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Sample records for protocol sip message

  1. Instant Messaging by SIP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhi, Daniel; Dulai, Tibor; Jaskó, Szilárd

    2008-11-01

    SIP is a general-purpose application layer protocol which is able to establish sessions between two or more parties. These sessions are mainly telephone calls and multimedia conferences. However it can be used for other purposes like instant messaging and presence service. SIP has a very important role in mobile communication as more and more communicating applications are going mobile. In this paper we would like to show how SIP can be used for instant messaging purposes.

  2. SIP protocol model for OMNET++

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kucerak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes our new SIP protocol implementation for the OMNeT++ simulation framework. OMNeT++ simulation framework provides an extensive support of IP related protocols, nevertheless a working SIP protocol implementation is missing. Real measurements were also done using a SIPp traffic generator and the results are compared to those obtained by our new SIP model. Since this work is a part of bigger project concerned strictly on measuring "first response times" over networks with a faulty transmission links, the actually collected statistics are focused only this way.

  3. Testing Dialog-Verification of SIP Phones with Single-Message Denial-of-Service Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seedorf, Jan; Beckers, Kristian; Huici, Felipe

    The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is widely used for signaling in multimedia communications. However, many SIP implementations are still in their infancy and vulnerable to malicious messages. We investigate flaws in the SIP implementations of eight phones, showing that the deficient verification of SIP dialogs further aggravates the problem by making it easier for attacks to succeed. Our results show that the majority of the phones we tested are susceptible to these attacks.

  4. Stream Control Transmission Protocol as a Transport for SIP: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe De Marco

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The dominant signalling protocol both in future wireless and wired networks will be the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP, as pointed out in the 3G IP-based mobile networks specifications, entailing a fully Internet integrated network. The use of SIP in the IP Multimedia Subsytem (IMS of Release 5 involves the development of servers capable to handle a large number of call requests. The signaling traffic associated to such requests could explode, if an intelligent congestion control were not introduced. Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP was born to support transport of SS7 signaling messages. However, many of the SCTP features are also useful for transport of SIP messages, as: congestion control mechanism, good separation among independent messages, multihoming. Indeed, adoption of SCTP as transport of SIP signaling might prove useful in some situations where usual transport protocols, like TCP and UDP, suffer performance degradation. In this paper, we analyse the general framework wherein SIP operates and we discuss the benefits of using SCTP as a transport for SIP, toward fair sharing of network resources. This study is carried on in the context of the implementation of an high-performance SIP Proxy Server. We also present some preliminar results of an implementation of SIP over SCTP/UDP in a real LAN environment.

  5. Protocol d'inicialització de sessió SIP

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahem Fernández, Samer

    2006-01-01

    Aquest projecte té com a finalitat estudiar el protocol SIP i desenvolupar una aplicació que l'implementi. Este proyecto tiene como finalidad estudiar el protocolo SIP y desarrollar una aplicación que la implemente The purpose of this project is to study the SIP protocol and develop an application that implements it.

  6. A Secured Authentication Protocol for SIP Using Elliptic Curves Cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tien-Ho; Yeh, Hsiu-Lien; Liu, Pin-Chuan; Hsiang, Han-Chen; Shih, Wei-Kuan

    Session initiation protocol (SIP) is a technology regularly performed in Internet Telephony, and Hyper Text Transport Protocol (HTTP) as digest authentication is one of the major methods for SIP authentication mechanism. In 2005, Yang et al. pointed out that HTTP could not resist server spoofing attack and off-line guessing attack and proposed a secret authentication with Diffie-Hellman concept. In 2009, Tsai proposed a nonce based authentication protocol for SIP. In this paper, we demonstrate that their protocol could not resist the password guessing attack and insider attack. Furthermore, we propose an ECC-based authentication mechanism to solve their issues and present security analysis of our protocol to show that ours is suitable for applications with higher security requirement.

  7. On TCP-based Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) Server Overload Control

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Charles; Schulzrinne, Henning

    2010-01-01

    The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) server overload management has attracted interest since SIP is being widely deployed in the Next Generation Networks (NGN) as a core signaling protocol. Yet all existing SIP overload control work is focused on SIP-over-UDP, despite the fact that TCP is increasingly seen as the more viable choice of SIP transport. This paper answers the following questions: is the existing TCP flow control capable of handling the SIP overload problem? If not, why and how c...

  8. A lightweight privacy preserving authenticated key agreement protocol for SIP-based VoIP

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Liping; Tang, Shanyu; Zhu, Shaohui

    2016-01-01

    Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is an essential part of most Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) architecture. Although SIP provides attractive features, it is exposed to various security threats, and so an efficient and secure authentication scheme is sought to enhance the security of SIP. Several attempts have been made to address the tradeoff problem between security and efficiency, but designing a successful authenticated key agreement protocol for SIP is still a challenging task from t...

  9. Formal Specification and Description Language and Message Sequence Chart to Model and Validate Session Initiation Protocol Services

    OpenAIRE

    Sa'ed Abed; Mohammad H. Al Shayeji; Ovais Ahmed; Sahel Alouneh

    2016-01-01

    Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is a signaling layer protocol for building, adjusting and ending sessions among participants including Internet conferences, telephone calls and multimedia distribution. SIP facilitates user movement by proxying and forwarding requests to the present location of the user. In this paper, we provide a formal Specification and Description Language (SDL) and Message Sequence Chart (MSC) to model and define the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) SIP protocol a...

  10. The SHIP: A SIP to HTTP Interaction Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiß, Joachim; Gabner, Rene; Bessler, Sandford; Happenhofer, Marco

    IMS is capable of providing a wide range of services. As a result, terminal software becomes more and more complex to deliver network intelligence to user applications. Currently mobile terminal software needs to be permanently updated so that the latest network services and functionality can be delivered to the user. In the Internet, browser based user interfaces assure that an interface is made available to the user which offers the latest services in the net immediately. Our approach combines the benefits of the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) and those of the HTTP protocol to bring the same type of user interfacing to IMS. SIP (IMS) realizes authentication, session management, charging and Quality of Service (QoS), HTTP provides access to Internet services and allows the user interface of an application to run on a mobile terminal while processing and orchestration is done on the server. A SHIP enabled IMS client only needs to handle data transport and session management via SIP, HTTP and RTP and render streaming media, HTML and Javascript. SHIP allows new kinds of applications, which combine audio, video and data within a single multimedia session.

  11. High Load Diminution by Regulating Timers in SIP Servers

    OpenAIRE

    Montazerolghaem, Ahmadreza; Hosseini-Seno, Seyed-Amin; Yaghmaee, Mohammad Hossein; Budiarto, Rahmat

    2014-01-01

    To start voice, image, instant messaging, and generally multimedia communication, session communication must begin between two participants. SIP (session initiation protocol) that is an application layer control induces management and terminates this kind of sessions. As far as the independence of SIP from transport layer protocols is concerned, SIP messages can be transferred on a variety of transport layer protocols including TCP or UDP. Mechanism of Retransmission that is embedded in SIP c...

  12. Nonblocking and orphan free message logging protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvisi, Lorenzo; Hoppe, Bruce; Marzullo, Keith

    1992-12-01

    Currently existing message logging protocols demonstrate a classic pessimistic vs. optimistic tradeoff. We show that the optimistic-pessimistic tradeoff is not inherent to the problem of message logging. We construct a message-logging protocol that has the positive features of both optimistic and pessimistic protocol: our protocol prevents orphans and allows simple failure recovery; however, it requires no blocking in failure-free runs. Furthermore, this protocol does not introduce any additional message overhead as compared to one implemented for a system in which messages may be lost but processes do not crash.

  13. Measurements of SIP Signaling over 802.11b Links

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselman, C.E.W.; Eertink, Henk; Eertink, E.H.; Widya, I.A.; Huizer, E.

    The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is a popular application-level signaling protocol that is used for a wide variety of applications such as session control and mobility handling. In some of these applications, the exchange of SIP messages is time-critical, for instance when SIP is used to handle

  14. Improving Anomaly Detection for Text-Based Protocols by Exploiting Message Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian M. Mueller

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Service platforms using text-based protocols need to be protected against attacks. Machine-learning algorithms with pattern matching can be used to detect even previously unknown attacks. In this paper, we present an extension to known Support Vector Machine (SVM based anomaly detection algorithms for the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP. Our contribution is to extend the amount of different features used for classification (feature space by exploiting the structure of SIP messages, which reduces the false positive rate. Additionally, we show how combining our approach with attribute reduction significantly improves throughput.

  15. Overload Control in a SIP Signaling Network

    OpenAIRE

    Masataka Ohta

    2007-01-01

    The Internet telephony employs a new type of Internet communication on which a mutual communication is realized by establishing sessions. Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is used to establish sessions between end-users. For unreliable transmission (UDP), SIP message should be retransmitted when it is lost. The retransmissions increase a load of the SIP signaling network, and sometimes lead to performance degradation when a network is overloaded. The paper proposes an overload control for a S...

  16. The SIP express router: An open source SIP platform: Presentation held at EVOLUTE - seamlEss multimedia serVices Over alL IP-based infrastrUcTurEs Workshop, 10. November 2003, Guildford, UK

    OpenAIRE

    Rebahi, Y.; Sisalem, D.; Kuthan, J.; Pelinescu-Oncicul, A.; Iancu, B.; Janak, J.; Mierla, D.C.

    2003-01-01

    The session initiation protocol (SIP) is constantly gaining in popularity and acceptance as the signaling protocol for next generation multimedia communication. This paper describes a scalable and reliable open source SIP platform called the SIP Express Router (SER). SER does not only support basic SIP features but also advanced features such as messaging and presence, translation between SIP and SMS or Jabber as well as full featured application programming interfaces. In this paper we will ...

  17. Lightweight SIP/SDP compression scheme (LSSCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian J.; Demetrescu, Cristian

    2001-10-01

    In UMTS new IP based services with tight delay constraints will be deployed over the W-CDMA air interface such as IP multimedia and interactive services. To integrate the wireline and wireless IP services, 3GPP standard forum adopted the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) as the call control protocol for the UMTS Release 5, which will implement next generation, all IP networks for real-time QoS services. In the current form the SIP protocol is not suitable for wireless transmission due to its large message size which will need either a big radio pipe for transmission or it will take far much longer to transmit than the current GSM Call Control (CC) message sequence. In this paper we present a novel compression algorithm called Lightweight SIP/SDP Compression Scheme (LSSCS), which acts at the SIP application layer and therefore removes the information redundancy before it is sent to the network and transport layer. A binary octet-aligned header is added to the compressed SIP/SDP message before sending it to the network layer. The receiver uses this binary header as well as the pre-cached information to regenerate the original SIP/SDP message. The key features of the LSSCS compression scheme are presented in this paper along with implementation examples. It is shown that this compression algorithm makes SIP transmission efficient over the radio interface without losing the SIP generality and flexibility.

  18. An Optimal Non-Interactive Message Authentication Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Pasini, Sylvain; Vaudenay, Serge

    2006-01-01

    Vaudenay recently proposed a message authentication protocol which is interactive and based on short authenticated strings (SAS). We study here SAS-based non-interactive message authentication protocols (NIMAP). We start by the analysis of two popular non-interactive message authentication protocols. The first one is based on a collision-resistant hash function and was presented by Balfanz et al. The second protocol is based on a universal hash function family and was proposed by Gehrmann, Mi...

  19. A General Purpose Connections type CTI Server Based on SIP Protocol and Its Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Toru; Koizumi, Hisao

    In this paper, we propose a general purpose connections type CTI (Computer Telephony Integration) server that provides various CTI services such as voice logging where the CTI server communicates with IP-PBX using the SIP (Session Initiation Protocol), and accumulates voice packets of external line telephone call flowing between an IP telephone for extension and a VoIP gateway connected to outside line networks. The CTI server realizes CTI services such as voice logging, telephone conference, or IVR (interactive voice response) with accumulating and processing voice packets sampled. Furthermore, the CTI server incorporates a web server function which can provide various CTI services such as a Web telephone directory via a Web browser to PCs, cellular telephones or smart-phones in mobile environments.

  20. On SIP Session setup delay for VoIP services over correlated fading channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fathi, Hanane; Chakraborty, Shyam S.; Prasad, Ramjee

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the session setup delay of the session initiation protocol (SIP) is studied. The transmissions on both the forward and reverse channel are assumed to experience Markovian errors. The session setup delay is evaluated for different transport protocols, and with the use of the radio...... link protocol (RLP). An adaptive retransmission timer is used to optimize SIP performances. Using numerical results, we find that SIP over user datagram protocol (UDP) instead of transport control protocol (TCP) can make the session setup up to 30% shorter. Also, RLP drastically reduces the session...... setup delay down to 4 to 5 s, even in environments with high frame error rates (10%) and significant correlation in the fading process (fDT=0.02). SIP is compared with its competitor H.323. SIP session setup delay with compressed messages outperforms H.323 session setup delay....

  1. Measuring SIP proxy server performance

    CERN Document Server

    Subramanian, Sureshkumar V

    2013-01-01

    Internet Protocol (IP) telephony is an alternative to the traditional Public Switched Telephone Networks (PSTN), and the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is quickly becoming a popular signaling protocol for VoIP-based applications. SIP is a peer-to-peer multimedia signaling protocol standardized by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), and it plays a vital role in providing IP telephony services through its use of the SIP Proxy Server (SPS), a software application that provides call routing services by parsing and forwarding all the incoming SIP packets in an IP telephony network.SIP Pr

  2. A Survey of Open Source Products for Building a SIP Communication Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Segec

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP is a multimedia signalling protocol that has evolved into a widely adopted communication standard. The integration of SIP into existing IP networks has fostered IP networks becoming a convergence platform for both real-time and non-real-time multimedia communications. This converged platform integrates data, voice, video, presence, messaging, and conference services into a single network that offers new communication experiences for users. The open source community has contributed to SIP adoption through the development of open source software for both SIP clients and servers. In this paper, we provide a survey on open SIP systems that can be built using publically available software. We identify SIP features for service development and programming, services and applications of a SIP-converged platform, and the most important technologies supporting SIP functionalities. We propose an advanced converged IP communication platform that uses SIP for service delivery. The platform supports audio and video calls, along with media services such as audio conferences, voicemail, presence, and instant messaging. Using SIP Application Programming Interfaces (APIs, the platform allows the deployment of advanced integrated services. The platform is implemented with open source software. Architecture components run on standardized hardware with no need for special purpose investments.

  3. Covert Channels in SIP for VoIP Signalling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurczyk, Wojciech; Szczypiorski, Krzysztof

    In this paper, we evaluate available steganographic techniques for SIP (Session Initiation Protocol) that can be used for creating covert channels during signaling phase of VoIP (Voice over IP) call. Apart from characterizing existing steganographic methods we provide new insights by introducing new techniques. We also estimate amount of data that can be transferred in signalling messages for typical IP telephony call.

  4. Protocol-Based Verification of Message-Passing Parallel Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López-Acosta, Hugo-Andrés; Eduardo R. B. Marques, Eduardo R. B.; Martins, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    We present ParTypes, a type-based methodology for the verification of Message Passing Interface (MPI) programs written in the C programming language. The aim is to statically verify programs against protocol specifications, enforcing properties such as fidelity and absence of deadlocks. We develo...

  5. (In-)Secure messaging with the Silent Circle instant messaging protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschoor, S.R.; Lange, T.

    2016-01-01

    Silent Text, the instant messaging application by the company Silent Circle, provides its users with end-to-end encrypted communication on the Blackphone and other smartphones. The underlying protocol, SCimp, has received many extensions during the update to version 2, but has not been subjected to

  6. Messaging Performance of FIPA Interaction Protocols in Networked Embedded Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García JoséAPérez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Agent-based technologies in production control systems could facilitate seamless reconfiguration and integration of mechatronic devices/modules into systems. Advances in embedded controllers which are continuously improving computational capabilities allow for software modularization and distribution of decisions. Agent platforms running on embedded controllers could hide the complexity of bootstrap and communication. Therefore, it is important to investigate the messaging performance of the agents whose main motivation is the resource allocation in manufacturing systems (i.e., conveyor system. The tests were implemented using the FIPA-compliant JADE-LEAP agent platform. Agent containers were distributed through networked embedded controllers, and agents were communicating using request and contract-net FIPA interaction protocols. The test scenarios are organized in intercontainer and intracontainer communications. The work shows the messaging performance for the different test scenarios using both interaction protocols.

  7. Messaging Performance of FIPA Interaction Protocols in Networked Embedded Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Jehovani López Orozco

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Agent-based technologies in production control systems could facilitate seamless reconfiguration and integration of mechatronic devices/modules into systems. Advances in embedded controllers which are continuously improving computational capabilities allow for software modularization and distribution of decisions. Agent platforms running on embedded controllers could hide the complexity of bootstrap and communication. Therefore, it is important to investigate the messaging performance of the agents whose main motivation is the resource allocation in manufacturing systems (i.e., conveyor system. The tests were implemented using the FIPA-compliant JADE-LEAP agent platform. Agent containers were distributed through networked embedded controllers, and agents were communicating using request and contract-net FIPA interaction protocols. The test scenarios are organized in intercontainer and intracontainer communications. The work shows the messaging performance for the different test scenarios using both interaction protocols.

  8. Integrating Usage Control with SIP-Based Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lakas

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP is a signaling protocol used for establishing and maintaining communication sessions involving two or more participants. SIP was initially designed for voice over IP and multimedia conferencing, and then was extended to support other services such as instant messaging and presence management. Today, SIP is also adopted to be used with 3G wireless networks, thus it becomes an integral protocol for ubiquitous environment. SIP has various methods that support a variety of applications such as subscribing to a service, notification of an event, status update, and location and presence services. However, when it comes to security, the use of wireless and mobile communication technologies and the pervasive nature of this environment introduce higher risks to security than that of the old simple environment. In this paper, we introduce new architecture that implements a new type of access control called usage access control (UCON to control the access to the SIP-based communication at preconnection, during connection, and postconnection. This will enable prescribers of SIP services to control who can identify their locations to approve or disapprove their subsequent connections, and to also set some parameters to determine whether a certain communication can continue or should terminate.

  9. Secure Certificateless Authentication and Road Message Dissemination Protocol in VANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haowen Tan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As a crucial component of Internet-of-Thing (IoT, vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs have attracted increasing attentions from both academia and industry fields in recent years. With the extensive VANETs deployment in transportation systems of more and more countries, drivers’ driving experience can be drastically improved. In this case, the real-time road information needs to be disseminated to the correlated vehicles. However, due to inherent wireless communicating characteristics of VANETs, authentication and group key management strategies are indispensable for security assurance. Furthermore, effective road message dissemination mechanism is of significance. In this paper, we address the above problems by developing a certificateless authentication and road message dissemination protocol. In our design, certificateless signature and the relevant feedback mechanism are adopted for authentication and group key distribution. Subsequently, message evaluating and ranking strategy is introduced. Security analysis shows that our protocol achieves desirable security properties. Additionally, performance analysis demonstrates that the proposed protocol is efficient compared with the state of the art.

  10. Development and feasibility of a Swallowing intervention Package (SiP) for patients receiving radiotherapy treatment for head and neck cancer-the SiP study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Mary; King, Emma; Toft, Kate; MacAulay, Fiona; Patterson, Joanne; Dougall, Nadine; Hulbert-Williams, Nick; Boa, Sally; Slaven, Eleanor; Cowie, Julie; McGarva, John; Niblock, Patricia Gail; Philp, Julie; Roe, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Head and neck cancer (HNC) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide, and the functional, psychological and social consequences of HNC cancer and its treatment can be severe and chronic. Dysphagia (swallowing problems) affects up to two thirds of patients undergoing combined chemoradiotherapy. Recent reviews suggest that prophylactic swallowing exercises may improve a range of short- and long-term outcomes; however, the importance of psychological and behavioural factors on adherence to swallowing exercises has not been adequately studied. This study aims to develop and test the feasibility of a Swallowing intervention Package (SiP) designed in partnership with patients, speech and language therapists (SLTs) and other members of the head and neck multi-disciplinary team (MDT), for patients undergoing chemoradiotherapy (CRT) or radiotherapy (RT) for head and neck cancer. This feasibility study uses quantitative and qualitative research methods, within a quasi-experimental design, to assess whether patients will tolerate and adhere to the SiP intervention, which aspects of the intervention can be implemented and which cannot, whether treatment fidelity can be achieved across different contexts, whether study processes and outcome measures will be feasible and acceptable and to what extent the intervention is likely to have an impact on swallowing dysfunction and quality of life. Patients are being recruited from five sites in Scotland and England (three interventions and two usual care). The SLT based in the relevant intervention centre teaches the exercise programme and provides supporting materials. A combination of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs), adherence measures and clinical swallowing assessments are used prior to intervention (baseline), at the end of treatment, 3 and 6 months post-treatment. This collaborative study has taken a unique approach to the development of a patient-centred and evidence-based swallowing intervention. The introduction of

  11. Extended Password Recovery Attacks against APOP, SIP, and Digest Authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Yu; Wang, Lei; Ohta, Kazuo; Kunihiro, Noboru

    In this paper, we propose password recovery attacks against challenge-response authentication protocols. Our attacks use a message difference for a MD5 collision attack proposed in IEICE 2008. First, we show how to efficiently find a message pair that collides with the above message difference. Second, we show that a password used in authenticated post office protocol (APOP) can be recovered practically. We also show that the password recovery attack can be applied to a session initiation protocol (SIP) and digest authentication. Our attack can recover up to the first 31 password characters in a short time and up to the first 60 characters faster than the naive search method. We have implemented our attack and confirmed that 31 characters can be successfully recovered.

  12. Design of SIP transformation server for efficient media negotiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pack, Sangheon; Paik, Eun Kyoung; Choi, Yanghee

    2001-07-01

    Voice over IP (VoIP) is one of the advanced services supported by the next generation mobile communication. VoIP should support various media formats and terminals existing together. This heterogeneous environment may prevent diverse users from establishing VoIP sessions among them. To solve the problem an efficient media negotiation mechanism is required. In this paper, we propose the efficient media negotiation architecture using the transformation server and the Intelligent Location Server (ILS). The transformation server is an extended Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) proxy server. It can modify an unacceptable session INVITE message into an acceptable one using the ILS. The ILS is a directory server based on the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) that keeps userí*s location information and available media information. The proposed architecture can eliminate an unnecessary response and re-INVITE messages of the standard SIP architecture. It takes only 1.5 round trip times to negotiate two different media types while the standard media negotiation mechanism takes 2.5 round trip times. The extra processing time in message handling is negligible in comparison to the reduced round trip time. The experimental results show that the session setup time in the proposed architecture is less than the setup time in the standard SIP. These results verify that the proposed media negotiation mechanism is more efficient in solving diversity problems.

  13. The Performance of a Second Generation Service Discovery Protocol In Response to Message Loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sundramoorthy, V.; van de Glind, G.J.; Hartel, Pieter H.; Scholten, Johan

    We analyze the behavior of FRODO, a second generation service discovery protocol, in response to message loss in the network. Earlier protocols, like UPnP and Jini rely on underlying network layers to enhance their failure recovery. A comparison with UPnP and Jini shows that FRODO performs more

  14. The Performance of a Second Generation Service Discovery Protocol In Response to Message Loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sundramoorthy, V.; van de Glind, G.J.; Hartel, Pieter H.; Scholten, Johan

    We analyze the behavior of FRODO, a second generation service discovery protocol, in response to message loss in the network. First generation protocols, like UPnP and Jini rely on underlying network layers to enhance their failure recovery. A comparison with UPnP and Jini shows that FRODO performs

  15. Message Collision Avoidance Protocols for Detecting Stray Nodes in a Scuba Diving Group Using Ultrasonic Multi-Hop Message Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Kaido

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen a growing interest in underwater communication and some progress has been made in this area. However, underwater communication is still immature compared with terrestrial communication. A prime reason for this is that the underwater environment is intrinsically not suitable for propagation of electric waves. Instead, ultrasonic waves are mainly used for underwater communication. Since ultrasonic waves cannot provide sufficient communication speed or capacity, they cannot use existing network technologies, which assume use of radio waves. In particular, communication in shallow water is still an uncharted territory. Few communication technologies are employed in environments where people enjoy scuba diving. This paper addresses problems faced by recreational scuba divers. It proposes constructing an ad hoc mesh-shaped network between divers within a group and use ultrasonic waves as transmission media in order to enable the detection of a stray diver. It also proposes a communication protocol in which messages are relayed in multiple hops, and a message collision avoidance method, which is intended to reduce the rate of packet loss caused by message propagation delay. We have implemented the proposed methods in a network simulator, and compared them with an existing communication method that has no message collision avoidance function, in terms of the packet loss rate, the stray driver detection rate, and the rate of the ability to communicate in multiple hops.

  16. Automatic Traffic-Based Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) Model Generation for ns-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    more protocols (especially at different layers of the OSI model ), implementing an inference engine to extract inter- and intrapacket dependencies, and...ARL-TR-7543 ● DEC 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Automatic Traffic-Based Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) Model ...ICMP) Model Generation for ns-3 by Jaime C Acosta and Felipe Jovel Survivability/Lethality Analysis Directorate, ARL Felipe Sotelo and Caesar

  17. A Novel Protocol Proposal for Integratıon of SIP Based Telephony Services To IPTV System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan YÜKSELTEN

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, oturum başlatma protokolü (SIP tabanlı çağrı sunucusuyla sağlanan telefon servislerinin IPTV sistemiyle bütünleşmesini sağlayacak yeni bir mimari yapı önerilmiş ve bu amaca yönelik yeni bir protokol (Bağımsız Bildirim Protokolü tasarlanarak geliştirilen mimari yapının avantajları incelenmiştir. Önerilen mimari yapı ve bunu destekleyen protokoller, bildirim mimarisinde arabirim katmanına (middleware olan gereksinimi ortadan kaldırmaktadır. Böylece, bildirim mimari yapısı bir katman azaltılmakta, arabirim katmanına olan bağımlılık sona ermekte, her türlü arabirim katmanı ile bildirim mimarisi kurulabilmektedir. Geliştirilen mimari yapı ve protokolün testleri sonucunda, bildirim bant genişliğinin, mevcut bildirim mimari yapılarındakinin %10’una kadar düştüğü ve önerilen mimari yapının başarılı bir şekilde çalıştığı görülmüştür.

  18. SIP Signaling Implementations and Performance Enhancement over MANET: A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Alshamrani, M; Cruickshank, Haitham; Sun, Zhili; Ansa, G; Alshahwan, F

    2016-01-01

    The implementation of the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)-based Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) and multimedia over MANET is still a challenging issue. Many routing factors affect the performance of SIP signaling and the voice Quality of Service (QoS). Node mobility in MANET causes dynamic changes to route calculations, topology, hop numbers, and the connectivity status between the correspondent nodes. SIP-based VoIP depends on the caller’s registration, call initiation, and call termin...

  19. Adaptive Beaconing in Mobility Aware Clustering Based MAC Protocol for Safety Message Dissemination in VANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishu Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Majority of research contributions in wireless access in vehicular environment (WAVE/IEEE 802.11p standard focus on life critical safety-related applications. These applications require regular status update of vehicle’s position referred to as beaconing. Periodic beaconing in vehicle to vehicle communication leads to severe network congestion in the communication channel. The condition worsens under high vehicular density where it impacts reliability and upper bound latency of safety messages. In this paper, WAVE compliant enhancement to the existing IEEE 802.11p protocol is presented which targets prioritized delivery of safety messages while simultaneously provisioning the dissemination of nonsafety messages. Proposed scheme relies on dynamic generation of beacons to mitigate channel congestion and inefficient bandwidth utilization by reducing transmission frequency of beacons. Through the use of clustering mechanism, different beaconing frequencies and different data transmission rates are assigned to prioritize vehicular mobility. Through extensive simulation results, the performance of the proposed approach is evaluated in terms of a wide range of quality of service (QoS parameters for two different transmission ranges. Results show that the proposed protocol provides significant enhancement and stability of the clustered topology in vehicular ad hoc network over existing standard and other protocols with similar applications.

  20. Cooperation of Ukrainian regulatory authorities in the SIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutina, L.; Bachner, D.; Bykov, V.; Erickson, L.; Kondralyev, S.; Redko, V.; Simonov, I.; Vasilchenko, V. [SSTC NRS, Stusa St. 35-37, 03142, Kyiv (Ukraine)

    2003-07-01

    The State Nuclear Regulatory Committee of Ukraine (SNRCU) supported by the State Scientific and Technical Center (SSTC) and the Licensing consultant (LC - RISKAUDIT/SCIENTECH) coordinates the activities of other regulatory authorities (RA) within the Shelter Implementation Plan (SIP) licensing. A protocol on cooperation and differentiation of competence in the SIP has been agreed between SNRCU and other RA (Ecology, Health, Construction, Occupational safety, Fire). The RA intended to carry out their activities such that SIP be implemented in the most efficient way by: - providing the Chernobyl NPP with a possibility to choose optimal variants for Shelter transformation; - minimizing required regulatory steps for SIP; - reviewing SIP documents at the initial stages of development of SIP designs; - providing consultative support by technical support organizations (TSO) on the SIP designs; - relating regulatory decisions on safety issues to the competence of the inspection at the Chernobyl NPP site. Coordination of regulatory activity and cooperation in safety areas are presented.

  1. Decentralized session initiation protocol solution in ad hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lu; Jin, Zhigang; Shu, Yantai; Dong, Linfang

    2006-10-01

    With the fast development of ad hoc networks, SIP has attracted more and more attention in multimedia service. This paper proposes a new architecture to provide SIP service for ad hoc users, although there is no centralized SIP server deployed. In this solution, we provide the SIP service by the introduction of two nodes: Designated SIP Server (DS) and its Backup Server (BDS). The nodes of ad hoc network designate DS and BDS when they join the session nodes set and when some pre-defined events occur. A new sip message type called REGISTRAR is presented so nodes can send others REGISTRAR message to declare they want to be DS. According to the IP information taken in the message, an algorithm works like the election of DR and BDR in OSPF protocol is used to vote DS and BDS SIP servers. Naturally, the DS will be replaced by BDS when the DS is down for predicable or unpredictable reasons. To facilitate this, the DS should register to the BDS and transfer a backup of the SIP users' database. Considering the possibility DS or BDS may abruptly go down, a special policy is given. When there is no DS and BDS, a new election procedure is triggered just like the startup phase. The paper also describes how SIP works normally in the decentralized model as well as the evaluation of its performance. All sessions based on SIP in ad hoc such as DS voting have been tested in the real experiments within a 500m*500m square area where about 30 random nodes are placed.

  2. Mobile phone text messaging for improving the uptake of vaccinations: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalan, Robyn; Wiysonge, Charles S; Ramafuthole, Tshepiso; Allie, Kurt; Ebrahim, Fatima; Engel, Mark Emmanuel

    2014-08-04

    Low vaccine coverage is a major public health concern, the consequences of which contribute to around 1.5 million child deaths from vaccine-preventable diseases. Thus, innovative strategies to rapidly increase coverage and recall rates for vaccinations are urgently required. Mobile text messaging (or short messaging service, SMS) has the potential to help increase vaccination coverage and therefore we propose to conduct a review of the current best evidence for the use of SMS as an intervention to promote vaccination coverage. This article describes the protocol for a systematic review of the effectiveness of SMS in improving the uptake of vaccination. Primary and secondary outcomes of interest are prespecified. We will preferably include randomised controlled trials (RCTs). However, non-randomised studies (NRS) will be considered if there is an inadequate number of RCTs. We will search several bibliographic databases (eg,PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, CENTRAL, Science Citation Index, Africa-Wide Information and WHOLIS electronic databases and search sources for grey literature. Following data extraction and assessment of risk of bias, we will meta-analyse studies and conduct subgroup analyses, according to intervention subtypes. We will assess clinical heterogeneity and statistical heterogeneity. For outcomes without quantitative data, a descriptive analysis will be used. This review protocol is registered in the PROSPERO International Prospective Register of systematic reviews, registration number 2014:CRD42014007531 ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics is not required for this study, given that this is a protocol for a systematic review, which uses published data. The findings of this study will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations. We anticipate that the results could be used by researchers and policymakers to help inform them of the efficacy of mobile phone text messaging interventions to promote increased vaccination coverage

  3. SAMP, the Simple Application Messaging Protocol: Letting applications talk to each other

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M. B.; Boch, T.; Taylor, J.

    2015-06-01

    SAMP, the Simple Application Messaging Protocol, is a hub-based communication standard for the exchange of data and control between participating client applications. It has been developed within the context of the Virtual Observatory with the aim of enabling specialised data analysis tools to cooperate as a loosely integrated suite, and is now in use by many and varied desktop and web-based applications dealing with astronomical data. This paper reviews the requirements and design principles that led to SAMP's specification, provides a high-level description of the protocol, and discusses some of its common and possible future usage patterns, with particular attention to those factors that have aided its success in practice.

  4. Two Stage Secure Dynamic Load Balancing Architecture for SIP Server Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Vennila

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Session Initiation Protocol (SIP is a signaling protocol emerged with an aim to enhance the IP network capabilities in terms of complex service provision. SIP server scalability with load balancing has a greater concern due to the dramatic increase in SIP service demand. Load balancing of session method (request/response and security measures optimizes the SIP server to regulate of network traffic in Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP. Establishing a honeywall prior to the load balancer significantly reduces SIP traffic and drops inbound malicious load. In this paper, we propose Active Least Call in SIP Server (ALC_Server algorithm fulfills objectives like congestion avoidance, improved response times, throughput, resource utilization, reducing server faults, scalability and protection of SIP call from DoS attacks. From the test bed, the proposed two-tier architecture demonstrates that the ALC_Server method dynamically controls the overload and provides robust security, uniform load distribution for SIP servers.

  5. Minimizing SIP Session Re-Setup Delay over Wireless Link in 3G Handover Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moon Bongkyo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The delay in transmitting SIP messages over the wireless link for session resetup at handover is still major bottleneck for interactive multimedia service. In this paper, a proxy agent-based scheme is proposed to minimize the SIP session setup delay over a wireless link in 3G inter-subnet handover scenarios. This scheme is based on the two characteristics. One is that the major factor of SIP session re-setup delay is generally caused by the retransmissions in the unreliable wireless links, and the other is that most of the fields in request messages as well as response messages are duplicated when a set of SIP messages are exchanged during session re-setup procedure. In this scheme, no change is required in the SIP message processing except for the proxy agents in both BS and MH.

  6. A Secured Load Mitigation and Distribution Scheme for Securing SIP Server

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vennila Ganesan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Managing the performance of the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP server under heavy load conditions is a critical task in a Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP network. In this paper, a two-tier model is proposed for the security, load mitigation, and distribution issues of the SIP server. In the first tier, the proposed handler segregates and drops the malicious traffic. The second tier provides a uniform load of distribution, using the least session termination time (LSTT algorithm. Besides, the mean session termination time is minimized by reducing the waiting time of the SIP messages. Efficiency of the LSTT algorithm is evaluated through the experimental test bed by considering with and without a handler. The experimental results establish that the proposed two-tier model improves the throughput and the CPU utilization. It also reduces the response time and error rate while preserving the quality of multimedia session delivery. This two-tier model provides robust security, dynamic load distribution, appropriate server selection, and session synchronization.

  7. MyVoice National Text Message Survey of Youth Aged 14 to 24 Years: Study Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJonckheere, Melissa; Nichols, Lauren P; Moniz, Michelle H; Sonneville, Kendrin R; Vydiswaran, V G Vinod; Zhao, Xinyan; Guetterman, Timothy C; Chang, Tammy

    2017-12-11

    There has been little progress in adolescent health outcomes in recent decades. Researchers and youth-serving organizations struggle to accurately elicit youth voice and translate youth perspectives into health care policy. Our aim is to describe the protocol of the MyVoice Project, a longitudinal mixed methods study designed to engage youth, particularly those not typically included in research. Text messaging surveys are collected, analyzed, and disseminated in real time to leverage youth perspectives to impact policy. Youth aged 14 to 24 years are recruited to receive weekly text message surveys on a variety of policy and health topics. The research team, including academic researchers, methodologists, and youth, develop questions through an iterative writing and piloting process. Question topics are elicited from community organizations, researchers, and policy makers to inform salient policies. A youth-centered interactive platform has been developed that automatically sends confidential weekly surveys and incentives to participants. Parental consent is not required because the survey is of minimal risk to participants. Recruitment occurs online (eg, Facebook, Instagram, university health research website) and in person at community events. Weekly surveys collect both quantitative and qualitative data. Quantitative data are analyzed using descriptive statistics. Qualitative data are quickly analyzed using natural language processing and traditional qualitative methods. Mixed methods integration and analysis supports a more in-depth understanding of the research questions. We are currently recruiting and enrolling participants through in-person and online strategies. Question development, weekly data collection, data analysis, and dissemination are in progress. MyVoice quickly ascertains the thoughts and opinions of youth in real time using a widespread, readily available technology-text messaging. Results are disseminated to researchers, policy makers, and

  8. SIP threats detection system

    OpenAIRE

    Vozňák, Miroslav; Řezáč, Filip

    2010-01-01

    The paper deals with detection of threats in IP telephony, the authors developed a penetration testing system that is able to check up the level of protection from security threats in IP telephony. The SIP server is a key komponent of VoIP infrastructure and often becomes the aim of attacks and providers have to ensure the appropriate level of security. We have developed web-based penetration system which is able to check the SIP server if can face to the most common attacks.The d...

  9. NAT Traversing Solutions for SIP Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Ya-Lin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Session Initiation Protocol (SIP has been proposed for multimedia services and wide-area connectivity in smart home environments (SHEs. An important issue for SIP deployment in SHEs is network address translator (NAT traversing. SIP and Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP packets are delivered between an SHE (i.e., private IP network and Internet (i.e., a public IP network through an NAT function of a home gateway, and the NAT translates the IP/transport layer address and port number but leaves the application layer content unchanged. This results in inconsistency between the IP addresses/port numbers in the IP/transport layers and those in the SIP layer. To resolve this issue, we describe six solutions including static route, UPnP, STUN, ICE, ALG, and SBC. Then we compare these solutions in terms of smart home appliance (SHA modification, scope of NATs supported, multilayer NAT traversal, ease of configuration, security issue, and time complexities.

  10. NAT Traversing Solutions for SIP Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Chieh Chao

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Session Initiation Protocol (SIP has been proposed for multimedia services and wide-area connectivity in smart home environments (SHEs. An important issue for SIP deployment in SHEs is network address translator (NAT traversing. SIP and Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP packets are delivered between an SHE (i.e., private IP network and Internet (i.e., a public IP network through an NAT function of a home gateway, and the NAT translates the IP/transport layer address and port number but leaves the application layer content unchanged. This results in inconsistency between the IP addresses/port numbers in the IP/transport layers and those in the SIP layer. To resolve this issue, we describe six solutions including static route, UPnP, STUN, ICE, ALG, and SBC. Then we compare these solutions in terms of smart home appliance (SHA modification, scope of NATs supported, multilayer NAT traversal, ease of configuration, security issue, and time complexities.

  11. Text messaging reminders for influenza vaccine in primary care: protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial (TXT4FLUJAB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrett, Emily; van Staa, Tjeerd; Free, Caroline; Smeeth, Liam

    2014-05-02

    The UK government recommends that at least 75% of people aged under 64 with certain conditions receive an annual influenza vaccination. Primary care practices often fall short of this target and strategies to increase vaccine uptake are required. Text messaging reminders are already used in 30% of practices to remind patients about vaccination, but there has been no trial addressing their effectiveness in increasing influenza vaccine uptake in the UK. The aims of the study are (1) to develop the methodology for conducting cluster randomised trials of text messaging interventions utilising routine electronic health records and (2) to assess the effectiveness of using a text messaging influenza vaccine reminder in achieving an increase in influenza vaccine uptake in patients aged 18-64 with chronic conditions, compared with standard care. This cluster randomised trial will recruit general practices across three settings in English primary care (Clinical Practice Research Datalink, ResearchOne and London iPLATO text messaging software users) and randomise them to either standard care or a text messaging campaign to eligible patients. Flu vaccine uptake will be ascertained using routinely collected, anonymised electronic patient records. This protocol outlines the proposed study design and analysis methods. This study will determine the effectiveness of text messaging vaccine reminders in primary care in increasing influenza vaccine uptake, and will strengthen the methodology for using electronic health records in cluster randomised trials of text messaging interventions. This trial was approved by the Surrey Borders Ethics Committee (13/LO/0872). The trial results will be disseminated at national conferences and published in a peer-reviewed medical journal. The results will also be distributed to the Primary Care Research Network and to all participating general practices. This study is registered at controlled-trials.com ISRCTN48840025, July 2013.

  12. Deployment of SIP in MANET: challenges and circumvention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhamid Salma R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The immense growth in wireless network applications has encouraged the researchers to enhance and propose new approaches that facilitate the deployment of the widely used services, protocols, and applications of the wired networking area in the wireless networks. Among which, the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP is a signaling protocol that allows the establishment of multimedia sessions and calls between different parties. SIP functionality totally depends on a centralized infrastructure, and complexity arises when deploying such a protocol in a special type of wireless networks, namely Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANET, due to the absence of a centralized infrastructure, and the dynamic topology of the later. This paper highlights the the challenges arising when deploying SIP in MANETs and presents an overview of different proposed approaches to overcome these challenges.

  13. DNA stable-isotope probing (DNA-SIP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunford, Eric A; Neufeld, Josh D

    2010-08-02

    DNA stable-isotope probing (DNA-SIP) is a powerful technique for identifying active microorganisms that assimilate particular carbon substrates and nutrients into cellular biomass. As such, this cultivation-independent technique has been an important methodology for assigning metabolic function to the diverse communities inhabiting a wide range of terrestrial and aquatic environments. Following the incubation of an environmental sample with stable-isotope labelled compounds, extracted nucleic acid is subjected to density gradient ultracentrifugation and subsequent gradient fractionation to separate nucleic acids of differing densities. Purification of DNA from cesium chloride retrieves labelled and unlabelled DNA for subsequent molecular characterization (e.g. fingerprinting, microarrays, clone libraries, metagenomics). This JoVE video protocol provides visual step-by-step explanations of the protocol for density gradient ultracentrifugation, gradient fractionation and recovery of labelled DNA. The protocol also includes sample SIP data and highlights important tips and cautions that must be considered to ensure a successful DNA-SIP analysis.

  14. A Stepwise Approach to Developing Languages for SIP Telephony Service Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palix, Nicolas; Consel, Charles; Reveillere, Laurent

    2007-01-01

    Developing a SIP-based telephony service requires a programmer to have expertise in telephony rules and constraints, the SIP protocol, distributed systems, and a SIP API, which is often large and complex. These requirements make the development of telephony software an overwhelming challenge...... a scripting language dedicated to the development of telephony services. This approach enables critical properties of services to be guaranteed and captures expertise on the operational behavior of a service. We have applied this approach to developing the Session Processing Language (SPL) dedicated to SIP...

  15. Comparison of H.323 and SIP for IP telephony signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalgic, Ismail; Fang, Hanlin

    1999-11-01

    Two standards currently compete for the dominance of IP telephony signaling: the H.323 protocol suite by ITU-T, and the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) by IETF. Both of these signaling protocols provide mechanisms for call establishment and teardown, call control and supplementary services, and capability exchange. We investigate and compare these two protocols in terms of Functionality, Quality of Service (QoS), Scalability, Flexibility, Interoperability, and Ease of Implementation. For fairness of comparison, we consider similar scenarios for both protocols. In particular, we focus on scenarios that involve a gatekeeper for H.323, and a Proxy/Redirect server for SIP. The reason is that medium-to-large IP Telephony systems are not manageable without a gatekeeper or proxy server. We consider all three versions of H.323. In terms of functionality and services that can be supported, H.323 version 2 and SIP are very similar. However, supplementary services in H.323 are more rigorously defined, and therefore fewer interoperability issues are expected among its implementations. Furthermore, H.323 has taken more steps to ensure compatibility among its different versions, and to interoperate with PSTN. The two protocols are comparable in their QoS support [similar call setup delays, no support for resource reservation or class of service (CoS) setting], but H.323 version 3 will allow signaling of the requested CoS. SIP's primary advantages are (1) flexibility to add new features, and (2) relative ease of implementation and debugging. Finally, we note that H.323 and SIP are improving themselves by learning from each other, and the differences between them are diminishing with each new version.

  16. SIP end to end performance metrics

    OpenAIRE

    Vozňák, Miroslav; Rozhon, Jan

    2012-01-01

    The paper deals with a SIP performance testing methodology. The main contribution to the field of performance testing of SIP infrastructure consists in the possibility to perform the standardized stress tests with the developed SIP TesterApp without a deeper knowledge in the area of SIP communication. The developed tool exploits several of open-source applications such as jQuery, Python, JSON and the cornerstone SIP generator SIPp, the result is highly modifiable and the ...

  17. Formative research to develop theory-based messages for a Western Australian child drowning prevention television campaign: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denehy, Mel; Crawford, Gemma; Leavy, Justine; Nimmo, Lauren; Jancey, Jonine

    2016-05-20

    Worldwide, children under the age of 5 years are at particular risk of drowning. Responding to this need requires the development of evidence-informed drowning prevention strategies. Historically, drowning prevention strategies have included denying access, learning survival skills and providing supervision, as well as education and information which includes the use of mass media. Interventions underpinned by behavioural theory and formative evaluation tend to be more effective, yet few practical examples exist in the drowning and/or injury prevention literature. The Health Belief Model and Social Cognitive Theory will be used to explore participants' perspectives regarding proposed mass media messaging. This paper describes a qualitative protocol to undertake formative research to develop theory-based messages for a child drowning prevention campaign. The primary data source will be focus group interviews with parents and caregivers of children under 5 years of age in metropolitan and regional Western Australia. Qualitative content analysis will be used to analyse the data. This study will contribute to the drowning prevention literature to inform the development of future child drowning prevention mass media campaigns. Findings from the study will be disseminated to practitioners, policymakers and researchers via international conferences, peer and non-peer-reviewed journals and evidence summaries. The study was submitted and approved by the Curtin University Human Research Ethics Committee. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. Design of a SIP device cooperation system on OSGi service platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Youji; Koita, Takahiro; Sato, Kenya

    2007-12-01

    Home networks feature such various technologies as protocols, specifications, and middleware, including HTTP, UPnP, and Jini. A service platform is required to handle such technologies to enable them to cooperate with different devices. The OSGi service platform, which meets the requirements based on service-oriented architecture, is designed and standardized by OSGi Alliance and consists of two parts: one OSGi Framework and bundles. On the OSGi service platform, APIs are defined as services that can handle these technologies and are implemented in the bundle. By using the OSGi Framework with bundles, various technologies can cooperate with each other. On the other hand, in IP networks, Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is often used in device cooperation services to resolve an IP address, control a session between two or more devices, and easily exchange the statuses of devices. However, since many existing devices do not correspond to SIP, it cannot be used for device cooperation services. A device that does not correspond to SIP is called an unSIP device. This paper proposes and implements a prototype system that enables unSIP devices to correspond to SIP. For unSIP devices, the proposed system provides device cooperation services with SIP.

  19. The messages presented in online electronic cigarette promotions and discussions: a scoping review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCausland, Kahlia; Maycock, Bruce; Jancey, Jonine

    2017-11-08

    Electronic cigarettes have become increasingly popular over the last 10 years. These devices represent a new paradigm for tobacco control offering smokers an opportunity to inhale nicotine without inhaling tobacco smoke. To date there are no definite conclusions regarding the safety and long-term health effects of electronic cigarettes; however, there is evidence that they are being marketed online as a healthier alternative to traditional cigarettes. This scoping review aims to identify and describe the breadth of messages (eg, health, smoking-cessation and price related claims) presented in online electronic cigarette promotions and discussions. A scoping review will be undertaken adhering to the methodology outlined in The Joanna Briggs Institute Manual for Scoping Reviews. Six key electronic databases will be searched to identify eligible studies. Studies must be published in English between 2007 and 2017, examine and/or analyse content captured from online electronic cigarette promotions or discussions and report results for electronic cigarettes separately to other forms of tobacco delivery. Studies will be screened initially by title and abstract, followed by full-text review. Results of the search strategy will be reported in a PRISMA flow diagram and presented in tabular form with accompanying narrative summary. The methodology consists of reviewing and collecting data from publicly available studies, and therefore does not require ethics approval. Results will be published in a peer reviewed journal and be presented at national/international conferences. Additionally, findings will be disseminated via social media and online platforms. Advocacy will be key to informing policy makers of regulatory and health issues that need to be addressed. The review was registered prospectively with The Joanna Briggs Institute Systematic Reviews database. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights

  20. The Water SWITCH-ON Spatial Information Platform (SIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala Calero, J., Sr.; Boot, G., Sr.; Dihé, P., Sr.; Arheimer, B.

    2017-12-01

    The amount of hydrological open data is continually growing and providing opportunities to the scientific community. Although the existing data portals (GEOSS Portal, INSPIRE community geoportal and others) enable access to open data, many users still find browsing through them difficult. Moreover, the time spent on gathering and preparing data usually is more significant than the time spent on the experiment itself. Thus, any improvement on searching, understanding, accessing or using open data is greatly beneficial. The Spatial Information Platform (SIP) has been developed to tackle these issues within the SWITCH-ON European Commission funded FP7 project. The SIP has been designed as a set of tools based on open standards that provide to the user all the necessary functionalities as described in the Publish-Find-Bind (PFB) pattern. In other words, this means that the SIP helps users to locate relevant and suitable data for their experiments analysis, to access and transform it (filtering, extraction, selection, conversion, aggregation). Moreover, the SIP can be used to provide descriptive information about the data and to publish it so others can find and use it. The SIP is based on existing open data protocols such as the OGC/CSW, OGC/WMS, OpenDAP and open-source components like PostgreSQL/PostGIS, GeoServer and pyCSW. The SIP is divided in three main user interfaces: the BYOD (Browse your open dataset) web interface, the Expert GUI tool and the Upload Data and Metadata web interface. The BYOD HTML5 client is the main entry point for users that want to browse through open data in the SIP. The BYOD has a map interface based on Leaflet JavaScript libraries so that the users can search more efficiently. The web-based Open Data Registration Tool is a user-friendly upload and metadata description interface (geographical extent, license, DOI generation). The Expert GUI is a desktop application that provides full metadata editing capabilities for the metadata

  1. Peer-to-peer session initiation protocol in highly volatile environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oredope, A.; Liotta, A.; Roper, I.; Morphett, J.

    2008-01-01

    The session initiation protocol (SIP) is an IETF standardised protocol for multimedia signalling and communication over the internet. SIP has been used in many deployments in client-server architecture. However, this configuration potentially possesses various scalability and redundancy limitations

  2. A Multi-User Game-Theoretical Multipath Routing Protocol to Send Video-Warning Messages over Mobile Ad Hoc Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezher, Ahmad Mohamad; Igartua, Mónica Aguilar; de la Cruz Llopis, Luis J; Pallarès Segarra, Esteve; Tripp-Barba, Carolina; Urquiza-Aguiar, Luis; Forné, Jordi; Sanvicente Gargallo, Emilio

    2015-04-17

    The prevention of accidents is one of the most important goals of ad hoc networks in smart cities. When an accident happens, dynamic sensors (e.g., citizens with smart phones or tablets, smart vehicles and buses, etc.) could shoot a video clip of the accident and send it through the ad hoc network. With a video message, the level of seriousness of the accident could be much better evaluated by the authorities (e.g., health care units, police and ambulance drivers) rather than with just a simple text message. Besides, other citizens would be rapidly aware of the incident. In this way, smart dynamic sensors could participate in reporting a situation in the city using the ad hoc network so it would be possible to have a quick reaction warning citizens and emergency units. The deployment of an efficient routing protocol to manage video-warning messages in mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs) has important benefits by allowing a fast warning of the incident, which potentially can save lives. To contribute with this goal, we propose a multipath routing protocol to provide video-warning messages in MANETs using a novel game-theoretical approach. As a base for our work, we start from our previous work, where a 2-players game-theoretical routing protocol was proposed to provide video-streaming services over MANETs. In this article, we further generalize the analysis made for a general number of N players in the MANET. Simulations have been carried out to show the benefits of our proposal, taking into account the mobility of the nodes and the presence of interfering traffic. Finally, we also have tested our approach in a vehicular ad hoc network as an incipient start point to develop a novel proposal specifically designed for VANETs.

  3. A Multi-User Game-Theoretical Multipath Routing Protocol to Send Video-Warning Messages over Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mohamad Mezher

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The prevention of accidents is one of the most important goals of ad hoc networks in smart cities. When an accident happens, dynamic sensors (e.g., citizens with smart phones or tablets, smart vehicles and buses, etc. could shoot a video clip of the accident and send it through the ad hoc network. With a video message, the level of seriousness of the accident could be much better evaluated by the authorities (e.g., health care units, police and ambulance drivers rather than with just a simple text message. Besides, other citizens would be rapidly aware of the incident. In this way, smart dynamic sensors could participate in reporting a situation in the city using the ad hoc network so it would be possible to have a quick reaction warning citizens and emergency units. The deployment of an efficient routing protocol to manage video-warning messages in mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs has important benefits by allowing a fast warning of the incident, which potentially can save lives. To contribute with this goal, we propose a multipath routing protocol to provide video-warning messages in MANETs using a novel game-theoretical approach. As a base for our work, we start from our previous work, where a 2-players game-theoretical routing protocol was proposed to provide video-streaming services over MANETs. In this article, we further generalize the analysis made for a general number of N players in the MANET. Simulations have been carried out to show the benefits of our proposal, taking into account the mobility of the nodes and the presence of interfering traffic. Finally, we also have tested our approach in a vehicular ad hoc network as an incipient start point to develop a novel proposal specifically designed for VANETs.

