WorldWideScience

Sample records for protocol involved unstructured

  1. Implicit flux-split Euler schemes for unsteady aerodynamic analysis involving unstructured dynamic meshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batina, John T.

    1990-01-01

    Improved algorithm for the solution of the time-dependent Euler equations are presented for unsteady aerodynamic analysis involving unstructured dynamic meshes. The improvements were developed recently to the spatial and temporal discretizations used by unstructured grid flow solvers. The spatial discretization involves a flux-split approach which is naturally dissipative and captures shock waves sharply with at most one grid point within the shock structure. The temporal discretization involves an implicit time-integration scheme using a Gauss-Seidel relaxation procedure which is computationally efficient for either steady or unsteady flow problems. For example, very large time steps may be used for rapid convergence to steady state, and the step size for unsteady cases may be selected for temporal accuracy rather than for numerical stability. Steady and unsteady flow results are presented for the NACA 0012 airfoil to demonstrate applications of the new Euler solvers. The unsteady results were obtained for the airfoil pitching harmonically about the quarter chord. The resulting instantaneous pressure distributions and lift and moment coefficients during a cycle of motion compare well with experimental data. A description of the Euler solvers is presented along with results and comparisons which assess the capability.

  2. Organized and Unstructured Activity Participation among Adolescents Involved with Child Protective Services in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Yoonyoung; Lu, Ting; Christ, Sharon L.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Many adolescents are referred to Child Protective Services for possible maltreatment every year, but not much is known about their organized and unstructured activity participation. Objective: The purposes of this study are to provide a description of organized and unstructured activity participation for adolescents who were possible…

  3. Clinical applicability and cutoff values for an unstructured neuropsychological assessment protocol for older adults with low formal education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, Jonas Jardim; Bertola, Laiss; Ávila, Rafaela Teixeira; Moreira, Lafaiete; Coutinho, Gabriel; de Moraes, Edgar Nunes; Bicalho, Maria Aparecida Camargos; Nicolato, Rodrigo; Diniz, Breno Satler; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    The neuropsychological exam plays a central role in the assessment of elderly patients with cognitive complaints. It is particularly relevant to differentiate patients with mild dementia from those subjects with mild cognitive impairment. Formal education is a critical factor in neuropsychological performance; however, there are few studies that evaluated the psychometric properties, especially criterion related validity, neuropsychological tests for patients with low formal education. The present study aims to investigate the validity of an unstructured neuropsychological assessment protocol for this population and develop cutoff values for clinical use. A protocol composed by the Rey-Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Frontal Assessment Battery, Category and Letter Fluency, Stick Design Test, Clock Drawing Test, Digit Span, Token Test and TN-LIN was administered to 274 older adults (96 normal aging, 85 mild cognitive impairment and 93 mild Alzheimer`s disease) with predominantly low formal education. Factor analysis showed a four factor structure related to Executive Functions, Language/Semantic Memory, Episodic Memory and Visuospatial Abilities, accounting for 65% of explained variance. Most of the tests showed a good sensitivity and specificity to differentiate the diagnostic groups. The neuropsychological protocol showed a significant ecological validity as 3 of the cognitive factors explained 31% of the variance on Instrumental Activities of Daily Living. The study presents evidence of the construct, criteria and ecological validity for this protocol. The neuropsychological tests and the proposed cutoff values might be used for the clinical assessment of older adults with low formal education.

  4. HIRENASD coarse unstructured

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Unstructured HIRENASD mesh: - coarse size (5.7 million nodes, 14.4 million elements) - for node centered solvers - 01.06.2011 - caution: dimensions in mm

  5. The Unstructured Clinical Interview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Karyn Dayle

    2010-01-01

    In mental health, family, and community counseling settings, master's-level counselors engage in unstructured clinical interviewing to develop diagnoses based on the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed., text rev.; "DSM-IV-TR"; American Psychiatric Association, 2000). Although counselors receive education about…

  6. A Pilot Study Involving the Effect of Two Different Complex Training Protocols on Lower Body Power

    OpenAIRE

    Smith Chad E.; Lyons Brian; Hannon James C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Complex training (CT) involves the coupling of two exercises ostensibly to enhance the effect of the second exercise. Typically, the first exercise is a strength exercise and the second exercise is a power exercise involving similar muscles. In most cases, CT is designed to enhance power. The purpose of this study was twofold. First, this study was designed to determine if lower body power could be enhanced using complex training protocols. Second, this study investigated whether the...

  7. A Pilot Study Involving the Effect of Two Different Complex Training Protocols on Lower Body Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Chad E.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Complex training (CT involves the coupling of two exercises ostensibly to enhance the effect of the second exercise. Typically, the first exercise is a strength exercise and the second exercise is a power exercise involving similar muscles. In most cases, CT is designed to enhance power. The purpose of this study was twofold. First, this study was designed to determine if lower body power could be enhanced using complex training protocols. Second, this study investigated whether the inclusion of a power exercise instead of a strength exercise as the first exercise in CT would produce differences in lower body power. Methods. Thirty-six recreationally-trained men and women aged 20 to 29 years attending a college physical education course were randomly assigned to one of three groups: squat and countermovement squat jumps (SSJ, kettlebell swings and countermovement squat jumps (KSJ, and a control (CON. Training involving CT lasted 6 weeks. All participants were pre- and posttested for vertical jump performance in order to assess lower body power. Results. Vertical jump scores improved for all groups (p < 0.01. The results also indicated that there were no statistically significant differences between group scores across time (p = 0.215. The statistical power for this analysis was low (0.312, most likely due to the small sample size. However, the results did reveal a trend suggesting that the training improvements were greater for both the SSJ and KSJ groups compared with the CON (by 171% and 107%, respectively although significance was not reached. Conclusions. Due to the observed trend, a replication of this study with a greater number of participants over a longer period of time is warranted.

  8. Toward An Unstructured Mesh Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei Mahdiraji, Alireza; Baumann, Peter Peter

    2014-05-01

    Unstructured meshes are used in several application domains such as earth sciences (e.g., seismology), medicine, oceanography, cli- mate modeling, GIS as approximate representations of physical objects. Meshes subdivide a domain into smaller geometric elements (called cells) which are glued together by incidence relationships. The subdivision of a domain allows computational manipulation of complicated physical structures. For instance, seismologists model earthquakes using elastic wave propagation solvers on hexahedral meshes. The hexahedral con- tains several hundred millions of grid points and millions of hexahedral cells. Each vertex node in the hexahedrals stores a multitude of data fields. To run simulation on such meshes, one needs to iterate over all the cells, iterate over incident cells to a given cell, retrieve coordinates of cells, assign data values to cells, etc. Although meshes are used in many application domains, to the best of our knowledge there is no database vendor that support unstructured mesh features. Currently, the main tool for querying and manipulating unstructured meshes are mesh libraries, e.g., CGAL and GRAL. Mesh li- braries are dedicated libraries which includes mesh algorithms and can be run on mesh representations. The libraries do not scale with dataset size, do not have declarative query language, and need deep C++ knowledge for query implementations. Furthermore, due to high coupling between the implementations and input file structure, the implementations are less reusable and costly to maintain. A dedicated mesh database offers the following advantages: 1) declarative querying, 2) ease of maintenance, 3) hiding mesh storage structure from applications, and 4) transparent query optimization. To design a mesh database, the first challenge is to define a suitable generic data model for unstructured meshes. We proposed ImG-Complexes data model as a generic topological mesh data model which extends incidence graph model to multi

  9. Natively unstructured loops differ from other loops.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avner Schlessinger

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Natively unstructured or disordered protein regions may increase the functional complexity of an organism; they are particularly abundant in eukaryotes and often evade structure determination. Many computational methods predict unstructured regions by training on outliers in otherwise well-ordered structures. Here, we introduce an approach that uses a neural network in a very different and novel way. We hypothesize that very long contiguous segments with nonregular secondary structure (NORS regions differ significantly from regular, well-structured loops, and that a method detecting such features could predict natively unstructured regions. Training our new method, NORSnet, on predicted information rather than on experimental data yielded three major advantages: it removed the overlap between testing and training, it systematically covered entire proteomes, and it explicitly focused on one particular aspect of unstructured regions with a simple structural interpretation, namely that they are loops. Our hypothesis was correct: well-structured and unstructured loops differ so substantially that NORSnet succeeded in their distinction. Benchmarks on previously used and new experimental data of unstructured regions revealed that NORSnet performed very well. Although it was not the best single prediction method, NORSnet was sufficiently accurate to flag unstructured regions in proteins that were previously not annotated. In one application, NORSnet revealed previously undetected unstructured regions in putative targets for structural genomics and may thereby contribute to increasing structural coverage of large eukaryotic families. NORSnet found unstructured regions more often in domain boundaries than expected at random. In another application, we estimated that 50%-70% of all worm proteins observed to have more than seven protein-protein interaction partners have unstructured regions. The comparative analysis between NORSnet and DISOPRED2 suggested

  10. Numerical experiments on unstructured PIC stability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, David Minot

    2011-04-01

    Particle-In-Cell (PIC) is a method for plasmas simulation. Particles are pushed with Verlet time integration. Fields are modeled using finite differences on a tensor product mesh (cells). The Unstructured PIC methods studied here use instead finite element discretizations on unstructured (simplicial) meshes. PIC is constrained by stability limits (upper bounds) on mesh and time step sizes. Numerical evidence (2D) and analysis will be presented showing that similar bounds constrain unstructured PIC.

  11. Partitioning of unstructured meshes for load balancing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, O.C.; Otto, S.W.

    1994-01-01

    Many large-scale engineering and scientific calculations involve repeated updating of variables on an unstructured mesh. To do these types of computations on distributed memory parallel computers, it is necessary to partition the mesh among the processors so that the load balance is maximized and inter-processor communication time is minimized. This can be approximated by the problem, of partitioning a graph so as to obtain a minimum cut, a well-studied combinatorial optimization problem. Graph partitioning algorithms are discussed that give good but not necessarily optimum solutions. These algorithms include local search methods recursive spectral bisection, and more general purpose methods such as simulated annealing. It is shown that a general procedure enables to combine simulated annealing with Kernighan-Lin. The resulting algorithm is both very fast and extremely effective. (authors) 23 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  12. Recognition and characterization of unstructured environmental sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Selina

    2011-12-01

    Environmental sounds are what we hear everyday, or more generally sounds that surround us ambient or background audio. Humans utilize both vision and hearing to respond to their surroundings, a capability still quite limited in machine processing. The first step toward achieving multimodal input applications is the ability to process unstructured audio and recognize audio scenes (or environments). Such ability would have applications in content analysis and mining of multimedia data or improving robustness in context aware applications through multi-modality, such as in assistive robotics, surveillances, or mobile device-based services. The goal of this thesis is on the characterization of unstructured environmental sounds for understanding and predicting the context surrounding of an agent or device. Most research on audio recognition has focused primarily on speech and music. Less attention has been paid to the challenges and opportunities for using audio to characterize unstructured audio. My research focuses on investigating challenging issues in characterizing unstructured environmental audio and to develop novel algorithms for modeling the variations of the environment. The first step in building a recognition system for unstructured auditory environment was to investigate on techniques and audio features for working with such audio data. We begin by performing a study that explore suitable features and the feasibility of designing an automatic environment recognition system using audio information. In my initial investigation to explore the feasibility of designing an automatic environment recognition system using audio information, I have found that traditional recognition and feature extraction for audio were not suitable for environmental sound, as they lack any type of structures, unlike those of speech and music which contain formantic and harmonic structures, thus dispelling the notion that traditional speech and music recognition techniques can simply

  13. Parallel adaptive simulations on unstructured meshes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shephard, M S; Jansen, K E; Sahni, O; Diachin, L A

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses methods being developed by the ITAPS center to support the execution of parallel adaptive simulations on unstructured meshes. The paper first outlines the ITAPS approach to the development of interoperable mesh, geometry and field services to support the needs of SciDAC application in these areas. The paper then demonstrates the ability of unstructured adaptive meshing methods built on such interoperable services to effectively solve important physics problems. Attention is then focused on ITAPs' developing ability to solve adaptive unstructured mesh problems on massively parallel computers

  14. Quantum search of a real unstructured database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broda, Bogusław

    2016-02-01

    A simple circuit implementation of the oracle for Grover's quantum search of a real unstructured classical database is proposed. The oracle contains a kind of quantumly accessible classical memory, which stores the database.

  15. MHD simulations on an unstructured mesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, H.R.; Park, W.; Belova, E.; Fu, G.Y.; Sugiyama, L.E.

    1998-01-01

    Two reasons for using an unstructured computational mesh are adaptivity, and alignment with arbitrarily shaped boundaries. Two codes which use finite element discretization on an unstructured mesh are described. FEM3D solves 2D and 3D RMHD using an adaptive grid. MH3D++, which incorporates methods of FEM3D into the MH3D generalized MHD code, can be used with shaped boundaries, which might be 3D

  16. Stakeholder involvement in systematic reviews: a protocol for a systematic review of methods, outcomes and effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Alex; Campbell, Pauline; Struthers, Caroline; Synnot, Anneliese; Nunn, Jack; Hill, Sophie; Goodare, Heather; Watts, Chris; Morley, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Researchers are expected to actively involve stakeholders (including patients, the public, health professionals, and others) in their research. Although researchers increasingly recognise that this is good practice, there is limited practical guidance about how to involve stakeholders. Systematic reviews are a research method in which international literature is brought together, using carefully designed and rigorous methods to answer a specified question about healthcare. We want to investigate how researchers have involved stakeholders in systematic reviews, and how involvement has potentially affected the quality and impact of reviews. We plan to bring this information together by searching and reviewing the literature for reports of stakeholder involvement in systematic reviews. This paper describes in detail the methods that we plan to use to do this. After carrying out comprehensive searches for literature, we will: 1. Provide an overview of identified reports, describing key information such as types of stakeholders involved, and how. 2. Pick out reports of involvement which include detailed descriptions of how researchers involved people in a systematic review and summarise the methods they used. We will consider who was involved, how people were recruited, and how the involvement was organised and managed. 3. Bring together any reports which have explored the effect, or impact, of involving stakeholders in a systematic review. We will assess the quality of these reports, and summarise their findings. Once completed, our review will be used to produce training resources aimed at helping researchers to improve ways of involving stakeholders in systematic reviews. Background There is an expectation for stakeholders (including patients, the public, health professionals, and others) to be involved in research. Researchers are increasingly recognising that it is good practice to involve stakeholders in systematic reviews. There is currently a lack of evidence

  17. Considerations When Writing and Reviewing a Higher Education Teaching Protocol Involving Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemulapalli, Tracy H; Donkin, Shawn S; Lescun, Timothy B; O'Neil, Peggy A; Zollner, Patrick A

    2017-09-01

    The targeted use of animals in teaching at institutions of higher learning is fundamental to educating the next generation of professionals in the biologic and animal sciences. As with animal research, universities and colleges that use animals in teaching are subject to regulatory oversight. Instructors must receive approval from their IACUC before using animals in their teaching. However, the questions asked on many institutions' animal care and use protocol (ACUP) are often geared more toward the use of animals for research. These questions may not be wholly appropriate in evaluating a teaching protocol; some questions are not applicable (for example, power analysis to justify animal numbers) whereas other important questions may be missing. This article discusses the issues surrounding the rationale for animal use in teaching; it also proposes a framework that instructors and IACUC members alike can use when writing and reviewing teaching ACUP. We hope this framework will help to ensure the most appropriate IACUC review of the ethical use of animals in higher education.

  18. Radiation risk statement in the participant information for a research protocol that involves exposure to ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caon, Martin

    2005-01-01

    A Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC) is required to scrutinise the protocols of clinical drug trials that recruit patients as participants. If the study involves exposing the participants to ionizing radiation the information provided to the participant should contain a radiation risk statement that is understandable by the Committee and the participant. The information that should be included in the risk statement is available from a variety of published sources and is discussed. The ARPANSA Code of Practice Exposure of Humans to Ionizing Radiation for Research Purposes (2005) states explicitly what the responsibilities of the researcher and the HREC are. Some research protocols do not provide the information required by good radiation protection practice and explicitly called for by the Code. Nine points (including: state that ionizing radiation is involved; that the radiation is additional to standard care; the effective dose to be received; the dose compared to natural background; the dose to the most exposed organs; a statement of risk; the benefits accruing from the exposure; ask the participant about previous exposures; name a contact person from whom information may be sought) that should be considered for inclusion in the participant information are presented and discussed. An example of a radiation risk statement is provided

  19. User involvement in adolescents' mental healthcare: protocol for a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viksveen, Petter; Bjønness, Stig Erlend; Berg, Siv Hilde; Cardenas, Nicole Elizabeth; Game, Julia Rose; Aase, Karina; Storm, Marianne

    2017-12-21

    User involvement has become a growing importance in healthcare. The United Nations state that adolescents have a right to be heard, and user involvement in healthcare is a legal right in many countries. Some research provides an insight into the field of user involvement in somatic and mental healthcare for adults, but little is known about user involvement in adolescents' mental healthcare, and no overview of the existing research evidence exists. The aim of this systematic review is to provide an overview of existing research reporting on experiences with and the effectiveness and safety issues associated with user involvement for adolescents' mental healthcare at the individual and organisational level. A systematic literature search and assessment of published research in the field of user involvement in adolescents' mental healthcare will be carried out. Established guidelines will be used for data extraction (Cochrane Collaboration guidelines, Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology and Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP)), critical appraisal (Cochrane Collaboration guidelines and Pragmatic-Explanatory Continuum Indicator Summary) and reporting of results (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses, Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials and CASP). Confidence in the research evidence will be assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. Adolescents are included as coresearchers for the planning and carrying out of this systematic review. This systematic review will provide an overview of the existing research literature and thereby fill a knowledge gap. It may provide various stakeholders, including decision-makers, professionals, individuals and their families, with an overview of existing knowledge in an underexplored field of research. Ethics approval is not required for this systematic review as we are not collecting primary data. The results

  20. On Adding Structure to Unstructured Overlay Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitão, João; Carvalho, Nuno A.; Pereira, José; Oliveira, Rui; Rodrigues, Luís

    Unstructured peer-to-peer overlay networks are very resilient to churn and topology changes, while requiring little maintenance cost. Therefore, they are an infrastructure to build highly scalable large-scale services in dynamic networks. Typically, the overlay topology is defined by a peer sampling service that aims at maintaining, in each process, a random partial view of peers in the system. The resulting random unstructured topology is suboptimal when a specific performance metric is considered. On the other hand, structured approaches (for instance, a spanning tree) may optimize a given target performance metric but are highly fragile. In fact, the cost for maintaining structures with strong constraints may easily become prohibitive in highly dynamic networks. This chapter discusses different techniques that aim at combining the advantages of unstructured and structured networks. Namely we focus on two distinct approaches, one based on optimizing the overlay and another based on optimizing the gossip mechanism itself.

  1. MHD simulations on an unstructured mesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, H.R.; Park, W.

    1996-01-01

    We describe work on a full MHD code using an unstructured mesh. MH3D++ is an extension of the PPPL MH3D resistive full MHD code. MH3D++ replaces the structured mesh and finite difference / fourier discretization of MH3D with an unstructured mesh and finite element / fourier discretization. Low level routines which perform differential operations, solution of PDEs such as Poisson's equation, and graphics, are encapsulated in C++ objects to isolate the finite element operations from the higher level code. The high level code is the same, whether it is run in structured or unstructured mesh versions. This allows the unstructured mesh version to be benchmarked against the structured mesh version. As a preliminary example, disruptions in DIIID reverse shear equilibria are studied numerically with the MH3D++ code. Numerical equilibria were first produced starting with an EQDSK file containing equilibrium data of a DIII-D L-mode negative central shear discharge. Using these equilibria, the linearized equations are time advanced to get the toroidal mode number n = 1 linear growth rate and eigenmode, which is resistively unstable. The equilibrium and linear mode are used to initialize 3D nonlinear runs. An example shows poloidal slices of 3D pressure surfaces: initially, on the left, and at an intermediate time, on the right

  2. Unstructured mesh adaptivity for urban flooding modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, R.; Fang, F.; Salinas, P.; Pain, C. C.

    2018-05-01

    Over the past few decades, urban floods have been gaining more attention due to their increase in frequency. To provide reliable flooding predictions in urban areas, various numerical models have been developed to perform high-resolution flood simulations. However, the use of high-resolution meshes across the whole computational domain causes a high computational burden. In this paper, a 2D control-volume and finite-element flood model using adaptive unstructured mesh technology has been developed. This adaptive unstructured mesh technique enables meshes to be adapted optimally in time and space in response to the evolving flow features, thus providing sufficient mesh resolution where and when it is required. It has the advantage of capturing the details of local flows and wetting and drying front while reducing the computational cost. Complex topographic features are represented accurately during the flooding process. For example, the high-resolution meshes around the buildings and steep regions are placed when the flooding water reaches these regions. In this work a flooding event that happened in 2002 in Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom has been simulated to demonstrate the capability of the adaptive unstructured mesh flooding model. The simulations have been performed using both fixed and adaptive unstructured meshes, and then results have been compared with those published 2D and 3D results. The presented method shows that the 2D adaptive mesh model provides accurate results while having a low computational cost.

  3. A Parallel Multiblock Structured Grid Method with Automated Interblocked Unstructured Grids for Chemically Reacting Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Seth Christian

    An automated method for using unstructured grids to patch non- C0 interfaces between structured blocks has been developed in conjunction with a finite-volume method for solving chemically reacting flows on unstructured grids. Although the standalone unstructured solver, FVFLO-NCSU, is capable of resolving flows for high-speed aeropropulsion devices with complex geometries, unstructured-mesh algorithms are inherently inefficient when compared to their structured counterparts. However, the advantages of structured algorithms in developing a flow solution in a timely manner can be negated by the amount of time required to develop a mesh for complex geometries. The global domain can be split up into numerous smaller blocks during the grid-generation process to alleviate some of the difficulties in creating these complex meshes. An even greater abatement can be found by allowing the nodes on abutting block interfaces to be nonmatching or non-C 0 continuous. One code capable of solving chemically reacting flows on these multiblock grids is VULCAN, which uses a nonconservative approach for patching non-C0 block interfaces. The developed automated unstructured-grid patching algorithm has been installed within VULCAN to provide it the capability of a fully conservative approach for patching non-C0 block interfaces. Additionally, the FVFLO-NCSU solver algorithms have been deeply intertwined with the VULCAN source code to solve chemically reacting flows on these unstructured patches. Finally, the CGNS software library was added to the VULCAN postprocessor so structured and unstructured data can be stored in a single compact file. This final upgrade to VULCAN has been successfully installed and verified using test cases with particular interest towards those involving grids with non- C0 block interfaces.

  4. A Denotational Semantics for Communicating Unstructured Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Jähnig

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An important property of programming language semantics is that they should be compositional. However, unstructured low-level code contains goto-like commands making it hard to define a semantics that is compositional. In this paper, we follow the ideas of Saabas and Uustalu to structure low-level code. This gives us the possibility to define a compositional denotational semantics based on least fixed points to allow for the use of inductive verification methods. We capture the semantics of communication using finite traces similar to the denotations of CSP. In addition, we examine properties of this semantics and give an example that demonstrates reasoning about communication and jumps. With this semantics, we lay the foundations for a proof calculus that captures both, the semantics of unstructured low-level code and communication.

  5. Finite Volume Method for Unstructured Grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casmara; Kardana, N.D.

    1997-01-01

    The success of a computational method depends on the solution algorithm and mesh generation techniques. cell distributions are needed, which allow the solution to be calculated over the entire body surface with sufficient accuracy. to handle the mesh generation for multi-connected region such as multi-element bodies, the unstructured finite volume method will be applied. the advantages of the unstructured meshes are it provides a great deal more flexibility for generating meshes about complex geometries and provides a natural setting for the use of adaptive meshing. the governing equations to be discretized are inviscid and rotational euler equations. Applications of the method will be evaluated on flow around single and multi-component bodies

  6. Domain decomposition multigrid for unstructured grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapira, Yair

    1997-01-01

    A two-level preconditioning method for the solution of elliptic boundary value problems using finite element schemes on possibly unstructured meshes is introduced. It is based on a domain decomposition and a Galerkin scheme for the coarse level vertex unknowns. For both the implementation and the analysis, it is not required that the curves of discontinuity in the coefficients of the PDE match the interfaces between subdomains. Generalizations to nonmatching or overlapping grids are made.

  7. Computing Flows Using Chimera and Unstructured Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Meng-Sing; Zheng, Yao

    2006-01-01

    DRAGONFLOW is a computer program that solves the Navier-Stokes equations of flows in complexly shaped three-dimensional regions discretized by use of a direct replacement of arbitrary grid overlapping by nonstructured (DRAGON) grid. A DRAGON grid (see figure) is a combination of a chimera grid (a composite of structured subgrids) and a collection of unstructured subgrids. DRAGONFLOW incorporates modified versions of two prior Navier-Stokes-equation-solving programs: OVERFLOW, which is designed to solve on chimera grids; and USM3D, which is used to solve on unstructured grids. A master module controls the invocation of individual modules in the libraries. At each time step of a simulated flow, DRAGONFLOW is invoked on the chimera portion of the DRAGON grid in alternation with USM3D, which is invoked on the unstructured subgrids of the DRAGON grid. The USM3D and OVERFLOW modules then immediately exchange their solutions and other data. As a result, USM3D and OVERFLOW are coupled seamlessly.

  8. New Perspectives From Unstructured Interviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Sutcliffe-Braithwaite

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the early 1980s, Ray Pahl, a sociologist at the University of Kent, and PhD student Claire Wallace conducted interviews examining young people’s experiences of growing up, work, and unemployment on the Isle of Sheppey; these interviews are now deposited at the University of Essex, and this article examines how historians and others might reuse them to interrogate other subjects. The article examines one working-class young woman’s ideas about gender and sexuality in the early 1980s, using the Listening Guide method developed by psychologist Carol Gilligan to probe the individual subjectivity and emotion, as well as the cultural discourses at play in this interview. The interviewee was a young woman who was involved in a culture of casual sex with men “on the ships,” and the article focuses on how she saw the exchanges of money, drink, and gifts between them and herself, and how she avoided seeing her actions as “prostitution.” The analysis shows how in a particular locality in the early 1980s, a particular subculture could allow some young women to sidestep the dominant codes governing young, working-class women’s sexuality and go “on the ships” without seeing this as marking them as “prostitutes”’ or any related category. Thus, the article troubles the ontology of “prostitution” as a category. It also suggests how we can use a single individual’s narrative to offer a broader account of cultures or subcultures, by starting with the individual and examining how one subjectivity navigated and interacted with broader cultural discourses. Finally, this article also offers suggestions about some of the methodological and ethical issues with reusing archived sociological data but argues that it holds rich possibilities.

