WorldWideScience

Sample records for proton halo structure

  1. Nuclear breakup of 17Ne and its two-proton halo structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wamers, Felix; Aumann, Thomas [Institut fuer Kernphysik, TU Darmstadt (Germany); Bertulani, Carlos [Texas A and M University-Commerce, Commerce (United States); Chulkov, Leonid; Heil, Michael; Simon, Haik [Kernreaktionen und Nukleare Astrophysik, GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Marganiec, Justyna [Extreme Matter Institute, GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); JINA, Notre Dame (United States); Plag, Ralf [Kernreaktionen und Nukleare Astrophysik, GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Goethe Universitaet, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Collaboration: R3B-Collaboration

    2012-07-01

    {sup 17}Ne is a proton-dripline nucleus that has raised interest in nuclear-structure physics in recent years. As a ({sup 15}O+2p) Borromean 3-body system, it is often considered to be a 2-proton-halo nucleus, yet lacking concluding experimental quantification of structure. We have studied breakup reactions of 500 AMeV {sup 17}Ne secondary beams in inverse kinematics using the R3B-LAND setup at GSI. The foci were on (p,2p) quasi-free scattering on a CH{sub 2} target, and on one-proton-knockout reactions on a carbon target. Recoil protons have been detected with Si-Strip detectors and a surrounding 4{pi} NaI spectrometer. Furthermore, projectile-like forward protons after one-proton knockout from {sup 17}Ne have been measured in coincidence with the {sup 15}O residual core. The resulting relative-energy spectrum of the unbound {sup 16}F, as well as proton-removal cross sections with CH{sub 2} and C targets, and the transverse-momentum distributions of the residual fragments are presented. Conclusions on the ground-state structure of {sup 17}Ne are discussed.

  2. Reaction Mechanism and Structure Interplay for Proton Elastic Scattering from Halo Nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crespo, R.; Johnson, R.C.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this work is to clarify what properties of the projectile w.f. are relevant to describe elastic scattering of halo nuclei from stable nuclei. In particular, we examine how far elastic scattering observables probe correlation effects among projectile nucleons. Our treatment is based on a multiple scattering expansion of the proton-projectile transition amplitude in a form which is well adapted to the weakly bound cluster picture of halo nuclei. In the specific case of 11 Li scattering from protons at 800 MeV/u we show that because core recoil effects are significant, scattering cross sections can not, in general, be deduced from knowledge of the total matter density alone. We advocate that the optical potential concept for the scattering of halo nuclei on protons should be avoided and that the multiple scattering series for the full transition amplitude should be used instead

  3. Reaction mechanism and structure interplay for proton elastic scattering from halo nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crespo, R.; Johnson, R. C.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this work is to clarify what properties of the projectile w.f. are relevant to describe elastic scattering of halo nuclei from stable nuclei. In particular, we examine how far elastic scattering observables probe correlation effects among projectile nucleons. Our treatment is based on a multiple scattering expansion of the proton-projectile transition amplitude in a form which is well adapted to the weakly bound cluster picture of halo nuclei. In the specific case of 11 Li scattering from protons at 800 MeV/u we show that because core recoil effects are significant, scattering crosssections cannot, in general, be deduced from knowledge of the total matter density alone. We advocate that the optical potential concept for the scattering of halo nuclei on protons should be avoided and that the multiple scattering series for the full transition amplitude should be used instead

  4. Close correlation between the reaction mechanism and inner structure of loosely halo-nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jianye; Tianshui Normal Univ., Tianshui; National Laboratory of Heavy Ion Accelerator of Lanzhou, Lanzhou; Guo Wenjun; Ren Zhongzhou; National Laboratory of Heavy Ion Accelerator of Lanzhou, Lanzhou; Xing Yongzhong; National Laboratory of Heavy Ion Accelerator of Lanzhou, Lanzhou

    2006-01-01

    It was based on the comparisons of the variance properties of fragment multiplicities FM's and nuclear stoppings R's for the neutron-halo colliding system with those of FZ's and R's for the proton-halo colliding system with the increases of beam energy in more detail, the closely correlations between the reaction mechanism and the inner structures of halo-nuclei is found. From above comparisons it is found that the variance properties of fragment multiplicities and nuclear stopping with the increases of beam energy are quite different for the neutron-halo and proton halo colliding systems, such as the effects of loosely bound neutron-halo structure on the fragment multiplicities and nuclear stopping are obviously larger than those for the proton-halo colliding system. This is due to that the structures of halo-neutron nucleus 11 Li is more loosely than that of the proton-halo nucleus 23 Al. In this case, the fragment multiplicity and nuclear stopping of halo nuclei may be used as a possible probe for studying the reaction mechanism and the correlation between the reaction mechanism and the inner structure of halo-nuclei. (authors)

  5. Halo structure of 8B determined from intermediate energy proton elastic scattering in inverse kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolev, G. A.; Dobrovolsky, A. V.; Inglessi, A. G.; Alkhazov, G. D.; Egelhof, P.; Estradé, A.; Dillmann, I.; Farinon, F.; Geissel, H.; Ilieva, S.; Ke, Y.; Khanzadeev, A. V.; Kiselev, O. A.; Kurcewicz, J.; Le, X. C.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Petrov, G. E.; Prochazka, A.; Scheidenberger, C.; Sergeev, L. O.; Simon, H.; Takechi, M.; Tang, S.; Volkov, V.; Vorobyov, A. A.; Weick, H.; Yatsoura, V. I.

    2018-05-01

    The absolute differential cross section for small-angle proton elastic scattering on the proton-rich 8B nucleus has been measured in inverse kinematics for the first time. The experiment was performed using a secondary radioactive beam with an energy of 0.7 GeV/u at GSI, Darmstadt. The active target, namely hydrogen-filled time projection ionization chamber IKAR, was used to measure the energy, angle and vertex point of the recoil protons. The scattering angle of the projectiles was simultaneously determined by the tracking detectors. The measured differential cross section is analyzed on the basis of the Glauber multiple scattering theory using phenomenological nuclear-density distributions with two free parameters. The radial density distribution deduced for 8B exhibits a halo structure with the root-mean-square (rms) matter radius Rm = 2.58 (6) fm and the rms halo radius Rh = 4.24 (25) fm. The results on 8B are compared to those on the mirror nucleus 8Li investigated earlier by the same method. A comparison is also made with previous experimental results and theoretical predictions for both nuclei.

  6. Test of internal halo targets in the HERA proton ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hast, C.; Hofmann, W.; Khan, S.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Reber, M.; Rieling, J.; Spahn, M.; Spengler, J.; Lohse, T.; Pugatch, V.

    1994-07-01

    Internal wire targets in the halo of stored proton beams provide a line source of proton-nucleus interactions for highest-rate fixed target experiments. We have studied such internal halo targets at the 820 GeV proton ring of the HERA ep collider. The tests showed that most of the protons in the beam halo - which would otherwise hit the collimators - can be brought to interaction in a relatively thin target wire at distances of 7 to 8 beam widths from the center of the beam. At less than 10% of the HERA total design current, and less than 20% of the current per bunch, interaction rates up to 8 MHz were observed, corresponding to more than 2 interactions per bunch crossing. The halo targets were used in parallel to the HERA luminosity operation; no significant disturbances of the HERA ep experiments, of the machine stability or beam quality were observed. We present data on the steady-state and transient behaviour of interaction rates and discuss the interpretation in terms of a simple beam dynamics model. Issues of short-, medium- and long-term rate fluctuations and of rate stabilization by feedback are addressed. (orig.)

  7. Test of internal halo targets in the HERA proton ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hast, C.; Hofmann, W.; Khan, S.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Reber, M.; Rieling, J.; Spahn, M.; Spengler, J.; Lohse, T.; Pugatch, V.

    1995-01-01

    Internal wire targets in the halo of stored proton beams provide a line source of proton-nucleus interactions for highest-rate fixed target experiments. We have studied such internal halo targets at the 820 GeV proton ring of the HERA ep collider. The tests showed that most of the protons in the beam halo - which would otherwise hit the collimators - can be brought to interaction in a relatively thin target wire at distances of 7 to 8 beam widths from the center of the beam. At less than 10% of the HERA total design current, and less than 20% of the current per bunch, interaction rates up to 8 MHz were observed, corresponding to more than 2 interactions per bunch crossing. The halo targets were used in parallel to the HERA luminosity operation; no significant disturbances of the HERA ep experiments, of the machine stability or beam quality were observed. We present data on the steady-state and transient behaviour of interaction rates and discuss the interpretation in terms of a simple beam dynamics model. Issues of short-, medium- and long-term rate fluctuations and of rate stabilization by feedback are addressed. ((orig.))

  8. Two-proton radioactivity with 2p halo in light mass nuclei A=18–34

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Saxena

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Two-proton radioactivity with 2p halo is reported theoretically in light mass nuclei A=18–34. We predict 19Mg, 22Si, 26S, 30Ar and 34Ca as promising candidates of ground state 2p-radioactivity with S2p0. Observation of extended tail of spatial charge density distribution, larger charge radius and study of proton single particle states, Fermi energy and the wave functions indicate 2p halo like structure which supports direct 2p emission. The Coulomb and centrifugal barriers in experimentally identified 2p unbound 22Si show a quasi-bound state that ensures enough life time for such experimental probes. Our predictions are in good accord with experimental and other theoretical data available so far. Keywords: Relativistic mean-field theory, Nilson Strutinsky approach, Two-proton radioactivity, One- and two-proton separation energy, Halo nuclei, Proton drip-lines

  9. Two-protons' entanglement of the diproton emission from 17Ne halo resonant states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carballo Perez, Brenda; Guzman Martinez, Fernando

    2006-01-01

    Fingerprints of entangled states of the two protons, from the decay of halo resonant states of 17 Ne has been studied. This study makes possible a way to discern the diproton emission from the others two proton emission mechanisms. Specially we calculate the energy (E 1 =10.87 MeV) and the width (Γ 1 =3.82 MeV) of the first halo resonant state, which can also emits diproton. For this purpose, the diproton was considered as a resonant state and its width (Γ s =4.049 MeV) was estimated. An analytic expression for the angular proton-proton distribution was found in agreement with experimental results. We conclude that the first 17 Ne excited state can not emit diproton. We also arrive at the conclusion that there are few 17 Ne excited states, having halo properties which can emit diproton. (Full Text)

  10. Structure study in the 19C halo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelique, J.C.; Le Brun, C.; Liegard, E.; Marques, F.M.; Orr, N.A.

    1997-01-01

    The halo nuclei are nuclei which have one or more neutrons (or protons) with very weak binding energy what results in a spatial extension beyond the core containing the other nucleons. This important spatial extension is related via the Heisenberg principle to a narrow momentum distribution which signs the halo structure of the nucleus under consideration. To extend our understanding of this phenomenon an experiment has been carried out with the DEMON multidetector in the frame of the collaboration E133. The subject was the study of 19 C, a nucleus susceptible of having a neutron halo due to the low binding energy of its last neutron (S n = 240 ± 100 keV). The 19 C secondary beam was produced by fragmentation of a primary 40 Ar beam in a carbon target between the two solenoids of SISSI and than directed to a GANIL experimental room. A silicon detector telescope was used to detect the charged particles issued from the reaction of 19 C nuclei with the tantalum target while the DEMON detection modular assembly separated by four meters from the target allowed the neutron detection between 0 and 42 degrees. The first results of this analysis are favorable to a halo structure for this nucleus for the reaction channel in which the 18 C core is destroyed. We have compared the angular distribution of the neutrons of 19 C with those obtained from the breakup reactions of other exotic nuclei ( 21 N, 22 O and 24 F) but having no halo structure. A net different behavior of these nuclei indicate a clear difference in structure. Actually, the 19 C distribution corresponds to the superposition of a broad distribution and narrow distribution. The last one having width of 42 ± 12 MeV/c, compatible with an important spatial extension, corresponds to neutrons coming from the halo. It is argued that the model in which the halo neutron moves on a s orbital cannot described the structure of 19 C halo. A more adequate description would be a mixture of s and d orbitals which would also

  11. The investigation of quasi-free scattering reactions with the two-proton-halo nucleus {sup 17}Ne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehr, Christopher; Aumann, Thomas; Marganiec, Justyna [TU Darmstadt (Germany); Wamers, Felix [GSI Helmholtzzentrum (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    {sup 17}Ne is a Borromean two-proton-halo nucleus located at the proton-dripline and therefore an interesting candidate for nuclear-structure studies. Reactions of the nucleus {sup 17}Ne have been measured in complete kinematics at the R3B/LAND setup at GSI in Darmstadt. It was studied in exclusive measurements of one-proton-removal reactions. Polyethylene (CH{sub 2}) and carbon (C) were used as targets. Thus it is possible to reconstruct the pure H contribution of the CH{sub 2} data by subtracting the carbon background. The resulting events are clean (p,2p) reactions showing the typical angular correlations known from p-p scattering. Thereby quasi-free (p,2p) and carbon-induced one-proton removal reactions are studied separately. Quasi-free scattering reactions are compared with carbon-induced one-proton removal reactions and shown to be a clean tool for nuclear-structure studies.

  12. Halos and related structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisager, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    The halo structure originated from nuclear physics but is now encountered more widely. It appears in loosely bound, clustered systems where the spatial extension of the system is significantly larger than that of the binding potentials. A review is given on our current understanding of these stru......The halo structure originated from nuclear physics but is now encountered more widely. It appears in loosely bound, clustered systems where the spatial extension of the system is significantly larger than that of the binding potentials. A review is given on our current understanding...... of these structures, with an emphasis on how the structures evolve as more cluster components are added and on the experimental situation concerning halo states in light nuclei....

  13. On the nuclear halo of a proton pencil beam stopping in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottschalk, Bernard; Cascio, Ethan W; Daartz, Juliane; Wagner, Miles S

    2015-01-01

    The dose distribution of a proton beam stopping in water has components due to basic physics and may have others from beam contamination. We propose the concise terms core for the primary beam, halo (see Pedroni et al 2005 Phys. Med. Biol. 50 541–61) for the low dose region from charged secondaries, aura for the low dose region from neutrals, and spray for beam contamination.We have measured the dose distribution in a water tank at 177 MeV under conditions where spray, therefore radial asymmetry, is negligible. We used an ADCL calibrated thimble chamber and a Faraday cup calibrated integral beam monitor so as to obtain immediately the absolute dose per proton. We took depth scans at fixed distances from the beam centroid rather than radial scans at fixed depths. That minimizes the signal range for each scan and better reveals the structure of the core and halo.Transitions from core to halo to aura are already discernible in the raw data. The halo has components attributable to coherent and incoherent nuclear reactions. Due to elastic and inelastic scattering by the nuclear force, the Bragg peak persists to radii larger than can be accounted for by Molière single scattering. The radius of the incoherent component, a dose bump around midrange, agrees with the kinematics of knockout reactions.We have fitted the data in two ways. The first is algebraic or model dependent (MD) as far as possible, and has 25 parameters. The second, using 2D cubic spline regression, is model independent. Optimal parameterization for treatment planning will probably be a hybrid of the two, and will of course require measurements at several incident energies.The MD fit to the core term resembles that of the PSI group (Pedroni et al 2005), which has been widely emulated. However, we replace their T(w), a mass stopping power which mixes electromagnetic (EM) and nuclear effects, with one that is purely EM, arguing that protons that do not undergo hard single scatters continue to lose energy

  14. On the nuclear halo of a proton pencil beam stopping in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschalk, Bernard; Cascio, Ethan W.; Daartz, Juliane; Wagner, Miles S.

    2015-07-01

    The dose distribution of a proton beam stopping in water has components due to basic physics and may have others from beam contamination. We propose the concise terms core for the primary beam, halo (see Pedroni et al 2005 Phys. Med. Biol. 50 541-61) for the low dose region from charged secondaries, aura for the low dose region from neutrals, and spray for beam contamination. We have measured the dose distribution in a water tank at 177 MeV under conditions where spray, therefore radial asymmetry, is negligible. We used an ADCL calibrated thimble chamber and a Faraday cup calibrated integral beam monitor so as to obtain immediately the absolute dose per proton. We took depth scans at fixed distances from the beam centroid rather than radial scans at fixed depths. That minimizes the signal range for each scan and better reveals the structure of the core and halo. Transitions from core to halo to aura are already discernible in the raw data. The halo has components attributable to coherent and incoherent nuclear reactions. Due to elastic and inelastic scattering by the nuclear force, the Bragg peak persists to radii larger than can be accounted for by Molière single scattering. The radius of the incoherent component, a dose bump around midrange, agrees with the kinematics of knockout reactions. We have fitted the data in two ways. The first is algebraic or model dependent (MD) as far as possible, and has 25 parameters. The second, using 2D cubic spline regression, is model independent. Optimal parameterization for treatment planning will probably be a hybrid of the two, and will of course require measurements at several incident energies. The MD fit to the core term resembles that of the PSI group (Pedroni et al 2005), which has been widely emulated. However, we replace their T(w), a mass stopping power which mixes electromagnetic (EM) and nuclear effects, with one that is purely EM, arguing that protons that do not undergo hard single scatters continue to lose

  15. Study of Neutron Halo Structure in Interaction of 6He with Nuclei of Photoemulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belovitsky, G.; Konobeevski, E.; Stepanov, A.; Zavarzina, V.; Zuyev, S.; Polukhina, N.; Rusetsky, A.; Starkov, N.; Lukyanov, S.; Sobolev, Yu.

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the structure of halo of Borromean nuclei, we propose an experimental method of studying quasi-free scattering of proton by the constituents of halo-nuclei in photo emulsion. The experimental study of 6 He + 1 H interaction is performed using 6 He beam of Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (JINR, Dubna) at energy of about 10 MeV/u and technique of nuclear photo emulsions. Searching for events of quasi-free scattering and their processing is performed using the PAVICOM-setup at P.N. Lebedev Physical institute

  16. Technical Note: Validation of halo modeling for proton pencil beam spot scanning using a quality assurance test pattern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Liyong, E-mail: linl@uphs.upenn.edu; Huang, Sheng; Kang, Minglei; Solberg, Timothy D.; McDonough, James E.; Ainsley, Christopher G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, 3400 Civic Center Boulevard, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the utility of a comprehensive test pattern in validating calculation models that include the halo component (low-dose tails) of proton pencil beam scanning (PBS) spots. Such a pattern has been used previously for quality assurance purposes to assess spot shape, position, and dose. Methods: In this study, a scintillation detector was used to measure the test pattern in air at isocenter for two proton beam energies (115 and 225 MeV) of two IBA universal nozzles (UN #1 and UN #2). Planar measurements were compared with calculated dose distributions based on the weighted superposition of location-independent (UN #1) or location-dependent (UN #2) spot profiles, previously measured using a pair-magnification method and between two nozzles. Results: Including the halo component below 1% of the central dose is shown to improve the gamma-map comparison between calculation and measurement from 94.9% to 98.4% using 2 mm/2% criteria for the 115 MeV proton beam of UN #1. In contrast, including the halo component below 1% of the central dose does not improve the gamma agreement for the 115 MeV proton beam of UN #2, due to the cutoff of the halo component at off-axis locations. When location-dependent spot profiles are used for calculation instead of spot profiles at central axis, the gamma agreement is improved from 98.0% to 99.5% using 2 mm/2% criteria. The two nozzles clearly have different characteristics, as a direct comparison of measured data shows a passing rate of 89.7% for the 115 MeV proton beam. At 225 MeV, the corresponding gamma comparisons agree better between measurement and calculation, and between measurements in the two nozzles. Conclusions: In addition to confirming the primary component of individual PBS spot profiles, a comprehensive test pattern is useful for the validation of the halo component at off-axis locations, especially for low energy protons.

  17. Isospin quantum number and structure of the excited states in halo nuclei. Halo-isomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izosimov, I.N.

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that isobar-analog (IAS), double isobar-analog (DIAS), configuration (CS), and double configuration states (DCS) can simultaneously have n-n, n-p, and p-p halo components in their wave functions. Differences in halo structure of the excited and ground states can result in the formation of isomers (halo-isomers). Both the Borromean and tango halo types can be observed for n-p configurations of atomic nuclei. The structure of the ground and excited states with different isospin quantum number in halo-like nuclei is discussed. B(Mλ) and B(Eλ) for γ-transitions in 6-8 Li, 8-10 Be, 8,10,11 B, 10-14 C, 13-17 N, 15-17,19 O, and 17 F are analyzed. Special attention is given to nuclei whose ground state does not exhibit halo structure, but the excited state may have one.

  18. Shell closures, loosely bound structures, and halos in exotic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxena, G.; Singh, D.

    2013-01-01

    Inspired by the recent experiments indicating doubly magic nuclei that lie near the drip-line and encouraged by the success of our relativistic mean-field (RMF) plus state-dependent BCS approach to the description of the ground-state properties of drip-line nuclei, we develop this approach further, across the entire periodic table, to explore magic nuclei, loosely bound structures, and halo formation in exotic nuclei. In our RMF+BCS approach, the single-particle continuum corresponding to the RMF is replaced by a set of discrete positive-energy states for the calculations of pairing energy. Detailed analysis of the single-particle spectrum, pairing energies, and densities of the nuclei predict the unusual proton shell closures at proton numbers Z = 6, 14, 16, 34, and unusual neutron shell closures at neutron numbers N = 6, 14, 16, 34, 40, 70, 112. Further, in several nuclei like the neutron-rich isotopes of Ca, Zr, Mo, etc., the gradual filling of lowlying single-particle resonant state together with weakly bound single-particle states lying close to the continuum threshold helps accommodate more neutrons but with an extremely small increase in the binding energy. This gives rise to the occurrence of loosely bound systems of neutron-rich nuclei with a large neutron-to-proton ratio. In general, the halo-like formation, irrespective of the existence of any resonant state, is seen to be due to the large spatial extension of the wave functions for the weakly bound single-particle states with low orbital angular momentum having very small or no centrifugal barriers.

  19. Shell closures, loosely bound structures, and halos in exotic nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxena, G., E-mail: gauravphy@gmail.com [Govt. Women Engineering College, Department of Physics (India); Singh, D. [University of Rajasthan, Department of Physics (India)

    2013-04-15

    Inspired by the recent experiments indicating doubly magic nuclei that lie near the drip-line and encouraged by the success of our relativistic mean-field (RMF) plus state-dependent BCS approach to the description of the ground-state properties of drip-line nuclei, we develop this approach further, across the entire periodic table, to explore magic nuclei, loosely bound structures, and halo formation in exotic nuclei. In our RMF+BCS approach, the single-particle continuum corresponding to the RMF is replaced by a set of discrete positive-energy states for the calculations of pairing energy. Detailed analysis of the single-particle spectrum, pairing energies, and densities of the nuclei predict the unusual proton shell closures at proton numbers Z = 6, 14, 16, 34, and unusual neutron shell closures at neutron numbers N = 6, 14, 16, 34, 40, 70, 112. Further, in several nuclei like the neutron-rich isotopes of Ca, Zr, Mo, etc., the gradual filling of lowlying single-particle resonant state together with weakly bound single-particle states lying close to the continuum threshold helps accommodate more neutrons but with an extremely small increase in the binding energy. This gives rise to the occurrence of loosely bound systems of neutron-rich nuclei with a large neutron-to-proton ratio. In general, the halo-like formation, irrespective of the existence of any resonant state, is seen to be due to the large spatial extension of the wave functions for the weakly bound single-particle states with low orbital angular momentum having very small or no centrifugal barriers.

  20. Probing the shape and internal structure of dark matter haloes with the halo-shear-shear three-point correlation function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasaki, Masato; Yoshida, Naoki

    2018-04-01

    Weak lensing three-point statistics are powerful probes of the structure of dark matter haloes. We propose to use the correlation of the positions of galaxies with the shapes of background galaxy pairs, known as the halo-shear-shear correlation (HSSC), to measure the mean halo ellipticity and the abundance of subhaloes in a statistical manner. We run high-resolution cosmological N-body simulations and use the outputs to measure the HSSC for galaxy haloes and cluster haloes. Non-spherical haloes cause a characteristic azimuthal variation of the HSSC, and massive subhaloes in the outer region near the virial radius contribute to ˜ 10 per cent of the HSSC amplitude. Using the HSSC and its covariance estimated from our N-body simulations, we make forecast for constraining the internal structure of dark matter haloes with future galaxy surveys. With 1000 galaxy groups with mass greater than 1013.5 h-1M⊙, the average halo ellipticity can be measured with an accuracy of 10 percent. A spherical, smooth mass distribution can be ruled out at a ˜5σ significance level. The existence of subhaloes whose masses are in 1-10 percent of the main halo mass can be detected with ˜104 galaxies/clusters. We conclude that the HSSC provides valuable information on the structure of dark haloes and hence on the nature of dark matter.

  1. The two-proton halo nucleus {sup 17}Ne studied in high-energy nuclear breakup reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wamers, Felix [EMMI, GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); FIAS, Frankfurt (Germany); IKP, TU Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany); GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Marganiec, Justyna [IKP, TU Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany); EMMI, GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Aumann, Thomas [IKP, TU Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany); GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Bertulani, Carlos [Texas A and M University-Commerce, Commerce (United States); Chulkov, Leonid [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); NRC Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Heil, Michael; Simon, Haik [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Plag, Ralf [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Goethe Universitaet, Frankfurt (Germany); Savran, Deniz [EMMI, GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); FIAS, Frankfurt (Germany); Collaboration: R3B-Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    We report on exclusive measurements of nuclear breakup reactions of highly-energetic (500 MeV) unstable {sup 17}Ne beams impinging on light targets in an experiment at the R{sup 3}B-LAND complete-kinematics reaction setup at GSI. Focusing on the properties of beam-like {sup 15}O-p (={sup 16}F) systems produced in one-proton-removal reactions, we are presenting a comprehensive analysis of the s-/d-wave configuration mixing of the {sup 17}Ne valence-proton pair that is used to quantify its halo-nature. The results include the {sup 15}O-p relative-energy spectrum, {sup 16}F momentum distributions, and their corresponding momentum profile.

  2. Halo-induced large enhancement of soft dipole excitation of 11Li observed via proton inelastic scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tanaka

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Proton inelastic scattering off a neutron halo nucleus, 11Li, has been studied in inverse kinematics at the IRIS facility at TRIUMF. The aim was to establish a soft dipole resonance and to obtain its dipole strength. Using a high quality 66 MeV 11Li beam, a strongly populated excited state in 11Li was observed at Ex=0.80±0.02 MeV with a width of Γ=1.15±0.06 MeV. A DWBA (distorted-wave Born approximation analysis of the measured differential cross section with isoscalar macroscopic form factors leads us to conclude that this observed state is excited in an electric dipole (E1 transition. Under the assumption of isoscalar E1 transitions, the strength is evaluated to be extremely large amounting to 30∼296 Weisskopf units, exhausting 2.2%∼21% of the isoscalar E1 energy-weighted sum rule (EWSR value. The large observed strength originates from the halo and is consistent with the simple di-neutron model of 11Li halo.

  3. Effective field theory description of halo nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, H.-W.; Ji, C.; Phillips, D. R.

    2017-10-01

    Nuclear halos emerge as new degrees of freedom near the neutron and proton driplines. They consist of a core and one or a few nucleons which spend most of their time in the classically-forbidden region outside the range of the interaction. Individual nucleons inside the core are thus unresolved in the halo configuration, and the low-energy effective interactions are short-range forces between the core and the valence nucleons. Similar phenomena occur in clusters of 4He atoms, cold atomic gases near a Feshbach resonance, and some exotic hadrons. In these weakly-bound quantum systems universal scaling laws for s-wave binding emerge that are independent of the details of the interaction. Effective field theory (EFT) exposes these correlations and permits the calculation of non-universal corrections to them due to short-distance effects, as well as the extension of these ideas to systems involving the Coulomb interaction and/or binding in higher angular-momentum channels. Halo nuclei exhibit all these features. Halo EFT, the EFT for halo nuclei, has been used to compute the properties of single-neutron, two-neutron, and single-proton halos of s-wave and p-wave type. This review summarizes these results for halo binding energies, radii, Coulomb dissociation, and radiative capture, as well as the connection of these properties to scattering parameters, thereby elucidating the universal correlations between all these observables. We also discuss how Halo EFT's encoding of the long-distance physics of halo nuclei can be used to check and extend ab initio calculations that include detailed modeling of their short-distance dynamics.

  4. Halo Models of Large Scale Structure and Reliability of Cosmological N-Body Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gaite

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Halo models of the large scale structure of the Universe are critically examined, focusing on the definition of halos as smooth distributions of cold dark matter. This definition is essentially based on the results of cosmological N-body simulations. By a careful analysis of the standard assumptions of halo models and N-body simulations and by taking into account previous studies of self-similarity of the cosmic web structure, we conclude that N-body cosmological simulations are not fully reliable in the range of scales where halos appear. Therefore, to have a consistent definition of halos is necessary either to define them as entities of arbitrary size with a grainy rather than smooth structure or to define their size in terms of small-scale baryonic physics.

  5. Existence of halo-structure for the first excited levels of both the 13C-13N and the 17O-17F nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gridnev, K.A.; Novatskij, B.G.

    2003-01-01

    From calculated the Coulomb shifts difference for the carbon and oxygen isotopes analog levels the valent nucleons the orbit radius values R C and the density parameter r 0 are presented. It is shown that the density parameter values are slightly varying for the all analog nuclear pairs. The exception constitutes the first excited states of the 13 C- 13 N and the 17 O- 17 F nuclei, whose valent nucleons populate the 2s-shell (L=0). These states one can to consider as structures with brightly distinguished of the ( 13 C * , 17 O * ) neutron halo and the( 13 N * , 17 F * ) proton halo

  6. Effects of deformations and orientations on neutron-halo structure of light-halo nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawhney, Gudveen; Gupta, Raj K.; Sharma, Manoj K.

    2013-01-01

    The availability of radioactive nuclear beams have enabled to study the structure of nuclei far from the stability line, which in turn led to the discovery of neutron-halo nuclei. These nuclei, located near the neutron drip-line exhibit a high probability of presence of one or two loosely bound neutrons at a large distance from the rest of nucleons. The fragmentation behavior is studied for 13 cases of 1n-halo nuclei, which include 11 Be, 14 B, 15 C, 17 C, 19 C, 22 N, 22 O, 23 O, 24 O, 24 F, 26 F, 29 Ne and 31 Ne, using the cluster-core model (CCM) extended to include the deformations and orientations of nuclei

  7. Investigation of the core-halo structure of the neutron-rich nuclei 6He and 8He by intermediate-energy elastic proton scattering at high momentum transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksouh, F.

    2002-12-01

    The elastic proton scattering from the halo nuclei 6 He and 8 He was investigated in inverse kinematics at energies around 700 MeV/u with the aim to deduce the differential cross sections for the region of high momentum transfer, covering the first diffraction minimum. For this purpose, a liquid-hydrogen target was specially developed and used for the first time allowing to obtain low-background data as compared to commonly used targets made from C-H compounds. Previous data taken in the region of small momentum transfer were sensitive to the size and the peripheral shape of the total nuclear matter density distribution but not to the inner part. The present data allow for a more detailed insight in the structure of the alike core in 6,8 He through a better determination of the matter density distributions. Several density distributions calculated from different microscopic models were used to derive elastic scattering cross sections which are compared with the obtained data. (author)

  8. Control of beam halo-chaos using neural network self-adaptation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Jinqing; Huang Guoxian; Luo Xiaoshu

    2004-11-01

    Taking the advantages of neural network control method for nonlinear complex systems, control of beam halo-chaos in the periodic focusing channels (network) of high intensity accelerators is studied by feed-forward back-propagating neural network self-adaptation method. The envelope radius of high-intensity proton beam is reached to the matching beam radius by suitably selecting the control structure of neural network and the linear feedback coefficient, adjusted the right-coefficient of neural network. The beam halo-chaos is obviously suppressed and shaking size is much largely reduced after the neural network self-adaptation control is applied. (authors)

  9. Effects of Resonant and Random Excitations on the Proton Beam in the Large Hadron Collider, with Applications to the Design of Pulsed Hollow Electron Lenses for Active Halo Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitterer, Miriam; Stancari, Giulio; Valishev, Alexander; Redaelli, Stefano; Valuch, Daniel

    2018-04-19

    We present the results of numerical simulations and experimental studies about the effects of resonant and random excitations on proton losses, emittances, and beam distributions in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). In addition to shedding light on complex nonlinear effects, these studies are applied to the design of hollow electron lenses (HEL) for active beam halo control. In the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC), a considerable amount of energy will be stored in the beam tails. To control and clean the beam halo, the installation of two hollow electron lenses, one per beam, is being considered. In standard electron-lens operation, a proton bunch sees the same electron current at every revolution. Pulsed electron beam operation (i.e., different currents for different turns) is also considered, because it can widen the range of achievable halo removal rates. For an axially symmetric electron beam, only protons in the halo are excited. If a residual field is present at the location of the beam core, these particles are exposed to time-dependent transverse kicks and to noise. We discuss the numerical simulations and the experiments conducted in 2016 and 2017 at injection energy in the LHC. The excitation patterns were generated by the transverse feedback and damping system, which acted as a flexible source of dipole kicks. Proton beam losses, emittances, and transverse distributions were recorded as a function of excitation patterns and strengths. The resonant excitations induced rich dynamical effects and nontrivial changes of the beam distributions, which, to our knowledge, have not previously been observed and studied in this detail. We conclude with a discussion of the tolerable and achievable residual fields and proposals for further studies.

  10. Numerical modeling of 3D halo current path in ITER structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettini, Paolo; Marconato, Nicolò; Furno Palumbo, Maurizio; Peruzzo, Simone [Consorzio RFX, EURATOM-ENEA Association, C.so Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Specogna, Ruben, E-mail: ruben.specogna@uniud.it [DIEGM, Università di Udine, Via delle Scienze, 208, 33100 Udine (Italy); Albanese, Raffaele; Rubinacci, Guglielmo; Ventre, Salvatore; Villone, Fabio [Consorzio CREATE, EURATOM-ENEA Association, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► Two numerical codes for the evaluation of halo currents in 3D structures are presented. ► A simplified plasma model is adopted to provide the input (halo current injected into the FW). ► Two representative test cases of ITER symmetric and asymmetric VDEs have been analyzed. ► The proposed approaches provide results in excellent agreement for both cases. -- Abstract: Disruptions represent one of the main concerns for Tokamak operation, especially in view of fusion reactors, or experimental test reactors, due to the electro-mechanical loads induced by halo and eddy currents. The development of a predictive tool which allows to estimate the magnitude and spatial distribution of the halo current forces is of paramount importance in order to ensure robust vessel and in-vessel component design. With this aim, two numerical codes (CARIDDI, CAFE) have been developed, which allow to calculate the halo current path (resistive distribution) in the passive structures surrounding the plasma. The former is based on an integral formulation for the eddy currents problem particularized to the static case; the latter implements a pair of 3D FEM complementary formulations for the solution of the steady-state current conduction problem. A simplified plasma model is adopted to provide the inputs (halo current injected into the first wall). Two representative test cases (ITER symmetric and asymmetric VDEs) have been selected to cross check the results of the proposed approaches.

  11. On the core-halo structure of NGC 604

    CERN Document Server

    Melnick, Yu M

    1980-01-01

    A detailed study is presented of the core-halo structure of the largest H II region in M 33, NGC 604, using newly obtained multi- aperture H/sub beta / photometry and Fabry-Perot interferometry, in conjunction with published radio continuum observations. Based on a comparison between the radio continuum and H/sub beta / luminosities of NGC 604, a dust density of rho /sub d/=6 10/sup -25/ g cm/sup -3/ is derived for the nebular core, in good agreement with published far- infrared results. By contrast, the halo of NGC 604 appears to contain virtually no dust. It is also shown that the turbulent component of the H/sub alpha /-line profile width of the halo of NGC 604 is significantly lower than that of the nebular core. This result is found to be inconsistent with models in which the highly supersonic velocities implied by the observed emission line profile widths in both nebular components are interpreted in terms of expansion motions. (14 refs).

  12. Structure and reactions of quantum halos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, A.S.; Riisager, K.; Fedorov, D.V.; Garrido, E.

    2004-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the basic principles of the physics of quantum halo systems, defined as bound states of clusters of particles with a radius extending well into classically forbidden regions. Exploiting the consequences of this definition, the authors derive the conditions for occurrence in terms of the number of clusters, binding energy, angular momentum, cluster charges, and excitation energy. All these quantities must be small. The article discusses the transitions between different cluster divisions and the importance of thresholds for cluster or particle decay, with particular attention to the Efimov effect and the related exotic states. The pertinent properties can be described by the use of dimensionless variables. Then universal and specific properties can be distinguished, as shown in a series of examples selected from nuclear, atomic, and molecular systems. The neutron dripline is especially interesting for nuclei and negative ions for atoms. For molecules, in which the cluster division comes naturally, a wider range of possibilities exists. Halos in two dimensions have very different properties, and their states are easily spatially extended, whereas Borromean systems are unlikely and spatially confined. The Efimov effect and the Thomas collapse occur only for dimensions between 2.3 and 3.8 and thus not for 2. High-energy reactions directly probe the halo structure. The authors discuss the reaction mechanisms for high-energy nuclear few-body halo breakup on light, intermediate, and heavy nuclear targets. For light targets, the strong interaction dominates, while for heavy targets, the Coulomb interaction dominates. For intermediate targets these processes are of comparable magnitude. As in atomic and molecular physics, a geometric impact-parameter picture is very appropriate. Finally, the authors briefly consider the complementary processes involving electroweak probes available through beta decay, electromagnetic transitions, and

  13. Decay Properties of the Halo Nucleus $^{11}$Li

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    During the past years a considerable experimental effort has been devoted to the production and study of nuclei close to the neutron and proton drip-lines. The most spectacular phenomenon encountered is the occurrence of neutron halos in the loosely bound neutron rich nuclei. \\\\ \\\\ Another interesting feature, observed at ISOLDE, which most likely is connected to the halo structure, is the very strong (super-allowed) Gamow-Teller $\\beta$- transitions to highly excited states which are systematically observed for the lightest neutron rich drip-line nuclei. These transitions might be viewed as arising from the quasi-free $\\beta$ -decay of the halo neutrons. It is proposed to make a detailed study of the $\\beta$- strength function for $^{11}$Li, a nuclide having a half-life of 8.2 ms and a Q $\\beta$-value of 20.73~MeV. \\\\ \\\\ So far only a lower limit of the Gamow-Teller transition rate to highly excited states ($\\approx$~18.5~MeV) in the daughter nucleus has been obtained from measurements of $\\beta$-delayed tri...

  14. Beam halo in high-intensity beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wangler, T.P.

    1993-01-01

    In space-charge dominated beams the nonlinear space-charge forces produce a filamentation pattern, which in projection to the 2-D phase spaces results in a 2-component beam consisting of an inner core and a diffuse outer halo. The beam-halo is of concern for a next generation of cw, high-power proton linacs that could be applied to intense neutron generators for nuclear materials processing. The author describes what has been learned about beam halo and the evolution of space-charge dominated beams using numerical simulations of initial laminar beams in uniform linear focusing channels. Initial results are presented from a study of beam entropy for an intense space-charge dominated beam

  15. Quadrupole moment and a proton halo structure in 17F (Iπ = 5/2+)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Dongmei; Zheng Yongnan; Yuan Daqing; Xizhen, Zhang; Zuo Yi; Minamisono, T; Matsuta, M; Fukuda, M; Mihara, M; Zhang Chunlei; Zhiqiang, Wang; Du Enpeng; Luo Hailong; Xu Guoji; Zhu Shengyun

    2007-01-01

    The quadrupole moment of light nuclei 17 F in the ground state (I π = 5/2 + ) is measured by the β-NMR method. The effective charge of the last proton in a d 5/2 orbit for 17 F is extracted from the measured quadrupole moment Q( 17 F) divided by the quadrupole moment Q sp calculated with a single particle model. A proton effective charge of e eff p = 1.12 ± 0.07e is obtained, which is in agreement with that given by a particle-vibration coupling model calculation within the experimental error. The present value of the proton effective charge is strong evidence for the existence of a proton skin in 17 F (I π = 5/2 + )

  16. STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES OF NON-SPHERICAL DARK HALOS IN MILKY WAY AND ANDROMEDA DWARF SPHEROIDAL GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Kohei [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (Kavli IPMU, WPI), The University of Tokyo, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Chiba, Masashi, E-mail: kohei.hayashi@ipmu.jp, E-mail: chiba@astr.tohoku.ac.jp [Astronomical Institute, Tohoku University, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the non-spherical density structure of dark halos of the dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies in the Milky Way and Andromeda galaxies based on revised axisymmetric mass models from our previous work. The models we adopt here fully take into account velocity anisotropy of tracer stars confined within a flattened dark halo. Applying our models to the available kinematic data of the 12 bright dSphs, we find that these galaxies associate with, in general, elongated dark halos, even considering the effect of this velocity anisotropy of stars. We also find that the best-fit parameters, especially for the shapes of dark halos and velocity anisotropy, are susceptible to both the availability of velocity data in the outer regions and the effect of the lack of sample stars in each spatial bin. Thus, to obtain more realistic limits on dark halo structures, we require photometric and kinematic data over much larger areas in the dSphs than previously explored. The results obtained from the currently available data suggest that the shapes of dark halos in the dSphs are more elongated than those of ΛCDM subhalos. This mismatch needs to be solved by theory including baryon components and the associated feedback to dark halos as well as by further observational limits in larger areas of dSphs. It is also found that more diffuse dark halos may have undergone consecutive star formation history, thereby implying that dark-halo structure plays an important role in star formation activity.

  17. The build up of the correlation between halo spin and the large-scale structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Kang, Xi

    2018-01-01

    Both simulations and observations have confirmed that the spin of haloes/galaxies is correlated with the large-scale structure (LSS) with a mass dependence such that the spin of low-mass haloes/galaxies tend to be parallel with the LSS, while that of massive haloes/galaxies tend to be perpendicular with the LSS. It is still unclear how this mass dependence is built up over time. We use N-body simulations to trace the evolution of the halo spin-LSS correlation and find that at early times the spin of all halo progenitors is parallel with the LSS. As time goes on, mass collapsing around massive halo is more isotropic, especially the recent mass accretion along the slowest collapsing direction is significant and it brings the halo spin to be perpendicular with the LSS. Adopting the fractional anisotropy (FA) parameter to describe the degree of anisotropy of the large-scale environment, we find that the spin-LSS correlation is a strong function of the environment such that a higher FA (more anisotropic environment) leads to an aligned signal, and a lower anisotropy leads to a misaligned signal. In general, our results show that the spin-LSS correlation is a combined consequence of mass flow and halo growth within the cosmic web. Our predicted environmental dependence between spin and large-scale structure can be further tested using galaxy surveys.

  18. Tracking the LHC halo

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    In the LHC, beams of 25-ns-spaced proton bunches travel at almost the speed of light and pass through many different devices installed along the ring that monitor their properties. During their whirling motion, beam particles might interact with the collimation instrumentation or with residual gas in the vacuum chambers and this creates the beam halo – an annoying source of background for the physics data. Newly installed CMS sub-detectors are now able to monitor it.   The Beam Halo Monitors (BHM) are installed around the CMS rotating shielding. The BHM are designed and built by University of Minnesota, CERN, Princeton University, INFN Bologna and the National Technical University of Athens. (Image: Andrea Manna). The Beam Halo Monitor (BHM) is a set of 20 Cherenkov radiators – 10-cm-long quartz crystals – installed at each end of the huge CMS detector. Their design goal is to measure the particles that can cause the so-called “machine-induced...

  19. Halo and space charge issues in the SNS Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedotov, A.V.; Abell, D.T.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Lee, Y.Y.; Malitsky, N.; Wei, J.; Gluckstern, R.L.

    2000-01-01

    The latest designs for high-intensity proton rings require minimizing beam-induced radioactivation of the vacuum chamber. Although the tune depression in the ring is much smaller than in high-intensity linacs, space-charge contributions to halo formation and, hence, beam loss may be significant. This paper reviews our current understanding of halo formation issues for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accumulator ring

  20. Halo and space charge issues in the SNS Ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedotov, A.V.; Abell, D.T.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Lee, Y.Y.; Malitsky, N.; Wei, J.; Gluckstern, R.L.

    2000-06-30

    The latest designs for high-intensity proton rings require minimizing beam-induced radioactivation of the vacuum chamber. Although the tune depression in the ring is much smaller than in high-intensity linacs, space-charge contributions to halo formation and, hence, beam loss may be significant. This paper reviews our current understanding of halo formation issues for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accumulator ring.

  1. Modelling of the toroidal asymmetry of poloidal halo currents in conducting structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomphrey, N.; Bialek, J.M.; Part, W.

    1998-01-01

    During plasma disruptions, substantial toroidal and poloidal eddy currents are generated in the vacuum vessel and other plasma facing conducting structures. Eddy currents that conduct charge through paths which close through the plasma periphery are called halo currents, and these can be of substantial magnitude. Of particular concern for tokamak design and operation is the observed toroidal asymmetry of the halo current distribution: such an asymmetric distribution leads to problematic non-uniform forces on the conducting structures. The premise is adopted that the source of toroidal asymmetry is the plasma deformation resulting from the non-linear external kink instability that develops during the current quench phase of a disruption. A simple model is presented of the kinked plasma that allows an analytic calculation of the dependence of the toroidal peaking factor (TPF) on the ratio of the halo current to the total toroidal plasma current, I h /I p . Expressions for the TPF as a function of I h /I p are derived for m/n=2/1 and m/n=1/1 helical instabilities. The expressions depend on a single parameter, which measures the amplitude of the saturated state of the kink instability. A comparison with disruption data from experiments shows good agreement. Numerical experiments that simulate non-linear external kinks provide guidance on the values expected for the saturated amplitude. It is proposed that a simple plasma halo model is adequate for assessing the engineering impact of asymmetric halo currents, since the force distribution on the conducting structures depends mainly on the 'resistive distribution' of the eddy currents. A brief description is given of an electromagnetics code that calculates the time development of eddy currents in conducting structures, and the code is applied to two halo current disruption scenarios. These are used to emphasize the importance of having an accurate eddy current calculation to correctly estimate the engineering impact of

  2. Investigation of the core-halo structure of the neutron-rich nuclei {sup 6}He and {sup 8}He by intermediate-energy elastic proton scattering at high momentum transfer; Etude de la structure coeur-halo des noyaux riches en neutron {sup 6}He et {sup 8}He par la diffusion elastique de protons aux energies intermediaires etendue a la region du premier minimum de diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aksouh, F

    2002-12-01

    The elastic proton scattering from the halo nuclei {sup 6}He and {sup 8}He was investigated in inverse kinematics at energies around 700 MeV/u with the aim to deduce the differential cross sections for the region of high momentum transfer, covering the first diffraction minimum. For this purpose, a liquid-hydrogen target was specially developed and used for the first time allowing to obtain low-background data as compared to commonly used targets made from C-H compounds. Previous data taken in the region of small momentum transfer were sensitive to the size and the peripheral shape of the total nuclear matter density distribution but not to the inner part. The present data allow for a more detailed insight in the structure of the alike core in {sup 6,8}He through a better determination of the matter density distributions. Several density distributions calculated from different microscopic models were used to derive elastic scattering cross sections which are compared with the obtained data. (author)

  3. Structure of light proton-rich nuclei on the drip-line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, V.; Toyokawa, H.; Yun, C.C.; Niizeki, T.; Ito, K.; Kishida, T.; Kubo, T.; Pu, Y.; Ohura, M.; Orihara, H.; Terakawa, T.; Hamada, S.; Hirai, M.; Miyatake, H.

    1995-01-01

    Among proton-rich unstable nuclei on the light proton drip-line, nuclear structure of 21 Mg, 17 Ne, 13 O, 11 N and 9 C have been investigated by the three-neutron pick-up reaction ( 3 He, 6 He). The angular distributions measured for this reaction have shown a characteristic feature of a transferred angular-momentum (L) dependence, which provides spin-parity assignments for the new levels in these nuclei. Here, the results on the nuclear structure of 17 Ne and 11 N are reported. The nucleus 17 Ne we almost unknown before, except that the mass excess had been determined and a few states had been suggested. Many T = 3/2 states were known in the other three members ( 17 N, 17 O and 17 F). Thus, the inclusion of the data on 17 Ne levels has enabled an extensive analysis in terms of the Isobaric Multiplet Mass Equation (IMME) for several excited state quartets. This is the first report on such an extensive analysis in the same mass ststem for a wide range in excitation energy. The 11 N nucleus was investigated to learn about the structure of A 11 system. This mass has been intensively studied, specially because of the halo structure observed in 11 Li and the spin parity-inversion of the 11 Be ground-state. The 11 N nucleus was totally unknown before except for the possible ground state

  4. Study of fusion probabilities with halo nuclei using different proximity based potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumari, Raj

    2013-01-01

    We study fusion of halo nuclei with heavy targets using proximity based potentials due to Aage Winther (AW) 95, Bass 80 and Proximity 2010. In order to consider the extended matter distribution of halo nuclei, the nuclei radii borrowed from cross section measurements are included in these potentials. Our study reveals that the barrier heights are effectively reduced and fusion cross sections are appreciably enhanced by including extended radii of these nuclei. We also find that the extended sizes of halos contribute towards enhancement of fusion probabilities in case of proton halo nuclei, but, contribute to transfer or break-up process rather than fusion yield in case of neutron halo nuclei

  5. ORIGAMI: DELINEATING HALOS USING PHASE-SPACE FOLDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falck, Bridget L.; Neyrinck, Mark C.; Szalay, Alexander S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2012-08-01

    We present the ORIGAMI method of identifying structures, particularly halos, in cosmological N-body simulations. Structure formation can be thought of as the folding of an initially flat three-dimensional manifold in six-dimensional phase space. ORIGAMI finds the outer folds that delineate these structures. Halo particles are identified as those that have undergone shell-crossing along three orthogonal axes, providing a dynamical definition of halo regions that is independent of density. ORIGAMI also identifies other morphological structures: particles that have undergone shell-crossing along 2, 1, or 0 orthogonal axes correspond to filaments, walls, and voids, respectively. We compare this method to a standard friends-of-friends halo-finding algorithm and find that ORIGAMI halos are somewhat larger, more diffuse, and less spherical, though the global properties of ORIGAMI halos are in good agreement with other modern halo-finding algorithms.

  6. ORIGAMI: DELINEATING HALOS USING PHASE-SPACE FOLDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falck, Bridget L.; Neyrinck, Mark C.; Szalay, Alexander S.

    2012-01-01

    We present the ORIGAMI method of identifying structures, particularly halos, in cosmological N-body simulations. Structure formation can be thought of as the folding of an initially flat three-dimensional manifold in six-dimensional phase space. ORIGAMI finds the outer folds that delineate these structures. Halo particles are identified as those that have undergone shell-crossing along three orthogonal axes, providing a dynamical definition of halo regions that is independent of density. ORIGAMI also identifies other morphological structures: particles that have undergone shell-crossing along 2, 1, or 0 orthogonal axes correspond to filaments, walls, and voids, respectively. We compare this method to a standard friends-of-friends halo-finding algorithm and find that ORIGAMI halos are somewhat larger, more diffuse, and less spherical, though the global properties of ORIGAMI halos are in good agreement with other modern halo-finding algorithms.

  7. First-forbidden mirror β-decays in A = 17 mass region and the role of proton halo in 17F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, N.; Okolowicz, J.; Ploszajczak, M.; Okolowicz, J.; Nowacki, F.; Ploszajczak, M.

    2001-01-01

    The first-forbidden β-decay of 17 Ne into the 'halo' state J π 1/2 + 1 of 17 F presents one of the largest measured asymmetries for mirror β-decay feeding bound final states. This asymmetry is studied in the framework of the Shell Model Embedded in the Continuum (SMEC). The spatial extent of single particle orbits calculated in SMEC is constrained by the proton capture cross-section 16 O(p,γ) 17 F. This allows to estimate the mirror symmetry breaking in 17 F and 17 O nuclei. (authors)

  8. A beam halo event of the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, Experiment

    2014-01-01

    Beam halo events: These occur as a single beam of protons is circulating in one direction in LHC, just passing through ATLAS. An outlier particle hits a part of the detector causing a spray of particles.

  9. The Structure and Dark Halo Core Properties of Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkert, A.

    2015-08-01

    The structure and dark matter halo core properties of dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) are investigated. A double-isothermal (DIS) model of an isothermal, non-self-gravitating stellar system embedded in an isothermal dark halo core provides an excellent fit to the various observed stellar surface density distributions. The stellar core scale length a* is sensitive to the central dark matter density ρ0,d. The maximum stellar radius traces the dark halo core radius {r}c,d. The concentration c* of the stellar system, determined by a King profile fit, depends on the ratio of the stellar-to-dark-matter velocity dispersion {σ }*/{σ }d. Simple empirical relationships are derived that allow us to calculate the dark halo core parameters ρ0,d, {r}c,d, and σd given the observable stellar quantities σ*, a*, and c*. The DIS model is applied to the Milky Way’s dSphs. All dSphs closely follow the same universal dark halo scaling relations {ρ }0,d× {r}c,d={75}-45+85 M⊙ pc-2 that characterize the cores of more massive galaxies over a large range in masses. The dark halo core mass is a strong function of core radius, {M}c,d˜ {r}c,d2. Inside a fixed radius of ˜400 pc the total dark matter mass is, however, roughly constant with {M}d=2.6+/- 1.4× {10}7 M⊙, although outliers are expected. The dark halo core densities of the Galaxy’s dSphs are very high, with {ρ }0,d ≈ 0.2 M⊙ pc-3. dSphs should therefore be tidally undisturbed. Evidence for tidal effects might then provide a serious challenge for the CDM scenario.

  10. Nuclear halo and its related reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Huanqiao

    2005-01-01

    In order to search proton halo, the reaction cross sections of 27,28 P, 29 S and the corresponding isotones on Si target were measured at intermediate energies. The measured reaction cross sections of the N=12 and 13 isotones show an abrupt increase at Z=15. The experimental results for the isotones with Z=14 as well as 28 P can be well described by the modified Glauber theory of the optical limit approach. The enhancement of the reaction cross sections for 28 P could be explained in the modified Glauber theory with an enlarged core. Theoretical analysis with the modified Glauber theory of the optical limit and few-body approaches underpredicted the experimental data of 27 P. Our theoretical analysis shows that an enlarged core together with proton halo is probably the mechanism responsible for the enhancement of the cross sections for the reaction of 27 P+ 28 Si. In addition, we find from the experimental results that 29 S may have a moderate proton halo structure. Except the nuclei near or at drop-lines, halo may appear in the excited states of stable nuclei. By means of the asymptotic normalization coefficients (ANC's) extracted from transfer reactions of 11 B(d, p) 12 B, 12 C(d, p) 13 C, and H( 6 He, n) 6 Li, we have verified that the second ( Jπ = 2 - ) and third (Jπ = 1 - ) excited states in 12 B and the first (Jπ =1/2 + ) excited state in 13 C are the neutron halo states, while the second excited state (3.56 MeV, Jπ = 0 + ) in 6 Li is a proton-neutron halo state. We have proposed a procedure to extract the probability for valence particle being out of the binding potential from the measured nuclear asymptotic normalization coefficients. With this procedure, available data regarding the nuclear halo candidates are systematically analyzed and a number of halo nuclei are confirmed. Based on these results we have got a much relaxed condition for nuclear halo occurrence. Furthermore, we have presented the scaling laws for the dimensionless quantity 2 >/R 2 of

  11. What sets the central structure of dark matter haloes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogiya, Go; Hahn, Oliver

    2018-02-01

    Dark matter (DM) haloes forming near the thermal cut-off scale of the density perturbations are unique, since they are the smallest objects and form through monolithic gravitational collapse, while larger haloes contrastingly have experienced mergers. While standard cold dark matter (CDM) simulations readily produce haloes that follow the universal Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) density profile with an inner slope, ρ ∝ r-α, with α = 1, recent simulations have found that when the free-streaming cut-off expected for the CDM model is resolved, the resulting haloes follow nearly power-law density profiles of α ∼ 1.5. In this paper, we study the formation of density cusps in haloes using idealized N-body simulations of the collapse of proto-haloes. When the proto-halo profile is initially cored due to particle free-streaming at high redshift, we universally find ∼r-1.5 profiles irrespective of the proto-halo profile slope outside the core and large-scale non-spherical perturbations. Quite in contrast, when the proto-halo has a power-law profile, then we obtain profiles compatible with the NFW shape when the density slope of the proto-halo patch is shallower than a critical value, αini ∼ 0.3, while the final slope can be steeper for αini ≳ 0.3. We further demonstrate that the r-1.5 profiles are sensitive to small-scale noise, which gradually drives them towards an inner slope of -1, where they become resilient to such perturbations. We demonstrate that the r-1.5 solutions are in hydrostatic equilibrium, largely consistent with a simple analytic model, and provide arguments that angular momentum appears to determine the inner slope.

  12. Search for $\\beta$-delayed protons from $^{11}$Be

    CERN Multimedia

    $\\beta$-delayed proton emission from $^{11}$Be will be a very rare process. It is believed to decay directly into continuum states. This would imply that it will be a sensitive probe of the halo structure of the one-neutron halo nucleus $^{11}$Be. We propose to improve existing (unpublished) limits on this decay mode by two orders of magnitude. Our earlier experience at ISOLDE indicates that the required intensity and purity of the source can be obtained. The branching ratio will be measured by counting the number of $^{10}$Be atoms produced via accelerator mass spectrometry.

  13. Haloes, molecules and multi-neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques Moreno, F.M

    2003-01-01

    Away from the equilibrium between protons and neutrons within stable nuclei, many exotic nuclei exist. Most of the known nuclear properties evolve smoothly with exoticism, but some extreme proton-neutron combinations have revealed during the last decade completely new concepts. They will be illustrated through three examples: the extended and dilute halo formed by very weakly bound neutrons, the molecular-like neutron orbitals found in nuclei exhibiting a clustering, and the recently revived debate on the possible existence of neutral nuclei. The different experimental results will be reviewed, and we will see how several properties of these new phenomena can be well understood within relatively simple theoretical approaches. (author)

  14. Minimizing the stochasticity of halos in large-scale structure surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaus, Nico; Seljak, Uroš; Desjacques, Vincent; Smith, Robert E.; Baldauf, Tobias

    2010-08-01

    In recent work (Seljak, Hamaus, and Desjacques 2009) it was found that weighting central halo galaxies by halo mass can significantly suppress their stochasticity relative to the dark matter, well below the Poisson model expectation. This is useful for constraining relations between galaxies and the dark matter, such as the galaxy bias, especially in situations where sampling variance errors can be eliminated. In this paper we extend this study with the goal of finding the optimal mass-dependent halo weighting. We use N-body simulations to perform a general analysis of halo stochasticity and its dependence on halo mass. We investigate the stochasticity matrix, defined as Cij≡⟨(δi-biδm)(δj-bjδm)⟩, where δm is the dark matter overdensity in Fourier space, δi the halo overdensity of the i-th halo mass bin, and bi the corresponding halo bias. In contrast to the Poisson model predictions we detect nonvanishing correlations between different mass bins. We also find the diagonal terms to be sub-Poissonian for the highest-mass halos. The diagonalization of this matrix results in one large and one low eigenvalue, with the remaining eigenvalues close to the Poisson prediction 1/n¯, where n¯ is the mean halo number density. The eigenmode with the lowest eigenvalue contains most of the information and the corresponding eigenvector provides an optimal weighting function to minimize the stochasticity between halos and dark matter. We find this optimal weighting function to match linear mass weighting at high masses, while at the low-mass end the weights approach a constant whose value depends on the low-mass cut in the halo mass function. This weighting further suppresses the stochasticity as compared to the previously explored mass weighting. Finally, we employ the halo model to derive the stochasticity matrix and the scale-dependent bias from an analytical perspective. It is remarkably successful in reproducing our numerical results and predicts that the

  15. Halo assembly bias and the tidal anisotropy of the local halo environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranjape, Aseem; Hahn, Oliver; Sheth, Ravi K.

    2018-05-01

    We study the role of the local tidal environment in determining the assembly bias of dark matter haloes. Previous results suggest that the anisotropy of a halo's environment (i.e. whether it lies in a filament or in a more isotropic region) can play a significant role in determining the eventual mass and age of the halo. We statistically isolate this effect, using correlations between the large-scale and small-scale environments of simulated haloes at z = 0 with masses between 1011.6 ≲ (m/h-1 M⊙) ≲ 1014.9. We probe the large-scale environment, using a novel halo-by-halo estimator of linear bias. For the small-scale environment, we identify a variable αR that captures the tidal anisotropy in a region of radius R = 4R200b around the halo and correlates strongly with halo bias at fixed mass. Segregating haloes by αR reveals two distinct populations. Haloes in highly isotropic local environments (αR ≲ 0.2) behave as expected from the simplest, spherically averaged analytical models of structure formation, showing a negative correlation between their concentration and large-scale bias at all masses. In contrast, haloes in anisotropic, filament-like environments (αR ≳ 0.5) tend to show a positive correlation between bias and concentration at any mass. Our multiscale analysis cleanly demonstrates how the overall assembly bias trend across halo mass emerges as an average over these different halo populations, and provides valuable insights towards building analytical models that correctly incorporate assembly bias. We also discuss potential implications for the nature and detectability of galaxy assembly bias.

  16. Non-Gaussian halo assembly bias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, Beth A.; Verde, Licia; Dolag, Klaus; Matarrese, Sabino; Moscardini, Lauro

    2010-01-01

    The strong dependence of the large-scale dark matter halo bias on the (local) non-Gaussianity parameter, f NL , offers a promising avenue towards constraining primordial non-Gaussianity with large-scale structure surveys. In this paper, we present the first detection of the dependence of the non-Gaussian halo bias on halo formation history using N-body simulations. We also present an analytic derivation of the expected signal based on the extended Press-Schechter formalism. In excellent agreement with our analytic prediction, we find that the halo formation history-dependent contribution to the non-Gaussian halo bias (which we call non-Gaussian halo assembly bias) can be factorized in a form approximately independent of redshift and halo mass. The correction to the non-Gaussian halo bias due to the halo formation history can be as large as 100%, with a suppression of the signal for recently formed halos and enhancement for old halos. This could in principle be a problem for realistic galaxy surveys if observational selection effects were to pick galaxies occupying only recently formed halos. Current semi-analytic galaxy formation models, for example, imply an enhancement in the expected signal of ∼ 23% and ∼ 48% for galaxies at z = 1 selected by stellar mass and star formation rate, respectively

  17. ULTRAVIOLET HALOS AROUND SPIRAL GALAXIES. I. MORPHOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodges-Kluck, Edmund; Cafmeyer, Julian; Bregman, Joel N., E-mail: hodgeskl@umich.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2016-12-10

    We examine ultraviolet halos around a sample of highly inclined galaxies within 25 Mpc to measure their morphology and luminosity. Despite contamination from galactic light scattered into the wings of the point-spread function, we find that ultraviolet (UV) halos occur around each galaxy in our sample. Around most galaxies the halos form a thick, diffuse disk-like structure, but starburst galaxies with galactic superwinds have qualitatively different halos that are more extensive and have filamentary structure. The spatial coincidence of the UV halos above star-forming regions, the lack of consistent association with outflows or extraplanar ionized gas, and the strong correlation between the halo and galaxy UV luminosity suggest that the UV light is an extragalactic reflection nebula. UV halos may thus represent 10{sup 6}–10{sup 7} M {sub ⊙} of dust within 2–10 kpc of the disk, whose properties may change with height in starburst galaxies.

  18. Investigation of the halo structure of exotic nuclei by direct reactions in inverse kinematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egelhof, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Neutron-rich light nuclei near or at the neutron drip line have attracted much attention in recent years since there is clear evidence that they reveal a qualitatively new type of nuclear structure, namely an extended distribution of valence neutrons surrounding a compact nuclear core. A brief overview is given on this halo phenomenon, and on the various methods, which gave first evidence for, and qualitative confirmation of our present picture on halo nuclei

  19. Dark matter haloes: a multistream view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandra, Nesar S.; Shandarin, Sergei F.

    2017-09-01

    Mysterious dark matter constitutes about 85 per cent of all masses in the Universe. Clustering of dark matter plays a dominant role in the formation of all observed structures on scales from a fraction to a few hundreds of Mega-parsecs. Galaxies play a role of lights illuminating these structures so they can be observed. The observations in the last several decades have unveiled opulent geometry of these structures currently known as the cosmic web. Haloes are the highest concentrations of dark matter and host luminous galaxies. Currently the most accurate modelling of dark matter haloes is achieved in cosmological N-body simulations. Identifying the haloes from the distribution of particles in N-body simulations is one of the problems attracting both considerable interest and efforts. We propose a novel framework for detecting potential dark matter haloes using the field unique for dark matter-multistream field. The multistream field emerges at the non-linear stage of the growth of perturbations because the dark matter is collisionless. Counting the number of velocity streams in gravitational collapses supplements our knowledge of spatial clustering. We assume that the virialized haloes have convex boundaries. Closed and convex regions of the multistream field are hence isolated by imposing a positivity condition on all three eigenvalues of the Hessian estimated on the smoothed multistream field. In a single-scale analysis of high multistream field resolution and low softening length, the halo substructures with local multistream maxima are isolated as individual halo sites.

  20. Smooth halos in the cosmic web

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaite, José, E-mail: jose.gaite@upm.es [Physics Dept., ETSIAE, IDR, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Pza. Cardenal Cisneros 3, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-04-01

    Dark matter halos can be defined as smooth distributions of dark matter placed in a non-smooth cosmic web structure. This definition of halos demands a precise definition of smoothness and a characterization of the manner in which the transition from smooth halos to the cosmic web takes place. We introduce entropic measures of smoothness, related to measures of inequality previously used in economy and with the advantage of being connected with standard methods of multifractal analysis already used for characterizing the cosmic web structure in cold dark matter N-body simulations. These entropic measures provide us with a quantitative description of the transition from the small scales portrayed as a distribution of halos to the larger scales portrayed as a cosmic web and, therefore, allow us to assign definite sizes to halos. However, these ''smoothness sizes'' have no direct relation to the virial radii. Finally, we discuss the influence of N-body discreteness parameters on smoothness.

  1. Smooth halos in the cosmic web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaite, José

    2015-01-01

    Dark matter halos can be defined as smooth distributions of dark matter placed in a non-smooth cosmic web structure. This definition of halos demands a precise definition of smoothness and a characterization of the manner in which the transition from smooth halos to the cosmic web takes place. We introduce entropic measures of smoothness, related to measures of inequality previously used in economy and with the advantage of being connected with standard methods of multifractal analysis already used for characterizing the cosmic web structure in cold dark matter N-body simulations. These entropic measures provide us with a quantitative description of the transition from the small scales portrayed as a distribution of halos to the larger scales portrayed as a cosmic web and, therefore, allow us to assign definite sizes to halos. However, these ''smoothness sizes'' have no direct relation to the virial radii. Finally, we discuss the influence of N-body discreteness parameters on smoothness

  2. Reconstruction of cosmic and beam-halo muons with the CMS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Chang; Amapane, Nicola; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Bellan, Riccardo; Biallass, Philipp; Bolognesi, Sara; Cerminara, Gianluca; Fouz Iglesias, Mary-Cruz; Giunta, Marina; Guiducci, Luigi; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Lacaprara, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Meneguzzo, Anna; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Travaglini, Riccardo; Zanetti, Marco; Villanueva, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    The powerful muon and tracker systems of the CMS detector together with dedicated reconstruction software allow precise and efficient measurement of muon tracks originating from proton-proton collisions. The standard muon reconstruction algorithms, however, are inadequate to deal with muons that do not originate from collisions. This note discusses the design, implementation, and performance results of a dedicated cosmic muon track reconstruction algorithm, which features pattern recognition optimized for muons that are not coming from the interaction point, i.e., cosmic muons and beam-halo muons. To evaluate the performance of the new algorithm, data taken during Cosmic Challenge phases I and II were studied and compared with simulated cosmic data. In addition, a variety of more general topologies of cosmic muons and beam-halo muons were studied using simulated data to demonstrate some key features of the new algorithm.