  4. Mast-sipping in EPR trademark plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langenberger, Jan; Schienbein, Marcel; Geier, Roland

    2010-01-01

    For more than 20 years, AREVA applies and develops different sipping techniques to identify fuel assemblies with leaking fuel rods. For the EPR trademark reactors a Mast Sipping System with newest developments will be implemented considering radiation protection and latest standards requirements. The innovative EPR trademark Sipping System differs from previous systems in many ways. One of the main innovations is that all the necessary processes of the Sipping system have been fully digitized. Second, several ALARA design modifications have been implemented to meet the current radiation protection requirements. An additional implementable multilingual assistance program facilitates the handling of the system and helps to prevent incorrect operation. (orig.)

  5. Nationwide SIP Telephony Network Design to Prevent Congestion Caused by Disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Daisuke; Ashitagawa, Kyoko

    We present a session initiation protocol (SIP) network design for a voice-over-IP network to prevent congestion caused by people calling friends and family after a disaster. The design increases the capacity of SIP servers in a network by using all of the SIP servers equally. It takes advantage of the fact that equipment for voice data packets is different from equipment for signaling packets in SIP networks. Furthermore, the design achieves simple routing on the basis of telephone numbers. We evaluated the performance of our design in preventing congestion through simulation. We showed that the proposed design has roughly 20 times more capacity, which is 57 times the normal load, than the conventional design if a disaster were to occur in Niigata Prefecture struck by the Chuetsu earthquake in 2004.

  6. Automatic Generation of Network Protocol Gateways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bromberg, Yérom-David; Réveillère, Laurent; Lawall, Julia

    2009-01-01

    for describing protocol behaviors, message structures, and the gateway logic.  Z2z includes a compiler that checks essential correctness properties and produces efficient code. We have used z2z to develop a number of gateways, including SIP to RTSP, SLP to UPnP, and SMTP to SMTP via HTTP, involving a range......The emergence of networked devices in the home has made it possible to develop applications that control a variety of household functions. However, current devices communicate via a multitude of incompatible protocols, and thus gateways are needed to translate between them.  Gateway construction......, however, requires an intimate knowledge of the relevant protocols and a substantial understanding of low-level network programming, which can be a challenge for many application programmers. This paper presents a generative approach to gateway construction, z2z, based on a domain-specific language...

  7. Clone of EPA Approved Regulations in the Texas SIP

    Science.gov (United States)

    changed name to EPA Approved Regulations in the Texas SIP, Add links to:Texas Read Me; Texas SIP History;Current/Previous SIP-Approved Regulations; Delete regulations--now in /node/191099, removed tables

  8. LOCATION-BASED SERVICES USING SIP

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah Azfar,; Md. Sakhawat Hossen,; María José Peroza Marval; Razib Hayat Khan

    2010-01-01

    Due to the popularity of Location-Based Services and IP telephony, we decided to review a number of different proposals to implement Location-Based Services over a SIP-based mobile network. The result is an interesting overview about the potential functionalities of Location-Based Services and the capabilities of SIP for implementingthese services.

  9. Mobile Phone Short Messages to Improve Exclusive Breastfeeding and Reduce Adverse Infant Feeding Practices: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial in Yangon, Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hmone, Myat Pan; Li, Mu; Alam, Ashraful; Dibley, Michael J

    2017-06-28

    , and 5 months postdelivery. Social desirability was measured at 5 months, and text messages expressing delivery success and user experience were assessed at the end of the study. The targeted 353 pregnant women were recruited between January and March 2015. Baseline data have been collected; SMS messages have been developed and pretested and sent to the women from both groups. Follow-up data collection via phone calls has been completed. Data analysis is being done and results are expected soon. This is the first RCT study examining the effects of mobile text messaging for promoting exclusive breastfeeding. This trial is timely in Myanmar following the telecommunications market opening in 2014. Our results will help determine whether text messaging is an effective and feasible method for promoting appropriate feeding practices and will inform further research to assess how this model could be replicated in the broader community. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry ACTRN12615000063516; https://anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=367704 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/ 6rGif3l81). ©Myat Pan Hmone, Mu Li, Ashraful Alam, Michael J Dibley. Originally published in JMIR Research Protocols (http://www.researchprotocols.org), 28.06.2017.

  10. Protocol for a thematic synthesis to identify key themes and messages from a palliative care research network.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nicholson, Emma

    2016-10-21

    Research networks that facilitate collaborative research are increasing both regionally and globally and such collaborations contribute greatly to knowledge transfer particularly in health research. The Palliative Care Research Network is an Irish-based network that seeks to create opportunities and engender a collaborative environment to encourage innovative research that is relevant for policy and practice. The current review outlines a methodology to identify cross-cutting messages to identify how dissemination outputs can be optimized to ensure that key messages from this research reaches all knowledge users.

  11. Unified Internet Messaging

    OpenAIRE

    Healy, Paul; Barber, Declan

    2015-01-01

    As telephony services, mobile services and internet services continue to converge, the prospect of providing Unified Messaging and even Unified Communications becomes increasingly achievable. This paper discusses the growing importance of IP-based networks to Unified Messaging developments and examines some of the key services and protocols that are likely to make Unified Messaging more widely available. In this initial paper, we limit ourselves initially to the unification of text-based mess...

  12. Improvement of the Response Time in an Open Source Audioconference Architecture Based on SIP Multicast Implemented with JainSIP, JainSDP and JGAP Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M. Moreno

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Group services like the audioconference require a minimum level of quality of service for multicast sessions. This work proposes a new overlay multicast architecture based on SIP extensions and a genetic algorithm. The architecture consists of a SIP Extender client (SE, a Multicast Gateway Agent (MGA and a Multicast Manager (MM. The SE receives information about the most adequate MGA for it determined by a genetic algorithm inside the MM, then connects the chosen MGA and maintains connection with the MM itself. The genetic algorithm is implemented with JGAP(Java Genetic Algorithm Package libraries. The SE and MGA are programmed with JainSIP and JainSDP libraries which contain Java structures associated with the SIP protocol and session description. Some experiments over UTP wired and WiFi IEEE802.11n network were performed. Partial results with static and dynamic MGA selection show that, if we compare the joining and leaving time measured inside a station containing SE client programmed with JainSIP and JainSDP libraries versus SJphone proprietary client, the software engineering may have more influence than the medium access method in the response time for a potential group member. Even more, the genetic algorithm at the MM minimizes the response time at great scale.

  13. Closed Conference Signalling Using the Session Initiation Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miladinovic, Igor; Stadler, Johannes

    2003-01-01

    Introduces an extension of the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) for closed multiparty conferences; the extension expands SIP for discovery of participant identities in a conference, and ensures that each participant is notified before a new participant joins. Verifies this extension by applying it to two SIP conference models. Concludes with an…

  14. Text message-based diabetes self-management support (SMS4BG): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Rosie; Whittaker, Robyn; Jiang, Yannan; Shepherd, Matthew; Maddison, Ralph; Carter, Karen; Cutfield, Richard; McNamara, Catherine; Khanolkar, Manish; Murphy, Rinki

    2016-04-02

    Addressing the increasing prevalence, and associated disease burden, of diabetes is a priority of health services internationally. Interventions to support patients to effectively self-manage their condition have the potential to reduce the risk of costly and debilitating complications. The utilisation of mobile phones to deliver self-management support allows for patient-centred care at the frequency and intensity that patients desire from outside the clinic environment. Self-Management Support for Blood Glucose (SMS4BG) is a novel text message-based intervention for supporting people with diabetes to improve self-management behaviours and achieve better glycaemic control and is tailored to individual patient preferences, demographics, clinical characteristics, and culture. This study aims to assess whether SMS4BG can improve glycaemic control in adults with poorly controlled diabetes. This paper outlines the rationale and methods of the trial. A two-arm, parallel, randomised controlled trial will be conducted across New Zealand health districts. One thousand participants will be randomised at a 1:1 ratio to receive SMS4BG, a theoretically based and individually tailored automated text message-based diabetes self-management support programme (intervention) in addition to usual care, or usual care alone (control). The primary outcome is change in glycaemic control (HbA1c) at 9 months. Secondary outcomes include glycaemic control at 3 and 6 months, self-efficacy, self-care behaviours, diabetes distress, health-related quality of life, perceived social support, and illness perceptions. Cost information and healthcare utilisation will also be collected as well as intervention satisfaction and interaction. This study will provide information on the effectiveness of a text message-based self-management support tool for people with diabetes. If found to be effective it has the potential to provide individualised support to people with diabetes across New Zealand (and

  15. Stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS)--influence of SIPS on radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masatoshi; Boothman, David A

    2008-03-01

    Replicative senescence is a fundamental feature in normal human diploid cells and results from dysfunctional telomeres at the Hayflick cell division limit. Ionizing radiation (IR) prematurely induces the same phenotypes as replicative senescence prior to the Hayflick limit. This process is known as stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS). Since the cell cycle is irreversibly arrested in SIPS-induced cells, even if they are stimulated by various growth factors, it is thought that SIPS is a form of cell death, irreversibly eliminating replicating cells. IR-induced-focus formation of DNA repair proteins, a marker of DNA damage, is detected in SIPS as well as replicative senescent cells. Furthermore, both processes persistently induce cell cycle checkpoint mechanisms, indicating DNA damage created by ionizing radiation induces SIPS in normal cells, possibly by the same mechanisms as those occurring in replicative senescence. Interestingly, IR induces SIPS not only in normal cells, but also in tumor cells. Due to the expression of telomerase in tumor cells, telomere-dependent replicative senescence does not occur. However, SIPS is induced under certain conditions after IR exposure. Thus, cell death triggered by IR can be attributed to apoptosis or SIPS in tumor cells. However, metabolic function remains intact in SIPS-induced cancer cells, and recent studies show that senescence eliminate cells undergoing SIPS secrete various kinds of factors outside the cell, changing the microenvironment. Evidence using co-culture systems containing normal senescent stromal cells and epithelial tumor cells show that factors secreted from senescent stroma cells promote the growth of tumor epithelial cells both in vitro and in vivo. Thus, regulation of factors secreted from SIPS-induced stromal cells, as well as tumor cells, may affect radiotherapy.

  16. Stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS). Influence of SIPS on radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Masatoshi; Boothman, D.A.

    2008-01-01

    Replicative senescence is a fundamental feature in normal human diploid cells and results from dysfunctional telomeres at the Hayflick cell division limit. Ionizing radiation (IR) prematurely induces the same phenotypes as replicative senescence prior to the Hayflick limit. This process is known as stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS). Since the cell cycle is irreversibly arrested in SIPS-induced cells, even if they are stimulated by various growth factors, it is thought that SIPS is a form of cell death, irreversibly eliminating replicating cells. IR-induced-focus formation of DNA repair proteins, a marker of DNA damage, is detected in SIPS as well as replicative senescent cells. Furthermore, both processes persistently induce cell cycle checkpoint mechanisms, indicating DNA damage created by ionizing radiation induces SIPS in normal cells, possibly by the same mechanisms as those occurring in replicative senescence. Interestingly, IR induces SIPS not only in normal cells, but also in tumor cells. Due to the expression of telomerase in tumor cells, telomere-dependent replicative senescence does not occur. However, SIPS is induced under certain conditions after IR exposure. Thus, cell death triggered by IR can be attributed to apoptosis or SIPS in tumor cells. However, metabolic function remains intact in SIPS-induced cancer cells, and recent studies show that senescence eliminate cells undergoing SIPS secrete various kinds of factors outside the cell, changing the microenvironment. Evidence using co-culture systems containing normal senescent stromal cells and epithelial tumor cells show that factors secreted from senescent stroma cells promote the growth of tumor epithelial cells both in vitro and in vivo. Thus, regulation of factors secreted from SIPS-induced stromal cells, as well as tumor cells, may affect radiotherapy. (author)

  17. Approach to stress tests in SIP environment based on marginal analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Voznak, Miroslav; Rozhon, Jan

    2013-01-01

    In the field of performance metrics and measurements of SIP (Session Initiation Protocol) Proxy and B2BUA (Back-to-Back User Agent) no standardized methodology has been presented yet. This gap results in a problematic determination of a hardware, the performance of which would be cost-effective and sufficient for the running the SIP Server in a given environment. Today practice relies on the administrator’s skills and experience with the needs of the telephony infrastructure. From this and th...

  18. 75 FR 28626 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): SIP 10...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): SIP 10-029, Pilot Study... Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the...

  19. 75 FR 32190 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): SIP 10...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): SIP 10-033, Innovative... with Section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease...

  20. Implementasi Server VoIP Berbasis SIP Pada LAN Nirkabel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shoffa Al Arofat

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP merupakan teknologi yang memungkinkan percakapan suara jarak jauh melalui protokol internet. Dalam telekomunikasi, diperlukan teknologi pensinyalan yang berguna untuk membangun, mengawasi, dan melepas hubungan antara dua titik. Salah satu teknologi pensinyalan yang banyak digunakan untuk VoIP adalah Session Initiation Protocol, dengan implementasinya yang berupa perangkat lunak Open SIP Server. Selain pensinyalan, ada beberapa parameter yang perlu diperhatikan dalam implementasi VoIP, yaitu Mean Opinion Score (MOS, network impairment, dan bandwidth. Pengujian dilakukan terhadap enam codec, yaitu G.722, PCMA, PCMU, Speex, GSM, dan BV16. Berdasarkan hasil analisis dapat diambil kesimpulan bahwa codec yang menggunakan bandwidth paling rendah adalah Speex (27,12 kbps; Rata-rata delay yang dihasilkan oleh sipdroid lebih baik daripada jitsi.

  1. Short message service (SMS)-based intervention targeting alcohol consumption among university students: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kristin; Bendtsen, Marcus; Linderoth, Catharina; Karlsson, Nadine; Bendtsen, Preben; Müssener, Ulrika

    2017-04-04

    Despite significant health risks, heavy drinking of alcohol among university students is a widespread problem; excessive drinking is part of the social norm. A growing number of studies indicate that short message service (SMS)-based interventions are cost-effective, accessible, require limited effort by users, and can enable continuous, real-time, brief support in real-world settings. Although there is emerging evidence for the effect of SMS-based interventions in reducing alcohol consumption, more research is needed. This study aims to test the effectiveness of a newly developed SMS-based intervention targeting excessive alcohol consumption among university and college students in Sweden. The study is a two-arm randomized controlled trial with an intervention (SMS programme) and a control (treatment as usual) group. Outcome measures will be investigated at baseline and at 3-month follow up. The primary outcome is total weekly alcohol consumption. Secondary outcomes are frequency of heavy episodic drinking, highest estimated blood alcohol concentration and number of negative consequences due to excessive drinking. This study contributes knowledge on the effect of automatized SMS support to reduce excessive drinking among students compared with existing support such as Student Health Centres. ISRCTN.com, ISRCTN95054707 . Registered on 31 August 2016.

  2. A single sip of a strong alcoholic beverage causes exposure to carcinogenic concentrations of acetaldehyde in the oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linderborg, Klas; Salaspuro, Mikko; Väkeväinen, Satu

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to explore oral exposure to carcinogenic (group 1) acetaldehyde after single sips of strong alcoholic beverages containing no or high concentrations of acetaldehyde. Eight volunteers tasted 5 ml of ethanol diluted to 40 vol.% with no acetaldehyde and 40 vol.% calvados containing 2400 μM acetaldehyde. Salivary acetaldehyde and ethanol concentrations were measured by gas chromatography. The protocol was repeated after ingestion of ethanol (0.5 g/kg body weight). Salivary acetaldehyde concentration was significantly higher after sipping calvados than after sipping ethanol at 30s both with (215 vs. 128 μmol/l, psipping of the alcoholic beverages. Carcinogenic concentrations of acetaldehyde are produced from ethanol in the oral cavity instantly after a small sip of strong alcoholic beverage, and the exposure continues for at least 10 min. Acetaldehyde present in the beverage has a short-term effect on total acetaldehyde exposure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Supportive text messages for patients with alcohol use disorder and a comorbid depression: a protocol for a single-blind randomised controlled aftercare trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnett, Dan; Murphy, Edel; Kehoe, Elizabeth; Agyapong, Vincent; McLoughlin, Declan M; Farren, Conor

    2017-05-29

    Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and mood disorders commonly co-occur, and are associated with a range of negative outcomes for patients. Mobile phone technology has the potential to provide personalised support for such patients and potentially improve outcomes in this difficult-to-treat cohort. The aim of this study is to examine whether receiving supporting SMS text messages, following discharge from an inpatient dual diagnosis treatment programme, has a positive impact on mood and alcohol abstinence in patients with an AUD and a comorbid mood disorder. The present study is a single-blind randomised controlled trial. Patients aged 18-70 years who meet the criteria for both alcohol dependency syndrome/alcohol abuse and either major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder according to the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV Axis I will be randomised to receive twice-daily supportive SMS text messages for 6 months plus treatment as usual, or treatment as usual alone, and will be followed-up at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months postdischarge. Primary outcome measures will include changes from baseline in cumulative abstinence duration, which will be expressed as the proportion of days abstinent from alcohol in the preceding 90 days, and changes from baseline in Beck Depression Inventory scores. The trial has received full ethical approval from the St. Patrick's Hospital Research Ethics Committee (protocol 13/14). Results of the trial will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journal articles and at academic conferences. NCT02404662; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Using automated voice messages linked to telephone counselling to increase post-menstrual regulation contraceptive uptake and continuation in Bangladesh: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Kate; Andersen, Kathryn; Barnard, Sharmani; Ngo, Thoai D; Biswas, Kamal; Smith, Christopher; Carpenter, James; Church, Kathryn; Nuremowla, Sadid; Pearson, Erin

    2017-10-03

    Adoption of modern contraceptive methods after menstrual regulation (MR) is thought to reduce subsequent unwanted pregnancy and abortion. Long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) are highly effective at reducing unintended pregnancy, but uptake in Bangladesh is low. Providing information on the most effective methods of contraception increases uptake of more effective methods. This protocol describes a randomised controlled trial of an intervention delivered by mobile phone designed to support post-MR contraceptive use in Bangladesh. This is a multi-site single blind individual randomised controlled trial. At least 960 women undergoing MR procedures at selected facilities will be recruited after their procedure by female research assistants. Women will be randomised into the control or intervention group with a 1:1 ratio. All participants will receive usual clinic care, including contraceptive counselling and the telephone number of a non-toll-free call centre which provides counselling on MR and contraception. During the 4 months after their MR procedure, intervention participants will be sent 11 recorded interactive voice messages to their mobile phone about contraception with a focus on their chosen method and LARCs. Each message allows the participant to connect directly to the call centre. The intervention is free to the user. The control group will receive no messages delivered by mobile phone. All participants will be asked to complete an in-person questionnaire at recruitment and follow-up questionnaires by telephone at 2 weeks, 4 months and 12 months after their MR. The primary outcome for the trial will be self-reported LARC use 4 months post-MR. Secondary outcomes include LARC use at 2 weeks and 12 months post-MR, use of any effective modern contraceptive method at 2 weeks, 4 months and 12 months post-MR, and contraceptive discontinuation, contraceptive method switching, pregnancy, subsequent MR and experience of violence during the 12

  5. Using automated voice messages linked to telephone counselling to increase post-menstrual regulation contraceptive uptake and continuation in Bangladesh: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Reiss

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adoption of modern contraceptive methods after menstrual regulation (MR is thought to reduce subsequent unwanted pregnancy and abortion. Long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs are highly effective at reducing unintended pregnancy, but uptake in Bangladesh is low. Providing information on the most effective methods of contraception increases uptake of more effective methods. This protocol describes a randomised controlled trial of an intervention delivered by mobile phone designed to support post-MR contraceptive use in Bangladesh. Methods This is a multi-site single blind individual randomised controlled trial. At least 960 women undergoing MR procedures at selected facilities will be recruited after their procedure by female research assistants. Women will be randomised into the control or intervention group with a 1:1 ratio. All participants will receive usual clinic care, including contraceptive counselling and the telephone number of a non-toll-free call centre which provides counselling on MR and contraception. During the 4 months after their MR procedure, intervention participants will be sent 11 recorded interactive voice messages to their mobile phone about contraception with a focus on their chosen method and LARCs. Each message allows the participant to connect directly to the call centre. The intervention is free to the user. The control group will receive no messages delivered by mobile phone. All participants will be asked to complete an in-person questionnaire at recruitment and follow-up questionnaires by telephone at 2 weeks, 4 months and 12 months after their MR. The primary outcome for the trial will be self-reported LARC use 4 months post-MR. Secondary outcomes include LARC use at 2 weeks and 12 months post-MR, use of any effective modern contraceptive method at 2 weeks, 4 months and 12 months post-MR, and contraceptive discontinuation, contraceptive method switching, pregnancy, subsequent MR and

  6. SIP-ing the elixir of youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mair, William; Steffen, Kristan K; Dillin, Andrew

    2011-09-16

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a conserved cellular fuel gauge previously implicated in aging. In this issue, Lu et al. (2011) describe how age-related deacetylation of Sip2, a subunit of the AMPK homolog in yeast, acts as a life span clock that can be wound backward or forward to modulate longevity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. An IMS testbed for SIP applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caba, Cosmin Marius; Soler, José

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the design and implementation of an emulation platform for the IP Multimedia Subsystem. The SIP Servlet API v1.1 has been used to implement the final system. The purpose of the emulation is to offer to IMS service developers an environment where they can integrate development...

  8. Lateral load performance of SIP walls with full bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boren Yeh; Tom Skaggs; Xiping Wang; Tom Williamson

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop test data needed to characterize lateral load performance of structural insulated panel (SIP) walls with full bearing (restrained). The research program involved structural testing of 29 full-size SIP walls (8 ft tall by 8 ft long) of various configurations that bracket a range of SIP wall configurations commonly used in the...

  9. Security analysis of session initiation protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Dobson, Lucas E.

    2010-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The goal of this thesis is to investigate the security of the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP). This was accomplished by researching previously discovered protocol and implementation vulnerabilities, evaluating the current state of security tools and using those tools to discover new vulnerabilities in SIP software. The CVSS v2 system was used to score protocol and implementation vulnerabilities to give them a meaning that was us...

  10. The Effectiveness of Text Messaging for Detection and Management of Hypertension in Indigenous People in Canada: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeates, Karen; Campbell, Norm; Maar, Marion A; Perkins, Nancy; Liu, Peter; Sleeth, Jessica; Smith, Carter; McAllister, Colin; Hua-Stewart, Diane; Wells, George; Tobe, Sheldon W

    2017-12-19

    will include analysis by community, sex, mobile phone ownership at baseline, and age. The knowledge gained from the text messages will be assessed using a questionnaire at study completion, and results will be compared between the groups. This study is expected to provide insights into the implementation of an innovative system of guidelines- and community-based treatment and follow-up for hypertension in Indigenous communities in Canada and in Tanzania, an example of an LMIC. These insights are expected to provide the information needed to plan scalable and sustainable interventions to control BP virtually anywhere in the world. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02111226; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02111226 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6v7IdYzZh). ©Karen Yeates, Norm Campbell, Marion A Maar, Nancy Perkins, Peter Liu, Jessica Sleeth, Carter Smith, Colin McAllister, Diane Hua-Stewart, George Wells, Sheldon W Tobe. Originally published in JMIR Research Protocols (http://www.researchprotocols.org), 19.12.2017.

  11. Scilab and SIP for Image Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Fabbri, Ricardo; Bruno, Odemir Martinez; Costa, Luciano da Fontoura

    2012-01-01

    This paper is an overview of Image Processing and Analysis using Scilab, a free prototyping environment for numerical calculations similar to Matlab. We demonstrate the capabilities of SIP -- the Scilab Image Processing Toolbox -- which extends Scilab with many functions to read and write images in over 100 major file formats, including PNG, JPEG, BMP, and TIFF. It also provides routines for image filtering, edge detection, blurring, segmentation, shape analysis, and image recognition. Basic ...

  12. A Visualized Message Interface (VMI) for intelligent messaging services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, T.; Kasahara, H.; Nakagawa, T.

    1984-01-01

    In CCITT, Message Handling Systems (MHS) have been studied from the viewpoint of communications protocol standardization. In addition to MHS services, Message Processing (MP) services, such as image processing, filing and retrieving services, will come into increasing demand in office automation field. These messaging services, including MHS services, can be thought of as Intelligent Messaging (IM) services. IM services include many basic services, optional user facilities and service parameters. Accordingly, it is necessary to deal with these parameters and MP procedures in as systematic and user-friendly a manner as possible. As one step towards realizing a user-friendly IM services interface, the characteristics of IM service parameters are studied and a Visualized Message Interface (VMI) which resembles a conventional letter exchange format is presented. The concept of VMI formation is discussed using the generic document structure concept as well as a Screen Interface and Protocol Interface conversion package

  13. SMS Messaging Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pero, Nicola

    2009-01-01

    Cell phones are the most common communication device on the planet, and Short Message Service (SMS) is the chief channel for companies to offer services, accept requests, report news, and download binary files over cell phones. This guide describes the protocols and best practices (things that ensure you won't get sued or lose your right to offer a service) you need to know to make SMS messaging part of an organizational service. Issues such as character sets, differences among vendors, common practices in Europe and North America, and API choices are covered.

  14. TELESCOPE sipping - a proven fuel leak detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deleryd, R.; Collin, P.

    1996-01-01

    The advantages of the TELESCOPE sipping method are: For BWRs: clamp-on sipping nozzle, which attaches easily to the grapple of the telescope mast on the refuelling platform, but does not affect its operation; no heavy and large sipping bells have to be operated in the core with risk of damage, entangled hoses or lifting rods/wires; the sipping can also be performed for testing long time storaged fuel in the spent fuel pool. For PWRs: simple attachment of water suction hose or tube to the refuelling platform mast. (orig./DG)

  15. Efficacy of a text messaging (SMS) based intervention for adults with hypertension: protocol for the StAR (SMS Text-message Adherence suppoRt trial) randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobrow, Kirsty; Brennan, Thomas; Springer, David; Levitt, Naomi S; Rayner, Brian; Namane, Mosedi; Yu, Ly-Mee; Tarassenko, Lionel; Farmer, Andrew

    2014-01-11

    Interventions to support people with hypertension in attending clinics and taking their medication have potential to improve outcomes, but delivery on a wide scale and at low cost is challenging. Some trials evaluating clinical interventions using short message service (SMS) text-messaging systems have shown important outcomes, although evidence is limited. We have developed a novel SMS system integrated with clinical care for use by people with hypertension in a low-resource setting. We aim to test the efficacy of the system in improving blood pressure control and treatment adherence compared to usual care. The SMS Text-message Adherence suppoRt trial (StAR) is a pragmatic individually randomised three-arm parallel group trial in adults treated for hypertension at a single primary care centre in Cape Town, South Africa. The intervention is a structured programme of clinic appointment, medication pick-up reminders, medication adherence support and hypertension-related education delivered remotely using an automated system with either informational or interactive SMS text-messages. Usual care is supplemented by infrequent non-hypertension related SMS text-messages. Participants are 1:1:1 individually randomised, to usual care or to one of the two active interventions using minimisation to dynamically adjust for gender, age, baseline systolic blood pressure, years with hypertension, and previous clinic attendance. The primary outcome is the change in mean systolic blood pressure at 12-month follow-up from baseline measured with research staff blinded to trial allocation. Secondary outcomes include the proportion of patients with 80% or more of days medication available, proportion of participants achieving a systolic blood pressure less than 140 mmHg and a diastolic blood pressure less than 90 mmHg, hospital admissions, health status, retention in clinical care, satisfaction with treatment and care, and patient related quality of life. Anonymised demographic data

  16. Supportive text messages to reduce mood symptoms and problem drinking in patients with primary depression or alcohol use disorder: protocol for an implementation research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyapong, Vincent Israel Opoku; Mrklas, Kelly; Suen, Victoria Yung Mei; Rose, Marianne Sarah; Jahn, Megan; Gladue, Irene; Kozak, Jody; Leslie, Maureen; Dursun, Serdar; Ohinmaa, Arto; Greenshaw, Andrew

    2015-05-15

    Depression and Alcohol Use Disorders (AUDs) are two leading causes of disability worldwide and are associated with significant treatment challenges requiring new, innovative, cost-effective and technologically-based therapies including the use of supportive text messages. To determine the feasibility and effectiveness of supportive text messages in long-term follow-up to reduce mood symptoms and problem drinking in patients with Depression or AUD respectively and to explore the usefulness of self-reports of health services utilization as an outcomes measure. This will be a longitudinal, prospective, parallel-design, two-arm, placebo-controlled single-rater-blinded randomized clinical trial with a recruitment period of 6 months and an observation period of 12 months for each participant, with two strata based on primary diagnosis of Major Depressive Disorder or AUD. The sample size will be 120, with about 60 patients randomized from each primary diagnostic grouping. Patients in all intervention groups will receive twice-daily supportive SMS text messages for 3 months and then daily supportive text messages for the next three months. Patients will also receive a phone call every two weeks from the research assistant assigning treatment allocation to confirm that they are still receiving the text messages and to thank them for taking part in the study. Patients in the control group will receive no text messages but will also receive a phone call from the same research assistant every two weeks to thank them for taking part in the study. The study starts in April 2015 and ends in September 2016. It is envisaged that both qualitative and quantitative primary and secondary outcomes, including patient perceptions of the intervention, will shed light on the feasibility of using automated supportive text message interventions in long term for patients with Depression and AUD. This will inform a full-scale clinical trial. The paradigm for behavior change using text messages

  17. Biometrics based authentication scheme for session initiation protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Qi; Tang, Zhixiong

    2016-01-01

    Many two-factor challenge-response based session initiation protocol (SIP) has been proposed, but most of them are vulnerable to smart card stolen attacks and password guessing attacks. In this paper, we propose a novel three-factor SIP authentication scheme using biometrics, password and smart card, and utilize the pi calculus-based formal verification tool ProVerif to prove that the proposed protocol achieves security and authentication. Furthermore, our protocol is highly efficient when co...

  18. Implementação de um sistema SIP para o sistema operacional Linux

    OpenAIRE

    Davison Gonzaga da Silva

    2003-01-01

    Resumo: Este trabalho apresenta a implementação de um Sistema de VoIP usando o Protocolo SIP. Este Sistema SIP foi desenvolvido para o Linux, usando-se a linguagem C++ em conjunto com a biblioteca QT. O Sistema SIP é composto de três entidades básicas: o Terminal SIP, o Proxy e o Servidor de Registros. O Terminal SIP é a entidade responsável por estabelecer sessões SIP com outros Terminais SIP. Para o Terminal SIP, foi desenvolvida uma biblioteca de acesso à placa de áudio, que permite a modi...

  19. Mobile Link - a theory-based messaging intervention for improving sexual and reproductive health of female entertainment workers in Cambodia: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Carinne; Tuot, Sovannary; Chhoun, Pheak; Swendenman, Dallas; Kaplan, Kathryn C; Yi, Siyan

    2018-04-19

    In Cambodia, HIV prevalence is concentrated in key populations including among female entertainment workers (FEWs) who may engage in direct or indirect sex work. Reaching FEWs with sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services has been difficult because of their hidden and stigmatized nature. Mobile-phone-based interventions may be an effective way to reach this population and connect them with the existing services. This article describes study design and implementation of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of a mobile health intervention (the Mobile Link) aiming to improve SRH and related outcomes among FEWs in Cambodia. A two-arm RCT will be used to determine the effectiveness of a mobile-phone-based text/voice messaging intervention. The intervention will be developed through a participatory process. Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews have been conducted to inform and tailor behavior change theory-based text and voice messages. During the implementation phase, 600 FEWs will be recruited and randomly assigned into one of the two arms: (1) a control group and (2) a mobile phone message group (either text messages [SMS] or voice messages [VM], a delivery method chosen by participants). Participants in the control group will also receive a weekly monitoring survey, which will provide real-time information to implementing partners to streamline outreach efforts and be able to quickly identify geographic trends. The primary outcome measures will include self-reported HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STI) testing and treatment, condom use, contraceptive use, and gender-based violence (GBV). If the Mobile Link trial is successful, participants will report an increase in condom use, linkages to screening and treatment for HIV and STI, and contraception use as well as a reduction in GBV. This trial is unique in a number of ways. First, the option of participation mode (SMS or VM) allows participants to choose the message medium that best links them

  20. The Prodiguer Messaging Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denvil, S.; Greenslade, M. A.; Carenton, N.; Levavasseur, G.; Raciazek, J.

    2015-12-01

    CONVERGENCE is a French multi-partner national project designed to gather HPC and informatics expertise to innovate in the context of running French global climate models with differing grids and at differing resolutions. Efficient and reliable execution of these models and the management and dissemination of model output are some of the complexities that CONVERGENCE aims to resolve.At any one moment in time, researchers affiliated with the Institut Pierre Simon Laplace (IPSL) climate modeling group, are running hundreds of global climate simulations. These simulations execute upon a heterogeneous set of French High Performance Computing (HPC) environments. The IPSL's simulation execution runtime libIGCM (library for IPSL Global Climate Modeling group) has recently been enhanced so as to support hitherto impossible realtime use cases such as simulation monitoring, data publication, metrics collection, simulation control, visualizations … etc. At the core of this enhancement is Prodiguer: an AMQP (Advanced Message Queue Protocol) based event driven asynchronous distributed messaging platform. libIGCM now dispatches copious amounts of information, in the form of messages, to the platform for remote processing by Prodiguer software agents at IPSL servers in Paris. Such processing takes several forms: Persisting message content to database(s); Launching rollback jobs upon simulation failure; Notifying downstream applications; Automation of visualization pipelines; We will describe and/or demonstrate the platform's: Technical implementation; Inherent ease of scalability; Inherent adaptiveness in respect to supervising simulations; Web portal receiving simulation notifications in realtime.

  1. Subtle Messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamplin de Poinsot, Nan

    1999-01-01

    Describes a self-portrait assignment inspired by the work of Frida Kahlo. Discusses Frida Kahlo's artwork and use of surrealist and symbolist views. States that each student had to incorporate personal symbolism in the portrait to convey a message about him or herself in a subtle manner. (CMK)

  2. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy in SIPs and TIPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tools and guides to encourage state, tribal and local agencies to consider incorporating Energy Efficiency (EE) and Renewable Energy (RE) policies and programs in their State and Tribal Implementation Plans (SIPs/TIPs).

  3. Interactive weekly mobile phone text messaging plus motivational interviewing in promotion of breastfeeding among women living with HIV in South Africa: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunza, Moleen; Cotton, Mark F; Mbuagbaw, Lawrence; Lester, Richard; Thabane, Lehana

    2017-07-17

    South Africa recently phased out access to free formula milk in the public sector in support of breastfeeding for women living with HIV. Few women living with HIV in South Africa choose breastfeeding and among those who do, many stop breastfeeding early. We sought to explore the feasibility of using mobile phone text messaging coupled with motivational interviewing to enhance adherence to breastfeeding practices. A randomized, parallel group, single-center pilot trial. Electronic sequence generation and random allocation will be done centrally. Women of low socioeconomic status, from Cape Town, South Africa will be randomly assigned within 24 h of giving birth at a primary healthcare clinic to a structured weekly text message plus motivational interviewing and usual standard of care, using a permutation of different block sizes. Criteria for feasibility success will include: five participants recruited per week (over 12 weeks), about 75% of all eligible participants consent for study participation, complete evaluation of outcomes in at least 70% of all recruited participants, breastfeeding adherence rates of at least 70% in the intervention group, six months after delivery. Participants will be evaluated soon after giving birth and post-delivery at weeks 2, 6, 10, and 24. Primary analysis will follow the "intention-to-treat" principle. Sub-group analysis will be used to assess sub-group effects. This pilot trial will evaluate the feasibility of conducting a larger trial on communication and support approaches to improve adherence to breastfeeding by HIV-infected women. Text messaging and motivational interviewing are simple interventions which may allow participants to access personalized adherence advice and support. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02949713 . Registered on 26 October 2016; Pan African Clinical Trial Registry PACTR201611001855404 . Registered on 8 November 2016.

  4. Connecting Health and Technology (CHAT): protocol of a randomized controlled trial to improve nutrition behaviours using mobile devices and tailored text messaging in young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Increasing intakes of fruits and vegetables intake, in tandem with reducing consumption of energy-dense and nutrient poor foods and beverages are dietary priorities to prevent chronic disease. Although most adults do not eat enough fruit and vegetables, teenagers and young adults tend to have the lowest intakes. Young adults typically consume a diet which is inconsistent with the dietary recommendations. Yet little is known about the best approaches to improve dietary intakes and behaviours among this group. This randomised controlled trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness of using a mobile device to assess dietary intake, provide tailored dietary feedback and text messages to motivate changes in fruit, vegetable and junk food consumption among young adults. Methods/design The CHAT project will involve the development of the mobile device food record (MDFR), and evaluation of dietary feedback and implementation of a 6-month intervention in young adults aged 18 to 30 years. The participants will be randomly assigned to one of three groups (1) Intervention Group 1: MDFR + Text Messages + Dietary Feedback; (2) Intervention Group 2: MDFR + Dietary Feedback; (3) Control Group 3: MDFR, no feedback. All groups will undertake a 3-day dietary record using the MDFR but only the Intervention Groups 1 and 2 will receive tailored dietary feedback at baseline and at 6-months which will consist of assessment of serves of fruits, vegetables and junk food in comparison to dietary recommendations. Tailored nutrition text messages will be sent to Intervention Group 1 over the 6 months. Data will be collected at baseline and again at the 6-month completion. Discussion This trial will test if applications running on mobile devices have potential to assess diet, provide tailored feedback and nutrition messages as an effective way of improving fruit and vegetable consumption and reducing energy-dense nutrient poor foods in young adults. The CHAT project will assess the

  5. Connecting Health and Technology (CHAT): protocol of a randomized controlled trial to improve nutrition behaviours using mobile devices and tailored text messaging in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Deborah A; Pollard, Christina M; Howat, Peter; Delp, Edward J; Pickering, Mark; Kerr, Katherine R; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S; Pratt, Iain S; Wright, Janine; Boushey, Carol J

    2012-06-22

    Increasing intakes of fruits and vegetables intake, in tandem with reducing consumption of energy-dense and nutrient poor foods and beverages are dietary priorities to prevent chronic disease. Although most adults do not eat enough fruit and vegetables, teenagers and young adults tend to have the lowest intakes. Young adults typically consume a diet which is inconsistent with the dietary recommendations. Yet little is known about the best approaches to improve dietary intakes and behaviours among this group. This randomised controlled trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness of using a mobile device to assess dietary intake, provide tailored dietary feedback and text messages to motivate changes in fruit, vegetable and junk food consumption among young adults. The CHAT project will involve the development of the mobile device food record (MDFR), and evaluation of dietary feedback and implementation of a 6-month intervention in young adults aged 18 to 30 years. The participants will be randomly assigned to one of three groups (1) Intervention Group 1: MDFR + Text Messages + Dietary Feedback; (2) Intervention Group 2: MDFR + Dietary Feedback; (3) Control Group 3: MDFR, no feedback. All groups will undertake a 3-day dietary record using the MDFR but only the Intervention Groups 1 and 2 will receive tailored dietary feedback at baseline and at 6-months which will consist of assessment of serves of fruits, vegetables and junk food in comparison to dietary recommendations. Tailored nutrition text messages will be sent to Intervention Group 1 over the 6 months. Data will be collected at baseline and again at the 6-month completion. This trial will test if applications running on mobile devices have potential to assess diet, provide tailored feedback and nutrition messages as an effective way of improving fruit and vegetable consumption and reducing energy-dense nutrient poor foods in young adults. The CHAT project will assess the impact of the intervention on behavioural

  6. Connecting Health and Technology (CHAT: protocol of a randomized controlled trial to improve nutrition behaviours using mobile devices and tailored text messaging in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerr Deborah A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing intakes of fruits and vegetables intake, in tandem with reducing consumption of energy-dense and nutrient poor foods and beverages are dietary priorities to prevent chronic disease. Although most adults do not eat enough fruit and vegetables, teenagers and young adults tend to have the lowest intakes. Young adults typically consume a diet which is inconsistent with the dietary recommendations. Yet little is known about the best approaches to improve dietary intakes and behaviours among this group. This randomised controlled trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness of using a mobile device to assess dietary intake, provide tailored dietary feedback and text messages to motivate changes in fruit, vegetable and junk food consumption among young adults. Methods/design The CHAT project will involve the development of the mobile device food record (MDFR, and evaluation of dietary feedback and implementation of a 6-month intervention in young adults aged 18 to 30 years. The participants will be randomly assigned to one of three groups (1 Intervention Group 1: MDFR + Text Messages + Dietary Feedback; (2 Intervention Group 2: MDFR + Dietary Feedback; (3 Control Group 3: MDFR, no feedback. All groups will undertake a 3-day dietary record using the MDFR but only the Intervention Groups 1 and 2 will receive tailored dietary feedback at baseline and at 6-months which will consist of assessment of serves of fruits, vegetables and junk food in comparison to dietary recommendations. Tailored nutrition text messages will be sent to Intervention Group 1 over the 6 months. Data will be collected at baseline and again at the 6-month completion. Discussion This trial will test if applications running on mobile devices have potential to assess diet, provide tailored feedback and nutrition messages as an effective way of improving fruit and vegetable consumption and reducing energy-dense nutrient poor foods in young adults. The CHAT

  7. Advanced Messaging Concept Development Basic Safety Message

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Contains all Basic Safety Messages (BSMs) collected during the Advanced Messaging Concept Development (AMCD) field testing program. For this project, all of the Part...

  8. DMS message design workshops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    This report summarizes the training conducted statewide regarding the design and display of messages on : dynamic message signs. The training is based on the Dynamic Message Sign Message Design and Display : Manual (0-4023-P3). Researchers developed ...

  9. Generating Models of Infinite-State Communication Protocols Using Regular Inference with Abstraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarts, Fides; Jonsson, Bengt; Uijen, Johan

    In order to facilitate model-based verification and validation, effort is underway to develop techniques for generating models of communication system components from observations of their external behavior. Most previous such work has employed regular inference techniques which generate modest-size finite-state models. They typically suppress parameters of messages, although these have a significant impact on control flow in many communication protocols. We present a framework, which adapts regular inference to include data parameters in messages and states for generating components with large or infinite message alphabets. A main idea is to adapt the framework of predicate abstraction, successfully used in formal verification. Since we are in a black-box setting, the abstraction must be supplied externally, using information about how the component manages data parameters. We have implemented our techniques by connecting the LearnLib tool for regular inference with the protocol simulator ns-2, and generated a model of the SIP component as implemented in ns-2.

  10. SIP: A Web-Based Astronomical Image Processing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonetti, J. H.

    1999-12-01

    I have written an astronomical image processing and analysis program designed to run over the internet in a Java-compatible web browser. The program, Sky Image Processor (SIP), is accessible at the SIP webpage (http://www.phys.vt.edu/SIP). Since nothing is installed on the user's machine, there is no need to download upgrades; the latest version of the program is always instantly available. Furthermore, the Java programming language is designed to work on any computer platform (any machine and operating system). The program could be used with students in web-based instruction or in a computer laboratory setting; it may also be of use in some research or outreach applications. While SIP is similar to other image processing programs, it is unique in some important respects. For example, SIP can load images from the user's machine or from the Web. An instructor can put images on a web server for students to load and analyze on their own personal computer. Or, the instructor can inform the students of images to load from any other web server. Furthermore, since SIP was written with students in mind, the philosophy is to present the user with the most basic tools necessary to process and analyze astronomical images. Images can be combined (by addition, subtraction, multiplication, or division), multiplied by a constant, smoothed, cropped, flipped, rotated, and so on. Statistics can be gathered for pixels within a box drawn by the user. Basic tools are available for gathering data from an image which can be used for performing simple differential photometry, or astrometry. Therefore, students can learn how astronomical image processing works. Since SIP is not part of a commercial CCD camera package, the program is written to handle the most common denominator image file, the FITS format.

  11. Comparing architectural solutions of IPT application SDKs utilizing H.323 and SIP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskinarkaus, Anja; Korhonen, Jani; Ohtonen, Timo; Kilpelanaho, Vesa; Koskinen, Esa; Sauvola, Jaakko J.

    2001-07-01

    This paper presents two approaches to efficient service development for Internet Telephony. In first approach we consider services ranging from core call signaling features and media control as stated in ITU-T's H.323 to end user services that supports user interaction. The second approach supports IETF's SIP protocol. We compare these from differing architectural perspectives, economy of network and terminal development, and propose efficient architecture models for both protocols. In their design, the main criteria were component independence, lightweight operation and portability in heterogeneous end-to-end environments. In proposed architecture, the vertical division of call signaling and streaming media control logic allows for using the components either individually or combined, depending on the level of functionality required by an application.

  12. Biometrics based authentication scheme for session initiation protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qi; Tang, Zhixiong

    2016-01-01

    Many two-factor challenge-response based session initiation protocol (SIP) has been proposed, but most of them are vulnerable to smart card stolen attacks and password guessing attacks. In this paper, we propose a novel three-factor SIP authentication scheme using biometrics, password and smart card, and utilize the pi calculus-based formal verification tool ProVerif to prove that the proposed protocol achieves security and authentication. Furthermore, our protocol is highly efficient when compared to other related protocols.

  13. Analysis of Active Methylotrophic Communities: When DNA-SIP Meets High-Throughput Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubert, Martin; Grob, Carolina; Howat, Alexandra M; Burns, Oliver J; Chen, Yin; Neufeld, Josh D; Murrell, J Colin

    2016-01-01

    Methylotrophs are microorganisms ubiquitous in the environment that can metabolize one-carbon (C1) compounds as carbon and/or energy sources. The activity of these prokaryotes impacts biogeochemical cycles within their respective habitats and can determine whether these habitats act as sources or sinks of C1 compounds. Due to the high importance of C1 compounds, not only in biogeochemical cycles, but also for climatic processes, it is vital to understand the contributions of these microorganisms to carbon cycling in different environments. One of the most challenging questions when investigating methylotrophs, but also in environmental microbiology in general, is which species contribute to the environmental processes of interest, or "who does what, where and when?" Metabolic labeling with C1 compounds substituted with (13)C, a technique called stable isotope probing, is a key method to trace carbon fluxes within methylotrophic communities. The incorporation of (13)C into the biomass of active methylotrophs leads to an increase in the molecular mass of their biomolecules. For DNA-based stable isotope probing (DNA-SIP), labeled and unlabeled DNA is separated by isopycnic ultracentrifugation. The ability to specifically analyze DNA of active methylotrophs from a complex background community by high-throughput sequencing techniques, i.e. targeted metagenomics, is the hallmark strength of DNA-SIP for elucidating ecosystem functioning, and a protocol is detailed in this chapter.

  14. Stepwise strategy to improve Cervical Cancer Screening Adherence (SCAN-CC): automated text messages, phone calls and face-to-face interviews: protocol of a population-based randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmino-Machado, João; Mendes, Romeu; Moreira, Amélia; Lunet, Nuno

    2017-10-05

    Screening is highly effective for cervical cancer prevention and control. Population-based screening programmes are widely implemented in high-income countries, although adherence is often low. In Portugal, just over half of the women adhere to cervical cancer screening, contributing for greater mortality rates than in other European countries. The most effective adherence raising strategies are based on patient reminders, small/mass media and face-to-face educational programmes, but sequential interventions targeting the general population have seldom been evaluated. The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of a stepwise approach, with increasing complexity and cost, to improve adherence to organised cervical cancer screening: step 1a-customised text message invitation; step 1b-customised automated phone call invitation; step 2-secretary phone call; step 3-family health professional phone call and face-to-face appointment. A population-based randomised controlled trial will be implemented in Portuguese urban and rural areas. Women eligible for cervical cancer screening will be randomised (1:1) to intervention and control. In the intervention group, women will be invited for screening through text messages, automated phone calls, manual phone calls and health professional appointments, to be applied sequentially to participants remaining non-adherent after each step. Control will be the standard of care (written letter). The primary outcome is the proportion of women adherent to screening after step 1 or sequences of steps from 1 to 3. The secondary outcomes are: proportion of women screened after each step (1a, 2 and 3); proportion of text messages/phone calls delivered; proportion of women previously screened in a private health institution who change to organised screening. The intervention and control groups will be compared based on intention-to-treat and per-protocol analyses. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Northern Health

  15. 'SIP', as a tool of 'Ukrytie' shelter transformation into an ecologically safe system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhadd, K.; Shmidt, D.

    1999-01-01

    The Shelter implementation plan (SIP) was used for realisation of 'Ukrytie' stabilization and for its transformation into an ecologically safe system SIP includes logic of needed actions and process of solution adaption during 'Ukrytie' transformation

  16. Lay health supporters aided by a mobile phone messaging system to improve care of villagers with schizophrenia in Liuyang, China: protocol for a randomised control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dong Roman; Gong, Wenjie; Caine, Eric D; Xiao, Shuiyuan; Hughes, James P; Ng, Marie; Simoni, Jane; He, Hua; Smith, Kirk L; Brown, Henry Shelton; Gloyd, Stephen

    2016-01-20

    Schizophrenia is a severe, chronic and disabling mental illness. Non-adherence to medication and relapse may lead to poorer patient function. This randomised controlled study, under the acronym LEAN (Lay health supporter, e-platform, award, and iNtegration), is designed to improve medication adherence and high relapse among people with schizophrenia in resource poor settings. The community-based LEAN has four parts: (1) Lay health supporters (LHSs), mostly family members who will help supervise patient medication, monitor relapse and side effects, and facilitate access to care, (2) an E-platform to support two-way mobile text and voice messaging to remind patients to take medication; and alert LHSs when patients are non-adherent, (3) an Award system to motivate patients and strengthen LHS support, and (4) iNtegration of the efforts of patients and LHSs with those of village doctors, township mental health administrators and psychiatrists via the e-platform. A random sample of 258 villagers with schizophrenia will be drawn from the schizophrenic '686' Program registry for the 9 Xiang dialect towns of the Liuyang municipality in China. The sample will be further randomised into a control group and a treatment group of equal sizes, and each group will be followed for 6 months after launch of the intervention. The primary outcome will be medication adherence as measured by pill counts and supplemented by pharmacy records. Other outcomes include symptoms and level of function. Outcomes will be assessed primarily when patients present for medication refill visits scheduled every 2 months over the 6-month follow-up period. Data from the study will be analysed using analysis of covariance for the programme effect and an intent-to-treat approach. University of Washington: 49464 G; Central South University: CTXY-150002-6. Results will be published in peer-reviewed journals with deidentified data made available on FigShare. ChiCTR-ICR-15006053; Pre-results. Published by the

  17. Lay health supporters aided by a mobile phone messaging system to improve care of villagers with schizophrenia in Liuyang, China: protocol for a randomised control trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Wenjie; Caine, Eric D; Xiao, Shuiyuan; Hughes, James P; Ng, Marie; Simoni, Jane; He, Hua; Smith, Kirk L; Brown, Henry Shelton; Gloyd, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Schizophrenia is a severe, chronic and disabling mental illness. Non-adherence to medication and relapse may lead to poorer patient function. This randomised controlled study, under the acronym LEAN (Lay health supporter, e-platform, award, and iNtegration), is designed to improve medication adherence and high relapse among people with schizophrenia in resource poor settings. Methods/analysis The community-based LEAN has four parts: (1) Lay health supporters (LHSs), mostly family members who will help supervise patient medication, monitor relapse and side effects, and facilitate access to care, (2) an E-platform to support two-way mobile text and voice messaging to remind patients to take medication; and alert LHSs when patients are non-adherent, (3) an Award system to motivate patients and strengthen LHS support, and (4) iNtegration of the efforts of patients and LHSs with those of village doctors, township mental health administrators and psychiatrists via the e-platform. A random sample of 258 villagers with schizophrenia will be drawn from the schizophrenic ‘686’ Program registry for the 9 Xiang dialect towns of the Liuyang municipality in China. The sample will be further randomised into a control group and a treatment group of equal sizes, and each group will be followed for 6 months after launch of the intervention. The primary outcome will be medication adherence as measured by pill counts and supplemented by pharmacy records. Other outcomes include symptoms and level of function. Outcomes will be assessed primarily when patients present for medication refill visits scheduled every 2 months over the 6-month follow-up period. Data from the study will be analysed using analysis of covariance for the programme effect and an intent-to-treat approach. Ethics and dissemination University of Washington: 49464 G; Central South University: CTXY-150002-6. Results will be published in peer-reviewed journals with deidentified data made available on

  18. Impact of 50% Synthesized Iso-Paraffins (SIP) on F-76 Fuel Coalescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    petroleum JP-5 and Synthesized Iso-Paraffins (SIP). SIP fuels are made from direct fermentation of sugar into olefinic hydrocarbons. The olefinic...manufactured scaled down filter/coalescer and separator to simulate the performance of a full-scale filter separator system. This test is designed to predict...5 and Synthesized Iso-Paraffins (SIP). SIP fuels are made from direct fermentation of sugar into olefinic hydrocarbons. The olefinic hydrocarbons

  19. Mixed messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Christopher B.; Hall, Kevin; Tsuyuki, Ross T.

    2014-01-01

    Background: More than 5 years ago, the Blueprint for Pharmacy developed a plan for transitioning pharmacy practice toward more patient-centred care. Much of the strategy for change involves communicating the new vision. Objective: To evaluate the communication of the Vision for Pharmacy by the organizations and corporations that signed the Blueprint for Pharmacy’s Commitment to Act. Methods: The list of 88 signatories of the Commitment to Act was obtained from the Blueprint for Pharmacy document. The website of each of these signatories was searched for all references to the Blueprint for Pharmacy or Vision for Pharmacy. Each of the identified references was then analyzed using summative content analysis. Results: A total of 934 references were identified from the webpages of the 88 signatories. Of these references, 549 were merely links to the Blueprint for Pharmacy’s website, 350 of the references provided some detailed information about the Blueprint for Pharmacy and only 35 references provided any specific plans to transition pharmacy practice. Conclusion: Widespread proliferation of the Vision for Pharmacy has not been achieved. One possible explanation for this is that communication of the vision by the signatories has been incomplete. To ensure the success of future communications, change leaders must develop strategies that consider how individual pharmacists and pharmacies understand the message. PMID:24660012

  20. Thermo-physical properties of reproducible Sip/Al composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIU Zi-yang; WU Gao-hui; SONG Mei-hui; ZHU De-zhi

    2006-01-01

    Three kinds of high volume fraction Sip/1199, Sip/4032 and Sip/4019 composites were fabricated by squeeze casting method. The results show that the clean Si/Al interfaces without interfacial reaction products can decrease the interfacial thermal resistance. The composites have a low coefficient of thermal expansion (7.5×10-6 ℃-1) and high thermal conductivity ranging from 126 to 157.9 W/(m ℃). With increasing temperature, the specific capacity and the average coefficient of thermal expansion increases monotonically, the thermal diffusivity and the thermal conductivity decrease gradually. The specific capacity, average coefficient of thermal expansion, thermal diffusivity and the thermal conductivity of the composites decrease gradually with increasing Si content.The thermal conductivities of composites were calculated by theoretical models. Both Maxwell model and P.G model consider the reinforcement as nearly-round particles, and the interface thermal resistance of Sip/Al composite calculated by EMA method is 0.01×10-6m2.℃/W

  1. A robust ECC based mutual authentication protocol with anonymity for session initiation protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmood, Zahid; Chen, Gongliang; Li, Jianhua; Li, Linsen; Alzahrani, Bander

    2017-01-01

    Over the past few years, Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is found as a substantial application-layer protocol for the multimedia services. It is extensively used for managing, altering, terminating and distributing the multimedia sessions. Authentication plays a pivotal role in SIP environment. Currently, Lu et al. presented an authentication protocol for SIP and profess that newly proposed protocol is protected against all the familiar attacks. However, the detailed analysis describes that the Lu et al.'s protocol is exposed against server masquerading attack and user's masquerading attack. Moreover, it also fails to protect the user's identity as well as it possesses incorrect login and authentication phase. In order to establish a suitable and efficient protocol, having ability to overcome all these discrepancies, a robust ECC-based novel mutual authentication mechanism with anonymity for SIP is presented in this manuscript. The improved protocol contains an explicit parameter for user to cope the issues of security and correctness and is found to be more secure and relatively effective to protect the user's privacy, user's masquerading and server masquerading as it is verified through the comprehensive formal and informal security analysis.

