. (author)

  20. Moments of nucleon spin-dependent generalized parton distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroers, W.; Brower, R.C.; Dreher, P.; Edwards, R.; Fleming, G.; Haegler, Ph.; Heller, U.M.; Lippert, Th.; Negele, J.W.; Pochinsky, A.V.; Renner, D.B.; Richards, D.; Schilling, K.

    2004-01-01

    We present a lattice measurement of the first two moments of the spin-dependent GPD H∼(x, ξ, t). From these we obtain the axial coupling constant and the second moment of the spin-dependent forward parton distribution. The measurements are done in full QCD using Wilson fermions. In addition, we also present results from a first exploratory study of full QCD using Asqtad sea and domain-wall valence fermions

  1. Timelike Compton scattering off the neutron and generalized parton distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boer, M.; Guidal, M. [CNRS-IN2P3, Universite Paris-Sud, Institut de Physique Nucleaire d' Orsay, Orsay (France); Vanderhaeghen, M. [Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet, Institut fuer Kernphysik and PRISMA Cluster of Excellence, Mainz (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    We study the exclusive photoproduction of an electron-positron pair on a neutron target in the Jefferson Lab energy domain. The reaction consists of two processes: the Bethe-Heitler and the Timelike Compton Scattering. The latter process provides potentially access to the Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) of the nucleon. We calculate all the unpolarized, single- and double-spin observables of the reaction and study their sensitivities to GPDs. (orig.)

  2. Parton distributions from high-precision collider data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, Richard D.; Del Debbio, Luigi; Groth-Merrild, Patrick [University of Edinburgh, The Higgs Centre for Theoretical Physics, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Bertone, Valerio; Hartland, Nathan P.; Rojo, Juan [VU University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Nikhef Theory Group, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Carrazza, Stefano [CERN, Theoretical Physics Department, Geneva (Switzerland); Forte, Stefano [Universita di Milano, Tif Lab, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milano (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Milano, Milano (Italy); Guffanti, Alberto [Universita di Torino, Dipartimento di Fisica, Turin (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Torino, Turin (Italy); Kassabov, Zahari [Universita di Milano, Tif Lab, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milano (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Milano, Milano (Italy); Universita di Torino, Dipartimento di Fisica, Turin (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Torino, Turin (Italy); Latorre, Jose I. [Universitat de Barcelona, Departament de Fisica Quantica i Astrofisica, Barcelona (Spain); National University of Singapore, Center for Quantum Technologies, Singapore (Singapore); Nocera, Emanuele R.; Rottoli, Luca; Slade, Emma [University of Oxford, Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, Oxford (United Kingdom); Ubiali, Maria [University of Cambridge, Cavendish Laboratory, HEP Group, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Collaboration: NNPDF Collaboration

    2017-10-15

    We present a new set of parton distributions, NNPDF3.1, which updates NNPDF3.0, the first global set of PDFs determined using a methodology validated by a closure test. The update is motivated by recent progress in methodology and available data, and involves both. On the methodological side, we now parametrize and determine the charm PDF alongside the light-quark and gluon ones, thereby increasing from seven to eight the number of independent PDFs. On the data side, we now include the D0 electron and muon W asymmetries from the final Tevatron dataset, the complete LHCb measurements of W and Z production in the forward region at 7 and 8 TeV, and new ATLAS and CMS measurements of inclusive jet and electroweak boson production. We also include for the first time top-quark pair differential distributions and the transverse momentum of the Z bosons from ATLAS and CMS. We investigate the impact of parametrizing charm and provide evidence that the accuracy and stability of the PDFs are thereby improved. We study the impact of the new data by producing a variety of determinations based on reduced datasets. We find that both improvements have a significant impact on the PDFs, with some substantial reductions in uncertainties, but with the new PDFs generally in agreement with the previous set at the one-sigma level. The most significant changes are seen in the light-quark flavor separation, and in increased precision in the determination of the gluon. We explore the implications of NNPDF3.1 for LHC phenomenology at Run II, compare with recent LHC measurements at 13 TeV, provide updated predictions for Higgs production cross-sections and discuss the strangeness and charm content of the proton in light of our improved dataset and methodology. The NNPDF3.1 PDFs are delivered for the first time both as Hessian sets, and as optimized Monte Carlo sets with a compressed number of replicas. (orig.)

  3. Transverse momentum dependent parton distributions at small-x

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Wen Xiao

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We study the transverse momentum dependent (TMD parton distributions at small-x in a consistent framework that takes into account the TMD evolution and small-x evolution simultaneously. The small-x evolution effects are included by computing the TMDs at appropriate scales in terms of the dipole scattering amplitudes, which obey the relevant Balitsky–Kovchegov equation. Meanwhile, the TMD evolution is obtained by resumming the Collins–Soper type large logarithms emerged from the calculations in small-x formalism into Sudakov factors.

  4. Orbital angular momentum parton distributions in quark models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scopetta, S.; Vento, V.

    2000-01-01

    At the low energy, hadronic, scale we calculate Orbital Angular Momentum (OAM) twist-two parton distributions for the relativistic MIT bag model and for nonrelativistic quark models. We reach the scale of the data by leading order evolution in perturbative QCD. We confirm that the contribution of quarks and gluons OAM to the nucleon spin grows with Q 2 , and it can be relevant at the experimental scale, even if it is negligible at the hadronic scale, irrespective of the model used. The sign and shape of the quark OAM distribution at high Q 2 may depend strongly on the relative size of the OAM and spin distributions at the hadronic scale. Sizeable quark OAM distributions at the hadronic scale, as proposed by several authors, can produce the dominant contribution to the nucleon spin at high Q 2 . (author)

  5. Double parton scattering. A tale of two partons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasemets, Tomas

    2013-08-15

    Double parton scattering in proton-proton collisions can give sizable contributions to final states in parts of phase space. We investigate the correlations between the partons participating in the two hard interactions of double parton scattering. With a detailed calculation of the differential cross section for the double Drell-Yan process we demonstrate how initial state correlations between the partons affect the rate and distribution of final state particles. We present our results with focus on correlations between the polarizations of the partons. In particular transversely polarized quarks lead to a dependence of the cross section on angles between final state particles of the two hard interactions, and thereby on the invariant mass of particle pairs. The size of the spin correlations, and therewith the degree to which the final state particles are correlated, depends on unknown double parton distributions. We derive positivity bounds on the double parton distributions that follow from their interpretation as probability densities, taking into account all possible spin correlations between two partons in an unpolarized proton. We show that the bounds are stable under homogeneous leading-order DGLAP evolution to higher scales. We make direct use of the positivity bounds in numerical investigations on the double DGLAP evolution for two linearly polarized gluons and for two transversely polarized quarks. We find that the linearly polarized gluons are likely to be negligible at high scales but that transversely polarized quarks can still play a significant role. We examine the dependence of the double parton distributions on the transverse distance between the two partons, and therewith between the two hard interactions. We further study the interplay between transverse and longitudinal variables of the distributions, as well as the impact of the differences in integration limits between the evolution equations for single and double parton distributions. (orig.)

  6. Transverse momentum-dependent parton distribution functions in lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelhardt, Michael G. [New Mexico State University; Musch, Bernhard U. [Tech. University Munich; Haegler, Philipp G. [Tech. University Munich; Negele, John W. [MIT; Schaefer, Andreas [Regensburg

    2013-08-01

    A fundamental structural property of the nucleon is the distribution of quark momenta, both parallel as well as perpendicular to its propagation. Experimentally, this information is accessible via selected processes such as semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) and the Drell-Yan process (DY), which can be parametrized in terms of transversemomentum-dependent parton distributions (TMDs). On the other hand, these distribution functions can be extracted from nucleon matrix elements of a certain class of bilocal quark operators in which the quarks are connected by a staple-shaped Wilson line serving to incorporate initial state (DY) or final state (SIDIS) interactions. A scheme for evaluating such matrix elements within lattice QCD is developed. This requires casting the calculation in a particular Lorentz frame, which is facilitated by a parametrization of the matrix elements in terms of invariant amplitudes. Exploratory results are presented for the time-reversal odd Sivers and Boer-Mulders transverse momentum shifts.

  7. Review of parton distributions and implications for the Tevatron and the LHC Partons in Collision at Physics in Collision

    CERN Document Server

    Huston, J

    2001-01-01

    This talk is intended to serve as a pedagogical guide on the determination of, the proper use of, and the uncertainties of parton distribution functions and their impact on physics cross sections at the Tevatron and LHC. A longer writeup of this talk is available at http://www.pa.msu.edu./~huston/lhc/lhc_pdfnote.ps. (12 refs).

  8. Generalized parton distributions and rapidity gap survival in exclusive diffractive pp scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonid Frankfurt; Charles Hyde-Wright; Mark Strikman; Christian Weiss

    2007-03-01

    We propose a new approach to the problem of rapidity gap survival (RGS) in the production of high-mass systems (H = dijet, heavy quarkonium, Higgs boson) in double-gap exclusive diffractive pp scattering, pp-->p + (gap) + H + (gap) + p. It is based on the idea that hard and soft interactions proceed over widely different time- and distance scales and are thus approximately independent. The high-mass system is produced in a hard scattering process with exchange of two gluons between the protons. Its amplitude is calculable in terms of the gluon generalized parton distributions (GPDs) in the protons, which can be measured in J= production in exclusive ep scattering. The hard scattering process is modified by soft spectator interactions, which we calculate in a model-independent way in terms of the pp elastic scattering amplitude. Contributions from inelastic intermediate states are suppressed. A simple geometric picture of the interplay of hard and soft interactions in diffraction is obtained. The onset of the black-disk limit in pp scattering at TeV energies strongly suppresses diffraction at small impact parameters and is the main factor in determining the RGS probability. Correlations between hard and soft interactions (e.g. due to scattering from the long-range pion field of the proton, or due to possible short-range transverse correlations between partons) further decrease the RGS probability. We also investigate the dependence of the diffractive cross section on the transverse momenta of the final-state protons (''diffraction pattern''). By measuring this dependence one can perform detailed tests of the interplay of hard and soft interactions, and even extract information about the gluon GPD in the proton. Such studies appear to be feasible with the planned forward detectors at the LHC.

  9. Generalized parton distributions and rapidity gap survival in exclusive diffractive pp scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonid Frankfurt; Charles Hyde-Wright; Mark Strikman; Christian Weiss

    2006-01-01

    We propose a new approach to the problem of rapidity gap survival (RGS) in the production of high-mass systems (H = dijet, heavy quarkonium, Higgs boson) in double-gap exclusive diffractive pp scattering, pp-->p + (gap) + H + (gap) + p. It is based on the idea that hard and soft interactions proceed over widely different time- and distance scales and are thus approximately independent. The high-mass system is produced in a hard scattering process with exchange of two gluons between the protons. Its amplitude is calculable in terms of the gluon generalized parton distributions (GPDs) in the protons, which can be measured in J= production in exclusive ep scattering. The hard scattering process is modified by soft spectator interactions, which we calculate in a model-independent way in terms of the pp elastic scattering amplitude. Contributions from inelastic intermediate states are suppressed. A simple geometric picture of the interplay of hard and soft interactions in diffraction is obtained. The onset of the black-disk limit in pp scattering at TeV energies strongly suppresses diffraction at small impact parameters and is the main factor in determining the RGS probability. Correlations between hard and soft interactions (e.g. due to scattering from the long-range pion field of the proton, or due to possible short-range transverse correlations between partons) further decrease the RGS probability. We also investigate the dependence of the diffractive cross section on the transverse momenta of the final-state protons (''diffraction pattern''). By measuring this dependence one can perform detailed tests of the interplay of hard and soft interactions, and even extract information about the gluon GPD in the proton. Such studies appear to be feasible with the planned forward detectors at the LHC

  10. Parton distribution function for quarks in an s-channel approach

    CERN Document Server

    Hautmann, F

    2007-01-01

    We use an s-channel picture of hard hadronic collisions to investigate the parton distribution function for quarks at small momentum fraction x, which corresponds to very high energy scattering. We study the renormalized quark distribution at one loop in this approach. In the high-energy picture, the quark distribution function is expressed in terms of a Wilson-line correlator that represents the cross section for a color dipole to scatter from the proton. We model this Wilson-line correlator in a saturation model. We relate this representation of the quark distribution function to the corresponding representation of the structure function F_T(x,Q^2) for deeply inelastic scattering.

  11. Uncertainties of predictions from parton distributions 1, experimental errors

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, A D; Stirling, William James; Thorne, R S; CERN. Geneva

    2003-01-01

    We determine the uncertainties on observables arising from the errors on the experimental data that are fitted in the global MRST2001 parton analysis. By diagonalizing the error matrix we produce sets of partons suitable for use within the framework of linear propagation of errors, which is the most convenient method for calculating the uncertainties. Despite the potential limitations of this approach we find that it can be made to work well in practice. This is confirmed by our alternative approach of using the more rigorous Lagrange multiplier method to determine the errors on physical quantities directly. As particular examples we determine the uncertainties on the predictions of the charged-current deep-inelastic structure functions, on the cross-sections for W production and for Higgs boson production via gluon--gluon fusion at the Tevatron and the LHC, on the ratio of W-minus to W-plus production at the LHC and on the moments of the non-singlet quark distributions. We discuss the corresponding uncertain...

  12. QCD phenomenology of parton distribution functions at small x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tung, Wu-Ki

    1990-09-01

    The small x behavior of parton distributions is studied phenomenologically by examining in detail a series of QCD-evolved distribution sets obtained in a new global analysis of deep inelastic scattering and lepton-pair production experiments. The importance of 2-loop evolution is discussed. The main features and results of the global analysis are described. The range of small x behavior consistent with next-to-leading order QCD and current data is delineated. The extrapolated small x behavior is parameterized by effective Q-dependent power- and logarithmic-law parameters. Intriguing features of the evolution of these parameters with Q are presented. Alternative parametrizations based on the analytic solution for small x is also explored. 20 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  13. Constraints on the double-parton scattering cross section from same-sign W boson pair production in proton-proton collisions at √{s}=8 TeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Ambrogi, F.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Flechl, M.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Grossmann, J.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; König, A.; Krammer, N.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Madlener, T.; Mikulec, I.; Pree, E.; Rabady, D.; Rad, N.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Schöfbeck, R.; Spanring, M.; Spitzbart, D.; Waltenberger, W.; Wittmann, J.; Wulz, C.-E.; Zarucki, M.; Chekhovsky, V.; Mossolov, V.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; De Wolf, E. A.; Di Croce, D.; Janssen, X.; Lauwers, J.; Van De Klundert, M.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; D'Hondt, J.; De Bruyn, I.; De Clercq, J.; Deroover, K.; Flouris, G.; Lontkovskyi, D.; Lowette, S.; Moortgat, S.; Moreels, L.; Python, Q.; Skovpen, K.; Tavernier, S.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Parijs, I.; Beghin, D.; Brun, H.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Delannoy, H.; Dorney, B.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Goldouzian, R.; Grebenyuk, A.; Karapostoli, G.; Lenzi, T.; Luetic, J.; Maerschalk, T.; Marinov, A.; Randle-conde, A.; Seva, T.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Vannerom, D.; Yonamine, R.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, F.; Cimmino, A.; Cornelis, T.; Dobur, D.; Fagot, A.; Gul, M.; Khvastunov, I.; Poyraz, D.; Roskas, C.; Salva, S.; Tytgat, M.; Verbeke, W.; Zaganidis, N.; Bakhshiansohi, H.; Bondu, O.; Brochet, S.; Bruno, G.; Caputo, C.; Caudron, A.; De Visscher, S.; Delaere, C.; Delcourt, M.; Francois, B.; Giammanco, A.; Jafari, A.; Komm, M.; Krintiras, G.; Lemaitre, V.; Magitteri, A.; Mertens, A.; Musich, M.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Quertenmont, L.; Vidal Marono, M.; Wertz, S.; Beliy, N.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Alves, F. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Hensel, C.; Moraes, A.; Pol, M. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Coelho, E.; Da Costa, E. M.; Da Silveira, G. G.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Huertas Guativa, L. M.; Malbouisson, H.; Melo De Almeida, M.; Mora Herrera, C.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Torres Da Silva De Araujo, F.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Ahuja, S.; Bernardes, C. A.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Romero Abad, D.; Ruiz Vargas, J. C.; Aleksandrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Misheva, M.; Rodozov, M.; Shopova, M.; Sultanov, G.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Fang, W.; Gao, X.; Ahmad, M.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Chen, Y.; Jiang, C. H.; Leggat, D.; Liao, H.; Liu, Z.; Romeo, F.; Shaheen, S. M.; Spiezia, A.; Tao, J.; Wang, C.; Wang, Z.; Yazgan, E.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, S.; Zhao, J.; Ban, Y.; Chen, G.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; González Hernández, C. F.; Ruiz Alvarez, J. D.; Courbon, B.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Puljak, I.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Sculac, T.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Ferencek, D.; Kadija, K.; Mesic, B.; Starodumov, A.; Susa, T.; Ather, M. W.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Carrera Jarrin, E.; Assran, Y.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Mahrous, A.; Dewanjee, R. K.; Kadastik, M.; Perrini, L.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Veelken, C.; Eerola, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Järvinen, T.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Faure, J. L.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Ghosh, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Kucher, I.; Locci, E.; Machet, M.; Malcles, J.; Negro, G.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Sahin, M. Ö.; Titov, M.; Abdulsalam, A.; Amendola, C.; Antropov, I.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Cadamuro, L.; Charlot, C.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Jo, M.; Lisniak, S.; Lobanov, A.; Martin Blanco, J.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Ortona, G.; Paganini, P.; Pigard, P.; Salerno, R.; Sauvan, J. B.; Sirois, Y.; Stahl Leiton, A. G.; Strebler, T.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Zghiche, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Buttignol, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Chanon, N.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Coubez, X.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Jansová, M.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Tonon, N.; Van Hove, P.; Gadrat, S.; Beauceron, S.; Bernet, C.; Boudoul, G.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fay, J.; Finco, L.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grenier, G.; Ille, B.; Lagarde, F.; Laktineh, I. B.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Pequegnot, A. L.; Perries, S.; Popov, A.; Sordini, V.; Vander Donckt, M.; Viret, S.; Toriashvili, T.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Autermann, C.; Feld, L.; Kiesel, M. K.; Klein, K.; Lipinski, M.; Preuten, M.; Schomakers, C.; Schulz, J.; Verlage, T.; Zhukov, V.; Albert, A.; Dietz-Laursonn, E.; Duchardt, D.; Endres, M.; Erdmann, M.; Erdweg, S.; Esch, T.; Fischer, R.; Güth, A.; Hamer, M.; Hebbeker, T.; Heidemann, C.; Hoepfner, K.; Knutzen, S.; Merschmeyer, M.; Meyer, A.; Millet, P.; Mukherjee, S.; Pook, T.; Radziej, M.; Reithler, H.; Rieger, M.; Scheuch, F.; Teyssier, D.; Thüer, S.; Flügge, G.; Kargoll, B.; Kress, T.; Künsken, A.; Lingemann, J.; Müller, T.; Nehrkorn, A.; Nowack, A.; Pistone, C.; Pooth, O.; Stahl, A.; Aldaya Martin, M.; Arndt, T.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Beernaert, K.; Behnke, O.; Behrens, U.; Bermúdez Martínez, A.; Bin Anuar, A. A.; Borras, K.; Botta, V.; Campbell, A.; Connor, P.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Costanza, F.; Diez Pardos, C.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Eichhorn, T.; Eren, E.; Gallo, E.; Garay Garcia, J.; Geiser, A.; Gizhko, A.; Grados Luyando, J. M.; Grohsjean, A.; Gunnellini, P.; Guthoff, M.; Harb, A.; Hauk, J.; Hempel, M.; Jung, H.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Kasemann, M.; Keaveney, J.; Kleinwort, C.; Korol, I.; Krücker, D.; Lange, W.; Lelek, A.; Lenz, T.; Leonard, J.; Lipka, K.; Lohmann, W.; Mankel, R.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.; Meyer, A. B.; Mittag, G.; Mnich, J.; Mussgiller, A.; Ntomari, E.; Pitzl, D.; Raspereza, A.; Roland, B.; Savitskyi, M.; Saxena, P.; Shevchenko, R.; Spannagel, S.; Stefaniuk, N.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Walsh, R.; Wen, Y.; Wichmann, K.; Wissing, C.; Zenaiev, O.; Bein, S.; Blobel, V.; Centis Vignali, M.; Dreyer, T.; Garutti, E.; Gonzalez, D.; Haller, J.; Hinzmann, A.; Hoffmann, M.; Karavdina, A.; Klanner, R.; Kogler, R.; Kovalchuk, N.; Kurz, S.; Lapsien, T.; Marchesini, I.; Marconi, D.; Meyer, M.; Niedziela, M.; Nowatschin, D.; Pantaleo, F.; Peiffer, T.; Perieanu, A.; Scharf, C.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, A.; Schumann, S.; Schwandt, J.; Sonneveld, J.; Stadie, H.; Steinbrück, G.; Stober, F. M.; Stöver, M.; Tholen, H.; Troendle, D.; Usai, E.; Vanelderen, L.; Vanhoefer, A.; Vormwald, B.; Akbiyik, M.; Barth, C.; Baur, S.; Butz, E.; Caspart, R.; Chwalek, T.; Colombo, F.; De Boer, W.; Dierlamm, A.; Freund, B.; Friese, R.; Giffels, M.; Haitz, D.; Hartmann, F.; Heindl, S. M.; Husemann, U.; Kassel, F.; Kudella, S.; Mildner, H.; Mozer, M. U.; Müller, Th.; Plagge, M.; Quast, G.; Rabbertz, K.; Schröder, M.; Shvetsov, I.; Sieber, G.; Simonis, H. J.; Ulrich, R.; Wayand, S.; Weber, M.; Weiler, T.; Williamson, S.; Wöhrmann, C.; Wolf, R.; Anagnostou, G.; Daskalakis, G.; Geralis, T.; Giakoumopoulou, V. A.; Kyriakis, A.; Loukas, D.; Topsis-Giotis, I.; Karathanasis, G.; Kesisoglou, S.; Panagiotou, A.; Saoulidou, N.; Kousouris, K.; Evangelou, I.; Foudas, C.; Kokkas, P.; Mallios, S.; Manthos, N.; Papadopoulos, I.; Paradas, E.; Strologas, J.; Triantis, F. A.; Csanad, M.; Filipovic, N.; Pasztor, G.; Veres, G. I.; Bencze, G.; Hajdu, C.; Horvath, D.; Hunyadi, Á.; Sikler, F.; Veszpremi, V.; Zsigmond, A. J.; Beni, N.; Czellar, S.; Karancsi, J.; Makovec, A.; Molnar, J.; Szillasi, Z.; Bartók, M.; Raics, P.; Trocsanyi, Z. L.; Ujvari, B.; Choudhury, S.; Komaragiri, J. R.; Bahinipati, S.; Bhowmik, S.; Mal, P.; Mandal, K.; Nayak, A.; Sahoo, D. K.; Sahoo, N.; Swain, S. K.; Bansal, S.; Beri, S. B.; Bhatnagar, V.; Chawla, R.; Dhingra, N.; Kalsi, A. K.; Kaur, A.; Kaur, M.; Kumar, R.; Kumari, P.; Mehta, A.; Singh, J. B.; Walia, G.; Kumar, Ashok; Shah, Aashaq; Bhardwaj, A.; Chauhan, S.; Choudhary, B. C.; Garg, R. B.; Keshri, S.; Kumar, A.; Malhotra, S.; Naimuddin, M.; Ranjan, K.; Sharma, R.; Bhardwaj, R.; Bhattacharya, R.; Bhattacharya, S.; Bhawandeep, U.; Dey, S.; Dutt, S.; Dutta, S.; Ghosh, S.; Majumdar, N.; Modak, A.; Mondal, K.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Nandan, S.; Purohit, A.; Roy, A.; Roy, D.; Roy Chowdhury, S.; Sarkar, S.; Sharan, M.; Thakur, S.; Behera, P. K.; Chudasama, R.; Dutta, D.; Jha, V.; Kumar, V.; Mohanty, A. K.; Netrakanti, P. K.; Pant, L. M.; Shukla, P.; Topkar, A.; Aziz, T.; Dugad, S.; Mahakud, B.; Mitra, S.; Mohanty, G. B.; Sur, N.; Sutar, B.; Banerjee, S.; Bhattacharya, S.; Chatterjee, S.; Das, P.; Guchait, M.; Jain, Sa.; Kumar, S.; Maity, M.; Majumder, G.; Mazumdar, K.; Sarkar, T.; Wickramage, N.; Chauhan, S.; Dube, S.; Hegde, V.; Kapoor, A.; Kothekar, K.; Pandey, S.; Rane, A.; Sharma, S.; Chenarani, S.; Eskandari Tadavani, E.; Etesami, S. M.; Khakzad, M.; Mohammadi Najafabadi, M.; Naseri, M.; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, S.; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, F.; Safarzadeh, B.; Zeinali, M.; Felcini, M.; Grunewald, M.; Abbrescia, M.; Calabria, C.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; Cristella, L.; De Filippis, N.; De Palma, M.; Errico, F.; Fiore, L.; Iaselli, G.; Lezki, S.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Miniello, G.; My, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pompili, A.; Pugliese, G.; Radogna, R.; Ranieri, A.; Selvaggi, G.; Sharma, A.; Silvestris, L.; Venditti, R.; Verwilligen, P.; Abbiendi, G.; Battilana, C.; Bonacorsi, D.; Braibant-Giacomelli, S.; Campanini, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Castro, A.; Cavallo, F. R.; Chhibra, S. S.; Codispoti, G.; Cuffiani, M.; Dallavalle, G. M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fasanella, D.; Giacomelli, P.; Grandi, C.; Guiducci, L.; Marcellini, S.; Masetti, G.; Montanari, A.; Navarria, F. L.; Perrotta, A.; Rossi, A. M.; Rovelli, T.; Siroli, G. P.; Tosi, N.; Albergo, S.; Costa, S.; Di Mattia, A.; Giordano, F.; Potenza, R.; Tricomi, A.; Tuve, C.; Barbagli, G.; Chatterjee, K.; Ciulli, V.; Civinini, C.; D'Alessandro, R.; Focardi, E.; Lenzi, P.; Meschini, M.; Paoletti, S.; Russo, L.; Sguazzoni, G.; Strom, D.; Viliani, L.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Fabbri, F.; Piccolo, D.; Primavera, F.; Calvelli, V.; Ferro, F.; Robutti, E.; Tosi, S.; Benaglia, A.; Brianza, L.; Brivio, F.; Ciriolo, V.; Dinardo, M. E.; Fiorendi, S.; Gennai, S.; Ghezzi, A.; Govoni, P.; Malberti, M.; Malvezzi, S.; Manzoni, R. A.; Menasce, D.; Moroni, L.; Paganoni, M.; Pauwels, K.; Pedrini, D.; Pigazzini, S.; Ragazzi, S.; Redaelli, N.; Tabarelli de Fatis, T.; Buontempo, S.; Cavallo, N.; Di Guida, S.; Fabozzi, F.; Fienga, F.; Iorio, A. O. M.; Khan, W. A.; Lista, L.; Meola, S.; Paolucci, P.; Sciacca, C.; Thyssen, F.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Benato, L.; Benettoni, M.; Boletti, A.; Carlin, R.; Carvalho Antunes De Oliveira, A.; Checchia, P.; Dall'Osso, M.; De Castro Manzano, P.; Dorigo, T.; Dosselli, U.; Gasparini, F.; Gasparini, U.; Gozzelino, A.; Lacaprara, S.; Lujan, P.; Margoni, M.; Pozzobon, N.; Ronchese, P.; Rossin, R.; Simonetto, F.; Torassa, E.; Ventura, S.; Zanetti, M.; Zotto, P.; Braghieri, A.; Magnani, A.; Montagna, P.; Ratti, S. P.; Re, V.; Ressegotti, M.; Riccardi, C.; Salvini, P.; Vai, I.; Vitulo, P.; Alunni Solestizi, L.; Biasini, M.; Bilei, G. M.; Cecchi, C.; Ciangottini, D.; Fanò, L.; Lariccia, P.; Leonardi, R.; Manoni, E.; Mantovani, G.; Mariani, V.; Menichelli, M.; Rossi, A.; Santocchia, A.; Spiga, D.; Androsov, K.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Boccali, T.; Borrello, L.; Castaldi, R.; Ciocci, M. A.; Dell'Orso, R.; Fedi, G.; Giannini, L.; Giassi, A.; Grippo, M. T.; Ligabue, F.; Lomtadze, T.; Manca, E.; Mandorli, G.; Martini, L.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzi, A.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Spagnolo, P.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Barone, L.; Cavallari, F.; Cipriani, M.; Daci, N.; Del Re, D.; Di Marco, E.; Diemoz, M.; Gelli, S.; Longo, E.; Margaroli, F.; Marzocchi, B.; Meridiani, P.; Organtini, G.; Paramatti, R.; Preiato, F.; Rahatlou, S.; Rovelli, C.; Santanastasio, F.; Amapane, N.; Arcidiacono, R.; Argiro, S.; Arneodo, M.; Bartosik, N.; Bellan, R.; Biino, C.; Cartiglia, N.; Cenna, F.; Costa, M.; Covarelli, R.; Degano, A.; Demaria, N.; Kiani, B.; Mariotti, C.; Maselli, S.; Migliore, E.; Monaco, V.; Monteil, E.; Monteno, M.; Obertino, M. M.; Pacher, L.; Pastrone, N.; Pelliccioni, M.; Pinna Angioni, G. L.; Ravera, F.; Romero, A.; Ruspa, M.; Sacchi, R.; Shchelina, K.; Sola, V.; Solano, A.; Staiano, A.; Traczyk, P.; Belforte, S.; Casarsa, M.; Cossutti, F.; Della Ricca, G.; Zanetti, A.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, G. N.; Kim, M. S.; Lee, J.; Lee, S.; Lee, S. W.; Moon, C. S.; Oh, Y. D.; Sekmen, S.; Son, D. C.; Yang, Y. C.; Lee, A.; Kim, H.; Moon, D. H.; Oh, G.; Brochero Cifuentes, J. A.; Goh, J.; Kim, T. J.; Cho, S.; Choi, S.; Go, Y.; Gyun, D.; Ha, S.; Hong, B.; Jo, Y.; Kim, Y.; Lee, K.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, S.; Lim, J.; Park, S. K.; Roh, Y.; Almond, J.; Kim, J.; Kim, J. S.; Lee, H.; Lee, K.; Nam, K.; Oh, S. B.; Radburn-Smith, B. C.; Seo, S. h.; Yang, U. K.; Yoo, H. D.; Yu, G. B.; Choi, M.; Kim, H.; Kim, J. H.; Lee, J. S. H.; Park, I. C.; Choi, Y.; Hwang, C.; Lee, J.; Yu, I.; Dudenas, V.; Juodagalvis, A.; Vaitkus, J.; Ahmed, I.; Ibrahim, Z. A.; Md Ali, M. A. B.; Mohamad Idris, F.; Wan Abdullah, W. A. T.; Yusli, M. N.; Zolkapli, Z.; Reyes-Almanza, R.; Ramirez-Sanchez, G.; Duran-Osuna, M. C.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Heredia-De La Cruz, I.; Rabadan-Trejo, R. I.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Mejia Guisao, J.; Sanchez-Hernandez, A.; Carrillo Moreno, S.; Oropeza Barrera, C.; Vazquez Valencia, F.; Pedraza, I.; Salazar Ibarguen, H. A.; Uribe Estrada, C.; Morelos Pineda, A.; Krofcheck, D.; Butler, P. H.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmad, M.; Hassan, Q.; Hoorani, H. R.; Saddique, A.; Shah, M. A.; Shoaib, M.; Waqas, M.; Bialkowska, H.; Bluj, M.; Boimska, B.; Frueboes, T.; Górski, M.; Kazana, M.; Nawrocki, K.; Szleper, M.; Zalewski, P.; Bunkowski, K.; Byszuk, A.; Doroba, K.; Kalinowski, A.; Konecki, M.; Krolikowski, J.; Misiura, M.; Olszewski, M.; Pyskir, A.; Walczak, M.; Bargassa, P.; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, C.; Di Francesco, A.; Faccioli, P.; Galinhas, B.; Gallinaro, M.; Hollar, J.; Leonardo, N.; Lloret Iglesias, L.; Nemallapudi, M. V.; Seixas, J.; Strong, G.; Toldaiev, O.; Vadruccio, D.; Varela, J.; Baginyan, A.; Golunov, A.; Golutvin, I.; Karjavin, V.; Korenkov, V.; Kozlov, G.; Lanev, A.; Malakhov, A.; Matveev, V.; Mitsyn, V. V.; Palichik, V.; Perelygin, V.; Shmatov, S.; Smirnov, V.; Voytishin, N.; Yuldashev, B. S.; Zarubin, A.; Zhiltsov, V.; Ivanov, Y.; Kim, V.; Kuznetsova, E.; Levchenko, P.; Murzin, V.; Oreshkin, V.; Smirnov, I.; Sulimov, V.; Uvarov, L.; Vavilov, S.; Vorobyev, A.; Andreev, Yu.; Dermenev, A.; Gninenko, S.; Golubev, N.; Karneyeu, A.; Kirsanov, M.; Krasnikov, N.; Pashenkov, A.; Tlisov, D.; Toropin, A.; Epshteyn, V.; Gavrilov, V.; Lychkovskaya, N.; Popov, V.; Pozdnyakov, I.; Safronov, G.; Spiridonov, A.; Stepennov, A.; Toms, M.; Vlasov, E.; Zhokin, A.; Aushev, T.; Bylinkin, A.; Chadeeva, M.; Parygin, P.; Philippov, D.; Polikarpov, S.; Popova, E.; Rusinov, V.; Andreev, V.; Azarkin, M.; Dremin, I.; Kirakosyan, M.; Terkulov, A.; Baskakov, A.; Belyaev, A.; Boos, E.; Ershov, A.; Gribushin, A.; Khein, L.; Klyukhin, V.; Kodolova, O.; Lokhtin, I.; Lukina, O.; Miagkov, I.; Obraztsov, S.; Petrushanko, S.; Savrin, V.; Snigirev, A.; Blinov, V.; Shtol, D.; Skovpen, Y.; Azhgirey, I.; Bayshev, I.; Bitioukov, S.; Elumakhov, D.; Kachanov, V.; Kalinin, A.; Konstantinov, D.; Petrov, V.; Ryutin, R.; Sobol, A.; Troshin, S.; Tyurin, N.; Uzunian, A.; Volkov, A.; Adzic, P.; Cirkovic, P.; Devetak, D.; Dordevic, M.; Milosevic, J.; Rekovic, V.; Alcaraz Maestre, J.; Barrio Luna, M.; Cerrada, M.; Colino, N.; De La Cruz, B.; Delgado Peris, A.; Escalante Del Valle, A.; Fernandez Bedoya, C.; Fernández Ramos, J. P.; Flix, J.; Fouz, M. C.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Gonzalez Lopez, O.; Goy Lopez, S.; Hernandez, J. M.; Josa, M. I.; Moran, D.; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A.; Puerta Pelayo, J.; Quintario Olmeda, A.; Redondo, I.; Romero, L.; Soares, M. S.; Álvarez Fernández, A.; Albajar, C.; de Trocóniz, J. F.; Missiroli, M.; Cuevas, J.; Erice, C.; Fernandez Menendez, J.; Gonzalez Caballero, I.; González Fernández, J. R.; Palencia Cortezon, E.; Sanchez Cruz, S.; Vischia, P.; Vizan Garcia, J. M.; Cabrillo, I. J.; Calderon, A.; Chazin Quero, B.; Curras, E.; Duarte Campderros, J.; Fernandez, M.; Garcia-Ferrero, J.; Gomez, G.; Lopez Virto, A.; Marco, J.; Martinez Rivero, C.; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, P.; Matorras, F.; Piedra Gomez, J.; Rodrigo, T.; Ruiz-Jimeno, A.; Scodellaro, L.; Trevisani, N.; Vila, I.; Vilar Cortabitarte, R.; Abbaneo, D.; Auffray, E.; Baillon, P.; Ball, A. H.; Barney, D.; Bianco, M.; Bloch, P.; Bocci, A.; Botta, C.; Camporesi, T.; Castello, R.; Cepeda, M.; Cerminara, G.; Chapon, E.; Chen, Y.; d'Enterria, D.; Dabrowski, A.; Daponte, V.; David, A.; De Gruttola, M.; De Roeck, A.; Dobson, M.; du Pree, T.; Dünser, M.; Dupont, N.; Elliott-Peisert, A.; Everaerts, P.; Fallavollita, F.; Franzoni, G.; Fulcher, J.; Funk, W.; Gigi, D.; Gilbert, A.; Gill, K.; Glege, F.; Gulhan, D.; Harris, P.; Hegeman, J.; Innocente, V.; Janot, P.; Karacheban, O.; Kieseler, J.; Kirschenmann, H.; Knünz, V.; Kornmayer, A.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Krammer, M.; Lange, C.; Lecoq, P.; Lourenço, C.; Lucchini, M. T.; Malgeri, L.; Mannelli, M.; Martelli, A.; Meijers, F.; Merlin, J. A.; Mersi, S.; Meschi, E.; Milenovic, P.; Moortgat, F.; Mulders, M.; Neugebauer, H.; Ngadiuba, J.; Orfanelli, S.; Orsini, L.; Pape, L.; Perez, E.; Peruzzi, M.; Petrilli, A.; Petrucciani, G.; Pfeiffer, A.; Pierini, M.; Racz, A.; Reis, T.; Rolandi, G.; Rovere, M.; Sakulin, H.; Schäfer, C.; Schwick, C.; Seidel, M.; Selvaggi, M.; Sharma, A.; Silva, P.; Sphicas, P.; Stakia, A.; Steggemann, J.; Stoye, M.; Tosi, M.; Treille, D.; Triossi, A.; Tsirou, A.; Veckalns, V.; Verweij, M.; Zeuner, W. D.; Bertl, W.; Caminada, L.; Deiters, K.; Erdmann, W.; Horisberger, R.; Ingram, Q.; Kaestli, H. C.; Kotlinski, D.; Langenegger, U.; Rohe, T.; Wiederkehr, S. A.; Bäni, L.; Berger, P.; Bianchini, L.; Casal, B.; Dissertori, G.; Dittmar, M.; Donegà, M.; Grab, C.; Heidegger, C.; Hits, D.; Hoss, J.; Kasieczka, G.; Klijnsma, T.; Lustermann, W.; Mangano, B.; Marionneau, M.; Meinhard, M. T.; Meister, D.; Micheli, F.; Musella, P.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Pandolfi, F.; Pata, J.; Pauss, F.; Perrin, G.; Perrozzi, L.; Quittnat, M.; Reichmann, M.; Schönenberger, M.; Shchutska, L.; Tavolaro, V. R.; Theofilatos, K.; Vesterbacka Olsson, M. L.; Wallny, R.; Zhu, D. H.; Aarrestad, T. K.; Amsler, C.; Canelli, M. F.; De Cosa, A.; Del Burgo, R.; Donato, S.; Galloni, C.; Hreus, T.; Kilminster, B.; Pinna, D.; Rauco, G.; Robmann, P.; Salerno, D.; Seitz, C.; Takahashi, Y.; Zucchetta, A.; Candelise, V.; Doan, T. H.; Jain, Sh.; Khurana, R.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Yu, S. S.; Kumar, Arun; Chang, P.; Chao, Y.; Chen, K. F.; Chen, P. H.; Fiori, F.; Hou, W.-S.; Hsiung, Y.; Liu, Y. F.; Lu, R.-S.; Paganis, E.; Psallidas, A.; Steen, A.; Tsai, J. f.; Asavapibhop, B.; Kovitanggoon, K.; Singh, G.; Srimanobhas, N.; Bakirci, M. N.; Boran, F.; Cerci, S.; Damarseckin, S.; Demiroglu, Z. S.; Dozen, C.; Eskut, E.; Girgis, S.; Gokbulut, G.; Guler, Y.; Hos, I.; Kangal, E. E.; Kara, O.; Kiminsu, U.; Oglakci, M.; Onengut, G.; Ozdemir, K.; Polatoz, A.; Topakli, H.; Turkcapar, S.; Zorbakir, I. S.; Zorbilmez, C.; Bilin, B.; Karapinar, G.; Ocalan, K.; Yalvac, M.; Zeyrek, M.; Gülmez, E.; Kaya, M.; Kaya, O.; Tekten, S.; Yetkin, E. A.; Agaras, M. N.; Atay, S.; Cakir, A.; Cankocak, K.; Grynyov, B.; Levchuk, L.; Aggleton, R.; Ball, F.; Beck, L.; Brooke, J. J.; Burns, D.; Clement, E.; Cussans, D.; Davignon, O.; Flacher, H.; Goldstein, J.; Grimes, M.; Heath, G. P.; Heath, H. F.; Jacob, J.; Kreczko, L.; Lucas, C.; Newbold, D. M.; Paramesvaran, S.; Poll, A.; Sakuma, T.; Seif El Nasr-storey, S.; Smith, D.; Smith, V. J.; Bell, K. W.; Belyaev, A.; Brew, C.; Brown, R. M.; Calligaris, L.; Cieri, D.; Cockerill, D. J. A.; Coughlan, J. A.; Harder, K.; Harper, S.; Olaiya, E.; Petyt, D.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C. H.; Thea, A.; Tomalin, I. R.; Williams, T.; Auzinger, G.; Bainbridge, R.; Borg, J.; Breeze, S.; Buchmuller, O.; Bundock, A.; Casasso, S.; Citron, M.; Colling, D.; Corpe, L.; Dauncey, P.; Davies, G.; De Wit, A.; Della Negra, M.; Di Maria, R.; Elwood, A.; Haddad, Y.; Hall, G.; Iles, G.; James, T.; Lane, R.; Laner, C.; Lyons, L.; Magnan, A.-M.; Malik, S.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Matsushita, T.; Nash, J.; Nikitenko, A.; Palladino, V.; Pesaresi, M.; Raymond, D. M.; Richards, A.; Rose, A.; Scott, E.; Seez, C.; Shtipliyski, A.; Summers, S.; Tapper, A.; Uchida, K.; Vazquez Acosta, M.; Virdee, T.; Wardle, N.; Winterbottom, D.; Wright, J.; Zenz, S. C.; Cole, J. E.; Hobson, P. R.; Khan, A.; Kyberd, P.; Reid, I. D.; Symonds, P.; Teodorescu, L.; Turner, M.; Borzou, A.; Call, K.; Dittmann, J.; Hatakeyama, K.; Liu, H.; Pastika, N.; Smith, C.; Bartek, R.; Dominguez, A.; Buccilli, A.; Cooper, S. I.; Henderson, C.; Rumerio, P.; West, C.; Arcaro, D.; Avetisyan, A.; Bose, T.; Gastler, D.; Rankin, D.; Richardson, C.; Rohlf, J.; Sulak, L.; Zou, D.; Benelli, G.; Cutts, D.; Garabedian, A.; Hakala, J.; Heintz, U.; Hogan, J. M.; Kwok, K. H. M.; Laird, E.; Landsberg, G.; Mao, Z.; Narain, M.; Pazzini, J.; Piperov, S.; Sagir, S.; Syarif, R.; Yu, D.; Band, R.; Brainerd, C.; Breedon, R.; Burns, D.; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, M.; Chertok, M.; Conway, J.; Conway, R.; Cox, P. T.; Erbacher, R.; Flores, C.; Funk, G.; Gardner, M.; Ko, W.; Lander, R.; Mclean, C.; Mulhearn, M.; Pellett, D.; Pilot, J.; Shalhout, S.; Shi, M.; Smith, J.; Stolp, D.; Tos, K.; Tripathi, M.; Wang, Z.; Bachtis, M.; Bravo, C.; Cousins, R.; Dasgupta, A.; Florent, A.; Hauser, J.; Ignatenko, M.; Mccoll, N.; Regnard, S.; Saltzberg, D.; Schnaible, C.; Valuev, V.; Bouvier, E.; Burt, K.; Clare, R.; Ellison, J.; Gary, J. W.; Ghiasi Shirazi, S. M. A.; Hanson, G.; Heilman, J.; Kennedy, E.; Lacroix, F.; Long, O. R.; Olmedo Negrete, M.; Paneva, M. I.; Shrinivas, A.; Si, W.; Wang, L.; Wei, H.; Wimpenny, S.; Yates, B. R.; Branson, J. G.; Cittolin, S.; Derdzinski, M.; Gerosa, R.; Hashemi, B.; Holzner, A.; Klein, D.; Kole, G.; Krutelyov, V.; Letts, J.; Macneill, I.; Masciovecchio, M.; Olivito, D.; Padhi, S.; Pieri, M.; Sani, M.; Sharma, V.; Simon, S.; Tadel, M.; Vartak, A.; Wasserbaech, S.; Wood, J.; Würthwein, F.; Yagil, A.; Zevi Della Porta, G.; Amin, N.; Bhandari, R.; Bradmiller-Feld, J.; Campagnari, C.; Dishaw, A.; Dutta, V.; Franco Sevilla, M.; George, C.; Golf, F.; Gouskos, L.; Gran, J.; Heller, R.; Incandela, J.; Mullin, S. D.; Ovcharova, A.; Qu, H.; Richman, J.; Stuart, D.; Suarez, I.; Yoo, J.; Anderson, D.; Bendavid, J.; Bornheim, A.; Lawhorn, J. M.; Newman, H. B.; Nguyen, T.; Pena, C.; Spiropulu, M.; Vlimant, J. R.; Xie, S.; Zhang, Z.; Zhu, R. Y.; Andrews, M. B.; Ferguson, T.; Mudholkar, T.; Paulini, M.; Russ, J.; Sun, M.; Vogel, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Weinberg, M.; Cumalat, J. P.; Ford, W. T.; Jensen, F.; Johnson, A.; Krohn, M.; Leontsinis, S.; Mulholland, T.; Stenson, K.; Wagner, S. R.; Alexander, J.; Chaves, J.; Chu, J.; Dittmer, S.; Mcdermott, K.; Mirman, N.; Patterson, J. R.; Rinkevicius, A.; Ryd, A.; Skinnari, L.; Soffi, L.; Tan, S. M.; Tao, Z.; Thom, J.; Tucker, J.; Wittich, P.; Zientek, M.; Abdullin, S.; Albrow, M.; Alyari, M.; Apollinari, G.; Apresyan, A.; Apyan, A.; Banerjee, S.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Beretvas, A.; Berryhill, J.; Bhat, P. C.; Bolla, G.; Burkett, K.; Butler, J. N.; Canepa, A.; Cerati, G. B.; Cheung, H. W. K.; Chlebana, F.; Cremonesi, M.; Duarte, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Freeman, J.; Gecse, Z.; Gottschalk, E.; Gray, L.; Green, D.; Grünendahl, S.; Gutsche, O.; Harris, R. M.; Hasegawa, S.; Hirschauer, J.; Hu, Z.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, M.; Joshi, U.; Klima, B.; Kreis, B.; Lammel, S.; Lincoln, D.; Lipton, R.; Liu, M.; Liu, T.; Lopes De Sá, R.; Lykken, J.; Maeshima, K.; Magini, N.; Marraffino, J. M.; Mason, D.; McBride, P.; Merkel, P.; Mrenna, S.; Nahn, S.; O'Dell, V.; Pedro, K.; Prokofyev, O.; Rakness, G.; Ristori, L.; Schneider, B.; Sexton-Kennedy, E.; Soha, A.; Spalding, W. J.; Spiegel, L.; Stoynev, S.; Strait, J.; Strobbe, N.; Taylor, L.; Tkaczyk, S.; Tran, N. V.; Uplegger, L.; Vaandering, E. W.; Vernieri, C.; Verzocchi, M.; Vidal, R.; Wang, M.; Weber, H. A.; Whitbeck, A.; Acosta, D.; Avery, P.; Bortignon, P.; Bourilkov, D.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Carnes, A.; Carver, M.; Curry, D.; Field, R. D.; Furic, I. K.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Kotov, K.; Ma, P.; Matchev, K.; Mei, H.; Mitselmakher, G.; Rank, D.; Sperka, D.; Terentyev, N.; Thomas, L.; Wang, J.; Wang, S.; Yelton, J.; Joshi, Y. R.; Linn, S.; Markowitz, P.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Ackert, A.; Adams, T.; Askew, A.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Johnson, K. F.; Kolberg, T.; Martinez, G.; Perry, T.; Prosper, H.; Saha, A.; Santra, A.; Sharma, V.; Yohay, R.; Baarmand, M. M.; Bhopatkar, V.; Colafranceschi, S.; Hohlmann, M.; Noonan, D.; Roy, T.; Yumiceva, F.; Adams, M. R.; Apanasevich, L.; Berry, D.; Betts, R. R.; Cavanaugh, R.; Chen, X.; Evdokimov, O.; Gerber, C. E.; Hangal, D. A.; Hofman, D. J.; Jung, K.; Kamin, J.; Sandoval Gonzalez, I. D.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trauger, H.; Varelas, N.; Wang, H.; Wu, Z.; Zhang, J.; Bilki, B.; Clarida, W.; Dilsiz, K.; Durgut, S.; Gandrajula, R. P.; Haytmyradov, M.; Khristenko, V.; Merlo, J.-P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Moeller, A.; Nachtman, J.; Ogul, H.; Onel, Y.; Ozok, F.; Penzo, A.; Snyder, C.; Tiras, E.; Wetzel, J.; Yi, K.; Blumenfeld, B.; Cocoros, A.; Eminizer, N.; Fehling, D.; Feng, L.; Gritsan, A. V.; Maksimovic, P.; Roskes, J.; Sarica, U.; Swartz, M.; Xiao, M.; You, C.; Al-bataineh, A.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Boren, S.; Bowen, J.; Castle, J.; Khalil, S.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Majumder, D.; Mcbrayer, W.; Murray, M.; Royon, C.; Sanders, S.; Schmitz, E.; Tapia Takaki, J. D.; Wang, Q.; Ivanov, A.; Kaadze, K.; Maravin, Y.; Mohammadi, A.; Saini, L. K.; Skhirtladze, N.; Toda, S.; Rebassoo, F.; Wright, D.; Anelli, C.; Baden, A.; Baron, O.; Belloni, A.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Ferraioli, C.; Hadley, N. J.; Jabeen, S.; Jeng, G. Y.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kunkle, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Ricci-Tam, F.; Shin, Y. H.; Skuja, A.; Tonwar, S. C.; Abercrombie, D.; Allen, B.; Azzolini, V.; Barbieri, R.; Baty, A.; Bi, R.; Brandt, S.; Busza, W.; Cali, I. A.; D'Alfonso, M.; Demiragli, Z.; Gomez Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Hsu, D.; Iiyama, Y.; Innocenti, G. M.; Klute, M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Lai, Y. S.; Lee, Y.-J.; Levin, A.; Luckey, P. D.; Maier, B.; Marini, A. C.; Mcginn, C.; Mironov, C.; Narayanan, S.; Niu, X.; Paus, C.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Salfeld-Nebgen, J.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Tatar, K.; Velicanu, D.; Wang, J.; Wang, T. W.; Wyslouch, B.; Benvenuti, A. C.; Chatterjee, R. M.; Evans, A.; Hansen, P.; Kalafut, S.; Kubota, Y.; Lesko, Z.; Mans, J.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Rusack, R.; Turkewitz, J.; Acosta, J. G.; Oliveros, S.; Avdeeva, E.; Bloom, K.; Claes, D. R.; Fangmeier, C.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kamalieddin, R.; Kravchenko, I.; Monroy, J.; Siado, J. E.; Snow, G. R.; Stieger, B.; Dolen, J.; Godshalk, A.; Harrington, C.; Iashvili, I.; Nguyen, D.; Parker, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Roozbahani, B.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Hortiangtham, A.; Massironi, A.; Morse, D. M.; Orimoto, T.; Teixeira De Lima, R.; Trocino, D.; Wood, D.; Bhattacharya, S.; Charaf, O.; Hahn, K. A.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Pollack, B.; Schmitt, M. H.; Sung, K.; Trovato, M.; Velasco, M.; Dev, N.; Hildreth, M.; Hurtado Anampa, K.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kellams, N.; Lannon, K.; Loukas, N.; Marinelli, N.; Meng, F.; Mueller, C.; Musienko, Y.; Planer, M.; Reinsvold, A.; Ruchti, R.; Smith, G.; Taroni, S.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Woodard, A.; Alimena, J.; Antonelli, L.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Flowers, S.; Francis, B.; Hart, A.; Hill, C.; Ji, W.; Liu, B.; Luo, W.; Puigh, D.; Winer, B. L.; Wulsin, H. W.; Cooperstein, S.; Driga, O.; Elmer, P.; Hardenbrook, J.; Hebda, P.; Higginbotham, S.; Lange, D.; Luo, J.; Marlow, D.; Mei, K.; Ojalvo, I.; Olsen, J.; Palmer, C.; Piroué, P.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Malik, S.; Norberg, S.; Barker, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Das, S.; Folgueras, S.; Gutay, L.; Jha, M. K.; Jones, M.; Jung, A. W.; Khatiwada, A.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Peng, C. C.; Schulte, J. F.; Sun, J.; Wang, F.; Xie, W.; Cheng, T.; Parashar, N.; Stupak, J.; Adair, A.; Akgun, B.; Chen, Z.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Guilbaud, M.; Li, W.; Michlin, B.; Northup, M.; Padley, B. P.; Roberts, J.; Rorie, J.; Tu, Z.; Zabel, J.; Bodek, A.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Duh, Y. t.; Ferbel, T.; Galanti, M.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Han, J.; Hindrichs, O.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Lo, K. H.; Tan, P.; Verzetti, M.; Ciesielski, R.; Goulianos, K.; Mesropian, C.; Agapitos, A.; Chou, J. P.; Gershtein, Y.; Gómez Espinosa, T. A.; Halkiadakis, E.; Heindl, M.; Hughes, E.; Kaplan, S.; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, R.; Kyriacou, S.; Lath, A.; Montalvo, R.; Nash, K.; Osherson, M.; Saka, H.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Sheffield, D.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Thomassen, P.; Walker, M.; Delannoy, A. G.; Foerster, M.; Heideman, J.; Riley, G.; Rose, K.; Spanier, S.; Thapa, K.; Bouhali, O.; Castaneda Hernandez, A.; Celik, A.; Dalchenko, M.; De Mattia, M.; Delgado, A.; Dildick, S.; Eusebi, R.; Gilmore, J.; Huang, T.; Kamon, T.; Mueller, R.; Pakhotin, Y.; Patel, R.; Perloff, A.; Perniè, L.; Rathjens, D.; Safonov, A.; Tatarinov, A.; Ulmer, K. A.; Akchurin, N.; Damgov, J.; De Guio, F.; Dudero, P. R.; Faulkner, J.; Gurpinar, E.; Kunori, S.; Lamichhane, K.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Peltola, T.; Undleeb, S.; Volobouev, I.; Wang, Z.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Janjam, R.; Johns, W.; Maguire, C.; Melo, A.; Ni, H.; Padeken, K.; Sheldon, P.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Xu, Q.; Arenton, M. W.; Barria, P.; Cox, B.; Hirosky, R.; Joyce, M.; Ledovskoy, A.; Li, H.; Neu, C.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Wang, Y.; Wolfe, E.; Xia, F.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Sturdy, J.; Zaleski, S.; Brodski, M.; Buchanan, J.; Caillol, C.; Dasu, S.; Dodd, L.; Duric, S.; Gomber, B.; Grothe, M.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Hussain, U.; Klabbers, P.; Lanaro, A.; Levine, A.; Long, K.; Loveless, R.; Polese, G.; Ruggles, T.; Savin, A.; Smith, N.; Smith, W. H.; Taylor, D.; Woods, N.

    2018-02-01

    A first search for same-sign WW production via double-parton scattering is performed based on proton-proton collision data at a center-of-mass energy of 8 TeV using dimuon and electron-muon final states. The search is based on the analysis of data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb-1. No significant excess of events is observed above the expected single-parton scattering yields. A 95% confidence level upper limit of 0.32 pb is set on the inclusive cross section for same-sign WW production via the double-parton scattering process. This upper limit is used to place a 95% confidence level lower limit of 12.2 mb on the effective double-parton cross section parameter, closely related to the transverse distribution of partons in the proton. This limit on the effective cross section is consistent with previous measurements as well as with Monte Carlo event generator predictions.

  14. Parton distributions with small- x resummation: evidence for BFKL dynamics in HERA data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Richard D.; Bertone, Valerio; Bonvini, Marco; Marzani, Simone; Rojo, Juan; Rottoli, Luca

    2018-04-01

    We present a determination of the parton distribution functions of the proton in which NLO and NNLO fixed-order calculations are supplemented by NLL x small- x resummation. Deep-inelastic structure functions are computed consistently at NLO+NLLx or NNLO+NLLx, while for hadronic processes small- x resummation is included only in the PDF evolution, with kinematic cuts introduced to ensure the fitted data lie in a region where the fixed-order calculation of the hard cross-sections is reliable. In all other respects, the fits use the same methodology and are based on the same global dataset as the recent NNPDF3.1 analysis. We demonstrate that the inclusion of small- x resummation leads to a quantitative improvement in the perturbative description of the HERA inclusive and charm-production reduced cross-sections in the small x region. The impact of the resummation in our fits is greater at NNLO than at NLO, because fixed-order calculations have a perturbative instability at small x due to large logarithms that can be cured by resummation. We explore the phenomenological implications of PDF sets with small- x resummation for the longitudinal structure function F_L at HERA, for parton luminosities and LHC benchmark cross-sections, for ultra-high-energy neutrino-nucleus cross-sections, and for future high-energy lepton-proton colliders such as the LHeC.

  15. Charge symmetry breaking in spin dependent parton distributions and the Bjorken sum rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cloet, I.C.; Horsley, R.; Londergan, J.T.

    2012-04-01

    We present the rst determination of charge symmetry violation (CSV) in the spin-dependent parton distribution functions of the nucleon. This is done by determining the rst two Mellin moments of the spin-dependent parton distribution functions of the octet baryons from N f =2+1 lattice simulations. The results are compared with predictions from quark models of nucleon structure. We discuss the contribution of partonic spin CSV to the Bjorken sum rule, which is important because the CSV contributions represent the only partonic corrections to the Bjorken sum rule.

  16. Charge symmetry breaking in spin dependent parton distributions and the Bjorken sum rule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cloet, I.C. [Adelaide Univ, SA (Australia). CSSM, School of Chemistry and Physics; Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Londergan, J.T. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (US). Dept. of Physics and Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter] (and others)

    2012-04-15

    We present the rst determination of charge symmetry violation (CSV) in the spin-dependent parton distribution functions of the nucleon. This is done by determining the rst two Mellin moments of the spin-dependent parton distribution functions of the octet baryons from N{sub f}=2+1 lattice simulations. The results are compared with predictions from quark models of nucleon structure. We discuss the contribution of partonic spin CSV to the Bjorken sum rule, which is important because the CSV contributions represent the only partonic corrections to the Bjorken sum rule.

  17. Parton distribution functions and benchmark cross sections at NNLO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekhin, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Institute for High Energy Physics (IHEP), Protvino (Russian Federation); Bluemlein, J.; Moch, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    We present a determination of parton distribution functions (ABM11) and the strong coupling constant {alpha}{sub s} at next-to-leading order and next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) in QCD based on world data for deep-inelastic scattering and fixed-target data for the Drell-Yan process. The analysis is performed in the fixed-flavor number scheme for n{sub f}=3,4,5 and uses the MS-scheme for {alpha}{sub s} and the heavy-quark masses. At NNLO we obtain the value {alpha}{sub s}(MZ)=0.1134{+-}0.0011. The fit results are used to compute benchmark cross sections at hadron colliders to NNLO accuracy and to compare to data from the LHC. (orig.)

  18. Evolution of truncated moments of singlet parton distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forte, S.; Magnea, L.; Piccione, A.; Ridolfi, G.

    2001-01-01

    We define truncated Mellin moments of parton distributions by restricting the integration range over the Bjorken variable to the experimentally accessible subset x 0 ≤x≤1 of the allowed kinematic range 0≤x≤1. We derive the evolution equations satisfied by truncated moments in the general (singlet) case in terms of an infinite triangular matrix of anomalous dimensions which couple each truncated moment to all higher moments with orders differing by integers. We show that the evolution of any moment can be determined to arbitrarily good accuracy by truncating the system of coupled moments to a sufficiently large but finite size, and show how the equations can be solved in a way suitable for numerical applications. We discuss in detail the accuracy of the method in view of applications to precision phenomenology

  19. Moments of nucleon generalized parton distributions from lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrou, C.; Cyprus Institute, Nicosia; Carbonell, J.; Harraud, P.A.; Papinutto, M.; Constantinou, M.; Kallidonis, C.; Guichon, P.; Jansen, K.; Korzec, T.; Humboldt Univ. Berlin

    2011-07-01

    We present results on the lower moments of the nucleon generalized parton distributions within lattice QCD using two dynamical flavors of degenerate twisted mass fermions. Our simulations are performed on lattices with three different values of the lattice spacings, namely a=0.089 fm, a=0.070 fm and a=0.056 fm, allowing the investigation of cut-off effects. The volume dependence is examined using simulations on two lattices of spatial length L=2.1 fm and L=2.8 fm. The simulations span pion masses in the range of 260-470 MeV. Our results are renormalized nonperturbatively and the values are given in the MS scheme at a scale μ=2 GeV. They are chirally extrapolated to the physical point in order to compare with experiment. The consequences of these results on the spin carried by the quarks in the nucleon are investigated. (orig.)

  20. Baryon form factors at high momentum transfer and generalized parton distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoler, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Nucleon form factors at high momentum transfer t are treated in the framework of generalized parton distributions (GPD's). The possibility of obtaining information about parton high transverse momentum components by application of GPD's to form factors is discussed. This is illustrated by applying an ad hoc 2-body parton wave function to elastic nucleon form factors F 1 and F 2 , the N→Δ transition magnetic form factor G M * , and the wide angle Compton scattering form factor R 1

  1. Dual parametrization of generalized parton distributions in two equivalent representations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Müller, D.; Polyakov, M.V.; Semenov-Tian-Shansky, K.M.

    2015-01-01

    The dual parametrization and the Mellin-Barnes integral approach represent two frameworks for handling the double partial wave expansion of generalized parton distributions (GPDs) in the conformal partial waves and in the t-channel SO(3) partial waves. Within the dual parametrization framework, GPDs are represented as integral convolutions of forward-like functions whose Mellin moments generate the conformal moments of GPDs. The Mellin-Barnes integral approach is based on the analytic continuation of the GPD conformal moments to the complex values of the conformal spin. GPDs are then represented as the Mellin-Barnes-type integrals in the complex conformal spin plane. In this paper we explicitly show the equivalence of these two independently developed GPD representations. Furthermore, we clarify the notions of the J=0 fixed pole and the D-form factor. We also provide some insight into GPD modeling and map the phenomenologically successful Kumerički-Müller GPD model to the dual parametrization framework by presenting the set of the corresponding forward-like functions. We also build up the reparametrization procedure allowing to recast the double distribution representation of GPDs in the Mellin-Barnes integral framework and present the explicit formula for mapping double distributions into the space of double partial wave amplitudes with complex conformal spin.

  2. Unbiased global determination of parton distributions and their uncertainties at NNLO and at LO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collaboration, The NNPDF; Ball, Richard D.; Bertone, Valerio; Cerutti, Francesco; Debbio, Luigi Del; Forte, Stefano; Guffanti, Alberto; Latorre, Jose I.; Rojo, Juan; Ubiali, Maria

    2012-01-01

    We present a determination of the parton distributions of the nucleon from a global set of hard scattering data using the NNPDF methodology at LO and NNLO in perturbative QCD, thereby generalizing to these orders the NNPDF2.1 NLO parton set. Heavy quark masses are included using the so-called FONLL

  3. High energy collisions of dense hadrons in quantum chromodynamics: LHC phenomenology and universality of parton distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laidet, J.

    2013-01-01

    As the value of the longitudinal momentum carried by partons in a ultra-relativistic hadron becomes small, one observes a growth of their density. When the parton density becomes close to a value of order 1/α s , it does not grow any longer, it saturates. These high density effects seem to be well described by the Color Glass Condensate effective field theory. On the experimental side, the LHC provides the best tool ever for reaching the saturated phase of hadronic matter. For this reason saturation physics is a very active branch of QCD during these past and coming years since saturation theories and experimental data can be compared. I first deal with the phenomenology of the proton-lead collisions performed in winter 2013 at the LHC and whose data are about to be available. I compute the di-gluon production cross-section which provides the simplest observable for funding quantitative evidences of saturation in the kinematic range of the LHC. I also discuss the limit of the strongly correlated final state at large transverse momenta and by the way, generalize parton distribution to dense regime. The second main topic is the quantum evolution of the quark and gluon spectra in nucleus-nucleus collisions having in mind the proof of its universal character. This result is already known for gluons and here I detail the calculation carefully. For quarks universality has not been proved yet but I derive an intermediate leading order to next-to leading order recursion relation which is a crucial step for extracting the quantum evolution. Finally I briefly present an independent work in group theory. I detail a method I used for computing traces involving an arbitrary number of group generators, a situation often encountered in QCD calculations. (author) [fr

  4. Impact of heavy-flavour production cross sections measured by the LHCb experiment on parton distribution functions at low x

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zenaiev, O.; Geiser, A.; Lipka, K.; Bluemlein, J.; Kuprash, O.; Placakyte, R.; Starovoitov, P. [DESY Hamburg and Zeuthen, Hamburg (Germany); Cooper-Sarkar, A. [University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Garzelli, M.V.; Moch, S.O. [Universitaet Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany); Guzzi, M. [The University of Manchester, School of Physics and Astronomy, Manchester (United Kingdom); Nadolsky, P. [Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX (United States); Rabbertz, K. [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Karlsruhe (Germany); Schienbein, I. [LPSC Grenoble, Grenoble (France); Collaboration: PROSA Collaboration

    2015-08-15

    The impact of recent measurements of heavy-flavour production in deep inelastic ep scattering and in pp collisions on parton distribution functions is studied in a QCD analysis in the fixed-flavour number scheme at next-to-leading order. Differential cross sections of charm- and beauty-hadron production measured by LHCb are used together with inclusive and heavy-flavour production cross sections in deep inelastic scattering at HERA. The heavy-flavour data of the LHCb experiment impose additional constraints on the gluon and the sea-quark distributions at low partonic fractions x of the proton momentum, down to x ∝ 5 x 10{sup -6}. This kinematic range is currently not covered by other experimental data in perturbative QCD fits. (orig.)