  3. The practical Pomeron for high energy proton collimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appleby, R.B. [University of Manchester, The Cockcroft Institute, Manchester (United Kingdom); Barlow, R.J.; Toader, A. [The University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield (United Kingdom); Molson, J.G. [Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Saclay, LAL, Orsay (France); Serluca, M. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2016-10-15

    We present a model which describes proton scattering data from ISR to Tevatron energies, and which can be applied to collimation in high energy accelerators, such as the LHC and FCC. Collimators remove beam halo particles, so that they do not impinge on vulnerable regions of the machine, such as the superconducting magnets and the experimental areas. In simulating the effect of the collimator jaws it is crucial to model the scattering of protons at small momentum transfer t, as these protons can subsequently survive several turns of the ring before being lost. At high energies these soft processes are well described by Pomeron exchange models. We study the behaviour of elastic and single-diffractive dissociation cross sections over a wide range of energy, and show that the model can be used as a global description of the wide variety of high energy elastic and diffractive data presently available. In particular it models low mass diffraction dissociation, where a rich resonance structure is present, and thus predicts the differential and integrated cross sections in the kinematical range appropriate to the LHC. We incorporate the physics of this model into the beam tracking code MERLIN and use it to simulate the resulting loss maps of the beam halo lost in the collimators in the LHC. (orig.)

  4. The practical Pomeron for high energy proton collimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, R. B.; Barlow, R. J.; Molson, J. G.; Serluca, M.; Toader, A.

    2016-10-01

    We present a model which describes proton scattering data from ISR to Tevatron energies, and which can be applied to collimation in high energy accelerators, such as the LHC and FCC. Collimators remove beam halo particles, so that they do not impinge on vulnerable regions of the machine, such as the superconducting magnets and the experimental areas. In simulating the effect of the collimator jaws it is crucial to model the scattering of protons at small momentum transfer t, as these protons can subsequently survive several turns of the ring before being lost. At high energies these soft processes are well described by Pomeron exchange models. We study the behaviour of elastic and single-diffractive dissociation cross sections over a wide range of energy, and show that the model can be used as a global description of the wide variety of high energy elastic and diffractive data presently available. In particular it models low mass diffraction dissociation, where a rich resonance structure is present, and thus predicts the differential and integrated cross sections in the kinematical range appropriate to the LHC. We incorporate the physics of this model into the beam tracking code MERLIN and use it to simulate the resulting loss maps of the beam halo lost in the collimators in the LHC.

  5. The halo current in ASDEX Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pautasso, G.; Giannone, L.; Gruber, O.; Herrmann, A.; Maraschek, M.; Schuhbeck, K.H.

    2011-01-01

    Due to the complexity of the phenomena involved, a self-consistent physical model for the prediction of the halo current is not available. Therefore the ITER specifications of the spatial distribution and evolution of the halo current rely on empirical assumptions. This paper presents the results of an extensive analysis of the halo current measured in ASDEX Upgrade with particular emphasis on the evolution of the halo region, on the magnitude and time history of the halo current, and on the structure and duration of its toroidal and poloidal asymmetries. The effective length of the poloidal path of the halo current in the vessel is found to be rather insensitive to plasma parameters. Large values of the toroidally averaged halo current are observed in both vertical displacement events and centred disruptions but last a small fraction of the current quench; they coincide typically with a large but short-lived MHD event.

  6. The halo current in ASDEX Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pautasso, G.; Giannone, L.; Gruber, O.; Herrmann, A.; Maraschek, M.; Schuhbeck, K. H.; ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2011-04-01

    Due to the complexity of the phenomena involved, a self-consistent physical model for the prediction of the halo current is not available. Therefore the ITER specifications of the spatial distribution and evolution of the halo current rely on empirical assumptions. This paper presents the results of an extensive analysis of the halo current measured in ASDEX Upgrade with particular emphasis on the evolution of the halo region, on the magnitude and time history of the halo current, and on the structure and duration of its toroidal and poloidal asymmetries. The effective length of the poloidal path of the halo current in the vessel is found to be rather insensitive to plasma parameters. Large values of the toroidally averaged halo current are observed in both vertical displacement events and centred disruptions but last a small fraction of the current quench; they coincide typically with a large but short-lived MHD event.

  7. Structure of halo nuclei - overview of theoretical status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Khalili, J.S.

    2003-01-01

    The past decade has seen an explosion of theoretical interest in the structure and dynamics of halo nuclei. Their basic defining features of weak binding and large radial extent due to the extended tail in their densities is now well-described within few-body models. This has led to impressive advances in few-body reaction theories which crucially take into account this few-body nature. This paper will review some of the recent advances in both structure and reaction studies, and will focus on the issues currently of interest along with possible directions for future advances. On the structure side, improvements to few-body models are being explored to take into account the role of antisymmetrization more accurately and the importance of core polarization and excitation. The successes of fully microscopic approaches will also be reviewed. (orig.)

  8. STRUCTURE AND POPULATION OF THE ANDROMEDA STELLAR HALO FROM A SUBARU/SUPRIME-CAM SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Mikito; Chiba, Masashi; Komiyama, Yutaka; Iye, Masanori; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Kalirai, Jason S.

    2010-01-01

    We present a photometric survey of the stellar halo of the nearest giant spiral galaxy, Andromeda (M31), using Suprime-Cam on the Subaru Telescope. A detailed analysis of VI color-magnitude diagrams of the resolved stellar population is used to measure properties such as line-of-sight distance, surface brightness, metallicity, and age. These are used to isolate and characterize different components of the M31 halo: (1) the giant southern stream (GSS); (2) several other substructures; and (3) the smooth halo. First, the GSS is characterized by a broad red giant branch (RGB) and a metal-rich/intermediate-age red clump (RC). The I magnitude of the well-defined tip of the RGB suggests that the distance to the observed GSS field is (m - M) 0 = 24.73 ± 0.11 (883 ± 45 kpc) at a projected radius of R ∼ 30 kpc from M31's center. The GSS shows a high metallicity peaked at [Fe/H]∼>-0.5 with a mean (median) of -0.7 (-0.6), estimated via comparison with theoretical isochrones. Combined with the luminosity of the RC, we estimate the mean age of its stellar population to be ∼8 Gyr. The mass of its progenitor galaxy is likely in the range of 10 7 -10 9 M sun . Second, we study M31's halo substructure along the northwest/southeast minor axis out to R ∼ 100 kpc and the southwest major-axis region at R ∼ 60 kpc. We confirm two substructures in the southeast halo reported by Ibata et al. and discover two overdense substructures in the northwest halo. We investigate the properties of these four substructures as well as other structures including the western shelf and find that differences in stellar populations among these systems, thereby suggesting each has a different origin. Our statistical analysis implies that the M31 halo as a whole may contain at least 16 substructures, each with a different origin, so its outer halo has experienced at least this many accretion events involving dwarf satellites with mass 10 7 -10 9 M sun since a redshift of z ∼ 1. Third, we

  9. Transverse Beam Halo Measurements at High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) using Vibrating Wire Monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, M.; Hanna, B.; Scarpine, V.; Shiltsev, V.; Steimel, J.; Artinian, S.; Arutunian, S.

    2015-02-26

    The measurement and control of beam halos will be critical for the applications of future high-intensity hadron linacs. In particular, beam profile monitors require a very high dynamic range when used for the transverse beam halo measurements. In this study, the Vibrating Wire Monitor (VWM) with aperture 60 mm was installed at the High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) front-end to measure the transverse beam halo. A vibrating wire is excited at its resonance frequency with the help of a magnetic feedback loop, and the vibrating and sensitive wires are connected through a balanced arm. The sensitive wire is moved into the beam halo region by a stepper motor controlled translational stage. We study the feasibility of the vibrating wire for the transverse beam halo measurements in the low-energy front-end of the proton linac.

  10. A Study of Acid-Base Equilibria in Acetonitrile Systems of 2-Halo(Cl,Br,I-4-nitropicoline(3,5,6 N-oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lech Chmurzynski

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available An attempt has been made to determine potentiometrically (1 acid dissociation constants of cations obtained by protonation of nine trisubstituted pyridine N-oxides, namely 2-halo(Cl, Br and I-4-nitropicoline N-oxides with the methyl group at positions 3, 5, and 6, as well as (2 the cationic homoconjugation constants of these cationic acids with conjugated N-oxides in acetonitrile. On the basis of the substitution effect, variations of the acid dissociation constants of the trisubstituted pyridine N-oxide cations are discussed. The determined pKa values of the protonated 2-halo-4-nitropicoline N-oxides are compared with the previously determined equilibrium constants of the cationic acids conjugated with the mono- and disubstituted pyridine N-oxides in acetonitrile. Further, based on the pKa values of the protonated 2-halo-4-nitropicoline N-oxides in acetonitrile, supplemented with correlations between pKa’s of the protonated mono- and disubstituted pyridine N-oxides in acetonitrile and water, the pKa's of the acids conjugated with the trisubstituted N-oxides studied in aqueous solutions have been estimated. Moreover, it has been concluded that the cationic homoconjugation constants cannot be determined by potentiometric titration in acetonitrile solutions of the 2-halo-4-nitropicoline N-oxide systems.

  11. Proton and neutron structure functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rock, S.

    1991-01-01

    New result on charged lepton scattering from hydrogen and deuterium targets by the BCDMS, NMC and SLAC collaborations have greatly increased our knowledge of the structure functions of protons and neutrons. The disagreement between the high energy muon scattering cross sections obtained by the EMC and BCDMS collaborations have been almost completely resolved by comparison with a global analysis of old and new SLAC data and a reanalysis of EMC data. We now have a consistent set of structure functions which covers an approximate range 1 ≤ Q 2 ≤ 200 (GeV/c) 2 and 0.07 ≤ x ≤ 0.7. The ratio of neutron to proton structure functions decreases with increasing Q 2 for values of x ≥ 0.1. The difference between proton and neutron structure functions approaches zero as x decreases, consistent with the expected √x behavior. (orig.)

  12. Large-scale structure after COBE: Peculiar velocities and correlations of cold dark matter halos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurek, Wojciech H.; Quinn, Peter J.; Salmon, John K.; Warren, Michael S.

    1994-01-01

    Large N-body simulations on parallel supercomputers allow one to simultaneously investigate large-scale structure and the formation of galactic halos with unprecedented resolution. Our study shows that the masses as well as the spatial distribution of halos on scales of tens of megaparsecs in a cold dark matter (CDM) universe with the spectrum normalized to the anisotropies detected by Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) is compatible with the observations. We also show that the average value of the relative pairwise velocity dispersion sigma(sub v) - used as a principal argument against COBE-normalized CDM models-is significantly lower for halos than for individual particles. When the observational methods of extracting sigma(sub v) are applied to the redshift catalogs obtained from the numerical experiments, estimates differ significantly between different observation-sized samples and overlap observational estimates obtained following the same procedure.

  13. On physical scales of dark matter halos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zemp, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    It is common practice to describe formal size and mass scales of dark matter halos as spherical overdensities with respect to an evolving density threshold. Here, we critically investigate the evolutionary effects of several such commonly used definitions and compare them to the halo evolution within fixed physical scales as well as to the evolution of other intrinsic physical properties of dark matter halos. It is shown that, in general, the traditional way of characterizing sizes and masses of halos dramatically overpredicts the degree of evolution in the last 10 Gyr, especially for low-mass halos. This pseudo-evolution leads to the illusion of growth even though there are no major changes within fixed physical scales. Such formal size definitions also serve as proxies for the virialized region of a halo in the literature. In general, those spherical overdensity scales do not coincide with the virialized region. A physically more precise nomenclature would be to simply characterize them by their very definition instead of calling such formal size and mass definitions 'virial'. In general, we find a discrepancy between the evolution of the underlying physical structure of dark matter halos seen in cosmological structure formation simulations and pseudo-evolving formal virial quantities. We question the importance of the role of formal virial quantities currently ubiquitously used in descriptions, models, and relations that involve properties of dark matter structures. Concepts and relations based on pseudo-evolving formal virial quantities do not properly reflect the actual evolution of dark matter halos and lead to an inaccurate picture of the physical evolution of our universe.

  14. RHAPSODY. I. STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES AND FORMATION HISTORY FROM A STATISTICAL SAMPLE OF RE-SIMULATED CLUSTER-SIZE HALOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Hao-Yi; Hahn, Oliver; Wechsler, Risa H.; Mao, Yao-Yuan; Behroozi, Peter S.

    2013-01-01

    We present the first results from the RHAPSODY cluster re-simulation project: a sample of 96 'zoom-in' simulations of dark matter halos of 10 14.8±0.05 h –1 M ☉ , selected from a 1 h –3 Gpc 3 volume. This simulation suite is the first to resolve this many halos with ∼5 × 10 6 particles per halo in the cluster mass regime, allowing us to statistically characterize the distribution of and correlation between halo properties at fixed mass. We focus on the properties of the main halos and how they are affected by formation history, which we track back to z = 12, over five decades in mass. We give particular attention to the impact of the formation history on the density profiles of the halos. We find that the deviations from the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) model and the Einasto model depend on formation time. Late-forming halos tend to have considerable deviations from both models, partly due to the presence of massive subhalos, while early-forming halos deviate less but still significantly from the NFW model and are better described by the Einasto model. We find that the halo shapes depend only moderately on formation time. Departure from spherical symmetry impacts the density profiles through the anisotropic distribution of massive subhalos. Further evidence of the impact of subhalos is provided by analyzing the phase-space structure. A detailed analysis of the properties of the subhalo population in RHAPSODY is presented in a companion paper.

  15. Beam halo formation from space-charge dominated beams in uniform focusing channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connell, J.S.; Wangler, T.P.; Mills, R.S.; Crandall, K.R.

    1993-01-01

    In space-charge dominated beams the nonlinear space-charge forces produce a filamentation pattern, which results in a 2-component beam consisting of an inner core and an outer halo. The halo is very prominent in mismatched beams, and the potential for accelerator activation is of concern for a next generation of cw, high-power proton linacs that could be applied for intense neutron generators to process nuclear materials. We present new results about beam halo and the evolution of space-charge dominated beams from multiparticle simulation of initial laminar beams in a uniform linear focusing channel, and from a model consisting of single particle interactions with a uniform-density beam core. We study the energy gain from particle interactions with the space-charge field of the core, and we identify the resonant characteristic of this interaction as the basic cause of the separation of the beam into the two components. We identify three different particle-trajectory types, and we suggest that one of these types may lead to continuous halo growth, even after the halo is removed by collimators

  16. Nuclear structure at the proton dripline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maglione, Enrico; Ferreira, Lidia S.; Costa Lopes, Miguel

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies with exotic nuclei far from the stability region, lead to the discovery of one and two proton radioactivity, from ground state of spherical, as well as deformed nuclei. Isomeric decay and fine structure were also measured, and in some cases, a prompt proton and alpha particle emission was observed. It was established that, the majority of prompt particle decays proceeds from superdeformed initial states, into spherical daughter states, revealing a change of deformation during the decay. Proton radioactivity has been the unique way to probe nuclear structure mechanisms in this region of stability. Since proton emitters lie beyond the proton drip-line, they also give the possibility of observing Nilsson resonances. In fact, the experimental data on proton radioactivity in regionswhere theoretical models predict a certain deformation for the nucleus is consistent with the idea that the proton was in a single particle resonance state, in the field of the daughter nucleus. An important aspect of such calculations is the inclusion of the nuclear structure properties of the core,like the rotational spectrum of the daughter nucleus, and the pairing residual interaction. We will address various questions concerning what we have learned from the data and how far our theoretical models have taken us in the region of neutron deficient nuclei at the borders of stability. (Author)

  17. The Excursion Set Theory of Halo Mass Functions, Halo Clustering, and Halo Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zentner, Andrew R.

    I review the excursion set theory with particular attention toward applications to cold dark matter halo formation and growth, halo abundance, and halo clustering. After a brief introduction to notation and conventions, I begin by recounting the heuristic argument leading to the mass function of bound objects given by Press and Schechter. I then review the more formal derivation of the Press-Schechter halo mass function that makes use of excursion sets of the density field. The excursion set formalism is powerful and can be applied to numerous other problems. I review the excursion set formalism for describing both halo clustering and bias and the properties of void regions. As one of the most enduring legacies of the excursion set approach and one of its most common applications, I spend considerable time reviewing the excursion set theory of halo growth. This section of the review culminates with the description of two Monte Carlo methods for generating ensembles of halo mass accretion histories. In the last section, I emphasize that the standard excursion set approach is the result of several simplifying assumptions. Dropping these assumptions can lead to more faithful predictions and open excursion set theory to new applications. One such assumption is that the height of the barriers that define collapsed objects is a constant function of scale. I illustrate the implementation of the excursion set approach for barriers of arbitrary shape. One such application is the now well-known improvement of the excursion set mass function derived from the "moving" barrier for ellipsoidal collapse. I also emphasize that the statement that halo accretion histories are independent of halo environment in the excursion set approach is not a general prediction of the theory. It is a simplifying assumption. I review the method for constructing correlated random walks of the density field in the more general case. I construct a simple toy model to illustrate that excursion set

  18. Wide-field kinematic structure of early-type galaxy halos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Jacob Antony

    2013-12-01

    The stellar halos of nearby galaxies bare the signatures of the mass-assembly processes that have driven galaxy evolution over the last ˜10 Gyr. Finding and interpreting these relict clues in galaxies within and beyond the local group offers one of the most promising avenues for understanding how galaxies accumulate their stars over time. To tackle this problem we have performed a systematic study of the wide-field kinematic structure of nearby (Dspectroscopy out to several effective radii (˜3 R e). The 22 galaxies presented here span a range of environments (field, group, and cluster), intrinsic luminosities (-22.4 infrared Calcium II triplet. For each spectrum, we parameterize the line-of-sight velocity distribution (LOSVD) as a truncated Gauss-Hermite series convolved with an optimally weighted combination of stellar templates. These kinematic measurements (V, sigma, h3, and h4) are combined with literature values to construct spatially resolved maps of large-scale kinematic structure. A variety of kinematic behaviors are observed beyond ~1 Re, potentially reflecting the stochastic and chaotic assembly of stellar bulges and halos in early-type galaxies. Next, we describe a global analysis (out to 5 Re) of kinematics and metallicity in the nearest S0 galaxy, NGC 3115, along with implications for its assembly history. The data include high-quality wide-field imaging and multi-slit spectra of the field stars and globular clusters (GCs). Within two effective radii, the bulge (as traced by the stars and metal-rich GCs) is flattened and rotates rapidly. At larger radii, the rotation declines dramatically, while the characteristic GC metallicities also decrease with radius. We argue that this pattern is not naturally explained by a binary major merger, but instead by a two-phase assembly process where the inner regions have formed in an early violent, dissipative phase, followed by the protracted growth of the outer parts via minor mergers. To test this hypothesis

  19. Beyond assembly bias: exploring secondary halo biases for cluster-size haloes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yao-Yuan; Zentner, Andrew R.; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2018-03-01

    Secondary halo bias, commonly known as `assembly bias', is the dependence of halo clustering on a halo property other than mass. This prediction of the Λ Cold Dark Matter cosmology is essential to modelling the galaxy distribution to high precision and interpreting clustering measurements. As the name suggests, different manifestations of secondary halo bias have been thought to originate from halo assembly histories. We show conclusively that this is incorrect for cluster-size haloes. We present an up-to-date summary of secondary halo biases of high-mass haloes due to various halo properties including concentration, spin, several proxies of assembly history, and subhalo properties. While concentration, spin, and the abundance and radial distribution of subhaloes exhibit significant secondary biases, properties that directly quantify halo assembly history do not. In fact, the entire assembly histories of haloes in pairs are nearly identical to those of isolated haloes. In general, a global correlation between two halo properties does not predict whether or not these two properties exhibit similar secondary biases. For example, assembly history and concentration (or subhalo abundance) are correlated for both paired and isolated haloes, but follow slightly different conditional distributions in these two cases. This results in a secondary halo bias due to concentration (or subhalo abundance), despite the lack of assembly bias in the strict sense for cluster-size haloes. Due to this complexity, caution must be exercised in using any one halo property as a proxy to study the secondary bias due to another property.

  20. THE EFFECTS OF ANGULAR MOMENTUM ON HALO PROFILES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lentz, Erik W; Rosenberg, Leslie J [Physics Department, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); Quinn, Thomas R, E-mail: lentze@phys.washington.edu, E-mail: ljrosenberg@phys.washington.edu, E-mail: trq@astro.washington.edu [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States)

    2016-05-10

    The near universality of DM halo density profiles provided by N -body simulations proved to be robust against changes in total mass density, power spectrum, and some forms of initial velocity dispersion. Here we study the effects of coherently spinning up an isolated DM-only progenitor on halo structure. Halos with spins within several standard deviations of the simulated mean ( λ ≲ 0.20) produce profiles with negligible deviations from the universal form. Only when the spin becomes quite large ( λ ≳ 0.20) do departures become evident. The angular momentum distribution also exhibits a near universal form, which is also independent of halo spin up to λ ≲ 0.20. A correlation between these epidemic profiles and the presence of a strong bar in the virialized halo is also observed. These bar structures bear resemblance to the radial orbit instability in the rotationless limit.

  1. Effect of a resonant excitation on the evolution of the beam emittance and halo population

    CERN Document Server

    Fitterer, Miriam; Valishev, Alexander; Bruce, Roderik; Papadopoulou, Parthena Stefania; Papotti, Giulia; Pellegrini, Dario; Redaelli, Stefano; Trad, Georges; Valuch, Daniel; Valentino, Gianluca; Wagner, Joschka; Xu, Chen; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-01-01

    Collimation with hollow electron beams or lenses (HEL) is currently one of the most promising concepts for active halo control in HL-LHC. In previous studies it has been shown that the halo can be efficiently removed with a hollow electron lens. Equally important as an efficient removal of the halo, is to demonstrate that the core stays unperturbed. In the case of an ideal hollow electron lens without bends, the field at the location of the beam core vanishes and the core remains unperturbed. In reality, the field at the beam core does not vanish entirely due to imperfections in the electron beam profile and the electron lens bends necessary to guide the electron in and out of the proton aperture. In particular, in the case of a pulsed operation of the electron lens the non-vanishing residual field induces noise on the proton beam. To identify the most sensitive pulsing patterns for the resonant mode and derive tolerances on the profile imperfections, a first MD was carried out of which the first results...

  2. Effect of a resonant excitation on the evolution of the beam emittance and halo population

    CERN Document Server

    Fitterer, Miriam; Valishev, Alexander; Bruce, Roderik; Redaelli, Stefano; Salvachua Ferrando, Belen Maria; Valuch, Daniel; Valentino, Gianluca; Wagner, Joschka; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2018-01-01

    Collimation with hollow electron beams or lenses (HEL) is currently one of the most promising concepts for active halo control in HL-LHC. In previous studies it has been shown that the halo can be efficiently removed with a hollow electron lens. Equally important as an efficient removal of the halo, is to demonstrate that the core stays unperturbed. In the case of an ideal hollow electron lens without bends, the field at the location of the beam core vanishes and the core thus remains unperturbed. In reality, the field at the beam core does not vanish entirely due to imperfections in the electron beam profile and the electron lens bends necessary to guide the electron in and out of the proton aperture. In particular, in the case of a pulsed operation of the electron lens the non-vanishing residual field induces noise on the proton beam. To identify the most sensitive pulsing patterns for the resonant mode and derive tolerances on the profile imperfections, a first MD (MD1415) was carried out on 24.08.2016 [1]...

  3. Structure of the Milky Way stellar halo out to its outer boundary with blue horizontal-branch stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Tetsuya; Chiba, Masashi; Homma, Daisuke; Okamoto, Sakurako; Komiyama, Yutaka; Tanaka, Masayuki; Tanaka, Mikito; Arimoto, Nobuo; Matsuno, Tadafumi

    2018-06-01

    We present the structure of the Milky Way stellar halo beyond Galactocentric distances of r = 50 kpc traced by blue horizontal-branch (BHB) stars, which are extracted from the survey data in the Hyper Suprime-Cam Subaru Strategic Program (HSC-SSP). We select BHB candidates based on (g, r, i, z) photometry, where the z-band is on the Paschen series and the colors that involve the z-band are sensitive to surface gravity. About 450 BHB candidates are identified between r = 50 kpc and 300 kpc, most of which are beyond the reach of previous large surveys, including the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We find that the global structure of the stellar halo in this range has substructures, which are especially remarkable in the GAMA15H and XMM-LSS fields in the HSC-SSP. We find that the stellar halo can be fitted to a single power-law density profile with an index of α ≃ 3.3 (3.5) with (without) these fields and its global axial ratio is q ≃ 2.2 (1.3). Thus, the stellar halo may be significantly disturbed and be made in a prolate form by halo substructures, perhaps associated with the Sagittarius stream in its extension beyond r ˜ 100 kpc. For a broken power-law model allowing different power-law indices inside/outside a break radius, we obtain a steep power-law slope of α ≃ 5 outside a break radius of ˜100 kpc (200 kpc) for the case with (without) GAMA15H and XMM-LSS. This radius of 200 kpc might be as close as a halo boundary if there is any, although a larger BHB sample is required from further HSC-SSP surveys to increase its statistical significance.

  4. The f ( R ) halo mass function in the cosmic web

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun-Bates, F. von; Winther, H.A.; Alonso, D.; Devriendt, J., E-mail: francesca.vonbraun-bates@physics.ox.ac.uk, E-mail: hans.a.winther@physics.ox.ac.uk, E-mail: david.alonso@physics.ox.ac.uk, E-mail: julien.devriendt@physics.ox.ac.uk [Astrophysics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom)

    2017-03-01

    An important indicator of modified gravity is the effect of the local environment on halo properties. This paper examines the influence of the local tidal structure on the halo mass function, the halo orientation, spin and the concentration-mass relation. We use the excursion set formalism to produce a halo mass function conditional on large-scale structure. Our simple model agrees well with simulations on large scales at which the density field is linear or weakly non-linear. Beyond this, our principal result is that f ( R ) does affect halo abundances, the halo spin parameter and the concentration-mass relationship in an environment-independent way, whereas we find no appreciable deviation from \\text(ΛCDM) for the mass function with fixed environment density, nor the alignment of the orientation and spin vectors of the halo to the eigenvectors of the local cosmic web. There is a general trend for greater deviation from \\text(ΛCDM) in underdense environments and for high-mass haloes, as expected from chameleon screening.

  5. Halo modelling in chameleon theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombriser, Lucas; Koyama, Kazuya [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Dennis Sciama Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Li, Baojiu, E-mail: lucas.lombriser@port.ac.uk, E-mail: kazuya.koyama@port.ac.uk, E-mail: baojiu.li@durham.ac.uk [Institute for Computational Cosmology, Ogden Centre for Fundamental Physics, Department of Physics, University of Durham, Science Laboratories, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2014-03-01

    We analyse modelling techniques for the large-scale structure formed in scalar-tensor theories of constant Brans-Dicke parameter which match the concordance model background expansion history and produce a chameleon suppression of the gravitational modification in high-density regions. Thereby, we use a mass and environment dependent chameleon spherical collapse model, the Sheth-Tormen halo mass function and linear halo bias, the Navarro-Frenk-White halo density profile, and the halo model. Furthermore, using the spherical collapse model, we extrapolate a chameleon mass-concentration scaling relation from a ΛCDM prescription calibrated to N-body simulations. We also provide constraints on the model parameters to ensure viability on local scales. We test our description of the halo mass function and nonlinear matter power spectrum against the respective observables extracted from large-volume and high-resolution N-body simulations in the limiting case of f(R) gravity, corresponding to a vanishing Brans-Dicke parameter. We find good agreement between the two; the halo model provides a good qualitative description of the shape of the relative enhancement of the f(R) matter power spectrum with respect to ΛCDM caused by the extra attractive gravitational force but fails to recover the correct amplitude. Introducing an effective linear power spectrum in the computation of the two-halo term to account for an underestimation of the chameleon suppression at intermediate scales in our approach, we accurately reproduce the measurements from the N-body simulations.

  6. Halo modelling in chameleon theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombriser, Lucas; Koyama, Kazuya; Li, Baojiu

    2014-01-01

    We analyse modelling techniques for the large-scale structure formed in scalar-tensor theories of constant Brans-Dicke parameter which match the concordance model background expansion history and produce a chameleon suppression of the gravitational modification in high-density regions. Thereby, we use a mass and environment dependent chameleon spherical collapse model, the Sheth-Tormen halo mass function and linear halo bias, the Navarro-Frenk-White halo density profile, and the halo model. Furthermore, using the spherical collapse model, we extrapolate a chameleon mass-concentration scaling relation from a ΛCDM prescription calibrated to N-body simulations. We also provide constraints on the model parameters to ensure viability on local scales. We test our description of the halo mass function and nonlinear matter power spectrum against the respective observables extracted from large-volume and high-resolution N-body simulations in the limiting case of f(R) gravity, corresponding to a vanishing Brans-Dicke parameter. We find good agreement between the two; the halo model provides a good qualitative description of the shape of the relative enhancement of the f(R) matter power spectrum with respect to ΛCDM caused by the extra attractive gravitational force but fails to recover the correct amplitude. Introducing an effective linear power spectrum in the computation of the two-halo term to account for an underestimation of the chameleon suppression at intermediate scales in our approach, we accurately reproduce the measurements from the N-body simulations

  7. Ultra-High Intensity Proton Accelerators and their Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, W. T.

    1997-01-01

    The science and technology of proton accelerators have progressed considerably in the past three decades. Three to four orders of magnitude increase in both peak intensity and average flux have made it possible to construct high intensity proton accelerators for modern applications, such as: spallation neutron sources, kaon factory, accelerator production of tritium, energy amplifier and muon collider drivers. The accelerator design focus switched over from intensity for synchrotrons, to brightness for colliders to halos for spallation sources. An overview of this tremendous progress in both accelerator science and technology is presented, with special emphasis on the new challenges of accelerator physics issues such as: H(-) injection, halo formation and reduction of losses

  8. Characteristic time for halo current growth and rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boozer, Allen H., E-mail: ahb17@columbia.edu [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    A halo current flows for part of its path through the plasma edge and for part through the chamber walls and during tokamak disruptions can be as large as tenths of the plasma current. The primary interest in halo currents is the large force that they can exert on machine components particularly if the toriodal rotation of the halo current resonates with a natural oscillation frequency of the tokamak device. Halo currents arise when required to slow down the growth of a kink that is too unstable to be stabilized by the chamber walls. The width of the current channel in the halo plasma is comparable to the amplitude of the kink, and the halo current grows linearly, not exponentially, in time. The current density in the halo is comparable to that of the main plasma body. The rocket force due to plasma flowing out of the halo and recombining on the chamber walls can cause the non-axisymmetric magnetic structure produced by the kink to rotate toroidally at a speed comparable to the halo speed of sound. Gerhardt's observations of the halo current in NSTX shot 141 687 [Nucl. Fusion 53, 023005 (2013)] illustrate many features of the theory of halo currents and are discussed as a summary of the theory.

  9. BOW TIES IN THE SKY. I. THE ANGULAR STRUCTURE OF INVERSE COMPTON GAMMA-RAY HALOS IN THE FERMI SKY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broderick, Avery E.; Shalaby, Mohamad [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Tiede, Paul [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, ON, N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Pfrommer, Christoph [Heidelberg Institute for Theoretical Studies, Schloss-Wolfsbrunnenweg 35, D-69118 Heidelberg (Germany); Puchwein, Ewald [Institute of Astronomy and Kavli Institute for Cosmology, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Chang, Philip [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 1900 E. Kenwood Boulevard, Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); Lamberts, Astrid [Theoretical Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Extended inverse Compton halos are generally anticipated around extragalactic sources of gamma rays with energies above 100 GeV. These result from inverse Compton scattered cosmic microwave background photons by a population of high-energy electron/positron pairs produced by the annihilation of the high-energy gamma rays on the infrared background. Despite the observed attenuation of the high-energy gamma rays, the halo emission has yet to be directly detected. Here, we demonstrate that in most cases these halos are expected to be highly anisotropic, distributing the upscattered gamma rays along axes defined either by the radio jets of the sources or oriented perpendicular to a global magnetic field. We present a pedagogical derivation of the angular structure in the inverse Compton halo and provide an analytic formalism that facilitates the generation of mock images. We discuss exploiting this fact for the purpose of detecting gamma-ray halos in a set of companion papers.

  10. Lessons from two paradigmatic developments; Rutherford's nuclear atom and halo nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaagen, J S; Ershov, S N; Zhukov, M V

    2012-01-01

    In its initial 1911 version, underpinned by discoveries in alpha-scattering experiments, Rutherford's atom model made a gross separation of neutral matter; A veil of light negative matter surrounding a tiny impenetrable heavy positive core. The model had however little to say about the atomic (electronic) architecture and dynamics, hence did not make it straight to the catwalk of physics of those days. Three quarters of a century later, in 1985, new discoveries in collision experiments revealed existence of abnormally large light nuclei, but could say less about the nuclear architecture. History sometimes repeats itself: Like Bohr's ad hoc planetary model (1913) changed the fate of Rutherford's discovery, again Scandinavian inspired ideas on architecture, this time nuclear halos, changed our paradigm for the heart of matter. We comment on the need for a concerted Rutherfordian effort between theory and increasingly complete reaction experiments if further ground-breaking progress is going to be made in halo physics, and physics in vicinities of neutron and proton driplines, and generally in the more widely growing field of many-body open quantum systems, where structure and reactions come together.

  11. The Structure of the Proton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, E. E.; Hofstadter, R.

    1956-04-01

    The structure and size of the proton have been studied by means of the methods of high-energy electron scattering. The elastic scattering of electrons from protons in polyethylene has been investigated at the following energies in the laboratory system: 200, 300, 400, 500, 550 Mev. The range of laboratory angles examined has been 30 degrees to 135 degrees. At the largest angles and the highest energy, the cross section for scattering shows a deviation below that expected from a point proton by a factor of about nine. The magnitude and variation with angle of the deviations determine a structure factor for the proton, and thereby determine the size and shape of the charge and magnetic-moment distributions within the proton. An interpretation, consistent at all energies and angles and agreeing with earlier results from this laboratory, fixes the rms radius at 0.77 {plus or minus} 0.10 x 10{sup -13} cm for each of the charge and moment distributions. The shape of the density function is not far from a Gaussian with rms radius 0.70 x 10{sup -13} cm or an exponential with rms radius 0.80 x 10 {sup -13} cm. An equivalent interpretation of the experiments would ascribe the apparent size to a breakdown of the Coulomb law and the conventional theory of electromagnetism.

  12. The structure of the proton phenomenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoeffel, L.

    1996-01-01

    Deep inelastic scattering of an electron on a proton is a very interesting process to probe with high precision the structure of the proton. With HERA, precise tests of the theory of strong interactions (perturbative QCD) can be done. Recent results from HERA experiments on the proton structure function F 2 have reached a high level of precision. A strong rise of F 2 is observed when x ( the fraction of impulsion carried by the struck parton of the proton after its interaction with a highly virtual photon) becomes very small. In this regime two main theoretical predictions allow to describe the evolution of F 2 with respect to x or Q 2 (the photon mass), the DGLAP and the BFKL evolution equations. This contribution presents the main aspects of these predictions and then comment experimental ideas which can be used to discriminate between the alternatives. (N.T.)

  13. Proton spin structure in the rest frame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavada, P.

    1997-01-01

    It is shown that the quark-parton model in the standard infinite momentum approach overestimates the proton spin structure function g 1 (x) in comparison with the approach taking consistently into account the internal motion of quarks described by a spherical phase space in the proton rest frame. Particularly, it is shown the first moment of the spin structure function in the latter approach, assuming only the valence quarks contribution to the proton spin, does not contradict the experimental data. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  14. Quasi-free knockout reactions with the proton-dripline nucleus {sup 17}Ne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wamers, Felix; Aumann, Thomas [Institut fuer Kernphysik, TU, Darmstadt (Germany); Heil, Michael [Kernreaktionen und Nukleare Astrophysik, GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Marganiec, Justyna [ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Plag, Ralf [Kernreaktionen und Nukleare Astrophysik, GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Goethe Universitaet, Frankfurt a.M. (Germany); Collaboration: R3B-Collaboration

    2011-07-01

    {sup 17}Ne is a proton-dripline nucleus that has raised special interest in nuclear-structure physics in recent years. As a ({sup 15}O+2p) Borromean 3-body system, it is often considered to be a 2-proton-halo nucleus, yet lacking concluding experimental evidence about its structure. We have studied breakup reactions of 500 AMeV {sup 17}Ne secondary beams using the R{sup 3}B-LAND setup at GSI. One focus was on the quasi-free one-proton knockout in a proton-rich paraffin (CH{sub 2}) target in inverse kinematics, i.e., {sup 17}Ne(p,2p){sup 16}F{yields}{sup 15}O+p, in comparison to the one-proton knockout with a carbon target. Recoil protons have been detected with Si-Strip detectors and the surrounding 4{pi} NaI spectrometer ''Crystal Ball'', thus providing a clean signature for quasi-free knockout. First results on two-proton removal cross sections with CH{sub 2} and C targets will be presented, as well as transverse momentum distributions of the {sup 15}O core in {sup 17}Ne. Projectile-like forward protons after one-proton knockout from {sup 17}Ne have been measured in coincidence with the {sup 15}O residual core, leading to the relative-energy spectrum of the unbound {sup 16}F. Possible interpretations and implications regarding the structure of {sup 17}Ne are discussed.

  15. The large-scale structure of the halo of the Andromeda galaxy. I. Global stellar density, morphology and metallicity properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibata, Rodrigo A.; Martin, Nicolas F. [Observatoire astronomique de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 rue de lUniversité, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Lewis, Geraint F. [Institute of Astronomy, School of Physics A28, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); McConnachie, Alan W. [NRC Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7 (Canada); Irwin, Michael J. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Ferguson, Annette M. N.; Bernard, Edouard J.; Peñarrubia, Jorge [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Babul, Arif; Navarro, Julio [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, 3800 Finnerty Road, Victoria, British Columbia V8P 5C2 (Canada); Chapman, Scott C. [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, 6310 Coburg Road, Halifax NS B3H 4R2 (Canada); Collins, Michelle [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Fardal, Mark [University of Massachusetts, Department of Astronomy, LGRT 619-E, 710 North Pleasant Street, Amherst, MA 01003-9305 (United States); Mackey, A. D. [RSAA, The Australian National University, Mount Stromlo Observatory, Cotter Road, Weston Creek ACT 2611 (Australia); Rich, R. Michael [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, PAB, 430 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Tanvir, Nial [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Widrow, Lawrence, E-mail: rodrigo.ibata@astro.unistra.fr [Department of Physics, Engineering Physics, and Astronomy Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6 (Canada)

    2014-01-10

    We present an analysis of the large-scale structure of the halo of the Andromeda galaxy, based on the Pan-Andromeda Archeological Survey (PAndAS), currently the most complete map of resolved stellar populations in any galactic halo. Despite the presence of copious substructures, the global halo populations follow closely power-law profiles that become steeper with increasing metallicity. We divide the sample into stream-like populations and a smooth halo component (defined as the population that cannot be resolved into spatially distinct substructures with PAndAS). Fitting a three-dimensional halo model reveals that the most metal-poor populations ([Fe/H]<−1.7) are distributed approximately spherically (slightly prolate with ellipticity c/a = 1.09 ± 0.03), with only a relatively small fraction residing in discernible stream-like structures (f {sub stream} = 42%). The sphericity of the ancient smooth component strongly hints that the dark matter halo is also approximately spherical. More metal-rich populations contain higher fractions of stars in streams, with f {sub stream} becoming as high as 86% for [Fe/H]>−0.6. The space density of the smooth metal-poor component has a global power-law slope of γ = –3.08 ± 0.07, and a non-parametric fit shows that the slope remains nearly constant from 30 kpc to ∼300 kpc. The total stellar mass in the halo at distances beyond 2° is ∼1.1 × 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}, while that of the smooth component is ∼3 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉}. Extrapolating into the inner galaxy, the total stellar mass of the smooth halo is plausibly ∼8 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉}. We detect a substantial metallicity gradient, which declines from ([Fe/H]) = –0.7 at R = 30 kpc to ([Fe/H]) = –1.5 at R = 150 kpc for the full sample, with the smooth halo being ∼0.2 dex more metal poor than the full sample at each radius. While qualitatively in line with expectations from cosmological simulations, these observations are of great importance as

  16. LUMINOUS RED GALAXY HALO DENSITY FIELD RECONSTRUCTION AND APPLICATION TO LARGE-SCALE STRUCTURE MEASUREMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, Beth A.; Spergel, David N.; Bode, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The nontrivial relationship between observations of galaxy positions in redshift space and the underlying matter field complicates our ability to determine the linear theory power spectrum and extract cosmological information from galaxy surveys. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) luminous red galaxy (LRG) catalog has the potential to place powerful constraints on cosmological parameters. LRGs are bright, highly biased tracers of large-scale structure. However, because they are highly biased, the nonlinear contribution of satellite galaxies to the galaxy power spectrum is large and fingers-of-God (FOGs) are significant. The combination of these effects leads to a ∼10% correction in the underlying power spectrum at k = 0.1 h Mpc -1 and ∼40% correction at k = 0.2 h Mpc -1 in the LRG P(k) analysis of Tegmark et al., thereby compromising the cosmological constraints when this potentially large correction is left as a free parameter. We propose an alternative approach to recovering the matter field from galaxy observations. Our approach is to use halos rather than galaxies to trace the underlying mass distribution. We identify FOGs and replace each FOG with a single halo object. This removes the nonlinear contribution of satellite galaxies, the one-halo term. We test our method on a large set of high-fidelity mock SDSS LRG catalogs and find that the power spectrum of the reconstructed halo density field deviates from the underlying matter power spectrum at the ≤1% level for k ≤ 0.1 h Mpc -1 and ≤4% at k = 0.2 h Mpc -1 . The reconstructed halo density field also removes the bias in the measurement of the redshift space distortion parameter β induced by the FOG smearing of the linear redshift space distortions.

  17. Hierarchical phase space structure of dark matter haloes: Tidal debris, caustics, and dark matter annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afshordi, Niayesh; Mohayaee, Roya; Bertschinger, Edmund

    2009-01-01

    Most of the mass content of dark matter haloes is expected to be in the form of tidal debris. The density of debris is not constant, but rather can grow due to formation of caustics at the apocenters and pericenters of the orbit, or decay as a result of phase mixing. In the phase space, the debris assemble in a hierarchy that is truncated by the primordial temperature of dark matter. Understanding this phase structure can be of significant importance for the interpretation of many astrophysical observations and, in particular, dark matter detection experiments. With this purpose in mind, we develop a general theoretical framework to describe the hierarchical structure of the phase space of cold dark matter haloes. We do not make any assumption of spherical symmetry and/or smooth and continuous accretion. Instead, working with correlation functions in the action-angle space, we can fully account for the hierarchical structure (predicting a two-point correlation function ∝ΔJ -1.6 in the action space), as well as the primordial discreteness of the phase space. As an application, we estimate the boost to the dark matter annihilation signal due to the structure of the phase space within virial radius: the boost due to the hierarchical tidal debris is of order unity, whereas the primordial discreteness of the phase structure can boost the total annihilation signal by up to an order of magnitude. The latter is dominated by the regions beyond 20% of the virial radius, and is largest for the recently formed haloes with the least degree of phase mixing. Nevertheless, as we argue in a companion paper, the boost due to small gravitationally-bound substructure can dominate this effect at low redshifts.

  18. Hierarchical phase space structure of dark matter haloes: Tidal debris, caustics, and dark matter annihilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshordi, Niayesh; Mohayaee, Roya; Bertschinger, Edmund

    2009-04-01

    Most of the mass content of dark matter haloes is expected to be in the form of tidal debris. The density of debris is not constant, but rather can grow due to formation of caustics at the apocenters and pericenters of the orbit, or decay as a result of phase mixing. In the phase space, the debris assemble in a hierarchy that is truncated by the primordial temperature of dark matter. Understanding this phase structure can be of significant importance for the interpretation of many astrophysical observations and, in particular, dark matter detection experiments. With this purpose in mind, we develop a general theoretical framework to describe the hierarchical structure of the phase space of cold dark matter haloes. We do not make any assumption of spherical symmetry and/or smooth and continuous accretion. Instead, working with correlation functions in the action-angle space, we can fully account for the hierarchical structure (predicting a two-point correlation function ∝ΔJ-1.6 in the action space), as well as the primordial discreteness of the phase space. As an application, we estimate the boost to the dark matter annihilation signal due to the structure of the phase space within virial radius: the boost due to the hierarchical tidal debris is of order unity, whereas the primordial discreteness of the phase structure can boost the total annihilation signal by up to an order of magnitude. The latter is dominated by the regions beyond 20% of the virial radius, and is largest for the recently formed haloes with the least degree of phase mixing. Nevertheless, as we argue in a companion paper, the boost due to small gravitationally-bound substructure can dominate this effect at low redshifts.

  19. Exotic nuclei: Halos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orr, Nigel [Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire, Caen Univ., 14 (France); Collaboration: La Direction des Sciences de la Matiere du CEA (FR); Le Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique de Belgique (BE)

    1998-12-31

    A brief overview of the nuclear halo is presented. Following some historical remarks the general characteristics of the halo systems are discussed with reference to a simple model. The conditions governing the formation of halos are also explored, as are two subjects of current interest - low-lying resonances of halo nucleon correlations. (author) 54 refs., 16 figs., 1 tabs.

  20. Proton structure functions at small x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hentschinski, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Proton structure functions are measured in electron-proton collision through inelastic scattering of virtual photons with virtuality Q on protons; x denotes the momentum fraction carried by the struck parton. Proton structure functions are currently described with excellent accuracy in terms of scale dependent parton distribution functions, defined in terms of collinear factorization and DGLAP evolution in Q. With decreasing x however, parton densities increase and are ultimately expected to saturate. In this regime DGLAP evolution will finally break down and non-linear evolution equations w.r.t x are expected to take over. In the first part of the talk we present recent result on an implementation of physical DGLAP evolution. Unlike the conventional description in terms of parton distribution functions, the former describes directly the Q dependence of the measured structure functions. It is therefore physical insensitive to factorization scheme and scale ambiguities. It therefore provides a more stringent test of DGLAP evolution and eases the manifestation of (non-linear) small x effects. It however requires a precise measurement of both structure functions F 2 and F L , which will be only possible at future facilities, such as an Electron Ion Collider. In the second part we present a recent analysis of the small x region of the combined HERA data on the structure function F 2 . We demonstrate that (linear) next-to-leading order BFKL evolution describes the effective Pomeron intercept, determined from the combined HERA data, once a resummation of collinear enhanced terms is included and the renormalization scale is fixed using the BLM optimal scale setting procedure. We also provide a detailed description of the Q and x dependence of the full structure functions F 2 in the small x region, as measured at HERA. Predictions for the structure function F L are found to be in agreement with the existing HERA data. (paper)

  1. Structural analysis of the ITER vacuum vessel from disruption loading with halo asymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riemer, B.W.; Sayer, R.O.

    1996-01-01

    Static structural analyses of the ITER vacuum vessel were performed with toroidally asymmetric disruption loads. Asymmetric halo current conditions were assumed to modify symmetric disruption loads which resulted in net lateral loading on the vacuum vessel torus. Structural analyses with the asymmetric loading indicated significantly higher vessel stress and blanket support forces than with symmetric disruption loads. A recent change in the vessel support design which provided toroidal constraints at each mid port was found to be effective in reducing torus lateral movement and vessel stress

  2. Fine structure in deformed proton emitting nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonzogni, A. A.; Davids, C. N.; Woods, P. J.; Seweryniak, D.; Carpenter, M. P.; Ressler, J. J.; Schwartz, J.; Uusitalo, J.; Walters, W. B.

    1999-01-01

    In a recent experiment to study the proton radioactivity of the highly deformed 131 Eu nucleus, two proton lines were detected. The higher energy one was assigned to the ground-state to ground-state decay, while the lower energy, to the ground-state to the 2 + state decay. This constitutes the first observation of fine structure in proton radioactivity. With these four measured quantities, proton energies, half-life and branching ratio, it is possible to determine the Nilsson configuration of the ground state of the proton emitting nucleus as well as the 2 + energy and nuclear deformation of the daughter nucleus. These results will be presented and discussed

  3. Role of cosmic ray protons in two types of extragalactic objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vestrand, W.T.

    1980-01-01

    For many years the physics of galactic cosmic rays has been studied in detail. Very little work, however, has been done concerning cosmic ray protons in extragalactic objects. Here the role cosmic ray protons can play in two types of extragalactic sites are examined: (1) clusters of galaxies, and (2) the active nuclei of Quasars that produce superluminal radio components. Models of Coma-type radio halos must explain both their large extent and their rarity. A model is presented wherein secondary electrons produced by the interaction of cosmic ray protons with the observed intracluster gas are responsible for the diffuse radio emission. This model predicts a correlation between a cluster's evolutionary state and the presence of Coma-type halos. If a cluster's x-ray morphology is an indication of the cluster's evolutionary state, this prediction is supported by observations. This model also predicts that clusters with Coma-type halos will emit π 0 γ-rays. If the intracluster magnetic field in Coma has the strength favored by many authors, B/sub c/ = 0.2 microgauss, these γ-rays should be detectable with the proposed GRO satellite. Superluminal radio sources may originate in highly compact and relativistically hot plasmas. The production of mesons and their secondaries in an ultrarelativistic plasma is examined. Source functions from a relativistic Maxwellian distribution of protons are numerically calculated for conditions likely during the formation of superluminal radio components. Analytic expressions for the source functions from a power law distribution of relativistic protons are also presented

  4. Analytic modeling of axisymmetric disruption halo currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphreys, D.A.; Kellman, A.G.

    1999-01-01

    Currents which can flow in plasma facing components during disruptions pose a challenge to the design of next generation tokamaks. Induced toroidal eddy currents and both induced and conducted poloidal ''halo'' currents can produce design-limiting electromagnetic loads. While induction of toroidal and poloidal currents in passive structures is a well-understood phenomenon, the driving terms and scalings for poloidal currents flowing on open field lines during disruptions are less well established. A model of halo current evolution is presented in which the current is induced in the halo by decay of the plasma current and change in enclosed toroidal flux while being convected into the halo from the core by plasma motion. Fundamental physical processes and scalings are described in a simplified analytic version of the model. The peak axisymmetric halo current is found to depend on halo and core plasma characteristics during the current quench, including machine and plasma dimensions, resistivities, safety factor, and vertical stability growth rate. Two extreme regimes in poloidal halo current amplitude are identified depending on the minimum halo safety factor reached during the disruption. A 'type I' disruption is characterized by a minimum safety factor that remains relatively high (typically 2 - 3, comparable to the predisruption safety factor), and a relatively low poloidal halo current. A 'type II' disruption is characterized by a minimum safety factor comparable to unity and a relatively high poloidal halo current. Model predictions for these two regimes are found to agree well with halo current measurements from vertical displacement event disruptions in DIII-D [T. S. Taylor, K. H. Burrell, D. R. Baker, G. L. Jackson, R. J. La Haye, M. A. Mahdavi, R. Prater, T. C. Simonen, and A. D. Turnbull, open-quotes Results from the DIII-D Scientific Research Program,close quotes in Proceedings of the 17th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference, Yokohama, 1998, to be published in

  5. The prolate dark matter halo of the Andromeda galaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Kohei; Chiba, Masashi, E-mail: k.hayasi@astr.tohoku.ac.jp, E-mail: chiba@astr.tohoku.ac.jp [Astronomical Institute, Tohoku University, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    We present new limits on the global shape of the dark matter halo in the Andromeda galaxy using and generalizing non-spherical mass models developed by Hayashi and Chiba and compare our results with theoretical predictions of cold dark matter (CDM) models. This is motivated by the fact that CDM models predict non-spherical virialized dark halos, which reflect the process of mass assembly in the galactic scale. Applying our models to the latest kinematic data of globular clusters and dwarf spheroidal galaxies in the Andromeda halo, we find that the most plausible cases for Andromeda yield a prolate shape for its dark halo, irrespective of assumed density profiles. We also find that this prolate dark halo in Andromeda is consistent with theoretical predictions in which the satellites are distributed anisotropically and preferentially located along major axes of their host halos. It is a reflection of the intimate connection between galactic dark matter halos and the cosmic web. Therefore, our result is profound in understanding internal dynamics of halo tracers in Andromeda, such as orbital evolutions of tidal stellar streams, which play important roles in extracting the abundance of CDM subhalos through their dynamical effects on stream structures.

  6. The prolate dark matter halo of the Andromeda galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Kohei; Chiba, Masashi

    2014-01-01

    We present new limits on the global shape of the dark matter halo in the Andromeda galaxy using and generalizing non-spherical mass models developed by Hayashi and Chiba and compare our results with theoretical predictions of cold dark matter (CDM) models. This is motivated by the fact that CDM models predict non-spherical virialized dark halos, which reflect the process of mass assembly in the galactic scale. Applying our models to the latest kinematic data of globular clusters and dwarf spheroidal galaxies in the Andromeda halo, we find that the most plausible cases for Andromeda yield a prolate shape for its dark halo, irrespective of assumed density profiles. We also find that this prolate dark halo in Andromeda is consistent with theoretical predictions in which the satellites are distributed anisotropically and preferentially located along major axes of their host halos. It is a reflection of the intimate connection between galactic dark matter halos and the cosmic web. Therefore, our result is profound in understanding internal dynamics of halo tracers in Andromeda, such as orbital evolutions of tidal stellar streams, which play important roles in extracting the abundance of CDM subhalos through their dynamical effects on stream structures.

  7. Structural studies on proton/protonation of the protein molecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morimoto, Yukio; Kida, Akiko; Chatake, Toshiyuki; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Hosokawa, Keiichi; Murakami, Takuto; Umino, Masaaki; Tanaka, Ichiro; Hisatome, Ichiro; Yanagisawa, Yasutake; Fujiwara, Satoshi; Hidaka, Yuji; Shimamoto, Shigeru; Fujiwara, Mitsutoshi; Nakanishi, Takeyoshi

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports three studies involved in the analysis of protons and protonation at physiologically active sites in protein molecules. (1) 'Elucidation of the higher-order structure formation and activity performing mechanism of yeast proteasome.' With an aim to apply to anti-cancer drugs, this study performed the shape analysis of the total structure of 26S proteasome using small-angle X-ray scattering to clarify the complex form where controlling elements bonded to the both ends of 20S catalyst body, and analyzed the complex structure between the active sites of 20S and inhibitor (drug). (2) 'Basic study on the neutron experiment of biomolecules such as physiologically active substances derived from Natto-bacteria.' This study conducted the purification, crystallization, and X-ray analysis experiment of nattokinase; high-grade purification and solution experiment of vitamin K2 (menaquinone-7); and Z-DNA crystal structure study related to the neutron crystal analysis of DNA as another biomolecule structure study. (3) 'Functional evaluation on digestive enzymes derived from Nephila clavata.' As an Alzheimer's disease-related amyloid fibril formation model, this study carried out elucidation on the fibrosis and fiber-forming mechanism of the traction fiber of Nephila clavata, and the functional analysis of its degrading enzyme. (A.O.)

  8. Mechanical device for enhancing halo density in the TMX-U tandem mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, W.L.; Barr, W.L.; Simonen, T.C.

    1984-04-01

    The halo recycler, a mechanical device similar to pumped limiters used in tokamaks, is studied as a means of enhancing the halo plasma density in the Tandem Mirror Experiment Upgrade (TMX-U). The recycler structure consists of an annular chamber at each end of the tandem mirror device where the halo plasma is collected. The halo plasma density is increased by recycling the halo ions as they are neutralized by the collector plate. With sufficient power fed into the halo electrons, the recycler can sustain an upstream electron temperature of 30 eV for effective halo shielding while maintaining a low temperature of 5 eV near the collector plate to reduce sputtering. A power flow model has shown that the required power for heating the halo is low enough to make the halo recycler a practical concept

  9. Structure and Intramolecular Proton Transfer of Alanine Radical Cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gab Yong

    2012-01-01

    The structures of the four lowest alanine conformers, along with their radical cations and the effect of ionization on the intramolecular proton transfer process, are studied using the density functional theory and MP2 method. The energy order of the radical cations of alanine differs from that of the corresponding neutral conformers due to changes in the basicity of the NH 2 group upon ionization. Ionization favors the intramolecular proton transfer process, leading to a proton-transferred radical-cation structure, [NH 3 + -CHCH 3 -COO·], which contrasts with the fact that a proton-transferred zwitterionic conformer is not stable for a neutral alanine in the gas phase. The energy barrier during the proton transfer process is calculated to be about 6 kcal/mol

  10. Numerical Convergence in the Dark Matter Halos Properties Using Cosmological Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquera-Escobar, X. E.; Muñoz-Cuartas, J. C.

    2017-07-01

    Nowadays, the accepted cosmological model is the so called -Cold Dark Matter (CDM). In such model, the universe is considered to be homogeneous and isotropic, composed of diverse components as the dark matter and dark energy, where the latter is the most abundant one. Dark matter plays an important role because it is responsible for the generation of gravitational potential wells, commonly called dark matter halos. At the end, dark matter halos are characterized by a set of parameters (mass, radius, concentration, spin parameter), these parameters provide valuable information for different studies, such as galaxy formation, gravitational lensing, etc. In this work we use the publicly available code Gadget2 to perform cosmological simulations to find to what extent the numerical parameters of the simu- lations, such as gravitational softening, integration time step and force calculation accuracy affect the physical properties of the dark matter halos. We ran a suite of simulations where these parameters were varied in a systematic way in order to explore accurately their impact on the structural parameters of dark matter halos. We show that the variations on the numerical parameters affect the structural pa- rameters of dark matter halos, such as concentration, virial radius, and concentration. We show that these modifications emerged when structures become non- linear (at redshift 2) for the scale of our simulations, such that these variations affected the formation and evolution structure of halos mainly at later cosmic times. As a quantitative result, we propose which would be the most appropriate values for the numerical parameters of the simulations, such that they do not affect the halo properties that are formed. For force calculation accuracy we suggest values smaller or equal to 0.0001, integration time step smaller o equal to 0.005 and for gravitational softening we propose equal to 1/60th of the mean interparticle distance, these values, correspond to the

  11. Self-consistent construction of virialized wave dark matter halos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shan-Chang; Schive, Hsi-Yu; Wong, Shing-Kwong; Chiueh, Tzihong

    2018-05-01

    Wave dark matter (ψ DM ), which satisfies the Schrödinger-Poisson equation, has recently attracted substantial attention as a possible dark matter candidate. Numerical simulations have, in the past, provided a powerful tool to explore this new territory of possibility. Despite their successes in revealing several key features of ψ DM , further progress in simulations is limited, in that cosmological simulations so far can only address formation of halos below ˜2 ×1011 M⊙ and substantially more massive halos have become computationally very challenging to obtain. For this reason, the present work adopts a different approach in assessing massive halos by constructing wave-halo solutions directly from the wave distribution function. This approach bears certain similarities with the analytical construction of the particle-halo (cold dark matter model). Instead of many collisionless particles, one deals with one single wave that has many noninteracting eigenstates. The key ingredient in the wave-halo construction is the distribution function of the wave power, and we use several halos produced by structure formation simulations as templates to determine the wave distribution function. Among different models, we find the fermionic King model presents the best fits and we use it for our wave-halo construction. We have devised an iteration method for constructing the nonlinear halo and demonstrate its stability by three-dimensional simulations. A Milky Way-sized halo has also been constructed, and the inner halo is found to be flatter than the NFW profile. These wave-halos have small-scale interferences both in space and time producing time-dependent granules. While the spatial scale of granules varies little, the correlation time is found to increase with radius by 1 order of magnitude across the halo.

  12. Remapping dark matter halo catalogues between cosmological simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, A. J.; Peacock, J. A.

    2014-05-01

    We present and test a method for modifying the catalogue of dark matter haloes produced from a given cosmological simulation, so that it resembles the result of a simulation with an entirely different set of parameters. This extends the method of Angulo & White, which rescales the full particle distribution from a simulation. Working directly with the halo catalogue offers an advantage in speed, and also allows modifications of the internal structure of the haloes to account for non-linear differences between cosmologies. Our method can be used directly on a halo catalogue in a self-contained manner without any additional information about the overall density field; although the large-scale displacement field is required by the method, this can be inferred from the halo catalogue alone. We show proof of concept of our method by rescaling a matter-only simulation with no baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) features to a more standard Λ cold dark matter model containing a cosmological constant and a BAO signal. In conjunction with the halo occupation approach, this method provides a basis for the rapid generation of mock galaxy samples spanning a wide range of cosmological parameters.

  13. Beam halo in high-intensity hadron linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerigk, F

    2006-12-21

    This document aims to cover the most relevant mechanisms for the development of beam halo in high-intensity hadron linacs. The introduction outlines the various applications of high-intensity linacs and it will explain why, in the case of the CERN Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) study a linac was chosen to provide a high-power beam, rather than a different kind of accelerator. The basic equations, needed for the understanding of halo development are derived and employed to study the effects of initial and distributed mismatch on high-current beams. The basic concepts of the particle-core model, envelope modes, parametric resonances, the free-energy approach, and the idea of core-core resonances are introduced and extended to study beams in realistic linac lattices. The approach taken is to study the behavior of beams not only in simplified theoretical focusing structures but to highlight the beam dynamics in realistic accelerators. All effects which are described and derived with simplified analytic models, are tested in realistic lattices and are thus related to observable effects in linear accelerators. This approach involves the use of high-performance particle tracking codes, which are needed to simulate the behavior of the outermost particles in distributions of up to 100 million macro particles. In the end a set of design rules are established and their impact on the design of a typical high-intensity machine, the CERN SPL, is shown. The examples given in this document refer to two different design evolutions of the SPL study: the first conceptual design report (SPL I) and the second conceptual design report (SPL II). (orig.)

  14. A core-halo pattern of entropy creation in gravitational collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wren, Andrew J.

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents a kinetic theory model of gravitational collapse due to a small perturbation. Solving the relevant equations yields a pattern of entropy destruction in a spherical core around the perturbation, and entropy creation in a surrounding halo. This indicates collisional "de-relaxation" in the core, and collisional relaxation in the halo. Core-halo patterns are ubiquitous in the astrophysics of gravitational collapse, and are found here without any of the prior assumptions of such a pattern usually made in analytical models. Motivated by this analysis, the paper outlines a possible scheme for identifying structure formation in a set of observations or a simulation. This scheme involves a choice of coarse-graining scale appropriate to the structure under consideration, and might aid exploration of hierarchical structure formation, supplementing the usual density-based methods for highlighting astrophysical and cosmological structure at various scales.

  15. Working group report on the structure of the proton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badelek, B.; Vogt, A.; Gehrmann, T.; Martin, A.D.; Lancaster, M.

    1996-03-01

    We summarize the developments on the structure of the proton that we studied at the Workshop on HERA physics that was held in Durham in September 1995. We survey the latest structure function data; we overview the QCD interpretations of the measurements of the structure functions and of final state processes; we discuss charm production and the spin properties of the proton. (orig.)

  16. Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA): halo formation times and halo assembly bias on the cosmic web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tojeiro, Rita; Eardley, Elizabeth; Peacock, John A.; Norberg, Peder; Alpaslan, Mehmet; Driver, Simon P.; Henriques, Bruno; Hopkins, Andrew M.; Kafle, Prajwal R.; Robotham, Aaron S. G.; Thomas, Peter; Tonini, Chiara; Wild, Vivienne

    2017-09-01

    We present evidence for halo assembly bias as a function of geometric environment (GE). By classifying Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA) galaxy groups as residing in voids, sheets, filaments or knots using a tidal tensor method, we find that low-mass haloes that reside in knots are older than haloes of the same mass that reside in voids. This result provides direct support to theories that link strong halo tidal interactions with halo assembly times. The trend with GE is reversed at large halo mass, with haloes in knots being younger than haloes of the same mass in voids. We find a clear signal of halo downsizing - more massive haloes host galaxies that assembled their stars earlier. This overall trend holds independently of GE. We support our analysis with an in-depth exploration of the L-Galaxies semi-analytic model, used here to correlate several galaxy properties with three different definitions of halo formation time. We find a complex relationship between halo formation time and galaxy properties, with significant scatter. We confirm that stellar mass to halo mass ratio, specific star formation rate (SFR) and mass-weighed age are reasonable proxies of halo formation time, especially at low halo masses. Instantaneous SFR is a poor indicator at all halo masses. Using the same semi-analytic model, we create mock spectral observations using complex star formation and chemical enrichment histories, which approximately mimic GAMA's typical signal-to-noise ratio and wavelength range. We use these mocks to assert how well potential proxies of halo formation time may be recovered from GAMA-like spectroscopic data.

  17. The proton collimation system of HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, M.

    1994-06-01

    This thesis is concerned with the two stage collimation system in HERA-p which is supposed to suppress this kind of background. The HERA-p collimation system consists of 12 movable tungsten jaws at three locations in the ring. A manual operation of the system is therefore rather time consuming, but also dangerous in the case of an operational mistake. The development of partially automised controls for the system is therefore an important topic of this thesis as well. In order to control the precise positioning of the jaws at the beam edge the induced hadronic showers are monitored immediately downstream the collimators. Small PIN-diode based shower detectors are used for this purpose. A detailed analysis of these shower rates turned out to be a sensitive source of information on the beam. A large section of the thesis is therefore concerned with the diagnostic possibilities of collimators in a proton machine. A passive method for the determination of the machine acceptance is presented. A second topic is the determination of diffusion rates in the beam halo. A stepwise movement of a beam limiting collimator jaw induces relaxation processes in the beam halo. From an analysis of the transient time evolution of the loss rates after the movement one can determine the diffusion coefficient in the beam halo. A completely new method is the frequency analysis of the halo induced shower rates. If the beam oscillates it scrapes periodically at the collimator which results in a modulation of the measured loss rates. The method allows measurements of slow orbit oscillations in the range of some μm. In the last section of the thesis the diffusion of halo protons as a result of beam-beam interaction is investigated. A little collection of diffusion measurements as a function of particle amplitude is presented. With the help of tracking simulations it is demonstrated that diffusion rates of the observed size can be generated by a certain modulation of the betatron frequency

  18. Tune-Based Halo Diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Tune-based halo diagnostics can be divided into two categories -- diagnostics for halo prevention, and diagnostics for halo measurement. Diagnostics for halo prevention are standard fare in accumulators, synchrotrons, and storage rings, and again can be divided into two categories -- diagnostics to measure the tune distribution (primarily to avoid resonances), and diagnostics to identify instabilities (which will not be discussed here). These diagnostic systems include kicked (coherent) tune measurement, phase-locked loop (PLL) tune measurement, Schottky tune measurement, beam transfer function (BTF) measurements, and measurement of transverse quadrupole mode envelope oscillations. We refer briefly to tune diagnostics used at RHIC and intended for the SNS, and then present experimental results. Tune-based diagnostics for halo measurement (as opposed to prevention) are considerably more difficult. We present one brief example of tune-based halo measurement

  19. High energy collisions and the proton structure: an ambiguity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franca, H.M.