  9. Optimizations of Unstructured Aerodynamics Computations for Many-core Architectures

    KAUST Repository

    Al Farhan, Mohammed Ahmed

    2018-04-13

    We investigate several state-of-the-practice shared-memory optimization techniques applied to key routines of an unstructured computational aerodynamics application with irregular memory accesses. We illustrate for the Intel KNL processor, as a representative of the processors in contemporary leading supercomputers, identifying and addressing performance challenges without compromising the floating point numerics of the original code. We employ low and high-level architecture-specific code optimizations involving thread and data-level parallelism. Our approach is based upon a multi-level hierarchical distribution of work and data across both the threads and the SIMD units within every hardware core. On a 64-core KNL chip, we achieve nearly 2.9x speedup of the dominant routines relative to the baseline. These exhibit almost linear strong scalability up to 64 threads, and thereafter some improvement with hyperthreading. At substantially fewer Watts, we achieve up to 1.7x speedup relative to the performance of 72 threads of a 36-core Haswell CPU and roughly equivalent performance to 112 threads of a 56-core Skylake scalable processor. These optimizations are expected to be of value for many other unstructured mesh PDE-based scientific applications as multi and many-core architecture evolves.

  10. Trends in the number and the quality of trial protocols involving children submitted to a French Institutional Review Board

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Gautier

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a great need for high quality clinical research for children. The European Pediatric Regulation aimed to improve the quality of clinical trials in order to increase the availability of treatments for children. The main purpose of this study was to assess the evolution of both the number and the quality of pediatric trial protocols that were submitted to a French Institutional Review Board (IRB00009118 before and after the initiation of the EU Pediatric Regulation. Methods All protocols submitted to the IRB00009118 between 2003 and 2014 and conducting research on subjects under eighteen years of age were eligible. The quality of randomized clinical trials was assessed according to the guidelines developed by the Enhancing the QUAlity and Transparency Of health Research (EQUATOR Network and ranked using the Jadad score. Results Out of 622 protocols submitted to the Institutional Review Board (IRB, 21% (133/622 included children. Among these 133 pediatric protocols, the number of submitted pediatric protocols doubled between the two studied periods. From 2003 to 2008, 47 protocols including 21 institutionally sponsored were submitted to the IRB and from 2009 until 2014, 86 protocols including 48 institutionally sponsored were submitted. No significant trend was observed on the quality of RCTs. The overall median score of RCTs on the Jadad scale was high (3.5, 70.0% of protocols had a Jadad score ≥ 3, and 30.0% had a score < 3. Conclusion Following the EU Pediatric Regulation, the number of pediatric protocols submitted to the IRB00009118 tends to increase, but no change was noticed regarding their quality.

  11. Mobile-robot navigation with complete coverage of unstructured environments

    OpenAIRE

    García Armada, Elena; González de Santos, Pablo

    2004-01-01

    There are some mobile-robot applications that require the complete coverage of an unstructured environment. Examples are humanitarian de-mining and floor-cleaning tasks. A complete-coverage algorithm is then used, a path-planning technique that allows the robot to pass over all points in the environment, avoiding unknown obstacles. Different coverage algorithms exist, but they fail working in unstructured environments. This paper details a complete-coverage algorithm for unstructured environm...

  12. Detection of furcation involvement using periapical radiography and 2 cone-beam computed tomography imaging protocols with and without a metallic post: An animal study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salineiro, Fernanda Cristina Sales; Gialain, Ivan Onone; Kobayashi-Velasco, Solange; Pannuti, Claudio Mendes; Cavalcanti, Marcelo Gusmao Paraiso [Dept. of Stomatology, School of Dentistry, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2017-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of the diagnosis of incipient furcation involvement with periapical radiography (PR) and 2 cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging protocols, and to test metal artifact interference. Mandibular second molars in 10 macerated pig mandibles were divided into those that showed no furcation involvement and those with lesions in the furcation area. Exams using PR and 2 different CBCT imaging protocols were performed with and without a metallic post. Each image was analyzed twice by 2 observers who rated the absence or presence of furcation involvement according to a 5-point scale. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to evaluate the accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of the observations. The accuracy of the CBCT imaging protocols ranged from 67.5% to 82.5% in the images obtained with a metallic post and from 72.5% to 80% in those without a metallic post. The accuracy of PR ranged from 37.5% to 55% in the images with a metallic post and from 42.5% to 62.5% in those without a metallic post. The area under the ROC curve values for the CBCT imaging protocols ranged from 0.813 to 0.802, and for PR ranged from 0.503 to 0.448. Both CBCT imaging protocols showed higher accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity than PR in the detection of incipient furcation involvement. Based on these results, CBCT may be considered a reliable tool for detecting incipient furcation involvement following a clinical periodontal exam, even in the presence of a metallic post.

  13. Using unstructured diaries for primary data collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Juliet Anne

    2015-05-01

    To give a reflective account of using unstructured handwritten diaries as a method of collecting qualitative data. Diaries are primarily used in research as a method of collecting qualitative data. There are some challenges associated with their use, including compliance rates. However, they can provide a rich source of meaningful data and can avoid the difficulties of participants trying to precisely recall events after some time has elapsed. The author used unstructured handwritten diaries as her primary method of collecting data during her grounded theory doctoral study, when she examined the professional socialisation of nursing students. Over two years, 26 participants selected from four consecutive recruited groups of nursing students volunteered to take part in the study and were asked to keep a daily diary throughout their first five weeks of clinical experience. When using open-ended research questions, grounded theory's pragmatic approach permits the examination of processes thereby creating conceptual interpretive understanding of data. A wealth of rich, detailed data was obtained from the diaries that permitted the development of new theories regarding the effects early clinical experiences have on nursing students' professional socialisation. Diaries were found to provide insightful in-depth qualitative data in a resource-friendly manner. Nurse researchers should consider using diaries as an alternative to more commonly used approaches to collecting qualitative data.

  14. VisualUrText: A Text Analytics Tool for Unstructured Textual Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainol, Zuraini; Jaymes, Mohd T. H.; Nohuddin, Puteri N. E.

    2018-05-01

    The growing amount of unstructured text over Internet is tremendous. Text repositories come from Web 2.0, business intelligence and social networking applications. It is also believed that 80-90% of future growth data is available in the form of unstructured text databases that may potentially contain interesting patterns and trends. Text Mining is well known technique for discovering interesting patterns and trends which are non-trivial knowledge from massive unstructured text data. Text Mining covers multidisciplinary fields involving information retrieval (IR), text analysis, natural language processing (NLP), data mining, machine learning statistics and computational linguistics. This paper discusses the development of text analytics tool that is proficient in extracting, processing, analyzing the unstructured text data and visualizing cleaned text data into multiple forms such as Document Term Matrix (DTM), Frequency Graph, Network Analysis Graph, Word Cloud and Dendogram. This tool, VisualUrText, is developed to assist students and researchers for extracting interesting patterns and trends in document analyses.

  15. Multiphase flow of immiscible fluids on unstructured moving meshes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misztal, Marek Krzysztof; Erleben, Kenny; Bargteil, Adam

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method for animating multiphase flow of immiscible fluids using unstructured moving meshes. Our underlying discretization is an unstructured tetrahedral mesh, the deformable simplicial complex (DSC), that moves with the flow in a Lagrangian manner. Mesh optimization op...

  16. Unstructured Navier-Stokes Analysis of Full TCA Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frink, Neal T.; Pirzadeh, Shahyar Z.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents an Unstructured Navier-Stokes Analysis of Full TCA (Technology Concept Airplane) Configuration. The topics include: 1) Motivation; 2) Milestone and approach; 3) Overview of the unstructured-grid system; 4) Results on full TCA W/B/N/D/E configuration; 5) Concluding remarks; and 6) Future directions.

  17. Multiphase Flow of Immiscible Fluids on Unstructured Moving Meshes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misztal, Marek Krzysztof; Erleben, Kenny; Bargteil, Adam

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method for animating multiphase flow of immiscible fluids using unstructured moving meshes. Our underlying discretization is an unstructured tetrahedral mesh, the deformable simplicial complex (DSC), that moves with the flow in a Lagrangian manner. Mesh optimization op...

  18. Energy transfer in structured and unstructured environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iles-Smith, Jake; Dijkstra, Arend G.; Lambert, Neill

    2016-01-01

    of motion over a wide range of parameters. Furthermore, we show that the Zusman equations, which may be obtained in a semiclassical limit of the reaction coordinate model, are often incapable of describing the correct dynamical behaviour. This demonstrates the necessity of properly accounting for quantum......We explore excitonic energy transfer dynamics in a molecular dimer system coupled to both structured and unstructured oscillator environments. By extending the reaction coordinate master equation technique developed by Iles-Smith et al. [Phys. Rev. A 90, 032114 (2014)], we go beyond the commonly...... correlations generated between the system and its environment when the Born-Markov approximations no longer hold. Finally, we apply the reaction coordinate formalism to the case of a structured environment comprising of both underdamped (i.e., sharply peaked) and overdamped (broad) components simultaneously...

  19. Unstructured Computational Aerodynamics on Many Integrated Core Architecture

    KAUST Repository

    Al Farhan, Mohammed A.

    2016-06-08

    Shared memory parallelization of the flux kernel of PETSc-FUN3D, an unstructured tetrahedral mesh Euler flow code previously studied for distributed memory and multi-core shared memory, is evaluated on up to 61 cores per node and up to 4 threads per core. We explore several thread-level optimizations to improve flux kernel performance on the state-of-the-art many integrated core (MIC) Intel processor Xeon Phi “Knights Corner,” with a focus on strong thread scaling. While the linear algebraic kernel is bottlenecked by memory bandwidth for even modest numbers of cores sharing a common memory, the flux kernel, which arises in the control volume discretization of the conservation law residuals and in the formation of the preconditioner for the Jacobian by finite-differencing the conservation law residuals, is compute-intensive and is known to exploit effectively contemporary multi-core hardware. We extend study of the performance of the flux kernel to the Xeon Phi in three thread affinity modes, namely scatter, compact, and balanced, in both offload and native mode, with and without various code optimizations to improve alignment and reduce cache coherency penalties. Relative to baseline “out-of-the-box” optimized compilation, code restructuring optimizations provide about 3.8x speedup using the offload mode and about 5x speedup using the native mode. Even with these gains for the flux kernel, with respect to execution time the MIC simply achieves par with optimized compilation on a contemporary multi-core Intel CPU, the 16-core Sandy Bridge E5 2670. Nevertheless, the optimizations employed to reduce the data motion and cache coherency protocol penalties of the MIC are expected to be of value for CFD and many other unstructured applications as many-core architecture evolves. We explore large-scale distributed-shared memory performance on the Cray XC40 supercomputer, to demonstrate that optimizations employed on Phi hybridize to this context, where each of

  20. Unstructured Computational Aerodynamics on Many Integrated Core Architecture

    KAUST Repository

    Al Farhan, Mohammed A.; Kaushik, Dinesh K.; Keyes, David E.

    2016-01-01

    Shared memory parallelization of the flux kernel of PETSc-FUN3D, an unstructured tetrahedral mesh Euler flow code previously studied for distributed memory and multi-core shared memory, is evaluated on up to 61 cores per node and up to 4 threads per core. We explore several thread-level optimizations to improve flux kernel performance on the state-of-the-art many integrated core (MIC) Intel processor Xeon Phi “Knights Corner,” with a focus on strong thread scaling. While the linear algebraic kernel is bottlenecked by memory bandwidth for even modest numbers of cores sharing a common memory, the flux kernel, which arises in the control volume discretization of the conservation law residuals and in the formation of the preconditioner for the Jacobian by finite-differencing the conservation law residuals, is compute-intensive and is known to exploit effectively contemporary multi-core hardware. We extend study of the performance of the flux kernel to the Xeon Phi in three thread affinity modes, namely scatter, compact, and balanced, in both offload and native mode, with and without various code optimizations to improve alignment and reduce cache coherency penalties. Relative to baseline “out-of-the-box” optimized compilation, code restructuring optimizations provide about 3.8x speedup using the offload mode and about 5x speedup using the native mode. Even with these gains for the flux kernel, with respect to execution time the MIC simply achieves par with optimized compilation on a contemporary multi-core Intel CPU, the 16-core Sandy Bridge E5 2670. Nevertheless, the optimizations employed to reduce the data motion and cache coherency protocol penalties of the MIC are expected to be of value for CFD and many other unstructured applications as many-core architecture evolves. We explore large-scale distributed-shared memory performance on the Cray XC40 supercomputer, to demonstrate that optimizations employed on Phi hybridize to this context, where each of

  1. Development and acceleration of unstructured mesh-based cfd solver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emelyanov, V.; Karpenko, A.; Volkov, K.

    2017-06-01

    The study was undertaken as part of a larger effort to establish a common computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code for simulation of internal and external flows and involves some basic validation studies. The governing equations are solved with ¦nite volume code on unstructured meshes. The computational procedure involves reconstruction of the solution in each control volume and extrapolation of the unknowns to find the flow variables on the faces of control volume, solution of Riemann problem for each face of the control volume, and evolution of the time step. The nonlinear CFD solver works in an explicit time-marching fashion, based on a three-step Runge-Kutta stepping procedure. Convergence to a steady state is accelerated by the use of geometric technique and by the application of Jacobi preconditioning for high-speed flows, with a separate low Mach number preconditioning method for use with low-speed flows. The CFD code is implemented on graphics processing units (GPUs). Speedup of solution on GPUs with respect to solution on central processing units (CPU) is compared with the use of different meshes and different methods of distribution of input data into blocks. The results obtained provide promising perspective for designing a GPU-based software framework for applications in CFD.

  2. Discrete Adjoint-Based Design for Unsteady Turbulent Flows On Dynamic Overset Unstructured Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Eric J.; Diskin, Boris

    2012-01-01

    A discrete adjoint-based design methodology for unsteady turbulent flows on three-dimensional dynamic overset unstructured grids is formulated, implemented, and verified. The methodology supports both compressible and incompressible flows and is amenable to massively parallel computing environments. The approach provides a general framework for performing highly efficient and discretely consistent sensitivity analysis for problems involving arbitrary combinations of overset unstructured grids which may be static, undergoing rigid or deforming motions, or any combination thereof. General parent-child motions are also accommodated, and the accuracy of the implementation is established using an independent verification based on a complex-variable approach. The methodology is used to demonstrate aerodynamic optimizations of a wind turbine geometry, a biologically-inspired flapping wing, and a complex helicopter configuration subject to trimming constraints. The objective function for each problem is successfully reduced and all specified constraints are satisfied.

  3. Warehousing Structured and Unstructured Data for Data Mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, L. L.; Honavar, Vasant; Barta, Tom

    1997-01-01

    Describes an extensible object-oriented view system that supports the integration of both structured and unstructured data sources in either the multidatabase or data warehouse environment. Discusses related work and data mining issues. (AEF)

  4. Mesh Adaptation and Shape Optimization on Unstructured Meshes, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this SBIR CRM proposes to implement the entropy adjoint method for solution adaptive mesh refinement into the Loci/CHEM unstructured flow solver. The scheme will...

  5. High Performance Parallel Multigrid Algorithms for Unstructured Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederickson, Paul O.

    1996-01-01

    We describe a high performance parallel multigrid algorithm for a rather general class of unstructured grid problems in two and three dimensions. The algorithm PUMG, for parallel unstructured multigrid, is related in structure to the parallel multigrid algorithm PSMG introduced by McBryan and Frederickson, for they both obtain a higher convergence rate through the use of multiple coarse grids. Another reason for the high convergence rate of PUMG is its smoother, an approximate inverse developed by Baumgardner and Frederickson.

  6. Applying the Intervention Mapping protocol to develop a kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention to increase European preschool children's physical activity levels: the ToyBox-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Craemer, M; De Decker, E; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Verloigne, M; Duvinage, K; Koletzko, B; Ibrügger, S; Kreichauf, S; Grammatikaki, E; Moreno, L; Iotova, V; Socha, P; Szott, K; Manios, Y; Cardon, G

    2014-08-01

    Although sufficient physical activity is beneficial for preschoolers' health, activity levels in most preschoolers are low. As preschoolers spend a considerable amount of time at home and at kindergarten, interventions should target both environments to increase their activity levels. The aim of the current paper was to describe the six different steps of the Intervention Mapping protocol towards the systematic development and implementation of the physical activity component of the ToyBox-intervention. This intervention is a kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention implemented across six European countries. Based on the results of literature reviews and focus groups with parents/caregivers and kindergarten teachers, matrices of change objectives were created. Then, theory-based methods and practical strategies were selected to develop intervention materials at three different levels: (i) individual level (preschoolers); (ii) interpersonal level (parents/caregivers) and (iii) organizational level (teachers). This resulted in a standardized intervention with room for local and cultural adaptations in each participating country. Although the Intervention Mapping protocol is a time-consuming process, using this systematic approach may lead to an increase in intervention effectiveness. The presented matrices of change objectives are useful for future programme planners to develop and implement an intervention based on the Intervention Mapping protocol to increase physical activity levels in preschoolers. © 2014 World Obesity.

  7. Ifcwall Reconstruction from Unstructured Point Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassier, M.; Klein, R.; Van Genechten, B.; Vergauwen, M.

    2018-05-01

    The automated reconstruction of Building Information Modeling (BIM) objects from point cloud data is still ongoing research. A key aspect is the creation of accurate wall geometry as it forms the basis for further reconstruction of objects in a BIM. After segmenting and classifying the initial point cloud, the labelled segments are processed and the wall topology is reconstructed. However, the preocedure is challenging due to noise, occlusions and the complexity of the input data.In this work, a method is presented to automatically reconstruct consistent wall geometry from point clouds. More specifically, the use of room information is proposed to aid the wall topology creation. First, a set of partial walls is constructed based on classified planar primitives. Next, the rooms are identified using the retrieved wall information along with the floors and ceilings. The wall topology is computed by the intersection of the partial walls conditioned on the room information. The final wall geometry is defined by creating IfcWallStandardCase objects conform the IFC4 standard. The result is a set of walls according to the as-built conditions of a building. The experiments prove that the used method is a reliable framework for wall reconstruction from unstructured point cloud data. Also, the implementation of room information reduces the rate of false positives for the wall topology. Given the walls, ceilings and floors, 94% of the rooms is correctly identified. A key advantage of the proposed method is that it deals with complex rooms and is not bound to single storeys.

  8. Target for improvement: a cluster randomised trial of public involvement in quality-indicator prioritisation (intervention development and study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burgers Jako

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public priorities for improvement often differ from those of clinicians and managers. Public involvement has been proposed as a way to bridge the gap between professional and public clinical care priorities but has not been studied in the context of quality-indicator choice. Our objective is to assess the feasibility and impact of public involvement on quality-indicator choice and agreement with public priorities. Methods We will conduct a cluster randomised controlled trial comparing quality-indicator prioritisation with and without public involvement. In preparation for the trial, we developed a 'menu' of quality indicators, based on a systematic review of existing validated indicator sets. Participants (public representatives, clinicians, and managers will be recruited from six participating sites. In intervention sites, public representatives will be involved through direct participation (public representatives, clinicians, and managers will deliberate together to agree on quality-indicator choice and use and consultation (individual public recommendations for improvement will be collected and presented to decision makers. In control sites, only clinicians and managers will take part in the prioritisation process. Data on quality-indicator choice and intended use will be collected. Our primary outcome will compare quality-indicator choice and agreement with public priorities between intervention and control groups. A process evaluation based on direct observation, videorecording, and participants' assessment will be conducted to help explain the study's results. The marginal cost of public involvement will also be assessed. Discussion We identified 801 quality indicators that met our inclusion criteria. An expert panel agreed on a final set of 37 items containing validated quality indicators relevant for chronic disease prevention and management in primary care. We pilot tested our public-involvement intervention with 27

  9. Spouses’ involvement in older patients’ fast-track programmes during total hip replacement using case management intervention. A study protocol of the SICAM-trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, Connie Bøttcher; Kristensson, Jimmie

    2015-01-01

    Aim To present the protocol of a two-group quasi-experimental study of spouses’ involvement through case management (The SICAM-trial) in older patients’ fast-track programmes during total hip replacement. Background Patients in fast-track programmes are required to take an active part in their tr......Aim To present the protocol of a two-group quasi-experimental study of spouses’ involvement through case management (The SICAM-trial) in older patients’ fast-track programmes during total hip replacement. Background Patients in fast-track programmes are required to take an active part...... in their treatment and rehabilitation. Spouses of older patients can often provide valued practical and emotional support, reducing stress, pain and length of stay – yet they are seldom invited to participate in a supporting role. Design A two-group quasi-experimental design with pre-test and repeated post...... and subsequently include the intervention group to avoid contamination of the control group. A case manager will be recruited to perform the case management intervention. Data will be collected from both groups at baseline, 2 weeks and 3 months after surgery. Outcome measures for patients include: functional...

  10. Understanding the motivation and performance of community health volunteers involved in the delivery of health programmes in Kampala, Uganda: a realist evaluation protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vareilles, Gaëlle; Pommier, Jeanine; Kane, Sumit; Pictet, Gabriel; Marchal, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The recruitment of community health volunteers to support the delivery of health programmes is a well-established approach in many countries, particularly where health services are not readily available. However, studies on management of volunteers are scarce and current research on human resource management of volunteers faces methodological challenges. This paper presents the protocol of a realist evaluation that aims at identifying the factors influencing the performance of community health volunteers involved in the delivery of a Red Cross immunisation programme in Kampala (Uganda) with a specific focus on motivation. Methods and analysis The realist evaluation cycle structures the protocol. To develop the theoretical basis for the evaluation, the authors conducted interviews and reviewed the literature on community health volunteers’ performance, management and organisational behaviour. This led to the formulation of the initial programme theory, which links the intervention inputs (capacity-building strategies) to the expected outcomes (positive work behaviour) with mechanisms that point in the direction of drivers of motivation. The contextual elements include components such as organisational culture, resource availability, etc. A case study design will be adopted. We define a case as a Red Cross branch, run by a programme manager, and will select two cases at the district level in Kampala. Mixed methods will be used in data collection, including individual interviews of volunteers, participant observation and document review. The thematic analysis will be based on the initial programme theory and will seek for context-mechanism-outcome configurations. Findings from the two cases will be compared. Discussion We discuss the scope for applying realist evaluation and the methodological challenges we encountered in developing this protocol. Ethics and dissemination The study was approved by the Ethical Committee at Rennes University Hospital

  11. Semantic Annotation of Unstructured Documents Using Concepts Similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Pech

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a large amount of information in the form of unstructured documents which pose challenges in the information storage, search, and retrieval. This situation has given rise to several information search approaches. Some proposals take into account the contextual meaning of the terms specified in the query. Semantic annotation technique can help to retrieve and extract information in unstructured documents. We propose a semantic annotation strategy for unstructured documents as part of a semantic search engine. In this proposal, ontologies are used to determine the context of the entities specified in the query. Our strategy for extracting the context is focused on concepts similarity. Each relevant term of the document is associated with an instance in the ontology. The similarity between each of the explicit relationships is measured through the combination of two types of associations: the association between each pair of concepts and the calculation of the weight of the relationships.

  12. A Krylov Subspace Method for Unstructured Mesh SN Transport Computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Han Jong; Cho, Nam Zin; Kim, Jong Woon; Hong, Ser Gi; Lee, Young Ouk

    2010-01-01

    Hong, et al., have developed a computer code MUST (Multi-group Unstructured geometry S N Transport) for the neutral particle transport calculations in three-dimensional unstructured geometry. In this code, the discrete ordinates transport equation is solved by using the discontinuous finite element method (DFEM) or the subcell balance methods with linear discontinuous expansion. In this paper, the conventional source iteration in the MUST code is replaced by the Krylov subspace method to reduce computing time and the numerical test results are given

  13. Bracketing as a skill in conducting unstructured qualitative interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorsa, Minna Anneli; Kiikkala, Irma; Åstedt-Kurki, Päivi

    2015-03-01

    To provide an overview of bracketing as a skill in unstructured qualitative research interviews. Researchers affect the qualitative research process. Bracketing in descriptive phenomenology entails researchers setting aside their pre-understanding and acting non-judgementally. In interpretative phenomenology, previous knowledge is used intentionally to create new understanding. A literature search of bracketing in phenomenology and qualitative research. This is a methodology paper examining the researchers' impact in creating data in creating data in qualitative research. Self-knowledge, sensitivity and reflexivity of the researcher enable bracketing. Skilled and experienced researchers are needed to use bracketing in unstructured qualitative research interviews. Bracketing adds scientific rigour and validity to any qualitative study.

  14. Implementation of LDG method for 3D unstructured meshes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filander A. Sequeira Chavarría

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an implementation of the Local Discontinuous Galerkin method (LDG applied to elliptic problems in 3D. The implementation of the major operators is discussed. In particular the use of higher-order approximations and unstructured meshes. Efficient data structures that allow fast assembly of the linear system in the mixed formulation are described in detail. Keywords: Discontinuous finite element methods, high-order approximations, unstructured meshes, object-oriented programming. Mathematics Subject Classification: 65K05, 65N30, 65N55.