  5. Impact of heavy-flavour production cross sections measured by the LHCb experiment on parton distribution functions at low x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zenaiev, O.; Geiser, A.; Lipka, K.

    2015-03-01

    The impact of recent measurements of heavy-flavour production in deep inelastic ep scattering and in pp collisions on parton distribution functions is studied in a QCD analysis in the fixed-flavour number scheme at next-to-leading order. Differential cross sections of charm- and beauty-hadron production measured by LHCb are used together with inclusive and heavy-flavour production cross sections in deep inelastic scattering at HERA. The heavy-flavour data of the LHCb experiment impose additional constraints on the gluon and the sea-quark distributions at low partonic fractions x of the proton momentum, down to x∝5 x 10 -6 . This kinematic range is currently not covered by other experimental data in perturbative QCD fits.

  6. Impact of LHCb heavy-quark production cross sections on parton distribution functions at very low x

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zenaiev, Oleksandr [DESY, Notkestrasse 85, Hamburg 22607 (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The impact of recent measurements of heavy-flavour production in deep inelastic ep scattering and in pp collisions on parton distribution functions is studied in a QCD analysis in the fixed-flavour-number scheme at next-to-leading order. Differential cross sections of charm- and beauty-quark production measured by LHCb are used together with inclusive and heavy-flavour production cross sections in deep inelastic scattering at HERA. The heavy-flavour data of the LHCb experiment impose additional constraints on the gluon and the sea-quark distributions at very low partonic fractions of the proton momenta, x < 10{sup -4}. This kinematic range is currently not covered by other experimental data in perturbative QCD fits.

  7. Parton Distributions based on a Maximally Consistent Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo, Juan

    2016-04-01

    The choice of data that enters a global QCD analysis can have a substantial impact on the resulting parton distributions and their predictions for collider observables. One of the main reasons for this has to do with the possible presence of inconsistencies, either internal within an experiment or external between different experiments. In order to assess the robustness of the global fit, different definitions of a conservative PDF set, that is, a PDF set based on a maximally consistent dataset, have been introduced. However, these approaches are typically affected by theory biases in the selection of the dataset. In this contribution, after a brief overview of recent NNPDF developments, we propose a new, fully objective, definition of a conservative PDF set, based on the Bayesian reweighting approach. Using the new NNPDF3.0 framework, we produce various conservative sets, which turn out to be mutually in agreement within the respective PDF uncertainties, as well as with the global fit. We explore some of their implications for LHC phenomenology, finding also good consistency with the global fit result. These results provide a non-trivial validation test of the new NNPDF3.0 fitting methodology, and indicate that possible inconsistencies in the fitted dataset do not affect substantially the global fit PDFs.

  8. The ABM parton distributions tuned to LHC data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekhin, S.; Bluemlein, J.; Moch, S.; Hamburg Univ.

    2013-10-01

    We present a global fit of parton distributions at next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) in QCD. The fit is based on the world data for deep-inelastic scattering, fixed-target data for the Drell-Yan process and includes, for the first time, data from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) for the Drell-Yan process and the hadro-production of top-quark pairs. The analysis applies the fixed-flavor number scheme for n f =3,4,5, uses the MS scheme for the strong coupling α s and the heavy-quark masses and keeps full account of the correlations among all non-perturbative parameters. At NNLO this returns the values of α s (M Z )=0.1132±0.0011 and m t (pole)=171.2±2.4 GeV for the top-quark pole mass. The fit results are used to compute benchmark cross sections for Higgs production at the LHC to NNLO accuracy. We compare our results to those obtained by other groups and show that differences can be linked to different theoretical descriptions of the underlying physical processes.

  9. The ABM parton distributions tuned to LHC data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekhin, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Institute for High Energy Physics, Protvino (Russian Federation); Bluemlein, J. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Moch, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Hamburg Univ. (Germany). II. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2013-10-15

    We present a global fit of parton distributions at next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) in QCD. The fit is based on the world data for deep-inelastic scattering, fixed-target data for the Drell-Yan process and includes, for the first time, data from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) for the Drell-Yan process and the hadro-production of top-quark pairs. The analysis applies the fixed-flavor number scheme for n{sub f}=3,4,5, uses the MS scheme for the strong coupling {alpha}{sub s} and the heavy-quark masses and keeps full account of the correlations among all non-perturbative parameters. At NNLO this returns the values of {alpha}{sub s}(M{sub Z})=0.1132{+-}0.0011 and m{sub t}(pole)=171.2{+-}2.4 GeV for the top-quark pole mass. The fit results are used to compute benchmark cross sections for Higgs production at the LHC to NNLO accuracy. We compare our results to those obtained by other groups and show that differences can be linked to different theoretical descriptions of the underlying physical processes.

  10. Obtaining parton distribution functions from self-organizing maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honkanen, H.; Liuti, S.; Loitiere, Y.C.; Brogan, D.; Reynolds, P.

    2007-01-01

    We present an alternative algorithm to global fitting procedures to construct Parton Distribution Functions parametrizations. The proposed algorithm uses Self-Organizing Maps which at variance with the standard Neural Networks, are based on competitive-learning. Self-Organizing Maps generate a non-uniform projection from a high dimensional data space onto a low dimensional one (usually 1 or 2 dimensions) by clustering similar PDF representations together. The SOMs are trained on progressively narrower selections of data samples. The selection criterion is that of convergence towards a neighborhood of the experimental data. All available data sets on deep inelastic scattering in the kinematical region of 0.001 ≤ x ≤ 0.75, and 1 ≤ Q 2 ≤ 100 GeV 2 , with a cut on the final state invariant mass, W 2 ≥ 10 GeV 2 were implemented. The proposed fitting procedure, at variance with standard neural network approaches, allows for an increased control of the systematic bias by enabling the user to directly control the data selection procedure at various stages of the process. (author)

  11. TMDlib and TMDplotter: library and plotting tools for transverse-momentum-dependent parton distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautmann, F.; Jung, H.; Krämer, M.; Mulders, P. J.; Nocera, E. R.; Rogers, T. C.; Signori, A.

    2014-12-01

    Transverse-momentum-dependent distributions (TMDs) are extensions of collinear parton distributions and are important in high-energy physics from both theoretical and phenomenological points of view. In this manual we introduce the library , a tool to collect transverse-momentum-dependent parton distribution functions (TMD PDFs) and fragmentation functions (TMD FFs) together with an online plotting tool, TMDplotter. We provide a description of the program components and of the different physical frameworks the user can access via the available parameterisations.

  12. Working Group I: Parton distributions: Summary report for the HERA LHC Workshop Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dittmar, M.; /Zurich, ETH; Forte, S.; /Milan U. /INFN, Milan; Glazov, A.; /DESY; Moch, S.; /DESY, Zeuthen; Alekhin, S.; Altarelli, G.; Andersen, Jeppe R.; Ball, R.D.; Blumlein, J.; Bottcher, H.; Carli, T.; Ciafaloni, M.; Colferai, D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A.; Corcella, G.; Del Debbio, L.; Dissertori, G.; Feltesse, J.; Guffanti, A.; Gwenlan, C.; Huston, J.; /Zurich, ETH /DESY, Zeuthen /Serpukhov, IHEP /CERN /Rome III U. /INFN, Rome3 /Cambridge U. /Edinburgh U. /Florence U. /INFN, Florence /Oxford U. /DSM, DAPNIA, Saclay

    2005-11-01

    We provide an assessment of the impact of parton distributions on the determination of LHC processes, and of the accuracy with which parton distributions (PDFs) can be extracted from data, in particular from current and forthcoming HERA experiments. We give an overview of reference LHC processes and their associated PDF uncertainties, and study in detail W and Z production at the LHC.We discuss the precision which may be obtained from the analysis of existing HERA data, tests of consistency of HERA data from different experiments, and the combination of these data. We determine further improvements on PDFs which may be obtained from future HERA data (including measurements of F{sub L}), and from combining present and future HERA data with present and future hadron collider data. We review the current status of knowledge of higher (NNLO) QCD corrections to perturbative evolution and deep-inelastic scattering, and provide reference results for their impact on parton evolution, and we briefly examine non-perturbative models for parton distributions. We discuss the state-of-the art in global parton fits, we assess the impact on them of various kinds of data and of theoretical corrections, by providing benchmarks of Alekhin and MRST parton distributions and a CTEQ analysis of parton fit stability, and we briefly presents proposals for alternative approaches to parton fitting. We summarize the status of large and small x resummation, by providing estimates of the impact of large x resummation on parton fits, and a comparison of different approaches to small x resummation, for which we also discuss numerical techniques.

  13. Chiral perturbation theory for generalized parton distributions and baryon distribution amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wein, Philipp

    2016-05-06

    In this thesis we apply low-energy effective field theory to the first moments of generalized parton distributions and to baryon distribution amplitudes, which are both highly relevant for the parametrization of the nonperturbative part in hard processes. These quantities yield complementary information on hadron structure, since the former treat hadrons as a whole and, thus, give information about the (angular) momentum carried by an entire parton species on average, while the latter parametrize the momentum distribution within an individual Fock state. By performing one-loop calculations within covariant baryon chiral perturbation theory, we obtain sensible parametrizations of the quark mass dependence that are ideally suited for the subsequent analysis of lattice QCD data.

  14. Multiplicities and parton dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knuteson, R.O.

    1987-01-01

    The production of strongly interacting particles from the annihilation of electrons and positrons at high energies is studied, with emphasis on the multiplicity, or number, of particles produced. A probabilistic branching model based on the leading log approximation in QCD is formulated to predict the evolution of particle number with the energy of collision. Direct integration of a master equation for the probabilities allows a comparison to the experimentally observed particle distribution. The production of strongly interacting particles from proton-antiproton collisions is also considered. A model for the production of particles from parton-parton collisions is presented and the growth in multiplicity with energy demonstrated

  15. Extent of sensitivity of single photon production to parton distribution ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    used the BFG-I parton to photon fragmentation function by Bourhis et al [17], which includes correction in the fragmentation function beyond leading logarithmic approxima- tion. The three scales μf,μR,μF are set equal to a common scale μ to reduce theoretical uncertainties in the calculation. The scale μ is further defined as ...

  16. Transverse Extension of Partons in the Proton probed by Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Akhunzyanov, R.; The COMPASS collaboration; Alexeev, G.D.; Amoroso, A.; Andrieux, V.; Anfimov, N.V.; Anosov, V.; Antoshkin, A.; Augsten, K.; Augustyniak, W.; Austregesilo, A.; Azevedo, C.D.R.; Badełek, B.; Balestra, F.; Ball, M.; Barth, J.; Beck, R.; Bedfer, Y.; Bernhard, J.; Bicker, K.; Bielert, E.R.; Birsa, R.; Bodlak, M.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Bressan, A.; Büchele, M.; Burtin, E.; Burtsev, V.E.; Chang, W.-C.; Chatterjee, C.; Chiosso, M.; Choi, I.; Chumakov, A.G.; Chung, S.-U.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M.L.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dasgupta, S.S.; Dasgupta, S.; Denisov, O.Yu.; Dhara, L.; Donskov, S.V.; Doshita, N.; Dreisbach, Ch.; Dünnweber, W.; Dusaev, R.R.; Dziewiecki, M.; Efremov, A.; Eversheim, P.D.; Faessler, M.; Ferrero, A.; Finger, M.; jr., M.Finger; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; du Fresne von Hohenesche, N.; Friedrich, J.M.; Frolov, V.; Fuchey, E.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O.P.; Gerassimov, S.; Giarra, J.; Gnesi, I.; Gorzellik, M.; Grasso, A.; Gridin, A.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Grube, B.; Grussenmeyer, T.; Guskov, A.; Hahne, D.; Hamar, G.; von Harrach, D.; Heitz, R.; Herrmann, F.; Horikawa, N.; d'Hose, N.; Hsieh, C.-Y.; Huber, S.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, A.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jary, V.; Joosten, R.; Jörg, P.; Juraskova, K.; Kabuß, E.; Kerbizi, A.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G.V.; Khokhlov, Yu.A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klein, F.; Koivuniemi, J.H.; Kolosov, V.N.; Kondo, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V.F.; Kotzinian, A.M.; Kouznetsov, O.M.; Kral, Z.; Krämer, M.; Krinner, F.; Kroumchtein, Z.V.; Kulinich, Y.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Kurjata, R.P.; Kuznetsov, I.I.; Kveton, A.; Lednev, A.A.; Levchenko, E.A.; Levillain, M.; Levorato, S.; Lian, Y.-S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Longo, R.; Lyubovitskij, V.E.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Makins, N.; Makke, N.; Mallot, G.K.; Mamon, S.A.; Marianski, B.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Matoušek, J.; Matsuda, H.; Matsuda, T.; Meshcheryakov, G.V.; Meyer, M.; Meyer, W.; Mikhailov, Yu.V.; Mikhasenko, M.; Mitrofanov, E.; Mitrofanov, N.; Miyachi, Y.; Moretti, A.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nerling, F.; Neyret, D.; Nový, J.; Nowak, W.-D.; Nukazuka, G.; Nunes, A.S.; Olshevsky, A.G.; Orlov, I.; Ostrick, M.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Peng, J.-C.; Pereira, F.; Pešek, M.; Pešková, M.; Peshekhonov, D.V.; Pierre, N.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polyakov, V.A.; Pretz, J.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Ramos, S.; Regali, C.; Reicherz, G.; Riedl, C.; Rogacheva, N.S.; Ryabchikov, D.I.; Rybnikov, A.; Rychter, A.; Salac, R.; Samoylenko, V.D.; Sandacz, A.; Santos, C.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I.A.; Sawada, T.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schmieden, H.; Schönning, K.; Seder, E.; Selyunin, A.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sirtl, S.; Slunecka, M.; Smolik, J.; Srnka, A.; Steffen, D.; Stolarski, M.; Subrt, O.; Sulc, M.; Suzuki, H.; Szabelski, A.; Szameitat, T.; Sznajder, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Thiel, A.; Tomsa, J.; Tosello, F.; Tskhay, V.; Uhl, S.; Vasilishin, B.I.; Vauth, A.; Veit, B.M.; Veloso, J.; Vidon, A.; Virius, M.; Wallner, S.; Wilfert, M.; ter Wolbeek, J.; Zaremba, K.; Zavada, P.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Zhuravlev, N.; Ziembicki, M.

    2018-01-01

    We report on the first measurement of exclusive single-photon muoproduction on the proton by COMPASS using 160 GeV/$c$ polarized $\\mu^+$ and $\\mu^-$ beams of the CERN SPS impinging on a liquid hydrogen target. We determine the dependence of the average of the measured $\\mu^+$ and $\\mu^-$ cross sections for deeply virtual Compton scattering on the squared four-momentum transfer $t$ from the initial to the final final proton. The slope $B$ of the $t$-dependence is fitted with a single exponential function, which yields $B=(4.3 \\ \\pm \\ 0.6_{\\text{stat}}\\ _{- \\ 0.3}^{+ \\ 0.1}\\big\\rvert_{\\text{sys}})\\,(\\text{GeV}/c)^{-2}$. This result can be converted into an average transverse extension of partons in the proton, $\\sqrt{\\langle r_{\\perp}^2 \\rangle} = (0.58 \\ \\pm \\ 0.04_{\\text{stat}}\\ _{- \\ 0.02}^{+ \\ 0.01}\\big\\rvert_{\\text{sys}}) \\text{fm}$. For this measurement, the average virtuality of the photon mediating the interaction is $\\langle Q^2 \\rangle = 1.8\\,(\\text{GeV/}c)^2$ and the average value of the Bjorken va...

  17. Evolution equations for connected and disconnected sea parton distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Keh-Fei

    2017-08-01

    It has been revealed from the path-integral formulation of the hadronic tensor that there are connected sea and disconnected sea partons. The former is responsible for the Gottfried sum rule violation primarily and evolves the same way as the valence. Therefore, the Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi evolution equations can be extended to accommodate them separately. We discuss its consequences and implications vis-á-vis lattice calculations.

  18. Transverse Momentum Dependent Parton Distribution/Fragmentation Functions at an Electron-Ion Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselmino, M.; Avakian, H.; Boer, D.; Bradamante, F.; Burkardt, M.; Chen, J.P.; Cisbani, E.; Contalbrigo, M.; Crabb, D.; Dutta, D.; Gamberg, L.; Gao, H.; Hasch, D.; Huang, J.; Huang, M.; Kang, Z.; Keppel, C.; Laskaris, G.; Liang, Z.-T.; Liu, M.X.; Makins, N.; Mckeown, R.D.; Metz, A.; Meziani, Z.-E.; Musch, B.; Peng, J.-C.; Prokudin, A.; Qian, X.; Qiang, Y.; Qiu, J.W.; Rossi, P.; Schweitzer, P.; Soffer, J.; Sulkosky, V.; Wang, Y.; Xiao, B.; Ye, Q.; Ye, Q.-J.; Yuan, F.; Zhan, X.; Zhang, Y.; Zheng, W.; Zhou, J.

    2011-01-01

    We present a summary of a recent workshop held at Duke University on Partonic Transverse Momentum in Hadrons: Quark Spin-Orbit Correlations and Quark-Gluon Interactions. The transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions (TMDs), parton-to-hadron fragmentation functions, and multi-parton correlation functions, were discussed extensively at the Duke workshop. In this paper, we summarize first the theoretical issues concerning the study of partonic structure of hadrons at a future electron-ion collider (EIC) with emphasis on the TMDs. We then present simulation results on experimental studies of TMDs through measurements of single spin asymmetries (SSA) from semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering (SIDIS) processes with an EIC, and discuss the requirement of the detector for SIDIS measurements. The dynamics of parton correlations in the nucleon is further explored via a study of SSA in D ((bar D)) production at large transverse momenta with the aim of accessing the unexplored tri-gluon correlation functions. The workshop participants identified the SSA measurements in SIDIS as a golden program to study TMDs in both the sea and valence quark regions and to study the role of gluons, with the Sivers asymmetry measurements as examples. Such measurements will lead to major advancement in our understanding of TMDs in the valence quark region, and more importantly also allow for the investigation of TMDs in the sea quark region along with a study of their evolution.

  19. Pion transverse momentum dependent parton distributions in the Nambu and Jona-Lasinio model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noguera, Santiago [Departament de Fisica Teòrica and IFIC, Universitat de València - CSIC,E-46100 Burjassot (Spain); Scopetta, Sergio [Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Università degli Studi di Perugia,via A. Pascoli, I - 06123 Perugia (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia, via A. Pascoli, I - 06123 Perugia (Italy)

    2015-11-16

    An explicit evaluation of the two pion transverse momentum dependent parton distributions at leading twist is presented, in the framework of the Nambu-Jona Lasinio model with Pauli-Villars regularization. The transverse momentum dependence of the obtained distributions is generated solely by the dynamics of the model. Using these results, the so called generalized Boer-Mulders shift is studied and compared with recent lattice data. The obtained agreement is very encouraging, in particular because no additional parameter has been introduced. A more conclusive comparison would require a precise knowledge of the QCD evolution of the transverse momentum dependent parton distributions under scrutiny.

  20. Current issues and challenges in global analysis of parton distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tung, Wu-Ki

    2007-01-01

    A new implementation of precise perturbative QCD calculation of deep inelastic scattering structure functions and cross sections, incorporating heavy quark mass effects, is applied to the global analysis of the full HERA I data sets on NC and CC cross sections, in conjunction with other experiments. Improved agreement between the NLO QCD theory and the global data sets are obtained. Comparison of the new results to that of previous analysis based on conventional zero-mass parton formalism is made. Exploratory work on implications of new fixed-target neutrino scattering and Drell-Yan data on global analysis is also discussed. (author)

  1. Simple parametrizations of parton distributions with Q$^{2}$ dependence given by asymptotic freedom

    CERN Document Server

    Buras, Andrzej J

    1978-01-01

    The Q/sup 2/ dependence of parton distributions as given by asymptotically free gauge theories can be represented by simple analytic expressions. In particular the sea distributions can be read directly from the first two moments. The results are compared with the SLAC ep data and with the recent Fermilab mu p data. The agreement is good. (32 refs).

  2. Bayesian extraction of the parton distribution amplitude from the Bethe-Salpeter wave function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Chang, Lei; Liu, Yu-xin

    2017-07-01

    We propose a new numerical method to compute the parton distribution amplitude (PDA) from the Euclidean Bethe-Salpeter wave function. The essential step is to extract the weight function in the Nakanishi representation of the Bethe-Salpeter wave function in Euclidean space, which is an ill-posed inversion problem, via the maximum entropy method (MEM). The Nakanishi weight function as well as the corresponding light-front parton distribution amplitude (PDA) can be well determined. We confirm prior work on PDA computations, which was based on different methods.

  3. Bayesian extraction of the parton distribution amplitude from the Bethe–Salpeter wave function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Gao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new numerical method to compute the parton distribution amplitude (PDA from the Euclidean Bethe–Salpeter wave function. The essential step is to extract the weight function in the Nakanishi representation of the Bethe–Salpeter wave function in Euclidean space, which is an ill-posed inversion problem, via the maximum entropy method (MEM. The Nakanishi weight function as well as the corresponding light-front parton distribution amplitude (PDA can be well determined. We confirm prior work on PDA computations, which was based on different methods.

  4. Renormalization, Wilson lines, and transverse-momentum-dependent parton-distribution functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherednikov, I. O.; Stefanis, N. G.

    2008-01-01

    We perform an analysis of transverse-momentum dependent parton-distribution functions, making use of their renormalization properties in terms of their leading-order anomalous dimensions. We show that the appropriate Wilson line in the light cone gauge, associated with such quantities, is a cusped one at light cone infinity. To cancel the ensuing cusp anomalous dimension, we include in the definition of the transverse-momentum dependent parton-distribution functions an additional soft counter term (gauge link) along that cusped transverse contour. We demonstrate that this is tantamount to an 'intrinsic (Coulomb) phase', which accumulates the full gauge history of the color-charged particle.

  5. A new phenomenological investigation of KMR and MRW unintegrated parton distribution functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modarres, M., E-mail: mmodares@ut.ac.ir [Physics Department, University of Tehran, 1439955961, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hosseinkhani, H. [Plasma and Fusion Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, 14395-836, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Olanj, N. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Bu-Ali Sina University, 65178, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Masouminia, M. R. [Physics Department, University of Tehran, 1439955961, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-11-26

    We address the longitudinal proton structure function, F{sub L}(x,Q{sup 2}), from the k{sub t}-factorization formalism by using the unintegrated parton distribution functions (UPDF) which are generated through the KMR and MRW procedures. The LO UPDF of the KMR prescription is extracted, by taking into account the PDF of Martin et al, i.e., MSTW2008-LO and MRST99-NLO, and next the NLO UPDF of the MRW scheme is generated through the set of MSTW2008-NLO PDF as the input. The different aspects of F{sub L}(x,Q{sup 2}) in the two approaches, as well as its perturbative and non-perturbative parts, are calculated. Then the comparison of F{sub L}(x,Q{sup 2}) is made with the data given by the ZEUS and H1 collaborations. It is demonstrated that the extracted F{sub L}(x,Q{sup 2}), based on the UPDF of two schemes, are consistent with the experimental data, and to a good approximation they are independent of the input PDF. But the one developed from the KMR prescription has better agreement with the data with respect to that of MRW. As has been suggested, by lowering the factorization scale or the Bjorken variable in the related experiments it may be possible to analyze the present theoretical approaches more accurately.

  6. A new phenomenological investigation of KMR and MRW unintegrated parton distribution functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modarres, M.; Masouminia, M.R. [University of Tehran, Physics Department, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hosseinkhani, H. [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Plasma and Fusion Research School, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Olanj, N. [Bu-Ali Sina University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    We address the longitudinal proton structure function, F{sub L} (x, Q{sup 2}), from the k{sub t}-factorization formalism by using the unintegrated parton distribution functions (UPDF) which are generated through the KMR and MRW procedures. The LO UPDF of the KMR prescription is extracted, by taking into account the PDF of Martin et al, i.e., MSTW2008-LO and MRST99-NLO, and next the NLO UPDF of the MRW scheme is generated through the set of MSTW2008-NLO PDF as the input. The different aspects of F{sub L} (x, Q{sup 2}) in the two approaches, as well as its perturbative and nonperturbative parts, are calculated. Then the comparison of F{sub L} (x, Q{sup 2}) is made with the data given by the ZEUS and H1 collaborations. It is demonstrated that the extracted F{sub L} (x, Q{sup 2}), based on the UPDF of two schemes, are consistent with the experimental data, and to a good approximation they are independent of the input PDF. But the one developed from the KMR prescription has better agreement with the data with respect to that of MRW. As has been suggested, by lowering the factorization scale or the Bjorken variable in the related experiments it may be possible to analyze the present theoretical approaches more accurately. (orig.)

  7. Analytical approaches to the determination of spin-dependent parton distribution functions at NNLO approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salajegheh, Maral; Nejad, S. Mohammad Moosavi; Khanpour, Hamzeh; Tehrani, S. Atashbar

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we present SMKA18 analysis, which is a first attempt to extract the set of next-to-next-leading-order (NNLO) spin-dependent parton distribution functions (spin-dependent PDFs) and their uncertainties determined through the Laplace transform technique and Jacobi polynomial approach. Using the Laplace transformations, we present an analytical solution for the spin-dependent Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi evolution equations at NNLO approximation. The results are extracted using a wide range of proton g1p(x ,Q2) , neutron g1n(x ,Q2) , and deuteron g1d(x ,Q2) spin-dependent structure functions data set including the most recent high-precision measurements from COMPASS16 experiments at CERN, which are playing an increasingly important role in global spin-dependent fits. The careful estimations of uncertainties have been done using the standard Hessian error propagation. We will compare our results with the available spin-dependent inclusive deep inelastic scattering data set and other results for the spin-dependent PDFs in literature. The results obtained for the spin-dependent PDFs as well as spin-dependent structure functions are clearly explained both in the small and large values of x .

  8. Quark imaging in the proton via quantum phase-space distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belitsky, A.V.; Ji Xiangdong; Yuan Feng

    2004-01-01

    We develop the concept of quantum phase-space (Wigner) distributions for quarks and gluons in the proton. To appreciate their physical content, we analyze the contraints from special relativity on the interpretation of elastic form factors, and examine the physics of the Feynman parton distributions in the proton's rest frame. We relate the quark Wigner functions to the transverse-momentum dependent parton distributions and generalized parton distributions, emphasizing the physical role of the skewness parameter. We show that the Wigner functions allow us to visualize quantum quarks and gluons using the language of classical phase space. We present two examples of the quark Wigner distributions and point out some model-independent features

  9. Dynamical parton distributions of the nucleon and very small-x physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glueck, M.; Jimenez-Delgado, P.; Reya, E.

    2008-01-01

    Utilizing recent DIS measurements (F 2,L ) and data on dilepton and high-E T jet production we determine the dynamical parton distributions of the nucleon generated radiatively from valence-like positive input distributions at optimally chosen low resolution scales. These are compared with 'standard' distributions generated from positive input distributions at some fixed and higher resolution scale. It is shown that up to the next-to-leading order NLO(MS, DIS) of perturbative QCD considered in this paper, the uncertainties of the dynamical distributions are, as expected, smaller than those of their standard counterparts. This holds true in particular in the presently unexplored extremely small-x region relevant for evaluating ultrahigh energy cross sections in astrophysical applications. It is noted that our new dynamical distributions are compatible, within the presently determined uncertainties, with previously determined dynamical parton distributions. (orig.)

  10. Nucleon-generalized parton distributions in the light-front quark model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-12

    Jan 12, 2016 ... 1. Introduction. Generalized parton distributions (GPDs) are the important set of parameters that give us ... The AdS/CFT is the correspondence between the string theory on a higher-dimensional anti-de Sitter ... matching the soft-wall model of AdS/QCD and light-front QCD for EFFs of hadrons with arbitrary ...

  11. Structure functions and parton distributions in deep inelastic lepton-hadron scattering at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluemlein, J.

    1993-08-01

    The possibilities to measure structure functions, to extract parton distributions, and to measure α s and Λ QCD in current and future high energy deep inelastic scattering experiments are reviewed. A comparison is given for experiments at HERA, an ep option at LEP xLHC, and a high energy neutrino experiment. (orig.)

  12. Correlations in double parton distributions: perturbative and non-perturbative effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinaldi, Matteo; Scopetta, Sergio [Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Università degli Studi di Perugia andIstituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia, via A. Pascoli, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Traini, Marco [Institut de Physique Théorique CEA-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); INFN - TIFPA, Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Trento,Via Sommarive 14, I-38123 Povo (Trento) (Italy); Vento, Vicente [Departament de Física Teòrica, Universitat de València and Institut de Física Corpuscular,Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 46100 Carrer del Dr. Moliner 50 València (Spain)

    2016-10-12

    The correct description of Double Parton Scattering (DPS), which represents a background in several channels for the search of new Physics at the LHC, requires the knowledge of double parton distribution functions (dPDFs). These quantities represent also a novel tool for the study of the three-dimensional nucleon structure, complementary to the possibilities offered by electromagnetic probes. In this paper we analyze dPDFs using Poincaré covariant predictions obtained by using a Light-Front constituent quark model proposed in a recent paper, and QCD evolution. We study to what extent factorized expressions for dPDFs, which neglect, at least in part, two-parton correlations, can be used. We show that they fail in reproducing the calculated dPDFs, in particular in the valence region. Actually measurable processes at existing facilities occur at low longitudinal momenta of the interacting partons; to have contact with these processes we have analyzed correlations between pairs of partons of different kind, finding that, in some cases, they are strongly suppressed at low longitudinal momenta, while for other distributions they can be sizeable. For example, the effect of gluon-gluon correlations can be as large as 20 %. We have shown that these behaviors can be understood in terms of a delicate interference of non-perturbative correlations, generated by the dynamics of the model, and perturbative ones, generated by the model independent evolution procedure. Our analysis shows that at LHC kinematics two-parton correlations can be relevant in DPS, and therefore we address the possibility to study them experimentally.

  13. Constituent quarks as clusters in quark-gluon-parton model. [Total cross sections, probability distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanki, T [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Coll. of General Education

    1976-12-01

    We present a quark-gluon-parton model in which quark-partons and gluons make clusters corresponding to two or three constituent quarks (or anti-quarks) in the meson or in the baryon, respectively. We explicitly construct the constituent quark state (cluster), by employing the Kuti-Weisskopf theory and by requiring the scaling. The quark additivity of the hadronic total cross sections and the quark counting rules on the threshold powers of various distributions are satisfied. For small x (Feynman fraction), it is shown that the constituent quarks and quark-partons have quite different probability distributions. We apply our model to hadron-hadron inclusive reactions, and clarify that the fragmentation and the diffractive processes relate to the constituent quark distributions, while the processes in or near the central region are controlled by the quark-partons. Our model gives the reasonable interpretation for the experimental data and much improves the usual ''constituent interchange model'' result near and in the central region (x asymptotically equals x sub(T) asymptotically equals 0).

  14. TMD parton distributions based on three-body decay functions in NLL order of QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Hidekazu

    2015-01-01

    Three-body decay functions in space-like parton branches are implemented to evaluate transverse-momentum-dependent (TMD) parton distribution functions in the next-to-leading logarithmic (NLL) order of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). Interference contributions due to the next-to-leading-order terms are taken into account for the evaluation of the transverse momenta in initial state parton radiations. Some properties of the decay functions are also examined. As an example, the calculated results are compared with those evaluated by an algorithm proposed in [M. A. Kimber, A. D. Martin, and M. G. Ryskin, Eur. Phys. J. C 12, 655 (2000)], [M. A. Kimber, A. D. Martin, and M. G. Ryskin, Phys. Rev. D 63, 11402 (2001)], [G. Watt, A. D. Martin, and M. G. Ryskin, Eur. Phys. J. C 31, 73 (2003)], and [A. D. Martin, M. G. Ryskin, and G. Watt, Eur. Phys. J. C 66, 167 (2010)], in which the TMD parton distributions are defined based on the k t -factorization method with angular ordering conditions due to interference effects

  15. Predictions of diffractive cross sections in proton-proton collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goulianos, Konstantin [Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    We review our pre-LHC predictions of the total, elastic, total-inelastic, and diffractive components of proton-proton cross sections at high energies, expressed in the form of unitarized expressions based on a special parton-model approach to diffraction employing inclusive proton parton distribution functions and QCD color factors and compare with recent LHC results.

  16. 'Hard' effects in Monte Carlo proton-(anti) proton events of soft two-string dual parton model, e+e- annihilation and cascade scaling break of string and the theory of the open string

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugovoj, V.V.

    1998-01-01

    At proton-(anti) proton scattering in the frame of two-string Dual Parton Model the semihard parton-parton interactions can lead to the valence (anti) (di) quark excitations which lead to the production of up to four fast hadron leaders, and the process of soft colour interaction between constituents leads to formation of two primary strings, which decay into secondary hadrons according to a new cascade model of string breaking, which corresponds to the fundamental interaction of the theory of the open string. Therefore the recent results of the theory of QCD open string (about the small deviations of the string stretch direction near the longitudinal direction) are used in the algorithm of string breaking. For the fitted values of the free parameters in the process of decay of mother string into two daughter strings the energy (momentum) distributions for the first and second daughter strings are similar to momentum distributions for valence quark and antiquark in meson. This Monte Carlo model with 9 free parameters agrees well with the multiplicity, pseudorapidity, transverse momentum (up to p T =4GeV) distributions and correlations between the average transverse momentum and multiplicity of secondary particles produced by ISR, SS, Tevatron experiments (√s=27 to 1800 GeV). There is quantitative (and qualitative) explanation for correlations between the average transverse momentum and multiplicity for different types of secondary particles (antiprotons, kaons, pions) at √s =1800 GeV. A cascade model of string breaking is a new Monte Carlo model for hadronization which agrees well with the experimental multiplicity, rapidity, transverse momentum distributions of secondary particles produced by e + e - annihilation at E c.m. =3GeV. (author)

  17. Parton distributions, the Gottfried sum rule and the W charge asymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, A.D.; Stirling, W.J.; Roberts, R.G.

    1990-09-01

    Preliminary data from the New Muon Collaboration (NMC) allow a precise evaluation of I p-n (x) from a given integral formula for values of x down to 0.004. As x → 0, this integral should converge to a value I p-n (0) = 1/3 (Gottfried sum rule) if the light sea-quark distributions are equal. The NMC value I p-n (0.004) = 0.23 ± 0.03, though appearing to be well short of 1/3, is quite consistent with modern estimates for parton distributions extracted from a wide range of data. These parton distributions are also found to reproduce the W ± rapidity asymmetry recently measured by a European collaboration. (author)

  18. Parton distributions from lattice QCD with momentum smearing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandrou, Constantia [Univ. of Cyprus, Nicosia (Cyprus). Dept. of Physics; Computation-based Science and Technology Research Center, Nicosia (Cyprus). Cyprus Inst.; Cichy, Krzysztof [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Adam Mickiewicz Univ., Poznan (Poland). Inst. of Physics; Constantinou, Martha [Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Hadjiyiannakou, Kyriakos [Univ. of Cyprus, Nicosia (Cyprus). Dept. of Physics; Jansen, Karl; Steffens, Fernanda; Wiese, Christian [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC

    2017-01-15

    In this work we continue our effort to explore a recent proposal, which allows light-cone distributions to be extracted from purely spatial correlations, being thus accessible to lattice methods. In order to test the feasibility of this method, we present our latest results from a twisted mass lattice calculation of the flavor non-singlet momentum, helicity and transversity distributions of the nucleon. Furthermore, we apply a newly proposed momentum improved smearing, which has the potential to reach higher nucleon momenta as required for a safe matching procedure to the physical distribution functions.

  19. Impact of hadronic and nuclear corrections on global analysis of spin-dependent parton distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez-Delgado, Pedro [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Accardi, Alberto [Hampton University, Hampton, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Melnitchouk, Wally [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2014-02-01

    We present the first results of a new global next-to-leading order analysis of spin-dependent parton distribution functions from the most recent world data on inclusive polarized deep-inelastic scattering, focusing in particular on the large-x and low-Q^2 regions. By directly fitting polarization asymmetries we eliminate biases introduced by using polarized structure function data extracted under nonuniform assumptions for the unpolarized structure functions. For analysis of the large-x data we implement nuclear smearing corrections for deuterium and 3He nuclei, and systematically include target mass and higher twist corrections to the g_1 and g_2 structure functions at low Q^2. We also explore the effects of Q^2 and W^2 cuts in the data sets, and the potential impact of future data on the behavior of the spin-dependent parton distributions at large x.

  20. Extraction of Generalized Parton Distributions from combined Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering and Timelike Compton scattering fits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boer, Marie

    2017-09-01

    Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) contain the correlation between the parton's longitudinal momentum and their transverse distribution. They are accessed through hard exclusive processes, such as Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS). DVCS has already been measured in several experiments and several models allow for extracting GPDs from these measurements. Timelike Compton Scattering (TCS) is, at leading order, the time-reversal equivalent process to DVCS and accesses GPDs at the same kinematics. Comparing GPDs extracted from DVCS and TCS is a unique way for proving GPD universality. Combining fits from the two processes will also allow for better constraining the GPDs. We will present our method for extracting GPDs from DVCS and TCS pseudo-data. We will compare fit results from the two processes in similar conditions and present what can be expected in term of contraints on GPDs from combined fits.

  1. Transverse Momentum Dependent Parton Distribution Functions through SIDIS and Drell-Yan at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2079419; Ramos, Sérgio; Quintans, Catarina

    The spin structure of the nucleon has been studied at the COMPASS experiment at CERN. The Semi-Inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering (SIDIS) measurements are a powerful tool to access the Parton Distribution Functions (PDFs) and the Transverse Momentum Dependent Parton Distribution Functions (TMD PDFs). The COMPASS polarised target gives the opportunity to measure the azimuthal modulations depending on the spin orientation and the extraction of the transverse spin asymmetries, which are convolutions of TMD PDFs of the nucleon and Fragmentation Functions (FF). The analysis of these data is done in several kinematic bins, which provides a vast input for the theoreticians to extract the TMDs and the FFs and their kinematic dependence. The TMD PDFs are also accessible through the measurement of the Drell-Yan process, in this case the transverse spin asymmetries are convolutions of two TMD PDFs, one corresponding to the annihilating quark from the beam hadron and the other to the annihilating quark from the target h...

  2. Leading twist nuclear shadowing, nuclear generalized parton distributions and nuclear DVCS at small x

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzey, Vadim; Goeke, Klaus; Siddikov, Marat

    2009-01-01

    We generalize the leading twist theory of nuclear shadowing and calculate quark and gluon generalized parton distributions (GPDs) of spinless nuclei. We predict very large nuclear shadowing for nuclear GPDs. In the limit of the purely transverse momentum transfer, our nuclear GPDs become impact parameter dependent nuclear parton distributions (PDFs). Nuclear shadowing induces non-trivial correlations between the impact parameter $b$ and the light-cone fraction $x$. We make predictions for the deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) amplitude and the DVCS cross section on $^{208}$Pb at high energies. We calculate the cross section of the Bethe-Heitler (BH) process and address the issue of the extraction of the DVCS signal from the $e A \\to e \\gamma A$ cross section. We find that the $e A \\to e \\gamma A$ differential cross section is dominated by DVCS at the momentum transfer $t$ near the minima of the nuclear form factor. We also find that nuclear shadowing leads

  3. First results with twisted mass fermions towards the computation of parton distribution functions on the lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrou, Constantia; Cyprus Institute, Nicosia; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron; Cichy, Krzysztof; Poznan Univ.; Drach, Vincent; Garcia-Ramos, Elena; Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin; Hadjiyiannakou, Kyriakos; Jansen, Karl; Steffens, Fernanda; Wiese, Christian

    2014-11-01

    We report on our exploratory study for the evaluation of the parton distribution functions from lattice QCD, based on a new method proposed in Ref.∝arXiv:1305.1539. Using the example of the nucleon, we compare two different methods to compute the matrix elements needed, and investigate the application of gauge link smearing. We also present first results from a large production ensemble and discuss the future challenges related to this method.

  4. Scale dependence and small x behaviour of polarized parton distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, R D; Ridolfi, G; Forte, S; Ridolfi, G

    1995-01-01

    We discuss perturbative evolution of the polarized structure function g_1 in the (x,Q^2) plane, with special regard to the small-x region. We determine g_1 in terms of polarized quark and gluon distributions using coefficient functions to order alpha_s. At small x g_1 then displays substantial scale dependence, which necessarily implies a corresponding scale dependence in the large-x region. This scale dependence has significant consequences for the extraction of the first moment from the experimental data, reducing its value while increasing the error. Conversely, the scale dependence may be used to constrain the size of the polarized gluon distribution.

  5. Spin-dependent parton distributions in the nucleon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cloet, I.C. [Special Research Centre for the Subatomic Structure of Matter and Department of Physics and Mathematical Physics, University of Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Bentz, W. [Department of Physics, School of Science, Tokai University Hiratsuka-shi, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Thomas, A.W. [Jefferson Lab, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States)

    2005-04-15

    Spin-dependent quark light-cone momentum distributions are calculated for a nucleon in the nuclear medium. We utilize a modified NJL model where the nucleon is described as a composite quark-diquark state. Scalar and vector mean fields are incorporated in the nuclear medium and these fields couple to the confined quarks in the nucleon. The effect of these fields on the spin-dependent distributions and consequently the axial charges is investigated. Our results for the 'spin-dependent EMC effect' are also discussed.

  6. QCD parametrizations of the parton distribution of deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotikov, A.V.; Maksimov, S.J.; Parobij, I.S.

    1993-01-01

    A realistic parametrization of the gluon and quarks distributions is suggested. It is shown that the solutions of the Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Paris equations can be presented by these parametrizations and these equations unambiguously lead to the constraints on the Q 2 -evolution of the parameters. (author). 10 refs

  7. Reweighting Parton Showers

    CERN Document Server

    Bellm, Johannes; Richardson, Peter; Siódmok, Andrzej; Webster, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    We report on the possibility of reweighting parton-shower Monte Carlo predictions for scale variations in the parton-shower algorithm. The method is based on a generalization of the Sudakov veto algorithm. We demonstrate the feasibility of this approach using example physical distributions. Implementations are available for both the parton-shower modules in the Herwig 7 event generator.

  8. Exclusive neutrino production of a charmed vector meson and transversity gluon generalized parton distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pire, B.; Szymanowski, L.

    2017-12-01

    We calculate at the leading order in αs the QCD amplitude for exclusive neutrino production of a D* or Ds* charmed vector meson on a nucleon. We work in the framework of the collinear QCD approach where generalized parton distributions (GPDs) factorize from perturbatively calculable coefficient functions. We include O (mc) terms in the coefficient functions and the O (mD) term in the definition of heavy meson distribution amplitudes. The show that the analysis of the angular distribution of the decay D(s) *→D(s )π allows us to access the transversity gluon GPDs.

  9. Symmetry breaking effect on determination of polarized and unpolarized parton distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbabifar, F.; Khorramian, Ali N.; Khanpour, H.; Atashbar Tehrani, S.

    2013-01-01

    We perform a new extraction for unpolarized and polarized parton distribution functions considering a flavor decompositions for sea quarks and applying very recent deep inelastic scattering (DIS) and semi inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) data in the fixed flavor number scheme (FFNS) framework. In the new symmetry breaking scenario the light quark and antiquark densities are extracted separately and new parametrization forms are determined for them. The heavy flavors contribution, including charm and bottom quarks, are also taken to be account for unpolarized distributions

  10. Universality of Generalized Parton Distributions in Light-Front Holographic QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Téramond, Guy F.; Liu, Tianbo; Sufian, Raza Sabbir; Dosch, Hans Günter; Brodsky, Stanley J.; Deur, Alexandre; Hlfhs Collaboration

    2018-05-01

    The structure of generalized parton distributions is determined from light-front holographic QCD up to a universal reparametrization function w (x ) which incorporates Regge behavior at small x and inclusive counting rules at x →1 . A simple ansatz for w (x ) that fulfills these physics constraints with a single-parameter results in precise descriptions of both the nucleon and the pion quark distribution functions in comparison with global fits. The analytic structure of the amplitudes leads to a connection with the Veneziano model and hence to a nontrivial connection with Regge theory and the hadron spectrum.

  11. APFEL Web a web-based application for the graphical visualization of parton distribution functions

    CERN Document Server

    Carrazza, Stefano; Palazzo, Daniele; Rojo, Juan

    2015-01-01

    We present APFEL Web, a web-based application designed to provide a flexible user-friendly tool for the graphical visualization of parton distribution functions (PDFs). In this note we describe the technical design of the APFEL Web application, motivating the choices and the framework used for the development of this project. We document the basic usage of APFEL Web and show how it can be used to provide useful input for a variety of collider phenomenological studies. Finally we provide some examples showing the output generated by the application.

  12. APFEL Web: a web-based application for the graphical visualization of parton distribution functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrazza, Stefano; Ferrara, Alfio; Palazzo, Daniele; Rojo, Juan

    2015-01-01

    We present APFEL Web, a Web-based application designed to provide a flexible user-friendly tool for the graphical visualization of parton distribution functions. In this note we describe the technical design of the APFEL Web application, motivating the choices and the framework used for the development of this project. We document the basic usage of APFEL Web and show how it can be used to provide useful input for a variety of collider phenomenological studies. Finally we provide some examples showing the output generated by the application. (note)

  13. Strange quark distribution and parton charge symmetry violation in a semi-inclusive process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagawa, Hisashi; Sakemi, Yasuhiro

    2000-01-01

    It is possible to observe a semi-inclusive reaction with tagged charged kaons using the RICH detector at DESY-HERA. Using the semi-inclusive process we study two kinds of parton properties in the nucleon. We study relations between cross sections and strange quark distributions, which are expected to be measured more precisely in such a process than in the process in which pions are tagged. We also investigate charge symmetry violation (CSV) in the nucleon, which appears in the region x ≤ 0.1. (author)

  14. Cross-channel analysis of quark and gluon generalized parton distributions with helicity flip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pire, B.; Semenov-Tian-Shansky, K.; Szymanowski, L.; Wallon, S.

    2014-01-01

    Quark and gluon helicity flip generalized parton distributions (GPDs) address the transversity quark and gluon structure of the nucleon. In order to construct a theoretically consistent parametrization of these hadronic matrix elements, we work out the set of combinations of those GPDs suitable for the SO(3) partial wave (PW) expansion in the cross-channel. This universal result will help to build up a flexible parametrization of these important hadronic non-perturbative quantities, using, for instance, the approaches based on the conformal PW expansion of GPDs such as the Mellin-Barnes integral or the dual parametrization techniques. (orig.)

  15. Cross-channel analysis of quark and gluon generalized parton distributions with helicity flip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pire, B. [CNRS, CPhT, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France); Semenov-Tian-Shansky, K. [Universite de Liege, IFPA, Departement AGO, Liege (Belgium); Szymanowski, L. [National Centre for Nuclear Research (NCBJ), Warsaw (Poland); Wallon, S. [Universite de Paris-Sud, CNRS, LPT, Orsay (France); Universite Paris 06, Faculte de Physique, UPMC, Paris (France)

    2014-05-15

    Quark and gluon helicity flip generalized parton distributions (GPDs) address the transversity quark and gluon structure of the nucleon. In order to construct a theoretically consistent parametrization of these hadronic matrix elements, we work out the set of combinations of those GPDs suitable for the SO(3) partial wave (PW) expansion in the cross-channel. This universal result will help to build up a flexible parametrization of these important hadronic non-perturbative quantities, using, for instance, the approaches based on the conformal PW expansion of GPDs such as the Mellin-Barnes integral or the dual parametrization techniques. (orig.)

  16. The Adler sum rule and quark parton distribution functions in nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niegawa, Akira; Sasaki, Ken.

    1975-01-01

    The behaviour of the quark parton distribution functions is discussed through the phenomenological analysis of the deep inelastic e-p and e-n data under constraint of the saturation of the Adler sum rule. It is concluded that in the region 0 0 where the Regge parametrization can be applied, anti u(x) is equal to anti d(x), and both behave as const/x, (x 0 will be 0.04--0.05); for x 0 x 0 is given. The rate of convergence of the Adler sum rule is also discussed. (auth.)

  17. Statistical issues in the parton distribution analysis of the Tevatron jet data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekhin, S.; Bluemlein, J.; Moch, S.O.; Hamburg Univ.

    2012-11-01

    We analyse a tension between the D0 and CDF inclusive jet data and the perturbative QCD calculations, which are based on the ABKM09 and ABM11 parton distribution functions (PDFs) within the nuisance parameter framework. Particular attention is paid on the uncertainties in the nuisance parameters due to the data fluctuations and the PDF errors. We show that with account of these uncertainties the nuisance parameters do not demonstrate a statistically significant excess. A statistical bias of the estimator based on the nuisance parameters is also discussed.

  18. Deeply virtual Compton scattering with the CLAS detector for the study of generalized parton distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girod, F.X.

    2006-12-01

    The structure of the nucleon, among the first fundamental problems in hadronic physics, is the subject of a renewed interest. The lightest baryonic state has historically been described in two complementary approaches: through elastic scattering, measuring form factors which reflect the spatial shape of charge distributions, and through deep inelastic scattering, providing access to parton distribution functions which encode the momentum content carried by the constituents. The recently developed formalism of Generalized Parton Distributions unifies those approaches and provides access to new informations. The cleanest process sensitive to GPDs is the deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) contributing to the ep → epγ reaction. This work deals with a dedicated experiment accomplished with the CLAS detector, completed with two specific equipments: a lead tungstate calorimeter covering photon detection at small angles, and a superconducting solenoid actively shielding the electromagnetic background. The entire project is covered: from the upgrade of the experimental setup, through the update of the software, data taking and analysis, up to a first comparison of the beam spin asymmetry to model predictions. (author)

  19. Antiquark distributions in the proton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, M.; Carey, T.; Garvey, G.

    1997-01-01

    This is the final report of a three-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The study of quark and antiquark distributions in the nucleon has been a major endeavor in nuclear and particle physics. Results from a recent deep-inelastic scattering experiment suggest the surprising possibility that the up and down antiquark distributions in the proton are not symmetric. A sensitive and direct determination of the antiquark distributions in the proton can be made by comparing the Drell-Yan cross sections on hydrogen versus deuterium targets. The authors have proposed a new experiment (E866) at Fermilab to carry out such measurements. E866 has been taking data since September 1996. Preliminary results show that the apparatus is working very well. The authors anticipate having seven months of beam in 1997, which would allow them to achieve the sensitivities for a definitive measurement of flavor symmetry of sea quarks in the proton

  20. Double-parton scattering effects in D0B+ and B+B+ meson-meson pair production in proton-proton collisions at the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciuła, Rafał; Szczurek, Antoni

    2018-05-01

    We extend our previous studies of double-parton scattering (DPS) to simultaneous production of c c ¯ and b b ¯ and production of two pairs of b b ¯. The calculation is performed within a factorized ansatz. Each parton scattering is calculated within the kT-factorization approach. The hadronization is done with the help of fragmentation functions. Production of D mesons in our framework was tested in our previous works. Here, we present our predictions for B mesons. A good agreement is achieved with the LHCb data. We present our results for c c ¯b b ¯ and b b ¯b b ¯ final states. For completeness, we compare results for double- and single-parton scattering (SPS). As for the c c ¯c c ¯ final state, the DPS dominates over the SPS, especially for small transverse momenta. We present several distributions and integrated cross sections with realistic cuts for simultaneous production of D0B+ and B+B+, suggesting future experimental studies at the LHC.

  1. Coherent deeply virtual Compton scattering off 3He and neutron generalized parton distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinaldi Matteo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been recently proposed to study coherent deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS off 3He nuclei to access neutron generalized parton distributions (GPDs. In particular, it has been shown that, in Impulse Approximation (IA and at low momentum transfer, the sum of the quark helicity conserving GPDs of 3He, H and E, is dominated by the neutron contribution. This peculiar result makes the 3He target very promising to access the neutron information. We present here the IA calculation of the spin dependent GPD H See Formula in PDF of 3He. Also for this quantity the neutron contribution is found to be the dominant one, at low momentum transfer. The known forward limit of the IA calculation of H See Formula in PDF , yielding the polarized parton distributions of 3He, is correctly recovered. The extraction of the neutron information could be anyway non trivial, so that a procedure, able to take into account the nuclear effects encoded in the IA analysis, is proposed. These calculations, essential for the evaluation of the coherent DVCS cross section asymmetries, which depend on the GPDs H,E and H See Formula in PDF , represent a crucial step for planning possible experiments at Jefferson Lab.

  2. CT14 intrinsic charm parton distribution functions from CTEQ-TEA global analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Tie-Jiun; Dulat, Sayipjamal; Gao, Jun; Guzzi, Marco; Huston, Joey; Nadolsky, Pavel; Schmidt, Carl; Winter, Jan; Xie, Keping; Yuan, C.-P.

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the possibility of a (sizable) nonperturbative contribution to the charm parton distribution function (PDF) in a nucleon, theoretical issues arising in its interpretation, and its potential impact on LHC scattering processes. The "fitted charm" PDF obtained in various QCD analyses contains a process-dependent component that is partly traced to power-suppressed radiative contributions in DIS and is generally different at the LHC. We discuss separation of the universal component of the nonperturbative charm from the rest of the radiative contributions and estimate its magnitude in the CT14 global QCD analysis at the next-to-next-to leading order in the QCD coupling strength, including the latest experimental data from HERA and the Large Hadron Collider. Models for the nonperturbative charm PDF are examined as a function of the charm quark mass and other parameters. The prospects for testing these models in the associated production of a Z boson and a charm jet at the LHC are studied under realistic assumptions, including effects of the final-state parton showering.

  3. A global analysis of recent experimental results: How well determined are the parton distribution functions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morfin, J.G.

    1990-08-01

    Following is a brief summary of the results of an analysis of experimental data performed to extract the patron distribution functions. In contrast to other global analyses, this study investigated how the fit results depend on: Experimental Systematic Errors; Kinematic Cuts on the Analyzed Data and Choice of Initial Functional Forms, with a prime goal being a close look at the range of low-x behavior allowed by data. This is crucial for predictions for the SSC/LHC, HERA, and even at Tevatron Collider energies. Since all details can be found in the just released Fermilab preprint Parton Distributions from a Global QCD Analysis of Deep Inelastic Scattering and Lepton-Pair Production by J. G. M. and Wu-Ki Tung, this summary will be only a brief outline of major results. 11 refs., 13 figs

  4. LHC production of forward-center and forward-forward di-jets in the kt-factorization and transverse dependent unintegrated parton distribution frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modarres, M.; Masouminia, M. R.; Aminzadeh Nik, R.; Hosseinkhani, H.; Olanj, N.

    2017-09-01

    The present work is devoted to study the high-energy QCD events, such as the di-jet productions from proton-proton inelastic collisions at the LHC in the forward-center and the forward-forward configurations. This provides us with much valuable case study, since such phenomena can provide a direct glimpse into the partonic behavior of a hadron in a dominant gluonic region. We use the unintegrated parton distribution functions (UPDF) in the kt-factorization framework. The UPDF of Kimber et al. (KMR) and Martin et al. (MRW) are generated in the leading order (LO) and next-to-leading order (NLO), using the Harland-Lang et al. (MMHT2014) PDF libraries. While working in the forward-center and the forward-forward rapidity sectors, one can probe the parton densities at very low longitudinal momentum fractions (x). Such a model computation can provide simpler analytic description of data with respect to existing formalisms such as perturbative QCD. The differential cross-section calculations are performed at the center of mass energy of 7 TeV corresponding to CMS collaboration measurement. It is shown that the gluonic jet productions are dominant and a good description of data as well as other theoretical attempts (i.e. KS-linear, KS-nonlinear and rcBK) is obtained. The uncertainty of the calculations is derived by manipulating the hard scale of the processes by a factor of two. This conclusion is achieved, due to the particular visualization of the angular ordering constraint (AOC), that is incorporated in the definition of these UPDF.

  5. New Angle on the Parton Distribution Functions: Self-Organizing Maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honkanen, H.; Liuti, S.

    2009-01-01

    Neural network (NN) algorithms have been recently applied to construct Parton Distribution Function (PDF) parametrizations, providing an alternative to standard global fitting procedures. Here we explore a novel technique using Self-Organizing Maps (SOMs). SOMs are a class of clustering algorithms based on competitive learning among spatially-ordered neurons. We train our SOMs with stochastically generated PDF samples. On every optimization iteration the PDFs are clustered on the SOM according to a user-defined feature and the most promising candidates are used as a seed for the subsequent iteration using the topology of the map to guide the PDF generating process. Our goal is a fitting procedure that, at variance with the standard neural network approaches, will allow for an increased control of the systematic bias by enabling user interaction in the various stages of the process.

  6. Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques applied to parton distribution functions determination: Proof of concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbedo, Yémalin Gabin; Mangin-Brinet, Mariane

    2017-07-01

    We present a new procedure to determine parton distribution functions (PDFs), based on Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods. The aim of this paper is to show that we can replace the standard χ2 minimization by procedures grounded on statistical methods, and on Bayesian inference in particular, thus offering additional insight into the rich field of PDFs determination. After a basic introduction to these techniques, we introduce the algorithm we have chosen to implement—namely Hybrid (or Hamiltonian) Monte Carlo. This algorithm, initially developed for Lattice QCD, turns out to be very interesting when applied to PDFs determination by global analyses; we show that it allows us to circumvent the difficulties due to the high dimensionality of the problem, in particular concerning the acceptance. A first feasibility study is performed and presented, which indicates that Markov chain Monte Carlo can successfully be applied to the extraction of PDFs and of their uncertainties.

  7. Prompt neutrino fluxes in the atmosphere with PROSA parton distribution functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garzelli, M.V.; Moch, S.; Placakyte, R.; Sigl, G.; Cooper-Sarkar, A.

    2016-11-01

    Effects on atmospheric prompt neutrino fluxes of present uncertainties affecting the nucleon composition are studied by using the PROSA fit to parton distribution functions (PDFs). The PROSA fit extends the precision of the PDFs to low x, which is the kinematic region of relevance for high-energy neutrino production, by taking into account LHCb data on charm and bottom hadroproduction. In the range of neutrino energies explored by present Very Large Volume Neutrino Telescopes, it is found that PDF uncertainties are far smaller with respect to those due to renormalization and factorization scale variation and to assumptions on the cosmic ray composition, which at present dominate and limit our knowledge of prompt neutrino fluxes. A discussion is presented on how these uncertainties affect the expected number of atmospheric prompt neutrino events in the analysis of high-energy events characterized by interaction vertices fully contained within the instrumented volume of the detector, performed by the IceCube collaboration.

  8. Exclusive η electroproduction at W >2 GeV with CLAS and transversity generalized parton distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedlinskiy, I.; Kubarovsky, V.; Stoler, P.; Adhikari, K. P.; Akbar, Z.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Avakian, H.; Ball, J.; Baltzell, N. A.; Battaglieri, M.; Batourine, V.; Biselli, A. S.; Boiarinov, S.; Briscoe, W. J.; Burkert, V. D.; Cao, T.; Carman, D. S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Charles, G.; Ciullo, G.; Clark, L.; Colaneri, L.; Cole, P. L.; Contalbrigo, M.; Crede, V.; D'Angelo, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Dupre, R.; Alaoui, A. El; Fassi, L. El; Elouadrhiri, L.; Eugenio, P.; Fanchini, E.; Fedotov, G.; Fersch, R.; Filippi, A.; Fleming, J. A.; Forest, T. A.; Garçon, M.; Gevorgyan, N.; Ghandilyan, Y.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Gleason, C.; Golovatch, E.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guidal, M.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Hakobyan, H.; Hanretty, C.; Harrison, N.; Hattawy, M.; Hicks, K.; Hughes, S. M.; Hyde, C. E.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Isupov, E. L.; Jenkins, D.; Jiang, H.; Jo, H. S.; Joo, K.; Joosten, S.; Keller, D.; Khachatryan, G.; Khachatryan, M.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; Klein, F. J.; Kuhn, S. E.; Kuleshov, S. V.; Lanza, L.; Lenisa, P.; Livingston, K.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Markov, N.; McKinnon, B.; Meziani, Z. E.; Mirazita, M.; Mokeev, V.; Montgomery, R. A.; Movsisyan, A.; Munoz Camacho, C.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Net, L. A.; Ni, A.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Paolone, M.; Paremuzyan, R.; Park, K.; Pasyuk, E.; Peng, P.; Phelps, W.; Pisano, S.; Pogorelko, O.; Price, J. W.; Prok, Y.; Protopopescu, D.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Raue, B. A.; Ripani, M.; Rizzo, A.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Roy, P.; Sabatié, F.; Saini, M. S.; Salgado, C.; Schumacher, R. A.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Skorodumina, Iu.; Smith, G. D.; Sokhan, D.; Sparveris, N.; Stepanyan, S.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Strauch, S.; Taiuti, M.; Tian, Ye; Torayev, B.; Turisini, M.; Ungaro, M.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N. K.; Watts, D. P.; Wei, X.; Weinstein, L. B.; Wood, M. H.; Yurov, M.; Zachariou, N.; Zhang, J.; Zonta, I.; CLAS Collaboration

    2017-03-01

    The cross section of the exclusive η electroproduction reaction e p →e'p'η was measured at Jefferson Laboratory with a 5.75 GeV electron beam and the CLAS detector. Differential cross sections d4σ /d t d Q2d xBd ϕη and structure functions σU=σT+ɛ σL,σT T , and σL T, as functions of t , were obtained over a wide range of Q2 and xB. The η structure functions are compared with those previously measured for π0 at the same kinematics. At low t , both π0 and η are described reasonably well by generalized parton distributions (GPDs) in which chiral-odd transversity GPDs are dominant. The π0 and η data, when taken together, can facilitate the flavor decomposition of the transversity GPDs.

  9. Viewing the proton through ''color'' filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Xiangdong

    2004-01-01

    While the form factors and parton distributions provide separately the shape of the proton in coordinate and momentum spaces, a more powerful imaging of the proton structure can be obtained through quantum phase-space distributions. Here we introduce the Wigner-type quark and gluon distributions which depict a full-3D proton at every fixed Feynman momentum, like what is seen through momentum(''color'')-filters. After appropriate reductions, the phase-space distributions are related to the generalized parton distributions (GPDs) and transverse-momentum dependent parton distributions measurable in high-energy experiments. (orig.)

  10. Geometrical parton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebata, T [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Coll. of General Education

    1976-06-01

    The geometrical distribution inferred from the inelastic cross section is assumed to be proportional to the partial waves. The precocious scaling and the Q/sup 2/-dependence of various quantities are treated from the geometrical point of view. It is shown that the approximate conservation of the orbital angular momentum may be a very practical rule to understand the helicity structure of various hadronic and electromagnetic reactions. The rule can be applied to inclusive reactions as well. The model is also applied to large angle processes. Through the discussion, it is suggested that many peculiar properties of the quark-parton can be ascribed to the geometrical effects.