    1980-01-01

    It is pointed out an ambiguity in the determination of the sign of the imaginary part of the proton-proton elastic-scattering amplitude for ]t]>]t min . Some implications of such and ambiguity concerning the proton structure are discussed and finally, an experimental analysis which could solve it is suggested. (L.C.) [pt

  20. Constraining the proton structure at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Tricoli, Alessandro; Viehhauser, Georg

    Particle physics is at a pivotal moment: the origin of mass and new physics scenarios beyond the Standard Model or particle physics could be unveiled in the coming year. In 2007 the most powerful particl e accelerator, the Large Hadron Coolider (LHC), will start colliding proton beams reaching the ihghest energy and luminosity ever in collider particle physics. The ATLAS detector is one of two general pu rpose detectors placed along the collider ring to fully exploit the LHC potential. The theoretical uncertainties on most of the LHC physics progream are dominated by the proton structure uncertaintiy. This thesis demonstrates that $W^{\\pm}$ boson productionis an ideal process to constr ain the proton strcuture uncertainty. The rapidity distributions of electrons and positrons originating respectively from the $W^-$ and $W^+$ decays have been analysed. The results show that the current uncertainty on the gluon content of the proton can be reduced by a very significant amount if the total systematic uncertaint...

  1. DARK MATTER SUB-HALO COUNTS VIA STAR STREAM CROSSINGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlberg, R. G.

    2012-01-01

    Dark matter sub-halos create gaps in the stellar streams orbiting in the halos of galaxies. We evaluate the sub-halo stream crossing integral with the guidance of simulations to find that the linear rate of gap creation, R U , in a typical cold dark matter (CDM) galactic halo at 100 kpc is R U ≅0.0066 M-hat 8 -0.35 kpc -1 Gyr -1 , where M-hat 8 (≡ M-hat /10 8 M ☉ ) is the minimum mass halo that creates a visible gap. The relation can be recast entirely in terms of observables, as R U ≅0.059w -0.85 kpc -1 Gyr -1 , for w in kpc, normalized at 100 kpc. Using published data, the density of gaps is estimated for M31's NW stream and the Milky Way Pal 5 stream, Orphan stream, and Eastern Banded Structure. The estimated rates of gap creation all have errors of 50% or more due to uncertain dynamical ages and the relatively noisy stream density measurements. The gap-rate-width data are in good agreement with the CDM-predicted relation. The high density of gaps in the narrow streams requires a total halo population of 10 5 sub-halos above a minimum mass of 10 5 M ☉ .

  2. A Family of L-band SRF Cavities for High Power Proton Driver Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimmer, Robert; Marhauser, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Recent global interest in high duty factor or CW superconducting linacs with high average beam power highlights the need for robust and reliable SRF structures capable of delivering high average RF power to the beam with moderate HOM damping, low interception of halo and good efficiency. Potential applications include proton or H- drivers for spallation neutron sources, neutrino physics, waste transmutation, subcritical reactors, and high-intensity high-energy physics experiments. We describe a family of SRF cavities with a range of Betas capable of transporting beam currents in excess of 10 mA CW with large irises for minimal interception of halo and HOM and power couplers capable of supporting high average power operation. Goals include an efficient cell shape, high packing factor for efficient real-estate gradient and strong HOM damping to ensure stable beam operation,

  3. Radio halo sources in clusters of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanisch, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    Radio halo sources remain one of the most enigmatic of all phenomena related to radio emission from galaxies in clusters. The morphology, extent, and spectral structure of these sources are not well known, and the models proposed to explain them suffer from this lack of observational detail. However, recent observations suggest that radio halo sources may be a composite of relic radio galaxies. The validity of this model could be tested using current and planned high resolutions, low-frequency radio telescopes. 31 references

  4. Double folding model analysis of elastic scattering of halo nucleus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    carried out which provide valuable insight for improving our understanding of nuclear reactions. One of the interesting aspects is to understand the effect of the halo structure, on elastic scattering cross-sections at near-Coulomb barrier energies in reactions induced by neutron halo nuclei and weakly bound radioactive ...

  5. Proton structure functions in the dipole picture of BFKL dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navelet, H.; Peschanski, R.; Wallon, S.; Royon, Ch.

    1996-06-01

    The proton structure functions are derived in the QCD dipole picture. Assuming k T and renormalization-group factorization, deep-inelastic proton scattering is related to deep-inelastic onium scattering. A three parameter fit of the 1994 H1 data in the low-x, moderate Q 2 range has been obtained. The dipole picture of BFKL dynamics is shown to provide a relevant model for quantitatively describing the proton structure functions at HERA. (author)

  6. Crystal structure of the plasma membrane proton pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bjørn P.; Buch-Pedersen, Morten Jeppe; Morth, J. Preben

    2007-01-01

    A prerequisite for life is the ability to maintain electrochemical imbalances across biomembranes. In all eukaryotes the plasma membrane potential and secondary transport systems are energized by the activity of P-type ATPase membrane proteins: H1-ATPase (the proton pump) in plants and fungi1......-3, and Na1,K1-ATPase (the sodium-potassium pump) in animals4. The name P-type derives from the fact that these proteins exploit a phosphorylated reaction cycle intermediate of ATP hydrolysis5.The plasma membrane proton pumps belong to the type III P-type ATPase subfamily, whereas Na1,K1-ATPase and Ca21......- ATPase are type II6. Electron microscopy has revealed the overall shape of proton pumps7, however, an atomic structure has been lacking. Here we present the first structure of a P-type proton pump determined by X-ray crystallography. Ten transmembrane helices and three cytoplasmic domains define...

  7. Measurement of the proton spin structure function g1p

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pussieux, T.

    1994-10-01

    In order to check the Bjorken sum rule and confirm the EMC surprising conclusion on the spin structure of the proton, the measurement of the spin structure function of the proton has been performed by the Spin Muon Collaboration via the polarized muon nucleon deep inelastic scattering. The results of the 1993 run are presented within a kinematical range of 0.003 2 = 10 GeV 2 . The first moment of the polarized spin structure function g 1 p is found to be two standard deviations below the Ellis-Jaffe sum rule. Assuming SU(3) for hyperons β decays, the quark spin contribution to the proton spin is extracted. Combining all available data on proton, neutron and deuton, The Bjorken sum rule is confirmed within 10%. (author). 25 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Conceptual design of hollow electron lenses for beam halo control in the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Stancari, Giulio; Valishev, Alexander; Bruce, Roderik; Redaelli, Stefano; Rossi, Adriana; Salvachua Ferrando, Belen

    2014-01-01

    Collimation with hollow electron beams is a technique for halo control in high-power hadron beams. It is based on an electron beam (possibly pulsed or modulated in intensity) guided by strong axial magnetic fields which overlaps with the circulating beam in a short section of the ring. The concept was tested experimentally at the Fermilab Tevatron collider using a hollow electron gun installed in one of the Tevatron electron lenses. Within the US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) and the European FP7 HiLumi LHC Design Study, we are proposing a conceptual design for applying this technique to the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. A prototype hollow electron gun for the LHC was built and tested. The expected performance of the hollow electron beam collimator was based on Tevatron experiments and on numerical tracking simulations. Halo removal rates and enhancements of halo diffusivity were estimated as a function of beam and lattice parameters. Proton beam core lifetimes and emittance growth rates were check...

  9. Systematic problems with using dark matter simulations to model stellar halos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailin, Jeremy; Bell, Eric F.; Valluri, Monica; Stinson, Greg S.; Debattista, Victor P.; Couchman, H. M. P.; Wadsley, James

    2014-01-01

    The limits of available computing power have forced models for the structure of stellar halos to adopt one or both of the following simplifying assumptions: (1) stellar mass can be 'painted' onto dark matter (DM) particles in progenitor satellites; (2) pure DM simulations that do not form a luminous galaxy can be used. We estimate the magnitude of the systematic errors introduced by these assumptions using a controlled set of stellar halo models where we independently vary whether we look at star particles or painted DM particles, and whether we use a simulation in which a baryonic disk galaxy forms or a matching pure DM simulation that does not form a baryonic disk. We find that the 'painting' simplification reduces the halo concentration and internal structure, predominantly because painted DM particles have different kinematics from star particles even when both are buried deep in the potential well of the satellite. The simplification of using pure DM simulations reduces the concentration further, but increases the internal structure, and results in a more prolate stellar halo. These differences can be a factor of 1.5-7 in concentration (as measured by the half-mass radius) and 2-7 in internal density structure. Given this level of systematic uncertainty, one should be wary of overinterpreting differences between observations and the current generation of stellar halo models based on DM-only simulations when such differences are less than an order of magnitude.

  10. Towards laser spectroscopy of the proton-halo candidate boron-8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maaß, Bernhard, E-mail: bmaass@ikp.tu-darmstadt.de [Technische Universität Darmstadt, Institut für Kernphysik (Germany); Müller, Peter [Argonne National Laboratory, Physics Division (United States); Nörtershäuser, Wilfried [Technische Universität Darmstadt, Institut für Kernphysik (Germany); Clark, Jason [Argonne National Laboratory, Physics Division (United States); Gorges, Christian; Kaufmann, Simon; König, Kristian; Krämer, Jörg [Technische Universität Darmstadt, Institut für Kernphysik (Germany); Levand, Anthony; Orford, Rodney [Argonne National Laboratory, Physics Division (United States); Sánchez, Rodolfo [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung (Germany); Savard, Guy [Argonne National Laboratory, Physics Division (United States); Sommer, Felix [Technische Universität Darmstadt, Institut für Kernphysik (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    We propose to determine the nuclear charge radius of {sup 8}B by high-resolution laser spectroscopy. {sup 8}B (t {sub 1/2} = 770 ms) is perhaps the best candidate of a nucleus exhibiting an extended proton wave-function or “one-proton-halo” in a more descriptive picture. Laser spectroscopic measurements of the isotope shift will be used to probe the change in nuclear charge radius along the three boron isotopes {sup 8}B, {sup 10}B and {sup 11}B. The change in nuclear charge radius directly correlates with the extent of the proton wave function. In-flight production and preparation of sufficient yields of {sup 8}B ions at low energies is provided by the Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in Chicago, IL, USA. Subsequently, the ions will be guided through a charge exchange cell for neutralization and the fluorescence signal of the atoms which interact with the resonant laser light will be detected. The charge radius can then be extracted from the measured isotope shift by employing highly accurate atomic theory calculations of this five-electron system which are carried out presently.

  11. Investigating the Wave Nature of the Outer Envelope of Halo Coronal Mass Ejections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Ryun-Young [College of Science, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Vourlidas, Angelos, E-mail: rkwon@gmu.edu [The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States)

    2017-02-20

    We investigate the nature of the outer envelope of halo coronal mass ejections (H-CMEs) using multi-viewpoint observations from the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory-A , -B , and SOlar and Heliospheric Observatory coronagraphs. The 3D structure and kinematics of the halo envelopes and the driving CMEs are derived separately using a forward modeling method. We analyze three H-CMEs with peak speeds from 1355 to 2157 km s{sup −1}; sufficiently fast to drive shocks in the corona. We find that the angular widths of the halos range from 192° to 252°, while those of the flux ropes range between only 58° and 91°, indicating that the halos are waves propagating away from the CMEs. The halo widths are in agreement with widths of Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) waves in the low corona further demonstrating the common origin of these structures. To further investigate the wave nature of the halos, we model their 3D kinematic properties with a linear fast magnetosonic wave model. The model is able to reproduce the position of the halo flanks with realistic coronal medium assumptions but fails closer to the CME nose. The CME halo envelope seems to arise from a driven wave (or shock) close to the CME nose, but it is gradually becoming a freely propagating fast magnetosonic wave at the flanks. This interpretation provides a simple unifying picture for CME halos, EUV waves, and the large longitudinal spread of solar energetic particles.

  12. Experimental characterization and physical modelling of the dose distribution of scanned proton pencil beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedroni, E; Scheib, S; Boehringer, T; Coray, A; Grossmann, M; Lin, S; Lomax, A

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we present the pencil beam dose model used for treatment planning at the PSI proton gantry, the only system presently applying proton therapy with a beam scanning technique. The scope of the paper is to give a general overview on the various components of the dose model, on the related measurements and on the practical parametrization of the results. The physical model estimates from first physical principles absolute dose normalized to the number of incident protons. The proton beam flux is measured in practice by plane-parallel ionization chambers (ICs) normalized to protons via Faraday-cup measurements. It is therefore possible to predict and deliver absolute dose directly from this model without other means. The dose predicted in this way agrees very well with the results obtained with ICs calibrated in a cobalt beam. Emphasis is given in this paper to the characterization of nuclear interaction effects, which play a significant role in the model and are the major source of uncertainty in the direct estimation of the absolute dose. Nuclear interactions attenuate the primary proton flux, they modify the shape of the depth-dose curve and produce a faint beam halo of secondary dose around the primary proton pencil beam in water. A very simple beam halo model has been developed and used at PSI to eliminate the systematic dependences of the dose observed as a function of the size of the target volume. We show typical results for the relative (using a CCD system) and absolute (using calibrated ICs) dosimetry, routinely applied for the verification of patient plans. With the dose model including the nuclear beam halo we can predict quite precisely the dose directly from treatment planning without renormalization measurements, independently of the dose, shape and size of the dose fields. This applies also to the complex non-homogeneous dose distributions required for the delivery of range-intensity-modulated proton therapy, a novel therapy technique

  13. Manifestation of the halo structure in momentum distributions from {sup 6}He fragmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aumann, T. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernchemie; Chulkov, L.V.; Pribora, V.N. [Rossijskij Nauchnyj Tsentr ``Kurchatovskij Inst.``, Moscow (Russian Federation); Smedberg, M.H. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    1998-03-01

    Experimental data on momentum distribution in the fragmentation of a 240 MeV/u {sup 6}He beam on a carbon target are compared with several models of the {sup 6}He nucleus based on different physical assumptions. It is shown that a lack of a strict theoretical description of the fragmentation mechanism and, in particular, of the final state interaction prevents from any contra or versa arguments for these models. The requirement of a fragment ({sup 5}He) survival or spatial localization of a fragment in the {sup 6}He wave function is an essential point in the reaction mechanism. The analysis of the {sup 5}He momentum (sum of the neutron and the {alpha}-particle momenta) distribution is free from the effect of final state interaction and thus more promising. It is shown that due to the requirement of fragment survival this distribution is determined mainly by the asymptotic of the {sup 6}He wave function. Large sensitivity to the outer part of the halo structure gives a unique possibility to estimate the admixture of s-waves in the ground states of {sup 11}Li and {sup 14}Be directly from the momentum distribution of {sup 10}Li (in fragmentation of {sup 11}Li) and from the momentum distribution of {sup 13}Be (in fragmentation of {sup 14}Be). The shell structure of these nuclei is of great interest in understanding the neutron-halo properties. (orig.)

  14. MAPPING THE GALACTIC HALO. VIII. QUANTIFYING SUBSTRUCTURE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starkenburg, Else; Helmi, Amina; Van Woerden, Hugo; Morrison, Heather L.; Harding, Paul; Frey, Lucy; Oravetz, Dan; Mateo, Mario; Dohm-Palmer, R. C.; Olszewski, Edward W.; Sivarani, Thirupathi; Norris, John E.; Freeman, Kenneth C.; Shectman, Stephen A.

    2009-01-01

    We have measured the amount of kinematic substructure in the Galactic halo using the final data set from the Spaghetti project, a pencil-beam high-latitude sky survey. Our sample contains 101 photometrically selected and spectroscopically confirmed giants with accurate distance, radial velocity, and metallicity information. We have developed a new clustering estimator: the '4distance' measure, which when applied to our data set leads to the identification of one group and seven pairs of clumped stars. The group, with six members, can confidently be matched to tidal debris of the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy. Two pairs match the properties of known Virgo structures. Using models of the disruption of Sagittarius in Galactic potentials with different degrees of dark halo flattening, we show that this favors a spherical or prolate halo shape, as demonstrated by Newberg et al. using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data. One additional pair can be linked to older Sagittarius debris. We find that 20% of the stars in the Spaghetti data set are in substructures. From comparison with random data sets, we derive a very conservative lower limit of 10% to the amount of substructure in the halo. However, comparison to numerical simulations shows that our results are also consistent with a halo entirely built up from disrupted satellites, provided that the dominating features are relatively broad due to early merging or relatively heavy progenitor satellites.

  15. Strange magnetism and the anapole structure of the proton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasty, R.; Beck, D.H.; Danagoulian, A.; Blake, A.; Carr, R.; Covrig, S.; Filipoone, B.W.; Ito, T.M.; Gao, J.; Jones, C.E.; Lee, P.; McKeown, R.D.; Savu, V.; Beise, E.J.; Breuer, H.; Spayde, D.T.; Tieulent, R.; Herda, M.C.; Barkhuff, D.; Dodson, G.; Dow, K.; Farkhondeh, M.; Kowalski, S.; Tsentalovich, E.; Yang, B.; Zwart, T.; Hawthorne-Allen, A.M.; Pitt, M.; Ritter, J.; Korsch, W.; Mueller, B.; Wells, S.P.; Averett, T.; Roche, J.; Kramer, K.

    2000-01-01

    The violation of mirror symmetry in the weak force provides a powerful tool to study the internal structure of the proton. Experimental results have been obtained that address the role of strange quarks in generating nuclear magnetism. The measurement reported here provides an unambiguous constraint on strange quark contributions to the proton's magnetic moment through the electron-proton weak interaction. We also report evidence for the existence of a parity-violating electromagnetic effect known as the anapole moment of the proton. The proton's anapole moment is not yet well understood theoretically, but it could have important implications for precision weak interaction studies in atomic systems such as cesium.

  16. Neutron halos in hypernuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Lue, H F; Meng, J; Zhou, S G

    2003-01-01

    Properties of single-LAMBDA and double-LAMBDA hypernuclei for even-N Ca isotopes ranging from the proton dripline to the neutron dripline are studied using the relativistic continuum Hartree-Bogolyubov theory with a zero-range pairing interaction. Compared with ordinary nuclei, the addition of one or two LAMBDA-hyperons lowers the Fermi level. The predicted neutron dripline nuclei are, respectively, sup 7 sup 5 subLAMBDA Ca and sup 7 sup 6 sub 2 subLAMBDA Ca, as the additional attractive force provided by the LAMBDA-N interaction shifts nuclei from outside to inside the dripline. Therefore, the last bound hypernuclei have two more neutrons than the corresponding ordinary nuclei. Based on the analysis of two-neutron separation energies, neutron single-particle energy levels, the contribution of continuum and nucleon density distribution, giant halo phenomena due to the pairing correlation, and the contribution from the continuum are suggested to exist in Ca hypernuclei similar to those that appear in ordinary ...

  17. Bose-Einstein condensate haloes embedded in dark energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Membrado, M.; Pacheco, A. F.

    2018-04-01

    Context. We have studied clusters of self-gravitating collisionless Newtonian bosons in their ground state and in the presence of the cosmological constant to model dark haloes of dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies. Aim. We aim to analyse the influence of the cosmological constant on the structure of these systems. Observational data of Milky Way dSph galaxies allow us to estimate the boson mass. Methods: We obtained the energy of the ground state of the cluster in the Hartree approximation by solving a variational problem in the particle density. We have also developed and applied the virial theorem. Dark halo models were tested in a sample of 19 galaxies. Galaxy radii, 3D deprojected half-light radii, mass enclosed within them, and luminosity-weighted averages of the square of line-of-sight velocity dispersions are used to estimate the particle mass. Results: Cosmological constant repulsive effects are embedded in one parameter ξ. They are appreciable for ξ > 10-5. Bound structures appear for ξ ≤ ξc = 1.65 × 10-4, what imposes a lower bound for cluster masses as a function of the particle mass. In principle, these systems present tunnelling through a potential barrier; however, after estimating their mean lifes, we realize that their existence is not affected by the age of the Universe. When Milky Way dSph galaxies are used to test the model, we obtain 3.5-1.0+1.3 × 10-22 eV for the particle mass and a lower limit of 5.1-2.8+2.2 × 106 M⊙ for bound haloes. Conclusions: Our estimation for the boson mass is in agreement with other recent results which use different methods. From our particle mass estimation, the treated dSph galaxies would present dark halo masses 5-11 ×107 M⊙. With these values, they would not be affected by the cosmological constant (ξ 10-5) would already feel their effects. Our model that includes dark energy allows us to deal with these dark haloes. Assuming quantities averaged in the sample of galaxies, 10-5 < ξ ≤ ξc dark

  18. ZOMG - III. The effect of halo assembly on the satellite population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaldi, Enrico; Romano-Díaz, Emilio; Borzyszkowski, Mikolaj; Porciani, Cristiano

    2018-01-01

    We use zoom hydrodynamical simulations to investigate the properties of satellites within galaxy-sized dark-matter haloes with different assembly histories. We consider two classes of haloes at redshift z = 0: 'stalled' haloes that assembled at z > 1 and 'accreting' ones that are still forming nowadays. Previously, we showed that the stalled haloes are embedded within thick filaments of the cosmic web, while the accreting ones lie where multiple thin filaments converge. We find that satellites in the two classes have both similar and different properties. Their mass spectra, radial count profiles, baryonic and stellar content, and the amount of material they shed are indistinguishable. However, the mass fraction locked in satellites is substantially larger for the accreting haloes as they experience more mergers at late times. The largest difference is found in the satellite kinematics. Substructures fall towards the accreting haloes along quasi-radial trajectories whereas an important tangential velocity component is developed, before accretion, while orbiting the filament that surrounds the stalled haloes. Thus, the velocity anisotropy parameter of the satellites (β) is positive for the accreting haloes and negative for the stalled ones. This signature enables us to tentatively categorize the Milky Way halo as stalled based on a recent measurement of β. Half of our haloes contain clusters of satellites with aligned orbital angular momenta corresponding to flattened structures in space. These features are not driven by baryonic physics and are only found in haloes hosting grand-design spiral galaxies, independently of their assembly history.

  19. Hot Gas Halos in Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulchaey, John

    Most galaxy formation models predict that massive low-redshift disk galaxies are embedded in extended hot halos of externally accreted gas. Such gas appears necessary to maintain ongoing star formation in isolated spirals like the Milky Way. To explain the large population of red galaxies in rich groups and clusters, most galaxy evolution models assume that these hot gas halos are stripped completely when a galaxy enters a denser environment. This simple model has been remarkably successful at reproducing many observed properties of galaxies. Although theoretical arguments suggest hot gas halos are an important component in galaxies, we know very little about this gas from an observational standpoint. In fact, previous observations have failed to detect soft X-ray emission from such halos in disk galaxies. Furthermore, the assumption that hot gas halos are stripped completely when a galaxy enters a group or cluster has not been verified. We propose to combine proprietary and archival XMM-Newton observations of galaxies in the field, groups and clusters to study how hot gas halos are impacted by environment. Our proposed program has three components: 1) The deepest search to date for a hot gas halo in a quiescent spiral galaxy. A detection will confirm a basic tenet of disk galaxy formation models, whereas a non-detection will seriously challenge these models and impose new constraints on the growth mode and feedback history of disk galaxies. 2) A detailed study of the hot gas halos properties of field early-type galaxies. As environmental processes such as stripping are not expected to be important in the field, a study of hot gas halos in this environment will allow us to better understand how feedback and other internal processes impact hot gas halos. 3) A study of hot gas halos in the outskirts of groups and clusters. By comparing observations with our suite of simulations we can begin to understand what role the stripping of hot gas halos plays in galaxy

  20. An Excursion Set Model of the Cosmic Web: the Abundance of Sheets, Filaments And Halos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Jiajian; /Penn State U., Astron. Astrophys.; Abel, Tom; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Mo, Houjun; /Massachusetts U., Amherst; Sheth, Ravi; /Pennsylvania U.

    2006-01-11

    We discuss an analytic approach for modeling structure formation in sheets, filaments and knots. This is accomplished by combining models of triaxial collapse with the excursion set approach: sheets are defined as objects which have collapsed along only one axis, filaments have collapsed along two axes, and halos are objects in which triaxial collapse is complete. In the simplest version of this approach, which we develop here, large scale structure shows a clear hierarchy of morphologies: the mass in large-scale sheets is partitioned up among lower mass filaments, which themselves are made-up of still lower mass halos. Our approach provides analytic estimates of the mass fraction in sheets, filaments and halos, and its evolution, for any background cosmological model and any initial fluctuation spectrum. In the currently popular {Lambda}CDM model, our analysis suggests that more than 99% of the mass in sheets, and 72% of the mass in filaments, is stored in objects more massive than 10{sup 10}M{sub {circle_dot}} at the present time. For halos, this number is only 46%. Our approach also provides analytic estimates of how halo abundances at any given time correlate with the morphology of the surrounding large-scale structure, and how halo evolution correlates with the morphology of large scale structure.

  1. Rise in proton structure function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazal-e-Aleem; Rashid, H.; Ali, S.

    1996-08-01

    By the choice of a new scale factor we obtain a good qualitative fit to the HERA data for the proton structure function in the small x region which exhibits double asymptotic scaling. Any scaling violations in the future measurements when made in smaller bins will be of immense value. (author). 19 refs, 6 figs

  2. The ratio method: a new way to look at halo nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capel P.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A new reaction observable is presented to study exotic loosely-bound structures, such as halo nuclei. It consists of the ratio of two angular distributions, e. g. one for breakup and one for elastic scattering. This ratio is nearly independent of the reaction mechanism and is very sensitive to the projectile structure. This new ratio method is illustrated on the particular case of 11Be, the archetypal one-neutron halo nucleus.

  3. Structural dynamic response of target container against proton beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Kenji; Ishikura, Syuichi; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Hino, Ryutaro

    1997-01-01

    Stress waves were analyzed for a target container of neutron science research project using a high-intensity proton accelerator that generates high energy and high current proton beam. In the mercury target, the pulsed proton beam generates intense power density in the course of spallation reaction and causes pressure wave in the mercury and stress wave in the target container due to a sudden temperature change. Structural integrity of the target container depends on the power intensity at a maximum energy deposit. A broad proton profile is favorable to the structural assessment of the container rather than narrow one. Stress wave have propagated in the target container at a speed of sound. It only takes 0.1 ms for the size of 40 cm length stainless steel container. Further assessment is necessary to optimize a geometry of the container and establish a method to evaluate a life time. (author)

  4. Structural dynamic response of target container against proton beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Kenji; Ishikura, Syuichi; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Hino, Ryutaro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-11-01

    Stress waves were analyzed for a target container of neutron science research project using a high-intensity proton accelerator that generates high energy and high current proton beam. In the mercury target, the pulsed proton beam generates intense power density in the course of spallation reaction and causes pressure wave in the mercury and stress wave in the target container due to a sudden temperature change. Structural integrity of the target container depends on the power intensity at a maximum energy deposit. A broad proton profile is favorable to the structural assessment of the container rather than narrow one. Stress wave have propagated in the target container at a speed of sound. It only takes 0.1 ms for the size of 40 cm length stainless steel container. Further assessment is necessary to optimize a geometry of the container and establish a method to evaluate a life time. (author)

  5. Revealing the Cosmic Web-dependent Halo Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaohu; Zhang, Youcai; Lu, Tianhuan; Wang, Huiyuan; Shi, Feng; Tweed, Dylan; Li, Shijie; Luo, Wentao; Lu, Yi; Yang, Lei

    2017-10-01

    Halo bias is the one of the key ingredients of the halo models. It was shown at a given redshift to be only dependent, to the first order, on the halo mass. In this study, four types of cosmic web environments—clusters, filaments, sheets, and voids—are defined within a state-of-the-art high-resolution N-body simulation. Within these environments, we use both halo-dark matter cross correlation and halo-halo autocorrelation functions to probe the clustering properties of halos. The nature of the halo bias differs strongly between the four different cosmic web environments described here. With respect to the overall population, halos in clusters have significantly lower biases in the {10}11.0˜ {10}13.5 {h}-1 {M}⊙ mass range. In other environments, however, halos show extremely enhanced biases up to a factor 10 in voids for halos of mass ˜ {10}12.0 {h}-1 {M}⊙ . Such a strong cosmic web environment dependence in the halo bias may play an important role in future cosmological and galaxy formation studies. Within this cosmic web framework, the age dependency of halo bias is found to be only significant in clusters and filaments for relatively small halos ≲ {10}12.5 {h}-1 {M}⊙ .

  6. Three-body halo nuclei in an effective theory framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canham, David L.

    2009-05-20

    The universal properties and structure of halo nuclei composed of two neutrons (2n) and a core are investigated within an effective quantum mechanics framework. We construct an effective interaction potential that exploits the separation of scales in halo nuclei and treat the nucleus as an effective three-body system, which to leading order is described by the large S-wave scattering lengths in the underlying two-body subsystems. The uncertainty from higher orders in the expansion is quantified through theoretical error bands. First, we investigate the possibility to observe excited Efimov states in 2n halo nuclei. Based on the experimental data, {sup 20}C is the only halo nucleus candidate to possibly have an Efimov excited state, with an energy less than 7 keV below the scattering threshold. Second, we study the structure of {sup 20}C and other 2n halo nuclei. In particular, we calculate their matter density form factors, radii, and two-neutron opening angles. We then make a systematic improvement upon these calculations by extending the effective potential to the next-to-leading order. To this order, we require an additional two-body parameter, which we tune to the effective range of the interaction. In addition to range corrections to the 2n halo nuclei results, we show corrections to the Efimov effect in the three-boson system. Furthermore, we explore universality in the linear range corrections to the Efimov spectrum. Finally, we study the scattering of D{sup 0} and D{sup *0} mesons and their antiparticles off the X(3872) in an effective field theory for short-range interactions. We present results for the S-wave scattering amplitude, total interaction cross section and S-wave scattering length. (orig.)

  7. Three-body halo nuclei in an effective theory framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canham, David L.

    2009-01-01

    The universal properties and structure of halo nuclei composed of two neutrons (2n) and a core are investigated within an effective quantum mechanics framework. We construct an effective interaction potential that exploits the separation of scales in halo nuclei and treat the nucleus as an effective three-body system, which to leading order is described by the large S-wave scattering lengths in the underlying two-body subsystems. The uncertainty from higher orders in the expansion is quantified through theoretical error bands. First, we investigate the possibility to observe excited Efimov states in 2n halo nuclei. Based on the experimental data, 20 C is the only halo nucleus candidate to possibly have an Efimov excited state, with an energy less than 7 keV below the scattering threshold. Second, we study the structure of 20 C and other 2n halo nuclei. In particular, we calculate their matter density form factors, radii, and two-neutron opening angles. We then make a systematic improvement upon these calculations by extending the effective potential to the next-to-leading order. To this order, we require an additional two-body parameter, which we tune to the effective range of the interaction. In addition to range corrections to the 2n halo nuclei results, we show corrections to the Efimov effect in the three-boson system. Furthermore, we explore universality in the linear range corrections to the Efimov spectrum. Finally, we study the scattering of D 0 and D *0 mesons and their antiparticles off the X(3872) in an effective field theory for short-range interactions. We present results for the S-wave scattering amplitude, total interaction cross section and S-wave scattering length. (orig.)

  8. Protonated serotonin: Geometry, electronic structures and photophysical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidyan, Reza; Amanollahi, Zohreh; Azimi, Gholamhassan

    2017-07-01

    The geometry and electronic structures of protonated serotonin have been investigated by the aim of MP2 and CC2 methods. The relative stabilities, transition energies and geometry of sixteen different protonated isomers of serotonin have been presented. It has been predicted that protonation does not exhibit essential alteration on the S1 ← S0 electronic transition energy of serotonin. Instead, more complicated photophysical nature in respect to its neutral analogue is suggested for protonated system owing to radiative and non-radiative deactivation pathways. In addition to hydrogen detachment (HD), hydrogen/proton transfer (H/PT) processes from ammonium to indole ring along the NH+⋯ π hydrogen bond have been predicted as the most important photophysical consequences of SERH+ at S1 excited state. The PT processes is suggested to be responsible for fluorescence of SERH+ while the HD driving coordinate is proposed for elucidation of its nonradiative deactivation mechanism.

  9. Brown dwarfs as dark galactic halos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, F.C.; Walker, T.P.

    1990-01-01

    The possibility that the dark matter in galactic halos can consist of brown dwarf stars is considered. The radiative signature for such halos consisting solely of brown dwarfs is calculated, and the allowed range of brown dwarf masses, the initial mass function (IMF), the stellar properties, and the density distribution of the galactic halo are discussed. The prediction emission from the halo is compared with existing observations. It is found that, for any IMF of brown dwarfs below the deuterium burning limit, brown dwarf halos are consistent with observations. Brown dwarf halos cannot, however, explain the recently observed near-IR background. It is shown that future satellite missions will either detect brown dwarf halos or place tight constraints on the allowed range of the IMF. 30 refs

  10. High Accuracy mass Measurement of the very Short-Lived Halo Nuclide $^{11}$Li

    CERN Multimedia

    Le scornet, G

    2002-01-01

    The archetypal halo nuclide $^{11}$Li has now attracted a wealth of experimental and theoretical attention. The most outstanding property of this nuclide, its extended radius that makes it as big as $^{48}$Ca, is highly dependent on the binding energy of the two neutrons forming the halo. New generation experiments using radioactive beams with elastic proton scattering, knock-out and transfer reactions, together with $\\textit{ab initio}$ calculations require the tightening of the constraint on the binding energy. Good metrology also requires confirmation of the sole existing precision result to guard against a possible systematic deviation (or mistake). We propose a high accuracy mass determintation of $^{11}$Li, a particularly challenging task due to its very short half-life of 8.6 ms, but one perfectly suiting the MISTRAL spectrometer, now commissioned at ISOLDE. We request 15 shifts of beam time.

  11. Conceptual design of hollow electron lenses for beam halo control in the Large Hadron Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stancari, Giulio [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Previtali, Valentina [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Valishev, Alexander [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Bruce, Roderik [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Redaelli, Stefano [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Rossi, Adriana [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Salvachua Ferrando, Belen [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland)

    2014-06-26

    Collimation with hollow electron beams is a technique for halo control in high-power hadron beams. It is based on an electron beam (possibly pulsed or modulated in intensity) guided by strong axial magnetic fields which overlaps with the circulating beam in a short section of the ring. The concept was tested experimentally at the Fermilab Tevatron collider using a hollow electron gun installed in one of the Tevatron electron lenses. We are proposing a conceptual design for applying this technique to the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. A prototype hollow electron gun for the LHC was built and tested. The expected performance of the hollow electron beam collimator was based on Tevatron experiments and on numerical tracking simulations. Halo removal rates and enhancements of halo diffusivity were estimated as a function of beam and lattice parameters. Proton beam core lifetimes and emittance growth rates were checked to ensure that undesired effects were suppressed. Hardware specifications were based on the Tevatron devices and on preliminary engineering integration studies in the LHC machine. Required resources and a possible timeline were also outlined, together with a brief discussion of alternative halo-removal schemes and of other possible uses of electron lenses to improve the performance of the LHC.

  12. Advances in complexity of beam halo-chaos and its control methods for beam transport networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Jinqing

    2004-11-01

    The complexity theory of beam halo-chaos in beam transport networks and its control methods for a new subject of high-tech field is discussed. It is pointed that in recent years, there has been growing interest in proton beams of high power linear accelerator due to its attractive features in possible breakthrough applications in national defense and industry. In particular, high-current accelerator driven clean activity nuclear power systems for various applications as energy resources has been one of the most focusing issues in the current research, because it provides a safer, cleaner and cheaper nuclear energy resource. However, halo-chaos in high-current beam transport networks become a key concerned issue because it can generate excessive radioactivity therefore significantly limits its applications. It is very important to study the complexity properties of beam halo-chaos and to understand the basic physical mechanisms for halo chaos formation as well as to develop effective control methods for its suppression. These are very challenging subjects for the current research. The main research advances in the subjects, including experimental investigation and the oretical research, especially some very efficient control methods developed through many years of efforts of authors are reviewed and summarized. Finally, some research outlooks are given. (author)

  13. ELECTROMAGNETIC SIMULATIONS OF LINEAR PROTON ACCELERATOR STRUCTURES USING DIELECTRIC WALL ACCELERATORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, S; Poole, B; Caporaso, G

    2007-01-01

    Proton accelerator structures for medical applications using Dielectric Wall Accelerator (DWA) technology allow for the utilization of high electric field gradients on the order of 100 MV/m to accelerate the proton bunch. Medical applications involving cancer therapy treatment usually desire short bunch lengths on the order of hundreds of picoseconds in order to limit the extent of the energy deposited in the tumor site (in 3D space, time, and deposited proton charge). Electromagnetic simulations of the DWA structure, in combination with injections of proton bunches have been performed using 3D finite difference codes in combination with particle pushing codes. Electromagnetic simulations of DWA structures includes these effects and also include the details of the switch configuration and how that switch time affects the electric field pulse which accelerates the particle beam

  14. Baryonic pinching of galactic dark matter halos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, Michael; Fairbairn, Malcolm; Sommer-Larsen, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    High resolution cosmological N-body simulations of four galaxy-scale dark matter halos are compared to corresponding N-body/hydrodynamical simulations containing dark matter, stars and gas. The simulations without baryons share features with others described in the literature in that the dark matter density slope continuously decreases towards the center, with a density ρ DM ∝r -1.3±0.2 , at about 1% of the virial radius for our Milky Way sized galaxies. The central cusps in the simulations which also contain baryons steepen significantly, to ρ DM ∝r -1.9±0.2 , with an indication of the inner logarithmic slope converging. Models of adiabatic contraction of dark matter halos due to the central buildup of stellar/gaseous galaxies are examined. The simplest and most commonly used model, by Blumenthal et al., is shown to overestimate the central dark matter density considerably. A modified model proposed by Gnedin et al. is tested and it is shown that, while it is a considerable improvement, it is not perfect. Moreover, it is found that the contraction parameters in their model not only depend on the orbital structure of the dark-matter-only halos but also on the stellar feedback prescription which is most relevant for the baryonic distribution. Implications for dark matter annihilation at the galactic center are discussed and it is found that, although our simulations show a considerable reduced dark matter halo contraction as compared to the Blumenthal et al. model, the fluxes from dark matter annihilation are still expected to be enhanced by at least a factor of a hundred, as compared to dark-matter-only halos. Finally, it is shown that, while dark-matter-only halos are typically prolate, the dark matter halos containing baryons are mildly oblate with minor-to-major axis ratios of c/a=0.73±0.11, with their flattening aligned with the central baryonic disks

  15. QUANTIFYING KINEMATIC SUBSTRUCTURE IN THE MILKY WAY'S STELLAR HALO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Xiangxiang; Zhao Gang; Luo Ali; Rix, Hans-Walter; Bell, Eric F.; Koposov, Sergey E.; Kang, Xi; Liu, Chao; Yanny, Brian; Beers, Timothy C.; Lee, Young Sun; Bullock, James S.; Johnston, Kathryn V.; Morrison, Heather; Rockosi, Constance; Weaver, Benjamin A.

    2011-01-01

    We present and analyze the positions, distances, and radial velocities for over 4000 blue horizontal-branch (BHB) stars in the Milky Way's halo, drawn from SDSS DR8. We search for position-velocity substructure in these data, a signature of the hierarchical assembly of the stellar halo. Using a cumulative 'close pair distribution' as a statistic in the four-dimensional space of sky position, distance, and velocity, we quantify the presence of position-velocity substructure at high statistical significance among the BHB stars: pairs of BHB stars that are close in position on the sky tend to have more similar distances and radial velocities compared to a random sampling of these overall distributions. We make analogous mock observations of 11 numerical halo formation simulations, in which the stellar halo is entirely composed of disrupted satellite debris, and find a level of substructure comparable to that seen in the actually observed BHB star sample. This result quantitatively confirms the hierarchical build-up of the stellar halo through a signature in phase (position-velocity) space. In detail, the structure present in the BHB stars is somewhat less prominent than that seen in most simulated halos, quite possibly because BHB stars represent an older sub-population. BHB stars located beyond 20 kpc from the Galactic center exhibit stronger substructure than at r gc < 20 kpc.

  16. The warm dark matter halo mass function below the cut-off scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, Raul E.; Hahn, Oliver; Abel, Tom

    2013-10-01

    Warm dark matter (WDM) cosmologies are a viable alternative to the cold dark matter (CDM) scenario. Unfortunately, an accurate scrutiny of the WDM predictions with N-body simulations has proven difficult due to numerical artefacts. Here, we report on cosmological simulations that, for the first time, are devoid of those problems, and thus are able to accurately resolve the WDM halo mass function well below the cut-off. We discover a complex picture, with perturbations at different evolutionary stages populating different ranges in the halo mass function. On the smallest mass scales we can resolve, identified objects are typically centres of filaments that are starting to collapse. On intermediate mass scales, objects typically correspond to fluctuations that have collapsed and are in the process of relaxation, whereas the high-mass end is dominated by objects similar to haloes identified in CDM simulations. We then explicitly show how the formation of low-mass haloes is suppressed, which translates into a strong cut-off in the halo mass function. This disfavours some analytic formulations that predict a halo mass function that would extend well below the free streaming mass. We argue for a more detailed exploration of the formation of the smallest structures expected to form in a given cosmology, which, we foresee, will advance our overall understanding of structure formation.

  17. Charge Radius Measurement of the Halo Nucleus $^{11}$Li

    CERN Multimedia

    Kluge, H-J; Kuehl, T; Simon, H; Wang, Haiming; Zimmermann, C; Onishi, T; Tanihata, I; Wakasugi, M

    2002-01-01

    %IS385 %title\\\\ \\\\The root-mean-square charge radius of $^{11}$Li will be determined by measuring the isotope shift of a suitable atomic transition in a laser spectroscopic experiment. Comparing the charge radii of the lithium isotopes obtained by this nuclear-model-independent method with the relevant mass radii obtained before will help to answer the question whether the proton distribution in halo nuclei at the neutron drip-line is decoupled to the first order from their neutron distribution. The necessary experimental sensitivity requires the maximum possible rate of $^{11}$Li nuclei in a beam of low emittance which can only be provided by ISOLDE.

  18. The hierarchical nature of the spin alignment of dark matter haloes in filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragon-Calvo, M. A.; Yang, Lin Forrest

    2014-05-01

    Dark matter haloes in cosmological filaments and walls have (in average) their spin vector aligned with their host structure. While haloes in walls are aligned with the plane of the wall independently of their mass, haloes in filaments present a mass-dependent two-regime orientation. Here, we show that the transition mass determining the change in the alignment regime (from parallel to perpendicular) depends on the hierarchical level in which the halo is located, reflecting the hierarchical nature of the Cosmic Web. By explicitly exposing the hierarchical structure of the Cosmic Web, we are able to identify the contributions of different components of the filament network to the alignment signal. We propose a unifying picture of angular momentum acquisition that is based on the results presented here and previous results found by other authors. In order to do a hierarchical characterization of the Cosmic Web, we introduce a new implementation of the multiscale morphology filter, the MMF-2, that significantly improves the identification of structures and explicitly describes their hierarchy. L36

  19. Reflection halo twins : subsun and supersun

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konnen, Gunther P.; van der Werf, Siebren Y.

    2011-01-01

    From an aircraft, a short distinct vertical structure is sometimes seen above the setting sun. Such a feature can be understood as a halo, which is the counterpart of the well-known subsun. Whereas the latter arises from reflections off basal faces of plate-oriented ice crystals illuminated from

  20. THE SPIN AND ORIENTATION OF DARK MATTER HALOS WITHIN COSMIC FILAMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Youcai; Yang Xiaohu; Lin Weipeng; Faltenbacher, Andreas; Springel, Volker; Wang Huiyuan

    2009-01-01

    Clusters, filaments, sheets, and voids are the building blocks of the cosmic web. Forming dark matter halos respond to these different large-scale environments, and this in turn affects the properties of galaxies hosted by the halos. It is therefore important to understand the systematic correlations of halo properties with the morphology of the cosmic web, as this informs both about galaxy formation physics and possible systematics of weak lensing studies. In this study, we present and compare two distinct algorithms for finding cosmic filaments and sheets, a task which is far less well established than the identification of dark matter halos or voids. One method is based on the smoothed dark matter density field and the other uses the halo distributions directly. We apply both techniques to one high-resolution N-body simulation and reconstruct the filamentary/sheet like network of the dark matter density field. We focus on investigating the properties of the dark matter halos inside these structures, in particular, on the directions of their spins and the orientation of their shapes with respect to the directions of the filaments and sheets. We find that both the spin and the major axes of filament halos with masses ∼ 13 h -1 M sun are preferentially aligned with the direction of the filaments. The spins and major axes of halos in sheets tend to lie parallel to the sheets. There is an opposite mass dependence of the alignment strength for the spin (negative) and major (positive) axes, i.e. with increasing halo mass the major axis tends to be more strongly aligned with the direction of the filament, whereas the alignment between halo spin and filament becomes weaker with increasing halo mass. The alignment strength as a function of the distance to the most massive node halo indicates that there is a transit large-scale environment impact: from the two-dimensional collapse phase of the filament to the three-dimensional collapse phase of the cluster/node halo at

  1. The Spin and Orientation of Dark Matter Halos Within Cosmic Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Youcai; Yang, Xiaohu; Faltenbacher, Andreas; Springel, Volker; Lin, Weipeng; Wang, Huiyuan

    2009-11-01

    Clusters, filaments, sheets, and voids are the building blocks of the cosmic web. Forming dark matter halos respond to these different large-scale environments, and this in turn affects the properties of galaxies hosted by the halos. It is therefore important to understand the systematic correlations of halo properties with the morphology of the cosmic web, as this informs both about galaxy formation physics and possible systematics of weak lensing studies. In this study, we present and compare two distinct algorithms for finding cosmic filaments and sheets, a task which is far less well established than the identification of dark matter halos or voids. One method is based on the smoothed dark matter density field and the other uses the halo distributions directly. We apply both techniques to one high-resolution N-body simulation and reconstruct the filamentary/sheet like network of the dark matter density field. We focus on investigating the properties of the dark matter halos inside these structures, in particular, on the directions of their spins and the orientation of their shapes with respect to the directions of the filaments and sheets. We find that both the spin and the major axes of filament halos with masses lsim1013 h -1 M sun are preferentially aligned with the direction of the filaments. The spins and major axes of halos in sheets tend to lie parallel to the sheets. There is an opposite mass dependence of the alignment strength for the spin (negative) and major (positive) axes, i.e. with increasing halo mass the major axis tends to be more strongly aligned with the direction of the filament, whereas the alignment between halo spin and filament becomes weaker with increasing halo mass. The alignment strength as a function of the distance to the most massive node halo indicates that there is a transit large-scale environment impact: from the two-dimensional collapse phase of the filament to the three-dimensional collapse phase of the cluster/node halo at

  2. AUTOMATED CONTROL AND REAL-TIME DATA PROCESSING OF WIRE SCANNER/HALO SCRAPER MEASUREMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, L.A.; Gilpatrick, J.D.

    2001-01-01

    The Low-Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA), assembled and operating at Los Alamos National Laboratory, provides the platform for obtaining measurements of high-power proton beam-halo formation. Control system software and hardware have been integrated and customized to enable the production of real-time beam-halo profiles. The Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) hosted on a VXI platform, Interactive Data Language (IDL) programs hosted on UNIX platforms, and LabVIEW (LV) Virtual Instruments hosted on a PC platform have been integrated and customized to provide real-time, synchronous motor control, data acquisition, and data analysis of data acquired through specialized DSP instrumentation. These modules communicate through EPICS Channel Access (CA) communication protocol extensions to control and manage execution flow ensuring synchronous data acquisition and real-time processing of measurement data. This paper describes the software integration and management scheme implemented to produce these real-time beam profiles

  3. Penning Trap Experiments with the Most Exotic Nuclei on Earth: Precision Mass Measurements of Halo Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodeur, M.; Brunner, T.; Ettenauer, S.; Lapierre, A.; Ringle, R.; Delheij, P.; Dilling, J.

    2009-05-01

    Exotic nuclei are characterized with an extremely unbalanced protons-neutrons ratio (p/n) where for instance, the halo isotopes of He and Li have up to 3X more n than p (compared to p/n = 1 in ^12C). The properties of these exotic halo nuclei have long been recognized as the most stringent tests of our understanding of the strong force. ^11Li belongs to a special category of halos called Borromean, bound as a three-body family, while the two-body siblings, ^10Li and 2 n, are unbound as separate entities. Last year, a first mass measurement of the radioisotope ^11Li using a Penning trap spectrometer was carried out at the TITAN (Triumf's Ion Trap for Atomic and Nuclear science) facility at TRIUMF-ISAC. Penning traps are proven to be the most precise device to make mass measurements, yet until now they were unable to reach these nuclei. At TRIUMF we managed to measure the mass of ^11Li to an unprecedented precision of dm/m = 60 ppb, which is remarkable since it has a half-life of only 8.8 ms which it the shortest-lived nuclide to be measured with this technique. Furthermore, new and improved masses for the 2 and 4 n halo ^6,8He, as well has the 1 n halo ^11Be have been performed. An overview of the TITAN mass measurement program and its impact in understanding the most exotic nuclei will be given.

  4. ZOMG - I. How the cosmic web inhibits halo growth and generates assembly bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzyszkowski, Mikolaj; Porciani, Cristiano; Romano-Díaz, Emilio; Garaldi, Enrico

    2017-07-01

    The clustering of dark matter haloes with fixed mass depends on their formation history, an effect known as assembly bias. We use zoom N-body simulations to investigate the origin of this phenomenon. For each halo at redshift z = 0, we determine the time in which the physical volume containing its final mass becomes stable. We consider five examples for which this happens at z ˜ 1.5 and two that do not stabilize by z = 0. The zoom simulations show that early-collapsing haloes do not grow in mass at z = 0 while late-forming ones show a net inflow. The reason is that 'accreting' haloes are located at the nodes of a network of thin filaments feeding them. Conversely, each 'stalled' halo lies within a prominent filament that is thicker than the halo size. Infalling material from the surroundings becomes part of the filament while matter within it recedes from the halo. We conclude that assembly bias originates from quenching halo growth due to tidal forces following the formation of non-linear structures in the cosmic web, as previously conjectured in the literature. Also the internal dynamics of the haloes change: the velocity anisotropy profile is biased towards radial (tangential) orbits in accreting (stalled) haloes. Our findings reveal the cause of the yet unexplained dependence of halo clustering on the anisotropy. Finally, we extend the excursion-set theory to account for these effects. A simple criterion based on the ellipticity of the linear tidal field combined with the spherical-collapse model provides excellent predictions for both classes of haloes.

  5. One dark matter mystery: halos in the cosmic web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaite, Jose

    2015-01-01

    The current cold dark matter cosmological model explains the large scale cosmic web structure but is challenged by the observation of a relatively smooth distribution of matter in galactic clusters. We consider various aspects of modeling the dark matter around galaxies as distributed in smooth halos and, especially, the smoothness of the dark matter halos seen in N-body cosmological simulations. We conclude that the problems of the cold dark matter cosmology on small scales are more serious than normally admitted

  6. One dark matter mystery: halos in the cosmic web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaite, Jose

    2015-01-01

    The current cold dark matter cosmological model explains the large scale cosmic web structure but is challenged by the observation of a relatively smooth distribution of matter in galactic clusters. We consider various aspects of modeling the dark matter around galaxies as distributed in smooth halos and, especially, the smoothness of the dark matter halos seen in N-body cosmological simulations. We conclude that the problems of the cold dark matter cosmology on small scales are more serious than normally admitted.

  7. THE PSEUDO-EVOLUTION OF HALO MASS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diemer, Benedikt; Kravtsov, Andrey V.; More, Surhud

    2013-01-01

    A dark matter halo is commonly defined as a spherical overdensity of matter with respect to a reference density, such as the critical density or the mean matter density of the universe. Such definitions can lead to a spurious pseudo-evolution of halo mass simply due to redshift evolution of the reference density, even if its physical density profile remains constant over time. We estimate the amount of such pseudo-evolution of mass between z = 1 and 0 for halos identified in a large N-body simulation, and show that it accounts for almost the entire mass evolution of the majority of halos with M 200ρ-bar ≲ 10 12 h -1 M ☉ and can be a significant fraction of the apparent mass growth even for cluster-sized halos. We estimate the magnitude of the pseudo-evolution assuming that halo density profiles remain static in physical coordinates, and show that this simple model predicts the pseudo-evolution of halos identified in numerical simulations to good accuracy, albeit with significant scatter. We discuss the impact of pseudo-evolution on the evolution of the halo mass function and show that the non-evolution of the low-mass end of the halo mass function is the result of a fortuitous cancellation between pseudo-evolution and the absorption of small halos into larger hosts. We also show that the evolution of the low-mass end of the concentration-mass relation observed in simulations is almost entirely due to the pseudo-evolution of mass. Finally, we discuss the implications of our results for the interpretation of the evolution of various scaling relations between the observable properties of galaxies and galaxy clusters and their halo masses.

  8. Search for beta-delayed protons from {sup 11}Be

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forstner, Oliver [VERA Laboratory, University of Vienna (Austria); Stefan-Meyer-Institut, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria); CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Collaboration: IS541-Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    The one-neutron halo nucleus {sup 11}Be can emit a proton in a beta decay of the halo neutron. However, due to the Q-value of this decay channel (280.7±0.3 keV) the expected branching ratio will be very low - most estimates are a few times 10{sup -8} - and the detection of the outgoing proton with a kinetic energy of a few hundred keV is challenging. Therefore our attempt was to detect the remaining nucleus {sup 10}Be with the help of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). AMS is a highly sensitive tool to detect radioisotopes at the ultra-trace level. A beam of {sup 11}Be ions was produced at the ISOLDE facility at CERN and implanted in a collection sample. The sample was transferred to the VERA AMS facility at the University of Vienna where the {sup 10}Be content was determined. In my talk I present details of the experiment and results of the successful detection of this rare decay channel.

  9. Reionization histories of Milky Way mass halos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Tony Y.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Abel, Tom; Alvarez, Marcelo A.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the connection between the reionization era and the present-day universe by examining the mass reionization histories of z = 0 dark matter halos. In a 600 3 Mpc 3 volume, we combine a dark matter N-body simulation with a three-dimensional seminumerical reionization model. This tags each particle with a reionization redshift, so that individual present-day halos can be connected to their reionization histories and environments. We find that the vast majority of present-day halos with masses larger than ∼ few × 10 11 M ☉ reionize earlier than the rest of the universe. We also find significant halo-to-halo diversity in mass reionization histories, and find that in realistic inhomogeneous models, the material within a given halo is not expected to reionize at the same time. In particular, the scatter in reionization times within individual halos is typically larger than the scatter among halos. From our fiducial reionization model, we find that the typical 68% scatter in reionization times within halos is ∼115 Myr for 10 12±0.25 M ☉ halos, decreasing slightly to ∼95 Myr for 10 15±0.25 M ☉ halos. We find a mild correlation between reionization history and environment: halos with shorter reionization histories are typically in more clustered environments, with the strongest trend on a scale of ∼20 Mpc. Material in Milky Way mass halos with short reionization histories is preferentially reionized in relatively large H II regions, implying reionization mostly by sources external to the progenitors of the present-day halo. We investigate the impact on our results of varying the reionization model parameters, which span a range of reionization scenarios with varying timing and morphology.

  10. THE OVERDENSITY AND MASSES OF THE FRIENDS-OF-FRIENDS HALOS AND UNIVERSALITY OF HALO MASS FUNCTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More, Surhud; Kravtsov, Andrey V.; Dalal, Neal; Gottloeber, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    The friends-of-friends algorithm (hereafter FOF) is a percolation algorithm which is routinely used to identify dark matter halos from N-body simulations. We use results from percolation theory to show that the boundary of FOF halos does not correspond to a single density threshold but to a range of densities close to a critical value that depends upon the linking length parameter, b. We show that for the commonly used choice of b = 0.2, this critical density is equal to 81.62 times the mean matter density. Consequently, halos identified by the FOF algorithm enclose an average overdensity which depends on their density profile (concentration) and therefore changes with halo mass, contrary to the popular belief that the average overdensity is ∼180. We derive an analytical expression for the overdensity as a function of the linking length parameter b and the concentration of the halo. Results of tests carried out using simulated and actual FOF halos identified in cosmological simulations show excellent agreement with our analytical prediction. We also find that the mass of the halo that the FOF algorithm selects crucially depends upon mass resolution. We find a percolation-theory-motivated formula that is able to accurately correct for the dependence on number of particles for the mock realizations of spherical and triaxial Navarro-Frenk-White halos. However, we show that this correction breaks down when applied to the real cosmological FOF halos due to the presence of substructures. Given that abundance of substructure depends on redshift and cosmology, we expect that the resolution effects due to substructure on the FOF mass and halo mass function will also depend on redshift and cosmology and will be difficult to correct for in general. Finally, we discuss the implications of our results for the universality of the mass function.

  11. THE SEGUE K GIANT SURVEY. III. QUANTIFYING GALACTIC HALO SUBSTRUCTURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janesh, William; Morrison, Heather L.; Ma, Zhibo; Harding, Paul [Department of Astronomy, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Rockosi, Constance [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Starkenburg, Else [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 1700, STN CSC, Victoria BC V8W 3P6 (Canada); Xue, Xiang Xiang; Rix, Hans-Walter [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Beers, Timothy C. [Department of Physics and JINA Center for the Evolution of the Elements, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Johnson, Jennifer [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Lee, Young Sun [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134 (Korea, Republic of); Schneider, Donald P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2016-01-10

    We statistically quantify the amount of substructure in the Milky Way stellar halo using a sample of 4568 halo K giant stars at Galactocentric distances ranging over 5–125 kpc. These stars have been selected photometrically and confirmed spectroscopically as K giants from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey’s Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration project. Using a position–velocity clustering estimator (the 4distance) and a model of a smooth stellar halo, we quantify the amount of substructure in the halo, divided by distance and metallicity. Overall, we find that the halo as a whole is highly structured. We also confirm earlier work using blue horizontal branch (BHB) stars which showed that there is an increasing amount of substructure with increasing Galactocentric radius, and additionally find that the amount of substructure in the halo increases with increasing metallicity. Comparing to resampled BHB stars, we find that K giants and BHBs have similar amounts of substructure over equivalent ranges of Galactocentric radius. Using a friends-of-friends algorithm to identify members of individual groups, we find that a large fraction (∼33%) of grouped stars are associated with Sgr, and identify stars belonging to other halo star streams: the Orphan Stream, the Cetus Polar Stream, and others, including previously unknown substructures. A large fraction of sample K giants (more than 50%) are not grouped into any substructure. We find also that the Sgr stream strongly dominates groups in the outer halo for all except the most metal-poor stars, and suggest that this is the source of the increase of substructure with Galactocentric radius and metallicity.

  12. Structural and Electrochemical Consequences of [Cp*] Ligand Protonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yun; Ramos-Garcés, Mario V; Lionetti, Davide; Blakemore, James D

    2017-09-05

    There are few examples of the isolation of analogous metal complexes bearing [η 5 -Cp*] and [η 4 -Cp*H] (Cp* = pentamethylcyclopentadienyl) complexes within the same metal/ligand framework, despite the relevance of such structures to catalytic applications. Recently, protonation of Cp*Rh(bpy) (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridyl) has been shown to yield a complex bearing the uncommon [η 4 -Cp*H] ligand, rather than generating a [Rh III -H] complex. We now report the purification and isolation of this protonated species, as well as characterization of analogous complexes of 1,10-phenanthroline (phen). Specifically, reaction of Cp*Rh(bpy) or Cp*Rh(phen) with 1 equiv of Et 3 NH + Br - affords rhodium compounds bearing endo-η 4 -pentamethylcyclopentadiene (η 4 -Cp*H) as a ligand. NMR spectroscopy and single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies confirm protonation of the Cp* ligand, rather than formation of metal hydride complexes. Analysis of new structural data and electronic spectra suggests that phen is significantly reduced in Cp*Rh(phen), similar to the case of Cp*Rh(bpy). Backbonding interactions with olefinic motifs are activated by formation of [η 4 -Cp*H]; protonation of [Cp*] stabilizes the low-valent metal center and results in loss of reduced character on the diimine ligands. In accord with these changes in electronic structure, electrochemical studies reveal a distinct manifold of redox processes that are accessible in the [Cp*H] complexes in comparison with their [Cp*] analogues; these processes suggest new applications in catalysis for the complexes bearing endo-η 4 -Cp*H.

  13. Formation of halo-structures in oxygen isotopes through change of occupancy of levels near Fermi surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, Rupayan

    2000-01-01

    Recently a new parametrisation of Skyrme interaction has been formulated in order to study the level inversions of A=9 isobars. The role of occupancy of 2s 1/2 level in determining the halo structures of O, N, C, B and Be nuclei was shown. A thorough investigation on the binding energies, rms charge, neutron and matter distribution and occupation probabilities of levels near the Fermi surface has been done in the present work

  14. Structure of neutron-rich nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarewicz, W.

    2000-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The uncharted regions of the (N,Z) plane contain information that can answer many questions of fundamental importance for science: How many protons and neutrons can be clustered together by the strong interaction to form a bound nucleus? What are the proton and neutron magic numbers of the exotic nuclei? What are the properties of very short-lived exotic nuclei with extreme neutron-to-proton ratios? What is the effective nucleon-nucleon interaction in a nucleus that has a very large neutron excess? Nuclear life far from stability is different from that around the stability line; the promised access to completely new combinations of proton and neutron numbers offers prospects for new structural phenomena. The main objective of this talk is to discuss some of the challenges and opportunities of research with exotic nuclei. The covered topics will include: Theoretical challenges; Skins and halos in heavy nuclei; Shape coexistence in exotic nuclei; Beta-decays of neutron-rich nuclei. (author)

  15. Double gate graphene nanoribbon field effect transistor with single halo pocket in channel region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    A new structure for graphene nanoribbon field-effect transistors (GNRFETs) is proposed and investigated using quantum simulation with a nonequilibrium Green's function (NEGF) method. Tunneling leakage current and ambipolar conduction are known effects for MOSFET-like GNRFETs. To minimize these issues a novel structure with a simple change of the GNRFETs by using single halo pocket in the intrinsic channel region, "Single Halo GNRFET (SH-GNRFET)", is proposed. An appropriate halo pocket at source side of channel is used to modify potential distribution of the gate region and weaken band to band tunneling (BTBT). In devices with materials like Si in channel region, doping type of halo and source/drain regions are different. But, here, due to the smaller bandgap of graphene, the mentioned doping types should be the same to reduce BTBT. Simulations have shown that in comparison with conventional GNRFET (C-GNRFET), an SH-GNRFET with appropriately halo doping results in a larger ON current (Ion), smaller OFF current (Ioff), a larger ON-OFF current ratio (Ion/Ioff), superior ambipolar characteristics, a reduced power-delay product and lower delay time.

  16. Investigation of halo structure of He by hyperspherical three-body ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Hyperspherical harmonics expansion method is applied to a three-body model of two neutron halo nuclei. Convergence of the expansion has been ensured. A repulsive part is introduced in the interaction between the core and the extra-core neutron, to simulate Pauli principle. Two neutron separation energy ...

  17. Neutron halo in deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Shangui; Meng Jie; Ring, P.; Zhao Enguang

    2010-01-01

    Halo phenomena in deformed nuclei are investigated within a deformed relativistic Hartree Bogoliubov (DRHB) theory. These weakly bound quantum systems present interesting examples for the study of the interdependence between the deformation of the core and the particles in the halo. Contributions of the halo, deformation effects, and large spatial extensions of these systems are described in a fully self-consistent way by the DRHB equations in a spherical Woods-Saxon basis with the proper asymptotic behavior at a large distance from the nuclear center. Magnesium and neon isotopes are studied and detailed results are presented for the deformed neutron-rich and weakly bound nucleus 44 Mg. The core of this nucleus is prolate, but the halo has a slightly oblate shape. This indicates a decoupling of the halo orbitals from the deformation of the core. The generic conditions for the occurrence of this decoupling effects are discussed.

  18. Strong orientation dependence of surface mass density profiles of dark haloes at large scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osato, Ken; Nishimichi, Takahiro; Oguri, Masamune; Takada, Masahiro; Okumura, Teppei

    2018-06-01

    We study the dependence of surface mass density profiles, which can be directly measured by weak gravitational lensing, on the orientation of haloes with respect to the line-of-sight direction, using a suite of N-body simulations. We find that, when major axes of haloes are aligned with the line-of-sight direction, surface mass density profiles have higher amplitudes than those averaged over all halo orientations, over all scales from 0.1 to 100 Mpc h-1 we studied. While the orientation dependence at small scales is ascribed to the halo triaxiality, our results indicate even stronger orientation dependence in the so-called two-halo regime, up to 100 Mpc h-1. The orientation dependence for the two-halo term is well approximated by a multiplicative shift of the amplitude and therefore a shift in the halo bias parameter value. The halo bias from the two-halo term can be overestimated or underestimated by up to {˜ } 30 per cent depending on the viewing angle, which translates into the bias in estimated halo masses by up to a factor of 2 from halo bias measurements. The orientation dependence at large scales originates from the anisotropic halo-matter correlation function, which has an elliptical shape with the axis ratio of ˜0.55 up to 100 Mpc h-1. We discuss potential impacts of halo orientation bias on other observables such as optically selected cluster samples and a clustering analysis of large-scale structure tracers such as quasars.

  19. Proton-neutron interaction and nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casten, R.F.

    1986-01-01

    The pervasive role of the proton-neutron interaction in nuclear structure is discussed. Particular emphasis is given to its influence on the onset of collectivity and deformation, on intruder states, and on the evolution of subshell structure. The N/sub p/N/sub n/ scheme is outlined and some applications of it to collective model calculations and to nuclei far off stability are described. The concept of N/sub p/N/sub n/ multiplets is introduced. 32 refs., 20 figs

  20. WHAT DO DARK MATTER HALO PROPERTIES TELL US ABOUT THEIR MASS ASSEMBLY HISTORIES?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Anson W. C.; Taylor, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Individual dark matter halos in cosmological simulations vary widely in their detailed structural properties, properties such as concentration, shape, spin, and degree of internal relaxation. Recent non-parametric (principal component) analyses suggest that a few principal components explain a large fraction of the scatter in these structural properties. The main principal component is closely aligned with concentration, which in turn is known to be related to the mass accretion history (MAH) of the halo, as described by its merger tree. Here, we examine more generally the connection between the MAH and structural parameters. The space of mass accretion histories has principal components of its own. The strongest, accounting for almost 60% of the scatter between individual histories, can be interpreted as the age of the system. We give an analytic fit for this first component, which provides a rigorous way of defining the dynamical age of a halo. The second strongest component, representing acceleration or deceleration of growth at late times, accounts for 25% of the scatter. Relating structural parameters to formation history, we find that concentration correlates strongly with the early history of the halo, while shape and degree of relaxation or dynamical equilibrium correlate with the later history. We examine the inferences about formation history that can be drawn by splitting halos into sub-samples based on observable properties such as concentration and shape. Applications include the definition young and old samples of galaxy clusters in a quantitative way, or empirical tests of environmental processing rates in clusters.