  2. A robust ECC based mutual authentication protocol with anonymity for session initiation protocol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahid Mehmood

    Full Text Available Over the past few years, Session Initiation Protocol (SIP is found as a substantial application-layer protocol for the multimedia services. It is extensively used for managing, altering, terminating and distributing the multimedia sessions. Authentication plays a pivotal role in SIP environment. Currently, Lu et al. presented an authentication protocol for SIP and profess that newly proposed protocol is protected against all the familiar attacks. However, the detailed analysis describes that the Lu et al.'s protocol is exposed against server masquerading attack and user's masquerading attack. Moreover, it also fails to protect the user's identity as well as it possesses incorrect login and authentication phase. In order to establish a suitable and efficient protocol, having ability to overcome all these discrepancies, a robust ECC-based novel mutual authentication mechanism with anonymity for SIP is presented in this manuscript. The improved protocol contains an explicit parameter for user to cope the issues of security and correctness and is found to be more secure and relatively effective to protect the user's privacy, user's masquerading and server masquerading as it is verified through the comprehensive formal and informal security analysis.

  3. Creep Behavior of Structural Insulated Panels (SIPS): Results from a Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwight McDonald; Marshall Begel; C. Adam Senalik; Robert Ross; Thomas D. Skaggs; Borjen Yeh; Thomas Williamson

    2014-01-01

    Structural insulated panels (SIPs) have been recognized as construction materials in the International Residential Code (IRC) since 2009. Although most SIPs are used in wall applications, they can also be used as roof or floor panels that are subjected to long-term transverse loading, for which SIP creep performance may be critical in design. However, limited...

  4. 76 FR 28437 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... Preventive Services for Older Adults SIP11-045, and Measuring Impact of Multi-Component Interventions to Prevent Older Adult Falls and Assessing Sustainability and Scalability, SIP 11-046, Panel D,'' initial... SIP11-045, and Measuring Impact of Multi- Component Interventions to Prevent Older Adult Falls and...

  5. 78 FR 21281 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Missouri; Infrastructure SIP...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... existing SIP provisions for this purpose. Instead, EPA is only evaluating whether the state's SIP has basic...) requires SIPs to include provisions to provide for establishment and operation of ambient air quality..., restaurants, etc. triggering GHG PSD requirements. On December 23, 2010, EPA promulgated a subsequent series...

  6. Simple Peer-to-Peer SIP Privacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskela, Joakim; Tarkoma, Sasu

    In this paper, we introduce a model for enhancing privacy in peer-to-peer communication systems. The model is based on data obfuscation, preventing intermediate nodes from tracking calls, while still utilizing the shared resources of the peer network. This increases security when moving between untrusted, limited and ad-hoc networks, when the user is forced to rely on peer-to-peer schemes. The model is evaluated using a Host Identity Protocol-based prototype on mobile devices, and is found to provide good privacy, especially when combined with a source address hiding scheme. The contribution of this paper is to present the model and results obtained from its use, including usability considerations.

  7. I-TNT: PHONE NUMBER EXPANSION AND TRANSLATION SYSTEM FOR MANAGING INTERCONNECTIVITY ADDRESSING IN SIP PEERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. KHUDHER

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Voice over IP (VoIP subscribers is growing vastly in the recent years due to the ever increase in smartphones, 3G, WiFi, etc. This growth leads the VoIP service providers to peer with each other through Session Initiation Protocol (SIP peering for low/free cost of voice communication. Naturally, this growth is not without challenges, especially in phone addressing. This paper proposes an I-TNT (Infrastructure-Phone Number Translation numbering system to expand the range of the existing E.164 numbers and mapping between private and public number at the edge of the signalling path. As a result, I-TNT numbering system is successfully implemented and able to allocate the expanded phone numbers to end-users in one service provider.

  8. Testing feedback message framing and comparators to address prescribing of high-risk medications in nursing homes: protocol for a pragmatic, factorial, cluster-randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivers, Noah M; Desveaux, Laura; Presseau, Justin; Reis, Catherine; Witteman, Holly O; Taljaard, Monica K; McCleary, Nicola; Thavorn, Kednapa; Grimshaw, Jeremy M

    2017-07-14

    Audit and feedback (AF) interventions that leverage routine administrative data offer a scalable and relatively low-cost method to improve processes of care. AF interventions are usually designed to highlight discrepancies between desired and actual performance and to encourage recipients to act to address such discrepancies. Comparing to a regional average is a common approach, but more recipients would have a discrepancy if compared to a higher-than-average level of performance. In addition, how recipients perceive and respond to discrepancies may depend on how the feedback itself is framed. We aim to evaluate the effectiveness of different comparators and framing in feedback on high-risk prescribing in nursing homes. This is a pragmatic, 2 × 2 factorial, cluster-randomized controlled trial testing variations in the comparator and framing on the effectiveness of quarterly AF in changing high-risk prescribing in nursing homes in Ontario, Canada. We grouped homes that share physicians into clusters and randomized these clusters into the four experimental conditions. Outcomes will be assessed after 6 months; all primary analyses will be by intention-to-treat. The primary outcome (monthly number of high-risk medications received by each patient) will be analysed using a general linear mixed effects regression model. We will present both four-arm and factorial analyses. With 160 clusters and an average of 350 beds per cluster, assuming no interaction and similar effects for each intervention, we anticipate 90% power to detect an absolute mean difference of 0.3 high-risk medications prescribed. A mixed-methods process evaluation will explore potential mechanisms underlying the observed effects, exploring targeted constructs including intention, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, descriptive norms, and goal prioritization. An economic analysis will examine cost-effectiveness analysis from the perspective of the publicly funded health care system. This protocol

  9. Safety message broadcast in vehicular networks

    CERN Document Server

    Bi, Yuanguo; Zhuang, Weihua; Zhao, Hai

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the current research on safety message dissemination in vehicular networks, covering medium access control and relay selection for multi-hop safety message broadcast. Along with an overall overview of the architecture, characteristics, and applications of vehicular networks, the authors discuss the challenging issues in the research on performance improvement for safety applications, and provide a comprehensive review of the research literature. A cross layer broadcast protocol is included to support efficient safety message broadcast by jointly considering geographical location, physical-layer channel condition, and moving velocity of vehicles in the highway scenario. To further support multi-hop safety message broadcast in a complex road layout, the authors propose an urban multi-hop broadcast protocol that utilizes a novel forwarding node selection scheme. Additionally, a busy tone based medium access control scheme is designed to provide strict priority to safety applications in vehicle...

  10. Asynchronous Message Service Reference Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleigh, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    This software provides a library of middleware functions with a simple application programming interface, enabling implementation of distributed applications in conformance with the CCSDS AMS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems Asynchronous Message Service) specification. The AMS service, and its protocols, implement an architectural concept under which the modules of mission systems may be designed as if they were to operate in isolation, each one producing and consuming mission information without explicit awareness of which other modules are currently operating. Communication relationships among such modules are self-configuring; this tends to minimize complexity in the development and operations of modular data systems. A system built on this model is a society of generally autonomous, inter-operating modules that may fluctuate freely over time in response to changing mission objectives, modules functional upgrades, and recovery from individual module failure. The purpose of AMS, then, is to reduce mission cost and risk by providing standard, reusable infrastructure for the exchange of information among data system modules in a manner that is simple to use, highly automated, flexible, robust, scalable, and efficient. The implementation is designed to spawn multiple threads of AMS functionality under the control of an AMS application program. These threads enable all members of an AMS-based, distributed application to discover one another in real time, subscribe to messages on specific topics, and to publish messages on specific topics. The query/reply (client/server) communication model is also supported. Message exchange is optionally subject to encryption (to support confidentiality) and authorization. Fault tolerance measures in the discovery protocol minimize the likelihood of overall application failure due to any single operational error anywhere in the system. The multi-threaded design simplifies processing while enabling application nodes to

  11. Spectral induced polarization (SIP) response of mine tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placencia-Gómez, Edmundo; Parviainen, Annika; Slater, Lee; Leveinen, Jussi

    2015-02-01

    Mine tailings impoundments are a source of leachates known as acid mine drainage (AMD) which can pose a contamination risk for surrounding surface and groundwater. Methodologies which can help management of this environmental issue are needed. We carried out a laboratory study of the spectral induced polarization (SIP) response of tailings from the Haveri Au-Cu mine, SW Finland. The primary objectives were, (1) to determine possible correlations between SIP parameters and textural properties associated with oxidative-weathering mechanisms, mineralogical composition and metallic content, and (2) to evaluate the effects of the pore water chemistry on SIP parameters associated with redox-inactive and redox-active electrolytes varying in molar concentration, conductivity and pH. The Haveri tailings exhibit well defined relaxation spectra between 100 and 10,000Hz. The relaxation magnitudes are governed by the in-situ oxidative-weathering conditions on sulphide mineral surfaces contained in the tailings, and decrease with the oxidation degree. The oxidation-driven textural variation in the tailings results in changes to the frequency peak of the phase angle, the imaginary conductivity and chargeability, when plotted versus the pore water conductivity. In contrast, the real and the formation electrical conductivity components show a single linear dependence on the pore water conductivity. The increase of the pore water conductivity (dominated by the increase of ions concentration in solution) along with a transition to acidic conditions shifts the polarization peak towards higher frequencies. These findings show the unique sensitivity of the SIP method to potentially discriminate AMD discharges from reactive oxidation zones in tailings, suggesting a significant advantage for monitoring threatened aquifers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Telescope sipping the optimum fuel leak detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deleryd, R.

    1998-01-01

    The TELESCOPE Sipping technology is an evolutionary development from previous ABB fuel leak systems used in LWR reactors. The system utilizes the existing dynamics that cause numerous fission products to leak from a failed fuel rod when the fuel assembly is raised from a reactor core during core fuel alterations. The system can also be used by repair work in pool side inspection in order to detect leaking rods or to verify reconstituted assemblies as non leakers. (author)

  13. SIP-FS: a novel feature selection for data representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiyou Guo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Multiple features are widely used to characterize real-world datasets. It is desirable to select leading features with stability and interpretability from a set of distinct features for a comprehensive data description. However, most of existing feature selection methods focus on the predictability (e.g., prediction accuracy of selected results yet neglect stability. To obtain compact data representation, a novel feature selection method is proposed to improve stability, and interpretability without sacrificing predictability (SIP-FS. Instead of mutual information, generalized correlation is adopted in minimal redundancy maximal relevance to measure the relation between different feature types. Several feature types (each contains a certain number of features can then be selected and evaluated quantitatively to determine what types contribute to a specific class, thereby enhancing the so-called interpretability of features. Moreover, stability is introduced in the criterion of SIP-FS to obtain consistent results of ranking. We conduct experiments on three publicly available datasets using one-versus-all strategy to select class-specific features. The experiments illustrate that SIP-FS achieves significant performance improvements in terms of stability and interpretability with desirable prediction accuracy and indicates advantages over several state-of-the-art approaches.

  14. Comparison of artificial intelligence classifiers for SIP attack data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarik, Jakub; Slachta, Jiri

    2016-05-01

    Honeypot application is a source of valuable data about attacks on the network. We run several SIP honeypots in various computer networks, which are separated geographically and logically. Each honeypot runs on public IP address and uses standard SIP PBX ports. All information gathered via honeypot is periodically sent to the centralized server. This server classifies all attack data by neural network algorithm. The paper describes optimizations of a neural network classifier, which lower the classification error. The article contains the comparison of two neural network algorithm used for the classification of validation data. The first is the original implementation of the neural network described in recent work; the second neural network uses further optimizations like input normalization or cross-entropy cost function. We also use other implementations of neural networks and machine learning classification algorithms. The comparison test their capabilities on validation data to find the optimal classifier. The article result shows promise for further development of an accurate SIP attack classification engine.

  15. Cryptographic Protocols:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler, Martin Joakim Bittel

    cryptography was thus concerned with message confidentiality and integrity. Modern cryptography cover a much wider range of subjects including the area of secure multiparty computation, which will be the main topic of this dissertation. Our first contribution is a new protocol for secure comparison, presented...... implemented the comparison protocol in Java and benchmarks show that is it highly competitive and practical. The biggest contribution of this dissertation is a general framework for secure multiparty computation. Instead of making new ad hoc implementations for each protocol, we want a single and extensible...... in Chapter 2. Comparisons play a key role in many systems such as online auctions and benchmarks — it is not unreasonable to say that when parties come together for a multiparty computation, it is because they want to make decisions that depend on private information. Decisions depend on comparisons. We have...

  16. A Mechanically Proved and an Incremental Development of the Session Initiation Protocol INVITE Transaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajaa Filali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP is an application layer signaling protocol used to create, manage, and terminate sessions in an IP based network. SIP is considered as a transactional protocol. There are two main SIP transactions, the INVITE transaction and the non-INVITE transaction. The SIP INVITE transaction specification is described in an informal way in Request for Comments (RFC 3261 and modified in RFC 6026. In this paper we focus on the INVITE transaction of SIP, over reliable and unreliable transport mediums, which is used to initiate a session. In order to ensure the correctness of SIP, the INVITE transaction is modeled and verified using event-B method and its Rodin platform. The Event-B refinement concept allows an incremental development by defining the studied system at different levels of abstraction, and Rodin discharges almost all proof obligations at each level. This interaction between modeling and proving reduces the complexity and helps in assuring that the INVITE transaction SIP specification is correct, unambiguous, and easy to understand.

  17. Robust and Efficient Authentication Scheme for Session Initiation Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanrong Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The session initiation protocol (SIP is a powerful application-layer protocol which is used as a signaling one for establishing, modifying, and terminating sessions among participants. Authentication is becoming an increasingly crucial issue when a user asks to access SIP services. Hitherto, many authentication schemes have been proposed to enhance the security of SIP. In 2014, Arshad and Nikooghadam proposed an enhanced authentication and key agreement scheme for SIP and claimed that their scheme could withstand various attacks. However, in this paper, we show that Arshad and Nikooghadam’s authentication scheme is still susceptible to key-compromise impersonation and trace attacks and does not provide proper mutual authentication. To conquer the flaws, we propose a secure and efficient ECC-based authentication scheme for SIP. Through the informal and formal security analyses, we demonstrate that our scheme is resilient to possible known attacks including the attacks found in Arshad et al.’s scheme. In addition, the performance analysis shows that our scheme has similar or better efficiency in comparison with other existing ECC-based authentication schemes for SIP.

  18. EMI Messaging Guidelines

    CERN Document Server

    Cons, L.

    2011-01-01

    Guidelines for potential users of messaging within EMI. The goal is to provide enough practical information so that EMI product teams can start investigating whether using messaging in their products can be beneficial or not.

  19. A combined wet/dry sipping cell for investigating failed triga fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeck, H.; Gallhammer, H.; Hammer, J.; Israr, M.

    1987-08-01

    A sipping cell to detect failed triga fuel has been designed and constructed at the Atominstitut. The cell allows both wet- and dry sipping of one single standard triga fuel element. In the dry sipping method the fuel element may be electrically heated up to a maximum temperature of about 300 0 C to allow the detection of temperature dependent fission product release from the fuel element. 20 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  20. An Interpersonal Approach to Writing Negative Messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Douglas

    1988-01-01

    Asserts that textbook advice regarding buffers and negative messages is simplistic and frequently wrong, and analyses 22 job-refusal letters and their effectiveness. Claims that recent research on cognitive complexity and social perspective-taking suggests the need for more sophisticated audience analysis protocols for dealing with the negative…

  1. The strategy of the shelter implementation plan (SIP) performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geras'ko, V.N.; Nosovskij, A.V.

    1999-01-01

    In 1997 the 'Shelter Implementation Plan' (SIP) was developed it's purpose was to transform Unit 4 of the Chernobyl NPP into the ecologically safe system. The Plan was developed by common efforts of the Ukrainian scientists, CES representatives and experts from the United States of America. The fact that there are no nuclear and radiation safety criteria for the projects will result into the situation when different designers might use within the various project tasks various design criteria. Till now o exact date for the constructions stabilization activities has been defined, and it creates a kind of on definiteness while developing the Radioactive Waste Management strategy and Safe Confinement

  2. Scaling of ion implanted Si:P single electron devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escott, C C; Hudson, F E; Chan, V C; Petersson, K D; Clark, R G; Dzurak, A S

    2007-01-01

    We present a modelling study on the scaling prospects for phosphorus in silicon (Si:P) single electron devices using readily available commercial and free-to-use software. The devices comprise phosphorus ion implanted, metallically doped (n + ) dots (size range 50-500 nm) with source and drain reservoirs. Modelling results are compared to measurements on fabricated devices and discussed in the context of scaling down to few-electron structures. Given current fabrication constraints, we find that devices with 70-75 donors per dot should be realizable. We comment on methods for further reducing this number

  3. Sipping test on a failed MTR fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terremoto, Luis Antonio Albiac; Zeituni, Carlos Alberto; Silva, Antonio Teixeira e; Perrotta, Jose Augusto; Silva, Jose Eduardo Rosa da

    2002-01-01

    This work describes sipping tests performed on MTR fuel elements of the IEA-R1 research reactor, in order to determinate which one failed in the core during a routine operation of the reactor. radioactive iodine isotopes 131 I and 133 I, employed as failure indicators, were detected in samples corresponding to the fuel element IEA-156. The specific activity of each sample, as well as the average leaking rate, were measured for 137 Cs. The nuclear fuels U 3 O 8 - Al dispersion and U - Al alloy were compared concerning their measured average leaking rates of 137 Cs. (author)

  4. Scaling of ion implanted Si:P single electron devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escott, C C [Centre for Quantum Computer Technology, School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, UNSW, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Hudson, F E [Centre for Quantum Computer Technology, School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, UNSW, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Chan, V C [Centre for Quantum Computer Technology, School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, UNSW, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Petersson, K D [Centre for Quantum Computer Technology, School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, UNSW, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Clark, R G [Centre for Quantum Computer Technology, School of Physics, UNSW, Sydney, 2052 (Australia); Dzurak, A S [Centre for Quantum Computer Technology, School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, UNSW, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2007-06-13

    We present a modelling study on the scaling prospects for phosphorus in silicon (Si:P) single electron devices using readily available commercial and free-to-use software. The devices comprise phosphorus ion implanted, metallically doped (n{sup +}) dots (size range 50-500 nm) with source and drain reservoirs. Modelling results are compared to measurements on fabricated devices and discussed in the context of scaling down to few-electron structures. Given current fabrication constraints, we find that devices with 70-75 donors per dot should be realizable. We comment on methods for further reducing this number.

  5. {sup 124}I-L19-SIP for immuno-PET imaging of tumour vasculature and guidance of {sup 131}I-L19-SIP radioimmunotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tijink, Bernard M.; Perk, Lars R.; Budde, Marianne; Stigter-van Walsum, Marijke; Leemans, C.R. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Visser, Gerard W.M.; Kloet, Reina W. [VU University Medical Center, Nuclear Medicine and PET Research, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Dinkelborg, Ludger M. [Bayer Schering Pharma AG, Global Drug Discovery, Berlin (Germany); Neri, Dario [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zurich (Switzerland); Dongen, Guus A.M.S. van [VU University Medical Center, Department of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Center, Nuclear Medicine and PET Research, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-08-15

    The human monoclonal antibody (MAb) fragment L19-SIP is directed against extra domain B (ED-B) of fibronectin, a marker of tumour angiogenesis. A clinical radioimmunotherapy (RIT) trial with {sup 131}I-L19-SIP was recently started. In the present study, after GMP production of {sup 124}I and efficient production of {sup 124}I-L19-SIP, we aimed to demonstrate the suitability of {sup 124}I-L19-SIP immuno-PET for imaging of angiogenesis at early-stage tumour development and as a scouting procedure prior to clinical {sup 131}I-L19-SIP RIT. {sup 124}I was produced in a GMP compliant way via {sup 124}Te(p,n){sup 124}I reaction and using a TERIMO trademark module for radioiodine separation. L19-SIP was radioiodinated by using a modified version of the IODO-GEN method. The biodistribution of coinjected {sup 124}I- and {sup 131}I-L19-SIP was compared in FaDu xenograft-bearing nude mice, while {sup 124}I PET images were obtained from mice with tumours of <50 to {proportional_to}700 mm{sup 3}. {sup 124}I was produced highly pure with an average yield of 15.4 {+-} 0.5 MBq/{mu}Ah, while separation yield was {proportional_to}90% efficient with <0.5% loss of TeO{sub 2}. Overall labelling efficiency, radiochemical purity and immunoreactive fraction were for {sup 124}I-L19-SIP: {proportional_to}80, 99.9 and >90%, respectively. Tumour uptake was 7.3{+-}2.1, 10.8{+-}1.5, 7.8{+-}1.4, 5.3{+-}0.6 and 3.1{+-}0.4%ID/g at 3, 6, 24, 48 and 72 h p.i., resulting in increased tumour to blood ratios ranging from 6.0 at 24 h to 45.9 at 72 h p.i. Fully concordant labelling and biodistribution results were obtained with {sup 124}I- and {sup 131}I-L19-SIP. Immuno-PET with {sup 124}I-L19-SIP using a high-resolution research tomograph PET scanner revealed clear delineation of the tumours as small as 50 mm{sup 3} and no adverse uptake in other organs. {sup 124}I-MAb conjugates for clinical immuno-PET can be efficiently produced. Immuno-PET with {sup 124}I-L19-SIP appeared qualified for sensitive

  6. Mobile P2P Web Services Using SIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Gehlen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Telecommunication networks and the Internet are growing together. Peer-to-Peer (P2P services which are originally offered by network providers, like telephony and messaging, are provided through VoIP and Instant Messaging (IM by Internet service providers, too. The IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS is the answer of the telecommunication industry to this trend and aims at providing Internet P2P and multimedia services controlled by the network operators. The IMS provides mobility and session management as well as message routing, security, and billing.

  7. Louisiana SIP: LAC 33:III Ch 21 Subchap J, 2147--Limiting Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions from Reactor Processes and Distillation Operations in Synthetic Organic Chemical manufacturing Industry (SOCMI); SIP effective 1998-02-02 (LAc74) to more..

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisiana SIP: LAC 33:III Ch 21 Subchap J, 2147--Limiting Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions from Reactor Processes and Distillation Operations in Synthetic Organic Chemical manufacturing Industry (SOCMI); SIP effective 1998-02-02 (LAc74) more...

  8. Louisiana SIP: LAC 33:III Ch 2147. Limiting Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions from Reactor Processes and Distillation Operations in Synthetic Organic Chemical manufacturing Industry (SOCMI); SIP effective 2011-08-04 (LAd34) to 2017-09-27

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisiana SIP: LAC 33:III Ch 2147. Limiting Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions from Reactor Processes and Distillation Operations in Synthetic Organic Chemical manufacturing Industry (SOCMI); SIP effective 2011-08-04 (LAd34) to 2017-09-27

  9. Cooperation of technical support organizations of state nuclear regulatory committee of Ukraine in sip safety regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bikov, V.O.; Kyilochits'ka, T.P.; Bogorins'kij, P.; Vasil'chenko, V.M.; Kondrat'jev, S.M.; Smishlyajeva, S.P.; Troter, D.

    2002-01-01

    The main task of the technical support in the Shelter Implementation Plan (SIP) licensing process consists in Technical Evaluation of SIP projects and documents submitted by the Licensee to State Nuclear Regulatory Committee to substantiate the safety of Shelter-related work. The goal of this task is to evaluate the submitted materials whether they meet the requirements of nuclear and radiation safety

  10. SIP Shear Walls: Cyclic Performance of High-Aspect-Ratio Segments and Perforated Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimir Kochkin; Douglas R. Rammer; Kevin Kauffman; Thomas Wiliamson; Robert J. Ross

    2015-01-01

    Increasing stringency of energy codes and the growing market demand for more energy efficient buildings gives structural insulated panel (SIP) construction an opportunity to increase its use in commercial and residential buildings. However, shear wall aspect ratio limitations and lack of knowledge on how to design SIPs with window and door openings are barriers to the...

  11. CacyBP/SIP promotes the proliferation of colon cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huihong Zhai

    Full Text Available CacyBP/SIP is a component of the ubiquitin pathway and is overexpressed in several transformed tumor tissues, including colon cancer, which is one of the most common cancers worldwide. It is unknown whether CacyBP/SIP promotes the proliferation of colon cancer cells. This study examined the expression level, subcellular localization, and binding activity of CacyBP/SIP in human colon cancer cells in the presence and absence of the hormone gastrin. We found that CacyBP/SIP was expressed in a high percentage of colon cancer cells, but not in normal colonic surface epithelium. CacyBP/SIP promoted the cell proliferation of colon cancer cells under both basal and gastrin stimulated conditions as shown by knockdown studies. Gastrin stimulation triggered the translocation of CacyBP/SIP to the nucleus, and enhanced interaction between CacyBP/SIP and SKP1, a key component of ubiquitination pathway which further mediated the proteasome-dependent degradation of p27kip1 protein. The gastrin induced reduction in p27kip1 was prevented when cells were treated with the proteasome inhibitor MG132. These results suggest that CacyBP/SIP may be promoting growth of colon cancer cells by enhancing ubiquitin-mediated degradation of p27kip1.

  12. Gest-sip1 experiments and post-test calculations with the relap5 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achilli, A.; Cattadori, G.; Ferri, R.; Gandolfi, S.; Bianchi, F.; Meloni, P.

    2001-01-01

    The SIP-1 apparatus (Sistema di Iniezione Passiva) was conceived, designed, numerically simulated and tested by the SIET company as an innovative depressurization and make-up device for the New Generation LWRs. In particular it is suitable to cope with those accidents where pressure in the circuit must be dumped to allow low pressure injection systems to intervene. The main peculiarity of SIP-1 is the capability of de-pressurizing a system by cold water injection, rather than by discharging mass to the outlet, as in the common depressurization systems. ENEA sponsored all the research activity, starting from the SIP-1 design, its numerical simulation with the Relap5 code, the realisation of an experimental facility up to the test execution and post-test calculations. An experimental campaign on the GEST-SIP1 facility was performed in July 2000. The facility is mainly constituted by a U-tube Steam Generator which a proper model of SIP-1 apparatus is connected to. A series of Small Break LOCAs was simulated by varying the break size and different steady conditions were investigated to verify the stability of SIP-1, the lack of unexpected interventions and the actuation modalities. This paper deals with the description of the GEST-SIP1 experimental facility, the SIP-1 operating principles, the most meaningful results of the tests and the capability of the Relap5 code in reproducing phenomena and events. (author)

  13. 77 FR 31358 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... announced below concerns Research to Enhance Community- Based Fall Prevention among Older Adults, SIP12-058, and Developing a Compendium of Measures and Questions to Assess Mobility: A Focus on Older Adult... Older Adults, SIP12-058, and Developing a Compendium of Measures and Questions to Assess Mobility: A...

  14. Overexpressed CacyBP/SIP leads to the suppression of growth in renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Shiren; Ning, Xiaoxuan; Liu, Jie; Liu, Lili; Chen, Yu; Han, Shuang; Zhang, Yanqi; Liang, Jie; Wu, Kaichun; Fan, Daiming

    2007-01-01

    Calcyclin-binding protein/Siah-1-interacting protein (CacyBP/SIP), a target protein of S100, has been identified as a component of a novel ubiquitinylation complex leading to β-catenin degradation, which was found to be related to the malignant phenotypes of gastric cancer. However, the roles of CacyBP/SIP in renal cell carcinoma still remain unclear. In the present study, we had analyzed the expression of the CacyBP/SIP protein in human renal cancer cells and clinical tissue samples. The possible roles of CacyBP/SIP in regulating the malignant phenotype of renal cancer cells were also investigated. The results demonstrated that the expression of CacyBP/SIP was markedly down-regulated in renal cell carcinoma tissues and cell lines. Ectopic overexpression of CacyBP/SIP in A498 cells inhibited the proliferation of this cell and delayed cell cycle progression significantly, which might be related to the down-regulation of Cyclin D1 through reducing β-catenin protein. CacyBP/SIP also suppressed colony formation in soft agar and its tumorigenicity in nude mice. Taken together, our work showed that CacyBP/SIP, as a novel down-regulated gene in renal cell carcinoma, suppressed proliferation and tumorigenesis of renal cancer cells

  15. 76 FR 28437 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Project (SIP): Initial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Project (SIP): Initial Review The meeting... Disease or Treated by Assisted Reproductive Technology, SIP11-048, Panel F,'' initial review In accordance...

  16. A methodology of SiP testing based on boundary scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, He; Quan, Haiyang; Han, Yifei; Zhu, Tianrui; Zheng, Tuo

    2017-10-01

    System in Package (SiP) play an important role in portable, aerospace and military electronic with the microminiaturization, light weight, high density, and high reliability. At present, SiP system test has encountered the problem on system complexity and malfunction location with the system scale exponentially increase. For SiP system, this paper proposed a testing methodology and testing process based on the boundary scan technology. Combining the character of SiP system and referencing the boundary scan theory of PCB circuit and embedded core test, the specific testing methodology and process has been proposed. The hardware requirement of the under test SiP system has been provided, and the hardware platform of the testing has been constructed. The testing methodology has the character of high test efficiency and accurate malfunction location.

  17. Texting for Health: The Use of Participatory Methods to Develop Healthy Lifestyle Messages for Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hingle, Melanie; Nichter, Mimi; Medeiros, Melanie; Grace, Samantha

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To develop and test messages and a mobile phone delivery protocol designed to influence the nutrition and physical activity knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of adolescents. Design: Nine focus groups, 4 classroom discussions, and an 8-week pilot study exploring message content, format, origin, and message delivery were conducted over…

  18. Synchronous message-based communication for distributed heterogeneous systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, N.; Dohan, D.

    1992-01-01

    The use of a synchronous, message-based real-time operating system (Unison) as the basis of transparent interprocess and inter-processor communication over VME-bus is described. The implementation of a synchronous, message-based protocol for network communication between heterogeneous systems is discussed. In particular, the design and implementation of a message-based session layer over a virtual circuit transport layer protocol using UDP/IP is described. Inter-process communication is achieved via a message-based semantic which is portable by virtue of its ease of implementation in other operating system environments. Protocol performance for network communication among heterogeneous architecture is presented, including VMS, Unix, Mach and Unison. (author)

  19. Problems of radiation protection during SIP implementation on the Shelter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogorad, V.I.; Litvinskaya, T.V.; Nikonov, D.A.

    2001-01-01

    One of the most urgent problems for today, during the SIP plans implementation of the Shelter transformation, is personnel radiation safety. The first of them assumes that a worker can be exposed to permitted annual dose during a short period of time with subsequent withdrawal of the person from radiation-hazardous activities. The second approach is based on the determination of derived dose limits that would provide for non-excess of the main limits on the assumption that a person is involved in radiation-hazardous work during the whole year. Radiation protection during practical activity should be formed on the basis of optimization principle. The optimization, in this case, implies that activities in the fields of ionizing radiation should be planned and performed in such way that, during their performance, the levels of individual doses and/or the quantity of exposed persons be as low as possible with taking into account the economic and social factors

  20. Auctioning Bulk Mobile Messages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Meij (Simon); L-F. Pau (Louis-François); H.W.G.M. van Heck (Eric)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe search for enablers of continued growth of SMS traffic, as well as the take-off of the more diversified MMS message contents, open up for enterprises the potential of bulk use of mobile messaging , instead of essentially one-by-one use. In parallel, such enterprises or value added

  1. DIRECTIONAL OPPORTUNISTIC MECHANISM IN CLUSTER MESSAGE CRITICALITY LEVEL BASED ZIGBEE ROUTING

    OpenAIRE

    B.Rajeshkanna *1, Dr.M.Anitha 2

    2018-01-01

    The cluster message criticality level based zigbee routing(CMCLZOR) has been proposed for routing the cluster messages in wireless smart energy home area networks. It employs zigbee opportunistic shortcut tree routing(ZOSTR) and AODV individually for routing normal messages and highly critical messages respectively. ZOSTR allows the receiving nodes to compete for forwarding a packet with the priority of left-over hops rather than stating single next hop node like unicast protocols. Since it h...

  2. Covert Channel Pada Aliran Data Websocket untuk Komunikasi Messaging XMPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoga Dwitya Pramudita

    2015-07-01

    Abstract Instant Messaging communication services provide a variety of communication features that can be used by the user, such as text messaging (text messages both online and offline. One of the standard protocol that supports this service is XMPP (Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol. XMPP communication using XML documents, making it vulnerable to passive attacks monitoring content of  communications. To overcome this drawback the solution is encrypted communications. The other solutions that try to offer in this research is the use of a covert channel to send hidden messages. In this research will create a browser based XMPP client application that is capable to deliver XMPP communication and also provide covert channel communication. XMPP communication can be built on a web-based application using WebSocket protocol. This protocol will exploit field masking-key to load the covert channel messages that is sent during the session XMPP communication takes place. From the test results, the client application is able to produce a covert channel communication with a data width of 3 bytes in each packet. The client application is also able to perform covert communication channel in a communication link with the condition of the probability of packet loss rate below 10%.   Keywords— WebSocket, XMPP, masking-key, Covert Channel, browser based application.

  3. The effectiveness of quantum operations for eavesdropping on sealed messages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopata, Paul A; Bahder, Thomas B

    2007-01-01

    A quantum protocol is described which enables a user to send sealed messages and that allows for the detection of active eavesdroppers. We examine a class of eavesdropping strategies, those that make use of quantum operations, and we determine the information gain versus disturbance caused by these strategies. We demonstrate this tradeoff with an example and we compare this protocol to quantum key distribution, quantum direct communication, and quantum seal protocols

  4. 'MATRI-SUMAN' a capacity building and text messaging intervention to enhance maternal and child health service utilization among pregnant women from rural Nepal: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jitendra Kumar; Kadel, Rajendra; Acharya, Dilaram; Lombard, Daniel; Khanal, Saval; Singh, Shri Prakash

    2018-06-14

    Capacity development of health volunteers and text messaging to pregnant women through mobile phones have shown improved maternal and child health (MCH) outcomes and is associated with increased utilisation of MCH services. However, such interventions are uncommon in Nepal. We aim to carry out an intervention with the hypothesis that capacity building and text messaging intervention will increase the MCH service utilisation. MATRI-SUMAN is a 12-month cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT). The trial involves pregnant women from 52 clusters of six village development committees (VDCs) covering 66,000 populations of Dhanusha district of Nepal. In the intervention clusters, Female Community Health Volunteers (FCHVs) will receive capacity development skills through reinforcement training, supervision and monitoring skills for the promotion of health seeking behaviour among pregnant women and study participants will receive periodic promotional text messaging service about MCH components through mobile phones. A sample of 354with equal numbers in each study arm is estimated using power calculation formula. The primary outcomes of this study are the rate of utilization of skilled birth attendants and consumption of a specified diversified meal. The secondary outcomes are: four antenatal (ANC) visits, weight gain of women during pregnancy, delivery of a baby at the health facility, postnatal care (PNC) visits, positive changes in child feeding practices among mothers, performance of FCHVs in MCH service utilization. The intervention is designed to enhance the capacity of health volunteers for the promotion of health seeking behaviour among pregnant women and text messaging through a mobile phone to expecting mothers to increase MCH service utilization. The trial if proven effective will have policy implications in poor resource settings. ISRCTN60684155, ( https://doi.org/10.1186/ISRCTN60684155 ). The trial was registered retrospectively.

  5. Spectral induced polarization (SIP) measurement of NAPL contaminated soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, N.; Huisman, J. A.; Furman, A.

    2010-12-01

    The potential applicability of spectral induce polarization (SIP) as a tool to map NAPLs (non aqueous phase liquids) contaminants at the subsurface lead researchers to investigate the electric signature of those contaminant on the spectral response. However, and despite the cumulative efforts, the effect of NAPL on the electrical properties of soil, and the mechanisms that control this effect are largely unknown. In this work a novel experiment is designed to further examine the effect of NAPL on the electrical properties of partially saturated soil. The measurement system that used is the ZEL-SIP04 impedance meter developed at the Forschungszentrum Julich, Germany. The system accurately (nominal phase precision of 0.1 mrad below 1 kHz) measures the phase and the amplitude of a material possessing a very low polarization (such as soil). The sample holder has a dimension of 60 cm long and 4.6 cm in diameter. Current and potential electrodes were made of brass, and while the current electrodes were inserted in full into the soil, the contact between the potential electrode and the soil was made through an Agarose bridge. Two types of soils were used: clean quartz sand, and a mixture of sand with clean Bentonite. Each soil (sandy or clayey) was mixed with water to get saturation degree of 30%. Following the mixture with water, NAPL was added and the composite were mixed again. Packing was done by adding and compressing small portions of the soil to the column. A triplicate of each mixture was made with a good reproducible bulk density. Both for the sandy and clayey soils, the results indicate that additions of NAPL decrease the real part of the complex resistivity. Additionally, for the sandy soil this process is time depended, and that a further decrease in resistivity develops over time. The results are analyzed considering geometrical factors: while the NAPL is electrically insulator, addition of NAPL to the soil is expected to increase the connectivity of the

  6. Pumping characteristics of sputter ion pump (SIP) and titanium sublimation pump (TSP) combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratnakala, K.C.; Patel, R.J.; Bhavsar, S.T.; Pandiyar, M.L.; Ramamurthi, S.S.

    1995-01-01

    For achieving hydrocarbon free, clean ultra high vacuum, SIP-TSP combination is one of the ideal choice for pumping. For the SRS facility in Centre for Advanced Technology (CAT), we are utilising this combination, enmass. For this purpose, two modules of these combination set-ups are assembled, one with the TSP as an integral part of SIP and the other, with TSP as a separate pump mounted on the top of SIP. The pump bodies were vacuum degassed at 700 degC at 10 -5 mbar for 3 hrs. An ultimate vacuum of 3 x 10 -11 mbar was achieved, after a bake-out at 250 degC for 4 hrs, followed by continuous SIP pumping for 48 hrs, with two TSP flashing at approximately 10 hrs interval. The pump-down patterns as well as the pressure-rise patterns are studied. (author). 2 refs., 5 figs

  7. 78 FR 68005 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Mississippi; Transportation Conformity SIP...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ...] Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Mississippi; Transportation Conformity SIP--Memorandum... transportation conformity criteria and procedures related to interagency consultation and enforceability of... conformity process to allow direct consultation among agencies at the Federal, state and local levels. This...

  8. DoS attacks targeting SIP server and improvements of robustness

    OpenAIRE

    Vozňák, Miroslav; Šafařík, Jakub

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes the vulnerability of SIP servers to DoS attacks and methods for server protection. For each attack, this paper describes their impact on a SIP server, evaluation of the threat and the way in which they are executed. Attacks are described in detail, and a security precaution is made to prevent each of them. The proposed solution of the protection is based on a specific topology of an intrusion protection systems components consisting of a combination of...

  9. JACoW SIP4C/C++ at CERN - Status and lessons learned

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Steen; Dworak, Andrzej; Gourber-Pace, Marine; Hoguin, Frederic; Lauener, Joel; Locci, Frank; Sigerud, Katarina; Sliwinski, Wojciech

    2018-01-01

    After 4 years of promoting the Software Improvement Process for C/C++ (SIP4C/C++) initiative at CERN, we describe the current status for tools and procedures along with how they have been integrated into our environment. Based on feedback from four project teams, we present reasons for and against their adoption. Finally, we show how SIP4C/C++ has improved development and delivery processes as well as the first-line support of delivered products.

  10. Future-based Static Analysis of Message Passing Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wytse Oortwijn

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Message passing is widely used in industry to develop programs consisting of several distributed communicating components. Developing functionally correct message passing software is very challenging due to the concurrent nature of message exchanges. Nonetheless, many safety-critical applications rely on the message passing paradigm, including air traffic control systems and emergency services, which makes proving their correctness crucial. We focus on the modular verification of MPI programs by statically verifying concrete Java code. We use separation logic to reason about local correctness and define abstractions of the communication protocol in the process algebra used by mCRL2. We call these abstractions futures as they predict how components will interact during program execution. We establish a provable link between futures and program code and analyse the abstract futures via model checking to prove global correctness. Finally, we verify a leader election protocol to demonstrate our approach.

  11. The Network Protocol Analysis Technique in Snort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qing-Xiu

    Network protocol analysis is a network sniffer to capture data for further analysis and understanding of the technical means necessary packets. Network sniffing is intercepted by packet assembly binary format of the original message content. In order to obtain the information contained. Required based on TCP / IP protocol stack protocol specification. Again to restore the data packets at protocol format and content in each protocol layer. Actual data transferred, as well as the application tier.

  12. CacyBP/SIP binds ERK1/2 and affects transcriptional activity of Elk-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilanczyk, Ewa; Filipek, Slawomir; Jastrzebska, Beata; Filipek, Anna

    2009-01-01

    In this work we showed for the first time that mouse CacyBP/SIP interacts with extracellular signal regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2). We also established that a calcium binding protein, S100A6, competes for this interaction. Moreover, the E217K mutant of CacyBP/SIP does not bind significantly to ERK1/2 although it retains the ability to interact with S100A6. Molecular modeling shows that the E217K mutation in the 189-219 CacyBP/SIP fragment markedly changes its electrostatic potential, suggesting that the binding with ERK1/2 might have an electrostatic character. We also demonstrate that CacyBP/SIP-ERK1/2 interaction inhibits phosphorylation of the Elk-1 transcription factor in vitro and in the nuclear fraction of NB2a cells. Altogether, our data suggest that the binding of CacyBP/SIP with ERK1/2 might regulate Elk-1 phosphorylation/transcriptional activity and that S100A6 might further modulate this effect via Ca 2+ -dependent interaction with CacyBP/SIP and competition with ERK1/2.

  13. Effect of e-cigarette advertisements and antismoking messages on explicit and implicit attitudes towards tobacco and e-cigarette smoking in 18–65-year-olds: a randomised controlled study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albery, Ian P; Frings, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Since the advent of e-cigarettes, e-cigarette advertising has escalated and companies are able to use marketing strategies that are not permissible for tobacco products. Research into the effect of e-cigarette advertising on attitudes towards tobacco and e-cigarettes is in its infancy. To date, no research has compared indirect (implicit) measures of attitude towards e-cigarettes with direct (explicit) measures. Furthermore, little consideration has been given to how viewing online advertisements may have an effect on attitudes towards e-cigarettes or how positive attitudes to e-cigarettes may undermine antismoking public health messages. The objectives of this study are to investigate (1) the relationship between explicit and implicit attitudes towards tobacco and e-cigarettes, (2) the effect of e-cigarette advertising on these attitudes and (3) the effect of these attitudes on the efficacy of antismoking health messages. Methods and analysis In experiment 1 an analysis of covariance will be conducted to determine whether viewing an e-cigarette advertisement, compared with a neutral image, has an effect on implicit or explicit attitudes towards tobacco and e-cigarettes, and if these attitudes differ between smokers, vapers and non-smokers aged 18 - 25 years. In experiment 2, moderation analysis will be conducted to assess whether attitudes towards e-cigarettes moderate the psychological efficacy of antismoking health messages in participants aged 18–65 years. In each experiment, attitudes will be measured preintervention and postintervention and 1 week later (n=150) in participants who are smokers (n=50), vapers (n=50) or non-smokers (n=50). Ethics and dissemination Approval for this study has been given by the London South Bank University’s (LSBU) Research Ethics Committee. The findings of these studies will be submitted for publication and disseminated via conferences. The results will be integrated into course provision for practitioners

  14. The message is the message-maker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalkley, A B

    1977-03-01

    For those engaged in family planning or other demographic work of an active kind, serious errors can be made and much money and skill wasted unless there is a clear idea of available means of communication. Literacy and media-diffusion figures offer vague parameters, especially in Asia, and the role of spoken communication -- considered key in "illiterate" societies -- is even more difficult to assess. For mass media, the starting point is "diffusion rates" representing numbers of TV sets owned or newspapers sold per 1000 population and so on -- measures of quantity. This article surveys the population growth rates, urban-rural distribution, educational levels, literacy rates, numbers of newspapers bought, radios and TVs owned (per 1000 population) for 12 Asian countries, and discusses their meaning in terms of media use. Chief among the points made are that print media still have an enormous role to play in the developing countries -- newspaper diffusion rates are quite high, even in countries with low urban population (especially India). The quality of electronic media (too often considered the natural "wave of the future" everywhere) varies but is generally not high. Where they are fully developed their role is vital -- but it might be noted that it is the message makers themselves who are most vital. Choosing the right medium and the proper message for it is essential.

  15. An Examination of Adolescent Recall of Anti-Smoking Messages: Attitudes, Message Type, and Message Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigsby, Elisabeth; Monahan, Jennifer L; Ewoldsen, David R

    2017-04-01

    Delayed message recall may be influenced by currently held accessible attitudes, the nature of the message, and message perceptions (perception of bias and message elaboration). This study examined the potential of message perceptions to mediate the influence of valenced attitude accessibility and message type on unaided recall of anti-smoking Public Service Announcements (PSAs). In a field experiment, ninth grade students (N = 244) watched three PSAs and responded to items on laptop computers. Twelve weeks later, follow-up telephone surveys were conducted to assess unaided recall. Both valenced attitude accessibility and message type were associated with message perceptions. However, only perception of message bias partially mediated the relationship between message type and unaided recall.

  16. Popular Mobilization Messaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Garrison

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This Research Paper examines the Iraqi Popular Mobilization Unit’s (PMU messaging on the organisation’s website and social media platforms through early January 2017 to develop a more nuanced understanding of the PMU’s outlook, both present and future. After providing an overview of the PMU’s media presence online, the paper discusses how the organisation promotes its core narrative: that it is a cross-confessional and patriotic force for the defence of all Iraqis against a brutal and evil IS. The paper then addresses the PMU’s use of messaging to refute the sectarian portrayal of the organisation in some quarters before turning to the way the PMU approaches regional and international states in its media. Finally, the paper summarises the PMU’s messaging strategy and discusses how this strategy implies a less threatening future for the organisation than is often anticipated.

  17. Concrete Security for Entity Recognition: The Jane Doe Protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucks, Stefan; Zenner, Erik; Weimerskirch, Andre

    2008-01-01

    Entity recognition does not ask whether the message is from some entity X, just whether a message is from the same entity as a previous message. This turns turns out to be very useful for low-end devices. The current paper proposes a new protocol – the “Jane Doe Protocol” –, and provides a formal...

  18. Effect of e-cigarette advertisements and antismoking messages on explicit and implicit attitudes towards tobacco and e-cigarette smoking in 18-65-year-olds: a randomised controlled study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Paula; Albery, Ian P; Frings, Daniel

    2017-06-23

    Since the advent of e-cigarettes, e-cigarette advertising has escalated and companies are able to use marketing strategies that are not permissible for tobacco products. Research into the effect of e-cigarette advertising on attitudes towards tobacco and e-cigarettes is in its infancy. To date, no research has compared indirect (implicit) measures of attitude towards e-cigarettes with direct (explicit) measures. Furthermore, little consideration has been given to how viewing online advertisements may have an effect on attitudes towards e-cigarettes or how positive attitudes to e-cigarettes may undermine antismoking public health messages. The objectives of this study are to investigate (1) the relationship between explicit and implicit attitudes towards tobacco and e-cigarettes, (2) the effect of e-cigarette advertising on these attitudes and (3) the effect of these attitudes on the efficacy of antismoking health messages. In experiment 1 an analysis of covariance will be conducted to determine whether viewing an e-cigarette advertisement, compared with a neutral image, has an effect on implicit or explicit attitudes towards tobacco and e-cigarettes, and if these attitudes differ between smokers, vapers and non-smokers aged 18 - 25 years. In experiment 2, moderation analysis will be conducted to assess whether attitudes towards e-cigarettes moderate the psychological efficacy of antismoking health messages in participants aged 18-65 years. In each experiment, attitudes will be measured preintervention and postintervention and 1 week later (n=150) in participants who are smokers (n=50), vapers (n=50) or non-smokers (n=50). Approval for this study has been given by the London South Bank University's (LSBU) Research Ethics Committee. The findings of these studies will be submitted for publication and disseminated via conferences. The results will be integrated into course provision for practitioners training at LSBU. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless

  19. Eating for Two? Protocol of an Exploratory Survey and Experimental Study on Social Norms and Norm-Based Messages Influencing European Pregnant and Non-pregnant Women’s Eating Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevelander, Kirsten E.; Herte, Katharina; Kakoulakis, Catherine; Sanguino, Inés; Tebbe, Anna-Lena; Tünte, Markus R.

    2018-01-01

    The social context is an important factor underlying unhealthy eating behavior and the development of inappropriate weight gain. Evidence is accumulating that powerful social influences can also be used as a tool to impact people’s eating behavior in a positive manner. Social norm-based messages have potential to steer people in making healthier food choices. The research field on nutritional social norms is still emerging and more research is needed to gain insights into why some people adhere to social norms whereas others do not. There are indications stemming from empirical studies on social eating behavior that this may be due to ingratiation purposes and uncertainty reduction. That is, people match their eating behavior to that of the norm set by their eating companion(s) in order to blend in and be part of the group. In this project, we explore nutritional social norms among pregnant women. This population is particularly interesting because they are often subject to unsolicited advice and experience social pressure from their environment. In addition, their pregnancy affects their body composition, eating pattern, and psychosocial status. Pregnancy provides an important window of opportunity to impact health of pregnant women and their child. Nevertheless, the field of nutritional social norms among pregnant women is understudied and more knowledge is needed on whether pregnant women use guidelines from their social environment for their own eating behavior. In this project we aim to fill this research gap by means of an exploratory survey (Study 1) assessing information about social expectations, (mis)perceived social norms and the role of different reference groups such as other pregnant women, family, and friends. In addition, we conduct an online experiment (Study 2) testing to what extent pregnant women are susceptible to social norm-based messages compared to non-pregnant women. Moreover, possible moderators are explored which might impact women

  20. Eating for Two? Protocol of an Exploratory Survey and Experimental Study on Social Norms and Norm-Based Messages Influencing European Pregnant and Non-pregnant Women's Eating Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevelander, Kirsten E; Herte, Katharina; Kakoulakis, Catherine; Sanguino, Inés; Tebbe, Anna-Lena; Tünte, Markus R

    2018-01-01

    The social context is an important factor underlying unhealthy eating behavior and the development of inappropriate weight gain. Evidence is accumulating that powerful social influences can also be used as a tool to impact people's eating behavior in a positive manner. Social norm-based messages have potential to steer people in making healthier food choices. The research field on nutritional social norms is still emerging and more research is needed to gain insights into why some people adhere to social norms whereas others do not. There are indications stemming from empirical studies on social eating behavior that this may be due to ingratiation purposes and uncertainty reduction. That is, people match their eating behavior to that of the norm set by their eating companion(s) in order to blend in and be part of the group. In this project, we explore nutritional social norms among pregnant women. This population is particularly interesting because they are often subject to unsolicited advice and experience social pressure from their environment. In addition, their pregnancy affects their body composition, eating pattern, and psychosocial status. Pregnancy provides an important window of opportunity to impact health of pregnant women and their child. Nevertheless, the field of nutritional social norms among pregnant women is understudied and more knowledge is needed on whether pregnant women use guidelines from their social environment for their own eating behavior. In this project we aim to fill this research gap by means of an exploratory survey (Study 1) assessing information about social expectations, (mis)perceived social norms and the role of different reference groups such as other pregnant women, family, and friends. In addition, we conduct an online experiment (Study 2) testing to what extent pregnant women are susceptible to social norm-based messages compared to non-pregnant women. Moreover, possible moderators are explored which might impact women

  1. Eating for Two? Protocol of an Exploratory Survey and Experimental Study on Social Norms and Norm-Based Messages Influencing European Pregnant and Non-pregnant Women’s Eating Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten E. Bevelander

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The social context is an important factor underlying unhealthy eating behavior and the development of inappropriate weight gain. Evidence is accumulating that powerful social influences can also be used as a tool to impact people’s eating behavior in a positive manner. Social norm-based messages have potential to steer people in making healthier food choices. The research field on nutritional social norms is still emerging and more research is needed to gain insights into why some people adhere to social norms whereas others do not. There are indications stemming from empirical studies on social eating behavior that this may be due to ingratiation purposes and uncertainty reduction. That is, people match their eating behavior to that of the norm set by their eating companion(s in order to blend in and be part of the group. In this project, we explore nutritional social norms among pregnant women. This population is particularly interesting because they are often subject to unsolicited advice and experience social pressure from their environment. In addition, their pregnancy affects their body composition, eating pattern, and psychosocial status. Pregnancy provides an important window of opportunity to impact health of pregnant women and their child. Nevertheless, the field of nutritional social norms among pregnant women is understudied and more knowledge is needed on whether pregnant women use guidelines from their social environment for their own eating behavior. In this project we aim to fill this research gap by means of an exploratory survey (Study 1 assessing information about social expectations, (misperceived social norms and the role of different reference groups such as other pregnant women, family, and friends. In addition, we conduct an online experiment (Study 2 testing to what extent pregnant women are susceptible to social norm-based messages compared to non-pregnant women. Moreover, possible moderators are explored which might

  2. 40 CFR 51.125 - Emissions reporting requirements for SIP revisions relating to budgets for SO2 and NOX emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SIP revisions relating to budgets for SO2 and NOX emissions. 51.125 Section 51.125 Protection of... SIP revisions relating to budgets for SO2 and NOX emissions. (a) For its transport SIP revision under § 51.123 and/or 51.124, each State must submit to EPA SO2 and/or NOX emissions data as described in...