  11. Measurement of double-differential cross sections for top quark pair production in pp collisions at √{s} = 8 {TeV} and impact on parton distribution functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Flechl, M.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; König, A.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Matsushita, T.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rad, N.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Strauss, J.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Dvornikov, O.; Makarenko, V.; Mossolov, V.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Zykunov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Alderweireldt, S.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Lauwers, J.; Van De Klundert, M.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; De Bruyn, I.; Deroover, K.; Lowette, S.; Moortgat, S.; Moreels, L.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Skovpen, K.; Tavernier, S.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Parijs, I.; Brun, H.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Delannoy, H.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Goldouzian, R.; Grebenyuk, A.; Karapostoli, G.; Lenzi, T.; Léonard, A.; Luetic, J.; Maerschalk, T.; Marinov, A.; Randle-conde, A.; Seva, T.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Vannerom, D.; Yonamine, R.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, F.; Cornelis, T.; Dobur, D.; Fagot, A.; Gul, M.; Khvastunov, I.; Poyraz, D.; Salva, S.; Schöfbeck, R.; Tytgat, M.; Van Driessche, W.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Bakhshiansohi, H.; Bondu, O.; Brochet, S.; Bruno, G.; Caudron, A.; De Visscher, S.; Delaere, C.; Delcourt, M.; Francois, B.; Giammanco, A.; Jafari, A.; Komm, M.; Krintiras, G.; Lemaitre, V.; Magitteri, A.; Mertens, A.; Musich, M.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Wertz, S.; Beliy, N.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Alves, F. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Hensel, C.; Moraes, A.; Pol, M. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Chagas, E. Belchior Batista Das; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; Da Silveira, G. G.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; De Souza, S. Fonseca; Guativa, L. M. Huertas; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mora Herrera, C.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Torres Da Silva De Araujo, F.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Ahuja, S.; Bernardes, C. A.; Dogra, S.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Moon, C. S.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Romero Abad, D.; Ruiz Vargas, J. C.; Aleksandrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Fang, W.; Ahmad, M.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, T.; Jiang, C. H.; Leggat, D.; Liu, Z.; Romeo, F.; Ruan, M.; Shaheen, S. M.; Spiezia, A.; Tao, J.; Wang, C.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Zhao, J.; Ban, Y.; Chen, G.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; González Hernández, C. F.; Ruiz Alvarez, J. D.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Puljak, I.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Sculac, T.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Ferencek, D.; Kadija, K.; Mesic, B.; Susa, T.; Ather, M. W.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Carrera Jarrin, E.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Radi, A.; Kadastik, M.; Perrini, L.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Veelken, C.; Eerola, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Järvinen, T.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Ghosh, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Kucher, I.; Locci, E.; Machet, M.; Malcles, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Abdulsalam, A.; Antropov, I.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Cadamuro, L.; Chapon, E.; Charlot, C.; Davignon, O.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Jo, M.; Lisniak, S.; Miné, P.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Ortona, G.; Paganini, P.; Pigard, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sirois, Y.; Stahl Leiton, A. G.; Strebler, T.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Zghiche, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Buttignol, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Chanon, N.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Coubez, X.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Bihan, A.-C. Le; Van Hove, P.; Gadrat, S.; Beauceron, S.; Bernet, C.; Boudoul, G.; Carrillo Montoya, C. A.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Courbon, B.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fay, J.; Finco, L.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grenier, G.; Ille, B.; Lagarde, F.; Laktineh, I. B.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Pequegnot, A. L.; Perries, S.; Popov, A.; Sordini, V.; Vander Donckt, M.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Khvedelidze, A.; Lomidze, D.; Autermann, C.; Beranek, S.; Feld, L.; Kiesel, M. K.; Klein, K.; Lipinski, M.; Preuten, M.; Schomakers, C.; Schulz, J.; Verlage, T.; Albert, A.; Brodski, M.; Dietz-Laursonn, E.; Duchardt, D.; Endres, M.; Erdmann, M.; Erdweg, S.; Esch, T.; Fischer, R.; Güth, A.; Hamer, M.; Hebbeker, T.; Heidemann, C.; Hoepfner, K.; Knutzen, S.; Merschmeyer, M.; Meyer, A.; Millet, P.; Mukherjee, S.; Olschewski, M.; Padeken, K.; Pook, T.; Radziej, M.; Reithler, H.; Rieger, M.; Scheuch, F.; Sonnenschein, L.; Teyssier, D.; Thüer, S.; Cherepanov, V.; Flügge, G.; Kargoll, B.; Kress, T.; Künsken, A.; Lingemann, J.; Müller, T.; Nehrkorn, A.; Nowack, A.; Pistone, C.; Pooth, O.; Stahl, A.; Aldaya Martin, M.; Arndt, T.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Beernaert, K.; Behnke, O.; Behrens, U.; Bin Anuar, A. A.; Borras, K.; Campbell, A.; Connor, P.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Costanza, F.; Diez Pardos, C.; Dolinska, G.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Eichhorn, T.; Eren, E.; Gallo, E.; Garay Garcia, J.; Geiser, A.; Gizhko, A.; Grados Luyando, J. M.; Grohsjean, A.; Gunnellini, P.; Harb, A.; Hauk, J.; Hempel, M.; Jung, H.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Karacheban, O.; Kasemann, M.; Keaveney, J.; Kleinwort, C.; Korol, I.; Krücker, D.; Lange, W.; Lelek, A.; Lenz, T.; Leonard, J.; Lipka, K.; Lobanov, A.; Lohmann, W.; Mankel, R.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.; Meyer, A. B.; Mittag, G.; Mnich, J.; Mussgiller, A.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Raspereza, A.; Roland, B.; Sahin, M. Ö.; Saxena, P.; Schoerner-Sadenius, T.; Spannagel, S.; Stefaniuk, N.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Walsh, R.; Wissing, C.; Zenaiev, O.; Blobel, V.; Centis Vignali, M.; Draeger, A. R.; Dreyer, T.; Garutti, E.; Gonzalez, D.; Haller, J.; Hoffmann, M.; Junkes, A.; Klanner, R.; Kogler, R.; Kovalchuk, N.; Kurz, S.; Lapsien, T.; Marchesini, I.; Marconi, D.; Meyer, M.; Niedziela, M.; Nowatschin, D.; Pantaleo, F.; Peiffer, T.; Perieanu, A.; Scharf, C.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, A.; Schumann, S.; Schwandt, J.; Sonneveld, J.; Stadie, H.; Steinbrück, G.; Stober, F. M.; Stöver, M.; Tholen, H.; Troendle, D.; Usai, E.; Vanelderen, L.; Vanhoefer, A.; Vormwald, B.; Akbiyik, M.; Barth, C.; Baur, S.; Baus, C.; Berger, J.; Butz, E.; Caspart, R.; Chwalek, T.; Colombo, F.; De Boer, W.; Dierlamm, A.; Fink, S.; Freund, B.; Friese, R.; Giffels, M.; Gilbert, A.; Goldenzweig, P.; Haitz, D.; Hartmann, F.; Heindl, S. M.; Husemann, U.; Kassel, F.; Katkov, I.; Kudella, S.; Mildner, H.; Mozer, M. U.; Müller, Th.; Plagge, M.; Quast, G.; Rabbertz, K.; Röcker, S.; Roscher, F.; Schröder, M.; Shvetsov, I.; Sieber, G.; Simonis, H. J.; Ulrich, R.; Wayand, S.; Weber, M.; Weiler, T.; Williamson, S.; Wöhrmann, C.; Wolf, R.; Anagnostou, G.; Daskalakis, G.; Geralis, T.; Giakoumopoulou, V. A.; Kyriakis, A.; Loukas, D.; Topsis-Giotis, I.; Kesisoglou, S.; Panagiotou, A.; Saoulidou, N.; Tziaferi, E.; Kousouris, K.; Evangelou, I.; Flouris, G.; Foudas, C.; Kokkas, P.; Loukas, N.; Manthos, N.; Papadopoulos, I.; Paradas, E.; Filipovic, N.; Pasztor, G.; Bencze, G.; Hajdu, C.; Horvath, D.; Sikler, F.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Zsigmond, A. J.; Beni, N.; Czellar, S.; Karancsi, J.; Makovec, A.; Molnar, J.; Szillasi, Z.; Bartók, M.; Raics, P.; Trocsanyi, Z. L.; Ujvari, B.; Komaragiri, J. R.; Bahinipati, S.; Bhowmik, S.; Choudhury, S.; Mal, P.; Mandal, K.; Nayak, A.; Sahoo, D. K.; Sahoo, N.; Swain, S. K.; Bansal, S.; Beri, S. B.; Bhatnagar, V.; Chawla, R.; Bhawandeep, U.; Kalsi, A. K.; Kaur, A.; Kaur, M.; Kumar, R.; Kumari, P.; Mehta, A.; Mittal, M.; Singh, J. B.; Walia, G.; Kumar, Ashok; Bhardwaj, A.; Choudhary, B. C.; Garg, R. B.; Keshri, S.; Kumar, A.; Malhotra, S.; Naimuddin, M.; Ranjan, K.; Sharma, R.; Sharma, V.; Bhattacharya, R.; Bhattacharya, S.; Chatterjee, K.; Dey, S.; Dutt, S.; Dutta, S.; Ghosh, S.; Majumdar, N.; Modak, A.; Mondal, K.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Nandan, S.; Purohit, A.; Roy, A.; Roy, D.; Roy Chowdhury, S.; Sarkar, S.; Sharan, M.; Thakur, S.; Behera, P. K.; Chudasama, R.; Dutta, D.; Jha, V.; Kumar, V.; Mohanty, A. K.; Netrakanti, P. K.; Pant, L. M.; Shukla, P.; Topkar, A.; Aziz, T.; Dugad, S.; Kole, G.; Mahakud, B.; Mitra, S.; Mohanty, G. B.; Parida, B.; Sur, N.; Sutar, B.; Banerjee, S.; Dewanjee, R. K.; Ganguly, S.; Guchait, M.; Jain, Sa.; Kumar, S.; Maity, M.; Majumder, G.; Mazumdar, K.; Sarkar, T.; Wickramage, N.; Chauhan, S.; Dube, S.; Hegde, V.; Kapoor, A.; Kothekar, K.; Pandey, S.; Rane, A.; Sharma, S.; Chenarani, S.; Eskandari Tadavani, E.; Etesami, S. M.; Khakzad, M.; Mohammadi Najafabadi, M.; Naseri, M.; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, S.; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, F.; Safarzadeh, B.; Zeinali, M.; Felcini, M.; Grunewald, M.; Abbrescia, M.; Calabria, C.; Caputo, C.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; Cristella, L.; De Filippis, N.; De Palma, M.; Fiore, L.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Miniello, G.; My, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pompili, A.; Pugliese, G.; Radogna, R.; Ranieri, A.; Selvaggi, G.; Sharma, A.; Silvestris, L.; Venditti, R.; Verwilligen, P.; Abbiendi, G.; Battilana, C.; Bonacorsi, D.; Braibant-Giacomelli, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Campanini, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Castro, A.; Cavallo, F. R.; Chhibra, S. S.; Codispoti, G.; Cuffiani, M.; Dallavalle, G. M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fasanella, D.; Giacomelli, P.; Grandi, C.; Guiducci, L.; Marcellini, S.; Masetti, G.; Montanari, A.; Navarria, F. L.; Perrotta, A.; Rossi, A. M.; Rovelli, T.; Siroli, G. P.; Tosi, N.; Albergo, S.; Costa, S.; Di Mattia, A.; Giordano, F.; Potenza, R.; Tricomi, A.; Tuve, C.; Barbagli, G.; Ciulli, V.; Civinini, C.; D'Alessandro, R.; Focardi, E.; Lenzi, P.; Meschini, M.; Paoletti, S.; Russo, L.; Sguazzoni, G.; Strom, D.; Viliani, L.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Fabbri, F.; Piccolo, D.; Primavera, F.; Calvelli, V.; Ferro, F.; Monge, M. R.; Robutti, E.; Tosi, S.; Brianza, L.; Brivio, F.; Ciriolo, V.; Dinardo, M. E.; Fiorendi, S.; Gennai, S.; Ghezzi, A.; Govoni, P.; Malberti, M.; Malvezzi, S.; Manzoni, R. A.; Menasce, D.; Moroni, L.; Paganoni, M.; Pedrini, D.; Pigazzini, S.; Ragazzi, S.; Tabarelli de Fatis, T.; Buontempo, S.; Cavallo, N.; De Nardo, G.; Di Guida, S.; Esposito, M.; Fabozzi, F.; Fienga, F.; Iorio, A. O. M.; Lanza, G.; Lista, L.; Meola, S.; Paolucci, P.; Sciacca, C.; Thyssen, F.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Benato, L.; Bisello, D.; Boletti, A.; Carlin, R.; Antunes De Oliveira, A. Carvalho; Checchia, P.; Dall'Osso, M.; De Castro Manzano, P.; Dorigo, T.; Dosselli, U.; Gasparini, U.; Gonella, F.; Lacaprara, S.; Margoni, M.; Meneguzzo, A. T.; Pazzini, J.; Pozzobon, N.; Ronchese, P.; Rossin, R.; Simonetto, F.; Torassa, E.; Ventura, S.; Zanetti, M.; Zotto, P.; Braghieri, A.; Fallavollita, F.; Magnani, A.; Montagna, P.; Ratti, S. P.; Re, V.; Ressegotti, M.; Riccardi, C.; Salvini, P.; Vai, I.; Vitulo, P.; Alunni Solestizi, L.; Bilei, G. M.; Ciangottini, D.; Fanò, L.; Lariccia, P.; Leonardi, R.; Mantovani, G.; Mariani, V.; Menichelli, M.; Saha, A.; Santocchia, A.; Androsov, K.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Bernardini, J.; Boccali, T.; Castaldi, R.; Ciocci, M. A.; Dell'Orso, R.; Fedi, G.; Giassi, A.; Grippo, M. T.; Ligabue, F.; Lomtadze, T.; Martini, L.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzi, A.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Spagnolo, P.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Barone, L.; Cavallari, F.; Cipriani, M.; Del Re, D.; Diemoz, M.; Gelli, S.; Longo, E.; Margaroli, F.; Marzocchi, B.; Meridiani, P.; Organtini, G.; Paramatti, R.; Preiato, F.; Rahatlou, S.; Rovelli, C.; Santanastasio, F.; Amapane, N.; Arcidiacono, R.; Argiro, S.; Arneodo, M.; Bartosik, N.; Bellan, R.; Biino, C.; Cartiglia, N.; Cenna, F.; Costa, M.; Covarelli, R.; Degano, A.; Demaria, N.; Kiani, B.; Mariotti, C.; Maselli, S.; Migliore, E.; Monaco, V.; Monteil, E.; Monteno, M.; Obertino, M. M.; Pacher, L.; Pastrone, N.; Pelliccioni, M.; Pinna Angioni, G. L.; Ravera, F.; Romero, A.; Ruspa, M.; Sacchi, R.; Shchelina, K.; Sola, V.; Solano, A.; Staiano, A.; Traczyk, P.; Belforte, S.; Casarsa, M.; Cossutti, F.; Della Ricca, G.; Zanetti, A.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, G. N.; Kim, M. S.; Lee, J.; Lee, S.; Lee, S. W.; Oh, Y. D.; Sekmen, S.; Son, D. C.; Yang, Y. C.; Lee, A.; Kim, H.; Brochero Cifuentes, J. A.; Kim, T. J.; Cho, S.; Choi, S.; Go, Y.; Gyun, D.; Ha, S.; Hong, B.; Jo, Y.; Kim, Y.; Lee, K.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, S.; Lim, J.; Park, S. K.; Roh, Y.; Almond, J.; Kim, J.; Lee, H.; Oh, S. B.; Radburn-Smith, B. C.; Seo, S. H.; Yang, U. K.; Yoo, H. D.; Yu, G. B.; Choi, M.; Kim, H.; Kim, J. H.; Lee, J. S. H.; Park, I. C.; Ryu, G.; Ryu, M. S.; Choi, Y.; Goh, J.; Hwang, C.; Lee, J.; Yu, I.; Dudenas, V.; Juodagalvis, A.; Vaitkus, J.; Ahmed, I.; Ibrahim, Z. A.; Md Ali, M. A. B.; Mohamad Idris, F.; Wan Abdullah, W. A. T.; Yusli, M. N.; Zolkapli, Z.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Heredia-De La Cruz, I.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Magaña Villalba, R.; Mejia Guisao, J.; Sanchez-Hernandez, A.; Carrillo Moreno, S.; Oropeza Barrera, C.; Vazquez Valencia, F.; Carpinteyro, S.; Pedraza, I.; Salazar Ibarguen, H. A.; Uribe Estrada, C.; Morelos Pineda, A.; Krofcheck, D.; Butler, P. H.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmad, M.; Hassan, Q.; Hoorani, H. R.; Khan, W. A.; Saddique, A.; Shah, M. A.; Shoaib, M.; Waqas, M.; Bialkowska, H.; Bluj, M.; Boimska, B.; Frueboes, T.; Górski, M.; Kazana, M.; Nawrocki, K.; Romanowska-Rybinska, K.; Szleper, M.; Zalewski, P.; Bunkowski, K.; Byszuk, A.; Doroba, K.; Kalinowski, A.; Konecki, M.; Krolikowski, J.; Misiura, M.; Olszewski, M.; Pyskir, A.; Walczak, M.; Bargassa, P.; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, C.; Calpas, B.; Di Francesco, A.; Faccioli, P.; Gallinaro, M.; Hollar, J.; Leonardo, N.; Lloret Iglesias, L.; Nemallapudi, M. V.; Seixas, J.; Toldaiev, O.; Vadruccio, D.; Varela, J.; Afanasiev, S.; Bunin, P.; Gavrilenko, M.; Golutvin, I.; Gorbunov, I.; Kamenev, A.; Karjavin, V.; Lanev, A.; Malakhov, A.; Matveev, V.; Palichik, V.; Perelygin, V.; Shmatov, S.; Shulha, S.; Skatchkov, N.; Smirnov, V.; Voytishin, N.; Zarubin, A.; Chtchipounov, L.; Golovtsov, V.; Ivanov, Y.; Kim, V.; Kuznetsova, E.; Murzin, V.; Oreshkin, V.; Sulimov, V.; Vorobyev, A.; Andreev, Yu.; Dermenev, A.; Gninenko, S.; Golubev, N.; Karneyeu, A.; Kirsanov, M.; Krasnikov, N.; Pashenkov, A.; Tlisov, D.; Toropin, A.; Epshteyn, V.; Gavrilov, V.; Lychkovskaya, N.; Popov, V.; Pozdnyakov, I.; Safronov, G.; Spiridonov, A.; Toms, M.; Vlasov, E.; Zhokin, A.; Aushev, T.; Bylinkin, A.; Danilov, M.; Popova, E.; Rusinov, V.; Andreev, V.; Azarkin, M.; Dremin, I.; Kirakosyan, M.; Leonidov, A.; Terkulov, A.; Baskakov, A.; Belyaev, A.; Boos, E.; Bunichev, V.; Dubinin, M.; Dudko, L.; Ershov, A.; Klyukhin, V.; Korneeva, N.; Lokhtin, I.; Miagkov, I.; Obraztsov, S.; Perfilov, M.; Savrin, V.; Volkov, P.; Blinov, V.; Skovpen, Y.; Shtol, D.; Azhgirey, I.; Bayshev, I.; Bitioukov, S.; Elumakhov, D.; Kachanov, V.; Kalinin, A.; Konstantinov, D.; Krychkine, V.; Petrov, V.; Ryutin, R.; Sobol, A.; Troshin, S.; Tyurin, N.; Uzunian, A.; Volkov, A.; Adzic, P.; Cirkovic, P.; Devetak, D.; Dordevic, M.; Milosevic, J.; Rekovic, V.; Alcaraz Maestre, J.; Barrio Luna, M.; Calvo, E.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo Llatas, M.; Colino, N.; De La Cruz, B.; Delgado Peris, A.; Escalante Del Valle, A.; Fernandez Bedoya, C.; Fernández Ramos, J. P.; Flix, J.; Fouz, M. C.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Gonzalez Lopez, O.; Goy Lopez, S.; Hernandez, J. M.; Josa, M. I.; Navarro De Martino, E.; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A.; Puerta Pelayo, J.; Quintario Olmeda, A.; Redondo, I.; Romero, L.; Soares, M. S.; de Trocóniz, J. F.; Missiroli, M.; Moran, D.; Cuevas, J.; Erice, C.; Fernandez Menendez, J.; Gonzalez Caballero, I.; González Fernández, J. R.; Palencia Cortezon, E.; Sanchez Cruz, S.; Suárez Andrés, I.; Vischia, P.; Vizan Garcia, J. M.; Cabrillo, I. J.; Calderon, A.; Curras, E.; Fernandez, M.; Garcia-Ferrero, J.; Gomez, G.; Lopez Virto, A.; Marco, J.; Martinez Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Piedra Gomez, J.; Rodrigo, T.; Ruiz-Jimeno, A.; Scodellaro, L.; Trevisani, N.; Vila, I.; Vilar Cortabitarte, R.; Abbaneo, D.; Auffray, E.; Auzinger, G.; Baillon, P.; Ball, A. H.; Barney, D.; Bloch, P.; Bocci, A.; Botta, C.; Camporesi, T.; Castello, R.; Cepeda, M.; Cerminara, G.; Chen, Y.; Cimmino, A.; d'Enterria, D.; Dabrowski, A.; Daponte, V.; David, A.; De Gruttola, M.; De Roeck, A.; Di Marco, E.; Dobson, M.; Dorney, B.; du Pree, T.; Duggan, D.; Dünser, M.; Dupont, N.; Elliott-Peisert, A.; Everaerts, P.; Fartoukh, S.; Franzoni, G.; Fulcher, J.; Funk, W.; Gigi, D.; Gill, K.; Girone, M.; Glege, F.; Gulhan, D.; Gundacker, S.; Guthoff, M.; Harris, P.; Hegeman, J.; Innocente, V.; Janot, P.; Kieseler, J.; Kirschenmann, H.; Knünz, V.; Kornmayer, A.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Krammer, M.; Lange, C.; Lecoq, P.; Lourenço, C.; Lucchini, M. T.; Malgeri, L.; Mannelli, M.; Martelli, A.; Meijers, F.; Merlin, J. A.; Mersi, S.; Meschi, E.; Milenovic, P.; Moortgat, F.; Morovic, S.; Mulders, M.; Neugebauer, H.; Orfanelli, S.; Orsini, L.; Pape, L.; Perez, E.; Peruzzi, M.; Petrilli, A.; Petrucciani, G.; Pfeiffer, A.; Pierini, M.; Racz, A.; Reis, T.; Rolandi, G.; Rovere, M.; Sakulin, H.; Sauvan, J. B.; Schäfer, C.; Schwick, C.; Seidel, M.; Sharma, A.; Silva, P.; Sphicas, P.; Steggemann, J.; Stoye, M.; Takahashi, Y.; Tosi, M.; Treille, D.; Triossi, A.; Tsirou, A.; Veckalns, V.; Veres, G. I.; Verweij, M.; Wardle, N.; Wöhri, H. K.; Zagozdzinska, A.; Zeuner, W. D.; Bertl, W.; Deiters, K.; Erdmann, W.; Horisberger, R.; Ingram, Q.; Kaestli, H. C.; Kotlinski, D.; Langenegger, U.; Rohe, T.; Wiederkehr, S. A.; Bachmair, F.; Bäni, L.; Bianchini, L.; Casal, B.; Dissertori, G.; Dittmar, M.; Donegà, M.; Grab, C.; Heidegger, C.; Hits, D.; Hoss, J.; Kasieczka, G.; Lustermann, W.; Mangano, B.; Marionneau, M.; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, P.; Masciovecchio, M.; Meinhard, M. T.; Meister, D.; Micheli, F.; Musella, P.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Pandolfi, F.; Pata, J.; Pauss, F.; Perrin, G.; Perrozzi, L.; Quittnat, M.; Rossini, M.; Schönenberger, M.; Starodumov, A.; Tavolaro, V. R.; Theofilatos, K.; Wallny, R.; Aarrestad, T. K.; Amsler, C.; Caminada, L.; Canelli, M. F.; De Cosa, A.; Donato, S.; Galloni, C.; Hinzmann, A.; Hreus, T.; Kilminster, B.; Ngadiuba, J.; Pinna, D.; Rauco, G.; Robmann, P.; Salerno, D.; Seitz, C.; Yang, Y.; Zucchetta, A.; Candelise, V.; Doan, T. H.; Jain, Sh.; Khurana, R.; Konyushikhin, M.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Yu, S. S.; Kumar, Arun; Chang, P.; Chang, Y. H.; Chao, Y.; Chen, K. F.; Chen, P. H.; Fiori, F.; Hou, W.-S.; Hsiung, Y.; Liu, Y. F.; Lu, R.-S.; Miñano Moya, M.; Paganis, E.; Psallidas, A.; Tsai, J. F.; Asavapibhop, B.; Singh, G.; Srimanobhas, N.; Suwonjandee, N.; Adiguzel, A.; Boran, F.; Cerci, S.; Damarseckin, S.; Demiroglu, Z. S.; Dozen, C.; Dumanoglu, I.; Girgis, S.; Gokbulut, G.; Guler, Y.; Hos, I.; Kangal, E. E.; Kara, O.; Kiminsu, U.; Oglakci, M.; Onengut, G.; Ozdemir, K.; Sunar Cerci, D.; Tali, B.; Topakli, H.; Turkcapar, S.; Zorbakir, I. S.; Zorbilmez, C.; Bilin, B.; Bilmis, S.; Isildak, B.; Karapinar, G.; Yalvac, M.; Zeyrek, M.; Gülmez, E.; Kaya, M.; Kaya, O.; Yetkin, E. A.; Yetkin, T.; Cakir, A.; Cankocak, K.; Sen, S.; Grynyov, B.; Levchuk, L.; Sorokin, P.; Aggleton, R.; Ball, F.; Beck, L.; Brooke, J. J.; Burns, D.; Clement, E.; Cussans, D.; Flacher, H.; Goldstein, J.; Grimes, M.; Heath, G. P.; Heath, H. F.; Jacob, J.; Kreczko, L.; Lucas, C.; Newbold, D. M.; Paramesvaran, S.; Poll, A.; Sakuma, T.; Seif El Nasr-storey, S.; Smith, D.; Smith, V. J.; Bell, K. W.; Belyaev, A.; Brew, C.; Brown, R. M.; Calligaris, L.; Cieri, D.; Cockerill, D. J. A.; Coughlan, J. A.; Harder, K.; Harper, S.; Olaiya, E.; Petyt, D.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C. H.; Thea, A.; Tomalin, I. R.; Williams, T.; Baber, M.; Bainbridge, R.; Buchmuller, O.; Bundock, A.; Casasso, S.; Citron, M.; Colling, D.; Corpe, L.; Dauncey, P.; Davies, G.; De Wit, A.; Della Negra, M.; Di Maria, R.; Dunne, P.; Elwood, A.; Futyan, D.; Haddad, Y.; Hall, G.; Iles, G.; James, T.; Lane, R.; Laner, C.; Lyons, L.; Magnan, A.-M.; Malik, S.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Nash, J.; Nikitenko, A.; Pela, J.; Penning, B.; Pesaresi, M.; Raymond, D. M.; Richards, A.; Rose, A.; Scott, E.; Seez, C.; Summers, S.; Tapper, A.; Uchida, K.; Vazquez Acosta, M.; Virdee, T.; Wright, J.; Zenz, S. C.; Cole, J. E.; Hobson, P. R.; Khan, A.; Kyberd, P.; Reid, I. D.; Symonds, P.; Teodorescu, L.; Turner, M.; Borzou, A.; Call, K.; Dittmann, J.; Hatakeyama, K.; Liu, H.; Pastika, N.; Bartek, R.; Dominguez, A.; Buccilli, A.; Cooper, S. I.; Henderson, C.; Rumerio, P.; West, C.; Arcaro, D.; Avetisyan, A.; Bose, T.; Gastler, D.; Rankin, D.; Richardson, C.; Rohlf, J.; Sulak, L.; Zou, D.; Benelli, G.; Cutts, D.; Garabedian, A.; Hakala, J.; Heintz, U.; Hogan, J. M.; Jesus, O.; Kwok, K. H. M.; Laird, E.; Landsberg, G.; Mao, Z.; Narain, M.; Piperov, S.; Sagir, S.; Spencer, E.; Syarif, R.; Breedon, R.; Burns, D.; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, M.; Chauhan, S.; Chertok, M.; Conway, J.; Conway, R.; Cox, P. T.; Erbacher, R.; Flores, C.; Funk, G.; Gardner, M.; Ko, W.; Lander, R.; Mclean, C.; Mulhearn, M.; Pellett, D.; Pilot, J.; Shalhout, S.; Shi, M.; Smith, J.; Squires, M.; Stolp, D.; Tos, K.; Tripathi, M.; Bachtis, M.; Bravo, C.; Cousins, R.; Dasgupta, A.; Florent, A.; Hauser, J.; Ignatenko, M.; Mccoll, N.; Saltzberg, D.; Schnaible, C.; Valuev, V.; Weber, M.; Bouvier, E.; Burt, K.; Clare, R.; Ellison, J.; Gary, J. W.; Ghiasi Shirazi, S. M. A.; Hanson, G.; Heilman, J.; Jandir, P.; Kennedy, E.; Lacroix, F.; Long, O. R.; Olmedo Negrete, M.; Paneva, M. I.; Shrinivas, A.; Si, W.; Wei, H.; Wimpenny, S.; Yates, B. R.; Branson, J. G.; Cerati, G. B.; Cittolin, S.; Derdzinski, M.; Gerosa, R.; Holzner, A.; Klein, D.; Krutelyov, V.; Letts, J.; Macneill, I.; Olivito, D.; Padhi, S.; Pieri, M.; Sani, M.; Sharma, V.; Simon, S.; Tadel, M.; Vartak, A.; Wasserbaech, S.; Welke, C.; Wood, J.; Würthwein, F.; Yagil, A.; Zevi Della Porta, G.; Amin, N.; Bhandari, R.; Bradmiller-Feld, J.; Campagnari, C.; Dishaw, A.; Dutta, V.; Franco Sevilla, M.; George, C.; Golf, F.; Gouskos, L.; Gran, J.; Heller, R.; Incandela, J.; Mullin, S. D.; Ovcharova, A.; Qu, H.; Richman, J.; Stuart, D.; Suarez, I.; Yoo, J.; Anderson, D.; Bendavid, J.; Bornheim, A.; Bunn, J.; Duarte, J.; Lawhorn, J. M.; Mott, A.; Newman, H. B.; Pena, C.; Spiropulu, M.; Vlimant, J. R.; Xie, S.; Zhu, R. Y.; Andrews, M. B.; Ferguson, T.; Paulini, M.; Russ, J.; Sun, M.; Vogel, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Weinberg, M.; Cumalat, J. P.; Ford, W. T.; Jensen, F.; Johnson, A.; Krohn, M.; Leontsinis, S.; Mulholland, T.; Stenson, K.; Wagner, S. R.; Alexander, J.; Chaves, J.; Chu, J.; Dittmer, S.; Mcdermott, K.; Mirman, N.; Patterson, J. R.; Rinkevicius, A.; Ryd, A.; Skinnari, L.; Soffi, L.; Tan, S. M.; Tao, Z.; Thom, J.; Tucker, J.; Wittich, P.; Zientek, M.; Winn, D.; Abdullin, S.; Albrow, M.; Apollinari, G.; Apresyan, A.; Banerjee, S.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Beretvas, A.; Berryhill, J.; Bhat, P. C.; Bolla, G.; Burkett, K.; Butler, J. N.; Cheung, H. W. K.; Chlebana, F.; Cihangir, S.; Cremonesi, M.; Elvira, V. D.; Fisk, I.; Freeman, J.; Gottschalk, E.; Gray, L.; Green, D.; Grünendahl, S.; Gutsche, O.; Hare, D.; Harris, R. M.; Hasegawa, S.; Hirschauer, J.; Hu, Z.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, M.; Joshi, U.; Klima, B.; Kreis, B.; Lammel, S.; Linacre, J.; Lincoln, D.; Lipton, R.; Liu, M.; Liu, T.; Lopes De Sá, R.; Lykken, J.; Maeshima, K.; Magini, N.; Marraffino, J. M.; Maruyama, S.; Mason, D.; McBride, P.; Merkel, P.; Mrenna, S.; Nahn, S.; O'Dell, V.; Pedro, K.; Prokofyev, O.; Rakness, G.; Ristori, L.; Sexton-Kennedy, E.; Soha, A.; Spalding, W. J.; Spiegel, L.; Stoynev, S.; Strait, J.; Strobbe, N.; Taylor, L.; Tkaczyk, S.; Tran, N. V.; Uplegger, L.; Vaandering, E. W.; Vernieri, C.; Verzocchi, M.; Vidal, R.; Wang, M.; Weber, H. A.; Whitbeck, A.; Wu, Y.; Acosta, D.; Avery, P.; Bortignon, P.; Bourilkov, D.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Carnes, A.; Carver, M.; Curry, D.; Das, S.; Field, R. D.; Furic, I. K.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Low, J. F.; Ma, P.; Matchev, K.; Mei, H.; Mitselmakher, G.; Rank, D.; Shchutska, L.; Sperka, D.; Thomas, L.; Wang, J.; Wang, S.; Yelton, J.; Linn, S.; Markowitz, P.; Martinez, G.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Ackert, A.; Adams, T.; Askew, A.; Bein, S.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Johnson, K. F.; Kolberg, T.; Perry, T.; Prosper, H.; Santra, A.; Yohay, R.; Baarmand, M. M.; Bhopatkar, V.; Colafranceschi, S.; Hohlmann, M.; Noonan, D.; Roy, T.; Yumiceva, F.; Adams, M. R.; Apanasevich, L.; Berry, D.; Betts, R. R.; Cavanaugh, R.; Chen, X.; Evdokimov, O.; Gerber, C. E.; Hangal, D. A.; Hofman, D. J.; Jung, K.; Kamin, J.; Sandoval Gonzalez, I. D.; Trauger, H.; Varelas, N.; Wang, H.; Wu, Z.; Zhang, J.; Bilki, B.; Clarida, W.; Dilsiz, K.; Durgut, S.; Gandrajula, R. P.; Haytmyradov, M.; Khristenko, V.; Merlo, J.-P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Moeller, A.; Nachtman, J.; Ogul, H.; Onel, Y.; Ozok, F.; Penzo, A.; Snyder, C.; Tiras, E.; Wetzel, J.; Yi, K.; Blumenfeld, B.; Cocoros, A.; Eminizer, N.; Fehling, D.; Feng, L.; Gritsan, A. V.; Maksimovic, P.; Roskes, J.; Sarica, U.; Swartz, M.; Xiao, M.; You, C.; Al-bataineh, A.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Boren, S.; Bowen, J.; Castle, J.; Forthomme, L.; Khalil, S.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Majumder, D.; Mcbrayer, W.; Murray, M.; Sanders, S.; Stringer, R.; Tapia Takaki, J. D.; Wang, Q.; Ivanov, A.; Kaadze, K.; Maravin, Y.; Mohammadi, A.; Saini, L. K.; Skhirtladze, N.; Toda, S.; Rebassoo, F.; Wright, D.; Anelli, C.; Baden, A.; Baron, O.; Belloni, A.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Ferraioli, C.; Gomez, J. A.; Hadley, N. J.; Jabeen, S.; Jeng, G. Y.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kunkle, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Ricci-Tam, F.; Shin, Y. H.; Skuja, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Tonwar, S. C.; Abercrombie, D.; Allen, B.; Apyan, A.; Azzolini, V.; Barbieri, R.; Baty, A.; Bi, R.; Bierwagen, K.; Brandt, S.; Busza, W.; Cali, I. A.; D'Alfonso, M.; Demiragli, Z.; Gomez Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Hsu, D.; Iiyama, Y.; Innocenti, G. M.; Klute, M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Krajczar, K.; Lai, Y. S.; Lee, Y.-J.; Levin, A.; Luckey, P. D.; Maier, B.; Marini, A. C.; Mcginn, C.; Mironov, C.; Narayanan, S.; Niu, X.; Paus, C.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Salfeld-Nebgen, J.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Tatar, K.; Velicanu, D.; Wang, J.; Wang, T. W.; Wyslouch, B.; Benvenuti, A. C.; Chatterjee, R. M.; Evans, A.; Hansen, P.; Kalafut, S.; Kao, S. C.; Kubota, Y.; Lesko, Z.; Mans, J.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Rusack, R.; Tambe, N.; Turkewitz, J.; Acosta, J. G.; Oliveros, S.; Avdeeva, E.; Bloom, K.; Claes, D. R.; Fangmeier, C.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kamalieddin, R.; Kravchenko, I.; Malta Rodrigues, A.; Monroy, J.; Siado, J. E.; Snow, G. R.; Stieger, B.; Alyari, M.; Dolen, J.; Godshalk, A.; Harrington, C.; Iashvili, I.; Kaisen, J.; Nguyen, D.; Parker, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Roozbahani, B.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Hortiangtham, A.; Massironi, A.; Morse, D. M.; Nash, D.; Orimoto, T.; Teixeira De Lima, R.; Trocino, D.; Wang, R.-J.; Wood, D.; Bhattacharya, S.; Charaf, O.; Hahn, K. A.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Pollack, B.; Schmitt, M. H.; Sung, K.; Trovato, M.; Velasco, M.; Dev, N.; Hildreth, M.; Hurtado Anampa, K.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kellams, N.; Lannon, K.; Marinelli, N.; Meng, F.; Mueller, C.; Musienko, Y.; Planer, M.; Reinsvold, A.; Ruchti, R.; Rupprecht, N.; Smith, G.; Taroni, S.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Woodard, A.; Alimena, J.; Antonelli, L.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Flowers, S.; Francis, B.; Hart, A.; Hill, C.; Ji, W.; Liu, B.; Luo, W.; Puigh, D.; Winer, B. L.; Wulsin, H. W.; Cooperstein, S.; Driga, O.; Elmer, P.; Hardenbrook, J.; Hebda, P.; Lange, D.; Luo, J.; Marlow, D.; Medvedeva, T.; Mei, K.; Ojalvo, I.; Olsen, J.; Palmer, C.; Piroué, P.; Stickland, D.; Svyatkovskiy, A.; Tully, C.; Malik, S.; Barker, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Folgueras, S.; Gutay, L.; Jha, M. K.; Jones, M.; Jung, A. W.; Khatiwada, A.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Schulte, J. F.; Shi, X.; Sun, J.; Wang, F.; Xie, W.; Parashar, N.; Stupak, J.; Adair, A.; Akgun, B.; Chen, Z.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Guilbaud, M.; Li, W.; Michlin, B.; Northup, M.; Padley, B. P.; Roberts, J.; Rorie, J.; Tu, Z.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Bodek, A.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Duh, Y. T.; Ferbel, T.; Galanti, M.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Han, J.; Hindrichs, O.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Lo, K. H.; Tan, P.; Verzetti, M.; Agapitos, A.; Chou, J. P.; Gershtein, Y.; Gómez Espinosa, T. A.; Halkiadakis, E.; Heindl, M.; Hughes, E.; Kaplan, S.; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, R.; Kyriacou, S.; Lath, A.; Montalvo, R.; Nash, K.; Osherson, M.; Saka, H.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Sheffield, D.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Thomassen, P.; Walker, M.; Delannoy, A. G.; Foerster, M.; Heideman, J.; Riley, G.; Rose, K.; Spanier, S.; Thapa, K.; Bouhali, O.; Celik, A.; Dalchenko, M.; De Mattia, M.; Delgado, A.; Dildick, S.; Eusebi, R.; Gilmore, J.; Huang, T.; Juska, E.; Kamon, T.; Mueller, R.; Pakhotin, Y.; Patel, R.; Perloff, A.; Perniè, L.; Rathjens, D.; Safonov, A.; Tatarinov, A.; Ulmer, K. A.; Akchurin, N.; Damgov, J.; De Guio, F.; Dragoiu, C.; Dudero, P. R.; Faulkner, J.; Gurpinar, E.; Kunori, S.; Lamichhane, K.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Peltola, T.; Undleeb, S.; Volobouev, I.; Wang, Z.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Janjam, R.; Johns, W.; Maguire, C.; Melo, A.; Ni, H.; Sheldon, P.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Xu, Q.; Arenton, M. W.; Barria, P.; Cox, B.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Li, H.; Neu, C.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Sun, X.; Wang, Y.; Wolfe, E.; Xia, F.; Clarke, C.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Sturdy, J.; Zaleski, S.; Belknap, D. A.; Buchanan, J.; Caillol, C.; Dasu, S.; Dodd, L.; Duric, S.; Gomber, B.; Grothe, M.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Hussain, U.; Klabbers, P.; Lanaro, A.; Levine, A.; Long, K.; Loveless, R.; Pierro, G. A.; Polese, G.; Ruggles, T.; Savin, A.; Smith, N.; Smith, W. H.; Taylor, D.; Woods, N.

    2017-07-01

    Normalized double-differential cross sections for top quark pair (t\\overline{t}) production are measured in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 {TeV} with the CMS experiment at the LHC. The analyzed data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 {fb}^{-1}. The measurement is performed in the dilepton e^{± }μ ^{∓ } final state. The t\\overline{t} cross section is determined as a function of various pairs of observables characterizing the kinematics of the top quark and t\\overline{t} system. The data are compared to calculations using perturbative quantum chromodynamics at next-to-leading and approximate next-to-next-to-leading orders. They are also compared to predictions of Monte Carlo event generators that complement fixed-order computations with parton showers, hadronization, and multiple-parton interactions. Overall agreement is observed with the predictions, which is improved when the latest global sets of proton parton distribution functions are used. The inclusion of the measured t\\overline{t} cross sections in a fit of parametrized parton distribution functions is shown to have significant impact on the gluon distribution.

  12. Measurement of double-differential cross sections for top quark pair production in pp collisions at √(s) = 8 TeV and impact on parton distribution functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirunyan, A.M.; Tumasyan, A. [Yerevan Physics Institute, Yerevan (Armenia); Adam, W. [Institut fuer Hochenergiephysik, Vienna (Austria); Collaboration: CMS Collaboration; and others

    2017-07-15

    Normalized double-differential cross sections for top quark pair (t anti t) production are measured in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV with the CMS experiment at the LHC. The analyzed data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb{sup -1}. The measurement is performed in the dilepton e{sup ±}μ{sup -+} final state. The t anti t cross section is determined as a function of various pairs of observables characterizing the kinematics of the top quark and t anti t system. The data are compared to calculations using perturbative quantum chromodynamics at next-to-leading and approximate next-to-next-to-leading orders. They are also compared to predictions of Monte Carlo event generators that complement fixed-order computations with parton showers, hadronization, and multiple-parton interactions. Overall agreement is observed with the predictions, which is improved when the latest global sets of proton parton distribution functions are used. The inclusion of the measured t anti t cross sections in a fit of parametrized parton distribution functions is shown to have significant impact on the gluon distribution. (orig.)

  13. Measurement of double-differential cross sections for top quark pair production in pp collisions at [Formula: see text][Formula: see text] and impact on parton distribution functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirunyan, A M; Tumasyan, A; Adam, W; Asilar, E; Bergauer, T; Brandstetter, J; Brondolin, E; Dragicevic, M; Erö, J; Flechl, M; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hartl, C; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; König, A; Krätschmer, I; Liko, D; Matsushita, T; Mikulec, I; Rabady, D; Rad, N; Rahbaran, B; Rohringer, H; Schieck, J; Strauss, J; Waltenberger, W; Wulz, C-E; Dvornikov, O; Makarenko, V; Mossolov, V; Suarez Gonzalez, J; Zykunov, V; Shumeiko, N; Alderweireldt, S; De Wolf, E A; Janssen, X; Lauwers, J; Van De Klundert, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Van Spilbeeck, A; Abu Zeid, S; Blekman, F; D'Hondt, J; Daci, N; De Bruyn, I; Deroover, K; Lowette, S; Moortgat, S; Moreels, L; Olbrechts, A; Python, Q; Skovpen, K; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Van Parijs, I; Brun, H; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Delannoy, H; Fasanella, G; Favart, L; Goldouzian, R; Grebenyuk, A; Karapostoli, G; Lenzi, T; Léonard, A; Luetic, J; Maerschalk, T; Marinov, A; Randle-Conde, A; Seva, T; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Vannerom, D; Yonamine, R; Zenoni, F; Zhang, F; Cornelis, T; Dobur, D; Fagot, A; Gul, M; Khvastunov, I; Poyraz, D; Salva, S; Schöfbeck, R; Tytgat, M; Van Driessche, W; Yazgan, E; Zaganidis, N; Bakhshiansohi, H; Bondu, O; Brochet, S; Bruno, G; Caudron, A; De Visscher, S; Delaere, C; Delcourt, M; Francois, B; Giammanco, A; Jafari, A; Komm, M; Krintiras, G; Lemaitre, V; Magitteri, A; Mertens, A; Musich, M; Piotrzkowski, K; Quertenmont, L; Selvaggi, M; Vidal Marono, M; Wertz, S; Beliy, N; Aldá Júnior, W L; Alves, F L; Alves, G A; Brito, L; Hensel, C; Moraes, A; Pol, M E; Rebello Teles, P; Chagas, E Belchior Batista Das; Carvalho, W; Chinellato, J; Custódio, A; Da Costa, E M; Da Silveira, G G; De Jesus Damiao, D; De Oliveira Martins, C; De Souza, S Fonseca; Guativa, L M Huertas; Malbouisson, H; Matos Figueiredo, D; Mora Herrera, C; Mundim, L; Nogima, H; Prado Da Silva, W L; Santoro, A; Sznajder, A; Tonelli Manganote, E J; Torres Da Silva De Araujo, F; Vilela Pereira, A; Ahuja, S; Bernardes, C A; Dogra, S; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T R; Gregores, E M; Mercadante, P G; Moon, C S; Novaes, S F; Padula, Sandra S; Romero Abad, D; Ruiz Vargas, J C; Aleksandrov, A; Hadjiiska, R; Iaydjiev, P; Rodozov, M; Stoykova, S; Sultanov, G; Vutova, M; Dimitrov, A; Glushkov, I; Litov, L; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Fang, W; Ahmad, M; Bian, J G; Chen, G M; Chen, H S; Chen, M; Chen, Y; Cheng, T; Jiang, C H; Leggat, D; Liu, Z; Romeo, F; Ruan, M; Shaheen, S M; Spiezia, A; Tao, J; Wang, C; Wang, Z; Zhang, H; Zhao, J; Ban, Y; Chen, G; Li, Q; Liu, S; Mao, Y; Qian, S J; Wang, D; Xu, Z; Avila, C; Cabrera, A; Chaparro Sierra, L F; Florez, C; Gomez, J P; González Hernández, C F; Ruiz Alvarez, J D; Sanabria, J C; Godinovic, N; Lelas, D; Puljak, I; Ribeiro Cipriano, P M; Sculac, T; Antunovic, Z; Kovac, M; Brigljevic, V; Ferencek, D; Kadija, K; Mesic, B; Susa, T; Ather, M W; Attikis, A; Mavromanolakis, G; Mousa, J; Nicolaou, C; Ptochos, F; Razis, P A; Rykaczewski, H; Finger, M; Finger, M; Carrera Jarrin, E; Ellithi Kamel, A; Mahmoud, M A; Radi, A; Kadastik, M; Perrini, L; Raidal, M; Tiko, A; Veelken, C; Eerola, P; Pekkanen, J; Voutilainen, M; Härkönen, J; Järvinen, T; Karimäki, V; Kinnunen, R; Lampén, T; Lassila-Perini, K; Lehti, S; Lindén, T; Luukka, P; Tuominiemi, J; Tuovinen, E; Wendland, L; Talvitie, J; Tuuva, T; Besancon, M; Couderc, F; Dejardin, M; Denegri, D; Fabbro, B; Faure, J L; Favaro, C; Ferri, F; Ganjour, S; Ghosh, S; Givernaud, A; Gras, P; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Jarry, P; Kucher, I; Locci, E; Machet, M; Malcles, J; Rander, J; Rosowsky, A; Titov, M; Abdulsalam, A; Antropov, I; Baffioni, S; Beaudette, F; Busson, P; Cadamuro, L; Chapon, E; Charlot, C; Davignon, O; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Jo, M; Lisniak, S; Miné, P; Nguyen, M; Ochando, C; Ortona, G; Paganini, P; Pigard, P; Regnard, S; Salerno, R; Sirois, Y; Stahl Leiton, A G; Strebler, T; Yilmaz, Y; Zabi, A; Zghiche, A; Agram, J-L; Andrea, J; Bloch, D; Brom, J-M; Buttignol, M; Chabert, E C; Chanon, N; Collard, C; Conte, E; Coubez, X; Fontaine, J-C; Gelé, D; Goerlach, U; Bihan, A-C Le; Van Hove, P; Gadrat, S; Beauceron, S; Bernet, C; Boudoul, G; Carrillo Montoya, C A; Chierici, R; Contardo, D; Courbon, B; Depasse, P; El Mamouni, H; Fay, J; Finco, L; Gascon, S; Gouzevitch, M; Grenier, G; Ille, B; Lagarde, F; Laktineh, I B; Lethuillier, M; Mirabito, L; Pequegnot, A L; Perries, S; Popov, A; Sordini, V; Vander Donckt, M; Verdier, P; Viret, S; Khvedelidze, A; Lomidze, D; Autermann, C; Beranek, S; Feld, L; Kiesel, M K; Klein, K; Lipinski, M; Preuten, M; Schomakers, C; Schulz, J; Verlage, T; Albert, A; Brodski, M; Dietz-Laursonn, E; Duchardt, D; Endres, M; Erdmann, M; Erdweg, S; Esch, T; Fischer, R; Güth, A; Hamer, M; Hebbeker, T; Heidemann, C; Hoepfner, K; Knutzen, S; Merschmeyer, M; Meyer, A; Millet, P; Mukherjee, S; Olschewski, M; Padeken, K; Pook, T; Radziej, M; Reithler, H; Rieger, M; Scheuch, F; Sonnenschein, L; Teyssier, D; Thüer, S; Cherepanov, V; Flügge, G; Kargoll, B; Kress, T; Künsken, A; Lingemann, J; Müller, T; Nehrkorn, A; Nowack, A; Pistone, C; Pooth, O; Stahl, A; Aldaya Martin, M; Arndt, T; Asawatangtrakuldee, C; Beernaert, K; Behnke, O; Behrens, U; Bin Anuar, A A; Borras, K; Campbell, A; Connor, P; Contreras-Campana, C; Costanza, F; Diez Pardos, C; Dolinska, G; Eckerlin, G; Eckstein, D; Eichhorn, T; Eren, E; Gallo, E; Garay Garcia, J; Geiser, A; Gizhko, A; Grados Luyando, J M; Grohsjean, A; Gunnellini, P; Harb, A; Hauk, J; Hempel, M; Jung, H; Kalogeropoulos, A; Karacheban, O; Kasemann, M; Keaveney, J; Kleinwort, C; Korol, I; Krücker, D; Lange, W; Lelek, A; Lenz, T; Leonard, J; Lipka, K; Lobanov, A; Lohmann, W; Mankel, R; Melzer-Pellmann, I-A; Meyer, A B; Mittag, G; Mnich, J; Mussgiller, A; Pitzl, D; Placakyte, R; Raspereza, A; Roland, B; Sahin, M Ö; Saxena, P; Schoerner-Sadenius, T; Spannagel, S; Stefaniuk, N; Van Onsem, G P; Walsh, R; Wissing, C; Zenaiev, O; Blobel, V; Centis Vignali, M; Draeger, A R; Dreyer, T; Garutti, E; Gonzalez, D; Haller, J; Hoffmann, M; Junkes, A; Klanner, R; Kogler, R; Kovalchuk, N; Kurz, S; Lapsien, T; Marchesini, I; Marconi, D; Meyer, M; Niedziela, M; Nowatschin, D; Pantaleo, F; Peiffer, T; Perieanu, A; Scharf, C; Schleper, P; Schmidt, A; Schumann, S; Schwandt, J; Sonneveld, J; Stadie, H; Steinbrück, G; Stober, F M; Stöver, M; Tholen, H; Troendle, D; Usai, E; Vanelderen, L; Vanhoefer, A; Vormwald, B; Akbiyik, M; Barth, C; Baur, S; Baus, C; Berger, J; Butz, E; Caspart, R; Chwalek, T; Colombo, F; De Boer, W; Dierlamm, A; Fink, S; Freund, B; Friese, R; Giffels, M; Gilbert, A; Goldenzweig, P; Haitz, D; Hartmann, F; Heindl, S M; Husemann, U; Kassel, F; Katkov, I; Kudella, S; Mildner, H; Mozer, M U; Müller, Th; Plagge, M; Quast, G; Rabbertz, K; Röcker, S; Roscher, F; Schröder, M; Shvetsov, I; Sieber, G; Simonis, H J; Ulrich, R; Wayand, S; Weber, M; Weiler, T; Williamson, S; Wöhrmann, C; Wolf, R; Anagnostou, G; Daskalakis, G; Geralis, T; Giakoumopoulou, V A; Kyriakis, A; Loukas, D; Topsis-Giotis, I; Kesisoglou, S; Panagiotou, A; Saoulidou, N; Tziaferi, E; Kousouris, K; Evangelou, I; Flouris, G; Foudas, C; Kokkas, P; Loukas, N; Manthos, N; Papadopoulos, I; Paradas, E; Filipovic, N; Pasztor, G; Bencze, G; Hajdu, C; Horvath, D; Sikler, F; Veszpremi, V; Vesztergombi, G; Zsigmond, A J; Beni, N; Czellar, S; Karancsi, J; Makovec, A; Molnar, J; Szillasi, Z; Bartók, M; Raics, P; Trocsanyi, Z L; Ujvari, B; Komaragiri, J R; Bahinipati, S; Bhowmik, S; Choudhury, S; Mal, P; Mandal, K; Nayak, A; Sahoo, D K; Sahoo, N; Swain, S K; Bansal, S; Beri, S B; Bhatnagar, V; Chawla, R; Bhawandeep, U; Kalsi, A K; Kaur, A; Kaur, M; Kumar, R; Kumari, P; Mehta, A; Mittal, M; Singh, J B; Walia, G; Kumar, Ashok; Bhardwaj, A; Choudhary, B C; Garg, R B; Keshri, S; Kumar, A; Malhotra, S; Naimuddin, M; Ranjan, K; Sharma, R; Sharma, V; Bhattacharya, R; Bhattacharya, S; Chatterjee, K; Dey, S; Dutt, S; Dutta, S; Ghosh, S; Majumdar, N; Modak, A; Mondal, K; Mukhopadhyay, S; Nandan, S; Purohit, A; Roy, A; Roy, D; Roy Chowdhury, S; Sarkar, S; Sharan, M; Thakur, S; Behera, P K; Chudasama, R; Dutta, D; Jha, V; Kumar, V; Mohanty, A K; Netrakanti, P K; Pant, L M; Shukla, P; Topkar, A; Aziz, T; Dugad, S; Kole, G; Mahakud, B; Mitra, S; Mohanty, G B; Parida, B; Sur, N; Sutar, B; Banerjee, S; Dewanjee, R K; Ganguly, S; Guchait, M; Jain, Sa; Kumar, S; Maity, M; Majumder, G; Mazumdar, K; Sarkar, T; Wickramage, N; Chauhan, S; Dube, S; Hegde, V; Kapoor, A; Kothekar, K; Pandey, S; Rane, A; Sharma, S; Chenarani, S; Eskandari Tadavani, E; Etesami, S M; Khakzad, M; Mohammadi Najafabadi, M; Naseri, M; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, S; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, F; Safarzadeh, B; Zeinali, M; Felcini, M; Grunewald, M; Abbrescia, M; Calabria, C; Caputo, C; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; Cristella, L; De Filippis, N; De Palma, M; Fiore, L; Iaselli, G; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Miniello, G; My, S; Nuzzo, S; Pompili, A; Pugliese, G; Radogna, R; Ranieri, A; Selvaggi, G; Sharma, A; Silvestris, L; Venditti, R; Verwilligen, P; Abbiendi, G; Battilana, C; Bonacorsi, D; Braibant-Giacomelli, S; Brigliadori, L; Campanini, R; Capiluppi, P; Castro, A; Cavallo, F R; Chhibra, S S; Codispoti, G; Cuffiani, M; Dallavalle, G M; Fabbri, F; Fanfani, A; Fasanella, D; Giacomelli, P; Grandi, C; Guiducci, L; Marcellini, S; Masetti, G; Montanari, A; Navarria, F L; Perrotta, A; Rossi, A M; Rovelli, T; Siroli, G P; Tosi, N; Albergo, S; Costa, S; Di Mattia, A; Giordano, F; Potenza, R; Tricomi, A; Tuve, C; Barbagli, G; Ciulli, V; Civinini, C; D'Alessandro, R; Focardi, E; Lenzi, P; Meschini, M; Paoletti, S; Russo, L; Sguazzoni, G; Strom, D; Viliani, L; Benussi, L; Bianco, S; Fabbri, F; Piccolo, D; Primavera, F; Calvelli, V; Ferro, F; Monge, M R; Robutti, E; Tosi, S; Brianza, L; Brivio, F; Ciriolo, V; Dinardo, M E; Fiorendi, S; Gennai, S; Ghezzi, A; Govoni, P; Malberti, M; Malvezzi, S; Manzoni, R A; Menasce, D; Moroni, L; Paganoni, M; Pedrini, D; Pigazzini, S; Ragazzi, S; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Buontempo, S; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, G; Di Guida, S; Esposito, M; Fabozzi, F; Fienga, F; Iorio, A O M; Lanza, G; Lista, L; Meola, S; Paolucci, P; Sciacca, C; Thyssen, F; Azzi, P; Bacchetta, N; Benato, L; Bisello, D; Boletti, A; Carlin, R; Antunes De Oliveira, A Carvalho; Checchia, P; Dall'Osso, M; De Castro Manzano, P; Dorigo, T; Dosselli, U; Gasparini, U; Gonella, F; Lacaprara, S; Margoni, M; Meneguzzo, A T; Pazzini, J; Pozzobon, N; Ronchese, P; Rossin, R; Simonetto, F; Torassa, E; Ventura, S; Zanetti, M; Zotto, P; Braghieri, A; Fallavollita, F; Magnani, A; Montagna, P; Ratti, S P; Re, V; Ressegotti, M; Riccardi, C; Salvini, P; Vai, I; Vitulo, P; Alunni Solestizi, L; Bilei, G M; Ciangottini, D; Fanò, L; Lariccia, P; Leonardi, R; Mantovani, G; Mariani, V; Menichelli, M; Saha, A; Santocchia, A; Androsov, K; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Bernardini, J; Boccali, T; Castaldi, R; Ciocci, M A; Dell'Orso, R; Fedi, G; Giassi, A; Grippo, M T; Ligabue, F; Lomtadze, T; Martini, L; Messineo, A; Palla, F; Rizzi, A; Savoy-Navarro, A; Spagnolo, P; Tenchini, R; Tonelli, G; Venturi, A; Verdini, P G; Barone, L; Cavallari, F; Cipriani, M; Del Re, D; Diemoz, M; Gelli, S; Longo, E; Margaroli, F; Marzocchi, B; Meridiani, P; Organtini, G; Paramatti, R; Preiato, F; Rahatlou, S; Rovelli, C; Santanastasio, F; Amapane, N; Arcidiacono, R; Argiro, S; Arneodo, M; Bartosik, N; Bellan, R; Biino, C; Cartiglia, N; Cenna, F; Costa, M; Covarelli, R; Degano, A; Demaria, N; Kiani, B; Mariotti, C; Maselli, S; Migliore, E; Monaco, V; Monteil, E; Monteno, M; Obertino, M M; Pacher, L; Pastrone, N; Pelliccioni, M; Pinna Angioni, G L; Ravera, F; Romero, A; Ruspa, M; Sacchi, R; Shchelina, K; Sola, V; Solano, A; Staiano, A; Traczyk, P; Belforte, S; Casarsa, M; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Zanetti, A; Kim, D H; Kim, G N; Kim, M S; Lee, J; Lee, S; Lee, S W; Oh, Y D; Sekmen, S; Son, D C; Yang, Y C; Lee, A; Kim, H; Brochero Cifuentes, J A; Kim, T J; Cho, S; Choi, S; Go, Y; Gyun, D; Ha, S; Hong, B; Jo, Y; Kim, Y; Lee, K; Lee, K S; Lee, S; Lim, J; Park, S K; Roh, Y; Almond, J; Kim, J; Lee, H; Oh, S B; Radburn-Smith, B C; Seo, S H; Yang, U K; Yoo, H D; Yu, G B; Choi, M; Kim, H; Kim, J H; Lee, J S H; Park, I C; Ryu, G; Ryu, M S; Choi, Y; Goh, J; Hwang, C; Lee, J; Yu, I; Dudenas, V; Juodagalvis, A; Vaitkus, J; Ahmed, I; Ibrahim, Z A; Md Ali, M A B; Mohamad Idris, F; Wan Abdullah, W A T; Yusli, M N; Zolkapli, Z; Castilla-Valdez, H; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; Heredia-De La Cruz, I; Lopez-Fernandez, R; Magaña Villalba, R; Mejia Guisao, J; Sanchez-Hernandez, A; Carrillo Moreno, S; Oropeza Barrera, C; Vazquez Valencia, F; Carpinteyro, S; Pedraza, I; Salazar Ibarguen, H A; Uribe Estrada, C; Morelos Pineda, A; Krofcheck, D; Butler, P H; Ahmad, A; Ahmad, M; Hassan, Q; Hoorani, H R; Khan, W A; Saddique, A; Shah, M A; Shoaib, M; Waqas, M; Bialkowska, H; Bluj, M; Boimska, B; Frueboes, T; Górski, M; Kazana, M; Nawrocki, K; Romanowska-Rybinska, K; Szleper, M; Zalewski, P; Bunkowski, K; Byszuk, A; Doroba, K; Kalinowski, A; Konecki, M; Krolikowski, J; Misiura, M; Olszewski, M; Pyskir, A; Walczak, M; Bargassa, P; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, C; Calpas, B; Di Francesco, A; Faccioli, P; Gallinaro, M; Hollar, J; Leonardo, N; Lloret Iglesias, L; Nemallapudi, M V; Seixas, J; Toldaiev, O; Vadruccio, D; Varela, J; Afanasiev, S; Bunin, P; Gavrilenko, M; Golutvin, I; Gorbunov, I; Kamenev, A; Karjavin, V; Lanev, A; Malakhov, A; Matveev, V; Palichik, V; Perelygin, V; Shmatov, S; Shulha, S; Skatchkov, N; Smirnov, V; Voytishin, N; Zarubin, A; Chtchipounov, L; Golovtsov, V; Ivanov, Y; Kim, V; Kuznetsova, E; Murzin, V; Oreshkin, V; Sulimov, V; Vorobyev, A; Andreev, Yu; Dermenev, A; Gninenko, S; Golubev, N; Karneyeu, A; Kirsanov, M; Krasnikov, N; Pashenkov, A; Tlisov, D; Toropin, A; Epshteyn, V; Gavrilov, V; Lychkovskaya, N; Popov, V; Pozdnyakov, I; Safronov, G; Spiridonov, A; Toms, M; Vlasov, E; Zhokin, A; Aushev, T; Bylinkin, A; Danilov, M; Popova, E; Rusinov, V; Andreev, V; Azarkin, M; Dremin, I; Kirakosyan, M; Leonidov, A; Terkulov, A; Baskakov, A; Belyaev, A; Boos, E; Bunichev, V; Dubinin, M; Dudko, L; Ershov, A; Klyukhin, V; Korneeva, N; Lokhtin, I; Miagkov, I; Obraztsov, S; Perfilov, M; Savrin, V; Volkov, P; Blinov, V; Skovpen, Y; Shtol, D; Azhgirey, I; Bayshev, I; Bitioukov, S; Elumakhov, D; Kachanov, V; Kalinin, A; Konstantinov, D; Krychkine, V; Petrov, V; Ryutin, R; Sobol, A; Troshin, S; Tyurin, N; Uzunian, A; Volkov, A; Adzic, P; Cirkovic, P; Devetak, D; Dordevic, M; Milosevic, J; Rekovic, V; Alcaraz Maestre, J; Barrio Luna, M; Calvo, E; Cerrada, M; Chamizo Llatas, M; Colino, N; De La Cruz, B; Delgado Peris, A; Escalante Del Valle, A; Fernandez Bedoya, C; Fernández Ramos, J P; Flix, J; Fouz, M C; Garcia-Abia, P; Gonzalez Lopez, O; Goy Lopez, S; Hernandez, J M; Josa, M I; Navarro De Martino, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Puerta Pelayo, J; Quintario Olmeda, A; Redondo, I; Romero, L; Soares, M S; de Trocóniz, J F; Missiroli, M; Moran, D; Cuevas, J; Erice, C; Fernandez Menendez, J; Gonzalez Caballero, I; González Fernández, J R; Palencia Cortezon, E; Sanchez Cruz, S; Suárez Andrés, I; Vischia, P; Vizan Garcia, J M; Cabrillo, I J; Calderon, A; Curras, E; Fernandez, M; Garcia-Ferrero, J; Gomez, G; Lopez Virto, A; Marco, J; Martinez Rivero, C; Matorras, F; Piedra Gomez, J; Rodrigo, T; Ruiz-Jimeno, A; Scodellaro, L; Trevisani, N; Vila, I; Vilar Cortabitarte, R; Abbaneo, D; Auffray, E; Auzinger, G; Baillon, P; Ball, A H; Barney, D; Bloch, P; Bocci, A; Botta, C; Camporesi, T; Castello, R; Cepeda, M; Cerminara, G; Chen, Y; Cimmino, A; d'Enterria, D; Dabrowski, A; Daponte, V; David, A; De Gruttola, M; De Roeck, A; Di Marco, E; Dobson, M; Dorney, B; du Pree, T; Duggan, D; Dünser, M; Dupont, N; Elliott-Peisert, A; Everaerts, P; Fartoukh, S; Franzoni, G; Fulcher, J; Funk, W; Gigi, D; Gill, K; Girone, M; Glege, F; Gulhan, D; Gundacker, S; Guthoff, M; Harris, P; Hegeman, J; Innocente, V; Janot, P; Kieseler, J; Kirschenmann, H; Knünz, V; Kornmayer, A; Kortelainen, M J; Krammer, M; Lange, C; Lecoq, P; Lourenço, C; Lucchini, M T; Malgeri, L; Mannelli, M; Martelli, A; Meijers, F; Merlin, J A; Mersi, S; Meschi, E; Milenovic, P; Moortgat, F; Morovic, S; Mulders, M; Neugebauer, H; Orfanelli, S; Orsini, L; Pape, L; Perez, E; Peruzzi, M; Petrilli, A; Petrucciani, G; Pfeiffer, A; Pierini, M; Racz, A; Reis, T; Rolandi, G; Rovere, M; Sakulin, H; Sauvan, J B; Schäfer, C; Schwick, C; Seidel, M; Sharma, A; Silva, P; Sphicas, P; Steggemann, J; Stoye, M; Takahashi, Y; Tosi, M; Treille, D; Triossi, A; Tsirou, A; Veckalns, V; Veres, G I; Verweij, M; Wardle, N; Wöhri, H K; Zagozdzinska, A; Zeuner, W D; Bertl, W; Deiters, K; Erdmann, W; Horisberger, R; Ingram, Q; Kaestli, H C; Kotlinski, D; Langenegger, U; Rohe, T; Wiederkehr, S A; Bachmair, F; Bäni, L; Bianchini, L; Casal, B; Dissertori, G; Dittmar, M; Donegà, M; Grab, C; Heidegger, C; Hits, D; Hoss, J; Kasieczka, G; Lustermann, W; Mangano, B; Marionneau, M; Martinez Ruiz Del Arbol, P; Masciovecchio, M; Meinhard, M T; Meister, D; Micheli, F; Musella, P; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Pandolfi, F; Pata, J; Pauss, F; Perrin, G; Perrozzi, L; Quittnat, M; Rossini, M; Schönenberger, M; Starodumov, A; Tavolaro, V R; Theofilatos, K; Wallny, R; Aarrestad, T K; Amsler, C; Caminada, L; Canelli, M F; De Cosa, A; Donato, S; Galloni, C; Hinzmann, A; Hreus, T; Kilminster, B; Ngadiuba, J; Pinna, D; Rauco, G; Robmann, P; Salerno, D; Seitz, C; Yang, Y; Zucchetta, A; Candelise, V; Doan, T H; Jain, Sh; Khurana, R; Konyushikhin, M; Kuo, C M; Lin, W; Pozdnyakov, A; Yu, S S; Kumar, Arun; Chang, P; Chang, Y H; Chao, Y; Chen, K F; Chen, P H; Fiori, F; Hou, W-S; Hsiung, Y; Liu, Y F; Lu, R-S; Miñano Moya, M; Paganis, E; Psallidas, A; Tsai, J F; Asavapibhop, B; Singh, G; Srimanobhas, N; Suwonjandee, N; Adiguzel, A; Boran, F; Cerci, S; Damarseckin, S; Demiroglu, Z S; Dozen, C; Dumanoglu, I; Girgis, S; Gokbulut, G; Guler, Y; Hos, I; Kangal, E E; Kara, O; Kiminsu, U; Oglakci, M; Onengut, G; Ozdemir, K; Sunar Cerci, D; Tali, B; Topakli, H; Turkcapar, S; Zorbakir, I S; Zorbilmez, C; Bilin, B; Bilmis, S; Isildak, B; Karapinar, G; Yalvac, M; Zeyrek, M; Gülmez, E; Kaya, M; Kaya, O; Yetkin, E A; Yetkin, T; Cakir, A; Cankocak, K; Sen, S; Grynyov, B; Levchuk, L; Sorokin, P; Aggleton, R; Ball, F; Beck, L; Brooke, J J; Burns, D; Clement, E; Cussans, D; Flacher, H; Goldstein, J; Grimes, M; Heath, G P; Heath, H F; Jacob, J; Kreczko, L; Lucas, C; Newbold, D M; Paramesvaran, S; Poll, A; Sakuma, T; Seif El Nasr-Storey, S; Smith, D; Smith, V J; Bell, K W; Belyaev, A; Brew, C; Brown, R M; Calligaris, L; Cieri, D; Cockerill, D J A; Coughlan, J A; Harder, K; Harper, S; Olaiya, E; Petyt, D; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C H; Thea, A; Tomalin, I R; Williams, T; Baber, M; Bainbridge, R; Buchmuller, O; Bundock, A; Casasso, S; Citron, M; Colling, D; Corpe, L; Dauncey, P; Davies, G; De Wit, A; Della Negra, M; Di Maria, R; Dunne, P; Elwood, A; Futyan, D; Haddad, Y; Hall, G; Iles, G; James, T; Lane, R; Laner, C; Lyons, L; Magnan, A-M; Malik, S; Mastrolorenzo, L; Nash, J; Nikitenko, A; Pela, J; Penning, B; Pesaresi, M; Raymond, D M; Richards, A; Rose, A; Scott, E; Seez, C; Summers, S; Tapper, A; Uchida, K; Vazquez Acosta, M; Virdee, T; Wright, J; Zenz, S C; Cole, J E; Hobson, P R; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Reid, I D; Symonds, P; Teodorescu, L; Turner, M; Borzou, A; Call, K; Dittmann, J; Hatakeyama, K; Liu, H; Pastika, N; Bartek, R; Dominguez, A; Buccilli, A; Cooper, S I; Henderson, C; Rumerio, P; West, C; Arcaro, D; Avetisyan, A; Bose, T; Gastler, D; Rankin, D; Richardson, C; Rohlf, J; Sulak, L; Zou, D; Benelli, G; Cutts, D; Garabedian, A; Hakala, J; Heintz, U; Hogan, J M; Jesus, O; Kwok, K H M; Laird, E; Landsberg, G; Mao, Z; Narain, M; Piperov, S; Sagir, S; Spencer, E; Syarif, R; Breedon, R; Burns, D; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, M; Chauhan, S; Chertok, M; Conway, J; Conway, R; Cox, P T; Erbacher, R; Flores, C; Funk, G; Gardner, M; Ko, W; Lander, R; Mclean, C; Mulhearn, M; Pellett, D; Pilot, J; Shalhout, S; Shi, M; Smith, J; Squires, M; Stolp, D; Tos, K; Tripathi, M; Bachtis, M; Bravo, C; Cousins, R; Dasgupta, A; Florent, A; Hauser, J; Ignatenko, M; Mccoll, N; Saltzberg, D; Schnaible, C; Valuev, V; Weber, M; Bouvier, E; Burt, K; Clare, R; Ellison, J; Gary, J W; Ghiasi Shirazi, S M A; Hanson, G; Heilman, J; Jandir, P; Kennedy, E; Lacroix, F; Long, O R; Olmedo Negrete, M; Paneva, M I; Shrinivas, A; Si, W; Wei, H; Wimpenny, S; Yates, B R; Branson, J G; Cerati, G B; Cittolin, S; Derdzinski, M; Gerosa, R; Holzner, A; Klein, D; Krutelyov, V; Letts, J; Macneill, I; Olivito, D; Padhi, S; Pieri, M; Sani, M; Sharma, V; Simon, S; Tadel, M; Vartak, A; Wasserbaech, S; Welke, C; Wood, J; Würthwein, F; Yagil, A; Zevi Della Porta, G; Amin, N; Bhandari, R; Bradmiller-Feld, J; Campagnari, C; Dishaw, A; Dutta, V; Franco Sevilla, M; George, C; Golf, F; Gouskos, L; Gran, J; Heller, R; Incandela, J; Mullin, S D; Ovcharova, A; Qu, H; Richman, J; Stuart, D; Suarez, I; Yoo, J; Anderson, D; Bendavid, J; Bornheim, A; Bunn, J; Duarte, J; Lawhorn, J M; Mott, A; Newman, H B; Pena, C; Spiropulu, M; Vlimant, J R; Xie, S; Zhu, R Y; Andrews, M B; Ferguson, T; Paulini, M; Russ, J; Sun, M; Vogel, H; Vorobiev, I; Weinberg, M; Cumalat, J P; Ford, W T; Jensen, F; Johnson, A; Krohn, M; Leontsinis, S; Mulholland, T; Stenson, K; Wagner, S R; Alexander, J; Chaves, J; Chu, J; Dittmer, S; Mcdermott, K; Mirman, N; Patterson, J R; Rinkevicius, A; Ryd, A; Skinnari, L; Soffi, L; Tan, S M; Tao, Z; Thom, J; Tucker, J; Wittich, P; Zientek, M; Winn, D; Abdullin, S; Albrow, M; Apollinari, G; Apresyan, A; Banerjee, S; Bauerdick, L A T; Beretvas, A; Berryhill, J; Bhat, P C; Bolla, G; Burkett, K; Butler, J N; Cheung, H W K; Chlebana, F; Cihangir, S; Cremonesi, M; Elvira, V D; Fisk, I; Freeman, J; Gottschalk, E; Gray, L; Green, D; Grünendahl, S; Gutsche, O; Hare, D; Harris, R M; Hasegawa, S; Hirschauer, J; Hu, Z; Jayatilaka, B; Jindariani, S; Johnson, M; Joshi, U; Klima, B; Kreis, B; Lammel, S; Linacre, J; Lincoln, D; Lipton, R; Liu, M; Liu, T; Lopes De Sá, R; Lykken, J; Maeshima, K; Magini, N; Marraffino, J M; Maruyama, S; Mason, D; McBride, P; Merkel, P; Mrenna, S; Nahn, S; O'Dell, V; Pedro, K; Prokofyev, O; Rakness, G; Ristori, L; Sexton-Kennedy, E; Soha, A; Spalding, W J; Spiegel, L; Stoynev, S; Strait, J; Strobbe, N; Taylor, L; Tkaczyk, S; Tran, N V; Uplegger, L; Vaandering, E W; Vernieri, C; Verzocchi, M; Vidal, R; Wang, M; Weber, H A; Whitbeck, A; Wu, Y; Acosta, D; Avery, P; Bortignon, P; Bourilkov, D; Brinkerhoff, A; Carnes, A; Carver, M; Curry, D; Das, S; Field, R D; Furic, I K; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Low, J F; Ma, P; Matchev, K; Mei, H; Mitselmakher, G; Rank, D; Shchutska, L; Sperka, D; Thomas, L; Wang, J; Wang, S; Yelton, J; Linn, S; Markowitz, P; Martinez, G; Rodriguez, J L; Ackert, A; Adams, T; Askew, A; Bein, S; Hagopian, S; Hagopian, V; Johnson, K F; Kolberg, T; Perry, T; Prosper, H; Santra, A; Yohay, R; Baarmand, M M; Bhopatkar, V; Colafranceschi, S; Hohlmann, M; Noonan, D; Roy, T; Yumiceva, F; Adams, M R; Apanasevich, L; Berry, D; Betts, R R; Cavanaugh, R; Chen, X; Evdokimov, O; Gerber, C E; Hangal, D A; Hofman, D J; Jung, K; Kamin, J; Sandoval Gonzalez, I D; Trauger, H; Varelas, N; Wang, H; Wu, Z; Zhang, J; Bilki, B; Clarida, W; Dilsiz, K; Durgut, S; Gandrajula, R P; Haytmyradov, M; Khristenko, V; Merlo, J-P; Mermerkaya, H; Mestvirishvili, A; Moeller, A; Nachtman, J; Ogul, H; Onel, Y; Ozok, F; Penzo, A; Snyder, C; Tiras, E; Wetzel, J; Yi, K; Blumenfeld, B; Cocoros, A; Eminizer, N; Fehling, D; Feng, L; Gritsan, A V; Maksimovic, P; Roskes, J; Sarica, U; Swartz, M; Xiao, M; You, C; Al-Bataineh, A; Baringer, P; Bean, A; Boren, S; Bowen, J; Castle, J; Forthomme, L; Khalil, S; Kropivnitskaya, A; Majumder, D; Mcbrayer, W; Murray, M; Sanders, S; Stringer, R; Tapia Takaki, J D; Wang, Q; Ivanov, A; Kaadze, K; Maravin, Y; Mohammadi, A; Saini, L K; Skhirtladze, N; Toda, S; Rebassoo, F; Wright, D; Anelli, C; Baden, A; Baron, O; Belloni, A; Calvert, B; Eno, S C; Ferraioli, C; Gomez, J A; Hadley, N J; Jabeen, S; Jeng, G Y; Kellogg, R G; Kunkle, J; Mignerey, A C; Ricci-Tam, F; Shin, Y H; Skuja, A; Tonjes, M B; Tonwar, S C; Abercrombie, D; Allen, B; Apyan, A; Azzolini, V; Barbieri, R; Baty, A; Bi, R; Bierwagen, K; Brandt, S; Busza, W; Cali, I A; D'Alfonso, M; Demiragli, Z; Gomez Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; Hsu, D; Iiyama, Y; Innocenti, G M; Klute, M; Kovalskyi, D; Krajczar, K; Lai, Y S; Lee, Y-J; Levin, A; Luckey, P D; Maier, B; Marini, A C; Mcginn, C; Mironov, C; Narayanan, S; Niu, X; Paus, C; Roland, C; Roland, G; Salfeld-Nebgen, J; Stephans, G S F; Tatar, K; Velicanu, D; Wang, J; Wang, T W; Wyslouch, B; Benvenuti, A C; Chatterjee, R M; Evans, A; Hansen, P; Kalafut, S; Kao, S C; Kubota, Y; Lesko, Z; Mans, J; Nourbakhsh, S; Ruckstuhl, N; Rusack, R; Tambe, N; Turkewitz, J; Acosta, J G; Oliveros, S; Avdeeva, E; Bloom, K; Claes, D R; Fangmeier, C; Gonzalez Suarez, R; Kamalieddin, R; Kravchenko, I; Malta Rodrigues, A; Monroy, J; Siado, J E; Snow, G R; Stieger, B; Alyari, M; Dolen, J; Godshalk, A; Harrington, C; Iashvili, I; Kaisen, J; Nguyen, D; Parker, A; Rappoccio, S; Roozbahani, B; Alverson, G; Barberis, E; Hortiangtham, A; Massironi, A; Morse, D M; Nash, D; Orimoto, T; Teixeira De Lima, R; Trocino, D; Wang, R-J; Wood, D; Bhattacharya, S; Charaf, O; Hahn, K A; Mucia, N; Odell, N; Pollack, B; Schmitt, M H; Sung, K; Trovato, M; Velasco, M; Dev, N; Hildreth, M; Hurtado Anampa, K; Jessop, C; Karmgard, D J; Kellams, N; Lannon, K; Marinelli, N; Meng, F; Mueller, C; Musienko, Y; Planer, M; Reinsvold, A; Ruchti, R; Rupprecht, N; Smith, G; Taroni, S; Wayne, M; Wolf, M; Woodard, A; Alimena, J; Antonelli, L; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Flowers, S; Francis, B; Hart, A; Hill, C; Ji, W; Liu, B; Luo, W; Puigh, D; Winer, B L; Wulsin, H W; Cooperstein, S; Driga, O; Elmer, P; Hardenbrook, J; Hebda, P; Lange, D; Luo, J; Marlow, D; Medvedeva, T; Mei, K; Ojalvo, I; Olsen, J; Palmer, C; Piroué, P; Stickland, D; Svyatkovskiy, A; Tully, C; Malik, S; Barker, A; Barnes, V E; Folgueras, S; Gutay, L; Jha, M K; Jones, M; Jung, A W; Khatiwada, A; Miller, D H; Neumeister, N; Schulte, J F; Shi, X; Sun, J; Wang, F; Xie, W; Parashar, N; Stupak, J; Adair, A; Akgun, B; Chen, Z; Ecklund, K M; Geurts, F J M; Guilbaud, M; Li, W; Michlin, B; Northup, M; Padley, B P; Roberts, J; Rorie, J; Tu, Z; Zabel, J; Betchart, B; Bodek, A; de Barbaro, P; Demina, R; Duh, Y T; Ferbel, T; Galanti, M; Garcia-Bellido, A; Han, J; Hindrichs, O; Khukhunaishvili, A; Lo, K H; Tan, P; Verzetti, M; Agapitos, A; Chou, J P; Gershtein, Y; Gómez Espinosa, T A; Halkiadakis, E; Heindl, M; Hughes, E; Kaplan, S; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, R; Kyriacou, S; Lath, A; Montalvo, R; Nash, K; Osherson, M; Saka, H; Salur, S; Schnetzer, S; Sheffield, D; Somalwar, S; Stone, R; Thomas, S; Thomassen, P; Walker, M; Delannoy, A G; Foerster, M; Heideman, J; Riley, G; Rose, K; Spanier, S; Thapa, K; Bouhali, O; Celik, A; Dalchenko, M; De Mattia, M; Delgado, A; Dildick, S; Eusebi, R; Gilmore, J; Huang, T; Juska, E; Kamon, T; Mueller, R; Pakhotin, Y; Patel, R; Perloff, A; Perniè, L; Rathjens, D; Safonov, A; Tatarinov, A; Ulmer, K A; Akchurin, N; Damgov, J; De Guio, F; Dragoiu, C; Dudero, P R; Faulkner, J; Gurpinar, E; Kunori, S; Lamichhane, K; Lee, S W; Libeiro, T; Peltola, T; Undleeb, S; Volobouev, I; Wang, Z; Greene, S; Gurrola, A; Janjam, R; Johns, W; Maguire, C; Melo, A; Ni, H; Sheldon, P; Tuo, S; Velkovska, J; Xu, Q; Arenton, M W; Barria, P; Cox, B; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Li, H; Neu, C; Sinthuprasith, T; Sun, X; Wang, Y; Wolfe, E; Xia, F; Clarke, C; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Sturdy, J; Zaleski, S; Belknap, D A; Buchanan, J; Caillol, C; Dasu, S; Dodd, L; Duric, S; Gomber, B; Grothe, M; Herndon, M; Hervé, A; Hussain, U; Klabbers, P; Lanaro, A; Levine, A; Long, K; Loveless, R; Pierro, G A; Polese, G; Ruggles, T; Savin, A; Smith, N; Smith, W H; Taylor, D; Woods, N