  1. INTERACTION BETWEEN DARK MATTER SUB-HALOS AND A GALACTIC GASEOUS DISK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, Rahul; Macciò, Andrea V.; Walter, Fabian; Pasquali, Anna; Moster, Benjamin P.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the idea that the interaction of dark matter (DM) sub-halos with the gaseous disks of galaxies can be the origin for the observed holes and shells found in their neutral hydrogen (H I) distributions. We use high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations to show that pure DM sub-halos impacting a galactic disk are not able to produce holes; on the contrary, they result in high-density regions in the disk. However, sub-halos containing a small amount of gas (a few percent of the total DM mass of the sub-halo) are able to displace the gas in the disk and form holes and shells. The sizes and lifetimes of these holes depend on the sub-halo gas mass, density, and impact velocity. A DM sub-halo, of mass 10 8 M ☉ and a gas mass fraction of ∼3%, is able to create a kiloparsec-scale hole with a lifetime similar to those observed in nearby galaxies. We also register an increase in the star formation rate at the rim of the hole, again in agreement with observations. Even though the properties of these simulated structures resemble those found in observations, we find that the number of predicted holes (based on mass and orbital distributions of DM halos derived from cosmological N-body simulations) falls short compared to the observations. Only a handful of holes are produced per gigayear. This leads us to conclude that DM halo impact is not the major channel through which these holes are formed.

  2. Self-consistent beam halo studies ampersand halo diagnostic development in a continuous linear focusing channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jameson, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    Beam halos are formed via self-consistent motion of the beam particles. Interactions of single particles with time-varying density distributions of other particles are a major source of halo. Aspects of these interactions are studied for an initially equilibrium distribution in a radial, linear, continuous focusing system. When there is a mismatch, it is shown that in the self-consistent system, there is a threshold in space-charge and mismatch, above which a halo is formed that extends to ∼1.5 times the initial maximum mismatch radius. Tools are sought for characterizing the halo dynamics. Testing the particles against the width of the mismatch driving resonance is useful for finding a conservative estimate of the threshold. The exit, entering and transition times, and the time evolution of the halo, are also explored using this technique. Extension to higher dimensions is briefly discussed

  3. FASHIONABLY LATE? BUILDING UP THE MILKY WAY'S INNER HALO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, Heather L.; Harding, Paul; Helmi, Amina

    2009-01-01

    Using a sample of 246 metal-poor stars (RR Lyraes, red giants, and red horizontal branch stars) which is remarkable for the accuracy of its six-dimensional kinematical data, we find, by examining the distribution of stellar orbital angular momenta, a new component for the local halo which has an axial ratio c/a ∼ 0.2, a similar flattening to the thick disk. It has a small prograde rotation but is supported by velocity anisotropy, and contains more intermediate-metallicity stars (with -1.5 < [Fe/H] < -1.0) than the rest of our sample. We suggest that this component was formed quite late, during or after the formation of the disk. It formed either from the gas that was accreted by the last major mergers experienced by the Galaxy, or by dynamical friction of massive infalling satellite(s) with the halo and possibly the stellar disk or thick disk. The remainder of the halo stars in our sample, which are less closely confined to the disk plane, exhibit a clumpy distribution in energy and angular momentum, suggesting that the early, chaotic conditions under which the inner halo formed were not violent enough to erase the record of their origins. The clumpy structure suggests that a relatively small number of progenitors were responsible for building up the inner halo, in line with theoretical expectations. We find a difference in mean binding energy between the RR Lyrae variables and the red giants in our sample, suggesting that more of the RR Lyraes in the sample belong to the outer halo, and that the outer halo may be somewhat younger, as first suggested by Searle and Zinn. We also find that the RR Lyrae mean rotation is more negative than the red giants, which is consistent with the recent result of Carollo et al. that the outer halo has a retrograde rotation and with the difference in kinematics seen between RR Lyraes and blue horizontal branch stars by Kinman et al. (2007).

  4. The proton spin structure; La structure en spin du proton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breton, V.

    1996-05-13

    The author presents first the theoretical frame of the nucleon spin structure study carried out through the deep inelastic scattering of polarised leptons on a polarised target. The interest of the lepton scattering reaction to study the hadronic structure is discussed and the formalism of the inclusive inelastic scattering presented. If the target and the beam are both polarised, the formalism enables to connect the experimentally measured asymmetries to the contribution of quarks to the spin of nucleon. The recent knowledge about the nucleon spin structure is also presented. The Bjorken sum rule is then discussed: it correlates the difference of spin structure between proton and neutron to the neutron lifetime. Then, the author mentions the experimental results of SMC (CERN) and E142, E143 (SLAC). The transition from rough asymmetry to the g sub 1 structure function integral is discussed as well as the main causes of uncertainty. Compared to theoretical data, the measurements confirm the reliability of the Bjorken sum rule. They also confirm the deficit of the quark contribution with respect to the naive unpolarized strange sea model. The possible origins of this discrepancy and the contributions of the current and planned experiments are also discussed. Finally, the author brings up the next major step for nucleon spin studies: the estimation of the gluon contribution. He discusses the experimental knowledge about the polarised gluon distribution function with regard to the multiple existing parameter set. Concerning the experimental determination of this distribution function, outlooks are proposed with respect to feasibility on current experimental facilities. (N.T.). 134 refs.

  5. Proton structure functions in the dipole picture of BFKL dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navelet, H.; Wallon, S.

    1996-06-01

    The F 2 , F G , R=F L /F T proton structure functions are derived in the QCD dipole picture. Assuming k T and renormalization-group factorization, we relate deep-inelastic proton scattering to deep-inelastic onium scattering. We get a three-parameter fit of the 1994 H1 data in the low-x, moderate Q 2 range. The ratios F G /F 2 and R are predicted without further adjustment. The dipole picture of BFKL dynamics is shown to provide a relevant model for quantitatively describing the proton structure functions at HERA. The predictions for F 2 and F G are compatible with next-to-leading DGLAP analysis, while R is expected to be significantly lower at very small x. (orig.)

  6. Experimental determination of the complete spin structure for anti-proton + proton -> anti-\\Lambda + \\Lambda at anti-proton beam momentum of 1.637 GeV/c

    CERN Document Server

    Paschke, K.D.; Berdoz, A.; Franklin, G.B.; Khaustov, P.; Meyer, C.A.; Bradtke, C.; Gehring, R.; Goertz, S.; Harmsen, J.; Meier, A.; Meyer, W.; Radtke, E.; Reicherz, G.; Dutz, H.; Pluckthun, M.; Schoch, B.; Dennert, H.; Eyrich, W.; Hauffe, J.; Metzger, A.; Moosburger, M.; Stinzing, F.; Wirth, St.; Fischer, H.; Franz, J.; Heinsius, F.H.; Kriegler, E.; Schmitt, H.; Bunker, B.; Hertzog, D.; Jones, T.; Tayloe, R.; Broders, R.; Geyer, R.; Kilian, K.; Oelert, W.; Rohrich, K.; Sachs, K.; Sefzick, T.; Bassalleck, B.; Eilerts, S.; Fields, D.E.; Kingsberry, P.; Lowe, J.; Stotzer, R.; Johansson, T.; Pomp, S.; Wirth, St.

    2006-01-01

    The reaction anti-proton + proton -> anti-\\Lambda + \\Lambda -> anti-proton + \\pi^+ + proton + \\pi^- has been measured with high statistics at anti-proton beam momentum of 1.637 GeV/c. The use of a transversely-polarized frozen-spin target combined with the self-analyzing property of \\Lambda/anti-\\Lambda decay allows access to unprecedented information on the spin structure of the interaction. The most general spin-scattering matrix can be written in terms of eleven real parameters for each bin of scattering angle, each of these parameters is determined with reasonable precision. From these results all conceivable spin-correlations are determined with inherent self-consistency. Good agreement is found with the few previously existing measurements of spin observables in anti-proton + proton -> anti-\\Lambda + \\Lambda near this energy. Existing theoretical models do not give good predictions for those spin-observables that had not been previously measured.

  7. Puzzle of the folding potential on the nuclear halo reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, Atef; Lee, Yen Cheong; Mahmoud, Z.M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Folding potentials of the elastic scattering drip-line nuclei at various incident energies is one method to study nuclear matter density distributions and nuclear radii. The nuclei with density distributions consisting of a bulk (core) and an outer layer (halo), dilute and spatially extended are called the halo nuclei caused for the weak particle binding. Several halo nuclei are studied and many potential candidates are identified. All the cross-sections of the elastic scattering for the drip-line nuclei 11 Be and 6 He, are calculated to understand the exotic properties of these nuclei starting from its structure, extended radius, nuclear size till the large total reaction cross-sections for these nuclei when it interacts with a stable target 12 C. (author)

  8. Dark halos formed via dissipationless collapse. I - Shapes and alignment of angular momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Michael S.; Quinn, Peter J.; Salmon, John K.; Zurek, Wojciech H.

    1992-11-01

    We use N-body simulations on highly parallel supercomputers to study the structure of Galactic dark matter halos. The systems form by gravitational collapse from scale-free and more general Gaussian initial density perturbations in an expanding 400 Mpc-cubed spherical slice of an Einstein-deSitter universe. We analyze the structure and kinematics of about 100 of the largest relaxed halos in each of 10 separate simulations. A typical halo is a triaxial spheroid which tends to be more often prolate than oblate. These shapes are maintained by anisotropic velocity dispersion rather than by angular momentum. Nevertheless, there is a significant tendency for the total angular momentum vector to be aligned with the minor axis of the density distribution.

  9. ANGULAR MOMENTUM ACQUISITION IN GALAXY HALOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, Kyle R.; Brooks, Alyson M.; Bullock, James S.; Maller, Ariyeh H.; Diemand, Jürg; Wadsley, James; Moustakas, Leonidas A.

    2013-01-01

    We use high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamic simulations to study the angular momentum acquisition of gaseous halos around Milky-Way-sized galaxies. We find that cold mode accreted gas enters a galaxy halo with ∼70% more specific angular momentum than dark matter averaged over cosmic time (though with a very large dispersion). In fact, we find that all matter has a higher spin parameter when measured at accretion than when averaged over the entire halo lifetime, and is well characterized by λ ∼ 0.1, at accretion. Combined with the fact that cold flow gas spends a relatively short time (1-2 dynamical times) in the halo before sinking to the center, this naturally explains why cold flow halo gas has a specific angular momentum much higher than that of the halo and often forms ''cold flow disks.'' We demonstrate that the higher angular momentum of cold flow gas is related to the fact that it tends to be accreted along filaments.

  10. Relation Between Initial Cosmological Conditions and the Properties of Dark Matter Haloes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenov, Vadim

    2013-01-01

    The core-cusp problem is one of the essential issues in modern cosmology. The Entropy Theory of haloes Evolution recently suggested by Lukash, Doroshkevich and Mikheeva is one of the possible solutions to this problem. This work compares some results of numerical simulation of Large-Scale Structure with the conclusions of the Entropy Theory in order to verify this theory. The numerical simulation was performed in a volume 100 Mpc/h in a side using ∼ 17 million particles. Dark matter particles, which then form virialized haloes, were found in the initial perturbation field. This work investigates the distribution of these dark matter particles and measures the velocity dispersion profiles. It also traces evolution of haloes entropy profiles. On the whole, simulation results correspond to Entropy Theory of haloes evolution

  11. New Spectral Method for Halo Particle Definition in Intense Mis-matched Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorf, Mikhail A.; Davidson, Ronald C.; Startsev, Edward A.

    2011-04-27

    An advanced spectral analysis of a mis-matched charged particle beam propagating through a periodic focusing transport lattice is utilized in particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. It is found that the betatron frequency distribution function of a mismatched space-charge-dominated beam has a bump-on-tail structure attributed to the beam halo particles. Based on this observation, a new spectral method for halo particle definition is proposed that provides the opportunity to carry out a quantitative analysis of halo particle production by a beam mismatch. In addition, it is shown that the spectral analysis of the mismatch relaxation process provides important insights into the emittance growth attributed to the halo formation and the core relaxation processes. Finally, the spectral method is applied to the problem of space-charge transport limits.

  12. Synthesis, Properties and Stereochemistry of 2-Halo-1,2λ5-oxaphosphetanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasy O. Kolodiazhna

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Results of research into four-membered 2-halo-1,2λ5-oxaphosphetane phosphorus(V-heterocycles are presented. The preparation of 2-halo-1,2λ5-oxaphosphetanes by reaction of P-haloylides with carbonyl compounds is described. The mechanism of asynchronous [2+2]-сycloaddition of ylides to aldehydes was proposed on the base of low-temperature NMR investigations. 2-Halo-1,2λ5-oxaphosphetanes were isolated as individual compounds and their structures were confirmed by 1Н-, 13C-, 19F- and 31Р-NMR spectra. These compounds are convenient reagents for preparing of various organic and organophosphorus compounds hardly available by other methods. Chemical and physical properties of the 2-halo-1,2λ5-oxaphosphetanes are reviewed. The 2-chloro-1,2λ5-oxaphosphetanes, rearrange with formation of 2-chloroalkyl-phosphonates or convert into trans-phosphorylated alkenes depending on the substituents at the α-carbon atom. Prospective synthetic applications of 2-halo-1,2λ5-oxaphosphetanes are analyzed. The 2-halo-1,2λ5-oxaphosphetanes may be easily converted to various alkenylphosphonates: allyl- or vinylphosphonates, phosphorus ketenes, thioketenes, ketenimines.

  13. The role of Dark Matter sub-halos in the non-thermal emission of galaxy clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchegiani, Paolo; Colafrancesco, Sergio, E-mail: Paolo.Marchegiani@wits.ac.za, E-mail: Sergio.Colafrancesco@wits.ac.za [School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, WITS-2050, Johannesburg (South Africa)

    2016-11-01

    Annihilation of Dark Matter (DM) particles has been recognized as one of the possible mechanisms for the production of non-thermal particles and radiation in galaxy clusters. Previous studies have shown that, while DM models can reproduce the spectral properties of the radio halo in the Coma cluster, they fail in reproducing the shape of the radio halo surface brightness because they produce a shape that is too concentrated towards the center of the cluster with respect to the observed one. However, in previous studies the DM distribution was modeled as a single spherically symmetric halo, while the DM distribution in Coma is found to have a complex and elongated shape. In this work we calculate a range of non-thermal emissions in the Coma cluster by using the observed distribution of DM sub-halos. We find that, by including the observed sub-halos in the DM model, we obtain a radio surface brightness with a shape similar to the observed one, and that the sub-halos boost the radio emission by a factor between 5 and 20%, thus allowing to reduce the gap between the annihilation cross section required to reproduce the radio halo flux and the upper limits derived from other observations, and that this gap can be explained by realistic values of the boosting factor due to smaller substructures. Models with neutralino mass of 9 GeV and composition τ{sup +} τ{sup −}, and mass of 43 GeV and composition b b-bar can fit the radio halo spectrum using the observed properties of the magnetic field in Coma, and do not predict a gamma-ray emission in excess compared to the recent Fermi-LAT upper limits. These findings make these DM models viable candidate to explain the origin of radio halos in galaxy clusters, avoiding the problems connected to the excessive gamma-ray emission expected from proton acceleration in most of the currently proposed models, where the acceleration of particles is directly or indirectly connected to events related to clusters merging. Therefore, DM

  14. Special role of neutron-halo nucleus on the momentum dissipation in heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Yongzhong; Tianshui Normal Univ., Tianshui; Liu Jianye; Tianshui Normal Univ., Tianshui; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou; Zuo Wei; Li Xiguo; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou

    2005-01-01

    The special role of neutron-halo nucleus 19 B on the momentum dissipation was investigated by using isospin dependent quantum molecular dynamics. In order to compare and protrude the special role of neutron-halo-nucleus 19 B, the momentum dissipation induced by a same mass stable nucleus 19 F was investigated under the same incident channel condition. It is found that the weak bound neutron-halo structure of 19 B weakens the momentum dissipation process compared to those induced by stable nucleus 19 F in the lower energy region. However the nuclear stopping of colliding system with the neutron-halo nucleus 19 B decreases gradually with the increasing beam energy. For all of mass targets and impact parameters the neutron-halo nucleus 19 B weakens the momentum dissipation process. (authors)

  15. The LAMOST stellar spectroscopic survey and the Galactic halo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chao; Deng Licai

    2015-01-01

    The formation and evolution of galaxies is an extremely important and fundamental question in modern astrophysics. Among the galaxies, the Milky Way is a very special sample not only because we live in it, but also because it is the only one in which we can carefully and individually observe its member stars. It has been confirmed that the Galactic halo, including both the stellar spheroid and the dark matter halo, contains fairly complicated structures, from which the overall shape, formation, and evolutionary history of our Galaxy can be unveiled. Moreover, some very rare and special stars in the Milky Way can be used as tracers to indirectly detect the core region of the Galaxy around the central super-massive black hole, which is also a hot topic of astrophysics. The LAMOST survey of the Milky Way will collect millions of stellar spectra at low wavelength resolution, making it the largest of such projects throughout the world. Its data base is very suitable for the study of the structure and evolution of the Milky Way. In this article, we report our on-going studies on the Galactic halo with LAMOST data, and present some early scientific results. (authors)

  16. Color transparency and the structure of the proton in quantum chromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1989-06-01

    Many anomalies suggest that the proton itself is a much more complex object than suggested by simple non-relativistic quark models. Recent analyses of the proton distribution amplitude using QCD sum rules points to highly-nontrivial proton structure. Solutions to QCD in one-space and one-time dimension suggest that the momentum distributions of non-valence quarks in the hadrons have a non-trivial oscillatory structure. The data seems also to be suggesting that the ''intrinsic'' bound state structure of the proton has a non-negligible strange and charm quark content, in addition to the ''extrinsic'' sources of heavy quarks created in the collision itself. As we shall see in this lecture, the apparent discrepancies with experiment are not so much a failure of QCD, but rather symptoms of the complexity and richness of the theory. An important tool for analyzing this complexity is the light-cone Fock state representation of hadron wavefunctions, which provides a consistent but convenient framework for encoding the features of relativistic many-body systems in quantum field theory. 121 refs., 44 figs., 1 tab

  17. The Halo of NGC 2438 scrutinized

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oettl, Silvia; Kimeswenger, Stefan

    2015-08-01

    Haloes and multiple shells around planetary nebulae trace the mass-loss history of the central star. The haloes provide us with information about abundances, ionization or kinematics. Detailed investigations of these haloes can be used to study the evolution of the old stellar population in our galaxy and beyond.Different observations show structures in the haloes like radial rays, blisters and rings (e.g., Ramos-Larios et al. 2012, MNRAS 423, 3753 or Matsuura et al. 2009, ApJ, 700, 1067). The origin of these features has been associated with ionization shadows (Balick 2004, AJ, 127, 2262). They can be observed in regions, where dense knots are opaque to stellar ionizing photons. In this regions we can see leaking UV photons.In this work, we present a detailed investigation of the multiple shell PN NGC 2438. We derive a complete data set of the main nebula. This allows us to analize the physical conditions from photoionization models, such as temperature, density and ionization, and clumping.Data from ESO (3.6m telescope - EFOSC1 - direct imaging and long slit spectroscopy) and from SAAO (spectroscopic observations using a small slit) were available. These data were supplemented by imaging data from the HST archive and by archival VLA observations. The low-excitation species are found to be dominated by clumps. The emission line ratios show no evidence for shocks. We find the shell in ionization equilibrium: a significant amount of UV radiation infiltrates the inner nebula. Thus the shell still seems to be ionized.The photoionization code CLOUDY was used to model the nebular properties and to derive a more accurate distance and ionized mass. The model supports the hypothesis that photoionization is the dominant process in this nebula, far out into the shell.If we want to use extragalactic planetary nebulae as probes of the old stellar population, we need to assess the potential impact of a halo on the evolution. Also the connection of observations and models must

  18. How do stars affect ψDM halos?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, James H. H.; Schive, Hsi-Yu; Woo, Tak-Pong; Chiueh, Tzihong

    2018-04-01

    Wave dark matter (ψDM) predicts a compact soliton core and a granular halo in every galaxy. This work presents the first simulation study of an elliptical galaxy by including both stars and ψDM, focusing on the systematic changes of the central soliton and halo granules. With the addition of stars in the inner halo, we find the soliton core consistently becomes more prominent by absorbing mass from the host halo than that without stars, and the halo granules become "non-isothermal", "hotter" in the inner halo and "cooler" in the outer halo, as opposed to the isothermal halo in pure ψDM cosmological simulations. Moreover, the composite (star+ψDM) mass density is found to follow a r-2 isothermal profile near the half-light radius in most cases. Most striking is the velocity dispersion of halo stars that increases rapidly toward the galactic center by a factor of at least 2 inside the half-light radius caused by the deepened soliton gravitational potential, a result that compares favorably with observations of elliptical galaxies and bulges in spiral galaxies. However in some rare situations we find a phase segregation turning a compact distribution of stars into two distinct populations with high and very low velocity dispersions; while the high-velocity component mostly resides in the halo, the very low-velocity component is bound to the interior of the soliton core, resembling stars in faint dwarf spheroidal galaxies.

  19. A study of the internal spin structure of the proton through polarized deep inelastic muon-proton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piegaia, R.N.

    1988-01-01

    This thesis presents a study of the internal spin structure of the proton through the measurement performed by the European Muon Collaboration, EMC, at the European Center for Nuclear Research, CERN, of the spin asymmetry in the deep-inelastic scattering of longitudinally polarized muons by longitudinally polarized protons. The data obtained considerably extend the kinematic range covered by a previous lower-energy polarized electron-proton scattering experiment. Although the results were found to be in agreement in the region of overlap, the study of the low x range (0.01 1 p was computed and found to be in disagreement with the Ellis-Jaffe sum rule. The result seems to indicate that only a small fraction of the proton spin originates from the spins of the quarks

  20. What to expect from dynamical modelling of galactic haloes - II. The spherical Jeans equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenting; Han, Jiaxin; Cole, Shaun; More, Surhud; Frenk, Carlos; Schaller, Matthieu

    2018-06-01

    The spherical Jeans equation (SJE) is widely used in dynamical modelling of the Milky Way (MW) halo potential. We use haloes and galaxies from the cosmological Millennium-II simulation and hydrodynamical APOSTLE (A Project of Simulations of The Local Environment) simulations to investigate the performance of the SJE in recovering the underlying mass profiles of MW mass haloes. The best-fitting halo mass and concentration parameters scatter by 25 per cent and 40 per cent around their input values, respectively, when dark matter particles are used as tracers. This scatter becomes as large as a factor of 3 when using star particles instead. This is significantly larger than the estimated statistical uncertainty associated with the use of the SJE. The existence of correlated phase-space structures that violate the steady-state assumption of the SJE as well as non-spherical geometries is the principal source of the scatter. Binary haloes show larger scatter because they are more aspherical in shape and have a more perturbed dynamical state. Our results confirm that the number of independent phase-space structures sets an intrinsic limiting precision on dynamical inferences based on the steady-state assumption. Modelling with a radius-independent velocity anisotropy, or using tracers within a limited outer radius, result in significantly larger scatter, but the ensemble-averaged measurement over the whole halo sample is approximately unbiased.

  1. Probing stochastic inter-galactic magnetic fields using blazar-induced gamma ray halo morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duplessis, Francis [Physics Department, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Vachaspati, Tanmay, E-mail: fdupless@asu.edu, E-mail: tvachasp@asu.edu [Maryland Center for Fundamental Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Inter-galactic magnetic fields can imprint their structure on the morphology of blazar-induced gamma ray halos. We show that the halo morphology arises through the interplay of the source's jet and a two-dimensional surface dictated by the magnetic field. Through extensive numerical simulations, we generate mock halos created by stochastic magnetic fields with and without helicity, and study the dependence of the halo features on the properties of the magnetic field. We propose a sharper version of the Q-statistics and demonstrate its sensitivity to the magnetic field strength, the coherence scale, and the handedness of the helicity. We also identify and explain a new feature of the Q-statistics that can further enhance its power.

  2. MODIFIED GRAVITY SPINS UP GALACTIC HALOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jounghun [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, FPRD, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Zhao, Gong-Bo [National Astronomy Observatories, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100012 (China); Li, Baojiu [Institute of Computational Cosmology, Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Koyama, Kazuya, E-mail: jounghun@astro.snu.ac.kr [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom)

    2013-01-20

    We investigate the effect of modified gravity on the specific angular momentum of galactic halos by analyzing the halo catalogs at z = 0 from high-resolution N-body simulations for a f(R) gravity model that meets the solar-system constraint. It is shown that the galactic halos in the f(R) gravity model tend to acquire significantly higher specific angular momentum than those in the standard {Lambda}CDM model. The largest difference in the specific angular momentum distribution between these two models occurs for the case of isolated galactic halos with mass less than 10{sup 11} h {sup -1} M {sub Sun }, which are likely least shielded by the chameleon screening mechanism. As the specific angular momentum of galactic halos is rather insensitive to other cosmological parameters, it can in principle be an independent discriminator of modified gravity. We speculate a possibility of using the relative abundance of low surface brightness galaxies (LSBGs) as a test of general relativity given that the formation of the LSBGs occurs in fast spinning dark halos.

  3. ACCURATE UNIVERSAL MODELS FOR THE MASS ACCRETION HISTORIES AND CONCENTRATIONS OF DARK MATTER HALOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, D. H.; Jing, Y. P.; Mo, H. J.; Boerner, G.

    2009-01-01

    A large amount of observations have constrained cosmological parameters and the initial density fluctuation spectrum to a very high accuracy. However, cosmological parameters change with time and the power index of the power spectrum dramatically varies with mass scale in the so-called concordance ΛCDM cosmology. Thus, any successful model for its structural evolution should work well simultaneously for various cosmological models and different power spectra. We use a large set of high-resolution N-body simulations of a variety of structure formation models (scale-free, standard CDM, open CDM, and ΛCDM) to study the mass accretion histories, the mass and redshift dependence of concentrations, and the concentration evolution histories of dark matter halos. We find that there is significant disagreement between the much-used empirical models in the literature and our simulations. Based on our simulation results, we find that the mass accretion rate of a halo is tightly correlated with a simple function of its mass, the redshift, parameters of the cosmology, and of the initial density fluctuation spectrum, which correctly disentangles the effects of all these factors and halo environments. We also find that the concentration of a halo is strongly correlated with the universe age when its progenitor on the mass accretion history first reaches 4% of its current mass. According to these correlations, we develop new empirical models for both the mass accretion histories and the concentration evolution histories of dark matter halos, and the latter can also be used to predict the mass and redshift dependence of halo concentrations. These models are accurate and universal: the same set of model parameters works well for different cosmological models and for halos of different masses at different redshifts, and in the ΛCDM case the model predictions match the simulation results very well even though halo mass is traced to about 0.0005 times the final mass, when

  4. Relativistic protons in the Coma galaxy cluster: first gamma-ray constraints ever on turbulent reacceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti, G.; Zimmer, S.; Zandanel, F.

    2017-12-01

    The Fermi-LAT (Large Area Telescope) collaboration recently published deep upper limits to the gamma-ray emission of the Coma cluster, a cluster hosting the prototype of giant radio haloes. In this paper, we extend previous studies and use a formalism that combines particle reacceleration by turbulence and the generation of secondary particles in the intracluster medium to constrain relativistic protons and their role for the origin of the radio halo. We conclude that a pure hadronic origin of the halo is clearly disfavoured as it would require excessively large magnetic fields. However, secondary particles can still generate the observed radio emission if they are reaccelerated. For the first time the deep gamma-ray limits allow us to derive meaningful constraints if the halo is generated during phases of reacceleration of relativistic protons and their secondaries by cluster-scale turbulence. In this paper, we explore a relevant range of parameter space of reacceleration models of secondaries. Within this parameter space, a fraction of model configurations is already ruled out by current gamma-ray limits, including the cases that assume weak magnetic fields in the cluster core, B ≤ 2-3 μG. Interestingly, we also find that the flux predicted by a large fraction of model configurations assuming magnetic fields consistent with Faraday rotation measures (RMs) is not far from the limits. This suggests that a detection of gamma-rays from the cluster might be possible in the near future, provided that the electrons generating the radio halo are secondaries reaccelerated and the magnetic field in the cluster is consistent with that inferred from RM.

  5. The “Building Blocks” of Stellar Halos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle A. Oman

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The stellar halos of galaxies encode their accretion histories. In particular, the median metallicity of a halo is determined primarily by the mass of the most massive accreted object. We use hydrodynamical cosmological simulations from the apostle project to study the connection between the stellar mass, the metallicity distribution, and the stellar age distribution of a halo and the identity of its most massive progenitor. We find that the stellar populations in an accreted halo typically resemble the old stellar populations in a present-day dwarf galaxy with a stellar mass ∼0.2–0.5 dex greater than that of the stellar halo. This suggests that had they not been accreted, the primary progenitors of stellar halos would have evolved to resemble typical nearby dwarf irregulars.

  6. Unbound particles in dark matter halos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behroozi, Peter S.; Loeb, Abraham; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2013-06-13

    We investigate unbound dark matter particles in halos by tracing particle trajectories in a simulation run to the far future (a = 100). We find that the traditional sum of kinetic and potential energies is a very poor predictor of which dark matter particles will eventually become unbound from halos. We also study the mass fraction of unbound particles, which increases strongly towards the edges of halos, and decreases significantly at higher redshifts. We discuss implications for dark matter detection experiments, precision calibrations of the halo mass function, the use of baryon fractions to constrain dark energy, and searches for intergalactic supernovae.

  7. Development of a full ice-cream cone model for halo CME structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Hyeonock; Moon, Yong-Jae

    2015-04-01

    The determination of three dimensional parameters (e.g., radial speed, angular width, source location) of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) is very important for space weather forecast. To estimate these parameters, several cone models based on a flat cone or a shallow ice-cream cone with spherical front have been suggested. In this study, we investigate which cone model is proper for halo CME morphology using 33 CMEs which are identified as halo CMEs by one spacecraft (SOHO or STEREO-A or B) and as limb CMEs by the other ones. From geometrical parameters of these CMEs such as their front curvature, we find that near full ice-cream cone CMEs (28 events) are dominant over shallow ice-cream cone CMEs (5 events). So we develop a new full ice-cream cone model by assuming that a full ice-cream cone consists of many flat cones with different heights and angular widths. This model is carried out by the following steps: (1) construct a cone for given height and angular width, (2) project the cone onto the sky plane, (3) select points comprising the outer boundary, (4) minimize the difference between the estimated projection points with the observed ones. We apply this model to several halo CMEs and compare the results with those from other methods such as a Graduated Cylindrical Shell model and a geometrical triangulation method.

  8. Halo formation in three-dimensional bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gluckstern, R.L.; Fedotov, A.V.; Kurennoy, S.; Ryne, R.

    1998-01-01

    We have constructed, analytically and numerically, a class of self-consistent six-dimensional (6D) phase space stationary distributions. Stationary distributions allow us to study the halo development mechanism without it being obscured by beam redistribution and its effect on halo formation. The beam is then mismatched longitudinally and/or transversely, and we explore the formation of longitudinal and transverse halos in 3D axisymmetric beam bunches. We find that the longitudinal halo forms first for comparable longitudinal and transverse mismatches because the longitudinal tune depression is more severe than the transverse one for elongated bunches. Of particular importance is the result that, due to the coupling between longitudinal and transverse motion, a longitudinal or transverse halo is observed for a mismatch less than 10% if the mismatch in the other plane is large. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  9. 12 O resonant structure evaluated by two-proton emission process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite, T.N.; Teruya, N.; Goncalves, M.

    2009-06-01

    The characteristics of 12 O resonant ground state are investigated through the analysis of the experimental data for the two-proton decay process. The sequential and simultaneous two-proton emission decay modes have been considered in a statistical calculation of the decay energy distribution. The resonant structures of 11 N have been employed as intermediate states for the sequential mode, having their parameters determined by considering the structure of single particle resonance in quantum scattering problem. The width of 12 O resonant ground state has been extracted from a best fit to the experimental data. The contributions from the different channels to the decay energy distribution have been evaluated, and width and peak location parameters of 12 O resonant ground state are compared with results of other works for the sequential and simultaneous two-proton decay modes. (author)

  10. Comparative results on collimation of the SPS beam of protons and Pb ions with bent crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Scandale, W.; Assmann, R.; Bracco, C.; Cerutti, F.; Christiansen, J.; Gilardoni, S.; Laface, E.; Losito, R.; Masi, A.; Metral, E.; Mirarchi, D.; Montesano, S.; Previtali, V.; Redaelli, S.; Valentino, G.; Schoofs, P.; Smirnov, G.; Tlustos, L.; Bagli, E.; Baricordi, S.; Dalpiaz, P.; Guidi, V.; Mazzolari, A.; Vincenzi, D.; Dabagov, S.; Murtas, F.; Carnera, A.; Della Mea, G.; De Salvador, D.; Lombardi, A.; Lytovchenko, O.; Tonezzer, M.; Cavoto, G.; Ludovici, L.; Santacesaria, R.; Valente, P.; Galluccio, F.; Afonin, A.G.; Bulgakov, M.K.; Chesnokov, Yu.A.; Maisheev, V.A.; Yazynin, I.A.; Kovalenko, A.D.; Taratin, A.M.; Uzhinskiy, V.V.; Gavrikov, Yu.A.; Ivanov, Yu.M.; Lapina, L.P.; Skorobogatov, V.V.; Ferguson, W.; Fulcher, J.; Hall, G.; Pesaresi, M.; Raymond, M.; Rose, A.; Ryan, M.; Zorba, O.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Markiewicz, T.; Oriunno, M.; Wienands, U.

    2011-01-01

    New experiments on crystal assisted collimation have been carried out at the CERN SPS with stored beams of 120 Gev/c protons and Pb ions. Bent silicon crystals of 2 mm long with about 170 mu rad bend angle and a small residual torsion were used as primary collimators. In channeling conditions, the beam loss rate induced by inelastic interactions of particles with the crystal nuclei is minimal. The loss reduction was about 6 for protons and about 3 for Pb ions. Lower reduction value for Pb ions can be explained by their considerably larger ionization losses in the crystal. In one of the crystals, the measured fraction of the Pb ion beam halo deflected in channeling conditions was 74\\%, a value very close to that for protons. The intensity of the off-momentum halo leaking out from the collimation station was measured in the first high dispersion area downstream. The particle population in the shadow of the secondary collimator-absorber was considerably smaller in channeling conditions than for amorphous orienta...

  11. Nucleic acid helix structure determination from NMR proton chemical shifts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werf, Ramon M. van der; Tessari, Marco; Wijmenga, Sybren S., E-mail: S.Wijmenga@science.ru.nl [Radboud University Nijmegen, Department of Biophysical Chemistry, Institute of Molecules and Materials (Netherlands)

    2013-06-15

    We present a method for de novo derivation of the three-dimensional helix structure of nucleic acids using non-exchangeable proton chemical shifts as sole source of experimental restraints. The method is called chemical shift de novo structure derivation protocol employing singular value decomposition (CHEOPS) and uses iterative singular value decomposition to optimize the structure in helix parameter space. The correct performance of CHEOPS and its range of application are established via an extensive set of structure derivations using either simulated or experimental chemical shifts as input. The simulated input data are used to assess in a defined manner the effect of errors or limitations in the input data on the derived structures. We find that the RNA helix parameters can be determined with high accuracy. We finally demonstrate via three deposited RNA structures that experimental proton chemical shifts suffice to derive RNA helix structures with high precision and accuracy. CHEOPS provides, subject to further development, new directions for high-resolution NMR structure determination of nucleic acids.

  12. THE INNER STRUCTURE OF DWARF-SIZED HALOS IN WARM AND COLD DARK MATTER COSMOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González-Samaniego, A.; Avila-Reese, V. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70-264, 04510, México, D.F., México (Mexico); Colín, P. [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 72-3 (Xangari), Morelia, Michoacán 58089, México (Mexico)

    2016-03-10

    By means of N-body + hydrodynamic zoom-in simulations we study the evolution of the inner dark matter and stellar mass distributions of central dwarf galaxies formed in halos of virial masses M{sub v} = (2–3) × 10{sup 10} h{sup −1} M{sub ⊙} at z = 0, both in a warm dark matter (WDM) and cold dark matter (CDM) cosmology. The half-mode mass in the WDM power spectrum of our simulations is M{sub f} = 2 × 10{sup 10} h{sup −1} M{sub ⊙}. In the dark matter (DM) only simulations halo density profiles are well described by the Navarro–Frenk–White parametric fit in both cosmologies, though the WDM halos have concentrations lower by factors of 1.5–2.0 than their CDM counterparts. In the hydrodynamic simulations, the effects of baryons significantly flatten the inner density, velocity dispersion, and pseudo phase space density profiles of the WDM halos but not of the CDM ones. The density slope, measured at ≈0.02R{sub v}, α{sub 0.02}, becomes shallow in periods of 2–5 Gyr in the WDM runs. We explore whether this flattening process correlates with the global star formation (SF), M{sub s}/M{sub v} ratio, gas outflow, and internal specific angular momentum histories. We do not find any clear trends, but when α{sub 0.02} is shallower than −0.5, M{sub s}/M{sub v} is always between 0.25% and 1%. We conclude that the main reason for the formation of the shallow core is the presence of strong gas mass fluctuations inside the inner halo, which are a consequence of the feedback driven by a very bursty and sustained SF history in shallow gravitational potentials. Our WDM halos, which assemble late and are less concentrated than the CDM ones, obey these conditions. There are also (rare) CDM systems with extended mass assembly histories that obey these conditions and form shallow cores. The dynamical heating and expansion processes behind the DM core flattening apply also to the stars in such a way that the stellar age and metallicity gradients of the

  13. Weighing halo nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunney, D.

    2009-01-01

    Weak binding energy is one of the fundamental criteria characterizing the unique properties of nuclear halos. As such, it must be known with great accuracy and is best obtained through direct mass measurements. The global mass market is now a competitive one. Of the many investment vehicles, the Penning trap has emerged as providing the best rate of return and reliability. We examine mass-market trends, highlighting the recent cases of interest. We also hazard a prediction for the halo futures market. (author)

  14. A study of the internal spin structure of the proton through inclusive and semi-inclusive polarized deep-inelastic muon-proton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papavassiliou, V.

    1988-01-01

    The internal spin structure of the proton was studied in a deep-inelastic scattering experiment a CERN, the European Laboratory for Nuclear Research, by the European Muon Collaboration, using a longitudinally polarized muon beam and a longitudinally polarized target at irradiated ammonia. The spin asymmetry was studied as a function of the Bjorken scaling variable x and the results were in agreement over the region of overlap with previous experiments that used lower-energy polarized electron beams. The higher energies of the experiment allowed to study with precision the previously unexplored region of x below 0.1 and to compute the integral of the spin-dependent structure function g 1 of the proton. This integral was found to be in disagreement with the Ellis-Jaffe sum rule which could imply either a breakdown of the SU(3) symmetry in the decays of the members of the baryon octet or a significant polarization of the strange-quark sea of the proton opposite to the proton spin. In either case and assuming the validity of the Bjorken sum rule that relates the integrals of the spin-dependent structure functions of the proton and the neutron, the total helicity of all the quarks is found to account for only a small fraction of the proton helicity. In addition, spin asymmetries in the semi-inclusive reactions where a hadron of definite sign is observed in the final state were studied. The results are consistent with the down quarks being polarized opposite to the proton spin, as expected by symmetry arguments. Implication of the results on different areas in particle physics are presented. Some future prospects for spin physics are discussed and predictions are given for deep-inelastic-scattering experiments on polarized deuterium targets and the spin structure of the neutron

  15. The Angular Momentum of Baryons and Dark Matter Halos Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimm, Taysun; Devriendt, Julien; Slyz, Adrianne; Pichon, Christophe; Kassin, Susan A.; Dubois, Yohan

    2011-01-01

    by large-scale structure motions deep inside dark matter halos, redistributing it only in the vicinity of the disc.

  16. The Spin Structure Function of the Proton from SLAC Experiment E155

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKee, P

    2004-02-17

    Experiment E155 at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) measured the longitudinal and transverse deep inelastic structure functions of the proton and deuteron using a polarized, 48.3 GeV electron beam and solid polarized targets of ammonia ({sup 15}NH{sub 3}) for proton measurements and lithium deuteride ({sup 6}Li{sup 2}H) for deuteron measurements. Three electromagnetic spectrometers at angles of 2.75{sup o}, 5.5{sup o}, and 10.5{sup o} measured the scattered electrons. This work presents an analysis of the longitudinal structure function of the proton, g{sub 1}{sup p}(x, Q{sup 2}). Included is a re-analysis of the proton target polarization data that for the first time corrects a problem encountered which altered those measurements.

  17. Synthesis, Properties and Stereochemistry of 2-Halo-1,2λ⁵-oxaphosphetanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodiazhna, Anastasy O; Kolodiazhnyi, Oleg I

    2016-10-17

    Results of research into four-membered 2-halo-1,2λ⁵-oxaphosphetane phosphorus(V)-heterocycles are presented. The preparation of 2-halo-1,2λ⁵-oxaphosphetanes by reaction of P- haloylides with carbonyl compounds is described. The mechanism of asynchronous [2+2]-сycloaddition of ylides to aldehydes was proposed on the base of low-temperature NMR investigations. 2-Halo-1,2λ⁵-oxaphosphetanes were isolated as individual compounds and their structures were confirmed by ¹Н-, 13 C-, 19 F- and 31 Р-NMR spectra. These compounds are convenient reagents for preparing of various organic and organophosphorus compounds hardly available by other methods. Chemical and physical properties of the 2-halo-1,2λ⁵-oxaphosphetanes are reviewed. The 2-chloro-1,2λ⁵-oxaphosphetanes, rearrange with formation of 2-chloroalkyl-phosphonates or convert into trans -phosphorylated alkenes depending on the substituents at the α-carbon atom. Prospective synthetic applications of 2-halo-1,2λ⁵-oxaphosphetanes are analyzed. The 2-halo-1,2λ⁵-oxaphosphetanes may be easily converted to various alkenylphosphonates: allyl- or vinylphosphonates, phosphorus ketenes, thioketenes, ketenimines.

  18. The phase-space structure of a dark-matter halo: Implications for dark-matter direct detection experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helmi, Amina; White, Simon D.M.; Springel, Volker

    2002-01-01

    We study the phase-space structure of a dark-matter halo formed in a high resolution simulation of a ΛCDM cosmology. Our goal is to quantify how much substructure is left over from the inhomogeneous growth of the halo, and how it may affect the signal in experiments aimed at detecting the dark matter particles directly. If we focus on the equivalent of 'solar vicinity', we find that the dark matter is smoothly distributed in space. The probability of detecting particles bound within dense lumps of individual mass less than 10 7 M · h -1 is small, less than 10 -2 . The velocity ellipsoid in the solar neighborhood deviates only slightly from a multivariate Gaussian, and can be thought of as a superposition of thousands of kinematically cold streams. The motions of the most energetic particles are, however, strongly clumped and highly anisotropic. We conclude that experiments may safely assume a smooth multivariate Gaussian distribution to represent the kinematics of dark-matter particles in the solar neighborhood. Experiments sensitive to the direction of motion of the incident particles could exploit the expected anisotropy to learn about the recent merging history of our Galaxy

  19. HALO | Arts at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Caraban Gonzalez, Noemi

    2018-01-01

    In 2015, the artists participated in a research residency at CERN and began to work with data captured by ATLAS, one of the four detectors at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) that sits in a cavern 100 metres below ground near the main site of CERN, in Meyrin (Switzerland). For Art Basel, they created HALO, an installation that surrounds visitors with data collected by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. HALO consists of a 10 m wide cylinder defined by vertical piano wires, within which a 4-m tall screen displays particle collisions. The data also triggers hammers that strike the vertical wires and set up vibrations to create a truly multisensory experience. More info: https://arts.cern/event/unveiling-halo-art-basel

  20. Chameleon halo modeling in f(R) gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yin; Hu, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    We model the chameleon effect on cosmological statistics for the modified gravity f(R) model of cosmic acceleration. The chameleon effect, required to make the model compatible with local tests of gravity, reduces force enhancement as a function of the depth of the gravitational potential wells of collapsed structure and so is readily incorporated into a halo model by including parameters for the chameleon mass threshold and rapidity of transition. We show that the abundance of halos around the chameleon mass threshold is enhanced by both the merging from below and the lack of merging to larger masses. This property also controls the power spectrum in the nonlinear regime and we provide a description of the transition to the linear regime that is valid for a wide range of f(R) models.

  1. Effects of proton irradiation on electronic structure of NdFeB permanent magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, L. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Zhen, L. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)], E-mail: lzhen@hit.edu.cn; Xu, C.Y.; Sun, X.Y.; Shao, W.Z. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2009-09-15

    Effects of proton irradiation on electronic structure and atomic local structure of N35EH-type NdFeB permanent magnet were investigated by soft X-ray absorption spectrometry and Moessbauer spectrometry. The local coordination environment of Fe atoms changes after proton irradiation, and the average hyperfine field H{sub in} of the magnets decreases from 288.4 to 286.9 kOe. The effects of irradiation on Fe atoms local environment at different lattice sites are different. The near edge structure of Fe L{sub 3} edge is changed, indicating the density of unoccupied state of Fe 3d electrons increases after proton irradiation.

  2. A quasilinear kinetic model for solar wind electrons and protons instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarfraz, M.; Yoon, P. H.

    2017-12-01

    In situ measurements confirm the anisotropic behavior in temperatures of solar wind species. These anisotropies associated with charge particles are observed to be relaxed. In collionless limit, kinetic instabilities play a significant role to reshape particles distribution. The linear analysis results are encapsulated in inverse relationship between anisotropy and plasma beta based observations fittings techniques, simulations methods, or solution of linearized Vlasov equation. Here amacroscopic quasilinear technique is adopted to confirm inverse relationship through solutions of set of self-consistent kinetic equations. Firstly, for a homogeneous and non-collisional medium, quasilinear kinetic model is employed to display asymptotic variations of core and halo electrons temperatures and saturations of wave energy densities for electromagnetic electron cyclotron (EMEC) instability sourced by, T⊥}>T{∥ . It is shown that, in (β ∥ , T⊥}/T{∥ ) phase space, the saturations stages of anisotropies associated with core and halo electrons lined up on their respective marginal stability curves. Secondly, for case of electrons firehose instability ignited by excessive parallel temperature i.e T⊥}>T{∥ , both electrons and protons are allowed to dynamically evolve in time. It is also observed that, the trajectories of protons and electrons at saturation stages in phase space of anisotropy and plasma beta correspond to proton cyclotron and firehose marginal stability curves, respectively. Next, the outstanding issue that most of observed proton data resides in nearly isotropic state in phase space is interpreted. Here, in quasilinear frame-work of inhomogeneous solar wind system, a set of self-consistent quasilinear equations is formulated to show a dynamical variations of temperatures with spatial distributions. On choice of different initial parameters, it is shown that, interplay of electron and proton instabilities provides an counter-balancing force to slow

  3. The growth of galaxies and their gaseous haloes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voort, Frederieke van de

    2012-01-01

    Galaxies grow by accreting gas, which they need to form stars, from their surrounding haloes. These haloes, in turn, accrete gas from the diffuse intergalactic medium. Feedback from stars and black holes returns gas from the galaxy to the halo and can even expel it from the halo. This cycle of gas

  4. Understanding the core-halo relation of quantum wave dark matter from 3D simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schive, Hsi-Yu; Liao, Ming-Hsuan; Woo, Tak-Pong; Wong, Shing-Kwong; Chiueh, Tzihong; Broadhurst, Tom; Hwang, W-Y Pauchy

    2014-12-31

    We examine the nonlinear structure of gravitationally collapsed objects that form in our simulations of wavelike cold dark matter, described by the Schrödinger-Poisson (SP) equation with a particle mass ∼10(-22)  eV. A distinct gravitationally self-bound solitonic core is found at the center of every halo, with a profile quite different from cores modeled in the warm or self-interacting dark matter scenarios. Furthermore, we show that each solitonic core is surrounded by an extended halo composed of large fluctuating dark matter granules which modulate the halo density on a scale comparable to the diameter of the solitonic core. The scaling symmetry of the SP equation and the uncertainty principle tightly relate the core mass to the halo specific energy, which, in the context of cosmological structure formation, leads to a simple scaling between core mass (Mc) and halo mass (Mh), Mc∝a(-1/2)Mh(1/3), where a is the cosmic scale factor. We verify this scaling relation by (i) examining the internal structure of a statistical sample of virialized halos that form in our 3D cosmological simulations and by (ii) merging multiple solitons to create individual virialized objects. Sufficient simulation resolution is achieved by adaptive mesh refinement and graphic processing units acceleration. From this scaling relation, present dwarf satellite galaxies are predicted to have kiloparsec-sized cores and a minimum mass of ∼10(8)M⊙, capable of solving the small-scale controversies in the cold dark matter model. Moreover, galaxies of 2×10(12)M⊙ at z=8 should have massive solitonic cores of ∼2×10(9)M⊙ within ∼60  pc. Such cores can provide a favorable local environment for funneling the gas that leads to the prompt formation of early stellar spheroids and quasars.

  5. AXIAL RATIO OF EDGE-ON SPIRAL GALAXIES AS A TEST FOR BRIGHT RADIO HALOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singal, J.; Jones, E.; Dunlap, H.; Kogut, A.

    2015-01-01

    We use surface brightness contour maps of nearby edge-on spiral galaxies to determine whether extended bright radio halos are common. In particular, we test a recent model of the spatial structure of the diffuse radio continuum by Subrahmanyan and Cowsik which posits that a substantial fraction of the observed high-latitude surface brightness originates from an extended Galactic halo of uniform emissivity. Measurements of the axial ratio of emission contours within a sample of normal spiral galaxies at 1500 MHz and below show no evidence for such a bright, extended radio halo. Either the Galaxy is atypical compared to nearby quiescent spirals or the bulk of the observed high-latitude emission does not originate from this type of extended halo. (letters)

  6. Measurement of the spin dependent structure functions of proton and neutron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rith, K.

    1989-01-01

    Recent results from the EMC experiment on the spin dependent structure function g 1 p (x) of the proton are discussed. They suggest that the nucleon spin does not originate from quark spins but rather from angular orbital momentum and gluon contributions. A proposed experiment at HERA is presented which will allow a very accurate measurement of the spin dependent structure functions and their integrals of both proton and neutron and a precise test of the Bjorken sum rule. (orig.)

  7. Imbalance in the Local Galactic halo?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croswell, K.; Latham, D.W.; Carney, B.W.; North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill)

    1987-01-01

    In a kinematically biased sample of 119 single halo stars, 65 percent of the stars are traveling away from the plane of the Galaxy. Halo spectroscopic binaries do not show this imbalance. Other kinematically biased halo surveys exhibit the same effect. Combining these samples with those of the authors' results in 223 halo stars, 63 percent of which are heading away from the plane of the Galaxy. The probability that the first result could be obtained from a symmetric w velocity distribution is 0.2 percent; the probability that the second result could be so obtained is 0.02 percent. Single halo stars traveling away from the disk appear to have a larger w velocity dispersion than those traveling toward it. Selection effects are analyzed and rejected as the cause of the observed asymmetry. Possible mechanisms for producing the imbalance are discussed, but each has serious difficulties accounting for the observations. 28 references

  8. GRAVITATIONALLY CONSISTENT HALO CATALOGS AND MERGER TREES FOR PRECISION COSMOLOGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behroozi, Peter S.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Wu, Hao-Yi; Busha, Michael T.; Klypin, Anatoly A.; Primack, Joel R.

    2013-01-01

    We present a new algorithm for generating merger trees and halo catalogs which explicitly ensures consistency of halo properties (mass, position, and velocity) across time steps. Our algorithm has demonstrated the ability to improve both the completeness (through detecting and inserting otherwise missing halos) and purity (through detecting and removing spurious objects) of both merger trees and halo catalogs. In addition, our method is able to robustly measure the self-consistency of halo finders; it is the first to directly measure the uncertainties in halo positions, halo velocities, and the halo mass function for a given halo finder based on consistency between snapshots in cosmological simulations. We use this algorithm to generate merger trees for two large simulations (Bolshoi and Consuelo) and evaluate two halo finders (ROCKSTAR and BDM). We find that both the ROCKSTAR and BDM halo finders track halos extremely well; in both, the number of halos which do not have physically consistent progenitors is at the 1%-2% level across all halo masses. Our code is publicly available at http://code.google.com/p/consistent-trees. Our trees and catalogs are publicly available at http://hipacc.ucsc.edu/Bolshoi/.

  9. Characteristics of halo current in JT-60U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neyatani, Y.; Nakamura, Y.; Yoshino, R.; Hatae, T.

    1999-01-01

    Halo currents and their toroidal peaking factor (TPF) have been measured in JT-60U by Rogowski coil type halo current sensors. The electron temperature in the halo region was around 10 eV at 1 ms before the timing of the maximum halo current. The maximum TPF*I h /I p0 was 0.52 in the operational range of I p = 0.7 ∼ 1.8 MA, B T = 2.2 ∼ 3.5 T, including ITER design parameters of κ > 1.6 and q 95 = 3, which was lower than that of the maximum value of ITER data base (0.75). The magnitude of halo currents tended to decrease with the increase in stored energy just before the energy quench and with the line integrated electron density at the time of the maximum halo current. A termination technique in which the current channel remains stationary was useful to avoid halo current generation. Intense neon gas puffing during the VDE was effective for reducing the halo currents. (author)

  10. Characteristics of halo current in JT-60U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neyatani, Y.; Nakamura, Y.; Yoshino, R.; Hatae, T.

    2001-01-01

    Halo currents and their toroidal peaking factor (TPF) have been measured in JT-60U by Rogowski coil type halo current sensors. The electron temperature in the halo region was around 10 eV at 1 ms before the timing of the maximum halo current. The maximum TPF *I h /I p0 was 0.52 in the operational range of I p =0.7∼1.8MA, B T =2.2∼3.5T, including ITER design parameters of κ>1.6 and q 95 =3, which was lower than that of the maximum value of ITER data base (0.75). The magnitude of halo currents tended to decrease with the increase in stored energy just before the energy quench and with the line integrated electron density at the time of the maximum halo current. A termination technique in which the current channel remains stationary was useful to avoid halo current generation. Intense neon gas puffing during the VDE was effective for reducing the halo currents. (author)

  11. CLUMPY STREAMS FROM CLUMPY HALOS: DETECTING MISSING SATELLITES WITH COLD STELLAR STRUCTURES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Joo Heon; Johnston, Kathryn V.; Hogg, David W.

    2011-01-01

    Dynamically cold stellar streams are ideal probes of the gravitational field of the Milky Way. This paper re-examines the question of how such streams might be used to test for the presence of m issing satellites - the many thousands of dark-matter subhalos with masses 10 5 -10 7 M sun which are seen to orbit within Galactic-scale dark-matter halos in simulations of structure formation in ΛCDM cosmologies. Analytical estimates of the frequency and energy scales of stream encounters indicate that these missing satellites should have a negligible effect on hot debris structures, such as the tails from the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy. However, long cold streams, such as the structure known as GD1 or those from the globular cluster Palomar 5 (Pal 5), are expected to suffer many tens of direct impacts from missing satellites during their lifetimes. Numerical experiments confirm that these impacts create gaps in the debris' orbital energy distribution, which will evolve into degree- and sub-degree-scale fluctuations in surface density over the age of the debris. Maps of Pal 5's own stream contain surface density fluctuations on these scales. The presence and frequency of these inhomogeneities suggests the existence of a population of missing satellites in numbers predicted in the standard ΛCDM cosmologies.

  12. Fundamental issues on kappa-distributions in space plasmas and interplanetary proton distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leubner, M.P.

    2004-01-01

    Numerous in situ observations indicate clearly the presence of nonthermal electron and ion structures as ubiquitous and persistent feature in a variety of astrophysical plasma environments. In particular, the detected suprathermal particle populations are accurately represented by the family of κ-distributions, a power-law in particle speed. After clarifying the characteristics of high-energy tail distributions under various space plasma conditions, different generation mechanisms of energetic particles are introduced where numerical simulations of wave-particle interaction based on a Fokker-Planck approach demonstrate how Landau interaction ultimately leads to κ-like distributions. Because of lack of theoretical justification, the use of the analytical form of κ-functions was frequently criticized. It is shown that these distributions turn out as consequence of an entropy generalization favored by nonextensive thermo-statistics, thus providing the missing link for powerlaw models of suprathermal tails from fundamental physics, along with a physical interpretation of the structure parameter κ. Moreover, with regard to the full nonextensive formalism, compatible also with negative values of κ, it is demonstrated that core-halo distribution structures, as observed for instance under typical interplanetary plasma conditions, are a natural content of the pseudo-additive entropy concept. The significance of the complete κ-distribution family with regard to observed core-halo electron and double-humped ion velocity space characteristics is illuminated, where the observed peak separation scale of interplanetary proton distributions is compatible with a maximum entropy condition

  13. MINIMARS interim report appendix halo model and computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santarius, J.F.; Barr, W.L.; Deng, B.Q.; Emmert, G.A.

    1985-01-01

    A tenuous, cool plasma called the halo shields the core plasma in a tandem mirror from neutral gas and impurities. The neutral particles are ionized and then pumped by the halo to the end tanks of the device, since flow of plasma along field lines is much faster than radial flow. Plasma reaching the end tank walls recombines, and the resulting neutral gas is vacuum pumped. The basic geometry of the MINIMARS halo is shown. For halo modeling purposes, the core plasma and cold gas regions may be treated as single radial zones leading to halo source and sink terms. The halo itself is differential into two major radial zones: halo scraper and halo dump. The halo scraper zone is defined by the radial distance required for the ion end plugging potential to drop to the central cell value, and thus have no effect on axial confinement; this distance is typically a sloshing plug ion Larmor diameter. The outer edge of the halo dump zone is defined by the last central cell flux tube to pass through the choke coil. This appendix will summarize the halo model that has been developed for MINIMARS and the methodology used in implementing that model as a computer code

  14. THE TILT OF THE HALO VELOCITY ELLIPSOID AND THE SHAPE OF THE MILKY WAY HALO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Martin C.; Wyn Evans, N.; An, Jin H.

    2009-01-01

    A sample of ∼1800 halo subdwarf stars with radial velocities and proper motions is assembled from Bramich et al.'s light-motion catalog of 2008. This is based on the repeated multiband Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometric measurements in Stripe 82. Our sample of halo subdwarfs is extracted via a reduced proper motion diagram and distances are obtained using photometric parallaxes, thus giving full phase-space information. The tilt of the velocity ellipsoid with respect to the spherical polar coordinate system is computed and found to be consistent with zero for two of the three tilt angles, and very small for the third. We prove that if the inner halo is in a steady state and the triaxial velocity ellipsoid is everywhere aligned in spherical polar coordinates, then the potential must be spherically symmetric. The detectable, but very mild, misalignment with spherical polars is consistent with the perturbative effects of the Galactic disk on a spherical dark halo. Banana orbits are generated at the 1:1 resonance (in horizontal and vertical frequencies) by the disk. They populate Galactic potentials at the typical radii of our subdwarf sample, along with the much more dominant short-axis tubes. However, on geometric grounds alone, the tilt cannot vanish for the banana orbits and this leads to a slight, but detectable, misalignment. We argue that the tilt of the stellar halo velocity ellipsoid therefore provides a hitherto largely neglected but important line of argument that the Milky Way's dark halo, which dominates the potential, must be nearly spherical.

  15. Formation and decay cross sections of {sup 66}As{sup ⁎} formed in an exotic proton-halo {sup 8}B induced reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Gurvinder; Jain, Deepika; Kumar, Raj; Sharma, Manoj K., E-mail: msharma@thapar.edu

    2013-10-23

    In reference to experimental data on the fusion of a proton-halo {sup 8}B projectile with a {sup 58}Ni target, a systematic decay study of {sup 66}As{sup ⁎} is carried out in the framework of the dynamical cluster-decay model (DCM). The calculations suggest that the fusion excitation function of {sup 66}As{sup ⁎} consists of light particles (LPs) as the most dominant contributors, followed by intermediate mass fragments (IMFs) and fission fragments. A description of deformation effects is also provided by considering spherical and deformed choice of fragmentation up to quadrupole (β{sub 2i}) and hexadecapole (β{sub 2i}–β{sub 4i}) deformation. The DCM-based excitation functions agree well with the observed experimental cross sections for all three choices of fragmentation. The ℓ-summed Wong model is also employed to analyze the fusion cross section, which seems to work well, except for the minimum energy that lies below the barrier. Evidently, at below-barrier energy, the Wong model requires further barrier modification, which in the DCM, is accounted by its inbuilt property of barrier modification. Predictions of cross sections at higher extrapolated energies have also been done using both the DCM and ℓ-summed Wong model.

  16. Halo Intrinsic Alignment: Dependence on Mass, Formation Time, and Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Qianli; Kang, Xi; Wang, Peng; Luo, Yu [Purple Mountain Observatory, the Partner Group of MPI für Astronomie, 2 West Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); Yang, Xiaohu; Jing, Yipeng [Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Wang, Huiyuan [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Mo, Houjun, E-mail: kangxi@pmo.ac.cn [Astronomy Department and Center for Astrophysics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 10084 (China)

    2017-10-10

    In this paper we use high-resolution cosmological simulations to study halo intrinsic alignment and its dependence on mass, formation time, and large-scale environment. In agreement with previous studies using N -body simulations, it is found that massive halos have stronger alignment. For the first time, we find that for a given halo mass older halos have stronger alignment and halos in cluster regions also have stronger alignment than those in filaments. To model these dependencies, we extend the linear alignment model with inclusion of halo bias and find that the halo alignment with its mass and formation time dependence can be explained by halo bias. However, the model cannot account for the environment dependence, as it is found that halo bias is lower in clusters and higher in filaments. Our results suggest that halo bias and environment are independent factors in determining halo alignment. We also study the halo alignment correlation function and find that halos are strongly clustered along their major axes and less clustered along the minor axes. The correlated halo alignment can extend to scales as large as 100 h {sup −1} Mpc, where its feature is mainly driven by the baryon acoustic oscillation effect.

  17. Halo Mitigation Using Nonlinear Lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Sonnad, Kiran G

    2005-01-01

    This work shows that halos in beams with space charge effects can be controlled by combining nonlinear focusing and collimation. The study relies on Particle-in-Cell (PIC) simulations for a one dimensional, continuous focusing model. The PIC simulation results show that nonlinear focusing leads to damping of the beam oscillations thereby reducing the mismatch. It is well established that reduced mismatch leads to reduced halo formation. However, the nonlinear damping is accompanied by emittance growth causing the beam to spread in phase space. As a result, inducing nonlinear damping alone cannot help mitigate the halo. To compensate for this expansion in phase space, the beam is collimated in the simulation and further evolution of the beam shows that the halo is not regenerated. The focusing model used in the PIC is analysed using the Lie Transform perturbation theory showing that by averaging over a lattice period, one can reuduce the focusing force to a form that is identical to that used in the PIC simula...

  18. Argonne effect - evidence for the shell structure of proton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levintov, I.I.

    1983-01-01

    A strong spin effect in P,P scattering at parallel spin orientation of a target and a projectile and psub(t)sup(2) > or approximately 4(GeV/c) 2 (psub(t) is a transverse momentum of scattered proton) - Argonne effect - is explained by the presence of Fock configuration (qqc anti cq) ip proton which has the structure of p-shell. An analogous effect in the region psub(perpendicular)sup(2) > or approximately 25(GeV/c) 2 associated with the configuration (qqb anti bq) is predicted

  19. Spin alignment of dark matter halos in filaments and walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aragon-Calvo, Miguel A.; van de Weygaert, Rien; Jones, Bernard J. T.; van der Hulst, J. M.

    2007-01-01

    The MMF technique is used to segment the cosmic web as seen in a cosmological N-body simulation into wall-like and filament-like structures. We find that the spins and shapes of dark matter halos are significantly correlated with each other and with the orientation of their host structures. The

  20. Mass models for disk and halo components in spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, A.

    1987-01-01

    The mass distribution in spiral galaxies is investigated by means of numerical simulations, summarizing the results reported by Athanassoula et al. (1986). Details of the modeling technique employed are given, including bulge-disk decomposition; computation of bulge and disk rotation curves (assuming constant mass/light ratios for each); and determination (for spherical symmetry) of the total halo mass out to the optical radius, the concentration indices, the halo-density power law, the core radius, the central density, and the velocity dispersion. Also discussed are the procedures for incorporating galactic gas and checking the spiral structure extent. It is found that structural constraints limit disk mass/light ratios to a range of 0.3 dex, and that the most likely models are maximum-disk models with m = 1 disturbances inhibited. 19 references

  1. Proton solvation and proton transfer in chemical and electrochemical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lengyel, S.; Conway, B.E.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter examines the proton solvation and characterization of the H 3 O + ion, proton transfer in chemical ionization processes in solution, continuous proton transfer in conductance processes, and proton transfer in electrode processes. Topics considered include the condition of the proton in solution, the molecular structure of the H 3 O + ion, thermodynamics of proton solvation, overall hydration energy of the proton, hydration of H 3 O + , deuteron solvation, partial molal entropy and volume and the entropy of proton hydration, proton solvation in alcoholic solutions, analogies to electrons in semiconductors, continuous proton transfer in conductance, definition and phenomenology of the unusual mobility of the proton in solution, solvent structure changes in relation to anomalous proton mobility, the kinetics of the proton-transfer event, theories of abnormal proton conductance, and the general theory of the contribution of transfer reactions to overall transport processes

  2. Stirring up the dust: a dynamical model for halo-like dust clouds in transitional disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijt, S.; Dominik, C.

    2011-01-01

    Context. A small number of young stellar objects show signs of a halo-like structure of optically thin dust, in addition to a circumstellar disk. This halo or torus is located within a few AU of the star, but its origin has not yet been understood. Aims. A dynamically excited cloud of planetesimals

  3. Crystallographic Structure of Xanthorhodopsin, the Light-Driven Proton Pump With a Dual Chromophore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luecke, H.; Schobert, B.; Stagno, J.; Imasheva, E.S.; Wang, J.M.; Balashov, S.P.; Lanyi, J.K

    2008-01-01

    Homologous to bacteriorhodopsin and even more to proteorhodopsin, xanthorhodopsin is a light-driven proton pump that, in addition to retinal, contains a noncovalently bound carotenoid with a function of a light-harvesting antenna. We determined the structure of this eubacterial membrane protein-carotenoid complex by X-ray diffraction, to 1.9-(angstrom) resolution. Although it contains 7 transmembrane helices like bacteriorhodopsin and archaerhodopsin, the structure of xanthorhodopsin is considerably different from the 2 archaeal proteins. The crystallographic model for this rhodopsin introduces structural motifs for proton transfer during the reaction cycle, particularly for proton release, that are dramatically different from those in other retinal-based transmembrane pumps. Further, it contains a histidine-aspartate complex for regulating the pK a of the primary proton acceptor not present in archaeal pumps but apparently conserved in eubacterial pumps. In addition to aiding elucidation of a more general proton transfer mechanism for light-driven energy transducers, the structure defines also the geometry of the carotenoid and the retinal. The close approach of the 2 polyenes at their ring ends explains why the efficiency of the excited-state energy transfer is as high as ∼45%, and the 46 o angle between them suggests that the chromophore location is a compromise between optimal capture of light of all polarization angles and excited-state energy transfer

  4. Simulation of halo particles with Simpsons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machida, Shinji

    2003-01-01

    Recent code improvements and some simulation results of halo particles with Simpsons will be presented. We tried to identify resonance behavior of halo particles by looking at tune evolution of individual macro particle

  5. Simulation of halo particles with Simpsons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machida, Shinji

    2003-12-01

    Recent code improvements and some simulation results of halo particles with Simpsons will be presented. We tried to identify resonance behavior of halo particles by looking at tune evolution of individual macro particle.

  6. 12O resonant structure evaluated by the two-proton emission process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite, T. N.; Teruya, N.; Dimarco, A.; Duarte, S. B.; Tavares, O. A. P.; Goncalves, M.