  3. ZeroMQ: Messaging Made Simple

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    Since its inception in 2007, ZeroMQ has defined a new product category of thin, fast, open source message transports. This little library has now grown into a large, vibrant community of projects tied together with standard protocols and APIs. Applications, written in any language, talk to each other over TCP, multicast, or inproc transports, using a single socket-based API, and a set of "patterns" (pub-sub, request-reply, dealer-router, pipeline). ZeroMQ handles message framing, batching, and I/O, but ignores aspects like serialization and persistence. By focussing on the essentials, and acting as a toolkit rather than a pre-packaged solution, ZeroMQ turns the complex problem of distributed computing into a relatively simple recipe. About the speaker Pieter Hintjens is a writer, programmer, and public speaker who has spent decades building large software systems, organizations, and businesses. He designed the Advanced Message Queuing Protocol (AMQP) in 2006 for JPMorganChase and left ...

  4. Are Instant Messages Speech?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Naomi S.

    Instant messaging (IM) is commonly viewed as a “spoken” medium, in light of its reputation for informality, non-standard spelling and punctuation, and use of lexical shortenings and emoticons. However, the actual nature of IM is an empirical issue that bears linguistic analysis.

  5. Microprocessorized message multiplexer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ejzman, S.; Guglielmi, L.; Jaeger, J.J.

    1980-07-01

    The 'Microprocessorized Message Multiplexer' is an elementary development tool used to create and debug the software of a target microprocessor (User Module: UM). It connects together four devices: a terminal, a cassette recorder, the target microprocessor and a host computer where macro and editor for the M 6800 microprocessor are resident [fr

  6. Grounding in Instant Messaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox Tree, Jean E.; Mayer, Sarah A.; Betts, Teresa E.

    2011-01-01

    In two experiments, we investigated predictions of the "collaborative theory of language use" (Clark, 1996) as applied to instant messaging (IM). This theory describes how the presence and absence of different grounding constraints causes people to interact differently across different communicative media (Clark & Brennan, 1991). In Study 1, we…

  7. 3. Secure Messaging

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 1. Electronic Commerce - Secure Messaging. V Rajaraman. Series Article Volume 6 Issue 1 January 2001 pp 8-17. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/01/0008-0017 ...

  8. Heterologous protein secretion in Lactobacilli with modified pSIP vectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Lea Karlskås

    Full Text Available We describe new variants of the modular pSIP-vectors for inducible gene expression and protein secretion in lactobacilli. The basic functionality of the pSIP system was tested in Lactobacillus strains representing 14 species using pSIP411, which harbors the broad-host-range Lactococcus lactis SH71rep replicon and a β-glucuronidase encoding reporter gene. In 10 species, the inducible gene expression system was functional. Based on these results, three pSIP vectors with different signal peptides were modified by replacing their narrow-host-range L. plantarum 256rep replicon with SH71rep and transformed into strains of five different species of Lactobacillus. All recombinant strains secreted the target protein NucA, albeit with varying production levels and secretion efficiencies. The Lp_3050 derived signal peptide generally resulted in the highest levels of secreted NucA. These modified pSIP vectors are useful tools for engineering a wide variety of Lactobacillus species.

  9. Application Framework with Abstractions for Protocol and Agent Role

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Bent Bruun

    2016-01-01

    In multi-agent systems, agents interact by sending and receiving messages and the actual sequences of message form interaction structures between agents. Protocols and agents organized internally by agent roles support these interaction structures. Description and use of protocols based on agent ...... roles are supported by a simple and expressive application framework....

  10. Does the Screening Status of Message Characters Affect Message Effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alber, Julia M.; Glanz, Karen

    2018-01-01

    Public health messages can be used to increase awareness about colorectal cancer screenings. Free or inexpensive images for creating health messages are readily available, yet little is known about how a pictured individual's engagement in the behavior of interest affects message outcomes. Participants (N = 360), aged 50 to 75 years, completed an…

  11. Degree sequence in message transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamuna, M.

    2017-11-01

    Message encryption is always an issue in current communication scenario. Methods are being devised using various domains. Graphs satisfy numerous unique properties which can be used for message transfer. In this paper, I propose a message encryption method based on degree sequence of graphs.

  12. A Two-Layered Mobility Architecture Using Fast Mobile IPv6 and Session Initiation Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nursimloo DeeyaS

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper proposes an integrated mobility scheme that combines the procedures of fast handover for Mobile IPv6 (FMIPv6 and session initiation protocol (SIP mobility for realtime communications. This integrated approach is based on the context of the applications utilized. Furthermore, to reduce system redundancies and signaling loads, several functionalities of FMIPv6 and SIP have been integrated to optimize the integrated mobility scheme. The proposed scheme aims at reducing the handover latency and packet loss for an ongoing realtime traffic. Using ns-2 simulation, we analyze the performance of the proposed integrated scheme and compare it with the existing protocols for a VoIP and for a video stream traffic. This mobility architecture achieves lower handover delay and less packet loss than using either FMIPv6 or SIP and hence presents a powerful handover mobility scheme for next generation IP-based wireless systems.

  13. A Two-Layered Mobility Architecture Using Fast Mobile IPv6 and Session Initiation Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deeya S. Nursimloo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an integrated mobility scheme that combines the procedures of fast handover for Mobile IPv6 (FMIPv6 and session initiation protocol (SIP mobility for realtime communications. This integrated approach is based on the context of the applications utilized. Furthermore, to reduce system redundancies and signaling loads, several functionalities of FMIPv6 and SIP have been integrated to optimize the integrated mobility scheme. The proposed scheme aims at reducing the handover latency and packet loss for an ongoing realtime traffic. Using ns-2 simulation, we analyze the performance of the proposed integrated scheme and compare it with the existing protocols for a VoIP and for a video stream traffic. This mobility architecture achieves lower handover delay and less packet loss than using either FMIPv6 or SIP and hence presents a powerful handover mobility scheme for next generation IP-based wireless systems.

  14. Calculation of fuel element temperature TRIGA 2000 reactor in sipping test tubes using CFD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudjatmi KA

    2013-01-01

    It has been calculated the fuel element temperature in the sipping test of Bandung TRIGA 2000 reactor. The calculation needs to be done to ascertain that the fuel element temperatures are below or at the limit of the allowable temperature fuel elements during reactor operation. ensuring that the implementation of the test by using this device, the temperature is still within safety limits. The calculation is done by making a model sipping test tubes containing a fuel element surrounded by 9 fuel elements. according to the position sipping test tubes in the reactor core. by using Gambit. Dimensional model adapted to the dimensions of the tube and the fuel element in the reactor core of Bandung TRIGA 2000 reactor. Sipping test Operation for each fuel element performed for 30 minutes at 300 kW power. Calculations were performed using CFD software and as input adjusted parameters of TRIGA 2000 reactor. Simulations carried out on the operation of the 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180 and 210 minutes. The calculation result shows that the temperature of the fuel in tubes sipping test of 236.06 °C, while the temperature of the wall is 87.58 °C. The maximum temperature in the fuel center of TRIGA 2000 reactor in normal operation is 650 °C. and the boiling is not allowed in the reactor. So it can be concluded that the operation of the sipping test device are is very safe because the fuel center temperature is below the temperature limits the allowable fuel under normal operating conditions as well as the fuel element wall temperature is below the boiling temperature of water. (author)

  15. The Early Psychosis Screener (EPS): Quantitative validation against the SIPS using machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodey, B B; Girgis, R R; Favorov, O V; Addington, J; Perkins, D O; Bearden, C E; Woods, S W; Walker, E F; Cornblatt, B A; Brucato, G; Walsh, B; Elkin, K A; Brodey, I S

    2018-01-18

    Machine learning techniques were used to identify highly informative early psychosis self-report items and to validate an early psychosis screener (EPS) against the Structured Interview for Psychosis-risk Syndromes (SIPS). The Prodromal Questionnaire-Brief Version (PQ-B) and 148 additional items were administered to 229 individuals being screened with the SIPS at 7 North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study sites and at Columbia University. Fifty individuals were found to have SIPS scores of 0, 1, or 2, making them clinically low risk (CLR) controls; 144 were classified as clinically high risk (CHR) (SIPS 3-5) and 35 were found to have first episode psychosis (FEP) (SIPS 6). Spectral clustering analysis, performed on 124 of the items, yielded two cohesive item groups, the first mostly related to psychosis and mania, the second mostly related to depression, anxiety, and social and general work/school functioning. Items within each group were sorted according to their usefulness in distinguishing between CLR and CHR individuals using the Minimum Redundancy Maximum Relevance procedure. A receiver operating characteristic area under the curve (AUC) analysis indicated that maximal differentiation of CLR and CHR participants was achieved with a 26-item solution (AUC=0.899±0.001). The EPS-26 outperformed the PQ-B (AUC=0.834±0.001). For screening purposes, the self-report EPS-26 appeared to differentiate individuals who are either CLR or CHR approximately as well as the clinician-administered SIPS. The EPS-26 may prove useful as a self-report screener and may lead to a decrease in the duration of untreated psychosis. A validation of the EPS-26 against actual conversion is underway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Message from Fermilab Director

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    With this issue’s message, Fermilab Director Pier Oddone opens a new series of occasional exchanges between CERN and other laboratories world-wide. As part of this exchange, CERN Director-General Rolf Heuer, wrote a message in Tuesday’s edition of Fermilab TodayPerspectivesNothing is more important for our worldwide particle physics community than successfully turning on the LHC later this year. The promise for great discoveries is huge, and many of the plans for our future depend on LHC results. Those of us planning national programmes in anticipation of data from the LHC face formidable challenges to develop future facilities that are complementary to the LHC, whatever the physics discoveries may be. At Fermilab, this has led us to move forcefully with a programme at the intensity frontier, where experiments with neutrinos and rare decays open a complementary window into nature. Our ultimate goal for a unified picture of nat...

  17. Scalable Arbitrated Quantum Signature of Classical Messages with Multi-Signers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yuguang; Wang Yuan; Teng Yiwei; Chai Haiping; Wen Qiaoyan

    2010-01-01

    Unconditionally secure signature is an important part of quantum cryptography. Usually, a signature scheme only provides an environment for a single signer. Nevertheless, in real applications, many signers may collaboratively send a message to the verifier and convince the verifier that the message is actually transmitted by them. In this paper, we give a scalable arbitrated signature protocol of classical messages with multi-signers. Its security is analyzed and proved to be secure even with a compromised arbitrator. (general)

  18. Cryptanalysis of the arbitrated quantum signature protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Fei; Qin Sujuan; Guo Fenzhuo; Wen Qiaoyan

    2011-01-01

    As a new model for signing quantum messages, arbitrated quantum signature (AQS) has recently received a lot of attention. In this paper we study the cryptanalysis of previous AQS protocols from the aspects of forgery and disavowal. We show that in these protocols the receiver, Bob, can realize existential forgery of the sender's signature under known message attack. Bob can even achieve universal forgery when the protocols are used to sign a classical message. Furthermore, the sender, Alice, can successfully disavow any of her signatures by simple attack. The attack strategies are described in detail and some discussions about the potential improvements of the protocols are given. Finally we also present several interesting topics on AQS protocols that can be studied in future.

  19. Radioimmunotherapy targeting the extra domain B of fibronectin in C6 rat gliomas: a preliminary study about the therapeutic efficacy of iodine-131-labeled SIP(L19)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spaeth, Nicolas; Wyss, Matthias T.; Pahnke, Jens; Biollaz, Gregoire; Trachsel, Eveline; Drandarov, Konstantin; Treyer, Valerie; Weber, Bruno; Neri, Dario; Buck, Alfred

    2006-01-01

    Despite aggressive treatment protocols, patients suffering from glioblastoma multiforme still experience poor outcome. Therefore, new adjuvant therapeutic options such as radioimmunotherapy (RIT) have been studied and have resulted in significant survival benefit. In this study, we assessed the efficacy of a novel radioimmunotherapeutic approach targeting the extra domain B (EDB) of fibronectin, a marker of angiogenesis, in glioma-bearing rats. Methods: C6 gliomas were induced intracerebrally in Wistar rats. Ten to 11 days later, 220-360 MBq of iodine-131-labeled anti-EDB SIP(L19) ('small immunoprotein') was administered intravenously into nine animals, yielding a radiation dose of 13-21 Gy. Another nine rats served as controls. Then the following parameters were compared: median survival time, tumor size and histology. Results: Histological examination of the tumors revealed typical glioblastoma characteristics. Eleven of 18 rats developed a tumor size bigger than 150 mm 3 . When these animals were used for survival analysis, median survival did significantly differ between groups [22 days (therapy; n=7) vs. 16 days (control; n=4); P 131 I-SIP(L19)-RIT showed promising potential in treating C6 gliomas, warranting further studies. However, larger trials with preferentially higher doses are needed to confirm this finding and, potentially, to further increase the efficacy of this treatment

  20. The effect of an interactive weekly mobile phone messaging on retention in prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV program: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial (WELTEL PMTCT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awiti, Patricia Opondo; Grotta, Alessandra; van der Kop, Mia; Dusabe, John; Thorson, Anna; Mwangi, Jonathan; Belloco, Rino; Lester, Richard; Ternent, Laura; Were, Edwin; Ekström, Anna Mia

    2016-07-11

    Improving retention in prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV programs is critical to optimize maternal and infant health outcomes, especially now that lifelong treatment is immediate regardless of CD4 cell count). The WelTel strategy of using weekly short message service (SMS) to engage patients in care in Kenya, where mobile coverage even in poor areas is widespread has been shown to improve adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and viral load suppression among those on ART. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of the WelTel SMS intervention compared to standard care on retention in PMTCT program in Kenya. WelTel PMTCT is a four to seven-centers, two-arm open randomized controlled trial (RCT) that will be conducted in urban and rural Kenya. Over 36 months, we plan to recruit 600 pregnant women at their first antenatal care visit and follow the mother-infant pair until they are discharged from the PMTCT program (when infant is aged 24 months). Participants will be randomly allocated to the intervention or control arm (standard care) at a 1:1 ratio. Intervention arm participants will receive an interactive weekly SMS 'How are you?' to which they are supposed to respond within 24 h. Depending on the response (ok, problem or no answer), a PMTCT nurse will follow-up and triage any problems that are identified. The primary outcome will be retention in care defined as the proportion of mother-infant pairs coming for infant HIV testing at 24 months from delivery. Secondary outcomes include a) adherence to WelTel; (b) adherence to antiretroviral medicine; (c) acceptance of WelTel and (d) cost-effectiveness of the WelTel intervention. This trial will provide evidence on the effectiveness of mHealth for PMTCT retention. Trial results and the cost-effectiveness evaluation will be used to inform policy and potential scale-up of mHealth among mothers living with HIV. ISRCTN98818734 ; registered on 9th December 2014.

  1. 78 FR 50360 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Infrastructure SIP...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... ensure that the structural components of each state's air quality management program are adequate to meet... SIP. The Indiana Department of Environmental Management (IDEM) has requested that EPA approve these... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R05-OAR-2011-0888; EPA-R05-OAR-2011-0969; EPA...

  2. 76 FR 27649 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial Review The meeting... Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the...

  3. 75 FR 30410 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Project (SIP): Provider...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Project (SIP): Provider and Public Health... Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC...

  4. 77 FR 30292 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Project (SIP): Initial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Project (SIP): Initial Review The meeting...)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and...

  5. 75 FR 30410 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Outcomes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Outcomes of Screening... 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92- 463), the Centers for Disease Control and...

  6. 77 FR 29351 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control; Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control; Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial Review The meeting.... L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned...

  7. 75 FR 32190 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Examining the Impact of... Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the...

  8. 78 FR 22827 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Kansas; Infrastructure SIP...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-17

    ... strategies to reduce air pollution. Based upon review of the state's infrastructure SIP submissions for the... revisions; (I) Nonattainment areas; (J) Consultation with government officials, public notification... pollution with the Secretary of Health and Environment (``Secretary''). The Secretary in turn administers...

  9. Improving the capacity of the ping-pong protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Qing-yu; Li, Bai-wen

    2003-01-01

    We present a quantum communication protocol which keeps all the properties of the ping-pong protocol [Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 187902 (2002)] but improves the capacity doubly as the ping-pong protocol. Alice and Bob can use the variable measurement basises in control mode to detect Eve's eavesdropping attack. In message mode, Alice can use one unitary operations to encode two bits information. Bob only needs to perform a Bell type measurement to decode Alice's information. A classical message aut...

  10. Usage of the hybrid encryption in a cloud instant messages exchange system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvyetnyy, Roman N.; Romanyuk, Olexander N.; Titarchuk, Evgenii O.; Gromaszek, Konrad; Mussabekov, Nazarbek

    2016-09-01

    A new approach for constructing cloud instant messaging represented in this article allows users to encrypt data locally by using Diffie - Hellman key exchange protocol. The described approach allows to construct a cloud service which operates only by users encrypted messages; encryption and decryption takes place locally at the user party using a symmetric AES encryption. A feature of the service is the conferences support without the need for messages reecryption for each participant. In the article it is given an example of the protocol implementation on the ECC and RSA encryption algorithms basis, as well as a comparison of these implementations.

  11. Overview of the InterGroup protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berket, Karlo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Agarwal, Deborah A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Melliar-Smith, P. Michael [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Moser, Louise E. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    2001-03-01

    Existing reliable ordered group communication protocols have been developed for local-area networks and do not, in general, scale well to large numbers of nodes and wide-area networks. The InterGroup suite of protocols is a scalable group communication system that introduces a novel approach to handling group membership, and supports a receiver-oriented selection of service. The protocols are intended for a wide-area network, with a large number of nodes, that has highly variable delays and a high message loss rate, such as the Internet. The levels of the message delivery service range from unreliable unordered to reliable group timestamp ordered.

  12. HTSSIP: An R package for analysis of high throughput sequencing data from nucleic acid stable isotope probing (SIP experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas D Youngblut

    Full Text Available Combining high throughput sequencing with stable isotope probing (HTS-SIP is a powerful method for mapping in situ metabolic processes to thousands of microbial taxa. However, accurately mapping metabolic processes to taxa is complex and challenging. Multiple HTS-SIP data analysis methods have been developed, including high-resolution stable isotope probing (HR-SIP, multi-window high-resolution stable isotope probing (MW-HR-SIP, quantitative stable isotope probing (qSIP, and ΔBD. Currently, there is no publicly available software designed specifically for analyzing HTS-SIP data. To address this shortfall, we have developed the HTSSIP R package, an open-source, cross-platform toolset for conducting HTS-SIP analyses in a straightforward and easily reproducible manner. The HTSSIP package, along with full documentation and examples, is available from CRAN at https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/HTSSIP/index.html and Github at https://github.com/buckleylab/HTSSIP.

  13. Sipping machine control system new design to perform integrity of nuclear fuel test in Cofrentes power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomo, M., E-mail: mpalomo@iqn.upv.es [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear. Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (Spain); Urrea, M., E-mail: Matias.urrea@iberdrola.es [C.N.Cofrentes - Iberdrola Generacion S.A., Cofrentes, Valencia (Spain); Curiel, M., E-mail: m.curiel@lainsa.com [LAINSA Grupo Dominguis, Valencia (Spain); Arnaldos, A., E-mail: a.arnaldos@titaniast.com [TITANIA Servicios Tecnologicos SL, Grupo Dominguis, Valencia (Spain)

    2011-07-01

    This paper we present is related to SIPPING machine control system new design to perform integrity of nuclear fuel test. This test is a non destructive technique used for evaluating the radiated nuclear fuel coating structural integrity. It is based on the radioactive emission detection of fission elements in the reactor cooling system, using the fuel inspection equipment (SIPPING). SIPPING equipment consists of one simultaneous test bell-shaped vessel of eight fuel elements, and another one for individual element test, a control workstation and some accessories (cables, thermocouples, hoses). SIPPING inspection is carried out by means of fuel element vessel. Through air injection, water flows around the element and heat evacuation is reduced, so fuel elements temperature increases. Those elements with faults shall expelled fission components dissolved in water and/or as a gas component. The project aim is the SIPPING system control design and software based on LabVIEW, for control, monitoring and documentation of the SIPPING Test. This project shall give a major functionality to the system and, at the same time, shall facilitate the user a friendlier and interactive environment allowing: to substitute the present work platform with a real-time electronic system based on cRIO and a control software ad-hoc designed for SIPPING system; to equip new system of a major redundancy for data storage, minimising loss probability of the same. (author)

  14. A Messaging Infrastructure for WLCG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casey, James; Cons, Lionel; Lapka, Wojciech; Paladin, Massimo; Skaburskas, Konstantin

    2011-01-01

    During the EGEE-III project operational tools such as SAM, Nagios, Gridview, the regional Dashboard and GGUS moved to a communication architecture based on ActiveMQ, an open-source enterprise messaging solution. LHC experiments, in particular ATLAS, developed prototypes of systems using the same messaging infrastructure, validating the system for their use-cases. In this paper we describe the WLCG messaging use cases and outline an improved messaging architecture based on the experience gained during the EGEE-III period. We show how this provides a solid basis for many applications, including the grid middleware, to improve their resilience and reliability.

  15. Survey of Instant Messaging Applications Encryption Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Kabakuş, Abdullah; Kara, Resul

    2015-01-01

    Instant messaging applications has already taken the place of traditional Short Messaging Service (SMS) and Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS) due to their popularity and usage easement they provide. Users of instant messaging applications are able to send both text and audio messages, different types of attachments such as photos, videos, contact information to their contacts in real time. Because of instant messaging applications use internet instead of Short Message Service Technical Reali...

  16. Generation of a gene cassette for genetically engineered Salmonella Enteritidis in the specific region of the sipC gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ghasemi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Salmonellosis is an infection caused by eating contaminated food with Salmonella, and it can occur in humans and other animals. Salmonella has acquired the ability to create the infection due to the presence of several virulence genes. One of the virulence genes of salmonella is sipC gene that coding the SipC protein. The aim of this study was creating the gene cassette to genetically engineered Salmonella enteritidis in the specific region of the sipC gene. Methods: In this study, after DNA extraction from Salmonella, the upstream and downstream regions of the sipC gene was amplified based on PCR method. The PCR products were cloned with T/A cloning method and they were inserted into the pGEM vector. In order to generate the final gene cassette, each of the upstream and downstream regions of the sipC gene was subcloned into the pET32 vector, and cloning accuracy was assessed by PCR and enzyme digestion methods. Results: Amplification of the 320 bp upstream and 206 bp downstream of sipC gene was successful by PCR method. T/A cloning of these fragments were caused the formation of two pGEM-up and pGEM-down recombinant vectors. Results that were confirmed the sub-cloning accuracy indicate the formation of the final pET32-up-down gene cassette. Conclusion: The generated gene cassette in this study was considered as a multi-purpose cassette that is able to specific gene manipulation of Salmonella sipC gene by homologous recombination matched. This gene cassette has the necessary potential for sipC gene deletion or insertion of any useful gene instead of sipC gene.

  17. Getting Your Message Across: Mobile Phone Text Messaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beecher, Constance C.; Hayungs, Lori

    2017-01-01

    Want to send a message that 99% of your audience will read? Many Extension professionals are familiar with using social media tools to enhance Extension programming. Extension professionals may be less familiar with the use of mobile phone text-based marketing tools. The purpose of this article is to introduce SMS (short message system) marketing…

  18. Esquema de redundancia y distribución de carga de alta disponibilidad para la prestación de telefonía ip usando sip (junio 2009)

    OpenAIRE

    PARRA L., ANDRÉS; GUERRERO, FABIO G.

    2010-01-01

    En este artículo se presenta un esquema de distribución de carga y redundancia en la infraestructura de un ISP (Internet Service Provider) para la prestación de servicios de telefonía IP (ITSPs) sobre Internet usando el protocolo SIP (Session Initiation Protocol) garantizando niveles de acceso al servicio similares a la PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network) y brindando una infraestructura de red escalable. La solución se plantea en tres partes: redundancia del servicio y distribución de ca...

  19. An one-time-pad key communication protocol with entanglement

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Qing-yu

    2003-01-01

    We present an one-time-pad key communication protocol that allows secure direct communication with entanglement. Alice can send message to Bob in a deterministic manner by using local measurements and public communication. The theoretical efficiency of this protocol is double compared with BB84 protocol. We show this protocol is unconditional secure under arbitrary quantum attack. And we discuss that this protocol can be perfectly implemented with current technologies.

  20. Multiparty Quantum English Auction Scheme Using Single Photons as Message Carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ge; Zhang, Jian-Zhong; Xie, Shu-Cui

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a secure and economic multiparty english auction protocol using the single photons as message carrier of bids is proposed. In order to achieve unconditional security, fairness, undeniability and so on, we adopt the decoy photon checking technique and quantum encryption algorithm. Analysis result shows that our protocol satisfies all the characteristics of traditional english auction, meanwhile, it can resist malicious attacks.

  1. Design and construction of the SIPPING for fuels of the TRIGA Mark III reactor; Diseno y construccion del SIPPING para combustibles del reactor TRIGA Mark III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaneda J, G.; Delfin L, A.; Alvarado P, R.; Mazon R, R.; Ortega V, B. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: adl@nuclear.inin.mx

    2003-07-01

    The sipping technique, it has been used by several possessors of nuclear research reactors in its irradiated nuclear fuels, likewise in some fuel storage sites, with the objective of to determine the quantity of radioactivity that the fuel liberates in the means in that it is. The irradiated fuel in storage of some nuclear research reactors, its can have cracks that cross the cladding of the same one, generating the liberation of fission products that its need to determine to maintain safety measures appropriate as much as the fuel as of the facilities where they are. It doesn't exist until now, some method published for the non destructive sipping test technique. Based on that described, the Reactor Department of the National Institute of Nuclear Research, it has designed and built an inspection system of irradiated fuel that it will allow the detection of gassy fission products in site, and solids by means of the measurement of the activity of the Cs-137 contained in water samples. (Author)

  2. Assessment of SIP Buildings for Sustainable Development in Rural China Using AHP-Grey Correlation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Libiao; Wang, Hailing; Shi, Chunming; Du, Qiang; Li, Yi

    2017-10-25

    Traditional rural residential construction has the problems of high energy consumption and severe pollution. In general, with sustainable development in the construction industry, rural residential construction should be aimed towards low energy consumption and low carbon emissions. To help achieve this objective, in this paper, we evaluated four different possible building structures using AHP-Grey Correlation Analysis, which consists of the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and the Grey Correlation Analysis. The four structures included the traditional and currently widely used brick and concrete structure, as well as structure insulated panels (SIPs). Comparing the performances of economic benefit and carbon emission, the conclusion that SIPs have the best overall performance can be obtained, providing a reference to help builders choose the most appropriate building structure in rural China.

  3. Security Analysis System to Detect Threats on a SIP VoIP Infrasctructure Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Rezac

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available SIP PBX is definitely the alpha and omega of any IP telephony infrastructure and frequently also provides other services than those related to VoIP traffic. These exchanges are, however, very often the target of attacks by external actors. The article describes a system that was developed on VSB-TU Ostrava as a testing tool to verify if the target VoIP PBX is adequately secured and protected against any real threats. The system tests the SIP element for several usually occurring attacks and it compiles evaluation of its overall security on the basis of successfully or unsuccessfully penetrations. The article describes the applications and algorithms that are used by system and the conclusion consists recommendations and guidelines to ensure effective protection against VoIP PBX threats. The system is designed as an open-source web application, thus allowing independent access and is fully extensible to other test modules.

  4. Joint inversion of NMR and SIP data to estimate pore size distribution of geomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Qifei; Zhang, Chi

    2018-03-01

    There are growing interests in using geophysical tools to characterize the microstructure of geomaterials because of the non-invasive nature and the applicability in field. In these applications, multiple types of geophysical data sets are usually processed separately, which may be inadequate to constrain the key feature of target variables. Therefore, simultaneous processing of multiple data sets could potentially improve the resolution. In this study, we propose a method to estimate pore size distribution by joint inversion of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) T2 relaxation and spectral induced polarization (SIP) spectra. The petrophysical relation between NMR T2 relaxation time and SIP relaxation time is incorporated in a nonlinear least squares problem formulation, which is solved using Gauss-Newton method. The joint inversion scheme is applied to a synthetic sample and a Berea sandstone sample. The jointly estimated pore size distributions are very close to the true model and results from other experimental method. Even when the knowledge of the petrophysical models of the sample is incomplete, the joint inversion can still capture the main features of the pore size distribution of the samples, including the general shape and relative peak positions of the distribution curves. It is also found from the numerical example that the surface relaxivity of the sample could be extracted with the joint inversion of NMR and SIP data if the diffusion coefficient of the ions in the electrical double layer is known. Comparing to individual inversions, the joint inversion could improve the resolution of the estimated pore size distribution because of the addition of extra data sets. The proposed approach might constitute a first step towards a comprehensive joint inversion that can extract the full pore geometry information of a geomaterial from NMR and SIP data.

  5. Impact of 50% Synthesized Iso-Paraffins (SIP) on Middle Distillate Fuel Filtration and Coalescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-30

    Paraffins DEFINITIONS Coalescence - the ability to shed water Conventional Material Source - crude oil , natural gas liquid condensates...Impact of 50% Synthesized Iso-Paraffins (SIP) on Middle Distillate Fuel Filtration and Coalescence NF&LCFT REPORT 441/15-003 30 October 2014...heavy oil , shale oil , and oil sands Effluent - stream leaving a system Influent - stream entering a system Turnover - time required to flow the

  6. Psychosocial work factors and first depressive episode: retrospective results from the French national SIP survey

    OpenAIRE

    Niedhammer , Isabelle; Chastang , Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Objectives : The objective was to explore the associations between psychosocial work factors and first depressive episode. Additional objectives included the study of the frequency and duration of exposure, and the evaluation of the induction period between exposures and outcome and of the reversibility of the effects.Methods : The study was based on a sample of 13,648 men and women from the 2006 national representative French SIP survey. Retrospective evaluation was p...

  7. SMR-Based Adaptive Mobility Management Scheme in Hierarchical SIP Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KwangHee Choi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In hierarchical SIP networks, paging is performed to reduce location update signaling cost for mobility management. However, the cost efficiency largely depends on each mobile node’s session-to-mobility-ratio (SMR, which is defined as a ratio of the session arrival rate to the movement rate. In this paper, we propose the adaptive mobility management scheme that can determine the policy regarding to each mobile node’s SMR. Each mobile node determines whether the paging is applied or not after comparing its SMR with the threshold. In other words, the paging is applied to a mobile node when a mobile node’s SMR is less than the threshold. Therefore, the proposed scheme provides a way to minimize signaling costs according to each mobile node’s SMR. We find out the optimal threshold through performance analysis, and show that the proposed scheme can reduce signaling cost than the existing SIP and paging schemes in hierarchical SIP networks.

  8. The Impact of Dopant Segregation on the Maximum Carrier Density in Si:P Multilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keizer, Joris G; McKibbin, Sarah R; Simmons, Michelle Y

    2015-07-28

    Abrupt dopant profiles and low resistivity are highly sought after qualities in the silicon microelectronics industry and, more recently, in the development of an all epitaxial Si:P based quantum computer. If we increase the active carrier density in silicon to the point where the material becomes superconducting, while maintaining a low thermal budget, it will be possible to fabricate nanoscale superconducting devices using the highly successful technique of depassivation lithography. In this work, we investigate the dopant profile and activation in multiple high density Si:P δ-layers fabricated by stacking individual layers with intervening silicon growth. We determine that dopant activation is ultimately limited by the formation of P-P dimers due to the segregation of dopants between multilayers. By increasing the encapsulation thickness between subsequent layers, thereby minimizing the formation of these deactivating defects, we are able to achieve an active carrier density of ns = 4.5 ×10(14) cm(-2) for a triple layer. The results of electrical characterization are combined with those of secondary ion mass spectroscopy to construct a model that accurately describes the impact of P segregation on the final active carrier density in Si:P multilayers. Our model predicts that a 3D active carrier density of 8.5 × 10(20) cm(-3) (1.7 atom %) can be achieved.

  9. Experience on wet storage spent fuel sipping at IEA-R1 Brazilian research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrotta, J.A.; Terremoto, L.A.A.; Zeituni, C.A.

    1998-01-01

    The IEA-R1 research reactor of the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP) is a pool type reactor of B and W design, that has been operating since 1957 at a power of 2 MW. Irradiated (spent) fuels have been stored at the facility during the various years of operation. At present there are 40 spent fuel assemblies at dry storage, 79 spent fuel assemblies at wet storage and 30 fuel assemblies in the core. The oldest fuels are of United States origin, made with U-Al alloy, both of LEU and HEU MTR fuel type. Many of these fuel assemblies have corrosion pits along their lateral fuel plates. These pits originate by galvanic corrosion between the fuel plate and the stainless steel storage racks. As a consequence of the possibility of sending the irradiated old fuels back the U.S.A., sipping tests were performed with the spent fuel assemblies. The reason for this was to evaluate their 137 Cs leaking rate, if any. This work describes the procedure and methodology used to perform the sipping tests with the fuel assemblies at the storage pool, and presents the results obtained for the 137 Cs sipping water activity for each fuel assembly. A correlation is made between the corrosion pits and the activity values measured. A 137 Cs leaking rate is determined and compared to the criteria established for canning spent fuel assemblies before shipment

  10. Sipping machine control system new design to perform integrity of nuclear fuel test in Cofrentes power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curiel, M. [Logistica y Acondicionamientos Industriales SAU, Sorolla Center, local 10, Av. de las Cortes Valencianas No. 58, 46015 Valencia (Spain); Palomo, M. J. [ISIRYM, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, Valencia (Spain); Urrea, M. [Iberdrola Generacion S. A., Central Nuclear Cofrentes, Carretera Almansa Requena s/n, 04662 Cofrentes, Valencia (Spain); Vaquer, J., E-mail: m.curiel@lainsa.co [TITANIA Servicios Tecnologicos SL, Sorolla Center, local 10, Av. de las Cortes Valencianas No. 58, 46015 Valencia (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    This paper related to Sipping machine control system new design to perform integrity of nuclear fuel test. This test is a non destructive technique used for evaluating the radiated nuclear fuel coating structural integrity. It is based on the radioactive emission detection of fission elements in the reactor cooling system, using the fuel inspection equipment Sipping. The equipment consists of one simultaneous test bell-shaped vessel of eight fuel elements, and another one for individual element test, a control workstation and some accessories (cables, thermocouples, hoses). Sipping inspection is carried out by means of fuel element vessel. Through air injection, water flows around the element and heat evacuation is reduced, so fuel elements temperature increases. Those elements with faults shall expelled fission components dissolved in water and/or as a gas component. The project aim is the Sipping system control design and software based on LabVIEWTM, for control, monitoring and documentation of the Sipping test. This project shall give a major functionality to the system and, at the same time, shall facilitate the user a friendlier and interactive environment allowing: 1) To substitute the present work platform with a real-time electronic system based on cRIO and a control software ad-hoc designed for Sipping system. 2) To equip new system of a major redundancy for data storage, minimising loss probability of the same. (Author)

  11. Towards a Standard Psychometric Diagnostic Interview for Subjects at Ultra High Risk of Psychosis: CAARMS versus SIPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusar-Poli, P.; Cappucciati, M.; Rutigliano, G.; Lee, T. Y.; Beverly, Q.; Bonoldi, I.; Lelli, J.; Kaar, S. J.; Gago, E.; Rocchetti, M.; Patel, R.; Bhavsar, V.; Tognin, S.; Badger, S.; Calem, M.; Lim, K.; Kwon, J. S.; Perez, J.; McGuire, P.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Several psychometric instruments are available for the diagnostic interview of subjects at ultra high risk (UHR) of psychosis. Their diagnostic comparability is unknown. Methods. All referrals to the OASIS (London) or CAMEO (Cambridgeshire) UHR services from May 13 to Dec 14 were interviewed for a UHR state using both the CAARMS 12/2006 and the SIPS 5.0. Percent overall agreement, kappa, the McNemar-Bowker χ 2 test, equipercentile methods, and residual analyses were used to investigate diagnostic outcomes and symptoms severity or frequency. A conversion algorithm (CONVERT) was validated in an independent UHR sample from the Seoul Youth Clinic (Seoul). Results. There was overall substantial CAARMS-versus-SIPS agreement in the identification of UHR subjects (n = 212, percent overall agreement = 86%; kappa = 0.781, 95% CI from 0.684 to 0.878; McNemar-Bowker test = 0.069), with the exception of the brief limited intermittent psychotic symptoms (BLIPS) subgroup. Equipercentile-linking table linked symptoms severity and frequency across the CAARMS and SIPS. The conversion algorithm was validated in 93 UHR subjects, showing excellent diagnostic accuracy (CAARMS to SIPS: ROC area 0.929; SIPS to CAARMS: ROC area 0.903). Conclusions. This study provides initial comparability data between CAARMS and SIPS and will inform ongoing multicentre studies and clinical guidelines for the UHR psychometric diagnostic interview. PMID:27314005

  12. Towards a Standard Psychometric Diagnostic Interview for Subjects at Ultra High Risk of Psychosis: CAARMS versus SIPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Fusar-Poli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Several psychometric instruments are available for the diagnostic interview of subjects at ultra high risk (UHR of psychosis. Their diagnostic comparability is unknown. Methods. All referrals to the OASIS (London or CAMEO (Cambridgeshire UHR services from May 13 to Dec 14 were interviewed for a UHR state using both the CAARMS 12/2006 and the SIPS 5.0. Percent overall agreement, kappa, the McNemar-Bowker χ2 test, equipercentile methods, and residual analyses were used to investigate diagnostic outcomes and symptoms severity or frequency. A conversion algorithm (CONVERT was validated in an independent UHR sample from the Seoul Youth Clinic (Seoul. Results. There was overall substantial CAARMS-versus-SIPS agreement in the identification of UHR subjects (n=212, percent overall agreement = 86%; kappa = 0.781, 95% CI from 0.684 to 0.878; McNemar-Bowker test = 0.069, with the exception of the brief limited intermittent psychotic symptoms (BLIPS subgroup. Equipercentile-linking table linked symptoms severity and frequency across the CAARMS and SIPS. The conversion algorithm was validated in 93 UHR subjects, showing excellent diagnostic accuracy (CAARMS to SIPS: ROC area 0.929; SIPS to CAARMS: ROC area 0.903. Conclusions. This study provides initial comparability data between CAARMS and SIPS and will inform ongoing multicentre studies and clinical guidelines for the UHR psychometric diagnostic interview.

  13. Sipping machine control system new design to perform integrity of nuclear fuel test in Cofrentes power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curiel, M.; Palomo, M. J.; Urrea, M.; Vaquer, J.

    2010-10-01

    This paper related to Sipping machine control system new design to perform integrity of nuclear fuel test. This test is a non destructive technique used for evaluating the radiated nuclear fuel coating structural integrity. It is based on the radioactive emission detection of fission elements in the reactor cooling system, using the fuel inspection equipment Sipping. The equipment consists of one simultaneous test bell-shaped vessel of eight fuel elements, and another one for individual element test, a control workstation and some accessories (cables, thermocouples, hoses). Sipping inspection is carried out by means of fuel element vessel. Through air injection, water flows around the element and heat evacuation is reduced, so fuel elements temperature increases. Those elements with faults shall expelled fission components dissolved in water and/or as a gas component. The project aim is the Sipping system control design and software based on LabVIEWTM, for control, monitoring and documentation of the Sipping test. This project shall give a major functionality to the system and, at the same time, shall facilitate the user a friendlier and interactive environment allowing: 1) To substitute the present work platform with a real-time electronic system based on cRIO and a control software ad-hoc designed for Sipping system. 2) To equip new system of a major redundancy for data storage, minimising loss probability of the same. (Author)

  14. Big data analytics : predicting traffic flow regimes from simulated connected vehicle messages using data analytics and machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-25

    The key objectives of this study were to: 1. Develop advanced analytical techniques that make use of a dynamically configurable connected vehicle message protocol to predict traffic flow regimes in near-real time in a virtual environment and examine ...

  15. Rancang Bangun Perangkat Lunak Billing dan Implementasi Voice Over Internet Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honni Honni

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapidly evolving communication system enables applications for telephone communication to be carried over the data network known as VoIP (voice over internet protocol. SIP (session initiation protocol as the signaling protocol is text-based VoIP which can be implemented easily in comparison with other signalingprotocols. The purpose of this paper is designing and implementing VoIP billing up to the company to provide additional facilities for enterprise customers. The methods start with data collection, analysis, design, development, and implementation. The result achieved is a system of VoIP with SIP and Asterisk software which has functions of PBX to provide additional facilities such as VoIP which is a plus for the company and customers. After implemented, the VoIP system and billing features are found work well.

  16. GPS Ephemeris Message Broadcast Simulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Browne, Nathan J; Light, James J

    2005-01-01

    The warfighter constantly needs increased accuracy from GPS and a means to increasing this accuracy to the decimeter level is a broadcast ephemeris message containing GPS satellite orbit and clock corrections...

  17. Military Message Experiment. Volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    elements of the Department of Defense. This resulted in a memorandum from the Director, Telecomunications and Comand and Control, OSD, in June 1975...1978 to April 1979 and provides a discussion of the telecomunications inter- face aspects of the experiment. This Final Report covers the period of...arise in the telecomunication system which require A retransmission of an outgoing message. A "service" message may be created within the

  18. A VXI-GPIB protocol converter based on DSP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Yuanfeng; Yu Xiaoqi; Lu Jingping

    2006-01-01

    A VXI-GPIB protocol converter based on DSP is introduced. The word-serial protocol with the message-based interface is implemented by EPLD and DSP. The GPIB functions are implemented by programming to the GPIB control chip. The transfer from VXI messages to GPIB functions is implemented by DSP. As an example of application, the control functions for oscilloscopes have been implemented in a VXI-GPIB heterogeneous system using such modules. (authors)

  19. A Comparison Between Inter-Asterisk eXchange Protocol and Jingle Protocol: Session Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Haj Aliwi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few years, many multimedia conferencing and Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP applications have been developed due to the use of signaling protocols in providing video, audio and text chatting services between at least two participants. This paper compares between two widely common signaling protocols: InterAsterisk eXchange Protocol (IAX and the extension of the eXtensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (Jingle in terms of delay time during call setup, call teardown, and media sessions.

  20. Multiparty quantum secret sharing of classical messages based on entanglement swapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhanjun; Man Zhongxiao

    2005-01-01

    A multiparty quantum secret sharing (QSS) protocol of classical messages (i.e., classical bits) is proposed by using swapping quantum entanglement of Bell states. The secret messages are imposed on Bell states by local unitary operations. The secret messages are split into several parts, and each part is distributed to a separate party so that no action of a subset of all the parties without the cooperation of the entire group is able to read out the secret messages. In addition, dense coding is used in this protocol to achieve a high efficiency. The security of the present multiparty QSS against eavesdropping has been analyzed and confirmed even in a noisy quantum channel

  1. Effectiveness and Limitations of E-Mail Security Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    M. Tariq Banday

    2011-01-01

    Simple Mail Transport Protocol is the most widely adopted protocol for e-mail delivery. However, it lackssecurity features for privacy, authentication of sending party, integrity of e-mail message, nonrepudiationand consistency of e-mail envelope. To make e-mail communication secure and private,e-mail servers incorporate one or more security features using add-on security protocols. The add-onsecurity protocols provide a reasonable security but have several limitations. This paper discussesli...

  2. MessageSpace: a messaging system for health research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Rodrigo D.; Akopian, David; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Esparza, Laura

    2013-03-01

    Mobile Health (mHealth) has emerged as a promising direction for delivery of healthcare services via mobile communication devices such as cell phones. Examples include texting-based interventions for chronic disease monitoring, diabetes management, control of hypertension, smoking cessation, monitoring medication adherence, appointment keeping and medical test result delivery; as well as improving patient-provider communication, health information communication, data collection and access to health records. While existing messaging systems very well support bulk messaging and some polling applications, they are not designed for data collection and processing of health research oriented studies. For that reason known studies based on text-messaging campaigns have been constrained in participant numbers. In order to empower healthcare promotion and education research, this paper presents a system dedicated for healthcare research. It is designed for convenient communication with various study groups, feedback collection and automated processing.

  3. eSIP: A Novel Solution-Based Sectioned Image Property Approach for Microscope Calibration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malte Butzlaff

    Full Text Available Fluorescence confocal microscopy represents one of the central tools in modern sciences. Correspondingly, a growing amount of research relies on the development of novel microscopic methods. During the last decade numerous microscopic approaches were developed for the investigation of various scientific questions. Thereby, the former qualitative imaging methods became replaced by advanced quantitative methods to gain more and more information from a given sample. However, modern microscope systems being as complex as they are, require very precise and appropriate calibration routines, in particular when quantitative measurements should be compared over longer time scales or between different setups. Multispectral beads with sub-resolution size are often used to describe the point spread function and thus the optical properties of the microscope. More recently, a fluorescent layer was utilized to describe the axial profile for each pixel, which allows a spatially resolved characterization. However, fabrication of a thin fluorescent layer with matching refractive index is technically not solved yet. Therefore, we propose a novel type of calibration concept for sectioned image property (SIP measurements which is based on fluorescent solution and makes the calibration concept available for a broader number of users. Compared to the previous approach, additional information can be obtained by application of this extended SIP chart approach, including penetration depth, detected number of photons, and illumination profile shape. Furthermore, due to the fit of the complete profile, our method is less susceptible to noise. Generally, the extended SIP approach represents a simple and highly reproducible method, allowing setup independent calibration and alignment procedures, which is mandatory for advanced quantitative microscopy.

  4. Attacks on quantum key distribution protocols that employ non-ITS authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacher, C.; Abidin, A.; Lorünser, T.; Peev, M.; Ursin, R.; Zeilinger, A.; Larsson, J.-Å.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate how adversaries with large computing resources can break quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols which employ a particular message authentication code suggested previously. This authentication code, featuring low key consumption, is not information-theoretically secure (ITS) since for each message the eavesdropper has intercepted she is able to send a different message from a set of messages that she can calculate by finding collisions of a cryptographic hash function. However, when this authentication code was introduced, it was shown to prevent straightforward man-in-the-middle (MITM) attacks against QKD protocols. In this paper, we prove that the set of messages that collide with any given message under this authentication code contains with high probability a message that has small Hamming distance to any other given message. Based on this fact, we present extended MITM attacks against different versions of BB84 QKD protocols using the addressed authentication code; for three protocols, we describe every single action taken by the adversary. For all protocols, the adversary can obtain complete knowledge of the key, and for most protocols her success probability in doing so approaches unity. Since the attacks work against all authentication methods which allow to calculate colliding messages, the underlying building blocks of the presented attacks expose the potential pitfalls arising as a consequence of non-ITS authentication in QKD post-processing. We propose countermeasures, increasing the eavesdroppers demand for computational power, and also prove necessary and sufficient conditions for upgrading the discussed authentication code to the ITS level.

  5. Divergent Evolution of the Transcriptional Network Controlled by Snf1-Interacting Protein Sip4 in Budding Yeasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constance Mehlgarten

    Full Text Available Cellular responses to starvation are of ancient origin since nutrient limitation has always been a common challenge to the stability of living systems. Hence, signaling molecules involved in sensing or transducing information about limiting metabolites are highly conserved, whereas transcription factors and the genes they regulate have diverged. In eukaryotes the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK functions as a central regulator of cellular energy homeostasis. The yeast AMPK ortholog SNF1 controls the transcriptional network that counteracts carbon starvation conditions by regulating a set of transcription factors. Among those Cat8 and Sip4 have overlapping DNA-binding specificity for so-called carbon source responsive elements and induce target genes upon SNF1 activation. To analyze the evolution of the Cat8-Sip4 controlled transcriptional network we have compared the response to carbon limitation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to that of Kluyveromyces lactis. In high glucose, S. cerevisiae displays tumor cell-like aerobic fermentation and repression of respiration (Crabtree-positive while K. lactis has a respiratory-fermentative life-style, respiration being regulated by oxygen availability (Crabtree-negative, which is typical for many yeasts and for differentiated higher cells. We demonstrate divergent evolution of the Cat8-Sip4 network and present evidence that a role of Sip4 in controlling anabolic metabolism has been lost in the Saccharomyces lineage. We find that in K. lactis, but not in S. cerevisiae, the Sip4 protein plays an essential role in C2 carbon assimilation including induction of the glyoxylate cycle and the carnitine shuttle genes. Induction of KlSIP4 gene expression by KlCat8 is essential under these growth conditions and a primary function of KlCat8. Both KlCat8 and KlSip4 are involved in the regulation of lactose metabolism in K. lactis. In chromatin-immunoprecipitation experiments we demonstrate binding of both, KlSip4 and

  6. Bioremediation protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sheehan, David

    1997-01-01

    ..., .. . . . . .. ,. . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . .. . .. 3 2 Granular Nina Sludge Christiansen, Consortia lndra for Bioremediation, M. Mathrani, and Birgitte K. Ahring . 23 PART II PROTOCOLS...

  7. TeleHealth networks: Instant messaging and point-to-point communication over the internet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachpazidis, Ilias [Fraunhofer Institute for Computer Graphics, Fraunhoferstr. 5, D-64283, Darmstadt (Germany)]. E-mail: Ilias.Sachpazidis@igd.fraunhofer.de; Ohl, Roland [MedCom Gesellschaft fuer medizinische Bildverarbeitung mbH, Runderturmstr. 12, D-64283, Darmstadt (Germany); Kontaxakis, George [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, ETSI Telecomunicacion, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Sakas, Georgios [Fraunhofer Institute for Computer Graphics, Fraunhoferstr. 5, D-64283, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2006-12-20

    This paper explores the advantages and disadvantages of a medical network based on point-to-point communication and a medical network based on Jabber instant messaging protocol. Instant messaging might be, for many people, a convenient way of chatting over the Internet. We will attempt to illustrate how an instant messaging protocol could serve in the best way medical services and provide great flexibility to the involved parts. Additionally, the directory services and presence status offered by the Jabber protocol make it very attractive to medical applications that need to have real time and store and forward communication. Furthermore, doctors connected to Internet via high-speed networks could benefit by saving time due to the data transmission acceleration over Jabber.

  8. TeleHealth networks: Instant messaging and point-to-point communication over the internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachpazidis, Ilias; Ohl, Roland; Kontaxakis, George; Sakas, Georgios

    2006-12-01

    This paper explores the advantages and disadvantages of a medical network based on point-to-point communication and a medical network based on Jabber instant messaging protocol. Instant messaging might be, for many people, a convenient way of chatting over the Internet. We will attempt to illustrate how an instant messaging protocol could serve in the best way medical services and provide great flexibility to the involved parts. Additionally, the directory services and presence status offered by the Jabber protocol make it very attractive to medical applications that need to have real time and store and forward communication. Furthermore, doctors connected to Internet via high-speed networks could benefit by saving time due to the data transmission acceleration over Jabber.

  9. TeleHealth networks: Instant messaging and point-to-point communication over the internet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachpazidis, Ilias; Ohl, Roland; Kontaxakis, George; Sakas, Georgios

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the advantages and disadvantages of a medical network based on point-to-point communication and a medical network based on Jabber instant messaging protocol. Instant messaging might be, for many people, a convenient way of chatting over the Internet. We will attempt to illustrate how an instant messaging protocol could serve in the best way medical services and provide great flexibility to the involved parts. Additionally, the directory services and presence status offered by the Jabber protocol make it very attractive to medical applications that need to have real time and store and forward communication. Furthermore, doctors connected to Internet via high-speed networks could benefit by saving time due to the data transmission acceleration over Jabber

  10. Flux-Enabled Exploration of the Role of Sip1 in Galactose Yeast Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M. Shymansky

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available 13C metabolic flux analysis (13C MFA is an important systems biology technique that has been used to investigate microbial metabolism for decades. The heterotrimer Snf1 kinase complex plays a key role in the preference Saccharomyces cerevisiae exhibits for glucose over galactose, a phenomenon known as glucose repression or carbon catabolite repression. The SIP1 gene, encoding a part of this complex, has received little attention, presumably, because its knockout lacks a growth phenotype. We present a fluxomic investigation of the relative effects of the presence of galactose in classically glucose-repressing media and/or knockout of SIP1 using a multi-scale variant of 13C MFA known as 2-Scale 13C metabolic flux analysis (2S-13C MFA. In this study, all strains have the galactose metabolism deactivated (gal1Δ background so as to be able to separate the metabolic effects purely related to glucose repression from those arising from galactose metabolism. The resulting flux profiles reveal that the presence of galactose in classically glucose-repressing conditions, for a CEN.PK113-7D gal1Δ background, results in a substantial decrease in pentose phosphate pathway (PPP flux and increased flow from cytosolic pyruvate and malate through the mitochondria toward cytosolic branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis. These fluxomic redistributions are accompanied by a higher maximum specific growth rate, both seemingly in violation of glucose repression. Deletion of SIP1 in the CEN.PK113-7D gal1Δ cells grown in mixed glucose/galactose medium results in a further increase. Knockout of this gene in cells grown in glucose-only medium results in no change in growth rate and a corresponding decrease in glucose and ethanol exchange fluxes and flux through pathways involved in aspartate/threonine biosynthesis. Glucose repression appears to be violated at a 1/10 ratio of galactose-to-glucose. Based on the scientific literature, we may have conducted our experiments

  11. Enhancing electron transport in Si:P delta-doped devices by rapid thermal anneal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goh, K. E. J.; Augarten, Y.; Oberbeck, L.; Simmons, M. Y.