    2017-01-01

    Normalized double-differential cross sections for top quark pair ([Formula: see text]) production are measured in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8[Formula: see text] with the CMS experiment at the LHC. The analyzed data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 19.7[Formula: see text]. The measurement is performed in the dilepton [Formula: see text] final state. The [Formula: see text] cross section is determined as a function of various pairs of observables characterizing the kinematics of the top quark and [Formula: see text] system. The data are compared to calculations using perturbative quantum chromodynamics at next-to-leading and approximate next-to-next-to-leading orders. They are also compared to predictions of Monte Carlo event generators that complement fixed-order computations with parton showers, hadronization, and multiple-parton interactions. Overall agreement is observed with the predictions, which is improved when the latest global sets of proton parton distribution functions are used. The inclusion of the measured [Formula: see text] cross sections in a fit of parametrized parton distribution functions is shown to have significant impact on the gluon distribution.

  14. Parton distributions and EMC ratios of the 6Li nucleus in the constituent quark exchange model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modarres, M.; Hadian, A.

    2017-10-01

    While the constituent quark model (CQM), in which the quarks are assumed to be the complex objects, is used to calculate the parton distribution functions of the iso-scalar lithium-6 (6Li) nucleus, the u-d constituent quark distribution functions of the 6Li nucleus are evaluated from the valence quark exchange formalism (VQEF) for the A = 6 iso-scalar system. After computing the valence quark, sea quark, and gluon distribution functions in the constituent quark exchange model (CQEM, i.e., CQM +VQEF), the nucleus structure function is calculated for the 6Li nucleus at the leading order (LO) and the next-to-leading-order (NLO) levels to extract the European muon collaboration (EMC) ratio, at different hard scales, using the standard Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi (DGALP) evolution equations. The outcomes are compared with those of our previous works and the available NMC experimental data, and various physical points are discussed. It is observed that the present EMC ratios are considerably improved compared with those of our previous works, in which only the valence quark distributions were considered to calculate the EMC ratio, and are closer to the NMC data. Finally, it is concluded that at a given appropriate hard scale, the LO approximation may be enough for calculating the nucleus EMC ratio.

  15. The general behavior of NLO unintegrated parton distributions based on the single-scale evolution and the angular ordering constraint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseinkhani, H.; Modarres, M.

    2011-01-01

    To overcome the complexity of generalized two hard scale (k t ,μ) evolution equation, well known as the Ciafaloni, Catani, Fiorani and Marchesini (CCFM) evolution equations, and calculate the unintegrated parton distribution functions (UPDF), Kimber, Martin and Ryskin (KMR) proposed a procedure based on (i) the inclusion of single-scale (μ) only at the last step of evolution and (ii) the angular ordering constraint (AOC) on the DGLAP terms (the DGLAP collinear approximation), to bring the second scale, k t into the UPDF evolution equations. In this work we intend to use the MSTW2008 (Martin et al.) parton distribution functions (PDF) and try to calculate UPDF for various values of x (the longitudinal fraction of parton momentum), μ (the probe scale) and k t (the parton transverse momentum) to see the general behavior of three-dimensional UPDF at the NLO level up to the LHC working energy scales (μ 2 ). It is shown that there exits some pronounced peaks for the three-dimensional UPDF(f a (x,k t )) with respect to the two variables x and k t at various energies (μ). These peaks get larger and move to larger values of k t , as the energy (μ) is increased. We hope these peaks could be detected in the LHC experiments at CERN and other laboratories in the less exclusive processes.

  16. TMDlib and TMDplotter. Library and plotting tools for transverse-momentum-dependent parton distributions. Version 1.0.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hautmann, F.; Kraemer, M.; Mulders, P.J.; Signori, A.; Nocera, E.R.; Rogers, T.C.

    2014-08-01

    Transverse-momentum-dependent distributions (TMDs) are central in high-energy physics from both theoretical and phenomenological points of view. In this manual we introduce the library, TMDlib, of fits and parameterisations for transverse-momentum-dependent parton distribution functions (TMD PDFs) and fragmentation functions (TMD FFs) together with an online plotting tool, TMDplotter. We provide a description of the program components and of the different physical frameworks the user can access via the available parameterisations.

  17. Moments of nucleon's parton distribution for the sea and valence quarks from lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deka, M.; Doi, T.; Dong, S. J.; Draper, T.; Liu, K. F.; Streuer, T.; Mathur, N.; Thomas, A. W.

    2009-01-01

    We extend the study of lowest moments, and 2 >, of the parton distribution function of the nucleon to include those of the sea quarks; this entails a disconnected insertion calculation in lattice QCD. This is carried out on a 16 3 x24 quenched lattice with Wilson fermion. The quark loops are calculated with Z 2 noise vectors and unbiased subtractions, and multiple nucleon sources are employed to reduce the statistical errors. We obtain 5σ signals for for the u, d, and s quarks, but 2 > is consistent with zero within errors. We provide results for both the connected and disconnected insertions. The perturbatively renormalized for the strange quark at μ=2 GeV is s+s =0.027±0.006 which is consistent with the experimental result. The ratio of for s vs u/d in the disconnected insertion with quark loops is calculated to be 0.88±0.07. This is about twice as large as the phenomenologically fitted ( s+s / u + d ) from experiments where u and d include both the connected and disconnected insertion parts. We discuss the source and implication of this difference.

  18. Uncertainties of Predictions from Parton Distribution Functions 1, the Lagrange Multiplier Method

    CERN Document Server

    Stump, D R; Brock, R; Casey, D; Huston, J; Kalk, J; Lai, H L; Tung, W K

    2002-01-01

    We apply the Lagrange Multiplier method to study the uncertainties of physical predictions due to the uncertainties of parton distribution functions (PDFs), using the cross section for W production at a hadron collider as an archetypal example. An effective chi-squared function based on the CTEQ global QCD analysis is used to generate a series of PDFs, each of which represents the best fit to the global data for some specified value of the cross section. By analyzing the likelihood of these "alterative hypotheses", using available information on errors from the individual experiments, we estimate that the fractional uncertainty of the cross section due to current experimental input to the PDF analysis is approximately 4% at the Tevatron, and 10% at the LHC. We give sets of PDFs corresponding to these up and down variations of the cross section. We also present similar results on Z production at the colliders. Our method can be applied to any combination of physical variables in precision QCD phenomenology, an...

  19. Uncertainties of predictions from parton distribution functions. I. The Lagrange multiplier method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stump, D.; Pumplin, J.; Brock, R.; Casey, D.; Huston, J.; Kalk, J.; Lai, H. L.; Tung, W. K.

    2002-01-01

    We apply the Lagrange multiplier method to study the uncertainties of physical predictions due to the uncertainties of parton distribution functions (PDF's), using the cross section σ W for W production at a hadron collider as an archetypal example. An effective χ 2 function based on the CTEQ global QCD analysis is used to generate a series of PDF's, each of which represents the best fit to the global data for some specified value of σ W . By analyzing the likelihood of these 'alterative hypotheses', using available information on errors from the individual experiments, we estimate that the fractional uncertainty of σ W due to current experimental input to the PDF analysis is approximately ±4% at the Fermilab Tevatron, and ±8-10% at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. We give sets of PDF's corresponding to these up and down variations of σ W . We also present similar results on Z production at the colliders. Our method can be applied to any combination of physical variables in precision QCD phenomenology, and it can be used to generate benchmarks for testing the accuracy of approximate methods based on the error matrix

  20. Measurement of exclusive π(0) electroproduction structure functions and their relationship to transverse generalized parton distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedlinskiy, I; Kubarovsky, V; Niccolai, S; Stoler, P; Adhikari, K P; Aghasyan, M; Amaryan, M J; Anghinolfi, M; Avakian, H; Baghdasaryan, H; Ball, J; Baltzell, N A; Battaglieri, M; Bennett, R P; Biselli, A S; Bookwalter, C; Boiarinov, S; Briscoe, W J; Brooks, W K; Burkert, V D; Carman, D S; Celentano, A; Chandavar, S; Charles, G; Contalbrigo, M; Crede, V; D'Angelo, A; Daniel, A; Dashyan, N; De Vita, R; De Sanctis, E; Deur, A; Djalali, C; Doughty, D; Dupre, R; Egiyan, H; El Alaoui, A; El Fassi, L; Elouadrhiri, L; Eugenio, P; Fedotov, G; Fegan, S; Fleming, J A; Forest, T A; Fradi, A; Garçon, M; Gevorgyan, N; Giovanetti, K L; Girod, F X; Gohn, W; Gothe, R W; Graham, L; Griffioen, K A; Guegan, B; Guidal, M; Guo, L; Hafidi, K; Hakobyan, H; Hanretty, C; Heddle, D; Hicks, K; Holtrop, M; Ilieva, Y; Ireland, D G; Ishkhanov, B S; Isupov, E L; Jo, H S; Joo, K; Keller, D; Khandaker, M; Khetarpal, P; Kim, A; Kim, W; Klein, F J; Koirala, S; Kubarovsky, A; Kuhn, S E; Kuleshov, S V; Kvaltine, N D; Livingston, K; Lu, H Y; MacGregor, I J D; Mao, Y; Markov, N; Martinez, D; Mayer, M; McKinnon, B; Meyer, C A; Mineeva, T; Mirazita, M; Mokeev, V; Moutarde, H; Munevar, E; Munoz Camacho, C; Nadel-Turonski, P; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, I; Osipenko, M; Ostrovidov, A I; Pappalardo, L L; Paremuzyan, R; Park, K; Park, S; Pasyuk, E; Anefalos Pereira, S; Phelps, E; Pisano, S; Pogorelko, O; Pozdniakov, S; Price, J W; Procureur, S; Prok, Y; Protopopescu, D; Puckett, A J R; Raue, B A; Ricco, G; Rimal, D; Ripani, M; Rosner, G; Rossi, P; Sabatié, F; Saini, M S; Salgado, C; Saylor, N; Schott, D; Schumacher, R A; Seder, E; Seraydaryan, H; Sharabian, Y G; Smith, G D; Sober, D I; Sokhan, D; Stepanyan, S S; Stepanyan, S; Strauch, S; Taiuti, M; Tang, W; Taylor, C E; Tian, Ye; Tkachenko, S; Ungaro, M; Vineyard, M F; Vlassov, A; Voskanyan, H; Voutier, E; Walford, N K; Watts, D P; Weinstein, L B; Weygand, D P; Wood, M H; Zachariou, N; Zhang, J; Zhao, Z W; Zonta, I

    2012-09-14

    Exclusive π(0) electroproduction at a beam energy of 5.75 GeV has been measured with the Jefferson Lab CLAS spectrometer. Differential cross sections were measured at more than 1800 kinematic values in Q(2), x(B), t, and ϕ(π), in the Q(2) range from 1.0 to 4.6  GeV(2), -t up to 2  GeV(2), and x(B) from 0.1 to 0.58. Structure functions σ(T)+ϵσ(L), σ(TT), and σ(LT) were extracted as functions of t for each of 17 combinations of Q(2) and x(B). The data were compared directly with two handbag-based calculations including both longitudinal and transversity generalized parton distributions (GPDs). Inclusion of only longitudinal GPDs very strongly underestimates σ(T)+ϵσ(L) and fails to account for σ(TT) and σ(LT), while inclusion of transversity GPDs brings the calculations into substantially better agreement with the data. There is very strong sensitivity to the relative contributions of nucleon helicity-flip and helicity nonflip processes. The results confirm that exclusive π(0) electroproduction offers direct experimental access to the transversity GPDs.

  1. Measurement of Exclusive π0 Electroproduction Structure Functions and their Relationship to Transverse Generalized Parton Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedlinskiy, I.; Kubarovsky, V.; Niccolai, S.; Stoler, P.; Adhikari, K. P.; Aghasyan, M.; Amaryan, M. J.; Anghinolfi, M.; Avakian, H.; Baghdasaryan, H.; Ball, J.; Baltzell, N. A.; Battaglieri, M.; Bennett, R. P.; Biselli, A. S.; Bookwalter, C.; Boiarinov, S.; Briscoe, W. J.; Brooks, W. K.; Burkert, V. D.; Carman, D. S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Charles, G.; Contalbrigo, M.; Crede, V.; D'Angelo, A.; Daniel, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Doughty, D.; Dupre, R.; Egiyan, H.; El Alaoui, A.; El Fassi, L.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Eugenio, P.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Fleming, J. A.; Forest, T. A.; Fradi, A.; Garçon, M.; Gevorgyan, N.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Gohn, W.; Gothe, R. W.; Graham, L.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guegan, B.; Guidal, M.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Hakobyan, H.; Hanretty, C.; Heddle, D.; Hicks, K.; Holtrop, M.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Isupov, E. L.; Jo, H. S.; Joo, K.; Keller, D.; Khandaker, M.; Khetarpal, P.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; Klein, F. J.; Koirala, S.; Kubarovsky, A.; Kuhn, S. E.; Kuleshov, S. V.; Kvaltine, N. D.; Livingston, K.; Lu, H. Y.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Mao, Y.; Markov, N.; Martinez, D.; Mayer, M.; McKinnon, B.; Meyer, C. A.; Mineeva, T.; Mirazita, M.; Mokeev, V.; Moutarde, H.; Munevar, E.; Munoz Camacho, C.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Paremuzyan, R.; Park, K.; Park, S.; Pasyuk, E.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Phelps, E.; Pisano, S.; Pogorelko, O.; Pozdniakov, S.; Price, J. W.; Procureur, S.; Prok, Y.; Protopopescu, D.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Raue, B. A.; Ricco, G.; Rimal, D.; Ripani, M.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Sabatié, F.; Saini, M. S.; Salgado, C.; Saylor, N.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Seder, E.; Seraydaryan, H.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Smith, G. D.; Sober, D. I.; Sokhan, D.; Stepanyan, S. S.; Stepanyan, S.; Strauch, S.; Taiuti, M.; Tang, W.; Taylor, C. E.; Tian, Ye; Tkachenko, S.; Ungaro, M.; Vineyard, M. F.; Vlassov, A.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N. K.; Watts, D. P.; Weinstein, L. B.; Weygand, D. P.; Wood, M. H.; Zachariou, N.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, Z. W.; Zonta, I.

    2012-09-01

    Exclusive π0 electroproduction at a beam energy of 5.75 GeV has been measured with the Jefferson Lab CLAS spectrometer. Differential cross sections were measured at more than 1800 kinematic values in Q2, xB, t, and ϕπ, in the Q2 range from 1.0 to 4.6GeV2, -t up to 2GeV2, and xB from 0.1 to 0.58. Structure functions σT+ɛσL, σTT, and σLT were extracted as functions of t for each of 17 combinations of Q2 and xB. The data were compared directly with two handbag-based calculations including both longitudinal and transversity generalized parton distributions (GPDs). Inclusion of only longitudinal GPDs very strongly underestimates σT+ɛσL and fails to account for σTT and σLT, while inclusion of transversity GPDs brings the calculations into substantially better agreement with the data. There is very strong sensitivity to the relative contributions of nucleon helicity-flip and helicity nonflip processes. The results confirm that exclusive π0 electroproduction offers direct experimental access to the transversity GPDs.

  2. The Q2-Dependence of the Gross-Llewellyn Smith Sum Rule and of the Parton Distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataev, A.L.; AN SSSR, Moscow; Sidorov, A.V.

    1994-01-01

    We describe the results of our recent work on the determination of the value of the parameter Λ and of the Q 2 -dependence of the Gross-Llewellyn Smith (GLS) sum rule from the experimental data of the CCFR collaboration on neutrino-nucleon deep inelastic scattering, using the Jacobi polynomials QCD analysis. The new information on the Q 2 -dependence of the parton distributions is presented. 37 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  3. Study of inclusive single-jet production in the framework of kt-factorization unintegrated parton distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminzadeh Nik, R.; Modarres, M.; Masouminia, M. R.

    2018-05-01

    The present work is intended to study the double-differential cross section of the inclusive single-jet production as the functions of the transverse momentum and the rapidity of the jet in the high-energy hadron-hadron collisions. The angular-ordering-constraint kt-factorization framework is used to calculate the above cross section that is available experimentally. The conditions are taken in accordance with the LHC experiments. The results are compared and analyzed using the existing CMS LHC data. The scheme-dependent unintegrated parton distribution functions (UPDF) of Kimber-Martin-Ryskin (KMR) and Martin-Ryskin-Watt (MRW) in the leading-order and the next-to-leading order (NLO) are used to predict the input partonic UPDF. The utilized phenomenological frameworks prove to be relatively successful in generating satisfactory results compared to the different experiment data, such as CMS (8 and 13 TeV). Extensive discussions and comparisons are made regarding the behavior of the contributing partonic subprocesses. Finally, it is shown that the application of the KMR UPDF to the single-jet differential cross sections have better agreement with the CMS data; on the other hand, they are very similar to those of NLO-MRW.

  4. Probing lumps of wee partons in deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchmueller, W.

    1994-06-01

    Recently, the ZEUS collaboration has reported on several remarkable properties of events with a large rapidity gap in deep inelastic scattering. We suggest that the mechanism underlying these events is the scattering of electrons off lumps of wee partons inside the proton. Based on an effective lagrangian approach the Q 2 -, x- and W-distributions are evaluated. For sufficiently small invariant mass of the detected hadronic system, the mechanism implies leading twist behaviour. The x- and W-distributions are determined by the Lipatov exponent which governs the behaviour of parton densities at small x. (orig.)

  5. Deeply virtual Compton scattering with the CLAS detector for the study of generalized parton distributions; Diffusion compton profondement virtuelle avec le detecteur CLAS pour une etude des distributions de partons generalisees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girod, F.X

    2006-12-15

    The structure of the nucleon, among the first fundamental problems in hadronic physics, is the subject of a renewed interest. The lightest baryonic state has historically been described in two complementary approaches: through elastic scattering, measuring form factors which reflect the spatial shape of charge distributions, and through deep inelastic scattering, providing access to parton distribution functions which encode the momentum content carried by the constituents. The recently developed formalism of Generalized Parton Distributions unifies those approaches and provides access to new informations. The cleanest process sensitive to GPDs is the deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) contributing to the ep {yields} ep{gamma} reaction. This work deals with a dedicated experiment accomplished with the CLAS detector, completed with two specific equipments: a lead tungstate calorimeter covering photon detection at small angles, and a superconducting solenoid actively shielding the electromagnetic background. The entire project is covered: from the upgrade of the experimental setup, through the update of the software, data taking and analysis, up to a first comparison of the beam spin asymmetry to model predictions. (author)

  6. Quantitative constraints on the gluon distribution function in the proton from collider isolated-photon data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Enterria, David, E-mail: dde@cern.ch [CERN, PH Department, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); ICREA and ICC-UB, Universitat de Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Rojo, Juan [CERN, PH Department, TH Unit, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2012-07-21

    The impact of isolated-photon data from proton-(anti)proton collisions at RHIC, Spp{sup Macron }S, Tevatron and LHC energies, on the parton distribution functions of the proton is studied using a recently developed Bayesian reweighting method. The impact on the gluon density of the 35 existing isolated-{gamma} measurements is quantified using next-to-leading order (NLO) perturbative QCD calculations complemented with the NNPDF2.1 parton densities. The NLO predictions are found to describe well most of the datasets from 200 GeV up to 7 TeV centre-of-mass energies. The isolated-photon spectra recently measured at the LHC are precise enough to constrain the gluon distribution and lead to a moderate reduction (up to 20%) of its uncertainties around fractional momenta x Almost-Equal-To 0.02. As a particular case, we show that the improved gluon density reduces the PDF uncertainty for the Higgs boson production cross section in the gluon-fusion channel by more than 20% at the LHC. We conclude that present and future isolated-photon measurements constitute an interesting addition to coming global PDF analyses.

  7. Quantitative constraints on the gluon distribution function in the proton from collider isolated-photon data

    CERN Document Server

    d'Enterria, David

    2012-01-01

    The impact of isolated-photon data from proton-(anti)proton collisions at RHIC, SppbarS, Tevatron and LHC energies, on the parton distribution functions of the proton is studied using a recently developed Bayesian reweighting method. The impact on the gluon density of the 35 existing isolated-gamma measurements is quantified using next-to-leading order (NLO) perturbative QCD calculations complemented with the NNPDF2.1 parton densities. The NLO predictions are found to describe well most of the datasets from 200 GeV up to 7 TeV centre-of-mass energies. The isolated-photon spectra recently measured at the LHC are precise enough to constrain the gluon distribution and lead to a moderate reduction (up to 20%) of its uncertainties around fractional momenta x~0.02. As a particular case, we show that the improved gluon density reduces the PDF uncertainty for the Higgs boson production cross section in the gluon-fusion channel by more than 20% at the LHC. We conclude that present and future isolated-photon measuremen...

  8. Charge symmetry at the partonic level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Londergan, J. T.; Peng, J. C.; Thomas, A. W.

    2010-07-01

    This review article discusses the experimental and theoretical status of partonic charge symmetry. It is shown how the partonic content of various structure functions gets redefined when the assumption of charge symmetry is relaxed. We review various theoretical and phenomenological models for charge symmetry violation in parton distribution functions. We summarize the current experimental upper limits on charge symmetry violation in parton distributions. A series of experiments are presented, which might reveal partonic charge symmetry violation, or alternatively might lower the current upper limits on parton charge symmetry violation.

  9. Measurement of double-differential cross sections for top quark pair production in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = $ 8 TeV and impact on parton distribution functions

    CERN Document Server

    Sirunyan, Albert M; Adam, Wolfgang; Aşılar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Brondolin, Erica; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Flechl, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; König, Axel; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Matsushita, Takashi; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rad, Navid; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Strauss, Josef; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Dvornikov, Oleg; Makarenko, Vladimir; Mossolov, Vladimir; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Zykunov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Alderweireldt, Sara; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Lauwers, Jasper; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; De Bruyn, Isabelle; Deroover, Kevin; Lowette, Steven; Moortgat, Seth; Moreels, Lieselotte; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Skovpen, Kirill; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Parijs, Isis; Brun, Hugues; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Delannoy, Hugo; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Goldouzian, Reza; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lenzi, Thomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Luetic, Jelena; Maerschalk, Thierry; Marinov, Andrey; Randle-conde, Aidan; Seva, Tomislav; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Vannerom, David; Yonamine, Ryo; Zenoni, Florian; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Cornelis, Tom; Dobur, Didar; Fagot, Alexis; Gul, Muhammad; Khvastunov, Illia; Poyraz, Deniz; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Schöfbeck, Robert; Tytgat, Michael; Van Driessche, Ward; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Bondu, Olivier; Brochet, Sébastien; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Adrien; De Visscher, Simon; Delaere, Christophe; Delcourt, Martin; Francois, Brieuc; Giammanco, Andrea; Jafari, Abideh; Komm, Matthias; Krintiras, Georgios; Lemaitre, Vincent; Magitteri, Alessio; Mertens, Alexandre; Musich, Marco; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Wertz, Sébastien; Beliy, Nikita; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Fábio Lúcio; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Hensel, Carsten; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Huertas Guativa, Lina Milena; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Torres Da Silva De Araujo, Felipe; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Moon, Chang-Seong; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Romero Abad, David; Ruiz Vargas, José Cupertino; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Fang, Wenxing; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Chen, Ye; Cheng, Tongguang; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Leggat, Duncan; Liu, Zhenan; Romeo, Francesco; Ruan, Manqi; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Spiezia, Aniello; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhao, Jingzhou; Ban, Yong; Chen, Geng; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; González Hernández, Carlos Felipe; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Puljak, Ivica; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Sculac, Toni; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Ferencek, Dinko; Kadija, Kreso; Mesic, Benjamin; Susa, Tatjana; Ather, Mohsan Waseem; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Carrera Jarrin, Edgar; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Perrini, Lucia; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Veelken, Christian; Eerola, Paula; Pekkanen, Juska; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Jarvinen, Terhi; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Talvitie, Joonas; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Favaro, Carlotta; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Ghosh, Saranya; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Kucher, Inna; Locci, Elizabeth; Machet, Martina; Malcles, Julie; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Antropov, Iurii; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Cadamuro, Luca; Chapon, Emilien; Charlot, Claude; Davignon, Olivier; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Jo, Mihee; Lisniak, Stanislav; Miné, Philippe; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Ortona, Giacomo; Paganini, Pascal; Pigard, Philipp; Regnard, Simon; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Stahl Leiton, Andre Govinda; Strebler, Thomas; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Zghiche, Amina; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Buttignol, Michael; Chabert, Eric Christian; Chanon, Nicolas; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Coubez, Xavier; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Bernet, Colin; Boudoul, Gaelle; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Courbon, Benoit; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fay, Jean; Finco, Linda; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Grenier, Gérald; Ille, Bernard; Lagarde, Francois; Laktineh, Imad Baptiste; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Pequegnot, Anne-Laure; Perries, Stephane; Popov, Andrey; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Khvedelidze, Arsen; Lomidze, David; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Feld, Lutz; Kiesel, Maximilian Knut; Klein, Katja; Lipinski, Martin; Preuten, Marius; Schomakers, Christian; Schulz, Johannes; Verlage, Tobias; Albert, Andreas; Brodski, Michael; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Endres, Matthias; Erdmann, Martin; Erdweg, Sören; Esch, Thomas; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hamer, Matthias; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Knutzen, Simon; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Mukherjee, Swagata; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Pook, Tobias; Radziej, Markus; Reithler, Hans; Rieger, Marcel; Scheuch, Florian; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Flügge, Günter; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Künsken, Andreas; Lingemann, Joschka; Müller, Thomas; Nehrkorn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Pistone, Claudia; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Arndt, Till; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Beernaert, Kelly; Behnke, Olaf; Behrens, Ulf; Bin Anuar, Afiq Aizuddin; Borras, Kerstin; Campbell, Alan; Connor, Patrick; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dolinska, Ganna; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Eren, Engin; Gallo, Elisabetta; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gizhko, Andrii; Grados Luyando, Juan Manuel; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gunnellini, Paolo; Harb, Ali; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Jung, Hannes; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Karacheban, Olena; Kasemann, Matthias; Keaveney, James; Kleinwort, Claus; Korol, Ievgen; Krücker, Dirk; Lange, Wolfgang; Lelek, Aleksandra; Lenz, Teresa; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lobanov, Artur; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Roland, Benoit; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Saxena, Pooja; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Spannagel, Simon; Stefaniuk, Nazar; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Zenaiev, Oleksandr; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Draeger, Arne-Rasmus; Dreyer, Torben; Garutti, Erika; Gonzalez, Daniel; Haller, Johannes; Hoffmann, Malte; Junkes, Alexandra; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Kovalchuk, Nataliia; Kurz, Simon; Lapsien, Tobias; Marchesini, Ivan; Marconi, Daniele; Meyer, Mareike; Niedziela, Marek; Nowatschin, Dominik; Pantaleo, Felice; Peiffer, Thomas; Perieanu, Adrian; Scharf, Christian; Schleper, Peter; Schmidt, Alexander; Schumann, Svenja; Schwandt, Joern; Sonneveld, Jory; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Stöver, Marc; Tholen, Heiner; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Vanhoefer, Annika; Vormwald, Benedikt; Akbiyik, Melike; Barth, Christian; Baur, Sebastian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Butz, Erik; Caspart, René; Chwalek, Thorsten; Colombo, Fabio; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Fink, Simon; Freund, Benedikt; Friese, Raphael; Giffels, Manuel; Gilbert, Andrew; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Haitz, Dominik; Hartmann, Frank; Heindl, Stefan Michael; Husemann, Ulrich; Kassel, Florian; Katkov, Igor; Kudella, Simon; Mildner, Hannes; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Plagge, Michael; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Röcker, Steffen; Roscher, Frank; Schröder, Matthias; Shvetsov, Ivan; Sieber, Georg; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Ulrich, Ralf; Wayand, Stefan; Weber, Marc; Weiler, Thomas; Williamson, Shawn; Wöhrmann, Clemens; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Tziaferi, Eirini; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Loukas, Nikitas; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Filipovic, Nicolas; Pasztor, Gabriella; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Makovec, Alajos; Molnar, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Bartók, Márton; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Bahinipati, Seema; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Choudhury, Somnath; Mal, Prolay; Mandal, Koushik; Nayak, Aruna; Sahoo, Deepak Kumar; Sahoo, Niladribihari; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chawla, Ridhi; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Anterpreet; Kaur, Manjit; Kumar, Ramandeep; Kumari, Priyanka; Mehta, Ankita; Mittal, Monika; Singh, Jasbir; Walia, Genius; Kumar, Ashok; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Garg, Rocky Bala; Keshri, Sumit; Kumar, Ajay; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Ramkrishna; Sharma, Varun; Bhattacharya, Rajarshi; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dey, Sourav; Dutt, Suneel; Dutta, Suchandra; Ghosh, Shamik; Majumdar, Nayana; Modak, Atanu; Mondal, Kuntal; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Nandan, Saswati; Purohit, Arnab; Roy, Ashim; Roy, Debarati; Roy Chowdhury, Suvankar; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Thakur, Shalini; Behera, Prafulla Kumar; Chudasama, Ruchi; Dutta, Dipanwita; Jha, Vishwajeet; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Netrakanti, Pawan Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Dugad, Shashikant; Kole, Gouranga; Mahakud, Bibhuprasad; Mitra, Soureek; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sur, Nairit; Sutar, Bajrang; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Ganguly, Sanmay; Guchait, Monoranjan; Jain, Sandhya; Kumar, Sanjeev; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Sarkar, Tanmay; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Chauhan, Shubhanshu; Dube, Sourabh; Hegde, Vinay; Kapoor, Anshul; Kothekar, Kunal; Pandey, Shubham; Rane, Aditee; Sharma, Seema; Chenarani, Shirin; Eskandari Tadavani, Esmaeel; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Calabria, Cesare; Caputo, Claudio; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; Cristella, Leonardo; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Miniello, Giorgia; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Ranieri, Antonio; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Sharma, Archana; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Verwilligen, Piet; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Battilana, Carlo; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Albergo, Sebastiano; Costa, Salvatore; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Russo, Lorenzo; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Strom, Derek; Viliani, Lorenzo; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Primavera, Federica; Calvelli, Valerio; Ferro, Fabrizio; Monge, Maria Roberta; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Brianza, Luca; Brivio, Francesco; Ciriolo, Vincenzo; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Malberti, Martina; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Pigazzini, Simone; Ragazzi, Stefano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; De Nardo, Guglielmo; Di Guida, Salvatore; Esposito, Marco; Fabozzi, Francesco; Fienga, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lanza, Giuseppe; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Sciacca, Crisostomo; Thyssen, Filip; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Benato, Lisa; Bisello, Dario; Boletti, Alessio; Carlin, Roberto; Carvalho Antunes De Oliveira, Alexandra; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; De Castro Manzano, Pablo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Gasparini, Ugo; Gonella, Franco; Lacaprara, Stefano; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Rossin, Roberto; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Ventura, Sandro; Zanetti, Marco; Zotto, Pierluigi; Braghieri, Alessandro; Fallavollita, Francesco; Magnani, Alice; Montagna, Paolo; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Ressegotti, Martina; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vai, Ilaria; Vitulo, Paolo; Alunni Solestizi, Luisa; Bilei, Gian Mario; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Leonardi, Roberto; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Mariani, Valentina; Menichelli, Mauro; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fedi, Giacomo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Cipriani, Marco; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Gelli, Simone; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Marzocchi, Badder; Meridiani, Paolo; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Preiato, Federico; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bartosik, Nazar; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Cenna, Francesca; Costa, Marco; Covarelli, Roberto; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Kiani, Bilal; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Monteil, Ennio; Monteno, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Ravera, Fabio; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Shchelina, Ksenia; Sola, Valentina; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Traczyk, Piotr; Belforte, Stefano; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Zanetti, Anna; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Lee, Jeongeun; Lee, Sangeun; Lee, Seh Wook; Oh, Young Do; Sekmen, Sezen; Son, Dong-Chul; Yang, Yu Chul; Lee, Ari; Kim, Hyunchul; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Kim, Tae Jeong; Cho, Sungwoong; Choi, Suyong; Go, Yeonju; Gyun, Dooyeon; Ha, Seungkyu; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Youngkwon; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Kisoo; Lee, Kyong Sei; Lee, Songkyo; Lim, Jaehoon; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Almond, John; Kim, Junho; Lee, Haneol; Oh, Sung Bin; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Seo, Seon-hee; Yang, Unki; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Yu, Geum Bong; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jason Sang Hun; Park, Inkyu; Ryu, Geonmo; Ryu, Min Sang; Choi, Young-Il; Goh, Junghwan; Hwang, Chanwook; Lee, Jongseok; Yu, Intae; Dudenas, Vytautas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Vaitkus, Juozas; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Mohamad Idris, Faridah; Wan Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin; Yusli, Mohd Nizam; Zolkapli, Zukhaimira; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-De La Cruz, Ivan; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Magaña Villalba, Ricardo; Mejia Guisao, Jhovanny; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Carpinteyro, Severiano; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Uribe Estrada, Cecilia; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khan, Wajid Ali; Saddique, Asif; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Waqas, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Zalewski, Piotr; Bunkowski, Karol; Byszuk, Adrian; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michal; Pyskir, Andrzej; Walczak, Marek; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Calpas, Betty; Di Francesco, Agostino; Faccioli, Pietro; Gallinaro, Michele; Hollar, Jonathan; Leonardo, Nuno; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nemallapudi, Mythra Varun; Seixas, Joao; Toldaiev, Oleksii; Vadruccio, Daniele; Varela, Joao; Afanasiev, Serguei; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Shulha, Siarhei; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Voytishin, Nikolay; Zarubin, Anatoli; Chtchipounov, Leonid; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Sulimov, Valentin; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Karneyeu, Anton; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Spiridonov, Alexander; Toms, Maria; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Aushev, Tagir; Bylinkin, Alexander; Danilov, Mikhail; Popova, Elena; Rusinov, Vladimir; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Terkulov, Adel; Baskakov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Bunichev, Viacheslav; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Korneeva, Natalia; Lokhtin, Igor; Miagkov, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Perfilov, Maxim; Savrin, Viktor; Volkov, Petr; Blinov, Vladimir; Skovpen, Yuri; Shtol, Dmitry; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Elumakhov, Dmitry; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Cirkovic, Predrag; Devetak, Damir; Dordevic, Milos; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Barrio Luna, Mar; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Senghi Soares, Mara; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Moran, Dermot; Cuevas, Javier; Erice, Carlos; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; González Fernández, Juan Rodrigo; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Sanchez Cruz, Sergio; Suárez Andrés, Ignacio; Vischia, Pietro; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Curras, Esteban; Fernandez, Marcos; Garcia-Ferrero, Juan; Gomez, Gervasio; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Trevisani, Nicolò; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Botta, Cristina; Camporesi, Tiziano; Castello, Roberto; Cepeda, Maria; Cerminara, Gianluca; Chen, Yi; Cimmino, Anna; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; Daponte, Vincenzo; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Gruttola, Michele; De Roeck, Albert; Di Marco, Emanuele; Dobson, Marc; Dorney, Brian; Du Pree, Tristan; Duggan, Daniel; Dünser, Marc; Dupont, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Everaerts, Pieter; Fartoukh, Stephane; Franzoni, Giovanni; Fulcher, Jonathan; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Girone, Maria; Glege, Frank; Gulhan, Doga; Gundacker, Stefan; Guthoff, Moritz; Harris, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kieseler, Jan; Kirschenmann, Henning; Knünz, Valentin; Kornmayer, Andreas; Kortelainen, Matti J; Krammer, Manfred; Lange, Clemens; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Martelli, Arabella; Meijers, Frans; Merlin, Jeremie Alexandre; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Milenovic, Predrag; Moortgat, Filip; Morovic, Srecko; Mulders, Martijn; Neugebauer, Hannes; Orfanelli, Styliani; Orsini, Luciano; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuel; Peruzzi, Marco; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Racz, Attila; Reis, Thomas; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Seidel, Markus; Sharma, Archana; Silva, Pedro; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Steggemann, Jan; Stoye, Markus; Takahashi, Yuta; Tosi, Mia; Treille, Daniel; Triossi, Andrea; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veckalns, Viesturs; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Verweij, Marta; Wardle, Nicholas; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Zagoździńska, Agnieszka; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Rohe, Tilman; Wiederkehr, Stephan Albert; Bachmair, Felix; Bäni, Lukas; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Casal, Bruno; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Grab, Christoph; Heidegger, Constantin; Hits, Dmitry; Hoss, Jan; Kasieczka, Gregor; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marionneau, Matthieu; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Masciovecchio, Mario; Meinhard, Maren Tabea; Meister, Daniel; Micheli, Francesco; Musella, Pasquale; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pata, Joosep; Pauss, Felicitas; Perrin, Gaël; Perrozzi, Luca; Quittnat, Milena; Rossini, Marco; Schönenberger, Myriam; Starodumov, Andrei; Tavolaro, Vittorio Raoul; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Wallny, Rainer; Aarrestad, Thea Klaeboe; Amsler, Claude; Caminada, Lea; Canelli, Maria Florencia; De Cosa, Annapaola; Donato, Silvio; Galloni, Camilla; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hreus, Tomas; Kilminster, Benjamin; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Pinna, Deborah; Rauco, Giorgia; Robmann, Peter; Salerno, Daniel; Seitz, Claudia; Yang, Yong; Zucchetta, Alberto; Candelise, Vieri; Doan, Thi Hien; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Konyushikhin, Maxim; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Lin, Willis; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Yu, Shin-Shan; Kumar, Arun; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Fiori, Francesco; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Paganis, Efstathios; Psallidas, Andreas; Tsai, Jui-fa; Asavapibhop, Burin; Singh, Gurpreet; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Suwonjandee, Narumon; Adiguzel, Aytul; Boran, Fatma; Cerci, Salim; Damarseckin, Serdal; Demiroglu, Zuhal Seyma; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Guler, Yalcin; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Kara, Ozgun; Kiminsu, Ugur; Oglakci, Mehmet; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Turkcapar, Semra; Zorbakir, Ibrahim Soner; Zorbilmez, Caglar; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Isildak, Bora; Karapinar, Guler; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Yetkin, Elif Asli; Yetkin, Taylan; Cakir, Altan; Cankocak, Kerem; Sen, Sercan; Grynyov, Boris; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Aggleton, Robin; Ball, Fionn; Beck, Lana; Brooke, James John; Burns, Douglas; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Jacob, Jeson; Kreczko, Lukasz; Lucas, Chris; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Poll, Anthony; Sakuma, Tai; Seif El Nasr-storey, Sarah; Smith, Dominic; Smith, Vincent J; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Calligaris, Luigi; Cieri, Davide; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Williams, Thomas; Baber, Mark; Bainbridge, Robert; Buchmuller, Oliver; Bundock, Aaron; Casasso, Stefano; Citron, Matthew; Colling, David; Corpe, Louie; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; De Wit, Adinda; Della Negra, Michel; Di Maria, Riccardo; Dunne, Patrick; Elwood, Adam; Futyan, David; Haddad, Yacine; Hall, Geoffrey; Iles, Gregory; James, Thomas; Lane, Rebecca; Laner, Christian; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Malik, Sarah; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Pela, Joao; Penning, Bjoern; Pesaresi, Mark; Raymond, David Mark; Richards, Alexander; Rose, Andrew; Scott, Edward; Seez, Christopher; Summers, Sioni; Tapper, Alexander; Uchida, Kirika; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wright, Jack; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Borzou, Ahmad; Call, Kenneth; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Pastika, Nathaniel; Bartek, Rachel; Dominguez, Aaron; Buccilli, Andrew; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; West, Christopher; Arcaro, Daniel; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Gastler, Daniel; Rankin, Dylan; Richardson, Clint; Rohlf, James; Sulak, Lawrence; Zou, David; Benelli, Gabriele; Cutts, David; Garabedian, Alex; Hakala, John; Heintz, Ulrich; Hogan, Julie Managan; Jesus, Orduna; Kwok, Ka Hei Martin; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Mao, Zaixing; Narain, Meenakshi; Piperov, Stefan; Sagir, Sinan; Spencer, Eric; Syarif, Rizki; Breedon, Richard; Burns, Dustin; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Flores, Chad; Funk, Garrett; Gardner, Michael; Ko, Winston; Lander, Richard; Mclean, Christine; Mulhearn, Michael; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Shalhout, Shalhout; Shi, Mengyao; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Stolp, Dustin; Tos, Kyle; Tripathi, Mani; Bachtis, Michail; Bravo, Cameron; Cousins, Robert; Dasgupta, Abhigyan; Florent, Alice; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Mccoll, Nickolas; Saltzberg, David; Schnaible, Christian; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Bouvier, Elvire; Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Ghiasi Shirazi, Seyyed Mohammad Amin; Hanson, Gail; Heilman, Jesse; Jandir, Pawandeep; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Lacroix, Florent; Long, Owen Rosser; Olmedo Negrete, Manuel; Paneva, Mirena Ivova; Shrinivas, Amithabh; Si, Weinan; Wei, Hua; Wimpenny, Stephen; Yates, Brent; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; Derdzinski, Mark; Gerosa, Raffaele; Holzner, André; Klein, Daniel; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Olivito, Dominick; Padhi, Sanjay; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tadel, Matevz; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Welke, Charles; Wood, John; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Zevi Della Porta, Giovanni; Amin, Nick; Bhandari, Rohan; Bradmiller-Feld, John; Campagnari, Claudio; Dishaw, Adam; Dutta, Valentina; Franco Sevilla, Manuel; George, Christopher; Golf, Frank; Gouskos, Loukas; Gran, Jason; Heller, Ryan; Incandela, Joe; Mullin, Sam Daniel; Ovcharova, Ana; Qu, Huilin; Richman, Jeffrey; Stuart, David; Suarez, Indara; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Anderson, Dustin; Bendavid, Joshua; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Duarte, Javier; Lawhorn, Jay Mathew; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Pena, Cristian; Spiropulu, Maria; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Xie, Si; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Andrews, Michael Benjamin; Ferguson, Thomas; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Sun, Menglei; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Weinberg, Marc; Cumalat, John Perry; Ford, William T; Jensen, Frank; Johnson, Andrew; Krohn, Michael; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Mulholland, Troy; Stenson, Kevin; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chaves, Jorge; Chu, Jennifer; Dittmer, Susan; Mcdermott, Kevin; Mirman, Nathan; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Ryd, Anders; Skinnari, Louise; Soffi, Livia; Tan, Shao Min; Tao, Zhengcheng; Thom, Julia; Tucker, Jordan; Wittich, Peter; Zientek, Margaret; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Apollinari, Giorgio; Apresyan, Artur; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bolla, Gino; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Cremonesi, Matteo; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hare, Daryl; Harris, Robert M; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hirschauer, James; Hu, Zhen; Jayatilaka, Bodhitha; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Klima, Boaz; Kreis, Benjamin; Lammel, Stephan; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Tiehui; Lopes De Sá, Rafael; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Magini, Nicolo; Marraffino, John Michael; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Merkel, Petra; Mrenna, Stephen; Nahn, Steve; O'Dell, Vivian; Pedro, Kevin; Prokofyev, Oleg; Rakness, Gregory; Ristori, Luciano; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Stoynev, Stoyan; Strait, James; Strobbe, Nadja; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vernieri, Caterina; Verzocchi, Marco; Vidal, Richard; Wang, Michael; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Whitbeck, Andrew; Wu, Yujun; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Carnes, Andrew; Carver, Matthew; Curry, David; Das, Souvik; Field, Richard D; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Low, Jia Fu; Ma, Peisen; Matchev, Konstantin; Mei, Hualin; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Rank, Douglas; Shchutska, Lesya; Sperka, David; Thomas, Laurent; Wang, Jian; Wang, Sean-Jiun; Yelton, John; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Ackert, Andrew; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bein, Samuel; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Kolberg, Ted; Perry, Thomas; Prosper, Harrison; Santra, Arka; Yohay, Rachel; Baarmand, Marc M; Bhopatkar, Vallary; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Hohlmann, Marcus; Noonan, Daniel; Roy, Titas; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Cavanaugh, Richard; Chen, Xuan; Evdokimov, Olga; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hangal, Dhanush Anil; Hofman, David Jonathan; Jung, Kurt; Kamin, Jason; Sandoval Gonzalez, Irving Daniel; Trauger, Hallie; Varelas, Nikos; Wang, Hui; Wu, Zhenbin; Zhang, Jingyu; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Durgut, Süleyman; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Khristenko, Viktor; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Snyder, Christina; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yi, Kai; Blumenfeld, Barry; Cocoros, Alice; Eminizer, Nicholas; Fehling, David; Feng, Lei; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Roskes, Jeffrey; Sarica, Ulascan; Swartz, Morris; Xiao, Meng; You, Can; Al-bataineh, Ayman; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Boren, Samuel; Bowen, James; Castle, James; Forthomme, Laurent; Khalil, Sadia; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Majumder, Devdatta; Mcbrayer, William; Murray, Michael; Sanders, Stephen; Stringer, Robert; Tapia Takaki, Daniel; Wang, Quan; Ivanov, Andrew; Kaadze, Ketino; Maravin, Yurii; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Toda, Sachiko; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Anelli, Christopher; Baden, Drew; Baron, Owen; Belloni, Alberto; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ferraioli, Charles; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Jabeen, Shabnam; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Kellogg, Richard G; Kunkle, Joshua; Mignerey, Alice; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Shin, Young Ho; Skuja, Andris; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Abercrombie, Daniel; Allen, Brandon; Apyan, Aram; Azzolini, Virginia; Barbieri, Richard; Baty, Austin; Bi, Ran; Bierwagen, Katharina; Brandt, Stephanie; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Demiragli, Zeynep; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Hsu, Dylan; Iiyama, Yutaro; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Klute, Markus; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krajczar, Krisztian; Lai, Yue Shi; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Maier, Benedikt; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Mcginn, Christopher; Mironov, Camelia; Narayanan, Siddharth; Niu, Xinmei; Paus, Christoph; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Stephans, George; Tatar, Kaya; Velicanu, Dragos; Wang, Jing; Wang, Ta-Wei; Wyslouch, Bolek; Benvenuti, Alberto; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Evans, Andrew; Hansen, Peter; Kalafut, Sean; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Kubota, Yuichi; Lesko, Zachary; Mans, Jeremy; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rusack, Roger; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Claes, Daniel R; Fangmeier, Caleb; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kamalieddin, Rami; Kravchenko, Ilya; Malta Rodrigues, Alan; Monroy, Jose; Siado, Joaquin Emilo; Snow, Gregory R; Stieger, Benjamin; Alyari, Maral; Dolen, James; Godshalk, Andrew; Harrington, Charles; Iashvili, Ia; Kaisen, Josh; Nguyen, Duong; Parker, Ashley; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Roozbahani, Bahareh; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Hortiangtham, Apichart; Massironi, Andrea; Morse, David Michael; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Teixeira De Lima, Rafael; Trocino, Daniele; Wang, Ren-Jie; Wood, Darien; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Charaf, Otman; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Pollack, Brian; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Sung, Kevin; Trovato, Marco; Velasco, Mayda; Dev, Nabarun; Hildreth, Michael; Hurtado Anampa, Kenyi; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Lannon, Kevin; Marinelli, Nancy; Meng, Fanbo; Mueller, Charles; Musienko, Yuri; Planer, Michael; Reinsvold, Allison; Ruchti, Randy; Rupprecht, Nathaniel; Smith, Geoffrey; Taroni, Silvia; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Alimena, Juliette; Antonelli, Louis; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Francis, Brian; Hart, Andrew; Hill, Christopher; Ji, Weifeng; Liu, Bingxuan; Luo, Wuming; Puigh, Darren; Winer, Brian L; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Cooperstein, Stephane; Driga, Olga; Elmer, Peter; Hardenbrook, Joshua; Hebda, Philip; Lange, David; Luo, Jingyu; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mei, Kelvin; Ojalvo, Isabel; Olsen, James; Palmer, Christopher; Piroué, Pierre; Stickland, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Tully, Christopher; Malik, Sudhir; Barker, Anthony; Barnes, Virgil E; Folgueras, Santiago; Gutay, Laszlo; Jha, Manoj; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Andreas Werner; Khatiwada, Ajeeta; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Schulte, Jan-Frederik; Shi, Xin; Sun, Jian; Wang, Fuqiang; Xie, Wei; Parashar, Neeti; Stupak, John; Adair, Antony; Akgun, Bora; Chen, Zhenyu; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Guilbaud, Maxime; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Northup, Michael; Padley, Brian Paul; Roberts, Jay; Rorie, Jamal; Tu, Zhoudunming; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Duh, Yi-ting; Ferbel, Thomas; Galanti, Mario; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Han, Jiyeon; Hindrichs, Otto; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Lo, Kin Ho; Tan, Ping; Verzetti, Mauro; Agapitos, Antonis; Chou, John Paul; Gershtein, Yuri; Gómez Espinosa, Tirso Alejandro; Halkiadakis, Eva; Heindl, Maximilian; Hughes, Elliot; Kaplan, Steven; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, Raghav; Kyriacou, Savvas; Lath, Amitabh; Montalvo, Roy; Nash, Kevin; Osherson, Marc; Saka, Halil; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Sheffield, David; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Delannoy, Andrés G; Foerster, Mark; Heideman, Joseph; Riley, Grant; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; Thapa, Krishna; Bouhali, Othmane; Celik, Ali; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; De Mattia, Marco; Delgado, Andrea; Dildick, Sven; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gilmore, Jason; Huang, Tao; Juska, Evaldas; Kamon, Teruki; Mueller, Ryan; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Patel, Rishi; Perloff, Alexx; Perniè, Luca; Rathjens, Denis; Safonov, Alexei; Tatarinov, Aysen; Ulmer, Keith; Akchurin, Nural; Damgov, Jordan; De Guio, Federico; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Gurpinar, Emine; Kunori, Shuichi; Lamichhane, Kamal; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Peltola, Timo; Undleeb, Sonaina; Volobouev, Igor; Wang, Zhixing; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Janjam, Ravi; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Ni, Hong; Sheldon, Paul; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Xu, Qiao; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Barria, Patrizia; Cox, Bradley; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Neu, Christopher; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Sun, Xin; Wang, Yanchu; Wolfe, Evan; Xia, Fan; Clarke, Christopher; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Sturdy, Jared; Zaleski, Shawn; Belknap, Donald; Buchanan, James; Caillol, Cécile; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Gomber, Bhawna; Grothe, Monika; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Hussain, Usama; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Levine, Aaron; Long, Kenneth; Loveless, Richard; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ruggles, Tyler; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Nicholas; Smith, Wesley H; Taylor, Devin; Woods, Nathaniel

    2017-07-11

    Normalized double-differential cross sections for top quark pair ($ \\mathrm{ t \\bar{t} } $) production are measured in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV with the CMS experiment at the LHC. The analyzed data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb$^{-1}$. The measurement is performed in the dilepton $\\mathrm{ e }^{\\pm}\\mu^{\\mp}$ final state. The $ \\mathrm{ t \\bar{t} } $ cross section is determined as a function of various pairs of observables characterizing the kinematics of the top quark and $ \\mathrm{ t \\bar{t} } $ system. The data are compared to calculations using perturbative quantum chromodynamics at next-to-leading and approximate next-to-next-to-leading orders. They are also compared to predictions of Monte Carlo event generators that complement fixed-order computations with parton showers, hadronization, and multiple-parton interactions. Overall agreement is observed with the predictions, which is improved when the latest global sets of proton parton distribution functions ar...