    2009-01-01

    The characteristics of the 12 O resonant ground state are investigated through the analysis of the experimental data for the two-proton decay process. The sequential and simultaneous two-proton emission decay modes have been considered in a statistical calculation of the decay energy distribution. The resonant structures of 11 N have been employed as intermediate states for the sequential mode, having their parameters determined by considering the structure of single particle resonance in quantum scattering problem. The width of the 12 O resonant ground state has been extracted from a best fit to the experimental data. The contributions from the different channels to the decay energy distribution have been evaluated, and width and peak location parameters of the 12 O resonant ground state are compared with results of other works for the sequential and simultaneous two-proton decay modes.

  7. {sup 12} O resonant structure evaluated by two-proton emission process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, T.N. [Fundacao Universidade Federal do Vale do Sao Francisco (UNIVASF), Juazeiro, BA (Brazil); Teruya, N. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Dimarco, A. [Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz (UESC), Ilheus, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas; Duarte, S.B.; Tavares, O.A.P. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Goncalves, M. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-06-15

    The characteristics of {sup 12}O resonant ground state are investigated through the analysis of the experimental data for the two-proton decay process. The sequential and simultaneous two-proton emission decay modes have been considered in a statistical calculation of the decay energy distribution. The resonant structures of {sup 11} N have been employed as intermediate states for the sequential mode, having their parameters determined by considering the structure of single particle resonance in quantum scattering problem. The width of {sup 12}O resonant ground state has been extracted from a best fit to the experimental data. The contributions from the different channels to the decay energy distribution have been evaluated, and width and peak location parameters of {sup 12}O resonant ground state are compared with results of other works for the sequential and simultaneous two-proton decay modes. (author)

  8. A general explanation on the correlation of dark matter halo spin with the large-scale environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Kang, Xi

    2017-06-01

    Both simulations and observations have found that the spin of halo/galaxy is correlated with the large-scale environment, and particularly the spin of halo flips in filament. A consistent picture of halo spin evolution in different environments is still lacked. Using N-body simulation, we find that halo spin with its environment evolves continuously from sheet to cluster, and the flip of halo spin happens both in filament and nodes. The flip in filament can be explained by halo formation time and migrating time when its environment changes from sheet to filament. For low-mass haloes, they form first in sheets and migrate into filaments later, so their mass and spin growth inside filament are lower, and the original spin is still parallel to filament. For high-mass haloes, they migrate into filaments first, and most of their mass and spin growth are obtained in filaments, so the resulted spin is perpendicular to filament. Our results well explain the overall evolution of cosmic web in the cold dark matter model and can be tested using high-redshift data. The scenario can also be tested against alternative models of dark matter, such as warm/hot dark matter, where the structure formation will proceed in a different way.

  9. Quest of halo in 31Ne using Glauber model formalism with deformed relativistic mean field density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Mahesh K.; Patra, S.K.

    2012-01-01

    The advancement of radio active ion beam (RIB) explored the structure of exotic nuclei, which are away from the β stability line. Such nuclei with weak binding lie at the limit of stability and exhibit some fascinating phenomena. One of them is the formation of one or more nucleon halo structure. It is well established that the interaction cross section of halo nuclei like 11 Li, 11 Be and 19 C show anomalously large interaction cross sections and matter radius than that of their neighboring nuclei. Some recent investigations for 31 Ne predict that has a halo nature. The first experimental evidence also suggests 31 Ne as a halo candidate. The isotope 31 Ne having N=21, which breaks the shell closer structure as a consequence of deformation associated with the strong intruder configuration and having special interest, because it lie at island of inversion. Here we apply the well known Glauber approach with conjunction of deformed relativistic mean field densities of projectile and target nuclei. It is to be noted that Panda et al has done the similar calculation using a spherical density

  10. Stellar Mass-gap as a Probe of Halo Assembly History and Concentration: Youth Hidden among Old Fossils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deason, A. J.; Conroy, C.; Wetzel, A. R.; Tinker, J. L.

    2013-11-01

    We investigate the use of the halo mass-gap statistic—defined as the logarithmic difference in mass between the host halo and its most massive satellite subhalo—as a probe of halo age and concentration. A cosmological N-body simulation is used to study N ~ 25, 000 group/cluster-sized halos in the mass range 1012.5 time and concentration. On average, older and more highly concentrated halos have larger halo mass-gaps, and this trend is stronger than the mass-concentration relation over a similar dynamic range. However, there is a large amount of scatter owing to the transitory nature of the satellite subhalo population, which limits the use of the halo mass-gap statistic on an object-by-object basis. For example, we find that 20% of very large halo mass-gap systems (akin to "fossil groups") are young and have likely experienced a recent merger between a massive satellite subhalo and the central subhalo. We relate halo mass-gap to the observable stellar mass-gap via abundance matching. Using a galaxy group catalog constructed from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7, we find that the star formation and structural properties of galaxies at fixed mass show no trend with stellar mass-gap. This is despite a variation in halo age of ≈2.5 Gyr over ≈1.2 dex in stellar mass-gap. Thus, we find no evidence to suggest that the halo formation history significantly affects galaxy properties.

  11. Fast pencil beam dose calculation for proton therapy using a double-Gaussian beam model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joakim eda Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The highly conformal dose distributions produced by scanned proton pencil beams are more sensitive to motion and anatomical changes than those produced by conventional radiotherapy. The ability to calculate the dose in real time as it is being delivered would enable, for example, online dose monitoring, and is therefore highly desirable. We have previously described an implementation of a pencil beam algorithm running on graphics processing units (GPUs intended specifically for online dose calculation. Here we present an extension to the dose calculation engine employing a double-Gaussian beam model to better account for the low-dose halo. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first such pencil beam algorithm for proton therapy running on a GPU. We employ two different parametrizations for the halo dose, one describing the distribution of secondary particles from nuclear interactions found in the literature and one relying on directly fitting the model to Monte Carlo simulations of pencil beams in water. Despite the large width of the halo contribution, we show how in either case the second Gaussian can be included whilst prolonging the calculation of the investigated plans by no more than 16%, or the calculation of the most time-consuming energy layers by about 25%. Further, the calculation time is relatively unaffected by the parametrization used, which suggests that these results should hold also for different systems. Finally, since the implementation is based on an algorithm employed by a commercial treatment planning system, it is expected that with adequate tuning, it should be able to reproduce the halo dose from a general beam line with sufficient accuracy.

  12. [Halos and multifocal intraocular lenses: origin and interpretation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba-Bueno, F; Vega, F; Millán, M S

    2014-10-01

    To present the theoretical and experimental characterization of the halo in multifocal intraocular lenses (MIOL). The origin of the halo in a MIOL is the overlaying of 2 or more images. Using geometrical optics, it can be demonstrated that the diameter of each halo depends on the addition of the lens (ΔP), the base power (P(d)), and the diameter of the IOL that contributes to the «non-focused» focus. In the image plane that corresponds to the distance focus, the halo diameter (δH(d)) is given by: δH(d)=d(pn) ΔP/P(d), where d(pn) is the diameter of the IOL that contributes to the near focus. Analogously, in the near image plane the halo diameter (δH(n)) is: δH(n)=d(pd) ΔP/P(d), where d(pd) is the diameter of the IOL that contributes to the distance focus. Patients perceive halos when they see bright objects over a relatively dark background. In vitro, the halo can be characterized by analyzing the intensity profile of the image of a pinhole that is focused by each of the foci of a MIOL. A comparison has been made between the halos induced by different MIOL of the same base power (20D) in an optical bench. As predicted by theory, the larger the addition of the MIOL, the larger the halo diameter. For large pupils and with MIOL with similar aspheric designs and addition (SN6AD3 vs ZMA00), the apodized MIOL has a smaller halo diameter than a non-apodized one in distance vision, while in near vision the size is very similar, but the relative intensity is higher in the apodized MIOL. When comparing lenses with the same diffractive design, but with different spherical-aspheric base design (SN60D3 vs SN6AD3), the halo in distance vision of the spherical MIOL is larger, while in near vision the spherical IOL induces a smaller halo, but with higher intensity due to the spherical aberration of the distance focus in the near image. In the case of a trifocal-diffractive IOL (AT LISA 839MP) the most noticeable characteristic is the double-halo formation due to the 2 non

  13. Measurement of the proton structure function at HERA using the ZEUS detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentvelsen, S.C.M.

    1994-01-01

    In May 1992, the HERA collider produced its first collisions between electrons and protons, at a center-of-mass energy of 295 GeV. The ZEUS experiment, one of the two main detectors at HERA, recorded 24.7 nb -1 of data in the fall of 1992. The analysis of this data, leading to an initial determination of the proton structure function F 2 in the kinematic domain accessible at HERA, is the main subject of this thesis. In the first chapter, a short review of inclusive deep-inelastic-scattering (DIS) is given. We also briefly present the status of pre-HERA fixed target DIS experiments. The second chapter offers a description of the HERA accelerator complex, the luminosity measurement and the ZEUS detector. Chapter three treats the reconstruction of x ans Q 2 from measured quantities. Chapter four describes the selection of the DIS data sample. Chapter five investigates various distributions of the DIS sample in comparison with the Monte Carlo predictions. The Monte Carlo distributions are given for extreme choices of the proton structure function parametrizations. In chapter six, we determine from the x and Q 2 distributions the proton structure function F 2 . A correction is made for the effect of the longitudinal structure function F L . The measured F 2 as a function of x is rising rapidly towards low values of x. (orig.)

  14. Low-temperature structural phase transition in deuterated and protonated lithium acetate dihydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, F., E-mail: schroeder@kristall.uni-frankfurt.d [Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Institut fuer Geowissenschaften, Abt. Kristallographie, Altenhoeferallee 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Winkler, B.; Haussuehl, E. [Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Institut fuer Geowissenschaften, Abt. Kristallographie, Altenhoeferallee 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Cong, P.T.; Wolf, B. [Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Physikalisches Institut, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Avalos-Borja, M. [Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica, A.C. Camino a la Presa San Jose 2055, Col. Lomas 4 seccion CP 78216, San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Quilichini, M.; Hennion, B. [Laboratoire Leon Brillouin, CEN Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2010-08-15

    Heat capacity measurements of protonated lithium acetate dihydrate show a structural phase transition at T = 12 K. This finding is in contrast to earlier work, where it was thought that only the deuterated compound undergoes a low temperature structural phase transition. This finding is confirmed by low temperature ultrasound spectroscopy, where the structural phase transition is associated with a velocity decrease of the ultrasonic waves, i.e. with an elastic softening. We compare the thermodynamic properties of the protonated and deuterated compounds and discuss two alternatives for the mechanism of the phase transition based on the thermal expansion measurements.

  15. Halo scale predictions of symmetron modified gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clampitt, Joseph; Jain, Bhuvnesh; Khoury, Justin, E-mail: clampitt@sas.upenn.edu, E-mail: bjain@physics.upenn.edu, E-mail: jkhoury@sas.upenn.edu [Center for Particle Cosmology and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd St., Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

    2012-01-01

    We offer predictions of symmetron modified gravity in the neighborhood of realistic dark matter halos. The predictions for the fifth force are obtained by solving the nonlinear symmetron equation of motion in the spherical NFW approximation. In addition, we compare the three major known screening mechanisms: Vainshtein, Chameleon, and Symmetron around such dark matter halos, emphasizing the significant differences between them and highlighting observational tests which exploit these differences. Finally, we demonstrate the host halo environmental screening effect (''blanket screening'') on smaller satellite halos by solving for the modified forces around a density profile which is the sum of satellite and approximate host components.

  16. Research Progresses of Halo Streams in the Solar Neighborhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi-long, Liang; Jing-kun, Zhao; Yu-qin, Chen; Gang, Zhao

    2018-01-01

    The stellar streams originated from the Galactic halo may be detected when they pass by the solar neighborhood, and they still keep some information at their birth times. Thus, the investigation of halo streams in the solar neighborhood is very important for understanding the formation and evolution of our Galaxy. In this paper, the researches of halo streams in the solar neighborhood are briefly reviewed. We have introduced the methods how to detect the halo streams and identify their member stars, summarized the progresses in the observation of member stars of halo streams and in the study of their origins, introduced in detail how to analyze the origins of halo streams in the solar neighborhood by means of numerical simulation and chemical abundance, and finally discussed the prospects of the LAMOST and GAIA in the research of halo streams in the solar neighborhood.

  17. Protons and how they are transported by proton pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch-Pedersen, Morten Jeppe; Pedersen, Bjørn Panyella; Veierskov, Bjarke

    2008-01-01

    The very high mobility of protons in aqueous solutions demands special features of membrane proton transporters to sustain efficient yet regulated proton transport across biological membranes. By the use of the chemical energy of ATP, plasma-membrane-embedded ATPases extrude protons from cells...... of plants and fungi to generate electrochemical proton gradients. The recently published crystal structure of a plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase contributes to our knowledge about the mechanism of these essential enzymes. Taking the biochemical and structural data together, we are now able to describe the basic...... molecular components that allow the plasma membrane proton H(+)-ATPase to carry out proton transport against large membrane potentials. When divergent proton pumps such as the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase, bacteriorhodopsin, and F(O)F(1) ATP synthase are compared, unifying mechanistic premises for biological...

  18. Halo shapes, initial shear field, and cosmic web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, G

    2014-01-01

    The ellipsoidal collapse model, combined with the excursion set theory, allows one to estimate the shapes of dark matter halos as seen in high-resolution numerical simulations. The same theoretical framework predicts a quasi-universal behaviour for the conditional axis ratio distributions at later times, set by initial conditions and unaltered by non-linear evolution. The formalism for halo shapes is also useful in making the connection with the initial shear field of the cosmic web, which plays a crucial role in the formation of large-scale structures. The author has briefly discussed the basic aspects of the modelling, as well as the implications of a new formula for the constrained eigenvalues of the initial shear field, given the fact that positions are peaks or dips in the corresponding density field – and not random locations. This formula leads to a new generalized excursion set algorithm for peaks in Gaussian random fields. The results highlighted, here, are relevant for a number of applications, especially for weak lensing studies and for devising algorithms to find and classify structures in the cosmic web

  19. Application of PM-355 track detectors for investigation of the spatial structure of plasma-proton streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinowski, K., E-mail: k.malinowski@ipj.gov.p [Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies (IPJ), 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Skladnik-Sadowska, E.; Sadowski, M.J.; Czaus, K. [Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies (IPJ), 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland)

    2009-10-15

    The paper describes the use of PM-355 track detectors for studies of spatial structures and energies of pulsed plasma-proton streams generated by an RPI-IBIS accelerator, powered from a 30-kJ condenser bank. Measurements were performed for different operational modes depending on a delay between the gas injection and discharge initiation. To study a spatial structure of the plasma-proton streams we used an ion pinhole camera with PM-355 detectors, placed at the symmetry axis of the experimental chamber, at a distance of 22 cm from electrode ends. To record low-energy (not below 30 keV) protons we did not apply any filter. To select protons of higher energies we used additional absorption filters made of Al-foils of 0.75, 1.5 and 3.0 mum in thickness, which eliminated protons of energies below 125, 210 and 345 keV, respectively. The spatial structure of the proton beams was analyzed and their dependence on the initial gas conditions was investigated.

  20. Internal Homogeneity, Descriptiveness, and Halo: Resurrecting Some Answers and Questions About the Structure of Job Performance Rating Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, William H.

    1983-01-01

    Assessed the effects of two rating category attributes on halo in job performance ratings. Results suggested reducing halo by using rating categories that do not force raters to rely on their overall evaluation of the ratee, or use the same salient observations for rating job performance on multiple categories. (JAC)

  1. Thermochemical and structural properties of DMAN-“proton sponges”

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dávalos, Juan Z.; Lago, Alexsandre F.; Costa, José C.S.; Santos, Luís M.N.B.F.; González, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We determined the enthalpy of formation Δ f H m o (g) of neutral and protonated DMAN. ► It has been estimated the “strain” effect and hydrogen bond enthalpies in DMAN-H + . ► GB gas phase basicities of naphthalene proton sponges are compared with their pK a . - Abstract: We report a study on the energetics and structural properties of naphthalene-based proton sponges and their corresponding protonated cations. In particular, we have determined the experimental standard enthalpies of formation in the gas phase at T = 298.15 K, Δ f H m o (g), for the neutral and protonated DMAN [1,8-bis (dimethylamino)-naphthalene], (221.0 ± 7.3) and (729.0 ± 11.1) kJ·mol −1 , respectively. A reliable experimental estimation of enthalpy associated with “strain” effect and hydrogen bond intramolecular (included within “enhanced basicity”, EB) contributions to the basicity of DMAN, were deduced from isodesmic reactions, −(29.1 ± 4.6) and (87.1 ± 11.9) kJ·mol −1 , respectively. The gas-phase basicities (GB) of naphthalene-based proton sponges are compared with the corresponding aqueous basicities (pK a ), covering a range of 149 kJ·mol −1 in GB and 11.5 in pK a . Density functional calculations at the M05-2X/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory were used to check the consistency of the experimental results and also to estimate the unavailable GB values of the considered species.

  2. HALOE test and evaluation software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, W.; Natarajan, S.

    1987-01-01

    Computer programming, system development and analysis efforts during this contract were carried out in support of the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) at NASA/Langley. Support in the major areas of data acquisition and monitoring, data reduction and system development are described along with a brief explanation of the HALOE project. Documented listings of major software are located in the appendix.

  3. Halo vest effect on balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, J K; Ross, A D; Riley, B; Rhodes, R L

    2000-03-01

    To determine the effect of a halo vest, a cervical orthosis, on clinically relevant balance parameters. Subjects performed unipedal stance (with eyes open and closed, on both firm and soft surfaces) and functional reach, with and without the application of a halo vest. A convenience sample of 12 healthy young subjects, with an equal number of men and women. Seconds for unipedal stance (maximum 45); inches for functional reach. Both unipedal stance times and functional reach (mean +/- standard deviation) were significantly decreased with the halo vest as compared to without it (29.1+/-5.8 vs. 32.8+/-6.4 seconds, p = .002; 12.9+/-1.4 vs. 15.1+/-2.1 inches, prisk for a fall, which could have devastating consequences.

  4. Protonic charge defect structures in floating water bridges observed as Zundel and Eigen solvation arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschke, Omar; de Castro, Jose Roberto; Valente Filho, Juracyr Ferraz; Soares, David Mendez

    2017-10-01

    Protonic arrangements were detected in water bridge structures using confocal Raman microscopy, and the spectra show two formed structures. The measured Raman spectra were modified using the voltage applied to the bridge structure, which changed the proportion of these two species. Initially, for a 6.3 kV applied voltage, there was a measurable increase in the bridge current above the Ohmic contribution and the observed Raman spectrum of this new injected specie corresponded to the computed spectrum for the Zundel protonic arrangement. As the voltage further increases a contribution from the Eigen proton solvation specie is added to the measured spectrum.

  5. Molecular simulations of hydrated proton exchange membranes. The structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcharnd, Gabriel [Duisburg-Essen Univ., Essen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Theoretische Chemie; Bordeaux Univ., Talence (France). Dept. of Chemistry; Bopp, Philippe A. [Bordeaux Univ., Talence (France). Dept. of Chemistry; Spohr, Eckhard [Duisburg-Essen Univ., Essen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Theoretische Chemie

    2013-01-15

    The structure of two hydrated proton exchange membranes for fuel cells (PEMFC), Nafion {sup registered} (Dupont) and Hyflon {sup registered} (Solvay), is studied by all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) computer simulations. Since the characteristic times of these systems are long compared to the times for which they can be simulated, several different, but equivalent, initial configurations with a large degree of randomness are generated for different water contents and then equilibrated and simulated in parallel. A more constrained structure, analog to the newest model proposed in the literature based on scattering experiments, is investigated in the same way. One might speculate that a limited degree of entanglement of the polymer chains is a key feature of the structures showing the best agreement with experiment. Nevertheless, the overall conclusion remains that the scattering experiments cannot distinguish between the several, in our view equally plausible, structural models. We thus find that the characteristic features of experimental scattering curves are, after equilibration, fairly well reproduced by all systems prepared with our method. We thus study in more detail some structural details. We attempt to characterize the spatial and size distribution of the water rich domains, which is where the proton diffusion mostly takes place, using several clustering algorithms. (orig.)

  6. Disc-halo interactions in ΛCDM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Jacob S.; Widrow, Lawrence M.; Erkal, Denis

    2018-05-01

    We present a new method for embedding a stellar disc in a cosmological dark matter halo and provide a worked example from a Λ cold dark matter zoom-in simulation. The disc is inserted into the halo at a redshift z = 3 as a zero-mass rigid body. Its mass and size are then increased adiabatically while its position, velocity, and orientation are determined from rigid-body dynamics. At z = 1, the rigid disc (RD) is replaced by an N-body disc whose particles sample a three-integral distribution function (DF). The simulation then proceeds to z = 0 with live disc (LD) and halo particles. By comparison, other methods assume one or more of the following: the centre of the RD during the growth phase is pinned to the minimum of the halo potential, the orientation of the RD is fixed, or the live N-body disc is constructed from a two rather than three-integral DF. In general, the presence of a disc makes the halo rounder, more centrally concentrated, and smoother, especially in the innermost regions. We find that methods in which the disc is pinned to the minimum of the halo potential tend to overestimate the amount of adiabatic contraction. Additionally, the effect of the disc on the subhalo distribution appears to be rather insensitive to the disc insertion method. The LD in our simulation develops a bar that is consistent with the bars seen in late-type spiral galaxies. In addition, particles from the disc are launched or `kicked up' to high galactic latitudes.

  7. Disk Heating, Galactoseismology, and the Formation of Stellar Halos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn V. Johnston

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Deep photometric surveys of the Milky Way have revealed diffuse structures encircling our Galaxy far beyond the “classical” limits of the stellar disk. This paper reviews results from our own and other observational programs, which together suggest that, despite their extreme positions, the stars in these structures were formed in our Galactic disk. Mounting evidence from recent observations and simulations implies kinematic connections between several of these distinct structures. This suggests the existence of collective disk oscillations that can plausibly be traced all the way to asymmetries seen in the stellar velocity distribution around the Sun. There are multiple interesting implications of these findings: they promise new perspectives on the process of disk heating; they provide direct evidence for a stellar halo formation mechanism in addition to the accretion and disruption of satellite galaxies; and, they motivate searches of current and near-future surveys to trace these oscillations across the Galaxy. Such maps could be used as dynamical diagnostics in the emerging field of “Galactoseismology”, which promises to model the history of interactions between the Milky Way and its entourage of satellites, as well examine the density of our dark matter halo. As sensitivity to very low surface brightness features around external galaxies increases, many more examples of such disk oscillations will likely be identified. Statistical samples of such features not only encode detailed information about interaction rates and mergers, but also about long sought-after dark matter halo densities and shapes. Models for the Milky Way’s own Galactoseismic history will therefore serve as a critical foundation for studying the weak dynamical interactions of galaxies across the universe.

  8. LONGITUDINAL MISMATCH IN SCL AS A SOURCE OF BEAM HALO.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RUGGIERO,A.G.

    2003-06-19

    An advantage of a proton Super-conducting Linac (SCL) is that RF cavities can be operated independently, allowing easier beam transport: and acceleration. But cavities are to be separated by drifts long enough to avoid they couple to each other. Moreover, cavities are placed in cryostats that include inactive insertions for cold-warm transitions; and interspersed are warm insertions for magnets and other devices. The SCL is then an alternating sequence of accelerating elements and drifts. No periodicity is present, and the longitudinal motion is not adiabatic. This has the consequence that the beam bunch ellipse will tumble, dilute and create a halo in the momentum plane because of inherent nonlinearities. When this is coupled to longitudinal space-charge forces, it may cause beam loss with latent activation of the accelerator components.

  9. Subhalo demographics in the Illustris simulation: effects of baryons and halo-to-halo variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Kun Ting Eddie; Pillepich, Annalisa; Rodriguez-Gomez, Vicente; Vogelsberger, Mark; Bird, Simeon; Hernquist, Lars

    2017-12-01

    We study the abundance of subhaloes in the hydrodynamical cosmological simulation Illustris, which includes both baryons and dark matter in a cold dark matter volume 106.5 Mpc a side. We compare Illustris to its dark-matter only (DMO) analogue, Illustris-Dark and quantify the effects of baryonic processes on the demographics of subhaloes in the host mass range 1011-3 × 1014 M⊙. We focus on both the evolved (z = 0) subhalo cumulative mass functions (SHMF) and the statistics of subhaloes ever accreted, i.e. infall SHMF. We quantify the variance in subhalo abundance at fixed host mass and investigate the physical reasons responsible for such scatter. We find that in Illustris, baryonic physics impacts both the infall and z = 0 subhalo abundance by tilting the DMO function and suppressing the abundance of low-mass subhaloes. The breaking of self-similarity in the subhalo abundance at z = 0 is enhanced by the inclusion of baryonic physics. The non-monotonic alteration of the evolved subhalo abundances can be explained by the modification of the concentration-mass relation of Illustris hosts compared to Illustris-Dark. Interestingly, the baryonic implementation in Illustris does not lead to an increase in the halo-to-halo variation compared to Illustris-Dark. In both cases, the normalized intrinsic scatter today is larger for Milky Way-like haloes than for cluster-sized objects. For Milky Way-like haloes, it increases from about eight per cent at infall to about 25 per cent at the current epoch. In both runs, haloes of fixed mass formed later host more subhaloes than early formers.

  10. Vacuum pumping by the halo plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, W.L.

    1985-01-01

    An estimate is made of the effective vacuum pumping speed of the halo plasma in a tandem mirror fusion reactor, and it is shown that, if the electron temperature and line density are great enough, the halo can be a very good vacuum pump. One can probably obtain the required density by recycling the ions at the halo dumps. An array of small venting ports in the dump plates allows local variation of the recycle fraction and local removal of the gas at a conveniently high pressure. This vented-port concept could introduce more flexibility in the design of pumped limiters for tokamaks

  11. Accurate mass and velocity functions of dark matter haloes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comparat, Johan; Prada, Francisco; Yepes, Gustavo; Klypin, Anatoly

    2017-08-01

    N-body cosmological simulations are an essential tool to understand the observed distribution of galaxies. We use the MultiDark simulation suite, run with the Planck cosmological parameters, to revisit the mass and velocity functions. At redshift z = 0, the simulations cover four orders of magnitude in halo mass from ˜1011M⊙ with 8783 874 distinct haloes and 532 533 subhaloes. The total volume used is ˜515 Gpc3, more than eight times larger than in previous studies. We measure and model the halo mass function, its covariance matrix w.r.t halo mass and the large-scale halo bias. With the formalism of the excursion-set mass function, we explicit the tight interconnection between the covariance matrix, bias and halo mass function. We obtain a very accurate (function. We also model the subhalo mass function and its relation to the distinct halo mass function. The set of models obtained provides a complete and precise framework for the description of haloes in the concordance Planck cosmology. Finally, we provide precise analytical fits of the Vmax maximum velocity function up to redshift z publicly available in the Skies and Universes data base.

  12. Using Dark Matter Haloes to Learn about Cosmic Acceleration: A New Proposal for a Universal Mass Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescod-Weinstein, Chanda; Afshordi, Niayesh

    2011-01-01

    Structure formation provides a strong test of any cosmic acceleration model because a successful dark energy model must not inhibit or overpredict the development of observed large-scale structures. Traditional approaches to studies of structure formation in the presence of dark energy or a modified gravity implement a modified Press-Schechter formalism, which relates the linear overdensities to the abundance of dark matter haloes at the same time. We critically examine the universality of the Press-Schechter formalism for different cosmologies, and show that the halo abundance is best correlated with spherical linear overdensity at 94% of collapse (or observation) time. We then extend this argument to ellipsoidal collapse (which decreases the fractional time of best correlation for small haloes), and show that our results agree with deviations from modified Press-Schechter formalism seen in simulated mass functions. This provides a novel universal prescription to measure linear density evolution, based on current and future observations of cluster (or dark matter) halo mass function. In particular, even observations of cluster abundance in a single epoch will constrain the entire history of linear growth of cosmological of perturbations.

  13. DETECTING TRIAXIALITY IN THE GALACTIC DARK MATTER HALO THROUGH STELLAR KINEMATICS. II. DEPENDENCE ON NATURE DARK MATTER AND GRAVITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas-Niño, Armando; Pichardo, Barbara; Valenzuela, Octavio [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70-264, 04510, México, D.F., Universitaria, D.F., México (Mexico); Martínez-Medina, Luis A., E-mail: barbara@astro.unam.mx, E-mail: octavio@astro.unam.mx [Departamento de Física, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, A.P. 14-740, 07000 México D.F., México (Mexico)

    2015-05-20

    Recent studies have presented evidence that the Milky Way global potential may be non-spherical. In this case, the assembling process of the Galaxy may have left long-lasting stellar halo kinematic fossils due to the shape of the dark matter halo, potentially originated by orbital resonances. We further investigate such a possibility, now considering potential models further away from ΛCDM halos, like scalar field dark matter halos and Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND), and including several other factors that may mimic the emergence and permanence of kinematic groups, such as a spherical and triaxial halo with an embedded disk potential. We find that regardless of the density profile (DM nature), kinematic groups only appear in the presence of a triaxial halo potential. For the case of a MOND-like gravity theory no kinematic structure is present. We conclude that the detection of these kinematic stellar groups could confirm the predicted triaxiality of dark halos in cosmological galaxy formation scenarios.

  14. UARS Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) Level 2 V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The HALOE home page on the WWW is http://haloe.gats-inc.com/home/index.php The Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) on NASA's Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite...

  15. Interactions between massive dark halos and warped disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijken, K; Persic, M; Salucci, P

    1997-01-01

    The normal mode theory for warping of galaxy disks, in which disks are assumed to be tilted with respect to the equator of a massive, flattened dark halo, assumes a rigid, fixed halo. However, consideration of the back-reaction by a misaligned disk on a massive particle halo shows there to be strong

  16. Gas-phase structure and fragmentation pathways of singly protonated peptides with N-terminal arginine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bythell, Benjamin J; Csonka, István P; Suhai, Sándor; Barofsky, Douglas F; Paizs, Béla

    2010-11-25

    The gas-phase structures and fragmentation pathways of the singly protonated peptide arginylglycylaspartic acid (RGD) are investigated by means of collision-induced-dissociation (CID) and detailed molecular mechanics and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. It is demonstrated that despite the ionizing proton being strongly sequestered at the guanidine group, protonated RGD can easily be fragmented on charge directed fragmentation pathways. This is due to facile mobilization of the C-terminal or aspartic acid COOH protons thereby generating salt-bridge (SB) stabilized structures. These SB intermediates can directly fragment to generate b(2) ions or facilely rearrange to form anhydrides from which both b(2) and b(2)+H(2)O fragments can be formed. The salt-bridge stabilized and anhydride transition structures (TSs) necessary to form b(2) and b(2)+H(2)O are much lower in energy than their traditional charge solvated counterparts. These mechanisms provide compelling evidence of the role of SB and anhydride structures in protonated peptide fragmentation which complements and supports our recent findings for tryptic systems (Bythell, B. J.; Suhai, S.; Somogyi, A.; Paizs, B. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2009, 131, 14057-14065.). In addition to these findings we also report on the mechanisms for the formation of the b(1) ion, neutral loss (H(2)O, NH(3), guanidine) fragment ions, and the d(3) ion.

  17. Surface proton transport of fully protonated poly(aspartic acid) thin films on quartz substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagao, Yuki, E-mail: ynagao@jaist.ac.jp; Kubo, Takahiro

    2014-12-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Proton transport of fully protonated poly(aspartic acid) thin film was investigated. • The thin film structure differed greatly from the partially protonated one. • Proton transport occurs on the surface, not inside of the thin film. • This result contributes to biological transport systems such as bacteriorhodopsin. - Abstract: Thin film structure and the proton transport property of fully protonated poly(aspartic acid) (P-Asp100) have been investigated. An earlier study assessed partially protonated poly(aspartic acid), highly oriented thin film structure and enhancement of the internal proton transport. In this study of P-Asp100, IR p-polarized multiple-angle incidence resolution (P-MAIR) spectra were measured to investigate the thin film structure. The obtained thin films, with thicknesses of 120–670 nm, had no oriented structure. Relative humidity dependence of the resistance, proton conductivity, and normalized resistance were examined to ascertain the proton transport property of P-Asp100 thin films. The obtained data showed that the proton transport of P-Asp100 thin films might occur on the surface, not inside of the thin film. This phenomenon might be related with the proton transport of the biological system.

  18. Surface proton transport of fully protonated poly(aspartic acid) thin films on quartz substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagao, Yuki; Kubo, Takahiro

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Proton transport of fully protonated poly(aspartic acid) thin film was investigated. • The thin film structure differed greatly from the partially protonated one. • Proton transport occurs on the surface, not inside of the thin film. • This result contributes to biological transport systems such as bacteriorhodopsin. - Abstract: Thin film structure and the proton transport property of fully protonated poly(aspartic acid) (P-Asp100) have been investigated. An earlier study assessed partially protonated poly(aspartic acid), highly oriented thin film structure and enhancement of the internal proton transport. In this study of P-Asp100, IR p-polarized multiple-angle incidence resolution (P-MAIR) spectra were measured to investigate the thin film structure. The obtained thin films, with thicknesses of 120–670 nm, had no oriented structure. Relative humidity dependence of the resistance, proton conductivity, and normalized resistance were examined to ascertain the proton transport property of P-Asp100 thin films. The obtained data showed that the proton transport of P-Asp100 thin films might occur on the surface, not inside of the thin film. This phenomenon might be related with the proton transport of the biological system

  19. Structure functions and final-state properties in deeply inelastic electron-proton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharraziha, H.

    1997-01-01

    In this thesis, we give a description of the detailed structure of the proton and a description of the final-state properties in electron-proton scattering. Qualitative results, in a purely gluonic scenario with the leading log approximation, and quantitative results, where quarks are included and some sub-leading corrections have been made, are presented. The quantitative results are in fair agreement with available experimental data and a Monte Carlo event generator for electron-proton scattering is presented. Further, a computer program for calculating QCD colour factors is presented

  20. Scale dependence of halo and galaxy bias: Effects in real space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Robert E.; Scoccimarro, Roman; Sheth, Ravi K.

    2007-01-01

    We examine the scale dependence of dark matter halo and galaxy clustering on very large scales (0.01 -1 ] -1 ] -1 ], and only show amplification on smaller scales, whereas low mass haloes show strong, ∼5%-10%, suppression over the range 0.05 -1 ]<0.15. These results were primarily established through the use of the cross-power spectrum of dark matter and haloes, which circumvents the thorny issue of shot-noise correction. The halo-halo power spectrum, however, is highly sensitive to the shot-noise correction; we show that halo exclusion effects make this sub-Poissonian and a new correction is presented. Our results have special relevance for studies of the baryon acoustic oscillation features in the halo power spectra. Nonlinear mode-mode coupling: (i) damps these features on progressively larger scales as halo mass increases; (ii) produces small shifts in the positions of the peaks and troughs which depend on halo mass. We show that these effects on halo clustering are important over the redshift range relevant to such studies (0< z<2), and so will need to be accounted for when extracting information from precision measurements of galaxy clustering. Our analytic model is described in the language of the ''halo model.'' The halo-halo clustering term is propagated into the nonlinear regime using ''1-loop'' perturbation theory and a nonlinear halo bias model. Galaxies are then inserted into haloes through the halo occupation distribution. We show that, with nonlinear bias parameters derived from simulations, this model produces predictions that are qualitatively in agreement with our numerical results. We then use it to show that the power spectra of red and blue galaxies depend differently on scale, thus underscoring the fact that proper modeling of nonlinear bias parameters will be crucial to derive reliable cosmological constraints. In addition to showing that the bias on very large scales is not simply linear, the model also shows that the halo-halo and halo

  1. Influence of neutron halo in the interaction of 6He nucleus of 35 MeV/nucleon with 197Au and 238U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perier, Yann

    1997-01-01

    In this study, we have attempted to answer some of the questions still open concerning neutron halo nuclei. The interest of the latter lies in their very peculiar structure. The analysis of the kinematical features of the halo nucleus fragments originating from the dissociation following the interaction with a target nucleus is an essential tool for probing this structure. We studied the 6 He + Au, U at 35 A.MeV system with a new method. Simultaneous measurements of the halo nucleus core, the halo neutrons and the excitation energy deposited in the target nucleus assessed with ORION allowed us to obtain information about the formation of the 5 He nucleus and about the partial validity of the sudden approximation at moderate bombarding energy. The study of the core nucleus and neutron angular distributions confirmed that it is difficult to extract information on the internal structure at the halo neutrons from their widths. The halo neutron longitudinal momentum distributions were studied. Their widths were found to increase as the impact parameter decreases. The 4 He - core parallel momentum distributions were also investigated. The widths are weakly dependent on the excitation energy deposited in the target nucleus, but increase with the 4 He emission angle as for the halo neutrons. The ratio between one- and two-neutron stripping cross sections seems to indicate that the two halo neutrons are strongly correlated with a large dineutron component, as ascertained by a calculation in the framework of the Serber model. (author)

  2. THE UNORTHODOX ORBITS OF SUBSTRUCTURE HALOS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludlow, Aaron D.; Navarro, Julio F.; Springel, Volker; Jenkins, Adrian; Frenk, Carlos S.; Helmi, Amina

    2009-01-01

    We use a suite of cosmological N-body simulations to study the properties of substructure halos (subhalos) in galaxy-sized cold dark matter halos. We extend prior work on the subject by considering the whole population of subhalos physically associated with the main system. These are defined as

  3. Effects of proton irradiation on structure of NdFeB permanent magnets studied by X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption fine structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, L.; Zhen, L.; Xu, C.Y.; Sun, X.Y.; Shao, W.Z.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of proton irradiation on the structure of NdFeB permanent magnet were investigated by X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS). The results reveal that proton irradiation has no effect on the long-range structure, but significantly affects the atomic local structure of the NdFeB magnet. The alignment degree of the magnet decreases and the internal stress of the lattice increases after proton irradiation. XAFS results show that the coordination number of Fe-Nd in the first neighboring coordination shell of the Fe atoms decreases and the disorder degree increases.

  4. Effects of proton irradiation on structure of NdFeB permanent magnets studied by X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption fine structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, L. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Zhen, L., E-mail: lzhen@hit.edu.c [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Xu, C.Y.; Sun, X.Y.; Shao, W.Z. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2011-01-15

    The effects of proton irradiation on the structure of NdFeB permanent magnet were investigated by X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS). The results reveal that proton irradiation has no effect on the long-range structure, but significantly affects the atomic local structure of the NdFeB magnet. The alignment degree of the magnet decreases and the internal stress of the lattice increases after proton irradiation. XAFS results show that the coordination number of Fe-Nd in the first neighboring coordination shell of the Fe atoms decreases and the disorder degree increases.

  5. Bimodal Formation Time Distribution for Infall Dark Matter Halos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jingjing; Wang, Huiyuan; Mo, H. J.; Xie, Lizhi; Wang, Xiaoyu; Lapi, Andrea; Sheth, Ravi K.

    2018-04-01

    We use a 200 {h}-1 {Mpc} a-side N-body simulation to study the mass accretion history (MAH) of dark matter halos to be accreted by larger halos, which we call infall halos. We define a quantity {a}nf}\\equiv (1+{z}{{f}})/(1+{z}peak}) to characterize the MAH of infall halos, where {z}peak} and {z}{{f}} are the accretion and formation redshifts, respectively. We find that, at given {z}peak}, their MAH is bimodal. Infall halos are dominated by a young population at high redshift and by an old population at low redshift. For the young population, the {a}nf} distribution is narrow and peaks at about 1.2, independent of {z}peak}, while for the old population, the peak position and width of the {a}nf} distribution both increase with decreasing {z}peak} and are both larger than those of the young population. This bimodal distribution is found to be closely connected to the two phases in the MAHs of halos. While members of the young population are still in the fast accretion phase at z peak, those of the old population have already entered the slow accretion phase at {z}peak}. This bimodal distribution is not found for the whole halo population, nor is it seen in halo merger trees generated with the extended Press–Schechter formalism. The infall halo population at {z}peak} are, on average, younger than the whole halo population of similar masses identified at the same redshift. We discuss the implications of our findings in connection to the bimodal color distribution of observed galaxies and to the link between central and satellite galaxies.

  6. Spin structure of the proton from polarized inclusive deep-inelastic muon-proton scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, D.; Arik, E.; Arvidson, A.; Badelek, B.; Ballintijn, M.K.; Bardin, G.; Baum, Guenter; Berglund, P.; Betev, L.; Bird, I.G.; Birsa, R.; Bjorkholm, P.; Bonner, B.E.; de Botton, N.; Boutemeur, M.; Bradamante, F.; Bravar, A.; Bressan, A.; Bueltmann, Stephen L.; Burtin, E.; Cavata, C.; Crabb, D.; Cranshaw, J.; Cuhadar, T.; Dalla Torre, S.; van Dantzig, R.; Derro, B.; Deshpande, A.; Dhawan, S.; Dulya, C.; Dyring, A.; Eichblatt, S.; Faivre, J.C.; Fasching, D.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandez, C.; Frois, B.; Gallas, A.; Garzon, J.A.; Gaussiran, T.; Giorgi, M.; von Goeler, E.; Gracia, G.; de Groot, N.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Gulmez, Erhan; von Harrach, D.; Hasegawa, T.; Hautle, P.; Hayashi, N.; Heusch, C.A.; Horikawa, N.; Hughes, V.W.; Igo, G.; Ishimoto, S.; Iwata, T.; Kabuss, E.M.; Karev, A.; Kessler, H.J.; Ketel, T.J.; Kishi, A.; Kiselev, Yu.; Klostermann, L.; Kramer, D.; Krivokhijine, V.; Kroger, W.; Kurek, K.; Kyynarainen, J.; Lamanna, M.; Landgraf, U.; Layda, T.; Le Goff, J.M.; Lehar, F.; de Lesquen, A.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Lindqvist, T.; Litmaath, M.; Lowe, M.; Magnon, A.; Mallot, G.K.; Marie, F.; Martin, A.; Martino, J.; Matsuda, T.; Mayes, B.; McCarthy, J.S.; Medved, K.; van Middelkoop, G.; Miller, D.; Mori, K.; Moromisato, J.; Nagaitsev, A.; Nassalski, J.; Naumann, L.; Niinikoski, T.O.; Oberski, J.E.J.; Ogawa, A.; Ozben, C.; Parks, D.P.; Penzo, A.; Kunne, F.; Peshekhonov, D.; Piegaia, R.; Pinsky, Lawrence S.; Platchkov, S.; Plo, M.; Pose, D.; Postma, H.; Pretz, J.; Pussieux, T.; Pyrlik, J.; Reyhancan, I.; Rijllart, A.; Roberts, J.B.; Rock, S.; Rodriguez, M.; Rondio, E.; Rosado, A.; Sabo, I.; Saborido, J.; Sandacz, A.; Savin, Igor A.; Schiavon, P.; Schuler, K.P.; Segel, R.; Seitz, R.; Semertzidis, Y.; Sever, F.; Shanahan, P.; Sichtermann, E.P.; Simeoni, F.; Smirnov, G.I.; Staude, A.; Steinmetz, A.; Stiegler, U.; Stuhrmann, H.; Szleper, M.; Teichert, K.M.; Tessarotto, F.; Tlaczala, W.; Trentalange, S.; Unel, G.; Velasco, M.; Vogt, J.; Voss, R.; Weinstein, R.; Whitten, C.; Windmolders, R.; Willumeit, R.; Wislicki, W.; Witzmann, A.; Zanetti, A.M.; Zaremba, K.; Zhao, J.

    1997-01-01

    We have measured the spin-dependent structure function $g_1^{\\rm p}$ in inclusive deep-inelastic scattering of polarized muons off polarized protons, in the kinematic range $0.003 < x < 0.7$ and $1\\gevtwo < Q^2 < 60\\gevtwo$. A next-to-leading order QCD analysis is used to evolve the measured $\\gpone(x,Q^2)$ to a fixed $Q^2_0$. The first moment of $\\gpone$ at $Q^2_0 = 10\\gevtwo$ is $\\gammap = 0.136\\pm 0.013 \\,(\\mbox{stat.}) \\pm 0.009\\,(\\mbox{syst.})\\pm 0.005\\ (\\mbox{evol.})$. This result is below the prediction of the Ellis--Jaffe sum rule by more than two standard deviations. The singlet axial charge $\\dsigt$ is found to be $0.28 \\pm 0.16$. In the Adler--Bardeen factorization scheme, $\\Delta g \\simeq 2$ is required to bring $\\Delta \\Sigma$ in agreement with the Quark-Parton Model. A combined analysis of all available proton and deuteron data confirms the Bjorken sum rule.

  7. Spatial and temporal beam profile monitor with nanosecond resolution for CERN's Linac4 and Superconducting Proton Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Hori, M

    2008-01-01

    The Linac4, now being developed at CERN, will provide 160-MeV H- beams of high intensity . Before this beam can be injected into the CERN Proton Synchrotron Booster or future Superconducting Proton Linac for further acceleration, some sequences of 500-ps-long micro-bunches must be removed from it, using a beam chopper. These bunches, if left in the beam, would fall outside the longitudinal acceptance of the accelerators and make them radioactive. We developed a monitor to measure the time structure and spatial profile of this chopped beam, with respective resolutions and . Its large active area and dynamic range also allows investigations of beam halos. The ion beam first struck a carbon foil, and secondary electrons emerging from the foil were accelerated by a series of parallel grid electrodes. These electrons struck a phosphor screen, and the resulting image of the scintillation light was guided to a thermoelectrically cooled, charge-coupled device camera. The time resolution was attained by applying high-...

  8. Convergence properties of halo merger trees; halo and substructure merger rates across cosmic history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Gregory B.; Mutch, Simon J.; Croton, Darren J.; Wyithe, Stuart

    2017-12-01

    We introduce GBPTREES: an algorithm for constructing merger trees from cosmological simulations, designed to identify and correct for pathological cases introduced by errors or ambiguities in the halo finding process. GBPTREES is built upon a halo matching method utilizing pseudo-radial moments constructed from radially sorted particle ID lists (no other information is required) and a scheme for classifying merger tree pathologies from networks of matches made to-and-from haloes across snapshots ranging forward-and-backward in time. Focusing on SUBFIND catalogues for this work, a sweep of parameters influencing our merger tree construction yields the optimal snapshot cadence and scanning range required for converged results. Pathologies proliferate when snapshots are spaced by ≲0.128 dynamical times; conveniently similar to that needed for convergence of semi-analytical modelling, as established by Benson et al. Total merger counts are converged at the level of ∼5 per cent for friends-of-friends (FoF) haloes of size np ≳ 75 across a factor of 512 in mass resolution, but substructure rates converge more slowly with mass resolution, reaching convergence of ∼10 per cent for np ≳ 100 and particle mass mp ≲ 109 M⊙. We present analytic fits to FoF and substructure merger rates across nearly all observed galactic history (z ≤ 8.5). While we find good agreement with the results presented by Fakhouri et al. for FoF haloes, a slightly flatter dependence on merger ratio and increased major merger rates are found, reducing previously reported discrepancies with extended Press-Schechter estimates. When appropriately defined, substructure merger rates show a similar mass ratio dependence as FoF rates, but with stronger mass and redshift dependencies for their normalization.

  9. Spectroscopy of 9Be and observation of neutron halo structure in the states of positive parity rotational band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demyanova A.S.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The differential cross sections of the 9Be + α inelastic scattering at 30 MeV were measured at the tandem of Tsukuba University. All the known states of 9Be up to energies ~ 12 MeV were observed and decomposed into three rotational bands, each of them having a cluster structure consisting of a 8Be core plus a valence neutron in one of the sub-shells: p3/2−, s1/2+ and p1/2−. Existence of a neutron halo in the positive parity states was confirmed.

  10. A Monte Carlo track structure code for low energy protons

    CERN Document Server

    Endo, S; Nikjoo, H; Uehara, S; Hoshi, M; Ishikawa, M; Shizuma, K

    2002-01-01

    A code is described for simulation of protons (100 eV to 10 MeV) track structure in water vapor. The code simulates molecular interaction by interaction for the transport of primary ions and secondary electrons in the form of ionizations and excitations. When a low velocity ion collides with the atoms or molecules of a target, the ion may also capture or lose electrons. The probabilities for these processes are described by the quantity cross-section. Although proton track simulation at energies above Bragg peak (>0.3 MeV) has been achieved to a high degree of precision, simulations at energies near or below the Bragg peak have only been attempted recently because of the lack of relevant cross-section data. As the hydrogen atom has a different ionization cross-section from that of a proton, charge exchange processes need to be considered in order to calculate stopping power for low energy protons. In this paper, we have used state-of-the-art Monte Carlo track simulation techniques, in conjunction with the pub...

  11. Local structure of gallate proton conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannici, F; Messana, D; Martorana, A; Longo, A; Sciortino, L

    2009-01-01

    Lanthanum barium gallate proton conductors are based on disconnected GaO 4 groups. The insertion of hydroxyls in the LaBaGaO 4 network proceeds through self-doping with Ba 2+ , consequent O 2- vacancy formation to fulfill charge neutrality. With a structural investigation on self-doped LaBaGaO 4 oxides using synchrotron XRD and EXAFS on the Ga K-edge, we find that: (a) the GaO 4 tetrahedra retain their size throughout the whole series; (b) the GaO 4 tetrahedra rotate as rigid bodies on hydration, leading to the formation of a network of shorter O-O configurations that are stabilized by hydrogen bonds; (c) contraction of the lattice occurs along the a unit cell axis, as a consequence of an overall structural rearrangement of the hydrated solid.

  12. Local structure of gallate proton conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannici, F.; Messana, D.; Longo, A.; Sciortino, L.; Martorana, A.

    2009-11-01

    Lanthanum barium gallate proton conductors are based on disconnected GaO4 groups. The insertion of hydroxyls in the LaBaGaO4 network proceeds through self-doping with Ba2+, consequent O2- vacancy formation to fulfill charge neutrality. With a structural investigation on self-doped LaBaGaO4 oxides using synchrotron XRD and EXAFS on the Ga K-edge, we find that: (a) the GaO4 tetrahedra retain their size throughout the whole series; (b) the GaO4 tetrahedra rotate as rigid bodies on hydration, leading to the formation of a network of shorter O-O configurations that are stabilized by hydrogen bonds; (c) contraction of the lattice occurs along the a unit cell axis, as a consequence of an overall structural rearrangement of the hydrated solid.

  13. Plasma and energetic particle structure upstream of a quasi-parallel interplanetary shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennel, C. F.; Scarf, F. L.; Coroniti, F. V.; Russell, C. T.; Wenzel, K.-P.; Sanderson, T. R.; Van Nes, P.; Smith, E. J.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Scudder, J. D.

    1984-01-01

    ISEE 1, 2 and 3 data from 1978 on interplanetary magnetic fields, shock waves and particle energetics are examined to characterize a quasi-parallel shock. The intense shock studied exhibited a 640 km/sec velocity. The data covered 1-147 keV protons and electrons and ions with energies exceeding 30 keV in regions both upstream and downstream of the shock, and also the magnitudes of ion-acoustic and MHD waves. The energetic particles and MHD waves began being detected 5 hr before the shock. Intense halo electron fluxes appeared ahead of the shock. A closed magnetic field structure was produced with a front end 700 earth radii from the shock. The energetic protons were cut off from the interior of the magnetic bubble, which contained a markedly increased density of 2-6 keV protons as well as the shock itself.

  14. Are baryonic galactic halos possible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olive, K.A.; Hegyi, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    There is little doubt from the rotation curves of spiral galaxies that galactic halos must contain large amounts of dark matter. In this contribution, the authors review arguments which indicate that it is very unlikely that galactic halos contain substantial amounts of baryonic matter. While the authors would like to be able to present a single argument which would rule out baryonic matter, at the present time they are only able to present a collection of arguments each of which argues against one form of baryonic matter. These include: 1) snowballs; 2) gas; 3) low mass stars and Jupiters; 4) high mass stars; and 5) high metalicity objects such as rooks or dust. Black holes, which do not have a well defined baryon number, are also a possible candidate for halo matter. They briefly discuss black holes

  15. Influence of neutron halo in the interaction of {sup 6}He nucleus of 35 MeV/nucleon with {sup 197}Au and {sup 238}U; Influence du halo de neutrons dans l`interaction du noyau {sup 6}He de 35 MeV/nucleon avec {sup 197}Au et {sup 238}U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perier, Yann [Grand Accelerateur National d`Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France)

    1997-10-27

    In this study, we have attempted to answer some of the questions still open concerning neutron halo nuclei. The interest of the latter lies in their very peculiar structure. The analysis of the kinematical features of the halo nucleus fragments originating from the dissociation following the interaction with a target nucleus is an essential tool for probing this structure. We studied the {sup 6}He + Au, U at 35 A.MeV system with a new method. Simultaneous measurements of the halo nucleus core, the halo neutrons and the excitation energy deposited in the target nucleus assessed with ORION allowed us to obtain information about the formation of the {sup 5}He nucleus and about the partial validity of the sudden approximation at moderate bombarding energy. The study of the core nucleus and neutron angular distributions confirmed that it is difficult to extract information on the internal structure at the halo neutrons from their widths. The halo neutron longitudinal momentum distributions were studied. Their widths were found to increase as the impact parameter decreases. The {sup 4}He - core parallel momentum distributions were also investigated. The widths are weakly dependent on the excitation energy deposited in the target nucleus, but increase with the {sup 4}He emission angle as for the halo neutrons. The ratio between one- and two-neutron stripping cross sections seems to indicate that the two halo neutrons are strongly correlated with a large dineutron component, as ascertained by a calculation in the framework of the Serber model. (author) 84 refs., 98 figs., 17 tabs.

  16. THE AVERAGE STAR FORMATION HISTORIES OF GALAXIES IN DARK MATTER HALOS FROM z = 0-8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behroozi, Peter S.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Conroy, Charlie

    2013-01-01

    We present a robust method to constrain average galaxy star formation rates (SFRs), star formation histories (SFHs), and the intracluster light (ICL) as a function of halo mass. Our results are consistent with observed galaxy stellar mass functions, specific star formation rates (SSFRs), and cosmic star formation rates (CSFRs) from z = 0 to z = 8. We consider the effects of a wide range of uncertainties on our results, including those affecting stellar masses, SFRs, and the halo mass function at the heart of our analysis. As they are relevant to our method, we also present new calibrations of the dark matter halo mass function, halo mass accretion histories, and halo-subhalo merger rates out to z = 8. We also provide new compilations of CSFRs and SSFRs; more recent measurements are now consistent with the buildup of the cosmic stellar mass density at all redshifts. Implications of our work include: halos near 10 12 M ☉ are the most efficient at forming stars at all redshifts, the baryon conversion efficiency of massive halos drops markedly after z ∼ 2.5 (consistent with theories of cold-mode accretion), the ICL for massive galaxies is expected to be significant out to at least z ∼ 1-1.5, and dwarf galaxies at low redshifts have higher stellar mass to halo mass ratios than previous expectations and form later than in most theoretical models. Finally, we provide new fitting formulae for SFHs that are more accurate than the standard declining tau model. Our approach places a wide variety of observations relating to the SFH of galaxies into a self-consistent framework based on the modern understanding of structure formation in ΛCDM. Constraints on the stellar mass-halo mass relationship and SFRs are available for download online.

  17. The Average Star Formation Histories of Galaxies in Dark Matter Halos from z = 0-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behroozi, Peter S.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Conroy, Charlie

    2013-06-01

    We present a robust method to constrain average galaxy star formation rates (SFRs), star formation histories (SFHs), and the intracluster light (ICL) as a function of halo mass. Our results are consistent with observed galaxy stellar mass functions, specific star formation rates (SSFRs), and cosmic star formation rates (CSFRs) from z = 0 to z = 8. We consider the effects of a wide range of uncertainties on our results, including those affecting stellar masses, SFRs, and the halo mass function at the heart of our analysis. As they are relevant to our method, we also present new calibrations of the dark matter halo mass function, halo mass accretion histories, and halo-subhalo merger rates out to z = 8. We also provide new compilations of CSFRs and SSFRs; more recent measurements are now consistent with the buildup of the cosmic stellar mass density at all redshifts. Implications of our work include: halos near 1012 M ⊙ are the most efficient at forming stars at all redshifts, the baryon conversion efficiency of massive halos drops markedly after z ~ 2.5 (consistent with theories of cold-mode accretion), the ICL for massive galaxies is expected to be significant out to at least z ~ 1-1.5, and dwarf galaxies at low redshifts have higher stellar mass to halo mass ratios than previous expectations and form later than in most theoretical models. Finally, we provide new fitting formulae for SFHs that are more accurate than the standard declining tau model. Our approach places a wide variety of observations relating to the SFH of galaxies into a self-consistent framework based on the modern understanding of structure formation in ΛCDM. Constraints on the stellar mass-halo mass relationship and SFRs are available for download online.

  18. Halo-independent direct detection analyses without mass assumptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Adam J.; Fox, Patrick J.; Kahn, Yonatan; McCullough, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Results from direct detection experiments are typically interpreted by employing an assumption about the dark matter velocity distribution, with results presented in the m χ −σ n plane. Recently methods which are independent of the DM halo velocity distribution have been developed which present results in the v min −g-tilde plane, but these in turn require an assumption on the dark matter mass. Here we present an extension of these halo-independent methods for dark matter direct detection which does not require a fiducial choice of the dark matter mass. With a change of variables from v min to nuclear recoil momentum (p R ), the full halo-independent content of an experimental result for any dark matter mass can be condensed into a single plot as a function of a new halo integral variable, which we call h-til-tilde(p R ). The entire family of conventional halo-independent g-tilde(v min ) plots for all DM masses are directly found from the single h-tilde(p R ) plot through a simple rescaling of axes. By considering results in h-tilde(p R ) space, one can determine if two experiments are inconsistent for all masses and all physically possible halos, or for what range of dark matter masses the results are inconsistent for all halos, without the necessity of multiple g-tilde(v min ) plots for different DM masses. We conduct a sample analysis comparing the CDMS II Si events to the null results from LUX, XENON10, and SuperCDMS using our method and discuss how the results can be strengthened by imposing the physically reasonable requirement of a finite halo escape velocity

  19. Halo statistics analysis within medium volume cosmological N-body simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinović N.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present halo statistics analysis of a ΛCDM N body cosmological simulation (from first halo formation until z = 0. We study mean major merger rate as a function of time, where for time we consider both per redshift and per Gyr dependence. For latter we find that it scales as the well known power law (1 + zn for which we obtain n = 2.4. The halo mass function and halo growth function are derived and compared both with analytical and empirical fits. We analyse halo growth through out entire simulation, making it possible to continuously monitor evolution of halo number density within given mass ranges. The halo formation redshift is studied exploring possibility for a new simple preliminary analysis during the simulation run. Visualization of the simulation is portrayed as well. At redshifts z = 0−7 halos from simulation have good statistics for further analysis especially in mass range of 1011 − 1014 M./h. [176021 ’Visible and invisible matter in nearby galaxies: theory and observations

  20. Galactic warps and the shape of heavy halos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparke, L.S.

    1984-01-01

    The outer disks of many spiral galaxies are bent away from the plane of the inner disk; the abundance of these warps suggests that they are long-lived. Isolated galactic disks have long been thought to have no discrete modes of vertical oscillation under their own gravity, and so to be incapable of sustaining persistent warps. However, the visible disk contains only a fraction of the galactic mass; an invisible galactic halo makes up the rest. This paper presents an investigation of vertical warping modes in self-gravitating disks, in the imposed potential due to an axisymmetric unseen massive halo. If the halo matter is distributed so that the free precession rate of a test particle decreases with radius near the edge of the disk, then the disk has a discrete mode of vibration; oblate halos which become rapidly more flattened at large radii, and uniformly prolate halos, satisfy this requirement. Otherwise, the disk has no discrete modes and so cannot maintain a long-lived warp, unless the edge is sharply truncated. Computed mode shapes which resemble the observed warps can be found for halo masses consistent with those inferred from galactic rotation curves

  1. Observation and analysis of halo current in EAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Da-Long; Shen, Biao; Qian, Jin-Ping; Sun, You-Wen; Liu, Guang-Jun; Shi, Tong-Hui; Zhuang, Hui-Dong; Xiao, Bing-Jia

    2014-06-01

    Plasma in a typically elongated cross-section tokamak (for example, EAST) is inherently unstable against vertical displacement. When plasma loses the vertical position control, it moves downward or upward, leading to disruption, and a large halo current is generated helically in EAST typically in the scrape-off layer. When flowing into the vacuum vessel through in-vessel components, the halo current will give rise to a large J × B force acting on the vessel and the in-vessel components. In EAST VDE experiment, part of the eddy current is measured in halo sensors, due to the large loop voltage. Primary experimental data demonstrate that the halo current first lands on the outer plate and then flows clockwise, and the analysis of the information indicates that the maximum halo current estimated in EAST is about 0.4 times the plasma current and the maximum value of TPF × Ih/IP0 is 0.65, furthermore Ih/Ip0 and TPF × Ih/Ip0 tend to increase with the increase of Ip0. The test of the strong gas injection system shows good success in increasing the radiated power, which may be effective in reducing the halo current.

  2. Unmixing the Galactic halo with RR Lyrae tagging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belokurov, V.; Deason, A. J.; Koposov, S. E.; Catelan, M.; Erkal, D.; Drake, A. J.; Evans, N. W.

    2018-06-01

    We show that tagging RR Lyrae stars according to their location in the period-amplitude diagram can be used to shed light on the genesis of the Galactic stellar halo. The mixture of RR Lyrae of ab type, separated into classes along the lines suggested by Oosterhoff, displays a strong and coherent evolution with Galactocentric radius. The change in the RR Lyrae composition appears to coincide with the break in the halo's radial density profile at ˜25 kpc. Using simple models of the stellar halo, we establish that at least three different types of accretion events are necessary to explain the observed RRab behaviour. Given that there exists a correlation between the RRab class fraction and the total stellar content of a dwarf satellite, we hypothesize that the field halo RRab composition is controlled by the mass of the progenitor contributing the bulk of the stellar debris at the given radius. This idea is tested against a suite of cosmological zoom-in simulations of Milky Way-like stellar halo formation. Finally, we study some of the most prominent stellar streams in the Milky Way halo and demonstrate that their RRab class fractions follow the trends established previously.

  3. Technique for sparing previously irradiated critical normal structures in salvage proton craniospinal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, Mark W; Wolanski, Mark R; Simmons, Joseph W; Buchsbaum, Jeffrey C

    2013-01-01

    Cranial reirradiation is clinically appropriate in some cases but cumulative radiation dose to critical normal structures remains a practical concern. The authors developed a simple technique in 3D conformal proton craniospinal irradiation (CSI) to block organs at risk (OAR) while minimizing underdosing of adjacent target brain tissue. Two clinical cases illustrate the use of proton therapy to provide salvage CSI when a previously irradiated OAR required sparing from additional radiation dose. The prior radiation plan was coregistered to the treatment planning CT to create a planning organ at risk volume (PRV) around the OAR. Right and left lateral cranial whole brain proton apertures were created with a small block over the PRV. Then right and left lateral “inverse apertures” were generated, creating an aperture opening in the shape of the area previously blocked and blocking the area previously open. The inverse aperture opening was made one millimeter smaller than the original block to minimize the risk of dose overlap. The inverse apertures were used to irradiate the target volume lateral to the PRV, selecting a proton beam range to abut the 50% isodose line against either lateral edge of the PRV. Together, the 4 cranial proton fields created a region of complete dose avoidance around the OAR. Comparative photon treatment plans were generated with opposed lateral X-ray fields with custom blocks and coplanar intensity modulated radiation therapy optimized to avoid the PRV. Cumulative dose volume histograms were evaluated. Treatment plans were developed and successfully implemented to provide sparing of previously irradiated critical normal structures while treating target brain lateral to these structures. The absence of dose overlapping during irradiation through the inverse apertures was confirmed by film. Compared to the lateral X-ray and IMRT treatment plans, the proton CSI technique improved coverage of target brain tissue while providing the least

  4. Galaxy halo occupation at high redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, James S.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Somerville, Rachel S.

    2002-01-01

    We discuss how current and future data on the clustering and number density of z~3 Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs) can be used to constrain their relationship to dark matter haloes. We explore a three-parameter model in which the number of LBGs per dark halo scales like a power law in the halo mass: N(M)=(M/M1)S for M>Mmin. Here, Mmin is the minimum mass halo that can host an LBG, M1 is a normalization parameter, associated with the mass above which haloes host more than one observed LBG, and S determines the strength of the mass-dependence. We show how these three parameters are constrained by three observable properties of LBGs: the number density, the large-scale bias and the fraction of objects in close pairs. Given these three quantities, the three unknown model parameters may be estimated analytically, allowing a full exploration of parameter space. As an example, we assume a ΛCDM cosmology and consider the observed properties of a recent sample of spectroscopically confirmed LBGs. We find that the favoured range for our model parameters is Mmin~=(0.4-8)×1010h- 1Msolar, M1~=(6-10)×1012h- 1Msolar, and 0.9acceptable if the allowed range of bg is permitted to span all recent observational estimates. We also discuss how the observed clustering of LBGs as a function of luminosity can be used to constrain halo occupation, although because of current observational uncertainties we are unable to reach any strong conclusions. Our methods and results can be used to constrain more realistic models that aim to derive the occupation function N(M) from first principles, and offer insight into how basic physical properties affect the observed properties of LBGs.

  5. Sub-Coulomb fusion with halo nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fekou-Youmbi, V.; Sida, J.L.; Alamanos, N.; Auger, F.; Bazin, D.; Borcea, C.; Cabot, C.; Cunsolo, A.; Foti, A.; Gillibert, A.; Lepine, A.; Lewitowicz, M.; Liguori-Neto, R.; Mittig, W.; Pollacco, E.; Roussel-Chomaz, P.; Volant, C.; Yong Feng, Y.

    1995-01-01

    The nuclear structure of halo nuclei may have strong influence on the fusion cross section at sub-barrier energies. The actual theoretical debate is briefly reviewed and sub-barrier fusion calculations for the system 11 Be+ 238 U are presented. An experimental program on sub-barrier fusion for the systems 7,9,10,11 Be+ 238 U is underway at GANIL. First results with 9 Be and 11 Be beams were obtained using the F.U.S.ION detector. Relative fission cross sections are presented. ((orig.))

  6. Surface proton transport of fully protonated poly(aspartic acid) thin films on quartz substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Yuki; Kubo, Takahiro

    2014-12-01

    Thin film structure and the proton transport property of fully protonated poly(aspartic acid) (P-Asp100) have been investigated. An earlier study assessed partially protonated poly(aspartic acid), highly oriented thin film structure and enhancement of the internal proton transport. In this study of P-Asp100, IR p-polarized multiple-angle incidence resolution (P-MAIR) spectra were measured to investigate the thin film structure. The obtained thin films, with thicknesses of 120-670 nm, had no oriented structure. Relative humidity dependence of the resistance, proton conductivity, and normalized resistance were examined to ascertain the proton transport property of P-Asp100 thin films. The obtained data showed that the proton transport of P-Asp100 thin films might occur on the surface, not inside of the thin film. This phenomenon might be related with the proton transport of the biological system.

  7. Doping of 6H-SiC pn structures by proton irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'chuk, Anatoly M.; Lebedev, Alexandre A.; Kozlovski, Vitali V.; Savkina, Natali S.; Davydov, Denis V.; Solov'ev, Viktor V.; Rastegaeva, Marina G.