  15. Treatment of Internet Addiction with Anxiety Disorders: Treatment Protocol and Preliminary Before-After Results Involving Pharmacotherapy and Modified Cognitive Behavioral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Veruska Andrea; Freire, Rafael; Zugliani, Morená; Cirillo, Patricia; Santos, Hugo Henrique; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; King, Anna Lucia

    2016-03-22

    The growth of the Internet has led to significant change and has become an integral part of modern life. It has made life easier and provided innumerous benefits; however, excessive use has brought about the potential for addiction, leading to severe impairments in social, academic, financial, psychological, and work domains. Individuals addicted to the Internet usually have comorbid psychiatric disorders. Panic disorder (PD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) are prevalent mental disorders, involving a great deal of damage in the patient's life. This open trial study describes a treatment protocol among 39 patients with anxiety disorders and Internet addiction (IA) involving pharmacotherapy and modified cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Of the 39 patients, 25 were diagnosed with PD and 14 with GAD, in addition to Internet addiction. At screening, patients responded to the MINI 5.0, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Clinical Global Impressions Scale, and the Young Internet Addiction Scale. At that time, IA was observed taking into consideration the IAT scale (cutoff score above 50), while anxiety disorders were diagnosed by a psychiatrist. Patients were forwarded for pharmacotherapy and a modified CBT protocol. Psychotherapy was conducted individually, once a week, over a period of 10 weeks, and results suggest that the treatment was effective for anxiety and Internet addiction. Before treatment, anxiety levels suggested severe anxiety, with an average score of 34.26 (SD 6.13); however, after treatment the mean score was 15.03 (SD 3.88) (Paddiction scores was observed, from 67.67 (SD 7.69) before treatment, showing problematic internet use, to 37.56 (SD 9.32) after treatment (Panxiety, the correlation between scores was .724. This study is the first research into IA treatment of a Brazilian population. The improvement was remarkable due to the complete engagement of patients in therapy, which contributed to the success of the

  16. Sensor-based whole-arm obstacle avoidance for unstructured environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wintenberg, A.L.; Butler, P.L.; Babcock, S.M.; Ericson, M.N.; Armstrong, G.A.; Britton, C.L. Jr.; Hamel, W.R.

    1992-01-01

    Whole-arm obstacle avoidance is needed for a variety of robotic applications in the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER ampersand WM) Program. Typical industrial applications of robotics involve well-defined workspaces, allowing a predetermined knowledge of collision-free paths for manipulator motion. However, many hazardous environments are unstructured or poorly defined, providing a significant potential for collisions between manipulators and the environment. In order to allow applications of robotics in such situations, a sensing system is under development which will provide protection against collisions. Specifics of this system including system architecture and projected implementation are described

  17. Sensor-based whole-arm obstacle avoidance for unstructured environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wintenberg, AL.; Butler, P.L.; Babcock, S.M.; Ericson, M.N.; Britton, C.L. Jr.; Hamel, W.R.

    1992-01-01

    Whole-arm obstacle avoidance is needed for a variety of robotic applications in the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER ampersand WM) Program. Typical industrial applications of robotics involve well-defined work spaces, allowing a predetermined knowledge of collision-free paths for manipulator motion. In the unstructured or poorly defined hazardous environments of the ER ampersand WM program, the potential for significant problems resulting from collisions between manipulators and the environment in which they are utilized is great. A sensing system under development, which will provide protection against such collisions, is described in this paper

  18. Accuracy of an unstructured-grid upwind-Euler algorithm for the ONERA M6 wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batina, John T.

    1991-01-01

    Improved algorithms for the solution of the three-dimensional, time-dependent Euler equations are presented for aerodynamic analysis involving unstructured dynamic meshes. The improvements have been developed recently to the spatial and temporal discretizations used by unstructured-grid flow solvers. The spatial discretization involves a flux-split approach that is naturally dissipative and captures shock waves sharply with at most one grid point within the shock structure. The temporal discretization involves either an explicit time-integration scheme using a multistage Runge-Kutta procedure or an implicit time-integration scheme using a Gauss-Seidel relaxation procedure, which is computationally efficient for either steady or unsteady flow problems. With the implicit Gauss-Seidel procedure, very large time steps may be used for rapid convergence to steady state, and the step size for unsteady cases may be selected for temporal accuracy rather than for numerical stability. Steady flow results are presented for both the NACA 0012 airfoil and the Office National d'Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales M6 wing to demonstrate applications of the new Euler solvers. The paper presents a description of the Euler solvers along with results and comparisons that assess the capability.

  19. Diffusion on unstructured triangular grids using Lattice Boltzmann

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sman, van der R.G.M.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we present a Lattice Boltzmann scheme for diffusion on unstructured triangular grids. In this formulation there is no need for interpolation, as is required in other LB schemes on irregular grids. At the end of the propagation step, the lattice gas particles arrive exactly at

  20. Unsupervised Ontology Generation from Unstructured Text. CRESST Report 827

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Hamid; Kerr, Deirdre; Iseli, Markus R.

    2013-01-01

    Ontologies are a vital component of most knowledge acquisition systems, and recently there has been a huge demand for generating ontologies automatically since manual or supervised techniques are not scalable. In this paper, we introduce "OntoMiner", a rule-based, iterative method to extract and populate ontologies from unstructured or…

  1. Optimization-based Fluid Simulation on Unstructured Meshes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misztal, Marek Krzysztof; Bridson, Robert; Erleben, Kenny

    2010-01-01

    for solving the fluid dynamics equations as well as direct access to the interface geometry data, making in- clusion of a new surface energy term feasible. Furthermore, using an unstructured mesh makes it straightforward to handle curved solid boundaries and gives us a possibility to explore several fluid...

  2. Unstructured Spectral Element Model for Dispersive and Nonlinear Wave Propagation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter; Eskilsson, Claes; Bigoni, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new stabilized high-order and unstructured numerical model for modeling fully nonlinear and dispersive water waves. The model is based on a nodal spectral element method of arbitrary order in space and a -transformed formulation due to Cai, Langtangen, Nielsen and Tveito (1998). In...

  3. GRIZ: Visualization of finite element analysis results on unstructured grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dovey, D.; Loomis, M.D.

    1994-01-01

    GRIZ is a general-purpose post-processing application that supports interactive visualization of finite element analysis results on three-dimensional unstructured grids. GRIZ includes direct-to-videodisc animation capabilities and is being used as a production tool for creating engineering animations

  4. Clinical response to a lomustine/cytarabine-based chemotherapy protocol in a case of canine large granular lymphocyte T-cell lymphoma with spinal involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Treggiari

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A 7-year-old, female neutered cross-breed dog was referred to our institution with a history of progressive hind limb weakness, which then progressed to paraplegia. An MRI of the spine revealed severe meningeal infiltrate consistent with lymphoma involvement, located at the level of L2-L7 with concurrent lymph node enlargement and abnormal bone marrow. Abdominal ultrasonography also identified changes in the spleen and confirmed enlargement of the lumbar aortic lymph node. Cytology of lymph nodes and spleen confirmed a high-grade lymphoma with features of a large granular lymphocyte (LGL variant; PCR for antigen receptor re-arrangements (PARR was positive for a clonal T-cell receptor rearrangement. The dog was started on a chemotherapy protocol with lomustine and cytarabine incorporation and had a rapid improvement in neurological status. Chemotherapy was continued until relapse and rescue treatment used at that time. The dog was euthanased at the time of recurrence of neurological signs, 195 days since medical treatment was started. This case report suggests that combination chemotherapy may be of use when treating LGL lymphoma with spinal involvement and survival time may potentially exceed 6 months.

  5. Wave Resource Characterization Using an Unstructured Grid Modeling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Cheng Wu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a modeling study conducted on the central Oregon coast for wave resource characterization, using the unstructured grid Simulating WAve Nearshore (SWAN model coupled with a nested grid WAVEWATCH III® (WWIII model. The flexibility of models with various spatial resolutions and the effects of open boundary conditions simulated by a nested grid WWIII model with different physics packages were evaluated. The model results demonstrate the advantage of the unstructured grid-modeling approach for flexible model resolution and good model skills in simulating the six wave resource parameters recommended by the International Electrotechnical Commission in comparison to the observed data in Year 2009 at National Data Buoy Center Buoy 46050. Notably, spectral analysis indicates that the ST4 physics package improves upon the ST2 physics package’s ability to predict wave power density for large waves, which is important for wave resource assessment, load calculation of devices, and risk management. In addition, bivariate distributions show that the simulated sea state of maximum occurrence with the ST4 physics package matched the observed data better than with the ST2 physics package. This study demonstrated that the unstructured grid wave modeling approach, driven by regional nested grid WWIII outputs along with the ST4 physics package, can efficiently provide accurate wave hindcasts to support wave resource characterization. Our study also suggests that wind effects need to be considered if the dimension of the model domain is greater than approximately 100 km, or O (102 km.

  6. Parallel Performance Optimizations on Unstructured Mesh-based Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarje, Abhinav; Song, Sukhyun; Jacobsen, Douglas; Huck, Kevin; Hollingsworth, Jeffrey; Malony, Allen; Williams, Samuel; Oliker, Leonid

    2015-01-01

    © The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This paper addresses two key parallelization challenges the unstructured mesh-based ocean modeling code, MPAS-Ocean, which uses a mesh based on Voronoi tessellations: (1) load imbalance across processes, and (2) unstructured data access patterns, that inhibit intra- and inter-node performance. Our work analyzes the load imbalance due to naive partitioning of the mesh, and develops methods to generate mesh partitioning with better load balance and reduced communication. Furthermore, we present methods that minimize both inter- and intranode data movement and maximize data reuse. Our techniques include predictive ordering of data elements for higher cache efficiency, as well as communication reduction approaches. We present detailed performance data when running on thousands of cores using the Cray XC30 supercomputer and show that our optimization strategies can exceed the original performance by over 2×. Additionally, many of these solutions can be broadly applied to a wide variety of unstructured grid-based computations.

  7. Unstructured grids and an element based conservative approach for a black-oil reservoir simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Regis Lopes; Fernandes, Bruno Ramon Batista [Federal University of Ceara, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Araujo, Andre Luiz de Souza [Federal Institution of Education, Science and Technology of Ceara - IFCE, Fortaleza (Brazil). Industry Department], e-mail: andre@ifce.edu.br; Marcondes, Francisco [Federal University of Ceara, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering and Material Science], e-mail: marcondes@ufc.br

    2010-07-01

    Unstructured meshes presented one upgrade in modeling the main important features of the reservoir such as discrete fractures, faults, and irregular boundaries. From several methodologies available, the Element based Finite Volume Method (EbFVM), in conjunction with unstructured meshes, is one methodology that deserves large attention. In this approach, the reservoir, for 2D domains, is discretized using a mixed two-dimensional mesh using quadrilateral and triangle elements. After the initial step of discretization, each element is divided into sub-elements and the mass balance for each component is developed for each sub-element. The equations for each control-volume using a cell vertex construction are formulated through the contribution of different neighboured elements. This paper presents an investigation of an element-based approach using the black-oil model based on pressure and global mass fractions. In this approach, even when all gas phase is dissolved in oil phase the global mass fraction of gas will be different from zero. Therefore, no additional numerical procedure is necessary in order to treat the gas phase appear/disappearance. In this paper the above mentioned approach is applied to multiphase flows involving oil, gas, and water. The mass balance equations in terms of global mass fraction of oil, gas and water are discretized through the EbFVM and linearized by the Newton's method. The results are presented in terms of volumetric rates of oil, gas, and water and phase saturations. (author)

  8. A critical ethnography of communication processes involving the management of oral chemotherapeutic agents by patients with a primary diagnosis of colorectal cancer: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Gary; Porter, Sam; Manias, Elizabeth

    2015-04-01

    To describe the protocol used to examine the processes of communication between health professionals, patients and informal carers during the management of oral chemotherapeutic medicines to identify factors that promote or inhibit medicine concordance. Ideally communication practices about oral medicines should incorporate shared decision-making, two-way dialogue and an equality of role between practitioner and patient. While there is evidence that healthcare professionals are adopting these concordant elements in general practice there are still some patients who have a passive role during consultations. Considering oral chemotherapeutic medications, there is a paucity of research about communication practices which is surprising given the high risk of toxicity associated with chemotherapy. A critical ethnographic design will be used, incorporating non-participant observations, individual semi-structured and focus-group interviews as several collecting methods. Observations will be carried out on the interactions between healthcare professionals (physicians, nurses and pharmacists) and patients in the outpatient departments where prescriptions are explained and supplied and on follow-up consultations where treatment regimens are monitored. Interviews will be conducted with patients and their informal carers. Focus-groups will be carried out with healthcare professionals at the conclusion of the study. These several will be analysed using thematic analysis. This research is funded by the Department for Employment and Learning in Northern Ireland (Awarded February 2012). Dissemination of these findings will contribute to the understanding of issues involved when communicating with people about oral chemotherapy. It is anticipated that findings will inform education, practice and policy. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Flow simulations about steady-complex and unsteady moving configurations using structured-overlapped and unstructured grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, James C., III

    1995-01-01

    The limiting factor in simulating flows past realistic configurations of interest has been the discretization of the physical domain on which the governing equations of fluid flow may be solved. In an attempt to circumvent this problem, many Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) methodologies that are based on different grid generation and domain decomposition techniques have been developed. However, due to the costs involved and expertise required, very few comparative studies between these methods have been performed. In the present work, the two CFD methodologies which show the most promise for treating complex three-dimensional configurations as well as unsteady moving boundary problems are evaluated. These are namely the structured-overlapped and the unstructured grid schemes. Both methods use a cell centered, finite volume, upwind approach. The structured-overlapped algorithm uses an approximately factored, alternating direction implicit scheme to perform the time integration, whereas, the unstructured algorithm uses an explicit Runge-Kutta method. To examine the accuracy, efficiency, and limitations of each scheme, they are applied to the same steady complex multicomponent configurations and unsteady moving boundary problems. The steady complex cases consist of computing the subsonic flow about a two-dimensional high-lift multielement airfoil and the transonic flow about a three-dimensional wing/pylon/finned store assembly. The unsteady moving boundary problems are a forced pitching oscillation of an airfoil in a transonic freestream and a two-dimensional, subsonic airfoil/store separation sequence. Accuracy was accessed through the comparison of computed and experimentally measured pressure coefficient data on several of the wing/pylon/finned store assembly's components and at numerous angles-of-attack for the pitching airfoil. From this study, it was found that both the structured-overlapped and the unstructured grid schemes yielded flow solutions of

  10. Reactor physics verification of the MCNP6 unstructured mesh capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, T. P.; Kiedrowski, B. C.; Martz, R. L.; Martin, W. R.

    2013-01-01

    The Monte Carlo software package MCNP6 has the ability to transport particles on unstructured meshes generated from the Computed-Aided Engineering software Abaqus. Verification is performed using benchmarks with features relevant to reactor physics - Big Ten and the C5G7 computational benchmark. Various meshing strategies are tested and results are compared to reference solutions. Computational performance results are also given. The conclusions show MCNP6 is capable of producing accurate calculations for reactor physics geometries and the computational requirements for small lattice benchmarks are reasonable on modern computing platforms. (authors)

  11. An overset algorithm for 3D unstructured grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pishevar, A.R.; Shateri, A.R.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper a new methodology is introduced to simulate flows around complex geometries by using overset unstructured grids. The proposed algorithm can also be used for the unsteady flows about objects in relative motions. In such a case since the elements are not deformed during the computation the costly part of conventional methods, re-meshing, is prevented. This method relies on the inter-grid boundary definition to establish communications among independent grids in the overset system. At the end, the Euler set of equations are integrated on several overset systems to examine the capabilities of this methodology. (author)

  12. Node Discovery and Interpretation in Unstructured Resource-Constrained Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gechev, Miroslav; Kasabova, Slavyana; Mihovska, Albena D.

    2014-01-01

    for the discovery, linking and interpretation of nodes in unstructured and resource-constrained network environments and their interrelated and collective use for the delivery of smart services. The model is based on a basic mathematical approach, which describes and predicts the success of human interactions...... in the context of long-term relationships and identifies several key variables in the context of communications in resource-constrained environments. The general theoretical model is described and several algorithms are proposed as part of the node discovery, identification, and linking processes in relation...

  13. An Algorithm for Parallel Sn Sweeps on Unstructured Meshes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pautz, Shawn D.

    2002-01-01

    A new algorithm for performing parallel S n sweeps on unstructured meshes is developed. The algorithm uses a low-complexity list ordering heuristic to determine a sweep ordering on any partitioned mesh. For typical problems and with 'normal' mesh partitionings, nearly linear speedups on up to 126 processors are observed. This is an important and desirable result, since although analyses of structured meshes indicate that parallel sweeps will not scale with normal partitioning approaches, no severe asymptotic degradation in the parallel efficiency is observed with modest (≤100) levels of parallelism. This result is a fundamental step in the development of efficient parallel S n methods

  14. Reactor physics verification of the MCNP6 unstructured mesh capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, T. P. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel Boulevard, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Kiedrowski, B. C.; Martz, R. L. [X-Computational Physics Division, Monte Carlo Codes Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Martin, W. R. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel Boulevard, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Monte Carlo software package MCNP6 has the ability to transport particles on unstructured meshes generated from the Computed-Aided Engineering software Abaqus. Verification is performed using benchmarks with features relevant to reactor physics - Big Ten and the C5G7 computational benchmark. Various meshing strategies are tested and results are compared to reference solutions. Computational performance results are also given. The conclusions show MCNP6 is capable of producing accurate calculations for reactor physics geometries and the computational requirements for small lattice benchmarks are reasonable on modern computing platforms. (authors)

  15. Parallel implementation of a dynamic unstructured chimera method in the DLR finite volume TAU-code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madrane, A.; Raichle, A.; Stuermer, A.

    2004-01-01

    Aerodynamic problems involving moving geometries have many applications, including store separation, high-speed train entering into a tunnel, simulation of full configurations of the helicopter and fast maneuverability. Overset grid method offers the option of calculating these procedures. The solution process uses a grid system that discretizes the problem domain by using separately generated but overlapping unstructured grids that update and exchange boundary information through interpolation. However, such computations are complicated and time consuming. Parallel computing offers a very effective way to improve the productivity in doing computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Therefore the purpose of this study is to develop an efficient parallel computation algorithm for analyzing the flowfield of complex geometries using overset grids method. The strategy adopted in the parallelization of the overset grids method including the use of data structures and communication, is described. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the efficiency of the resulting parallel overset grids method. (author)

  16. Parallel implementation of a dynamic unstructured chimera method in the DLR finite volume TAU-code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madrane, A.; Raichle, A.; Stuermer, A. [German Aerospace Center, DLR, Numerical Methods, Inst. of Aerodynamics and Flow Technology, Braunschweig (Germany)]. E-mail: aziz.madrane@dlr.de

    2004-07-01

    Aerodynamic problems involving moving geometries have many applications, including store separation, high-speed train entering into a tunnel, simulation of full configurations of the helicopter and fast maneuverability. Overset grid method offers the option of calculating these procedures. The solution process uses a grid system that discretizes the problem domain by using separately generated but overlapping unstructured grids that update and exchange boundary information through interpolation. However, such computations are complicated and time consuming. Parallel computing offers a very effective way to improve the productivity in doing computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Therefore the purpose of this study is to develop an efficient parallel computation algorithm for analyzing the flowfield of complex geometries using overset grids method. The strategy adopted in the parallelization of the overset grids method including the use of data structures and communication, is described. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the efficiency of the resulting parallel overset grids method. (author)

  17. Unstructured Mesh Movement and Viscous Mesh Generation for CFD-Based Design Optimization, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovations proposed are twofold: 1) a robust unstructured mesh movement method able to handle isotropic (Euler), anisotropic (viscous), mixed element (hybrid)...

  18. Smooth Bézier surfaces over unstructured quadrilateral meshes

    CERN Document Server

    Bercovier, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Using an elegant mixture of geometry, graph theory and linear analysis, this monograph completely solves a problem lying at the interface of Isogeometric Analysis (IgA) and Finite Element Methods (FEM). The recent explosion of IgA, strongly tying Computer Aided Geometry Design to Analysis, does not easily apply to the rich variety of complex shapes that engineers have to design and analyse. Therefore new developments have studied the extension of IgA to unstructured unions of meshes, similar to those one can find in FEM. The following problem arises: given an unstructured planar quadrilateral mesh, construct a C1-surface, by piecewise Bézier or B-Spline patches defined over this mesh. This problem is solved for C1-surfaces defined over plane bilinear Bézier patches, the corresponding results for B-Splines then being simple consequences. The method can be extended to higher-order quadrilaterals and even to three dimensions, and the most recent developments in this direction are also mentioned here.

  19. Continuous-time quantum algorithms for unstructured problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hen, Itay

    2014-01-01

    We consider a family of unstructured optimization problems, for which we propose a method for constructing analogue, continuous-time (not necessarily adiabatic) quantum algorithms that are faster than their classical counterparts. In this family of problems, which we refer to as ‘scrambled input’ problems, one has to find a minimum-cost configuration of a given integer-valued n-bit black-box function whose input values have been scrambled in some unknown way. Special cases within this set of problems are Grover’s search problem of finding a marked item in an unstructured database, certain random energy models, and the functions of the Deutsch–Josza problem. We consider a couple of examples in detail. In the first, we provide an O(1) deterministic analogue quantum algorithm to solve the seminal problem of Deutsch and Josza, in which one has to determine whether an n-bit boolean function is constant (gives 0 on all inputs or 1 on all inputs) or balanced (returns 0 on half the input states and 1 on the other half). We also study one variant of the random energy model, and show that, as one might expect, its minimum energy configuration can be found quadratically faster with a quantum adiabatic algorithm than with classical algorithms. (paper)

  20. Protocol Implementation Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho Quaresma, Jose Nuno; Probst, Christian W.

    2010-01-01

    Users expect communication systems to guarantee, amongst others, privacy and integrity of their data. These can be ensured by using well-established protocols; the best protocol, however, is useless if not all parties involved in a communication have a correct implementation of the protocol and a...... Generator framework based on the LySatool and a translator from the LySa language into C or Java....... necessary tools. In this paper, we present the Protocol Implementation Generator (PiG), a framework that can be used to add protocol generation to protocol negotiation, or to easily share and implement new protocols throughout a network. PiG enables the sharing, verification, and translation...

  1. The Status Quo of Ontology Learning from Unstructured Knowledge Sources for Knowledge Management

    OpenAIRE

    Scheuermann , Andreas; Obermann , Jens

    2012-01-01

    International audience; In the global race for competitive advantage Knowledge Management gains increasing importance for companies. The purposeful and systematic creation, maintenance, and transfer of unstructured knowledge sources demands for advanced Information Technology. Ontologies constitute a basic ingredient of Knowledge Management; thus, ontology learning from unstructured knowledge sources is of particular interest since it bears the potential to bring significant advantages for Kn...

  2. Implicit Unstructured Computational Aerodynamics on Many-Integrated Core Architecture

    KAUST Repository

    Al Farhan, Mohammed A.

    2014-05-04

    This research aims to understand the performance of PETSc-FUN3D, a fully nonlinear implicit unstructured grid incompressible or compressible Euler code with origins at NASA and the U.S. DOE, on many-integrated core architecture and how a hybridprogramming paradigm (MPI+OpenMP) can exploit Intel Xeon Phi hardware with upwards of 60 cores per node and 4 threads per core. For the current contribution, we focus on strong scaling with many-integrated core hardware. In most implicit PDE-based codes, while the linear algebraic kernel is limited by the bottleneck of memory bandwidth, the flux kernel arising in control volume discretization of the conservation law residuals and the preconditioner for the Jacobian exploits the Phi hardware well.

  3. Domain-independent information extraction in unstructured text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irwin, N.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Software Surety Dept.

    1996-09-01

    Extracting information from unstructured text has become an important research area in recent years due to the large amount of text now electronically available. This status report describes the findings and work done during the second year of a two-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project. Building on the first-year`s work of identifying important entities, this report details techniques used to group words into semantic categories and to output templates containing selective document content. Using word profiles and category clustering derived during a training run, the time-consuming knowledge-building task can be avoided. Though the output still lacks in completeness when compared to systems with domain-specific knowledge bases, the results do look promising. The two approaches are compatible and could complement each other within the same system. Domain-independent approaches retain appeal as a system that adapts and learns will soon outpace a system with any amount of a priori knowledge.

  4. 3D unstructured mesh discontinuous finite element hydro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, M.K.; Kershaw, D.S.; Shaw, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    The authors present detailed features of the ICF3D hydrodynamics code used for inertial fusion simulations. This code is intended to be a state-of-the-art upgrade of the well-known fluid code, LASNEX. ICF3D employs discontinuous finite elements on a discrete unstructured mesh consisting of a variety of 3D polyhedra including tetrahedra, prisms, and hexahedra. The authors discussed details of how the ROE-averaged second-order convection was applied on the discrete elements, and how the C++ coding interface has helped to simplify implementing the many physics and numerics modules within the code package. The author emphasized the virtues of object-oriented design in large scale projects such as ICF3D

  5. An efficient unstructured WENO method for supersonic reactive flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wen-Geng; Zheng, Hong-Wei; Liu, Feng-Jun; Shi, Xiao-Tian; Gao, Jun; Hu, Ning; Lv, Meng; Chen, Si-Cong; Zhao, Hong-Da

    2018-03-01

    An efficient high-order numerical method for supersonic reactive flows is proposed in this article. The reactive source term and convection term are solved separately by splitting scheme. In the reaction step, an adaptive time-step method is presented, which can improve the efficiency greatly. In the convection step, a third-order accurate weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) method is adopted to reconstruct the solution in the unstructured grids. Numerical results show that our new method can capture the correct propagation speed of the detonation wave exactly even in coarse grids, while high order accuracy can be achieved in the smooth region. In addition, the proposed adaptive splitting method can reduce the computational cost greatly compared with the traditional splitting method.

  6. Multigrid and multilevel domain decomposition for unstructured grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, T.; Smith, B.

    1994-12-31

    Multigrid has proven itself to be a very versatile method for the iterative solution of linear and nonlinear systems of equations arising from the discretization of PDES. In some applications, however, no natural multilevel structure of grids is available, and these must be generated as part of the solution procedure. In this presentation the authors will consider the problem of generating a multigrid algorithm when only a fine, unstructured grid is given. Their techniques generate a sequence of coarser grids by first forming an approximate maximal independent set of the vertices and then applying a Cavendish type algorithm to form the coarser triangulation. Numerical tests indicate that convergence using this approach can be as fast as standard multigrid on a structured mesh, at least in two dimensions.