    2008-01-01

    We address the use of rapid thermal anneal (RTA) to enhance electron mobility and phase coherent transport in Si:P δ-doped devices encapsulated by low temperature Si molecular beam epitaxy while minimizing dopant diffusion. RTA temperatures of 500-700 deg. C were applied to δ-doped layers encapsulated at 250 deg. C. From 4.2 K magnetotransport measurements, we find that the improved crystal quality after RTA increases the mobility/mean free path by ∼40% and the phase coherence length by ∼25%. Our results suggest that the initial capping layer has near optimal crystal quality and transport improvement achieved by a RTA is limited

  12. Plasma cleaning and analysis of archeological artefacts from Sipán

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saettone, E. A. O.; da Matta, J. A. S.; Alva, W.; Chubaci, J. F. O.; Fantini, M. C. A.; Galvão, R. M. O.; Kiyohara, P.; Tabacniks, M. H.

    2003-04-01

    A novel procedure using plasma sputtering in an electron-cyclotron-resonance device has been applied to clean archeological MOCHE artefacts, unearthed at the Royal Tombs of Sipán. After successful cleaning, the pieces were analysed by a variety of complementary techniques, namely proton-induced x-ray emission, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. With these techniques, it has been possible to not only determine the profiles of the gold and silver surface layers, but also to detect elements that may be relevant to explain the gilding techniques skillfully developed by the metal smiths of the MOCHE culture.

  13. Development and implementation of the Caribbean Laboratory Quality Management Systems Stepwise Improvement Process (LQMS-SIP) Towards Accreditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemnji, George; Edghill, Lisa; Guevara, Giselle; Wallace-Sankarsingh, Sacha; Albalak, Rachel; Cognat, Sebastien; Nkengasong, John; Gabastou, Jean-Marc

    2017-01-01

    Implementing quality management systems and accrediting laboratories in the Caribbean has been a challenge. We report the development of a stepwise process for quality systems improvement in the Caribbean Region. The Caribbean Laboratory Stakeholders met under a joint Pan American Health Organization/US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention initiative and developed a user-friendly framework called 'Laboratory Quality Management System - Stepwise Improvement Process (LQMS-SIP) Towards Accreditation' to support countries in strengthening laboratory services through a stepwise approach toward fulfilling the ISO 15189: 2012 requirements. This approach consists of a three-tiered framework. Tier 1 represents the minimum requirements corresponding to the mandatory criteria for obtaining a licence from the Ministry of Health of the participating country. The next two tiers are quality improvement milestones that are achieved through the implementation of specific quality management system requirements. Laboratories that meet the requirements of the three tiers will be encouraged to apply for accreditation. The Caribbean Regional Organisation for Standards and Quality hosts the LQMS-SIP Secretariat and will work with countries, including the Ministry of Health and stakeholders, including laboratory staff, to coordinate and implement LQMS-SIP activities. The Caribbean Public Health Agency will coordinate and advocate for the LQMS-SIP implementation. This article presents the Caribbean LQMS-SIP framework and describes how it will be implemented among various countries in the region to achieve quality improvement.

  14. A new technique to modify hypereutectic Al-24%Si alloys by a Si-P master alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Yaping; Wang Shujun; Li Hui [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, 73 Jingshi Road, Jinan 250061 (China); Liu Xiangfa [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, 73 Jingshi Road, Jinan 250061 (China)], E-mail: xfliu@sdu.edu.cn

    2009-05-27

    The modification effect of a Si-P master alloy on Al-24%Si alloy was investigated by using electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA) and optical microscopy (OM). The dissolution problem of the Si-P master alloys was solved by changing the sequence of addition. When the Si-P master alloy was added into Al melt before the addition of silicon, the best modification effect could be achieved. The modification parameters of the master alloy on Al-24%Si alloy were optimized through designing and analyzing the orthogonal experiment, and their influences on the modification effect were discussed. The results show that the influence of temperature on the modification effect is the greatest, followed by the addition level, and the holding time is the least. The optimized modification parameters are the modification temperature of 810 deg. C, the addition level of 0.35 wt.%, the holding time of 30 min + 50 min whose meaning is that the Si-P master alloy is added firstly to the molten Al, and silicon is added 30 min later, then holding another 50 min. In addition, the modification mechanism of the Si-P master alloy on Al-24%Si alloy was also discussed.

  15. Reactions to threatening health messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Hoor, Gill A; Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Y; Kalagi, Janice; de Groot, Lianne; Grootjans, Karlijne; Huschens, Alexander; Köhninger, Constanze; Kölgen, Lizan; Pelssers, Isabelle; Schütt, Toby; Thomas, Sophia; Ruiter, Robert A C; Kok, Gerjo

    2012-11-21

    Threatening health messages that focus on severity are popular, but frequently have no effect or even a counterproductive effect on behavior change. This paradox (i.e. wide application despite low effectiveness) may be partly explained by the intuitive appeal of threatening communication: it may be hard to predict the defensive reactions occurring in response to fear appeals. We examine this hypothesis by using two studies by Brown and colleagues, which provide evidence that threatening health messages in the form of distressing imagery in anti-smoking and anti-alcohol campaigns cause defensive reactions. We simulated both Brown et al. experiments, asking participants to estimate the reactions of the original study subjects to the threatening health information (n = 93). Afterwards, we presented the actual original study outcomes. One week later, we assessed whether this knowledge of the actual study outcomes helped participants to more successfully estimate the effectiveness of the threatening health information (n = 72). Results showed that participants were initially convinced of the effectiveness of threatening health messages and were unable to anticipate the defensive reactions that in fact occurred. Furthermore, these estimates did not improve after participants had been explained the dynamics of threatening communication as well as what the effects of the threatening communication had been in reality. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the effectiveness of threatening health messages is intuitively appealing. What is more, providing empirical evidence against the use of threatening health messages has very little effect on this intuitive appeal.

  16. Proximity-Based Asynchronous Messaging Platform for Location-Based Internet of Things Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeong gon Jo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Internet of Things (IoT opens up tremendous opportunities to provide location-based applications. However, despite the services around a user being physically adjacent, common IoT platforms use a centralized structure, like a cloud-computing architecture, which transfers large amounts of data to a central server. This raises problems, such as traffic concentration, long service latency, and high communication cost. In this paper, we propose a physical distance-based asynchronous messaging platform that specializes in processing personalized data and location-based messages. The proposed system disperses traffic using a location-based message-delivery protocol, and has high stability.

  17. Extracting messages masked by chaos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, G.; Cerdeira, H.A.

    1995-01-01

    We show how to extract messages that are masked by a chaotic signal in a system of two Lorenz oscillators. This mask removal is done for two different modes of transmission, a digital one where a parameter of the sender is switched between two values, and an analog mode, where a small amplitude message is added to the carrier signal. We achieve this without using a second Lorenz oscillator as receiver, and without doing a full reconstruction of the dynamics. This method is robust with respect to transformations that impede the unmasking using a Lorenz receiver, and is not affected by the broad-band noise that is inherent to the synchronization process. We also discuss the limitations of this way of extraction for messages in high frequency bands. (author). 12 refs, 4 figs

  18. Taxonomy and Analysis of IP Micro-Mobility Protocols in Single and Simultaneous Movements Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. De Marco

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The micro-mobility is an important aspect in mobile communications, where the applications are anywhere and used anytime. One of the problems of micro-mobility is the hand-off latency. In this paper, we analyse two solutions for IP micro-mobility by means of a general taxonomy. The first one is based on the Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP, which allows the dynamic address configuration of an association. The second one is based on the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP, which is the most popular protocol for multimedia communications over IP networks. We show that for the SCTP solution, there is room for further optimisations of the hand-off latency by adding slight changes to the protocol. However, as full end-to-end solution, SCTP is not able to handle simultaneous movement of hosts, whose probability in general cannot be neglected. On the other hand, the SIP can handle both single and simultaneous movements cases, although the hand-off latency can increase with respect to the SCTP solution. We show that for a correct and fast hand-off, the SIP server should be statefull.

  19. Recursion vs. Replication in Simple Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huttel, Hans; Srba, Jiri

    2005-01-01

    We use some recent techniques from process algebra to draw several conclusions about the well studied class of ping-pong protocols introduced by Dolev and Yao. In particular we show that all nontrivial properties, including reachability and equivalence checking wrt. the whole van Glabbeek's spect...... of messages in the sense of Amadio, Lugiez and Vanackere. We conclude by showing that reachability analysis for a replicative variant of the protocol becomes decidable....

  20. Experimental Evaluation of a SIP-Based Home Gateway with Multiple Wireless Interfaces for Domotics Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario G. Garroppo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern houses, the presence of sensors and actuators is increasing, while communication services and entertainment systems had long since settled into everyday life. The utilization of wireless communication technologies, such as ZigBee, Wi-Fi, and Bluetooth, is attractive because of their short installation times and low costs. The research is moving towards the integration of the various home appliances and devices into a single domotics system, able to exploit the cooperation among the diverse subsystems and offer the end-user a single multiservice platform. In this scenario, the paper presents the experimental evaluation of a domotics framework centered on a SIP-based home gateway (SHG. While SIP is used to build a common control plane, the SHG is in charge of translating the user commands from and to the specific domotics languages. The analysis has been devoted to assess both the performance of the SHG software framework and the negative effects produced by the simultaneous interference among the three widespread wireless technologies.

  1. Design and construction of the SIPPING for fuels of the TRIGA Mark III reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaneda J, G.; Delfin L, A.; Alvarado P, R.; Mazon R, R.; Ortega V, B.

    2003-01-01

    The sipping technique, it has been used by several possessors of nuclear research reactors in its irradiated nuclear fuels, likewise in some fuel storage sites, with the objective of to determine the quantity of radioactivity that the fuel liberates in the means in that it is. The irradiated fuel in storage of some nuclear research reactors, its can have cracks that cross the cladding of the same one, generating the liberation of fission products that its need to determine to maintain safety measures appropriate as much as the fuel as of the facilities where they are. It doesn't exist until now, some method published for the non destructive sipping test technique. Based on that described, the Reactor Department of the National Institute of Nuclear Research, it has designed and built an inspection system of irradiated fuel that it will allow the detection of gassy fission products in site, and solids by means of the measurement of the activity of the Cs-137 contained in water samples. (Author)

  2. An enhanced password authentication scheme for session initiation protocol with perfect forward secrecy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Shuming; Xu, Guoai; Ahmad, Haseeb; Guo, Yanhui

    2018-01-01

    The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is an extensive and esteemed communication protocol employed to regulate signaling as well as for controlling multimedia communication sessions. Recently, Kumari et al. proposed an improved smart card based authentication scheme for SIP based on Farash's scheme. Farash claimed that his protocol is resistant against various known attacks. But, we observe some accountable flaws in Farash's protocol. We point out that Farash's protocol is prone to key-compromise impersonation attack and is unable to provide pre-verification in the smart card, efficient password change and perfect forward secrecy. To overcome these limitations, in this paper we present an enhanced authentication mechanism based on Kumari et al.'s scheme. We prove that the proposed protocol not only overcomes the issues in Farash's scheme, but it can also resist against all known attacks. We also provide the security analysis of the proposed scheme with the help of widespread AVISPA (Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications) software. At last, comparing with the earlier proposals in terms of security and efficiency, we conclude that the proposed protocol is efficient and more secure.

  3. An enhanced password authentication scheme for session initiation protocol with perfect forward secrecy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is an extensive and esteemed communication protocol employed to regulate signaling as well as for controlling multimedia communication sessions. Recently, Kumari et al. proposed an improved smart card based authentication scheme for SIP based on Farash’s scheme. Farash claimed that his protocol is resistant against various known attacks. But, we observe some accountable flaws in Farash’s protocol. We point out that Farash’s protocol is prone to key-compromise impersonation attack and is unable to provide pre-verification in the smart card, efficient password change and perfect forward secrecy. To overcome these limitations, in this paper we present an enhanced authentication mechanism based on Kumari et al.’s scheme. We prove that the proposed protocol not only overcomes the issues in Farash’s scheme, but it can also resist against all known attacks. We also provide the security analysis of the proposed scheme with the help of widespread AVISPA (Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications) software. At last, comparing with the earlier proposals in terms of security and efficiency, we conclude that the proposed protocol is efficient and more secure. PMID:29547619

  4. The role of groundwater discharge fluxes on Si:P ratios in a major tributary to Lake Erie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maavara, Taylor; Slowinski, Stephanie; Rezanezhad, Fereidoun; Van Meter, Kimberly; Van Cappellen, Philippe

    2018-05-01

    Groundwater discharge can be a major source of nutrients to river systems. Although quantification of groundwater nitrate loading to streams is common, the dependence of surface water silicon (Si) and phosphorus (P) concentrations on groundwater sources has rarely been determined. Additionally, the ability of groundwater discharge to drive surface water Si:P ratios has not been contextualized relative to riverine inputs or in-stream transformations. In this study, we quantify the seasonal dynamics of Si and P cycles in the Grand River (GR) watershed, the largest Canadian watershed draining into Lake Erie, to test our hypothesis that regions of Si-rich groundwater discharge increase surface water Si:P ratios. Historically, both the GR and Lake Erie have been considered stoichiometrically P-limited, where the molar Si:P ratio is greater than the ~16:1 phytoplankton uptake ratio. However, recent trends suggest that eastern Lake Erie may be approaching Si-limitation. We sampled groundwater and surface water for dissolved and reactive particulate Si as well as total dissolved P for 12months within and downstream of a 50-km reach of high groundwater discharge. Our results indicate that groundwater Si:P ratios are lower than the corresponding surface water and that groundwater is a significant source of bioavailable P to surface water. Despite these observations, the watershed remains P-limited for the majority of the year, with localized periods of Si-limitation. We further find that groundwater Si:P ratios are a relatively minor driver of surface water Si:P, but that the magnitude of Si and P loads from groundwater represent a large proportion of the overall fluxes to Lake Erie. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. SIP-Based Single Neuron Stochastic Predictive Control for Non-Gaussian Networked Control Systems with Uncertain Metrology Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinying Xu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel data-driven single neuron predictive control strategy is proposed for non-Gaussian networked control systems with metrology delays in the information theory framework. Firstly, survival information potential (SIP, instead of minimum entropy, is used to formulate the performance index to characterize the randomness of the considered systems, which is calculated by oversampling method. Then the minimum values can be computed by optimizing the SIP-based performance index. Finally, the proposed strategy, minimum entropy method and mean square error (MSE are applied to a networked motor control system, and results demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed strategy.

  6. Radiating Messages: An International Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Janet

    2003-01-01

    Negative messages about the detrimental impacts of divorce on children prompted urgent calls in the United Kingdom for a reinstatement of traditional family values. Suggests that although the effects of divorce are real, care should be taken to avoid exaggeration, thus moving the debate to one centered on providing better support, advice, and…

  7. Re: Design Changing the Message

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Miranda Wakeman

    2008-01-01

    The advertisements that flood everyone's visual culture are designed to create desire. From the author's experience, most high school students are not aware of the messages that they are bombarded with every day, and if they are, few care or think about them critically. The author's goals for this lesson were to increase students' awareness of the…

  8. Instant Apache Camel message routing

    CERN Document Server

    Ibryam, Bilgin

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. This short, instruction-based guide shows you how to perform application integration using the industry standard Enterprise Integration Patterns.This book is intended for Java developers who are new to Apache Camel and message- oriented applications.

  9. The Media and the Message.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Glenn

    2001-01-01

    The experiences of Columbine and El Cajon high schools with media onslaughts following traumatic shooting incidents underscore the importance of getting the message across and sticking to known facts. In a crisis, speculation can hurt everyone. The most important elements in crisis communications are planning and media relations. (MLH)

  10. Spatial variation in messaging effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warshaw, Christopher

    2018-05-01

    There is large geographic variation in the public's views about climate change in the United States. Research now shows that climate messages can influence public beliefs about the scientific consensus on climate change, particularly in the places that are initially more skeptical.

  11. Design Considerations in Developing a Text Messaging Program Aimed at Smoking Cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtrop, Jodi Summers; Bağci Bosi, A Tülay; Emri, Salih

    2012-01-01

    Background Cell phone text messaging is gaining increasing recognition as an important tool that can be harnessed for prevention and intervention programs across a wide variety of health research applications. Despite the growing body of literature reporting positive outcomes, very little is available about the design decisions that scaffold the development of text messaging-based health interventions. What seems to be missing is documentation of the thought process of investigators in the initial stages of protocol and content development. This omission is of particular concern because many researchers seem to view text messaging as the intervention itself instead of simply a delivery mechanism. Certainly, aspects of this technology may increase participant engagement. Like other interventions, however, the content is a central driver of the behavior change. Objective To address this noted gap in the literature, we discuss the protocol decisions and content development for SMS Turkey (or Cebiniz birakin diyor in Turkish), a smoking cessation text messaging program for adult smokers in Turkey. Methods Content was developed in English and translated into Turkish. Efforts were made to ensure that the protocol and content were grounded in evidence-based smoking cessation theory, while also reflective of the cultural aspects of smoking and quitting in Turkey. Results Methodological considerations included whether to provide cell phones and whether to reimburse participants for texting costs; whether to include supplementary intervention resources (eg, personal contact); and whether to utilize unidirectional versus bidirectional messaging. Program design considerations included how messages were tailored to the quitting curve and one’s smoking status after one’s quit date, the number of messages participants received per day, and over what period of time the intervention lasted. Conclusion The content and methods of effective smoking cessation quitline programs were

  12. Semantics and logic for security protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, B.P.F.; Hasuo, I.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a sound BAN-like logic for reasoning about security protocols with theorem prover support. The logic has formulas for sending and receiving messages (with nonces, public and private encryptions, etc.), and has both temporal and epistemic operators (describing the knowledge of

  13. The small serine-threonine protein SIP2 interacts with STE12 and is involved in ascospore germination in Sordaria macrospora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elleuche, Skander; Bernhards, Yasmine; Schäfers, Christian; Varghese, Jans Manjali; Nolting, Nicole; Pöggeler, Stefanie

    2010-12-01

    In fungi, the homoeodomain protein STE12 controls diverse developmental processes, and derives its regulatory specificity from different protein interactions. We recently showed that in the homothallic ascomycete Sordaria macrospora, STE12 is essential for ascospore development, and is able to interact with the alpha-domain mating-type protein SMTA-1 and the MADS box protein MCM1. To further evaluate the functional roles of STE12, we used the yeast two-hybrid approach to identify new STE12-interacting partners. Using STE12 as bait, a small, serine-threonine-rich protein (designated STE12-interacting protein 2, SIP2) was identified. SIP2 is conserved among members of the fungal class Sordariomycetes. In vivo localization studies revealed that SIP2 was targeted to the nucleus and cytoplasm. The STE12/SIP2 interaction was further confirmed in vivo by bimolecular fluorescence complementation. Nuclear localization of SIP2 was apparently mediated by STE12. Unlike deletion of ste12, deletion of sip2 in S. macrospora led to only a slight decrease in ascospore germination, and no other obvious morphological phenotype. In comparison to the Δste12 single knockout strain, ascospore germination was significantly increased in a Δsip2/ste12 double knockout strain. Our data provide evidence for a regulatory role of the novel fungal protein SIP2 in ascospore germination. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Reactions to threatening health messages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ten Hoor Gill A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Threatening health messages that focus on severity are popular, but frequently have no effect or even a counterproductive effect on behavior change. This paradox (i.e. wide application despite low effectiveness may be partly explained by the intuitive appeal of threatening communication: it may be hard to predict the defensive reactions occurring in response to fear appeals. We examine this hypothesis by using two studies by Brown and colleagues, which provide evidence that threatening health messages in the form of distressing imagery in anti-smoking and anti-alcohol campaigns cause defensive reactions. Methods We simulated both Brown et al. experiments, asking participants to estimate the reactions of the original study subjects to the threatening health information (n = 93. Afterwards, we presented the actual original study outcomes. One week later, we assessed whether this knowledge of the actual study outcomes helped participants to more successfully estimate the effectiveness of the threatening health information (n = 72. Results Results showed that participants were initially convinced of the effectiveness of threatening health messages and were unable to anticipate the defensive reactions that in fact occurred. Furthermore, these estimates did not improve after participants had been explained the dynamics of threatening communication as well as what the effects of the threatening communication had been in reality. Conclusions These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the effectiveness of threatening health messages is intuitively appealing. What is more, providing empirical evidence against the use of threatening health messages has very little effect on this intuitive appeal.

  15. Representing culture in interstellar messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakoch, Douglas A.

    2008-09-01

    As scholars involved with the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) have contemplated how we might portray humankind in any messages sent to civilizations beyond Earth, one of the challenges they face is adequately representing the diversity of human cultures. For example, in a 2003 workshop in Paris sponsored by the SETI Institute, the International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) SETI Permanent Study Group, the International Society for the Arts, Sciences and Technology (ISAST), and the John Templeton Foundation, a varied group of artists, scientists, and scholars from the humanities considered how to encode notions of altruism in interstellar messages . Though the group represented 10 countries, most were from Europe and North America, leading to the group's recommendation that subsequent discussions on the topic should include more globally representative perspectives. As a result, the IAA Study Group on Interstellar Message Construction and the SETI Institute sponsored a follow-up workshop in Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA in February 2005. The Santa Fe workshop brought together scholars from a range of disciplines including anthropology, archaeology, chemistry, communication science, philosophy, and psychology. Participants included scholars familiar with interstellar message design as well as specialists in cross-cultural research who had participated in the Symposium on Altruism in Cross-cultural Perspective, held just prior to the workshop during the annual conference of the Society for Cross-cultural Research . The workshop included discussion of how cultural understandings of altruism can complement and critique the more biologically based models of altruism proposed for interstellar messages at the 2003 Paris workshop. This paper, written by the chair of both the Paris and Santa Fe workshops, will explore the challenges of communicating concepts of altruism that draw on both biological and cultural models.

  16. Capsule endoscopy for the detection of oesophageal mucosal disorders: a comparison of two different ingestion protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jonge, Pieter J F; Van Eijck, Brechje C; Geldof, Han; Bekkering, Frank C; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; Polinder, Suzanne; Kuipers, Ernst J; Siersema, Peter D

    2008-01-01

    To assess the accuracy of a new ingestion protocol for capsule endoscopy (CE) in evaluating patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD). Oesophago-gastroduodenoscopy (OGD) was performed 1 week prior to CE. The first 28 subjects swallowed the capsule following the original ingestion protocol (OIP) and the subsequent 30 subjects following a simplified ingestion protocol (SIP). CE videos were reviewed by two independent investigators who were blinded to the OGD findings. Of 48 patients included, 24 were diagnosed with reflux oesophagitis (67% male, mean age 49.5+/-13 years) and 24 with Barrett oesophagus (BO) (88% male, 55.6+/-10 years) by OGD. In addition, 10 asymptomatic healthy controls (50% male, 45.8+/-7.1 years) were included. Oesophageal transit time was faster in patients using the SIP compared to the OIP (126+/-26 s versus 214+/-33; p=0.04). Complete evaluation of the Z-line was possible in 19/28 (68%) of the OIPs compared to 28/30 (93%) of the SIPs (p=0.04). Sensitivity for detecting any oesophageal abnormality was higher in the SIP group than in the OIP group (97% versus 89%; p=0.11). Overall, CE detected oesophagitis in 22/24 patients (sensitivity, 92%; specificity, 88%) and BO in 23/24 patients (sensitivity, 96%; specificity, 91%). Furthermore, 41/44 (93%) preferred CE over OGD and experienced less discomfort and pain during CE. CE is an accurate method for detecting mucosal oesophageal abnormalities. The new ingestion protocol improves the visualization of the Z-line, which is likely to increase the diagnostic yield of CE.

  17. Toward Predicting Popularity of Social Marketing Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bei; Chen, Miao; Kwok, Linchi

    Popularity of social marketing messages indicates the effectiveness of the corresponding marketing strategies. This research aims to discover the characteristics of social marketing messages that contribute to different level of popularity. Using messages posted by a sample of restaurants on Facebook as a case study, we measured the message popularity by the number of "likes" voted by fans, and examined the relationship between the message popularity and two properties of the messages: (1) content, and (2) media type. Combining a number of text mining and statistics methods, we have discovered some interesting patterns correlated to "more popular" and "less popular" social marketing messages. This work lays foundation for building computational models to predict the popularity of social marketing messages in the future.

  18. Spectral Induced Polarization (SIP) monitoring during Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heenan, J. W.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Slater, L. D.

    2010-12-01

    Jeffrey Heenan, Dimitrios Ntarlagiannis, Lee Slater Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Rutgers University, Newark NJ Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) is an established, cost effective, method for enhancing tertiary oil recovery. Although not commonly used for shallow heavy oils, it could be a viable alternative since it can offer sustainable economic recovery and minimal environmental impact. A critical component of successful MEOR treatments is accurate, real time monitoring of the biodegradation processes resulting from the injection of microbial communities into the formation; results of recent biogeophysical research suggest that minimally-invasive geophysical methods could significantly contribute to such monitoring efforts. Here we present results of laboratory experiments, to assess the sensitivity of the spectral induced polarization method (SIP) to MEOR treatments. We used heavy oil, obtained from a shallow oilfield in SW Missouri, to saturate three sand columns. We then followed common industry procedures,and used a commercially available microbial consortia, to treat the oil columns. The active MEOR experiments were performed in duplicate while a control column maintained similar conditions, without promoting microbial activity and oil degradation. We monitored the SIP signatures, between 0.001 Hz and 1000 Hz, for a period of six months. To support the geophysical measurements we also monitored common geochemical parameters, including pH, Eh and fluid conductivity, and collected weekly fluid samples from the outflow and inflow for further analysis; fluid samples were analyzed to confirm that microbes actively degraded the heavy oils in the column while destructive analysis of the solid materials was performed upon termination of the experiment. Preliminary analysis of the results suggests that SIP is sensitive to MEOR processes. In both inoculated columns we recorded an increase in the low frequency polarization with time; measureable

  19. Improving Type Error Messages in OCaml

    OpenAIRE

    Charguéraud , Arthur

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Cryptic type error messages are a major obstacle to learning OCaml or other ML-based languages. In many cases, error messages cannot be interpreted without a sufficiently-precise model of the type inference algorithm. The problem of improving type error messages in ML has received quite a bit of attention over the past two decades, and many different strategies have been considered. The challenge is not only to produce error messages that are both sufficiently concise ...

  20. Study on the essential variables for pipe outer surface irradiated laser stress improvement process (L-SIP). Development of pipe outer surface irradiated laser stress improvement process (L-SIP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Takahiro; Kamo, Kazuhiko; Muroya, Itaru; Asada, Seiji; Nakamura, Yasuo

    2009-01-01

    The new process called L-SIP (outer surface irradiated Laser Stress Improvement Process) is developed to improve the tensile residual stress of the inner surface near the butt welded joints of pipes in the compression stress. The temperature gradient occurs in the thickness of pipes in heating the outer surface rapidly by laser beam. By the thermal expansion difference between the inner surface and the outer surface, the compression stress occurs near the inner surface of pipes. In this paper, the essential variables for L-SIP is studied by experimental and FEM analysis. The range of the essential variables for L-SIP, which are defined by thermo-elastic FEM analysis, are Tmax=550 - 650degC, L Q /√rh ≥ 3, W Q /√rh ≥ 1.7, and, 0.04 ≤ F 0 ≤ 0.10 where Tmax is maximum temperature on the monitor point of the outer surface, F 0 is k x τ 0 /h 2 , k is thermal diffusivity coefficient, τ 0 is the temperature rise time from 100degC to maximum temperature on the monitor point of the outer surface, W Q is τ 0 x v, υ is moving velocity, L Q is the uniform temperature length in the axial direction, h is thickness of the pipe, and r is average radius of the pipe. It is showed by thermo-elastic-plastic FEM analysis that the residual stresses near the inner surface of pipes are improved in 4 different size pipes under the same essential variables. L-SIP is actually applied to welding joints of 4B x Sch160 and 2B x Sch80 SUS304 type stainless steel pipes within the defined range of the essential variables. The measured welding residual stresses on the inner surface near the welding joints are tensile. The residual stresses on the inner surface change to compression in all joints by L-SIP. (author)

  1. 78 FR 52166 - Quantitative Messaging Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    ... COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION Quantitative Messaging Research AGENCY: Commodity Futures... survey will follow qualitative message testing research (for which CFTC received fast-track OMB approval... message testing research (for which CFTC received fast-track OMB approval) and is necessary to identify...

  2. Effects of Text Messaging on Academic Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Barks Amanda; Searight H. Russell; Ratwik Susan

    2011-01-01

    University students frequently send and receive cellular phone text messages during classroominstruction. Cognitive psychology research indicates that multi-tasking is frequently associatedwith performance cost. However, university students often have considerable experience withelectronic multi-tasking and may believe that they can devote necessary attention to a classroomlecture while sending and receiving text messages. In the current study, university students whoused text messaging were ...

  3. Message exchange in the building industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de B.; Somers, L.J.A.M.

    1995-01-01

    A process model is described for exchanging information in the building industry. In this model participants send and receive messages. On receipt of a message an activity is executed if all required information is available. Otherwise a message will be sent to another participant to obtain the

  4. 78 FR 41311 - Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Approval of “Infrastructure” SIP With...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... copyrighted material, will be publicly-available only in hard copy. Publicly-available docket materials are available either electronically in www.regulations.gov or in hard copy at the U.S. Environmental Protection... SIP at 326 IAC 1-3-4(b)(8) that among other things, contained the Federally promulgated 2006 PM 2.5...

  5. [The ISP (Safe Insertion of PICCs) protocol: a bundle of 8 recommendations to minimize the complications related to the peripherally inserted central venous catheters (PICC)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emoli, Alessandro; Cappuccio, Serena; Marche, Bruno; Musarò, Andrea; Scoppettuolo, Giancarlo; Pittiruti, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    The ISP (Safe Insertion of PICCs) protocol: a bundle of 8 recommendations to minimize the complications related to the peripherally inserted central venous catheters (PICC). The insertion of a peripherally inserted central venous catheter (PICC) is not without risks. The Italian Group for the Study of Long-Term Central Venous Access Devices (GAVeCeLT) has developed a protocol (SIP: Safe Implantation of PICCs) with the aim of minimizing the risks which may be associated with the placement of PICCs. The protocol is based on recommendations available in the literature and on the main clinical practice guidelines. The SIP protocol, a bundle of evidence-based recommendations, it is is easy to use, inexpensive, and cost-effective. If routinely used and carefully inplemented, it greatly reduces complications such as failure of venipuncture, accidental arterial puncture, damage of median nerve, infection and catheter related venous thrombosis.

  6. Advanced Internet Protocols, Services, and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Oki, Eiji; Tatipamula, Mallikarjun; Vogt, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Today, the internet and computer networking are essential parts of business, learning, and personal communications and entertainment. Virtually all messages or transactions sent over the internet are carried using internet infrastructure- based on advanced internet protocols. Advanced internet protocols ensure that both public and private networks operate with maximum performance, security, and flexibility. This book is intended to provide a comprehensive technical overview and survey of advanced internet protocols, first providing a solid introduction and going on to discu

  7. Sipping test update device for fuel elements cladding inspections in IPR-r1 TRIGA reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, R.R.; Mesquita, A.Z.; Andrade, E.P.D.; Gual, Maritza R., E-mail: rrr@cdtn.br, E-mail: amir@cdtn.br, E-mail: edson@cdtn.br, E-mail: maritzargual@gmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    It is in progress at the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear - CDTN (Nuclear Technology Development Center), a research project that aims to investigate possible leaks in the fuel elements of the TRIGA reactor, located in this research center. This paper presents the final form of sipping test device for TRIGA reactor, and results of the first experiments setup. Mechanical support strength tests were made by knotting device on the crane, charged with water from the conventional water supply, and tests outside the reactor pool with the use of new non-irradiated fuel elements encapsulated in stainless steel, and available safe stored in this unit. It is expected that tests with graphite elements from reactor pool are done soon after and also the test experiment with the first fuel elements in service positioned in the B ring (central ring) of the reactor core in the coming months. (author)

  8. Sipping test update device for fuel elements cladding inspections in IPR-r1 TRIGA reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, R.R.; Mesquita, A.Z.; Andrade, E.P.D.; Gual, Maritza R.

    2015-01-01

    It is in progress at the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear - CDTN (Nuclear Technology Development Center), a research project that aims to investigate possible leaks in the fuel elements of the TRIGA reactor, located in this research center. This paper presents the final form of sipping test device for TRIGA reactor, and results of the first experiments setup. Mechanical support strength tests were made by knotting device on the crane, charged with water from the conventional water supply, and tests outside the reactor pool with the use of new non-irradiated fuel elements encapsulated in stainless steel, and available safe stored in this unit. It is expected that tests with graphite elements from reactor pool are done soon after and also the test experiment with the first fuel elements in service positioned in the B ring (central ring) of the reactor core in the coming months. (author)

  9. Double crystal X-ray analysis of phosphorus precipitation in supersaturated Si-P solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Servidori, M.; Zini, Q.; Dal Monte, C.

    1983-01-01

    The physical nature of the electrically inactive phosphorus in silicon is investigated by double crystal X-ray diffraction measurements. This analysis is performed on laser annealed supersaturated samples, doped by ion implantation up to 5 x 10 21 cm -3 . After isothermal heat treatments, these solid solutions show marked reductions in the electrically active phosphorus concentration. In particular, 850 0 C heatings give rise to a carrier concentration which corresponds to the phosphorus solubility in equilibrium with the inactive dopant. This dopant is characterized by means of lattice strain measurements: they are found consistent with the presence of perfectly coherent cubic SiP precipitates. This result is in agreement with the one obtained in preceeding works by electrical measurements and transmission electron microscopy observations and contradicts the hypothesis that the excess dopant atoms are, at least in part, charged point defects (E-centres). (author)

  10. In-core sipping method for the identification of failed fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Zhongwang; Zhang Yajun

    2000-01-01

    The failed fuel assembly identification system is an important safety system which ensures safe operations of reactor and immediate treatment of failed fuel rod cladding. The system uses an internationally recognized method to identify failed fuel assemblies in a reactor with fuel element cases. The in-core sipping method is customary used to identify failed fuel assemblies during refueling or after fuel rod cladding failure accidents. The test is usually performed after reactor shutdown by taking samples from each fuel element case while the cases are still in their original core positions. The sample activity is then measured to identify failed fuel assemblies. A failed fuel assembly identification system was designed for the NHR-200 based on the properties of the NHR-200 and national requirements. the design provides an internationally recognized level of safety to ensure the safety of NHR-200

  11. Framing of health information messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akl, Elie A; Oxman, Andrew D; Herrin, Jeph; Vist, Gunn E; Terrenato, Irene; Sperati, Francesca; Costiniuk, Cecilia; Blank, Diana; Schünemann, Holger

    2011-12-07

    -planned subgroup analyses based on the type of message (screening, prevention, and treatment). The primary outcome was behaviour. We did not assess any adverse outcomes. We included 35 studies involving 16,342 participants (all health consumers) and reporting 51 comparisons.In the context of attribute framing, participants in one included study understood the message better when it was framed negatively than when it was framed positively (1 study; SMD -0.58 (95% confidence interval (CI) -0.94 to -0.22); moderate effect size; low quality evidence). Although positively-framed messages may have led to more positive perception of effectiveness than negatively-framed messages (2 studies; SMD 0.36 (95% CI -0.13 to 0.85); small effect size; low quality evidence), there was little or no difference in persuasiveness (11 studies; SMD 0.07 (95% CI -0.23 to 0.37); low quality evidence) and behavior (1 study; SMD 0.09 (95% CI -0.14 to 0.31); moderate quality evidence).In the context of goal framing, loss messages led to a more positive perception of effectiveness compared to gain messages for screening messages (5 studies; SMD -0.30 (95% CI -0.49 to -0.10); small effect size; moderate quality evidence) and may have been more persuasive for treatment messages (3 studies; SMD -0.50 (95% CI -1.04 to 0.04); moderate effect size; very low quality evidence). There was little or no difference in behavior (16 studies; SMD -0.06 (95% CI -0.15 to 0.03); low quality evidence). No study assessed the effect on understanding. Contrary to commonly held beliefs, the available low to moderate quality evidence suggests that both attribute and goal framing may have little if any consistent effect on health consumers' behaviour. The unexplained heterogeneity between studies suggests the possibility of a framing effect under specific conditions. Future research needs to investigate these conditions.

  12. Efficient Communication Protocols for Deciding Edit Distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jowhari, Hossein

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present two communication protocols on computing edit distance. In our first result, we give a one-way protocol for the following Document Exchange problem. Namely given x ∈ Σn to Alice and y ∈ Σn to Bob and integer k to both, Alice sends a message to Bob so that he learns x...... or truthfully reports that the edit distance between x and y is greater than k. For this problem, we give a randomized protocol in which Alice transmits at most O ˜ (klog 2 n) bits and each party’s time complexity is O ˜ (nlogn+k 2 log 2 n) . Our second result is a simultaneous protocol for edit distance over...... permutations. Here Alice and Bob both send a message to a third party (the referee) who does not have access to the input strings. Given the messages, the referee decides if the edit distance between x and y is at most k or not. For this problem we give a protocol in which Alice and Bob run a O...

  13. Dynamic behavior of correlated electrons in the insulating doped semiconductor Si:P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritz, Elvira

    2009-06-04

    At low energy scales charge transport in the insulating Si:P is dominated by activated hopping between the localized donor electron states. Theoretical models for a disordered electronic system with a long-range Coulomb interaction are appropriate to interpret the electric conductivity spectra. With a novel and advanced method we perform broadband phase sensitive measurements of the reflection coefficient from 45 MHz up to 5 GHz, employing a vector network analyzer with a 2.4 mm coaxial sensor, which is terminated by the sample under test. While the material parameters (conductivity and permittivity) can be easily extracted from the obtained impedance data if the sample is metallic, no direct solution is possible if the material under investigation is an insulator. Focusing on doped semiconductors with largely varying conductivity and dielectric function, we present a closed calibration and evaluation procedure with an optimized theoretical and experimental complexity, based on the rigorous solution for the electromagnetic field inside the insulating sample, combined with the variational principle. Basically no limiting assumptions are necessary in a strictly defined parameter range. As an application of our new method, we have measured the complex broadband microwave conductivity of Si:P in a broad range of phosphorus concentration n/n{sub c} from 0.56 to 0.9 relative to the critical value n{sub c}=3.5 x 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} of the metal-insulator transition driven by doping at temperatures down to 1.1 K, and studied unresolved issues of fundamental research concerning the electronic correlations and the metal-insulator transition. (orig.)

  14. Visual inspection system and sipping design for spent fuel at TRIGA MARK III reactor of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delfin, A.; Mazon, R.

    2002-01-01

    In the framework of the Technical Cooperation Regional Project for Latin America RLA/4/018 for the biennium 2001-2002, one of the activities identified is the characterization of spent fuel. Of these activities an important one is not doubt the physical condition of spent fuel because an appropriate identification of the fuel status will prevent problems of fuel leaks, corrosion problems etc. As part of the activities of the project was decided that countries no having visual inspection and sipping systems should be very desirable to have them as a result of this project. The Triga reactor of Mexico does not have both of them, therefore, it was decided the need of having both system. The paper describe first the way we designed and constructed a remote Visual Inspection System and example of how is operated. Along the experience and problems we have had with the system. Also we will present the design of the Sipping system were two option were considered. First to take a sample of water after a convenient period of time passing through a circuit to a multichannel analyzer and to identify leakage by way of measuring Caesium-137. Second, exists the possibility that the Stainless Steel sleeve of the fuel has only very small failures, so it is going to be very difficult to have leakages unless the fuel is hot. Therefore we are evaluating the possibility of using heaters to increase the temperature of the fuel and succeed on detecting leakages. The results - we hope - will be ready to be presented at the meeting. (author)

  15. Reactions to threatening health messages

    OpenAIRE

    ten Hoor, Gill A; Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Y; Kalagi, Janice; de Groot, Lianne; Grootjans, Karlijne; Huschens, Alexander; K?hninger, Constanze; K?lgen, Lizan; Pelssers, Isabelle; Sch?tt, Toby; Thomas, Sophia; Ruiter, Robert AC; Kok, Gerjo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Threatening health messages that focus on severity are popular, but frequently have no effect or even a counterproductive effect on behavior change. This paradox (i.e. wide application despite low effectiveness) may be partly explained by the intuitive appeal of threatening communication: it may be hard to predict the defensive reactions occurring in response to fear appeals. We examine this hypothesis by using two studies by Brown and colleagues, which provide evidence th...

  16. A message to school girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinwande, A

    1993-06-01

    Information, education, and communication (IEC) programs need to be strengthened to appeal to adolescents, who are increasingly contributing to unwanted pregnancy and are using abortion as a means of birth control. Successful IEC programs have the following characteristics: 1) established communication theories that guide development of materials; 2) a multimedia and a mass media approach to information dissemination, and 3) emphasis on visual displays. The primary emphasis should be on presentation of a concise, clear message with the appropriate visual medium. Many communication specialists in developing countries, however, lack the training to design and use effective IEC software. Designing effective messages involves a process of integrating scientific ideas with artistic appeal. The aim is to stimulate the target audience to change its behavior of life style. The message must be convincing and contain practical and useful information. The IEC Software Design Cycle focuses on analysis and diagnosis, design production, pretesting and modification, and distribution and evaluation. Each of these processes are described. Necessary before any attempt is made is obtaining data on historical, sociocultural, and demographic characteristics, economic activities, health and social services, communication infrastructure, marriage and family life patterns, and decision making systems. Focus group discussions may be used to collect information about the target group. An example is given of the process of development, in a course through the Center or African Family Studies, of a poster about premarital sex directed to 11-16 year olds. On the basis of focus group discussions, it was decided that the message would be to encourage girls to talk with their mothers about family life and premarital sex. The poster was produced with 2 school girls talking in front of the school. The evaluation yielded modifications such as including a school building that resembled actual

  17. Instant Messaging in Dental Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatoon, Binish; Hill, Kirsty B; Walmsley, A Damien

    2015-12-01

    Instant messaging (IM) is when users communicate instantly via their mobile devices, and it has become one of the most preferred choices of tools to communicate amongst health professions students. The aim of this study was to understand how dental students communicate via IM, faculty members' perspectives on using IM to communicate with students, and whether such tools are useful in the learning environment. After free-associating themes on online communication, two draft topic guides for structured interviews were designed that focussed on mobile device-related communication activities. A total of 20 students and six faculty members at the University of Birmingham School of Dentistry agreed to take part in the interviews. Students were selected from years 1-5 representing each year group. The most preferred communication tools were emails, social networking, and IM. Emails were used for more formal messages, and IM and social networking sites were used for shorter messages. WhatsApp was the most used IM app because of its popular features such as being able to check if recipients have read and received messages and group work. The students reported that changes were necessary to improve their communication with faculty members. The faculty members reported having mixed feelings toward the use of IM to communicate with students. The students wished to make such tools a permanent part of their learning environment, but only with the approval of faculty members. The faculty members were willing to accept IM as a communication tool only if it is monitored and maintained by the university and has a positive effect on learning.

  18. A Modular Instant Messaging System

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamad Raad; Zouhair Bazzal; Majd Ghareeb; Hanan Farhat; Semar Bahmad

    2017-01-01

    Instant Messaging (IM) Android applications are a trend nowadays. These applications are categorized according to their features: usability, flexibility, privacy and security. However, IM applications tend to be inflexible in terms of functionality offered. The “Dble-U” system was developed as a solution to this inflexibility, with a focus on privacy as an example use case. “Dble-U” is a configurable modular system consisting of an Android chatting application, a privacy controller applicatio...

  19. A message-queuing framework for STAR's online monitoring and metadata collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhipkin, D; Lauret, J; Betts, W

    2011-01-01

    We report our experience on migrating STARs Online Services (Run Control System, Data Acquisition System, Slow Control System and Subsystem Monitoring) from direct read/write database accesses to a modern non-blocking message-oriented infrastructure. Based on the Advanced Messaging Queuing Protocol (AMQP) and standards, this novel approach does not specify the message data structure, allowing great flexibility in its use. After careful consideration, we chose Google Protocol Buffers as our primary (de)serialization format for structured data exchange. This migration allows us to reduce the overall system complexity and greatly improve the reliability of the metadata collection and the performance of our online services in general. We will present this new framework through its software architecture overview, providing details about our staged and non-disruptive migration process as well as details of the implementation of pluggable components to provide future improvements without compromising stability and availability of services.

  20. A critical analysis of the X.400 model of message handling systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sinderen, Marten J.; Dorregeest, Evert

    1988-01-01

    The CCITT X.400 model of store and forward Message Handling Systems (MHS) serves as a common basis for the definition of electronic mail services and protocols both within CCITT and ISO. This paper presents an analysis of this model and its related recommendations from two perspectives. First the

  1. Distributed parallel messaging for multiprocessor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip; Salapura, Valentina; Senger, Robert M; Steinmacher-Burrow, Burhard; Sugawara, Yutaka

    2013-06-04

    A method and apparatus for distributed parallel messaging in a parallel computing system. The apparatus includes, at each node of a multiprocessor network, multiple injection messaging engine units and reception messaging engine units, each implementing a DMA engine and each supporting both multiple packet injection into and multiple reception from a network, in parallel. The reception side of the messaging unit (MU) includes a switch interface enabling writing of data of a packet received from the network to the memory system. The transmission side of the messaging unit, includes switch interface for reading from the memory system when injecting packets into the network.

  2. Entity-based Classification of Twitter Messages

    OpenAIRE

    Yerva, Surender Reddy; Miklós, Zoltán; Aberer, Karl

    2012-01-01

    Twitter is a popular micro-blogging service on theWeb, where people can enter short messages, which then become visible to some other users of the service. While the topics of these messages varies, there are a lot of messages where the users express their opinions about some companies or their products. These messages are a rich source of information for companies for sentiment analysis or opinion mining. There is however a great obstacle for analyzing the messages directly: as the company n...

  3. Message Oriented Communication For Ipv6 Enabled Pervasive Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Szydlo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of electronic devices in our environment is equipped with radio interfaces used for exposing and using their functionality by other devices and applications. Wireless communication in this class of devices is exposed to a number of situations that may occur including limited energy resources, equipment failures, nodes mobility and loss of communication between nodes. It causes that commonly used standards and protocols for sharing services are not practical and do not take into account the occurrence of these problems. The paper presents the concept of communication that relies on the exchange of messages between wireless pervasive devices available in the environment.

  4. Collocated Dataglyphs for large-message storage and retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motwani, Rakhi C.; Breidenbach, Jeff A.; Black, John R.

    2004-06-01

    In contrast to the security and integrity of electronic files, printed documents are vulnerable to damage and forgery due to their physical nature. Researchers at Palo Alto Research Center utilize DataGlyph technology to render digital characteristics to printed documents, which provides them with the facility of tamper-proof authentication and damage resistance. This DataGlyph document is known as GlyphSeal. Limited DataGlyph carrying capacity per printed page restricted the application of this technology to a domain of graphically simple and small-sized single-paged documents. In this paper the authors design a protocol motivated by techniques from the networking domain and back-up strategies, which extends the GlyphSeal technology to larger-sized, graphically complex, multi-page documents. This protocol provides fragmentation, sequencing and data loss recovery. The Collocated DataGlyph Protocol renders large glyph messages onto multiple printed pages and recovers the glyph data from rescanned versions of the multi-page documents, even when pages are missing, reordered or damaged. The novelty of this protocol is the application of ideas from RAID to the domain of DataGlyphs. The current revision of this protocol is capable of generating at most 255 pages, if page recovery is desired and does not provide enough data density to store highly detailed images in a reasonable amount of page space.

  5. Guidelines for designing messages in risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takashita, Hirofumi; Horikoshi, Hidehiko

    2004-07-01

    Risk Communication Study Team (hereafter called RC team) has designed messages for risk communication based on the analysis of the local residents' opinions which were expressed in several questionnaire surveys. The messages are described in a side format (Power Point format) every single content. This report provides basic guidelines for making messages that are used for risk communication, and does not include concrete messages which RC team designed. The RC team has already published the report entitled 'Information materials for risk communication' (JNC TN8450 2003-008) separately, and it gives the concrete messages. This report shows general cautions and checklists in designing messages, comments on the messages from outside risk communication experts, and opinions from local residents. (author)

  6. Improving the security of quantum protocols via commit-and-open

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.B. Damgård (Ivan); S. Fehr (Serge); C. Luneman; L. Salvail (Louis); C. Schaffner (Christian)

    2009-01-01

    htmlabstractWe consider two-party quantum protocols starting with a transmission of some random BB84 qubits followed by classical messages. We show a general compiler improving the security of such protocols: if the original protocol is secure against an almost honest adversary, then the

  7. The Social Interaction Phobia Scale: Continued support for the psychometric validity of the SIPS using clinical and non-clinical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menatti, Alison R; Weeks, Justin W; Carleton, R Nicholas; Morrison, Amanda S; Heimberg, Richard G; Hope, Debra A; Blanco, Carlos; Schneier, Franklin R; Liebowitz, Michael R

    2015-05-01

    The present study sought to extend findings supporting the psychometric validity of a promising measure of social anxiety (SA) symptoms, the Social Interaction Phobia Scale (SIPS; Carleton et al., 2009). Analyses were conducted using three samples: social anxiety disorder (SAD) patients, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) patients, and healthy controls. SIPS scores of SAD patients demonstrated internal consistency and construct validity, and the previously demonstrated three-factor structure of the SIPS was replicated. Further, the SIPS total score uniquely predicted SA symptoms, and SIPS scores were significantly higher for SAD patients than GAD patients or controls. Two cut-off scores that discriminated SAD patients from GAD patients and from healthy controls were identified. The current study is the first to replicate the SIPS three-factor model in a large, treatment-seeking sample of SAD patients and establish a cut-off score discriminating SAD from GAD patients. Findings support the SIPS as a valid, SAD-specific assessment instrument. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Improving the effectiveness of fundraising messages: The impact of charity goal attainment, message framing, and evidence on persuasion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, E.; Kerkhof, P.; Kuiper, J.

    2008-01-01

    This experimental study assessed the effectiveness of fundraising messages. Based on recent findings regarding the effects of message framing and evidence, effective fundraising messages should combine abstract, statistical information with a negative message frame and anecdotal evidence with a

  9. Effects of Text Messaging on Academic Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barks Amanda

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available University students frequently send and receive cellular phone text messages during classroominstruction. Cognitive psychology research indicates that multi-tasking is frequently associatedwith performance cost. However, university students often have considerable experience withelectronic multi-tasking and may believe that they can devote necessary attention to a classroomlecture while sending and receiving text messages. In the current study, university students whoused text messaging were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: 1. a group that sent andreceived text messages during a lecture or, 2. a group that did not engage in text messagingduring the lecture. Participants who engaged in text messaging demonstrated significantlypoorer performance on a test covering lecture content compared with the group that did notsend and receive text messages. Participants exhibiting higher levels of text messaging skill hadsignificantly lower test scores than participants who were less proficient at text messaging. It ishypothesized that in terms of retention of lecture material, more frequent task shifting by thosewith greater text messaging proficiency contributed to poorer performance. Overall, the findingsdo not support the view, held by many university students, that this form of multitasking has littleeffect on the acquisition of lecture content. Results provide empirical support for teachers andprofessors who ban text messaging in the classroom.

  10. Louisiana SIP: LAC 33:III Ch 2132. Stage II Vapor Recovery Systems for Control of Vehicle Refuelling Emissions at Gasoline Dispensing Facilities; SIP effective 2011-08-04 (LAd34) and 2016-02-29 (LAd47) to 2017-09-27

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisiana SIP: LAC 33:III Ch 2132. Stage II Vapor Recovery Systems for Control of Vehicle Refuelling Emissions at Gasoline Dispensing Facilities; SIP effective 2011-08-04 (LAd34) and 2016-02-29 (LAd47) to 2017-09-27

  11. Louisiana SIP: LAC 33:III Ch. 7 - Table 2 - Ambient Air--Methods of Contaminant Measurements; SIP effective 1989-05-08 (LAc49) and 1989-08-14 (LAc50) to 2011-08-03 (LAd34 - Moved to Section 711 and revised [adds PM-2.5])

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisiana SIP: LAC 33:III Ch. 7 - Table 2 - Ambient Air--Methods of Contaminant Measurements; SIP effective 1989-05-08 (LAc49) and 1989-08-14 (LAc50) to 2011-08-03 (LAd34 - Moved to Section 711 and revised [adds PM-2.5])

  12. An Efficient Causal Group Communication Protocol for Free Scale Peer-to-Peer Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigory Evropeytsev

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In peer-to-peer (P2P overlay networks, a group of n (≥2 peer processes have to cooperate with each other. Each peer sends messages to every peer and receives messages from every peer in a group. In group communications, each message sent by a peer is required to be causally delivered to every peer. Most of the protocols designed to ensure causal message order are designed for networks with a plain architecture. These protocols can be adapted to use in free scale and hierarchical topologies; however, the amount of control information is O(n, where n is the number of peers in the system. Some protocols are designed for a free scale or hierarchical networks, but in general they force the whole system to accomplish the same order viewed by a super peer. In this paper, we present a protocol that is specifically designed to work with a free scale peer-to-peer network. By using the information about the network’s architecture and by representing message dependencies on a bit level, the proposed protocol ensures causal message ordering without enforcing super peers order. The designed protocol is simulated and compared with the Immediate Dependency Relation and the Dependency Sequences protocols to show its lower overhead.