    1999-01-01

    The influence of proton irradiation on current-voltage characteristics, N d - N a values and parameters of deep centres in 6H-SiC pn structures grown by sublimation epitaxy has been studied. The irradiation was carried out with 8 MeV protons in the range of doses from 10 14 to 10 16 cm -2 . Irradiation with a dose of 3.6x10 14 cm -2 leaves the voltage drop at high forward currents (10 A/cm 2 ) practically unchanged. For higher irradiation dose of 1.8x10 15 cm -2 , the forward voltage drop and the degree of compensation in the samples increased ; partial annealing of the radiation defects and partial recovery of the electrical parameters occurred after annealing at T∼400-800 K. Irradiation with a dose of 5.4x10 15 cm -2 resulted in very high resistance in forward biased pn structures which remained high even after heating to 500 deg. C. It is suggested that proton irradiation causes decreasing of the lifetime and formation of an i- or an additional p-layer

  8. Historic halo displays as weather indicator: Criteria and examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhäuser, Dagmar L.; Neuhäuser, Ralph

    2016-04-01

    There are numerous celestial signs reported in historic records, many of them refer to atmospheric ("sub-lunar") phenomena, such as ice halos and aurorae. In an interdisciplinary collaboration between astrophysics and cultural astronomy, we noticed that celestial observations including meteorological phenomena are often misinterpreted, mostly due to missing genuine criteria: especially ice crystal halos were recorded frequently in past centuries for religious reasons, but are mistaken nowadays often for other phenomena like aurorae. Ice halo displays yield clear information on humidity and temperature in certain atmospheric layers, and thereby indicate certain weather patterns. Ancient so-called rain makers used halo observations for weather forecast; e.g., a connection between certain halo displays and rain a few day later is statistically significant. Ice halos exist around sun and moon and are reported for both (they can stay for several days): many near, middle, and far eastern records from day- and night-time include such observations with high frequency. (Partly based on publications on halos by D.L. Neuhäuser & R. Neuhäuser, available at http://www.astro.uni-jena.de/index.php/terra-astronomy.html)

  9. Sensitivity of the halo nuclei-12C elastic scattering at incident nucleon energy 800 MeV to the halo density distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, M. A. M.; Nour El-Din, M. S. M.; Ellithi, A.; Hosny, H.; Salama, T. N. E.

    2017-10-01

    In the framework of Glauber optical limit approximation where Coulomb effect is taken into account, the elastic scattering differential cross section for halo nuclei with {}^{12}{C} at 800 MeV/N has been calculated. Its sensitivity to the halo densities and the root mean square of the core and halo is the main goal of the current study. The projectile nuclei are taken to be one-neutron and two-neutron halo. The calculations are carried out for Gaussian-Gaussian, Gaussian-Oscillator and Gaussian-2 s phenomenological densities for each considered projectile in the mass number range 6-29. Also included a comparison between the obtained results of phenomenological densities and the results within the microscopic densities LSSM of {}6{He} and {}^{11}{Li} and microscopic densities GCM of {}^{11}{Be} where the density of the target nucleus {}^{12}{C} obtained from electron-{}^{12}{C} scattering is used. The zero range approximation is considered in the calculations. We found that the sensitivity of elastic scattering differential cross section to the halo density is clear if the nucleus appears as two clear different clusters, core and halo.

  10. Proton decay: spectroscopic probe beyond the proton drip line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seweryniak, D; Davids, C N; Robinson, A; Woods, P J; Blank, B; Carpenter, M P; Davinson, T; Freeman, S J; Hammond, N; Hoteling, N; Janssens, R V F; Khoo, T L; Liu, Z; Mukherjee, G; Shergur, J; Sinha, S; Sonzogni, A A; Walters, W B; Woehr, A

    2005-01-01

    Proton decay has been transformed in recent years from an exotic phenomenon into a powerful spectroscopic tool. The frontiers of experimental and theoretical proton-decay studies will be reviewed. Different aspects of proton decay will be illustrated with recent results on the deformed proton emitter 135 Tb, the odd-odd deformed proton emitter 130 Eu, the complex fine structure in the odd-odd 146 Tm nucleus and on excited states in the transitional proton emitter 145 Tm

  11. THE X-RAY HALO OF CEN X-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Thomas W. J.; Rothschild, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    Using two Chandra observations, we have derived estimates of the dust distribution and distance to the eclipsing high-mass X-ray binary Cen X-3 using the energy-resolved dust-scattered X-ray halo. By comparing the observed X-ray halos in 200 eV bands from 2-5 keV to the halo profiles predicted by the Weingartner and Draine interstellar grain model, we find that the vast majority (∼ 70%) of the dust along the line of sight to the system is located within about 300 pc of the Sun, although the halo measurements are insensitive to dust very close to the source. One of the Chandra observations occurred during an egress from eclipse as the pulsar emerged from behind the mass-donating primary. By comparing model halo light curves during this transition to the halo measurements, a source distance of 5.7 ± 1.5 kpc (68% confidence level) is estimated, although we find this result depends on the distribution of dust on very small scales. Nevertheless, this value is marginally inconsistent with the commonly accepted distance to Cen X-3 of 8 kpc. We also find that the energy scaling of the scattering optical depth predicted by the Weingartner and Draine interstellar grain model does not accurately represent the results determined by X-ray halo studies of Cen X-3. Relative to the model, there appears to be less scattering at low energies or more scattering at high energies in Cen X-3.

  12. Hierarchical formation of dark matter halos and the free streaming scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiyama, Tomoaki

    2014-01-01

    The smallest dark matter halos are formed first in the early universe. According to recent studies, the central density cusp is much steeper in these halos than in larger halos and scales as ρ∝r –(1.5-1.3) . We present the results of very large cosmological N-body simulations of the hierarchical formation and evolution of halos over a wide mass range, beginning from the formation of the smallest halos. We confirmed early studies that the inner density cusps are steeper in halos at the free streaming scale. The cusp slope gradually becomes shallower as the halo mass increases. The slope of halos 50 times more massive than the smallest halo is approximately –1.3. No strong correlation exists between the inner slope and the collapse epoch. The cusp slope of halos above the free streaming scale seems to be reduced primarily due to major merger processes. The concentration, estimated at the present universe, is predicted to be 60-70, consistent with theoretical models and earlier simulations, and ruling out simple power law mass-concentration relations. Microhalos could still exist in the present universe with the same steep density profiles.

  13. Measurement of the Proton and Deuteron Spin Structure Functions G1 and G2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobias, Al

    2003-04-02

    The SLAC experiment E155 was a deep-inelastic scattering experiment that scattered polarized electrons off polarized proton and deuteron targets in the effort to measure precisely the proton and deuteron spin structure functions. The nucleon structure functions g{sub 1} and g{sub 2} are important quantities that help test our present models of nucleon structure. Such information can help quantify the constituent contributions to the nucleon spin. The structure functions g{sub 1}{sup p} and G{sub 1}{sup d} have been measured over the kinematic range 0.01 {le} x {le} 0.9 and 1 {le} Q{sup 2} {le} 40 GeV{sup 2} by scattering 48.4 GeV longitudinally polarized electrons off longitudinally polarized protons and deuterons. In addition, the structure functions g{sub 2}{sup p} and g{sub 2}{sup d} have been measured over the kinematic range 0.01 {le} x {le} 0.7 and 1 {le} Q{sup 2} {le} 17 GeV{sup 2} by scattering 38.8 GeV longitudinally polarized electrons off transversely polarized protons and deuterons. The measurements of g{sub 1} confirm the Bjorken sum rule and find the net quark polarization to be {Delta}{Sigma} = 0.23 {+-} 0.04 {+-} 0.6 while g{sub 2} is found to be consistent with the g{sub 2}{sup WW} model.

  14. Towards structural and functional analysis of the plant plasma membrane proton pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Bo Højen

    The plasma membrane H+-ATPase is a proton pump essential for several physiological important processes in plants. Through the extrusion of protons from the cell, the PM H+-ATPase establishes and maintains a proton gradient used by proton coupled transporters and secondary active transport...... of nutrients and metabolites across the plasma membrane. Additional processes involving the PM H+-ATPase includes plant growth, development, and response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Extensive efforts have been made in attempts to elucidate the detailed physiological role and biochemical characteristics...... of plasma membrane H+-ATPases. Studies on the plasma membrane H+-ATPases have involved both in vivo and in vitro approaches, with the latter employing either solubilisation by detergent micelles, or reconstitution into lipid vesicles. Despite resulting in a large body of information on structure, function...

  15. Caustic ring model of the Milky Way halo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, L. D.; Sikivie, P.

    2008-01-01

    We present a proposal for the full phase-space distribution of the Milky Way halo. The model is axially and reflection symmetric and its time evolution is self-similar. It describes the halo as a set of discrete dark matter flows with stated densities and velocity vectors everywhere. We first discuss the general conditions under which the time evolution of a cold collisionless self-gravitating fluid is self-similar, and show that symmetry is not necessary for self-similarity. When spherical symmetry is imposed, the model is the same as described by Fillmore and Goldreich, and by Bertschinger, twenty-three years ago. The spherically symmetric model depends on one dimensionless parameter ε and two dimensionful parameters. We set ε=0.3, a value consistent with the slope of the power spectrum of density perturbations on galactic scales. The dimensionful parameters are determined by the galactic rotation velocity (220 km/s) at the position of the Sun and by the age of the Galaxy (13.7 Gyr). The properties of the outer caustics are derived in the spherically symmetric model. The structure of the inner halo depends on the angular momentum distribution of the dark matter particles. We assume that distribution to be axial and reflection symmetric, and dominated by net overall rotation. The inner caustics are rings whose radii are determined in terms of a single additional parameter j max . We summarize the observational evidence in support of the model. The evidence is consistent with j max =0.18 in Concordance cosmology, equivalent to j max,old =0.26 in Einstein-de Sitter cosmology. We give formulas to estimate the flow densities and velocity vectors anywhere in the Milky Way halo. The properties of the first 40 flows at the location of the Earth are listed.

  16. Phase models of galaxies consisting of disk and halo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osipkov, L.P.; Kutuzov, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    A method of finding the phase density of a two-component model of mass distribution is developed. The equipotential surfaces and the potential law are given. The equipotentials are lenslike surfaces with a sharp edge in the equatorial plane, which provides the existence of an imbedded thin disk in halo. The equidensity surfaces of the halo coincide with the equipotentials. Phase models for the halo and the disk are constructed separately on the basis of spatial and surface mass densities by solving the corresponding integral equations. In particular the models for the halo with finite dimensions can be constructed. The even part of the phase density in respect to velocities is only found. For the halo it depends on the energy integral as a single argument

  17. Vibrational spectroscopy on protons and deuterons in proton conducting perovskites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glerup, M.; Poulsen, F.W.; Berg, R.W.

    2002-01-01

    A short review of IR-spectroscopy on protons in perovskite structure oxides is given. The nature of possible proton sites, libration and combination tones and degree of hydrogen bonding is emphasised. Three new spectroscopic experiments and/or interpretations are presented. An IR-microscopy exper......A short review of IR-spectroscopy on protons in perovskite structure oxides is given. The nature of possible proton sites, libration and combination tones and degree of hydrogen bonding is emphasised. Three new spectroscopic experiments and/or interpretations are presented. An IR...

  18. Reference dosimetry of proton pencil beams based on dose-area product: a proof of concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomà, Carles; Safai, Sairos; Vörös, Sándor

    2017-06-21

    This paper describes a novel approach to the reference dosimetry of proton pencil beams based on dose-area product ([Formula: see text]). It depicts the calibration of a large-diameter plane-parallel ionization chamber in terms of dose-area product in a 60 Co beam, the Monte Carlo calculation of beam quality correction factors-in terms of dose-area product-in proton beams, the Monte Carlo calculation of nuclear halo correction factors, and the experimental determination of [Formula: see text] of a single proton pencil beam. This new approach to reference dosimetry proves to be feasible, as it yields [Formula: see text] values in agreement with the standard and well-established approach of determining the absorbed dose to water at the centre of a broad homogeneous field generated by the superposition of regularly-spaced proton pencil beams.

  19. Neutron structures of the Helicobacter pylori 5'-methylthioadenosine nucleosidase highlight proton sharing and protonation states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banco, Michael T.; Mishra, Vidhi; Ostermann, Andreas; Schrader, Tobias E.; Evans, Gary B.; Kovalevsky, Andrey; Ronning, Donald R.

    2016-11-16

    MTAN (5'-methylthioadenosine nucleosidase) catalyzes the hydrolysis of the N-ribosidic bond of a variety of adenosine-containing metabolites. The Helicobacter pylori MTAN (HpMTAN) hydrolyzes 6-amino-6-deoxyfutalosine in the second step of the alternative menaquinone biosynthetic pathway. Substrate binding of the adenine moiety is mediated almost exclusively by hydrogen bonds, and the proposed catalytic mechanism requires multiple proton-transfer events. Of particular interest is the protonation state of residue D198, which possesses a pKa above 8 and functions as a general acid to initiate the enzymatic reaction. In this study we present three corefined neutron/X-ray crystal structures of wild-type HpMTAN cocrystallized with S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), Formycin A (FMA), and (3R,4S)-4-(4-Chlorophenylthiomethyl)-1-[(9-deaza-adenin-9-yl)methyl]-3-hydroxypyrrolidine (p-ClPh-Thio-DADMe-ImmA) as well as one neutron/X-ray crystal structure of an inactive variant (HpMTAN-D198N) cocrystallized with SAH. These results support a mechanism of D198 pKa elevation through the unexpected sharing of a proton with atom N7 of the adenine moiety possessing unconventional hydrogen-bond geometry. Additionally, the neutron structures also highlight active site features that promote the stabilization of the transition state and slight variations in these interactions that result in 100-fold difference in binding affinities between the DADMe-ImmA and ImmA analogs.

  20. Abort Options for Human Missions to Earth-Moon Halo Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesick, Mark C.

    2013-01-01

    Abort trajectories are optimized for human halo orbit missions about the translunar libration point (L2), with an emphasis on the use of free return trajectories. Optimal transfers from outbound free returns to L2 halo orbits are numerically optimized in the four-body ephemeris model. Circumlunar free returns are used for direct transfers, and cislunar free returns are used in combination with lunar gravity assists to reduce propulsive requirements. Trends in orbit insertion cost and flight time are documented across the southern L2 halo family as a function of halo orbit position and free return flight time. It is determined that the maximum amplitude southern halo incurs the lowest orbit insertion cost for direct transfers but the maximum cost for lunar gravity assist transfers. The minimum amplitude halo is the most expensive destination for direct transfers but the least expensive for lunar gravity assist transfers. The on-orbit abort costs for three halos are computed as a function of abort time and return time. Finally, an architecture analysis is performed to determine launch and on-orbit vehicle requirements for halo orbit missions.

  1. Local structure of gallate proton conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannici, F; Messana, D; Martorana, A [Universita degli Studi di Palermo, Dipartimento di Chimica Inorganica ed Analitica, Viale delle Scienze, I-90128 Palermo (Italy); Longo, A [CNR, Istituto per lo studio dei materiali nanostrutturati, Via Ugo La Malfa 153, I-90146 Palermo (Italy); Sciortino, L, E-mail: sciortino@pa.ismn.cnr.i

    2009-11-15

    Lanthanum barium gallate proton conductors are based on disconnected GaO{sub 4} groups. The insertion of hydroxyls in the LaBaGaO{sub 4} network proceeds through self-doping with Ba{sup 2+}, consequent O{sup 2-} vacancy formation to fulfill charge neutrality. With a structural investigation on self-doped LaBaGaO{sub 4} oxides using synchrotron XRD and EXAFS on the Ga K-edge, we find that: (a) the GaO{sub 4} tetrahedra retain their size throughout the whole series; (b) the GaO{sub 4} tetrahedra rotate as rigid bodies on hydration, leading to the formation of a network of shorter O-O configurations that are stabilized by hydrogen bonds; (c) contraction of the lattice occurs along the a unit cell axis, as a consequence of an overall structural rearrangement of the hydrated solid.

  2. Dynamical Constraints On The Galaxy-Halo Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmond, Harry

    2017-07-01

    Dark matter halos comprise the bulk of the universe's mass, yet must be probed by the luminous galaxies that form within them. A key goal of modern astrophysics, therefore, is to robustly relate the visible and dark mass, which to first order means relating the properties of galaxies and halos. This may be expected not only to improve our knowledge of galaxy formation, but also to enable high-precision cosmological tests using galaxies and hence maximise the utility of future galaxy surveys. As halos are inaccessible to observations - as galaxies are to N-body simulations - this relation requires an additional modelling step.The aim of this thesis is to develop and evaluate models of the galaxy-halo connection using observations of galaxy dynamics. In particular, I build empirical models based on the technique of halo abundance matching for five key dynamical scaling relations of galaxies - the Tully-Fisher, Faber-Jackson, mass-size and mass discrepancy-acceleration relations, and Fundamental Plane - which relate their baryon distributions and rotation or velocity dispersion profiles. I then develop a statistical scheme based on approximate Bayesian computation to compare the predicted and measured values of a number of summary statistics describing the relations' important features. This not only provides quantitative constraints on the free parameters of the models, but also allows absolute goodness-of-fit measures to be formulated. I find some features to be naturally accounted for by an abundance matching approach and others to impose new constraints on the galaxy-halo connection; the remainder are challenging to account for and may imply galaxy-halo correlations beyond the scope of basic abundance matching.Besides providing concrete statistical tests of specific galaxy formation theories, these results will be of use for guiding the inputs of empirical and semi-analytic galaxy formation models, which require galaxy-halo correlations to be imposed by hand. As

  3. Dark energy and extended dark matter halos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernin, A. D.; Teerikorpi, P.; Valtonen, M. J.; Dolgachev, V. P.; Domozhilova, L. M.; Byrd, G. G.

    2012-03-01

    The cosmological mean matter (dark and baryonic) density measured in the units of the critical density is Ωm = 0.27. Independently, the local mean density is estimated to be Ωloc = 0.08-0.23 from recent data on galaxy groups at redshifts up to z = 0.01-0.03 (as published by Crook et al. 2007, ApJ, 655, 790 and Makarov & Karachentsev 2011, MNRAS, 412, 2498). If the lower values of Ωloc are reliable, as Makarov & Karachentsev and some other observers prefer, does this mean that the Local Universe of 100-300 Mpc across is an underdensity in the cosmic matter distribution? Or could it nevertheless be representative of the mean cosmic density or even be an overdensity due to the Local Supercluster therein. We focus on dark matter halos of groups of galaxies and check how much dark mass the invisible outer layers of the halos are able to host. The outer layers are usually devoid of bright galaxies and cannot be seen at large distances. The key factor which bounds the size of an isolated halo is the local antigravity produced by the omnipresent background of dark energy. A gravitationally bound halo does not extend beyond the zero-gravity surface where the gravity of matter and the antigravity of dark energy balance, thus defining a natural upper size of a system. We use our theory of local dynamical effects of dark energy to estimate the maximal sizes and masses of the extended dark halos. Using data from three recent catalogs of galaxy groups, we show that the calculated mass bounds conform with the assumption that a significant amount of dark matter is located in the invisible outer parts of the extended halos, sufficient to fill the gap between the observed and expected local matter density. Nearby groups of galaxies and the Virgo cluster have dark halos which seem to extend up to their zero-gravity surfaces. If the extended halo is a common feature of gravitationally bound systems on scales of galaxy groups and clusters, the Local Universe could be typical or even

  4. The ratio of structure functions for the neutron and the proton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballintijn, M.K.

    1994-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is the ratio of the structure functions F 2 of the deuteron and the proton. The structure function ratio is measured by the NMC with high precision due to a dedicated target setup. In this thesis the analysis is presented of the data taken in 1989, which were obtained using incident muon energies of 120, 200 and 280 GeV. These data complement the results from earlier measurements performed in 1986 and 1987 which were obtained at 90 and 280 GeV incident muon energy. The newly determined structure function ratio, in a slightly extended range of the scaling parameter x, is compared to the previous one and is found to be in good agreement. All data are combined to give the most accurate determination of the structure function ratio to date. The results are used to determine the dependence of the structure function ratio on the value of Q 2 , the scale at which the nucleon is probed. Finally, the structure function ratios obtained at four different incident muon energies separately, are used to determine the difference R d -R p , where R is the ratio of cross sections for the absorption of longitudinally and transversely polarized virtual photons. The difference in R for the deuteron and the proton is related to differences in the gluon distribution. The result is compatible with a gluon distribution that is identical for the deuteron and the proton. The degree of equality of R d and R p is a measure for the correctness of the procedure to extract structure function ratios. The present result is R d -R p =0.02±0.02 and hence compatible with zero. (orig.)

  5. Can $\\beta$-decay probe excited state halos?

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    In the first experiment at the newly constructed ISOLDE Facility the first-forbidden $\\beta$-decay of $^{17}$Ne into the first excited state of $^{17}$F has been measured. It is a factor two faster than the corresponding mirror decay and thus gives one of the largest recorded asymmetries for $\\beta$-decays feeding bound final states. Shell-model calculations can only reproduce the asymmetry if the halo structure of the $^{17}$F state is taken into account.

  6. THE M33 GLOBULAR CLUSTER SYSTEM WITH PAndAS DATA: THE LAST OUTER HALO CLUSTER?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cockcroft, Robert; Harris, William E.; Ferguson, Annette M. N.

    2011-01-01

    We use CFHT/MegaCam data to search for outer halo star clusters in M33 as part of the Pan-Andromeda Archaeological Survey. This work extends previous studies out to a projected radius of 50 kpc and covers over 40 deg 2 . We find only one new unambiguous star cluster in addition to the five previously known in the M33 outer halo (10 kpc ≤ r ≤ 50 kpc). Although we identify 2440 cluster candidates of various degrees of confidence from our objective image search procedure, almost all of these are likely background contaminants, mostly faint unresolved galaxies. We measure the luminosity, color, and structural parameters of the new cluster in addition to the five previously known outer halo clusters. At a projected radius of 22 kpc, the new cluster is slightly smaller, fainter, and redder than all but one of the other outer halo clusters, and has g' ∼ 19.9, (g' - i') ∼ 0.6, concentration parameter c ∼ 1.0, a core radius r c ∼ 3.5 pc, and a half-light radius r h ∼ 5.5 pc. For M33 to have so few outer halo clusters compared to M31 suggests either tidal stripping of M33's outer halo clusters by M31, or a very different, much calmer accretion history of M33.

  7. X-ray haloes around supernova remnants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morfill, G.E.; Aschenbach, B.

    1984-01-01

    Recent observations of the Cas-A supernova remnant have shown X-ray emissions not only from the interior, but also from a fainter 'halo' extending beyond what is normally regarded as the outer boundary, or shock front. The authors suggest that this may be due to the diffusion of energetic, charged particles out of the remnant giving rise to precursor structure of the type predicted by the theory of diffusive shock acceleration. If this is the case we are seeing thermal emission from ambient gas heated by compression and wave dissipation. (author)

  8. X-ray haloes around supernova remnants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morfill, G.E.; Aschenbach, B. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik und Astrophysik, Garching (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Extraterrestrische Physik); Drury, L.O' C. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany, F.R.))

    1984-09-27

    Recent observations of the Cas-A supernova remnant have shown X-ray emissions not only from the interior, but also from a fainter 'halo' extending beyond what is normally regarded as the outer boundary, or shock front. The authors suggest that this may be due to the diffusion of energetic charged particles out of the remnant giving rise to precursor structure of the type predicted by the theory of diffusive shock acceleration. If this is the case we are seeing thermal emission from ambient gas heated by compression and wave dissipation.

  9. El halo de la memoria

    OpenAIRE

    GAVINO ROSELLÓ, AARÓN

    2017-01-01

    The halo effect is one of the most classic cognitive biases of psychology, and one that we can observe frequently in everyday life. It consists in the realization of an erroneous generalization from a single characteristic or quality of an object or a person, that is, we make a previous judgment from which, we generalize the rest of characteristics. The halo effect manifests itself as continuous in our life. For example, if someone is very handsome or attractive we attribute another series...

  10. Chataika Halo.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    INHERITANCE OF HALO BLIGHT RESISTANCE IN COMMON BEAN ... pv phaseolicola (Psp) is a serious seed-borne disease of common bean ... a toxin produced by the Psp bacterium when ... stakes or in association with maize for support.

  11. Spin alignment of dark matter haloes in filaments and walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aragón-Calvo, M. A.; Weygaert, R. van de; Jones, B. J. T.; Hulst, T. van der

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: The MMF technique is used to segment the cosmic web as seen in a cosmological N-body simulation into wall-like and filament-like structures. We find that the spins and shapes of dark matter haloes are significantly correlated with each other and with the orientation of their host

  12. Cumulative Neutrino and Gamma-Ray Backgrounds from Halo and Galaxy Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chengchao; Mészáros, Peter; Murase, Kohta; Jeong, Donghui

    2018-04-01

    The merger of dark matter halos and the gaseous structures embedded in them, such as protogalaxies, galaxies, and groups and clusters of galaxies, results in strong shocks that are capable of accelerating cosmic rays (CRs) to ≳10 PeV. These shocks will produce high-energy neutrinos and γ-rays through inelastic pp collisions. In this work, we study the contributions of these halo mergers to the diffuse neutrino flux and to the nonblazar portion of the extragalactic γ-ray background. We formulate the redshift dependence of the shock velocity, galactic radius, halo gas content, and galactic/intergalactic magnetic fields over the dark matter halo distribution up to a redshift z = 10. We find that high-redshift mergers contribute a significant amount of the CR luminosity density, and the resulting neutrino spectra could explain a large part of the observed diffuse neutrino flux above 0.1 PeV up to several PeV. We also show that our model can somewhat alleviate tensions with the extragalactic γ-ray background. First, since a larger fraction of the CR luminosity density comes from high redshifts, the accompanying γ-rays are more strongly suppressed through γγ annihilations with the cosmic microwave background and the extragalactic background light. Second, mildly radiative-cooled shocks may lead to a harder CR spectrum with spectral indices of 1.5 ≲ s ≲ 2.0. Our study suggests that halo mergers, a fraction of which may also induce starbursts in the merged galaxies, can be promising neutrino emitters without violating the existing Fermi γ-ray constraints on the nonblazar component of the extragalactic γ-ray background.

  13. The shape of the invisible halo: N-body simulations on parallel supercomputers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, M.S.; Zurek, W.H. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Quinn, P.J. (Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia). Mount Stromlo and Siding Spring Observatories); Salmon, J.K. (California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (USA))

    1990-01-01

    We study the shapes of halos and the relationship to their angular momentum content by means of N-body (N {approximately} 10{sup 6}) simulations. Results indicate that in relaxed halos with no apparent substructure: (i) the shape and orientation of the isodensity contours tends to persist throughout the virialised portion of the halo; (ii) most ({approx}70%) of the halos are prolate; (iii) the approximate direction of the angular momentum vector tends to persist throughout the halo; (iv) for spherical shells centered on the core of the halo the magnitude of the specific angular momentum is approximately proportional to their radius; (v) the shortest axis of the ellipsoid which approximates the shape of the halo tends to align with the rotation axis of the halo. This tendency is strongest in the fastest rotating halos. 13 refs., 4 figs.

  14. A diffusive model for halo width growth during vertical displacement events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eidietis, N.W.; Humphreys, D.A.

    2011-01-01

    The electromagnetic loads produced by halo currents during vertical displacement events (VDEs) impose stringent requirements on the strength of ITER in-vessel components. A predictive understanding of halo current evolution is essential for ensuring the robust design of these components. A significant factor determining that evolution is the plasma resistance, which is a function of three quantities: the resistivities of the core and halo regions, and the halo region width. A diffusive model of halo width growth during VDEs has been developed, which provides one part of a physics basis for predictive halo current simulations. The diffusive model was motivated by DIII-D observations that VDEs with cold post-thermal quench plasma and a current decay time much faster than the vertical motion (type I VDE) possess much wider halo region widths than warmer plasma VDEs, where the current decay is much slower than the vertical motion (type II). A 2D finite element code is used to model the diffusion of toroidal halo current during selected type I and type II DIII-D VDEs. The model assumes a core plasma region within the last closed flux surface (LCFS) diffusing current into a halo plasma filling the vessel outside the LCFS. LCFS motion and plasma temperature are prescribed from experimental observations. The halo width evolution produced by this model compares favourably with experimental measurements of type I and type II toroidal halo current width evolution.

  15. Controlling beam halo-chaos via backstepping design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yuan; Kong Feng

    2008-01-01

    A backstepping control method is proposed for controlling beam halo-chaos in the periodic focusing channels (PFCs) of high-current ion accelerator. The analysis and numerical results show that the method, via adjusting an exterior magnetic field, is effective to control beam halo chaos with five types of initial distribution ion beams, all statistical quantities of the beam halo-chaos are largely reduced, and the uniformity of ion beam is improved. This control method has an important value of application, for the exterior magnetic field can be easily adjusted in the periodical magnetic focusing channels in experiment

  16. Proton capture reactions and nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikstra, S.W.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental studies are described of the structure of 40 Ca and 42 Sc with measurements at proton-capture of (p, gamma) reactions. Where possible, an attempt has been made to interpret the results of the measurements in termsof existing models. The 40 Ca and 42 Sc nuclides were excited by bombarding 39 K and 41 Ca targets, respectively with low energy protons (E p = 0.3-3.0 MeV), that were produced by the Utrecht 3MV van de Graaff accelerator. From the measured energy and intensity of the gamma-rays created in the subsequent decay of the cuclei, information was obtained on the existence and properties of their excited states. In addition properties of two T = 3/2 levels at high excitation energy of the 9 Be nucleus were investigated. These levels were excited by the resonant absorption of gamma-rays from the 11 B(p, gamma) 12 C reaction. The results of the measurements are interpreted by a comparison to the analoque β-decay of 9 Li and to shell model calculations. The total decay energy of the superallowed O + → O + transition between the ground states of 42 Sc and 42 Ca was determined by measurements in Utrecht of the proton separation energy S p of 42 Sc and in Oak Ridge of S n of 42 Sc and 42 Ca. The results were used for verification of the conserved vector current hypothesis, which implies that the ft values of all superallowed O + → O + β-decays are the same. An attempt was made to describe properties of odd-parity states of A = 37-41 nuclei with a variant of the Warburton, Becker, Millener and Brown (WBMB) interaction.Finally a new method for the assignment of nuclear spins by a simple statistical analysis of spectroscopic information is proposed. (author). 169 refs.; 22 figs.; 24 schemes; 29 tabs

  17. Effect of pulsed hollow electron-lens operation on the proton beam core in LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitterer, Miriam [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Stancari, Giulio [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Valishev, Alexander [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2016-11-08

    Collimation with hollow electron beams is currently one of the most promising concepts for active halo control in the HL-LHC. In order to further increase the diffusion rates for a fast halo removal as e.g. desired before the squeeze, the electron lens (e-lens) can be operated in pulsed mode. In case of profile imperfections in the electron beam the pulsing of the e-lens induces noise on the proton beam which can, depending on the frequency content and strength, lead to emittance growth. In order to study the sensitivity to the pulsing pattern and the amplitude, a beam study (machine development MD) at the LHC has been proposed for August 2016 and we present in this note the preparatory simulations and estimates.

  18. Extract relation between structures of proton and nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gareev, E.A.; Gareeva, G.; )

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Schroedinger wrote that an interaction between microscopic physical objects is controlled by specific resonance laws. According to these laws, the difference between two eigenenergies (eigenfrequencies) in one system should be equal to each other: hv 1 -hv' 1 =hv 2 -hv' 2 , v 1 -v' 1 =v 2 -v' 2 . Therefore, the eigenfrequencies are additive. In other words, the resonance condition is formulated in the following way: oscillations participating in an interaction process should be constituents of the same frequency. Thus, we come to the conclusion: in a whole interacting self-consistent wave system the hierarchy of frequencies is established So, the sum of all partial frequencies is an integral of motion. Any interaction in a microscopic hierarchic wave system exhibits the resonance character. Due to the above-said the corresponding partial motions are determinate. As the resonance condition arises from the fundamental energy conservation law, the rhythms and synchronization of the majority of phenomena to be observed are the reflection of the universal property of self-organization of the Universe. The Huygens synchronization principle is substantiated at the microscopic level. We come to the conclusion that the proton stability can be explained by the assumption: channel motions in a proton are exactly synchronous. Therefore proton represent coherent synchronized states The aim this paper is to establish some bridge between structures of proton and nuclei as the further extension our phenomenological analysis. The parameter-free formula for spectra of nuclei has been obtained which establish some bridge between the structures of a proton and nuclei. The energies of nuclear states have been systematically analyzed by using all available experimental data. The interest of our results is not only in their closeness to the experimental data, but also in the derivation of formula from the fundamental law of Nature: the conservation law of energy

  19. Chemical Cartography. I. A Carbonicity Map of the Galactic Halo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Sun; Kim, Young Kwang [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134 (Korea, Republic of); Beers, Timothy C.; Placco, Vinicius; Yoon, Jinmi [Department of Physics and JINA Center for the Evolution of the Elements, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Carollo, Daniela [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Masseron, Thomas [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Jung, Jaehun, E-mail: youngsun@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Astronomy, Space Science, and Geology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-10

    We present the first map of carbonicity, [C/Fe], for the halo system of the Milky Way, based on a sample of over 100,000 main-sequence turnoff stars with available spectroscopy from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. This map, which explores distances up to 15 kpc from the Sun, reveals clear evidence for the dual nature of the Galactic halo, based on the spatial distribution of stellar carbonicity. The metallicity distribution functions of stars in the inner- and outer-halo regions of the carbonicity map reproduce those previously argued to arise from contributions of the inner- and outer-halo populations, with peaks at [Fe/H] = −1.5 and −2.2, respectively. From consideration of the absolute carbon abundances for our sample, A (C), we also confirm that the carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars in the outer-halo region exhibit a higher frequency of CEMP-no stars (those with no overabundances of heavy neutron-capture elements) than of CEMP- s stars (those with strong overabundances of elements associated with the s -process), whereas the stars in the inner-halo region exhibit a higher frequency of CEMP- s stars. We argue that the contrast in the behavior of the CEMP-no and CEMP- s fractions in these regions arises from differences in the mass distributions of the mini-halos from which the stars of the inner- and outer-halo populations formed, which gives rise in turn to the observed dichotomy of the Galactic halo.

  20. Development of a Full Ice-cream Cone Model for Halo Coronal Mass Ejections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Hyeonock; Moon, Y.-J.; Lee, Harim, E-mail: nho0512@khu.ac.kr, E-mail: moonyj@khu.ac.kr [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-20

    It is essential to determine three-dimensional parameters (e.g., radial speed, angular width, and source location) of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) for the space weather forecast. In this study, we investigate which cone type represents a halo CME morphology using 29 CMEs (12 Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) /Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) halo CMEs and 17 Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory ( STEREO )/Sun–Earth Connection Coronal and Heliospheric Investigation COR2 halo CMEs) from 2010 December to 2011 June. These CMEs are identified as halo CMEs by one spacecraft ( SOHO or one of STEREO A and B ) and limb ones by the other spacecraft (One of STEREO A and B or SOHO ). From cone shape parameters of these CMEs, such as their front curvature, we find that the CME observational structures are much closer to a full ice-cream cone type than a shallow ice-cream cone type. Thus, we develop a full ice-cream cone model based on a new methodology that the full ice-cream cone consists of many flat cones with different heights and angular widths to estimate the three-dimensional parameters of the halo CMEs. This model is constructed by carrying out the following steps: (1) construct a cone for a given height and angular width, (2) project the cone onto the sky plane, (3) select points comprising the outer boundary, and (4) minimize the difference between the estimated projection speeds with the observed ones. By applying this model to 12 SOHO /LASCO halo CMEs, we find that 3D parameters from our method are similar to those from other stereoscopic methods (i.e., a triangulation method and a Graduated Cylindrical Shell model).

  1. Development of a Full Ice-cream Cone Model for Halo Coronal Mass Ejections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Hyeonock; Moon, Y.-J.; Lee, Harim

    2017-01-01

    It is essential to determine three-dimensional parameters (e.g., radial speed, angular width, and source location) of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) for the space weather forecast. In this study, we investigate which cone type represents a halo CME morphology using 29 CMEs (12 Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) /Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) halo CMEs and 17 Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory ( STEREO )/Sun–Earth Connection Coronal and Heliospheric Investigation COR2 halo CMEs) from 2010 December to 2011 June. These CMEs are identified as halo CMEs by one spacecraft ( SOHO or one of STEREO A and B ) and limb ones by the other spacecraft (One of STEREO A and B or SOHO ). From cone shape parameters of these CMEs, such as their front curvature, we find that the CME observational structures are much closer to a full ice-cream cone type than a shallow ice-cream cone type. Thus, we develop a full ice-cream cone model based on a new methodology that the full ice-cream cone consists of many flat cones with different heights and angular widths to estimate the three-dimensional parameters of the halo CMEs. This model is constructed by carrying out the following steps: (1) construct a cone for a given height and angular width, (2) project the cone onto the sky plane, (3) select points comprising the outer boundary, and (4) minimize the difference between the estimated projection speeds with the observed ones. By applying this model to 12 SOHO /LASCO halo CMEs, we find that 3D parameters from our method are similar to those from other stereoscopic methods (i.e., a triangulation method and a Graduated Cylindrical Shell model).

  2. Development of a Full Ice-cream Cone Model for Halo Coronal Mass Ejections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Hyeonock; Moon, Y.-J.; Lee, Harim

    2017-04-01

    It is essential to determine three-dimensional parameters (e.g., radial speed, angular width, and source location) of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) for the space weather forecast. In this study, we investigate which cone type represents a halo CME morphology using 29 CMEs (12 Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO)/Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) halo CMEs and 17 Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO)/Sun-Earth Connection Coronal and Heliospheric Investigation COR2 halo CMEs) from 2010 December to 2011 June. These CMEs are identified as halo CMEs by one spacecraft (SOHO or one of STEREO A and B) and limb ones by the other spacecraft (One of STEREO A and B or SOHO). From cone shape parameters of these CMEs, such as their front curvature, we find that the CME observational structures are much closer to a full ice-cream cone type than a shallow ice-cream cone type. Thus, we develop a full ice-cream cone model based on a new methodology that the full ice-cream cone consists of many flat cones with different heights and angular widths to estimate the three-dimensional parameters of the halo CMEs. This model is constructed by carrying out the following steps: (1) construct a cone for a given height and angular width, (2) project the cone onto the sky plane, (3) select points comprising the outer boundary, and (4) minimize the difference between the estimated projection speeds with the observed ones. By applying this model to 12 SOHO/LASCO halo CMEs, we find that 3D parameters from our method are similar to those from other stereoscopic methods (I.e., a triangulation method and a Graduated Cylindrical Shell model).

  3. THE HALO OCCUPATION DISTRIBUTION OF SDSS QUASARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, Jonathan; Chatterjee, Suchetana; Nagai, Daisuke; Zheng Zheng; Shen Yue

    2012-01-01

    We present an estimate of the projected two-point correlation function (2PCF) of quasars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) over the full range of one- and two-halo scales, 0.02 h –1 Mpc p –1 Mpc. This was achieved by combining data from SDSS DR7 on large scales and Hennawi et al. (with appropriate statistical corrections) on small scales. Our combined clustering sample is the largest spectroscopic quasar clustering sample to date, containing ∼48, 000 quasars in the redshift range 0.4 ∼ sat = (7.4 ± 1.4) × 10 –4 , be satellites in dark matter halos. At z ∼ 1.4, the median masses of the host halos of central and satellite quasars are constrained to be M cen = 4.1 +0.3 –0.4 × 10 12 h –1 M ☉ and M sat = 3.6 +0.8 –1.0 × 10 14 h –1 M ☉ , respectively. To investigate the redshift evolution of the quasar-halo relationship, we also perform HOD modeling of the projected 2PCF measured by Shen et al. for SDSS quasars with median redshift 3.2. We find tentative evidence for an increase in the mass scale of quasar host halos—the inferred median mass of halos hosting central quasars at z ∼ 3.2 is M cen = 14.1 +5.8 –6.9 × 10 12 h –1 M ☉ . The cutoff profiles of the mean occupation functions of central quasars reveal that quasar luminosity is more tightly correlated with halo mass at higher redshifts. The average quasar duty cycle around the median host halo mass is inferred to be f q = 7.3 +0.6 –1.5 × 10 –4 at z ∼ 1.4 and f q = 8.6 +20.4 –7.2 × 10 –2 at z ∼ 3.2. We discuss the implications of our results for quasar evolution and quasar-galaxy co-evolution.

  4. Halo-Independent Direct Detection Analyses Without Mass Assumptions

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Adam J.; Kahn, Yonatan; McCullough, Matthew

    2015-10-06

    Results from direct detection experiments are typically interpreted by employing an assumption about the dark matter velocity distribution, with results presented in the $m_\\chi-\\sigma_n$ plane. Recently methods which are independent of the DM halo velocity distribution have been developed which present results in the $v_{min}-\\tilde{g}$ plane, but these in turn require an assumption on the dark matter mass. Here we present an extension of these halo-independent methods for dark matter direct detection which does not require a fiducial choice of the dark matter mass. With a change of variables from $v_{min}$ to nuclear recoil momentum ($p_R$), the full halo-independent content of an experimental result for any dark matter mass can be condensed into a single plot as a function of a new halo integral variable, which we call $\\tilde{h}(p_R)$. The entire family of conventional halo-independent $\\tilde{g}(v_{min})$ plots for all DM masses are directly found from the single $\\tilde{h}(p_R)$ plot through a simple re...

  5. The properties of the dark matter halo distribution in non-Gaussian scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbone, C.; Branchini, E.; Dolag, K.; Grossi, M.; Iannuzzi, F.; Matarrese, S.; Moscardini, L.; Verde, L.

    2009-01-01

    The description of halo abundance and clustering for non-Gaussian initial conditions has recently received renewed interest, motivated by the forthcoming large galaxy and cluster surveys, which can potentially detect primordial non-Gaussianity of the local form with a non-Gaussianity parameter |f NL | of order unity. This is particularly exciting because, while the simplest single-field slow-roll models of inflation predict a primordial |f NL | NL of large-scale structures that are expected to be above the predicted detection threshold [C. Carbone, L. Verde, and S. Matarrese, ApJL 684 (2008) L1]. We present tests on N-body simulations of analytical formulae describing the halo abundance and clustering for non-Gaussian initial conditions. In particular, when we calibrate the analytic non-Gaussian mass function of [S. Matarrese, L. Verde, L. and R. Jimenez, ApJL 541 (2000) 10] and [M. LoVerde, A. Miller, S. Shandera and L. Verde, JCAP 04 (2008) 014] and the analytic description of halo clustering for non-Gaussian initial conditions on N-body simulations, we find excellent agreement between the simulations and the analytic predictions if we make the substitutions δ c →δ c x√(q) and δ c →δ c xq where q≅0.75, in the density threshold for gravitational collapse and in the non-Gaussian fractional correction to the halo bias, respectively. We discuss the implications of these corrections on present and forecasted primordial non-Gaussianity constraints. We confirm that the non-Gaussian halo bias offers a robust and highly competitive test of primordial non-Gaussianity.

  6. Structural design study of a proton beam window for a 1-MW spallation neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teraoku, Takuji; Terada, Atsuhiko; Maekawa, Fujio; Meigo, Shin-ichiro; Kaminaga, Masanori; Ishikura, Syuichi; Hino, Ryutaro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2003-03-01

    A 1-MW spallation neutron source aiming at materials and life science researches will be constructed under the JAERI-KEK High-intensity Proton Accelerator Project (J-PARC). A proton beam passes through a proton beam window, and be injected into a target of the neutron source. The proton beam window functions as a boundary wall between a high vacuum area in the proton beam line and a helium atmosphere at about atmospheric pressure in a helium vessel which contains the target and moderators. The proton beam window is cooled by light water because high heat-density is generated in the window material by interactions with the proton beam. Then, uniformity of the water flow is requested at the window to suppress a hot-spot that causes excessive thermal stress and cooling water boiling. Also, the window has to be strong enough in its structure for inner stress due to water pressure and thermal stress due to heat generation. In this report, we propose two types of proton beam windows; one flat-type that is easy to manufacture, and the other, curved-type that has high stress resistivity. As a part of design study for the windows, evaluation of strength of structure and thermal hydraulic analysis were conducted. As a result, it was found that sufficient heat removal was assured with uniform water flow at the window, and stress caused by internal water pressure and thermal stress could be maintained below allowable stress values. Accordingly, it was confirmed that the proton beam window designs were feasible. (author)

  7. Defect structure in proton-irradiated copper and nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukuda, Noboru; Ehrhart, P.; Jaeger, W.; Schilling, W.; Dworschak, F.; Gadalla, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    This single crystals of copper or nickel with a thickness of about 10 μm are irradiated with 3 MeV protons at room temperature and the structures of resultant defects are investigated based on measurements of the effects of irradiation on the electrical resistivity, length, lattice constants, x-ray diffraction line profile and electron microscopic observations. The measurements show that the electrical resistivity increases with irradiation dose, while leveling off at high dose due to overlapping of irradiation cascades. The lattice constants decreases, indicating that many vacancies still remain while most of the interstitial stoms are eliminated, absorbed or consumed for dislocation loop formation. The x-ray line profile undergoes broadening, which is the result of dislocation loops, dislocation networks and SFT's introduced by the proton irradiation. Various defects have different effects though they cannot be identified separately from the profile alone. A satellite peak appears at a low angle, which seems to arise from periodic defect structures that are found in electron microscopic observations. In both copper and nickel, such periodic defect structures are seen over a wide range from high to low dose. Defect-free and defect-rich domains (defect walls), 0.5 to several μm in size, are alingned parallel to the {001} plane at intervals of 60 nm. The defect walls, which consist of dislocations, dislocation loops and SFT's, is 20 - 40 nm thick. (Nogami, K.)

  8. Studying dark matter haloes with weak lensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velander, Malin Barbro Margareta

    2012-01-01

    Our Universe is comprised not only of normal matter but also of unknown components: dark matter and dark energy. This Thesis recounts studies of dark matter haloes, using a technique known as weak gravitational lensing, in order to learn more about the nature of these dark components. The haloes

  9. DISCOVERY OF A HALO AROUND THE HELIX NEBULA NGC 7293 IN THE WISE ALL-SKY SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yong; Hsia, Chih-Hao; Kwok, Sun

    2012-01-01

    We report the discovery of an extended halo (∼40' in diameter) around the planetary nebula NGC 7293 (the Helix Nebula) observed in the 12 μm band from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer all-sky survey. The mid-infrared halo has an axisymmetric structure with a sharp boundary to the northeast and a more diffuse boundary to the southwest, suggesting an interaction between the stellar wind and the interstellar medium (ISM). The symmetry axis of the halo is well aligned with that of a northeast arc, suggesting that the two structures are physically associated. We have attempted to fit the observed geometry with a model of a moving steady-state stellar wind interacting with the ISM. Possible combinations of the ISM density and the stellar velocity are derived from these fittings. The discrepancies between the model and the observations suggest that the stellar mass loss has a more complicated history, including possible time and angle dependences.

  10. The globular cluster-dark matter halo connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan-Kolchin, Michael

    2017-12-01

    I present a simple phenomenological model for the observed linear scaling of the stellar mass in old globular clusters (GCs) with z = 0 halo mass in which the stellar mass in GCs scales linearly with progenitor halo mass at z = 6 above a minimum halo mass for GC formation. This model reproduces the observed MGCs-Mhalo relation at z = 0 and results in a prediction for the minimum halo mass at z = 6 required for hosting one GC: Mmin(z = 6) = 1.07 × 109 M⊙. Translated to z = 0, the mean threshold mass is Mhalo(z = 0) ≈ 2 × 1010 M⊙. I explore the observability of GCs in the reionization era and their contribution to cosmic reionization, both of which depend sensitively on the (unknown) ratio of GC birth mass to present-day stellar mass, ξ. Based on current detections of z ≳ 6 objects with M1500 10 are strongly disfavoured; this, in turn, has potentially important implications for GC formation scenarios. Even for low values of ξ, some observed high-z galaxies may actually be GCs, complicating estimates of reionization-era galaxy ultraviolet luminosity functions and constraints on dark matter models. GCs are likely important reionization sources if 5 ≲ ξ ≲ 10. I also explore predictions for the fraction of accreted versus in situ GCs in the local Universe and for descendants of systems at the halo mass threshold of GC formation (dwarf galaxies). An appealing feature of the model presented here is the ability to make predictions for GC properties based solely on dark matter halo merger trees.

  11. The immitigable nature of assembly bias: the impact of halo definition on assembly bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Antonio S.; Zentner, Andrew R.; Mao, Yao-Yuan; Purcell, Chris W.; van den Bosch, Frank C.; Diemer, Benedikt; Lange, Johannes U.; Wang, Kuan; Campbell, Duncan

    2017-11-01

    Dark matter halo clustering depends not only on halo mass, but also on other properties such as concentration and shape. This phenomenon is known broadly as assembly bias. We explore the dependence of assembly bias on halo definition, parametrized by spherical overdensity parameter, Δ. We summarize the strength of concentration-, shape-, and spin-dependent halo clustering as a function of halo mass and halo definition. Concentration-dependent clustering depends strongly on mass at all Δ. For conventional halo definitions (Δ ∼ 200 - 600 m), concentration-dependent clustering at low mass is driven by a population of haloes that is altered through interactions with neighbouring haloes. Concentration-dependent clustering can be greatly reduced through a mass-dependent halo definition with Δ ∼ 20 - 40 m for haloes with M200 m ≲ 1012 h-1M⊙. Smaller Δ implies larger radii and mitigates assembly bias at low mass by subsuming altered, so-called backsplash haloes into now larger host haloes. At higher masses (M200 m ≳ 1013 h-1M⊙) larger overdensities, Δ ≳ 600 m, are necessary. Shape- and spin-dependent clustering are significant for all halo definitions that we explore and exhibit a relatively weaker mass dependence. Generally, both the strength and the sense of assembly bias depend on halo definition, varying significantly even among common definitions. We identify no halo definition that mitigates all manifestations of assembly bias. A halo definition that mitigates assembly bias based on one halo property (e.g. concentration) must be mass dependent. The halo definitions that best mitigate concentration-dependent halo clustering do not coincide with the expected average splashback radii at fixed halo mass.

  12. Testing approximate predictions of displacements of cosmological dark matter halos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munari, Emiliano; Monaco, Pierluigi; Borgani, Stefano [Department of Physics, Astronomy Unit, University of Trieste, via Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste (Italy); Koda, Jun [INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, via E. Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Italy); Kitaura, Francisco-Shu [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, 38205 San Cristóbal de La Laguna, Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Spain); Sefusatti, Emiliano, E-mail: munari@oats.inaf.it, E-mail: monaco@oats.inaf.it, E-mail: jun.koda@brera.inaf.it, E-mail: fkitaura@iac.es, E-mail: sefusatti@oats.inaf.it, E-mail: borgani@oats.inaf.it [INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, via Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste (Italy)

    2017-07-01

    We present a test to quantify how well some approximate methods, designed to reproduce the mildly non-linear evolution of perturbations, are able to reproduce the clustering of DM halos once the grouping of particles into halos is defined and kept fixed. The following methods have been considered: Lagrangian Perturbation Theory (LPT) up to third order, Truncated LPT, Augmented LPT, MUSCLE and COLA. The test runs as follows: halos are defined by applying a friends-of-friends (FoF) halo finder to the output of an N-body simulation. The approximate methods are then applied to the same initial conditions of the simulation, producing for all particles displacements from their starting position and velocities. The position and velocity of each halo are computed by averaging over the particles that belong to that halo, according to the FoF halo finder. This procedure allows us to perform a well-posed test of how clustering of the matter density and halo density fields are recovered, without asking to the approximate method an accurate reconstruction of halos. We have considered the results at z =0,0.5,1, and we have analysed power spectrum in real and redshift space, object-by-object difference in position and velocity, density Probability Distribution Function (PDF) and its moments, phase difference of Fourier modes. We find that higher LPT orders are generally able to better reproduce the clustering of halos, while little or no improvement is found for the matter density field when going to 2LPT and 3LPT. Augmentation provides some improvement when coupled with 2LPT, while its effect is limited when coupled with 3LPT. Little improvement is brought by MUSCLE with respect to Augmentation. The more expensive particle-mesh code COLA outperforms all LPT methods, and this is true even for mesh sizes as large as the inter-particle distance. This test sets an upper limit on the ability of these methods to reproduce the clustering of halos, for the cases when these objects are

  13. Testing approximate predictions of displacements of cosmological dark matter halos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munari, Emiliano; Monaco, Pierluigi; Koda, Jun; Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Sefusatti, Emiliano; Borgani, Stefano

    2017-07-01

    We present a test to quantify how well some approximate methods, designed to reproduce the mildly non-linear evolution of perturbations, are able to reproduce the clustering of DM halos once the grouping of particles into halos is defined and kept fixed. The following methods have been considered: Lagrangian Perturbation Theory (LPT) up to third order, Truncated LPT, Augmented LPT, MUSCLE and COLA. The test runs as follows: halos are defined by applying a friends-of-friends (FoF) halo finder to the output of an N-body simulation. The approximate methods are then applied to the same initial conditions of the simulation, producing for all particles displacements from their starting position and velocities. The position and velocity of each halo are computed by averaging over the particles that belong to that halo, according to the FoF halo finder. This procedure allows us to perform a well-posed test of how clustering of the matter density and halo density fields are recovered, without asking to the approximate method an accurate reconstruction of halos. We have considered the results at z=0,0.5,1, and we have analysed power spectrum in real and redshift space, object-by-object difference in position and velocity, density Probability Distribution Function (PDF) and its moments, phase difference of Fourier modes. We find that higher LPT orders are generally able to better reproduce the clustering of halos, while little or no improvement is found for the matter density field when going to 2LPT and 3LPT. Augmentation provides some improvement when coupled with 2LPT, while its effect is limited when coupled with 3LPT. Little improvement is brought by MUSCLE with respect to Augmentation. The more expensive particle-mesh code COLA outperforms all LPT methods, and this is true even for mesh sizes as large as the inter-particle distance. This test sets an upper limit on the ability of these methods to reproduce the clustering of halos, for the cases when these objects are

  14. Dynamical or static radio halo - Is there a galactic wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerche, I.; Schlickeiser, R.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of a galactic wind on a radio halo can be best observed at frequencies smaller than about 1 GHz. At higher frequencies static halo models predict the same features as dynamical halo models. External galaxies, which exhibit a break by 0.5 in their high frequency nonthermal integral flux spectrum, are the best candidates for studying the influence of galactic winds on the formation of relativistic electron haloes around these systems. Several such cases are presented

  15. Longitudinal halo in beam bunches with self-consistent 6-D distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gluckstern, R. L.; Fedotov, A. V.; Kurennoy, S. S.; Ryne, R. D.

    1998-01-01

    We have explored the formation of longitudinal and transverse halos in 3-D axisymmetric beam bunches by starting with a self-consistent 6-D phase space distribution. Stationary distributions allow us to study the halo development mechanism without being obscured by beam redistribution and its effect on halo formation. The beam is then mismatched longitudinally and/or transversely, and we explore the rate, intensity and spatial extent of the halos which form, as a function of the beam charge and the mismatches. We find that the longitudinal halo forms first because the longitudinal tune depression is more severe than the transverse one for elongated bunches and conclude that it plays a major role in halo formation

  16. Design of RF structures for a superconducting proton linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pande, Rajni; Roy, Shweta; Rao, S.V.L.S.; Krishnagopal, S.; Singh, P.

    2013-01-01

    One of the main components of the Accelerator Driven System (ADS) programme in India is a 1 GeV, high intensity CW proton accelerator that will be superconducting after the radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ), i.e. after 3 MeV. The superconducting linac will consist of various superconducting structures like Half Wave Resonators, Spoke Resonators and elliptical cavities, operating at RF frequencies of 162.5 MHz, 325 MHz and 650 MHz. The paper will discuss the optimization of the electromagnetic design of the various superconducting structures. (author)

  17. Efimov effect in 2-neutron halo nuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents an overview of our theoretical investigations in search of Efimov states in light 2-neutron halo nuclei. The calculations have been carried out within a three-body formalism, assuming a compact core and two valence neutrons forming the halo. The calculations provide strong evidence for the occurrence ...

  18. Scientific basis and engineering design to accommodate disruption and halo current loads for the DIII-D tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, P.M.; Bozek, A.S.; Hollerbach, M.A.; Humphreys, D.A.; Luxon, J.L.; Reis, E.E.; Schaffer, M.J.

    1996-10-01

    Plasma disruptions and halo current events apply sudden impulsive forces to the interior structures and vacuum vessel walls of tokamaks. These forces arise when induced toroidal currents and attached poloidal halo currents in plasma facing components interact with the poloidal and toroidal magnetic fields respectively. Increasing understanding of plasma disruptions and halo current events has been developed from experiments on DIII-D and other machines. Although the understanding has improved, these events must be planned for in system design because there is no assurance that these events can be eliminated in the operation of tokamaks. Increased understanding has allowed an improved focus of engineering designs.

  19. Scientific basis and engineering design to accommodate disruption and halo current loads for the DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, P.M.; Bozek, A.S.; Hollerbach, M.A.; Humphreys, D.A.; Luxon, J.L.; Reis, E.E.; Schaffer, M.J.

    1996-10-01

    Plasma disruptions and halo current events apply sudden impulsive forces to the interior structures and vacuum vessel walls of tokamaks. These forces arise when induced toroidal currents and attached poloidal halo currents in plasma facing components interact with the poloidal and toroidal magnetic fields respectively. Increasing understanding of plasma disruptions and halo current events has been developed from experiments on DIII-D and other machines. Although the understanding has improved, these events must be planned for in system design because there is no assurance that these events can be eliminated in the operation of tokamaks. Increased understanding has allowed an improved focus of engineering designs

  20. Antiproton-proton and proton-proton elastic scattering at 100 and 200 GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, D.H.; Karchin, P.; Orear, J.; Kalbach, R.M.; Krueger, K.W.; Pifer, A.E.; Baker, W.F.; Eartly, D.P.; Klinger, J.S.; Lennox, A.J.; Rubinstein, R.; McHugh, S.F.

    1982-01-01

    Antiproton-proton elastic scattering has been measured at 100 GeV/c for 0.5 2 and at 200 GeV/c for 0.9 2 . The data show that the -tapprox. =1.4 (GeV/c) 2 dip recently observed at 50 GeV/c persists to higher incident momenta. Proton-proton measurements made at the same beam momenta show similar structure

  1. The Spin Structure of the Proton at Low Q2: A Measurement of the Structure Function g2p

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Chao [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-08-31

    The spin structure of the nucleon has remained as one of the key points of interest in hadronic physics, which has attracted many efforts from both experimentalists and theorists. Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) is the fundamental theory that describes the strong interaction. It has been verified in the asymptotically free region. However, the non-perturbative confinement of quarks within the nucleon is still not well understood within QCD. In the non-perturbative regime, low-energy effective field theories such as chiral perturbation theory (XPT) provide predictions for the spin structure functions. The neutron spin structure functions, gp1 and gp2 , and the proton spin structure function, gp1, have been measured over a wide kinematic range and compared with the theoretical predictions. However, the proton spin structure function, gp2, remains largely unmeasured. The E08-027 collaboration successfully performed the first measurement of the inclusive electron-proton scattering in the kinematic range 0.02 < Q2 < 0.2 GeV2. The experiment took place in experimental Hall A at Jefferson Lab in 2012. A longitudinally polarized electron beam with incident energies between 1.1 GeV and 3.3 GeV was scattered from a longitudinally or transversely polarized NH3 target. Asymmetries and polarized cross-section differences were measured in the resonance region to extract the proton spin structure functions g2. The results allow us to obtain the generalized spin polarizabilities γ0 and δLT and test the Burkhardtt-Cottingham (BC) sum rule. Chiral perturbation theory is expected to work in this kinematic range and this measurement of δLT will give a benchmark test to XPT calculations. This thesis will discuss preliminary results from the E08-027 data analysis.

  2. Cold dark matter. 1: The formation of dark halos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelb, James M.; Bertschinger, Edmund

    1994-01-01

    We use numerical simulations of critically closed cold dark matter (CDM) models to study the effects of numerical resolution on observable quantities. We study simulations with up to 256(exp 3) particles using the particle-mesh (PM) method and with up to 144(exp 3) particles using the adaptive particle-particle-mesh (P3M) method. Comparisons of galaxy halo distributions are made among the various simulations. We also compare distributions with observations, and we explore methods for identifying halos, including a new algorithm that finds all particles within closed contours of the smoothed density field surrounding a peak. The simulated halos show more substructure than predicted by the Press-Schechter theory. We are able to rule out all omega = 1 CDM models for linear amplitude sigma(sub 8) greater than or approximately = 0.5 because the simulations produce too many massive halos compared with the observations. The simulations also produce too many low-mass halos. The distribution of halos characterized by their circular velocities for the P3M simulations is in reasonable agreement with the observations for 150 km/s less than or = V(sub circ) less than or = 350 km/s.

  3. Halo Star Lithium Depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinsonneault, M. H.; Walker, T. P.; Steigman, G.; Narayanan, Vijay K.

    1999-01-01

    The depletion of lithium during the pre-main-sequence and main-sequence phases of stellar evolution plays a crucial role in the comparison of the predictions of big bang nucleosynthesis with the abundances observed in halo stars. Previous work has indicated a wide range of possible depletion factors, ranging from minimal in standard (nonrotating) stellar models to as much as an order of magnitude in models that include rotational mixing. Recent progress in the study of the angular momentum evolution of low-mass stars permits the construction of theoretical models capable of reproducing the angular momentum evolution of low-mass open cluster stars. The distribution of initial angular momenta can be inferred from stellar rotation data in young open clusters. In this paper we report on the application of these models to the study of lithium depletion in main-sequence halo stars. A range of initial angular momenta produces a range of lithium depletion factors on the main sequence. Using the distribution of initial conditions inferred from young open clusters leads to a well-defined halo lithium plateau with modest scatter and a small population of outliers. The mass-dependent angular momentum loss law inferred from open cluster studies produces a nearly flat plateau, unlike previous models that exhibited a downward curvature for hotter temperatures in the 7Li-Teff plane. The overall depletion factor for the plateau stars is sensitive primarily to the solar initial angular momentum used in the calibration for the mixing diffusion coefficients. Uncertainties remain in the treatment of the internal angular momentum transport in the models, and the potential impact of these uncertainties on our results is discussed. The 6Li/7Li depletion ratio is also examined. We find that the dispersion in the plateau and the 6Li/7Li depletion ratio scale with the absolute 7Li depletion in the plateau, and we use observational data to set bounds on the 7Li depletion in main-sequence halo

  4. Search for the signature of a halo structure in the p(6He,6Li)n reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortina-Gil, M.D.; Roussel-Chomaz, P.; Mittig, W.; Casandjian, J.M.; Chartier, M.; Alamanos, N.; Auger, F.; Fekou-Youmbi, V.; Blumenfeld, Y.; and others.

    1995-01-01

    The elastic scattering p( 6 He, 6 He)p and charge exchange reaction p( 6 He, 6 Li)n have been measured in reverse kinematics with a secondary 6 He beam. The angular distributions for these reactions were obtained. In the case of the charge exchange reaction, the ratio of the cross section for the Gamow-Teller transition to the ground state, and for the Fermi transition to the isobaric analog state is a measure of the relative strength of the two components of the exchange interaction. This ratio is found compatible with existing systematics for stable T=1 nuclei, and no clear signature of a halo structure was found in the present data. (author)

  5. On the Rise of the Proton Structure Function F_2 Towards Low x

    CERN Document Server

    Adloff, C.; Andrieu, B.; Anthonis, T.; Arkadov, V.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Babaev, A.; Bahr, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Bate, P.; Beglarian, A.; Behnke, O.; Beier, C.; Belousov, A.; Benisch, T.; Berger, Christoph; Berndt, T.; Bizot, J.C.; Boudry, V.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Broker, H.B.; Brown, D.P.; Bruckner, W.; Bruncko, D.; Burger, J.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Burrage, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Cao, Jun; Caron, S.; Clarke, D.; Clerbaux, B.; Collard, C.; Contreras, J.G.; Coppens, Y.R.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cousinou, M.C.; Cox, B.E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Dau, W.D.; Daum, K.; Davidsson, M.; Delcourt, B.; Delerue, N.; Demirchyan, R.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dingfelder, J.; Dixon, P.; Dodonov, V.; Dowell, J.D.; Droutskoi, A.; Dubak, A.; Duprel, C.; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, D.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ellerbrock, M.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Erdmann, W.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Ferencei, J.; Ferron, S.; Fleischer, M.; Fleming, Y.H.; Flugge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Foresti, I.; Formanek, J.; Foster, J.M.; Franke, G.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Garvey, J.; Gassner, J.; Gayler, Joerg; Gerhards, R.; Gerlich, C.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Goldberg, M.; Goodwin, C.; Grab, C.; Grassler, H.; Greenshaw, T.; Grindhammer, Guenter; Hadig, T.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Haynes, W.J.; Heinemann, B.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hengstmann, S.; Henschel, H.; Heremans, R.; Herrera, G.; Herynek, I.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hilgers, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hladky, J.; Hoting, P.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hurling, S.; Ibbotson, M.; Issever, C .; Jacquet, M.; Jaffre, M.; Janauschek, L.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, D.P.; Jones, M.A.S.; Jung, H.; Kastli, H.K.; Kant, D.; Kapichine, M.; Karlsson, M.; Karschnick, O.; Keil, F.; Keller, N.; Kennedy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kermiche, S.; Kiesling, Christian M.; Kjellberg, P.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, T.; Knies, G.; Koblitz, B.; Kolya, S.D.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kotelnikov, S.K.; Koutouev, R.; Koutov, A.; Krehbiel, H.; Kroseberg, J.; Kruger, K.; Kupper, A.; Kuhr, T.; Kurca, T.; Lahmann, R.; Lamb, D.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka, T.; Laycock, P.; Lebailly, E.; Lebedev, A.; Leissner, B.; Lemrani, R.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindstroem, M.; List, B.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lobodzinski, B.; Loginov, A.; Loktionova, N.; Lubimov, V.; Luders, S.; Luke, D.; Lytkin, L.; Mahlke-Kruger, H.; Malden, N.; Malinovski, E.; Malinovski, I.; Maracek, R.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martyn, H.U.; Martyniak, J.; Maxfield, S.J.; Meer, D.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Meyer, P.O.; Mikocki, S.; Milstead, D.; Mkrtchyan, T.; Mohr, R.; Mohrdieck, S.; Mondragon, M.N.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nagovizin, V.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, J.; Naumann, T.; Nellen, G.; Newman, Paul R.; Nicholls, T.C.; Niebergall, F.; Niebuhr, C.; Nix, O.; Nowak, G.; Olsson, J.E.; Ozerov, D.; Panassik, V.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Peez, M.; Perez, E.; Phillips, J.P.; Pitzl, D.; Poschl, R.; Potachnikova, I.; Povh, B.; Rabbertz, K.; Radel, G.; Rauschenberger, J.; Reimer, P.; Reisert, B.; Reyna, D.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Scheins, J.; Schilling, F.P.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schneider, M.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schorner, T.; Schroder, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Schwanenberger, C.; Sedlak, K.; Sefkow, F.; Chekelian, V.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Sirois, Y.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Solovev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Spitzer, H.; Stamen, R.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Straumann, U.; Swart, M.; Tasevsky, M.; Chernyshov, V.; Chetchelnitski, S.; Thompson, Graham; Thompson, P.D.; Tobien, N.; Traynor, D.; Truoel, Peter; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Turney, J.E.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Udluft, S.; Urban, Marcel; Usik, A.; Valkar, S.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vassilev, S.; Vazdik, Y.; Vichnevski, A.; Wacker, K.; Wallny, R.; Waugh, B.; Weber, G.; Weber, M.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Werner, M.; Werner, N.; White, G.; Wiesand, S.; Wilksen, T.; Winde, M.; Winter, G.G.; Wissing, C.; Wobisch, M.; Wunsch, E.; Wyatt, A.C.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zomer, F.; Zsembery, J.; zur Nedden, M.