  7. Functional resistance activities to impact frailty: A protocol for a randomized controlled trial involving home care aide and frail older adult dyads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret K. Danilovich, PT, DPT, PhD

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: A growing number of older adults use in-home Medicaid Waiver Home and Community Based services (HCBS to facilitate aging-in-place. A primary service of this program is Home Care Aide assistance with activities of daily living and homemaker needs. Despite the known benefits of exercise, exercise programs are currently not offered to clients in the Medicaid Waiver system. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to describe a six-month Home Care Aide-led resistance exercise intervention protocol for frail older adults receiving Medicaid waiver services. Methods/design: A randomized controlled trial will be used. We will enroll 126 Home Care Aide-client dyads for a 6-month exercise intervention. The intervention will consist of training phases to promote muscle strength, power, and endurance. We will use an intention to treat principle using mixed effects models for the quantitative outcomes. To analyze qualitative outcomes, we will use conventional content analysis to examine themes from participant program evaluations. Discussion: As greater numbers of adults age in place with frailty and employ Home Care Aides to help manage functional limitations, interventions embedded within usual care services play a critical role in bringing exercise into the home setting. The research described in this protocol will provide important knowledge about the impact of a Home Care Aide-led exercise intervention in reducing frailty in older adults. Clinical Trials Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02942992; Keywords: Frailty, Dyad, Formal caregivers, Resistance exercise

  8. The Unstructured Data Sharing System for Natural resources and Environment Science Data of the Chinese Academy of Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dafang Zhuang

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The data sharing system for resource and environment science databases of the Chinese Academy of Science (CAS is of an open three-tiered architecture, which integrates the geographical databases of about 9 institutes of CAS by the mechanism of distributive unstructured data management, metadata integration, catalogue services, and security control. The data tiers consist of several distributive data servers that are located in each CAS institute and support such unstructured data formats as vector files, remote sensing images or other raster files, documents, multi-media files, tables, and other format files. For the spatial data files, format transformation service is provided. The middle tier involves a centralized metadata server, which stores metadata records of data on all data servers. The primary function of this tier is catalog service, supporting the creation, search, browsing, updating, and deletion of catalogs. The client tier involves an integrated client that provides the end-users interfaces to search, browse, and download data or create a catalog and upload data.

  9. Incompressible Navier-Stokes inverse design method based on adaptive unstructured meshes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmati, M.T.; Charlesworth, D.; Zangeneh, M.

    2005-01-01

    An inverse method for blade design based on Navier-Stokes equations on adaptive unstructured meshes has been developed. In the method, unlike the method based on inviscid equations, the effect of viscosity is directly taken into account. In the method, the pressure (or pressure loading) is prescribed. The design method then computes the blade shape that would accomplish the target prescribed pressure distribution. The method is implemented using a cell-centered finite volume method, which solves the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations on unstructured meshes. An adaptive unstructured mesh method based on grid subdivision and local adaptive mesh method is utilized for increasing the accuracy. (author)

  10. Finite volume methods for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations on unstructured grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meese, Ernst Arne

    1998-07-01

    Most solution methods of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) use structured grids based on curvilinear coordinates for compliance with complex geometries. In a typical industry application, about 80% of the time used to produce the results is spent constructing computational grids. Recently the use of unstructured grids has been strongly advocated. For unstructured grids there are methods for generating them automatically on quite complex domains. This thesis focuses on the design of Navier-Stokes solvers that can cope with unstructured grids and ''low quality grids'', thus reducing the need for human intervention in the grid generation.

  11. Cosmos++: relativistic magnetohydrodynamics on unstructured grids with local adaptive refinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmonson, Jay D; Anninos, Peter; Fragile, P Chris; Camarda, Karen

    2007-01-01

    A code and methodology are introduced for solving the fully general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) equations using time-explicit, finite-volume discretization. The code has options for solving the GRMHD equations using traditional artificial-viscosity (AV) or non-oscillatory central difference (NOCD) methods, or a new extended AV (eAV) scheme using artificial-viscosity together with a dual energy-flux-conserving formulation. The dual energy approach allows for accurate modeling of highly relativistic flows at boost factors well beyond what has been achieved to date by standard artificial viscosity methods. It provides the benefit of Godunov methods in capturing high Lorentz boosted flows but without complicated Riemann solvers, and the advantages of traditional artificial viscosity methods in their speed and flexibility. Additionally, the GRMHD equations are solved on an unstructured grid that supports local adaptive mesh refinement using a fully threaded oct-tree (in three dimensions) network to traverse the grid hierarchy across levels and immediate neighbors. Some recent studies will be summarized

  12. Constructing Social Networks from Unstructured Group Dialog in Virtual Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Fahad; Sukthankar, Gita

    Virtual worlds and massively multi-player online games are rich sources of information about large-scale teams and groups, offering the tantalizing possibility of harvesting data about group formation, social networks, and network evolution. However these environments lack many of the cues that facilitate natural language processing in other conversational settings and different types of social media. Public chat data often features players who speak simultaneously, use jargon and emoticons, and only erratically adhere to conversational norms. In this paper, we present techniques for inferring the existence of social links from unstructured conversational data collected from groups of participants in the Second Life virtual world. We present an algorithm for addressing this problem, Shallow Semantic Temporal Overlap (SSTO), that combines temporal and language information to create directional links between participants, and a second approach that relies on temporal overlap alone to create undirected links between participants. Relying on temporal overlap is noisy, resulting in a low precision and networks with many extraneous links. In this paper, we demonstrate that we can ameliorate this problem by using network modularity optimization to perform community detection in the noisy networks and severing cross-community links. Although using the content of the communications still results in the best performance, community detection is effective as a noise reduction technique for eliminating the extra links created by temporal overlap alone.

  13. Numerical study of Taylor bubbles with adaptive unstructured meshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhihua; Pavlidis, Dimitrios; Percival, James; Pain, Chris; Matar, Omar; Hasan, Abbas; Azzopardi, Barry

    2014-11-01

    The Taylor bubble is a single long bubble which nearly fills the entire cross section of a liquid-filled circular tube. This type of bubble flow regime often occurs in gas-liquid slug flows in many industrial applications, including oil-and-gas production, chemical and nuclear reactors, and heat exchangers. The objective of this study is to investigate the fluid dynamics of Taylor bubbles rising in a vertical pipe filled with oils of extremely high viscosity (mimicking the ``heavy oils'' found in the oil-and-gas industry). A modelling and simulation framework is presented here which can modify and adapt anisotropic unstructured meshes to better represent the underlying physics of bubble rise and reduce the computational effort without sacrificing accuracy. The numerical framework consists of a mixed control-volume and finite-element formulation, a ``volume of fluid''-type method for the interface capturing based on a compressive control volume advection method, and a force-balanced algorithm for the surface tension implementation. Numerical examples of some benchmark tests and the dynamics of Taylor bubbles are presented to show the capability of this method. EPSRC Programme Grant, MEMPHIS, EP/K0039761/1.

  14. The quasidiffusion method for transport problems on unstructured meshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieselquist, William A.

    2009-06-01

    In this work, we develop a quasidiffusion (QD) method for solving radiation transport problems on unstructured quadrilateral meshes in 2D Cartesian geometry, for example hanging-node meshes from adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) applications or skewed quadrilateral meshes from radiation hydrodynamics with Lagrangian meshing. The main result of the work is a new low-order quasidiffusion (LOQD) discretization on arbitrary quadrilaterals and a strategy for the efficient iterative solution which uses Krylov methods and incomplete LU factorization (ILU) preconditioning. The LOQD equations are a non-symmetric set of first-order PDEs that in second-order form resembles convection- diffusion with a diffusion tensor, with the difference that the LOQD equations contain extra cross-derivative terms. Our finite volume (FV) discretization of the LOQD equations is compared with three LOQD discretizations from literature. We then present a conservative, short characteristics discretization based on subcell balances (SCSB) that uses polynomial exponential moments to achieve robust behavior in various limits (e.g. small cells and voids) and is second- order accurate in space. A linear representation of the isotropic component of the scattering source based on face-average and cell-average scalar fluxes is also proposed and shown to be effective in some problems. In numerical tests, our QD method with linear scattering source representation shows some advantages compared to other transport methods. We conclude with avenues for future research and note that this QD method may easily be extended to arbitrary meshes in 3D Cartesian geometry.

  15. Improved Degree Search Algorithms in Unstructured P2P Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guole Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Searching and retrieving the demanded correct information is one important problem in networks; especially, designing an efficient search algorithm is a key challenge in unstructured peer-to-peer (P2P networks. Breadth-first search (BFS and depth-first search (DFS are the current two typical search methods. BFS-based algorithms show the perfect performance in the aspect of search success rate of network resources, while bringing the huge search messages. On the contrary, DFS-based algorithms reduce the search message quantity and also cause the dropping of search success ratio. To address the problem that only one of performances is excellent, we propose two memory function degree search algorithms: memory function maximum degree algorithm (MD and memory function preference degree algorithm (PD. We study their performance including the search success rate and the search message quantity in different networks, which are scale-free networks, random graph networks, and small-world networks. Simulations show that the two performances are both excellent at the same time, and the performances are improved at least 10 times.

  16. An efficient approach to unstructured mesh hydrodynamics on the cell broadband engine (u)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferenbaugh, Charles R [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-14

    Unstructured mesh physics for the Cell Broadband Engine (CBE) has received little or no attention to date, largely because the CBE architecture poses particular challenges for unstructured mesh algorithms. SPU memory management strategies such as data preloading cannot be applied to the irregular memory storage patterns of unstructured meshes; and the SPU vector instruction set does not support the indirect addressing needed by connectivity arrays. This paper presents an approach to unstructured mesh physics that addresses these challenges, by creating a new mesh data structure and reorganizing code to give efficient CBE performance. The approach is demonstrated on the FLAG production hydrodynamics code using standard test problems, and results show an average speedup of more than 5x over the original code.

  17. An efficient approach to unstructured mesh hydrodynamics on the cell broadband engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferenbaugh, Charles R [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Unstructured mesh physics for the Cell Broadband Engine (CBE) has received little or no attention to date, largely because the CBE architecture poses particular challenges for unstructured mesh algorithms. The most common SPU memory management strategies cannot be applied to the irregular memory access patterns of unstructured meshes, and the SPU vector instruction set does not support the indirect addressing needed by connectivity arrays. This paper presents an approach to unstructured mesh physics that addresses these challenges, by creating a new mesh data structure and reorganizing code to give efficient CBE performance. The approach is demonstrated on the FLAG production hydrodynamics code using standard test problems, and results show an average speedup of more than 5x over the original code.

  18. Exploring Shared-Memory Optimizations for an Unstructured Mesh CFD Application on Modern Parallel Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Mudigere, Dheevatsa; Sridharan, Srinivas; Deshpande, Anand; Park, Jongsoo; Heinecke, Alexander; Smelyanskiy, Mikhail; Kaul, Bharat; Dubey, Pradeep; Kaushik, Dinesh; Keyes, David E.

    2015-01-01

    -grid implicit flow solver, which forms the backbone of computational aerodynamics, poses particular challenges due to its large irregular working sets, unstructured memory accesses, and variable/limited amount of parallelism. This code, based on a domain

  19. Multigrid on unstructured grids using an auxiliary set of structured grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, C.C.; Malhotra, S.; Schultz, M.H. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Unstructured grids do not have a convenient and natural multigrid framework for actually computing and maintaining a high floating point rate on standard computers. In fact, just the coarsening process is expensive for many applications. Since unstructured grids play a vital role in many scientific computing applications, many modifications have been proposed to solve this problem. One suggested solution is to map the original unstructured grid onto a structured grid. This can be used as a fine grid in a standard multigrid algorithm to precondition the original problem on the unstructured grid. We show that unless extreme care is taken, this mapping can lead to a system with a high condition number which eliminates the usefulness of the multigrid method. Theorems with lower and upper bounds are provided. Simple examples show that the upper bounds are sharp.

  20. Comparative reliability of structured versus unstructured interviews in the admission process of a residency program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin, Danielle; Day, Andrew G; Pavlov, Andrey

    2011-12-01

    Although never directly compared, structured interviews are reported as being more reliable than unstructured interviews. This study compared the reliability of both types of interview when applied to a common pool of applicants for positions in an emergency medicine residency program. In 2008, one structured interview was added to the two unstructured interviews traditionally used in our resident selection process. A formal job analysis using the critical incident technique guided the development of the structured interview tool. This tool consisted of 7 scenarios assessing 4 of the domains deemed essential for success as a resident in this program. The traditional interview tool assessed 5 general criteria. In addition to these criteria, the unstructured panel members were asked to rate each candidate on the same 4 essential domains rated by the structured panel members. All 3 panels interviewed all candidates. Main outcomes were the overall, interitem, and interrater reliabilities, the correlations between interview panels, and the dimensionality of each interview tool. Thirty candidates were interviewed. The overall reliability reached 0.43 for the structured interview, and 0.81 and 0.71 for the unstructured interviews. Analyses of the variance components showed a high interrater, low interitem reliability for the structured interview, and a high interrater, high interitem reliability for the unstructured interviews. The summary measures from the 2 unstructured interviews were significantly correlated, but neither was correlated with the structured interview. Only the structured interview was multidimensional. A structured interview did not yield a higher overall reliability than both unstructured interviews. The lower reliability is explained by a lower interitem reliability, which in turn is due to the multidimensionality of the interview tool. Both unstructured panels consistently rated a single dimension, even when prompted to assess the 4 specific domains

  1. An Online Learning Module to Increase Self-Efficacy and Involvement in Care for Patients With Advanced Lung Cancer: Research Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Anna; Shaw, Tim; Nagrial, Adnan; Pene, Christopher; Rabbets, Melanie; Carlino, Matteo; Zachulski, Clare; Phillips, Jane; Birnbaum, Robert; Gandhi, Tejal; Harnett, Paul

    2016-08-08

    Improving patient care for individuals with lung cancer is a priority due to the increasing burden of the disease globally. One way this can be done is by improving patient self-management capabilities through increasing their self-efficacy. This can improve positive outcomes for patients with chronic conditions and increase their ability to manage the challenges of such illnesses. Unfortunately, patients with chronic conditions often struggle to travel far from home to engage with patient education events, a common means of improving self-efficacy. The development of more accessible tools for improving patient self-efficacy is required to increase quality of life for patients with chronic conditions. To evaluate the feasibility of delivering symptom identification and management information to patients with advanced lung cancer using an online program. This article describes a pre-post test study to evaluate a Qstream online learning platform to improve patient self-efficacy for managing advanced lung cancer symptoms. Undertaking this program should increase participant knowledge about the side-effects they may experience as a result of their treatment and in turn increase help-seeking behavior and self-efficacy for the participant cohort. Quantitative data collected by the Qstream platform on the completion rates of participants will be used as a tool to evaluate the intervention. Additionally, validated scales will be used to collect data on patient self-efficacy. Qualitative data will also be collected via an exit survey and thematic content analysis of semi-structured interviews. The research is in the preliminary stages but thus far a protocol has been approved in support of the project. Additionally, advisory committee members have been identified and initial meetings have been undertaken. Development of new approaches for increasing patient understanding of their care is important to ensure high quality care continues to be delivered in the clinical setting.

  2. Ethical issues in research involving minority populations: the process and outcomes of protocol review by the Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Recruiting minorities into research studies requires special attention, particularly when studies involve “extra-vulnerable” participants with multiple vulnerabilities, e.g., pregnant women, the fetuses/neonates of ethnic minorities, children in refugee camps, or cross-border migrants. This study retrospectively analyzed submissions to the Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Tropical Medicine (FTM-EC) in Thailand. Issues related to the process and outcomes of proposal review, and the main issues for which clarification/revision were requested on studies, are discussed extensively. Methods The study data were extracted from proposals and amendments submitted to the FTM-EC during the period October 2009 – September 2012, and then analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. The main issues for clarification/revision were analyzed by thematic content analysis. Results 373 proposals were submitted; 44 studies involved minority groups with 21 extra-vulnerable minorities. All clinical and 2/3 of non-clinical studies submitted for initial review underwent full-board review. For combined clinical and non-clinical study submissions, 92.1% were referred back to the investigators and approved after clarification/revision, while 2.7% were deferred due to major/critical changes, and 2.1% not approved due to substantial violations of ethical principles. The main issues needing clarification/revision differed between all studies and those involving minorities: participant information sheet (62.2% vs. 86.4%), informed consent/assent form (51.2% vs. 86.4%), and research methodology (80.7% vs. 84.1%), respectively. The main ethical issues arising during the meetings, regarding studies involving minorities, included ensuring no exploitation, coercion, or pressure on the minority to participate; methodology not affecting their legal status; considering ethnicity and cultural structure; and providing appropriate compensation. Conclusion Delays in the approval or non

  3. Bioremediation protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sheehan, David

    1997-01-01

    ..., .. . . . . .. ,. . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . .. . .. 3 2 Granular Nina Sludge Christiansen, Consortia lndra for Bioremediation, M. Mathrani, and Birgitte K. Ahring . 23 PART II PROTOCOLS...

  4. Electromagnetic forward modelling for realistic Earth models using unstructured tetrahedral meshes and a meshfree approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquharson, C.; Long, J.; Lu, X.; Lelievre, P. G.

    2017-12-01

    Real-life geology is complex, and so, even when allowing for the diffusive, low resolution nature of geophysical electromagnetic methods, we need Earth models that can accurately represent this complexity when modelling and inverting electromagnetic data. This is particularly the case for the scales, detail and conductivity contrasts involved in mineral and hydrocarbon exploration and development, but also for the larger scale of lithospheric studies. Unstructured tetrahedral meshes provide a flexible means of discretizing a general, arbitrary Earth model. This is important when wanting to integrate a geophysical Earth model with a geological Earth model parameterized in terms of surfaces. Finite-element and finite-volume methods can be derived for computing the electric and magnetic fields in a model parameterized using an unstructured tetrahedral mesh. A number of such variants have been proposed and have proven successful. However, the efficiency and accuracy of these methods can be affected by the "quality" of the tetrahedral discretization, that is, how many of the tetrahedral cells in the mesh are long, narrow and pointy. This is particularly the case if one wants to use an iterative technique to solve the resulting linear system of equations. One approach to deal with this issue is to develop sophisticated model and mesh building and manipulation capabilities in order to ensure that any mesh built from geological information is of sufficient quality for the electromagnetic modelling. Another approach is to investigate other methods of synthesizing the electromagnetic fields. One such example is a "meshfree" approach in which the electromagnetic fields are synthesized using a mesh that is distinct from the mesh used to parameterized the Earth model. There are then two meshes, one describing the Earth model and one used for the numerical mathematics of computing the fields. This means that there are no longer any quality requirements on the model mesh, which

  5. Transforming primary healthcare by including the stakeholders involved in delivering care to people living in poverty: EQUIhealThY study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loignon, Christine; Hudon, Catherine; Boudreault-Fournier, Alexandrine; Dupéré, Sophie; Macaulay, Ann C; Pluye, Pierre; Gaboury, Isabelle; Haggerty, Jeannie L; Fortin, Martin; Goulet, Émilie; Lambert, Mireille; Pelissier-Simard, Luce; Boyer, Sophie; de Laat, Marianne; Lemire, Francine; Champagne, Louise; Lemieux, Martin

    2013-03-11

    Ensuring access to timely and appropriate primary healthcare for people living in poverty is an issue facing all countries, even those with universal healthcare systems. The transformation of healthcare practices and organization could be improved by involving key stakeholders from the community and the healthcare system in the development of research interventions. The aim of this project is to stimulate changes in healthcare organizations and practices by encouraging collaboration between care teams and people living in poverty. Our objectives are twofold: 1) to identify actions required to promote the adoption of professional practices oriented toward social competence in primary care teams; and 2) to examine factors that would encourage the inclusion of people living in poverty in the process of developing social competence in healthcare organizations. This study will use a participatory action research design applied in healthcare organizations. Participatory research is an increasingly recognized approach that is helpful for involving the people for whom the research results are intended. Our research team consists of 19 non-academic researchers, 11 academic researchers and six partners. A steering committee composed of academic researchers and stakeholders will have a decision-making role at each step, including knowledge dissemination and recommendations for new interventions. In this project we will adopt a multiphase approach and will use a variety of methods, including photovoice, group discussions and interviews. The proposed study will be one of only a few using participatory research in primary care to foster changes aimed at enhancing quality and access to care for people living in poverty. To our knowledge this will be the first study to use photovoice in healthcare organizations to promote new interventions. Our project includes partners who are targeted for practice changes and improvements in delivering primary care to persons living in poverty

  6. PDF modeling of turbulent flows on unstructured grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakosi, Jozsef

    In probability density function (PDF) methods of turbulent flows, the joint PDF of several flow variables is computed by numerically integrating a system of stochastic differential equations for Lagrangian particles. Because the technique solves a transport equation for the PDF of the velocity and scalars, a mathematically exact treatment of advection, viscous effects and arbitrarily complex chemical reactions is possible; these processes are treated without closure assumptions. A set of algorithms is proposed to provide an efficient solution of the PDF transport equation modeling the joint PDF of turbulent velocity, frequency and concentration of a passive scalar in geometrically complex configurations. An unstructured Eulerian grid is employed to extract Eulerian statistics, to solve for quantities represented at fixed locations of the domain and to track particles. All three aspects regarding the grid make use of the finite element method. Compared to hybrid methods, the current methodology is stand-alone, therefore it is consistent both numerically and at the level of turbulence closure without the use of consistency conditions. Since both the turbulent velocity and scalar concentration fields are represented in a stochastic way, the method allows for a direct and close interaction between these fields, which is beneficial in computing accurate scalar statistics. Boundary conditions implemented along solid bodies are of the free-slip and no-slip type without the need for ghost elements. Boundary layers at no-slip boundaries are either fully resolved down to the viscous sublayer, explicitly modeling the high anisotropy and inhomogeneity of the low-Reynolds-number wall region without damping or wall-functions or specified via logarithmic wall-functions. As in moment closures and large eddy simulation, these wall-treatments provide the usual trade-off between resolution and computational cost as required by the given application. Particular attention is focused on

  7. Unstructured Finite Elements and Dynamic Meshing for Explicit Phase Tracking in Multiphase Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Anirban; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Yu; Shams, Ehsan; Sahni, Onkar; Oberai, Assad; Shephard, Mark

    2017-11-01

    Multi-phase processes involving phase change at interfaces, such as evaporation of a liquid or combustion of a solid, represent an interesting class of problems with varied applications. Large density ratio across phases, discontinuous fields at the interface and rapidly evolving geometries are some of the inherent challenges which influence the numerical modeling of multi-phase phase change problems. In this work, a mathematically consistent and robust computational approach to address these issues is presented. We use stabilized finite element methods on mixed topology unstructured grids for solving the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. Appropriate jump conditions derived from conservations laws across the interface are handled by using discontinuous interpolations, while the continuity of temperature and tangential velocity is enforced using a penalty parameter. The arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) technique is utilized to explicitly track the interface motion. Mesh at the interface is constrained to move with the interface while elsewhere it is moved using the linear elasticity analogy. Repositioning is applied to the layered mesh that maintains its structure and normal resolution. In addition, mesh modification is used to preserve the quality of the volumetric mesh. This work is supported by the U.S. Army Grants W911NF1410301 and W911NF16C0117.

  8. Large-Scale Parallel Viscous Flow Computations using an Unstructured Multigrid Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavriplis, Dimitri J.

    1999-01-01

    The development and testing of a parallel unstructured agglomeration multigrid algorithm for steady-state aerodynamic flows is discussed. The agglomeration multigrid strategy uses a graph algorithm to construct the coarse multigrid levels from the given fine grid, similar to an algebraic multigrid approach, but operates directly on the non-linear system using the FAS (Full Approximation Scheme) approach. The scalability and convergence rate of the multigrid algorithm are examined on the SGI Origin 2000 and the Cray T3E. An argument is given which indicates that the asymptotic scalability of the multigrid algorithm should be similar to that of its underlying single grid smoothing scheme. For medium size problems involving several million grid points, near perfect scalability is obtained for the single grid algorithm, while only a slight drop-off in parallel efficiency is observed for the multigrid V- and W-cycles, using up to 128 processors on the SGI Origin 2000, and up to 512 processors on the Cray T3E. For a large problem using 25 million grid points, good scalability is observed for the multigrid algorithm using up to 1450 processors on a Cray T3E, even when the coarsest grid level contains fewer points than the total number of processors.

  9. Further validation of liquid metal MHD code for unstructured grid based on OpenFOAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Jingchao; Chen, Hongli, E-mail: hlchen1@ustc.edu.cn; He, Qingyun; Ye, Minyou

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Specific correction scheme has been adopted to revise the calculating result for non-orthogonal meshes. • The developed MHD code based on OpenFOAM platform has been validated by benchmark cases under uniform and non-uniform magnetic field in round and rectangular ducts. • ALEX experimental results have been used to validate the MHD code based on OpenFOAM. - Abstract: In fusion liquid metal blankets, complex geometries involving contractions, expansions, bends, manifolds are very common. The characteristics of liquid metal flow in these geometries are significant. In order to extend the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) solver developed on OpenFOAM platform to be applied in the complex geometry, the MHD solver based on unstructured meshes has been implemented. The adoption of non-orthogonal correction techniques in the solver makes it possible to process the non-orthogonal meshes in complex geometries. The present paper focused on the validation of the code under critical conditions. An analytical solution benchmark case and two experimental benchmark cases were conducted to validate the code. Benchmark case I is MHD flow in a circular pipe with arbitrary electric conductivity of the walls in a uniform magnetic field. Benchmark cases II and III are experimental cases of 3D laminar steady MHD flow under fringing magnetic field. In all these cases, the numerical results match well with the benchmark cases.

  10. Further validation of liquid metal MHD code for unstructured grid based on OpenFOAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Jingchao; Chen, Hongli; He, Qingyun; Ye, Minyou

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Specific correction scheme has been adopted to revise the calculating result for non-orthogonal meshes. • The developed MHD code based on OpenFOAM platform has been validated by benchmark cases under uniform and non-uniform magnetic field in round and rectangular ducts. • ALEX experimental results have been used to validate the MHD code based on OpenFOAM. - Abstract: In fusion liquid metal blankets, complex geometries involving contractions, expansions, bends, manifolds are very common. The characteristics of liquid metal flow in these geometries are significant. In order to extend the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) solver developed on OpenFOAM platform to be applied in the complex geometry, the MHD solver based on unstructured meshes has been implemented. The adoption of non-orthogonal correction techniques in the solver makes it possible to process the non-orthogonal meshes in complex geometries. The present paper focused on the validation of the code under critical conditions. An analytical solution benchmark case and two experimental benchmark cases were conducted to validate the code. Benchmark case I is MHD flow in a circular pipe with arbitrary electric conductivity of the walls in a uniform magnetic field. Benchmark cases II and III are experimental cases of 3D laminar steady MHD flow under fringing magnetic field. In all these cases, the numerical results match well with the benchmark cases.