  10. Comparison of proton and photon dose distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goitein, Michael

    1995-01-01

    Recently, there has been considerable work, as yet largely theoretical, in developing ways to improve the dose distributions which can be achieved with x-rays. Foremost among these developments are the use of non-coplanar beam directions, the use of intensity-modulated beams, and the implementation of computer-controlled delivery of complex plans using new beam modifiers such as multi-leaf collimators and beam scanners. One way of improving the dose distributions which have been achieved with conventional radiations is to use protons, with their quite different physical characteristics but very similar radiobiological properties as compared with supervoltage x-rays. Some substantial experience has been gained in the use of protons which has confirmed clinically that better results have been obtained as a result of their better dose distributions. Indeed, it is fair to say that the advantages which protons have demonstrated are, in large part, responsible for the renewed interest in improving the dose distributions from all radiation modalities. So much better are the dose distributions which the new techniques, mentioned above, offer that there is the impression that, with their use, photons can deliver dose distributions as good as can be obtained with protons. In this paper, the extent of the possible improvement will be discussed. It will be suggested that the integral dose is relatively little affected by the treatment technique - so that the lower normal tissue doses which the new approaches offer is almost always at the price of delivering dose to a larger volume. Protons can be matched pencil beam for pencil beam with photons - and then almost always deliver substantially less dose outside the target volume. Ultimately, the clinical importance of the differences will have to decided by clinical trial

  11. Quarks and partons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschos, E.A.

    1976-08-01

    The quark parton model describes the inclusive electro- and neutrino production data if a clear distinction is made between reactions which take place at high and at low energies. For the low energy region the classical view of six structure functions of the proton is still adequate. For the high energy region models can be constructed which are consistent with the experimental data. (BJ) [de

  12. QCD Analysis of Polarized Scattering Data and New Polarized Parton Distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluemlein, J.; Boettcher, H.

    2002-01-01

    In this talk results from a new QCD analysis in Leading (LO) and Next-to-Leading (NLO) Order are presented. New parametrizations of the polarized quark and gluon densities are derived together with parametrizations of their fully correlated 1σ error bands. Furthermore the value of α s (M 2 Z ) is determined. Finally a number of low moments of the polarized parton densities are compared with results from lattice simulations. All details of the analysis are given in J. Bluemlein, H. Boettcher, Nucl. Phys. B636, 225 (2002). (author)

  13. Parton distributions extracted from data on deep-inelastic lepton scattering, prompt photon production and the Drell-Yan process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harriman, P.N.; Martin, A.D.; Stirling, W.J.; Roberts, R.G.

    1990-01-01

    We present a next-to-leading-order QCD structure function analysis of deep-inelastic muon and neutrino scattering data. In particular, we incorporate new F 2 μn /F 2 μp data and take account of a recent re-analysis of SLAC data. The fit is performed simultaneously with next-to-leading-order fits to recent prompt photon and Drell-Yan data. As a result we are able to place tighter constraints on the quark and gluon distributions. Two definitive sets of parton distributions are presented according to which set of muon data is included in the global fit. Comparisons with distributions obtained in earlier analyses are made and the consistency of data sets is investigated. (author)

  14. Constraining gluon distributions in nuclei using dijets in proton-proton and proton-lead collisions at ${\\sqrt {\\smash [b]{s_{_{\\mathrm {NN}}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Sirunyan, Albert M; CMS Collaboration; Adam, Wolfgang; Ambrogi, Federico; Asilar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Flechl, Martin; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Krammer, Natascha; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Madlener, Thomas; Mikulec, Ivan; Rad, Navid; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Schöfbeck, Robert; Spanring, Markus; Spitzbart, Daniel; Taurok, Anton; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wittmann, Johannes; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Zarucki, Mateusz; Chekhovsky, Vladimir; Mossolov, Vladimir; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; De Wolf, Eddi A; Di Croce, Davide; Janssen, Xavier; Lauwers, Jasper; Pieters, Maxim; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; De Bruyn, Isabelle; De Clercq, Jarne; Deroover, Kevin; Flouris, Giannis; Lontkovskyi, Denys; Lowette, Steven; Marchesini, Ivan; Moortgat, Seth; Moreels, Lieselotte; Python, Quentin; Skovpen, Kirill; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Parijs, Isis; Beghin, Diego; Bilin, Bugra; Brun, Hugues; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Delannoy, Hugo; Dorney, Brian; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Goldouzian, Reza; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Lenzi, Thomas; Luetic, Jelena; Postiau, Nicolas; Starling, Elizabeth; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Vannerom, David; Wang, Qun; Cornelis, Tom; Dobur, Didar; Fagot, Alexis; Gul, Muhammad; Khvastunov, Illia; Poyraz, Deniz; Roskas, Christos; Trocino, Daniele; Tytgat, Michael; Verbeke, Willem; Vermassen, Basile; Vit, Martina; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Bondu, Olivier; Brochet, Sébastien; Bruno, Giacomo; Caputo, Claudio; David, Pieter; Delaere, Christophe; Delcourt, Martin; Francois, Brieuc; Giammanco, Andrea; Krintiras, Georgios; Lemaitre, Vincent; Magitteri, Alessio; Mertens, Alexandre; Musich, Marco; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Saggio, Alessia; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Wertz, Sébastien; Zobec, Joze; Alves, Fábio Lúcio; Alves, Gilvan; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Correia Silva, Gilson; Hensel, Carsten; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Coelho, Eduardo; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Melo De Almeida, Miqueias; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Sanchez Rosas, Luis Junior; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Thiel, Mauricio; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Torres Da Silva De Araujo, Felipe; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; Calligaris, Luigi; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Marinov, Andrey; Misheva, Milena; Rodozov, Mircho; Shopova, Mariana; Sultanov, Georgi; Dimitrov, Anton; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Fang, Wenxing; Gao, Xuyang; Yuan, Li; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Chen, Ye; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Leggat, Duncan; Liao, Hongbo; Liu, Zhenan; Romeo, Francesco; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Spiezia, Aniello; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Yazgan, Efe; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Sijing; Zhao, Jingzhou; Ban, Yong; Chen, Geng; Levin, Andrew; Li, Jing; Li, Linwei; Li, Qiang; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Wang, Yi; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; González Hernández, Carlos Felipe; Segura Delgado, Manuel Alejandro; Courbon, Benoit; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Puljak, Ivica; Sculac, Toni; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Ferencek, Dinko; Kadija, Kreso; Mesic, Benjamin; Starodumov, Andrei; Susa, Tatjana; Ather, Mohsan Waseem; Attikis, Alexandros; Kolosova, Marina; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Ayala, Edy; Carrera Jarrin, Edgar; Abdalla, Hassan; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Carvalho Antunes De Oliveira, Alexandra; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Ehataht, Karl; Kadastik, Mario; Raidal, Martti; Veelken, Christian; Eerola, Paula; Kirschenmann, Henning; Pekkanen, Juska; Voutilainen, Mikko; Havukainen, Joona; Heikkilä, Jaana Kristiina; Jarvinen, Terhi; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Laurila, Santeri; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Siikonen, Hannu; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Leloup, Clément; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Negro, Giulia; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Titov, Maksym; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Amendola, Chiara; Antropov, Iurii; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Kucher, Inna; Lobanov, Artur; Martin Blanco, Javier; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Ortona, Giacomo; Pigard, Philipp; Salerno, Roberto; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Sirois, Yves; Stahl Leiton, Andre Govinda; Zabi, Alexandre; Zghiche, Amina; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Chabert, Eric Christian; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Jansová, Markéta; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Tonon, Nicolas; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Bernet, Colin; Boudoul, Gaelle; Chanon, Nicolas; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fay, Jean; Finco, Linda; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Grenier, Gérald; Ille, Bernard; Lagarde, Francois; Laktineh, Imad Baptiste; Lattaud, Hugues; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Pequegnot, Anne-Laure; Perries, Stephane; Popov, Andrey; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Viret, Sébastien; Toriashvili, Tengizi; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Feld, Lutz; Kiesel, Maximilian Knut; Klein, Katja; Lipinski, Martin; Preuten, Marius; Rauch, Max Philip; Schomakers, Christian; Schulz, Johannes; Teroerde, Marius; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Albert, Andreas; Duchardt, Deborah; Endres, Matthias; Erdmann, Martin; Esch, Thomas; Fischer, Robert; Ghosh, Saranya; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Keller, Henning; Knutzen, Simon; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Mukherjee, Swagata; Pook, Tobias; Radziej, Markus; Reithler, Hans; Rieger, Marcel; Scheuch, Florian; Schmidt, Alexander; Teyssier, Daniel; Flügge, Günter; Hlushchenko, Olena; Kress, Thomas; Künsken, Andreas; Müller, Thomas; Nehrkorn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Pistone, Claudia; Pooth, Oliver; Roy, Dennis; Sert, Hale; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Arndt, Till; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Babounikau, Illia; Beernaert, Kelly; Behnke, Olaf; Behrens, Ulf; Bermúdez Martínez, Armando; Bertsche, David; Bin Anuar, Afiq Aizuddin; Borras, Kerstin; Botta, Valeria; Campbell, Alan; Connor, Patrick; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Costanza, Francesco; Danilov, Vladyslav; De Wit, Adinda; Defranchis, Matteo Maria; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Domínguez Damiani, Daniela; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eichhorn, Thomas; Elwood, Adam; Eren, Engin; Gallo, Elisabetta; Geiser, Achim; Grados Luyando, Juan Manuel; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gunnellini, Paolo; Guthoff, Moritz; Haranko, Mykyta; Harb, Ali; Hauk, Johannes; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Keaveney, James; Kleinwort, Claus; Knolle, Joscha; Krücker, Dirk; Lange, Wolfgang; Lelek, Aleksandra; Lenz, Teresa; Lipka, Katerina; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Meyer, Mareike; Missiroli, Marino; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Myronenko, Volodymyr; Pflitsch, Svenja Karen; Pitzl, Daniel; Raspereza, Alexei; Savitskyi, Mykola; Saxena, Pooja; Schütze, Paul; Schwanenberger, Christian; Shevchenko, Rostyslav; Singh, Akshansh; Tholen, Heiner; Turkot, Oleksii; Vagnerini, Antonio; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Walsh, Roberval; Wen, Yiwen; Wichmann, Katarzyna; Wissing, Christoph; Zenaiev, Oleksandr; Aggleton, Robin; Bein, Samuel; Benato, Lisa; Benecke, Anna; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Dreyer, Torben; Garutti, Erika; Gonzalez, Daniel; Haller, Johannes; Hinzmann, Andreas; Karavdina, Anastasia; Kasieczka, Gregor; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Kovalchuk, Nataliia; Kurz, Simon; Kutzner, Viktor; Lange, Johannes; Marconi, Daniele; Multhaup, Jens; Niedziela, Marek; Nowatschin, Dominik; Perieanu, Adrian; Reimers, Arne; Rieger, Oliver; Scharf, Christian; Schleper, Peter; Schumann, Svenja; Schwandt, Joern; Sonneveld, Jory; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Stöver, Marc; Troendle, Daniel; Vanhoefer, Annika; Vormwald, Benedikt; Akbiyik, Melike; Barth, Christian; Baselga, Marta; Baur, Sebastian; Butz, Erik; Caspart, René; Chwalek, Thorsten; Colombo, Fabio; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; El Morabit, Karim; Faltermann, Nils; Freund, Benedikt; Giffels, Manuel; Harrendorf, Marco Alexander; Hartmann, Frank; Heindl, Stefan Michael; Husemann, Ulrich; Kassel, Florian; Katkov, Igor; Kudella, Simon; Mildner, Hannes; Mitra, Soureek; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Plagge, Michael; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Schröder, Matthias; Shvetsov, Ivan; Sieber, Georg; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Ulrich, Ralf; Wayand, Stefan; Weber, Marc; Weiler, Thomas; Williamson, Shawn; Wöhrmann, Clemens; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Paspalaki, Garyfallia; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Karathanasis, George; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Kontaxakis, Pantelis; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Papavergou, Ioanna; Saoulidou, Niki; Tziaferi, Eirini; Vellidis, Konstantinos; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Papakrivopoulos, Ioannis; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Evangelou, Ioannis; Foudas, Costas; Gianneios, Paraskevas; Katsoulis, Panagiotis; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Mallios, Stavros; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Strologas, John; Triantis, Frixos A; Tsitsonis, Dimitrios; Bartók, Márton; Csanad, Mate; Filipovic, Nicolas; Major, Péter; Nagy, Marton Imre; Pasztor, Gabriella; Surányi, Olivér; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Horvath, Dezso; Hunyadi, Ádám; Sikler, Ferenc; Vámi, Tamás Álmos; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Makovec, Alajos; Molnar, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Choudhury, Somnath; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Tiwari, Praveen Chandra; Bahinipati, Seema; Kar, Chandiprasad; Mal, Prolay; Mandal, Koushik; Nayak, Aruna; Sahoo, Deepak Kumar; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chauhan, Sushil; Chawla, Ridhi; Dhingra, Nitish; Gupta, Rajat; Kaur, Anterpreet; Kaur, Amandeep; Kaur, Manjit; Kaur, Sandeep; Kumar, Ramandeep; Kumari, Priyanka; Lohan, Manisha; Mehta, Ankita; Sandeep, Kaur; Sharma, Sandeep; Singh, Jasbir; Walia, Genius; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Garg, Rocky Bala; Gola, Mohit; Keshri, Sumit; Kumar, Ashok; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Priyanka, Priyanka; Ranjan, Kirti; Shah, Aashaq; Sharma, Ramkrishna; Bhardwaj, Rishika; Bharti, Monika; Bhattacharya, Rajarshi; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Bhowmik, Debabrata; Dey, Sourav; Dutt, Suneel; Dutta, Suchandra; Ghosh, Shamik; Mondal, Kuntal; Nandan, Saswati; Purohit, Arnab; Rout, Prasant Kumar; Roy, Ashim; Roy Chowdhury, Suvankar; Saha, Gourab; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Singh, Bipen; Thakur, Shalini; Behera, Prafulla Kumar; Chudasama, Ruchi; Dutta, Dipanwita; Jha, Vishwajeet; Kumar, Vineet; Netrakanti, Pawan Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Aziz, Tariq; Bhat, Muzamil Ahmad; Dugad, Shashikant; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Sur, Nairit; Sutar, Bajrang; Ravindra Kumar Verma, Ravindra; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bhattacharya, Soham; Chatterjee, Suman; Das, Pallabi; Guchait, Monoranjan; Jain, Sandhya; Karmakar, Saikat; Kumar, Sanjeev; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Sahoo, Niladribihari; Sarkar, Tanmay; Chauhan, Shubhanshu; Dube, Sourabh; Hegde, Vinay; Kapoor, Anshul; Kothekar, Kunal; Pandey, Shubham; Rane, Aditee; Sharma, Seema; Chenarani, Shirin; Eskandari Tadavani, Esmaeel; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Calabria, Cesare; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; Cristella, Leonardo; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Di Florio, Adriano; Errico, Filippo; Fiore, Luigi; Gelmi, Andrea; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Ince, Merve; Lezki, Samet; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Miniello, Giorgia; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Ranieri, Antonio; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Sharma, Archana; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Verwilligen, Piet; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Battilana, Carlo; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Borgonovi, Lisa; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Ciocca, Claudia; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Iemmi, Fabio; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Primavera, Federica; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Albergo, Sebastiano; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Latino, Giuseppe; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Russo, Lorenzo; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Strom, Derek; Viliani, Lorenzo; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Ferro, Fabrizio; Ravera, Fabio; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Benaglia, Andrea; Beschi, Andrea; Brianza, Luca; Brivio, Francesco; Ciriolo, Vincenzo; Di Guida, Salvatore; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Malberti, Martina; Malvezzi, Sandra; Massironi, Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Zuolo, Davide; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Di Crescenzo, Antonia; Fabozzi, Francesco; Fienga, Francesco; Galati, Giuliana; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Khan, Wajid Ali; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Sciacca, Crisostomo; Voevodina, Elena; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bisello, Dario; Boletti, Alessio; Bragagnolo, Alberto; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; De Castro Manzano, Pablo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Hoh, Siew Yan; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lujan, Paul; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Pazzini, Jacopo; Ronchese, Paolo; Rossin, Roberto; Simonetto, Franco; Tiko, Andres; Torassa, Ezio; Zanetti, Marco; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zumerle, Gianni; Braghieri, Alessandro; Magnani, Alice; Montagna, Paolo; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Ressegotti, Martina; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vai, Ilaria; Vitulo, Paolo; Alunni Solestizi, Luisa; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Cecchi, Claudia; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Leonardi, Roberto; Manoni, Elisa; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Mariani, Valentina; Menichelli, Mauro; Rossi, Alessandro; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiga, Daniele; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Boccali, Tommaso; Borrello, Laura; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fedi, Giacomo; Fiori, Francesco; Giannini, Leonardo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Manca, Elisabetta; Mandorli, Giulio; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Cipriani, Marco; Daci, Nadir; Del Re, Daniele; Di Marco, Emanuele; Diemoz, Marcella; Gelli, Simone; Longo, Egidio; Marzocchi, Badder; Meridiani, Paolo; Organtini, Giovanni; Pandolfi, Francesco; Paramatti, Riccardo; Preiato, Federico; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bartosik, Nazar; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Cenna, Francesca; Cometti, Simona; Costa, Marco; Covarelli, Roberto; Demaria, Natale; Kiani, Bilal; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Monteil, Ennio; Monteno, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Shchelina, Ksenia; Sola, Valentina; Solano, Ada; Soldi, Dario; Staiano, Amedeo; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Vazzoler, Federico; Zanetti, Anna; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Lee, Jeongeun; Lee, Sangeun; Lee, Seh Wook; Moon, Chang-Seong; Oh, Young Do; Sekmen, Sezen; Son, Dong-Chul; Yang, Yu Chul; Kim, Hyunchul; Moon, Dong Ho; Oh, Geonhee; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Tae Jeong; Cho, Sungwoong; Choi, Suyong; Go, Yeonju; Gyun, Dooyeon; Ha, Seungkyu; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Youngkwon; Lee, Kisoo; Lee, Kyong Sei; Lee, Songkyo; Lim, Jaehoon; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Kim, Hyunsoo; Almond, John; Kim, Junho; Kim, Jae Sung; Lee, Haneol; Lee, Kyeongpil; Nam, Kyungwook; Oh, Sung Bin; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Seo, Seon-hee; Yang, Unki; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Yu, Geum Bong; Jeon, Dajeong; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jason Sang Hun; Park, Inkyu; Choi, Young-Il; Hwang, Chanwook; Lee, Jongseok; Yu, Intae; Dudenas, Vytautas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Vaitkus, Juozas; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Mohamad Idris, Faridah; Wan Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin; Yusli, Mohd Nizam; Zolkapli, Zukhaimira; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Duran-Osuna, Cecilia; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Ramirez-Sanchez, Gabriel; Heredia-De La Cruz, Ivan; Rabadán-Trejo, Raúl Iraq; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Mejia Guisao, Jhovanny; Reyes-Almanza, Rogelio; Ramírez García, Mateo; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Eysermans, Jan; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Uribe Estrada, Cecilia; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Bheesette, Srinidhi; Butler, Philip H; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Saddique, Asif; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Waqas, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bozena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Szleper, Michal; Traczyk, Piotr; Zalewski, Piotr; Bunkowski, Karol; Byszuk, Adrian; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michal; Pyskir, Andrzej; Walczak, Marek; Araujo, Mariana; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Di Francesco, Agostino; Faccioli, Pietro; Galinhas, Bruno; Gallinaro, Michele; Hollar, Jonathan; Leonardo, Nuno; Nemallapudi, Mythra Varun; Seixas, Joao; Strong, Giles; Toldaiev, Oleksii; Vadruccio, Daniele; Varela, Joao; Golunov, Alexey; Golutvin, Igor; Karjavine, Vladimir; Korenkov, Vladimir; Kozlov, Guennady; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Mitsyn, Valeri Valentinovitch; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Shulha, Siarhei; Smirnov, Vitaly; Trofimov, Vladimir; Yuldashev, Bekhzod S; Zarubin, Anatoli; Zhiltsov, Victor; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sosnov, Dmitry; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Karneyeu, Anton; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stepennov, Anton; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Toms, Maria; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Aushev, Tagir; Chadeeva, Marina; Parygin, Pavel; Philippov, Dmitry; Polikarpov, Sergey; Popova, Elena; Rusinov, Vladimir; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Rusakov, Sergey V; Terkulov, Adel; Baskakov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Kaminskiy, Alexandre; Kodolova, Olga; Korotkikh, Vladimir; Lokhtin, Igor; Miagkov, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Vardanyan, Irina; Barnyakov, Alexander; Blinov, Vladimir; Dimova, Tatyana; Kardapoltsev, Leonid; Skovpen, Yuri; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Elumakhov, Dmitry; Godizov, Anton; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Mandrik, Petr; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Slabospitskii, Sergei; Sobol, Andrei; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Babaev, Anton; Baidali, Sergei; Okhotnikov, Vitalii; Adzic, Petar; Cirkovic, Predrag; Devetak, Damir; Dordevic, Milos; Milosevic, Jovan; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Álvarez Fernández, Adrian; Bachiller, Irene; Barrio Luna, Mar; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cerrada, Marcos; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Moran, Dermot; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Senghi Soares, Mara; Triossi, Andrea; Albajar, Carmen; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Cuevas, Javier; Erice, Carlos; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; González Fernández, Juan Rodrigo; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Rodríguez Bouza, Víctor; Sanchez Cruz, Sergio; Vischia, Pietro; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chazin Quero, Barbara; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Fernandez, Marcos; Fernández Manteca, Pedro José; García Alonso, Andrea; Garcia-Ferrero, Juan; Gomez, Gervasio; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Matorras, Francisco; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Prieels, Cédric; Rodrigo, Teresa; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Trevisani, Nicolò; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Akgun, Bora; Auffray, Etiennette; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Bendavid, Joshua; Bianco, Michele; Bocci, Andrea; Botta, Cristina; Brondolin, Erica; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cepeda, Maria; Cerminara, Gianluca; Chapon, Emilien; Chen, Yi; Cucciati, Giacomo; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; Daponte, Vincenzo; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Roeck, Albert; Deelen, Nikkie; Dobson, Marc; Dünser, Marc; Dupont, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Everaerts, Pieter; Fallavollita, Francesco; Fasanella, Daniele; Franzoni, Giovanni; Fulcher, Jonathan; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gilbert, Andrew; Gill, Karl; Glege, Frank; Guilbaud, Maxime; Gulhan, Doga; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Jafari, Abideh; Janot, Patrick; Karacheban, Olena; Kieseler, Jan; Kornmayer, Andreas; Krammer, Manfred; Lange, Clemens; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Meijers, Frans; Merlin, Jeremie Alexandre; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Milenovic, Predrag; Moortgat, Filip; Mulders, Martijn; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Orfanelli, Styliani; Orsini, Luciano; Pantaleo, Felice; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuel; Peruzzi, Marco; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pitters, Florian Michael; Rabady, Dinyar; Racz, Attila; Reis, Thomas; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Seidel, Markus; Selvaggi, Michele; Sharma, Archana; Silva, Pedro; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Stakia, Anna; Steggemann, Jan; Tosi, Mia; Treille, Daniel; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veckalns, Viesturs; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Caminada, Lea; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Rohe, Tilman; Wiederkehr, Stephan Albert; Backhaus, Malte; Bäni, Lukas; Berger, Pirmin; Chernyavskaya, Nadezda; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Dorfer, Christian; Grab, Christoph; Heidegger, Constantin; Hits, Dmitry; Hoss, Jan; Klijnsma, Thomas; Lustermann, Werner; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Marionneau, Matthieu; Meinhard, Maren Tabea; Micheli, Francesco; Musella, Pasquale; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pata, Joosep; Pauss, Felicitas; Perrin, Gaël; Perrozzi, Luca; Pigazzini, Simone; Quittnat, Milena; Ruini, Daniele; Sanz Becerra, Diego Alejandro; Schönenberger, Myriam; Shchutska, Lesya; Tavolaro, Vittorio Raoul; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Vesterbacka Olsson, Minna Leonora; Wallny, Rainer; Zhu, De Hua; Aarrestad, Thea Klaeboe; Amsler, Claude; Brzhechko, Danyyl; Canelli, Maria Florencia; De Cosa, Annapaola; Del Burgo, Riccardo; Donato, Silvio; Galloni, Camilla; Hreus, Tomas; Kilminster, Benjamin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Neutelings, Izaak; Pinna, Deborah; Rauco, Giorgia; Robmann, Peter; Salerno, Daniel; Schweiger, Korbinian; Seitz, Claudia; Takahashi, Yuta; Zucchetta, Alberto; Chang, Yu-Hsiang; Cheng, Kai-yu; Doan, Thi Hien; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Lin, Willis; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Yu, Shin-Shan; Chang, Paoti; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Kumar, Arun; Li, You-ying; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Paganis, Efstathios; Psallidas, Andreas; Steen, Arnaud; Asavapibhop, Burin; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Suwonjandee, Narumon; Bat, Ayse; Boran, Fatma; Cerci, Salim; Damarseckin, Serdal; Demiroglu, Zuhal Seyma; Dolek, Furkan; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Guler, Yalcin; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Isik, Candan; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Kara, Ozgun; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Kiminsu, Ugur; Oglakci, Mehmet; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Tok, Ufuk Guney; Turkcapar, Semra; Zorbakir, Ibrahim Soner; Zorbilmez, Caglar; Isildak, Bora; Karapinar, Guler; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Atakisi, Ismail Okan; Gülmez, Erhan; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Tekten, Sevgi; Yetkin, Elif Asli; Agaras, Merve Nazlim; Atay, Serhat; Cakir, Altan; Cankocak, Kerem; Komurcu, Yildiray; Sen, Sercan; Grynyov, Boris; Levchuk, Leonid; Ball, Fionn; Beck, Lana; Brooke, James John; Burns, Douglas; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Davignon, Olivier; Flacher, Henning; Goldstein, Joel; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Kreczko, Lukasz; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Penning, Bjoern; Sakuma, Tai; Smith, Dominic; Smith, Vincent J; Taylor, Joseph; Titterton, Alexander; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Cieri, Davide; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Linacre, Jacob; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Williams, Thomas; Womersley, William John; Auzinger, Georg; Bainbridge, Robert; Bloch, Philippe; Borg, Johan; Breeze, Shane; Buchmuller, Oliver; Bundock, Aaron; Casasso, Stefano; Colling, David; Corpe, Louie; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Di Maria, Riccardo; Haddad, Yacine; Hall, Geoffrey; Iles, Gregory; James, Thomas; Komm, Matthias; Laner, Christian; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Malik, Sarah; Martelli, Arabella; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Palladino, Vito; Pesaresi, Mark; Richards, Alexander; Rose, Andrew; Scott, Edward; Seez, Christopher; Shtipliyski, Antoni; Singh, Gurpreet; Stoye, Markus; Strebler, Thomas; Summers, Sioni; Tapper, Alexander; Uchida, Kirika; Virdee, Tejinder; Wardle, Nicholas; Winterbottom, Daniel; Wright, Jack; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Mackay, Catherine Kirsty; Morton, Alexander; Reid, Ivan; Teodorescu, Liliana; Zahid, Sema; Call, Kenneth; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Madrid, Christopher; Mcmaster, Brooks; Pastika, Nathaniel; Smith, Caleb; Bartek, Rachel; Dominguez, Aaron; Buccilli, Andrew; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; West, Christopher; Arcaro, Daniel; Bose, Tulika; Gastler, Daniel; Rankin, Dylan; Richardson, Clint; Rohlf, James; Sulak, Lawrence; Zou, David; Benelli, Gabriele; Coubez, Xavier; Cutts, David; Hadley, Mary; Hakala, John; Heintz, Ulrich; Hogan, Julie Managan; Kwok, Ka Hei Martin; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Lee, Jangbae; Mao, Zaixing; Narain, Meenakshi; Piperov, Stefan; Sagir, Sinan; Syarif, Rizki; Usai, Emanuele; Yu, David; Band, Reyer; Brainerd, Christopher; Breedon, Richard; Burns, Dustin; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Flores, Chad; Funk, Garrett; Ko, Winston; Kukral, Ota; Lander, Richard; Mulhearn, Michael; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Shalhout, Shalhout; Shi, Mengyao; Stolp, Dustin; Taylor, Devin; Tos, Kyle; Tripathi, Mani; Wang, Zhangqier; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Bachtis, Michail; Bravo, Cameron; Cousins, Robert; Dasgupta, Abhigyan; Florent, Alice; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Mccoll, Nickolas; Regnard, Simon; Saltzberg, David; Schnaible, Christian; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Bouvier, Elvire; Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Gary, J William; Ghiasi Shirazi, Seyyed Mohammad Amin; Hanson, Gail; Karapostoli, Georgia; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Lacroix, Florent; Long, Owen Rosser; Olmedo Negrete, Manuel; Paneva, Mirena Ivova; Si, Weinan; Wang, Long; Wei, Hua; Wimpenny, Stephen; Yates, Brent; Branson, James G; Cittolin, Sergio; Derdzinski, Mark; Gerosa, Raffaele; Gilbert, Dylan; Hashemi, Bobak; Holzner, André; Klein, Daniel; Kole, Gouranga; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Letts, James; Masciovecchio, Mario; Olivito, Dominick; Padhi, Sanjay; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tadel, Matevz; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Wood, John; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Zevi Della Porta, Giovanni; Amin, Nick; Bhandari, Rohan; Bradmiller-Feld, John; Campagnari, Claudio; Citron, Matthew; Dishaw, Adam; Dutta, Valentina; Franco Sevilla, Manuel; Gouskos, Loukas; Heller, Ryan; Incandela, Joe; Ovcharova, Ana; Qu, Huilin; Richman, Jeffrey; Stuart, David; Suarez, Indara; Wang, Sicheng; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Anderson, Dustin; Bornheim, Adolf; Lawhorn, Jay Mathew; Newman, Harvey B; Nguyen, Thong; Spiropulu, Maria; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Wilkinson, Richard; Xie, Si; Zhang, Zhicai; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Andrews, Michael Benjamin; Ferguson, Thomas; Mudholkar, Tanmay; Paulini, Manfred; Sun, Menglei; Vorobiev, Igor; Weinberg, Marc; Cumalat, John Perry; Ford, William T; Jensen, Frank; Johnson, Andrew; Krohn, Michael; MacDonald, Emily; Mulholland, Troy; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chaves, Jorge; Cheng, Yangyang; Chu, Jennifer; Datta, Abhisek; Mcdermott, Kevin; Mirman, Nathan; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Quach, Dan; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Ryd, Anders; Skinnari, Louise; Soffi, Livia; Tan, Shao Min; Tao, Zhengcheng; Thom, Julia; Tucker, Jordan; Wittich, Peter; Zientek, Margaret; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Alyari, Maral; Apollinari, Giorgio; Apresyan, Artur; Apyan, Aram; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bolla, Gino; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Canepa, Anadi; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cremonesi, Matteo; Duarte, Javier; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Freeman, Jim; Gecse, Zoltan; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Harris, Robert M; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hirschauer, James; Hu, Zhen; Jayatilaka, Bodhitha; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Klima, Boaz; Kortelainen, Matti J; Kreis, Benjamin; Lammel, Stephan; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Tiehui; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Merkel, Petra; Mrenna, Stephen; Nahn, Steve; O'Dell, Vivian; Pedro, Kevin; Pena, Cristian; Prokofyev, Oleg; Rakness, Gregory; Ristori, Luciano; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Schneider, Basil; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Stoynev, Stoyan; Strait, James; Strobbe, Nadja; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vernieri, Caterina; Verzocchi, Marco; Vidal, Richard; Wang, Michael; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Whitbeck, Andrew; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Cadamuro, Luca; Carnes, Andrew; Carver, Matthew; Curry, David; Field, Richard D; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Joshi, Bhargav Madhusudan; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Ma, Peisen; Matchev, Konstantin; Mei, Hualin; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Shi, Kun; Sperka, David; Wang, Jian; Wang, Sean-Jiun; Joshi, Yagya Raj; Linn, Stephan; Ackert, Andrew; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Kolberg, Ted; Martinez, German; Perry, Thomas; Prosper, Harrison; Saha, Anirban; Schiber, Catherine; Sharma, Varun; Yohay, Rachel; Baarmand, Marc M; Bhopatkar, Vallary; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Hohlmann, Marcus; Noonan, Daniel; Rahmani, Mehdi; Roy, Titas; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Cavanaugh, Richard; Chen, Xuan; Dittmer, Susan; Evdokimov, Olga; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hangal, Dhanush Anil; Hofman, David Jonathan; Jung, Kurt; Kamin, Jason; Mills, Corrinne; Sandoval Gonzalez, Irving Daniel; Tonjes, Marguerite; Varelas, Nikos; Wang, Hui; Wang, Xiao; Wu, Zhenbin; Zhang, Jingyu; Alhusseini, Mohammad; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Durgut, Süleyman; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Khristenko, Viktor; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Snyder, Christina; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Blumenfeld, Barry; Cocoros, Alice; Eminizer, Nicholas; Fehling, David; Feng, Lei; Gritsan, Andrei; Hung, Wai Ting; Maksimovic, Petar; Roskes, Jeffrey; Sarica, Ulascan; Swartz, Morris; Xiao, Meng; You, Can; Al-bataineh, Ayman; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Boren, Samuel; Bowen, James; Bylinkin, Alexander; Castle, James; Khalil, Sadia; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Majumder, Devdatta; Mcbrayer, William; Murray, Michael; Rogan, Christopher; Sanders, Stephen; Schmitz, Erich; Tapia Takaki, Daniel; Wang, Quan; Duric, Senka; Ivanov, Andrew; Kaadze, Ketino; Kim, Doyeong; Maravin, Yurii; Mendis, Dalath Rachitha; Mitchell, Tyler; Modak, Atanu; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Baron, Owen; Belloni, Alberto; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Feng, Yongbin; Ferraioli, Charles; Hadley, Nicholas John; Jabeen, Shabnam; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Kellogg, Richard G; Kunkle, Joshua; Mignerey, Alice; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Shin, Young Ho; Skuja, Andris; Tonwar, Suresh C; Wong, Kak; Abercrombie, Daniel; Allen, Brandon; Azzolini, Virginia; Baty, Austin; Bauer, Gerry; Bi, Ran; Brandt, Stephanie; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Demiragli, Zeynep; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Harris, Philip; Hsu, Dylan; Hu, Miao; Iiyama, Yutaro; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Klute, Markus; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Lee, Yen-Jie; Luckey, Paul David; Maier, Benedikt; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Mcginn, Christopher; Mironov, Camelia; Narayanan, Siddharth; Niu, Xinmei; Paus, Christoph; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Stephans, George; Sumorok, Konstanty; Tatar, Kaya; Velicanu, Dragos; Wang, Jing; Wang, Ta-Wei; Wyslouch, Bolek; Zhaozhong, Shi; Benvenuti, Alberto; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Evans, Andrew; Hansen, Peter; Kalafut, Sean; Kubota, Yuichi; Lesko, Zachary; Mans, Jeremy; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rusack, Roger; Turkewitz, Jared; Wadud, Mohammad Abrar; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Claes, Daniel R; Fangmeier, Caleb; Golf, Frank; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kamalieddin, Rami; Kravchenko, Ilya; Monroy, Jose; Siado, Joaquin Emilo; Snow, Gregory R; Stieger, Benjamin; Godshalk, Andrew; Harrington, Charles; Iashvili, Ia; Kharchilava, Avto; Mclean, Christine; Nguyen, Duong; Parker, Ashley; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Roozbahani, Bahareh; Barberis, Emanuela; Freer, Chad; Hortiangtham, Apichart; Morse, David Michael; Orimoto, Toyoko; Teixeira De Lima, Rafael; Wamorkar, Tanvi; Wang, Bingran; Wisecarver, Andrew; Wood, Darien; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Charaf, Otman; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Sung, Kevin; Trovato, Marco; Velasco, Mayda; Bucci, Rachael; Dev, Nabarun; Hildreth, Michael; Hurtado Anampa, Kenyi; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Lannon, Kevin; Li, Wenzhao; Loukas, Nikitas; Marinelli, Nancy; Meng, Fanbo; Mueller, Charles; Musienko, Yuri; Planer, Michael; Reinsvold, Allison; Ruchti, Randy; Siddireddy, Prasanna; Smith, Geoffrey; Taroni, Silvia; Wayne, Mitchell; Wightman, Andrew; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Alimena, Juliette; Antonelli, Louis; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Francis, Brian; Hart, Andrew; Hill, Christopher; Ji, Weifeng; Ling, Ta-Yung; Luo, Wuming; Winer, Brian L; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Cooperstein, Stephane; Elmer, Peter; Hardenbrook, Joshua; Higginbotham, Samuel; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Lange, David; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Luo, Jingyu; Marlow, Daniel; Mei, Kelvin; Ojalvo, Isabel; Olsen, James; Palmer, Christopher; Piroué, Pierre; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Malik, Sudhir; Norberg, Scarlet; Barker, Anthony; Barnes, Virgil E; Das, Souvik; Gutay, Laszlo; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Andreas Werner; Khatiwada, Ajeeta; Mahakud, Bibhuprasad; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Peng, Cheng-Chieh; Qiu, Hao; Schulte, Jan-Frederik; Sun, Jian; Wang, Fuqiang; Xiao, Rui; Xie, Wei; Cheng, Tongguang; Dolen, James; Parashar, Neeti; Chen, Zhenyu; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Freed, Sarah; Geurts, Frank JM; Kilpatrick, Matthew; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Padley, Brian Paul; Roberts, Jay; Rorie, Jamal; Shi, Wei; Tu, Zhoudunming; Zabel, James; Zhang, Aobo; Bodek, Arie; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Duh, Yi-ting; Dulemba, Joseph Lynn; Fallon, Colin; Ferbel, Thomas; Galanti, Mario; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Han, Jiyeon; Hindrichs, Otto; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Lo, Kin Ho; Tan, Ping; Taus, Rhys; Verzetti, Mauro; Agapitos, Antonis; Chou, John Paul; Gershtein, Yuri; Gómez Espinosa, Tirso Alejandro; Halkiadakis, Eva; Heindl, Maximilian; Hughes, Elliot; Kaplan, Steven; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, Raghav; Kyriacou, Savvas; Lath, Amitabh; Montalvo, Roy; Nash, Kevin; Osherson, Marc; Saka, Halil; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Sheffield, David; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Delannoy, Andrés G; Heideman, Joseph; Riley, Grant; Spanier, Stefan; Thapa, Krishna; Bouhali, Othmane; Celik, Ali; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; De Mattia, Marco; Delgado, Andrea; Dildick, Sven; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gilmore, Jason; Huang, Tao; Kamon, Teruki; Luo, Sifu; Mueller, Ryan; Patel, Rishi; Perloff, Alexx; Perniè, Luca; Rathjens, Denis; Safonov, Alexei; Akchurin, Nural; Damgov, Jordan; De Guio, Federico; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Kunori, Shuichi; Lamichhane, Kamal; Lee, Sung Won; Mengke, Tielige; Muthumuni, Samila; Peltola, Timo; Undleeb, Sonaina; Volobouev, Igor; Wang, Zhixing; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Janjam, Ravi; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Ni, Hong; Padeken, Klaas; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sheldon, Paul; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Verweij, Marta; Xu, Qiao; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Barria, Patrizia; Cox, Bradley; Hirosky, Robert; Joyce, Matthew; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Neu, Christopher; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Wang, Yanchu; Wolfe, Evan; Xia, Fan; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Poudyal, Nabin; Sturdy, Jared; Thapa, Prakash; Zaleski, Shawn; Brodski, Michael; Buchanan, James; Caillol, Cécile; Carlsmith, Duncan; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Gomber, Bhawna; Grothe, Monika; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Hussain, Usama; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Long, Kenneth; Loveless, Richard; Ruggles, Tyler; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Nicholas; Smith, Wesley H; Woods, Nathaniel

    2018-01-01

    The pseudorapidity distributions of dijets as a function of their average transverse momentum ($ p_{\\mathrm{T}}^{text{ave}} $) are measured in proton-lead (pPb) and proton-proton (pp) collisions. The data samples were collected by the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC, at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of 5.02 TeV. A significant modification of the pPb spectra with respect to the pp spectra is observed in all $p_{\\mathrm{T}}^{text{ave}}$ intervals investigated. The ratios of the pPb and pp distributions are compared to next-to-leading order perturbative quantum chromodynamics calculations with unbound nucleon and nuclear parton distribution functions (PDFs). These results give the first evidence that the gluon PDF at large Bjorken $x$ in lead ions is strongly suppressed with respect to the PDF in unbound nucleons.

  15. Photoproduction of a πρT pair with a large invariant mass and transversity generalized parton distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Beiyad, M.; Pire, B.; Segond, M.; Szymanowski, L.; Wallon, S.

    2010-01-01

    The chiral-odd transversity generalized parton distributions (GPDs) of the nucleon can be accessed experimentally through the exclusive photoproduction process γ+N→π+ρ+N ' , in the kinematics where the meson pair has a large invariant mass and the final nucleon has a small transverse momentum, provided the vector meson is produced in a transversally polarized state. We calculate perturbatively the scattering amplitude at leading order in α s . We build a simple model for the dominant transversity GPD H T (x,ξ,t) based on the concept of double distribution. We estimate the unpolarized differential cross section for this process in the kinematics of the Jlab and Compass experiments. Counting rates show that the experiment looks feasible with the real photon beam characteristics expected at JLab-12 GeV, and with the quasi real photon beam in the Compass experiment.

  16. Photoproduction of a pirho{sub T} pair with a large invariant mass and transversity generalized parton distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Beiyad, M. [Centre de Physique Theorique, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, 91128 Palaiseau (France); LPT, Universite d' Orsay, CNRS, 91404 Orsay (France); Pire, B. [Centre de Physique Theorique, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Segond, M. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Leipzig, D-04009 Leipzig (Germany); Szymanowski, L. [Centre de Physique Theorique, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Warsaw (Poland); Wallon, S., E-mail: Samuel.Wallon@th.u-psud.f [LPT, Universite d' Orsay, CNRS, 91404 Orsay (France); UPMC, Univ. Paris 06, Faculte de physique, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2010-05-03

    The chiral-odd transversity generalized parton distributions (GPDs) of the nucleon can be accessed experimentally through the exclusive photoproduction process gamma+N->pi+rho+N{sup '}, in the kinematics where the meson pair has a large invariant mass and the final nucleon has a small transverse momentum, provided the vector meson is produced in a transversally polarized state. We calculate perturbatively the scattering amplitude at leading order in alpha{sub s}. We build a simple model for the dominant transversity GPD H{sub T}(x,xi,t) based on the concept of double distribution. We estimate the unpolarized differential cross section for this process in the kinematics of the Jlab and Compass experiments. Counting rates show that the experiment looks feasible with the real photon beam characteristics expected at JLab-12 GeV, and with the quasi real photon beam in the Compass experiment.

  17. Summing threshold logs in a parton shower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, Zoltan; Soper, Davison E.

    2016-05-01

    When parton distributions are falling steeply as the momentum fractions of the partons increases, there are effects that occur at each order in α s that combine to affect hard scattering cross sections and need to be summed. We show how to accomplish this in a leading approximation in the context of a parton shower Monte Carlo event generator.

  18. Summing threshold logs in a parton shower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, Zoltán [DESY,Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Soper, Davison E. [Institute of Theoretical Science, University of Oregon,Eugene, OR 97403-5203 (United States)

    2016-10-05

    When parton distributions are falling steeply as the momentum fractions of the partons increases, there are effects that occur at each order in α{sub s} that combine to affect hard scattering cross sections and need to be summed. We show how to accomplish this in a leading approximation in the context of a parton shower Monte Carlo event generator.

  19. Higher order and heavy quark mass effects in the determination of parton distribution functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertone, Valerio

    2013-07-01

    The present thesis was devoted to the study of the inclusion of higher-order corrections and heavy quark mass effects in a PDF determination. This has been carried out in the NNPDF framework resulting originally in the NNPDF2.1 sets, which were at a later stage supplemented by the first LHC data leading to the most recent NNPDF2.3 sets. In Chapter 1 the concept of Parton Distribution Function (PDF) was introduced. We have shown how the analytical computation of the Deep-Inelastic-Scattering (DIS) process at order α{sub s} in QCD leads to initial-stale collinear divergences which, using the factorization theorem, can be reabsorbed into the PDFs. The energy dependence of PDFs is fully determined and the task is then reduced to the determination of the x (Bjorken variable) dependence. In Chapter 2 a detailed discussion of the factorization schemes presently available to include heavy quark mass effects into DIS structure functions has been given. It emerged that there are two possible basic approaches to the calculation of the DIS structure functions. In the first approach, the so-called Fixed-Flavour-Number Scheme (FFNS), the calculation is performed retaining the quark mass of the heavy flavours which provide a ''natural'' regulator for the infrared divergences. In the second approach, called Zero-Mass Variable-Flavour-Number Scheme (ZM-VFNS), the heavy quark masses are instead set to zero and this gives rise to the usual final-state collinear divergences that are absorbed into the PDFs. In addition, in the ZM-VFNS, the number of active flavours is assumed to increase by one unity as the energy of the process crosses the energy threshold of a given heavy quark. In order to obtain a factorization scheme that is accurate both at large and low energies, several prescriptions that interpolate between FFNS at low energy and ZM-VFNS at large energy have been proposed and implemented in as many PDF fits. In Chapter 2 they have been described showing how they behave for

  20. Higher order and heavy quark mass effects in the determination of parton distribution functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertone, Valerio

    2013-07-01

    The present thesis was devoted to the study of the inclusion of higher-order corrections and heavy quark mass effects in a PDF determination. This has been carried out in the NNPDF framework resulting originally in the NNPDF2.1 sets, which were at a later stage supplemented by the first LHC data leading to the most recent NNPDF2.3 sets. In Chapter 1 the concept of Parton Distribution Function (PDF) was introduced. We have shown how the analytical computation of the Deep-Inelastic-Scattering (DIS) process at order α{sub s} in QCD leads to initial-stale collinear divergences which, using the factorization theorem, can be reabsorbed into the PDFs. The energy dependence of PDFs is fully determined and the task is then reduced to the determination of the x (Bjorken variable) dependence. In Chapter 2 a detailed discussion of the factorization schemes presently available to include heavy quark mass effects into DIS structure functions has been given. It emerged that there are two possible basic approaches to the calculation of the DIS structure functions. In the first approach, the so-called Fixed-Flavour-Number Scheme (FFNS), the calculation is performed retaining the quark mass of the heavy flavours which provide a ''natural'' regulator for the infrared divergences. In the second approach, called Zero-Mass Variable-Flavour-Number Scheme (ZM-VFNS), the heavy quark masses are instead set to zero and this gives rise to the usual final-state collinear divergences that are absorbed into the PDFs. In addition, in the ZM-VFNS, the number of active flavours is assumed to increase by one unity as the energy of the process crosses the energy threshold of a given heavy quark. In order to obtain a factorization scheme that is accurate both at large and low energies, several prescriptions that interpolate between FFNS at low energy and ZM-VFNS at large energy have been proposed and implemented in as many PDF fits. In Chapter 2 they have been described showing

  1. Higher order and heavy quark mass effects in the determination of parton distribution functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertone, Valerio

    2013-01-01

    The present thesis was devoted to the study of the inclusion of higher-order corrections and heavy quark mass effects in a PDF determination. This has been carried out in the NNPDF framework resulting originally in the NNPDF2.1 sets, which were at a later stage supplemented by the first LHC data leading to the most recent NNPDF2.3 sets. In Chapter 1 the concept of Parton Distribution Function (PDF) was introduced. We have shown how the analytical computation of the Deep-Inelastic-Scattering (DIS) process at order α s in QCD leads to initial-stale collinear divergences which, using the factorization theorem, can be reabsorbed into the PDFs. The energy dependence of PDFs is fully determined and the task is then reduced to the determination of the x (Bjorken variable) dependence. In Chapter 2 a detailed discussion of the factorization schemes presently available to include heavy quark mass effects into DIS structure functions has been given. It emerged that there are two possible basic approaches to the calculation of the DIS structure functions. In the first approach, the so-called Fixed-Flavour-Number Scheme (FFNS), the calculation is performed retaining the quark mass of the heavy flavours which provide a ''natural'' regulator for the infrared divergences. In the second approach, called Zero-Mass Variable-Flavour-Number Scheme (ZM-VFNS), the heavy quark masses are instead set to zero and this gives rise to the usual final-state collinear divergences that are absorbed into the PDFs. In addition, in the ZM-VFNS, the number of active flavours is assumed to increase by one unity as the energy of the process crosses the energy threshold of a given heavy quark. In order to obtain a factorization scheme that is accurate both at large and low energies, several prescriptions that interpolate between FFNS at low energy and ZM-VFNS at large energy have been proposed and implemented in as many PDF fits. In Chapter 2 they have been described showing how

  2. Parton recombination model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwa, R.C.

    1978-08-01

    Low P/sub T/ meson production in hadronic collisions is described in the framework of the parton model. The recombination of quark and antiquark is suggested as the dominant mechanism in the large x region. Phenomenological evidences for the mechanism are given. The application to meson initiated reactions yields the quark distribution in mesons. 21 references

  3. Measurement of the transverse momentum distribution of Z bosons in proton-proton collisions at {radical}(s)=7 TeV using the ATLAS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Karl Klemens

    2013-08-15

    This thesis reports the measurement of the Z boson transverse momentum distribution in proton-proton collisions at {radical}(s)=7 TeV, inclusive in Z rapidity and subdivided in three rapidity intervals. The measurement uses data taken with the ATLAS detector in 2011 corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.7 fb{sup -1}, from which 1.8 million events with Z bosons decaying into muon pairs are selected. After subtracting the expected background distribution, the transverse momentum distribution of candidate events is unfolded to the Born level, correcting for efficiency and resolution effects as well as QED final state radiation. The transverse momentum distribution is measured up to a transverse momentum of 800GeV with a precision of <1.5% for p{sub T}<150 GeV. The measurement is compared with higher order perturbative QCD predictions and common parton shower event generators. The prediction from resummed QCD combined with fixed order perturbative QCD provides a good description of the measurement. The measured cross sections provide an important input to the tuning of parton shower event generators.

  4. Heavy-flavor parton distributions without heavy-flavor matching prescriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertone, Valerio; Glazov, Alexandre; Mitov, Alexander; Papanastasiou, Andrew S.; Ubiali, Maria

    2018-04-01

    We show that the well-known obstacle for working with the zero-mass variable flavor number scheme, namely, the omission of O(1) mass power corrections close to the conventional heavy flavor matching point (HFMP) μ b = m, can be easily overcome. For this it is sufficient to take advantage of the freedom in choosing the position of the HFMP. We demonstrate that by choosing a sufficiently large HFMP, which could be as large as 10 times the mass of the heavy quark, one can achieve the following improvements: 1) above the HFMP the size of missing power corrections O(m) is restricted by the value of μ b and, therefore, the error associated with their omission can be made negligible; 2) additional prescriptions for the definition of cross-sections are not required; 3) the resummation accuracy is maintained and 4) contrary to the common lore we find that the discontinuity of α s and pdfs across thresholds leads to improved continuity in predictions for observables. We have considered a large set of proton-proton and electron-proton collider processes, many through NNLO QCD, that demonstrate the broad applicability of our proposal.

  5. Study of generalized parton distributions and deeply virtual Compton scattering on the nucleon with the CLAS and CLAS12 detectors at the Jefferson Laboratory (Virginia, US)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guegan, B.

    2012-11-01

    The Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) provide a new description of the nucleon structure in terms of its elementary constituents, the quarks and the gluons. The GPDs give access to a unified picture of the nucleon, correlating the information obtained from the measurements of the Form Factors and the Parton Distribution Functions. They describe the correlation between the transverse position and the longitudinal momentum fraction of the partons in the nucleon. Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS), the electroproduction of a real photon on a single quark of the nucleon eN → e'N'γ, is the most straightforward exclusive process allowing access to the GPDs. A dedicated experiment to study DVCS with the CLAS detector of Jefferson Lab has been carried out using a 5.883 GeV polarized electron beam and an unpolarized hydrogen target, allowing to collect DVCS events in the widest kinematic range ever explored in the valence region: 1 2 2 , 0.1 B 2 . In this work, we present the extraction of three different DVCS observables: the unpolarized cross section, the difference of polarized cross sections and the beam spin asymmetry. We present comparisons with GPD model. We show a preliminary extraction of the GPDs using the latest fitting code procedure on our data, and a preliminary interpretation of the results in terms of parton density. (author)

  6. Constraints on parton distribution functions and extraction of the strong coupling constant from the inclusive jet cross section in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knünz, Valentin; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Bansal, Monika; Bansal, Sunil; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Luyckx, Sten; Ochesanu, Silvia; Rougny, Romain; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; Heracleous, Natalie; Keaveney, James; Lowette, Steven; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dobur, Didar; Favart, Laurent; Gay, Arnaud; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Léonard, Alexandre; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Perniè, Luca; Reis, Thomas; Seva, Tomislav; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wang, Jian; Zenoni, Florian; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Crucy, Shannon; Dildick, Sven; Fagot, Alexis; Garcia, Guillaume; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Sigamani, Michael; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Jafari, Abideh; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Perrini, Lucia; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Dos Reis Martins, Thiago; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Pol, Maria Elena; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santaolalla, Javier; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Marinov, Andrey; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Plestina, Roko; Romeo, Francesco; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Zheng; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Mekterovic, Darko; Sudic, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Bodlak, Martin; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Murumaa, Marion; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Talvitie, Joonas; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Favaro, Carlotta; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Dahms, Torsten; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Filipovic, Nicolas; Florent, Alice; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Regnard, Simon; Salerno, Roberto; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Sirois, Yves; Veelken, Christian; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Aubin, Alexandre; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Goetzmann, Christophe; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaupere, Nicolas; Boudoul, Gaelle; Bouvier, Elvire; Brochet, Sébastien; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chasserat, Julien; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fan, Jiawei; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sabes, David; Sgandurra, Louis; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Xiao, Hong; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Bontenackels, Michael; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Hindrichs, Otto; Klein, Katja; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Brodski, Michael; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Erdmann, Martin; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klingebiel, Dennis; Knutzen, Simon; Kreuzer, Peter; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Papacz, Paul; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Weber, Martin; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Heister, Arno; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Künsken, Andreas; Lingemann, Joschka; Nowack, Andreas; Nugent, Ian Michael; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Asin, Ivan; Bartosik, Nazar; Behr, Joerg; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bell, Alan James; Bergholz, Matthias; Bethani, Agni; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Cakir, Altan; Calligaris, Luigi; Campbell, Alan; Choudhury, Somnath; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dooling, Samantha; Dorland, Tyler; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Flucke, Gero; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gunnellini, Paolo; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Horton, Dean; Jung, Hannes; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kieseler, Jan; Kleinwort, Claus; Krücker, Dirk; Lange, Wolfgang; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lobanov, Artur; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lutz, Benjamin; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Nayak, Aruna; Novgorodova, Olga; Ntomari, Eleni; Perrey, Hanno; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Roland, Benoit; Ron, Elias; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Saxena, Pooja; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schröder, Matthias; Seitz, Claudia; Spannagel, Simon; Vargas Trevino, Andrea Del Rocio; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Draeger, Arne-Rasmus; Erfle, Joachim; Garutti, Erika; Goebel, Kristin; Görner, Martin; Haller, Johannes; Hoffmann, Malte; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Kirschenmann, Henning; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Lange, Jörn; Lapsien, Tobias; Lenz, Teresa; Marchesini, Ivan; Ott, Jochen; Peiffer, Thomas; Pietsch, Niklas; Poehlsen, Jennifer; Pöhlsen, Thomas; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Seidel, Markus; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Vanhoefer, Annika; Barth, Christian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Butz, Erik; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Feindt, Michael; Frensch, Felix; Giffels, Manuel; Hartmann, Frank; Hauth, Thomas; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Kornmayer, Andreas; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Nürnberg, Andreas; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Röcker, Steffen; Sieber, Georg; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weiler, Thomas; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Psallidas, Andreas; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Agapitos, Antonis; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Stiliaris, Efstathios; Aslanoglou, Xenofon; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Makovec, Alajos; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Gupta, Ruchi; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Manjit; Kumar, Ramandeep; Mittal, Monika; Nishu, Nishu; Singh, Jasbir; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Kumar, Ajay; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Varun; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dutta, Suchandra; Gomber, Bhawna; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Modak, Atanu; Mukherjee, Swagata; Roy, Debarati; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Dugad, Shashikant; Ganguly, Sanmay; Ghosh, Saranya; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Kole, Gouranga; Kumar, Sanjeev; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Behnamian, Hadi; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Goldouzian, Reza; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Calabria, Cesare; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Sharma, Archana; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Primavera, Federica; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Gallo, Elisabetta; Gonzi, Sandro; Gori, Valentina; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Ferretti, Roberta; Ferro, Fabrizio; Lo Vetere, Maurizio; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Gerosa, Raffaele; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Martelli, Arabella; Marzocchi, Badder; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Di Guida, Salvatore; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Biasotto, Massimo; Bisello, Dario; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Galanti, Mario; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Giubilato, Piero; Gonella, Franco; Gozzelino, Andrea; Kanishchev, Konstantin; Lacaprara, Stefano; Margoni, Martino; Montecassiano, Fabio; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Tosi, Mia; Vanini, Sara; Ventura, Sandro; Zucchetta, Alberto; Gabusi, Michele; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiezia, Aniello; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Donato, Silvio; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Moon, Chang-Seong; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Squillacioti, Paola; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Vernieri, Caterina; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; D'imperio, Giulia; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Jorda, Clara; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Meridiani, Paolo; Micheli, Francesco; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Soffi, Livia; Traczyk, Piotr; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Casasso, Stefano; Costa, Marco; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Finco, Linda; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Ortona, Giacomo; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Potenza, Alberto; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Tamponi, Umberto; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; La Licata, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Schizzi, Andrea; Umer, Tomo; Zanetti, Anna; Chang, Sunghyun; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Kong, Dae Jung; Lee, Sangeun; Oh, Young Do; Park, Hyangkyu; Sakharov, Alexandre; Son, Dong-Chul; Kim, Tae Jeong; Kim, Jae Yool; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Kyong Sei; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Inkyu; Ryu, Geonmo; Ryu, Min Sang; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Donghyun; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Jongseok; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-de La Cruz, Ivan; Hernandez-Almada, Alberto; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Reucroft, Steve; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michał; Wolszczak, Weronika; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nguyen, Federico; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Seixas, Joao; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Afanasiev, Serguei; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Konoplyanikov, Viktor; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Zarubin, Anatoli; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Ekmedzic, Marko; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Senghi Soares, Mara; Albajar, Carmen; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Moran, Dermot; Brun, Hugues; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Graziano, Alberto; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Benaglia, Andrea; Bendavid, Joshua; Benhabib, Lamia; Benitez, Jose F; Bernet, Colin; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Bondu, Olivier; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cerminara, Gianluca; Colafranceschi, Stefano; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Guio, Federico; De Roeck, Albert; De Visscher, Simon; Di Marco, Emanuele; Dobson, Marc; Dordevic, Milos; Dupont-Sagorin, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Eugster, Jürg; Franzoni, Giovanni; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Girone, Maria; Glege, Frank; Guida, Roberto; Gundacker, Stefan; Guthoff, Moritz; Hammer, Josef; Hansen, Magnus; Harris, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Krajczar, Krisztian; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Magini, Nicolo; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Marrouche, Jad; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moortgat, Filip; Morovic, Srecko; Mulders, Martijn; Musella, Pasquale; Orsini, Luciano; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuelle; Perrozzi, Luca; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Piparo, Danilo; Plagge, Michael; Racz, Attila; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Steggemann, Jan; Stieger, Benjamin; Stoye, Markus; Takahashi, Yuta; Treille, Daniel; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Wardle, Nicholas; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Wollny, Heiner; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Bachmair, Felix; Bäni, Lukas; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Buchmann, Marco-Andrea; Casal, Bruno; Chanon, Nicolas; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Dünser, Marc; Eller, Philipp; Grab, Christoph; Hits, Dmitry; Hoss, Jan; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Masciovecchio, Mario; Meister, Daniel; Mohr, Niklas; Nägeli, Christoph; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pauss, Felicitas; Peruzzi, Marco; Quittnat, Milena; Rebane, Liis; Rossini, Marco; Starodumov, Andrei; Takahashi, Maiko; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Amsler, Claude; Canelli, Maria Florencia; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Cosa, Annapaola; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hreus, Tomas; Kilminster, Benjamin; Lange, Clemens; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Robmann, Peter; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Taroni, Silvia; Verzetti, Mauro; Yang, Yong; Cardaci, Marco; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Ferro, Cristina; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Lin, Willis; Lu, Yun-Ju; Volpe, Roberta; Yu, Shin-Shan; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Dietz, Charles; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Kao, Kai-Yi; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Majumder, Devdatta; Petrakou, Eleni; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Wilken, Rachel; Asavapibhop, Burin; Singh, Gurpreet; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Suwonjandee, Narumon; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Mehmet; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Gamsizkan, Halil; Karapinar, Guler; Ocalan, Kadir; Sekmen, Sezen; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Gülmez, Erhan; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Yetkin, Taylan; Cankocak, Kerem; Vardarli, Fuat Ilkehan; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Jacob, Jeson; Kreczko, Lukasz; Lucas, Chris; Meng, Zhaoxia; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Poll, Anthony; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Vincent J; Williams, Thomas; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Womersley, William John; Worm, Steven; Baber, Mark; Bainbridge, Robert; Buchmuller, Oliver; Burton, Darren; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Dunne, Patrick; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Gilbert, Andrew; Hall, Geoffrey; Iles, Gregory; Jarvis, Martyn; Karapostoli, Georgia; Kenzie, Matthew; Lane, Rebecca; Lucas, Robyn; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Malik, Sarah; Mathias, Bryn; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Pela, Joao; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Raymond, David Mark; Rogerson, Samuel; Rose, Andrew; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Tapper, Alexander; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leggat, Duncan; Leslie, Dawn; Martin, William; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Kasmi, Azeddine; Liu, Hongxuan; Scarborough, Tara; Charaf, Otman; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Fantasia, Cory; Lawson, Philip; Richardson, Clint; Rohlf, James; St John, Jason; Sulak, Lawrence; Alimena, Juliette; Berry, Edmund; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Christopher, Grant; Cutts, David; Demiragli, Zeynep; Dhingra, Nitish; Ferapontov, Alexey; Garabedian, Alex; Heintz, Ulrich; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Luk, Michael; Narain, Meenakshi; Segala, Michael; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Speer, Thomas; Swanson, Joshua; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Gardner, Michael; Ko, Winston; Lander, Richard; Miceli, Tia; Mulhearn, Michael; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Searle, Matthew; Shalhout, Shalhout; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Stolp, Dustin; Tripathi, Mani; Wilbur, Scott; Yohay, Rachel; Cousins, Robert; Everaerts, Pieter; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Rakness, Gregory; Takasugi, Eric; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Hanson, Gail; Heilman, Jesse; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Jandir, Pawandeep; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Lacroix, Florent; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Malberti, Martina; Olmedo Negrete, Manuel; Shrinivas, Amithabh; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wimpenny, Stephen; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Klein, Daniel; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Olivito, Dominick; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Sudano, Elizabeth; Tadel, Matevz; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Welke, Charles; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Barge, Derek; Bradmiller-Feld, John; Campagnari, Claudio; Danielson, Thomas; Dishaw, Adam; Dutta, Valentina; Flowers, Kristen; Franco Sevilla, Manuel; Geffert, Paul; George, Christopher; Golf, Frank; Gouskos, Loukas; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Mccoll, Nickolas; Richman, Jeffrey; Stuart, David; To, Wing; West, Christopher; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Duarte, Javier; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Pena, Cristian; Rogan, Christopher; Spiropulu, Maria; Timciuc, Vladlen; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Wilkinson, Richard; Xie, Si; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Azzolini, Virginia; Calamba, Aristotle; Carlson, Benjamin; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Krohn, Michael; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Nauenberg, Uriel; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Chaves, Jorge; Chu, Jennifer; Dittmer, Susan; Eggert, Nicholas; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Ryd, Anders; Salvati, Emmanuele; Skinnari, Louise; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Tucker, Jordan; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Apollinari, Giorgio; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bolla, Gino; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gao, Yanyan; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Hare, Daryl; Harris, Robert M; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Kaadze, Ketino; Klima, Boaz; Kreis, Benjamin; Kwan, Simon; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Tiehui; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena Ingrid; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Merkel, Petra; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Nahn, Steve; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Prokofyev, Oleg; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitbeck, Andrew; Whitmore, Juliana; Yang, Fan; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Carver, Matthew; Cheng, Tongguang; Curry, David; Das, Souvik; De Gruttola, Michele; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Field, Richard D; Fisher, Matthew; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Hugon, Justin; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kypreos, Theodore; Low, Jia Fu; Matchev, Konstantin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Shchutska, Lesya; Snowball, Matthew; Sperka, David; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Hewamanage, Samantha; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Diamond, Brendan; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Prosper, Harrison; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatyan, Samvel; Kurt, Pelin; Moon, Dong Ho; O'Brien, Christine; Silkworth, Christopher; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Duru, Firdevs; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sen, Sercan; Tan, Ping; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bolognesi, Sara; Fehling, David; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Martin, Christopher; Swartz, Morris; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Bruner, Christopher; Kenny III, Raymond Patrick; Malek, Magdalena; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Sanders, Stephen; Sekaric, Jadranka; Stringer, Robert; Wang, Quan; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Shrestha, Shruti; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Svintradze, Irakli; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Belloni, Alberto; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G; Kolberg, Ted; Lu, Ying; Marionneau, Matthieu; Mignerey, Alice; Pedro, Kevin; Skuja, Andris; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Apyan, Aram; Barbieri, Richard; Bauer, Gerry; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Gulhan, Doga; Klute, Markus; Lai, Yue Shi; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Stephans, George; Stöckli, Fabian; Sumorok, Konstanty; Velicanu, Dragos; Veverka, Jan; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Zanetti, Marco; Zhukova, Victoria; Dahmes, Bryan; Gude, Alexander; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Pastika, Nathaniel; Rusack, Roger; Singovsky, Alexander; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Keller, Jason; Knowlton, Dan; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Malik, Sudhir; Meier, Frank; Snow, Gregory R; Zvada, Marian; Dolen, James; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Haley, Joseph; Massironi, Andrea; Morse, David Michael; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Trocino, Daniele; Wang, Ren-Jie; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kubik, Andrew; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Stoynev, Stoyan; Sung, Kevin; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Chan, Kwok Ming; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Lannon, Kevin; Luo, Wuming; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Pearson, Tessa; Planer, Michael; Ruchti, Randy; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Antonelli, Louis; Brinson, Jessica; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Hart, Andrew; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Puigh, Darren; Rodenburg, Marissa; Smith, Geoffrey; Winer, Brian L; Wolfe, Homer; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Driga, Olga; Elmer, Peter; Hardenbrook, Joshua; Hebda, Philip; Hunt, Adam; Koay, Sue Ann; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zuranski, Andrzej; Brownson, Eric; Mendez, Hector; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Barnes, Virgil E; Benedetti, Daniele; Bortoletto, Daniela; De Mattia, Marco; Gutay, Laszlo; Hu, Zhen; Jha, Manoj; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Kurt; Kress, Matthew; Leonardo, Nuno; Lopes Pegna, David; Maroussov, Vassili; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shi, Xin; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Wang, Fuqiang; Xie, Wei; Xu, Lingshan; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zablocki, Jakub; Zheng, Yu; Parashar, Neeti; Stupak, John; Adair, Antony; Akgun, Bora; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Covarelli, Roberto; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Ferbel, Thomas; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Petrillo, Gianluca; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Ciesielski, Robert; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Lungu, Gheorghe; Mesropian, Christina; Arora, Sanjay; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Duggan, Daniel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Kaplan, Steven; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Patel, Rishi; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; York, Andrew; Bouhali, Othmane; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo; Eusebi, Ricardo; Flanagan, Will; Gilmore, Jason; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Montalvo, Roy; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Perloff, Alexx; Roe, Jeffrey; Rose, Anthony; Safonov, Alexei; Sakuma, Tai; Suarez, Indara; Tatarinov, Aysen; Akchurin, Nural; Cowden, Christopher; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Kunori, Shuichi; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Volobouev, Igor; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, Andrés G; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Mao, Yaxian; Melo, Andrew; Sharma, Monika; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Boutle, Sarah; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Wood, John; Clarke, Christopher; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sturdy, Jared; Belknap, Donald; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Friis, Evan; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Levine, Aaron; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Perry, Thomas; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ross, Ian; Sarangi, Tapas; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H; Taylor, Devin; Verwilligen, Piet; Vuosalo, Carl; Woods, Nathaniel

    2015-06-26

    The inclusive jet cross section for proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7$~\\mathrm{TeV}$ was measured by the CMS Collaboration at the LHC with data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5.0$~\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$. The measurement covers a phase space up to 2$~\\mathrm{TeV}$ in jet transverse momentum and 2.5 in absolute jet rapidity. The statistical precision of these data leads to stringent constraints on the parton distribution functions of the proton. The data provide important input for the gluon density at high fractions of the proton momentum and for the strong coupling constant at large energy scales. Using predictions from perturbative quantum chromodynamics at next-to-leading order, complemented with electroweak corrections, the constraining power of these data is investigated and the strong coupling constant at the Z boson mass $M_{\\mathrm{Z}}$ is determined to be $\\alpha_S(M_{\\mathrm{Z}}) = 0.1185 \\pm 0.0019\\,(\\mathrm{exp})\\,^{+0.0060}_{-0.0037}\\,(\\mathrm{theo})$, which is in a...