  13. The WLCG Messaging Service and its Future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cons, Lionel; Paladin, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    Enterprise messaging is seen as an attractive mechanism to simplify and extend several portions of the Grid middleware, from low level monitoring to experiments dashboards. The production messaging service currently used by WLCG includes four tightly coupled brokers operated by EGI (running Apache ActiveMQ and designed to host the Grid operational tools such as SAM) as well as two dedicated services for ATLAS-DDM and experiments dashboards (currently also running Apache ActiveMQ). In the future, this service is expected to grow in numbers of applications supported, brokers and technologies. The WLCG Messaging Roadmap identified three areas with room for improvement (security, scalability and availability/reliability) as well as ten practical recommendations to address them. This paper describes a messaging service architecture that is in line with these recommendations as well as a software architecture based on reusable components that ease interactions with the messaging service. These two architectures will support the growth of the WLCG messaging service.

  14. Hand hygiene posters: motivators or mixed messages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenner, E A; Jones, F; Fletcher, B C; Miller, L; Scott, G M

    2005-07-01

    Poster campaigns regarding hand hygiene are commonly used by infection control teams to improve practice, yet little is known of the extent to which they are based on established theory or research. This study reports on the content analysis of hand hygiene posters (N=69) and their messages (N=75) using message-framing theory. The results showed that posters seldom drew on knowledge about effective ways to frame messages. Frequently, they simply conveyed information 'telling' rather than 'selling' and some of this was confusing. Most posters were not designed to motivate, and some conveyed mixed messages. Few used fear appeals. Hand hygiene posters could have a greater impact if principles of message framing were utilized in their design. Suggestions for gain-framed messages are offered, but these need to be tested empirically.

  15. Message Scheduling and Forwarding in Congested DTNs

    KAUST Repository

    Elwhishi, Ahmed; Ho, Pin-Han; Shihada, Basem

    2012-01-01

    Multi-copy utility-based routing has been considered as one of the most applicable approaches to effective message delivery in Delay Tolerant Networks (DTNs). By allowing multiple message replicas launched, the ratio of message delivery or delay can be significantly reduced compared with other counterparts. Such an advantage, nonetheless, is at the expense of taking more buffer space at each node and higher complexity in message forwarding decisions. This paper investigates an efficient message scheduling and dropping policy via analytical modeling approach, aiming to achieve optimal performance in terms of message delivery delay. Extensive simulation results, based on a synthetic mobility model and real mobility traces, show that the proposed scheduling framework can achieve superb performance against its counterparts in terms of delivery delay.

  16. Diabetes education via mobile text messaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangberg, Silje C; Arsand, Eirik; Andersson, Niklas

    2006-01-01

    Living with diabetes makes great educational demands on a family. We have tested the feasibility of using the mobile phone short message service (SMS) for reaching people with diabetes information. We also assessed user satisfaction and perceived pros and cons of the medium through interviews. Eleven parents of children with type 1 diabetes received messages for 11 weeks. The parents were positive about the system and said that they would like to continue to use it. The pop-up reminding effect of SMS messages in busy everyday life was noted as positive. Some parents experienced the messages as somewhat intrusive, arriving too often and at inconvenient times. The parents also noted the potential of the messages to facilitate communication with their adolescent children. The inability to store all of the messages or to print them out were seen as major disadvantages. Overall, the SMS seems to hold promise as means of delivering diabetes information.

  17. CMLOG: A common message logging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.; Akers, W.; Bickley, M.; Wu, D.; Watson, W. III

    1997-01-01

    The Common Message Logging (CMLOG) system is an object-oriented and distributed system that not only allows applications and systems to log data (messages) of any type into a centralized database but also lets applications view incoming messages in real-time or retrieve stored data from the database according to selection rules. It consists of a concurrent Unix server that handles incoming logging or searching messages, a Motif browser that can view incoming messages in real-time or display stored data in the database, a client daemon that buffers and sends logging messages to the server, and libraries that can be used by applications to send data to or retrieve data from the database via the server. This paper presents the design and implementation of the CMLOG system meanwhile it will also address the issue of integration of CMLOG into existing control systems. CMLOG into existing control systems

  18. Message Scheduling and Forwarding in Congested DTNs

    KAUST Repository

    Elwhishi, Ahmed

    2012-08-19

    Multi-copy utility-based routing has been considered as one of the most applicable approaches to effective message delivery in Delay Tolerant Networks (DTNs). By allowing multiple message replicas launched, the ratio of message delivery or delay can be significantly reduced compared with other counterparts. Such an advantage, nonetheless, is at the expense of taking more buffer space at each node and higher complexity in message forwarding decisions. This paper investigates an efficient message scheduling and dropping policy via analytical modeling approach, aiming to achieve optimal performance in terms of message delivery delay. Extensive simulation results, based on a synthetic mobility model and real mobility traces, show that the proposed scheduling framework can achieve superb performance against its counterparts in terms of delivery delay.

  19. Large family of quantum weak coin-flipping protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochon, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    Each classical public-coin protocol for coin flipping is naturally associated with a quantum protocol for weak coin flipping. The quantum protocol is obtained by replacing classical randomness with quantum entanglement and by adding a cheat detection test in the last round that verifies the integrity of this entanglement. The set of such protocols defines a family which contains the protocol with bias 0.192 previously found by the author, as well as protocols with bias as low as 1/6 described herein. The family is analyzed by identifying a set of optimal protocols for every number of messages. In the end, tight lower bounds for the bias are obtained which prove that 1/6 is optimal for all protocols within the family

  20. Application of a Tsunami Warning Message Metric to refine NOAA NWS Tsunami Warning Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, C. E.; Johnston, D.; Sorensen, J.; Whitmore, P.

    2013-12-01

    In 2010, the U.S. National Weather Service (NWS) funded a three year project to integrate social science into their Tsunami Program. One of three primary requirements of the grant was to make improvements to tsunami warning messages of the NWS' two Tsunami Warning Centers- the West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) in Palmer, Alaska and the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) in Ewa Beach, Hawaii. We conducted focus group meetings with a purposive sample of local, state and Federal stakeholders and emergency managers in six states (AK, WA, OR, CA, HI and NC) and two US Territories (US Virgin Islands and American Samoa) to qualitatively asses information needs in tsunami warning messages using WCATWC tsunami messages for the March 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami event. We also reviewed research literature on behavioral response to warnings to develop a tsunami warning message metric that could be used to guide revisions to tsunami warning messages of both warning centers. The message metric is divided into categories of Message Content, Style, Order and Formatting and Receiver Characteristics. A message is evaluated by cross-referencing the message with the operational definitions of metric factors. Findings are then used to guide revisions of the message until the characteristics of each factor are met. Using findings from this project and findings from a parallel NWS Warning Tiger Team study led by T. Nicolini, the WCATWC implemented the first of two phases of revisions to their warning messages in November 2012. A second phase of additional changes, which will fully implement the redesign of messages based on the metric, is in progress. The resulting messages will reflect current state-of-the-art knowledge on warning message effectiveness. Here we present the message metric; evidence-based rational for message factors; and examples of previous, existing and proposed messages.

  1. Message Received: Virtual Ethnography in Online Message Boards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin F. Steinmetz

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available As the Internet begins to encapsulate more people within online communities, it is important that the social researcher have well-rounded ethnographic methodologies for observing these phenomena. This article seeks to contribute to methodology by detailing and providing insights into three specific facets of virtual ethnography that need attention: space and time, identity and authenticity, and ethics. Because the Internet is a globalized and instantaneous medium where space and time collapse, identity becomes more playful, and ethics become more tenuous; understanding these aspects is crucial to the study of online social groups. A second focus of this article is to apply these notions to the study of online message boards—a frequently used medium for online communication that is frequently overlooked by methodologists.

  2. Relevance of phosphorus incorporation and hydrogen removal for Si:P {delta}-doped layers fabricated using phosphine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goh, K.E.J.; Oberbeck, L.; Simmons, M.Y. [Centre for Quantum Computer Technology, School of Physics, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052 (Australia)

    2005-05-01

    We present a study to determine the importance of phosphorus incorporation and hydrogen removal for the electrical activation of phosphorus dopants in Si:P {delta}-doped samples fabricated using phosphine dosing and molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The carrier densities in these samples were determined from Hall effect measurements at 4 K sample temperature. An anneal to incorporate phosphorus atoms into substitutional lattice sites is critical to achieving full dopant activation after Si encapsulation by MBE. Whilst the presence of hydrogen can degrade the quality of the Si encapsulation layer, we show that it does not adversely impact the electrical activation of the phosphorus dopants. We discuss the relevance of our results to the fabrication of nano-scale Si:P devices. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and C o. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. SiP monolayers: New 2D structures of group IV-V compounds for visible-light photohydrolytic catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhinan; Zhuang, Jibin; Zhang, Xu; Zhou, Zhen

    2018-06-01

    Because of graphene and phosphorene, two-dimensional (2D) layered materials of group IV and group V elements arouse great interest. However, group IV-V monolayers have not received due attention. In this work, three types of SiP monolayers were computationally designed to explore their electronic structure and optical properties. Computations confirm the stability of these monolayers, which are all indirect-bandgap semiconductors with bandgaps in the range 1.38-2.21 eV. The bandgaps straddle the redox potentials of water at pH = 0, indicating the potential of the monolayers for use as watersplitting photocatalysts. The computed optical properties demonstrate that certain monolayers of SiP 2D materials are absorbers of visible light and would serve as good candidates for optoelectronic devices.

  4. An efficient and reliable multi-hop geographical broadcast protocol in vehicular ad-hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajendran, R.; Jongh, J. de

    2013-01-01

    In Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS), disseminating warning messages in a timely and efficient way through wireless short-range communications can save many lives and reduce traffic congestion. A geographical broadcast protocol provides data delivery to specified geographical areas, using

  5. Message framing in social networking sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Danny Tengti; Chuang, Shih-Chieh; Wang, Sui-Min; Zhang, Lei

    2013-10-01

    Online social networking sites represent significant new opportunities for Internet advertisers. However, results based on the real world cannot be generalized to all virtual worlds. In this research, the moderating effects of need for cognition (NFC) and knowledge were applied to examine the impact of message framing on attitudes toward social networking sites. A total of 216 undergraduates participated in the study. Results reveal that for social networking sites, while high-NFC individuals form more favorable attitudes toward negatively framed messages than positively framed messages, low-NFC individuals form more favorable attitudes toward positively framed messages than negatively framed messages. In addition, low-knowledge individuals demonstrate more favorable attitudes toward negatively framed messages than positively framed messages; however, the framing effect does not differentially affect the attitudes of high-knowledge individuals. Furthermore, the framing effect does not differentially affect the attitudes of high-NFC individuals with high knowledge. In contrast, low-NFC individuals with low knowledge hold more favorable attitudes toward positively framed messages than negatively framed messages.

  6. Evaluation of Sexual Communication Message Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Parent-child communication about sex is an important proximal reproductive health outcome. But while campaigns to promote it such as the Parents Speak Up National Campaign (PSUNC) have been effective, little is known about how messages influence parental cognitions and behavior. This study examines which message features explain responses to sexual communication messages. We content analyzed 4 PSUNC ads to identify specific, measurable message and advertising execution features. We then develop quantitative measures of those features, including message strategies, marketing strategies, and voice and other stylistic features, and merged the resulting data into a dataset drawn from a national media tracking survey of the campaign. Finally, we conducted multivariable logistic regression models to identify relationships between message content and ad reactions/receptivity, and between ad reactions/receptivity and parents' cognitions related to sexual communication included in the campaign's conceptual model. We found that overall parents were highly receptive to the PSUNC ads. We did not find significant associations between message content and ad reactions/receptivity. However, we found that reactions/receptivity to specific PSUNC ads were associated with increased norms, self-efficacy, short- and long-term expectations about parent-child sexual communication, as theorized in the conceptual model. This study extends previous research and methods to analyze message content and reactions/receptivity. The results confirm and extend previous PSUNC campaign evaluation and provide further evidence for the conceptual model. Future research should examine additional message content features and the effects of reactions/receptivity. PMID:21599875

  7. Análisis de ciclo de vida simplificado aplicado a viviendas de paneles SIP (structural insulated panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Cárdenas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A medida que los asuntos ambientales se vuelven más importantes, las construcciones se han enfocado en su eficiencia energética y la energía necesaria para construir y producir los materiales. Esta investigación muestra un estudio de Análisis de Ciclo de Vida simplificado de energía operacional y energía contenida de cuatro viviendas nuevas ubicadas en Temuco, Chile, estructuradas con paneles SIP (Structural insulated panel para cuantificar la energía en cada etapa de este sistema de construcción. Para obtener la energía contenida, fueron utilizadas dos bases de datos internacionales para cuantificar la energía de cada material y se determinó la energía contenida en el proceso relacionado a la estructura de paneles SIP a través de mediciones en una compañía especializada en construcción de paneles SIP. Para la energía operacional, se llevaron a cabo modelos computacionales con el software Design Builder y se proyectó esta energía con una vida útil de 50 años. El análisis de la información obtenida muestra que la energía contenida por procesos de construcción representa cerca del 1.7% de la energía contenida y mientras que el total de energía contenida representa el 11% de la energía del ciclo de vida total de las viviendas, el remanente 89% representa la energía de operación. Por otro lado, observamos que las viviendas con paneles SIP generan cifras cercanas al 60% en ahorro en demanda energética, comparadas a las viviendas de mampostería estructural normalmente construidas en esta ciudad.

  8. Fabrication of a novel silicon single electron transistor for Si:P quantum computer devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angus, S.J.; Smith, C.E.A.; Gauja, E.; Dzurak, A.S.; Clark, R.G.; Snider, G.L.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Quantum computation relies on the successful measurement of quantum states. Single electron transistors (SETs) are known to be able to perform fast and sensitive charge measurements of solid state qubits. However, due to their sensitivity, SETs are also very susceptible to random charge fluctuations in a solid-state materials environment. In previous dc transport measurements, silicon-based SETs have demonstrated greater charge stability than A1/A1 2 O 3 SETs. We have designed and fabricated a novel silicon SET architecture for a comparison of the noise characteristics of silicon and aluminium based devices. The silicon SET described here is designed for controllable and reproducible low temperature operation. It is fabricated using a novel dual gate structure on a silicon-on-insulator substrate. A silicon quantum wire is formed in a 100nm thick high-resistivity superficial silicon layer using reactive ion etching. Carriers are induced in the silicon wire by a back gate in the silicon substrate. The tunnel barriers are created electrostatically, using lithographically defined metallic electrodes (∼40nm width). These tunnel barriers surround the surface of the quantum wire, thus producing excellent electrostatic confinement. This architecture provides independent control of tunnel barrier height and island occupancy, thus promising better control of Coulomb blockade oscillations than in previously investigated silicon SETs. The use of a near intrinsic silicon substrate offers compatibility with Si:P qubits in the longer term

  9. Active methanotrophs in two contrasting North American peatland ecosystems revealed using DNA-SIP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Varun; Smemo, Kurt A; Yavitt, Joseph B; Basiliko, Nathan

    2012-02-01

    The active methanotroph community was investigated in two contrasting North American peatlands, a nutrient-rich sedge fen and nutrient-poor Sphagnum bog using in vitro incubations and (13)C-DNA stable-isotope probing (SIP) to measure methane (CH(4)) oxidation rates and label active microbes followed by fingerprinting and sequencing of bacterial and archaeal 16S rDNA and methane monooxygenase (pmoA and mmoX) genes. Rates of CH(4) oxidation were slightly, but significantly, faster in the bog and methanotrophs belonged to the class Alphaproteobacteria and were similar to other methanotrophs of the genera Methylocystis, Methylosinus, and Methylocapsa or Methylocella detected in, or isolated from, European bogs. The fen had a greater phylogenetic diversity of organisms that had assimilated (13)C, including methanotrophs from both the Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria classes and other potentially non-methanotrophic organisms that were similar to bacteria detected in a UK and Finnish fen. Based on similarities between bacteria in our sites and those in Europe, including Russia, we conclude that site physicochemical characteristics rather than biogeography controlled the phylogenetic diversity of active methanotrophs and that differences in phylogenetic diversity between the bog and fen did not relate to measured CH(4) oxidation rates. A single crenarchaeon in the bog site appeared to be assimilating (13)C in 16S rDNA; however, its phylogenetic similarity to other CO(2)-utilizing archaea probably indicates that this organism is not directly involved in CH(4) oxidation in peat.

  10. Psychosocial work factors and sleep problems: findings from the French national SIP survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazelle, Emilie; Chastang, Jean-François; Niedhammer, Isabelle

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed at exploring the cross-sectional and prospective associations between psychosocial work factors and sleep problems. The study population consisted of a national representative sample of the French working population (SIP survey). The sample sizes were 7506 and 3555 for the cross-sectional and prospective analyses. Sleep problems were defined by either sleep disturbances or insufficient sleep duration at least several times a week. Psychosocial work factors included classical (job strain model factors) and emergent factors (recognition, insecurity, role/ethical conflict, emotional demands, work-life imbalance, etc.). Occupational factors related to working time/hours and physical work environment were also included as well as covariates related to factors outside work. Statistical analyses were performed using weighted Poisson regression analysis. In the cross-sectional analyses, psychological demands, low social support, low recognition, emotional demands, perception of danger, work-life imbalance and night work were found to be associated with sleep problems. In the prospective analyses, psychological demands and night work were predictive of sleep problems. Using a less conservative method, more factors were found to be associated with sleep problems. Dose-response associations were observed, showing that the more frequent the exposure to these factors, the higher the risk of sleep problems. No effect of repeated exposure was found on sleep problems. Classical and emergent psychosocial work factors were associated with sleep problems. More prospective studies and prevention policies may be needed.

  11. Independent sailing with high tetraplegia using sip and puff controls: integration into a community sailing center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojhani, Solomon; Stiens, Steven A; Recio, Albert C

    2017-07-01

    We are continually rediscovering how adapted recreational activity complements the rehabilitation process, enriches patients' lives and positively impacts outcome measures. Although sports for people with spinal cord injuries (SCI) has achieved spectacular visibility, participation by high cervical injuries is often restricted due to poor accessibility, safety concerns, lack of adaptability, and high costs of technology. We endeavor to demonstrate the mechanisms, adaptability, accessibility, and benefits the sport of sailing creates in the rehabilitative process. Our sailor is a 27-year-old man with a history of traumatic SCI resulting in C4 complete tetraplegia. The participant completed an adapted introductory sailing course, and instruction on the sip-and-puff sail and tiller control mechanism. With practice, he navigated an on-water course in moderate winds of 5 to 15 knots. Despite trends toward shorter rehabilitation stays, aggressive transdisciplinary collaboration with recreation therapy can provide community and natural environment experiences while inpatient and continuing post discharge. Such peak physical and psychological experiences provide a positive perspective for the future that can be shared on the inpatient unit, with families and support systems like sailing clubs in the community. Rehabilitation theory directs a team process to achieve patient self-awareness and initiate self-actualization in spite of disablement. Utilization of local community sailing centers that have provided accessible assisted options provides person-centered self-realization of goals as assisted by family and natural supports. Such successful patients become native guides for others seeking the same experience.

  12. Remote control of data acquisition devices by means of message oriented middleware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, E.; Portas, A.; Pereira, A.; Vega, J.; Kirpitchev, I.

    2007-01-01

    The TJ-II autonomous acquisition systems are computers running dedicated applications for programming and controlling data acquisition channels and also integrating acquired data into the central database. These computers are located in the experimental hall and have to be remotely controlled during plasma discharges. A remote control for these systems has been implemented by taking advantage of the message-oriented middleware recently introduced into the TJ-II data acquisition system. Java Message Service (JMS) is used as the messaging application program interface. All the acquisition actions that are available through the system console of the data acquisition computers (starting or aborting an acquisition, restarting the system or updating the acquisition application) can now be initiated remotely. Command messages are sent to the acquisition systems located in the experimental hall close to the TJ-II device by using the messaging software, without having to use a remote desktop application that produces heavy network traffic and requires manual operation. Action commands can be sent to only one or to several/many acquisition systems at the same time. This software is integrated into the TJ-II remote participation system and the acquisition systems can be commanded from inside or outside the laboratory. All this software is integrated into the security framework provided by PAPI, thus preventing non-authorized users commanding the acquisition computers. In order to dimension and distribute messaging services some performance tests of the message oriented middleware software have been carried out. Results of the tests are presented. As suggested by the tests results different transport connectors are used: TCP transport protocol is used for the local environment, while HTTP protocol is used for remote accesses, thereby allowing the system performance to be optimized

  13. Remote control of data acquisition devices by means of message oriented middleware

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, E. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusion, Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: edi.sanchez@ciemat.es; Portas, A.; Pereira, A.; Vega, J.; Kirpitchev, I. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusion, Madrid (Spain)

    2007-10-15

    The TJ-II autonomous acquisition systems are computers running dedicated applications for programming and controlling data acquisition channels and also integrating acquired data into the central database. These computers are located in the experimental hall and have to be remotely controlled during plasma discharges. A remote control for these systems has been implemented by taking advantage of the message-oriented middleware recently introduced into the TJ-II data acquisition system. Java Message Service (JMS) is used as the messaging application program interface. All the acquisition actions that are available through the system console of the data acquisition computers (starting or aborting an acquisition, restarting the system or updating the acquisition application) can now be initiated remotely. Command messages are sent to the acquisition systems located in the experimental hall close to the TJ-II device by using the messaging software, without having to use a remote desktop application that produces heavy network traffic and requires manual operation. Action commands can be sent to only one or to several/many acquisition systems at the same time. This software is integrated into the TJ-II remote participation system and the acquisition systems can be commanded from inside or outside the laboratory. All this software is integrated into the security framework provided by PAPI, thus preventing non-authorized users commanding the acquisition computers. In order to dimension and distribute messaging services some performance tests of the message oriented middleware software have been carried out. Results of the tests are presented. As suggested by the tests results different transport connectors are used: TCP transport protocol is used for the local environment, while HTTP protocol is used for remote accesses, thereby allowing the system performance to be optimized.

  14. Coupled RNA-SIP and metatranscriptomics of active chemolithoautotrophic communities at a deep-sea hydrothermal vent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunato, Caroline S; Huber, Julie A

    2016-08-01

    The chemolithoautotrophic microbial community of the rocky subseafloor potentially provides a large amount of organic carbon to the deep ocean, yet our understanding of the activity and metabolic complexity of subseafloor organisms remains poorly described. A combination of metagenomic, metatranscriptomic, and RNA stable isotope probing (RNA-SIP) analyses were used to identify the metabolic potential, expression patterns, and active autotrophic bacteria and archaea and their pathways present in low-temperature hydrothermal fluids from Axial Seamount, an active submarine volcano. Metagenomic and metatranscriptomic results showed the presence of genes and transcripts for sulfur, hydrogen, and ammonium oxidation, oxygen respiration, denitrification, and methanogenesis, as well as multiple carbon fixation pathways. In RNA-SIP experiments across a range of temperatures under reducing conditions, the enriched (13)C fractions showed differences in taxonomic and functional diversity. At 30 °C and 55 °C, Epsilonproteobacteria were dominant, oxidizing hydrogen and primarily reducing nitrate. Methanogenic archaea were also present at 55 °C, and were the only autotrophs present at 80 °C. Correspondingly, the predominant CO2 fixation pathways changed from the reductive tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) cycle to the reductive acetyl-CoA pathway with increasing temperature. By coupling RNA-SIP with meta-omics, this study demonstrates the presence and activity of distinct chemolithoautotrophic communities across a thermal gradient of a deep-sea hydrothermal vent.

  15. Protective efficacy of cationic-PLGA microspheres loaded with DNA vaccine encoding the sip gene of Streptococcus agalactiae in tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yan-Ping; Ke, Hao; Liang, Zhi-Ling; Ma, Jiang-Yao; Hao, Le; Liu, Zhen-Xing

    2017-07-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae) is an important fish pathogen, which has received more attention in the past decade due to the increasing economic losses in the tilapia industry worldwide. As existing effective vaccines of S. agalactiae in fish have obvious disadvantage, to select immunoprotective antigens and package materials would undoubtedly contribute to the development of novel oral vaccines. In the present study, surface immunogenic protein (sip) was selected from the S. agalactiae serovar I a genomes as immunogenic protein in DNA vaccine form with cationic chitosan and biodegradable and biocompatible PLGA. The pcSip plasmid in cationic-PLGA was successfully expressed in tissues of immunized tilapia and the immunogenicity was assessed in tilapia challenge model. A significant increase was observed in the cytokine levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, CC1, CC2 in spleen and kidney tissues. Furthermore, immunized tilapia conferred different levels of protection against challenge with a lethal dose of highly virulent serovar I a S. agalactiae. Our results indicated that the pcSip plasmid in cationic-PLGA induced high level of antibodies and protection against S. agalactiae infection, could be effective oral DNA vaccine candidates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Key technologies of the server monitor and control system based on GSM short messages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Taiwei; Zhou Zhenliu; Liu Baoxu

    2007-01-01

    The network management based on SNMP protocol cannot effectively monitor and control application-system states and key-process states on the computer server. Furthermore, it needs the administrator's longtime surveillance. When the administrator leaves the computer, he can't receive the malfunction message in time. In this paper we present a server monitor and control system based on monitor agents and GSM short messages, introduce the key technology to realize it, and implement a model system in the real network environment. (authors)

  17. Immunochemical protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pound, John D

    1998-01-01

    ... easy and important refinements often are not published. This much anticipated 2nd edition of Immunochemzcal Protocols therefore aims to provide a user-friendly up-to-date handbook of reliable techniques selected to suit the needs of molecular biologists. It covers the full breadth of the relevant established immunochemical methods, from protein blotting and immunoa...

  18. Expectancy Theory in Media and Message Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Leuven, Jim

    1981-01-01

    Argues for reversing emphasis on uses and gratifications research in favor of an expectancy model which holds that selection of a particular medium depends on (1) the expectation that the choice will be followed by a message of interest and (2) the importance of that message in satisfying user's values. (PD)

  19. Should We Ban Instant Messaging In School?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texley, Sharon; DeGennaro, Donna

    2005-01-01

    This article is a brief debate on the pros and cons of allowing students to use instant messaging (IM) in school. On one hand, teenagers' desire to socialize can overcome other priorities and schools may set policies to ban instant messaging. The contrary view is that schools should embrace the IM technology being popularized by youth and find…

  20. 78 FR 64202 - Quantitative Messaging Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION Quantitative Messaging Research AGENCY: Commodity Futures... survey will follow qualitative message testing research (for which CFTC received fast- track OMB approval... comments. Please submit your comments using only one method and identify that it is for the ``Quantitative...

  1. Undergraduates' Text Messaging Language and Literacy Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Abbie; Kemp, Nenagh; Martin, Frances Heritage; Parrila, Rauno

    2014-01-01

    Research investigating whether people's literacy skill is being affected by the use of text messaging language has produced largely positive results for children, but mixed results for adults. We asked 150 undergraduate university students in Western Canada and 86 in South Eastern Australia to supply naturalistic text messages and to complete…

  2. Arbitrated quantum signature scheme with message recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hwayean; Hong, Changho; Kim, Hyunsang; Lim, Jongin; Yang, Hyung Jin

    2004-01-01

    Two quantum signature schemes with message recovery relying on the availability of an arbitrator are proposed. One scheme uses a public board and the other does not. However both schemes provide confidentiality of the message and a higher efficiency in transmission

  3. Messages about Sexuality: An Ecological Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Tanya L.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this two-part study was to identify the perceived influence of sexuality messages from parents, peers, school and the media--four microsystems within the Ecological Model--on emerging adult US college women's sexual attitudes. Findings suggest that parents were the most likely source of the message to "remain abstinent until…

  4. Suspecting Neurological Dysfunction From E Mail Messages ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A non medical person suspected and confirmed neurological dysfunction in an individual, based only on e mail messages sent by the individual. With email communication becoming rampant “peculiar” email messages may raise the suspicion of neurological dysfunction. Organic pathology explaining the abnormal email ...

  5. Bidirectional Quantum Secure Direct Communication Network Protocol with Hyperentanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Bin; Chen Yulin; Huang Yugai; Fang Xia

    2011-01-01

    We propose a bidirectional quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) network protocol with the hyperentanglment in both the spatial-mode ad the polarization degrees of freedom of photon pairs which can in principle be produced with a beta barium borate crystal. The secret message can be encoded on the photon pairs with unitary operations in these two degrees of freedom independently. Compared with other QSDC network protocols, our QSDC network protocol has a higher capacity as each photon pair can carry 4 bits of information. Also, we discuss the security of our QSDC network protocol and its feasibility with current techniques. (general)

  6. A PROPOSED MAPPING ARCHITECTURE BETWEEN IAX AND JINGLE PROTOCOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadeel Saleh Haj Aliwi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, multimedia communication has improved rapidly to allow people to communicate via the Internet. However, Internet users cannot communicate with each other unless they use the same chatting applications since each chatting application uses a certain signaling protocol to make the media call. The mapping architecture is a very critical issue since it solves the communication problems between any two protocols, as well as it enables people around the world to make a voice/video call even if they use different chatting applications. Providing the interoperability between different signaling protocols and multimedia applications takes the advantages of more than one protocol. Many mapping architectures have been proposed to ease exchanging the media between at least two users without facing any difficulties such as SIP-Jingle, IAX-RSW, H.323-MGCP, etc. However, the design of any of the existing mapping architectures has some weaknesses related to larger delay, time consuming, and security matters. The only way to overcome these problems is to propose an efficient mapping architecture. This paper proposed a new mapping architecture between Inter-Asterisk eXchange Protocol and Jingle Protocol. The proposed mapping architecture consists of IAX domain (IAX client, IAX server, IAX-to-Jingle gateway, and Jingle domain (Jingle client, Jingle server, Jingle-to-IAX gateway. The tasks of the translation gateways are represented by the URI conversion, media capability exchange, translator of call setup and teardown signals, and real time media transmission.

  7. The WLCG Messaging Service and its Future

    CERN Document Server

    Cons, Lionel

    2012-01-01

    Enterprise messaging is seen as an attractive mechanism to simplify and extend several portions of the Grid middleware, from low level monitoring to experiments dashboards. The production messaging service currently used by WLCG includes four tightly coupled brokers operated by EGI (running Apache ActiveMQ and designed to host the Grid operational tools such as SAM) as well as two dedicated services for ATLAS-DDM and experiments dashboards (currently also running Apache ActiveMQ). In the future, this service is expected to grow in numbers of applications supported, brokers and technologies. The WLCG Messaging Roadmap identified three areas with room for improvement (security, scalability and availability/reliability) as well as ten practical recommendations to address them. This paper describes a messaging service architecture that is in line with these recommendations as well as a software architecture based on reusable components that ease interactions with the messaging service. These two architectures wil...

  8. AMS: Area Message Service for SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crane, M.; Mackenzie, R.; Millsom, D.; Zelazny, M.

    1993-04-01

    The Area Message Service (AMS) is a TCP/IP based messaging service currently in use at SLAC. A number of projects under development here at SLAC require and application level interface to the 4.3BSD UNIX socket level communications functions using TCP/IP over ethernet. AMS provides connection management, solicited message transfer, unsolicited message transfer, and asynchronous notification of pending messages. AMS is written completely in ANSI 'C' and is currently portable over three hardware/operating system/network manager platforms, VAX/VMS/Multinet, PC/MS-DOS/Pathworks, VME 68K/pSOS/pNA. The basic architecture is a client-server connection where either end of the interface may be the server. This allows for connections and data flow to be initiated from either end of the interface. Included in the paper are details concerning the connection management, the handling of the multi-platform code, and the implementation process

  9. Factors influencing message dissemination through social media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zeyu; Yang, Huancheng; Fu, Yang; Fu, Dianzheng; Podobnik, Boris; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2018-06-01

    Online social networks strongly impact our daily lives. An internet user (a "Netizen") wants messages to be efficiently disseminated. The susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) dissemination model is the traditional tool for exploring the spreading mechanism of information diffusion. We here test our SIR-based dissemination model on open and real-world data collected from Twitter. We locate and identify phase transitions in the message dissemination process. We find that message content is a stronger factor than the popularity of the sender. We also find that the probability that a message will be forwarded has a threshold that affects its ability to spread, and when the probability is above the threshold the message quickly achieves mass dissemination.

  10. Hand hygiene posters: selling the message.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenner, E A; Jones, F; Fletcher, B C; Miller, L; Scott, G M

    2005-02-01

    This literature review was undertaken to determine the established theory and research that might be utilized to inform the construction of persuasive messages on hand hygiene posters. It discusses the principles of message framing and the use of fear appeals. Current theory suggests that the most effective messages for health promotion behaviours should be framed in terms of gains rather than losses for the individual. However, as clinical hand hygiene is largely for the benefit of others (i.e. patients), messages should also invoke a sense of personal responsibility and appeal to altruistic behaviour. The use of repeated minimal fear appeals have their place. Posters that simply convey training messages are not effective persuaders.

  11. Designing Anti-Binge Drinking Prevention Messages: Message Framing vs. Evidence Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hannah; Lee, Moon J

    2017-09-27

    We investigated whether presenting anti-binge drinking health campaign messages in different message framing and evidence types influences college students' intention to avoid binge drinking, based on prospect theory (PT) and exemplification theory. A 2 (message framing: loss-framed message/gain-framed message) X 2 (evidence type: statistical/narrative) between-subjects factorial design with a control group was conducted with 156 college students. College students who were exposed to the loss-framed message condition exhibited a higher level of intention to avoid binge drinking in the near future than those who did not see any messages (the control group). This finding was mainly among non-binge drinkers. Regardless of evidence type, those who were exposed to the messages exhibited a higher level of intention to avoid binge drinking than those in the control group. This is also mainly among non-binge drinkers. We also found the main effects of message framing and evidence type on attitude toward the message and the main effect of message framing on attitude toward drinking.

  12. Psychosocial work factors and first depressive episode: retrospective results from the French national SIP survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedhammer, Isabelle; Chastang, Jean-François

    2015-10-01

    The objective was to explore the associations between psychosocial work factors and first depressive episode. Additional objectives included the study of the frequency and duration of exposure, and the evaluation of the induction period between exposures and outcome and of the reversibility of the effects. The study was based on a sample of 13,648 men and women from the 2006 national representative French SIP survey. Retrospective evaluation was performed for depressive episode for the whole life history, for psychological demands, skill discretion, social support, tension with the public, reward and work-life imbalance for each job, and within each job before and after each major change, and for time-varying covariates. The outcome was the first depressive episode. Statistical analysis was performed using weighted discrete time logistic regression model. High psychological demands and low social support were risk factors for first depressive episode for both genders. The risk increased with the frequency of exposure to these factors. Associations were found with the frequency of exposure to tension with the public among women and to work-life imbalance among men. The risk increased with the duration of exposure to psychological demands and low social support for both genders, however, these associations become non-significant when recent exposure was taken into account. Past exposure older than 2 years was not associated with the outcome. Associations between psychosocial work factors and first depressive episode were observed, including dose-response associations. However, after removal of the exposure, the risk may be reduced after 2 years.

  13. Psychosocial work factors, major depressive and generalised anxiety disorders: results from the French national SIP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murcia, Marie; Chastang, Jean-François; Niedhammer, Isabelle

    2013-04-25

    Anxiety and depression are prevalent mental disorders in working populations. The risk factors of these disorders are not completely well known. Developing knowledge on occupational risk factors for mental disorders appears crucial. This study investigates the association between various classical and emergent psychosocial work factors and major depressive and generalised anxiety disorders in the French working population. The study was based on a national random sample of 3765 men and 3944 women of the French working population (SIP 2006 survey). Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and Generalised Anxiety Disorder (GAD) were measured using a standardised diagnostic interview (MINI). Occupational factors included psychosocial work factors as well as biomechanical, physical, and chemical exposures. Adjustment variables included age, occupation, marital status, social support, and life events. Multivariate analysis was performed using logistic regression analysis. Low decision latitude, overcommitment, and emotional demands were found to be risk factors for both MDD-GAD among both genders. Other risk factors were observed: high psychological demands, low reward, ethical conflict, and job insecurity, but differences were found according to gender and outcome. Significant interaction terms were observed suggesting that low decision latitude, high psychological demands, and job insecurity had stronger effects on mental disorders for men than for women. Given the cross-sectional study design, no causal conclusion could be drawn. This study showed significant associations between classical and emergent psychosocial work factors and MDD-GAD. Preventive actions targeting various psychosocial work factors, including emergent factors, may help to reduce mental disorders at the workplace. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Improving the Effectiveness of Fundraising Messages: The Impact of Charity Goal Attainment, Message Framing, and Evidence on Persuasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Enny; Kerkhof, Peter; Kuiper, Joyce

    2008-01-01

    This experimental study assessed the effectiveness of fundraising messages. Based on recent findings regarding the effects of message framing and evidence, effective fundraising messages should combine abstract, statistical information with a negative message frame and anecdotal evidence with a positive message frame. In addition, building on…

  15. Text messages as a learning tool for midwives | Woods | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of cell phone text messaging to improve access to continuing ... with 50 of the message recipients, demonstrated that the text messages were well received by ... services, such as the management of HIV-infected children and adults.

  16. Safety and immunogenicity of an oral DNA vaccine encoding Sip of Streptococcus agalactiae from Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus delivered by live attenuated Salmonella typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, L Y; Wang, K Y; Xiao, D; Chen, D F; Geng, Y; Wang, J; He, Y; Wang, E L; Huang, J L; Xiao, G Y

    2014-05-01

    Attenuated Salmonella typhimurium SL7207 was used as a carrier for a reconstructed DNA vaccine against Streptococcus agalactiae. A 1.02 kb DNA fragment, encoding for a portion of the surface immunogenic protein (Sip) of S. agalactiae was inserted into pVAX1. The recombinant plasmid pVAX1-sip was transfected in EPC cells to detect the transient expression by an indirect immunofluorescence assay, together with Western blot analysis. The pVAX1-sip was transformed by electroporation into SL7207. The stability of pVAX1-sip into Salmonella was over 90% after 50 generations with antibiotic selection in vitro while remained stable over 80% during 35 generations under antibiotic-free conditions. The LD50 of SL/pVAX1-sip was 1.7 × 10(11) CFU/fish by intragastric administration which indicated a quite low virulence. Tilapias were inoculated orally at 10(8) CFU/fish, the recombinant bacteria were found present in intestinal tract, spleens and livers and eventually eliminated from the tissues 4 weeks after immunization. Fish immunized at 10(7), 10(8) and 10(9) CFU/fish with different immunization times caused various levels of serum antibody and an effective protection against lethal challenge with the wild-type strain S. agalactiae. Integration studies showed that the pVAX1-sip did not integrate with tilapia chromosomes. The DNA vaccine SL/pVAX1-sip was proved to be safe and effective in protecting tilapias against S. agalactiae infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A Message Without a Code?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Conley

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available The photographic paradox is said to be that of a message without a code, a communication lacking a relay or gap essential to the process of communication. Tracing the recurrence of Barthes's definition in the essays included in Image/Music/Text and in La Chambre claire , this paper argues that Barthes's definition is platonic in its will to dematerialize the troubling — graphic — immediacy of the photograph. He writes of the image in order to flee its signature. As a function of media, his categories are written in order to be insufficient and inadequate; to maintain an ineluctable difference between language heard and letters seen; to protect an idiom of loss which the photograph disallows. The article studies the strategies of his definition in «The Photographic Paradox» as instrument of abstraction, opposes the notion of code, in an aural sense, to audio-visual markers of closed relay in advertising, and critiques the layout and order of La Chambre claire in respect to Barthes's ideology of absence.

  18. Design and Implementation of BDS RTCM SSR Message

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xia; Cheng, Fang; Liu, Feng; Lu, XiaoChun

    2017-09-01

    Based on the real-time differential positioning system of Beidou wide area, a set of Beidou high-precision differential information transmission protocol is studied and designed. After the system generates satellite precise orbit and clock difference products, it needs to be sent to the users in a certain data format through C band GEO communication satellite. The transport protocol should be designed according to the data volume and update rate of the system. At the same time, it is necessary to combine the signal system, satellite resources and the restriction and restriction of the receiver implementation technology. It refers to the relevant fields and international similar systems of technology and standards to design. This paper establishes a set of technical indicators which can measure the pros and cons of differential message organization and broadcasting strategy. Through modeling, simulation and actual test, this paper makes a comprehensive comparison of different strategies. Finally, a transmission protocol design scheme which has good performance and meets the system service requirements is presented.

  19. Message Passing Framework for Globally Interconnected Clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafeez, M; Riaz, N; Asghar, S; Malik, U A; Rehman, A

    2011-01-01

    In prevailing technology trends it is apparent that the network requirements and technologies will advance in future. Therefore the need of High Performance Computing (HPC) based implementation for interconnecting clusters is comprehensible for scalability of clusters. Grid computing provides global infrastructure of interconnecting clusters consisting of dispersed computing resources over Internet. On the other hand the leading model for HPC programming is Message Passing Interface (MPI). As compared to Grid computing, MPI is better suited for solving most of the complex computational problems. MPI itself is restricted to a single cluster. It does not support message passing over the internet to use the computing resources of different clusters in an optimal way. We propose a model that provides message passing capabilities between parallel applications over the internet. The proposed model is based on Architecture for Java Universal Message Passing (A-JUMP) framework and Enterprise Service Bus (ESB) named as High Performance Computing Bus. The HPC Bus is built using ActiveMQ. HPC Bus is responsible for communication and message passing in an asynchronous manner. Asynchronous mode of communication offers an assurance for message delivery as well as a fault tolerance mechanism for message passing. The idea presented in this paper effectively utilizes wide-area intercluster networks. It also provides scheduling, dynamic resource discovery and allocation, and sub-clustering of resources for different jobs. Performance analysis and comparison study of the proposed framework with P2P-MPI are also presented in this paper.

  20. Improved Message Authentication and Confidentiality Checking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail Jabiullah, M.; Abdullah Al-Shamim, M.; Lutfar Rahman, M.

    2005-01-01

    The most confusing areas of the secured network communications are the message authentication and confidentiality checking. The attacks and the counter measures have become so convoluted that the users in this area begin to account for all contingencies. Two session-key generation techniques are used here to generate two separate session keys K 1 and K 2 ; and both the sender and the reveiver share these keys for higher degree of authentication and confidentiality. For this, the message is first encrypted by the key K 1 , and then the intermediary message authenticatin code (MAC) is generated by encrypting the encrypted message using the key K 2 . Then, the encrypted message and the intermediary MAC is again encrypted by using the K 2 and concatenated with the encrypted message and sent to the destination. At the receiving end, first, the received ciphertext is encrypted by using key K 2 and compared to the received MAC. The received ciphertext again is decrypted by the key K 2 and compared with the first decrypted MAC twice by the key K 2 . The plaintext is obtained by decrypting the received ciphertext first by K 2 and then by K 1 , using the corresponding decryption techniques respectively. The encryption techniques with key K 2 provides the authentication and with key K 1 provides the confidentiality checking of the transmitted message. The developed technique can be applied to both academic and commercial applications in online or offline electronic transactions for security.(authors)

  1. Families of quantum fingerprinting protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovitz, Benjamin; Lütkenhaus, Norbert

    2018-03-01

    We introduce several families of quantum fingerprinting protocols to evaluate the equality function on two n -bit strings in the simultaneous message passing model. The original quantum fingerprinting protocol uses a tensor product of a small number of O (logn ) -qubit high-dimensional signals [H. Buhrman et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 167902 (2001), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.87.167902], whereas a recently proposed optical protocol uses a tensor product of O (n ) single-qubit signals, while maintaining the O (logn ) information leakage of the original protocol [J. M. Arazola and N. Lütkenhaus, Phys. Rev. A 89, 062305 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevA.89.062305]. We find a family of protocols which interpolate between the original and optical protocols while maintaining the O (logn ) information leakage, thus demonstrating a tradeoff between the number of signals sent and the dimension of each signal. There has been interest in experimental realization of the recently proposed optical protocol using coherent states [F. Xu et al., Nat. Commun. 6, 8735 (2015), 10.1038/ncomms9735; J.-Y. Guan et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 240502 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.240502], but as the required number of laser pulses grows linearly with the input size n , eventual challenges for the long-time stability of experimental setups arise. We find a coherent state protocol which reduces the number of signals by a factor 1/2 while also reducing the information leakage. Our reduction makes use of a simple modulation scheme in optical phase space, and we find that more complex modulation schemes are not advantageous. Using a similar technique, we improve a recently proposed coherent state protocol for evaluating the Euclidean distance between two real unit vectors [N. Kumar et al., Phys. Rev. A 95, 032337 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevA.95.032337] by reducing the number of signals by a factor 1/2 and also reducing the information leakage.

  2. Management and Archiving e-mail Messages in Governmental Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Ashraf Mohamed A.Mohsen

    2006-01-01

    The study deals great issue of digital preservation that is e-mail archiving, it covered all aspects of the topic; it discuss: e-mail system, components of e-mail message, advantages and disadvantages of e-mail, official e-mail messages, management of e-mail messages, organizing and arrangement of e-mail messages, keeping and deleting messages, archiving e-mail messages, and some related issues like: privacy and security.

  3. Evaluation of Sexual Communication Message Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Munziba

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Parent-child communication about sex is an important proximal reproductive health outcome. But while campaigns to promote it such as the Parents Speak Up National Campaign (PSUNC have been effective, little is known about how messages influence parental cognitions and behavior. This study examines which message features explain responses to sexual communication messages. We content analyzed 4 PSUNC ads to identify specific, measurable message and advertising execution features. We then develop quantitative measures of those features, including message strategies, marketing strategies, and voice and other stylistic features, and merged the resulting data into a dataset drawn from a national media tracking survey of the campaign. Finally, we conducted multivariable logistic regression models to identify relationships between message content and ad reactions/receptivity, and between ad reactions/receptivity and parents' cognitions related to sexual communication included in the campaign's conceptual model. We found that overall parents were highly receptive to the PSUNC ads. We did not find significant associations between message content and ad reactions/receptivity. However, we found that reactions/receptivity to specific PSUNC ads were associated with increased norms, self-efficacy, short- and long-term expectations about parent-child sexual communication, as theorized in the conceptual model. This study extends previous research and methods to analyze message content and reactions/receptivity. The results confirm and extend previous PSUNC campaign evaluation and provide further evidence for the conceptual model. Future research should examine additional message content features and the effects of reactions/receptivity.

  4. When message-frame fits salient cultural-frame, messages feel more persuasive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uskul, Ayse K; Oyserman, Daphna

    2010-03-01

    The present study examines the persuasive effects of tailored health messages comparing those tailored to match (versus not match) both chronic cultural frame and momentarily salient cultural frame. Evidence from two studies (Study 1: n = 72 European Americans; Study 2: n = 48 Asian Americans) supports the hypothesis that message persuasiveness increases when chronic cultural frame, health message tailoring and momentarily salient cultural frame all match. The hypothesis was tested using a message about health risks of caffeine consumption among individuals prescreened to be regular caffeine consumers. After being primed for individualism, European Americans who read a health message that focused on the personal self were more likely to accept the message-they found it more persuasive, believed they were more at risk and engaged in more message-congruent behaviour. These effects were also found among Asian Americans who were primed for collectivism and who read a health message that focused on relational obligations. The findings point to the importance of investigating the role of situational cues in persuasive effects of health messages and suggest that matching content to primed frame consistent with the chronic frame may be a way to know what to match messages to.

  5. Comment ameliorer la selection et le traitement des messages verbaux? (How to Improve the Selection and Processing of Verbal Messages)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rivenez, Marie; Darwin, Chris; Guillaume, Anne

    2005-01-01

    L'objectif de cette recherche est d'ameliorer la selection des messages verbaux. Nous cherchons a determiner les facteurs influencant le traitement d'un message verbal lorsque l'attention est portee sur un autre message...

  6. Study protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Benjamin E; Hendrick, Paul; Bateman, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    avoidance behaviours, catastrophising, self-efficacy, sport and leisure activity participation, and general quality of life. Follow-up will be 3 and 6 months. The analysis will focus on descriptive statistics and confidence intervals. The qualitative components will follow a thematic analysis approach....... DISCUSSION: This study will evaluate the feasibility of running a definitive large-scale trial on patients with patellofemoral pain, within the NHS in the UK. We will identify strengths and weaknesses of the proposed protocol and the utility and characteristics of the outcome measures. The results from...... this study will inform the design of a multicentre trial. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN35272486....

  7. Message passing for quantified Boolean formulas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Pan; Ramezanpour, Abolfazl; Zecchina, Riccardo; Zdeborová, Lenka

    2012-01-01

    We introduce two types of message passing algorithms for quantified Boolean formulas (QBF). The first type is a message passing based heuristics that can prove unsatisfiability of the QBF by assigning the universal variables in such a way that the remaining formula is unsatisfiable. In the second type, we use message passing to guide branching heuristics of a Davis–Putnam–Logemann–Loveland (DPLL) complete solver. Numerical experiments show that on random QBFs our branching heuristics give robust exponential efficiency gain with respect to state-of-the-art solvers. We also manage to solve some previously unsolved benchmarks from the QBFLIB library. Apart from this, our study sheds light on using message passing in small systems and as subroutines in complete solvers

  8. Anxiety, Construct Differentiation, and Message Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Gregory J.; Condra, Mollie B.

    1989-01-01

    Examines the nature of the construct differentiation/anxiety relationship in light of messages produced. Considers recent and complex conceptualizations of social-cognitive development and anxiety. Finds no significant relationship between state anxiety and construct differentiation. (MM)

  9. MORPHOLOGICAL STRATEGIES IN TEXT MESSAGING AMONG ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Text messaging is the application of abridged morphological forms in order ... the emergence of the Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) in the world. ... Our thesis statement is that these morphological patterns as used in SMS are ...

  10. Photometric requirements for portable changeable message signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    This project reviewed the performance of pchangeable message signs (PCMSs) and developed photometric standards to establish performance requirements. In addition, researchers developed photometric test methods and recommended them for use in evaluati...

  11. Wyoming CV Pilot Traveler Information Message Sample

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — This dataset contains a sample of the sanitized Traveler Information Messages (TIM) being generated by the Wyoming Connected Vehicle (CV) Pilot. The full set of TIMs...

  12. Getting the message across: age differences in the positive and negative framing of health care messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamaskin, Andrea M; Mikels, Joseph A; Reed, Andrew E

    2010-09-01

    Although valenced health care messages influence impressions, memory, and behavior (Levin, Schneider, & Gaeth, 1998) and the processing of valenced information changes with age (Carstensen & Mikels, 2005), these 2 lines of research have thus far been disconnected. This study examined impressions of, and memory for, positively and negatively framed health care messages that were presented in pamphlets to 25 older adults and 24 younger adults. Older adults relative to younger adults rated positive pamphlets more informative than negative pamphlets and remembered a higher proportion of positive to negative messages. However, older adults misremembered negative messages to be positive. These findings demonstrate the age-related positivity effect in health care messages with promise as to the persuasive nature and lingering effects of positive messages. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Fear, threat and efficacy in threat appeals: message involvement as a key mediator to message acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauberghe, Verolien; De Pelsmacker, Patrick; Janssens, Wim; Dens, Nathalie

    2009-03-01

    In a sample of 170 youngsters, the effect of two versions of a public service announcement (PSA) threat appeal against speeding, placed in four different contexts, on evoked fear, perceived threat (severity and probability of occurrence), perceived response efficacy and self-efficacy, message involvement and anti-speeding attitude and anti-speeding intention is investigated. Evoked fear and perceived threat and efficacy independently influence message involvement. Message involvement is a full mediator between evoked fear, perceived threat and efficacy perception on the one hand, and attitudes towards the message and behavioral intention to accept the message on the other. Speeding experience has a significantly negative impact on anti-speeding attitudes. Message and medium context threat levels and context thematic congruency have a significant effect on evoked fear and to a lesser extent on perceived threat.

  14. Space Reclamation for Uncoordinated Checkpointing in Message-Passing Systems. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Min

    1993-01-01

    Checkpointing and rollback recovery are techniques that can provide efficient recovery from transient process failures. In a message-passing system, the rollback of a message sender may cause the rollback of the corresponding receiver, and the system needs to roll back to a consistent set of checkpoints called recovery line. If the processes are allowed to take uncoordinated checkpoints, the above rollback propagation may result in the domino effect which prevents recovery line progression. Traditionally, only obsolete checkpoints before the global recovery line can be discarded, and the necessary and sufficient condition for identifying all garbage checkpoints has remained an open problem. A necessary and sufficient condition for achieving optimal garbage collection is derived and it is proved that the number of useful checkpoints is bounded by N(N+1)/2, where N is the number of processes. The approach is based on the maximum-sized antichain model of consistent global checkpoints and the technique of recovery line transformation and decomposition. It is also shown that, for systems requiring message logging to record in-transit messages, the same approach can be used to achieve optimal message log reclamation. As a final topic, a unifying framework is described by considering checkpoint coordination and exploiting piecewise determinism as mechanisms for bounding rollback propagation, and the applicability of the optimal garbage collection algorithm to domino-free recovery protocols is demonstrated.

  15. Protocol of networks using energy sharing collisions of bright solitons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Equations (13a) and (13b) can be satisfied by choosing αk as .... (right) configurations of the two-soliton solution in the Manakov-type system on PSG. .... receivers of messages, the present phase change can be used as protocols of network.

  16. dynamic-threshold-limited timed-token (dtltt) protocol

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... Token (STOGSTT) Media Access Control (MAC) protocol for channel capacity allocation to the asynchronous traffic in ... Keywords: multi-access, multiservice, network, synchronous, asynchronous, traffic, timed-token. 1. Introduction .... Messages generated in the system at run time may be classified as ...