  11. Exploring the theory, barriers and enablers for patient and public involvement across health, social care and patient safety: a protocol for a systematic review of reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocloo, Josephine; Garfield, Sarah; Dawson, Shoba; Dean Franklin, Bryony

    2017-10-24

    The emergence of patient and public involvement (PPI) in healthcare in the UK can be traced as far back as the 1970s. More recently, campaigns by harmed patients and their relatives have emerged as a result of clinical failings in the NHS, challenging paternalistic healthcare, which have led to a new focus on PPI in quality and safety, nationally and internationally. Evidence suggests that PPI within patient safety is often atheoretical and located within a biomedical discourse. This review will explore the literature on PPI across patient safety, healthcare and social care to identify theory, barriers and enablers that can be used to develop PPI in patient safety. Systematic searches of three electronic bibliographic databases will be conducted, using both MeSH and free-text terms to identify empirical literature published from database inception to May 2017. The screening process will involve input from at least two researchers and any disagreement will be resolved through discussion with a third reviewer. Initial inclusion and exclusion criteria have been developed and will be refined iteratively throughout the process. Data extraction from included articles will be conducted by at least two researchers using a data extraction form. Extracted information will be analysed using a narrative review approach, which synthesises data using a descriptive method. No ethical approval is required for this review as no empirical data were collected. We believe that the findings and recommendations from this review will be particularly relevant for an audience of academics and policymakers. The findings will, therefore, be written up and disseminated in international peer-reviewed journals and academic conferences with a health focus. They will also be disseminated to leading health policy organisations in the NHS, such as NHS England and NHS Improvement and national policy bodies such as the Health Foundation. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise

  12. A core outcome set for localised prostate cancer effectiveness trials: protocol for a systematic review of the literature and stakeholder involvement through interviews and a Delphi survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLennan, Steven; Bekema, Hendrika J; Williamson, Paula R; Campbell, Marion K; Stewart, Fiona; MacLennan, Sara J; N'Dow, James M O; Lam, Thomas B L

    2015-03-04

    Prostate cancer is a growing health problem worldwide. The management of localised prostate cancer is controversial. It is unclear which of several surgical, radiotherapeutic, ablative, and surveillance treatments is the most effective. All have cost, process and recovery, and morbidity implications which add to treatment decision-making complexity for patients and healthcare professionals. Evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) is not optimal because of uncertainty as to what constitutes important outcomes. Another issue hampering evidence synthesis is heterogeneity of outcome definition, measurement, and reporting. This project aims to determine which outcomes are the most important to patients and healthcare professionals, and use these findings to recommend a standardised core outcome set for comparative effectiveness trials of treatments for localised prostate cancer, to optimise decision-making. The range of potentially important outcomes and measures will be identified through systematic reviews of the literature and semi-structured interviews with patients. A consultation exercise involving representatives from two key stakeholder groups (patients and healthcare professionals) will ratify the list of outcomes to be entered into a three round Delphi study. The Delphi process will refine and prioritise the list of identified outcomes. A methodological substudy (nested RCT design) will also be undertaken. Participants will be randomised after round one of the Delphi study to one of three feedback groups, based on different feedback strategies, in order to explore the potential impact of feedback strategies on participant responses. This may assist the design of a future core outcome set and Delphi studies. Following the Delphi study, a final consensus meeting attended by representatives from both stakeholder groups will determine the final recommended core outcome set. This study will inform clinical practice and future trials of interventions of

  13. Estimating abundance of mountain lions from unstructured spatial sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Robin E.; Royle, J. Andrew; Desimone, Richard; Schwartz, Michael K.; Edwards, Victoria L.; Pilgrim, Kristy P.; Mckelvey, Kevin S.

    2012-01-01

    distance x sex on detection probability). These numbers translate to a total estimate of 293 mountain lions (95% Cl 182–451) to 529 (95% Cl 245–870) within the Blackfoot drainage. Results from the distance model are similar to previous estimates of 3.6 mountain lions/100 km2 for the study area; however, results from all other models indicated greater numbers of mountain lions. Our results indicate that unstructured spatial sampling combined with spatial capture–recapture analysis can be an effective method for estimating large carnivore densities.

  14. Creating opportunities through mentorship, parental involvement, and safe spaces (COMPASS) program: multi-country study protocol to protect girls from violence in humanitarian settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falb, Kathryn L; Tanner, Sophie; Ward, Leora; Erksine, Dorcas; Noble, Eva; Assazenew, Asham; Bakomere, Theresita; Graybill, Elizabeth; Lowry, Carmen; Mallinga, Pamela; Neiman, Amy; Poulton, Catherine; Robinette, Katie; Sommer, Marni; Stark, Lindsay

    2016-03-05

    Violence against adolescent girls in humanitarian settings is of urgent concern given their additional vulnerabilities to violence and unique health and well-being needs that have largely been overlooked by the humanitarian community. In order to understand what works to prevent violence against adolescent girls, a multi-component curriculum-based safe spaces program (Creating Opportunities through Mentorship, Parental involvement and Safe Spaces - COMPASS) will be implemented and evaluated. The objectives of this multi-country study are to understand the feasibility, acceptability and effectiveness of COMPASS programming to prevent violence against adolescent girls in diverse humanitarian settings. Two wait-listed cluster-randomized controlled trials are being implemented in conflict-affected communities in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (N = 886 girls aged 10-14 years) and in refugee camps in western Ethiopia (N = 919 girls aged 13-19 years). The intervention consists of structured facilitated sessions delivered in safe spaces by young female mentors, caregiver discussion groups, capacity-building activities with service providers, and community engagement. In Ethiopia, the research centers on the overall impact of COMPASS compared to a wait-list group. In DRC, the research objective is to understand the incremental effectiveness of the caregiver component in addition to the other COMPASS activities as compared to a wait-list group. The primary outcome is change in sexual violence. Secondary outcomes include decreased physical and emotional abuse, reduced early marriage, improved gender norms, and positive interpersonal relationships, among others. Qualitative methodologies seek to understand girls' perceptions of safety within their communities, key challenges they face, and to identify potential pathways of change. These trials will add much needed evidence for the humanitarian community to meet the unique needs of adolescent girls and to promote

  15. Creating opportunities through mentorship, parental involvement, and safe spaces (COMPASS program: multi-country study protocol to protect girls from violence in humanitarian settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn L. Falb

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Violence against adolescent girls in humanitarian settings is of urgent concern given their additional vulnerabilities to violence and unique health and well-being needs that have largely been overlooked by the humanitarian community. In order to understand what works to prevent violence against adolescent girls, a multi-component curriculum-based safe spaces program (Creating Opportunities through Mentorship, Parental involvement and Safe Spaces – COMPASS will be implemented and evaluated. The objectives of this multi-country study are to understand the feasibility, acceptability and effectiveness of COMPASS programming to prevent violence against adolescent girls in diverse humanitarian settings. Methods/design Two wait-listed cluster-randomized controlled trials are being implemented in conflict-affected communities in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (N = 886 girls aged 10–14 years and in refugee camps in western Ethiopia (N = 919 girls aged 13–19 years. The intervention consists of structured facilitated sessions delivered in safe spaces by young female mentors, caregiver discussion groups, capacity-building activities with service providers, and community engagement. In Ethiopia, the research centers on the overall impact of COMPASS compared to a wait-list group. In DRC, the research objective is to understand the incremental effectiveness of the caregiver component in addition to the other COMPASS activities as compared to a wait-list group. The primary outcome is change in sexual violence. Secondary outcomes include decreased physical and emotional abuse, reduced early marriage, improved gender norms, and positive interpersonal relationships, among others. Qualitative methodologies seek to understand girls’ perceptions of safety within their communities, key challenges they face, and to identify potential pathways of change. Discussion These trials will add much needed evidence for the humanitarian

  16. Assimilation of coastal acoustic tomography data using an unstructured triangular grid ocean model for water with complex coastlines and islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ze-Nan; Zhu, Xiao-Hua; Guo, Xinyu; Fan, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Chuanzheng

    2017-09-01

    For the first time, we present the application of an unstructured triangular grid to the Finite-Volume Community Ocean Model using the ensemble Kalman filter scheme, to assimilate coastal acoustic tomography (CAT) data. The fine horizontal and vertical current field structures around the island inside the observation region were both reproduced well. The assimilated depth-averaged velocities had better agreement with the independent acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) data than the velocities obtained by inversion and simulation. The root-mean-square difference (RMSD) between depth-averaged current velocities obtained by data assimilation and those obtained by ADCPs was 0.07 m s-1, which was less than the corresponding difference obtained by inversion and simulation (0.12 and 0.17 m s-1, respectively). The assimilated vertical layer velocities also exhibited better agreement with ADCP than the velocities obtained by simulation. RMSDs between assimilated and ADCP data in vertical layers ranged from 0.02 to 0.14 m s-1, while RMSDs between simulation and ADCP data ranged from 0.08 to 0.27 m s-1. These results indicate that assimilation had the highest accuracy. Sensitivity experiments involving the elimination of sound transmission lines showed that missing data had less impact on assimilation than on inversion. Sensitivity experiments involving the elimination of CAT stations showed that the assimilation with four CAT stations was the relatively economical and reasonable procedure in this experiment. These results indicate that, compared with inversion and simulation, data assimilation of CAT data with an unstructured triangular grid is more effective in reconstructing the current field.

  17. An assessment of unstructured grid finite volume schemes for cold gas hypersonic flow calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Luiz F. Azevedo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A comparison of five different spatial discretization schemes is performed considering a typical high speed flow application. Flowfields are simulated using the 2-D Euler equations, discretized in a cell-centered finite volume procedure on unstructured triangular meshes. The algorithms studied include a central difference-type scheme, and 1st- and 2nd-order van Leer and Liou flux-vector splitting schemes. These methods are implemented in an efficient, edge-based, unstructured grid procedure which allows for adaptive mesh refinement based on flow property gradients. Details of the unstructured grid implementation of the methods are presented together with a discussion of the data structure and of the adaptive refinement strategy. The application of interest is the cold gas flow through a typical hypersonic inlet. Results for different entrance Mach numbers and mesh topologies are discussed in order to assess the comparative performance of the various spatial discretization schemes.

  18. Transmission probability method based on triangle meshes for solving unstructured geometry neutron transport problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Hongchun [Nuclear Engineering Department, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049, Shaanxi (China)]. E-mail: hongchun@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Liu Pingping [Nuclear Engineering Department, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049, Shaanxi (China); Zhou Yongqiang [Nuclear Engineering Department, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049, Shaanxi (China); Cao Liangzhi [Nuclear Engineering Department, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049, Shaanxi (China)

    2007-01-15

    In the advanced reactor, the fuel assembly or core with unstructured geometry is frequently used and for calculating its fuel assembly, the transmission probability method (TPM) has been used widely. However, the rectangle or hexagon meshes are mainly used in the TPM codes for the normal core structure. The triangle meshes are most useful for expressing the complicated unstructured geometry. Even though finite element method and Monte Carlo method is very good at solving unstructured geometry problem, they are very time consuming. So we developed the TPM code based on the triangle meshes. The TPM code based on the triangle meshes was applied to the hybrid fuel geometry, and compared with the results of the MCNP code and other codes. The results of comparison were consistent with each other. The TPM with triangle meshes would thus be expected to be able to apply to the two-dimensional arbitrary fuel assembly.

  19. Development and verification of unstructured adaptive mesh technique with edge compatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Kei; Ohshima, Hiroyuki; Kunugi, Tomoaki

    2010-01-01

    In the design study of the large-sized sodium-cooled fast reactor (JSFR), one key issue is suppression of gas entrainment (GE) phenomena at a gas-liquid interface. Therefore, the authors have been developed a high-precision CFD algorithm to evaluate the GE phenomena accurately. The CFD algorithm has been developed on unstructured meshes to establish an accurate modeling of JSFR system. For two-phase interfacial flow simulations, a high-precision volume-of-fluid algorithm is employed. It was confirmed that the developed CFD algorithm could reproduce the GE phenomena in a simple GE experiment. Recently, the authors have been developed an important technique for the simulation of the GE phenomena in JSFR. That is an unstructured adaptive mesh technique which can apply fine cells dynamically to the region where the GE occurs in JSFR. In this paper, as a part of the development, a two-dimensional unstructured adaptive mesh technique is discussed. In the two-dimensional adaptive mesh technique, each cell is refined isotropically to reduce distortions of the mesh. In addition, connection cells are formed to eliminate the edge incompatibility between refined and non-refined cells. The two-dimensional unstructured adaptive mesh technique is verified by solving well-known lid-driven cavity flow problem. As a result, the two-dimensional unstructured adaptive mesh technique succeeds in providing a high-precision solution, even though poor-quality distorted initial mesh is employed. In addition, the simulation error on the two-dimensional unstructured adaptive mesh is much less than the error on the structured mesh with a larger number of cells. (author)

  20. From Pore Scale to Turbulent Flow with the Unstructured Lattice Boltzmann Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matin, Rastin

    Abstract: The lattice Boltzmann method is a class of methods in computational fluid dynamics for simulating fluid flow. Implementations on unstructured grids are particularly relevant for various engineering applications, where geometric flexibility or high resolution near a body or a wall...... is required. The main topic of this thesis is to further develop unstructured lattice Boltzmann methods for simulations of Newtonian fluid flow in three dimensions, in particular porous flow. Two methods are considered in this thesis based on the finite volume method and finite element method, respectively...

  1. A Solution Adaptive Structured/Unstructured Overset Grid Flow Solver with Applications to Helicopter Rotor Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Earl P. N.; Biswas, Rupak; Strawn, Roger C.

    1995-01-01

    This paper summarizes a method that solves both the three dimensional thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations and the Euler equations using overset structured and solution adaptive unstructured grids with applications to helicopter rotor flowfields. The overset structured grids use an implicit finite-difference method to solve the thin-layer Navier-Stokes/Euler equations while the unstructured grid uses an explicit finite-volume method to solve the Euler equations. Solutions on a helicopter rotor in hover show the ability to accurately convect the rotor wake. However, isotropic subdivision of the tetrahedral mesh rapidly increases the overall problem size.

  2. MCR2S unstructured mesh capabilities for use in shutdown dose rate analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eade, T.; Stonell, D.; Turner, A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Advancements in shutdown dose rate calculations will be needed as fusion moves from experimental reactors to full scale demonstration reactors in order to ensure the safety of personnel. • The MCR2S shutdown dose rate tool has been modified to allow shutdown dose rates calculations using an unstructured mesh. • The unstructured mesh capability of MCR2S was used on three shutdown dose rate models, a simple sphere, the ITER computational benchmark and the DEMO computational benchmark. • The results showed a reasonable agreement between an unstructured mesh approach and the CSG approach and highlighted the need to carefully choose the unstructured mesh resolution. - Abstract: As nuclear fusion progresses towards a sustainable energy source and the power of tokamak devices increases, a greater understanding of the radiation fields will be required. As well as on-load radiation fields, off-load or shutdown radiation field are an important consideration for the safety and economic viability of a commercial fusion reactor. Previously codes such as MCR2S have been written in order to predict the shutdown dose rates within, and in regions surrounding, a fusion reactor. MCR2S utilises a constructive solid geometry (CSG) model and a superimposed structured mesh to calculate 3-D maps of the shutdown dose rate. A new approach to MCR2S calculations is proposed and implemented using a single unstructured mesh to replace both the CSG model and the superimposed structured mesh. This new MCR2S approach has been demonstrated on three models of increasing complexity. These models were: a sphere, the ITER computational shutdown dose rate benchmark and the DEMO computational shutdown dose rate benchmark. In each case the results were compared to MCR2S calculations performed using MCR2S with CSG geometry and a superimposed structured mesh. It was concluded that the results from the unstructured mesh implementation of MCR2S compared well to the CSG structured mesh

  3. Positivity-preserving CE/SE schemes for solving the compressible Euler and Navier–Stokes equations on hybrid unstructured meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Hua

    2018-05-28

    We construct positivity-preserving space–time conservation element and solution element (CE/SE) schemes for solving the compressible Euler and Navier–Stokes equations on hybrid unstructured meshes consisting of triangular and rectangular elements. The schemes use an a posteriori limiter to prevent negative densities and pressures based on the premise of preserving optimal accuracy. The limiter enforces a constraint for spatial derivatives and does not change the conservative property of CE/SE schemes. Several numerical examples suggest that the proposed schemes preserve accuracy for smooth flows and strictly preserve positivity of densities and pressures for the problems involving near vacuum and very strong discontinuities.

  4. Linear Logical Voting Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DeYoung, Henry; Schürmann, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    Current approaches to electronic implementations of voting protocols involve translating legal text to source code of an imperative programming language. Because the gap between legal text and source code is very large, it is difficult to trust that the program meets its legal specification. In r...

  5. CVD-MPFA full pressure support, coupled unstructured discrete fracture-matrix Darcy-flux approximations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Raheel; Edwards, Michael G.; Lamine, Sadok; Huisman, Bastiaan A. H.; Pal, Mayur

    2017-11-01

    Two novel control-volume methods are presented for flow in fractured media, and involve coupling the control-volume distributed multi-point flux approximation (CVD-MPFA) constructed with full pressure support (FPS), to two types of discrete fracture-matrix approximation for simulation on unstructured grids; (i) involving hybrid grids and (ii) a lower dimensional fracture model. Flow is governed by Darcy's law together with mass conservation both in the matrix and the fractures, where large discontinuities in permeability tensors can occur. Finite-volume FPS schemes are more robust than the earlier CVD-MPFA triangular pressure support (TPS) schemes for problems involving highly anisotropic homogeneous and heterogeneous full-tensor permeability fields. We use a cell-centred hybrid-grid method, where fractures are modelled by lower-dimensional interfaces between matrix cells in the physical mesh but expanded to equi-dimensional cells in the computational domain. We present a simple procedure to form a consistent hybrid-grid locally for a dual-cell. We also propose a novel hybrid-grid for intersecting fractures, for the FPS method, which reduces the condition number of the global linear system and leads to larger time steps for tracer transport. The transport equation for tracer flow is coupled with the pressure equation and provides flow parameter assessment of the fracture models. Transport results obtained via TPS and FPS hybrid-grid formulations are compared with the corresponding results of fine-scale explicit equi-dimensional formulations. The results show that the hybrid-grid FPS method applies to general full-tensor fields and provides improved robust approximations compared to the hybrid-grid TPS method for fractured domains, for both weakly anisotropic permeability fields and very strong anisotropic full-tensor permeability fields where the TPS scheme exhibits spurious oscillations. The hybrid-grid FPS formulation is extended to compressible flow and the

  6. Using Text Analytics to Derive Customer Service Management Benefits from Unstructured Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Oliver; Junglas, Iris; Debortoli, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Deriving value from structured data is now commonplace. The value of unstructured textual data, however, remains mostly untapped and often unrecognized. This article describes the text analytics journeys of three organizations in the customer service management area. Based on their experiences, we...

  7. Hanging out with Which Friends? Friendship-Level Predictors of Unstructured and Unsupervised Socializing in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siennick, Sonja E.; Osgood, D. Wayne

    2012-01-01

    Companions are central to explanations of the risky nature of unstructured and unsupervised socializing, yet we know little about whom adolescents are with when hanging out. We examine predictors of how often friendship dyads hang out via multilevel analyses of longitudinal friendship-level data on over 5,000 middle schoolers. Adolescents hang out…

  8. Parallel Sn Sweeps on Unstructured Grids: Algorithms for Prioritization, Grid Partitioning, and Cycle Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plimpton, Steven J.; Hendrickson, Bruce; Burns, Shawn P.; McLendon, William III; Rauchwerger, Lawrence

    2005-01-01

    The method of discrete ordinates is commonly used to solve the Boltzmann transport equation. The solution in each ordinate direction is most efficiently computed by sweeping the radiation flux across the computational grid. For unstructured grids this poses many challenges, particularly when implemented on distributed-memory parallel machines where the grid geometry is spread across processors. We present several algorithms relevant to this approach: (a) an asynchronous message-passing algorithm that performs sweeps simultaneously in multiple ordinate directions, (b) a simple geometric heuristic to prioritize the computational tasks that a processor works on, (c) a partitioning algorithm that creates columnar-style decompositions for unstructured grids, and (d) an algorithm for detecting and eliminating cycles that sometimes exist in unstructured grids and can prevent sweeps from successfully completing. Algorithms (a) and (d) are fully parallel; algorithms (b) and (c) can be used in conjunction with (a) to achieve higher parallel efficiencies. We describe our message-passing implementations of these algorithms within a radiation transport package. Performance and scalability results are given for unstructured grids with up to 3 million elements (500 million unknowns) running on thousands of processors of Sandia National Laboratories' Intel Tflops machine and DEC-Alpha CPlant cluster

  9. A point-centered diffusion differencing for unstructured meshes in 3-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, T.S.

    1994-01-01

    We describe a point-centered diffusion discretization for 3-D unstructured meshes of polyhedra. The method has several attractive qualities, including second-order accuracy and preservation of linear solutions. A potential drawback to the scheme is that the diffusion matrix is asymmetric, in general. Results of numerical test problems illustrate the behavior of the scheme

  10. Optimizations of Unstructured Aerodynamics Computations for Many-core Architectures

    KAUST Repository

    Al Farhan, Mohammed Ahmed; Keyes, David E.

    2018-01-01

    involving thread and data-level parallelism. Our approach is based upon a multi-level hierarchical distribution of work and data across both the threads and the SIMD units within every hardware core. On a 64-core KNL chip, we achieve nearly 2.9x speedup

  11. Cryptographic Protocols:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler, Martin Joakim Bittel

    cryptography was thus concerned with message confidentiality and integrity. Modern cryptography cover a much wider range of subjects including the area of secure multiparty computation, which will be the main topic of this dissertation. Our first contribution is a new protocol for secure comparison, presented...... implemented the comparison protocol in Java and benchmarks show that is it highly competitive and practical. The biggest contribution of this dissertation is a general framework for secure multiparty computation. Instead of making new ad hoc implementations for each protocol, we want a single and extensible...... in Chapter 2. Comparisons play a key role in many systems such as online auctions and benchmarks — it is not unreasonable to say that when parties come together for a multiparty computation, it is because they want to make decisions that depend on private information. Decisions depend on comparisons. We have...

  12. Immunochemical protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pound, John D

    1998-01-01

    ... easy and important refinements often are not published. This much anticipated 2nd edition of Immunochemzcal Protocols therefore aims to provide a user-friendly up-to-date handbook of reliable techniques selected to suit the needs of molecular biologists. It covers the full breadth of the relevant established immunochemical methods, from protein blotting and immunoa...

  13. Protocol study for a randomised, controlled, double-blind, clinical trial involving virtual reality and anodal transcranial direct current stimulation for the improvement of upper limb motor function in children with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Jamile Benite Palma; Grecco, Luanda André Collange; Moura, Renata Calhes Franco de; Lazzari, Roberta Delasta; Duarte, Natalia de Almeida Carvalho; Miziara, Isabela; Melo, Gileno Edu Lameira de; Dumont, Arislander Jonathan Lopes; Galli, Manuela; Santos Oliveira, Claudia

    2017-08-11

    Down syndrome results in neuromotor impairment that affects selective motor control, compromising the acquisition of motor skills and functional independence. The aim of the proposed study is to evaluate and compare the effects of multiple-monopolar anodal transcranial direct current stimulation and sham stimulation over the primary motor cortex during upper limb motor training involving virtual reality on motor control, muscle activity, cerebral activity and functional independence. A randomised, controlled, double-blind, clinical trial is proposed. The calculation of the sample size will be defined based on the results of a pilot study involving the same methods. The participants will be randomly allocated to two groups. Evaluations will be conducted before and after the intervention as well as 1 month after the end of the intervention process. At each evaluation, three-dimensional analysis of upper limb movement muscle activity will be measured using electromyography, cerebral activity will be measured using an electroencephalogram system and intellectual capacity will be assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Virtual reality training will be performed three times a week (one 20 min session per day) for a total of 10 sessions. During the protocol, transcranial stimulation will be administered concomitantly to upper limb motor training. The results will be analysed statistically, with a p value≤0.05 considered indicative of statistical significance. The present study received approval from the Institutional Review Board of Universidade Nove de Julho (Sao Paulo,Brazil) under process number 1.540.113 and is registered with the Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials (N° RBR3PHPXB). The participating institutions have presented a declaration of participation. The volunteers will be permitted to drop out of the study at any time with no negative repercussions. The results will be published and will contribute evidence regarding the use of

  14. MPI to Coarray Fortran: Experiences with a CFD Solver for Unstructured Meshes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuj Sharma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution numerical methods and unstructured meshes are required in many applications of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD. These methods are quite computationally expensive and hence benefit from being parallelized. Message Passing Interface (MPI has been utilized traditionally as a parallelization strategy. However, the inherent complexity of MPI contributes further to the existing complexity of the CFD scientific codes. The Partitioned Global Address Space (PGAS parallelization paradigm was introduced in an attempt to improve the clarity of the parallel implementation. We present our experiences of converting an unstructured high-resolution compressible Navier-Stokes CFD solver from MPI to PGAS Coarray Fortran. We present the challenges, methodology, and performance measurements of our approach using Coarray Fortran. With the Cray compiler, we observe Coarray Fortran as a viable alternative to MPI. We are hopeful that Intel and open-source implementations could be utilized in the future.