    2001-01-01

    A measurement of the derivative (d ln F_2 / d lnx)_(Q^2)= -lambda(x,Q^2) of the proton structure function F_2 is presented in the low x domain of deeply inelastic positron-proton scattering. For 5*10^(-5)=1.5 GeV^2, lambda(x,Q^2) is found to be independent of x and to increase linearly with ln(Q^2).

  6. Geological investigation of hydrothermal alteration haloes in Toyoha geothermal field, Hakkaido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igarashi, T; Furukawa, Y; Sugawara, K; Nishimura, S; Okabe, K

    1978-01-01

    In Toyoha geothermal field, the altered haloes are located along a tectonic line extending on a NW-SE direction along the Yunosawa River, east of the Toyoha Mine, a well known Neogene epithermal ore deposit. The investigation was carried out to clarify the stage of alteration, based on the altered haloes geologic structure, composition, and size. The Quaternary distribution at the eastern foot of Mt. Yotei was also studied. The field is covered by various kinds of Miocene sediments but the altered haloes are found only in an area covered by the Takinosawa formation and its older formations. Among the Yunosawa, Koyanagizawa and Takinosawa alteration haloes, the Yunosawa is the most important. It is composed of blocky silicified rock extending along a river and surrounding argillaceous rock. The silicified rock is composed primarily of quartz and subordinate alunite and opal, while the argillaceous rock consists chiefly of kaloin and is characterized by the occasional presence of sericite and montmorillinite. Fission-track and /sup 14/C methods were employed to determine the stage of alteration, but the results were unsatisfactory. The sublimation sulfur ore deposits in the Yunosawa and Koyanagizawa areas were comparatively small, but their original depositional features remain intact, indicating that geothermal activity continued until recently. Yunosawa is the most promising area as it is closely related to the tectonic line and also it has extraordinarily high ground temperature determined by a recent heat flow survey. Twenty-three references are provided.

  7. Hydroxide diffuses slower than hydronium in water because its solvated structure inhibits correlated proton transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mohan; Zheng, Lixin; Santra, Biswajit; Ko, Hsin-Yu; DiStasio, Robert A., Jr.; Klein, Michael L.; Car, Roberto; Wu, Xifan

    2018-03-01

    Proton transfer via hydronium and hydroxide ions in water is ubiquitous. It underlies acid-base chemistry, certain enzyme reactions, and even infection by the flu. Despite two centuries of investigation, the mechanism underlying why hydroxide diffuses slower than hydronium in water is still not well understood. Herein, we employ state-of-the-art density-functional-theory-based molecular dynamics—with corrections for non-local van der Waals interactions, and self-interaction in the electronic ground state—to model water and hydrated water ions. At this level of theory, we show that structural diffusion of hydronium preserves the previously recognized concerted behaviour. However, by contrast, proton transfer via hydroxide is less temporally correlated, due to a stabilized hypercoordination solvation structure that discourages proton transfer. Specifically, the latter exhibits non-planar geometry, which agrees with neutron-scattering results. Asymmetry in the temporal correlation of proton transfer leads to hydroxide diffusing slower than hydronium.

  8. Dissipative dark matter halos: The steady state solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot, R.

    2018-02-01

    Dissipative dark matter, where dark matter particle properties closely resemble familiar baryonic matter, is considered. Mirror dark matter, which arises from an isomorphic hidden sector, is a specific and theoretically constrained scenario. Other possibilities include models with more generic hidden sectors that contain massless dark photons [unbroken U (1 ) gauge interactions]. Such dark matter not only features dissipative cooling processes but also is assumed to have nontrivial heating sourced by ordinary supernovae (facilitated by the kinetic mixing interaction). The dynamics of dissipative dark matter halos around rotationally supported galaxies, influenced by heating as well as cooling processes, can be modeled by fluid equations. For a sufficiently isolated galaxy with a stable star formation rate, the dissipative dark matter halos are expected to evolve to a steady state configuration which is in hydrostatic equilibrium and where heating and cooling rates locally balance. Here, we take into account the major cooling and heating processes, and numerically solve for the steady state solution under the assumptions of spherical symmetry, negligible dark magnetic fields, and that supernova sourced energy is transported to the halo via dark radiation. For the parameters considered, and assumptions made, we were unable to find a physically realistic solution for the constrained case of mirror dark matter halos. Halo cooling generally exceeds heating at realistic halo mass densities. This problem can be rectified in more generic dissipative dark matter models, and we discuss a specific example in some detail.

  9. Stellar-to-halo mass relation of cluster galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemiec, Anna; Jullo, Eric; Limousin, Marceau; Giocoli, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    In the formation of galaxy groups and clusters, the dark matter haloes containing satellite galaxies are expected to be tidally stripped in gravitational interactions with the host. We use galaxy-galaxy weak lensing to measure the average mass of dark matter haloes of satellite galaxies as a function of projected distance to the centre of the host, since stripping is expected to be greater for satellites closer to the centre of the cluster. We further classify the satellites according to their stellar mass: assuming that the stellar component of the galaxy is less disrupted by tidal stripping, stellar mass can be used as a proxy of the infall mass. We study the stellar to halo mass relation of satellites as a function of the cluster-centric distance to measure tidal stripping. We use the shear catalogues of the DES science veri cation archive, the CFHTLenS and the CFHT Stripe 82 surveys, and we select satellites from the redMaPPer catalogue of clusters. For galaxies located in the outskirts of clusters, we nd a stellar to halo mass relation in good agreement with the theoretical expectations from Moster, Naab & White (2013) for central galaxies. In the centre of the cluster, we nd that this relation is shifted to smaller halo mass for a given stellar mass. We interpret this nding as further evidence for tidal stripping of dark matter haloes in high density environments.

  10. De bepaling van halo-azijnzuren, chloriet en chloraat in drinkwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters RJB; van de Meer-Arp KKM; Versteegh JFM

    1990-01-01

    A method was developed to determine halo-acetic acids with a detection limit of 0.1 mug/L. Halo-acetic acids were determined in samples drinking water derived from surface- and bankfiltrated water however, not in drinking water derived from groundwater. Halo-acetic acids were found in chlorinated

  11. DARK MATTER HALO MERGERS: DEPENDENCE ON ENVIRONMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hester, J. A.; Tasitsiomi, A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the specific major merger rate as a function of group membership, local environment, and redshift in a very large, 500 h -1 Mpc, cosmological N-body simulation, the Millennium Simulation. The goal is to provide environmental diagnostics of major merger populations in order to test simulations against observations and provide further constraints on major merger driven galaxy evolution scenarios. A halo sample is defined using the maximum circular velocity, which is both well defined for subhalos and closely correlated with galaxy luminosity. Subhalos, including the precursors of major mergers, are severely tidally stripped. Major mergers between subhalos are therefore rare compared to mergers between subhalos and their host halos. Tidal stripping also suppresses dynamical friction, resulting in long major merger timescales when the more massive merger progenitor does not host other subhalos. When other subhalos are present, however, major merger timescales are several times shorter. This enhancement may be due to inelastic unbound collisions between subhalos, which deplete their orbital angular momentum and lead to faster orbital decay. Following these results, we predict that major mergers in group environments are dominated by mergers involving the central galaxy, that the specific major merger rate is suppressed in groups when all group members are considered together, and that the frequency of fainter companions is enhanced for major mergers and their remnants. We also measure an 'assembly bias' in the specific major merger rate in that major mergers of galaxy-like halos are slightly suppressed in overdense environments while major mergers of group-like halos are slightly enhanced. A dynamical explanation for this trend is advanced which calls on both tidal effects and interactions between bound halos beyond the virial radii of locally dynamically dominant halos.

  12. Halo star streams in the solar neighborhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kepley, Amanda A.; Morrison, Heather L.; Helmi, Amina; Kinman, T. D.; Van Duyne, Jeffrey; Martin, John C.; Harding, Paul; Norris, John E.; Freeman, Kenneth C.

    2007-01-01

    We have assembled a sample of halo stars in the solar neighborhood to look for halo substructure in velocity and angular momentum space. Our sample ( 231 stars) includes red giants, RR Lyrae variable stars, and red horizontal branch stars within 2.5 kpc of the Sun with [Fe/H] less than -1.0. It was

  13. Summary of the 2014 Beam-Halo Monitoring Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, Alan

    2015-09-25

    Understanding and controlling beam halo is important for high-intensity hadron accelerators, for high-brightness electron linacs, and for low-emittance light sources. This can only be achieved by developing suitable diagnostics. The main challenge faced by such instrumentation is the high dynamic range needed to observe the halo in the presence of an intense core. In addition, measurements must often be made non-invasively. This talk summarizes the one-day workshop on Beam-Halo Monitoring that was held at SLAC on September 19 last year, immediately following IBIC 2014 in Monterey. Workshop presentations described invasive techniques using wires, screens, or crystal collimators, and non-invasive measurements with gas or scattered electrons. Talks on optical methods showed the close links between observing halo and astronomical problems like observing the solar corona or directly observing a planet orbiting another star.

  14. Structural changes and tribological performance of thermosetting polyimide induced by proton and electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv, Mei; Wang, Yanming; Wang, Qihua; Wang, Tingmei; Liang, Yongmin

    2015-01-01

    The structural changes and tribological performance of thermosetting polyimide were investigated by electron, proton or both combined irradiations at 25 keV in a ground-based simulation facility. Three forms of irradiations could lead to the formation of the carbonized layer on the polymer surface that could increase the hardness and adhesive force of the material. Proton irradiation induced more extensive changes in structure and friction behavior than electron irradiation by reason of the higher linear energy transfer value, and combined irradiation resulted in the largest impact, but which was less than the sum of the radiation effects of electron and proton. Moreover, the experimental results indicated that the changes in friction behavior are closely related with the carbonized layer, which was easily worn out in friction process and could introduce a shift from adhesion wear to three-body abrasive wear that reduced the wear rate and the friction coefficient. The friction process of irradiated samples could be divided into the initial stage and the steady stage. Three forms of irradiations all induced the high friction coefficient in the initial stage and the low friction coefficient in the steady stage, and the wear rate of the irradiated samples decreased in the order: electron irradiation>proton irradiation>combined irradiation. - Highlights: • Proton irradiation induced more extensive changes in structure and friction behavior than electron irradiation. • The effect of combined irradiation was less than that of the sum of electron and proton irradiation. • Three forms of irradiations all induced the high initial friction coefficient and the low steady-stage friction coefficient. • The initial friction stage means a fast-wearing adhesive process while the steady-state of the system is a three-body abrasion

  15. New halo formation mechanism at the KEK compact energy recovery linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Olga; Nakamura, Norio; Shimada, Miho; Miyajima, Tsukasa; Ueda, Akira; Obina, Takashi; Takai, Ryota

    2018-02-01

    The beam halo mitigation is a very important challenge for reliable and safe operation of a high-energy machine. A systematic beam halo study was conducted at the KEK compact energy recovery linac (cERL) since non-negligible beam loss was observed in the recirculation loop during a common operation. We found that the beam loss can be avoided by making use of the collimation system. Beam halo measurements have demonstrated the presence of vertical beam halos at multiple locations in the beam line (except the region near the electron gun). Based on these observations, we made a conjecture that the transverse beam halo is attributed to the longitudinal bunch tail arising at the photocathode. The transfer of particles from the longitudinal space to a transverse halo may have been observed and studied in other machines, considering nonlinear effects as their causes. However, our study demonstrates a new unique halo formation mechanism, in which a transverse beam halo can be generated by a longitudinal bunch tail due to transverse rf kicks from the accelerating (monopole) fields of the radio-frequency cavities. This halo formation occurs when nonrelativistic particles enter the cavities with a transverse offset, even if neither nonlinear optics nor nonlinear beam effects are present. A careful realignment of the injector system will mitigate the present halo. Another possible cure is to reduce the bunch tails by changing the photocathode material from the present GaAs to a multi-alkali that is known to have a shorter longitudinal tail.

  16. Stellar Velocity Dispersion: Linking Quiescent Galaxies to Their Dark Matter Halos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahid, H. Jabran; Sohn, Jubee; Geller, Margaret J.

    2018-06-01

    We analyze the Illustris-1 hydrodynamical cosmological simulation to explore the stellar velocity dispersion of quiescent galaxies as an observational probe of dark matter halo velocity dispersion and mass. Stellar velocity dispersion is proportional to dark matter halo velocity dispersion for both central and satellite galaxies. The dark matter halos of central galaxies are in virial equilibrium and thus the stellar velocity dispersion is also proportional to dark matter halo mass. This proportionality holds even when a line-of-sight aperture dispersion is calculated in analogy to observations. In contrast, at a given stellar velocity dispersion, the dark matter halo mass of satellite galaxies is smaller than virial equilibrium expectations. This deviation from virial equilibrium probably results from tidal stripping of the outer dark matter halo. Stellar velocity dispersion appears insensitive to tidal effects and thus reflects the correlation between stellar velocity dispersion and dark matter halo mass prior to infall. There is a tight relation (≲0.2 dex scatter) between line-of-sight aperture stellar velocity dispersion and dark matter halo mass suggesting that the dark matter halo mass may be estimated from the measured stellar velocity dispersion for both central and satellite galaxies. We evaluate the impact of treating all objects as central galaxies if the relation we derive is applied to a statistical ensemble. A large fraction (≳2/3) of massive quiescent galaxies are central galaxies and systematic uncertainty in the inferred dark matter halo mass is ≲0.1 dex thus simplifying application of the simulation results to currently available observations.

  17. New modes of halo excitation in the 6He nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danilin, B.V.; Rogde, T.; Ershov, S.N.; Heiberg-Andersen, H.; Vaagen, J.S.; Danilin, B.V.; Ershov, S.N.; Vaagen, J.S.; Thompson, I.J.; Zhukov, M.V.

    1997-01-01

    Predictions are made for the structure of a second 2 + resonance, the soft dipole mode and unnatural parity modes in the 6 He continuum. We use a structure model which describes the system as a three-body α+N+N cluster structure, giving the experimentally known properties of 6 He and 6 Li, and use the distorted-wave impulse approximation (DWIA) reaction theory appropriate for dilute matter. The presence of both resonant and nonresonant structures in the halo excitation continuum is shown to be manifest in charge-exchange reactions as well as inelastic scattering with single nucleons. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  18. Population II brown dwarfs and dark haloes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinnecker, H.

    1986-01-01

    Opacity-limited fragmentation is investigated as a function of the dust-to-gas ratio and it is found that the characteristic protostellar mass Msub(*) is metallicity-dependent. This dependence is such that, for the low metallicity gas out of which the stars of Population II formed in the halo, Msub(*) is less than 0.1 M solar mass. If applicable, these theoretical considerations would predict that substellar masses have formed more frequently under the metal-poor conditions in the early Galaxy (Population II brown dwarfs). Thus the missing mass in the Galactic halo and in the dark haloes around other spirals may well reside in these metal-poor Population II brown dwarfs. (author)

  19. HOBBY-EBERLY TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF THE DARK HALO IN NGC 821

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forestell, Amy D.; Gebhardt, Karl

    2010-01-01

    We present stellar line-of-sight velocity distributions (LOSVDs) of elliptical galaxy NGC 821 obtained to approximately 100'' (over two effective radii) with long-slit spectroscopy from the Hobby-Eberly Telescope. Our measured stellar LOSVDs are larger than the planetary nebulae measurements at similar radii. We fit axisymmetric orbit-superposition models with a range of dark halo density profiles, including two-dimensional kinematics at smaller radii from SAURON data. Within our assumptions, the best-fitted model gives a total enclosed mass of 2.0 x 10 11 M sun within 100'', with an accuracy of 2%; this mass is equally divided between halo and stars. At 1 R e , the best-fitted dark matter halo accounts for 13% of the total mass in the galaxy. This dark halo is inconsistent with previous claims of little to no dark matter halo in this galaxy from planetary nebula measurements. We find that a power-law dark halo with a slope 0.1 is the best-fitted model; both the no dark halo and Navarro-Frenk-White models are worse fits at a greater than 99% confidence level. NGC 821 does not appear to have the expected dark halo density profile. The internal moments of the stellar velocity distribution show that the model with no dark halo is radially anisotropic at small radii and tangentially isotropic at large radii, while the best-fitted halo models are slightly radially anisotropic at all radii. We test the potential effects of model smoothing and find that there are no effects on our results within the errors. Finally, we run models using the planetary nebula kinematics and assuming our best-fitted halos and find that the planetary nebulae require radial orbits throughout the galaxy.

  20. Spin structure of the proton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nathan Isgur

    1995-01-01

    In these lectures the author argues that their response to the spin crisis should not be to abandon the naive quark model baby, but rather to allow it to mature. He begin by recalling what a beautiful baby the quark model is via an overview of its successes in spectroscopy, dynamics, and valence spin structure. He also introduces the conservative hypothesis that dynamical qanti q pairs are its key missing ingredient. He then discusses dressing the baby. He first shows that it can be clothed in glue without changing its spectroscopic successes. In the process, several dynamical mysteries associated with quark model spectroscopy are potentially explained. Next, he dresses the baby in qanti q pairs, first showing that this can be done without compromising the naive quark model's success with either spectroscopy or the OZI rule. Finally, he shows that despite their near invisibility elsewhere, pairs do play an important role in the proton's spin structure by creating an antipolarized qanti q sea. In the context of an explicit calculation he demonstrate that it is plausible that the entire ''spin crisis'' arises from this effect

  1. REVISITING SCALING RELATIONS FOR GIANT RADIO HALOS IN GALAXY CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassano, R.; Brunetti, G.; Venturi, T.; Kale, R. [INAF/IRA, via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Ettori, S. [INAF/Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Giacintucci, S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Pratt, G. W. [Laboratoire AIM, IRFU/Service dAstrophysique-CEA/DSM-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, Bât. 709, CEA-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Dolag, K. [University Observatory Munich, Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 Munich (Germany); Markevitch, M. [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2013-11-10

    Many galaxy clusters host megaparsec-scale radio halos, generated by ultrarelativistic electrons in the magnetized intracluster medium. Correlations between the synchrotron power of radio halos and the thermal properties of the hosting clusters were established in the last decade, including the connection between the presence of a halo and cluster mergers. The X-ray luminosity and redshift-limited Extended GMRT Radio Halo Survey provides a rich and unique dataset for statistical studies of the halos. We uniformly analyze the radio and X-ray data for the GMRT cluster sample, and use the new Planck Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) catalog to revisit the correlations between the power of radio halos and the thermal properties of galaxy clusters. We find that the radio power at 1.4 GHz scales with the cluster X-ray (0.1-2.4 keV) luminosity computed within R{sub 500} as P{sub 1.4}∼L{sup 2.1±0.2}{sub 500}. Our bigger and more homogenous sample confirms that the X-ray luminous (L{sub 500} > 5 × 10{sup 44} erg s{sup –1}) clusters branch into two populations—radio halos lie on the correlation, while clusters without radio halos have their radio upper limits well below that correlation. This bimodality remains if we excise cool cores from the X-ray luminosities. We also find that P{sub 1.4} scales with the cluster integrated SZ signal within R{sub 500}, measured by Planck, as P{sub 1.4}∼Y{sup 2.05±0.28}{sub 500}, in line with previous findings. However, contrary to previous studies that were limited by incompleteness and small sample size, we find that 'SZ-luminous' Y{sub 500} > 6 × 10{sup –5} Mpc{sup 2} clusters show a bimodal behavior for the presence of radio halos, similar to that in the radio-X-ray diagram. Bimodality of both correlations can be traced to clusters dynamics, with radio halos found exclusively in merging clusters. These results confirm the key role of mergers for the origin of giant radio halos, suggesting that they trigger the

  2. Project ECHO: Electronic Communications from Halo Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrelli, Jason; Cooley, Bryan; Debole, Marcy; Hrivnak, Lance; Nielsen, Kenneth; Sangmeister, Gary; Wolfe, Matthew

    1994-01-01

    The design of a communications relay to provide constant access between the Earth and the far side of the Moon is presented. Placement of the relay in a halo orbit about the L2 Earth-Moon Lagrange point allows the satellite to maintain constant simultaneous communication between Earth and scientific payloads on the far side of the Moon. The requirements of NASA's Discovery-class missions adopted and modified for this design are: total project cost should not exceed $150 million excluding launch costs, launch must be provided by Delta-class vehicle, and the satellite should maintain an operational lifetime of 10 to 15 years. The spacecraft will follow a transfer trajectory to the L2 point, after launch by a Delta II 7925 vehicle in 1999. Low-level thrust is used for injection into a stationkeeping-free halo orbit once the spacecraft reaches the L2 point. The shape of this halo orbit is highly elliptical with the maximum excursion from the L2 point being 35000 km. A spun section and despun section connected through a bearing and power transfer assembly (BAPTA) compose the structure of the spacecraft. Communications equipment is placed on the despun section to provide for a stationary dual parabolic offset-feed array antenna system. The dual system is necessary to provide communications coverage during portions of maximum excursion on the halo orbit. Transmissions to the NASA Deep Space Network 34 m antenna include six channels (color video, two voice, scientific data from lunar payloads, satellite housekeeping and telemetry and uplinked commands) using the S- and X-bands. Four radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG's) provide a total of 1360 W to power onboard systems and any two of the four Hughes 13 cm ion thrusters at once. Output of the ion thrusters is approximately 17.8 mN each with xenon as the propellant. Presence of torques generated by solar pressure on the antenna dish require the addition of a 'skirt' extending from the spun section of the satellite

  3. Protons scattering on Li isotopes at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhusupov, M.A.; Imambekov, O.; Sanfirova, A.V.; Ibraeva, E.T.

    2003-01-01

    The protons scattering differential cross section on the 6,7,8 Li nuclei are calculated within the framework the Glauber-Sitenko multiple scattering theory at intermediate energies (from 100 to 1000 MeV). In the calculations the multi-cluster wave functions (αt for 7 Li, αnp for 6 Li, and αtn for 8 Li) considering within potential cluster model have been used. Differential cross sections for 6 Li, 7 Li, 8 Li and 9 Li nuclei are similar: absolute cross sections are almost the same, diffraction minimum for large A shifting to the field of the least scattering angles that reflecting increase of the material radius. For the 11 Li the differential cross section absolute value is smaller about in two time than for the rest isotopes. At present it is reliably established, that the 11 Li nucleus has an exotic structure - the nine-nucleon core ( 9 Li) around which the two-neutron halo is rotating. The principal characteristics of the Li nuclei are presented in tabular form

  4. Dark matter halos with cores from hierarchical structure formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strigari, Louis E.; Kaplinghat, Manoj; Bullock, James S.

    2007-01-01

    We show that dark matter emerging from late decays (z or approx. 0.1 Mpc), and simultaneously generates observable constant-density cores in small dark matter halos. We refer to this class of models as meta-cold dark matter (mCDM), because it is born with nonrelativistic velocities from the decays of cold thermal relics. The constant-density cores are a result of the low phase-space density of mCDM at birth. Warm dark matter cannot produce similar size phase-space limited cores without saturating the Lyα power spectrum bounds. Dark matter-dominated galaxy rotation curves and stellar velocity dispersion profiles may provide the best means to discriminate between mCDM and CDM. mCDM candidates are motivated by the particle spectrum of supersymmetric and extra dimensional extensions to the standard model of particle physics

  5. Absolute Hydration Free Energy of Proton from First Principles Electronic Structure Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhan, Chang-Guo; Dixon, David A.

    2001-01-01

    The absolute hydration free energy of the proton, DGhyd298(H+), is one of the fundamental quantities for the thermodynamics of aqueous systems. Its exact value remains unknown despite extensive experimental and computational efforts. We report a first-principles determination of DGhyd298(H+) by using the latest developments in electronic structure theory and massively parallel computers. DGhyd298(H+) is accurately predicted to be -262.4 kcal/mol based on high-level, first-principles solvation-included electronic structure calculations. The absolute hydration free energies of other cations can be obtained by using appropriate available thermodynamic data in combination with this value. The high accuracy of the predicted absolute hydration free energy of proton is confirmed by applying the same protocol to predict DGhyd298(Li+)

  6. Fractal structure of hadrons in processes with polarized protons at SPD NICA (proposal for experiment)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokarev, M.V.; Aparin, A.A.; Zborovsky, I.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of z-scaling previously developed for analysis of inclusive reactions in proton-proton collisions is applied for description of processes with polarized protons at the planned Spin Physics Detector NICA in Dubna. A hypothesis of self-similarity and fractality of the proton spin structure is discussed. The possibilities to extract information on spin-dependent fractal dimensions of hadrons and fragmentation process from asymmetries and coefficients of polarization transfer are justified. The double longitudinal spin asymmetry A LL of π 0 -meson production and the coefficient of the polarization transfer D LL of Λ hyperon production in proton-proton collisions measured at RHIC are analyzed in the framework of z-scaling. The spin-dependent fractal dimensions of proton and fragmentation process with polarized Λ hyperon are estimated. A study of the spin-dependent constituent energy loss as a function of transverse momentum of the inclusive hadron and collision energy is suggested.

  7. Chemical enrichment in halo planetary nebulae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres-Peimbert, S; Rayo, J F; Peimbert, M [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City. Inst. de Astronomia

    1981-01-01

    Photoelectric spectrophotometry of emission lines in the 3400-7400 A region is presented for the planetary nebulae 108-76/sup 0/1(BB1). From these observations the relative abundances of H, He, C, N, O and Ne are derived. The abundances of the halo PN (BB1, H4-1 and K648) are compared to those predicted by stellar evolution theory under the assumption that the envelope has the chemical composition of the matter located between the H burning shell and the surface. The observed He/H and C/O values are higher than predicted which implies that halo PN contain matter from deeper layers than the H burning shell. Furthermore, the O/Ar, N/Ar and Ne/Ar values in halo PN are higher than in the solar neighbourhood, at least part of this enrichment is produced by the PN progenitors.

  8. Structural design study of a proton beam window for a 1-MW spallation neutron source

    CERN Document Server

    Teraoku, T; Ishikura, S; Kaminaga, M; Maekawa, F; Meigo, S I; Terada, A

    2003-01-01

    A 1-MW spallation neutron source aiming at materials and life science researches will be constructed under the JAERI-KEK High-intensity Proton Accelerator Project (J-PARC). A proton beam passes through a proton beam window, and be injected into a target of the neutron source. The proton beam window functions as a boundary wall between a high vacuum area in the proton beam line and a helium atmosphere at about atmospheric pressure in a helium vessel which contains the target and moderators. The proton beam window is cooled by light water because high heat-density is generated in the window material by interactions with the proton beam. Then, uniformity of the water flow is requested at the window to suppress a hot-spot that causes excessive thermal stress and cooling water boiling. Also, the window has to be strong enough in its structure for inner stress due to water pressure and thermal stress due to heat generation. In this report, we propose two types of proton beam windows; one flat-type that is easy to m...

  9. Investigation of the nuclear matter density distributions of the exotic 12Be,14Be and 8B nuclei by elastic proton scattering in inverse kinematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilieva, Stoyanka

    2008-01-01

    In the current experiment, the differential cross sections for proton elastic scattering on the isotopes 7,9,10,11,12,14 Be and 8 B were measured. As results from the experiment, the absolute differential cross sections dσ/dt as a function of the four momentum transfer t were obtained. In this work the differential cross sections for elastic p- 12 Be, p- 14 Be and p- 8 B scattering at low t (t≤0.05(GeV/c) 2 ) are presented. The measured cross sections were analyzed within the Glauber multiple-scattering theory using different density parameterizations, and the nuclear matter density distributions and radii of the investigated isotopes were determined. The determined rms matter radius is 3.11±0.04±0.13 fm. In the case of the 12 Be nucleus the results showed an extended matter distribution as well. For this nucleus a matter radius of 2.82±0.03±0.12 fm was determined. An interesting result is that the free 12 Be nucleus behaves differently from the core of 14 Be and is much more extended than it. Preliminary experimental results for the isotope 8 B are also presented. An extended matter distribution was obtained (though much more compact as compared to the neutron halos). A proton halo structure was observed for the first time with the proton elastic scattering method. The deduced matter radius is 2.60±0.02±0.26 fm. Results from the feasibility studies of the EXL detector setup, performed at the present ESR storage ring, are presented. (orig.)

  10. Reactions and single-particle structure of nuclei near the drip lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, P.G.; Sherrill, B.M.

    2001-01-01

    The techniques that have allowed the study of reactions of nuclei situated at or near the neutron or proton drip line are described. Nuclei situated just inside the drip line have low nucleon separation energies and, at most, a few bound states. If the angular momentum in addition is small, large halo states are formed where the wave function of the valency nucleon extends far beyond the nuclear radius. We begin with examples of the properties of nuclear halos and of their study in radioactive-beam experiments. We then turn to the continuum states existing above the particle threshold and also discuss the possibility of exciting them from the halo states in processes that may be thought of as 'collateral damage'. Finally, we show that the experience from studies of halo states has pointed to knockout reactions as a new way to perform spectroscopic studies of more deeply bound non-halo states. Examples are given of measurements of l values and spectroscopic factors

  11. Prediction of proton chemical shifts in RNA - Their use in structure refinement and validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cromsigt, Jenny A.M.T.C.; Hilbers, Cees W.; Wijmenga, Sybren S.

    2001-01-01

    An analysis is presented of experimental versus calculated chemical shifts of the non-exchangeable protons for 28 RNA structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank, covering a wide range of structural building blocks. We have used existing models for ring-current and magnetic-anisotropy contributions to calculate the proton chemical shifts from the structures. Two different parameter sets were tried: (i) parameters derived by Ribas-Prado and Giessner-Prettre (GP set) [(1981) J. Mol. Struct.,76, 81-92.]; (ii) parameters derived by Case [(1995) J. Biomol. NMR, 6, 341-346]. Both sets lead to similar results. The detailed analysis was carried using the GP set. The root-mean-square-deviation between the predicted and observed chemical shifts of the complete database is 0.16 ppm with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.79. For protons in the usually well-defined A-helix environment these numbers are, 0.08 ppm and 0.96, respectively. As a result of this good correspondence, a reliable analysis could be made of the structural dependencies of the 1 H chemical shifts revealing their physical origin. For example, a down-field shift of either H2' or H3' or both indicates a high-syn/syn χ-angle. In an A-helix it is essentially the 5'-neighbor that affects the chemical shifts of H5, H6 and H8 protons. The H5, H6 and H8 resonances can therefore be assigned in an A-helix on the basis of their observed chemical shifts. In general, the chemical shifts were found to be quite sensitive to structural changes. We therefore propose that a comparison between calculated and observed 1 H chemical shifts is a good tool for validation and refinement of structures derived from NOEs and J-couplings

  12. Stellar Velocity Dispersion: Linking Quiescent Galaxies to their Dark Matter Halos

    OpenAIRE

    Zahid, H. Jabran; Sohn, Jubee; Geller, Margaret J.

    2018-01-01

    We analyze the Illustris-1 hydrodynamical cosmological simulation to explore the stellar velocity dispersion of quiescent galaxies as an observational probe of dark matter halo velocity dispersion and mass. Stellar velocity dispersion is proportional to dark matter halo velocity dispersion for both central and satellite galaxies. The dark matter halos of central galaxies are in virial equilibrium and thus the stellar velocity dispersion is also proportional to dark matter halo mass. This prop...

  13. The characteristics of original geochemical halo in fault zone and its prospecting significance in Xiangyangping uranium deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang Pingning; Huang Manxiang; Liu Xinyang; Chen Yue; Xiao Jianjun

    2012-01-01

    Xiangyangping uranium deposit is a hydrothermal filling deposit controlled by faults. The axial zonation of original element along the fault is sequence of Ni-Rb-Bi-Sn-Cu-W-Hg→As-U-Sb-Mo→Sr-Zn which shows the characteristics of superimposed halos and multiphase mineralization. The distribution characteristics of original halos along structure suggests that uranium mineralization may possess multi-enrichment zones along axial and strata tend. These characteristics are of prospecting significance. (authors)

  14. Surface, structural and tensile properties of proton beam irradiated zirconium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafique, Mohsin; Chae, San; Kim, Yong-Soo, E-mail: yongskim@hanyang.ac.kr

    2016-02-01

    This paper reports the surface, structural and tensile properties of proton beam irradiated pure zirconium (99.8%). The Zr samples were irradiated by 3.5 MeV protons using MC-50 cyclotron accelerator at different doses ranging from 1 × 10{sup 13} to 1 × 10{sup 16} protons/cm{sup 2}. Both un-irradiated and irradiated samples were characterized using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Universal Testing Machine (UTM). The average surface roughness of the specimens was determined by using Nanotech WSxM 5.0 develop 7.0 software. The FESEM results revealed the formation of bubbles, cracks and black spots on the samples’ surface at different doses whereas the XRD results indicated the presence of residual stresses in the irradiated specimens. Williamson–Hall analysis of the diffraction peaks was carried out to investigate changes in crystallite size and lattice strain in the irradiated specimens. The tensile properties such as the yield stress, ultimate tensile stress and percentage elongation exhibited a decreasing trend after irradiation in general, however, an inconsistent behavior was observed in their dependence on proton dose. The changes in tensile properties of Zr were associated with the production of radiation-induced defects including bubbles, cracks, precipitates and simultaneous recovery by the thermal energy generated with the increase of irradiation dose.

  15. Surface, structural and tensile properties of proton beam irradiated zirconium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafique, Mohsin; Chae, San; Kim, Yong-Soo

    2016-02-01

    This paper reports the surface, structural and tensile properties of proton beam irradiated pure zirconium (99.8%). The Zr samples were irradiated by 3.5 MeV protons using MC-50 cyclotron accelerator at different doses ranging from 1 × 1013 to 1 × 1016 protons/cm2. Both un-irradiated and irradiated samples were characterized using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Universal Testing Machine (UTM). The average surface roughness of the specimens was determined by using Nanotech WSxM 5.0 develop 7.0 software. The FESEM results revealed the formation of bubbles, cracks and black spots on the samples' surface at different doses whereas the XRD results indicated the presence of residual stresses in the irradiated specimens. Williamson-Hall analysis of the diffraction peaks was carried out to investigate changes in crystallite size and lattice strain in the irradiated specimens. The tensile properties such as the yield stress, ultimate tensile stress and percentage elongation exhibited a decreasing trend after irradiation in general, however, an inconsistent behavior was observed in their dependence on proton dose. The changes in tensile properties of Zr were associated with the production of radiation-induced defects including bubbles, cracks, precipitates and simultaneous recovery by the thermal energy generated with the increase of irradiation dose.

  16. Does SEGUE/SDSS indicate a dual galactic halo?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schönrich, Ralph; Asplund, Martin; Casagrande, Luca

    2014-01-01

    We re-examine recent claims of observational evidence for a dual Galactic halo in SEGUE/SDSS data, and trace them back to improper error treatment and neglect of selection effects. In particular, the detection of a vertical abundance gradient in the halo can be explained as a metallicity bias in distance. A similar bias and the impact of disk contamination affect the sample of blue horizontal branch stars. These examples highlight why non-volume complete samples require forward modeling from theoretical models or extensive bias-corrections. We also show how observational uncertainties produce the specific non-Gaussianity in the observed azimuthal velocity distribution of halo stars, which can be erroneously identified as two Gaussian components. A single kinematic component yields an excellent fit to the observed data, when we model the measurement process including distance uncertainties. Furthermore, we show that sample differences in proper motion space are the direct consequence of kinematic cuts and are enhanced when distance estimates are less accurate. Thus, their presence is neither proof of a separate population nor a measure of reliability for the applied distances. We conclude that currently there is no evidence from SEGUE/SDSS that would favor a dual Galactic halo over a single halo that is full of substructure.

  17. Effective Dark Matter Halo Catalog in f(R) Gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jian-Hua; Hawken, Adam J; Li, Baojiu; Guzzo, Luigi

    2015-08-14

    We introduce the idea of an effective dark matter halo catalog in f(R) gravity, which is built using the effective density field. Using a suite of high resolution N-body simulations, we find that the dynamical properties of halos, such as the distribution of density, velocity dispersion, specific angular momentum and spin, in the effective catalog of f(R) gravity closely mimic those in the cold dark matter model with a cosmological constant (ΛCDM). Thus, when using effective halos, an f(R) model can be viewed as a ΛCDM model. This effective catalog therefore provides a convenient way for studying the baryonic physics, the galaxy halo occupation distribution and even semianalytical galaxy formation in f(R) cosmologies.

  18. Proton-proton intensity interferometry: Space-time structure of the emitting zone in Ni+Ni collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korolija, M.; Cindro, N.; Shapira, D.

    1995-01-01

    A brief description is given of the Hanbury-Brown-Twiss effect method for determining the space-time structure of the proton-emitting source in a nucleus-nucleus collision. In this context a measurement of exclusive p-p correlations from 58 Ni+ 58 Ni at 850 MeV is analyzed. The data served to study the directional dependence of the p-p correlation function and, for the first time, extract separately the source size and the particle-emission time

  19. New aspects of the structure of the proton revealed by the collider Hera; Nouveaux aspects de la structure du proton avec le collisionneur HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z

    2000-12-01

    Since its commissioning in 1991, the ep collider HERA has been running successfully for almost a decade without stopping improving its performance. In this report, the inclusive cross section and structure function measurements for the deep inelastic scattering of neutral and charged current processes in the full HERA kinematic domain are reviewed. The results are compared with the Standard Model expectations for the deep inelastic scattering processes. The new insights into the proton structure and on the underlying strong and electroweak interactions are discussed. (author)

  20. Structure of events with a particle at large transverse momentum in proton-proton collisions at the CERN ISR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herr, W.F.

    1985-01-01

    The structure of events with a particle with large transverse momentum has been studied for proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of √s=62.2 GeV. The experiment was performed with the Split-Field-Magnet detector at the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings and events were recorded with high-psub(T) particles with psub(T)>2 GeV/c produced at polar angles around 45 0 and 20 0 . The distributions of charged particles in the jet recoiling against the high-psub(T) particle have been measured as a function of the fragmentation variable xsub(E)=psub(T)/psub(T)sup(tri). The production of high-psub(T) particles is usually interpreted in the quark parton model as the hard collision of proton constituents. The asymmetry and charge composition of the recoil jet and their correlation with the flavour of the high-psub(T) particle supports this qualitative picture. Model calculations using first order Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) and phenomenological fragmentation model cannot explain the particle distribution in the recoil jet. (orig.) [de

  1. Universal Dark Halo Scaling Relation for the Dwarf Spheroidal Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kohei; Ishiyama, Tomoaki; Ogiya, Go; Chiba, Masashi; Inoue, Shigeki; Mori, Masao

    2017-07-01

    Motivated by a recently found interesting property of the dark halo surface density within a radius, {r}\\max , giving the maximum circular velocity, {V}\\max , we investigate it for dark halos of the Milky Way’s and Andromeda’s dwarf satellites based on cosmological simulations. We select and analyze the simulated subhalos associated with Milky-Way-sized dark halos and find that the values of their surface densities, {{{Σ }}}{V\\max }, are in good agreement with those for the observed dwarf spheroidal satellites even without employing any fitting procedures. Moreover, all subhalos on the small scales of dwarf satellites are expected to obey the universal relation, irrespective of differences in their orbital evolutions, host halo properties, and observed redshifts. Therefore, we find that the universal scaling relation for dark halos on dwarf galaxy mass scales surely exists and provides us with important clues for understanding fundamental properties of dark halos. We also investigate orbital and dynamical evolutions of subhalos to understand the origin of this universal dark halo relation and find that most subhalos evolve generally along the {r}\\max \\propto {V}\\max sequence, even though these subhalos have undergone different histories of mass assembly and tidal stripping. This sequence, therefore, should be the key feature for understanding the nature of the universality of {{{Σ }}}{V\\max }.

  2. Research Note--Should Consumers Use the Halo to Form Product Evaluations?

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Boatwright; Ajay Kalra; Wei Zhang

    2008-01-01

    In purchase situations where attribute information is either missing or difficult to judge, a well-known heuristic that consumers use to form evaluations is the halo effect. The psychology literature has widely considered the halo a reflection of consumers' inability to discriminate between different attributes and have therefore labeled it the "halo error" or the "logical error." The objective of this paper is to offer a rationale for the halo effect. We use a decision-theory framework to sh...

  3. Does the galaxy-halo connection vary with environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragomir, Radu; Rodríguez-Puebla, Aldo; Primack, Joel R.; Lee, Christoph T.

    2018-05-01

    (Sub)halo abundance matching (SHAM) assumes that one (sub) halo property, such as mass Mvir or peak circular velocity Vpeak, determines properties of the galaxy hosted in each (sub) halo such as its luminosity or stellar mass. This assumption implies that the dependence of galaxy luminosity functions (GLFs) and the galaxy stellar mass function (GSMF) on environmental density is determined by the corresponding halo density dependence. In this paper, we test this by determining from a Sloan Digital Sky Survey sample the observed dependence with environmental density of the ugriz GLFs and GSMF for all galaxies, and for central and satellite galaxies separately. We then show that the SHAM predictions are in remarkable agreement with these observations, even when the galaxy population is divided between central and satellite galaxies. However, we show that SHAM fails to reproduce the correct dependence between environmental density and g - r colour for all galaxies and central galaxies, although it better reproduces the colour dependence on environmental density of satellite galaxies.

  4. THE H I MASS DENSITY IN GALACTIC HALOS, WINDS, AND COLD ACCRETION AS TRACED BY Mg II ABSORPTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kacprzak, Glenn G. [Swinburne University of Technology, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Churchill, Christopher W., E-mail: gkacprzak@astro.swin.edu.au, E-mail: cwc@nmsu.edu [New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States)

    2011-12-20

    It is well established that Mg II absorption lines detected in background quasar spectra arise from gas structures associated with foreground galaxies. The degree to which galaxy evolution is driven by the gas cycling through halos is highly uncertain because their gas mass density is poorly constrained. Fitting the Mg II equivalent width (W) distribution with a Schechter function and applying the N(H I)-W correlation of Menard and Chelouche, we computed {Omega}(H I){sub MgII} {identical_to} {Omega}(H I){sub halo} = 1.41{sup +0.75}{sub -0.44} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} for 0.4 {<=} z {<=} 1.4. We exclude damped Ly{alpha}'s (DLAs) from our calculations so that {Omega}(H I){sub halo} comprises accreting and/or outflowing halo gas not locked up in cold neutral clouds. We deduce that the cosmic H I gas mass density fraction in galactic halos traced by Mg II absorption is {Omega}(H I){sub halo}/{Omega}(H I){sub DLA} {approx_equal} 15% and {Omega}(H I){sub halo}/{Omega}{sub b} {approx_equal} 0.3%. Citing several lines of evidence, we propose that infall/accretion material is sampled by small W whereas outflow/winds are sampled by large W, and find that {Omega}(H I){sub infall} is consistent with {Omega}(H I){sub outflow} for bifurcation at W = 1.23{sup +0.15}{sub -0.28} Angstrom-Sign ; cold accretion would then comprise no more than {approx}7% of the total H I mass density. We discuss evidence that (1) the total H I mass cycling through halos remains fairly constant with cosmic time and that the accretion of H I gas sustains galaxy winds, and (2) evolution in the cosmic star formation rate depends primarily on the rate at which cool H I gas cycles through halos.

  5. Dissipative dark matter halos: The steady state solution. II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot, R.

    2018-05-01

    Within the mirror dark matter model and dissipative dark matter models in general, halos around galaxies with active star formation (including spirals and gas-rich dwarfs) are dynamical: they expand and contract in response to heating and cooling processes. Ordinary type II supernovae (SNe) can provide the dominant heat source, which is possible if kinetic mixing interaction exists with strength ɛ ˜10-9- 10-10 . Dissipative dark matter halos can be modeled as a fluid governed by Euler's equations. Around sufficiently isolated and unperturbed galaxies the halo can relax to a steady state configuration, where heating and cooling rates locally balance and hydrostatic equilibrium prevails. These steady state conditions can be solved to derive the physical properties, including the halo density and temperature profiles, for model galaxies. Here, we consider idealized spherically symmetric galaxies within the mirror dark particle model, as in our earlier paper [Phys. Rev. D 97, 043012 (2018), 10.1103/PhysRevD.97.043012], but we assume that the local halo heating in the SN vicinity dominates over radiative sources. With this assumption, physically interesting steady state solutions arise which we compute for a representative range of model galaxies. The end result is a rather simple description of the dark matter halo around idealized spherically symmetric systems, characterized in principle by only one parameter, with physical properties that closely resemble the empirical properties of disk galaxies.

  6. The gamma-ray-flux PDF from galactic halo substructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Samuel K.; Ando, Shin'ichiro; Kamionkowski, Marc

    2009-01-01

    One of the targets of the recently launched Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope is a diffuse gamma-ray background from dark-matter annihilation or decay in the Galactic halo. N-body simulations and theoretical arguments suggest that the dark matter in the Galactic halo may be clumped into substructure, rather than smoothly distributed. Here we propose the gamma-ray-flux probability distribution function (PDF) as a probe of substructure in the Galactic halo. We calculate this PDF for a phenomenological model of halo substructure and determine the regions of the substructure parameter space in which the PDF may be distinguished from the PDF for a smooth distribution of dark matter. In principle, the PDF allows a statistical detection of substructure, even if individual halos cannot be detected. It may also allow detection of substructure on the smallest microhalo mass scales, ∼ M ⊕ , for weakly-interacting massive particles (WIMPs). Furthermore, it may also provide a method to measure the substructure mass function. However, an analysis that assumes a typical halo substructure model and a conservative estimate of the diffuse background suggests that the substructure PDF may not be detectable in the lifespan of Fermi in the specific case that the WIMP is a neutralino. Nevertheless, for a large range of substructure, WIMP annihilation, and diffuse background models, PDF analysis may provide a clear signature of substructure

  7. THE BLACK HOLE–DARK MATTER HALO CONNECTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabra, Bassem M.; Saliba, Charbel; Akl, Maya Abi; Chahine, Gilbert

    2015-01-01

    We explore the connection between the central supermassive black holes (SMBH) in galaxies and the dark matter halo through the relation between the masses of the SMBHs and the maximum circular velocities of the host galaxies, as well as the relationship between stellar velocity dispersion of the spheroidal component and the circular velocity. Our assumption here is that the circular velocity is a proxy for the mass of the dark matter halo. We rely on a heterogeneous sample containing galaxies of all types. The only requirement is that the galaxy has a direct measurement of the mass of its SMBH and a direct measurement of its circular velocity and its velocity dispersion. Previous studies have analyzed the connection between the SMBH and dark matter halo through the relationship between the circular velocity and the bulge velocity dispersion, with the assumption that the bulge velocity dispersion stands in for the mass of the SMBH, via the well-established SMBH mass–bulge velocity dispersion relation. Using intermediate relations may be misleading when one is studying them to decipher the active ingredients of galaxy formation and evolution. We believe that our approach will provide a more direct probe of the SMBH and the dark matter halo connection. We find that the correlation between the mass of SMBHs and the circular velocities of the host galaxies is extremely weak, leading us to state the dark matter halo may not play a major role in regulating the black hole growth in the present Universe

  8. THE BLACK HOLE–DARK MATTER HALO CONNECTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabra, Bassem M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Notre Dame University-Louaize, P.O. Box 72 Zouk Mikael, Zouk Mosbeh (Lebanon); Saliba, Charbel; Akl, Maya Abi; Chahine, Gilbert, E-mail: bsabra@ndu.edu.lb [Department of Physics, Lebanese University II, Fanar (Lebanon)

    2015-04-10

    We explore the connection between the central supermassive black holes (SMBH) in galaxies and the dark matter halo through the relation between the masses of the SMBHs and the maximum circular velocities of the host galaxies, as well as the relationship between stellar velocity dispersion of the spheroidal component and the circular velocity. Our assumption here is that the circular velocity is a proxy for the mass of the dark matter halo. We rely on a heterogeneous sample containing galaxies of all types. The only requirement is that the galaxy has a direct measurement of the mass of its SMBH and a direct measurement of its circular velocity and its velocity dispersion. Previous studies have analyzed the connection between the SMBH and dark matter halo through the relationship between the circular velocity and the bulge velocity dispersion, with the assumption that the bulge velocity dispersion stands in for the mass of the SMBH, via the well-established SMBH mass–bulge velocity dispersion relation. Using intermediate relations may be misleading when one is studying them to decipher the active ingredients of galaxy formation and evolution. We believe that our approach will provide a more direct probe of the SMBH and the dark matter halo connection. We find that the correlation between the mass of SMBHs and the circular velocities of the host galaxies is extremely weak, leading us to state the dark matter halo may not play a major role in regulating the black hole growth in the present Universe.

  9. Testing DARKexp against energy and density distributions of Millennium-II halos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolting, Chris; Williams, Liliya L.R. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN, 55454 (United States); Boylan-Kolchin, Michael [Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400, Austin, TX, 78712 (United States); Hjorth, Jens, E-mail: nolting@astro.umn.edu, E-mail: llrw@astro.umn.edu, E-mail: mbk@astro.as.utexas.edu, E-mail: jens@dark-cosmology.dk [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, Copenhagen, DK-2100 Denmark (Denmark)

    2016-09-01

    We test the DARKexp model for relaxed, self-gravitating, collisionless systems against equilibrium dark matter halos from the Millennium-II simulation. While limited tests of DARKexp against simulations and observations have been carried out elsewhere, this is the first time the testing is done with a large sample of simulated halos spanning a factor of ∼ 50 in mass, and using independent fits to density and energy distributions. We show that DARKexp, a one shape parameter family, provides very good fits to the shapes of density profiles, ρ( r ), and differential energy distributions, N ( E ), of individual simulated halos. The best fit shape parameter φ{sub 0} obtained from the two types of fits are correlated, though with scatter. Our most important conclusions come from ρ( r ) and N ( E ) that have been averaged over many halos. These show that the bulk of the deviations between DARKexp and individual Millennium-II halos come from halo-to-halo fluctuations, likely driven by substructure, and other density perturbations. The average ρ( r ) and N ( E ) are quite smooth and follow DARKexp very closely. The only deviation that remains after averaging is small, and located at most bound energies for N ( E ) and smallest radii for ρ( r ). Since the deviation is confined to 3–4 smoothing lengths, and is larger for low mass halos, it is likely due to numerical resolution effects.

  10. Measurement of the longitudinal proton structure function at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S.

    2009-03-01

    The reduced cross sections for ep deep inelastic scattering have been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA at three different centre-of-mass energies, 318, 251 and 225 GeV. From the cross sections, measured double differentially in Bjorken x and the virtuality, Q 2 , the proton structure functions F L and F 2 have been extracted in the region 5 x 10 -4 2 2 . (orig.)

  11. Theoretical relation between halo current-plasma energy displacement/deformation in EAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shahab Ud-Din; Khan, Salah Ud-Din; Song, Yuntao; Dalong, Chen

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, theoretical model for calculating halo current has been developed. This work attained novelty as no theoretical calculations for halo current has been reported so far. This is the first time to use theoretical approach. The research started by calculating points for plasma energy in terms of poloidal and toroidal magnetic field orientations. While calculating these points, it was extended to calculate halo current and to developed theoretical model. Two cases were considered for analyzing the plasma energy when flows down/upward to the diverter. Poloidal as well as toroidal movement of plasma energy was investigated and mathematical formulations were designed as well. Two conducting points with respect to (R, Z) were calculated for halo current calculations and derivations. However, at first, halo current was established on the outer plate in clockwise direction. The maximum generation of halo current was estimated to be about 0.4 times of the plasma current. A Matlab program has been developed to calculate halo current and plasma energy calculation points. The main objective of the research was to establish theoretical relation with experimental results so as to precautionary evaluate the plasma behavior in any Tokamak.

  12. Injection halos of hydrocarbons above oil-gas fields with super-high pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakhtin, V.V.

    1979-09-01

    We studied the origin of injection halos of hydrocarbons above oil-gas fields with anomalously high formation pressures (AHFP). Using fields in Azerbaydzhan and Chechen-Ingushetiya as an example, we demonstrate the effect of certain factors (in particular, faults and zones of increased macro- and micro-jointing) on the morpholoy of the halos. The intensity of micro-jointing (jointing permeability, three-dimensional density of micro-jointing) is directly connected with vertical dimensions of the halos. We measured halos based on transverse profiles across the Khayan-Kort field and studied the distribution of bitumen saturation within the injection halo. Discovery of injection halos during drilling has enabled us to improve the technology of wiring deep-seated exploratory wells for oil and gas in regions with development of AHFP.

  13. Stability of BEC galactic dark matter halos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzmán, F.S.; Lora-Clavijo, F.D.; González-Avilés, J.J.; Rivera-Paleo, F.J., E-mail: guzman@ifm.umich.mx, E-mail: fadulora@ifm.umich.mx, E-mail: javiles@ifm.umich.mx, E-mail: friverap@ifm.umich.mx [Instituto de Física y Matemáticas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Edificio C-3, Cd. Universitaria, 58040 Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico)

    2013-09-01

    In this paper we show that spherically symmetric BEC dark matter halos, with the sin r/r density profile, that accurately fit galactic rotation curves and represent a potential solution to the cusp-core problem are unstable. We do this by introducing back the density profiles into the fully time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii-Poisson system of equations. Using numerical methods to track the evolution of the system, we found that these galactic halos lose mass at an approximate rate of half of its mass in a time scale of dozens of Myr. We consider this time scale is enough as to consider these halos are unstable and unlikely to be formed. We provide some arguments to show that this behavior is general and discuss some other drawbacks of the model that restrict its viability.

  14. Is there a composition gradient in the halo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, R.P.; Trefzger, C.F.; Suntzeff, N.

    1979-01-01

    In the inner halo (galactocentric distance R < approximately 8 kpc), the Basel RGU photometry should allow the derivation of the shapes and dimensions of the iso-abundance contours. For the outer halo to R approximately 30 kpc, the authors review techniques based on Δs-measurements of RR Lyraes (Lick) and intermediate band-pass photometry of globular-cluster giants (Searle and Zinn, Palomar). Both methods suggest little change in mean [Fe/H] between 10 and 30 kpc; however, both may be biased against the discovery of very metal-poor objects. The conclusion that the outer halo has no abundance gradient may be somewhat premature. (Auth.)

  15. The Impact of Assembly Bias on the Galaxy Content of Dark Matter Halos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehavi, Idit; Contreras, Sergio; Padilla, Nelson; Smith, Nicholas J.; Baugh, Carlton M.; Norberg, Peder

    2018-01-01

    We study the dependence of the galaxy content of dark matter halos on large-scale environment and halo formation time using semi-analytic galaxy models applied to the Millennium simulation. We analyze subsamples of halos at the extremes of these distributions and measure the occupation functions for the galaxies they host. We find distinct differences among these occupation functions. The main effect with environment is that central galaxies (and in one model, also the satellites) in denser regions start populating lower-mass halos. A similar, but significantly stronger, trend exists with halo age, where early-forming halos are more likely to host central galaxies at lower halo mass. We discuss the origin of these trends and the connection to the stellar mass–halo mass relation. We find that, at fixed halo mass, older halos and to some extent also halos in dense environments tend to host more massive galaxies. Additionally, we see a reverse trend for the occupation of satellite galaxies where early-forming halos have fewer satellites, likely due to having more time for them to merge with the central galaxy. We describe these occupancy variations in terms of the changes in the occupation function parameters, which can aid in constructing realistic mock galaxy samples. Finally, we study the corresponding galaxy auto- and cross-correlation functions of the different samples and elucidate the impact of assembly bias on galaxy clustering. Our results can inform theoretical modeling of galaxy assembly bias and attempts to detect it in the real universe.

  16. Copper(II)-catalyzed enantioselective hydrosilylation of halo-substituted alkyl aryl and heteroaryl ketones: asymmetric synthesis of (R)-fluoxetine and (S)-duloxetine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ji-Ning; Fang, Qiang; Hu, Yi-Hu; Yang, Li-Yao; Wu, Fei-Fei; Xie, Lin-Jie; Wu, Jing; Li, Shijun

    2014-02-14

    A set of reaction conditions has been established to facilitate the non-precious copper-catalyzed enantioselective hydrosilylation of a number of structurally diverse β-, γ- or ε-halo-substituted alkyl aryl ketones and α-, β- or γ-halo-substituted alkyl heteroaryl ketones under air to afford a broad spectrum of halo alcohols in high yields and good to excellent enantioselectivities (up to 99% ee). The developed procedure has been successfully applied to the asymmetric synthesis of antidepressant drugs (R)-fluoxetine and (S)-duloxetine, which highlighted its synthetic utility.

  17. Toward a combined SAGE II-HALOE aerosol climatology: an evaluation of HALOE version 19 stratospheric aerosol extinction coefficient observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. W. Thomason

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Herein, the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE aerosol extinction coefficient data is evaluated in the low aerosol loading period after 1996 as the first necessary step in a process that will eventually allow the production of a combined HALOE/SAGE II (Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment aerosol climatology of derived aerosol products including surface area density. Based on these analyses, it is demonstrated that HALOE's 3.46 μm is of good quality above 19 km and suitable for scientific applications above that altitude. However, it is increasingly suspect at lower altitudes and should not be used below 17 km under any circumstances after 1996. The 3.40 μm is biased by about 10% throughout the lower stratosphere due to the failure to clear NO2 but otherwise appears to be a high quality product down to 15 km. The 2.45 and 5.26 μm aerosol extinction coefficient measurements are clearly biased and should not be used for scientific applications after the most intense parts of the Pinatubo period. Many of the issues in the aerosol data appear to be related to either the failure to clear some interfering gas species or doing so poorly. For instance, it is clear that the 3.40 μm aerosol extinction coefficient measurements can be improved through the inclusion of an NO2 correction and could, in fact, end up as the highest quality overall HALOE aerosol extinction coefficient measurement. It also appears that the 2.45 and 5.26 μm channels may be improved by updating the Upper Atmosphere Pilot Database which is used as a resource for the removal of gas species otherwise not available from direct HALOE measurements. Finally, a simple model to demonstrate the promise of mixed visible/infrared aerosol extinction coefficient ensembles for the retrieval of bulk aerosol properties demonstrates that a combined HALOE/SAGE II aerosol climatology is feasible and may represent a substantial improvement over independently derived

  18. Toward a Combined SAGE II-HALOE Aerosol Climatology: An Evaluation of HALOE Version 19 Stratospheric Aerosol Extinction Coefficient Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomason, L. W.

    2012-01-01

    Herein, the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) aerosol extinction coefficient data is evaluated in the low aerosol loading period after 1996 as the first necessary step in a process that will eventually allow the production of a combined HALOE/SAGE II (Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment) aerosol climatology of derived aerosol products including surface area density. Based on these analyses, it is demonstrated that HALOE's 3.46 microns is of good quality above 19 km and suitable for scientific applications above that altitude. However, it is increasingly suspect at lower altitudes and should not be used below 17 km under any circumstances after 1996. The 3.40 microns is biased by about 10% throughout the lower stratosphere due to the failure to clear NO2 but otherwise appears to be a high quality product down to 15 km. The 2.45 and 5.26 micron aerosol extinction coefficient measurements are clearly biased and should not be used for scientific applications after the most intense parts of the Pinatubo period. Many of the issues in the aerosol data appear to be related to either the failure to clear some interfering gas species or doing so poorly. For instance, it is clear that the 3.40micronaerosol extinction coefficient measurements can be improved through the inclusion of an NO2 correction and could, in fact, end up as the highest quality overall HALOE aerosol extinction coefficient measurement. It also appears that the 2.45 and 5.26 micron channels may be improved by updating the Upper Atmosphere Pilot Database which is used as a resource for the removal of gas species otherwise not available from direct HALOE measurements. Finally, a simple model to demonstrate the promise of mixed visible/infrared aerosol extinction coefficient ensembles for the retrieval of bulk aerosol properties demonstrates that a combined HALOE/SAGE II aerosol climatology is feasible and may represent a substantial improvement over independently derived data sets.

  19. Halo structure of strange particles in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akaishi, Yoshinori; Yamazaki, Toshimitsu.

    1997-01-01

    Some characteristic behaviors of hyperons in nuclei which have recently been revealed experimentally and theoretically are discussed with the emphasis on the repulsive part of the hyperon-nucleus interaction. The observed Σ 4 He nucleus is a bound state with J π = 0 + and T ≅ 1/2. Its nucleus-Σ potential derived from a realistic ΣN interaction is characterized by inner repulsion and a strong Lane term, which play important roles in forming the Σ-hypernuclear bound state. In 208 Pb a typical Coulomb-assisted bound state is expected, where Σ is trapped in the surface region by the nucleus-Σ potential with the aid of Coulomb and centrifugal interactions. In the double-strangeness (S=-2) sector, there is a possibility that the lightest double-Λ hypernucleus ΛΛ 4 H is abundantly populated by stopping Ξ - on 4 He. Its formation branching amounts to about 15%. A stopped Ξ - on 9 Be will also produce efficiently a variety of double-Λ hyperfragments. Discrete spectra of weak-decay pions from the fragments will provide a means of mass spectroscopy of double-Λ hypernuclei. In the S=-2 five-body system an excited state Ξ 5 H is predicted to appear with 'strangeness halo' and the ground state ΛΛ 5 H with almost pure ΛΛ component. (author)

  20. Dynamical behaviour of gaseous halo in a disk galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeuchi, S.; Habe, A.

    1981-01-01

    Assuming that the gas in the halo of a disk galaxy is supplied from the disk as a hot gas, the authors have studied its dynamical and thermal behaviour by means of a time dependent, two-dimensional hydrodynamic code. They suppose the following boundary conditions at the disk. (i) The hot gas with the temperature Tsub(d) and the density nsub(d) is uniform at r=4-12 kpc in the disk and it is time independent. (ii) This hot gas rotates with the stellar disk in the same velocity. (iii) This hot gas can escape freely from the disk to the halo. These conditions will be verified if the filling factor of hot gas is so large as f=0.5-0.8, as proposed by McKee and Ostriker (1977). The gas motion in the halo has been studied for wider ranges of gas temperature and its density at the disk than previously studied. At the same time, the authors have clarified the observability of various types of gaseous haloes and discuss the roles of gaseous halo on the evolution of galaxies. (Auth.)

  1. Multi-fractal analysis and lacunarity spectrum of the dark matter haloes in the SDSS-DR7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacón-Cardona, C.A.; Casas-Miranda, R.A.; Muñoz-Cuartas, J.C.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We analysed the dark matter in Seventh Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. • From the initial sample with 412,468 galaxies, 339,505 dark matter haloes were used. • We found the multifractal and the lacunarity spectrum as radial distance function. • The dark matter set did not achieve at the physical dimension of the space. - Abstract: The dark matter halo distribution of the nearby universe is used to study the fractal behaviour in the proximate universe. The data, which is based on four volume-limited galaxy samples was obtained by Muñoz-Cuartas and Mueller (2012) from the Seventh Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-DR7). In order to know the fractal behaviour of the observed universe, from the initial sample which contains 412,468 galaxies and 339,505 dark matter haloes were used as input for the fractal calculations. Using this data we use the sliding-window technique for the dark matter distribution and compute the multi-fractal dimension and the lacunarity spectrum and use it to study its dependence on radial distance in every sample. The transition to homogeneity is not observed in the dark matter halo distribution obtained from the SDSS-DR7 volume-limited galaxy samples; in its place the dark matter halo distribution exhibits a persistent multi-fractal behaviour where the measured dimension does not arrive at the value of the physical dimension of the space, for all structure parameter values of the analysed set, at least up to radial distances of the ordered from 165 Mpc/h from the available centres of each sample. Our results and their implications are discussed in the context of the formation of large-scale structures in the universe.

  2. Modelling of parameters for asymmetric halo and symmetric DHDMG n-MOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Swapnadip; Sarkar, Angsuman; Sarkar, Chandan Kumar

    2011-10-01

    This article presents an analytical surface potential, threshold voltage and drain current model for asymmetric pocket-implanted, single-halo dual material gate and double-halo dual material gate (DHDMG) n-MOSFET (MOSFET, metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor) operating up to 40 nm regime. The model is derived by applying Gauss's law to a rectangular box, covering the entire depletion region. The asymmetric pocket-implanted model takes into account the effective doping concentration of the two linear pocket profiles at the source and the drain ends along with the inner fringing capacitances at both the source and the drain ends and the subthreshold drain and the substrate bias effect. Using the surface potential model, the threshold voltage and drain currents are estimated. The same model is used to find the characteristic parameters for dual-material gate (DMG) with halo implantations and double gate. The characteristic improvement is investigated. It is concluded that the DHDMG device structure exhibits better suppression of the short-channel effect (SCE) and the threshold voltage roll-off than DMG and double-gate MOSFET. The adequacy of the model is verified by comparing with two-dimensional device simulator DESSIS. A very good agreement of our model with DESSIS is obtained proving the validity of our model used in suppressing the SCEs.

  3. High-resolution disruption halo current measurements using Langmuir probes in Alcator C-Mod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinguely, R. A.; Granetz, R. S.; Berg, A.; Kuang, A. Q.; Brunner, D.; LaBombard, B.

    2018-01-01

    Halo currents generated during disruptions on Alcator C-Mod have been measured with Langmuir ‘rail’ probes. These rail probes are embedded in a lower outboard divertor module in a closely-spaced vertical (poloidal) array. The dense array provides detailed resolution of the spatial dependence (~1 cm spacing) of the halo current distribution in the plasma scrape-off region with high time resolution (400 kHz digitization rate). As the plasma limits on the outboard divertor plate, the contact point is clearly discernible in the halo current data (as an inversion of current) and moves vertically down the divertor plate on many disruptions. These data are consistent with filament reconstructions of the plasma boundary, from which the edge safety factor of the disrupting plasma can be calculated. Additionally, the halo current ‘footprint’ on the divertor plate is obtained and related to the halo flux width. The voltage driving halo current and the effective resistance of the plasma region through which the halo current flows to reach the probes are also investigated. Estimations of the sheath resistance and halo region resistivity and temperature are given. This information could prove useful for modeling halo current dynamics.

  4. Structure of final states with a high transverse momentum$\\pi^{0}$ in proton-proton collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Darriulat, Pierre; Eggert, Karsten; Holder, M; McDonald, K T; Modis, T; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Seiden, A; Strauss, J; Vesztergombi, G; Williams, E G H; Darriulat, P; Dittmann, P; Eggert, K; Holder, M; Mcdonald, K T; Modis, T; Navarria, F L; Seiden, A; Strauss, J; Vesztergombi, G; Williams, E G H

    1976-01-01

    A study of the final state structure in proton-proton collisions is presented ( square root s=53 GeV) where a large transverse momentum pi /sup 0/(p/sub t/>2 GeV/c) is produced at an angle of 90 degrees . Charged secondaries have been detected and momentum analysed in the split field magnet detector at the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings. The large angular coverage of this detector extends over +or-2.5 units of rapidity and +or-30 degrees of azimuth with respect to the trigger pi /sup 0/, both towards and away from it. In each of these directions, charged particle distributions are presented in rapidity and momentum. In the hemisphere containing the trigger pi /sup 0/ the cross section for inclusive production of large transverse momentum rho /sup +or-/ mesons has been measured. In the opposite hemisphere the data exhibit several features predicted by hard scattering quark- parton models: coplanarity and short-range rapidity correlation for the large transverse momentum secondaries as well as a transverse mom...