  7. Constraints on parton density functions from D0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hays, Jonathan M.; /Imperial Coll., London

    2008-04-01

    Five recent results from D0 which either impact or have the potential to impact on uncertainties in parton density functions are presented. Many analyses at D0 are sensitive to the modeling of the partonic structure of the proton. When theoretical and experimental uncertainties are well controlled there exists the possibility for additional constraints on parton density functions (PDF). Five measurements are presented which either have already been included in global parton fits or have the potential to contribute in the future.

  8. Study of double parton scattering using four-jet scenarios in proton-proton collisions at √(s)=7 TeV with the CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunnellini, Paolo

    2015-03-01

    Measurements of the differential cross sections for multijet scenarios in proton-proton collisions are presented as a function of the transverse momentum p T and pseudorapidity, together with the correlations in azimuthal angle and the p T balance among the jets. Two different scenarios are separately studied; in the first one an exclusive four-jet final state is selected in vertical stroke η vertical stroke <4.7, by requiring two hard jets with p T >50 GeV each, together with two jets of p T >20 GeV each. No other jets with p T >20 GeV are allowed in the selected events. In the second one at least four jets with p T >20 GeV are required: two of the four selected jets are asked to be originated by a b-quark in vertical stroke η vertical stroke <2.4, while no requests on the flavour of the other two jets, which are selected within vertical stroke η vertical stroke <4.7 are applied. The data sample was collected in 2010 at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC, with an integrated luminosity of 36 pb -1 . The total cross section is measured to be σ(pp→ 4j+X)=330±5 (stat.)±4(syst.) and σ(pp→2b+2j+X)=67.2±2.2(stat.)±22.5 (syst.) for, respectively, the two selected multijet scenarios. It is found that fixed-order matrix element calculations including parton showers describe the measured differential cross sections in some regions of phase space only, and that adding contributions from double parton scattering brings the Monte Carlo predictions closer to the data. A new method of extraction of double parton scattering contributions from an experimental measurement is introduced for the first time: it is applied to W+dijet measurements and to both multijet channels. Values of σ eff are measured to be 19.0 +4.6 -3.0 mb and 23.2 +3.3 -2.5 mb for the two examined selections. These values are consistent between each other and compatible with measurements based on different physics channels at 7 TeV.

  9. Nuclear physics aspects in the parton model of Feynman

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauchy Hwang, W.Y.

    1995-01-01

    The basic fact that pions couple strongly to nucleons has dominated various nuclear physics thinkings since the birth of the field more than sixty years ago. The parton model of Feynman, in which the structure of a nucleon (or a hadron) is characterized by a set of parton distributions, was proposed originally in late 1960's to treat high energy deep inelastic scattering, and later many other high energy physics experiments involving hadrons. Introduction of the concept of parton distributions signifies the departure of particle physics from nuclear physics. Following the suggestion that the sea quark distributions in a nucleon, at low and moderate Q 2 (at least up to a few GeV 2 ), can be attributed primarily to the probability of finding such quarks or antiquarks in the mesons (or recoiling baryons) associated with the nucleon, the author examines how nuclear physics aspects offer quantitative understanding of several recent experimental results, including the observed violation of the Gotfried sum rule and the so-called open-quotes proton spin crisisclose quotes. These results suggest that determination of parton distributions of a hadron at Q 2 of a few GeV 2 (and at small x) must in general take into account nuclear physics aspects. Implication of these results for other high-energy reactions, such as semi-inclusive hadron production in deep inelastic scattering, are also discussed

  10. Angular distribution of protons emitted from the hydrogen plasma focus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antanasijevic, R.; Maric, Z.; Vukovic, J.; Grabez, B. E-mail: grabez@phy.bg.ac.yu; Djordjevic, D.; Joksimovic, D.; Udovicic, V.; Dragic, A.; Stanojevic, J.; Banjanac, R.; Jokovic, D

    2003-06-01

    Angular distribution of emitted protons was measured. The protons were detected with NTD LR-115 placed at the specially constructed semi-spherical holder, which contains 17 different pinhole cameras. The mechanism of proton acceleration and emission are studied theoretically and experimental results are compared with theoretical predictions.

  11. Angular distribution of protons emitted from the hydrogen plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antanasijevic, R.; Maric, Z.; Vukovic, J.; Grabez, B.; Djordjevic, D.; Joksimovic, D.; Udovicic, V.; Dragic, A.; Stanojevic, J.; Banjanac, R.; Jokovic, D.

    2003-01-01

    Angular distribution of emitted protons was measured. The protons were detected with NTD LR-115 placed at the specially constructed semi-spherical holder, which contains 17 different pinhole cameras. The mechanism of proton acceleration and emission are studied theoretically and experimental results are compared with theoretical predictions

  12. Experimental tests of proton spin models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, G.P.; Argonne National Lab., IL

    1989-01-01

    We have developed models for the spin-weighted quark and gluon distribution in a longitudinally polarized proton. The model parameters are determined from current algebra sum rules and polarized deep-inelastic scattering data. A number of different scenarios are presented for the fraction of spin carried the constituent parton distributions. A possible long-range experimental program is suggested for measuring various hard scattering processes using polarized lepton and proton beams. With the knowledge gained from these experiments, we can begin to understand the parton contributions to the proton spin. 28 refs., 5 figs

  13. Nucleon form factors and moments of generalized parton distributions using N{sub f}= 2+1+1 twisted mass fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandrou, C. [Univ. of Cyprus, Nicosia (Cyprus). Dept. of Physics; Cyprus Institute, Nicosia (Cyprus). Computation-based Science and Technology Research Center; Constantinou, M.; Kallidonis, C. [Univ. of Cyprus, Nicosia (Cyprus). Dept. of Physics; Dinter, S.; Drach, V. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Jansen, K. [Univ. of Cyprus, Nicosia (Cyprus). Dept. of Physics; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Koutsou, G. [Cyprus Institute, Nicosia (Cyprus). Computation-based Science and Technology Research Center; Collaboration: European Twisted Mass Collaboration

    2013-04-15

    We present results on the axial and the electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon, as well as, on the first moments of the nucleon generalized parton distributions using maximally twisted mass fermions. We analyze two N{sub f}=2+1+1 ensembles having pion masses of 210 MeV and 354 MeV at two values of the lattice spacing. The lattice scale is determined using the nucleon mass computed on a total of 18 N{sub f}=2+1+1 ensembles generated at three values of the lattice spacing, a. The renormalization constants are evaluated non-perturbatively with a perturbative subtraction of O(a''2)-terms. The moments of the generalized parton distributions are given in the MS scheme at a scale of {mu}=2 GeV. We compare with recent results obtained using different discretization schemes. The implications on the spin content of the nucleon are also discussed.

  14. Scale dependence and small-x behaviour of polarized parton distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, R.D.; Forte, S.; Ridolfi, G.

    1995-01-01

    We discuss perturbative evolution of the polarized structure function g 1 in the (x, Q 2 ) plane, with special regard to the small-x region. We determine g 1 in terms of polarized quark and gluon distributions using coefficient functions to order α s . At small x g 1 then displays substantial scale dependence, which necessarily implies a corresponding scale dependence in the large-x region. This scale dependence has significant consequences for the extraction of the first moment from the experimental data, reducing its value while increasing the error. Conversely, the scale dependence may be used to constrain the size of the polarized gluon distribution. ((orig.))

  15. Dijet azimuthal decorrelations at the LHC in the parton Reggeization approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nefedov, M.A. [Samarskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ., Samara (Russian Federation); Saleev, V.A.; Shipilova, A.V. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Samarskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ., Samara (Russian Federation)

    2013-04-15

    We study inclusive dijet azimuthal decorrelations in proton-proton collisions at the CERN LHC invoking the hypothesis of parton Reggeization in t-channel exchanges at high energies. In the parton Reggeization approach, the main contribution to the azimuthal angle difference between the two most energetic jets is due to the Reggeon-Reggeon-Particle-Particle scattering, when the fusion of two Reggeized gluons into a pair of Yang-Mills gluons dominates. Using a high-energy factorization scheme with the Kimber-Martin-Ryskin unintegrated parton distribution functions and the Fadin-Lipatov effective vertices we obtain good agreement of our calculations with recent measurements by the ATLAS and CMS Collaborations at the CERN LHC.

  16. Unpolarized structure functions and the parton distributions for nucleon in an independent quark model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barik, N.; Mishra, R.N.

    2001-01-01

    Considering the nucleon as consisting entirely of its valence quarks confined independently in a scalar-vector harmonic potential; unpolarized structure functions F 1 (x, μ 2 ) and F 2 (x, μ 2 ) are derived in the Bjorken limit under certain simplifying assumptions; from which valence quark distribution functions u v (x, μ 2 ) and d v (x, μ 2 ) are appropriately extracted satisfying the normalization constraints. QCD-evolution of these input distributions from a model scale of μ 2 = 0.07 GeV 2 to a higher Q 2 scale of Q 0 2 = 15 GeV 2 yields xu v (x, Q 0 2 ) and xd v (x, Q 0 2 ) in good agreement with experimental data. The gluon and sea-quark distributions such as G (x, Q 0 2 ) and q s (x, Q 0 2 ) are dynamically generated with a reasonable qualitative agreement with the available data; using the leading order renormalization group equations with appropriate valence-quark distributions as the input. (author)

  17. Unpolarized structure functions and the parton distributions for nucleon in an independent quark model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barik, N [Dept. of Physics, Utkal Univ., Bhubaneswar (India); Mishra, R N [Dept. of Physics, Dhenkanal College, Dhenkanal (India)

    2001-04-01

    Considering the nucleon as consisting entirely of its valence quarks confined independently in a scalar-vector harmonic potential; unpolarized structure functions F{sub 1} (x, {mu}{sup 2}) and F{sub 2} (x, {mu}{sup 2}) are derived in the Bjorken limit under certain simplifying assumptions; from which valence quark distribution functions u{sub v} (x, {mu}{sup 2}) and d{sub v} (x, {mu}{sup 2}) are appropriately extracted satisfying the normalization constraints. QCD-evolution of these input distributions from a model scale of {mu}{sup 2} = 0.07 GeV{sup 2} to a higher Q{sup 2} scale of Q{sub 0}{sup 2} = 15 GeV{sup 2} yields xu{sub v} (x, Q{sub 0}{sup 2}) and xd{sub v} (x, Q{sub 0}{sup 2}) in good agreement with experimental data. The gluon and sea-quark distributions such as G (x, Q{sub 0}{sup 2}) and q{sub s} (x, Q{sub 0}{sup 2}) are dynamically generated with a reasonable qualitative agreement with the available data; using the leading order renormalization group equations with appropriate valence-quark distributions as the input. (author)

  18. The neural network approach to parton fitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo, Joan; Latorre, Jose I.; Del Debbio, Luigi; Forte, Stefano; Piccione, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    We introduce the neural network approach to global fits of parton distribution functions. First we review previous work on unbiased parametrizations of deep-inelastic structure functions with faithful estimation of their uncertainties, and then we summarize the current status of neural network parton distribution fits

  19. On the universality of the x and A dependence of the EMC effect and its relation to parton distributions in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, G.I.

    1995-01-01

    It is shown that the latest results from the NMC (CERN) and E665 (Fermilab) groups on F 2 A (x)/F 2 D (x) obtained in the shadowing region bring new evidence of the universal A dependence of distortions made in a free-nucleon structure function by a nuclear medium. The observed universality implies that one can consider separately hard (A≤4) and soft (A>4) parton distribution distortions. Soft distortions, which result in differences between the deep-inelastic scattering cross sections for nuclei with masses A 1 , A 2 ≥4, can be explained as a consequence of the nuclear density variation, independent of x in the range 0.001 ≤ x ≤ 0.7. It is found that nuclear shadowing begins at x 1 = 0.0615 ± 0.0024, independent of A, which is consistent with models that allow for three-parton recombination processes. 28 refs., 2 figs

  20. Rapidity distributions of hadrons in proton-nucleus collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirner, H. J.; Kopeliovich, B. Z.

    2018-05-01

    We study proton-lead collisions with a new model for the Fock states of the incoming proton. The number of collisions that the proton experiences selects the appropriate Fock state of the proton, which generates a multiple of p p -like rapidity distributions. We take as input the p p maximum entropy distributions, shifting the respective center-of-mass rapidities and reducing the available energies. A comparison with existing data at 5 TeV is made, and results for 8 TeV are presented. We also explore the high multiplicity data in this model.

  1. Framework for evolution in double parton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buffing, Maarten G.A.

    2017-07-15

    Double parton scattering (DPS) describes two colliding hadrons having interactions in the form of two hard processes, each initiated by a separate pair of partons. Just as for single parton scattering, the resummation of soft gluon exchange gives rise to a soft function, which is a necessary ingredient for obtaining rapidity evolution equations. For various regions of phase space, we derive the rapidity evolution and the scale evolution of double transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions (DTMDs) as well as of the p{sub T}-resummed cross section for double Drell-Yan like processes. This contributes to a framework that can be used for phenomenological DPS studies including resummation.

  2. Double parton correlations in Light-Front constituent quark models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinaldi Matteo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Double parton distribution functions (dPDF represent a tool to explore the 3D proton structure. They can be measured in high energy proton-proton and proton nucleus collisions and encode information on how partons inside a proton are correlated among each other. dPFDs are studied here in the valence quark region, by means of a constituent quark model, where two particle correlations are present without any additional prescription. This framework allows to understand the dynamical origin of the correlations and to clarify which, among the features of the results, are model independent. Use will be made of a relativistic light-front scheme, able to overcome some drawbacks of the previous calculation. Transverse momentum correlations, due to the exact treatment of the boosts, are predicted and analyzed. The role of spin correlations is also shown. Due to the covariance of the approach, some symmetries of the dPDFs are seen unambigously. For the valence sector, also the study of the QCD evolution of the model results, which can be performed safely thanks to the property of good support, has been also completed.

  3. Calculations with off-shell matrix elements, TMD parton densities and TMD parton showers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bury, Marcin; Hameren, Andreas van; Kutak, Krzysztof; Sapeta, Sebastian [Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland); Jung, Hannes [Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland); DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Serino, Mirko [Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland); Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Department of Physics, Beersheba (Israel)

    2018-02-15

    A new calculation using off-shell matrix elements with TMD parton densities supplemented with a newly developed initial state TMD parton shower is described. The calculation is based on the KaTie package for an automated calculation of the partonic process in high-energy factorization, making use of TMD parton densities implemented in TMDlib. The partonic events are stored in an LHE file, similar to the conventional LHE files, but now containing the transverse momenta of the initial partons. The LHE files are read in by the Cascade package for the full TMD parton shower, final state shower and hadronization from Pythia where events in HEPMC format are produced. We have determined a full set of TMD parton densities and developed an initial state TMD parton shower, including all flavors following the TMD distribution. As an example of application we have calculated the azimuthal de-correlation of high p{sub t} dijets as measured at the LHC and found very good agreement with the measurement when including initial state TMD parton showers together with conventional final state parton showers and hadronization. (orig.)

  4. Experiments to measure the gluon helicity distribution in protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinka, H.; Beddo, M.E.; Underwood, D.G.

    1993-01-01

    Several experiments are described that could obtain information about the gluon helicity distribution in protons. These experiments include inclusive direct-γ, direct-γ + jet, jet, and jet + jet production with colliding beams of longitudinally-polarized protons. Some rates and kinematics are also discussed

  5. Doped Parton Distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Bertone, Valerio; Rojo, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Calculations of high-energy processes involving the production of b-quarks are typically performed in two different ways, the massive four-flavour scheme (4FS) and the massless five-flavour scheme (5FS). For processes where the combination of the 4FS and 5FS results into a matched calculation is technically difficult, it is possible to define a hybrid scheme known as the doped scheme, where above the b-quark threshold the strong coupling runs with $n_f=5$, as in the massless calculation, while the DGLAP splitting functions are those of the $n_f=4$ scheme. In this contribution we present NNPDF3.0 PDF sets in this doped scheme, compare them with the corresponding 4FS and 5FS sets, and discuss their relevance for LHC phenomenology.

  6. Parton recombination model including resonance production. RL-78-040

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, R.G.; Hwa, R.C.; Matsuda, S.

    1978-05-01

    Possible effects of resonance production on the meson inclusive distribution in the fragmentation region are investigated in the framework of the parton recombination model. From a detailed study of the data on vector-meson production, a reliable ratio of the vector-to-pseudoscalar rates is determined. Then the influence of the decay of the vector mesons on the pseudoscalar spectrum is examined, and the effect found to be no more than 25% for x > 0.5. The normalization of the non-strange antiquark distributions are still higher than those in a quiescent proton. The agreement between the calculated results and data remain very good. 36 references

  7. Parton recombination model including resonance production. RL-78-040

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, R. G.; Hwa, R. C.; Matsuda, S.

    1978-05-01

    Possible effects of resonance production on the meson inclusive distribution in the fragmentation region are investigated in the framework of the parton recombination model. From a detailed study of the data on vector-meson production, a reliable ratio of the vector-to-pseudoscalar rates is determined. Then the influence of the decay of the vector mesons on the pseudoscalar spectrum is examined, and the effect found to be no more than 25% for x > 0.5. The normalization of the non-strange antiquark distributions are still higher than those in a quiescent proton. The agreement between the calculated results and data remain very good. 36 references.

  8. Multiple Parton Interactions in ALICE

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    We will present in detail the measurement of the charged particle multiplicity dependence of per-trigger pair yields in azimuthal direction induced by low-energetic di-jets produced in proton-proton collisions. Using two-particle angular correlations with low transverse momentum thresholds, jet properties are measured on a statistical basis down to the lowest possible jet energies. The analysis can give information about the contribution from multiple parton interactions to particle production. Moreover, the results allow to optimize the parametrization of the jet fragmentation in phenomenological mode...

  9. Studies of the underlying-event properties and of hard double parton scattering with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00173407; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    A correct modelling of the underlying event in proton-proton collisions at Large Hadron Collider is important for the proper simulation of kinematic distributions of final state objects. The ATLAS collaboration performed a study at 13 TeV, measuring the number and transverse-momentum sum of charged particles in different regions with respect to the direction of the reconstructed leading track. These measurements are sensitive to the underlying-event activity. The results are compared to predictions of several Monte Carlo generators. Inclusive four-jet events produced in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV in the ATLAS detector have been analysed for the presence of hard double parton scattering. The fraction of events originating from hard double parton scattering has been extracted, and used to measure the effective proton cross section. Distributions sensitive to the presence of double parton scattering were unfolded to the parton level and compared to various tunes of a selected Mo...

  10. Partonic transverse momenta in non-relativistic hyper-central quark potential models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diakonos, F.K.; Kaplis, N.K.; Maintas, X.N.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the impact of three-body forces on the transverse-momentum distribution of partons inside the proton. This is achieved by considering the three-body problem in a class of hyper-central quark potential models. Solving the corresponding Schroedinger equation, we determine the quark wave function in the proton and with appropriate transformations and projections we find the transverse-momentum distribution of a single quark. In each case the parameters of the quark potentials are adjusted in order to sufficiently describe observable properties of the proton. Using a factorization ansatz, we incorporate the obtained transverse-momentum distribution in a perturbative QCD scheme for the calculation of the cross-section for prompt photon production in pp collisions. A large set of experimental data is fitted using as a single free parameter the mean partonic transverse momentum. The dependence of left angle k T right angle on the collision characteristics (initial energy and transverse momentum of the final photon) is much smoother when compared with similar results found in the literature using a Gaussian distribution for the partonic transverse momenta. Within the considered class of hyper-central quark potentials the one with the weaker dependence on the hyper-radius is preferred for the description of the data since it leads to the smoothest mean partonic transverse-momentum profile. We have repeated all the calculations using a two-body potential of the same form as the optimal (within the considered class) hyper-central potential in order to check if the presence of three-body forces is supported by the experimental data. Our analysis indicates that three-body forces influence significantly the form of the parton transverse-momentum distribution and consequently lead to an improved description of the considered data. (orig.)

  11. Study of Generalized Parton Distributions and Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering on the nucleon with the CLAS and CLAS12 detectors at the Jefferson Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guegan, Baptiste [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

    2012-11-01

    The exclusive leptoproduction of a real photon is considered to be the "cleanest" way to access the Generalized Parton Distribution (GPD). This process is called Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) lN {yields} lN{gamma} , and is sensitive to all the four GPDs. Measuring the DVCS cross section is one of the main goals of this thesis. In this thesis, we present the work performed to extract on a wide phase-space the DVCS cross-section from the JLab data at a beam energy of 6 GeV.

  12. Dual model for parton densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Hassouni, A.; Napoly, O.

    1981-01-01

    We derive power-counting rules for quark densities near x=1 and x=0 from parton interpretations of one-particle inclusive dual amplitudes. Using these rules, we give explicit expressions for quark distributions (including charm) inside hadrons. We can then show the compatibility between fragmentation and recombination descriptions of low-p/sub perpendicular/ processes

  13. On Distributions of Emission Sources and Speed-of-Sound in Proton-Proton (Proton-Antiproton Collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Na Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The revised (three-source Landau hydrodynamic model is used in this paper to study the (pseudorapidity distributions of charged particles produced in proton-proton and proton-antiproton collisions at high energies. The central source is assumed to contribute with a Gaussian function which covers the rapidity distribution region as wide as possible. The target and projectile sources are assumed to emit isotropically particles in their respective rest frames. The model calculations obtained with a Monte Carlo method are fitted to the experimental data over an energy range from 0.2 to 13 TeV. The values of the squared speed-of-sound parameter in different collisions are then extracted from the width of the rapidity distributions.

  14. A parton description of the nucleus fragmentation region in heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwa, R.C.; Oregon Univ., Eugene

    1984-01-01

    In nucleus-nucleus collisions, the rapidity distribution of partons in the nucleus fragmentation region is highly asymmetrical. Thermalization that randomizes the momenta of partons far apart in rapidity cannot be expected. A local thermalization model is introduced which relates temperature to the range of parton interaction in rapidity. The parton number density and energy density are then calculated. (orig.)

  15. Probe initial parton density and formation time via jet quenching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xin-Nian

    2002-01-01

    Medium modification of jet fragmentation function due to multiple scattering and induced gluon radiation leads directly to jet quenching or suppression of leading particle distribution from jet fragmentation. One can extract an effective total parton energy loss which can be related to the total transverse momentum broadening. For an expanding medium, both are shown to be sensitive to the initial parton density and formation time. Therefore, one can extract the initial parton density and formation time from simultaneous measurements of parton energy loss and transverse momentum broadening. Implication of the recent experimental data on effects of detailed balance in parton energy loss is also discussed

  16. A Proton-Cyclotron Wave Storm Generated by Unstable Proton Distribution Functions in the Solar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, R. T.; Alexander, R. L.; Stevens, M.; Wilson, L. B., III; Moya, P. S.; Vinas, A.; Jian, L. K.; Roberts, D. A.; O’Modhrain, S.; Gilbert, J. A.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We use audification of 0.092 seconds cadence magnetometer data from the Wind spacecraft to identify waves with amplitudes greater than 0.1 nanoteslas near the ion gyrofrequency (approximately 0.1 hertz) with duration longer than 1 hour during 2008. We present one of the most common types of event for a case study and find it to be a proton-cyclotron wave storm, coinciding with highly radial magnetic field and a suprathermal proton beam close in density to the core distribution itself. Using linear Vlasov analysis, we conclude that the long-duration, large-amplitude waves are generated by the instability of the proton distribution function. The origin of the beam is unknown, but the radial field period is found in the trailing edge of a fast solar wind stream and resembles other events thought to be caused by magnetic field footpoint motion or interchange reconnection between coronal holes and closed field lines in the corona.

  17. Transverse nucleon structure and diagnostics of hard parton-parton processes at LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Frankfurt, M. Strikman, C. Weiss

    2011-03-01

    We propose a new method to determine at what transverse momenta particle production in high-energy pp collisions is governed by hard parton-parton processes. Using information on the transverse spatial distribution of partons obtained from hard exclusive processes in ep/\\gamma p scattering, we evaluate the impact parameter distribution of pp collisions with a hard parton-parton process as a function of p_T of the produced parton (jet). We find that the average pp impact parameters in such events depend very weakly on p_T in the range 2 < p_T < few 100 GeV, while they are much smaller than those in minimum-bias inelastic collisions. The impact parameters in turn govern the observable transverse multiplicity in such events (in the direction perpendicular to the trigger particle or jet). Measuring the transverse multiplicity as a function of p_T thus provides an effective tool for determining the minimum p_T for which a given trigger particle originates from a hard parton-parton process.

  18. An analytic initial-state parton shower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilian, W. [Siegen Univ. (Germany). Dept. Physik; Reuter, J.; Schmidt, S.; Wiesler, D. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    We present a new algorithm for an analytic parton shower. While the algorithm for the final-state shower has been known in the literature, the construction of an initial-state shower along these lines is new. The aim is to have a parton shower algorithm for which the full analytic form of the probability distribution for all branchings is known. For these parton shower algorithms it is therefore possible to calculate the probability for a given event to be generated, providing the potential to reweight the event after the simulation. We develop the algorithm for this shower including scale choices and angular ordering. Merging to matrix elements is used to describe high-energy tails of distributions correctly. Finally, we compare our results with those of other parton showers and with experimental data from LEP, Tevatron and LHC. (orig.)

  19. An analytic initial-state parton shower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilian, W.

    2011-12-01

    We present a new algorithm for an analytic parton shower. While the algorithm for the final-state shower has been known in the literature, the construction of an initial-state shower along these lines is new. The aim is to have a parton shower algorithm for which the full analytic form of the probability distribution for all branchings is known. For these parton shower algorithms it is therefore possible to calculate the probability for a given event to be generated, providing the potential to reweight the event after the simulation. We develop the algorithm for this shower including scale choices and angular ordering. Merging to matrix elements is used to describe high-energy tails of distributions correctly. Finally, we compare our results with those of other parton showers and with experimental data from LEP, Tevatron and LHC. (orig.)

  20. Parton Propagation and Fragmentation in QCD Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberto Accardi, Francois Arleo, William Brooks, David D' Enterria, Valeria Muccifora

    2009-12-01

    We review recent progress in the study of parton propagation, interaction and fragmentation in both cold and hot strongly interacting matter. Experimental highlights on high-energy hadron production in deep inelastic lepton-nucleus scattering, proton-nucleus and heavy-ion collisions, as well as Drell-Yan processes in hadron-nucleus collisions are presented. The existing theoretical frameworks for describing the in-medium interaction of energetic partons and the space-time evolution of their fragmentation into hadrons are discussed and confronted to experimental data. We conclude with a list of theoretical and experimental open issues, and a brief description of future relevant experiments and facilities.

  1. Proton multiplicity distributions in high-energy hadron-nuclei collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugalski, Z.

    1979-01-01

    The fast proton emission process is analyzed in high-energy hadron-nuclei collisions. The formula describing the proton multiplicity distributions is derived. It describes well enough the proton multiplicity distribution of pion-nuclei and proton-nuclei collisions at 200 and 400 GeV

  2. QCD evolution equations for high energy partons in nuclear matter

    CERN Document Server

    Kinder-Geiger, Klaus; Geiger, Klaus; Mueller, Berndt

    1994-01-01

    We derive a generalized form of Altarelli-Parisi equations to decribe the time evolution of parton distributions in a nuclear medium. In the framework of the leading logarithmic approximation, we obtain a set of coupled integro- differential equations for the parton distribution functions and equations for the virtuality (``age'') distribution of partons. In addition to parton branching processes, we take into account fusion and scattering processes that are specific to QCD in medium. Detailed balance between gain and loss terms in the resulting evolution equations correctly accounts for both real and virtual contributions which yields a natural cancellation of infrared divergences.

  3. Distribution uniformity of laser-accelerated proton beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jun-Gao; Zhu, Kun; Tao, Li; Xu, Xiao-Han; Lin, Chen; Ma, Wen-Jun; Lu, Hai-Yang; Zhao, Yan-Ying; Lu, Yuan-Rong; Chen, Jia-Er; Yan, Xue-Qing

    2017-09-01

    Compared with conventional accelerators, laser plasma accelerators can generate high energy ions at a greatly reduced scale, due to their TV/m acceleration gradient. A compact laser plasma accelerator (CLAPA) has been built at the Institute of Heavy Ion Physics at Peking University. It will be used for applied research like biological irradiation, astrophysics simulations, etc. A beamline system with multiple quadrupoles and an analyzing magnet for laser-accelerated ions is proposed here. Since laser-accelerated ion beams have broad energy spectra and large angular divergence, the parameters (beam waist position in the Y direction, beam line layout, drift distance, magnet angles etc.) of the beamline system are carefully designed and optimised to obtain a radially symmetric proton distribution at the irradiation platform. Requirements of energy selection and differences in focusing or defocusing in application systems greatly influence the evolution of proton distributions. With optimal parameters, radially symmetric proton distributions can be achieved and protons with different energy spread within ±5% have similar transverse areas at the experiment target. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11575011, 61631001) and National Grand Instrument Project (2012YQ030142)

  4. Measurement of proton momentum distributions using a direct geometry instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senesi, R; Andreani, C; Kolesnikov, A I

    2014-01-01

    We report the results of inelastic neutron scattering measurements on bulk water and ice using the direct geometry SEQUOIA chopper spectrometer at the Spallation Neutron Source (USA), with incident energy E i = 6 eV. In this set up the measurements allow to access the Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering regime. The scattering is centred at the proton recoil energy given by the impulse approximation, and the shape of the recoil peak conveys information on the proton momentum distribution in the system. The comparison with the performance of inverse geometry instruments, such as VESUVIO at the ISIS source (UK), shows that complementary information can be accessed by the use of direct and inverse geometry instruments. Analysis of the neutron Compton profiles shows that the proton kinetic energy in ice at 271 K is larger than in room temperature liquid water, in agreement with previous measurements on VESUVIO

  5. Leading Twist GPDs and Transverse Spin Densities in a Proton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Chandan; Maji, Tanmay; Chakrabarti, Dipankar; Zhao, Xingbo

    2018-05-01

    We present a study of both chirally even and odd generalized parton distributions in the leading twist for the quarks in a proton using the light-front wavefunctions of a quark-diquark model predicted by the holographic QCD. For transversely polarized proton, both chiral even and chiral odd GPDs contribute to the spin densities which are related to the GPDs in transverse impact parameter space. Here, we also present a study of the spin densities for transversely polarized quark and proton.

  6. Nucleon fragmentation into baryons in proton-nucleon interactions at 19 GeV/c compared with some quark-parton model predictions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakken, V.; Breivik, F.O.; Jacobsen, T. (Oslo Univ. (Norway). Fysisk Inst.)

    1983-06-21

    We present some new data on baryon production in pn interactions at 19 GeV/c obtained in a bubble chamber experiment. We determine the longitudinal-momentum spectra dsigma/dx of the baryon in the reaction pn->psub(F)+X, pn->psub(B)+X, pn->..delta..sub(F)/sup + +/(1232)+X and pn->..delta..sub(B)/sup + +/(1232)+X, where F(B) labels the forward (backward) c.m. hemisphere. The spectra of psub(F) and psub(B) are also given when the effects of diffraction and ..delta../sup + +/(1232) resonance production are substracted. These data, together with dsigma/dx of pp->..lambda../sup 0/+X at the same beam momentum, are compared with the predictions of some quark-parton models. Particle multiplicities of nucleons, ..delta../sup + +/(1232) and hyperons are found to be incompatible with the probabilistic quark model of Van Hove.

  7. Quark helicity distributions from longitudinal spin asymmetries in muon-proton and muon-deuteron scattering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alekseev, M.; Alexakhin, V. Yu.; Alexandrov, Yu.; Alexeev, G. D.; Amoroso, A.; Austregisilio, A.; Badelek, B.; Balestra, F.; Barth, J.; Baum, G.; Bedfer, Y.; Bernhard, J.; Bertini, R.; Bettinelli, M.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Bravar, A.; Bressan, A.; Brona, G.; Burtin, E.; Bussa, M.; Chaberny, D.; Chiosso, M.; Chung, S.U.; Cicuttin, A.; Colantoni, M.; Crespo, M.; Dalla Torre, S.; Das, S.; Dasgupta, S. S.; Denisov, O.; Dhara, L.; Diaz, V.; Donskov, S.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dünnweber, W.; Efremov, A.V.; El Alaoui, A.; Eversheim, P.; Eyrich, W.; Faessler, M.; Ferrero, A.; Filin, A.; Finger, M.; Finger jr., M.; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; Friedrich, J.; Garfagnini, R.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O.; Gazda, R.; Gerassimov, S.; Geyer, R.; Giorgi, M.; Gnesi, I.; Gobbo, B.; Goertz, S.; Grabmüller, S.; Grasso, A.; Grube, B.; Gushterski, R.; Guskov, A.; Haas, F.; von Harrach, D.; Hasegawa, T.; Heinsius, F.; Herrmann, F.; Hess, C.; Hinterberger, F.; Horikawa, N.; Höppner, Ch.; d'Hose, N.; Ilgner, C.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, O.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Jasinski, P.; Jegou, G.; Joosten, R.; Kabuss, E.; Kang, D.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G.; Khokhlov, Y.; Kisselev, Y.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koblitz, S.; Koivuniemi, J.; Kolosov, V.; Kondo, K.; Königsmann, K.; Konopka, R.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V.; Korzenev, A.; Kotzinian, A.; Kouznetsov, O.; Kowalik, K.; Krämer, M.; Kral, A.; Kroumchtein, Z.; Kuhn, R.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Lauser, L.; Le Goff, J.; Lednev, A.; Lehmann, A.; Levorato, S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Liska, T.; Maggiora, A.; Maggiora, M.; Magnon, A.; Makke, N.; Mallot, G.; Mann, A.; Marchand, C.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Massmann, F.; Matsuda, T.; Meyer, W.; Michigami, T.; Mikhailov, Y.; Moinester, M.; Mutter, A.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nagel, T.; Nassalski, J.; Negrini, S.; Nerling, F.; Neubert, S.; Neyret, D.; Nikolaenko, V.; Nunes, A.S.; Olshevsky, A.; Ostrick, M.; Padee, A.; Panknin, R.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Pawlukiewicz-Kaminska, B.; Perevalova, E.; Pesaro, G.; Peshekhonov, D.; Piragino, G.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polak, J.; Polyakov, V.; Pontecorvo, G.; Pretz, J.; Quintans, C.; Rajotte, J.; Ramos, S.; Rapatsky, V.; Reicherz, G.; Richter, A.; Robinet, F.; Rocco, E.; Rondio, E.; Ryabchikov, D.; Samoylenko, V.; Sandacz, A.; Santos, H.; Sapozhnikov, M.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schill, C.; Schlütter, T.; Schmitt, L.; Schopferer, S.; Schröder, W.; Shevchenko, O.; Siebert, H.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sissakian, A.; Slunecka, M.; Smirnov, G.; Sosio, S.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, Aleš; Stolarski, M.; Sulc, M.; Sulej, R.; Takekawa, S.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Teufel, A.; Tkatchev, L.; Uhl, S.; Uman, I.; Virius, M.; Vlassov, N.; Vossen, A.; Weitzel, Q.; Windmolders, R.; Wislicki, W.; Wollny, H.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Ziembicki, M.; Zhao, J.; Zhuravlev, N.; Zvyagin, A.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 693, č. 3 (2010), s. 227-235 ISSN 0370-2693 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 492 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering * structure function * parton distribution functions Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 5.255, year: 2010

  8. Comparison of multiplicity distributions to the negative binomial distribution in muon-proton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arneodo, M.; Ferrero, M.I.; Peroni, C.; Bee, C.P.; Bird, I.; Coughlan, J.; Sloan, T.; Braun, H.; Brueck, H.; Drees, J.; Edwards, A.; Krueger, J.; Montgomery, H.E.; Peschel, H.; Pietrzyk, U.; Poetsch, M.; Schneider, A.; Dreyer, T.; Ernst, T.; Haas, J.; Kabuss, E.M.; Landgraf, U.; Mohr, W.; Rith, K.; Schlagboehmer, A.; Schroeder, T.; Stier, H.E.; Wallucks, W.

    1987-01-01

    The multiplicity distributions of charged hadrons produced in the deep inelastic muon-proton scattering at 280 GeV are analysed in various rapidity intervals, as a function of the total hadronic centre of mass energy W ranging from 4-20 GeV. Multiplicity distributions for the backward and forward hemispheres are also analysed separately. The data can be well parameterized by binomial distributions, extending their range of applicability to the case of lepton-proton scattering. The energy and the rapidity dependence of the parameters is presented and a smooth transition from the binomial distribution via Poissonian to the ordinary binomial is observed. (orig.)

  9. Collinear and transverse momentum dependent parton densities obtained with a parton branching method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lelek, Aleksandra

    2017-10-15

    We present a solution of the DGLAP evolution equations, written in terms of Sudakov form factors to describe the branching and no-branching probabilities, using a parton branching Monte Carlo method. We demonstrate numerically that this method reproduces the semi-analytical solutions. We show how this method can be used to determine Transverse Momentum Dependent (TMD) parton distribution functions, in addition to the usual integrated parton distributions functions. We discuss numerical effects of the boundary of soft gluon resolution scale parameter on the resulting parton distribution functions. We show that a very good fit of the integrated TMDs to high precision HERA data can be obtained over a large range in x and Q{sup 2}.

  10. Collinear and transverse momentum dependent parton densities obtained with a parton branching method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lelek, Aleksandra

    2017-10-01

    We present a solution of the DGLAP evolution equations, written in terms of Sudakov form factors to describe the branching and no-branching probabilities, using a parton branching Monte Carlo method. We demonstrate numerically that this method reproduces the semi-analytical solutions. We show how this method can be used to determine Transverse Momentum Dependent (TMD) parton distribution functions, in addition to the usual integrated parton distributions functions. We discuss numerical effects of the boundary of soft gluon resolution scale parameter on the resulting parton distribution functions. We show that a very good fit of the integrated TMDs to high precision HERA data can be obtained over a large range in x and Q 2 .

  11. Parton-hadron cascade approach at SPS and RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nara, Yasushi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-07-01

    A parton-hadron cascade model which is the extension of hadronic cascade model incorporating hard partonic scattering based on HIJING is presented to describe the space-time evolution of parton/hadron system produced by ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions. Hadron yield, baryon stopping and transverse momentum distribution are calculated and compared with HIJING and VNI. Baryon density, energy density and temperature for RHIC are calculated within this model. (author)

  12. Wee partons in large nuclei: from virtual dream to hard reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venugopalan, R.

    1995-01-01

    We construct a weak coupling, many body theory to compute parton distributions in large nuclei for x -1/3 . The wee partons are highly coherent, non-Abelian Weizsaecker-Williams fields. Radiative corrections to the classical results are discussed. The parton distributions for a single nucleus provide the initial conditions for the dynamical evolution of matter formed in ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions. (orig.)

  13. Determination of the ratio r v = d v u v of the valence quark distributions in the proton from neutrino and antineutrino reactions on hydrogen and deuterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G. T.; Jones, R. W. L.; Kennedy, B. W.; Klein, H.; Morrison, D. R. O.; Wachsmuth, H.; Miller, D. B.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Wainstein, S.; Aderholz, M.; Hantke, D.; Katz, U. F.; Kern, J.; Schmitz, N.; Wittek, W.; Borner, H. P.; Myatt, G.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Guy, J.; Venus, W.; Bullock, F. W.; Burke, S.

    1994-12-01

    Based on a QCD analysis of the parton momentum distributions in the proton, the ratio r v = d v / u v of the d and u valence quark distributions is determined as function of x in the range 0.01< x<0.7. The analysis uses data from neutrino and antineutrino charged current interactions on hydrogen and deuterium, obtained with BEBC in the (anti)neutrino wideband beam of the CERN SPS. Since v mainly depends on the deuterium/hydrogen ratios of the normalised x-y-Q 2-distributions many systematic effects cancel. It is found that r v decreases with increasing x, and drops below the naive SU(6) expectation of 0.5 for x≳0.3. An extrapolation of r v to x=1 is consistent with the hypothesis r v (1)=0.

  14. The influence of patient positioning uncertainties in proton radiotherapy on proton range and dose distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebl, Jakob, E-mail: jakob.liebl@medaustron.at [EBG MedAustron GmbH, 2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Francis H. Burr Proton Therapy Center, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States); Department of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology, Medical University of Graz, 8036 Graz (Austria); Paganetti, Harald; Zhu, Mingyao; Winey, Brian A. [Francis H. Burr Proton Therapy Center, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: Proton radiotherapy allows radiation treatment delivery with high dose gradients. The nature of such dose distributions increases the influence of patient positioning uncertainties on their fidelity when compared to photon radiotherapy. The present work quantitatively analyzes the influence of setup uncertainties on proton range and dose distributions. Methods: Thirty-eight clinical passive scattering treatment fields for small lesions in the head were studied. Dose distributions for shifted and rotated patient positions were Monte Carlo-simulated. Proton range uncertainties at the 50%- and 90%-dose falloff position were calculated considering 18 arbitrary combinations of maximal patient position shifts and rotations for two patient positioning methods. Normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCPs), equivalent uniform doses (EUDs), and tumor control probabilities (TCPs) were studied for organs at risk (OARs) and target volumes of eight patients. Results: The authors identified a median 1σ proton range uncertainty at the 50%-dose falloff of 2.8 mm for anatomy-based patient positioning and 1.6 mm for fiducial-based patient positioning as well as 7.2 and 5.8 mm for the 90%-dose falloff position, respectively. These range uncertainties were correlated to heterogeneity indices (HIs) calculated for each treatment field (38% < R{sup 2} < 50%). A NTCP increase of more than 10% (absolute) was observed for less than 2.9% (anatomy-based positioning) and 1.2% (fiducial-based positioning) of the studied OARs and patient shifts. For target volumes TCP decreases by more than 10% (absolute) occurred in less than 2.2% of the considered treatment scenarios for anatomy-based patient positioning and were nonexistent for fiducial-based patient positioning. EUD changes for target volumes were up to 35% (anatomy-based positioning) and 16% (fiducial-based positioning). Conclusions: The influence of patient positioning uncertainties on proton range in therapy of small lesions

  15. Measurement of the transverse momentum and $\\phi^*_{\\eta}$ distributions of Drell--Yan lepton pairs in proton--proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=8$ TeV with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Affolder, Tony; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Agricola, Johannes; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Alkire, Steven Patrick; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Άlvarez Piqueras, Damián; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amadio, Brian Thomas; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anders, John Kenneth; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Arabidze, Giorgi; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arduh, Francisco Anuar; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Artz, Sebastian; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Axen, Bradley; Ayoub, Mohamad Kassem; Azuelos, Georges; Baak, Max; Baas, Alessandra; Baca, Matthew John; Bacci, Cesare; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baldin, Evgenii; Balek, Petr; Balestri, Thomas; Balli, Fabrice; Balunas, William Keaton; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Barak, Liron; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnes, Sarah Louise; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Basalaev, Artem; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batista, Santiago Juan; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Bauce, Matteo; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beacham, James Baker; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Kathrin; Becker, Maurice; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Janna Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bender, Michael; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Bentvelsen, Stan; Beresford, Lydia; Beretta, Matteo; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Beringer, Jürg; Bernard, Clare; Bernard, Nathan Rogers; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertsche, Carolyn; Bertsche, David; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia Bylund, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bevan, Adrian John; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Biedermann, Dustin; Biesuz, Nicolo Vladi; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biondi, Silvia; Bjergaard, David Martin; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanco, Jacobo Ezequiel; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Blunier, Sylvain; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Bock, Christopher; Boehler, Michael; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogavac, Danijela; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borroni, Sara; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouffard, Julian; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boutle, Sarah Kate; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozic, Ivan; Bracinik, Juraj; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Breaden Madden, William Dmitri; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Lydia; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Britzger, Daniel; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Bronner, Johanna; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brosamer, Jacquelyn; Brost, Elizabeth; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Bruscino, Nello; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Buchholz, Peter; Buckley, Andrew; Budagov, Ioulian; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Lars; Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Bulekov, Oleg; Bullock, Daniel; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgard, Carsten Daniel; Burghgrave, Blake; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Busato, Emmanuel; Büscher, Daniel; Büscher, Volker; Bussey, Peter; Butler, John; Butt, Aatif Imtiaz; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Buzykaev, Aleksey; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cairo, Valentina; Cakir, Orhan; Calace, Noemi; Calafiura, Paolo; Calandri, Alessandro; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Caloba, Luiz; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarda, Stefano; Camarri, Paolo; Cameron, David; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Canepa, Anadi; Cano Bret, Marc; Cantero, Josu; Cantrill, Robert; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Carbone, Ryne Michael; Cardarelli, Roberto; Cardillo, Fabio; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Casolino, Mirkoantonio; Casper, David William; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castelli, Angelantonio; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catastini, Pierluigi; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Caudron, Julien; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerda Alberich, Leonor; Cerio, Benjamin; Cerny, Karel; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cerv, Matevz; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chalupkova, Ina; Chan, Yat Long; Chang, Philip; Chapman, John Derek; Charlton, Dave; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Karen; Chen, Liming; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Shion; Chen, Xin; Chen, Ye; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cheremushkina, Evgenia; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiarelli, Giorgio; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chislett, Rebecca Thalatta; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Choi, Kyungeon; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Christodoulou, Valentinos; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chudoba, Jiri; Chuinard, Annabelle Julia; Chwastowski, Janusz; Chytka, Ladislav; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Cioara, Irina Antonela; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirotto, Francesco; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Brian Lee; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coffey, Laurel; Colasurdo, Luca; Cole, Brian; Cole, Stephen; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Corso-Radu, Alina; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Côté, David; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Cribbs, Wayne Allen; Crispin Ortuzar, Mireia; Cristinziani, Markus; Croft, Vince; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cúth, Jakub; Cuthbert, Cameron; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dandoy, Jeffrey Rogers; Dang, Nguyen Phuong; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Danninger, Matthias; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Peter; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Benedetti, Abraham; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dedovich, Dmitri; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delgove, David; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; DeMarco, David; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Dette, Karola; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Domenico, Antonio; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Diaconu, Cristinel; Diamond, Miriam; Dias, Flavia; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Diglio, Sara; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Djuvsland, Julia Isabell; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Dobos, Daniel; Dobre, Monica; Doglioni, Caterina; Dohmae, Takeshi; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donati, Simone; Dondero, Paolo; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Drechsler, Eric; Dris, Manolis; Du, Yanyan; Dubreuil, Emmanuelle; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Duflot, Laurent; Duguid, Liam; Dührssen, Michael; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Durglishvili, Archil; Duschinger, Dirk; Dutta, Baishali; Dyndal, Mateusz; Eckardt, Christoph; Ecker, Katharina Maria; Edgar, Ryan Christopher; Edson, William; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Elliot, Alison; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Endner, Oliver Chris; Endo, Masaki; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Ernis, Gunar; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Ezhilov, Alexey; Fabbri, Laura; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falla, Rebecca Jane; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Faucci Giannelli, Michele; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Haolu; Fenyuk, Alexander; Feremenga, Last; Fernandez Martinez, Patricia; Fernandez Perez, Sonia; Ferrando, James; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Adam; Fischer, Cora; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Flaschel, Nils; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Gregory; Fletcher, Rob Roy MacGregor; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Francis, David; Franconi, Laura; Franklin, Melissa; Frate, Meghan; Fraternali, Marco; Freeborn, David; French, Sky; Fressard-Batraneanu, Silvia; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fusayasu, Takahiro; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gach, Grzegorz; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yanyan; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; Garberson, Ford; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudiello, Andrea; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Geisler, Manuel Patrice; Gemme, Claudia; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Geng, Cong; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghasemi, Sara; Ghazlane, Hamid; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Giannetti, Paola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Stephen; Gignac, Matthew; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giorgi, Filippo Maria; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giromini, Paolo; Giugni, Danilo; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gkougkousis, Evangelos Leonidas; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godlewski, Jan; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Goujdami, Driss; Goussiou, Anna; Govender, Nicolin; Gozani, Eitan; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Gradin, Per Olov Joakim; Grafström, Per; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Graziani, Enrico; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Grefe, Christian; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Groh, Sabrina; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Grout, Zara Jane; Guan, Liang; Guenther, Jaroslav; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Guo, Jun; Guo, Yicheng; Gupta, Shaun; Gustavino, Giuliano; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Haefner, Petra; Hageböck, Stephan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Haley, Joseph; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hallewell, Gregory David; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamity, Guillermo Nicolas; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Haney, Bijan; Hanke, Paul; Hanna, Remie; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Maike Christina; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Hariri, Faten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harrington, Robert; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Hasegawa, Makoto; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, A; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauser, Reiner; Hauswald, Lorenz; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hays, Jonathan Michael; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Lukas; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Hellman, Sten; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Hengler, Christopher; Henkelmann, Steffen; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hetherly, Jeffrey Wayne; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hinman, Rachel Reisner; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoenig, Friedrich; Hohlfeld, Marc; Hohn, David; Holmes, Tova Ray; Homann, Michael; Hong, Tae Min; Hooberman, Benjamin Henry; Hopkins, Walter; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horton, Arthur James; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hrynevich, Aliaksei; Hsu, Catherine; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Qipeng; Hu, Xueye; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Idrissi, Zineb; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Iurii; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Ince, Tayfun; Introzzi, Gianluca; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Ivarsson, Jenny; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jabbar, Samina; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobi, Katharina Bianca; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansky, Roland; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jiggins, Stephen; Jimenez Pena, Javier; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Johnson, William Joseph; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kahn, Sebastien Jonathan; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kaluza, Adam; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneti, Steven; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kaplan, Laser Seymour; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karamaoun, Andrew; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Kareem, Mohammad Jawad; Karentzos, Efstathios; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kasahara, Kota; Kashif, Lashkar; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Kato, Chikuma; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kawade, Kentaro; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Keyes, Robert; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharlamov, Alexey; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kido, Shogo; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Shinhong; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver Maria; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kivernyk, Oleh; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Matthew Henry; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Knapik, Joanna; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Aine; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolb, Mathis; Koletsou, Iro; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kosek, Tomas; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, Athina; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kreiss, Sven; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Krizka, Karol; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Krumnack, Nils; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kucuk, Hilal; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuger, Fabian; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kukla, Romain; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunigo, Takuto; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwan, Tony; Kyriazopoulos, Dimitrios; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rosa Navarro, Jose Luis; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Lambourne, Luke; Lammers, Sabine; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, J örn Christian; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lanza, Agostino; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lasagni Manghi, Federico; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Lazovich, Tomo; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeBlanc, Matthew Edgar; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leisos, Antonios; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lester, Christopher; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Adrian; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Lei; Li, Liang; Li, Shu; Li, Xingguo; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Liblong, Aaron; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Linde, Frank; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jian; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loew, Kevin Michael; Loginov, Andrey; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan David; Long, Robin Eamonn; Looper, Kristina Anne; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Lösel, Philipp Jonathan; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lu, Haonan; Lu, Nan; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luedtke, Christian; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Macdonald, Calum Michael; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeda, Junpei; Maeland, Steffen; Maeno, Tadashi; Maevskiy, Artem; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Andreas Alexander; Maier, Thomas; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mancini, Giada; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany; Mann, Alexander; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mantoani, Matteo; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marjanovic, Marija; Marley, Daniel; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martoiu, Victor Sorin; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massa, Lorenzo; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazza, Simone Michele; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer Zu Theenhausen, Hanno; Middleton, Robin; Miglioranzi, Silvia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milesi, Marco; Milic, Adriana; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Minaenko, Andrey; Minami, Yuto; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mistry, Khilesh; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Monden, Ryutaro; Mondragon, Matthew Craig; Mönig, Klaus; Monini, Caterina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montalbano, Alyssa; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Mori, Daniel; Mori, Tatsuya; Morii, Masahiro; Morinaga, Masahiro; Morisbak, Vanja; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Mortensen, Simon Stark; Morton, Alexander; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Ralph Soeren Peter; Mueller, Thibaut; Muenstermann, Daniel; Mullen, Paul; Mullier, Geoffrey; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nachman, Benjamin Philip; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagata, Kazuki; Nagel, Martin; Nagy, Elemer; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Naranjo Garcia, Roger Felipe; Narayan, Rohin; Narrias Villar, Daniel Isaac; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Nef, Pascal Daniel; Negri, Andrea; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nellist, Clara; Nelson, Andrew; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Jon Kerr; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nooney, Tamsin; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Ochoa-Ricoux, Juan Pedro; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Oide, Hideyuki; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onogi, Kouta; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Owen, Rhys Edward; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Pandini, Carlo Enrico; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parker, Kerry Ann; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pearson, Benjamin; Pedersen, Lars Egholm; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Penc, Ondrej; Peng, Cong; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penwell, John; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrella, Sabrina; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petroff, Pierre; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Pickering, Mark Andrew; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pin, Arnaud Willy J; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pires, Sylvestre; Pirumov, Hayk; Pitt, Michael; Pizio, Caterina; Plazak, Lukas; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Pluth, Daniel; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Polesello, Giacomo; Poley, Anne-luise; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Pozo Astigarraga, Mikel Eukeni; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Lawrence; Primavera, Margherita; Prince, Sebastien; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopapadaki, Eftychia-sofia; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Puddu, Daniele; Pueschel, Elisa; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Quilty, Donnchadha; Raddum, Silje; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Stefan; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reichert, Joseph; Reisin, Hernan; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Richter, Stefan; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ricken, Oliver; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Riegel, Christian Johann; Rieger, Julia; Rifki, Othmane; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ristić, Branislav; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romano Saez, Silvestre Marino; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Peyton; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Jonatan; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Russell, Heather; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Ryzhov, Andrey; Saavedra, Aldo; Sabato, Gabriele; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Saddique, Asif; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Saha, Puja; Sahinsoy, Merve; Saimpert, Matthias; Saito, Tomoyuki; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Salazar Loyola, Javier Esteban; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sammel, Dirk; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sannino, Mario; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sato, Koji; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savage, Graham; Savard, Pierre; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Scarfone, Valerio; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaeffer, Jan; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Schiavi, Carlo; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schmitt, Stefan; Schmitz, Simon; Schneider, Basil; Schnellbach, Yan Jie; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schopf, Elisabeth; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schuh, Natascha; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwarz, Thomas Andrew; Schwegler, Philipp; Schweiger, Hansdieter; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Scifo, Estelle; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Seema, Pienpen; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekhon, Karishma; Sekula, Stephen; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Serre, Thomas; Sessa, Marco; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sfiligoj, Tina; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shang, Ruo-yu; Shank, James; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Shaw, Savanna Marie; Shcherbakova, Anna; Shehu, Ciwake Yusufu; Sherwood, Peter; Shi, Liaoshan; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shoaleh Saadi, Diane; Shochet, Mel; Shojaii, Seyedruhollah; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sidebo, Per Edvin; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simon, Dorian; Simon, Manuel; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sioli, Maximiliano; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinner, Malcolm Bruce; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Slawinska, Magdalena; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Matthew; Smith, Russell; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snidero, Giacomo; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Sokhrannyi, Grygorii; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solodkov, Alexander; Soloshenko, Alexei; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Song, Hong Ye; Soni, Nitesh; Sood, Alexander; Sopczak, Andre; Sopko, Bruno; Sopko, Vit; Sorin, Veronica; Sosa, David; Sosebee, Mark; Sotiropoulou, Calliope Louisa; Soualah, Rachik; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Sowden, Benjamin; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spalla, Margherita; Spangenberg, Martin; Spanò, Francesco; Spearman, William Robert; Sperlich, Dennis; Spettel, Fabian; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spiller, Laurence Anthony; Spousta, Martin; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stabile, Alberto; Staerz, Steffen; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stamm, Soren; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strubig, Antonia; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Succurro, Antonella; Suchek, Stanislav; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Siyuan; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Shota; Svatos, Michal; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Taccini, Cecilia; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tam, Jason; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Shuji; Tannenwald, Benjamin Bordy; Tapia Araya, Sebastian; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Aaron; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Pierre Thor Elliot; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Temple, Darren; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Tepel, Fabian-Phillipp; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Ray; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thun, Rudolf; Tibbetts, Mark James; Ticse Torres, Royer Edson; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tiouchichine, Elodie; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todome, Kazuki; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tolley, Emma; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; Truong, Loan; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsui, Ka Ming; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Tupputi, Salvatore; Turchikhin, Semen; Turecek, Daniel; Turra, Ruggero; Turvey, Andrew John; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ughetto, Michael; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Unverdorben, Christopher; Urban, Jozef; Urquijo, Phillip; Urrejola, Pedro; Usai, Giulio; Usanova, Anna; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Valderanis, Chrysostomos; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Den Wollenberg, Wouter; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vanguri, Rami; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vannucci, Francois; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veloce, Laurelle Maria; Veloso, Filipe; Velz, Thomas; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigne, Ralph; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Marcelo; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobev, Konstantin; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Vykydal, Zdenek; Wagner, Peter; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wahlberg, Hernan; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wang, Chao; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Kuhan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Wang, Tingting; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Washbrook, Andrew; Wasicki, Christoph; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Stefan Wolf; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Whalen, Kathleen; Wharton, Andrew Mark; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; White, Sebastian; Whiteson, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wildauer, Andreas; Wilkens, Henric George; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, Alan; Wilson, John; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winklmeier, Frank; Winter, Benedict Tobias; Wittgen, Matthias; Wittkowski, Josephine; Wollstadt, Simon Jakob; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wu, Mengqing; Wu, Miles; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yakabe, Ryota; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Daiki; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Yi; Yao, Weiming; Yap, Yee Chinn; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yeletskikh, Ivan; Yen, Andy L; Yildirim, Eda; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jiaming; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yuen, Stephanie P; Yurkewicz, Adam; Yusuff, Imran; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zalieckas, Justas; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zeng, Jian Cong; Zeng, Qi; Zengel, Keith; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Guangyi; Zhang, Huijun; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Ruiqi; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Xiandong; Zhao, Yongke; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Chen; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Mingliang; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Zinser, Markus; Ziolkowski, Michael; Živković, Lidija; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zurzolo, Giovanni; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2016-05-23

    Distributions of transverse momentum $p_T^{ll}$ and the angular variable $\\phi^*_\\eta$ of Drell--Yan lepton pairs are measured in 20.3 fb$^{-1}$ of proton--proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=8$ TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. Measurements in electron-pair and muon-pair final states are corrected for detector effects and combined. Compared to previous measurements in proton--proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV, these new measurements benefit from a larger data sample and improved control of systematic uncertainties. Measurements are performed in bins of lepton-pair mass above, around and below the Z-boson mass peak. The data are compared to predictions from perturbative and resummed QCD calculations. For values of $\\phi^*_\\eta < 1$ the predictions from the Monte Carlo generator ResBos are generally consistent with the data within the theoretical uncertainties. However, at larger values of $\\phi^*_\\eta$ this is not generally the case. Monte Carlo generators based on the parton-shower approach are unabl...

  16. Studies of the underlying-event properties and of hard double parton scattering with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Kuprash, Oleg; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    A correct modelling of the underlying event in proton-proton collisions is important for the proper simulation of kinematic distributions of high-energy collisions. The ATLAS collaboration extended previous studies at 7 TeV with a leading track or jet or Z boson by a new study at 13 TeV, measuring the number and transverse-momentum sum of charged particles as a function of pseudorapidity and azimuthal angle in dependence of the reconstructed leading track. These measurements are sensitive to the underlying-event as well as the onset of hard emissions. The results are compared to predictions of several MC generators. + Inclusive four-jet events produced in proton--proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV have been analyzed for the presence of hard double parton scattering collected with the ATLAS detector. The contribution of hard double parton scattering to the production of four-jet events has been extracted using an artificial neural network. The assumption was made that hard double parton scat...

  17. Quarks and partons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Close, F.E.

    1976-01-01

    The studies of inelastic electron scattering at SLAC and of neutrino scattering at CERN have been widely interpreted as giving support to the idea that the nucleon is built from elementary constituents, called partons, and that these partons have the same quantum numbers as the quarks that are familiar in spectroscopy. In particular, a very simple regularity in the data, known as scale invariance or just 'scaling' was seen at least at moderate energies (2 2 > approximately 1 GeV) which is natural in the parton model. The data on e + e - annihilation also appear to be consistent with scaling when Esub(cm) approximately 5 GeV. These lectures are concerned with the scaling phenomena. One may expect the new hadronic degree of freedom to generate scaling violations in inelastic electron and neutrino scattering. These are mentioned briefly in these lectures. (Auth.)

  18. Pion and kaon valence-quark parton quasidistributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shu-Sheng; Chang, Lei; Roberts, Craig D.; Zong, Hong-Shi

    2018-05-01

    Algebraic Ansätze for the Poincaré-covariant Bethe-Salpeter wave functions of the pion and kaon are used to calculate their light-front wave functions, parton distribution amplitudes, parton quasidistribution amplitudes, valence parton distribution functions, and parton quasidistribution functions (PqDFs). The light-front wave functions are broad, concave functions, and the scale of flavor-symmetry violation in the kaon is roughly 15%, being set by the ratio of emergent masses in the s - and u -quark sectors. Parton quasidistribution amplitudes computed with longitudinal momentum Pz=1.75 GeV provide a semiquantitatively accurate representation of the objective parton distribution amplitude, but even with Pz=3 GeV , they cannot provide information about this amplitude's end point behavior. On the valence-quark domain, similar outcomes characterize PqDFs. In this connection, however, the ratio of kaon-to-pion u -quark PqDFs is found to provide a good approximation to the true parton distribution function ratio on 0.4 ≲x ≲0.8 , suggesting that with existing resources computations of ratios of parton quasidistributions can yield results that support empirical comparison.

  19. Transverse momentum in double parton scattering. Factorisation, evolution and matching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buffing, Maarten G.A.; Diehl, Markus; Kasemets, Tomas

    2017-08-01

    We give a description of double parton scattering with measured transverse momenta in the final state, extending the formalism for factorisation and resummation developed by Collins, Soper and Sterman for the production of colourless particles. After a detailed analysis of their colour structure, we derive and solve evolution equations in rapidity and renormalisation scale for the relevant soft factors and double parton distributions. We show how in the perturbative regime, transverse momentum dependent double parton distributions can be expressed in terms of simpler nonperturbative quantities and compute several of the corresponding perturbative kernels at one-loop accuracy. We then show how the coherent sum of single and double parton scattering can be simplified for perturbatively large transverse momenta, and we discuss to which order resummation can be performed with presently available results. As an auxiliary result, we derive a simple form for the square root factor in the Collins construction of transverse momentum dependent parton distributions.

  20. Transverse momentum in double parton scattering. Factorisation, evolution and matching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buffing, Maarten G.A.; Diehl, Markus [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Kasemets, Tomas [Nikhef, Amsterdam (Netherlands). Theory Group; VU Univ. Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2017-08-15

    We give a description of double parton scattering with measured transverse momenta in the final state, extending the formalism for factorisation and resummation developed by Collins, Soper and Sterman for the production of colourless particles. After a detailed analysis of their colour structure, we derive and solve evolution equations in rapidity and renormalisation scale for the relevant soft factors and double parton distributions. We show how in the perturbative regime, transverse momentum dependent double parton distributions can be expressed in terms of simpler nonperturbative quantities and compute several of the corresponding perturbative kernels at one-loop accuracy. We then show how the coherent sum of single and double parton scattering can be simplified for perturbatively large transverse momenta, and we discuss to which order resummation can be performed with presently available results. As an auxiliary result, we derive a simple form for the square root factor in the Collins construction of transverse momentum dependent parton distributions.