  17. Security Protocol Verification and Optimization by Epistemic Model Checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    Three cryptographers are sitting down to dinner at their favourite restau- rant. Their waiter informs them that arrangements have been made with the...Unfortunately, the protocol cannot be expected to satisfy this: suppose that all agents manage to broadcast their mes- sage and all messages have the

  18. High-sensitivity stable-isotope probing by a quantitative terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andeer, Peter; Strand, Stuart E; Stahl, David A

    2012-01-01

    Stable-isotope probing (SIP) has proved a valuable cultivation-independent tool for linking specific microbial populations to selected functions in various natural and engineered systems. However, application of SIP to microbial populations with relatively minor buoyant density increases, such as populations that utilize compounds as a nitrogen source, results in reduced resolution of labeled populations. We therefore developed a tandem quantitative PCR (qPCR)-TRFLP (terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism) protocol that improves resolution of detection by quantifying specific taxonomic groups in gradient fractions. This method combines well-controlled amplification with TRFLP analysis to quantify relative taxon abundance in amplicon pools of FAM-labeled PCR products, using the intercalating dye EvaGreen to monitor amplification. Method accuracy was evaluated using mixtures of cloned 16S rRNA genes, DNA extracted from low- and high-G+C bacterial isolates (Escherichia coli, Rhodococcus, Variovorax, and Microbacterium), and DNA from soil microcosms amended with known amounts of genomic DNA from bacterial isolates. Improved resolution of minor shifts in buoyant density relative to TRFLP analysis alone was confirmed using well-controlled SIP analyses.

  19. Message-driven factors influencing opening and forwarding of mobile advertising messages

    OpenAIRE

    Sanz Blas, Silvia; Ruiz Mafé, Carla; Martí Parreño, José

    2015-01-01

    This work aims to analyse the influence of message-driven factors -informativeness, ubiquity, frequency and personalization- on consumer attitude and behaviour -opening and forwarding- towards mobile advertising messages. A theoretical model was developed and empirically tested using a sample of 355 Spanish teenager mobile users. Findings show that frequency is the dimension accounting the most -and significantly- of the four message-driven factors analysed on attitude toward mobile advertisi...

  20. When message-frame fits salient cultural-frame, messages feel more persuasive

    OpenAIRE

    Uskul, Ayse K.; Oyserman, Daphna

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines the persuasive effects of tailored health messages comparing those tailored to match (versus not match) both chronic cultural frame and momentarily salient cultural frame. Evidence from two studies (Study 1: n = 72 European Americans; Study 2: n = 48 Asian Americans) supports the hypothesis that message persuasiveness increases when chronic cultural frame, health message tailoring and momentarily salient cultural frame all match. The hypothesis was tested using a me...

  1. Persuasive messages. Development of persuasive messages may help increase mothers' compliance of their children's immunization schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, P; Madhavan, S; Curry, D; McClurg, G; Castiglia, M; Rosenbluth, S A; Smego, R A

    1998-01-01

    Effective immunization campaigns can be designed by determining which persuasion strategy is most effective in attracting the attention of mothers of preschoolers. The authors assess the impact of three persuasional strategies: fear-arousal, motherhood-arousal, and rational messages, on mothers of preschoolers who are late for their immunizations. The fear-arousal message was found to be most effective, followed by the motherhood-arousal, and then the rational message, in attracting mothers' attention to their child's immunization status.

  2. Two-step quantum direct communication protocol using the Einstein- Podolsky-Rosen pair block

    CERN Document Server

    Fu Guo Deng; Xiao Shu Liu; 10.1103/PhysRevA.68.042317

    2003-01-01

    A protocol for quantum secure direct communication using blocks of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) pairs is proposed. A set of ordered N EPR pairs is used as a data block for sending secret message directly. The ordered N EPR set is divided into two particle sequences, a checking sequence and a message-coding sequence. After transmitting the checking sequence, the two parties of communication check eavesdropping by measuring a fraction of particles randomly chosen, with random choice of two sets of measuring bases. After insuring the security of the quantum channel, the sender Alice encodes the secret message directly on the message-coding sequence and sends them to Bob. By combining the checking and message-coding sequences together, Bob is able to read out the encoded messages directly. The scheme is secure because an eavesdropper cannot get both sequences simultaneously. We also discuss issues in a noisy channel. (30 refs).

  3. Improving Type Error Messages in OCaml

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Charguéraud

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cryptic type error messages are a major obstacle to learning OCaml or other ML-based languages. In many cases, error messages cannot be interpreted without a sufficiently-precise model of the type inference algorithm. The problem of improving type error messages in ML has received quite a bit of attention over the past two decades, and many different strategies have been considered. The challenge is not only to produce error messages that are both sufficiently concise and systematically useful to the programmer, but also to handle a full-blown programming language and to cope with large-sized programs efficiently. In this work, we present a modification to the traditional ML type inference algorithm implemented in OCaml that, by significantly reducing the left-to-right bias, allows us to report error messages that are more helpful to the programmer. Our algorithm remains fully predictable and continues to produce fairly concise error messages that always help making some progress towards fixing the code. We implemented our approach as a patch to the OCaml compiler in just a few hundred lines of code. We believe that this patch should benefit not just to beginners, but also to experienced programs developing large-scale OCaml programs.

  4. Recent computer attacks via Instant Messaging

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2008-01-01

    Be cautious of any unexpected messages containing web links even if they appear to come from known contacts. If you happen to click on such a link and if your permission is requested to run or install software, always decline it. Several computers at CERN have recently been broken into by attackers who have tricked users of Instant Messaging applications (e.g. MSN, Yahoo Messenger, etc.) into clicking on web links which appeared to come from known contacts. The links appeared to be photos from ‘friends’ and requested software to be installed. In practice, attacker software was installed and the messages did not come from real contacts. In the past such fake messages were mainly sent by email but now a wider range of applications are being targeted, including Instant Messaging. Cybercriminals are making growing use of fake messages to try to trick you into clicking on Web links which will help them to install malicious software on your computer. Anti-virus software cann...

  5. Gender messages in contemporary popular Malay songs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collin Jerome

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Gender has been an important area of research in the field of popular music studies. Numerous scholars have found that contemporary popular music functions as a locus of diverse constructions and expressions of gender. While most studies focus on content analyses of popular music, there is still a need for more research on audience’s perception of popular music’s messages. This study examined adult Malay listeners’ perceptions of gender messages in contemporary Malay songs. A total of 16 contemporary Malay songs were analysed using Fairclough’s (1992 method of text analysis. The content of the songs that conveyed messages about gender were the basis for analysis. The results showed that the messages revolve mainly around socially constructed gender roles and expectations in romantic relationships. Gender stereotypes are also used in the songs to reinforce men’s and women’s roles in romantic relationships. The results also showed that, while listeners acknowledge the songs’ messages about gender, their own perceptions of gender and what it means to be a gendered being in today’s world are neither represented nor discussed fully in the songs analysed. It is hoped the findings from this, particularly the mismatch between projected and perceived notions of gender, contribute to the field of popular Malay music studies in particular, and popular music studies in general where gender messages in popular songs and their influence on listeners’ perceptions of their own gender is concerned.

  6. Quantum signature scheme for known quantum messages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Taewan; Lee, Hyang-Sook

    2015-01-01

    When we want to sign a quantum message that we create, we can use arbitrated quantum signature schemes which are possible to sign for not only known quantum messages but also unknown quantum messages. However, since the arbitrated quantum signature schemes need the help of a trusted arbitrator in each verification of the signature, it is known that the schemes are not convenient in practical use. If we consider only known quantum messages such as the above situation, there can exist a quantum signature scheme with more efficient structure. In this paper, we present a new quantum signature scheme for known quantum messages without the help of an arbitrator. Differing from arbitrated quantum signature schemes based on the quantum one-time pad with the symmetric key, since our scheme is based on quantum public-key cryptosystems, the validity of the signature can be verified by a receiver without the help of an arbitrator. Moreover, we show that our scheme provides the functions of quantum message integrity, user authentication and non-repudiation of the origin as in digital signature schemes. (paper)

  7. End-to-end Configuration of Wireless Realtime Communication over Heterogeneous Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malinowsky, B.; Grønbæk, Jesper; Schwefel, Hans-Peter

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a wireless real-time communication system design using two Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) protocols. Messages are subject to prioritization and queuing. For this interoperation scenario, we show a method for end-to-end configuration of protocols and queue sizes. Such co...

  8. Beyond protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanderhoeven, Sonia; Branquart, Etienne; Casaer, Jim

    2017-01-01

    Risk assessment tools for listing invasive alien species need to incorporate all available evidence and expertise. Beyond the wealth of protocols developed to date, we argue that the current way of performing risk analysis has several shortcomings. In particular, lack of data on ecological impact...... information on risk and the exploration of improved methods for decision making on biodiversity management. This is crucial for efficient conservation resource allocation and uptake by stakeholders and the public......., transparency and repeatability of assessments as well as the incorporation of uncertainty should all be explicitly considered. We recommend improved quality control of risk assessments through formalized peer review with clear feedback between assessors and reviewers. Alternatively, a consensus building...

  9. Improving the security of a quantum secret sharing protocol between multiparty and multiparty without entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Lianfang; Liu Yimin; Shi Shouhua; Zhang Zhanjun

    2007-01-01

    Recently Yan and Gao [F.L. Yan, T. Gao, Phys. Rev. A 72 (2005) 012304] have proposed a quantum secret sharing protocol which allows a secret message to be shared between one group of m parties and another group of n parties. The protocol is claimed to be secure. In this Letter, first we show that any subgroup consisting of evil cooperative parties (or one and only one evil party) can successfully cheat other parties to obtain the secret message without being detected. Then we improve the original Yan-Gao protocol such that the insider's cheats are prevented

  10. RGC32 induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition by activating the Smad/Sip1 signaling pathway in CRC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Yan; Li, Sheng-Nan; Zhu, Hui-Fang; Hu, Zhi-Yan; Zhong, Yan; Gu, Chuan-Sha; Chen, Shi-You; Liu, Teng-Fei; Li, Zu-Guo

    2017-05-04

    Response gene to complement 32 (RGC32) is a transcription factor that regulates the expression of multiple genes involved in cell growth, viability and tissue-specific differentiation. However, the role of RGC32 in tumorigenesis and tumor progression in colorectal cancer (CRC) has not been fully elucidated. Here, we showed that the expression of RGC32 was significantly up-regulated in human CRC tissues versus adjacent normal tissues. RGC32 expression was significantly correlated with invasive and aggressive characteristics of tumor cells, as well as poor survival of CRC patients. We also demonstrated that RGC32 overexpression promoted proliferation, migration and tumorigenic growth of human CRC cells in vitro and in vivo. Functionally, RGC32 facilitated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in CRC via the Smad/Sip1 signaling pathway, as shown by decreasing E-cadherin expression and increasing vimentin expression. In conclusion, our findings suggested that overexpression of RGC32 facilitates EMT of CRC cells by activating Smad/Sip1 signaling.

  11. The ICRP message;Le message de la CIPR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz Lopez, P. [Groupe de travail de la CIPR sur la prevention des expositions accidentelles liees a l' utilisation des nouvelles technologies de Radiotherapie par Faisceau Externe, Madrid (Spain)

    2009-12-15

    The ICRP gives its recommendations in the case of use of new technologies in radiotherapy: lessons learned from conventional technologies and also applicable to the new ones. Training, and specialization of the personnel as well as the need in personnel must be evaluated again. Managers of a radiotherapy service should bear in mind that the work environment must focus on concentration and avoid the risk of inattention. Manufacturers, for their part must provide reliable equipment with correct calibration files and documentation. the acquisition and implementation programs must focus not only on devices for treatment but also on treatment planning systems, computer systems and imaging devices used in radiation therapy, software, procedures and whole clinical process. The devices and procedures need to be re-classified after any changes to hardware, including upgrades and updates of software. The dosimetry protocols must be developed specially for the low doses irradiations and non standard irradiations. To increase the dose without increasing a probability of complication in sane tissues it is necessary to use a conformal therapy with a positioning of the patient. Communication is essential, especially concerning the activities of maintenance and repair that must ne notified to the physicists. In the same way, procedures of failures management in the computer systems must be implemented in order to avoid a loss of data susceptible to lead to serious accidental irradiations. The return of experience can be an help and then must be integrated in personnel training that is encouraged to share the experience in matter of incidents by providing information in a data base such the R.O.S.I.S. data base (radiation oncology safety information system). Before introducing new technologies it is recommended to realize probabilistic safety evaluations in order to develop quality assurance programmes integrating risk factors as, by example the analysis of failure modes and

  12. A hazard-independent approach for the standardised multi-channel dissemination of warning messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbri Palomares, M. A.; Hammitzsch, M.; Lendholt, M.

    2012-04-01

    The tsunami disaster affecting the Indian Ocean region on Christmas 2004 demonstrated very clearly the shortcomings in tsunami detection, public warning processes as well as intergovernmental warning message exchange in the Indian Ocean region. In that regard, early warning systems require that the dissemination of early warning messages has to be executed in way that ensures that the message delivery is timely; the message content is understandable, usable and accurate. To that end, diverse and multiple dissemination channels must be used to increase the chance of the messages reaching all affected persons in a hazard scenario. In addition to this, usage of internationally accepted standards for the warning dissemination such as the Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) and Emergency Data Exchange Language (EDXL) Distribution Element specified by the Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS) increase the interoperability among different warning systems enabling thus the concept of system-of-systems proposed by GEOSS. The project Distant Early Warning System (DEWS), co-funded by the European Commission under the 6th Framework Programme, aims at strengthening the early warning capacities by building an innovative generation of interoperable tsunami early warning systems based on the above mentioned concepts following a Service-oriented Architecture (SOA) approach. The project focuses on the downstream part of the hazard information processing where customized, user-tailored warning messages and alerts flow from the warning centre to the responsible authorities and/or the public with their different needs and responsibilities. The information logistics services within DEWS generate tailored EDXL-DE/CAP warning messages for each user that must receive the message according to their preferences, e.g., settings for language, interested areas, dissemination channels, etc.. However, the significant difference in the implementation and

  13. Comparing tailored and untailored text messages for smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov-Ettrup, L S; Ringgaard, L W; Dalum, P

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to compare the effectiveness of untailored text messages for smoking cessation to tailored text messages delivered at a higher frequency. From February 2007 to August 2009, 2030 users of an internet-based smoking cessation program with optional text message support aged 15-25 years were...... of text messages increases quit rates among young smokers....

  14. Art messaging to engage homeless young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyamathi, Adeline; Slagle, Alexandra; Thomas, Alexandra; Hudson, Angela; Kahilifard, Farinaz; Avila, Glenna; Orser, Julie; Cuchilla, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Art has been shown to be an empowering and engaging entity with numerous benefits to vulnerable populations, including the homeless persons and young adults. However, little is known how homeless young adults perceive the use of art as messages that can communicate the danger of initiating or continuing drug and alcohol use. The purpose of this study was to solicit perspectives of homeless, drug-using young adults as to how art can be used to design messages for their peers about the danger of initiating or continuing drug and alcohol use. Qualitative methodology via focus group discussions was utilized to engage 24 homeless young adults enrolled from a drop-in site in Santa Monica, California. The findings revealed support for a myriad of delivery styles, including in-person communication, flyers, music, documentary film, and creative writing. The young adults also provided insight into the importance of the thematic framework of messages. Such themes ranged from empowering and hopeful messages to those designed to scare young homeless adults into not experimenting with drugs. The findings indicate that in addition to messages communicating the need to prevent or reduce drug and alcohol use, homeless young adults respond to messages that remind them of goals and dreams they once had for their future, and to content that is personal, real, and truthful. Our research indicates that messages that reinforce protective factors such as hope for the future and self-esteem may be as important to homeless young adults as information about the risks and consequences of drug use.

  15. Live chat alternative security protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, J. P. R.; Nugraha, E.; Febriany, A.

    2018-05-01

    Indonesia is one of the largest e-commerce markets in Southeast Asia, as many as 5 million people do transactions in e-commerce, therefore more and more people use live chat service to communicate with customer service. In live chat, the customer service often asks customers’ data such as, full name, address, e-mail, transaction id, which aims to verify the purchase of the product. One of the risks that will happen is sniffing which will lead to the theft of confidential information that will cause huge losses to the customer. The anticipation that will be done is build an alternative security protocol for user interaction in live chat by using a cryptographic algorithm that is useful for protecting confidential messages. Live chat requires confidentiality and data integration with encryption and hash functions. The used algorithm are Rijndael 256 bits, RSA, and SHA256. To increase the complexity, the Rijndael algorithm will be modified in the S-box and ShiftRow sections based on the shannon principle rule, the results show that all pass the Randomness test, but the modification in Shiftrow indicates a better avalanche effect. Therefore the message will be difficult to be stolen or changed.

  16. Uma aplicação de voz sobre IP baseada no Session Initiation Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Maia da Silva Junior, Jucimar

    2006-01-01

    Neste trabalho é implementada uma aplicação de Voz Sobre IP utilizando o Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) como protocolo de sinalização. Para alcançar este objetivo, são analisadas algumas tecnologias importantes, como os protocolos da Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) para Telefonia IP, codificadores de voz, e a utilização da aplicação para verificação de atrasos, jitter e perda de pacotes. A aplicação foi desenvolvida em Java e pode facilmente ser modificada para adequa...

  17. Maximally efficient protocols for direct secure quantum communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Anindita [Department of Physics and Materials Science Engineering, Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, A-10, Sector-62, Noida, UP-201307 (India); Department of Physics and Center for Astroparticle Physics and Space Science, Bose Institute, Block EN, Sector V, Kolkata 700091 (India); Pathak, Anirban, E-mail: anirban.pathak@jiit.ac.in [Department of Physics and Materials Science Engineering, Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, A-10, Sector-62, Noida, UP-201307 (India); RCPTM, Joint Laboratory of Optics of Palacky University and Institute of Physics of Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, Faculty of Science, Palacky University, 17. Listopadu 12, 77146 Olomouc (Czech Republic)

    2012-10-01

    Two protocols for deterministic secure quantum communication (DSQC) using GHZ-like states have been proposed. It is shown that one of these protocols is maximally efficient and that can be modified to an equivalent protocol of quantum secure direct communication (QSDC). Security and efficiency of the proposed protocols are analyzed and compared. It is shown that dense coding is sufficient but not essential for DSQC and QSDC protocols. Maximally efficient QSDC protocols are shown to be more efficient than their DSQC counterparts. This additional efficiency arises at the cost of message transmission rate. -- Highlights: ► Two protocols for deterministic secure quantum communication (DSQC) are proposed. ► One of the above protocols is maximally efficient. ► It is modified to an equivalent protocol of quantum secure direct communication (QSDC). ► It is shown that dense coding is sufficient but not essential for DSQC and QSDC protocols. ► Efficient QSDC protocols are always more efficient than their DSQC counterparts.

  18. Emotional flow in persuasive health messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Robin L

    2015-01-01

    Overwhelmingly, the literature on the persuasive influence of emotions has focused on individual emotions, fear in particular, though some recent attention has been given to mixed emotions in persuasive appeals. Building on this newer wave of research, this article argues that instead of focusing on singular emotional states or collections of emotions evoked by a message, it might prove valuable to explore the flow, or evolution, of emotional experience over the course of exposure to a health message. The article offers a brief introduction to the concept of emotion, followed by a review of the state of the literature on the use of emotion in health messages. The concept of emotional flow is then introduced along with a consideration of how it has been tacitly incorporated into the study of emotional health messages. Finally, the utility of the concept of emotional flow is elaborated by articulating the ways in which it might be harnessed to facilitate the creation of more effective health messages, individually as well as across campaigns. The article concludes with an agenda for future research.

  19. Effects of Electronic Word - of - Mouth Messages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choong Hoon Lim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increased usage of online technologies, there has been an escalation of Electronic Word - of –Mouth (eWOM messages related to sport products and services offered and consumed. Therefore, in this original investigation by applying eWOM to the sport industry, this study examined how the combination of the quality of the eWOM message and the provider of the eWOM message affects purchaseintentions depending on the expertise level of the consumer. This study – which involved the collection of data from 134 students at a large university situated in the Midwest of the United States – utilized repeated measures of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA with tripartite groups of expertise and experimental conditions as independent variables. Purchase intention was the dependent variables. The results indicated that the quality of the eWOM message moderated the effect of the provider of the eWOM message. The subject’s level of expertise also had a moderating role on purchase intention.

  20. AMS: Area Message Service for SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crane, M.; Mackenzie, R.; Millsom, D.; Zelazny, M.

    1993-01-01

    The Area Message Service (AMS) is a TCP/IP based messaging service currently in use at SLAC. A number of projects under development here at SLAC require an application level interface to the 4.3BSD UNIX socket level communications functions using TCP/IP over ethernet. AMS provides connection management, solicited message transfer, unsolicited message transfer, and asynchronous notification of pending messages. AMS is written completely in ANSI open-quote C close-quote and is currently portable over three hardware/operating system/network manager platforms, VAX/VMS/Multinet, PC/MS-DOS/Pathworks, VME 68K/pSOS/pNA. The basic architecture is a client-server connection where either end of the interface may be the server. This allows for connections and data flow to be initiated from either end of the interface. Included in the paper are details concerning the connection management, the handling of the multi-platform code, and the implementation process

  1. Supervising simulations with the Prodiguer Messaging Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Mark; Carenton, Nicolas; Denvil, Sebastien

    2015-04-01

    At any one moment in time, researchers affiliated with the Institut Pierre Simon Laplace (IPSL) climate modeling group, are running hundreds of global climate simulations. These simulations execute upon a heterogeneous set of High Performance Computing (HPC) environments spread throughout France. The IPSL's simulation execution runtime is called libIGCM (library for IPSL Global Climate Modeling group). libIGCM has recently been enhanced so as to support realtime operational use cases. Such use cases include simulation monitoring, data publication, environment metrics collection, automated simulation control … etc. At the core of this enhancement is the Prodiguer messaging platform. libIGCM now emits information, in the form of messages, for remote processing at IPSL servers in Paris. The remote message processing takes several forms, for example: 1. Persisting message content to database(s); 2. Notifying an operator of changes in a simulation's execution status; 3. Launching rollback jobs upon simulation failure; 4. Dynamically updating controlled vocabularies; 5. Notifying downstream applications such as the Prodiguer web portal; We will describe how the messaging platform has been implemented from a technical perspective and demonstrate the Prodiguer web portal receiving realtime notifications.

  2. Positive messaging promotes walking in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notthoff, Nanna; Carstensen, Laura L

    2014-06-01

    Walking is among the most cost-effective and accessible means of exercise. Mounting evidence suggests that walking may help to maintain physical and cognitive independence in old age by preventing a variety of health problems. However, older Americans fall far short of meeting the daily recommendations for walking. In 2 studies, we examined whether considering older adults' preferential attention to positive information may effectively enhance interventions aimed at promoting walking. In Study 1, we compared the effectiveness of positive, negative, and neutral messages to encourage walking (as measured with pedometers). Older adults who were informed about the benefits of walking walked more than those who were informed about the negative consequences of failing to walk, whereas younger adults were unaffected by framing valence. In Study 2, we examined within-person change in walking in older adults in response to positively- or negatively-framed messages over a 28-day period. Once again, positively-framed messages more effectively promoted walking than negatively-framed messages, and the effect was sustained across the intervention period. Together, these studies suggest that consideration of age-related changes in preferences for positive and negative information may inform the design of effective interventions to promote healthy lifestyles. Future research is needed to examine the mechanisms underlying the greater effectiveness of positively- as opposed to negatively-framed messages and the generalizability of findings to other intervention targets and other subpopulations of older adults. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. SAMP: Application Messaging for Desktop and Web Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M. B.; Boch, T.; Fay, J.; Fitzpatrick, M.; Paioro, L.

    2012-09-01

    SAMP, the Simple Application Messaging Protocol, is a technology which allows tools to communicate. It is deployed in a number of desktop astronomy applications including ds9, Aladin, TOPCAT, World Wide Telescope and numerous others, and makes it straightforward for a user to treat a selection of these tools as a loosely-integrated suite, combining the most powerful features of each. It has been widely used within Virtual Observatory contexts, but is equally suitable for non-VO use. Enabling SAMP communication from web-based content has long been desirable. An obvious use case is arranging for a click on a web page link to deliver an image, table or spectrum to a desktop viewer, but more sophisticated two-way interaction with rich internet applications would also be possible. Use from the web however presents some problems related to browser sandboxing. We explain how the SAMP Web Profile, introduced in version 1.3 of the SAMP protocol, addresses these issues, and discuss the resulting security implications.

  4. The message development tool: a case for effective operationalization of messaging in social marketing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, Marifran; Basu, Ambar

    2010-07-01

    That messages are essential, if not the most critical component of any communicative process, seems like an obvious claim. More so when the communication is about health--one of the most vital and elemental of human experiences (Babrow & Mattson, 2003). Any communication campaign that aims to change a target audience's health behaviors needs to centralize messages. Even though messaging strategies are an essential component of social marketing and are a widely used campaign model, health campaigns based on this framework have not always been able to effectively operationalize this key component, leading to cases where initiating and sustaining prescribed health behavior has been difficult (MacStravic, 2000). Based on an examination of the VERB campaign and an Australian breastfeeding promotion campaign, we propose a message development tool within the ambit of the social marketing framework that aims to extend the framework and ensure that the messaging component of the model is contextualized at the core of planning, implementation, and evaluation efforts.

  5. Cryptanalysis and improvement of quantum secure communication network protocol with entangled photons for mobile communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Gan

    2014-01-01

    Recently, a communication protocol called controlled bidirectional quantum secret direct communication for mobile networks was proposed by Chou et al (2014 Mobile Netw. Appl. 19 121). We study the security of the proposed communication protocol and find that it is not secure. The controller, Telecom Company, may eavesdrop secret messages from mobile devices without being detected. Finally, we give a possible improvement of the communication protocol. (paper)

  6. Alert: An Adaptive Low-Latency Event-Driven MAC Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Namboodiri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Collection of rare but delay-critical messages from a group of sensor nodes is a key process in many wireless sensor network applications. This is particularly important for security-related applications like intrusion detection and fire alarm systems. An event sensed by multiple sensor nodes in the network can trigger many messages to be sent simultaneously. We present Alert, a MAC protocol for collecting event-triggered urgent messages from a group of sensor nodes with minimum latency and without requiring any cooperation or prescheduling among the senders or between senders and receiver during protocol execution. Alert is designed to handle multiple simultaneous messages from different nodes efficiently and reliably, minimizing the overall delay to collect all messages along with the delay to get the first message. Moreover, the ability of the network to handle a large number of simultaneous messages does not come at the cost of excessive delays when only a few messages need to be handled. We analyze Alert and evaluate its feasibility and performance with an implementation on commodity hardware. We further compare Alert with existing approaches through simulations and show the performance improvement possible through Alert.

  7. Broadcasting a message in a parallel computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Jeremy E [Rochester, MN; Faraj, Ahmad A [Rochester, MN

    2011-08-02

    Methods, systems, and products are disclosed for broadcasting a message in a parallel computer. The parallel computer includes a plurality of compute nodes connected together using a data communications network. The data communications network optimized for point to point data communications and is characterized by at least two dimensions. The compute nodes are organized into at least one operational group of compute nodes for collective parallel operations of the parallel computer. One compute node of the operational group assigned to be a logical root. Broadcasting a message in a parallel computer includes: establishing a Hamiltonian path along all of the compute nodes in at least one plane of the data communications network and in the operational group; and broadcasting, by the logical root to the remaining compute nodes, the logical root's message along the established Hamiltonian path.

  8. EDITORIAL: Message from the Editor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Fusion is based on high quality full length articles. However, in the words of the journal home page, `Nuclear Fusion welcomes Letters as a means to quickly communicate new, maybe preliminary, results which make a significant advancement of the knowledge in the field. Letters should be comprehensive and short, aiming for four printed pages including figures.' I would like to take the opportunity to reiterate this message and to say that, as Editor, I would welcome the submission of high quality Letters. Publishing procedures In-house, Nuclear Fusion's publishing procedures are subject to continuous scrutiny for potential improvements. Of particular note from 2008 are faster than ever peer review and publishing times that have been achieved despite the very rigorous processing to which submissions are subject. Readers may have noticed the implementation of the new article numbering system, announced by the Publisher, Yasmin McGlashan in 2008 Nucl. Fusion 48 010101. This new scheme gives us more flexibilty and has led to faster online publication. The Nuclear Fusion Office and IOP Publishing Just as the journal depends on the authors and referees, so its success is also due to the tireless and largely unsung efforts of the Nuclear Fusion Office in Vienna and IOP Publishing in Bristol. I would like to express my personal thanks to Maria, Katja, Sophy, Sarah, Rachael and Yasmin for the support that they have given to me, the authors and the referees. Season's Greetings I would like to wish our readers, authors, referees and Board of Editors a successful and happy 2009 and thank them for their contributions to Nuclear Fusion in 2008.

  9. Design, Implementation, and Verification of the Reliable Multicast Protocol. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Todd L.

    1995-01-01

    This document describes the Reliable Multicast Protocol (RMP) design, first implementation, and formal verification. RMP provides a totally ordered, reliable, atomic multicast service on top of an unreliable multicast datagram service. RMP is fully and symmetrically distributed so that no site bears an undue portion of the communications load. RMP provides a wide range of guarantees, from unreliable delivery to totally ordered delivery, to K-resilient, majority resilient, and totally resilient atomic delivery. These guarantees are selectable on a per message basis. RMP provides many communication options, including virtual synchrony, a publisher/subscriber model of message delivery, a client/server model of delivery, mutually exclusive handlers for messages, and mutually exclusive locks. It has been commonly believed that total ordering of messages can only be achieved at great performance expense. RMP discounts this. The first implementation of RMP has been shown to provide high throughput performance on Local Area Networks (LAN). For two or more destinations a single LAN, RMP provides higher throughput than any other protocol that does not use multicast or broadcast technology. The design, implementation, and verification activities of RMP have occurred concurrently. This has allowed the verification to maintain a high fidelity between design model, implementation model, and the verification model. The restrictions of implementation have influenced the design earlier than in normal sequential approaches. The protocol as a whole has matured smoother by the inclusion of several different perspectives into the product development.

  10. Cacades: A reliable dissemination protocol for data collection sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Y.; Song, W.; Huang, R.; Xu, M.; Shirazi, B.; LaHusen, R.; Pei, G.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a fast and reliable data dissemination protocol Cascades to disseminate data from the sink(base station) to all or a subset of nodes in a data collection sensor network. Cascades makes use of the parentmonitor-children analogy to ensure reliable dissemination. Each node monitors whether or not its children have received the broadcast messages through snooping children's rebroadcasts or waiting for explicit ACKs. If a node detects a gap in its message sequences, it can fetch the missing messages from its neighbours reactively. Cascades also considers many practical issues for field deployment, such as dynamic topology, link/node failure, etc.. It therefore guarantees that a disseminated message from the sink will reach all intended receivers and the dissemination is terminated in a short time period. Notice that, all existing dissemination protocols either do not guarantee reliability or do not terminate [1, 2], which does not meet the requirement of real-time command control. We conducted experiment evaluations in both TOSSIM simulator and a sensor network testbed to compare Cascades with those existing dissemination protocols in TinyOS sensor networks, which show that Cascades achieves a higher degree of reliability, lower communication cost, and less delivery delay. ??2009 IEEE.

  11. An Adaptive Information Quantity-Based Broadcast Protocol for Safety Services in VANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjie Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle-to-vehicle communication plays a significantly important role in implementing safe and efficient road traffic. When disseminating safety messages in the network, the information quantity on safety packets changes over time and space. However, most of existing protocols view each packet the same to disseminate, preventing vehicles from collecting more recent and precise safety information. Hence, an information quantity-based broadcast protocol is proposed in this paper to ensure the efficiency of safety messages dissemination. In particular, we propose the concept of emergency-degree to evaluate packets’ information quantity. Then we present EDCast, an emergency-degree-based broadcast protocol. EDCast differentiates each packet’s priority for accessing the channel based on its emergency-degree so as to provide vehicles with more safety information timely and accurately. In addition, an adaptive scheme is presented to ensure fast dissemination of messages in different network condition. We compare the performance of EDCast with those of three other representative protocols in a typical highway scenario. Simulation results indicate that EDCast achieves higher broadcast efficiency and less redundancy with less delivery delay. What we found demonstrates that it is feasible and necessary for incorporating information quantity of messages in designing an efficient safety message broadcast protocol.

  12. Hashtag (# as Message Identity in Virtual Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urip Mulyadi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Computer Mediated Communication or CMC is able to present a virtual community, where the people inside have the same interest to share information related to events, activities, competitions, entertainment, history, event and others in Semarang City for publication. This research attempted to describe that hashtags can be utilized as the identity of a message in a communications network on Facebook Group MIK Semar. The results of this study are hashtags have changed how we build a virtual community, as the use of hashtags in Facebook Group MIK SEMAR as message identity to build better relationship and support communication among its members.

  13. Nuclear fuel cycle modelling using MESSAGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guiying Zhang; Dongsheng Niu; Guoliang Xu; Hui Zhang; Jue Li; Lei Cao; Zeqin Guo; Zhichao Wang; Yutong Qiu; Yanming Shi; Gaoliang Li

    2017-01-01

    In order to demonstrate the possibilities of application of MESSAGE tool for the modelling of a Nuclear Energy System at the national level, one of the possible open nuclear fuel cycle options based on thermal reactors has been modelled using MESSAGE. The steps of the front-end and back-end of nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear reactor operation are described. The optimal structure for Nuclear Power Development and optimal schedule for introducing various reactor technologies and fuel cycle options; infrastructure facilities, nuclear material flows and waste, investments and other costs are demonstrated. (author)

  14. Upon a Message-Oriented Trading API

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu VINTE

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce the premises for a trading system application-programming interface (API based on a message-oriented middleware (MOM, and present the results of our research regarding the design and the implementation of a simulation-trading system employing a service-oriented architecture (SOA and messaging. Our research has been conducted with the aim of creating a simulation-trading platform, within the academic environment, that will provide both the foundation for future experiments with trading systems architectures, components, APIs, and the framework for research on trading strategies, trading algorithm design, and equity markets analysis tools. Mathematics Subject Classification: 68M14 (distributed systems.

  15. A Simple XML Producer-Consumer Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Warren; Gunter, Dan; Quesnel, Darcy; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    performance data. These standard protocols and representations must support tasks such as profiling parallel applications, monitoring the status of computers and networks, and monitoring the performance of services provided by a computational grid. This paper describes a proposed protocol and data representation for the exchange of events in a distributed system. The protocol exchanges messages formatted in XML and it can be layered atop any low-level communication protocol such as TCP or UDP Further, we describe Java and C++ implementations of this protocol and discuss their performance. The next section will provide some further background information. Section 3 describes the main communication patterns of our protocol. Section 4 describes how we represent events and related information using XML. Section 5 describes our protocol and Section 6 discusses the performance of two implementations of the protocol. Finally, an appendix provides the XML Schema definition of our protocol and event information.

  16. Developing effective messages about potable recycled water: The importance of message structure and content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, J.; Fielding, K. S.; Gardner, J.; Leviston, Z.; Green, M.

    2015-04-01

    Community opposition is a barrier to potable recycled water schemes. Effective communication strategies about such schemes are needed. Drawing on social psychological literature, two experimental studies are presented, which explore messages that improve public perceptions of potable recycled water. The Elaboration-Likelihood Model of information processing and attitude change is tested and supported. Study 1 (N = 415) premeasured support for recycled water, and trust in government information at Time 1. Messages varied in complexity and sidedness were presented at Time 2 (3 weeks later), and support and trust were remeasured. Support increased after receiving information, provided that participants received complex rather than simple information. Trust in government was also higher after receiving information. There was tentative evidence of this in response to two-sided messages rather than one-sided messages. Initial attitudes to recycled water moderated responses to information. Those initially neutral or ambivalent responded differently to simple and one-sided messages, compared to participants with positive or negative attitudes. Study 2 (N = 957) tested the effectiveness of information about the low relative risks, and/or benefits of potable recycled water, compared to control groups. Messages about the low risks resulted in higher support when the issue of recycled water was relevant. Messages about benefits resulted in higher perceived issue relevance, but did not translate into greater support. The results highlight the importance of understanding people's motivation to process information, and need to tailor communication to match attitudes and stage of recycled water schemes' development.

  17. 40 CFR 51.918 - Can any SIP planning requirements be suspended in 8-hour ozone nonattainment areas that have air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... suspended in 8-hour ozone nonattainment areas that have air quality data that meets the NAAQS? 51.918 Section 51.918 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... 8-hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard § 51.918 Can any SIP planning requirements be...

  18. Improving the capacity of the Bostroem-Felbinger protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Qingyu; Li Baiwen

    2004-01-01

    We show that the capacity of the Bostroem-Felbinger (ping-pong) protocol [Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 187902 (2002)] can be doubled by introducing two additional unitary operations. In message mode, Alice can use one of the four unitary operations to encode two classical bits of information. Bob can decode Alice's information by using a Bell-basis measurement. Security against eavesdropping attack can be ensured by using two conjugate measurement bases in control mode. A message authentification method can protect this communication against a man-in-the-middle attack without eavesdropping

  19. What's in a message? Delivering sexual health promotion to young people in Australia via text messaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellard Margaret E

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advances in communication technologies have dramatically changed how individuals access information and communicate. Recent studies have found that mobile phone text messages (SMS can be used successfully for short-term behaviour change. However there is no published information examining the acceptability, utility and efficacy of different characteristics of health promotion SMS. This paper presents the results of evaluation focus groups among participants who received twelve sexual health related SMS as part of a study examining the impact of text messaging for sexual health promotion to on young people in Victoria, Australia. Methods Eight gender-segregated focus groups were held with 21 males and 22 females in August 2008. Transcripts of audio recordings were analysed using thematic analysis. Data were coded under one or more themes. Results Text messages were viewed as an acceptable and 'personal' means of health promotion, with participants particularly valuing the informal language. There was a preference for messages that were positive, relevant and short and for messages to cover a variety of topics. Participants were more likely to remember and share messages that were funny, rhymed and/or tied into particular annual events. The message broadcasting, generally fortnightly on Friday afternoons, was viewed as appropriate. Participants said the messages provided new information, a reminder of existing information and reduced apprehension about testing for sexually transmitted infections. Conclusions Mobile phones, in particular SMS, offer health promoters an exciting opportunity to engage personally with a huge number of individuals for low cost. The key elements emerging from this evaluation, such as message style, language and broadcast schedule are directly relevant to future studies using SMS for health promotion, as well as for future health promotion interventions in other mediums that require short formats, such

  20. Targeting Unknowns Just Underfoot: Microbial Ecology and Community Genomics of C Cycling in Soil Informed and Enabled with DNA-SIP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe-Ranney, C. P.; Campbell, A.; Buckley, D. H.

    2015-12-01

    Microorganisms drive biogeochemical cycles and because soil is a large global carbon (C) reservoir (soil contains more C than plants and the atmosphere combined), soil microorganisms are important players in the global C-cycle. Frustratingly, however, many soil microorganisms resist cultivation and soil communities are astoundingly complex. This makes soil microbiology difficult to study and without a solid understanding of soil microbial ecology, models of soil C feedbacks to climate change are under-informed. Stable isotope probing (SIP) is a useful approach for establishing identity-function connections in microbial communities but has been challenging to employ in soil due to the inadequate resolution of microbial community fingerprinting techniques. High throughput DNA sequencing improves SIP resolving power transforming it into a powerful tool for studying the soil C cycle. We conducted a DNA-SIP experiment to track flow of xylose-C, a labile component of plant biomass, and cellulose-C, the most abundant global biopolymer, through a soil microbial community. We could track 13C into microbial DNA even when added 13C amounted to less than 5% of native C and found Spartobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Planctomycetes taxa were among those that assimilated 13C cellulose. These lineages are cosmopolitan in soil but little is known of their ecophysiology. By profiling SSU rRNA genes across entire DNA-SIP density gradients, we assessed relative DNA atom % 13C per taxon in 13C treatments and found cellulose degraders exhibited signal consistent with a specialist lifestyle with respect to C preference. Further, DNA-SIP enriches DNA of targeted microorganisms (Verrucomicrobia cellulose degraders were enriched by nearly two orders of magnitude) and this enriched DNA can serve as template for community genomics. We produced draft genomes from soil cellulose degraders including microorganisms belonging to Verrucomicrobia, Chloroflexi, and Planctomycetes from SIP enriched DNA

  1. Supporting Beacon and Event-Driven Messages in Vehicular Platoons through Token-Based Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balador, Ali; Uhlemann, Elisabeth; Calafate, Carlos T; Cano, Juan-Carlos

    2018-03-23

    Timely and reliable inter-vehicle communications is a critical requirement to support traffic safety applications, such as vehicle platooning. Furthermore, low-delay communications allow the platoon to react quickly to unexpected events. In this scope, having a predictable and highly effective medium access control (MAC) method is of utmost importance. However, the currently available IEEE 802.11p technology is unable to adequately address these challenges. In this paper, we propose a MAC method especially adapted to platoons, able to transmit beacons within the required time constraints, but with a higher reliability level than IEEE 802.11p, while concurrently enabling efficient dissemination of event-driven messages. The protocol circulates the token within the platoon not in a round-robin fashion, but based on beacon data age, i.e., the time that has passed since the previous collection of status information, thereby automatically offering repeated beacon transmission opportunities for increased reliability. In addition, we propose three different methods for supporting event-driven messages co-existing with beacons. Analysis and simulation results in single and multi-hop scenarios showed that, by providing non-competitive channel access and frequent retransmission opportunities, our protocol can offer beacon delivery within one beacon generation interval while fulfilling the requirements on low-delay dissemination of event-driven messages for traffic safety applications.

  2. Supporting Beacon and Event-Driven Messages in Vehicular Platoons through Token-Based Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Balador

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Timely and reliable inter-vehicle communications is a critical requirement to support traffic safety applications, such as vehicle platooning. Furthermore, low-delay communications allow the platoon to react quickly to unexpected events. In this scope, having a predictable and highly effective medium access control (MAC method is of utmost importance. However, the currently available IEEE 802.11p technology is unable to adequately address these challenges. In this paper, we propose a MAC method especially adapted to platoons, able to transmit beacons within the required time constraints, but with a higher reliability level than IEEE 802.11p, while concurrently enabling efficient dissemination of event-driven messages. The protocol circulates the token within the platoon not in a round-robin fashion, but based on beacon data age, i.e., the time that has passed since the previous collection of status information, thereby automatically offering repeated beacon transmission opportunities for increased reliability. In addition, we propose three different methods for supporting event-driven messages co-existing with beacons. Analysis and simulation results in single and multi-hop scenarios showed that, by providing non-competitive channel access and frequent retransmission opportunities, our protocol can offer beacon delivery within one beacon generation interval while fulfilling the requirements on low-delay dissemination of event-driven messages for traffic safety applications.

  3. Positive mood can increase or decrease message scrutiny: the hedonic contingency view of mood and message processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, D T; Petty, R E; Smith, S M

    1995-07-01

    Currently dominant explanations of mood effects on persuasive message processing (i.e., cognitive capacity and feelings as information) predict that happy moods lead to less message scrutiny than neutral or sad moods. The hedonic contingency view (D. T. Wegener & R. E. Petty, 1994) predicts that happy moods can sometimes be associated with greater message processing activity because people in a happy mood are more attentive than neutral or sad people to the hedonic consequences of their actions. Consistent with this view, Experiment 1 finds that a happy mood can lead to greater message scrutiny than a neutral mood when the message is not mood threatening. Experiment 2 finds that a happy mood leads to greater message scrutiny than a sad mood when an uplifting message is encountered, but to less message scrutiny when a depressing message is encountered.

  4. University Advertising and Universality in Messaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diel, Stan R.; Katsinas, Stephen

    2018-01-01

    University and college institutional advertisements, which typically are broadcast as public service announcements during the halftime of football games, were the subject of a quantitative analysis focused on commonality in messaging and employment of the semiotic theory of brand advertising. Findings indicate advertisements focus on students'…

  5. Message transfer in a communication network

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Examples of transport processes on networks include the traffic of informa- tion packets [1–4], transport processes on biological networks [5,6], and road traffic. ... for this system. In the case of single message transfer, we study the dependence of average travel times on the hub density, and find that travel times fall off as a.

  6. Message passing with parallel queue traversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Keith D [Albuquerque, NM; Brightwell, Ronald B [Albuquerque, NM; Hemmert, K Scott [Albuquerque, NM

    2012-05-01

    In message passing implementations, associative matching structures are used to permit list entries to be searched in parallel fashion, thereby avoiding the delay of linear list traversal. List management capabilities are provided to support list entry turnover semantics and priority ordering semantics.

  7. Message Integrity Model for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qleibo, Haider W.

    2009-01-01

    WSNs are susceptible to a variety of attacks. These attacks vary in the way they are performed and executed; they include but not limited to node capture, physical tampering, denial of service, and message alteration. It is of paramount importance to protect gathered data by WSNs and defend the network against illegal access and malicious…

  8. Picture Book Soldiers: Men and Messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Christina M.

    2001-01-01

    Examines children's picture books about soldiers and war, including fiction, folktales, and historical fiction, analyzing their implicit and explicit messages about war and the military, and evaluating them for gender stereotyping. Finds that the soldiers conform almost uniformly to an exaggerated male stereotype. Shows different value judgments…

  9. An approach for message exchange using archetypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, João L C; Souza, Wanderley L; Cavalini, Luciana T; Pires, Luís F; Prado, Antonio F

    2013-01-01

    The application of ICT on the whole range of health sector activities, known as e-health, can simplify the access to health care services and will only be acceptable for realistic scenarios if it supports efficient information exchange amongst the caregivers and their patients. The aim of this paper is present an approach for message exchange to realistic scenarios.

  10. Graphical route information on variable message signs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkim, T.P.; Mede, P.H.J. van der; Janssen, W.H.

    2002-01-01

    Reports on experiments in the Netherlands on the use of graphical route information panels (GRIP) as part of variable message systems (VMS) providing information to drivers. GRIP appear to be as safe as regular VMS. Digestion of the information presented is initially quicker for regular VMS, but

  11. Princess Picture Books: Content and Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Lourdes P.; Higgins, Brittany E.; Pinkerton, Nick; Couto, Michelle; Mansolillo, Victoria; Weisinger, Nica; Flores, Marci

    2016-01-01

    Because many girls develop their understanding of what it means to be a girl from books about princesses, the researchers coded the messages and content in 58 princess books (picture, fairy tales, and fractured fairy tales). Results indicate that gender stereotypes are present in the books--the princesses were more likely to be nurturing, in…

  12. Increasing the Operational Value of Event Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenping; Savkli, Cetin; Smith, Dan

    2003-01-01

    Assessing the health of a space mission has traditionally been performed using telemetry analysis tools. Parameter values are compared to known operational limits and are plotted over various time periods. This presentation begins with the notion that there is an incredible amount of untapped information contained within the mission s event message logs. Through creative advancements in message handling tools, the event message logs can be used to better assess spacecraft and ground system status and to highlight and report on conditions not readily apparent when messages are evaluated one-at-a-time during a real-time pass. Work in this area is being funded as part of a larger NASA effort at the Goddard Space Flight Center to create component-based, middleware-based, standards-based general purpose ground system architecture referred to as GMSEC - the GSFC Mission Services Evolution Center. The new capabilities and operational concepts for event display, event data analyses and data mining are being developed by Lockheed Martin and the new subsystem has been named GREAT - the GMSEC Reusable Event Analysis Toolkit. Planned for use on existing and future missions, GREAT has the potential to increase operational efficiency in areas of problem detection and analysis, general status reporting, and real-time situational awareness.

  13. Interactive or interruptive? Instant messaging at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ou, C.X.J.; Davison, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    The use of instant messaging (IM) technology at work is controversial, due to the interruptions it may cause and the difficulties associated with quantifying its benefits for individuals, teams and organizations. In this study, we investigate the use and impact of IM tools in the workplace. Based on

  14. Using Instant Messaging for Online Reference Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Shirley

    2006-01-01

    Many libraries are using co-browsing chat products to provide reference services to their patrons, whilst their patrons are online and using the internet. The concept of such an online service is highly desirable, but many libraries are concerned that they will never be able to afford such a system. This may have changed: Instant Messaging (IM)…

  15. A Lightweight Protocol for Secure Video Streaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venčkauskas, Algimantas; Morkevicius, Nerijus; Bagdonas, Kazimieras; Damaševičius, Robertas; Maskeliūnas, Rytis

    2018-05-14

    The Internet of Things (IoT) introduces many new challenges which cannot be solved using traditional cloud and host computing models. A new architecture known as fog computing is emerging to address these technological and security gaps. Traditional security paradigms focused on providing perimeter-based protections and client/server point to point protocols (e.g., Transport Layer Security (TLS)) are no longer the best choices for addressing new security challenges in fog computing end devices, where energy and computational resources are limited. In this paper, we present a lightweight secure streaming protocol for the fog computing "Fog Node-End Device" layer. This protocol is lightweight, connectionless, supports broadcast and multicast operations, and is able to provide data source authentication, data integrity, and confidentiality. The protocol is based on simple and energy efficient cryptographic methods, such as Hash Message Authentication Codes (HMAC) and symmetrical ciphers, and uses modified User Datagram Protocol (UDP) packets to embed authentication data into streaming data. Data redundancy could be added to improve reliability in lossy networks. The experimental results summarized in this paper confirm that the proposed method efficiently uses energy and computational resources and at the same time provides security properties on par with the Datagram TLS (DTLS) standard.

  16. Supporting Adaptation of Wireless Communication Protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhomeja, L.D.; Soomro, I.A.; Malkani, Y.A.

    2016-01-01

    Pervasive devices such as mobile phones and PDAs (Personal Digital Assistants) come with different wireless communication capabilities, for example, WiFi (Wireless Fidelity), Bluetooth, IrDA (Infrared), etc. In order for pervasive devices to interact with each other, they need to have matching (alike) communication capabilities, otherwise such heterogeneous devices would not be able to interact with each other. In this paper we address this issue and propose a system that makes devices with heterogeneous wireless communication capabilities communicate with each other. The proposed system supports adaptation of wireless communication protocols through a proxy, which sits between a client and a server, and supports adaptation of wireless communication protocols. Its functionality involves intercepting a request made by a client with a different wireless communication capability (e.g. Bluetooth) from what the server has (e.g. WiFi), connecting to the server and then sending results back to the client. We have tested the system by implementing a messaging service application and running it on the system. The proxy supports all Bluetooth protocols, i.e. OBEX (Object Exchange), L2CAP (Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol), RFCOM (Radio Frequency Communication) and WiFi protocol and can run on (J2MW (Java 2 Micro Edition) enabled mobile phones which support both Bluetooth and WiFi capabilities. (author)

  17. An Analysis of Error Reconciliation Protocols for use in Quantum Key Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN // CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR...of the messages passed, and that the time to prepare or separate the message information is negligible . Finally, for this experiment all errors...of interactions becomes negligible . In fact, of the three protocols, experiments performed here have shown that Winnow produces the highest average

  18. A Forward-secure Grouping-proof Protocol for Multiple RFID Tags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Ya-li

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Designing secure and robust grouping-proof protocols based on RFID characteristics becomes a hotspot in the research of security in Internet of Things (IOT. The proposed grouping-proof protocols recently have security and/or privacy omission and these schemes afford order-dependence by relaying message among tags through an RFID reader. In consequence, aiming at enhancing the robustness, improving scalability, reducing the computation costs on resource-constrained devices, and meanwhile combing Computational Intelligence (CI with Secure Multi-party Communication (SMC, a Forward-Secure Grouping-Proof Protocol (FSGP for multiple RFID tags based on Shamir's (, secret sharing is proposed. In comparison with the previous grouping-proof protocols, FSGP has the characteristics of forward-security and order-independence addressing the scalability issue by avoiding relaying message. Our protocol provides security enhancement, performance improvement, and meanwhile controls the computation cost, which equilibrates both security and low cost requirements for RFID tags.

  19. Effectiveness of safety and public service announcement messages on dynamic message signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The number of transportation agencies that use dynamic message signs (DMS) to provide traffic information to motorists has increased dramatically over the past four decades. This growing trend of DMS deployment is a reflection of the public interest ...

  20. Fault-Tolerant Self-Stabilizing Distributed Clock Synchronization Protocol for Arbitrary Digraphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekpour, Mahyar R. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A self-stabilizing network in the form of an arbitrary, non-partitioned digraph includes K nodes having a synchronizer executing a protocol. K-1 monitors of each node may receive a Sync message transmitted from a directly connected node. When the Sync message is received, the logical clock value for the receiving node is set to between 0 and a communication latency value (gamma) if the clock value is less than a minimum event-response delay (D). A new Sync message is also transmitted to any directly connected nodes if the clock value is greater than or equal to both D and a graph threshold (T(sub S)). When the Sync message is not received the synchronizer increments the clock value if the clock value is less than a resynchronization period (P), and resets the clock value and transmits a new Sync message to all directly connected nodes when the clock value equals or exceeds P.

  1. Fear, threat and efficacy in threat appeals: Message involvement as a key mediator to message acceptance

    OpenAIRE

    Cauberghe, Verolien; De Pelsmacker, Patrick; JANSSENS, Wim; Dens, Nathalie

    2009-01-01

    In a sample of 170 youngsters, the effect of two versions of a public service announcement (PSA) threat appeal against speeding, placed in four different contexts. on evoked fear, perceived threat (severity and probability of occurrence), perceived response efficacy and self-efficacy, message involvement and anti-speeding attitude and anti-speeding intention is investigated. Evoked fear and perceived threat and efficacy independently influence message involvement...