  15. Linear Discontinuous Expansion Method using the Subcell Balances for Unstructured Geometry SN Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Ser Gi; Kim, Jong Woon; Lee, Young Ouk; Kim, Kyo Youn

    2010-01-01

    The subcell balance methods have been developed for one- and two-dimensional SN transport calculations. In this paper, a linear discontinuous expansion method using sub-cell balances (LDEM-SCB) is developed for neutral particle S N transport calculations in 3D unstructured geometrical problems. At present, this method is applied to the tetrahedral meshes. As the name means, this method assumes the linear distribution of the particle flux in each tetrahedral mesh and uses the balance equations for four sub-cells of each tetrahedral mesh to obtain the equations for the four sub-cell average fluxes which are unknowns. This method was implemented in the computer code MUST (Multi-group Unstructured geometry S N Transport). The numerical tests show that this method gives more robust solution than DFEM (Discontinuous Finite Element Method)

  16. A local level set method based on a finite element method for unstructured meshes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngo, Long Cu; Choi, Hyoung Gwon

    2016-01-01

    A local level set method for unstructured meshes has been implemented by using a finite element method. A least-square weighted residual method was employed for implicit discretization to solve the level set advection equation. By contrast, a direct re-initialization method, which is directly applicable to the local level set method for unstructured meshes, was adopted to re-correct the level set function to become a signed distance function after advection. The proposed algorithm was constructed such that the advection and direct reinitialization steps were conducted only for nodes inside the narrow band around the interface. Therefore, in the advection step, the Gauss–Seidel method was used to update the level set function using a node-by-node solution method. Some benchmark problems were solved by using the present local level set method. Numerical results have shown that the proposed algorithm is accurate and efficient in terms of computational time

  17. How to Measure Quality of Service Using Unstructured Data Analysis: A General Method Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Sperková,

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to design a general method usable for measuring the quality of the service from the customer’s point of view with the help of content analytics. Large amount of unstructured data is created by customers of the service. This data can provide a valuable feedback from the service usage. Customers talk among themselves about their experiences and feelings from consumption of the service. The design of the method is based on a systematic literature review in the area of the service quality and unstructured data analysis. Analytics and quality measurement models are collected and critically evaluated regarding their potential use for measuring IT service quality. The method can be used by IT service provider to measure and monitor service quality based on World-of-Mouth in order to continual service improvement.

  18. Discrete Adjoint-Based Design Optimization of Unsteady Turbulent Flows on Dynamic Unstructured Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Eric J.; Diskin, Boris; Yamaleev, Nail K.

    2009-01-01

    An adjoint-based methodology for design optimization of unsteady turbulent flows on dynamic unstructured grids is described. The implementation relies on an existing unsteady three-dimensional unstructured grid solver capable of dynamic mesh simulations and discrete adjoint capabilities previously developed for steady flows. The discrete equations for the primal and adjoint systems are presented for the backward-difference family of time-integration schemes on both static and dynamic grids. The consistency of sensitivity derivatives is established via comparisons with complex-variable computations. The current work is believed to be the first verified implementation of an adjoint-based optimization methodology for the true time-dependent formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations in a practical computational code. Large-scale shape optimizations are demonstrated for turbulent flows over a tiltrotor geometry and a simulated aeroelastic motion of a fighter jet.

  19. A local level set method based on a finite element method for unstructured meshes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngo, Long Cu; Choi, Hyoung Gwon [School of Mechanical Engineering, Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    A local level set method for unstructured meshes has been implemented by using a finite element method. A least-square weighted residual method was employed for implicit discretization to solve the level set advection equation. By contrast, a direct re-initialization method, which is directly applicable to the local level set method for unstructured meshes, was adopted to re-correct the level set function to become a signed distance function after advection. The proposed algorithm was constructed such that the advection and direct reinitialization steps were conducted only for nodes inside the narrow band around the interface. Therefore, in the advection step, the Gauss–Seidel method was used to update the level set function using a node-by-node solution method. Some benchmark problems were solved by using the present local level set method. Numerical results have shown that the proposed algorithm is accurate and efficient in terms of computational time.

  20. WebDat: bridging the gap between unstructured and structured data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogiec, Jerzy M.; Trombly-Freytag, Kelley; Carcagno, Ruben

    2008-01-01

    Accelerator R and D environments produce data characterized by different levels of organization. Whereas some systems produce repetitively predictable and standardized structured data, others may produce data of unknown or changing structure. In addition, structured data, typically sets of numeric values, are frequently logically connected with unstructured content (e.g., images, graphs, comments). Despite these different characteristics, a coherent, organized and integrated view of all information is sought out. WebDat is a system conceived as a result of efforts in this direction. It provides a uniform and searchable view of structured and unstructured data via common metadata, regardless of the repository used (DBMS or file system). It also allows for processing data and creating interactive reports. WebDat supports metadata management, administration, data and content access, application integration via Web services, and Web-based collaborative analysis

  1. WebDat: bridging the gap between unstructured and structured data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogiec, Jerzy M.; Trombly-Freytag, Kelley; Carcagno, Ruben; /Fermilab

    2008-11-01

    Accelerator R&D environments produce data characterized by different levels of organization. Whereas some systems produce repetitively predictable and standardized structured data, others may produce data of unknown or changing structure. In addition, structured data, typically sets of numeric values, are frequently logically connected with unstructured content (e.g., images, graphs, comments). Despite these different characteristics, a coherent, organized and integrated view of all information is sought out. WebDat is a system conceived as a result of efforts in this direction. It provides a uniform and searchable view of structured and unstructured data via common metadata, regardless of the repository used (DBMS or file system). It also allows for processing data and creating interactive reports. WebDat supports metadata management, administration, data and content access, application integration via Web services, and Web-based collaborative analysis.

  2. On the application of Chimera/unstructured hybrid grids for conjugate heat transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Kai-Hsiung; Liou, Meng-Sing

    1995-01-01

    A hybrid grid system that combines the Chimera overset grid scheme and an unstructured grid method is developed to study fluid flow and heat transfer problems. With the proposed method, the solid structural region, in which only the heat conduction is considered, can be easily represented using an unstructured grid method. As for the fluid flow region external to the solid material, the Chimera overset grid scheme has been shown to be very flexible and efficient in resolving complex configurations. The numerical analyses require the flow field solution and material thermal response to be obtained simultaneously. A continuous transfer of temperature and heat flux is specified at the interface, which connects the solid structure and the fluid flow as an integral system. Numerical results are compared with analytical and experimental data for a flat plate and a C3X cooled turbine cascade. A simplified drum-disk system is also simulated to show the effectiveness of this hybrid grid system.

  3. Nonlinear Projective-Iteration Methods for Solving Transport Problems on Regular and Unstructured Grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitriy Y. Anistratov; Adrian Constantinescu; Loren Roberts; William Wieselquist

    2007-01-01

    This is a project in the field of fundamental research on numerical methods for solving the particle transport equation. Numerous practical problems require to use unstructured meshes, for example, detailed nuclear reactor assembly-level calculations, large-scale reactor core calculations, radiative hydrodynamics problems, where the mesh is determined by hydrodynamic processes, and well-logging problems in which the media structure has very complicated geometry. Currently this is an area of very active research in numerical transport theory. main issues in developing numerical methods for solving the transport equation are the accuracy of the numerical solution and effectiveness of iteration procedure. The problem in case of unstructured grids is that it is very difficult to derive an iteration algorithm that will be unconditionally stable

  4. Implicit Unstructured Aerodynamics on Emerging Multi- and Many-Core HPC Architectures

    KAUST Repository

    Al Farhan, Mohammed A.

    2017-03-13

    Shared memory parallelization of PETSc-FUN3D, an unstructured tetrahedral mesh Euler code previously characterized for distributed memory Single Program, Multiple Data (SPMD) for thousands of nodes, is hybridized with shared memory Single Instruction, Multiple Data (SIMD) for hundreds of threads per node. We explore thread-level performance optimizations on state-of-the-art multi- and many-core Intel processors, including the second generation of Xeon Phi, Knights Landing (KNL). We study the performance on the KNL with different configurations of memory and cluster modes, with code optimizations to minimize indirect addressing and enhance the cache locality. The optimizations employed are expected to be of value other unstructured applications as many-core architecture evolves.

  5. A finite element formulation of the Darwin electromagnetic PIC model for unstructured meshes of triangles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnendrucker, E.; Ambrosiano, J.; Brandon, S.

    1993-01-01

    The Darwin model for electromagnetic simulation is a reduced form of the Maxwell-Vlasov system that retains all essential physical processes except the propagation of light waves. It is useful in modeling systems for which the light-transit timescales are less important than Alfven wave propagation, or quasistatic effects. The Darwin model is elliptic rather than hyperbolic as are the full set of Maxwell's equations. Appropriate boundary conditions must be chosen for the problems to be well-posed. Using finite element techniques to apply this method for unstructured triangular meshes, a mesh made up of unstructured triangles allows realistic device geometries to be modeled without the necessity of using a large number of mesh points. Analyzing the dispersion relation allows us to validate the code as well as the Darwin approximation

  6. Linear systems with unstructured multiplicative uncertainty: Modeling and robust stability analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Matušů

    Full Text Available This article deals with continuous-time Linear Time-Invariant (LTI Single-Input Single-Output (SISO systems affected by unstructured multiplicative uncertainty. More specifically, its aim is to present an approach to the construction of uncertain models based on the appropriate selection of a nominal system and a weight function and to apply the fundamentals of robust stability investigation for considered sort of systems. The initial theoretical parts are followed by three extensive illustrative examples in which the first order time-delay, second order and third order plants with parametric uncertainty are modeled as systems with unstructured multiplicative uncertainty and subsequently, the robust stability of selected feedback loops containing constructed models and chosen controllers is analyzed and obtained results are discussed.

  7. Emergence of Unstructured Data and Scope of Big Data in Indian Education

    OpenAIRE

    S S Kolhatkar; M Y Patil; S P Kolhatkar; M S Paranjape

    2017-01-01

    The Indian Education sector has grown exponentially in the last few decades as per various official reports[22]. Large amount of information pertaining to education sector is generated every year. This has led to the requirement for managing and analyzing the structured and unstructured information related to various stakeholders. At the same time there is a need to adapt to the dynamic global world by channelizing young talent in appropriate domains by cognizing and deriving the knowledge ab...

  8. Coupling an Unstructured NoSQL Database with a Geographic Information System

    OpenAIRE

    Holemans, Amandine; Kasprzyk, Jean-Paul; Donnay, Jean-Paul

    2018-01-01

    The management of unstructured NoSQL (Not only Structured Query Language) databases has undergone a great development in the last years mainly thanks to Big Data. Nevertheless, the specificity of spatial information is not purposely taken into account. To overcome this difficulty, we propose to couple a NoSQL database with a spatial Relational Data Base Management System (RDBMS). Exchanges of information between these two systems are illustrated with relevant examples ...

  9. Towards a supervised rescoring system for unstructured data bases used to build specialized dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Rico-Sulayes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes the architecture for a system that uses previously learned weights to sort query results from unstructured data bases when building specialized dictionaries. A common resource in the construction of dictionaries, unstructured data bases have been especially useful in providing information about lexical items frequencies and examples in use. However, when building specialized dictionaries, whose selection of lexical items does not rely on frequency, the use of these data bases gets restricted to a simple provider of examples. Even in this task, the information unstructured data bases provide may not be very useful when looking for specialized uses of lexical items with various meanings and very long lists of results. In the face of this problem, long lists of hits can be rescored based on a supervised learning model that relies on previously helpful results. The allocation of a vast set of high quality training data for this rescoring system is reported here. Finally, the architecture of sucha system,an unprecedented tool in specialized lexicography, is proposed.

  10. Numerical methods and analysis of the nonlinear Vlasov equation on unstructured meshes of phase space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besse, Nicolas

    2003-01-01

    This work is dedicated to the mathematical and numerical studies of the Vlasov equation on phase-space unstructured meshes. In the first part, new semi-Lagrangian methods are developed to solve the Vlasov equation on unstructured meshes of phase space. As the Vlasov equation describes multi-scale phenomena, we also propose original methods based on a wavelet multi-resolution analysis. The resulting algorithm leads to an adaptive mesh-refinement strategy. The new massively-parallel computers allow to use these methods with several phase-space dimensions. Particularly, these numerical schemes are applied to plasma physics and charged particle beams in the case of two-, three-, and four-dimensional Vlasov-Poisson systems. In the second part we prove the convergence and give error estimates for several numerical schemes applied to the Vlasov-Poisson system when strong and classical solutions are considered. First we show the convergence of a semi-Lagrangian scheme on an unstructured mesh of phase space, when the regularity hypotheses for the initial data are minimal. Then we demonstrate the convergence of classes of high-order semi-Lagrangian schemes in the framework of the regular classical solution. In order to reconstruct the distribution function, we consider symmetrical Lagrange polynomials, B-Splines and wavelets bases. Finally we prove the convergence of a semi-Lagrangian scheme with propagation of gradients yielding a high-order and stable reconstruction of the solution. (author) [fr

  11. Sensation Seeking and Adolescent Alcohol Use: Exploring the Mediating Role of Unstructured Socializing With Peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sznitman, Sharon; Engel-Yeger, Batya

    2017-05-01

    Researchers have theorized that adolescents high in sensation seeking are particularly sensitive to positive reinforcement and the rewarding outcomes of alcohol use, and thus that the personality vulnerability is a direct causal risk factor for alcohol use. In contrast, the routine activity perspective theorizes that part of the effect of sensation seeking on alcohol use goes through the propensity that sensation seekers have towards unstructured socializing with peers. The study tests a model with indirect and direct paths from sensation seeking and participation in unstructured peer socialization to adolescent alcohol use. Cross-sectional data were collected from 360 students in a state-secular Jewish high school (10th to 12th grade) in the center region of Israel. The sample was equally divided between boys (51.9%) and girls (48.1%), respondents' age ranged from 15 to 17 years (mean = 16.02 ± 0.85). Structural equation modeling was used to test the direct and indirect paths. While sensation seeking had a significant direct path to adolescent alcohol use, part of the association was mediated by unstructured socializing with peers. The mediated paths were similar for boys and girls alike. Sensation seeking is primarily biologically determined and prevention efforts are unlikely to modify this personality vulnerability. The results of this study suggest that a promising prevention avenue is to modify extracurricular participation patterns of vulnerable adolescents. © The Author 2017. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  12. Unstructured Socializing with Peers and Delinquent Behavior: A Genetically Informed Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldrum, Ryan C; Barnes, J C

    2017-09-01

    A large body of research finds that unstructured socializing with peers is positively associated with delinquency during adolescence. Yet, existing research has not ruled out the potential for confounding due to genetic factors and factors that can be traced to environments shared between siblings. To fill this void, the current study examines whether the association between unstructured socializing with peers and delinquent behavior remains when accounting for genetic factors, shared environmental influences, and a variety of non-shared environmental covariates. We do so by using data from the twin subsample of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (n = 1200 at wave 1 and 1103 at wave 2; 51% male; mean age at wave 1 = 15.63). Results from both cross-sectional and lagged models indicate the association between unstructured socializing with peers and delinquent behavior remains when controlling for both genetic and environmental influences. Supplementary analyses examining the association under different specifications offer additional, albeit qualified, evidence supportive of this finding. The study concludes with a discussion highlighting the importance of limiting free time with friends in the absence of authority figures as a strategy for reducing delinquency during adolescence.

  13. Incorporating Unstructured Socializing Into the Study of Secondary Exposure to Community Violence: Etiological and Empirical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Gregory M; Messner, Steven F; Rees, Carter

    2014-07-01

    Secondary exposure to community violence, defined as witnessing or hearing violence in the community, has the potential to profoundly impact long-term development, health, happiness, and security. While research has explored pathways to community violence exposure at the individual, family, and neighborhood levels, prior work has largely neglected situational factors conducive to secondary violence exposure. The present study evaluates "unstructured socializing with peers in the absence of authority figures" as a situational process that has implications for secondary exposure to violence. Results indicate that a measure of unstructured socializing was significantly associated with exposure to violence, net of an array of theoretically relevant covariates of violence exposure. Moreover, the relationships between exposure to violence and three of the most well-established correlates of violence exposure in the literature-age, male, and prior violence-were mediated to varying degrees by unstructured socializing. The results suggest a more nuanced approach to the study of secondary violence exposure that expands the focus of attention beyond individual and neighborhood background factors to include situational opportunities presented by patterns of everyday activities. © The Author(s) 2013.

  14. Coronary artery disease risk assessment from unstructured electronic health records using text mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonnagaddala, Jitendra; Liaw, Siaw-Teng; Ray, Pradeep; Kumar, Manish; Chang, Nai-Wen; Dai, Hong-Jie

    2015-12-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) often leads to myocardial infarction, which may be fatal. Risk factors can be used to predict CAD, which may subsequently lead to prevention or early intervention. Patient data such as co-morbidities, medication history, social history and family history are required to determine the risk factors for a disease. However, risk factor data are usually embedded in unstructured clinical narratives if the data is not collected specifically for risk assessment purposes. Clinical text mining can be used to extract data related to risk factors from unstructured clinical notes. This study presents methods to extract Framingham risk factors from unstructured electronic health records using clinical text mining and to calculate 10-year coronary artery disease risk scores in a cohort of diabetic patients. We developed a rule-based system to extract risk factors: age, gender, total cholesterol, HDL-C, blood pressure, diabetes history and smoking history. The results showed that the output from the text mining system was reliable, but there was a significant amount of missing data to calculate the Framingham risk score. A systematic approach for understanding missing data was followed by implementation of imputation strategies. An analysis of the 10-year Framingham risk scores for coronary artery disease in this cohort has shown that the majority of the diabetic patients are at moderate risk of CAD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Exploring Shared-Memory Optimizations for an Unstructured Mesh CFD Application on Modern Parallel Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Mudigere, Dheevatsa

    2015-05-01

    In this work, we revisit the 1999 Gordon Bell Prize winning PETSc-FUN3D aerodynamics code, extending it with highly-tuned shared-memory parallelization and detailed performance analysis on modern highly parallel architectures. An unstructured-grid implicit flow solver, which forms the backbone of computational aerodynamics, poses particular challenges due to its large irregular working sets, unstructured memory accesses, and variable/limited amount of parallelism. This code, based on a domain decomposition approach, exposes tradeoffs between the number of threads assigned to each MPI-rank sub domain, and the total number of domains. By applying several algorithm- and architecture-aware optimization techniques for unstructured grids, we show a 6.9X speed-up in performance on a single-node Intel® XeonTM1 E5 2690 v2 processor relative to the out-of-the-box compilation. Our scaling studies on TACC Stampede supercomputer show that our optimizations continue to provide performance benefits over baseline implementation as we scale up to 256 nodes.

  16. Development of 3-D Flow Analysis Code for Fuel Assembly using Unstructured Grid System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myong, Hyon Kook; Kim, Jong Eun; Ahn, Jong Ki; Yang, Seung Yong [Kookmin Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-03-15

    The flow through a nuclear rod bundle with mixing vanes are very complex and required a suitable turbulence model to be predicted accurately. Final objective of this study is to develop a CFD code for fluid flow and heat transfer analysis in a nuclear fuel assembly using unstructured grid system. In order to develop a CFD code for fluid flow and heat transfer analysis in a nuclear fuel assembly using unstructured grid system, the following researches are made: - Development of numerical algorithm for CFD code's solver - Grid and geometric connectivity data - Development of software(PowerCFD code) for fluid flow and heat transfer analysis in a nuclear fuel assembly using unstructured grid system - Modulation of software(PowerCFD code) - Development of turbulence model - Development of analysis module of RANS/LES hybrid models - Analysis of turbulent flow and heat transfer - Basic study on LES analysis - Development of main frame on pre/post processors based on GUI - Algorithm for fully-developed flow.

  17. Development of 3-D Flow Analysis Code for Fuel Assembly using Unstructured Grid System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myong, Hyon Kook; Kim, Jong Eun; Ahn, Jong Ki; Yang, Seung Yong

    2007-03-01

    The flow through a nuclear rod bundle with mixing vanes are very complex and required a suitable turbulence model to be predicted accurately. Final objective of this study is to develop a CFD code for fluid flow and heat transfer analysis in a nuclear fuel assembly using unstructured grid system. In order to develop a CFD code for fluid flow and heat transfer analysis in a nuclear fuel assembly using unstructured grid system, the following researches are made: - Development of numerical algorithm for CFD code's solver - Grid and geometric connectivity data - Development of software(PowerCFD code) for fluid flow and heat transfer analysis in a nuclear fuel assembly using unstructured grid system - Modulation of software(PowerCFD code) - Development of turbulence model - Development of analysis module of RANS/LES hybrid models - Analysis of turbulent flow and heat transfer - Basic study on LES analysis - Development of main frame on pre/post processors based on GUI - Algorithm for fully-developed flow

  18. Development and comparison of different spatial numerical schemes for the radiative transfer equation resolution using three-dimensional unstructured meshes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capdevila, R.; Perez-Segarra, C.D.; Oliva, A.

    2010-01-01

    In the present work four different spatial numerical schemes have been developed with the aim of reducing the false-scattering of the numerical solutions obtained with the discrete ordinates (DOM) and the finite volume (FVM) methods. These schemes have been designed specifically for unstructured meshes by means of the extrapolation of nodal values of intensity on the studied radiative direction. The schemes have been tested and compared in several 3D benchmark test cases using both structured orthogonal and unstructured grids.

  19. Carotenoid content and root color of cultivated carrot: a candidate-gene association study using an original broad unstructured population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Jourdan

    Full Text Available Accumulated in large amounts in carrot, carotenoids are an important product quality attribute and therefore a major breeding trait. However, the knowledge of carotenoid accumulation genetic control in this root vegetable is still limited. In order to identify the genetic variants linked to this character, we performed an association mapping study with a candidate gene approach. We developed an original unstructured population with a broad genetic basis to avoid the pitfall of false positive detection due to population stratification. We genotyped 109 SNPs located in 17 candidate genes – mostly carotenoid biosynthesis genes – on 380 individuals, and tested the association with carotenoid contents and color components. Total carotenoids and β-carotene contents were significantly associated with genes zeaxanthin epoxydase (ZEP, phytoene desaturase (PDS and carotenoid isomerase (CRTISO while α-carotene was associated with CRTISO and plastid terminal oxidase (PTOX genes. Color components were associated most significantly with ZEP. Our results suggest the involvement of the couple PDS/PTOX and ZEP in carotenoid accumulation, as the result of the metabolic and catabolic activities respectively. This study brings new insights in the understanding of the carotenoid pathway in non-photosynthetic organs.

  20. Study protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Benjamin E; Hendrick, Paul; Bateman, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    avoidance behaviours, catastrophising, self-efficacy, sport and leisure activity participation, and general quality of life. Follow-up will be 3 and 6 months. The analysis will focus on descriptive statistics and confidence intervals. The qualitative components will follow a thematic analysis approach....... DISCUSSION: This study will evaluate the feasibility of running a definitive large-scale trial on patients with patellofemoral pain, within the NHS in the UK. We will identify strengths and weaknesses of the proposed protocol and the utility and characteristics of the outcome measures. The results from...... this study will inform the design of a multicentre trial. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN35272486....

  1. Recent Development in the CESE Method for the Solution of the Navier-Stokes Equations Using Unstructured Triangular or Tetrahedral Meshes With High Aspect Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sin-Chung; Chang, Chau-Lyan; Yen, Joseph C.

    2013-01-01

    In the multidimensional CESE development, triangles and tetrahedra turn out to be the most natural building blocks for 2D and 3D spatial meshes. As such the CESE method is compatible with the simplest unstructured meshes and thus can be easily applied to solve problems with complex geometries. However, because the method uses space-time staggered stencils, solution decoupling may become a real nuisance in applications involving unstructured meshes. In this paper we will describe a simple and general remedy which, according to numerical experiments, has removed any possibility of solution decoupling. Moreover, in a real-world viscous flow simulation near a solid wall, one often encounters a case where a boundary with high curvature or sharp corner is surrounded by triangular/tetrahedral meshes of extremely high aspect ratio (up to 106). For such an extreme case, the spatial projection of a space-time compounded conservation element constructed using the original CESE design may become highly concave and thus its centroid (referred to as a spatial solution point) may lie far outside of the spatial projection. It could even be embedded beyond a solid wall boundary and causes serious numerical difficulties. In this paper we will also present a new procedure for constructing conservation elements and solution elements which effectively overcomes the difficulties associated with the original design. Another difficulty issue which was addressed more recently is the wellknown fact that accuracy of gradient computations involving triangular/tetrahedral grids deteriorates rapidly as the aspect ratio of grid cells increases. The root cause of this difficulty was clearly identified and several remedies to overcome it were found through a rigorous mathematical analysis. However, because of the length of the current paper and the complexity of mathematics involved, this new work will be presented in another paper.

  2. Model Additional Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockwood, Laura

    2001-01-01

    Since the end of the cold war a series of events has changed the circumstances and requirements of the safeguards system. The discovery of a clandestine nuclear weapons program in Iraq, the continuing difficulty in verifying the initial report of Democratic People's Republic of Korea upon entry into force of their safeguards agreement, and the decision of the South African Government to give up its nuclear weapons program and join the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons have all played a role in an ambitious effort by IAEA Member States and the Secretariat to strengthen the safeguards system. A major milestone in this effort was reached in May 1997 when the IAEA Board of Governors approved a Model Protocol Additional to Safeguards Agreements. The Model Additional Protocol was negotiated over a period of less than a year by an open-ended committee of the Board involving some 70 Member States and two regional inspectorates. The IAEA is now in the process of negotiating additional protocols, State by State, and implementing them. These additional protocols will provide the IAEA with rights of access to information about all activities related to the use of nuclear material in States with comprehensive safeguards agreements and greatly expanded physical access for IAEA inspectors to confirm or verify this information. In conjunction with this, the IAEA is working on the integration of these measures with those provided for in comprehensive safeguards agreements, with a view to maximizing the effectiveness and efficiency, within available resources, the implementation of safeguards. Details concerning the Model Additional Protocol are given. (author)

  3. Beyond protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanderhoeven, Sonia; Branquart, Etienne; Casaer, Jim

    2017-01-01

    Risk assessment tools for listing invasive alien species need to incorporate all available evidence and expertise. Beyond the wealth of protocols developed to date, we argue that the current way of performing risk analysis has several shortcomings. In particular, lack of data on ecological impact...... information on risk and the exploration of improved methods for decision making on biodiversity management. This is crucial for efficient conservation resource allocation and uptake by stakeholders and the public......., transparency and repeatability of assessments as well as the incorporation of uncertainty should all be explicitly considered. We recommend improved quality control of risk assessments through formalized peer review with clear feedback between assessors and reviewers. Alternatively, a consensus building...