  1. The Structure of the Proton in the LHC Precision Era

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, Jun; Harland-Lang, Lucian; Rojo, Juan

    2017-01-01

    We review recent progress in the determination of the parton distribution functions (PDFs) of the proton, with emphasis on the applications for precision phenomenology at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). First of all, we introduce the general theoretical framework underlying the global QCD analysis

  2. Extraction of partonic transverse momentum distributions from semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering and Drell-Yan data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisano, Cristian [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Pavia; INFN, Sezione di Pavia Via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia, Italy; Bacchetta, Alessandro [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Pavia; INFN, Sezione di Pavia Via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia, Italy; Delcarro, Filippo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Pavia; INFN, Sezione di Pavia Via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia, Italy; Radici, Marco [INFN, Sezione di Pavia Via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia, Italy; Signori, Andrea [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2018-04-01

    We present a first attempt at a global fit of unpolarized quark transverse momentum dependent distribution and fragmentation functions from available data on semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering, Drell-Yan and $Z$ boson production processes. This analysis is performed in the low transverse momentum region, at leading order in perturbative QCD and with the inclusion of energy scale evolution effects at the next-to-leading logarithmic accuracy.

  3. Ordering variable for parton showers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, Zoltan [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Soper, Davison E. [Oregon Univ., Eugene, OR (United States). Inst. of Theoretical Science

    2014-01-15

    The parton splittings in a parton shower are ordered according to an ordering variable, for example the transverse momentum of the daughter partons relative to the direction of the mother, the virtuality of the splitting, or the angle between the daughter partons. We analyze the choice of the ordering variable and conclude that one particular choice has the advantage of factoring softer splittings from harder splittings graph by graph in a physical gauge.

  4. Ordering variable for parton showers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, Zoltán [DESY,Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Soper, Davison E. [Institute of Theoretical Science, University of Oregon,Eugene, OR 97403-5203 (United States)

    2014-06-30

    The parton splittings in a parton shower are ordered according to an ordering variable, for example the transverse momentum of the daughter partons relative to the direction of the mother, the virtuality of the splitting, or the angle between the daughter partons. We analyze the choice of the ordering variable and conclude that one particular choice has the advantage of factoring softer splittings from harder splittings graph by graph in a physical gauge.

  5. Ordering variable for parton showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, Zoltan; Soper, Davison E.

    2014-01-01

    The parton splittings in a parton shower are ordered according to an ordering variable, for example the transverse momentum of the daughter partons relative to the direction of the mother, the virtuality of the splitting, or the angle between the daughter partons. We analyze the choice of the ordering variable and conclude that one particular choice has the advantage of factoring softer splittings from harder splittings graph by graph in a physical gauge.

  6. Imaging the proton via hard exclusive production in diffractive pp scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles Hyde; Leonid Frankfurt; Mark Strikman; Christian Weiss

    2007-01-01

    We discuss the prospects for probing Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) via exclusive production of a high-mass system (H = heavy quarkonium, di-photon, di-jet, Higgs boson) in diffractive pp scattering, pp -> p + H + p. In such processes the interplay of hard and soft interactions gives rise to a diffraction pattern in the final-state proton transverse momenta, which is sensitive to the transverse spatial distribution of partons in the colliding protons. We comment on the plans for diffractive pp measurements at RHIC and LHC. Such studies could complement future measurements of GPDs in hard exclusive ep scattering (JLab, COMPASS, EIC)

  7. Dimuon production in proton-nucleus interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    Results from the Fermilab experiments E772 and E789 on the Drell-Yan cross sections, quarkonia production, and open-charm production are presented. These data provide information on the parton distributions in the nucleons and nuclei. They also shed light on the origin of the J/Ψ suppression observed in heavy ion collisions. The physics motivation and the proposed measurements for a new experiment to probe the sea quark distributions in the proton are also discussed

  8. Are partons confined tachyons?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noyes, H.P.

    1996-03-01

    The author notes that if hadrons are gravitationally stabilized ''black holes'', as discrete physics suggests, it is possible that partons, and in particular quarks, could be modeled as tachyons, i.e. particles having v 2 > c 2 , without conflict with the observational fact that neither quarks nor tachyons have appeared as ''free particles''. Some consequences of this model are explored

  9. Improved modelling of independent parton hadronization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biddulph, P.; Thompson, G.

    1989-01-01

    A modification is proposed to current versions of the Field-Feynman ansatz for the hadronization of a quark in Monte Carlo models of QCD interactions. This faster-running algorithm has no more parameters and imposes a better degree of energy conservation. It results in naturally introducing a limitation of the transverse momentum distribution, similar to the experimentally observed ''seagull'' effect. There is now a much improved conservation of quantum numbers between the original parton and resultant hadrons, and the momentum of the emitted parton is better preserved in the summed momentum vectors of the final state particles. (orig.)

  10. Dynamical equilibration in strongly-interacting parton-hadron matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorenstein M.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We study the kinetic and chemical equilibration in 'infinite' parton-hadron matter within the Parton-Hadron-String Dynamics transport approach, which is based on a dynamical quasiparticle model for partons matched to reproduce lattice-QCD results – including the partonic equation of state – in thermodynamic equilibrium. The 'infinite' matter is simulated within a cubic box with periodic boundary conditions initialized at different baryon density (or chemical potential and energy density. The transition from initially pure partonic matter to hadronic degrees of freedom (or vice versa occurs dynamically by interactions. Different thermody-namical distributions of the strongly-interacting quark-gluon plasma (sQGP are addressed and discussed.

  11. Thermalization through parton transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Bin

    2010-01-01

    A radiative transport model is used to study kinetic equilibration during the early stage of a relativistic heavy ion collision. The parton system is found to be able to overcome expansion and move toward thermalization via parton collisions. Scaling behaviors show up in both the pressure anisotropy and the energy density evolutions. In particular, the pressure anisotropy evolution shows an approximate α s scaling when radiative processes are included. It approaches an asymptotic time evolution on a time scale of 1 to 2 fm/c. The energy density evolution shows an asymptotic time evolution that decreases slower than the ideal hydro evolution. These observations indicate that partial thermalization can be achieved and viscosity is important for the evolution during the early longitudinal expansion stage of a relativistic heavy ion collision.

  12. Are partons confined tachyons?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noyes, H.P.

    1996-03-01

    The author notes that if hadrons are gravitationally stabilized ``black holes``, as discrete physics suggests, it is possible that partons, and in particular quarks, could be modeled as tachyons, i.e. particles having v{sup 2} > c{sup 2}, without conflict with the observational fact that neither quarks nor tachyons have appeared as ``free particles``. Some consequences of this model are explored.

  13. Dijet Cross Sections and Parton Densities in Diffractive DIS at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aktas, A.; Andreev, V.; Anthonis, T.; Antunovic, B.; Aplin, S.; Asmone, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baudrand, S.; Beckingham, M.; Begzsuren, K.; Behnke, O.; Behrendt, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, N.; Bizot, J.C.; Boenig, M.-O.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Cholewa, A.; Contreras, J.G.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Daum, K.; Deak, M.; de Boer, Y.; Delcourt, B.; Del Degan, M.; Delvax, J.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, Guenter; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Essenov, S.; Falkiewicz, A.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Finke, L.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Franke, G.; Frisson, T.; Gabathuler, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Ginzburgskaya, S.; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Goettlich, M.; Gogitidze, N.; Gorbounov, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Grell, B.R.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Hansson, M.; Heinzelmann, G.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Henschel, H.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Hreus, T.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, M.E.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, D.P.; Jung, Andreas Werner; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, Christian M.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Klimkovich, T.; Kluge, T.; Knutsson, A.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kruger, K.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leibenguth, G.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Li, G.; Lindfeld, L.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; List, B.; List, J.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Marti, Ll.; Martisikova, M.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michels, V.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Mohamed, A.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nankov, K.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, Paul R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Nozicka, M.; Oganezov, R.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J.E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, Th.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Peng, H.; Perez, E.; Perez-Astudillo, D.; Perieanu, A.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Polifka, R.; Povh, B.; Preda, T.; Prideaux, P.; Radescu, V.; Rahmat, A.J.; Raicevic, N.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Salvaire, F.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, C.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R.N.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Sloan, T.; Smiljanic, Ivan; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Straumann, U.; Sunar, D.; Sykora, T.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P.D.; Toll, T.; Tomasz, F.; Tran, T.H.; Traynor, D.; Trinh, T.N.; Truol, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Urban, K.; Utkin, D.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Wessels, M.; Wissing, Ch.; Wolf, R.; Wunsch, E.; Xella, S.; Yan, W.; Yeganov, V.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokin, A.; Zhu, Y.C.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2007-01-01

    Differential dijet cross sections in diffractive deep-inelastic scattering are measured with the H1 detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 51.5 pb-1. The selected events are of the type ep --> eXY, where the system X contains at least two jets and is well separated in rapidity from the low mass proton dissociation system Y. The dijet data are compared with QCD predictions at next-to-leading order based on diffractive parton distribution functions previously extracted from measurements of inclusive diffractive deep-inelastic scattering. The prediction describes the dijet data well at low and intermediate zpom (the fraction of the momentum of the diffractive exchange carried by the parton entering the hard interaction) where the gluon density is well determined from the inclusive diffractive data, supporting QCD factorisation. A new set of diffractive parton distribution functions is obtained through a simultaneous fit to the diffractive inclusive and dijet cross sections. This allows for a precise ...

  14. Parametrization of nuclear parton distributions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    portant not only for understanding internal structure of the nucleon but also for calculating other reaction cross ... There is, however, a disadvantage in this approach ... First, we discuss the A dependence of the weight function w . In this paper ...

  15. Study of the partonic structure of the helium nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrin, Y.

    2012-01-01

    The structure of the nucleons and of the nuclei was actively studied during the twentieth century through electron elastic scattering (measuring the electromagnetic form factors) and deep inelastic electron scattering (measuring the parton distributions). The formalism of generalized parton distributions (GPD) achieved the unification of the form factors and the parton distributions. This link gives a source of information about parton dynamics, such as the distribution of nuclear forces and orbital momentum inside hadrons. The easiest experimental access to the GPD is the deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS), which corresponds to the hard electroproduction of a real photon. While several experiments focussed on DVCS off the nucleon, only a few experiments studied DVCS off a nuclear target. This thesis deals with the study of the coherent channel of DVCS off helium 4, with the aim of extracting the real and imaginary parts of the Compton form factor thanks to the beam spin asymmetry. (author)

  16. What is a parton shower?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, Zoltan; Soper, Davison E.

    2017-05-01

    We consider idealized parton shower event generators that treat parton spin and color exactly, leaving aside the choice of practical approximations for spin and color. We investigate how the structure of such a parton shower generator is related to the structure of QCD. We argue that a parton shower with splitting functions proportional to αs can be viewed not just as a model, but as the lowest order approximation to a shower that is defined at any perturbative order. To support this argument, we present a formulation for a parton shower at order α k s for any k. Since some of the input functions needed are specified by their properties but not calculated, this formulation does not provide a useful recipe for an order α k s parton shower algorithm. However, in this formulation we see how the operators that generate the shower are related to operators that specify the infrared singularities of QCD.

  17. Baryon stopping and strangeness baryon production in a parton cascade model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nara, Yasushi

    1999-01-01

    A parton cascade model which is based on pQCD incorporating hard partonic scattering and dynamical hadronization scheme describes the space-time evolution of parton/hadron system produced by ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions. Hadron yield, baryon stopping and transverse momentum distribution are calculated and compared with experimental data at SPS energies. Using new version of parton cascade code VNI in which baryonic cluster formation is implemented, we calculate the net baryon number distributions and Λ yield. It is found that baryon stopping behavior at SPS energies is well accounted for within the parton cascade picture. As a consequence of the production of the baryon (u and d quark) rich parton matter, parton coalescence naturally explains the enhanced yield of Λ particle which has been observed in experiment. (author)

  18. Parton dynamics in hadronic processes. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhatme, U.P.

    1984-07-01

    We have elucidated several aspects of the dual parton fragmentation model for low transverse momentum multiparticle production in hadronic collisions previously developed by the author and collaborators at Orsay, France. In particular, we have verified that the dual parton model correctly reproduces recently obtained two particle inclusive distributions and particle ratios in the central region of pp and anti pp collisions. This work sheds light on the dynamics of partons in a hadronic collision since it strongly indicates that a valence quark from each initial hadron is held back with a small momentum fraction. Also, we have extended the dual parton approach to include diffraction dissocation and studied the consequences on inclusive pion production in pp interactions. We have investigated the virtues and limitations of logarithmic perturbation theory, which is often a much simpler alternative to standard Rayleigh-Schroedinger perturbation theory. Finally, we have developed and studied the shifted 1/N expansion for the enrgy eigenstates in non-relativistic quantum mechanics. Our results provide an accurate, rapidly convergent, powerful new way of handling any spherically symmetric potential. 18 references

  19. Calculation of multi-dimensional dose distribution in medium due to proton beam incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawachi, Kiyomitsu; Inada, Tetsuo

    1978-01-01

    The method of analyzing the multi-dimensional dose distribution in a medium due to proton beam incidence is presented to obtain the reliable and simplified method from clinical viewpoint, especially for the medical treatment of cancer. The heavy ion beam being taken out of an accelerator has to be adjusted to fit cancer location and size, utilizing a modified range modulator, a ridge filter, a bolus and a special scanning apparatus. The precise calculation of multi-dimensional dose distribution of proton beam is needed to fit treatment to a limit part. The analytical formulas consist of those for the fluence distribution in a medium, the divergence of flying range, the energy distribution itself, the dose distribution in side direction and the two-dimensional dose distribution. The fluence distribution in polystyrene in case of the protons with incident energy of 40 and 60 MeV, the energy distribution of protons at the position of a Bragg peak for various values of incident energy, the depth dose distribution in polystyrene in case of the protons with incident energy of 40 and 60 MeV and average energy of 100 MeV, the proton fluence and dose distribution as functions of depth for the incident average energy of 250 MeV, the statistically estimated percentage errors in the proton fluence and dose distribution, the estimated minimum detectable tumor thickness as a function of the number of incident protons for the different incident spectra with average energy of 250 MeV, the isodose distribution in a plane containing the central axis in case of the incident proton beam of 3 mm diameter and 40 MeV and so on are presented as the analytical results, and they are evaluated. (Nakai, Y.)

  20. The effective cross section for double parton scattering within a holographic AdS/QCD approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traini, Marco, E-mail: marcoclaudio.traini@unitn.it [Institut de Physique Théorique, Université Paris Saclay, CEA, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); INFN - TIFPA, Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Trento, Via Sommarive 14, I-38123 Povo, Trento (Italy); Rinaldi, Matteo [Departament de Fisica Teòrica, Universitat de València and Institut de Fisica Corpuscular, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 46100 Burjassot, València (Spain); Scopetta, Sergio [Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Università degli Studi di Perugia, Via A. Pascoli, I-06123 (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Vento, Vicente [Departament de Fisica Teòrica, Universitat de València and Institut de Fisica Corpuscular, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 46100 Burjassot, València (Spain)

    2017-05-10

    A first attempt to apply the AdS/QCD framework for a bottom–up approach to the evaluation of the effective cross section for double parton scattering in proton–proton collisions is presented. The main goal is the analytic evaluation of the dependence of the effective cross section on the longitudinal momenta of the involved partons, obtained within the holographic Soft-Wall model. If measured in high-energy processes at hadron colliders, this momentum dependence could open a new window on 2-parton correlations in a proton.

  1. Baseline for the cumulants of net-proton distributions at STAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Xiaofeng; Mohanty, Bedangadas; Xu, Nu

    2014-01-01

    We present a systematic comparison between the recently measured cumulants of the net-proton distributions by STAR for 0–5% central Au + Au collisions at √(s NN )=7.7–200 GeV and two kinds of possible baseline measure, the Poisson and Binomial baselines. These baseline measures are assuming that the proton and anti-proton distributions independently follow Poisson statistics or Binomial statistics. The higher order cumulant net-proton data are observed to deviate from all the baseline measures studied at 19.6 and 27 GeV. We also compare the net-proton with net-baryon fluctuations in UrQMD and AMPT model, and convert the net-proton fluctuations to net-baryon fluctuations in AMPT model by using a set of formula

  2. Energy loss distributions of 7 TeV protons channeled in a bent silicon crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanov Nace

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy loss distributions of relativistic protons axially channeled through the bent Si crystals, with the constant curvature radius, R = 50 m, are studied here. The proton energy is 7 TeV and the thickness of the crystal is varied from 1 mm to 5 mm, which corresponds to the reduced crystal thickness, L, from 2.1 to 10.6, respectively. The proton energy was chosen in accordance with the large hadron collider project, at the European Organization for Nuclear Research, in Geneva, Switzerland. The energy loss distributions of the channeled protons were generated by the computer simulation method using the numerical solution of the proton equations of motion in the transverse plane. Dispersion of the proton scattering angle caused by its collisions with the crystal’s electrons was taken into account. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 45006

  3. High resolution Cerenkov light imaging of induced positron distribution in proton therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi, E-mail: s-yama@met.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Fujii, Kento; Morishita, Yuki; Okumura, Satoshi; Komori, Masataka [Radiological and Medical Laboratory Sciences, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Aichi 461-8673 (Japan); Toshito, Toshiyuki [Department of Proton Therapy Physics, Nagoya Proton Therapy Center, Nagoya City West Medical Center, Aichi 462-8508 (Japan)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: In proton therapy, imaging of the positron distribution produced by fragmentation during or soon after proton irradiation is a useful method to monitor the proton range. Although positron emission tomography (PET) is typically used for this imaging, its spatial resolution is limited. Cerenkov light imaging is a new molecular imaging technology that detects the visible photons that are produced from high-speed electrons using a high sensitivity optical camera. Because its inherent spatial resolution is much higher than PET, the authors can measure more precise information of the proton-induced positron distribution with Cerenkov light imaging technology. For this purpose, they conducted Cerenkov light imaging of induced positron distribution in proton therapy. Methods: First, the authors evaluated the spatial resolution of our Cerenkov light imaging system with a {sup 22}Na point source for the actual imaging setup. Then the transparent acrylic phantoms (100 × 100 × 100 mm{sup 3}) were irradiated with two different proton energies using a spot scanning proton therapy system. Cerenkov light imaging of each phantom was conducted using a high sensitivity electron multiplied charge coupled device (EM-CCD) camera. Results: The Cerenkov light’s spatial resolution for the setup was 0.76 ± 0.6 mm FWHM. They obtained high resolution Cerenkov light images of the positron distributions in the phantoms for two different proton energies and made fused images of the reference images and the Cerenkov light images. The depths of the positron distribution in the phantoms from the Cerenkov light images were almost identical to the simulation results. The decay curves derived from the region-of-interests (ROIs) set on the Cerenkov light images revealed that Cerenkov light images can be used for estimating the half-life of the radionuclide components of positrons. Conclusions: High resolution Cerenkov light imaging of proton-induced positron distribution was possible. The

  4. High resolution Cerenkov light imaging of induced positron distribution in proton therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Fujii, Kento; Morishita, Yuki; Okumura, Satoshi; Komori, Masataka; Toshito, Toshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In proton therapy, imaging of the positron distribution produced by fragmentation during or soon after proton irradiation is a useful method to monitor the proton range. Although positron emission tomography (PET) is typically used for this imaging, its spatial resolution is limited. Cerenkov light imaging is a new molecular imaging technology that detects the visible photons that are produced from high-speed electrons using a high sensitivity optical camera. Because its inherent spatial resolution is much higher than PET, the authors can measure more precise information of the proton-induced positron distribution with Cerenkov light imaging technology. For this purpose, they conducted Cerenkov light imaging of induced positron distribution in proton therapy. Methods: First, the authors evaluated the spatial resolution of our Cerenkov light imaging system with a 22 Na point source for the actual imaging setup. Then the transparent acrylic phantoms (100 × 100 × 100 mm 3 ) were irradiated with two different proton energies using a spot scanning proton therapy system. Cerenkov light imaging of each phantom was conducted using a high sensitivity electron multiplied charge coupled device (EM-CCD) camera. Results: The Cerenkov light’s spatial resolution for the setup was 0.76 ± 0.6 mm FWHM. They obtained high resolution Cerenkov light images of the positron distributions in the phantoms for two different proton energies and made fused images of the reference images and the Cerenkov light images. The depths of the positron distribution in the phantoms from the Cerenkov light images were almost identical to the simulation results. The decay curves derived from the region-of-interests (ROIs) set on the Cerenkov light images revealed that Cerenkov light images can be used for estimating the half-life of the radionuclide components of positrons. Conclusions: High resolution Cerenkov light imaging of proton-induced positron distribution was possible. The authors

  5. Study of double parton scattering using four-jet scenarios in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV with the CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2078294; Haller, Johannes; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Strikman, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of the dierential cross sections for multijet scenarios in proton-proton collisions are presented as a function of the transverse momentum p T and pseudorapi- dity , together with the correlations in azimuthal angle and the p T balance among the jets. Two dierent scenarios are separately studied; in the rst one an exclusive four-jet nal state is selected in j j 50 GeV each, together with two jets of p T > 20 GeV each. No other jets with p T > 20 GeV are allowed in the selected events. In the second one at least four jets with p T > 20 GeV are required: two of the four selected jets are asked to be originated by a b-quark in j j < 2.4, while no requests on the avour of the other two jets, which are selected within j j < 4.7 are applied. The data sample was collected in 2010 at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC, with an integrated luminosity of 36 pb-1. The total cross section is measured to be (pp ! 4j+X) = 330 5 (stat.) 45 (syst.) and (pp ! 2b+2j+X) = 67 : 2...

  6. Clan properties in parton showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugoccioni, R.; Giovannini, A.; Lupia, S.

    1994-01-01

    By considering clans as genuine elementary sub-processes, i.e., intermediate parton sources in the Simplified Parton Shower model, a generalized version of this model is defined. It predicts analytically clan properties at parton level in agreement with the general trends observed experimentally at hadronic level and in Monte Carlo simulations both at partonic and hadronic level. In particular the model shows a linear rising in rapidity of the average number of clans at fixed energy of the initial parton and its subsequent bending for rapidity intervals at the border of phase space, and approximate energy independence of the average number of clans in fixed rapidity intervals. The energy independence becomes stricter by properly normalizing the average number of clans (orig.)

  7. Clan properties in parton showers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ugoccioni, R. (Dipt. di Fisica Teorica, Univ. di Torino (Italy) INFN (Italy)); Giovannini, A. (Dipt. di Fisica Teorica, Univ. di Torino (Italy) INFN (Italy)); Lupia, S. (Dipt. di Fisica Teorica, Univ. di Torino (Italy) INFN (Italy))

    1994-11-01

    By considering clans as genuine elementary sub-processes, i.e., intermediate parton sources in the Simplified Parton Shower model, a generalized version of this model is defined. It predicts analytically clan properties at parton level in agreement with the general trends observed experimentally at hadronic level and in Monte Carlo simulations both at partonic and hadronic level. In particular the model shows a linear rising in rapidity of the average number of clans at fixed energy of the initial parton and its subsequent bending for rapidity intervals at the border of phase space, and approximate energy independence of the average number of clans in fixed rapidity intervals. The energy independence becomes stricter by properly normalizing the average number of clans (orig.)

  8. Calculation of parton fragmentation functions from jet calculus: gluon applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lassila, K.E.; Ng, A.

    1985-01-01

    A method is presented for calculation of general parton fragmentation functions based on jet calculus plus meson and baryon wave functions. Results for gluon fragmentation into mesons and baryons are discussed and related to recent information on upsilon decay into gluons. The expressions derived can be used directly in e + e - cross section predictions and will need to be folded in with baryon parton distribution functions when used in p-barp collisions. (author)

  9. A new description of high energy antiproton (proton)-proton elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barshay, S.; Technion-Israel Inst. of Tech., Haifa. Dept. of Physics); Goldberg, J.

    1987-01-01

    We develop a generalization of the geometric picture for high-energy antiproton (proton)-proton elastic scattering. The eikonal at each impact parameter is considered to have fluctuations about an average value, and is thus characterized by a distribution. A connection to parton branching is made through the specific form of the distribution function for the eikonal. A unified physical theory with significant fluctuations accurately describes the anti p(p)-p data at both √s = 546 GeV and 53 GeV. The fluctuation parameter is remarkably well given by that directly observed in multiparticle production. (orig.)

  10. New description of high energy antiproton (proton)-proton elastic scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barshay, S; Goldberg, J

    1987-10-15

    We develop a generalization of the geometric picture for high-energy antiproton (proton)-proton elastic scattering. The eikonal at each impact parameter is considered to have fluctuations about an average value, and is thus characterized by a distribution. A connection to parton branching is made through the specific form of the distribution function for the eikonal. A unified physical theory with significant fluctuations accurately describes the anti p(p)-p data at both ..sqrt..s = 546 GeV and 53 GeV. The fluctuation parameter is remarkably well given by that directly observed in multiparticle production.

  11. Fundamental issues on kappa-distributions in space plasmas and interplanetary proton distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leubner, M.P.

    2004-01-01

    Numerous in situ observations indicate clearly the presence of nonthermal electron and ion structures as ubiquitous and persistent feature in a variety of astrophysical plasma environments. In particular, the detected suprathermal particle populations are accurately represented by the family of κ-distributions, a power-law in particle speed. After clarifying the characteristics of high-energy tail distributions under various space plasma conditions, different generation mechanisms of energetic particles are introduced where numerical simulations of wave-particle interaction based on a Fokker-Planck approach demonstrate how Landau interaction ultimately leads to κ-like distributions. Because of lack of theoretical justification, the use of the analytical form of κ-functions was frequently criticized. It is shown that these distributions turn out as consequence of an entropy generalization favored by nonextensive thermo-statistics, thus providing the missing link for powerlaw models of suprathermal tails from fundamental physics, along with a physical interpretation of the structure parameter κ. Moreover, with regard to the full nonextensive formalism, compatible also with negative values of κ, it is demonstrated that core-halo distribution structures, as observed for instance under typical interplanetary plasma conditions, are a natural content of the pseudo-additive entropy concept. The significance of the complete κ-distribution family with regard to observed core-halo electron and double-humped ion velocity space characteristics is illuminated, where the observed peak separation scale of interplanetary proton distributions is compatible with a maximum entropy condition

  12. Wee partons in large nuclei: From virtual dream to hard reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venugopalan, R.

    1995-01-01

    We construct a weak coupling, many body theory to compute parton distributions in large nuclei for x much-lt A - 1/3 . The wee partons are highly coherent, non-Abelian Weizsaecker-Williams fields. Radiative corrections to the classical results axe discussed. The parton distributions for a single nucleus provide the initial conditions for the dynamical evolution of matter formed in ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions

  13. Measurement of the transverse momentum and Φ$*\\atop{η}$ distributions of Drell–Yan lepton pairs in proton–proton collisions at √s=8  TeV with the ATLAS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Affolder, A. A.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Agricola, J.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alio, L.; Alison, J.; Alkire, S. P.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Altheimer, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Álvarez Piqueras, D.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amadio, B. T.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amram, N.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anders, J. K.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Arabidze, G.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arduh, F. A.; Arguin, J. -F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Artz, S.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Axen, B.; Ayoub, M. K.; Azuelos, G.; Baak, M. A.; Baas, A. E.; Baca, M. J.; Bacci, C.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baldin, E. M.; Balek, P.; Balestri, T.; Balli, F.; Balunas, W. K.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Barak, L.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnes, S. L.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Basalaev, A.; Bassalat, A.; Basye, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batista, S. J.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Bauce, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beacham, J. B.; Beattie, M. D.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, M.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, J. K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bender, M.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beresford, L.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Beringer, J.; Bernard, C.; Bernard, N. R.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertoli, G.; Bertolucci, F.; Bertsche, C.; Bertsche, D.; Besana, M. I.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia Bylund, O.; Bessner, M.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethke, S.; Bevan, A. J.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biedermann, D.; Biesuz, N. V.; Biglietti, M.; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biondi, S.; Bjergaard, D. M.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J. -B.; Blanco, J. E.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Blunier, S.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Bock, C.; Boehler, M.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogavac, D.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borroni, S.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boudreau, J.; Bouffard, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boutle, S. K.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Breaden Madden, W. D.; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, L.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Britzger, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Bronner, J.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Bruscino, N.; Bryngemark, L.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Buchholz, P.; Buckley, A. G.; Budagov, I. A.; Buehrer, F.; Bugge, L.; Bugge, M. K.; Bulekov, O.; Bullock, D.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgard, C. D.; Burghgrave, B.; Burke, S.; Burmeister, I.; Busato, E.; Büscher, D.; Büscher, V.; Bussey, P.; Butler, J. M.; Butt, A. I.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Butti, P.; Buttinger, W.; Buzatu, A.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Caforio, D.; Cairo, V. M.; Cakir, O.; Calace, N.; Calafiura, P.; Calandri, A.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Caloba, L. P.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Camacho Toro, R.; Camarda, S.; Camarri, P.; Cameron, D.; Caminal Armadans, R.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Campoverde, A.; Canale, V.; Canepa, A.; Cano Bret, M.; Cantero, J.; Cantrill, R.; Cao, T.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Carbone, R. M.; Cardarelli, R.; Cardillo, F.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, S.; Carquin, E.; Carrillo-Montoya, G. D.; Carter, J. R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. P.; Casolino, M.; Casper, D. W.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castelli, A.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N. F.; Catastini, P.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J. R.; Cattai, A.; Caudron, J.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerda Alberich, L.; Cerio, B. C.; Cerny, K.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cerv, M.; Cervelli, A.; Cetin, S. A.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chalupkova, I.; Chan, Y. L.; Chang, P.; Chapman, J. D.; Charlton, D. G.; Chau, C. C.; Chavez Barajas, C. A.; Cheatham, S.; Chegwidden, A.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chelkov, G. A.; Chelstowska, M. A.; Chen, C.; Chen, H.; Chen, K.; Chen, L.; Chen, S.; Chen, S.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, H. C.; Cheng, Y.; Cheplakov, A.; Cheremushkina, E.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chernyatin, V.; Cheu, E.; Chevalier, L.; Chiarella, V.; Chiarelli, G.; Chiodini, G.; Chisholm, A. S.; Chislett, R. T.; Chitan, A.; Chizhov, M. V.; Choi, K.; Chouridou, S.; Chow, B. K. B.; Christodoulou, V.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chudoba, J.; Chuinard, A. J.; Chwastowski, J. J.; Chytka, L.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciftci, A. K.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Cioara, I. A.; Ciocio, A.; Cirotto, F.; Citron, Z. H.; Ciubancan, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, B. L.; Clark, P. J.; Clarke, R. N.; Clement, C.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coffey, L.; Colasurdo, L.; Cole, B.; Cole, S.; Colijn, A. P.; Collot, J.; Colombo, T.; Compostella, G.; Conde Muiño, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Connell, S. H.; Connelly, I. A.; Consorti, V.; Constantinescu, S.; Conta, C.; Conti, G.; Conventi, F.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B. D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Corso-Radu, A.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Côté, D.; Cottin, G.; Cowan, G.; Cox, B. E.; Cranmer, K.; Cree, G.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Crescioli, F.; Cribbs, W. A.; Crispin Ortuzar, M.; Cristinziani, M.; Croft, V.; Crosetti, G.; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T.; Cummings, J.; Curatolo, M.; Cúth, J.; Cuthbert, C.; Czirr, H.; Czodrowski, P.; D’Auria, S.; D’Onofrio, M.; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, M. J.; Da Via, C.; Dabrowski, W.; Dafinca, A.; Dai, T.; Dale, O.; Dallaire, F.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dam, M.; Dandoy, J. R.; Dang, N. P.; Daniells, A. C.; Danninger, M.; Dano Hoffmann, M.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darmora, S.; Dassoulas, J.; Dattagupta, A.; Davey, W.; David, C.; Davidek, T.; Davies, E.; Davies, M.; Davison, P.; Davygora, Y.; Dawe, E.; Dawson, I.; Daya-Ishmukhametova, R. K.; De, K.; de Asmundis, R.; De Benedetti, A.; De Castro, S.; De Cecco, S.; De Groot, N.; de Jong, P.; De la Torre, H.; De Lorenzi, F.; De Pedis, D.; De Salvo, A.; De Sanctis, U.; De Santo, A.; De Vivie De Regie, J. B.; Dearnaley, W. J.; Debbe, R.; Debenedetti, C.; Dedovich, D. V.; Deigaard, I.; Del Peso, J.; Del Prete, T.; Delgove, D.; Deliot, F.; Delitzsch, C. M.; Deliyergiyev, M.; Dell’Acqua, A.; Dell’Asta, L.; Dell’Orso, M.; Della Pietra, M.; della Volpe, D.; Delmastro, M.; Delsart, P. A.; Deluca, C.; DeMarco, D. A.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demilly, A.; Denisov, S. P.; Derendarz, D.; Derkaoui, J. E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Deterre, C.; Dette, K.; Deviveiros, P. O.; Dewhurst, A.; Dhaliwal, S.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Domenico, A.; Di Donato, C.; Di Girolamo, A.; Di Girolamo, B.; Di Mattia, A.; Di Micco, B.; Di Nardo, R.; Di Simone, A.; Di Sipio, R.; Di Valentino, D.; Diaconu, C.; Diamond, M.; Dias, F. A.; Diaz, M. A.; Diehl, E. B.; Dietrich, J.; Diglio, S.; Dimitrievska, A.; Dingfelder, J.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djobava, T.; Djuvsland, J. I.; do Vale, M. A. B.; Dobos, D.; Dobre, M.; Doglioni, C.; Dohmae, T.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolezal, Z.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Donadelli, M.; Donati, S.; Dondero, P.; Donini, J.; Dopke, J.; Doria, A.; Dova, M. T.; Doyle, A. T.; Drechsler, E.; Dris, M.; Du, Y.; Dubreuil, E.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Ducu, O. A.; Duda, D.; Dudarev, A.; Duflot, L.; Duguid, L.; Dührssen, M.; Dunford, M.; Duran Yildiz, H.; Düren, M.; Durglishvili, A.; Duschinger, D.; Dutta, B.; Dyndal, M.; Eckardt, C.; Ecker, K. M.; Edgar, R. C.; Edson, W.; Edwards, N. C.; Ehrenfeld, W.; Eifert, T.; Eigen, G.; Einsweiler, K.; Ekelof, T.; El Kacimi, M.; Ellert, M.; Elles, S.; Ellinghaus, F.; Elliot, A. A.; Ellis, N.; Elmsheuser, J.; Elsing, M.; Emeliyanov, D.; Enari, Y.; Endner, O. C.; Endo, M.; Erdmann, J.; Ereditato, A.; Ernis, G.; Ernst, J.; Ernst, M.; Errede, S.; Ertel, E.; Escalier, M.; Esch, H.; Escobar, C.; Esposito, B.; Etienvre, A. I.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H.; Ezhilov, A.; Fabbri, L.; Facini, G.; Fakhrutdinov, R. M.; Falciano, S.; Falla, R. J.; Faltova, J.; Fang, Y.; Fanti, M.; Farbin, A.; Farilla, A.; Farooque, T.; Farrell, S.; Farrington, S. M.; Farthouat, P.; Fassi, F.; Fassnacht, P.; Fassouliotis, D.; Faucci Giannelli, M.; Favareto, A.; Fayard, L.; Fedin, O. L.; Fedorko, W.; Feigl, S.; Feligioni, L.; Feng, C.; Feng, E. J.; Feng, H.; Fenyuk, A. B.; Feremenga, L.; Fernandez Martinez, P.; Fernandez Perez, S.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, P.; Ferrari, R.; Ferreira de Lima, D. E.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrere, D.; Ferretti, C.; Ferretto Parodi, A.; Fiascaris, M.; Fiedler, F.; Filipčič, A.; Filipuzzi, M.; Filthaut, F.; Fincke-Keeler, M.; Finelli, K. D.; Fiolhais, M. C. N.; Fiorini, L.; Firan, A.; Fischer, A.; Fischer, C.; Fischer, J.; Fisher, W. C.; Flaschel, N.; Fleck, I.; Fleischmann, P.; Fletcher, G. T.; Fletcher, G.; Fletcher, R. R. M.; Flick, T.; Floderus, A.; Flores Castillo, L. R.; Flowerdew, M. J.; Formica, A.; Forti, A.; Fournier, D.; Fox, H.; Fracchia, S.; Francavilla, P.; Franchini, M.; Francis, D.; Franconi, L.; Franklin, M.; Frate, M.; Fraternali, M.; Freeborn, D.; French, S. T.; Fressard-Batraneanu, S. M.; Friedrich, F.; Froidevaux, D.; Frost, J. A.; Fukunaga, C.; Fullana Torregrosa, E.; Fulsom, B. G.; Fusayasu, T.; Fuster, J.; Gabaldon, C.; Gabizon, O.; Gabrielli, A.; Gabrielli, A.; Gach, G. P.; Gadatsch, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gagliardi, G.; Gagnon, P.; Galea, C.; Galhardo, B.; Gallas, E. J.; Gallop, B. J.; Gallus, P.; Galster, G.; Gan, K. K.; Gao, J.; Gao, Y.; Gao, Y. S.; Garay Walls, F. M.; Garberson, F.; García, C.; García Navarro, J. E.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Gardner, R. W.; Garelli, N.; Garonne, V.; Gatti, C.; Gaudiello, A.; Gaudio, G.; Gaur, B.; Gauthier, L.; Gauzzi, P.; Gavrilenko, I. L.; Gay, C.; Gaycken, G.; Gazis, E. N.; Ge, P.; Gecse, Z.; Gee, C. N. P.; Geich-Gimbel, Ch.; Geisler, M. P.; Gemme, C.; Genest, M. H.; Geng, C.; Gentile, S.; George, M.; George, S.; Gerbaudo, D.; Gershon, A.; Ghasemi, S.; Ghazlane, H.; Giacobbe, B.; Giagu, S.; Giangiobbe, V.; Giannetti, P.; Gibbard, B.; Gibson, S. M.; Gignac, M.; Gilchriese, M.; Gillam, T. P. S.; Gillberg, D.; Gilles, G.; Gingrich, D. M.; Giokaris, N.; Giordani, M. P.; Giorgi, F. M.; Giorgi, F. M.; Giraud, P. F.; Giromini, P.; Giugni, D.; Giuliani, C.; Giulini, M.; Gjelsten, B. K.; Gkaitatzis, S.; Gkialas, I.; Gkougkousis, E. L.; Gladilin, L. K.; Glasman, C.; Glatzer, J.; Glaysher, P. C. F.; Glazov, A.; Goblirsch-Kolb, M.; Goddard, J. R.; Godlewski, J.; Goldfarb, S.; Golling, T.; Golubkov, D.; Gomes, A.; Gonçalo, R.; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, J.; Gonella, L.; González de la Hoz, S.; Gonzalez Parra, G.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Goossens, L.; Gorbounov, P. A.; Gordon, H. A.; Gorelov, I.; Gorini, B.; Gorini, E.; Gorišek, A.; Gornicki, E.; Goshaw, A. T.; Gössling, C.; Gostkin, M. I.; Goujdami, D.; Goussiou, A. G.; Govender, N.; Gozani, E.; Graber, L.; Grabowska-Bold, I.; Gradin, P. O. J.; Grafström, P.; Gramling, J.; Gramstad, E.; Grancagnolo, S.; Gratchev, V.; Gray, H. M.; Graziani, E.; Greenwood, Z. D.; Grefe, C.; Gregersen, K.; Gregor, I. M.; Grenier, P.; Griffiths, J.; Grillo, A. A.; Grimm, K.; Grinstein, S.; Gris, Ph.; Grivaz, J. -F.; Groh, S.; Grohs, J. P.; Grohsjean, A.; Gross, E.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Grossi, G. C.; Grout, Z. J.; Guan, L.; Guenther, J.; Guescini, F.; Guest, D.; Gueta, O.; Guido, E.; Guillemin, T.; Guindon, S.; Gul, U.; Gumpert, C.; Guo, J.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, S.; Gustavino, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Gutierrez Ortiz, N. G.; Gutschow, C.; Guyot, C.; Gwenlan, C.; Gwilliam, C. B.; Haas, A.; Haber, C.; Hadavand, H. K.; Haddad, N.; Haefner, P.; Hageböck, S.; Hajduk, Z.; Hakobyan, H.; Haleem, M.; Haley, J.; Hall, D.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G. D.; Hamacher, K.; Hamal, P.; Hamano, K.; Hamilton, A.; Hamity, G. N.; Hamnett, P. G.; Han, L.; Hanagaki, K.; Hanawa, K.; Hance, M.; Haney, B.; Hanke, P.; Hanna, R.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, M. C.; Hansen, P. H.; Hara, K.; Hard, A. S.; Harenberg, T.; Hariri, F.; Harkusha, S.; Harrington, R. D.; Harrison, P. F.; Hartjes, F.; Hasegawa, M.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hasib, A.; Hassani, S.; Haug, S.; Hauser, R.; Hauswald, L.; Havranek, M.; Hawkes, C. M.; Hawkings, R. J.; Hawkins, A. D.; Hayashi, T.; Hayden, D.; Hays, C. P.; Hays, J. M.; Hayward, H. S.; Haywood, S. J.; Head, S. J.; Heck, T.; Hedberg, V.; Heelan, L.; Heim, S.; Heim, T.; Heinemann, B.; Heinrich, L.; Hejbal, J.; Helary, L.; Hellman, S.; Helsens, C.; Henderson, J.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Heng, Y.; Hengler, C.; Henkelmann, S.; Henrichs, A.; Henriques Correia, A. M.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Herbert, G. H.; Hernández Jiménez, Y.; Herten, G.; Hertenberger, R.; Hervas, L.; Hesketh, G. G.; Hessey, N. P.; Hetherly, J. W.; Hickling, R.; Higón-Rodriguez, E.; Hill, E.; Hill, J. C.; Hiller, K. H.; Hillier, S. J.; Hinchliffe, I.; Hines, E.; Hinman, R. R.; Hirose, M.; Hirschbuehl, D.; Hobbs, J.; Hod, N.; Hodgkinson, M. C.; Hodgson, P.; Hoecker, A.; Hoeferkamp, M. R.; Hoenig, F.; Hohlfeld, M.; Hohn, D.; Holmes, T. R.; Homann, M.; Hong, T. M.; Hooberman, B. H.; Hopkins, W. H.; Horii, Y.; Horton, A. J.; Hostachy, J. -Y.; Hou, S.; Hoummada, A.; Howard, J.; Howarth, J.; Hrabovsky, M.; Hristova, I.; Hrivnac, J.; Hryn’ova, T.; Hrynevich, A.; Hsu, C.; Hsu, P. J.; Hsu, S. -C.; Hu, D.; Hu, Q.; Hu, X.; Huang, Y.; Hubacek, Z.; Hubaut, F.; Huegging, F.; Huffman, T. B.; Hughes, E. W.; Hughes, G.; Huhtinen, M.; Hülsing, T. A.; Huseynov, N.; Huston, J.; Huth, J.; Iacobucci, G.; Iakovidis, G.; Ibragimov, I.; Iconomidou-Fayard, L.; Ideal, E.; Idrissi, Z.; Iengo, P.; Igonkina, O.; Iizawa, T.; Ikegami, Y.; Ikeno, M.; Ilchenko, Y.; Iliadis, D.; Ilic, N.; Ince, T.; Introzzi, G.; Ioannou, P.; Iodice, M.; Iordanidou, K.; Ippolito, V.; Irles Quiles, A.; Isaksson, C.; Ishino, M.; Ishitsuka, M.; Ishmukhametov, R.; Issever, C.; Istin, S.; Iturbe Ponce, J. M.; Iuppa, R.; Ivarsson, J.; Iwanski, W.; Iwasaki, H.; Izen, J. M.; Izzo, V.; Jabbar, S.; Jackson, B.; Jackson, M.; Jackson, P.; Jaekel, M. R.; Jain, V.; Jakobi, K. B.; Jakobs, K.; Jakobsen, S.; Jakoubek, T.; Jakubek, J.; Jamin, D. O.; Jana, D. K.; Jansen, E.; Jansky, R.; Janssen, J.; Janus, M.; Jarlskog, G.; Javadov, N.; Javůrek, T.; Jeanty, L.; Jejelava, J.; Jeng, G. -Y.; Jennens, D.; Jenni, P.; Jentzsch, J.; Jeske, C.; Jézéquel, S.; Ji, H.; Jia, J.; Jiang, Y.; Jiggins, S.; Jimenez Pena, J.; Jin, S.; Jinaru, A.; Jinnouchi, O.; Joergensen, M. D.; Johansson, P.; Johns, K. A.; Johnson, W. J.; Jon-And, K.; Jones, G.; Jones, R. W. L.; Jones, T. J.; Jongmanns, J.; Jorge, P. M.; Joshi, K. D.; Jovicevic, J.; Ju, X.; Juste Rozas, A.; Kaci, M.; Kaczmarska, A.; Kado, M.; Kagan, H.; Kagan, M.; Kahn, S. J.; Kajomovitz, E.; Kalderon, C. W.; Kaluza, A.; Kama, S.; Kamenshchikov, A.; Kanaya, N.; Kaneti, S.; Kantserov, V. A.; Kanzaki, J.; Kaplan, B.; Kaplan, L. S.; Kapliy, A.; Kar, D.; Karakostas, K.; Karamaoun, A.; Karastathis, N.; Kareem, M. J.; Karentzos, E.; Karnevskiy, M.; Karpov, S. N.; Karpova, Z. M.; Karthik, K.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Karyukhin, A. N.; Kasahara, K.; Kashif, L.; Kass, R. D.; Kastanas, A.; Kataoka, Y.; Kato, C.; Katre, A.; Katzy, J.; Kawade, K.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kawamura, G.; Kazama, S.; Kazanin, V. F.; Keeler, R.; Kehoe, R.; Keller, J. S.; Kempster, J. J.; Keoshkerian, H.; Kepka, O.; Kerševan, B. P.; Kersten, S.; Keyes, R. A.; Khalil-zada, F.; Khandanyan, H.; Khanov, A.; Kharlamov, A. G.; Khoo, T. J.; Khovanskiy, V.; Khramov, E.; Khubua, J.; Kido, S.; Kim, H. Y.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y. K.; Kimura, N.; Kind, O. M.; King, B. T.; King, M.; King, S. B.; Kirk, J.; Kiryunin, A. E.; Kishimoto, T.; Kisielewska, D.; Kiss, F.; Kiuchi, K.; Kivernyk, O.; Kladiva, E.; Klein, M. H.; Klein, M.; Klein, U.; Kleinknecht, K.; Klimek, P.; Klimentov, A.; Klingenberg, R.; Klinger, J. A.; Klioutchnikova, T.; Kluge, E. -E.; Kluit, P.; Kluth, S.; Knapik, J.; Kneringer, E.; Knoops, E. B. F. G.; Knue, A.; Kobayashi, A.; Kobayashi, D.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Kocian, M.; Kodys, P.; Koffas, T.; Koffeman, E.; Kogan, L. A.; Kohlmann, S.; Kohout, Z.; Kohriki, T.; Koi, T.; Kolanoski, H.; Kolb, M.; Koletsou, I.; Komar, A. A.; Komori, Y.; Kondo, T.; Kondrashova, N.; Köneke, K.; König, A. C.; Kono, T.; Konoplich, R.; Konstantinidis, N.; Kopeliansky, R.; Koperny, S.; Köpke, L.; Kopp, A. K.; Korcyl, K.; Kordas, K.; Korn, A.; Korol, A. A.; Korolkov, I.; Korolkova, E. V.; Kortner, O.; Kortner, S.; Kosek, T.; Kostyukhin, V. V.; Kotov, V. M.; Kotwal, A.; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, A.; Kourkoumelis, C.; Kouskoura, V.; Koutsman, A.; Kowalewski, R.; Kowalski, T. Z.; Kozanecki, W.; Kozhin, A. S.; Kramarenko, V. A.; Kramberger, G.; Krasnopevtsev, D.; Krasny, M. W.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Kraus, J. K.; Kravchenko, A.; Kreiss, S.; Kretz, M.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kreutzfeldt, K.; Krieger, P.; Krizka, K.; Kroeninger, K.; Kroha, H.; Kroll, J.; Kroseberg, J.; Krstic, J.; Kruchonak, U.; Krüger, H.; Krumnack, N.; Kruse, A.; Kruse, M. C.; Kruskal, M.; Kubota, T.; Kucuk, H.; Kuday, S.; Kuehn, S.; Kugel, A.; Kuger, F.; Kuhl, A.; Kuhl, T.; Kukhtin, V.; Kukla, R.; Kulchitsky, Y.; Kuleshov, S.; Kuna, M.; Kunigo, T.; Kupco, A.; Kurashige, H.; Kurochkin, Y. A.; Kus, V.; Kuwertz, E. S.; Kuze, M.; Kvita, J.; Kwan, T.; Kyriazopoulos, D.; La Rosa, A.; La Rosa Navarro, J. L.; La Rotonda, L.; Lacasta, C.; Lacava, F.; Lacey, J.; Lacker, H.; Lacour, D.; Lacuesta, V. R.; Ladygin, E.; Lafaye, R.; Laforge, B.; Lagouri, T.; Lai, S.; Lambourne, L.; Lammers, S.; Lampen, C. L.; Lampl, W.; Lançon, E.; Landgraf, U.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lang, V. S.; Lange, J. C.; Lankford, A. J.; Lanni, F.; Lantzsch, K.; Lanza, A.; Laplace, S.; Lapoire, C.; Laporte, J. F.; Lari, T.; Lasagni Manghi, F.; Lassnig, M.; Laurelli, P.; Lavrijsen, W.; Law, A. T.; Laycock, P.; Lazovich, T.; Le Dortz, O.; Le Guirriec, E.; Le Menedeu, E.; LeBlanc, M.; LeCompte, T.; Ledroit-Guillon, F.; Lee, C. A.; Lee, S. C.; Lee, L.; Lefebvre, G.; Lefebvre, M.; Legger, F.; Leggett, C.; Lehan, A.; Lehmann Miotto, G.; Lei, X.; Leight, W. A.; Leisos, A.; Leister, A. G.; Leite, M. A. L.; Leitner, R.; Lellouch, D.; Lemmer, B.; Leney, K. J. C.; Lenz, T.; Lenzi, B.; Leone, R.; Leone, S.; Leonidopoulos, C.; Leontsinis, S.; Leroy, C.; Lester, C. G.; Levchenko, M.; Levêque, J.; Levin, D.; Levinson, L. J.; Levy, M.; Lewis, A.; Leyko, A. M.; Leyton, M.; Li, B.; Li, H.; Li, H. L.; Li, L.; Li, L.; Li, S.; Li, X.; Li, Y.; Liang, Z.; Liao, H.; Liberti, B.; Liblong, A.; Lichard, P.; Lie, K.; Liebal, J.; Liebig, W.; Limbach, C.; Limosani, A.; Lin, S. C.; Lin, T. H.; Linde, F.; Lindquist, B. E.; Linnemann, J. T.; Lipeles, E.; Lipniacka, A.; Lisovyi, M.; Liss, T. M.; Lissauer, D.; Lister, A.; Litke, A. M.; Liu, B.; Liu, D.; Liu, H.; Liu, J.; Liu, J. B.; Liu, K.; Liu, L.; Liu, M.; Liu, M.; Liu, Y.; Livan, M.; Lleres, A.; Llorente Merino, J.; Lloyd, S. L.; Lo Sterzo, F.; Lobodzinska, E.; Loch, P.; Lockman, W. S.; Loebinger, F. K.; Loevschall-Jensen, A. E.; Loew, K. M.; Loginov, A.; Lohse, T.; Lohwasser, K.; Lokajicek, M.; Long, B. A.; Long, J. D.; Long, R. E.; Looper, K. A.; Lopes, L.; Lopez Mateos, D.; Lopez Paredes, B.; Lopez Paz, I.; Lorenz, J.; Lorenzo Martinez, N.; Losada, M.; Lösel, P. J.; Lou, X.; Lounis, A.; Love, J.; Love, P. A.; Lu, H.; Lu, N.; Lubatti, H. J.; Luci, C.; Lucotte, A.; Luedtke, C.; Luehring, F.; Lukas, W.; Luminari, L.; Lundberg, O.; Lund-Jensen, B.; Lynn, D.; Lysak, R.; Lytken, E.; Ma, H.; Ma, L. L.; Maccarrone, G.; Macchiolo, A.; Macdonald, C. M.; Maček, B.; Machado Miguens, J.; Macina, D.; Madaffari, D.; Madar, R.; Maddocks, H. J.; Mader, W. F.; Madsen, A.; Maeda, J.; Maeland, S.; Maeno, T.; Maevskiy, A.; Magradze, E.; Mahboubi, K.; Mahlstedt, J.; Maiani, C.; Maidantchik, C.; Maier, A. A.; Maier, T.; Maio, A.; Majewski, S.; Makida, Y.; Makovec, N.; Malaescu, B.; Malecki, Pa.; Maleev, V. P.; Malek, F.; Mallik, U.; Malon, D.; Malone, C.; Maltezos, S.; Malyshev, V. M.; Malyukov, S.; Mamuzic, J.; Mancini, G.; Mandelli, B.; Mandelli, L.; Mandić, I.; Mandrysch, R.; Maneira, J.; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, L.; Manjarres Ramos, J.; Mann, A.; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A.; Mansoulie, B.; Mantifel, R.; Mantoani, M.; Mapelli, L.; March, L.; Marchiori, G.; Marcisovsky, M.; Marino, C. P.; Marjanovic, M.; Marley, D. E.; Marroquim, F.; Marsden, S. P.; Marshall, Z.; Marti, L. F.; Marti-Garcia, S.; Martin, B.; Martin, T. A.; Martin, V. J.; Martin dit Latour, B.; Martinez, M.; Martin-Haugh, S.; Martoiu, V. S.; Martyniuk, A. C.; Marx, M.; Marzano, F.; Marzin, A.; Masetti, L.; Mashimo, T.; Mashinistov, R.; Masik, J.; Maslennikov, A. L.; Massa, I.; Massa, L.; Mastrandrea, P.; Mastroberardino, A.; Masubuchi, T.; Mättig, P.; Mattmann, J.; Maurer, J.; Maxfield, S. J.; Maximov, D. A.; Mazini, R.; Mazza, S. M.; Mc Goldrick, G.; Mc Kee, S. P.; McCarn, A.; McCarthy, R. L.; McCarthy, T. G.; McCubbin, N. A.; McFarlane, K. W.; Mcfayden, J. A.; Mchedlidze, G.; McMahon, S. J.; McPherson, R. A.; Medinnis, M.; Meehan, S.; Mehlhase, S.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meineck, C.; Meirose, B.; Mellado Garcia, B. R.; Meloni, F.; Mengarelli, A.; Menke, S.; Meoni, E.; Mercurio, K. M.; Mergelmeyer, S.; Mermod, P.; Merola, L.; Meroni, C.; Merritt, F. S.; Messina, A.; Metcalfe, J.; Mete, A. S.; Meyer, C.; Meyer, C.; Meyer, J. -P.; Meyer, J.; Meyer Zu Theenhausen, H.; Middleton, R. P.; Miglioranzi, S.; Mijović, L.; Mikenberg, G.; Mikestikova, M.; Mikuž, M.; Milesi, M.; Milic, A.; Miller, D. W.; Mills, C.; Milov, A.; Milstead, D. A.; Minaenko, A. A.; Minami, Y.; Minashvili, I. A.; Mincer, A. I.; Mindur, B.; Mineev, M.; Ming, Y.; Mir, L. M.; Mistry, K. P.; Mitani, T.; Mitrevski, J.; Mitsou, V. A.; Miucci, A.; Miyagawa, P. S.; Mjörnmark, J. U.; Moa, T.; Mochizuki, K.; Mohapatra, S.; Mohr, W.; Molander, S.; Moles-Valls, R.; Monden, R.; Mondragon, M. C.; Mönig, K.; Monini, C.; Monk, J.; Monnier, E.; Montalbano, A.; Montejo Berlingen, J.; Monticelli, F.; Monzani, S.; Moore, R. W.; Morange, N.; Moreno, D.; Moreno Llácer, M.; Morettini, P.; Mori, D.; Mori, T.; Morii, M.; Morinaga, M.; Morisbak, V.; Moritz, S.; Morley, A. K.; Mornacchi, G.; Morris, J. D.; Mortensen, S. S.; Morton, A.; Morvaj, L.; Mosidze, M.; Moss, J.; Motohashi, K.; Mount, R.; Mountricha, E.; Mouraviev, S. V.; Moyse, E. J. W.; Muanza, S.; Mudd, R. D.; Mueller, F.; Mueller, J.; Mueller, R. S. P.; Mueller, T.; Muenstermann, D.; Mullen, P.; Mullier, G. A.; Munoz Sanchez, F. J.; Murillo Quijada, J. A.; Murray, W. J.; Musheghyan, H.; Musto, E.; Myagkov, A. G.; Myska, M.; Nachman, B. P.; Nackenhorst, O.; Nadal, J.; Nagai, K.; Nagai, R.; Nagai, Y.; Nagano, K.; Nagarkar, A.; Nagasaka, Y.; Nagata, K.; Nagel, M.; Nagy, E.; Nairz, A. M.; Nakahama, Y.; Nakamura, K.; Nakamura, T.; Nakano, I.; Namasivayam, H.; Naranjo Garcia, R. F.; Narayan, R.; Narrias Villar, D. I.; Naumann, T.; Navarro, G.; Nayyar, R.; Neal, H. A.; Nechaeva, P. Yu.; Neep, T. J.; Nef, P. D.; Negri, A.; Negrini, M.; Nektarijevic, S.; Nellist, C.; Nelson, A.; Nemecek, S.; Nemethy, P.; Nepomuceno, A. A.; Nessi, M.; Neubauer, M. S.; Neumann, M.; Neves, R. M.; Nevski, P.; Newman, P. R.; Nguyen, D. H.; Nickerson, R. B.; Nicolaidou, R.; Nicquevert, B.; Nielsen, J.; Nikiforou, N.; Nikiforov, A.; Nikolaenko, V.; Nikolic-Audit, I.; Nikolopoulos, K.; Nilsen, J. K.; Nilsson, P.; Ninomiya, Y.; Nisati, A.; Nisius, R.; Nobe, T.; Nodulman, L.; Nomachi, M.; Nomidis, I.; Nooney, T.; Norberg, S.; Nordberg, M.; Novgorodova, O.; Nowak, S.; Nozaki, M.; Nozka, L.; Ntekas, K.; Nunes Hanninger, G.; Nunnemann, T.; Nurse, E.; Nuti, F.; O’grady, F.; O’Neil, D. C.; O’Shea, V.; Oakham, F. G.; Oberlack, H.; Obermann, T.; Ocariz, J.; Ochi, A.; Ochoa, I.; Ochoa-Ricoux, J. P.; Oda, S.; Odaka, S.; Ogren, H.; Oh, A.; Oh, S. H.; Ohm, C. C.; Ohman, H.; Oide, H.; Okamura, W.; Okawa, H.; Okumura, Y.; Okuyama, T.; Olariu, A.; Olivares Pino, S. A.; Oliveira Damazio, D.; Olszewski, A.; Olszowska, J.; Onofre, A.; Onogi, K.; Onyisi, P. U. E.; Oram, C. J.; Oreglia, M. J.; Oren, Y.; Orestano, D.; Orlando, N.; Oropeza Barrera, C.; Orr, R. S.; Osculati, B.; Ospanov, R.; Otero y Garzon, G.; Otono, H.; Ouchrif, M.; Ould-Saada, F.; Ouraou, A.; Oussoren, K. P.; Ouyang, Q.; Ovcharova, A.; Owen, M.; Owen, R. E.; Ozcan, V. E.; Ozturk, N.; Pachal, K.; Pacheco Pages, A.; Padilla Aranda, C.; Pagáčová, M.; Pagan Griso, S.; Paganis, E.; Paige, F.; Pais, P.; Pajchel, K.; Palacino, G.; Palestini, S.; Palka, M.; Pallin, D.; Palma, A.; Pan, Y. B.; Panagiotopoulou, E. St.; Pandini, C. E.; Panduro Vazquez, J. G.; Pani, P.; Panitkin, S.; Pantea, D.; Paolozzi, L.; Papadopoulou, Th. D.; Papageorgiou, K.; Paramonov, A.; Paredes Hernandez, D.; Parker, M. A.; Parker, K. A.; Parodi, F.; Parsons, J. A.; Parzefall, U.; Pasqualucci, E.; Passaggio, S.; Pastore, F.; Pastore, Fr.; Pásztor, G.; Pataraia, S.; Patel, N. D.; Pater, J. R.; Pauly, T.; Pearce, J.; Pearson, B.; Pedersen, L. E.; Pedersen, M.; Pedraza Lopez, S.; Pedro, R.; Peleganchuk, S. V.; Pelikan, D.; Penc, O.; Peng, C.; Peng, H.; Penning, B.; Penwell, J.; Perepelitsa, D. V.; Perez Codina, E.; Pérez García-Estañ, M. T.; Perini, L.; Pernegger, H.; Perrella, S.; Peschke, R.; Peshekhonov, V. D.; Peters, K.; Peters, R. F. Y.; Petersen, B. A.; Petersen, T. C.; Petit, E.; Petridis, A.; Petridou, C.; Petroff, P.; Petrolo, E.; Petrucci, F.; Pettersson, N. E.; Pezoa, R.; Phillips, P. W.; Piacquadio, G.; Pianori, E.; Picazio, A.; Piccaro, E.; Piccinini, M.; Pickering, M. A.; Piegaia, R.; Pignotti, D. T.; Pilcher, J. E.; Pilkington, A. D.; Pin, A. W. J.; Pina, J.; Pinamonti, M.; Pinfold, J. L.; Pingel, A.; Pires, S.; Pirumov, H.; Pitt, M.; Pizio, C.; Plazak, L.; Pleier, M. -A.; Pleskot, V.; Plotnikova, E.; Plucinski, P.; Pluth, D.; Poettgen, R.; Poggioli, L.; Pohl, D.; Polesello, G.; Poley, A.; Policicchio, A.; Polifka, R.; Polini, A.; Pollard, C. S.; Polychronakos, V.; Pommès, K.; Pontecorvo, L.; Pope, B. G.; Popeneciu, G. A.; Popovic, D. S.; Poppleton, A.; Pospisil, S.; Potamianos, K.; Potrap, I. N.; Potter, C. J.; Potter, C. T.; Poulard, G.; Poveda, J.; Pozdnyakov, V.; Pozo Astigarraga, M. E.; Pralavorio, P.; Pranko, A.; Prasad, S.; Prell, S.; Price, D.; Price, L. E.; Primavera, M.; Prince, S.; Proissl, M.; Prokofiev, K.; Prokoshin, F.; Protopapadaki, E.; Protopopescu, S.; Proudfoot, J.; Przybycien, M.; Ptacek, E.; Puddu, D.; Pueschel, E.; Puldon, D.; Purohit, M.; Puzo, P.; Qian, J.; Qin, G.; Qin, Y.; Quadt, A.; Quarrie, D. R.; Quayle, W. B.; Queitsch-Maitland, M.; Quilty, D.; Raddum, S.; Radeka, V.; Radescu, V.; Radhakrishnan, S. K.; Radloff, P.; Rados, P.; Ragusa, F.; Rahal, G.; Rajagopalan, S.; Rammensee, M.; Rangel-Smith, C.; Rauscher, F.; Rave, S.; Ravenscroft, T.; Raymond, M.; Read, A. L.; Readioff, N. P.; Rebuzzi, D. M.; Redelbach, A.; Redlinger, G.; Reece, R.; Reeves, K.; Rehnisch, L.; Reichert, J.; Reisin, H.; Rembser, C.; Ren, H.; Renaud, A.; Rescigno, M.; Resconi, S.; Rezanova, O. L.; Reznicek, P.; Rezvani, R.; Richter, R.; Richter, S.; Richter-Was, E.; Ricken, O.; Ridel, M.; Rieck, P.; Riegel, C. J.; Rieger, J.; Rifki, O.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rimoldi, A.; Rinaldi, L.; Ristić, B.; Ritsch, E.; Riu, I.; Rizatdinova, F.; Rizvi, E.; Robertson, S. H.; Robichaud-Veronneau, A.; Robinson, D.; Robinson, J. E. M.; Robson, A.; Roda, C.; Roe, S.; Røhne, O.; Romaniouk, A.; Romano, M.; Romano Saez, S. M.; Romero Adam, E.; Rompotis, N.; Ronzani, M.; Roos, L.; Ros, E.; Rosati, S.; Rosbach, K.; Rose, P.; Rosenthal, O.; Rossetti, V.; Rossi, E.; Rossi, L. P.; Rosten, J. H. N.; Rosten, R.; Rotaru, M.; Roth, I.; Rothberg, J.; Rousseau, D.; Royon, C. R.; Rozanov, A.; Rozen, Y.; Ruan, X.; Rubbo, F.; Rubinskiy, I.; Rud, V. I.; Rudolph, C.; Rudolph, M. S.; Rühr, F.; Ruiz-Martinez, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakovich, N. A.; Ruschke, A.; Russell, H. L.; Rutherfoord, J. P.; Ruthmann, N.; Ryabov, Y. F.; Rybar, M.; Rybkin, G.; Ryder, N. C.; Ryzhov, A.; Saavedra, A. F.; Sabato, G.; Sacerdoti, S.; Saddique, A.; Sadrozinski, H. F. -W.; Sadykov, R.; Safai Tehrani, F.; Saha, P.; Sahinsoy, M.; Saimpert, M.; Saito, T.; Sakamoto, H.; Sakurai, Y.; Salamanna, G.; Salamon, A.; Salazar Loyola, J. E.; Saleem, M.; Salek, D.; Sales De Bruin, P. H.; Salihagic, D.; Salnikov, A.; Salt, J.; Salvatore, D.; Salvatore, F.; Salvucci, A.; Salzburger, A.; Sammel, D.; Sampsonidis, D.; Sanchez, A.; Sánchez, J.; Sanchez Martinez, V.; Sandaker, H.; Sandbach, R. L.; Sander, H. G.; Sanders, M. P.; Sandhoff, M.; Sandoval, C.; Sandstroem, R.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sannino, M.; Sansoni, A.; Santoni, C.; Santonico, R.; Santos, H.; Santoyo Castillo, I.; Sapp, K.; Sapronov, A.; Saraiva, J. G.; Sarrazin, B.; Sasaki, O.; Sasaki, Y.; Sato, K.; Sauvage, G.; Sauvan, E.; Savage, G.; Savard, P.; Sawyer, C.; Sawyer, L.; Saxon, J.; Sbarra, C.; Sbrizzi, A.; Scanlon, T.; Scannicchio, D. A.; Scarcella, M.; Scarfone, V.; Schaarschmidt, J.; Schacht, P.; Schaefer, D.; Schaefer, R.; Schaeffer, J.; Schaepe, S.; Schaetzel, S.; Schäfer, U.; Schaffer, A. C.; Schaile, D.; Schamberger, R. D.; Scharf, V.; Schegelsky, V. A.; Scheirich, D.; Schernau, M.; Schiavi, C.; Schillo, C.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenker, S.; Schmieden, K.; Schmitt, C.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, S.; Schneider, B.; Schnellbach, Y. J.; Schnoor, U.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoening, A.; Schoenrock, B. D.; Schopf, E.; Schorlemmer, A. L. S.; Schott, M.; Schouten, D.; Schovancova, J.; Schramm, S.; Schreyer, M.; Schuh, N.; Schultens, M. J.; Schultz-Coulon, H. -C.; Schulz, H.; Schumacher, M.; Schumm, B. A.; Schune, Ph.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwartzman, A.; Schwarz, T. A.; Schwegler, Ph.; Schweiger, H.; Schwemling, Ph.; Schwienhorst, R.; Schwindling, J.; Schwindt, T.; Scifo, E.; Sciolla, G.; Scuri, F.; Scutti, F.; Searcy, J.; Sedov, G.; Sedykh, E.; Seema, P.; Seidel, S. C.; Seiden, A.; Seifert, F.; Seixas, J. M.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Sekhon, K.; Sekula, S. J.; Seliverstov, D. M.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Serkin, L.; Serre, T.; Sessa, M.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sfiligoj, T.; Sforza, F.; Sfyrla, A.; Shabalina, E.; Shamim, M.; Shan, L. Y.; Shang, R.; Shank, J. T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P. B.; Shaw, K.; Shaw, S. M.; Shcherbakova, A.; Shehu, C. Y.; Sherwood, P.; Shi, L.; Shimizu, S.; Shimmin, C. O.; Shimojima, M.; Shiyakova, M.; Shmeleva, A.; Shoaleh Saadi, D.; Shochet, M. J.; Shojaii, S.; Shrestha, S.; Shulga, E.; Shupe, M. A.; Sicho, P.; Sidebo, P. E.; Sidiropoulou, O.; Sidorov, D.; Sidoti, A.; Siegert, F.; Sijacki, Dj.; Silva, J.; Silver, Y.; Silverstein, S. B.; Simak, V.; Simard, O.; Simic, Lj.; Simion, S.; Simioni, E.; Simmons, B.; Simon, D.; Simon, M.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N. B.; Sioli, M.; Siragusa, G.; Sisakyan, A. N.; Sivoklokov, S. Yu.; Sjölin, J.; Sjursen, T. B.; Skinner, M. B.; Skottowe, H. P.; Skubic, P.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Slawinska, M.; Sliwa, K.; Smakhtin, V.; Smart, B. H.; Smestad, L.; Smirnov, S. Yu.; Smirnov, Y.; Smirnova, L. N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, M. N. K.; Smith, R. W.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A. A.; Snidero, G.; Snyder, S.; Sobie, R.; Socher, F.; Soffer, A.; Soh, D. A.; Sokhrannyi, G.; Solans, C. A.; Solar, M.; Solc, J.; Soldatov, E. Yu.; Soldevila, U.; Solodkov, A. A.; Soloshenko, A.; Solovyanov, O. V.; Solovyev, V.; Sommer, P.; Song, H. Y.; Soni, N.; Sood, A.; Sopczak, A.; Sopko, B.; Sopko, V.; Sorin, V.; Sosa, D.; Sosebee, M.; Sotiropoulou, C. L.; Soualah, R.; Soukharev, A. M.; South, D.; Sowden, B. C.; Spagnolo, S.; Spalla, M.; Spangenberg, M.; Spanò, F.; Spearman, W. R.; Sperlich, D.; Spettel, F.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spiller, L. A.; Spousta, M.; St. Denis, R. D.; Stabile, A.; Staerz, S.; Stahlman, J.; Stamen, R.; Stamm, S.; Stanecka, E.; Stanek, R. W.; Stanescu, C.; Stanescu-Bellu, M.; Stanitzki, M. M.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E. A.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Staszewski, R.; Steinberg, P.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H. J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stewart, G. A.; Stillings, J. A.; Stockton, M. C.; Stoebe, M.; Stoicea, G.; Stolte, P.; Stonjek, S.; Stradling, A. R.; Straessner, A.; Stramaglia, M. E.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strauss, E.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D. M.; Stroynowski, R.; Strubig, A.; Stucci, S. A.; Stugu, B.; Styles, N. A.; Su, D.; Su, J.; Subramaniam, R.; Succurro, A.; Suchek, S.; Sugaya, Y.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V. V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, S.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J. E.; Suruliz, K.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M. R.; Suzuki, S.; Svatos, M.; Swiatlowski, M.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Ta, D.; Taccini, C.; Tackmann, K.; Taenzer, J.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taiblum, N.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Takubo, Y.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A. A.; Tam, J. Y. C.; Tan, K. G.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tannenwald, B. B.; Tapia Araya, S.; Tapprogge, S.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tashiro, T.; Tassi, E.; Tavares Delgado, A.; Tayalati, Y.; Taylor, A. C.; Taylor, F. E.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, P. T. E.; Taylor, W.; Teischinger, F. A.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temming, K. K.; Temple, D.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P. K.; Teoh, J. J.; Tepel, F.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terzo, S.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thomas, J. P.; Thomas-Wilsker, J.; Thompson, E. N.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, R. J.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomsen, L. A.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, M.; Thun, R. P.; Tibbetts, M. J.; Ticse Torres, R. E.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Yu. A.; Timoshenko, S.; Tiouchichine, E.; Tipton, P.; Tisserant, S.; Todome, K.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tolley, E.; Tomlinson, L.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Torrence, E.; Torres, H.; Torró Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Trefzger, T.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Tripiana, M. F.; Trischuk, W.; Trocmé, B.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trovatelli, M.; Truong, L.; Trzebinski, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J. C. -L.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsirintanis, N.; Tsiskaridze, S.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsui, K. M.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tudorache, A.; Tudorache, V.; Tuna, A. N.; Tupputi, S. A.; Turchikhin, S.; Turecek, D.; Turra, R.; Turvey, A. J.; Tuts, P. M.; Tykhonov, A.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Ueda, I.; Ueno, R.; Ughetto, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Ungaro, F. C.; Unno, Y.; Unverdorben, C.; Urban, J.; Urquijo, P.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Usanova, A.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Valderanis, C.; Valencic, N.; Valentinetti, S.; Valero, A.; Valery, L.; Valkar, S.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; Van Den Wollenberg, W.; Van Der Deijl, P. C.; van der Geer, R.; van der Graaf, H.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; Van Nieuwkoop, J.; van Vulpen, I.; van Woerden, M. C.; Vanadia, M.; Vandelli, W.; Vanguri, R.; Vaniachine, A.; Vannucci, F.; Vardanyan, G.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varol, T.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vazeille, F.; Vazquez Schroeder, T.; Veatch, J.; Veloce, L. M.; Veloso, F.; Velz, T.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Venturini, A.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Viazlo, O.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Vickey Boeriu, O. E.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Vigne, R.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Vivarelli, I.; Vlachos, S.; Vladoiu, D.; Vlasak, M.; Vogel, M.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobev, K.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Vykydal, Z.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, W.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrmund, S.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wang, C.; Wang, F.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, K.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, T.; Wang, X.; Wanotayaroj, C.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Wardrope, D. R.; Washbrook, A.; Wasicki, C.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, I. J.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, B. M.; Webb, S.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, S. W.; Webster, J. S.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weinert, B.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Weits, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wenaus, T.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Wessels, M.; Wetter, J.; Whalen, K.; Wharton, A. M.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, R.; White, S.; Whiteson, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wildauer, A.; Wilkens, H. G.; Williams, H. H.; Williams, S.; Willis, C.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, A.; Wilson, J. A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Winter, B. T.; Wittgen, M.; Wittkowski, J.; Wollstadt, S. J.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wozniak, K. W.; Wu, M.; Wu, M.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wyatt, T. R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xella, S.; Xu, D.; Xu, L.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yakabe, R.; Yamada, M.; Yamaguchi, D.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamauchi, K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, H.; Yang, Y.; Yao, W. -M.; Yap, Y. C.; Yasu, Y.; Yatsenko, E.; Yau Wong, K. H.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yeletskikh, I.; Yen, A. L.; Yildirim, E.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Yoshihara, K.; Young, C.; Young, C. J. S.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D. R.; Yu, J.; Yu, J. M.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yuen, S. P. Y.; Yurkewicz, A.; Yusuff, I.; Zabinski, B.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zalieckas, J.; Zaman, A.; Zambito, S.; Zanello, L.; Zanzi, D.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zeng, J. C.; Zeng, Q.; Zengel, K.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zerwas, D.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, G.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, X.; Zhao, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, N.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhukov, K.; Zibell, A.; Zieminska, D.; Zimine, N. I.; Zimmermann, C.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Zinser, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Živković, L.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zurzolo, G.; Zwalinski, L.