  2. Investigating the impact of viral message appeal and message credibility on consumer attitude toward brand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Esmaeilpour

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background - Due to the rapid growth of the Internet and use of e-commerce in recent years, viral marketing has drawn the attention of manufacturing and service organizations. However, no research has been conducted to examine the impact of message appeal and message source credibility on consumers' attitude with mediating role of intellectual involvement of consumers and their risk taking level. Purpose - The aim of this study was to examine the impact of appeal and message source credibility on consumers’ attitude with mediating role of consumers’ intellectual involvement and their risk taking level. Design/methodology/approach – The population of this study includes consumers of mobile phones (Samsung, Sony, Nokia, LG and iPhone in Bushehr city (Iran. As the population of the study is unlimited, 430 questionnaires were distributed using available sampling method, and 391 questionnaires were collected and analyzed. Using structural equation modeling, data were analyzed through smart PLS software. Findings –The results show that the appeal and credibility of the message source have impact on consumer attitudes toward the brand. It was also found that intellectual involvement of consumers plays the mediating role in the relationship between message appeal and consumer attitudes toward brand. In the relationship between message source credibility and customer attitude towards the brand, the level of risk taking of people has no mediating role. Research limitations/implications – Data collection tool was questionnaire in this study, and questionnaire has some disadvantages that can affect the results. Additionally, this study was conducted in Bushehr city (Iran. Therefore, we should be cautious in generalizing the findings. Originality/value – In this study, the effect of message appeal and message source credibility on consumer attitude to brand was examined. The risk taking level of consumer and his involvement level were considered

  3. Event-Driven Messaging for Offline Data Quality Monitoring at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Onyisi, Peter; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    During LHC Run 1, the information flow through the offline data quality monitoring in ATLAS relied heavily on chains of processes polling each other's outputs for handshaking purposes. This resulted in a fragile architecture with many possible points of failure and an inability to monitor the overall state of the distributed system. We report on the status of a project undertaken during the LHC shutdown to replace the ad hoc synchronization methods with a uniform message queue system. This enables the use of standard protocols to connect processes on multiple hosts; reliable transmission of messages between possibly unreliable programs; easy monitoring of the information flow; and the removal of inefficient polling-based communication.

  4. Investigating the impact of viral message appeal and message credibility on consumer attitude toward the brand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeilpour Majid

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid growth of the Internet and use of e-commerce in the recent years, viral marketing has drawn the attention of manufacturing and service organizations. However, no research has been conducted to examine the impact of message appeal and message source credibility on consumers’ attitude with mediating role of intellectual involvement of consumers and their risk taking level. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of appeal and message source credibility on consumers’ attitude with mediating role of consumers’ intellectual involvement and their risk taking level. The population of this study includes consumers of mobile phones (Samsung, Sony, Nokia, LG and iPhone in the Bushehr city (Iran. As the population of the study is unlimited, 430 questionnaires were distributed using available sampling method, and 391 questionnaires were collected and analyzed. Using structural equation modeling, we analysed the data through smart PLS software. The results show that the appeal and credibility of the message source impact the consumer attitudes toward the brand. We also found that the intellectual involvement of consumers plays the mediating role in the relationship between message appeal and consumer attitudes toward brands. In the relationship between message source credibility and customer attitude towards the brand, the level of risk taking of people has no mediating role.

  5. Preventing messaging queue deadlocks in a DMA environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blocksome, Michael A; Chen, Dong; Gooding, Thomas; Heidelberger, Philip; Parker, Jeff

    2014-01-14

    Embodiments of the invention may be used to manage message queues in a parallel computing environment to prevent message queue deadlock. A direct memory access controller of a compute node may determine when a messaging queue is full. In response, the DMA may generate and interrupt. An interrupt handler may stop the DMA and swap all descriptors from the full messaging queue into a larger queue (or enlarge the original queue). The interrupt handler then restarts the DMA. Alternatively, the interrupt handler stops the DMA, allocates a memory block to hold queue data, and then moves descriptors from the full messaging queue into the allocated memory block. The interrupt handler then restarts the DMA. During a normal messaging advance cycle, a messaging manager attempts to inject the descriptors in the memory block into other messaging queues until the descriptors have all been processed.

  6. Using Publish-Subscribe Messaging for System Status and Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Danford S.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center (GMSEC) system is a message-based plug-and-play open system architecture used in many of NASA mission operations centers. This presentation will focus on the use of GMSEC standard messages to report and analyze the status of a system and enable the automation of the system's components. In GMSEC systems, each component reports its status using a keep-alive message and also publishes status and activities as log messages. In addition, the components can accept functional directive messages from the GMSEC message bus. Over the past several years, development teams have found ways to utilize these messages to create innovative display pages and increasingly sophisticated approaches to automation. This presentation will show the flexibility and value of the message-based approach to system awareness and automation.

  7. Outpatient blood pressure monitoring using bi-directional text messaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Chris A; Polgreen, Linnea A; Chounramany, James; Foster, Eric D; Goerdt, Christopher J; Miller, Michelle L; Suneja, Manish; Segre, Alberto M; Carter, Barry L; Polgreen, Philip M

    2015-05-01

    To diagnose hypertension, multiple blood pressure (BP) measurements are recommended. We randomized patients into three groups: EMR-only (patients recorded BP measurements in an electronic medical record [EMR] web portal), EMR + reminders (patients were sent text message reminders to record their BP measurements in the EMR), and bi-directional text messaging (patients were sent a text message asking them to respond with their current BP). Subjects were asked to complete 14 measurements. Automated messages were sent to each patient in the bi-directional text messaging and EMR + reminder groups twice daily. Among 121 patients, those in the bi-directional text messaging group reported the full 14 measurements more often than both the EMR-only group (P text messaging is an effective way to gather patient BP data. Text-message-based reminders alone are an effective way to encourage patients to record BP measurements. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of Instant Messaging on School Performance in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Karan; Pecor, Keith; Malkowski, Michael; Kang, Lilia; Machado, Sasha; Lulla, Roshni; Heisey, David; Ming, Xue

    2016-06-01

    Instant messaging may compromise sleep quality and school performance in adolescents. We aimed to determine associations between nighttime messaging and daytime sleepiness, self-reported sleep parameters, and/or school performance. Students from 3 high schools in New Jersey completed anonymous questionnaires assessing sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, messaging habits, and academic performance. Of the 2,352 students sampled, 1,537 responses were contrasted among grades, sexes, and messaging duration, both before and after lights out. Students who reported longer duration of messaging after lights out were more likely to report a shorter sleep duration, higher rate of daytime sleepiness, and poorer academic performance. Messaging before lights out was not associated with higher rates of daytime sleepiness or poorer academic performance. Females reported more messaging, more daytime sleepiness, and better academic performance than males. There may be an association between text messaging and school performance in this cohort of students. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. The Effectiveness of Campaign Messages on Turnout and Vote Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Friedel, Sylvia

    2013-01-01

    In this dissertation, I study campaign effects on turnout and vote choice. I analyze different campaign messages and the way they affect voters across various situations. First, through an online survey experiment, I study the impact of campaign messages and ideological cues on voters as they make inferences on candidates. Next, through a field experiment, I test whether microtargeted messages or general messages on the economy have any effect on turnout. Lastly, using online survey data, I e...

  10. Flow of emotional messages in artificial social networks

    OpenAIRE

    Chmiel, Anna; Holyst, Janusz A.

    2010-01-01

    Models of message flows in an artificial group of users communicating via the Internet are introduced and investigated using numerical simulations. We assumed that messages possess an emotional character with a positive valence and that the willingness to send the next affective message to a given person increases with the number of messages received from this person. As a result, the weights of links between group members evolve over time. Memory effects are introduced, taking into account t...

  11. Teaching Students the Persuasive Message through Small Group Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creelman, Valerie

    2008-01-01

    Teaching students to write persuasive messages is a critical feature of any undergraduate business communications course. For the persuasive writing module in the author's course, students write a persuasive message on the basis of the four-part indirect pattern often used for sales or fund-raising messages. The course text she uses identifies…

  12. The Message Reporting System of the ATLAS DAQ System

    CERN Document Server

    Caprini, M; Kolos, S; 10th ICATPP Conference on Astroparticle, Particle, Space Physics, Detectors and Medical Physics Applications

    2008-01-01

    The Message Reporting System (MRS) in the ATLAS data acquisition system (DAQ) is one package of the Online Software which acts as a glue of various elements of DAQ, High Level Trigger (HLT) and Detector Control System (DCS). The aim of the MRS is to provide a facility which allows all software components in ATLAS to report messages to other components of the distributed DAQ system. The processes requiring a MRS are on one hand applications that report error conditions or information and on the other hand message processors that receive reported messages. A message reporting application can inject one or more messages into the MRS at any time. An application wishing to receive messages can subscribe to a message group according to defined criteria. The application receives messages that fulfill the subscription criteria when they are reported to MRS. The receiver message processing can consist of anything from simply logging the messages in a file/terminal to performing message analysis. The inter-process comm...

  13. Using Text-Messaging in the Secondary Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kevin; Orthober, Corrie

    2011-01-01

    To examine the potential uses of and barriers to text-messaging in secondary schools, three classes (66 students) of high school students used their personal mobile phones to receive out of school, course-related text-messages from teachers. Forty-six students (70%) agreed to receive text-messages. Findings indicate that participants found…

  14. Driver memory for in-vehicle visual and auditory messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-12-01

    Three experiments were conducted in a driving simulator to evaluate effects of in-vehicle message modality and message format on comprehension and memory for younger and older drivers. Visual icons and text messages were effective in terms of high co...

  15. Understanding health food messages on Twitter for health literacy promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, J; Liu, F; Zhou, H

    2018-05-01

    With the popularity of social media, Twitter has become an important tool to promote health literacy. However, many health-related messages on Twitter are dead-ended and cannot reach many people. This is unhelpful for health literacy promotion. This article aims to examine the features of online health food messages that people like to retweet. We adopted rumour theory as our theoretical foundation and extracted seven characteristics (i.e. emotional valence, attractiveness, sender's authoritativeness, external evidence, argument length, hashtags, and direct messages). A total of 10,025 health-related messages on Twitter were collected, and 1496 messages were randomly selected for further analysis. Each message was treated as one unit and then coded. All the hypotheses were tested with logistic regression. Emotional valence, attractiveness, sender's authoritativeness, argument length, and direct messages in a Twitter message had positive effects on people's retweet behaviour. The effect of external evidence was negative. Hashtags had no significant effect after consideration of other variables. Online health food messages containing positive emotions, including pictures, containing direct messages, having an authoritative sender, having longer arguments, or not containing external URLs are more likely to be retweeted. However, a message only containing positive or negative emotions or including direct messages without any support information will not be retweeted.

  16. Lol: New Language and Spelling in Instant Messaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnhagen, Connie K.; McFall, G. Peggy; Pugh, Nicole; Routledge, Lisa; Sumida-MacDonald, Heather; Kwong, Trudy E.

    2010-01-01

    Written communication in instant messaging, text messaging, chat, and other forms of electronic communication appears to have generated a "new language" of abbreviations, acronyms, word combinations, and punctuation. In this naturalistic study, adolescents collected their instant messaging conversations for a 1-week period and then completed a…

  17. 19 CFR 4.7d - Container status messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Container status messages. 4.7d Section 4.7d... TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.7d Container status messages. (a) Container status messages required. In addition to the advance filing requirements pursuant...

  18. A Novel Message Scheduling Framework for Delay Tolerant Networks Routing

    KAUST Repository

    Elwhishi, Ahmed; Ho, Pin-Han; Naik, K.; Shihada, Basem

    2013-01-01

    new message scheduling framework for epidemic and two-hop forwarding routing in DTNs, such that the forwarding/dropping decision can be made at a node during each contact for either optimal message delivery ratio or message delivery delay. Extensive

  19. MMS: An electronic message management system for emergency response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H.B.; Garde, H.; Andersen, V.

    1998-01-01

    among messages can be viewed in a graphic tree-like display. By employing the extensive filtration facilities offered by the MMS. users are able to monitor the current status of messages. And, in general, filtration provides users with means of surveying a possibly large number of responses to messages...... contingency plan and procedures to be applied during predefined stages of an emergency....

  20. A security analysis of the 802.11s wireless mesh network routing protocol and its secure routing protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Whye Kit; Lee, Sang-Gon; Lam, Jun Huy; Yoo, Seong-Moo

    2013-09-02

    Wireless mesh networks (WMNs) can act as a scalable backbone by connecting separate sensor networks and even by connecting WMNs to a wired network. The Hybrid Wireless Mesh Protocol (HWMP) is the default routing protocol for the 802.11s WMN. The routing protocol is one of the most important parts of the network, and it requires protection, especially in the wireless environment. The existing security protocols, such as the Broadcast Integrity Protocol (BIP), Counter with cipher block chaining message authentication code protocol (CCMP), Secure Hybrid Wireless Mesh Protocol (SHWMP), Identity Based Cryptography HWMP (IBC-HWMP), Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm HWMP (ECDSA-HWMP), and Watchdog-HWMP aim to protect the HWMP frames. In this paper, we have analyzed the vulnerabilities of the HWMP and developed security requirements to protect these identified vulnerabilities. We applied the security requirements to analyze the existing secure schemes for HWMP. The results of our analysis indicate that none of these protocols is able to satisfy all of the security requirements. We also present a quantitative complexity comparison among the protocols and an example of a security scheme for HWMP to demonstrate how the result of our research can be utilized. Our research results thus provide a tool for designing secure schemes for the HWMP.

  1. Politeness Strategies Used in Text Messaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrzad Eshghinejad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available One aspect of short message service (SMS communication through a cell phone is use of politeness strategies. As it is extensively argued that females are more polite language users, the present study sought to describe the strategies used by these two groups and to find out whether there is any significant difference between male and female English as a foreign language (EFL learners in the use of positive and negative politeness strategies in sending SMS to their professors, considering that there is an asymmetric power relation and social distance between them. To this end, a corpus of 300 L1 (Persian and L2 (English request messages was compiled. Results of qualitative and quantitative data analysis showed no significant difference between the two groups. Results of the study have implication in politeness research.

  2. Text Messaging for Addiction: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keoleian, Victoria; Polcin, Douglas; Galloway, Gantt P.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals seeking treatment for addiction often experience barriers due to cost, lack of local treatment resources, or either school or work schedule conflicts. Text messaging-based addiction treatment is inexpensive and has the potential to be widely accessible in real time. We conducted a comprehensive literature review identifying 11 published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating text messaging-based interventions for tobacco smoking, 4 studies for reducing alcohol consumption, 1 pilot study in former methamphetamine (MA) users, and 1 study based on qualitative interviews with cannabis users. Abstinence outcome results in RCTs of smokers willing to make a quit attempt have been positive overall in the short term and as far out as at 6 and 12 months. Studies aimed at reducing alcohol consumption have been promising. More data are needed to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of this approach for other substance use problems. PMID:25950596

  3. Mobile text messaging solutions for obesity prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akopian, David; Jayaram, Varun; Aaleswara, Lakshmipathi; Esfahanian, Moosa; Mojica, Cynthia; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Kaghyan, Sahak

    2011-02-01

    Cellular telephony has become a bright example of co-evolution of human society and information technology. This trend has also been reflected in health care and health promotion projects which included cell phones in data collection and communication chain. While many successful projects have been realized, the review of phone-based data collection techniques reveals that the existing technologies do not completely address health promotion research needs. The paper presents approaches which close this gap by extending existing versatile platforms. The messaging systems are designed for a health-promotion research to prevent obesity and obesity-related health disparities among low-income Latino adolescent girls. Messaging and polling mechanisms are used to communicate and automatically process response data for the target constituency. Preliminary survey data provide an insight on phone availability and technology perception for the study group.

  4. A qualitative analysis of messages to promote smoking cessation among pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoek, Janet; Gifford, Heather; Maubach, Ninya; Newcombe, Rhiannon

    2014-11-27

    Although aware that smoking while pregnant presents serious risks to their unborn children, some women continue to smoke and rationalise their dissonance rather than quit. We explored metaphors women used to frame smoking and quitting, then developed cessation messages that drew on these metaphors and examined the perceived effectiveness of these. We used a two-phase qualitative study. Phase one involved 13 in-depth interviews with women who were smoking (or who had smoked) while pregnant. Phase two comprised 22 in-depth interviews with a new sample drawn from the same population. Data were analysed using thematic analysis, which promoted theme identification independently of the research protocol. Participants often described smoking as a choice, a frame that explicitly asserted control over their behaviour. This stance allowed them to counter-argue messages to quit, and distanced them from the risks they created and faced. Messages tested in phase 2 used strong affective appeals as well as themes that stimulated cognitive reflection. Without exception, the messages depicting unwell or distressed children elicited strong emotional responses, were more powerful cessation stimuli, and elicited fewer counter-arguments. Cessation messages that evoke strong affective responses capitalise on the dissonance many women feel when smoking while pregnant and stimulate stronger consideration of quitting. Given the importance of promoting cessation among pregnant women, future campaigns could make greater use of emotional appeals and place less emphasis on informational approaches, which often prompt vigorous counter-arguments. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. The perfect message at the perfect moment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyanam, Kirthi; Zweben, Monte

    2005-11-01

    Marketers planning promotional campaigns ask questions to boost the odds that the messages will be accepted: Who should receive each message? What should be its content? How should we deliver it? The one question they rarely ask is, when should we deliver it? That's too bad, because in marketing, timing is arguably the most important variable of all. Indeed, there are moments in a customer's relationship with a business when she wants to communicate with that business because something has changed. If the company contacts her with the right message in the right format at the right time, there's a good chance of a warm reception. The question of "when" can be answered by a new computer-based model called "dialogue marketing," which is, to date, the highest rung on an evolutionary ladder that ascends from database marketing to relationship marketing to one-to-one marketing. Its principle advantages over older approaches are that it is completely interactive, exploits many communication channels, and is "relationship aware": that is, it continuously tracks every nuance of the customer's interaction with the business. Thus, dialogue marketing responds to each transition in that relationship at the moment the customer requires attention. Turning a traditional marketing strategy into a dialogue-marketing program is a straightforward matter. Begin by identifying the batch communications you make with customers, then ask yourself what events could trigger those communications to make them more timely. Add a question or call to action to each message and prepare a different treatment or response for each possible answer. Finally, create a series of increasingly urgent calls to action that kick in if the question or call to action goes unanswered by the customer. As dialogue marketing proliferates, it may provide the solid new footing that Madison Avenue seeks.

  6. Mobile phone messaging for preventive health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodopivec-Jamsek, Vlasta; de Jongh, Thyra; Gurol-Urganci, Ipek; Atun, Rifat; Car, Josip

    2012-12-12

    Preventive health care promotes health and prevents disease or injuries by addressing factors that lead to the onset of a disease, and by detecting latent conditions to reduce or halt their progression. Many risk factors for costly and disabling conditions (such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, and chronic respiratory diseases) can be prevented, yet healthcare systems do not make the best use of their available resources to support this process. Mobile phone messaging applications, such as Short Message Service (SMS) and Multimedia Message Service (MMS), could offer a convenient and cost-effective way to support desirable health behaviours for preventive health care. To assess the effects of mobile phone messaging interventions as a mode of delivery for preventive health care, on health status and health behaviour outcomes. We searched: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library 2009, Issue 2), MEDLINE (OvidSP) (January 1993 to June 2009), EMBASE (OvidSP) (January 1993 to June 2009), PsycINFO (OvidSP) (January 1993 to June 2009), CINAHL (EbscoHOST) (January 1993 to June 2009), LILACS (January 1993 to June 2009) and African Health Anthology (January 1993 to June 2009).We also reviewed grey literature (including trial registers) and reference lists of articles. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-randomised controlled trials (QRCTs), controlled before-after (CBA) studies, and interrupted time series (ITS) studies with at least three time points before and after the intervention. We included studies using SMS or MMS as a mode of delivery for any type of preventive health care. We only included studies in which it was possible to assess the effects of mobile phone messaging independent of other technologies or interventions. Two review authors independently assessed all studies against the inclusion criteria, with any disagreements resolved by a third review author. Study design features

  7. Encoding and decoding messages with chaotic lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsing, P.M.; Gavrielides, A.; Kovanis, V.; Roy, R.; Thornburg, K.S. Jr.

    1997-01-01

    We investigate the structure of the strange attractor of a chaotic loss-modulated solid-state laser utilizing return maps based on a combination of intensity maxima and interspike intervals, as opposed to those utilizing Poincare sections defined by the intensity maxima of the laser (I=0,Ie<0) alone. We find both experimentally and numerically that a simple, intrinsic relationship exists between an intensity maximum and the pair of preceding and succeeding interspike intervals. In addition, we numerically investigate encoding messages on the output of a chaotic transmitter laser and its subsequent decoding by a similar receiver laser. By exploiting the relationship between the intensity maxima and the interspike intervals, we demonstrate that the method utilized to encode the message is vital to the system close-quote s ability to hide the signal from unwanted deciphering. In this work alternative methods are studied in order to encode messages by modulating the magnitude of pumping of the transmitter laser and also by driving its loss modulation with more than one frequency. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  8. ZeroMQ messaging for many applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hintjens, Pieter

    2013-01-01

    Dive into ØMQ (aka ZeroMQ), the smart socket library that gives you fast, easy, message-based concurrency for your applications. With this quick-paced guide, you’ll learn hands-on how to use this scalable, lightweight, and highly flexible networking tool for exchanging messages among clusters, the cloud, and other multi-system environments. ØMQ maintainer Pieter Hintjens takes you on a tour of real-world applications, using extended examples in C to help you work with ØMQ’s API, sockets, and patterns. Learn how to use specific ØMQ programming techniques, build multithreaded applications, and create your own messaging architectures. You’ll discover how ØMQ works with several programming languages and most operating systems—with little or no cost. Learn ØMQ’s main patterns: request-reply, publish-subscribe, and pipeline Work with ØMQ sockets and patterns by building several small applications Explore advanced uses of ØMQ’s request-reply pattern through working examples Build reliable request...

  9. Blind sensor calibration using approximate message passing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schülke, Christophe; Caltagirone, Francesco; Zdeborová, Lenka

    2015-01-01

    The ubiquity of approximately sparse data has led a variety of communities to take great interest in compressed sensing algorithms. Although these are very successful and well understood for linear measurements with additive noise, applying them to real data can be problematic if imperfect sensing devices introduce deviations from this ideal signal acquisition process, caused by sensor decalibration or failure. We propose a message passing algorithm called calibration approximate message passing (Cal-AMP) that can treat a variety of such sensor-induced imperfections. In addition to deriving the general form of the algorithm, we numerically investigate two particular settings. In the first, a fraction of the sensors is faulty, giving readings unrelated to the signal. In the second, sensors are decalibrated and each one introduces a different multiplicative gain to the measurements. Cal-AMP shares the scalability of approximate message passing, allowing us to treat large sized instances of these problems, and experimentally exhibits a phase transition between domains of success and failure. (paper)

  10. Antioxidant health messages in Canadian women's magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Alissa; Paisley, Judy; Bandayrel, Kristofer

    2011-01-01

    Recently, antioxidants have taken centre stage in media and advertising messages. While 80% of Canadians think they are well-informed about nutrition, many are confused about the health effects of specific nutrients. Forty-six percent of Canadians seek information from newspapers and books, and 67% of women rely on magazines. We examined the content and accuracy of antioxidant health messages in Canadian women's magazines. The top three Canadian magazines targeted at women readers were selected. A screening tool was developed, pilot tested, and used to identify eligible articles. A coding scheme was created to define variables, which were coded and analyzed. Seventy-seven percent of 36 magazine issues contained articles that mentioned antioxidants (n=56). Seventy-one percent (n=40) of articles reported positive health effects related to antioxidant consumption, and 36% and 40% of those articles framed those effects as definite and potential, respectively (p<0.01). The articles sampled conveyed messages about positive antioxidant health effects that are not supported by current evidence. Improved standards of health reporting are needed. Nutrition professionals may need to address this inaccuracy when they develop communications on antioxidants and health risk.

  11. Vertical Protocol Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groß, Thomas; Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The security of key exchange and secure channel protocols, such as TLS, has been studied intensively. However, only few works have considered what happens when the established keys are actually used—to run some protocol securely over the established “channel”. We call this a vertical protocol.......e., that the combination cannot introduce attacks that the individual protocols in isolation do not have. In this work, we prove a composability result in the symbolic model that allows for arbitrary vertical composition (including self-composition). It holds for protocols from any suite of channel and application...

  12. The influence of message framing, intention to quit smoking, and nicotine dependence on the persuasiveness of smoking cessation messages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moorman, M.; van den Putte, B.

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the combined effect of message framing, intention to quit smoking, and nicotine dependence on the persuasiveness of smoking cessation messages. Pre- and post-message measures of quit intention, attitude toward smoking cessation, and perceived behavioral control were taken in two

  13. Does perceived risk influence the effects of message framing? Revisiting the link between prospect theory and message framing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riet, J.P. van 't; Cox, A.D.; Cox, D.; Zimet, G.D.; Bruijn, G.J. de; Putte, B. van den; Vries, H. de; Werrij, M.Q.; Ruiter, R.A.C.

    2016-01-01

    Health-promoting messages can be framed in terms of the beneficial consequences of healthy behaviour (gain-framed messages) or the detrimental consequences of unhealthy behaviour (loss-framed messages). An influential notion holds that the perceived risk associated with the recommended behaviour

  14. The prototype message broadcast system for the Superconducting Super Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, K.; Skegg, R.

    1990-11-01

    A prototype unified message broadcast system to handle the site-wide distribution of all control system messages for the Superconducting Super Collider is presented. The messages are assembled in the control room area and encapsulated for transmission via a general fiber-optic link system to devices distributed throughout 70 miles of tunnels. An embedded timing signal is used by the distribution system to ensure that messages arrive at all devices simultaneously. Devices receive messages using a special receiver sub-system. A simple version of this system is to be used in the Accelerator Systems String Test (ASST) at the SSC site in 1991. 3 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  15. The prototype message broadcast system for the superconducting super collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, K.; Skegg, R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a prototype unified message broadcast system to handle the site-wide distribution of all control system messages for the Superconducting Super Collider. The messages are assembled in the control room area and encapsulated for transmission via a general fiber-optic link system to devices distributed throughout 70 miles of tunnels. An embedded timing signal is used by the distribution system to ensure that messages arrive at all devices simultaneously. Devices receive messages using a special receiver sub-system

  16. A high performance totally ordered multicast protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Todd; Whetten, Brian; Kaplan, Simon

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the Reliable Multicast Protocol (RMP). RMP provides a totally ordered, reliable, atomic multicast service on top of an unreliable multicast datagram service such as IP Multicasting. RMP is fully and symmetrically distributed so that no site bears un undue portion of the communication load. RMP provides a wide range of guarantees, from unreliable delivery to totally ordered delivery, to K-resilient, majority resilient, and totally resilient atomic delivery. These QoS guarantees are selectable on a per packet basis. RMP provides many communication options, including virtual synchrony, a publisher/subscriber model of message delivery, an implicit naming service, mutually exclusive handlers for messages, and mutually exclusive locks. It has commonly been held that a large performance penalty must be paid in order to implement total ordering -- RMP discounts this. On SparcStation 10's on a 1250 KB/sec Ethernet, RMP provides totally ordered packet delivery to one destination at 842 KB/sec throughput and with 3.1 ms packet latency. The performance stays roughly constant independent of the number of destinations. For two or more destinations on a LAN, RMP provides higher throughput than any protocol that does not use multicast or broadcast.

  17. In quantum direct communication an undetectable eavesdropper can always tell Ψ from Φ Bell states in the message mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavičić, Mladen

    2013-04-01

    We show that in any quantum direct communication protocol that is based on Ψ and Φ Bell states, an eavesdropper can always tell Ψ from Φ states without altering the transmission in any way in the message mode. This renders all protocols that make use of only one Ψ state and one Φ state completely insecure in the message mode. All four-Bell-state protocols require a revision and this might be of importance for new implementations of entanglement-based cryptographic protocols. The detection rate of an eavesdropper is 25% per control transmission, i.e., a half of the rate in the two-state (ping-pong) protocol. An eavesdropper can detect control probes with certainty in the standard control transmission without a photon in the Alice-to-Bob's travel mode and with near certainty in a transmission with a fake photon in the travel mode. Resending of measured control photons via the travel mode would make an eavesdropper completely invisible.

  18. Manipulative Use of Short Messaging Service (SMS Text Messages by Nigerian Telecommunications Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayoola, Kehinde A.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an application of Relevance Theory for the interpretation of short messaging service (SMS text messages emanating from Nigerian telecommunications companies to their subscribers. The aim of the research was to identify and describe the manipulative strategies employed by Nigerian telecommunications companies to induce subscribers to part with their money through sales promotion lotteries. 100 SMS texts were purposively extracted from the cell phones of randomly selected residents of Lagos Nigeria who had received promotional SMS text messages from three major Nigerian telecommunications companies. Using Sperber and Wilson's Relevance Theory (1995 as its theoretical framework, the paper described the manipulative use of SMS by Nigerian telecommunications companies. The analysis revealed that SMS text messages were encoded to achieve maximization of relevance through explicature and implicature; contextual implication and strengthening; and the reduction of processing effort through violating the maxim of truthfulness and the creative use of graphology. The paper concludes that SMS text-messages were used manipulatively by Nigerian telecommunications companies to earn indirect income from sales promotion lottery.

  19. Source Similarity and Social Media Health Messages: Extending Construal Level Theory to Message Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Rachel

    2015-09-01

    Social media users post messages about health goals and behaviors to online social networks. Compared with more traditional sources of health communication such as physicians or health journalists, peer sources are likely to be perceived as more socially close or similar, which influences how messages are processed. This experimental study uses construal level theory of psychological distance to predict how mediated health messages from peers influence health-related cognition and behavioral intention. Participants were exposed to source cues that identified peer sources as being either highly attitudinally and demographically similar to or different from participants. As predicted by construal level theory, participants who perceived sources of social media health messages as highly similar listed a greater proportion of beliefs about the feasibility of health behaviors and a greater proportion of negative beliefs, while participants who perceived sources as more dissimilar listed a greater proportion of positive beliefs about the health behaviors. Results of the study could be useful in determining how health messages from peers could encourage individuals to set realistic health goals.

  20. Protocol converter for serial communication between digital rectifier controllers and a power plant SCADA system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukić Vladimir Đ.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the protocol converter INT-485-MBRTU, developed for serial communication between the thyristor rectifier (based on the proprietary protocol "INT-CPD-05", according to standard RS-485 and the SCADA system (based on protocol "Modbus RTU", of the same standard in the thermal power plant "Nikola Tesla B1". Elementary data on industrial communication protocols and communication gateways were provided. The basic technical characteristics of the "Omron" programmable logic controller CJ series were described, as well as the developed device INT-485-MBRTU. Protocol converters with two versions of communication software were tested, differing only in one control word, intended for a forced successive change of communication sequences, in opposite to automatic sequence relieve. The device iNT-485-MBRTU, with the program for forced successive change of communication sequences, demonstrated the reliability of data transfer of 100 %, in a sample of approximately 480 messages. For nearly the same sample, the same protocol converter, with a version of the program without any type of message identifiers, transferred less than 60 % of the foreseen data. During multiple sixty-hour tests, the reliability of data transfer of at least 99.9979% was recorded, in 100% of the analysed cases, and for a sample of nearly 96,000 pairs of the send and receive messages. We analysed the results and estimated the additional possibilities for application of the INT-485-MBRTU protocol converter.

  1. Engineered cell-cell communication via DNA messaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortiz Monica E

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evolution has selected for organisms that benefit from genetically encoded cell-cell communication. Engineers have begun to repurpose elements of natural communication systems to realize programmed pattern formation and coordinate other population-level behaviors. However, existing engineered systems rely on system-specific small molecules to send molecular messages among cells. Thus, the information transmission capacity of current engineered biological communication systems is physically limited by specific biomolecules that are capable of sending only a single message, typically “regulate transcription.” Results We have engineered a cell-cell communication platform using bacteriophage M13 gene products to autonomously package and deliver heterologous DNA messages of varying lengths and encoded functions. We demonstrate the decoupling of messages from a common communication channel via the autonomous transmission of various arbitrary genetic messages. Further, we increase the range of engineered DNA messaging across semisolid media by linking message transmission or receipt to active cellular chemotaxis. Conclusions We demonstrate decoupling of a communication channel from message transmission within engineered biological systems via the autonomous targeted transduction of user-specified heterologous DNA messages. We also demonstrate that bacteriophage M13 particle production and message transduction occurs among chemotactic bacteria. We use chemotaxis to improve the range of DNA messaging, increasing both transmission distance and communication bit rates relative to existing small molecule-based communication systems. We postulate that integration of different engineered cell-cell communication platforms will allow for more complex spatial programming of dynamic cellular consortia.

  2. TXT@WORK: pediatric hospitalists and text messaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, Stephanie; Ahlers-Schmidt, Carolyn R; Steinberger, Erik

    2014-07-01

    Many studies assess provider-patient communication through text messaging; however, minimal research has addressed communication among physicians. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of text messaging by pediatric hospitalists. A brief, anonymous, electronic survey was distributed through the American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Hospital Medicine Listserv in February 2012. Survey questions assessed work-related text messaging. Of the 106 pediatric hospitalist respondents, 97 met inclusion criteria. Most were female (73%) and had been in practice text messages, some (12%) more than 10 times per shift. More than half (53%) received work-related text messages when not at work. When asked to identify all potential work recipients, most often sent work-related text messages to other pediatric hospitalists (64%), fellows or resident physicians (37%), and subspecialists/consulting physicians (28%). When asked their preferred mode for brief communication, respondents' preferences varied. Many (46%) respondents worried privacy laws can be violated by sending/receiving text messages, and some (30%) reported having received protected health information (PHI) through text messages. However, only 11% reported their institution offered encryption software for text messaging. Physicians were using text messaging as a means of brief, work-related communication. Concerns arose regarding transfer of PHI using unsecure systems and work-life balance. Future research should examine accuracy and effectiveness of text message communication in the hospital, as well as patient privacy issues.

  3. Crafting a Real-Time Information Aggregator for Mobile Messaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenq-Shiou Leu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile messaging is evolving beyond SMS (Short Message Service text messaging with the introduction of MMS (Multimedia Messaging Service. In the past, such a scheme is used for peer-to-peer communication. Messages are generally displayed on a cellular phone with a limited-sized screen. However, such a visualizing process is not suitable to broadcast real-time SMS/MMS messages to people in public. To facilitate the instancy and publicity, we develop a real-time information aggregator—Visualizing SMS and MMS Messages System (VSMMS—to realize the concept by integrating SMS and MMS messaging over GSM/GPRS/UMTS onto a remote display device. The device exhibits messages on a larger display device in public. VSMMS features a revolutionized variation of mass media broadcasting. In this paper, we practically illustrate how to design and implement VSMMS and use a M/M/1 model to conduct a theoretical analysis about the message delay in the system queue. Meanwhile, we make an empirical performance evaluation about the message transmission time over different networks.

  4. Quantum messages with signatures forgeable in arbitrated quantum signature schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Taewan; Choi, Jeong Woon; Jho, Nam-Su; Lee, Soojoon

    2015-01-01

    Even though a method to perfectly sign quantum messages has not been known, the arbitrated quantum signature scheme has been considered as one of the good candidates. However, its forgery problem has been an obstacle to the scheme becoming a successful method. In this paper, we consider one situation, which is slightly different from the forgery problem, that we use to check whether at least one quantum message with signature can be forged in a given scheme, although all the messages cannot be forged. If there are only a finite number of forgeable quantum messages in the scheme, then the scheme can be secured against the forgery attack by not sending forgeable quantum messages, and so our situation does not directly imply that we check whether the scheme is secure against the attack. However, if users run a given scheme without any consideration of forgeable quantum messages, then a sender might transmit such forgeable messages to a receiver and in such a case an attacker can forge the messages if the attacker knows them. Thus it is important and necessary to look into forgeable quantum messages. We show here that there always exists such a forgeable quantum message-signature pair for every known scheme with quantum encryption and rotation, and numerically show that there are no forgeable quantum message-signature pairs that exist in an arbitrated quantum signature scheme. (paper)

  5. Congestion control for vehicular delay tolerant network routing protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Oham, Chuka Finbars

    2014-01-01

    The Vehicular Delay Tolerant Network (VDTN) is a special and challenging type of the Delay Tolerant Network because of its high mobility, frequent disconnections and nodal congestion features. These challenging features make it prone to congestion which leads to a considerable amount of message drops in the network. To minimize the impact of congestion in the network, we designed and implemented the Congestion Aware Spray and Wait (CASaW) routing protocol. We varied the buffer sizes of the no...

  6. Remote object authentication: confidence model, cryptosystem and protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancrenon, Jean; Gillard, Roland; Fournel, Thierry

    2009-04-01

    This paper follows a paper by Bringer et al.3 to adapt a security model and protocol used for remote biometric authentication to the case of remote morphometric object authentication. We use a different type of encryption technique that requires smaller key sizes and has a built-in mechanism to help control the integrity of the messages received by the server. We also describe the optical technology used to extract the morphometric templates.

  7. Applications of Multi-Channel Safety Authentication Protocols in Wireless Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Young-Long; Liau, Ren-Hau; Chang, Liang-Yu

    2016-01-01

    People can use their web browser or mobile devices to access web services and applications which are built into these servers. Users have to input their identity and password to login the server. The identity and password may be appropriated by hackers when the network environment is not safe. The multiple secure authentication protocol can improve the security of the network environment. Mobile devices can be used to pass the authentication messages through Wi-Fi or 3G networks to serve as a second communication channel. The content of the message number is not considered in a multiple secure authentication protocol. The more excessive transmission of messages would be easier to collect and decode by hackers. In this paper, we propose two schemes which allow the server to validate the user and reduce the number of messages using the XOR operation. Our schemes can improve the security of the authentication protocol. The experimental results show that our proposed authentication protocols are more secure and effective. In regard to applications of second authentication communication channels for a smart access control system, identity identification and E-wallet, our proposed authentication protocols can ensure the safety of person and property, and achieve more effective security management mechanisms.

  8. System of message for gamma-radiation monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolic, M.D.; Koturovic, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Paper describes a system of voice messages for gamma-radiation monitor based on PC. The systems reproduces recorded messages that is simpler than the process of their synthesis. Message choice is based on combination of recorded digital results and/or received reference messages or warnings. The system of generation of voice messages applies the Windows based software. The total memory array required to create independent voice system is maximum 1.7 mbyte. The monitor may be used for continuous monitoring of radioactivity level with 5-8 s period of message repetition. Another option of the system operation is based on monitor application for the environment monitoring. Period of messages in this case is equal to 5-30 min [ru

  9. Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) in recurrent or oligometastatic pancreatic cancer. A toxicity review of simultaneous integrated protection (SIP) versus conventional SBRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gkika, E.; Kirste, S.; Schimek-Jasch, T. [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Adebahr, S. [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Heidelberg (partner site Freiburg) (Germany); Wiehle, R. [University Medical Center Freiburg, Division of Medical Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology, Freiburg (Germany); Claus, R. [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Hematology, Oncology and Stem-Cell Transplantation, Freiburg (Germany); Wittel, U. [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of General and Visceral Surgery, Freiburg (Germany); Nestle, U.; Grosu, A.L.; Brunner, T.B. [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Heidelberg (partner site Freiburg) (Germany); University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, Freiburg (Germany); Baltas, D. [University Medical Center Freiburg, Division of Medical Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology, Freiburg (Germany); German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Heidelberg (partner site Freiburg) (Germany); University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, Freiburg (Germany)

    2017-06-15

    Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) in pancreatic cancer can be limited by its proximity to organs at risk (OAR). In this analysis, we evaluated the toxicity and efficacy of two different treatment approaches in patients with locally recurrent or oligometastatic pancreatic cancer. According to the prescription method, patients were divided in two cohorts (C1 and C2). The planning target volume (PTV) was created through a 4 mm expansion of the internal target volume. In C2, a subvolume was additionally created, a simultaneous integrated protection (SIP), which is the overlap of the PTV with the planning risk volume of an OAR to which we prescribed a reduced dose. In all, 18 patients were treated (7 with local recurrences, 9 for oligometastases, 2 for both). Twelve of 23 lesions were treated without SIP (C1) and 11 with SIP (C2). The median follow-up was 12.8 months. Median overall survival (OS) was 13.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] 9.8-14.6) months. The OS rates at 6 and 12 months were 87 and 58%, respectively. Freedom from local progression for combined cohorts at 6 and 12 months was 93 and 67% (95% CI 15-36), respectively. Local control was not statistically different between the two groups. One patient in C2 experienced grade ≥3 acute toxicities and 1 patient in C1 experienced a grade ≥3 late toxicity. The SIP approach is a useful prescription method for abdominal SBRT with a favorable toxicity profile which does not compromise local control and overall survival despite dose sacrifices in small subvolumes. (orig.) [German] Die stereotaktische Strahlentherapie (SBRT) ist bei Pankreaskarzinomen durch die enge Lagebeziehung der Risikoorgane (OAR) zum Zielvolumen erschwert. In dieser Analyse evaluierten wir die Toxizitaet und die Lokalkontrolle von zwei unterschiedlichen Therapiestrategien bei Patienten mit rezidivierendem oder oligometastatischem Pankreaskarzinom. Die Patienten wurden anhand der Verschreibungsmethode in zwei Kohorten geteilt (C1 und C2). Das

  10. Delay/Disruption Tolerant Network-Based Message Forwarding for a River Pollution Monitoring Wireless Sensor Network Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velásquez-Villada, Carlos; Donoso, Yezid

    2016-03-25

    Communications from remote areas that may be of interest is still a problem. Many innovative projects applied to remote sites face communications difficulties. The GOLDFISH project was an EU-funded project for river pollution monitoring in developing countries. It had several sensor clusters, with floating WiFi antennas, deployed along a downstream river's course. Sensor clusters sent messages to a Gateway installed on the riverbank. This gateway sent the messages, through a backhaul technology, to an Internet server where data was aggregated over a map. The communication challenge in this scenario was produced by the antennas' movement and network backhaul availability. Since the antennas were floating on the river, communications could be disrupted at any time. Also, 2G/3G availability near the river was not constant. For non-real-time applications, we propose a Delay/Disruption Tolerant Network (DTN)-based solution where all nodes have persistent storage capabilities and DTN protocols to be able to wait minutes or hours to transmit. A mechanical backhaul will periodically visit the river bank where the gateway is installed and it will automatically collect sensor data to be carried to an Internet-covered spot. The proposed forwarding protocol delivers around 98% of the messages for this scenario, performing better than other well-known DTN routing protocols.

  11. Delay/Disruption Tolerant Network-Based Message Forwarding for a River Pollution Monitoring Wireless Sensor Network Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Velásquez-Villada

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Communications from remote areas that may be of interest is still a problem. Many innovative projects applied to remote sites face communications difficulties. The GOLDFISH project was an EU-funded project for river pollution monitoring in developing countries. It had several sensor clusters, with floating WiFi antennas, deployed along a downstream river’s course. Sensor clusters sent messages to a Gateway installed on the riverbank. This gateway sent the messages, through a backhaul technology, to an Internet server where data was aggregated over a map. The communication challenge in this scenario was produced by the antennas’ movement and network backhaul availability. Since the antennas were floating on the river, communications could be disrupted at any time. Also, 2G/3G availability near the river was not constant. For non-real-time applications, we propose a Delay/Disruption Tolerant Network (DTN-based solution where all nodes have persistent storage capabilities and DTN protocols to be able to wait minutes or hours to transmit. A mechanical backhaul will periodically visit the river bank where the gateway is installed and it will automatically collect sensor data to be carried to an Internet-covered spot. The proposed forwarding protocol delivers around 98% of the messages for this scenario, performing better than other well-known DTN routing protocols.

  12. Colorado SIP: 5 CCR 1001-13, Reg 11, Motor Vehicle Emissions Inspection Program—Part A, General Provisions, Area of Applicability, Schedules for Obtaining Certification of Emissions Control, Definitions, Exemptions, and Clean Screening/Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado SIP: 5 CCR 1001-13, Reg 11, Motor Vehicle Emissions Inspection Program—Part A, General Provisions, Area of Applicability, Schedules for Obtaining Certification of Emissions Control, Definitions, Exemptions, and Clean Screening/Remote Sensing

  13. Hvordan kan fosterbarns indre arbeidsmodeller positivt påvirkes i relasjon med nære omsorgspersoner? Knyttet opp mot SIP-modellen (Sosial informasjonsprosesserings-modell)

    OpenAIRE

    Sunde, Gunn Karin

    2014-01-01

    Master's thesis in Special education Sammendrag Det er stadig flere barn som har behov for å bli omplassert i fosterhjem (Aleris, 2012), grunnet bl.a. omsorgssvikt og utrygg tilknytning (Anke, 2007). Det vil ha innflytelse på fosterbarns indre arbeidsmodeller, som er integrerte mønster hos barnet basert på erfaringer fra samspillet med tilknytningspersonene (Bowlby, 1994). SIP-modellen gir kunnskap om barns mentale prosesser og sosiale tilpasning, og viser mulighet for modifisering av f...

  14. The Italian version of the 92-item Prodromal Questionnaire: Concurrent validity with the SIPS and factor analysis in a sample of 258 outpatients aged 11-36years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Solfanelli, Andrea; Piacentino, Daria; Savoja, Valeria; Fiori Nastro, Paolo; Curto, Martina; Lindau, Juliana Fortes; Masillo, Alice; Brandizzi, Martina; Fagioli, Francesca; Raballo, Andrea; Gebhardt, Eva; Preti, Antonio; D'Alema, Marco; Fucci, Maria Rosa; Miletto, Roberto; Andropoli, Daniela; Leccisi, Donato; Girardi, Paolo; Loewy, Rachel L; Schultze-Lutter, Frauke

    2017-11-01

    Current early screeners for psychosis-risk states have still to prove ability in identifying at-risk individuals. Among screeners, the 92-item Prodromal Questionnaire (PQ-92) is often used. We aimed to assess the validity of its Italian translation in a large Italian adolescent and young adult help-seeking sample. We included all individuals aged 12-36years seeking help at psychiatric mental health services in a large semirural Roman area (534,600 population) who accepted to participate. Participants completed the Italian version of the PQ-92 and were subsequently assessed with the Structured Interview of Prodromal/Psychosis-Risk Syndromes (SIPS). We examined diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and positive and negative likelihood ratios) and content, concurrent, and convergent validity between PQ-92 and SIPS using Cronbach's alpha, Cohen's kappa, and Spearman's rho, respectively. We tested the validity of adopted cut-offs through Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves plotted against SIPS diagnoses and the instrument's factor-structure through Principal Component Analysis. PQ-92 showed high internal consistency, acceptable diagnostic accuracy and concurrent validity, and excellent convergent validity. ROC analyses pointed to scores of 18 on the Positive subscale and 36 on the total PQ-92 as best cut-offs. The Scree-test identified a four-factor solution as fitting best. Psychometric properties of Italian PQ-92 were satisfactory. Optimal cut-offs were confirmed at ≥18 on the positive subscale, but at ≥36 on the total scale was able to identify more SIPS-positive cases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Cryptographic protocol security analysis based on bounded constructing algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    An efficient approach to analyzing cryptographic protocols is to develop automatic analysis tools based on formal methods. However, the approach has encountered the high computational complexity problem due to reasons that participants of protocols are arbitrary, their message structures are complex and their executions are concurrent. We propose an efficient automatic verifying algorithm for analyzing cryptographic protocols based on the Cryptographic Protocol Algebra (CPA) model proposed recently, in which algebraic techniques are used to simplify the description of cryptographic protocols and their executions. Redundant states generated in the analysis processes are much reduced by introducing a new algebraic technique called Universal Polynomial Equation and the algorithm can be used to verify the correctness of protocols in the infinite states space. We have implemented an efficient automatic analysis tool for cryptographic protocols, called ACT-SPA, based on this algorithm, and used the tool to check more than 20 cryptographic protocols. The analysis results show that this tool is more efficient, and an attack instance not offered previously is checked by using this tool.

  16. Intraclade heterogeneity in nitrogen utilization by marine prokaryotes revealed using stable isotope probing coupled with tag sequencing (Tag-SIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Morando

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen can greatly influence the structure and productivity of microbial communities through its relative availability and form. However, roles of specific organisms in the uptake of different nitrogen species remain poorly characterized. Most studies seeking to identify agents of assimilation have been correlative, indirectly linking activity measurements (e.g., nitrate uptake with the presence or absence of biological markers, particularly functional genes and their transcripts. Evidence is accumulating of previously underappreciated functional diversity in major microbial subpopulations, which may confer physiological advantages under certain environmental conditions leading to ecotype divergence. This microdiversity further complicates our view of genetic variation in environmental samples requiring the development of more targeted approaches. Here, next-generation tag sequencing was successfully coupled with stable isotope probing (Tag-SIP to assess the ability of individual phylotypes to assimilate a particular N source. Our results provide the first direct evidence of nitrate utilization by organisms thought to lack the genes required for this process including the heterotrophic clades SAR11 and the Archaeal Marine Group II (MG-II. We also provide new direct evidence of in situ nitrate utilization by the cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus in support of recent findings. Furthermore, these results revealed widespread functional heterogeneity, i.e. different levels of N assimilation within clades, likely reflecting niche partitioning by ecotypes. The addition of nitrate utilization to ecosystem and ecosystem models by these globally dominant clades will likely improve the mechanistic accuracy of these models.

  17. Radio frequency measurements of tunnel couplings and singlet–triplet spin states in Si:P quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, M. G.; Kobayashi, T.; Weber, B.; Hile, S. J.; Watson, T. F.; van der Heijden, J.; Rogge, S.; Simmons, M. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Spin states of the electrons and nuclei of phosphorus donors in silicon are strong candidates for quantum information processing applications given their excellent coherence times. Designing a scalable donor-based quantum computer will require both knowledge of the relationship between device geometry and electron tunnel couplings, and a spin readout strategy that uses minimal physical space in the device. Here we use radio frequency reflectometry to measure singlet–triplet states of a few-donor Si:P double quantum dot and demonstrate that the exchange energy can be tuned by at least two orders of magnitude, from 20 μeV to 8 meV. We measure dot–lead tunnel rates by analysis of the reflected signal and show that they change from 100 MHz to 22 GHz as the number of electrons on a quantum dot is increased from 1 to 4. These techniques present an approach for characterizing, operating and engineering scalable qubit devices based on donors in silicon. PMID:26548556

  18. DNA-SIP identifies sulfate-reducing Clostridia as important toluene degraders in tar-oil-contaminated aquifer sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winderl, C.; Penning, H.; von Netzer, F.; Meckenstock, R.U.; Lueders, T. [Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Neuherberg (Germany)

    2010-10-15

    Global groundwater resources are constantly challenged by a multitude of contaminants such as aromatic hydrocarbons. Especially in anaerobic habitats, a large diversity of unrecognized microbial populations may be responsible for their degradation. Still, our present understanding of the respective microbiota and their ecophysiology is almost exclusively based on a small number of cultured organisms, mostly within the Proteobacteria. Here, by DNA-based stable isotope probing (SIP), we directly identified the most active sulfate-reducing toluene degraders in a diverse sedimentary microbial community originating from a tar-oil-contaminated aquifer at a former coal gasification plant. On incubation of fresh sediments with {sup 13}C{sub 7}-toluene, the production of both sulfide and (CS{sub 2}){sup 13}CO{sub 2} was clearly coupled to the {sup 13}Clabeling of DNA of microbes related to Desulfosporosinus spp. within the Peptococcaceae (Clostridia). The screening of labeled DNA fractions also suggested a novel benzylsuccinate synthase alpha-subunit (bssA) sequence type previously only detected in the environment to be tentatively affiliated with these degraders. However, carbon flow from the contaminant into degrader DNA was only similar to 50%, pointing toward high ratios of heterotrophic CS{sub 2}-fixation during assimilation of acetyl-CoA originating from the contaminant by these degraders. These findings demonstrate that the importance of non-proteobacterial populations in anaerobic aromatics degradation, as well as their specific ecophysiology in the subsurface may still be largely ungrasped.

  19. Determination of the stability of the uranyl ion sipped in τ-hydrogen phosphate of zirconium in sodic form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordonez R, E.; Fernandez V, S.M.; Drot, R.; Simoni, E.

    2005-01-01

    The stability of the uranyl sipped in the zirconium τ-hydrogen phosphate in sodic form (τ-NaZrP), was carried out characterizing the complexes formed by Laser spectroscopy in the visible region and by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The material was prepared by a new synthesis technique working in nitrogen atmosphere and to low temperatures. The sorption of the uranyl ion was made in acid media with concentrations of 10 -4 and 10 -5 of uranyl nitrate and with ion forces of 0.1 and 0.5 M of NaClO 4 . The spectra of induced fluorescence with laser (TRLFS) show that the uranyl is fixed in very acid media in three well differentiated species, to pH less acid, the specie of long half life disappears and are only those of short half life. The results of the binding energy obtained by XPS indicate that the binding energy of the uranyl confer it a stable character to the complex formed in the τ-NaZP, that makes to this material appropriate to retain to the uranyl in solution to high ion forces and in acid media. (Author)

  20. Multivariate statistical monitoring as applied to clean-in-place (CIP) and steam-in-place (SIP) operations in biopharmaceutical manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Kevin; Undey, Cenk; Mistretta, Thomas; Naugle, Gregory; Sodhi, Manbir

    2014-01-01

    Multivariate statistical process monitoring (MSPM) is becoming increasingly utilized to further enhance process monitoring in the biopharmaceutical industry. MSPM can play a critical role when there are many measurements and these measurements are highly correlated, as is typical for many biopharmaceutical operations. Specifically, for processes such as cleaning-in-place (CIP) and steaming-in-place (SIP, also known as sterilization-in-place), control systems typically oversee the execution of the cycles, and verification of the outcome is based on offline assays. These offline assays add to delays and corrective actions may require additional setup times. Moreover, this conventional approach does not take interactive effects of process variables into account and cycle optimization opportunities as well as salient trends in the process may be missed. Therefore, more proactive and holistic online continued verification approaches are desirable. This article demonstrates the application of real-time MSPM to processes such as CIP and SIP with industrial examples. The proposed approach has significant potential for facilitating enhanced continuous verification, improved process understanding, abnormal situation detection, and predictive monitoring, as applied to CIP and SIP operations. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.