  4. A software platform for continuum modeling of ion channels based on unstructured mesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu, B; Bai, S Y; Xie, Y; Zhang, L B; Lu, B Z; Chen, M X

    2014-01-01

    Most traditional continuum molecular modeling adopted finite difference or finite volume methods which were based on a structured mesh (grid). Unstructured meshes were only occasionally used, but an increased number of applications emerge in molecular simulations. To facilitate the continuum modeling of biomolecular systems based on unstructured meshes, we are developing a software platform with tools which are particularly beneficial to those approaches. This work describes the software system specifically for the simulation of a typical, complex molecular procedure: ion transport through a three-dimensional channel system that consists of a protein and a membrane. The platform contains three parts: a meshing tool chain for ion channel systems, a parallel finite element solver for the Poisson–Nernst–Planck equations describing the electrodiffusion process of ion transport, and a visualization program for continuum molecular modeling. The meshing tool chain in the platform, which consists of a set of mesh generation tools, is able to generate high-quality surface and volume meshes for ion channel systems. The parallel finite element solver in our platform is based on the parallel adaptive finite element package PHG which wass developed by one of the authors [1]. As a featured component of the platform, a new visualization program, VCMM, has specifically been developed for continuum molecular modeling with an emphasis on providing useful facilities for unstructured mesh-based methods and for their output analysis and visualization. VCMM provides a graphic user interface and consists of three modules: a molecular module, a meshing module and a numerical module. A demonstration of the platform is provided with a study of two real proteins, the connexin 26 and hemolysin ion channels. (paper)

  5. Commutative discrete filtering on unstructured grids based on least-squares techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haselbacher, Andreas; Vasilyev, Oleg V.

    2003-01-01

    The present work is concerned with the development of commutative discrete filters for unstructured grids and contains two main contributions. First, building on the work of Marsden et al. [J. Comp. Phys. 175 (2002) 584], a new commutative discrete filter based on least-squares techniques is constructed. Second, a new analysis of the discrete commutation error is carried out. The analysis indicates that the discrete commutation error is not only dependent on the number of vanishing moments of the filter weights, but also on the order of accuracy of the discrete gradient operator. The results of the analysis are confirmed by grid-refinement studies

  6. Unstructured Cartesian refinement with sharp interface immersed boundary method for 3D unsteady incompressible flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelidis, Dionysios; Chawdhary, Saurabh; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2016-11-01

    A novel numerical method is developed for solving the 3D, unsteady, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations on locally refined fully unstructured Cartesian grids in domains with arbitrarily complex immersed boundaries. Owing to the utilization of the fractional step method on an unstructured Cartesian hybrid staggered/non-staggered grid layout, flux mismatch and pressure discontinuity issues are avoided and the divergence free constraint is inherently satisfied to machine zero. Auxiliary/hanging nodes are used to facilitate the discretization of the governing equations. The second-order accuracy of the solver is ensured by using multi-dimension Lagrange interpolation operators and appropriate differencing schemes at the interface of regions with different levels of refinement. The sharp interface immersed boundary method is augmented with local near-boundary refinement to handle arbitrarily complex boundaries. The discrete momentum equation is solved with the matrix free Newton-Krylov method and the Krylov-subspace method is employed to solve the Poisson equation. The second-order accuracy of the proposed method on unstructured Cartesian grids is demonstrated by solving the Poisson equation with a known analytical solution. A number of three-dimensional laminar flow simulations of increasing complexity illustrate the ability of the method to handle flows across a range of Reynolds numbers and flow regimes. Laminar steady and unsteady flows past a sphere and the oblique vortex shedding from a circular cylinder mounted between two end walls demonstrate the accuracy, the efficiency and the smooth transition of scales and coherent structures across refinement levels. Large-eddy simulation (LES) past a miniature wind turbine rotor, parameterized using the actuator line approach, indicates the ability of the fully unstructured solver to simulate complex turbulent flows. Finally, a geometry resolving LES of turbulent flow past a complete hydrokinetic turbine illustrates

  7. An unstructured shock-fitting solver for hypersonic plasma flows in chemical non-equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, R.; Bonfiglioli, A.; D'Angola, A.; Colonna, G.; Paciorri, R.

    2015-11-01

    A CFD solver, using Residual Distribution Schemes on unstructured grids, has been extended to deal with inviscid chemical non-equilibrium flows. The conservative equations have been coupled with a kinetic model for argon plasma which includes the argon metastable state as independent species, taking into account electron-atom and atom-atom processes. Results in the case of an hypersonic flow around an infinite cylinder, obtained by using both shock-capturing and shock-fitting approaches, show higher accuracy of the shock-fitting approach.

  8. 'Unstructured Data' Practices in Polar Institutions and Networks: a Case Study with the Arctic Options Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Arthur Berkman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Arctic Options: Holistic Integration for Arctic Coastal-Marine Sustainability is a new three-year research project to assess future infrastructure associated with the Arctic Ocean regarding: (1 natural and living environment; (2 built environment; (3 natural resource development; and (4 governance. For the assessments, Arctic Options will generate objective relational schema from numeric data as well as textual data. This paper will focus on the ‘long tail of smaller, heterogeneous, and often unstructured datasets’ that ‘usually receive minimal data management consideration’,as observed in the 2013 Communiqué from the International Forum on Polar Data Activities in Global Data Systems.

  9. Managing Competition “Unstructured Decision Making” Benefits for Executives, Enterprise and Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ernesto Martín-Pérez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In an increasingly uncertain and changing environment, the success of the decisions is limited and thus obtains the expected results. Hence the need to manage professional competences in executives, as those ones encourages and contributes to job performance. For this reason, we want to argue the impact of managing competition “unstructured decision making” by executives, enterprises and Cuban society. The results are expressed in the description of the process and the advantages that executives, enterprises and society could obtain in general.

  10. Unstructured 3D core calculations with the descartes system application to the JHR research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudron, A. M.; Doderlein, C.; Guerin, P.; Lautard, J. J.; Moreau, F.

    2007-01-01

    Recent developments in the DESCARTES system enable neutronics calculations dealing with very complex unstructured geometrical configurations. The discretization can be made either by using a very fine Cartesian mesh and the fast simplified transport (SPN) solver MINOS, or a discretization based on triangles and the SP1 solver MINARET. In order to perform parallel calculations dealing with a very fine mesh in 3D, a domain decomposition with non overlapping domains has been implemented. To illustrate these capabilities, we present an application on the future European research reactor JHR dedicated to technological irradiations. (authors)

  11. An Interpreted Language and System for the Visualization of Unstructured Meshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Patrick J.; Gerald-Yamasaki, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    We present an interpreted language and system supporting the visualization of unstructured meshes and the manipulation of shapes defined in terms of mesh subsets. The language features primitives inspired by geometric modeling, mathematical morphology and algebraic topology. The adaptation of the topology ideas to an interpreted environment, along with support for programming constructs such, as user function definition, provide a flexible system for analyzing a mesh and for calculating with shapes defined in terms of the mesh. We present results demonstrating some of the capabilities of the language, based on an implementation called the Shape Calculator, for tetrahedral meshes in R^3.

  12. COMPUTATIONAL EFFICIENCY OF A MODIFIED SCATTERING KERNEL FOR FULL-COUPLED PHOTON-ELECTRON TRANSPORT PARALLEL COMPUTING WITH UNSTRUCTURED TETRAHEDRAL MESHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JONG WOON KIM

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we introduce a modified scattering kernel approach to avoid the unnecessarily repeated calculations involved with the scattering source calculation, and used it with parallel computing to effectively reduce the computation time. Its computational efficiency was tested for three-dimensional full-coupled photon-electron transport problems using our computer program which solves the multi-group discrete ordinates transport equation by using the discontinuous finite element method with unstructured tetrahedral meshes for complicated geometrical problems. The numerical tests show that we can improve speed up to 17∼42 times for the elapsed time per iteration using the modified scattering kernel, not only in the single CPU calculation but also in the parallel computing with several CPUs.

  13. A nonlinear model predictive control formulation for obstacle avoidance in high-speed autonomous ground vehicles in unstructured environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiechao; Jayakumar, Paramsothy; Stein, Jeffrey L.; Ersal, Tulga

    2018-06-01

    This paper presents a nonlinear model predictive control (MPC) formulation for obstacle avoidance in high-speed, large-size autono-mous ground vehicles (AGVs) with high centre of gravity (CoG) that operate in unstructured environments, such as military vehicles. The term 'unstructured' in this context denotes that there are no lanes or traffic rules to follow. Existing MPC formulations for passenger vehicles in structured environments do not readily apply to this context. Thus, a new nonlinear MPC formulation is developed to navigate an AGV from its initial position to a target position at high-speed safely. First, a new cost function formulation is used that aims to find the shortest path to the target position, since no reference trajectory exists in unstructured environments. Second, a region partitioning approach is used in conjunction with a multi-phase optimal control formulation to accommodate the complicated forms the obstacle-free region can assume due to the presence of multiple obstacles in the prediction horizon in an unstructured environment. Third, the no-wheel-lift-off condition, which is the major dynamical safety concern for high-speed, high-CoG AGVs, is ensured by limiting the steering angle within a range obtained offline using a 14 degrees-of-freedom vehicle dynamics model. Thus, a safe, high-speed navigation is enabled in an unstructured environment. Simulations of an AGV approaching multiple obstacles are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  14. Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin method using a new type of WENO limiters on unstructured meshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jun; Zhong, Xinghui; Shu, Chi-Wang; Qiu, Jianxian

    2013-09-01

    In this paper we generalize a new type of limiters based on the weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) finite volume methodology for the Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin (RKDG) methods solving nonlinear hyperbolic conservation laws, which were recently developed in [32] for structured meshes, to two-dimensional unstructured triangular meshes. The key idea of such limiters is to use the entire polynomials of the DG solutions from the troubled cell and its immediate neighboring cells, and then apply the classical WENO procedure to form a convex combination of these polynomials based on smoothness indicators and nonlinear weights, with suitable adjustments to guarantee conservation. The main advantage of this new limiter is its simplicity in implementation, especially for the unstructured meshes considered in this paper, as only information from immediate neighbors is needed and the usage of complicated geometric information of the meshes is largely avoided. Numerical results for both scalar equations and Euler systems of compressible gas dynamics are provided to illustrate the good performance of this procedure.

  15. A three-dimensional electrostatic particle-in-cell methodology on unstructured Delaunay-Voronoi grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatsonis, Nikolaos A.; Spirkin, Anton

    2009-01-01

    The mathematical formulation and computational implementation of a three-dimensional particle-in-cell methodology on unstructured Delaunay-Voronoi tetrahedral grids is presented. The method allows simulation of plasmas in complex domains and incorporates the duality of the Delaunay-Voronoi in all aspects of the particle-in-cell cycle. Charge assignment and field interpolation weighting schemes of zero- and first-order are formulated based on the theory of long-range constraints. Electric potential and fields are derived from a finite-volume formulation of Gauss' law using the Voronoi-Delaunay dual. Boundary conditions and the algorithms for injection, particle loading, particle motion, and particle tracking are implemented for unstructured Delaunay grids. Error and sensitivity analysis examines the effects of particles/cell, grid scaling, and timestep on the numerical heating, the slowing-down time, and the deflection times. The problem of current collection by cylindrical Langmuir probes in collisionless plasmas is used for validation. Numerical results compare favorably with previous numerical and analytical solutions for a wide range of probe radius to Debye length ratios, probe potentials, and electron to ion temperature ratios. The versatility of the methodology is demonstrated with the simulation of a complex plasma microsensor, a directional micro-retarding potential analyzer that includes a low transparency micro-grid.

  16. Introducing a distributed unstructured mesh into gyrokinetic particle-in-cell code, XGC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Eisung; Shephard, Mark; Seol, E. Seegyoung; Kalyanaraman, Kaushik

    2017-10-01

    XGC has shown good scalability for large leadership supercomputers. The current production version uses a copy of the entire unstructured finite element mesh on every MPI rank. Although an obvious scalability issue if the mesh sizes are to be dramatically increased, the current approach is also not optimal with respect to data locality of particles and mesh information. To address these issues we have initiated the development of a distributed mesh PIC method. This approach directly addresses the base scalability issue with respect to mesh size and, through the use of a mesh entity centric view of the particle mesh relationship, provides opportunities to address data locality needs of many core and GPU supported heterogeneous systems. The parallel mesh PIC capabilities are being built on the Parallel Unstructured Mesh Infrastructure (PUMI). The presentation will first overview the form of mesh distribution used and indicate the structures and functions used to support the mesh, the particles and their interaction. Attention will then focus on the node-level optimizations being carried out to ensure performant operation of all PIC operations on the distributed mesh. Partnership for Edge Physics Simulation (EPSI) Grant No. DE-SC0008449 and Center for Extended Magnetohydrodynamic Modeling (CEMM) Grant No. DE-SC0006618.

  17. A hybrid Boundary Element Unstructured Transmission-line (BEUT) method for accurate 2D electromagnetic simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.simmons@nottingham.ac.uk; Cools, Kristof; Sewell, Phillip

    2016-11-01

    Time domain electromagnetic simulation tools have the ability to model transient, wide-band applications, and non-linear problems. The Boundary Element Method (BEM) and the Transmission Line Modeling (TLM) method are both well established numerical techniques for simulating time-varying electromagnetic fields. The former surface based method can accurately describe outwardly radiating fields from piecewise uniform objects and efficiently deals with large domains filled with homogeneous media. The latter volume based method can describe inhomogeneous and non-linear media and has been proven to be unconditionally stable. Furthermore, the Unstructured TLM (UTLM) enables modelling of geometrically complex objects by using triangular meshes which removes staircasing and unnecessary extensions of the simulation domain. The hybridization of BEM and UTLM which is described in this paper is named the Boundary Element Unstructured Transmission-line (BEUT) method. It incorporates the advantages of both methods. The theory and derivation of the 2D BEUT method is described in this paper, along with any relevant implementation details. The method is corroborated by studying its correctness and efficiency compared to the traditional UTLM method when applied to complex problems such as the transmission through a system of Luneburg lenses and the modelling of antenna radomes for use in wireless communications. - Graphical abstract:.

  18. Discretization of the Joule heating term for plasma discharge fluid models in unstructured meshes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deconinck, T.; Mahadevan, S.; Raja, L.L.

    2009-01-01

    The fluid (continuum) approach is commonly used for simulation of plasma phenomena in electrical discharges at moderate to high pressures (>10's mTorr). The description comprises governing equations for charged and neutral species transport and energy equations for electrons and the heavy species, coupled to equations for the electromagnetic fields. The coupling of energy from the electrostatic field to the plasma species is modeled by the Joule heating term which appears in the electron and heavy species (ion) energy equations. Proper numerical discretization of this term is necessary for accurate description of discharge energetics; however, discretization of this term poses a special problem in the case of unstructured meshes owing to the arbitrary orientation of the faces enclosing each cell. We propose a method for the numerical discretization of the Joule heating term using a cell-centered finite volume approach on unstructured meshes with closed convex cells. The Joule heating term is computed by evaluating both the electric field and the species flux at the cell center. The dot product of these two vector quantities is computed to obtain the Joule heating source term. We compare two methods to evaluate the species flux at the cell center. One is based on reconstructing the fluxes at the cell centers from the fluxes at the face centers. The other recomputes the flux at the cell center using the common drift-diffusion approximation. The reconstructed flux scheme is the most stable method and yields reasonably accurate results on coarse meshes.

  19. Error Correction of Measured Unstructured Road Profiles Based on Accelerometer and Gyroscope Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhua Han

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a noncontact acquisition system composed of several time synchronized laser height sensors, accelerometers, gyroscope, and so forth in order to collect the road profiles of vehicle riding on the unstructured roads. A method of correcting road profiles based on the accelerometer and gyroscope data is proposed to eliminate the adverse impacts of vehicle vibration and attitudes change. Because the power spectral density (PSD of gyro attitudes concentrates in the low frequency band, a method called frequency division is presented to divide the road profiles into two parts: high frequency part and low frequency part. The vibration error of road profiles is corrected by displacement data obtained through two times integration of measured acceleration data. After building the mathematical model between gyro attitudes and road profiles, the gyro attitudes signals are separated from low frequency road profile by the method of sliding block overlap based on correlation analysis. The accuracy and limitations of the system have been analyzed, and its validity has been verified by implementing the system on wheeled equipment for road profiles’ measuring of vehicle testing ground. The paper offers an accurate and practical approach to obtaining unstructured road profiles for road simulation test.

  20. Motion planning for autonomous vehicle based on radial basis function neural network in unstructured environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiajia; Zhao, Pan; Liang, Huawei; Mei, Tao

    2014-09-18

    The autonomous vehicle is an automated system equipped with features like environment perception, decision-making, motion planning, and control and execution technology. Navigating in an unstructured and complex environment is a huge challenge for autonomous vehicles, due to the irregular shape of road, the requirement of real-time planning, and the nonholonomic constraints of vehicle. This paper presents a motion planning method, based on the Radial Basis Function (RBF) neural network, to guide the autonomous vehicle in unstructured environments. The proposed algorithm extracts the drivable region from the perception grid map based on the global path, which is available in the road network. The sample points are randomly selected in the drivable region, and a gradient descent method is used to train the RBF network. The parameters of the motion-planning algorithm are verified through the simulation and experiment. It is observed that the proposed approach produces a flexible, smooth, and safe path that can fit any road shape. The method is implemented on autonomous vehicle and verified against many outdoor scenes; furthermore, a comparison of proposed method with the existing well-known Rapidly-exploring Random Tree (RRT) method is presented. The experimental results show that the proposed method is highly effective in planning the vehicle path and offers better motion quality.

  1. Energy transfer in structured and unstructured environments: Master equations beyond the Born-Markov approximations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iles-Smith, Jake, E-mail: Jakeilessmith@gmail.com [Controlled Quantum Dynamics Theory, Imperial College London, London SW7 2PG (United Kingdom); Photon Science Institute and School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Department of Photonics Engineering, DTU Fotonik, Ørsteds Plads, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Dijkstra, Arend G. [Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Lambert, Neill [CEMS, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Nazir, Ahsan, E-mail: ahsan.nazir@manchester.ac.uk [Photon Science Institute and School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-28

    We explore excitonic energy transfer dynamics in a molecular dimer system coupled to both structured and unstructured oscillator environments. By extending the reaction coordinate master equation technique developed by Iles-Smith et al. [Phys. Rev. A 90, 032114 (2014)], we go beyond the commonly used Born-Markov approximations to incorporate system-environment correlations and the resultant non-Markovian dynamical effects. We obtain energy transfer dynamics for both underdamped and overdamped oscillator environments that are in perfect agreement with the numerical hierarchical equations of motion over a wide range of parameters. Furthermore, we show that the Zusman equations, which may be obtained in a semiclassical limit of the reaction coordinate model, are often incapable of describing the correct dynamical behaviour. This demonstrates the necessity of properly accounting for quantum correlations generated between the system and its environment when the Born-Markov approximations no longer hold. Finally, we apply the reaction coordinate formalism to the case of a structured environment comprising of both underdamped (i.e., sharply peaked) and overdamped (broad) components simultaneously. We find that though an enhancement of the dimer energy transfer rate can be obtained when compared to an unstructured environment, its magnitude is rather sensitive to both the dimer-peak resonance conditions and the relative strengths of the underdamped and overdamped contributions.

  2. Segmentation of Large Unstructured Point Clouds Using Octree-Based Region Growing and Conditional Random Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassier, M.; Bonduel, M.; Van Genechten, B.; Vergauwen, M.

    2017-11-01

    Point cloud segmentation is a crucial step in scene understanding and interpretation. The goal is to decompose the initial data into sets of workable clusters with similar properties. Additionally, it is a key aspect in the automated procedure from point cloud data to BIM. Current approaches typically only segment a single type of primitive such as planes or cylinders. Also, current algorithms suffer from oversegmenting the data and are often sensor or scene dependent. In this work, a method is presented to automatically segment large unstructured point clouds of buildings. More specifically, the segmentation is formulated as a graph optimisation problem. First, the data is oversegmented with a greedy octree-based region growing method. The growing is conditioned on the segmentation of planes as well as smooth surfaces. Next, the candidate clusters are represented by a Conditional Random Field after which the most likely configuration of candidate clusters is computed given a set of local and contextual features. The experiments prove that the used method is a fast and reliable framework for unstructured point cloud segmentation. Processing speeds up to 40,000 points per second are recorded for the region growing. Additionally, the recall and precision of the graph clustering is approximately 80%. Overall, nearly 22% of oversegmentation is reduced by clustering the data. These clusters will be classified and used as a basis for the reconstruction of BIM models.

  3. Anisotropic three-dimensional inversion of CSEM data using finite-element techniques on unstructured grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feiyan; Morten, Jan Petter; Spitzer, Klaus

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we present a recently developed anisotropic 3-D inversion framework for interpreting controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) data in the frequency domain. The framework integrates a high-order finite-element forward operator and a Gauss-Newton inversion algorithm. Conductivity constraints are applied using a parameter transformation. We discretize the continuous forward and inverse problems on unstructured grids for a flexible treatment of arbitrarily complex geometries. Moreover, an unstructured mesh is more desirable in comparison to a single rectilinear mesh for multisource problems because local grid refinement will not significantly influence the mesh density outside the region of interest. The non-uniform spatial discretization facilitates parametrization of the inversion domain at a suitable scale. For a rapid simulation of multisource EM data, we opt to use a parallel direct solver. We further accelerate the inversion process by decomposing the entire data set into subsets with respect to frequencies (and transmitters if memory requirement is affordable). The computational tasks associated with each data subset are distributed to different processes and run in parallel. We validate the scheme using a synthetic marine CSEM model with rough bathymetry, and finally, apply it to an industrial-size 3-D data set from the Troll field oil province in the North Sea acquired in 2008 to examine its robustness and practical applicability.

  4. Methods in the analysis of mobile robots behavior in unstructured environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondoc, Alina; Dolga, Valer; Gorie, Nina

    2012-11-01

    A mobile robot can be described as a mechatronic system that must execute an application in a working environment. From mechatronic concept, the authors highlight mechatronic system structure based on its secondary function. Mobile robot will move, either in a known environment - structured environment may be described in time by an appropriate mathematical model or in an unfamiliar environment - unstructured - the random aspects prevail. Starting from a point robot must reach a START STOP point in the context of functional constraints imposed on the one hand, the application that, on the other hand, the working environment. The authors focus their presentation on unstructured environment. In this case the evolution of mobile robot is based on obtaining information in the work environment, their processing and integration results in action strategy. Number of sensory elements used is subject to optimization parameter. Starting from a known structure of mobile robot, the authors analyze the possibility of developing a mathematical model variants mathematical contact wheel - ground. It analyzes the various types of soil and the possibility of obtaining a "signature" on it based on sensory information. Theoretical aspects of the problem are compared to experimental results obtained in robot evolution. The mathematical model of the robot system allowed the simulation environment and its evolution in comparison with the experimental results estimated.

  5. A survey of simultaneous localization and mapping on unstructured lunar complex environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiqiao; Zhang, Wei; An, Pei

    2017-10-01

    Simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) technology is the key to realizing lunar rover's intelligent perception and autonomous navigation. It embodies the autonomous ability of mobile robot, and has attracted plenty of concerns of researchers in the past thirty years. Visual sensors are meaningful to SLAM research because they can provide a wealth of information. Visual SLAM uses merely images as external information to estimate the location of the robot and construct the environment map. Nowadays, SLAM technology still has problems when applied in large-scale, unstructured and complex environment. Based on the latest technology in the field of visual SLAM, this paper investigates and summarizes the SLAM technology using in the unstructured complex environment of lunar surface. In particular, we focus on summarizing and comparing the detection and matching of features of SIFT, SURF and ORB, in the meanwhile discussing their advantages and disadvantages. We have analyzed the three main methods: SLAM Based on Extended Kalman Filter, SLAM Based on Particle Filter and SLAM Based on Graph Optimization (EKF-SLAM, PF-SLAM and Graph-based SLAM). Finally, this article summarizes and discusses the key scientific and technical difficulties in the lunar context that Visual SLAM faces. At the same time, we have explored the frontier issues such as multi-sensor fusion SLAM and multi-robot cooperative SLAM technology. We also predict and prospect the development trend of lunar rover SLAM technology, and put forward some ideas of further research.

  6. Protocol Programmability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    First, any subproject that involved an implementation shared some implementation infrastructure with other subprojects. For example, the Plaid backend ...very same language. We followed this advice in Plaid, and we therefore implemented the compiler backend in Plaid (code generation, type checker, Æminim...programming language aimed at enforcing security properties in web and mobile applications [Nistor et al., 2013]. Wyvern therefore provides an excellent

  7. The impact of the unstructured contacts component in influenza pandemic modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Ajelli

    Full Text Available Individual based models have become a valuable tool for modeling the spatiotemporal dynamics of epidemics, e.g. influenza pandemic, and for evaluating the effectiveness of intervention strategies. While specific contacts among individuals into diverse environments (family, school/workplace can be modeled in a standard way by employing available socio-demographic data, all the other (unstructured contacts can be dealt with by adopting very different approaches. This can be achieved for instance by employing distance-based models or by choosing unstructured contacts in the local communities or by employing commuting data.Here we show how diverse choices can lead to different model outputs and thus to a different evaluation of the effectiveness of the containment/mitigation strategies. Sensitivity analysis has been conducted for different values of the first generation index G(0, which is the average number of secondary infections generated by the first infectious individual in a completely susceptible population and by varying the seeding municipality. Among the different considered models, attack rate ranges from 19.1% to 25.7% for G(0 = 1.1, from 47.8% to 50.7% for G(0 = 1.4 and from 62.4% to 67.8% for G(0 = 1.7. Differences of about 15 to 20 days in the peak day have been observed. As regards spatial diffusion, a difference of about 100 days to cover 200 km for different values of G(0 has been observed.To reduce uncertainty in the models it is thus important to employ data, which start being available, on contacts on neglected but important activities (leisure time, sport mall, restaurants, etc. and time-use data for improving the characterization of the unstructured contacts. Moreover, all the possible effects of different assumptions should be considered for taking public health decisions: not only sensitivity analysis to various model parameters should be performed, but intervention options should be based on the analysis and

  8. LanguageNet: A Novel Framework for Processing Unstructured Text Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qureshi, Pir Abdul Rasool; Memon, Nasrullah; Wiil, Uffe Kock

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present LanguageNet—a novel framework for processing unstructured text information from human generated content. The state of the art information processing frameworks have some shortcomings: modeled in generalized form, trained on fixed (limited) data sets, and leaving...... the specialization necessary for information consolidation to the end users. The proposed framework is the first major attempt to address these shortcomings. LanguageNet provides extended support of graphical methods contributing added value to the capabilities of information processing. We discuss the benefits...... of the framework and compare it with the available state of the art. We also describe how the framework improves the information gathering process and contribute towards building systems with better performance in the domain of Open Source Intelligence....