  5. Influences of Structure Disorder and Temperature on Properties of Proton Conductivity in Hydrogen-Bond Molecular Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG Xiao-Feng; YU Jia-Feng

    2007-01-01

    The dynamic properties of proton conductivity along hydrogen-bonded molecular systems,for example,ice crystal,with structure disorder or damping and finite temperatures exposed in an externally applied electric-field have been numerically studied by Runge-Kutta way in our Soliton model.The results obtained show that the proton-soliton is very robust against the structure disorder including the fluctuation of the force constant and disorder in the sequence of masses and thermal perturbation and damping of medium,the velocity of its conductivity increases with increasing of the externally applied electric-field and decreasing of the damping coefficient of medium,but the proton-soliton disperses for quite great fluctuation of the force constant and damping coefficient.In the numerical simulation we find that the proton-soliton in our model is thermally stable in a large region of temperature of T ≤ 273 K under influences of damping and externally applied electric-field in ice crystal.This shows that our model is available and appropriate to ice.

  6. Influences of Structure Disorder and Temperature on Properties of Proton Conductivity in Hydrogen-Bond Molecular Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang Xiaofeng; Yu Jiafeng

    2007-01-01

    The dynamic properties of proton conductivity along hydrogen-bonded molecular systems, for example, ice crystal, with structure disorder or damping and finite temperatures exposed in an externally applied electric-field have been numerically studied by Runge-Kutta way in our soliton model. The results obtained show that the proton-soliton is very robust against the structure disorder including the fluctuation of the force constant and disorder in the sequence of masses and thermal perturbation and damping of medium, the velocity of its conductivity increases with increasing of the externally applied electric-field and decreasing of the damping coefficient of medium, but the proton-soliton disperses for quite great fluctuation of the force constant and damping coefficient. In the numerical simulation we find that the proton-soliton in our model is thermally stable in a large region of temperature of T≤273 K under influences of damping and externally applied electric-field in ice crystal. This shows that our model is available and appropriate to ice.

  7. Large-scale assembly bias of dark matter halos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazeyras, Titouan; Musso, Marcello; Schmidt, Fabian, E-mail: titouan@mpa-garching.mpg.de, E-mail: mmusso@sas.upenn.edu, E-mail: fabians@mpa-garching.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2017-03-01

    We present precise measurements of the assembly bias of dark matter halos, i.e. the dependence of halo bias on other properties than the mass, using curved 'separate universe' N-body simulations which effectively incorporate an infinite-wavelength matter overdensity into the background density. This method measures the LIMD (local-in-matter-density) bias parameters b {sub n} in the large-scale limit. We focus on the dependence of the first two Eulerian biases b {sup E} {sup {sub 1}} and b {sup E} {sup {sub 2}} on four halo properties: the concentration, spin, mass accretion rate, and ellipticity. We quantitatively compare our results with previous works in which assembly bias was measured on fairly small scales. Despite this difference, our findings are in good agreement with previous results. We also look at the joint dependence of bias on two halo properties in addition to the mass. Finally, using the excursion set peaks model, we attempt to shed new insights on how assembly bias arises in this analytical model.

  8. IDENTIFYING STAR STREAMS IN THE MILKY WAY HALO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Charles III; Brown, Warren R.; Geller, Margaret J.; Kenyon, Scott J., E-mail: cking@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: wbrown@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: mgeller@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: skenyon@cfa.harvard.edu [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2012-05-01

    We develop statistical methods for identifying star streams in the halo of the Milky Way that exploit observed spatial and radial velocity distributions. Within a great circle, departures of the observed spatial distribution from random provide a measure of the likelihood of a potential star stream. Comparisons between the radial velocity distribution within a great circle and the radial velocity distribution of the entire sample also measure the statistical significance of potential streams. The radial velocities enable construction of a more powerful joint statistical test for identifying star streams in the Milky Way halo. Applying our method to halo stars in the Hypervelocity Star (HVS) survey, we detect the Sagittarius stream at high significance. Great circle counts and comparisons with theoretical models suggest that the Sagittarius stream comprises 10%-17% of the halo stars in the HVS sample. The population of blue stragglers and blue horizontal branch stars varies along the stream and is a potential probe of the distribution of stellar populations in the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy prior to disruption.

  9. IDENTIFYING STAR STREAMS IN THE MILKY WAY HALO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Charles III; Brown, Warren R.; Geller, Margaret J.; Kenyon, Scott J.

    2012-01-01

    We develop statistical methods for identifying star streams in the halo of the Milky Way that exploit observed spatial and radial velocity distributions. Within a great circle, departures of the observed spatial distribution from random provide a measure of the likelihood of a potential star stream. Comparisons between the radial velocity distribution within a great circle and the radial velocity distribution of the entire sample also measure the statistical significance of potential streams. The radial velocities enable construction of a more powerful joint statistical test for identifying star streams in the Milky Way halo. Applying our method to halo stars in the Hypervelocity Star (HVS) survey, we detect the Sagittarius stream at high significance. Great circle counts and comparisons with theoretical models suggest that the Sagittarius stream comprises 10%-17% of the halo stars in the HVS sample. The population of blue stragglers and blue horizontal branch stars varies along the stream and is a potential probe of the distribution of stellar populations in the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy prior to disruption.

  10. Investigation of the nuclear matter density distributions of the exotic {sup 12}Be,{sup 14}Be and {sup 8}B nuclei by elastic proton scattering in inverse kinematics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilieva, Stoyanka

    2008-07-01

    In the current experiment, the differential cross sections for proton elastic scattering on the isotopes {sup 7,9,10,11,12,14}Be and {sup 8}B were measured. As results from the experiment, the absolute differential cross sections d{sigma}/dt as a function of the four momentum transfer t were obtained. In this work the differential cross sections for elastic p-{sup 12}Be, p-{sup 14}Be and p-{sup 8}B scattering at low t (t{<=}0.05(GeV/c){sup 2}) are presented. The measured cross sections were analyzed within the Glauber multiple-scattering theory using different density parameterizations, and the nuclear matter density distributions and radii of the investigated isotopes were determined. The determined rms matter radius is 3.11{+-}0.04{+-}0.13 fm. In the case of the {sup 12}Be nucleus the results showed an extended matter distribution as well. For this nucleus a matter radius of 2.82{+-}0.03{+-}0.12 fm was determined. An interesting result is that the free {sup 12}Be nucleus behaves differently from the core of {sup 14}Be and is much more extended than it. Preliminary experimental results for the isotope {sup 8}B are also presented. An extended matter distribution was obtained (though much more compact as compared to the neutron halos). A proton halo structure was observed for the first time with the proton elastic scattering method. The deduced matter radius is 2.60{+-}0.02{+-}0.26 fm. Results from the feasibility studies of the EXL detector setup, performed at the present ESR storage ring, are presented. (orig.)

  11. A Precision Measurement of the Spin Structure of the Proton at SLAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erbacher, Robin D

    1999-09-22

    E143 at SLAC Endstation A performed deep-inelastic scattering measurements of polarized electrons from polarized protons and deuterons within cryogenic {sup 15}NH{sub 3} and {sup 15}ND{sub 3}, respectively. Data were taken at incident energies of 29.1, 16.2 and 9.7 GeV, and covered the kinematical range x > 0:03 and 0:3 < Q{sup 2} < 12 (GeV/c){sup 2}. The scattered electrons were detected by two spectrometers at angles of 4.5{sup o} and 7.0{sup o}. From these data, the spin-dependent structure functions g{sub 1}{sup p}(x; Q{sup 2}) and g{sub 1}{sup d}(x; Q{sup 2}) were determined. This dissertation describes the experiment, with emphasis on the results on the proton spin structure. The integral of g{sub 1} over the range 0 < x < 1 was found to be {Gamma}{sub 1}{sup p} = 0.130 {+-} 0.003 {+-} 0.008 for the proton and {Gamma}{sub 1}{sup d} = 0.044 {+-} 0.003 {+-} 0.004 for the deuteron. Both values are in agreement with world data, and violate the Ellis-Jaffe sum rule by more than 3 standard deviations. The neutron structure function was obtained by combining proton and deuteron results, giving {Gamma}{sub 1}{sup n} = [0.035 {+-} 0.007 {+-} 0.010]. From this the integral {Gamma}{sub 1}{sup p}-{Gamma}{sub 1}{sup n} followed, yielding 0.165 {+-} 0.009 {+-} 0.016 at Q{sup 2} = 3 (GeV/c){sup 2}, in agreement with the Bjorken sum rule to within one standard deviation. The Q{sup 2}-dependence of the ratio g{sub 1}/F{sub 1} was determined to be small for Q{sup 2} > 1 (GeV/c){sup 2}, validating the assumption of no Q{sup 2}-dependence used in obtaining the integrals. A small rise with increasing Q{sup 2} was seen in the ratio for Q{sup 2} < 1 (GeV/c){sup 2}, however. The total quark contribution to the spin was found to be {Delta}q = 0.28 {+-} 0.09 for the proton, and {Delta}q = 0.32 {+-} 0.05 for the deuteron. Furthermore, a large negative spin contribution from the strange sea quarks was measured for both nucleons, giving {Delta}s = 0.10 {+-} 0.03 and {Delta}s = -0

  12. Exploring the liminality: properties of haloes and subhaloes in borderline f(R) gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Difu; Li, Baojiu; Han, Jiaxin; Gao, Liang; Hellwing, Wojciech A.

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the properties of dark matter haloes and subhaloes in an f(R) gravity model with |fR0| = 10-6, using a very-high-resolution N-body simulation. The model is a borderline between being cosmologically interesting and yet still consistent with current data. We find that the halo mass function in this model has a maximum 20 per cent enhancement compared with the Λ-cold-dark-matter (ΛCDM) predictions between z = 1 and 0. Because of the chameleon mechanism which screens the deviation from standard gravity in dense environments, haloes more massive than 1013 h-1 M⊙ in this f(R) model have very similar properties to haloes of similar mass in ΛCDM, while less massive haloes, such as that of the Milky Way, can have steeper inner density profiles and higher velocity dispersions due to their weaker screening. The halo concentration is remarkably enhanced for low-mass haloes in this model due to a deepening of the total gravitational potential. Contrary to the naive expectation, the halo formation time zf is later for low-mass haloes in this model, a consequence of these haloes growing faster than their counterparts in ΛCDM at late times and the definition of zf. Subhaloes, especially those less massive than 1011 h-1 M⊙, are substantially more abundant in this f(R) model for host haloes less massive than 1013 h-1 M⊙. We discuss the implications of these results for the Milky Way satellite abundance problem. Although the overall halo and subhalo properties in this borderline f(R) model are close to their ΛCDM predictions, our results suggest that studies of the Local Group and astrophysical systems, aided by high-resolution simulations, can be valuable for further tests of it.

  13. A two-point correlation function for Galactic halo stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cooper, A. P.; Cole, S.; Frenk, C. S.; Helmi, A.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a correlation function statistic that quantifies the amount of spatial and kinematic substructure in the stellar halo. We test this statistic using model stellar halo realizations constructed from the Aquarius suite of six high-resolution cosmological N-body simulations, in combination

  14. THE BLACK HOLE MASS, STELLAR MASS-TO-LIGHT RATIO, AND DARK HALO IN M87

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebhardt, Karl; Thomas, Jens

    2009-01-01

    We model the dynamical structure of M87 (NGC4486) using high spatial resolution long-slit observations of stellar light in the central regions, two-dimensional stellar light kinematics out to half of the effective radius, and globular cluster velocities out to eight effective radii. We simultaneously fit for four parameters: black hole mass, dark halo core radius, dark halo circular velocity, and stellar mass-to-light (M/L) ratio. We find a black hole mass of 6.4(±0.5) x 10 9 M sun (the uncertainty is 68% confidence marginalized over the other parameters). The stellar M/L V = 6.3 ± 0.8. The best-fit dark halo core radius is 14 ± 2 kpc, assuming a cored logarithmic potential. The best-fit dark halo circular velocity is 715 ± 15 km s -1 . Our black hole mass is over a factor of 2 larger than previous stellar dynamical measures, and our derived stellar M/L ratio is two times lower than previous dynamical measures. When we do not include a dark halo, we measure a black hole mass and stellar M/L ratio that is consistent with previous measures, implying that the major difference is in the model assumptions. The stellar M/L ratio from our models is very similar to that derived from stellar population models of M87. The reason for the difference in the black hole mass is because we allow the M/L ratio to change with radius. The dark halo is degenerate with the stellar M/L ratio, which is subsequently degenerate with the black hole mass. We argue that dynamical models of galaxies that do not include the contribution from a dark halo may produce a biased result for the black hole mass. This bias is especially large for a galaxy with a shallow light profile such as M87, and may not be as severe in galaxies with steeper light profiles unless they have a large stellar population change with radius.

  15. Halo histories versus Galaxy properties at z = 0 - I. The quenching of star formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, Jeremy L.; Wetzel, Andrew R.; Conroy, Charlie; Mao, Yao-Yuan

    2017-12-01

    We test whether halo age and galaxy age are correlated at fixed halo and galaxy mass. The formation histories, and thus ages, of dark matter haloes correlate with their large-scale density ρ, an effect known as assembly bias. We test whether this correlation extends to galaxies by measuring the dependence of galaxy stellar age on ρ. To clarify the comparison between theory and observation, and to remove the strong environmental effects on satellites, we use galaxy group catalogues to identify central galaxies and measure their quenched fraction, fQ, as a function of large-scale environment. Models that match halo age to central galaxy age predict a strong positive correlation between fQ and ρ. However, we show that the amplitude of this effect depends on the definition of halo age: assembly bias is significantly reduced when removing the effects of splashback haloes - those haloes that are central but have passed through a larger halo or experienced strong tidal encounters. Defining age using halo mass at its peak value rather than current mass removes these effects. In Sloan Digital Sky Survey data, at M* ≳ 1010 M⊙ h-2, there is a ∼5 per cent increase in fQ from low-to-high densities, which is in agreement with predictions of dark matter haloes using peak halo mass. At lower stellar mass there is little to no correlation of fQ with ρ. For these galaxies, age matching is inconsistent with the data across the range of halo formation metrics that we tested. This implies that halo formation history has a small but statistically significant impact on quenching of star formation at high masses, while the quenching process in low-mass central galaxies is uncorrelated with halo formation history.

  16. Structure and Mechanism of Proton Transport Through the Transmembrane Tetrameric M2 Protein Bundle of the Influenza A Virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R Acharya; V Carnevale; G Fiorin; B Levine; A Polishchuk; V Balannick; I Samish; R Lamb; L Pinto; et al.

    2011-12-31

    The M2 proton channel from influenza A virus is an essential protein that mediates transport of protons across the viral envelope. This protein has a single transmembrane helix, which tetramerizes into the active channel. At the heart of the conduction mechanism is the exchange of protons between the His37 imidazole moieties of M2 and waters confined to the M2 bundle interior. Protons are conducted as the total charge of the four His37 side chains passes through 2{sup +} and 3{sup +} with a pK{sub a} near 6. A 1.65 {angstrom} resolution X-ray structure of the transmembrane protein (residues 25-46), crystallized at pH 6.5, reveals a pore that is lined by alternating layers of sidechains and well-ordered water clusters, which offer a pathway for proton conduction. The His37 residues form a box-like structure, bounded on either side by water clusters with well-ordered oxygen atoms at close distance. The conformation of the protein, which is intermediate between structures previously solved at higher and lower pH, suggests a mechanism by which conformational changes might facilitate asymmetric diffusion through the channel in the presence of a proton gradient. Moreover, protons diffusing through the channel need not be localized to a single His37 imidazole, but instead may be delocalized over the entire His-box and associated water clusters. Thus, the new crystal structure provides a possible unification of the discrete site versus continuum conduction models.

  17. HOT GAS HALOS IN EARLY-TYPE FIELD GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulchaey, John S.; Jeltema, Tesla E.

    2010-01-01

    We use Chandra and XMM-Newton to study the hot gas content in a sample of field early-type galaxies. We find that the L X -L K relationship is steeper for field galaxies than for comparable galaxies in groups and clusters. The low hot gas content of field galaxies with L K ∼ * suggests that internal processes such as supernovae-driven winds or active galactic nucleus feedback expel hot gas from low-mass galaxies. Such mechanisms may be less effective in groups and clusters where the presence of an intragroup or intracluster medium can confine outflowing material. In addition, galaxies in groups and clusters may be able to accrete gas from the ambient medium. While there is a population of L K ∼ * galaxies in groups and clusters that retain hot gas halos, some galaxies in these rich environments, including brighter galaxies, are largely devoid of hot gas. In these cases, the hot gas halos have likely been removed via ram pressure stripping. This suggests a very complex interplay between the intragroup/intracluster medium and hot gas halos of galaxies in rich environments, with the ambient medium helping to confine or even enhance the halos in some cases and acting to remove gas in others. In contrast, the hot gas content of more isolated galaxies is largely a function of the mass of the galaxy, with more massive galaxies able to maintain their halos, while in lower mass systems the hot gas escapes in outflowing winds.

  18. Gaia reveals a metal-rich in-situ component of the local stellar halo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaca, Ana; Conroy, Charlie; Wetzel, Andrew; Hopkins, Philip; Keres, Dusan

    2018-01-01

    We use the first Gaia data release, combined with RAVE and APOGEE spectroscopic surveys, to investigate the origin of halo stars within ~3 kpc from the Sun. We identify halo stars kinematically, as moving with a relative speed of at least 220 km/s with respect to the local standard of rest. These stars are in general more metal-poor than the disk, but surprisingly, half of our halo sample is comprised of stars with [Fe/H]>-1. The orbital directions of these metal-rich halo stars are preferentially aligned with the disk rotation, in sharp contrast with the isotropic orbital distribution of the more metal-poor halo stars. We find similar properties in the Latte cosmological zoom-in simulation of a Milky Way-like galaxy from the FIRE project. In Latte, metal-rich halo stars formed primarily inside of the solar circle, while lower-metallicity halo stars preferentially formed at larger distances (extending beyond the virial radius). This suggests that metal-rich halo stars in the Solar neighborhood in fact formed in situ within the Galactic disk rather than having been accreted from satellite systems. These stars, currently on halo-like orbits, therefore have likely undergone substantial radial migration/heating.

  19. Gaia Reveals a Metal-rich, in situ Component of the Local Stellar Halo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaca, Ana; Conroy, Charlie; Wetzel, Andrew; Hopkins, Philip F.; Kereš, Dušan

    2017-08-01

    We use the first Gaia data release, combined with the RAVE and APOGEE spectroscopic surveys, to investigate the origin of halo stars within ≲ 3 kpc from the Sun. We identify halo stars kinematically as moving at a relative speed of at least 220 km s-1 with respect to the local standard of rest. These stars are generally less metal-rich than the disk, but surprisingly, half of our halo sample is comprised of stars with [{Fe}/{{H}}]> -1. The orbital directions of these metal-rich halo stars are preferentially aligned with the disk rotation, in sharp contrast with the intrinsically isotropic orbital distribution of the metal-poor halo stars. We find similar properties in the Latte cosmological zoom-in simulation of a Milky Way-like galaxy from the FIRE project. In Latte, metal-rich halo stars formed primarily inside of the solar circle, whereas lower-metallicity halo stars preferentially formed at larger distances (extending beyond the virial radius). This suggests that metal-rich halo stars in the solar neighborhood actually formed in situ within the Galactic disk, rather than having been accreted from satellite systems. These stars, currently on halo-like orbits, therefore have likely undergone substantial radial migration/heating.

  20. The Halo Boundary of Galaxy Clusters in the SDSS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, Eric; Jain, Bhuvnesh; Sheth, Ravi K. [Center for Particle Cosmology, Department of Physics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Chang, Chihway; Kravtsov, Andrey [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Adhikari, Susmita; Dalal, Neal [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, IL 61801 (United States); More, Surhud [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa-shi, Chiba, 277-8583 (Japan); Rozo, Eduardo [Department of Physics, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Rykoff, Eli, E-mail: ebax@sas.upenn.edu [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, P.O. Box 2450, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2017-05-20

    Analytical models and simulations predict a rapid decline in the halo density profile associated with the transition from the “infalling” regime outside the halo to the “collapsed” regime within the halo. Using data from SDSS, we explore evidence for such a feature in the density profiles of galaxy clusters using several different approaches. We first estimate the steepening of the outer galaxy density profile around clusters, finding evidence for truncation of the halo profile. Next, we measure the galaxy density profile around clusters using two sets of galaxies selected on color. We find evidence of an abrupt change in galaxy colors that coincides with the location of the steepening of the density profile. Since galaxies that have completed orbits within the cluster are more likely to be quenched of star formation and thus appear redder, this abrupt change in galaxy color can be associated with the transition from single-stream to multi-stream regimes. We also use a standard model comparison approach to measure evidence for a “splashback”-like feature, but find that this approach is very sensitive to modeling assumptions. Finally, we perform measurements using an independent cluster catalog to test for potential systematic errors associated with cluster selection. We identify several avenues for future work: improved understanding of the small-scale galaxy profile, lensing measurements, identification of proxies for the halo accretion rate, and other tests. With upcoming data from the DES, KiDS, and HSC surveys, we can expect significant improvements in the study of halo boundaries.

  1. The Halo Boundary of Galaxy Clusters in the SDSS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, Eric; Jain, Bhuvnesh; Sheth, Ravi K.; Chang, Chihway; Kravtsov, Andrey; Adhikari, Susmita; Dalal, Neal; More, Surhud; Rozo, Eduardo; Rykoff, Eli

    2017-01-01

    Analytical models and simulations predict a rapid decline in the halo density profile associated with the transition from the “infalling” regime outside the halo to the “collapsed” regime within the halo. Using data from SDSS, we explore evidence for such a feature in the density profiles of galaxy clusters using several different approaches. We first estimate the steepening of the outer galaxy density profile around clusters, finding evidence for truncation of the halo profile. Next, we measure the galaxy density profile around clusters using two sets of galaxies selected on color. We find evidence of an abrupt change in galaxy colors that coincides with the location of the steepening of the density profile. Since galaxies that have completed orbits within the cluster are more likely to be quenched of star formation and thus appear redder, this abrupt change in galaxy color can be associated with the transition from single-stream to multi-stream regimes. We also use a standard model comparison approach to measure evidence for a “splashback”-like feature, but find that this approach is very sensitive to modeling assumptions. Finally, we perform measurements using an independent cluster catalog to test for potential systematic errors associated with cluster selection. We identify several avenues for future work: improved understanding of the small-scale galaxy profile, lensing measurements, identification of proxies for the halo accretion rate, and other tests. With upcoming data from the DES, KiDS, and HSC surveys, we can expect significant improvements in the study of halo boundaries.

  2. Fermionic halos at finite temperature in AdS/CFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argüelles, Carlos R.; Grandi, Nicolás E.

    2018-05-01

    We explore the gravitational backreaction of a system consisting in a very large number of elementary fermions at finite temperature, in asymptotically AdS space. We work in the hydrodynamic approximation, and solve the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations with a perfect fluid whose equation of state takes into account both the relativistic effects of the fermionic constituents, as well as its finite temperature effects. We find a novel dense core-diluted halo structure for the density profiles in the AdS bulk, similarly as recently reported in flat space, for the case of astrophysical dark matter halos in galaxies. We further study the critical equilibrium configurations above which the core undergoes gravitational collapse towards a massive black hole, and calculate the corresponding critical central temperatures, for two qualitatively different central regimes of the fermions: the diluted-Fermi case, and the degenerate case. As a probe for the dual CFT, we construct the holographic two-point correlator of a scalar operator with large conformal dimension in the worldline limit, and briefly discuss on the boundary CFT effects at the critical points.

  3. The proton and deuteron F2 structure function at low Q2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tvaskis, Vladas; Arrington, John; Asaturyan, Razmik; Baker, Oliver; Blok, Henk; Bosted, Peter; Boswell, Melissa; Bruell, Antje; Christy, Michael; Cochran, Anthony; Ent, Rolf; Filippone, Bradley; Gasparian, Ashot; Keppel, Cynthia; Kinney, Edward; Lapikas, L.; Lorenzon, Wolfgang; Mack, David; Mammei, Juliette; Martin, J.W.; Mkrtchyan, Hamlet; Niculescu, Maria-Ioana; Piercey, Rodney; Potterveld, David; Smith, Gregory; Spurlock, Kurt; Van der Steenhoven, Gerard; Stepanyan, Stepan; Tadevosyan, Vardan; Wood, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Measurements of the proton and deuteron F2 structure functions are presented. The data, taken at Jefferson Lab Hall C, span the four-momentum transfer range 0:06 < Q2 < 2:8 GeV2, and Bjorken x values from 0.009 to 0.45, thus extending the knowledge of F2 to low values of Q2 at low x. Next-to-next-to-leading order calculations using recent parton distribution functions start to deviate from the data for Q2 < 2 GeV2 at the low and high x-values. Down to the lowest value of Q2, the structure function is in good agreement with a parameterization of F2 based on data that have been taken at much higher values of Q2 or much lower values of x, and which is constrained by data at the photon point. The ratio of the deuteron and proton structure functions at low x remains well described by a logarithmic dependence on Q2 at low Q2.

  4. Remapping simulated halo catalogues in redshift space

    OpenAIRE

    Mead, Alexander; Peacock, John

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the extension to redshift space of a rescaling algorithm, designed to alter the effective cosmology of a pre-existing simulated particle distribution or catalogue of dark matter haloes. The rescaling approach was initially developed by Angulo & White and was adapted and applied to halo catalogues in real space in our previous work. This algorithm requires no information other than the initial and target cosmological parameters, and it contains no tuned parameters. It is shown here ...

  5. THE HALO MERGER RATE IN THE MILLENNIUM SIMULATION AND IMPLICATIONS FOR OBSERVED GALAXY MERGER FRACTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genel, Shy; Genzel, Reinhard; Bouche, Nicolas; Naab, Thorsten; Sternberg, Amiel

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a new method to extract halo merger rates from the Millennium Simulation. First, by removing superfluous mergers that are artifacts of the standard friends-of-friends (FOF) halo identification algorithm, we find a lower merger rate compared to previous work. The reductions are more significant at lower redshifts and lower halo masses, and especially for minor mergers. Our new approach results in a better agreement with predictions from the extended Press-Schechter model. Second, we find that the FOF halo finder overestimates the halo mass by up to 50% for halos that are about to merge, which leads to an additional ∼20% overestimate of the merger rate. Therefore, we define halo masses by including only particles that are gravitationally bound to their FOF groups. We provide new best-fitting parameters for a global formula to account for these improvements. In addition, we extract the merger rate per progenitor halo, as well as per descendant halo. The merger rate per progenitor halo is the quantity that should be related to observed galaxy merger fractions when they are measured via pair counting. At low-mass/redshift, the merger rate increases moderately with mass and steeply with redshift. At high enough mass/redshift (for the rarest halos with masses a few times the 'knee' of the mass function), these trends break down, and the merger rate per progenitor halo decreases with mass and increases only moderately with redshift. Defining the merger rate per progenitor halo also allows us to quantify the rate at which halos are being accreted onto larger halos, in addition to the minor and major merger rates. We provide an analytic formula that converts any given merger rate per descendant halo into a merger rate per progenitor halo. Finally, we perform a direct comparison between observed merger fractions and the fraction of halos in the Millennium Simulation that have undergone a major merger during the recent dynamical friction time, and find a

  6. Results from the Splash Survey: Spectroscopic and Photometric Landscape of Andromeda's Stellar Halo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guhathakurta, Puragra; SPLASH Collaboration

    2009-01-01

    Detailed studies of nearby galaxies provide vital clues about their formation and evolutionary history. This "fossil record" approach is complementary to direct look-back studies of distant galaxies. Our Galaxy and the Andromeda spiral galaxy (M31) have long been cornerstones in the former category. M31 provides an external perspective on a large galaxy similar to our own and yet is close enough to allow detailed studies of individual stars. In my talk, I will present results from the SPLASH collaboration: Spectroscopic and Photometric Landscape of Andromeda's Stellar Halo. The collective data set from this large international team includes thousands of Keck/DEIMOS spectra of individual red giant branch stars, ground-based deep wide-field imaging and photometry with KPNO/Mosaic, CFHT/MegaCam, and Subaru/Suprime-Cam, and ultra-deep pencil-beam probes with HST/ACS imaging reaching below the main-sequence turnoff. Our recent discovery of an extended stellar halo in M31 (R > 150 kpc) shows that most previous studies of its spheroid have been sampling its inner bulge-like spheroidal component, not its halo. In my talk I will touch upon several related topics related to the general theme of hierarchical galaxy formation including: M31's global structure and subcomponents (halo, bulge/central bar, and disk), stellar dynamics, statistical properties of substructure, detailed chemical abundance measurements, detailed forensic reconstruction of recent collision events, dwarf satellites as tracers and building blocks of larger galaxies, and empirical constraints on the tangential motion of the M31 system. I will also discuss recent results on the chemical abundance of the lowest luminosity Galactic satellites (recently discovered by SDSS) and implications for the formation of the Milky Way halo. This research was supported by funds from the National Science Foundation, NASA, and the Institute for Geophysics and Planetary Physics.

  7. Deep brain transcranial magnetic stimulation using variable "Halo coil" system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Y.; Hadimani, R. L.; Crowther, L. J.; Xu, Z.; Qu, J.; Jiles, D. C.

    2015-05-01

    Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation has the potential to treat various neurological disorders non-invasively and safely. The "Halo coil" configuration can stimulate deeper regions of the brain with lower surface to deep-brain field ratio compared to other coil configurations. The existing "Halo coil" configuration is fixed and is limited in varying the site of stimulation in the brain. We have developed a new system based on the current "Halo coil" design along with a graphical user interface system that enables the larger coil to rotate along the transverse plane. The new system can also enable vertical movement of larger coil. Thus, this adjustable "Halo coil" configuration can stimulate different regions of the brain by adjusting the position and orientation of the larger coil on the head. We have calculated magnetic and electric fields inside a MRI-derived heterogeneous head model for various positions and orientations of the coil. We have also investigated the mechanical and thermal stability of the adjustable "Halo coil" configuration for various positions and orientations of the coil to ensure safe operation of the system.

  8. Collisionless analogs of Riemann S ellipsoids with halo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramyan, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    A spheroidal halo ensures equilibrium of the collisionless analogs of the Riemann S ellipsoids with oscillations of the particles along the direction of their rotation. Sequences of collisionless triaxial ellipsoids begin and end with dynamically stable members of collisionless embedded spheroids. Both liquid and collisionless Riemann S ellipsoids with weak halo have properties that resemble those of bars of SB galaxies

  9. Ultra Light Axionic Dark Matter: Galactic Halos and Implications for Observations with Pulsar Timing Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Martino, Ivan; Broadhurst, Tom; Tye, S.-H. Henry; Chiueh, Tzihong; Shive, Hsi-Yu; Lazkoz, Ruth

    2018-01-01

    The cold dark matter (CDM) paradigm successfully explains the cosmic structure over an enormous span of redshifts. However, it fails when probing the innermost regions of dark matter halos and the properties of the Milky Way's dwarf galaxy satellites. Moreover, the lack of experimental detection of Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) favors alternative candidates such as light axionic dark matter that naturally arise in string theory. Cosmological N-body simulations have shown that axionic dark matter forms a solitonic core of size of ≃ 150 pc in the innermost region of the galactic halos. The oscillating scalar field associated to the axionic dark matter halo produces an oscillating gravitational potential that induces a time dilation of the pulse arrival time of ≃ 400 ns/(m_B/10^{-22} eV) for pulsar within such a solitonic core. Over the whole galaxy, the averaged predicted signal may be detectable with current and forthcoming pulsar timing array telescopes.

  10. Probing the Spin Structure of the Proton Using Polarized Proton-Proton Collisions and the Production of W Bosons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaumier, Michael J. [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This thesis discusses the process of extracting the longitudinal asymmetry, A$W±\\atop{L}$ describing W → μ production in forward kinematic regimes. This asymmetry is used to constrain our understanding of the polarized parton distribution functions characterizing $\\bar{u}$ and $\\bar{d}$ sea quarks in the proton. This asymmetry will be used to constrain the overall contribution of the sea-quarks to the total proton spin. The asymmetry is evaluated over the pseudorapidity range of the PHENIX Muon Arms, 2.1 < |η| 2.6, for longitudinally polarized proton-proton collisions at 510 GeV √s. In particular, I will discuss the statistical methods used to characterize real muonic W decays and the various background processes is presented, including a discussion of likelihood event selection and the Extended Unbinned Maximum Likelihood t. These statistical methods serve estimate the yields of W muonic decays, which are used to calculate the longitudinal asymmetry.

  11. Structure and Dynamics Investigations of Sr/Ca-Doped LaPO4 Proton Conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    al-Wahish, Amal [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Research Reactor; al-Binni, U. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Tetard, L. [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States). NanoScience Technology Center; Bridges, Craig A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Chemical Sciences Division; Kharel, Krishna [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry; Günaydın-Şen, Özge [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry; Huq, A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Chemical and Engineering Materials Division; Musfeldt, J. L. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Paranthaman, M. P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Chemical Sciences Division; Mandrus, D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science & Technology Division; Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    2017-05-15

    Proton conductors loom out of the pool of candidate materials with great potential to boost hydrogen alternatives to fossil-based resources for energy. Acceptor doped lanthanum orthophosphates are considered for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) for their potential stability and conductivity at high temperature. By exploring the crystal and defect structure of x% Sr/Ca-doped LaPO4 with different nominal Sr/Ca concentrations (x = 0 – 10) with Neutron powder diffraction (NPD) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), we confirm that Sr/Ca-doped LaPO4 can exist as self-supported structures at high temperatures during solid oxide fuel cell operation. Thermal stability, surface topography, size distribution are also studied to better understand the proton conductivity for dry and wet compounds obtained at sintering temperatures ranging from 1200 to 1400 °C using a combination of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). In conclusion, the results suggest that Sr doped samples exhibit the highest proton conductivity of our samples and illustrate the impact of material design and versatile characterization schemes on the development of proton conductors with superior functionality.

  12. Galaxy formation with BECDM - I. Turbulence and relaxation of idealized haloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocz, Philip; Vogelsberger, Mark; Robles, Victor H; Zavala, Jesús; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Fialkov, Anastasia; Hernquist, Lars

    2017-11-01

    We present a theoretical analysis of some unexplored aspects of relaxed Bose-Einstein condensate dark matter (BECDM) haloes. This type of ultralight bosonic scalar field dark matter is a viable alternative to the standard cold dark matter (CDM) paradigm, as it makes the same large-scale predictions as CDM and potentially overcomes CDM's small-scale problems via a galaxy-scale de Broglie wavelength. We simulate BECDM halo formation through mergers, evolved under the Schrödinger-Poisson equations. The formed haloes consist of a soliton core supported against gravitational collapse by the quantum pressure tensor and an asymptotic r -3 NFW-like profile. We find a fundamental relation of the core-to-halo mass with the dimensionless invariant Ξ ≡ | E |/ M 3 /( Gm/ħ ) 2 or M c / M ≃ 2.6Ξ 1/3 , linking the soliton to global halo properties. For r ≥ 3.5 r c core radii, we find equipartition between potential, classical kinetic and quantum gradient energies. The haloes also exhibit a conspicuous turbulent behaviour driven by the continuous reconnection of vortex lines due to wave interference. We analyse the turbulence 1D velocity power spectrum and find a k -1.1 power law. This suggests that the vorticity in BECDM haloes is homogeneous, similar to thermally-driven counterflow BEC systems from condensed matter physics, in contrast to a k -5/3 Kolmogorov power law seen in mechanically-driven quantum systems. The mode where the power spectrum peaks is approximately the soliton width, implying that the soliton-sized granules carry most of the turbulent energy in BECDM haloes.

  13. The Peculiar Behavior of Halo Coronal Mass Ejections in Solar Cycle 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, N.; Xie, H.; Akiyama, S.; Makela, P.; Yashiro, S.; Michalek, G.

    2015-01-01

    We report on the remarkable finding that the halo coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in cycle 24 are more abundant than in cycle 23, although the sunspot number in cycle 24 has dropped by approx. 40%. We also find that the distribution of halo-CME source locations is different in cycle 24: the longitude distribution of halos is much flatter with the number of halos originating at a central meridian distance greater than or equal to 60deg twice as large as that in cycle 23. On the other hand, the average speed and associated soft X-ray flare size are the same in both cycles, suggesting that the ambient medium into which the CMEs are ejected is significantly different. We suggest that both the higher abundance and larger central meridian longitudes of halo CMEs can be explained as a consequence of the diminished total pressure in the heliosphere in cycle 24. The reduced total pressure allows CMEs to expand more than usual making them appear as halos.

  14. Dynamical evolution of quintessence dark energy in collapsing dark matter halos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qiao; Fan Zuhui

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the dynamical evolution of quintessence dark energy induced by the collapse of dark matter halos. Different from other previous studies, we develop a numerical strategy which allows us to calculate the dark energy evolution for the entire history of the spherical collapse of dark matter halos, without the need of separate treatments for linear, quasilinear, and nonlinear stages of the halo formation. It is found that the dark energy perturbations evolve with redshifts, and their specific behaviors depend on the quintessence potential as well as the collapsing process. The overall energy density perturbation is at the level of 10 -6 for cluster-sized halos. The perturbation amplitude decreases with the decrease of the halo mass. At a given redshift, the dark energy perturbation changes with the radius to the halo center, and can be either positive or negative depending on the contrast of ∂ t φ, ∂ r φ, and φ with respect to the background, where φ is the quintessence field. For shells where the contrast of ∂ r φ is dominant, the dark energy perturbation is positive and can be as high as about 10 -5 .

  15. The Local Group in LCDM - Shapes and masses of dark halos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Ciro, Carlos Andrés

    2013-01-01

    In dit proefschrift bestuderen we de eigenschappen van donkere materie halo's in het LCDM paradigma. Het eerste deel richt zich op de vorm van de massadistributie van dergelijke objecten. We hebben gevonden dat de vorm van ge"isoleerde Melkweg-achtige donkere materie halo's significant afwijkt van bolsymmetrie. De lokale omgeving heeft invloed op de halo's en deze worden daarbij sterk be"invloed door de manier waarop massa aangroeit. We hebben ook de structuur en de baanstructuur van de satellieten van dergelijke halo's in detail onderzocht. In het algemeen zijn deze objecten sferischer dan de halo's zelf. Ze vertonen ook duidelijke afdrukken van getijdenwerking in zowel hun geometrische vorm als in de baanstructuur. Daarna gebruiken we het aantal massieve objecten rond de Melkweg om limieten te zetten op de totale massa van de donkere materie halo van de Melkweg. De eigenschappen van de massaverdeling van de Melkweg worden verder onderzocht in het laatste hoofdstuk. Daar maken we gebruik van de Sagittarius sterstroom om de vorm van de galactische potentiaal beter te bepalen. We komen met een nieuw model dat rekening houdt met de galactische schijf en de invloed van satellietstelsels en die bovendien consistent is met het LCDM paradigma.

  16. The reversed halo sign: update and differential diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, M C B; Viswanathan, C; Marchiori, E; Truong, M T; Benveniste, M F; Rossi, S; Marom, E M

    2012-01-01

    The reversed halo sign is characterised by a central ground-glass opacity surrounded by denser air–space consolidation in the shape of a crescent or a ring. It was first described on high-resolution CT as being specific for cryptogenic organising pneumonia. Since then, the reversed halo sign has been reported in association with a wide range of pulmonary diseases, including invasive pulmonary fungal infections, paracoccidioidomycosis, pneumocystis pneumonia, tuberculosis, community-acquired pneumonia, lymphomatoid granulomatosis, Wegener granulomatosis, lipoid pneumonia and sarcoidosis. It is also seen in pulmonary neoplasms and infarction, and following radiation therapy and radiofrequency ablation of pulmonary malignancies. In this article, we present the spectrum of neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases that may show the reversed halo sign and offer helpful clues for assisting in the differential diagnosis. By integrating the patient's clinical history with the presence of the reversed halo sign and other accompanying radiological findings, the radiologist should be able to narrow the differential diagnosis substantially, and may be able to provide a presumptive final diagnosis, which may obviate the need for biopsy in selected cases, especially in the immunosuppressed population. PMID:22553298

  17. TSC plasma halo simulation of a DIII-D vertical displacement episode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayer, R.O.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Jardin, S.C.

    1993-01-01

    A benchmark of the Tokamak Simulation Code (TSC) plasma halo model has been achieved by calibration against a DIII-D vertical displacement episode (VDE) consisting of vertical drift, thermal quench and current quench. With a suitable halo surrounding the main plasma, the TSC predictions are in good agreement with experimental results for the plasma current decay, plasma trajectory, toroidal and poloidal vessel currents, and for the magnetic probe and flux loop values for the entire VDE. Simulations with no plasma halo yield much faster vertical motion and significantly worse agreement with the magnetics and flux loop data than do halo simulations. (author). 12 refs, 13 figs

  18. ZOMG - II. Does the halo assembly history influence central galaxies and gas accretion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano-Díaz, Emilio; Garaldi, Enrico; Borzyszkowski, Mikolaj; Porciani, Cristiano

    2017-08-01

    The growth rate and the internal dynamics of galaxy-sized dark-matter haloes depend on their location within the cosmic web. Haloes that sit at the nodes grow in mass till the present time and are dominated by radial orbits. Conversely, haloes embedded in prominent filaments do not change much in size and are dominated by tangential orbits. Using zoom hydrodynamical simulations including star formation and feedback, we study how gas accretes on to these different classes of objects, which, for simplicity, we dub 'accreting' and 'stalled' haloes. We find that all haloes get a fresh supply of newly accreted gas in their inner regions, although this slowly decreases with time, in particular for the stalled haloes. The inflow of new gas is always higher than (but comparable with) that of recycled material. Overall, the cold-gas fraction increases (decreases) with time for the accreting (stalled) haloes. In all cases, a stellar disc and a bulge form at the centre of the simulated haloes. The total stellar mass is in excellent agreement with expectations based on the abundance-matching technique. Many properties of the central galaxies do not seem to correlate with the large-scale environment in which the haloes reside. However, there are two notable exceptions that characterize stalled haloes with respect to their accreting counterparts: (I) The galaxy disc contains much older stellar populations. (II) Its vertical scaleheight is larger by a factor of 2 or more. This thickening is likely due to the heating of the long-lived discs by mergers and close flybys.

  19. Pushing down the low-mass halo concentration frontier with the Lomonosov cosmological simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilipenko, Sergey V.; Sánchez-Conde, Miguel A.; Prada, Francisco; Yepes, Gustavo

    2017-12-01

    We introduce the Lomonosov suite of high-resolution N-body cosmological simulations covering a full box of size 32 h-1 Mpc with low-mass resolution particles (2 × 107 h-1 M⊙) and three zoom-in simulations of overdense, underdense and mean density regions at much higher particle resolution (4 × 104 h-1 M⊙). The main purpose of this simulation suite is to extend the concentration-mass relation of dark matter haloes down to masses below those typically available in large cosmological simulations. The three different density regions available at higher resolution provide a better understanding of the effect of the local environment on halo concentration, known to be potentially important for small simulation boxes and small halo masses. Yet, we find the correction to be small in comparison with the scatter of halo concentrations. We conclude that zoom simulations, despite their limited representativity of the volume of the Universe, can be effectively used for the measurement of halo concentrations at least at the halo masses probed by our simulations. In any case, after a precise characterization of this effect, we develop a robust technique to extrapolate the concentration values found in zoom simulations to larger volumes with greater accuracy. Altogether, Lomonosov provides a measure of the concentration-mass relation in the halo mass range 107-1010 h-1 M⊙ with superb halo statistics. This work represents a first important step to measure halo concentrations at intermediate, yet vastly unexplored halo mass scales, down to the smallest ones. All Lomonosov data and files are public for community's use.

  20. Instrumentation Around the ESS 5 MW Spallation Tungsten Target Submitted to 2 GeV Proton Pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shea, Thomas; Plewinski, Francois; Nordt, Annika; Sadeghzadeh, Atefeh; Linander, Rikard; Kharoua, Cyril

    2013-06-01

    The 5 MW European Spallation Source, currently in its design phase, includes a linear proton accelerator sending a 2.86 ms long pulse of 2 GeV protons at 14 Hz to a tungsten target. This spallation source distributes thermal and cold neutron beams to a large variety of state-of-the-art neutron instruments, supported by a suite of laboratories and a supercomputing data management and software development center. The target is a rotating wheel 2.5 m in diameter composed of helium cooled tungsten plates and produces high intensity gamma and fast neutron pulses (higher than 2E15 n/cm 2 /s). This paper focuses on the design of 2 types of instrumentation: to monitor target operation and to control the proton beam parameters. Instrumentation mounted on the rotating target (designed for a minimum lifetime of 5 years) to monitor the helium coolant flow and the evolution of irradiated tungsten plates and the target vessel, the target balance, vibrations and displacement is presented as well as a dedicated instrumentation plug installed at opposite the impinging proton beam, which will monitor the target wheel with an LDV and an infra-red camera and perform gamma scanning during and after irradiation. Upstream of the target, a suite of instrumentation will monitor the properties of the 2 GeV proton beam. This suite will consist of imaging devices and multi-wire grids to monitor the beam density distribution at the proton beam window and at the target. An additional imaging system will observe luminescence from the Helium gas between the proton beam window and the target. Beam halo will be monitored by thermocouples located near the edge of the aperture. Further upstream, electromagnetic pickups will measure the beam centroid position, the beam current, and the beam pulse's time of arrival. This time-of-arrival signal will allow precise synchronization of the target's rotation and the beam pulse structure. (authors)

  1. Possible existence of wormholes in the central regions of halos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahaman, Farook, E-mail: rahaman@iucaa.ernet.in [Department of Mathematics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032, West Bengal (India); Salucci, P., E-mail: salucci@sissa.it [SISSA, International School for Advanced Studies, Via Bonomea 265, 34136, Trieste (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Via Valerio 2, 34127, Trieste (Italy); Kuhfittig, P.K.F., E-mail: kuhfitti@msoe.edu [Department of Mathematics, Milwaukee School of Engineering, Milwaukee, WI 53202-3109 (United States); Ray, Saibal, E-mail: saibal@iucaa.ernet.in [Department of Physics, Government College of Engineering and Ceramic Technology, Kolkata 700010, West Bengal (India); Rahaman, Mosiur, E-mail: mosiurju@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, Meghnad Saha Institute of Technology, Kolkata 700150 (India)

    2014-11-15

    An earlier study (Rahaman, et al., 2014 and Kuhfittig, 2014) has demonstrated the possible existence of wormholes in the outer regions of the galactic halo, based on the Navarro–Frenk–White (NFW) density profile. This paper uses the Universal Rotation Curve (URC) dark matter model to obtain analogous results for the central parts of the halo. This result is an important compliment to the earlier result, thereby confirming the possible existence of wormholes in most of the spiral galaxies. - Highlights: • Earlier we showed possible existence of wormholes in the outer regions of halo. • We obtain here analogous results for the central parts of the galactic halo. • Our result is an important compliment to the earlier result. • This confirms possible existence of wormholes in most of the spiral galaxies.

  2. Helium Ion Microscopy of proton exchange membrane fuel cell electrode structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiriaev, Serguei; Dam Madsen, Nis; Rubahn, Horst-Günter

    2017-01-01

    electrode interface structure dependence on ionomer content, systematically studied by Helium Ion Microscopy (HIM). A special focus was on acquiring high resolution images of the electrode structure and avoiding interface damage from irradiation and tedious sample preparation. HIM demonstrated its....... In the hot-pressed electrodes, we found more closed contact between the electrode components, reduced particle size, polymer coalescence and formation of nano-sized polymer fiber architecture between the particles. Keywords: proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs); Helium Ion Microscopy (HIM...

  3. Influence of halo doping profiles on MOS transistor mismatch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andricciola, P.; Tuinhout, H.

    2009-01-01

    Halo implants are used in modern CMOS technology to reduce the short channel effect. However, the lateral non-uniformity of the channel doping has been proven to degenerate the mismatch performance. With this paper we want to discuss the influence of the halo profile on MOS transistor mismatch. The

  4. Measurement of the proton structure function F(x,Q) at low x

    Science.gov (United States)

    H1 Collaboration; Aaron, F. D.; Alexa, C.; Andreev, V.; Antunovic, B.; Aplin, S.; Asmone, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Bacchetta, A.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Beckingham, M.; Begzsuren, K.; Behnke, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, N.; Bizot, J. C.; Boenig, M.-O.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A. J.; Cantun Avila, K. B.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Cholewa, A.; Contreras, J. G.; Coughlan, J. A.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J. B.; Daum, K.; Deák, M.; de Boer, Y.; Delcourt, B.; Del Degan, M.; Delvax, J.; de Roeck, A.; de Wolf, E. A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dossanov, A.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Essenov, S.; Falkiewicz, A.; Faulkner, P. J. W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Finke, L.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Gabathuler, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Goettlich, M.; Gogitidze, N.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Grell, B. R.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Hansson, M.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Henschel, H.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K. H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Hreus, T.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, M. E.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jönsson, L.; Johnson, D. P.; Jung, A. W.; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Klimkovich, T.; Kluge, T.; Knutsson, A.; Kogler, R.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Krüger, K.; Kutak, K.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lange, W.; Laštovička-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leibenguth, G.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Li, G.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; List, B.; List, J.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Marti, Ll.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S. J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A. B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michels, V.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J. V.; Mozer, M. U.; Mudrinic, M.; Müller, K.; Murín, P.; Nankov, K.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P. R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Nozicka, M.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J. E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, Th.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G. D.; Pejchal, O.; Peng, H.; Perez, E.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Plačakytė, R.; Polifka, R.; Povh, B.; Preda, T.; Radescu, V.; Rahmat, A. J.; Raicevic, N.; Raspiareza, A.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rotaru, M.; Ruiz Tabasco, J. E.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Salek, D.; Salvaire, F.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, C.; Schoeffel, L.; Schöning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R. N.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L. N.; Shushkevich, S.; Sloan, T.; Smiljanic, I.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; Sopicki, P.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Straumann, U.; Sunar, D.; Sykora, T.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P. D.; Toll, T.; Tomasz, F.; Tran, T. H.; Traynor, D.; Trinh, T. N.; Truöl, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Urban, K.; Valkárová, A.; Vallée, C.; van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; Wegener, D.; Wessels, M.; Wissing, Ch.; Wünsch, E.; Yeganov, V.; Žáček, J.; Zálešák, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokin, A.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2008-07-01

    A first measurement is reported of the longitudinal proton structure function F(x,Q) at the ep collider HERA. It is based on inclusive deep inelastic ep scattering cross section measurements with a positron beam energy of 27.5 GeV and proton beam energies of 920, 575 and 460 GeV. Employing the energy dependence of the cross section, F is measured in a range of squared four-momentum transfers 12⩽Q⩽90 GeV and low Bjorken x0.00024⩽x⩽0.0036. The F values agree with higher order QCD calculations based on parton densities obtained using cross section data previously measured at HERA.

  5. Measurement of the longitudinal proton structure function at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (US)] (and others)

    2009-03-15

    The reduced cross sections for ep deep inelastic scattering have been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA at three different centre-of-mass energies, 318, 251 and 225 GeV. From the cross sections, measured double differentially in Bjorken x and the virtuality, Q{sup 2}, the proton structure functions F{sub L} and F{sub 2} have been extracted in the region 5 x 10{sup -4}

  6. Observational limits on the magnetic-monopole structure of protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broderick, J.J.; Ficenec, J.R.; Teplitz, D.C.; Teplitz, V.L.

    1979-01-01

    We report the results of a search for absorption of 42-cm radiation in neutral galactic hydrogen. One explanation of a positive result would be the existence of a type of anomalous proton whose magnetic moment arises from a distribution of magnetic charge rather than from a distribution of circulating currents. No absorption of 42-cm radiation was seen; this implies an upper limit of 2.3 x 10 -4 for the abundance of this type of anomalous proton relative to protons which radiate at 21 cm. The observed absence of anomalous protons also implies an absence of primordial anomalous protons since they could not have been swept up by heavier elements during cosmic nucleosynthesis. The observation is sensitive only to anomalous protons with exactly the same value for their magnetic moment that conventional ones have

  7. A new type of cascading synchronization for halo-chaos and its potential for communication applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Jinqing; Yu Xinghuo

    2004-01-01

    Study of beam halo-chaos has become a key issue of concern for many future important applications. Control of halo-chaos has been researched intensively. This is the first time that the synchronization of beam halo-chaos has been realized in this field so far. Two nonlinear feedback control methods are proposed for the cascading synchronizing halo-chaos in coupled lattices of a periodic focusing channel. The simulation results show that the methods are effective. The realization of the synchronization of beam halo-chaos is significant not only for halo-chaos control itself but also for halo-chaos-based secure communication which may become an innovative technique

  8. Preliminary results on the dynamics of large and flexible space structures in Halo orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colagrossi, Andrea; Lavagna, Michèle

    2017-05-01

    The global exploration roadmap suggests, among other ambitious future space programmes, a possible manned outpost in lunar vicinity, to support surface operations and further astronaut training for longer and deeper space missions and transfers. In particular, a Lagrangian point orbit location - in the Earth- Moon system - is suggested for a manned cis-lunar infrastructure; proposal which opens an interesting field of study from the astrodynamics perspective. Literature offers a wide set of scientific research done on orbital dynamics under the Three-Body Problem modelling approach, while less of it includes the attitude dynamics modelling as well. However, whenever a large space structure (ISS-like) is considered, not only the coupled orbit-attitude dynamics should be modelled to run more accurate analyses, but the structural flexibility should be included too. The paper, starting from the well-known Circular Restricted Three-Body Problem formulation, presents some preliminary results obtained by adding a coupled orbit-attitude dynamical model and the effects due to the large structure flexibility. In addition, the most relevant perturbing phenomena, such as the Solar Radiation Pressure (SRP) and the fourth-body (Sun) gravity, are included in the model as well. A multi-body approach has been preferred to represent possible configurations of the large cis-lunar infrastructure: interconnected simple structural elements - such as beams, rods or lumped masses linked by springs - build up the space segment. To better investigate the relevance of the flexibility effects, the lumped parameters approach is compared with a distributed parameters semi-analytical technique. A sensitivity analysis of system dynamics, with respect to different configurations and mechanical properties of the extended structure, is also presented, in order to highlight drivers for the lunar outpost design. Furthermore, a case study for a large and flexible space structure in Halo orbits around

  9. Properties of the ISM - Gas in the halo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Blair D.

    1990-01-01

    The properties of interstellar gas in the galactic halo are reviewed. Halo gas is found to have a wide range of physical conditions with temperatures ranging from less than 170 K to more than 200,000 K. The gas extending away from the plane of the Milky Way has density scale heights ranging from less than 300 pc for certain species in the neutral medium to approximately 3000 pc for the most highly ionized gas. The complex kinematical characteristics of the gas provides important clues about its origin. The gas phase elemental abundances in the neutral halo gas are closer to solar than is found for the highly depleted gas of the Milky Way disk. The possible origin of gas at large distances away from the galactic plane is discussed.

  10. [α/Fe] ABUNDANCES OF FOUR OUTER M31 HALO STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, Luis C.; Geha, Marla; Tollerud, Erik J.; Gilbert, Karoline M.; Kirby, Evan N.; Guhathakurta, Puragra

    2014-01-01

    We present alpha element to iron abundance ratios, [α/Fe], for four stars in the outer stellar halo of the Andromeda Galaxy (M31). The stars were identified as high-likelihood field halo stars by Gilbert et al. and lie at projected distances between 70 and 140 kpc from M31's center. These are the first alpha abundances measured for a halo star in a galaxy beyond the Milky Way. The stars range in metallicity between [Fe/H] = –2.2 and [Fe/H] = –1.4. The sample's average [α/Fe] ratio is +0.20 ± 0.20. The best-fit average value is elevated above solar, which is consistent with rapid chemical enrichment from Type II supernovae. The mean [α/Fe] ratio of our M31 outer halo sample agrees (within the uncertainties) with that of Milky Way inner/outer halo stars that have a comparable range of [Fe/H

  11. Blazars with arcminute-scale radio halos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulvestad, J.S.; Antonucci, R.R.J.; Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD)

    1986-01-01

    About 10-arcsec resolution 20-cm wavelength maps are presented for three nearby BL Lac objects: Mkn 180, whose halo has a linear size of 85 kpc, 2155-304, with a halo about 375 kpc across, and 1727 + 502, whose one-sided diffuse emission extends to a distance of about 145 kpc from its radio core. Little evidence is found for strong radio variability in the cores of the three blazars; these and other results obtained are consistent with the assertion that the three objects should be classified as normal low luminosity double radio galaxies with optically dull nuclei, if seen from other directions. 20 references

  12. The shape of dark matter haloes in the Aquarius simulations: Evolution and memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sales L.V.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We use the high resolution cosmological N-body simulations from the Aquarius project to investigate in detail the mechanisms that determine the shape of Milky Way-type dark matter haloes. We find that, when measured at the instantaneous virial radius, the shape of individual haloes changes with time, evolving from a typically prolate configuration at early stages to a more triaxial/oblate geometry at the present day. This evolution in halo shape correlates well with the distribution of the infalling material: prolate configurations arise when haloes are fed through narrow filaments, which characterizes the early epochs of halo assembly, whereas triaxial/oblate configurations result as the accretion turns more isotropic at later times. Interestingly, at redshift z = 0, clear imprints of the past history of each halo are recorded in their shapes at different radii, which also exhibit a variation from prolate in the inner regions to triaxial/oblate in the outskirts. Provided that the Aquarius haloes are fair representatives of Milky Way-like 1012M☉ objects, we conclude that the shape of such dark matter haloes is a complex, time-dependent property, with each radial shell retaining memory of the conditions at the time of collapse.

  13. First Attempts at using Active Halo Control at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Joschka [CERN; Bruce, Roderik [CERN; Garcia Morales, Hector [CERN; Höfle, Wolfgang [CERN; Kotzian, Gerd [CERN; Kwee-Hinzmann, Regina [CERN; Langner, Andy [CERN; Mereghetti, Alessio [CERN; Quaranta, Elena [CERN; Redaelli, Stefano [CERN; Rossi, Adriana [CERN; Salvachua, Belen [CERN; Stancari, Giulio [Fermilab; Tomás, Rogelio [CERN; Valentino, Gianluca [CERN; Valuch, Daniel [CERN

    2016-06-01

    The beam halo population is a non-negligible factor for the performance of the LHC collimation system and the machine protection. In particular this could become crucial for aiming at stored beam energies of 700 MJ in the High Luminosity (HL-LHC) project, in order to avoid beam dumps caused by orbit jitter and to ensure safety during a crab cavity failure. Therefore several techniques to safely deplete the halo, i.e. active halo control, are under development. In a first attempt a novel way for safe halo depletion was tested with particle narrow-band excitation employing the LHC Transverse Damper (ADT). At an energy of 450 GeV a bunch selective beam tail scraping without affecting the core distribution was attempted. This paper presents the first measurement results, as well as a simple simulation to model the underlying dynamics.

  14. Phase models of galaxies consisting of a disk and halo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osipkov, L.P.; Kutuzov, S.A.

    1988-01-01

    A method is developed for finding the phase density of a two-component model of a distribution of masses. The equipotential surfaces and potential law are given. The equipotentials are lenslike surfaces with a sharp edge in the equatorial plane, this ensuring the existence of a vanishingly thin embedded disk. The equidensity surfaces of the halo coincide with the equipotentials. Phase models are constructed separately for the halo and for the disk on the basis of the spatial and surface mass densities by the solution of the corresponding integral equations. In particular, models with a halo having finite dimensions can be constructed. For both components, the part of the phase density even with respect to the velocities is found. For the halo, it depends only on the energy integral. Two examples, for which exact solutions are found, are considered

  15. Group support system and explanatory feedback: An experimental study of mitigating halo effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intiyas Utami

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive assessment potentially leads to halo effect that will affect accuracy of auditors decision-making process. Biased initial audit decision will potentially influence final audit decision. It is there-fore necessary to mitigate halo effect that is the consequence of auditors good impression on clients initial condition. This re-search aims to empirically show that halo effect can be mitigated by explanatory feedback and Group Support System (GSS. The researchers experimentally mani-pulate explanatory feedback and GSS using online web-site. The subjects are stu-dents who have already taken auditing courses. The results show that: 1 explanato-ry feedback can mitigate halo effect so that audit decision will be more accurate 2 GSS can also mitigate halo effect 3 explanatory feedback and GSS are the best me-thods to mitigate halo effect.

  16. HaloTag protein-mediated specific labeling of living cells with quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    So, Min-kyung; Yao Hequan; Rao Jianghong

    2008-01-01

    Quantum dots emerge as an attractive alternative to small molecule fluorophores as fluorescent tags for in vivo cell labeling and imaging. This communication presents a method for specific labeling of live cells using quantum dots. The labeling is mediated by HaloTag protein expressed at the cell surface which forms a stable covalent adduct with its ligand (HaloTag ligand). The labeling can be performed in one single step with quantum dot conjugates that are functionalized with HaloTag ligand, or in two steps with biotinylated HaloTag ligand first and followed by streptavidin coated quantum dots. Live cell fluorescence imaging indicates that the labeling is specific and takes place at the cell surface. This HaloTag protein-mediated cell labeling method should facilitate the application of quantum dots for live cell imaging

  17. Detecting the Disruption of Dark-Matter Halos with Stellar Streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovy, Jo

    2016-03-25

    Narrow stellar streams in the Milky Way halo are uniquely sensitive to dark-matter subhalos, but many of these subhalos may be tidally disrupted. I calculate the interaction between stellar and dark-matter streams using analytical and N-body calculations, showing that disrupting objects can be detected as low-concentration subhalos. Through this effect, we can constrain the lumpiness of the halo as well as the orbit and present position of individual dark-matter streams. This will have profound implications for the formation of halos and for direct- and indirect-detection dark-matter searches.

  18. Studies of halo distributions under beam-beam interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, T.; Irwin, J.; Siemann, R.H.

    1995-01-01

    The halo distribution due to the beam-beam interaction in circular electron-positron colliders is simulated with a program which uses a technique that saves a factor of hundreds to thousands of CPU time. The distribution and the interference between the beam-beam interaction and lattice nonlinearities has been investigated. The effects on the halo distribution due to radiation damping misalignment at the collision point, and chromatic effect are presented

  19. BROKEN AND UNBROKEN: THE MILKY WAY AND M31 STELLAR HALOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deason, A. J.; Belokurov, V.; Evans, N. W.; Johnston, K. V.

    2013-01-01

    We use the Bullock and Johnston suite of simulations to study the density profiles of L*-type galaxy stellar halos. Observations of the Milky Way and M31 stellar halos show contrasting results: the Milky Way has a 'broken' profile, where the density falls off more rapidly beyond ∼25 kpc, while M31 has a smooth profile out to 100 kpc with no obvious break. Simulated stellar halos, built solely by the accretion of dwarf galaxies, also exhibit this behavior: some halos have breaks, while others do not. The presence or absence of a break in the stellar halo profile can be related to the accretion history of the galaxy. We find that a break radius is strongly related to the buildup of stars at apocenters. We relate these findings to observations, and find that the 'break' in the Milky Way density profile is likely associated with a relatively early (∼6-9 Gyr ago) and massive accretion event. In contrast, the absence of a break in the M31 stellar halo profile suggests that its accreted satellites have a wide range of apocenters. Hence, it is likely that M31 has had a much more prolonged accretion history than the Milky Way.

  20. Development of the heat sink structure of a beam dump for the proton accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeng, W. Y.; Gil, C. S.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, D. H.

    2007-01-01

    The beam dump is the essential component for the good beam quality and the reliable performance of the proton accelerator. The beam dump for a 20 MeV and 20 mA proton accelerator was designed and manufactured in this study. The high heats deposited, and the large amount of radioactivity produced in beam dump should be reduced by the proper heat sink structure. The heat source by the proton beam of 20 MeV and 20 mA was calculated. The radioactivity assessments of the beam dump were carried out for the economic shielding design with safety. The radioactivity by the protons and secondary neutrons in designed beam dump were calculated in this sturdy. The effective engineering design for the beam dump cooling was performed, considering the mitigation methods of the deposited heats with small angle, the power densities with the stopping ranges in the materials and the heat distributions in the beam dump. The heat sink structure of the beam dump was designed to meet the accelerator characteristics by placing two plates of 30 cm by 60 cm at an angle of 12 degree. The highest temperatures of the graphite, copper, and copper faced by cooling water were designed to be 223 degree, 146 degree, and 85 degree, respectively when the velocity of cooling water was 3 m/s. The heat sink structure was manufactured by the brazing graphite tiles to a copper plate with the filler alloy of Ti-Cu-Ag. The brazing procedure was developed. The tensile stress of the graphite was less than 75% of a maximum tensile stress during the accelerator operation based on the analysis. The safety analyses for the commissioning of the accelerator operation were also performed. The specimens from the brazed parts of beam dump structure were made to identify manufacturing problems. The soundness of the heat sink structure of the beam dump was confirmed by the fatigue tests of the brazed specimens of the graphite-copper tile components with the repetitive heating and cooling. The heat sink structure developed

  1. Painting galaxies into dark matter halos using machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Shankar; Davé, Romeel; Bassett, Bruce A.

    2018-05-01

    We develop a machine learning (ML) framework to populate large dark matter-only simulations with baryonic galaxies. Our ML framework takes input halo properties including halo mass, environment, spin, and recent growth history, and outputs central galaxy and halo baryonic properties including stellar mass (M*), star formation rate (SFR), metallicity (Z), neutral (H I) and molecular (H_2) hydrogen mass. We apply this to the MUFASA cosmological hydrodynamic simulation, and show that it recovers the mean trends of output quantities with halo mass highly accurately, including following the sharp drop in SFR and gas in quenched massive galaxies. However, the scatter around the mean relations is under-predicted. Examining galaxies individually, at z = 0 the stellar mass and metallicity are accurately recovered (σ ≲ 0.2 dex), but SFR and H I show larger scatter (σ ≳ 0.3 dex); these values improve somewhat at z = 1, 2. Remarkably, ML quantitatively recovers second parameter trends in galaxy properties, e.g. that galaxies with higher gas content and lower metallicity have higher SFR at a given M*. Testing various ML algorithms, we find that none perform significantly better than the others, nor does ensembling improve performance, likely because none of the algorithms reproduce the large observed scatter around the mean properties. For the random forest algorithm, we find that halo mass and nearby (˜200 kpc) environment are the most important predictive variables followed by growth history, while halo spin and ˜Mpc scale environment are not important. Finally we study the impact of additionally inputting key baryonic properties M*, SFR, and Z, as would be available e.g. from an equilibrium model, and show that particularly providing the SFR enables H I to be recovered substantially more accurately.

  2. The g$p\\atop{2}$ Experiment: A Measurement of the Proton's Spin Structure Functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zielinski, Ryan B. [Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States)

    2017-09-01

    The E08-027 (g$p\\atop{2}$) experiment measured the spin structure functions of the proton at Jefferson Laboratory in Newport News, Va. Longitudinally polarized electrons were scattered from a transversely and longitudinally polarized solid ammonia target in Hall A, with the polarized NH$_3$ acting as an effective proton target. Focusing on small scattering angle events at the electron energies available at Jefferson Lab, the experiment covered a kinematic phase space of 0.02 GeV$^2$ $< Q^2 <$ 0.20 GeV$^2$ in the