    2016-05-23

    Distributions of transverse momentum p$ℓℓ\\atop{T}$ and the related angular variable Φ$*\\atop{η}$ of DrellΓÇôYan lepton pairs are measured in 20.3$\\perp$áfb-1 of protonΓÇôproton collisions at √s=8$\\perp$áTeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. Measurements in electron-pair and muon-pair final states are corrected for detector effects and combined. Compared to previous measurements in protonΓÇôproton collisions at √s=7$\\perp$áTeV, these new measurements benefit from a larger data sample and improved control of systematic uncertainties. Measurements are performed in bins of lepton-pair mass above, around and below the Z-boson mass peak. The data are compared to predictions from perturbative and resummed QCD calculations. For values of Φ$*\\atop{η}$<1 the predictions from the Monte Carlo generator ResBos are generally consistent with the data within the theoretical uncertainties. However, at larger values of Φ$*\\atop{η}$ this is not the case. Monte Carlo generators based on the parton-shower approach are unable to describe the data over the full range of pℓℓTpTℓℓ while the fixed-order prediction of Dynnlo falls below the data at high values of p$ℓℓ\\atop{T}$ . ResBos and the parton-shower Monte Carlo generators provide a much better description of the evolution of the Φ$*\\atop{η}$ and p$ℓℓ\\atop{T}$ distributions as a function of lepton-pair mass and rapidity than the basic shape of the data.

  14. Proton structure functions at small x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hentschinski, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Proton structure functions are measured in electron-proton collision through inelastic scattering of virtual photons with virtuality Q on protons; x denotes the momentum fraction carried by the struck parton. Proton structure functions are currently described with excellent accuracy in terms of scale dependent parton distribution functions, defined in terms of collinear factorization and DGLAP evolution in Q. With decreasing x however, parton densities increase and are ultimately expected to saturate. In this regime DGLAP evolution will finally break down and non-linear evolution equations w.r.t x are expected to take over. In the first part of the talk we present recent result on an implementation of physical DGLAP evolution. Unlike the conventional description in terms of parton distribution functions, the former describes directly the Q dependence of the measured structure functions. It is therefore physical insensitive to factorization scheme and scale ambiguities. It therefore provides a more stringent test of DGLAP evolution and eases the manifestation of (non-linear) small x effects. It however requires a precise measurement of both structure functions F 2 and F L , which will be only possible at future facilities, such as an Electron Ion Collider. In the second part we present a recent analysis of the small x region of the combined HERA data on the structure function F 2 . We demonstrate that (linear) next-to-leading order BFKL evolution describes the effective Pomeron intercept, determined from the combined HERA data, once a resummation of collinear enhanced terms is included and the renormalization scale is fixed using the BLM optimal scale setting procedure. We also provide a detailed description of the Q and x dependence of the full structure functions F 2 in the small x region, as measured at HERA. Predictions for the structure function F L are found to be in agreement with the existing HERA data. (paper)

  15. Polarized 3 parton production in inclusive DIS at small x

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayala, Alejandro [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 70-543, Ciudad de México 04510 (Mexico); Centre for Theoretical and Mathematical Physics, and Department of Physics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7700 (South Africa); Hentschinski, Martin, E-mail: hentschinski@correo.nucleares.unam.mx [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 70-543, Ciudad de México 04510 (Mexico); Facultad de Ciencias Físico Matemáticas, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Puebla 1152 (Mexico); Jalilian-Marian, Jamal [Department of Natural Sciences, Baruch College, CUNY, 17 Lexington Avenue, New York, NY 10010 (United States); CUNY Graduate Center, 365 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Tejeda-Yeomans, Maria Elena [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Sonora, Boulevard Luis Encinas J. y Rosales, Colonia Centro, Hermosillo, Sonora 83000 (Mexico)

    2016-10-10

    Azimuthal angular correlations between produced hadrons/jets in high energy collisions are a sensitive probe of the dynamics of QCD at small x. Here we derive the triple differential cross section for inclusive production of 3 polarized partons in DIS at small x. The target proton or nucleus is described using the Color Glass Condensate (CGC) formalism. The resulting expressions are used to study azimuthal angular correlations between produced partons in order to probe the gluon structure of the target hadron or nucleus. Our analytic expressions can also be used to calculate the real part of the Next to Leading Order (NLO) corrections to di-hadron production in DIS by integrating out one of the three final state partons.

  16. Polarized 3 parton production in inclusive DIS at small x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayala, Alejandro; Hentschinski, Martin; Jalilian-Marian, Jamal; Tejeda-Yeomans, Maria Elena

    2016-01-01

    Azimuthal angular correlations between produced hadrons/jets in high energy collisions are a sensitive probe of the dynamics of QCD at small x. Here we derive the triple differential cross section for inclusive production of 3 polarized partons in DIS at small x. The target proton or nucleus is described using the Color Glass Condensate (CGC) formalism. The resulting expressions are used to study azimuthal angular correlations between produced partons in order to probe the gluon structure of the target hadron or nucleus. Our analytic expressions can also be used to calculate the real part of the Next to Leading Order (NLO) corrections to di-hadron production in DIS by integrating out one of the three final state partons.

  17. Polarized 3 parton production in inclusive DIS at small x

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Ayala

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Azimuthal angular correlations between produced hadrons/jets in high energy collisions are a sensitive probe of the dynamics of QCD at small x. Here we derive the triple differential cross section for inclusive production of 3 polarized partons in DIS at small x. The target proton or nucleus is described using the Color Glass Condensate (CGC formalism. The resulting expressions are used to study azimuthal angular correlations between produced partons in order to probe the gluon structure of the target hadron or nucleus. Our analytic expressions can also be used to calculate the real part of the Next to Leading Order (NLO corrections to di-hadron production in DIS by integrating out one of the three final state partons.

  18. Spatial distributions of dose enhancement around a gold nanoparticle at several depths of proton Bragg peak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Jihun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University (Japan); Sutherland, Kenneth [Department of Medical Physics, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University (Japan); Hashimoto, Takayuki [Department of Radiation Medicine, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Shirato, Hiroki [Department of Radiation Medicine, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine and Global Station for Quantum Medical Science and Engineering, Global Institution for Collaborative Research and Education (GI-CoRE), Hokkaido University (Japan); Date, Hiroyuki, E-mail: date@hs.hokudai.ac.jp [Faculty of Health Sciences, Hokkaido University (Japan)

    2016-10-01

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have been recognized as a promising candidate for a radiation sensitizer. A proton beam incident on a GNP can produce secondary electrons, resulting in an enhancement of the dose around the GNP. However, little is known about the spatial distribution of dose enhancement around the GNP, especially in the direction along the incident proton. The purpose of this study is to determine the spatial distribution of dose enhancement by taking the incident direction into account. Two steps of calculation were conducted using the Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation toolkit. First, the energy spectra of 100 and 195 MeV protons colliding with a GNP were calculated at the Bragg peak and three other depths around the peak in liquid water. Second, the GNP was bombarded by protons with the obtained energy spectra. Radial dose distributions were computed along the incident beam direction. The spatial distributions of the dose enhancement factor (DEF) and subtracted dose (D{sub sub}) were then evaluated. The spatial DEF distributions showed hot spots in the distal radial region from the proton beam axis. The spatial D{sub sub} distribution isotropically spread out around the GNP. Low energy protons caused higher and wider dose enhancement. The macroscopic dose enhancement in clinical applications was also evaluated. The results suggest that the consideration of the spatial distribution of GNPs in treatment planning will maximize the potential of GNPs.

  19. Leading Twist TMDs in a Light-Front Quark-Diquark Model for Proton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maji, Tanmay; Chakrabarti, Dipankar

    2018-05-01

    We present p_{\\perp } variation (fixed x) of the leading-twist T-even transverse momentum dependent parton distributions (TMDs) of a proton in a light-front quark-diquark model at μ ^2=2.4 and 20 GeV^2. The quark densities for unpolarized and transversely polarized proton are also presented. We observe a Soffer bound for TMDs in this model.

  20. New results in the Dual Parton Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van, J.T.T.; Capella, A.

    1984-01-01

    In this paper, the similarity between the x distribution for particle production and the fragmentation functions are observed in e+e- collisions and in deep inelastic scattering are presented. Based on the observation, the authors develop a complete approach to multiparticle production which incorporates the most important features and concepts learned about high energy collisions. 1. Topological expansion : the dominant diagram at high energy corresponds to the simplest topology. 2. Unitarity : diagrams of various topology contribute to the cross sections in a way that unitary is preserved. 3. Regge behaviour and Duality. 4. Partonic structure of hadrons. These general theoretical ideas, result from many joint experimental and theoretical efforts on the study of soft hadron physics. The dual parton model is able to explain all the experimental features from FNAL to SPS collider energies. It has all the properties of an S-matrix theory and provides a unified description of hadron-hadron, hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions

  1. Fragment mass distribution of proton-induced spallation reaction with intermediate energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Sheng; Ye Yanlin; Xu Chuncheng; Chen Tao; Sobolevsky, N.M.

    2000-01-01

    The test of part benchmark of SHIELD code is finished. The fragment cross section and mass distribution and excitation function of the residual nuclei from proton-induced spallation reaction on thin Pb target with intermediate energy have been calculated by SHIELD code. And the results are in good agreement with measured data. The fragment mass distribution of the residual nuclei from proton-induced spallation reaction on thick Pb target with incident energy 1.6 GeV have been simulated

  2. A study of parton fragmentation using photon-hadron correlation with the ALICE experiment at LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbor, N.

    2013-01-01

    The strong interaction theory, Quantum Chromodynamic (QCD), predicts a new phase of nuclear matter at very high temperature and/or very high density. This state is composed of deconfined quarks and gluons known as the quark-gluon plasma (QGP). The measurement of its composition and properties is a challenge for the nuclear physics of the 21. century and should lead to a better understanding of the fundamental symmetries and mechanisms related to the quarks confinement inside hadrons and the strong interaction generally.The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) accelerator at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) allows to reach the thermodynamic conditions required to create the quark-gluon plasma using ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions (Pb). The ALICE experiment (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) allows to access several probes to characterize the QGP through particles reconstruction and. Among these probes, high energy parton energy loss is used to access medium characteristics such as density or temperature. Parton energy loss is estimated from the modification of the energy distribution of hadrons produced by fragmentation.This thesis is dedicated to the photon-hadron correlations analysis in order to study the modification of the parton fragmentation due to the quark-gluon plasma. First part of this thesis is devoted to the characterization of the electromagnetic calorimeter (EMCal), the central detector for energy measurement and photon identification. The second part is dedicated to the photon-hadron correlation measurement, for the 7 TeV proton-proton collisions and 2.76 TeV Lead-Lead collisions. An important work has been done to improve the prompt photon identification, one of the key point of this analysis. (author) [fr

  3. A study of parton fragmentation using photon-hadron correlation with the ALICE experiment at LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbor, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    The strong interaction theory, Quantum Chromodynamic (QCD), predicts a new phase of nuclear matter at very high temperature and/or very high density. This state is composed of deconfined quarks and gluons known as the quark-gluon plasma (QGP). The measurement of its composition and properties is a challenge for the nuclear physics of the 21. century and should lead to a better understanding of the fundamental symmetries and mechanisms related to the quarks confinement inside hadrons and the strong interaction generally. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) accelerator at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) allows to reach the thermodynamic conditions required to create the quark-gluon plasma using ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions (Pb). The ALICE experiment (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) allows to access several probes to characterize the QGP through particles reconstruction and. Among these probes, high energy parton energy loss is used to access medium characteristics such as density or temperature. Parton energy loss is estimated from the modification of the energy distribution of hadrons produced by fragmentation. This thesis is dedicated to the photon-hadron correlations analysis in order to study the modification of the parton fragmentation due to the quark-gluon plasma. First part of this thesis is devoted to the characterization of the electromagnetic calorimeter (EMCal), the central detector for energy measurement and photon identification. The second part is dedicated to the photon-hadron correlation measurement, for the 7 TeV proton-proton collisions and 2.76 TeV Lead-Lead collisions. An important work has been done to improve the prompt photon identification, one of the key point of this analysis. (author) [fr

  4. Studies of isolated photons in proton-proton collisions with the EMCAL calorimeter of the ALICE experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichou, R.

    2010-10-01

    Prompt photons produced in the hard initial parton-parton scatterings in high-energy proton-proton collisions - such as those at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) - are an excellent tool to study perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics. In particular, high transverse-momentum (p T ) photons provide crucial information on the parton distribution functions (PDFs) of the proton. Experimentally, in order to measure prompt photons, one needs first to get rid of various other photon sources, especially those from the large background due to π 0 decays. The electromagnetic calorimeter (EMCAL) of the ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) experiment at the LHC covers the central rapidities and provides improved capabilities to measure high-p T photons in ALICE. We present here studies of photon production in high-energy proton-proton collisions, as well as a complete analysis of their measurement with the EMCAL detector, giving details in particular on the methods developed to separate them from the π 0 decay photons with the help of isolation cuts. (author)

  5. The partonic nature of instantons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collie, Benjamin; Tong, David

    2009-01-01

    In both Yang-Mills theories and sigma models, instantons are endowed with degrees of freedom associated to their scale size and orientation. It has long been conjectured that these degrees of freedom have a dual interpretation as the positions of partonic constituents of the instanton. These conjectures are usually framed in d = 3+1 and d = 1+1 dimensions respectively where the partons are supposed to be responsible for confinement and other strong coupling phenomena. We revisit this partonic interpretation of instantons in the context of d = 4+1 and d = 2+1 dimensions. Here the instantons are particle-like solitons and the theories are non-renormalizable. We present an explicit and calculable model in d = 2+1 dimensions where the single soliton in the CP N sigma-model can be shown to be a multi-particle state whose partons are identified with the ultra-violet degrees of freedom which render the theory well-defined at high energies. We introduce a number of methods which reveal the partons inside the soliton, including deforming the sigma model and a dual version of the Bogomolnyi equations. We conjecture that partons inside Yang-Mills instantons hold the key to understanding the ultra-violet completion of five-dimensional gauge theories.

  6. What is a parton shower?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, Zoltan [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Soper, Davison E. [Oregon Univ., Eugene, OR (United States). Inst. of Theoretical Science

    2017-05-15

    We consider idealized parton shower event generators that treat parton spin and color exactly, leaving aside the choice of practical approximations for spin and color. We investigate how the structure of such a parton shower generator is related to the structure of QCD. We argue that a parton shower with splitting functions proportional to αs can be viewed not just as a model, but as the lowest order approximation to a shower that is defined at any perturbative order. To support this argument, we present a formulation for a parton shower at order α{sup k}{sub s} for any k. Since some of the input functions needed are specified by their properties but not calculated, this formulation does not provide a useful recipe for an order α{sup k}{sub s} parton shower algorithm. However, in this formulation we see how the operators that generate the shower are related to operators that specify the infrared singularities of QCD.

  7. Multi parton interactions with CMS detector at LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciangottini, D.

    2014-01-01

    Multi parton interactions (MPI) are experiencing a growing popularity and are widely invoked to account for observations that cannot be explained otherwise: the activity of the Underlying Event, the rates for multiple heavy flavour production, the survival probability of large rapidity gaps in hard diffraction, etc. The definition, implementation and tuning of MPI models in Monte Carlo generators plays an important role for the LHC physics: a better definition of the collision dynamics and a better definition of background processes. CMS was involved into the MPI characterization from the beginning of the LHC data-taken, starting from the Underlying Event measurements in Minimum Bias events. With the large integrated luminosity available, the Double Parton Scattering (DPS) measurements (2 hard events in the same proton-proton collision) can be performed in different final states and at different energy scales. The proposed contribution is intended to review past and ongoing studies on MPI with the CMS detector, providing a common interpretation.

  8. Nonlinear Wave-Particle Interaction: Implications for Newborn Planetary and Backstreaming Proton Velocity Distribution Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanelli, N.; Mazelle, C.; Meziane, K.

    2018-02-01

    Seen from the solar wind (SW) reference frame, the presence of newborn planetary protons upstream from the Martian and Venusian bow shocks and SW protons reflected from each of them constitutes two sources of nonthermal proton populations. In both cases, the resulting proton velocity distribution function is highly unstable and capable of giving rise to ultralow frequency quasi-monochromatic electromagnetic plasma waves. When these instabilities take place, the resulting nonlinear waves are convected by the SW and interact with nonthermal protons located downstream from the wave generation region (upstream from the bow shock), playing a predominant role in their dynamics. To improve our understanding of these phenomena, we study the interaction between a charged particle and a large-amplitude monochromatic circularly polarized electromagnetic wave propagating parallel to a background magnetic field, from first principles. We determine the number of fix points in velocity space, their stability, and their dependence on different wave-particle parameters. Particularly, we determine the temporal evolution of a charged particle in the pitch angle-gyrophase velocity plane under nominal conditions expected for backstreaming protons in planetary foreshocks and for newborn planetary protons in the upstream regions of Venus and Mars. In addition, the inclusion of wave ellipticity effects provides an explanation for pitch angle distributions of suprathermal protons observed at the Earth's foreshock, reported in previous studies. These analyses constitute a mean to evaluate if nonthermal proton velocity distribution functions observed at these plasma environments present signatures that can be understood in terms of nonlinear wave-particle processes.

  9. Coherence effects in parton showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettersson, U.

    1988-10-01

    A model for gluon emission based on the colour dipole approximation is presented. Gluons are radiated from dipoles that are stretched from one colour charge to the corresponding anti-charge, with probability distribution given by generalizations of the Altarelli-Parisi equations. The model agrees very well with experimental data on e + e - annihilation. For the reaction e + e - -> W + W - -> qq ' QQ ' it is pointed out how to extract information about the QCD vacuum and the confinement mechanism by varying the CM energy. Finally the model is applied to deep inelastic lepton scattering. When a quark is kicked out in the lepton-proton interaction, separation of the colour charges leads to gluon emission. Since the proton remnant is not a pointlike object, coherence conditions lead to an asymmetry between gluons emitted in the forward and in the backward region. The asymmetry is controlled by the energy distribution in the force field. Experimental data are reproduced with a linear energy distribution, which is consistent with the proton behaving as a vortex line in a type II superconductor. (author)

  10. Probing the Spin Structure of the Proton Using Polarized Proton-Proton Collisions and the Production of W Bosons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaumier, Michael J. [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This thesis discusses the process of extracting the longitudinal asymmetry, A$W±\\atop{L}$ describing W → μ production in forward kinematic regimes. This asymmetry is used to constrain our understanding of the polarized parton distribution functions characterizing $\\bar{u}$ and $\\bar{d}$ sea quarks in the proton. This asymmetry will be used to constrain the overall contribution of the sea-quarks to the total proton spin. The asymmetry is evaluated over the pseudorapidity range of the PHENIX Muon Arms, 2.1 < |η| 2.6, for longitudinally polarized proton-proton collisions at 510 GeV √s. In particular, I will discuss the statistical methods used to characterize real muonic W decays and the various background processes is presented, including a discussion of likelihood event selection and the Extended Unbinned Maximum Likelihood t. These statistical methods serve estimate the yields of W muonic decays, which are used to calculate the longitudinal asymmetry.

  11. Double parton scattering in the ultraviolet. Addressing the double counting problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, Markus [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Gaunt, Jonathan R. [Nikhef Theory Group, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Amsterdam VU Univ. (Netherlands)

    2016-11-15

    An important question in the theory of double parton scattering is how to incorporate the possibility of the parton pairs being generated perturbatively via 1→ 2splitting into the theory, whilst avoiding double counting with single parton scattering loop corrections. Here, we describe a consistent approach for solving this problem, which retains the notion of double parton distributions (DPDs) for individual hadrons. Further, we discuss the construction of appropriate model DPDs in our framework, and the use of these to compute the DPS part, presenting DPS 'luminosities' from our model DPDs for a few sample cases.

  12. Measurement of the angular distribution of neutron-proton scattering at 10 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haight, R.C.; Bateman, F.B.; Grimes, S.M.; Brient, C.E.; Massey, T.N.; Wasson, O.A.; Carlson, A.D.; Zhou, H.

    1995-01-01

    The relative angular distribution of neutrons scattered from protons was measured at an incident neutron energy of 10 MeV at the Ohio University Accelerator Laboratory. An array of 11 detector telescopes at laboratory angles of 0 to 60 degrees was used to detect recoil protons from neutron interactions with a CH 2 (polypropylene) target. Data for 7 of these telescopes were obtained with one set of electronics and are presented here. These data, from 108 to 180 degrees for the center-of-mass scattering angles, have a small slope which agrees better with angular distributions predicted by the Arndt phase shifts than with the ENDF/B-VI angular distribution

  13. B-meson production in the Parton Reggeization approach at Tevatron and the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpishkov, A.V.; Saleev, V.A.; Nefedov, M.A.; Shipilova, A.V.; Samara State Aerospace Univ.; Hamburg Univ.

    2014-11-01

    We study the inclusive hadroproduction of B 0 , B + , and B 0 s mesons at leading order in the parton Reggeization approach using the universal fragmentation functions extracted from the combined e + e - annihilation data from CERN LEP1 and SLAC SLC colliders. We have described B-meson transverse momentum distributions measured in the central region of rapidity by the CDF Collaboration at Fermilab Tevatron and CMS Collaboration at LHC within uncertainties and without free parameters, applying Kimber-Martin-Ryskin unintegrated gluon distribution function in a proton. The forward B-meson production (2.0< y<4.5) measured by the LHCb Collaboration also has been studied and expected disagreement between our theoretical predictions and data has been obtained.

  14. SU-E-T-324: The Influence of Patient Positioning Uncertainties in Proton Radiotherapy On Proton Range and Dose Distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebl, J [EBG MedAustron GmbH, Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Medical University of Graz, Graz (Austria); Paganetti, H; Winey, B [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Proton radiotherapy allows radiation treatment delivery with high dose gradients. The nature of such dose distributions increases the influence of patient positioning uncertainties on their fidelity when compared to photon radiotherapy. The present work quantitatively analyzes the influence of setup uncertainties on proton range and dose distributions. Methods: 38 clinical passive scattering treatment fields for small lesions in the head were studied. Dose distributions for shifted and rotated patient positions were Monte Carlo-simulated. Proton range uncertainties at the 50% and 90%-dose falloff position were calculated considering 18 arbitrary combinations of maximal patient position shifts and rotations for two patient positioning methods. Normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCPs), equivalent uniform doses (EUDs) and tumor control probabilities (TCPs) were studied for organs at risk (OARs) and target volumes of eight patients. Results: We identified a median 1σ proton range uncertainty at the 50%-dose falloff of 2.8 mm for anatomy-based patient positioning and 1.6 mm for fiducial-based patient positioning as well as 7.2 mm and 5.8 mm for the 90%-dose falloff position respectively. These range uncertainties were correlated to heterogeneity indices (HIs) calculated for each treatment field (38% < R{sup 2} < 50%). A NTCP increase of more than 10% (absolute) was observed for less than 2.9% (anatomy-based positioning) and 1.2% (fiducial-based positioning) of the studied OARs and patient shifts. TCP decreases larger than 10% (absolute) were seen for less than 2.2% of the target volumes or non-existent. EUD changes were up to 178% for OARs and 35% for target volumes. Conclusion: The influence of patient positioning uncertainties on proton range in therapy of small lesions in the human brain and target and OAR dosimetry were studied. Observed range uncertainties were correlated with HIs. The clinical practice of using multiple compensator

  15. Constraints on nuclear parton distributions from W boson production in pPb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\mathrm{NN}}} = 8.16~\\mathrm{TeV}$

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The production of W bosons has been measured in proton-lead collisions at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s_{\\mathrm{NN}}} = 8.16~\\mathrm{TeV}$. The measurement of W bosons is performed in the $\\mathrm{W}\\rightarrow\\mu\

  16. Hadron seagulls and parton jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satz, H.; Zarmi, Y.

    1976-01-01

    For the lepton production of hadrons in the current fragmentation region it was recently shown that the two-level partonic picture leads to a broadening of the average transverse momentum of the observed secondaries. This ''seagull'' effect is well known for hadron-hadron interactions. In the note it is considered the possibility that parton arguments can explain it here as well and it is discussed what information on the constituent structure of hadrons can be obtained through an investigation of the seagull effect from such a point of view. It is shown that a non trivial seagull effect is a consequence of a simple two step production mechanism and the parton model predicts significant differences between baryon, meson and virtual-photon fragmentation seagull

  17. QCD's Partner Needed for Mass Spectra and Parton Structure Functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.S.

    2009-01-01

    as in the case of the hydrogen atom, bound-state wave functions are needed to generate hadronic spectra. For this purpose, in 1971, Feynman and his students wrote down a Lorentz-invariant harmonic oscillator equation. This differential equation has one set of solutions satisfying the Lorentz-covariant boundary condition. This covariant set generates Lorentz-invariant mass spectra with their degeneracies. Furthermore, the Lorentz-covariant wave functions allow us to calculate the valence parton distribution by Lorentz-boosting the quark-model wave function from the hadronic rest frame. However, this boosted wave function does not give an accurate parton distribution. The wave function needs QCD corrections to make a contact with the real world. Likewise, QCD needs the wave function as a starting point for calculating the parton structure function. (author)

  18. Soft factors for double parton scattering at NNLO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vladimirov, Alexey [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Regensburg,D-93040 Regensburg (Germany)

    2016-12-13

    We show at NNLO that the soft factors for double parton scattering (DPS) for both integrated and unintegrated kinematics, can be presented entirely in the terms of the soft factor for single Drell-Yan process, i.e. the transverse momentum dependent (TMD) soft factor. Using the linearity of the logarithm of TMD soft factor in rapidity divergences, we decompose the DPS soft factor matrices into a product of matrices with rapidity divergences in given sectors, and thus, define individual double parton distributions at NNLO. The rapidity anomalous dimension matrices for double parton distributions are presented in the terms of TMD rapidity anomalous dimension. The analysis is done using the generating function approach to web diagrams. Significant part of the result is obtained from the symmetry properties of web diagrams without referring to explicit expressions or a particular rapidity regularization scheme. Additionally, we present NNLO expression for the web diagram generating function for Wilson lines with two light-like directions.

  19. A KINETIC ALFVEN WAVE AND THE PROTON DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION IN THE FAST SOLAR WIND

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xing; Lu Quanming; Chen Yao; Li Bo; Xia Lidong

    2010-01-01

    Using one-dimensional test particle simulations, the effect of a kinetic Alfven wave on the velocity distribution function (VDF) of protons in the collisionless solar wind is investigated. We first use linear Vlasov theory to numerically obtain the property of a kinetic Alfven wave (the wave propagates in the direction almost perpendicular to the background magnetic field). We then numerically simulate how the wave will shape the proton VDF. It is found that Landau resonance may be able to generate two components in the initially Maxwellian proton VDF: a tenuous beam component along the direction of the background magnetic field and a core component. The streaming speed of the beam relative to the core proton component is about 1.2-1.3 Alfven speed.

  20. Parton showers with quantum interference

    CERN Document Server

    Nagy, Zoltan

    2007-01-01

    We specify recursive equations that could be used to generate a lowest order parton shower for hard scattering in hadron-hadron collisions. The formalism is based on the factorization soft and collinear interactions from relatively harder interactions in QCD amplitudes. It incorporates quantum interference between different amplitudes in those cases in which the interference diagrams have leading soft or collinear singularities. It incorporates the color and spin information carried by partons emerging from a hard interaction. One motivation for this work is to have a method that can naturally cooperate with next-to-leading order calculations.

  1. Parton showers with quantum interference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, Zoltan; Soper, Davison E.

    2007-01-01

    We specify recursive equations that could be used to generate a lowest order parton shower for hard scattering in hadron-hadron collisions. The formalism is based on the factorization soft and collinear interactions from relatively harder interactions in QCD amplitudes. It incorporates quantum interference between different amplitudes in those cases in which the interference diagrams have leading soft or collinear singularities. It incorporates the color and spin information carried by partons emerging from a hard interaction. One motivation for this work is to have a method that can naturally cooperate with next-to-leading order calculations

  2. Distribution of copper and other elements in ryegrass roots, determined with a scanning proton microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzolini, A.P.; Legge, G.J.F.

    1982-01-01

    A scanning proton microprobe has been used to determine the distribution of Cu and other elements in Wimmera ryegrass roots grown in solution cultures. Cu was found to be localized on or near the surface of the roots in randomly distributed discrete zones. The distribution of Cu was partially correlated with those of Fe, P and Ca and possibly indicates some form of association; co-precipitation in a precipitate of ferric phosphate or hydroxy-oxide is favoured

  3. Centrality dependence of baryon and meson momentum distributions in proton-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwa, Rudolph C.; Yang, C.B.

    2002-01-01

    The proton and neutron inclusive distributions in the projectile fragmentation region of pA collisions are studied in the valon model. Momentum degradation and flavor changes due to the nuclear medium are described at the valon level using two parameters. Particle production is treated by means of the recombination subprocess. The centrality dependences of the net proton and neutron spectra of the NA49 data are satisfactorily reproduced. The effective degradation length is determined to be 17 fm. Pion inclusive distributions can be calculated without any adjustable parameters

  4. Proton rapidity distributions from 60 GeV/n 16O+Au collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baechler, J.; Hoffman, M.; Runge, K.; Schmoetten, E.; Bialkowska, H.; Bock, R.; Brockmann, R.; Guerra, C.; Humanic, T.; Sandoval, A.; Buncic, P.; Ljubicic, A.; Paic, G.; Vranic, D.; Chase, S.I.; Favuzzi, C.; Ferenec, D.; Nappi, E.; Posa, F.; Spinelli, P.; Derado, I.; Eckardt, V.; Gebauer, H.J.; Rauch, W.; Schmitz, N.; Seyboth, P.; Seyerlein, J.; Vesztergombi, G.; Eschke, J.; Heck, W.; Kabana, S.; Kuhmichel, A.; Lahanas, M.; Lee, Y.; Margetis, S.; Renfordt, R.; Rohrich, D.; Rothard, H.; Schmidt, E.; Schneider, I.; Stock, R.; Stroebele, H.; Wenig, S.; Kadija, K.; Karabarbounis, A.; Panagiotou, A.; Petridis, A.; Vassileiadis, G.; Keidel, R.; Piper, A.; Puhlhofer, F.; Kosiec, J.; Warsaw Univ.

    1990-05-01

    An analysis of the proton rapidity distribution in central 16 O+Au collisions at 60 GeV/n measured in the NA35 streamer chamber detector at the CERN SPS is presented. The charge excess of positive particles over negative particles was measured. The rapidity distribution of the charge excess which can be associated with the primordial protons in the collision is studied in terms of the nuclear stopping power and is compared to the predictions of various models. 7 refs., 2 figs

  5. Proton rapidity distributions from 60 GeV/n 16O + Au collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonse, S.

    1990-05-01

    An analysis of the proton rapidity distribution in central 16 O + Au collisions at 60 GeV/n measured in the NA35 streamer chamber detector at the CERN SPS is presented. The charge excess of positive particles over negative particles was measured. The rapidity distribution of the charge excess which can be associated with the primordial protons in the collision is studies in terms of the nuclear stopping power and is compared to the predictions of various models. 7 refs., 2 figs

  6. Reaction cross sections for 8He and 14B on proton target for the separation of proton and neutron density distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Masaomi; Fukuda, Mitsunori; Nishimura, Daiki

    2015-01-01

    We utilized the proton-neutron asymmetry of nucleon–nucleon total cross sections in the intermediate energy region (σ pn ≠σ pp(nn) ) to obtain the information of proton and neutron distributions respectively. We have measured reaction cross sections (σ R ) for 14 B and 8 He on proton targets as isospin asymmetric targets in addition to symmetric ones. Proton and neutron density distributions were derived respectively through the χ 2 -fitting procedure with the modified Glauber calculation. The result suggests a necessity for 14 B of a long tail, and also a necessity for 8 He of a neutron tail. Root-mean-square proton, neutron and matter radii for 14 B and 8 He are also derived. Each radius is consistent with some of the other experimental values and also with some of the several theoretical values. (author)

  7. Distribution of nuclear charge in the proton-induced fission of Th-232

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pate, B D [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York (United States); Foster, J S; Yaffe, L [McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    1958-09-15

    A great deal of work has been done on the distribution of nuclear mass in the fission process. About the nuclear charge distribution less is known. Data exist on the distribution from the fission of U-235 with thermal neutrons and with 14 Mev neutrons. Data also exist for the fission of uranium by 170 Mev protons, of bismuth by 190 Mev deuterons, and of uranium, thorium and bismuth by 480 Mev protons, and there is fragmentary information from other systems. The present work was undertaken to investigate the changes that occur in the charge distribution from proton-induced fission of Th-232 as the bombarding energy is raised from 8 to 90 Mev, the maximum proton energy of the McGill synchrocyclotron. This energy range is of interest in view of the substantial changes observed in the mass distribution. Also in this interval a change presumably begins in the nature of the initial step in nuclear reactions, from simple compound-nucleus formation, to a mechanism of direct interaction with individual nucleons. Thus at the lower energies studied, excitation of the nuclei at the end of the first step of the reaction will be essentially monochromatic whereas at the higher end of the bombarding-energy range, a broad spectrum of excitation energies will be produced, with corresponding complexity of the reaction products observed. (author)

  8. J/Ψ production in an equilibrating partonic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Xiao-Ming

    1999-01-01

    Any color singlet or octet cc-bar pair is created at short distances and then expands to a full size of J/Ψ. Such a dynamical evolution process is included here in calculations for the J/Ψ number distribution as a function of transverse momentum and rapidity in central Au-Au collisions at both RHIC and LHC energies. The cc-bar pairs are produced in the initial collision and in the partonic system during the prethermal and thermal stages through the partonic channels ab → cc-bar[ 2S+1 L J ] and ab → cc-bar[ 2S+1 L J ]x, and then they dissociate in the latter two stages. Dissociation of cc-bar in the medium occurs via two reactions: (a) color singlet cc-bar plus a gluon turns to color octet cc-bar, (b) color octet cc-bar plus a gluon persists as color octet. There are modest yields of cc-bar in the prethermal stage at RHIC energy and through the reactions ab → cc-bar[ 2S+1 L J ] at LHC energy for partons with large average momentum in the prethermal stage at both collider energies and in the thermal stage at LHC energy. Production from the partonic system competes with the suppression of the initial yield in the deconfined medium. Consequently, a bulge within -1.5 < y < 1.5 has been found for the J/Ψ number distribution and the ratio of J/Ψ number distributions for Au-Au collisions to nucleon-nucleon collisions. This bulge is caused by the partonic system and is thus an indicator of a deconfined partonic medium. Based on this result we suggest the rapidity region worth measuring in future experiments at RHIC and LHC to be -3 < y < 3

  9. Global auroral conductance distribution due to electron and proton precipitation from IMAGE-FUV observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Coumans

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The Far Ultraviolet (FUV imaging system on board the IMAGE satellite provides a global view of the north auroral region in three spectral channels, including the SI12 camera sensitive to Doppler shifted Lyman-α emission. FUV images are used to produce instantaneous maps of electron mean energy and energy fluxes for precipitated protons and electrons. We describe a method to calculate ionospheric Hall and Pedersen conductivities induced by auroral proton and electron ionization based on a model of interaction of auroral particles with the atmosphere. Different assumptions on the energy spectral distribution for electrons and protons are compared. Global maps of ionospheric conductances due to instantaneous observation of precipitating protons are calculated. The contribution of auroral protons in the total conductance induced by both types of auroral particles is also evaluated and the importance of proton precipitation is evaluated. This method is well adapted to analyze the time evolution of ionospheric conductances due to precipitating particles over the auroral region or in particular sectors. Results are illustrated with conductance maps of the north polar region obtained during four periods with different activity levels. It is found that the proton contribution to conductance is relatively higher during quiet periods than during substorms. The proton contribution is higher in the period before the onset and strongly decreases during the expansion phase of substorms. During a substorm which occurred on 28 April 2001, a region of strong proton precipitation is observed with SI12 around 14:00MLT at ~75° MLAT. Calculation of conductances in this sector shows that neglecting the protons contribution would produce a large error. We discuss possible effects of the proton precipitation on electron precipitation in auroral arcs. The increase in the ionospheric conductivity, induced by a former proton precipitation can reduce the potential drop

  10. Global auroral conductance distribution due to electron and proton precipitation from IMAGE-FUV observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Coumans

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The Far Ultraviolet (FUV imaging system on board the IMAGE satellite provides a global view of the north auroral region in three spectral channels, including the SI12 camera sensitive to Doppler shifted Lyman-α emission. FUV images are used to produce instantaneous maps of electron mean energy and energy fluxes for precipitated protons and electrons. We describe a method to calculate ionospheric Hall and Pedersen conductivities induced by auroral proton and electron ionization based on a model of interaction of auroral particles with the atmosphere. Different assumptions on the energy spectral distribution for electrons and protons are compared. Global maps of ionospheric conductances due to instantaneous observation of precipitating protons are calculated. The contribution of auroral protons in the total conductance induced by both types of auroral particles is also evaluated and the importance of proton precipitation is evaluated. This method is well adapted to analyze the time evolution of ionospheric conductances due to precipitating particles over the auroral region or in particular sectors. Results are illustrated with conductance maps of the north polar region obtained during four periods with different activity levels. It is found that the proton contribution to conductance is relatively higher during quiet periods than during substorms. The proton contribution is higher in the period before the onset and strongly decreases during the expansion phase of substorms. During a substorm which occurred on 28 April 2001, a region of strong proton precipitation is observed with SI12 around 14:00MLT at ~75° MLAT. Calculation of conductances in this sector shows that neglecting the protons contribution would produce a large error. We discuss possible effects of the proton precipitation on electron precipitation in auroral arcs. The increase in the ionospheric conductivity, induced by a former proton precipitation can reduce the potential drop

  11. Angular Distributions of Three Jet Events in Proton - Anti-Proton Collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carey, Robert Matthew [Harvard U.

    1989-07-01

    A measurement of three jet angular distributions is made at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 1.8 TeV in protonantiproton collisions at the F'ermilab Tevatron using the Collider Detector _at Ferm.ilab (CDF). Results are presented for three different center of mass variables, cos $\\theta$, $\\psi$, and $\\xi$ and are compared to QCD predictions.

  12. Hadron Correlations and Parton Recombination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fries, R.J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)]. E-mail: rjfries@comp.tamu.edu

    2007-02-15

    Parton recombination has been found to be an extremely useful model to understand hadron production at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. It is particularly important to explore its connections with hard processes. This article reviews some of the aspects of the quark recombination model and places particular emphasis on hadron correlations.

  13. Hadronization of dense partonic matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fries, Rainer J [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2006-12-15

    The parton recombination model has turned out to be a valuable tool to describe hadronization in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. I review the model and revisit recent progress in our understanding of hadron correlations. I also discuss higher Fock states in the hadrons, possible violations of the elliptic flow scaling and recombination effects in more dilute systems.

  14. QCD parton showers and NLO EW corrections to Drell-Yan

    CERN Document Server

    Richardson, P; Sapronov, A A; Seymour, M H; Skands, P Z

    2012-01-01

    We report on the implementation of an interface between the SANC generator framework for Drell-Yan hard processes, which includes next-to-leading order electroweak (NLO EW) corrections, and the Herwig++ and Pythia8 QCD parton shower Monte Carlos. A special aspect of this implementation is that the initial-state shower evolution in both shower generators has been augmented to handle the case of an incoming photon-in-a-proton, diagrams for which appear at the NLO EW level. The difference between shower algorithms leads to residual differences in the relative corrections of 2-3% in the p_T(mu) distributions at p_T(mu)>~50 GeV (where the NLO EW correction itself is of order 10%).

  15. Heavy quarks in proton

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)655637

    The measurement of prompt photon associated with a b jet in proton-proton interactions can provide us insight into the inner structure of proton. This is because precision of determination of parton distribution functions of b quark and gluon can be increased by such a measurement. The measurement of cross-section of prompt photon associated with a b jet (process $pp\\longrightarrow \\gamma + b + X$) at $\\sqrt{s}$= 8 TeV with the ATLAS detector is presented. Full 8 TeV dataset collected by ATLAS during the year 2012 was used in this analysis. Corresponding integrated luminosity is 20.3 $fb^{-1}$. Fiducial differential cross-section as a function of photon transverse momentum at particle level was extracted from data and compared with the prediction of leading order event generator Pythia 8. Cross-section extracted from data is normalised independently on the Monte Carlo prediction. Values of data distribution lie above Monte Carlo values. The difference can be explained by presence of higher order effects not ...

  16. Experimental characterization and physical modelling of the dose distribution of scanned proton pencil beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedroni, E; Scheib, S; Boehringer, T; Coray, A; Grossmann, M; Lin, S; Lomax, A

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we present the pencil beam dose model used for treatment planning at the PSI proton gantry, the only system presently applying proton therapy with a beam scanning technique. The scope of the paper is to give a general overview on the various components of the dose model, on the related measurements and on the practical parametrization of the results. The physical model estimates from first physical principles absolute dose normalized to the number of incident protons. The proton beam flux is measured in practice by plane-parallel ionization chambers (ICs) normalized to protons via Faraday-cup measurements. It is therefore possible to predict and deliver absolute dose directly from this model without other means. The dose predicted in this way agrees very well with the results obtained with ICs calibrated in a cobalt beam. Emphasis is given in this paper to the characterization of nuclear interaction effects, which play a significant role in the model and are the major source of uncertainty in the direct estimation of the absolute dose. Nuclear interactions attenuate the primary proton flux, they modify the shape of the depth-dose curve and produce a faint beam halo of secondary dose around the primary proton pencil beam in water. A very simple beam halo model has been developed and used at PSI to eliminate the systematic dependences of the dose observed as a function of the size of the target volume. We show typical results for the relative (using a CCD system) and absolute (using calibrated ICs) dosimetry, routinely applied for the verification of patient plans. With the dose model including the nuclear beam halo we can predict quite precisely the dose directly from treatment planning without renormalization measurements, independently of the dose, shape and size of the dose fields. This applies also to the complex non-homogeneous dose distributions required for the delivery of range-intensity-modulated proton therapy, a novel therapy technique

  17. Jet Hadronization via Recombination of Parton Showers in Vacuum and in Medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fries, Rainer J.; Han, Kyongchol; Ko, Che Ming

    2016-12-15

    We introduce a hadronization algorithm for jet parton showers based on a hybrid approach involving recombination of quarks and fragmentation of strings. The algorithm can be applied to parton showers from a shower Monte Carlo generator at the end of their perturbative evolution. The algorithm forces gluon decays and then evaluates the recombination probabilities for quark-antiquark pairs into mesons and (anti)quark triplets into (anti)baryons. We employ a Wigner phase space formulation based on the assumption of harmonic oscillator wave functions for stable hadrons and resonances. Partons too isolated in phase space to find recombination partners are connected by QCD strings to other quarks. Fragmentation of those remnant strings and the decay of all hadron resonances complete the hadronization process. We find that our model applied to parton showers from the PYTHIA Monte Carlo event generator leads to results very similar to pure Lund string fragmentation. We suggest that our algorithm can be readily generalized to jets embedded in quark-gluon plasma by adding sampled thermal partons from the phase transition hypersurface. The recombination of thermal partons and shower partons leads to an enhancement of pions and protons at intermediate momentum at both RHIC and LHC.

  18. Proton multiplicity distributions in pion-xenon nucleus collisions at 3.5 GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugalski, Z.; Pawlak, T.; Peryt, W.; Pluta, J.

    1980-01-01

    Experimental results from the proton emission investigation in 3.5 GeV/c pion minus-xenon nucleus collisions detected in the 180 xenon bubble chamber are presented and analyzed. The emitted protons are of kinetic energies from 20 to 400 MeV. Multiplicity distributions of protons both accompanied and not accompanied by secondary charged and neutral pions are given. Large proton multiplicities are observed in the events without multiparticle production, the proton multiplicity distribution in this class of events being of an irregular character. The experimental results are well described in the model based on the following hypothesis: a high energy hadron traversing the target causes the monotonous emission of the fast protons in numbers nsub(p) being equal to the number of protons encountered in the neighbourhood of its path inside the nucleus target. In this case the multiple production goes through some intermediate states which decay after having left the target nucleus

  19. Charm and strange quark contributions to the proton structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torokoff, K

    1999-02-01

    The possibility to have charm and strange quarks as quantum mechanical fluctuations in the proton wave function is investigated based on a model for non-perturbative QCD dynamics. Both hadron and parton basis are examined. A scheme for energy fluctuations is constructed and compared with explicit energy-momentum conservation. Resulting momentum distributions for charm and strange quarks in the proton are derived at the starting scale Q{sub 0} for the perturbative QCD evolution. Kinematical constraints are found to be important when comparing to the `intrinsic charm` model 20 refs, 30 figs, 9 tabs

  20. Charm and strange quark contributions to the proton structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torokoff, K.

    1999-02-01

    The possibility to have charm and strange quarks as quantum mechanical fluctuations in the proton wave function is investigated based on a model for non-perturbative QCD dynamics. Both hadron and parton basis are examined. A scheme for energy fluctuations is constructed and compared with explicit energy-momentum conservation. Resulting momentum distributions for charm and strange quarks in the proton are derived at the starting scale Q 0 for the perturbative QCD evolution. Kinematical constraints are found to be important when comparing to the 'intrinsic charm' model

  1. Angular distribution in proton-hydrogen charge-transfer collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glembocki, O.; Halpern, A.M.

    1977-01-01

    Theoretical angular distributions for p-H charge transfer to the 1s state for energies of 1 keV and above have been examined and compared for three approximation schemes: the plane-wave Born approximation of Jackson and Schiff (JS), the Coulomb projected Born approximation of Geltman (G), and the distorted-wave eikonal approximation of one of the authors (D). The sharp dip in the forward distribution characteristic of JS is found to exist in G and D as well. As expected, G and D give identical results for all but the lowest energies. In the cases of G and D the dip, which is located close to that of JS, disappears and then reappears as the energy rises. Analytic high-energy limits for the angular dependence in both the JS and G cases have been found and are discussed

  2. Spin structure at the partonic level. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leader, E.

    1983-01-01

    Knowledge of the spin and momentum distribution of partons inside a polarised nucleon, as deduced from lepton scattering, is combined with lowest order QCD to calculate spin dependent parameters in large psub(T) hadronic reactions. Clear predictions emerge in some cases and are in conflict with present experimental results. There is a real challenge to improve both theory and experiment. (orig.)

  3. PARTON SATURATION, PRODUCTION, AND EQUILIBRATION IN HIGH ENERGY NUCLEAR COLLISIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VENUGOPALAN, R.

    1999-01-01

    Deeply inelastic scattering of electrons off nuclei can determine whether parton distributions saturate at HERA energies. If so, this phenomenon will also tell us a great deal about how particles are produced, and whether they equilibrate, in high energy nuclear collisions

  4. What Exactly is a Parton Density ?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    I give an account of the definitions of parton densities, both the conventional ones, integrated over parton transverse momentum, and unintegrated transverse-momentum-dependent densities. The aim is to get a precise and correct definition of a parton density as the target expectation value of a suitable quantum mechanical operator, so that a clear connection to non-perturbative QCD is provided. Starting from the intuitive ideas in the parton model that predate QCD, we will see how the simplest operator definitions suffer from divergences. Corrections to the definition are needed to eliminate the divergences. An improved definition of unintegrated parton densities is proposed. (author)

  5. Strange particle cross sections and multiplicity distributions in 19 GeV/c proton-proton interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpgaard, K.; Ekspong, G.; Hulth, P.O.; Svedin, U.; Yamdagni, N.; Breivik, F.O.; Frodesen, A.G.; Krogstad, A.; Hagman, V.-M.; Karimaeki, V.; Villanen, P.

    1976-01-01

    Inclusive cross sections are presented for strange-particle production in proton-proton interactions at 19 GeV/c for the pairs (K 0 anti K 0 )sub(C=+1), K 0 Λ, K + Λ, K 0 Σ + , K 0 Σ - and for Λ, K 0 sub(S), Σ + , Σ - and Ψ - . The Kanti K, the KY and the total strange particle cross sections have been found to be 1.40+-0.10 mb, 2.69+-0.09 mb and 4.23+-0.20 mb, respectively. The charged multiplicity distributions for events with K 0 sub(S), Λ, (K 0 anti K 0 )sub(C=+1) or K 0 Λ are shown to follow a modified KNO curve, whereas K + Λ does not. For the inclusive reactions pp→(K 0 anti K 0 )sub(C=+1)+X ++ , pp→K 0 Λ+X ++ and pp→Λ+X ++ , it is found that the average charged multiplicity of the remainder system X ++ is the same as when X ++ is produced in other reactions with the same system energy and quantum numbers. (Auth.)

  6. Proton rapidity distribution in nucleus-nucleus collisions at high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, F.H.

    2002-01-01

    The proton rapidity distributions in nucleus-nucleus collisions at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) and the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) energies are analysed by the revised thermalized cylinder model. The calculated results are compared and found to he in agreement with the experimental data of Si-AI and Si-Pb collisions at 14.6 A GeV/c, Pb-Pb collisions at 158 A GeV/c, and S-S collisions at 200 A GeV/c. (Author)

  7. Deep inelastic processes. Phenomenology. Quark-parton model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioffe, B.L.; Lipatov, L.N.; Khoze, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    Main theoretical approaches and experimental results related to deep inelastic processes are systematically outlined: electroproduction, neutrino scattering on nucleon, electron-positron pairs annihilation into hadron γγ collisions, production of lepton pairs in hadron collisions with a large effective mass or hadrons with large transverse momenta. Kinematics and phenomenology, space-time description of deep inelastic processes, sum rules, parton and quark-parton models are considered. The experiment is briefly discussed in the book. It is performed from the stand point of comparing it with the theory, experimental data are given as of June, 1982. Since the time of accomplishing the study on the manuscript a number of new experimental results not changing however the statements made in the book appeared. Principal consists in experiments with colliding proton-antiproton beams in CERN, which resulted in discovery of intermediate W-bozon

  8. FEASIBILITY OF POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY OF DOSE DISTRIBUTION IN PROTON BEAM CANCER THERAPY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BEEBE-WANG, J.J.; DILMANIAN, F.A.; PEGGS, S.G.; SCHLYEER, D.J.; VASKA, P.

    2002-01-01

    Proton therapy is a treatment modality of increasing utility in clinical radiation oncology mostly because its dose distribution conforms more tightly to the target volume than x-ray radiation therapy. One important feature of proton therapy is that it produces a small amount of positron-emitting isotopes along the beam-path through the non-elastic nuclear interaction of protons with target nuclei such as 12 C, 14 N, and 16 O. These radioisotopes, mainly 11 C, 13 N and 15 O, allow imaging the therapy dose distribution using positron emission tomography (PET). The resulting PET images provide a powerful tool for quality assurance of the treatment, especially when treating inhomogeneous organs such as the lungs or the head-and-neck, where the calculation of the dose distribution for treatment planning is more difficult. This paper uses Monte Carlo simulations to predict the yield of positron emitters produced by a 250 MeV proton beam, and to simulate the productions of the image in a clinical PET scanner

  9. Spatial distribution of moderated neutrons along a Pb target irradiated by high-energy protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fragopoulou, M.; Manolopoulou, M.; Stoulos, S.; Brandt, R.; Westmeier, W.; Kulakov, B.A.; Krivopustov, M.I.; Sosnin, A.N.; Debeauvais, M.; Adloff, J.C.; Zamani Valasiadou, M.

    2006-01-01

    High-energy protons in the range of 0.5-7.4 GeV have irradiated an extended Pb target covered with a paraffin moderator. The moderator was used in order to shift the hard Pb spallation neutron spectrum to lower energies and to increase the transmutation efficiency via (n,γ) reactions. Neutron distributions along and inside the paraffin moderator were measured. An analysis of the experimental results was performed based on particle production by high-energy interactions with heavy targets and neutron spectrum shifting by the paraffin. Conclusions about the spallation neutron production in the target and moderation through the paraffin are presented. The study of the total neutron fluence on the moderator surface as a function of the proton beam energy shows that neutron cost is improved up to 1 GeV. For higher proton beam energies it remains constant with a tendency to decline

  10. Dynamical behavior connection of the gluon distribution and the proton structure function at small x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boroun, G.R.

    2014-01-01

    We make a critical study of the relationship between the singlet structure function F 2 S and the gluon distribution G(x,Q 2 ) proposed in the past two decades, which is frequently used to extract the gluon distribution from the proton structure function. We show that a simple relation is not generally valid in the simplest state. We complete this relation by using a Laplace transform method and hard-pomeron behavior at LO and NLO at small x. Our study shows that this relation is dependent on the splitting functions and initial conditions at Q 2 =Q 2 0 and running coupling constant at NLO. The resulting analytic expression allows us to predict the proton structure function with respect to the gluon distributions and to compare the results with H1 data and a QCD analysis fit. Comparisons with other results are made and predictions for the proposed best approach are also provided. (orig.)

  11. Analytic solutions of QCD evolution equations for parton cascades inside nuclear matter at small x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geiger, K.

    1994-01-01

    An analytical method is presented to solve generalized QCD evolution equations for the time development of parton cascades in a nuclear environment. In addition to the usual parton branching processes in vacuum, these evolution equations provide a consistent description of interactions with the nuclear medium by accounting for stimulated branching processes, fusion, and scattering processes that are specific to QCD in a medium. Closed solutions for the spectra of produced partons with respect to the variables time, longitudinal momentum, and virtuality are obtained under some idealizing assumptions about the composition of the nuclear medium. Several characteristic features of the resulting parton distributions are discussed. One of the main conclusions is that the evolution of a parton shower in a medium is dilated as compared to free space and is accompanied by an enhancement of particle production. These effects become stronger with increasing nuclear density

  12. Measurement of pseudorapidity distributions of charged particles in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV by the CMS and TOTEM experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; Sirunyan, Albert M; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knünz, Valentin; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Bansal, Monika; Bansal, Sunil; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Luyckx, Sten; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Heracleous, Natalie; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Keaveney, James; Kim, Tae Jeong; Lowette, Steven; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Favart, Laurent; Gay, Arnaud; Léonard, Alexandre; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Perniè, Luca; Reis, Thomas; Seva, Tomislav; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wang, Jian; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Dildick, Sven; Garcia, Guillaume; Klein, Benjamin; Lellouch, Jérémie; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Sigamani, Michael; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Walsh, Sinead; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Alves, Gilvan; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Dos Reis Martins, Thiago; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Malbouisson, Helena; Malek, Magdalena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santaolalla, Javier; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Marinov, Andrey; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Meng, Xiangwei; Plestina, Roko; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Guo, Yifei; Li, Qiang; Li, Wenbo; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Zhang, Linlin; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Mekterovic, Darko; Morovic, Srecko; Sudic, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Assran, Yasser; Elgammal, Sherif; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Müntel, Mait; Murumaa, Marion; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Tiko, Andres; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Nayak, Aruna; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Daci, Nadir; Dahms, Torsten; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Florent, Alice; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Sabes, David; Salerno, Roberto; Sauvan, Jean-baptiste; Sirois, Yves; Veelken, Christian; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Drouhin, Frédéric; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Goetzmann, Christophe; Juillot, Pierre; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaupere, Nicolas; Boudoul, Gaelle; Brochet, Sébastien; Chasserat, Julien; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fan, Jiawei; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sgandurra, Louis; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Xiao, Hong; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Bontenackels, Michael; Calpas, Betty; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Hindrichs, Otto; Klein, Katja; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Sprenger, Daniel; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Caudron, Julien; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Erdmann, Martin; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klingebiel, Dennis; Knutzen, Simon; Kreuzer, Peter; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Papacz, Paul; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Weber, Martin; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Lingemann, Joschka; Nowack, Andreas; Nugent, Ian Michael; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Asin, Ivan; Bartosik, Nazar; Behr, Joerg; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bell, Alan James; Bergholz, Matthias; Bethani, Agni; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Cakir, Altan; Calligaris, Luigi; Campbell, Alan; Choudhury, Somnath; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dooling, Samantha; Dorland, Tyler; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Flucke, Gero; Geiser, Achim; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Gunnellini, Paolo; Habib, Shiraz; Hauk, Johannes; Hellwig, Gregor; Hempel, Maria; Horton, Dean; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kieseler, Jan; Kleinwort, Claus; Krämer, Mira; Krücker, Dirk; Lange, Wolfgang; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lutz, Benjamin; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Friederike; Perrey, Hanno; Petrukhin, Alexey; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Riedl, Caroline; Ron, Elias; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Saxena, Pooja; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schröder, Matthias; Stein, Matthias; Vargas Trevino, Andrea Del Rocio; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Blobel, Volker; Enderle, Holger; Erfle, Joachim; Garutti, Erika; Goebel, Kristin; Görner, Martin; Gosselink, Martijn; Haller, Johannes; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Kirschenmann, Henning; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Lange, Jörn; Lapsien, Tobias; Lenz, Teresa; Marchesini, Ivan; Ott, Jochen; Peiffer, Thomas; Pietsch, Niklas; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Seidel, Markus; Sibille, Jennifer; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Barth, Christian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Butz, Erik; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Feindt, Michael; Guthoff, Moritz; Hartmann, Frank; Hauth, Thomas; Held, Hauke; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Kornmayer, Andreas; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Martschei, Daniel; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Niegel, Martin; Nürnberg, Andreas; Oberst, Oliver; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Röcker, Steffen; Schilling, Frank-Peter; Schott, Gregory; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weiler, Thomas; Wolf, Roger; Zeise, Manuel; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Ntomari, Eleni; Psallidas, Andreas; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Gouskos, Loukas; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Stiliaris, Efstathios; Aslanoglou, Xenofon; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Jones, John; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, D