  9. A matrix-free implicit treatment for all speed flows on unstructured grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloczko, Th.

    2006-03-01

    The aim of this research work is the development of an efficient implicit scheme for computing compressible and low-speed flows on unstructured meshes. The first part is devoted to the review and analysis of some standard block-implicit treatments for the two-dimensional Euler and Navier-Stokes equations with a view to identify the best candidate for a fair comparison with the matrix-free treatment. The second part forms the main original contribution of this research work. It describes and analyses a matrix-free treatment that can be applied to any type of flow (inviscid/viscous, low Mach/highly compressible, steady/unsteady). The third part deals with the implementation of this treatment within the CAST3M code, and the demonstration of its advantages over existing techniques for computing applications of interest for the CEA: low-Mach number steady and unsteady flows in a Tee junction for example

  10. Detailed Aerodynamic Analysis of a Shrouded Tail Rotor Using an Unstructured Mesh Flow Solver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Dong; Kwon, Oh Joon

    The detailed aerodynamics of a shrouded tail rotor in hover has been numerically studied using a parallel inviscid flow solver on unstructured meshes. The numerical method is based on a cell-centered finite-volume discretization and an implicit Gauss-Seidel time integration. The calculation was made for a single blade by imposing a periodic boundary condition between adjacent rotor blades. The grid periodicity was also imposed at the periodic boundary planes to avoid numerical inaccuracy resulting from solution interpolation. The results were compared with available experimental data and those from a disk vortex theory for validation. It was found that realistic three-dimensional modeling is important for the prediction of detailed aerodynamics of shrouded rotors including the tip clearance gap flow.

  11. Gradient Calculation Methods on Arbitrary Polyhedral Unstructured Meshes for Cell-Centered CFD Solvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sozer, Emre; Brehm, Christoph; Kiris, Cetin C.

    2014-01-01

    A survey of gradient reconstruction methods for cell-centered data on unstructured meshes is conducted within the scope of accuracy assessment. Formal order of accuracy, as well as error magnitudes for each of the studied methods, are evaluated on a complex mesh of various cell types through consecutive local scaling of an analytical test function. The tests highlighted several gradient operator choices that can consistently achieve 1st order accuracy regardless of cell type and shape. The tests further offered error comparisons for given cell types, leading to the observation that the "ideal" gradient operator choice is not universal. Practical implications of the results are explored via CFD solutions of a 2D inviscid standing vortex, portraying the discretization error properties. A relatively naive, yet largely unexplored, approach of local curvilinear stencil transformation exhibited surprisingly favorable properties

  12. Medical and dermatology dictionaries: an examination of unstructured definitions and a proposal for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, David Todd; Papier, Art; Byrnes, Jennifer; Goldsmith, Lowell A

    2004-01-01

    Medical dictionaries serve to describe and clarify the term set used by medical professionals. In this commentary, we analyze a representative set of skin disease definitions from 2 prominent medical dictionaries, Stedman's Medical Dictionary and Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary. We find that there is an apparent lack of stylistic standards with regard to content and form. We advocate a new standard form for the definition of medical terminology, a standard to complement the easy-to-read yet unstructured style of the traditional dictionary entry. This new form offers a reproducible structure, paving the way for the development of a computer readable "dictionary" of medical terminology. Such a dictionary offers immediate update capability and a fundamental improvement in the ability to search for relationships between terms.

  13. Parallel FE Electron-Photon Transport Analysis on 2-D Unstructured Mesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drumm, C.R.; Lorenz, J.

    1999-01-01

    A novel solution method has been developed to solve the coupled electron-photon transport problem on an unstructured triangular mesh. Instead of tackling the first-order form of the linear Boltzmann equation, this approach is based on the second-order form in conjunction with the conventional multi-group discrete-ordinates approximation. The highly forward-peaked electron scattering is modeled with a multigroup Legendre expansion derived from the Goudsmit-Saunderson theory. The finite element method is used to treat the spatial dependence. The solution method is unique in that the space-direction dependence is solved simultaneously, eliminating the need for the conventional inner iterations, a method that is well suited for massively parallel computers

  14. Hanging Out with Which Friends? Friendship-Level Predictors of Unstructured and Unsupervised Socializing in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siennick, Sonja E; Osgood, D Wayne

    2012-12-01

    Companions are central to explanations of the risky nature of unstructured and unsupervised socializing, yet we know little about whom adolescents are with when hanging out. We examine predictors of how often friendship dyads hang out via multilevel analyses of longitudinal friendship-level data on over 5,000 middle schoolers. Adolescents hang out most with their most available friends and their most generally similar friends, not with their most at-risk or similarly at-risk friends. These findings vary little by gender and wave. Together, the findings suggest that the risks of hanging out stem from the nature of hanging out as an activity, not the nature of adolescents' companions, and that hanging out is a context for friends' mutual reinforcement of pre-existing characteristics.

  15. Machine Vision for Object Detection and Profiling in an Unstructured Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, Miles Conley; Kinoshita, Robert Arthur

    2002-08-01

    The Handling and Sorting System for 55-Gallon Drums (HANDSS-55) is a DOE project to develop an automated method for retrieving items that are not acceptable at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) from 55-gallon drums of low-level waste. The HANDSS-55 is a modular system that opens drums, sorts the waste, and then repackages the remaining waste in WIPP compliant barrels. The Sorting Station module relies on a non-contact measurement system to quickly provide a 3D profile of the sorting area. It then analyses the 3D profile and a color image to determine the position and orientation of an operator selected waste item. The item is then removed from the sorting area by a robotic arm. The use of both image and profile information for object determination provides a fast, effective method of finding and retrieving selected objects in the unstructured environment of the sorting module.

  16. Machine Vision for Object Detection and Profiling in an Unstructured Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, R.A.; Walton, M.C.

    2002-05-23

    The Handling and Sorting System for 55-Gallon Drums (HANDSS-55) is a DOE project to develop an automated method for retrieving items that are not acceptable at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) from 55-gallon drums of low-level waste. The HANDSS-55 is a modular system that opens drums, sorts the waste, and then repackages the remaining waste in WIPP compliant barrels. The Sorting Station module relies on a non-contact measurement system to quickly provide a 3D profile of the sorting area. It then analyses the 3D profile and a color image to determine the position and orientation of an operator selected waste item. The item is then removed from the sorting area by a robotic arm. The use of both image and profile information for object determination provides a fast, effective method of finding and retrieving selected objects in the unstructured environment of the sorting module.

  17. Structural studies of human Naked2: A biologically active intrinsically unstructured protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Tianhui; Krezel, Andrzej M.; Li Cunxi; Coffey, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    Naked1 and 2 are two mammalian orthologs of Naked Cuticle, a canonical Wnt signaling antagonist in Drosophila. Naked2, but not Naked1, interacts with transforming growth factor-α (TGFα) and escorts TGFα-containing vesicles to the basolateral membrane of polarized epithelial cells. Full-length Naked2 is poorly soluble. Since most functional domains, including the Dishevelled binding region, EF-hand, vesicle recognition, and membrane targeting motifs, reside in the N-terminal half of the protein, we expressed and purified the first 217 residues of human Naked2 and performed a functional analysis of this fragment. Its circular dichroism (CD) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra showed no evidence of secondary and/or tertiary structure. The fragment did not bind calcium or zinc. These results indicate that the N-terminal half of Naked2 behaves as an intrinsically unstructured protein

  18. Parallel discontinuous Galerkin FEM for computing hyperbolic conservation law on unstructured grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xinrong; Duan, Zhijian

    2018-04-01

    High-order resolution Discontinuous Galerkin finite element methods (DGFEM) has been known as a good method for solving Euler equations and Navier-Stokes equations on unstructured grid, but it costs too much computational resources. An efficient parallel algorithm was presented for solving the compressible Euler equations. Moreover, the multigrid strategy based on three-stage three-order TVD Runge-Kutta scheme was used in order to improve the computational efficiency of DGFEM and accelerate the convergence of the solution of unsteady compressible Euler equations. In order to make each processor maintain load balancing, the domain decomposition method was employed. Numerical experiment performed for the inviscid transonic flow fluid problems around NACA0012 airfoil and M6 wing. The results indicated that our parallel algorithm can improve acceleration and efficiency significantly, which is suitable for calculating the complex flow fluid.

  19. Hanging Out with Which Friends? Friendship-Level Predictors of Unstructured and Unsupervised Socializing in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siennick, Sonja E.; Osgood, D. Wayne

    2012-01-01

    Companions are central to explanations of the risky nature of unstructured and unsupervised socializing, yet we know little about whom adolescents are with when hanging out. We examine predictors of how often friendship dyads hang out via multilevel analyses of longitudinal friendship-level data on over 5,000 middle schoolers. Adolescents hang out most with their most available friends and their most generally similar friends, not with their most at-risk or similarly at-risk friends. These findings vary little by gender and wave. Together, the findings suggest that the risks of hanging out stem from the nature of hanging out as an activity, not the nature of adolescents’ companions, and that hanging out is a context for friends’ mutual reinforcement of pre-existing characteristics. PMID:23204811

  20. Riding Bare-Back on unstructured meshes for 21. century criticality calculations - 244

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley, K.C.; Martz, R.L.; Crane, D.L.

    2010-01-01

    MCNP has a new capability that permits tracking of neutrons and photons on an unstructured mesh which is embedded as a mesh universe within its legacy geometry capability. The mesh geometry is created through Abaqus/CAE using its solid modeling capabilities. Transport results are calculated for mesh elements through a path length estimator while element to element tracking is performed on the mesh. The results from MCNP can be exported to Abaqus/CAE for visualization or other-physics analysis. The simple Godiva criticality benchmark problem was tested with this new mesh capability. Computer run time is proportional to the number of mesh elements used. Both first and second order polyhedrons are used. Models that used second order polyhedrons produced slightly better results without significantly increasing computer run time. Models that used first order hexahedrons had shorter runtimes than models that used first order tetrahedrons. (authors)

  1. Adaptive unstructured simulations of diaphragm rupture and perforation opening to start hypersonic air inlets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timofeev, E.V.; Tahir, R.B.; Voinovich, P.A.; Moelder, S.

    2004-01-01

    The concept of 'twin' grid nodes is discussed in the context of unstructured, adaptive meshes that are suitable for highly unsteady flows. The concept is applicable to internal boundary contours (within the computational domain) where the boundary conditions may need to be changed dynamically; for instance, an impermeable solid wall segment can be redefined as a fully permeable invisible boundary segment during the course of the simulation. This can be used to simulate unsteady gas flows with internal boundaries where the flow conditions may change rapidly and drastically. As a demonstration, the idea is applied to study the starting process in hypersonic air inlets by rupturing a diaphragm or by opening wall-perforations. (author)

  2. EMPHASIS(TM)/Nevada Unstructured FEM Implementation Version 2.1.1.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, C. David; Pointon, Timothy D.; Cartwright, Keith

    2014-08-01

    EMPHASIS TM /NEVADA is the SIERRA/NEVADA toolkit implementation of portions of the EMP HASIS TM code suite. The purpose of the toolkit i m- plementation is to facilitate coupling to other physics drivers such as radi a- tion transport as well as to better manage code design, implementation, co m- plexity, and important verification and validation processes. This document describes the theory and implementation of the unstructured finite - element method solver , associated algorithms, and selected verification and valid a- tion . Acknowledgement The author would like to recognize all of the ALEGRA team members for their gracious and willing support through this initial Nevada toolkit - implementation process. Although much of the knowledge needed was gleaned from document a- tion and code context, they were always willing to consult personally on some of the less obvious issues and enhancements necessary.

  3. Studies on aerodynamic interferences between the components of transport airplane using unstructured Navier-Stokes simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, G.; Ye, Z.

    2005-01-01

    It is well known that the aerodynamic interference flows widely exist between the components of conventional transport airplane, for example, the wing-fuselage juncture flow, wing-pylon-nacelle flow and tail-fuselage juncture flow. The main characteristic of these aerodynamic interferences is flow separation, which will increase the drag, reduce the lift and cause adverse influence on the stability and controllability of the airplane. Therefore, the modern civil transport designers should do their best to eliminate negative effects of aerodynamic interferences, which demands that the aerodynamic interferences between the aircraft components should be predicted and analyzed accurately. Today's CFD techniques provide us powerful and efficient analysis tools to achieve this objective. In this paper, computational investigations of the interferences between transport aircraft components have been carried out by using a viscous flow solver based on mixed element type unstructured meshes. (author)

  4. Portable Parallel Programming for the Dynamic Load Balancing of Unstructured Grid Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Rupak; Das, Sajal K.; Harvey, Daniel; Oliker, Leonid

    1999-01-01

    The ability to dynamically adapt an unstructured -rid (or mesh) is a powerful tool for solving computational problems with evolving physical features; however, an efficient parallel implementation is rather difficult, particularly from the view point of portability on various multiprocessor platforms We address this problem by developing PLUM, tin automatic anti architecture-independent framework for adaptive numerical computations in a message-passing environment. Portability is demonstrated by comparing performance on an SP2, an Origin2000, and a T3E, without any code modifications. We also present a general-purpose load balancer that utilizes symmetric broadcast networks (SBN) as the underlying communication pattern, with a goal to providing a global view of system loads across processors. Experiments on, an SP2 and an Origin2000 demonstrate the portability of our approach which achieves superb load balance at the cost of minimal extra overhead.

  5. Laser ray tracing and power deposition on an unstructured three-dimensional grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, Thomas B.

    2000-01-01

    A scheme is presented for laser beam evolution and power deposition on three-dimensional unstructured grids composed of hexahedra, prisms, pyramids, and tetrahedra. The geometrical-optics approximation to the electromagnetic wave equation is used to follow propagation of a collection of discrete rays used to represent the beam(s). Ray trajectory equations are integrated using a method that is second order in time, exact for a constant electron-density gradient, and capable of dealing with density discontinuities that arise in certain hydrodynamics formulations. Power deposition by inverse-bremsstrahlung is modeled with a scheme based on Gaussian quadrature to accommodate a deposition rate whose spatial variation is highly nonuniform. Comparisons with analytic results are given for a density ramp in three dimensions, and a ''quadratic-well'' density trough in two dimensions. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  6. De-identification of unstructured paper-based health records for privacy-preserving secondary use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenz, Stefan; Heurix, Johannes; Neubauer, Thomas; Rella, Antonio

    2014-07-01

    Abstract Whenever personal data is processed, privacy is a serious issue. Especially in the document-centric e-health area, the patients' privacy must be preserved in order to prevent any negative repercussions for the patient. Clinical research, for example, demands structured health records to carry out efficient clinical trials, whereas legislation (e.g. HIPAA) regulates that only de-identified health records may be used for research. However, unstructured and often paper-based data dominates information technology, especially in the healthcare sector. Existing approaches are geared towards data in English-language documents only and have not been designed to handle the recognition of erroneous personal data which is the result of the OCR-based digitization of paper-based health records.

  7. Machine Vision for Object Detection and Profiling in an Unstructured Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, R.A.; Walton, M.C.

    2002-01-01

    The Handling and Sorting System for 55-Gallon Drums (HANDSS-55) is a DOE project to develop an automated method for retrieving items that are not acceptable at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) from 55-gallon drums of low-level waste. The HANDSS-55 is a modular system that opens drums, sorts the waste, and then repackages the remaining waste in WIPP compliant barrels. The Sorting Station module relies on a non-contact measurement system to quickly provide a 3D profile of the sorting area. It then analyses the 3D profile and a color image to determine the position and orientation of an operator selected waste item. The item is then removed from the sorting area by a robotic arm. The use of both image and profile information for object determination provides a fast, effective method of finding and retrieving selected objects in the unstructured environment of the sorting module

  8. Matrix equation decomposition and parallel solution of systems resulting from unstructured finite element problems in electromagnetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cwik, T. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Katz, D.S. [Cray Research, El Segundo, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Finite element modeling has proven useful for accurately simulating scattered or radiated electromagnetic fields from complex three-dimensional objects whose geometry varies on the scale of a fraction of an electrical wavelength. An unstructured finite element model of realistic objects leads to a large, sparse, system of equations that needs to be solved efficiently with regard to machine memory and execution time. Both factorization and iterative solvers can be used to produce solutions to these systems of equations. Factorization leads to high memory requirements that limit the electrical problem size of three-dimensional objects that can be modeled. An iterative solver can be used to efficiently solve the system without excessive memory use and in a minimal amount of time if the convergence rate is controlled.

  9. An unstructured-mesh finite-volume MPDATA for compressible atmospheric dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kühnlein, Christian; Smolarkiewicz, Piotr K.

    2017-01-01

    An advancement of the unstructured-mesh finite-volume MPDATA (Multidimensional Positive Definite Advection Transport Algorithm) is presented that formulates the error-compensative pseudo-velocity of the scheme to rely only on face-normal advective fluxes to the dual cells, in contrast to the full vector employed in previous implementations. This is essentially achieved by expressing the temporal truncation error underlying the pseudo-velocity in a form consistent with the flux-divergence of the governing conservation law. The development is especially important for integrating fluid dynamics equations on non-rectilinear meshes whenever face-normal advective mass fluxes are employed for transport compatible with mass continuity—the latter being essential for flux-form schemes. In particular, the proposed formulation enables large-time-step semi-implicit finite-volume integration of the compressible Euler equations using MPDATA on arbitrary hybrid computational meshes. Furthermore, it facilitates multiple error-compensative iterations of the finite-volume MPDATA and improved overall accuracy. The advancement combines straightforwardly with earlier developments, such as the nonoscillatory option, the infinite-gauge variant, and moving curvilinear meshes. A comprehensive description of the scheme is provided for a hybrid horizontally-unstructured vertically-structured computational mesh for efficient global atmospheric flow modelling. The proposed finite-volume MPDATA is verified using selected 3D global atmospheric benchmark simulations, representative of hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic flow regimes. Besides the added capabilities, the scheme retains fully the efficacy of established finite-volume MPDATA formulations.

  10. Advantages and disadvantages of unstructured cardiovascular risk factor screening for follow-up in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Anna W; de Mutsert, Renée; den Heijer, Martin; Rosendaal, Frits R; Jukema, Johan W; Blom, Jeanet W; Numans, Mattijs E

    2016-07-01

    In contrast to structured, integrated risk assessment in primary care, unstructured risk factor screening outside primary care and corresponding recommendations to consult a general practitioner (GP) are often based on one abnormal value of a single risk factor. This study investigates the advantages and disadvantages of unstructured screening of blood pressure and cholesterol outside primary care. After the baseline visit of the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity study (population-based prospective cohort study in persons aged 45-65 years, recruited 2008-2012) all participants received a letter with results of blood pressure and cholesterol, and a recommendation to consult a GP if results were abnormal. Four years after the start of the study, participants received a questionnaire about the follow-up of their results. The study population consisted of 6343 participants, 48% men, mean age 56 years, mean body mass index 30 kg/m(2). Of all participants 66% had an abnormal result and, of these, 49% had a treatment indication based on the risk estimation system SCORE-NL 2006. Of the 25% of the participants who did not consult a GP, 40% had a treatment indication. Of the participants with an abnormal result 19% were worried, of whom 60% had no treatment indication. In this population 51% of the participants with an abnormal result had unnecessarily received a recommendation to consult a GP, and 10% were unnecessarily worried. GPs should be informed about the complete risk assessment, and only participants at intermediate or high risk should receive a recommendation to consult a GP. © The European Society of Cardiology 2015.

  11. An Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian Discretization of MHD on 3D Unstructured Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieben, R N; White, D A; Wallin, B K; Solberg, J M

    2006-06-12

    We present an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) discretization of the equations of resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) on unstructured hexahedral grids. The method is formulated using an operator-split approach with three distinct phases: electromagnetic diffusion, Lagrangian motion, and Eulerian advection. The resistive magnetic dynamo equation is discretized using a compatible mixed finite element method with a 2nd order accurate implicit time differencing scheme which preserves the divergence-free nature of the magnetic field. At each discrete time step, electromagnetic force and heat terms are calculated and coupled to the hydrodynamic equations to compute the Lagrangian motion of the conducting materials. By virtue of the compatible discretization method used, the invariants of Lagrangian MHD motion are preserved in a discrete sense. When the Lagrangian motion of the mesh causes significant distortion, that distortion is corrected with a relaxation of the mesh, followed by a 2nd order monotonic remap of the electromagnetic state variables. The remap is equivalent to Eulerian advection of the magnetic flux density with a fictitious mesh relaxation velocity. The magnetic advection is performed using a novel variant of constrained transport (CT) that is valid for unstructured hexahedral grids with arbitrary mesh velocities. The advection method maintains the divergence free nature of the magnetic field and is second order accurate in regions where the solution is sufficiently smooth. For regions in which the magnetic field is discontinuous (e.g. MHD shocks) the method is limited using a novel variant of algebraic flux correction (AFC) which is local extremum diminishing (LED) and divergence preserving. Finally, we verify each stage of the discretization via a set of numerical experiments.

  12. Multiphase flow modelling of volcanic ash particle settling in water using adaptive unstructured meshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, C. T.; Collins, G. S.; Piggott, M. D.; Kramer, S. C.; Wilson, C. R. G.

    2013-02-01

    Small-scale experiments of volcanic ash particle settling in water have demonstrated that ash particles can either settle slowly and individually, or rapidly and collectively as a gravitationally unstable ash-laden plume. This has important implications for the emplacement of tephra deposits on the seabed. Numerical modelling has the potential to extend the results of laboratory experiments to larger scales and explore the conditions under which plumes may form and persist, but many existing models are computationally restricted by the fixed mesh approaches that they employ. In contrast, this paper presents a new multiphase flow model that uses an adaptive unstructured mesh approach. As a simulation progresses, the mesh is optimized to focus numerical resolution in areas important to the dynamics and decrease it where it is not needed, thereby potentially reducing computational requirements. Model verification is performed using the method of manufactured solutions, which shows the correct solution convergence rates. Model validation and application considers 2-D simulations of plume formation in a water tank which replicate published laboratory experiments. The numerically predicted settling velocities for both individual particles and plumes, as well as instability behaviour, agree well with experimental data and observations. Plume settling is clearly hindered by the presence of a salinity gradient, and its influence must therefore be taken into account when considering particles in bodies of saline water. Furthermore, individual particles settle in the laminar flow regime while plume settling is shown (by plume Reynolds numbers greater than unity) to be in the turbulent flow regime, which has a significant impact on entrainment and settling rates. Mesh adaptivity maintains solution accuracy while providing a substantial reduction in computational requirements when compared to the same simulation performed using a fixed mesh, highlighting the benefits of an

  13. Parallel CFD Algorithms for Aerodynamical Flow Solvers on Unstructured Meshes. Parts 1 and 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Timothy J.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development (AGARD) has requested my participation in the lecture series entitled Parallel Computing in Computational Fluid Dynamics to be held at the von Karman Institute in Brussels, Belgium on May 15-19, 1995. In addition, a request has been made from the US Coordinator for AGARD at the Pentagon for NASA Ames to hold a repetition of the lecture series on October 16-20, 1995. I have been asked to be a local coordinator for the Ames event. All AGARD lecture series events have attendance limited to NATO allied countries. A brief of the lecture series is provided in the attached enclosure. Specifically, I have been asked to give two lectures of approximately 75 minutes each on the subject of parallel solution techniques for the fluid flow equations on unstructured meshes. The title of my lectures is "Parallel CFD Algorithms for Aerodynamical Flow Solvers on Unstructured Meshes" (Parts I-II). The contents of these lectures will be largely review in nature and will draw upon previously published work in this area. Topics of my lectures will include: (1) Mesh partitioning algorithms. Recursive techniques based on coordinate bisection, Cuthill-McKee level structures, and spectral bisection. (2) Newton's method for large scale CFD problems. Size and complexity estimates for Newton's method, modifications for insuring global convergence. (3) Techniques for constructing the Jacobian matrix. Analytic and numerical techniques for Jacobian matrix-vector products, constructing the transposed matrix, extensions to optimization and homotopy theories. (4) Iterative solution algorithms. Practical experience with GIVIRES and BICG-STAB matrix solvers. (5) Parallel matrix preconditioning. Incomplete Lower-Upper (ILU) factorization, domain-decomposed ILU, approximate Schur complement strategies.

  14. Counting Cats: Spatially Explicit Population Estimates of Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus Using Unstructured Sampling Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Femke Broekhuis

    Full Text Available Many ecological theories and species conservation programmes rely on accurate estimates of population density. Accurate density estimation, especially for species facing rapid declines, requires the application of rigorous field and analytical methods. However, obtaining accurate density estimates of carnivores can be challenging as carnivores naturally exist at relatively low densities and are often elusive and wide-ranging. In this study, we employ an unstructured spatial sampling field design along with a Bayesian sex-specific spatially explicit capture-recapture (SECR analysis, to provide the first rigorous population density estimates of cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus in the Maasai Mara, Kenya. We estimate adult cheetah density to be between 1.28 ± 0.315 and 1.34 ± 0.337 individuals/100km2 across four candidate models specified in our analysis. Our spatially explicit approach revealed 'hotspots' of cheetah density, highlighting that cheetah are distributed heterogeneously across the landscape. The SECR models incorporated a movement range parameter which indicated that male cheetah moved four times as much as females, possibly because female movement was restricted by their reproductive status and/or the spatial distribution of prey. We show that SECR can be used for spatially unstructured data to successfully characterise the spatial distribution of a low density species and also estimate population density when sample size is small. Our sampling and modelling framework will help determine spatial and temporal variation in cheetah densities, providing a foundation for their conservation and management. Based on our results we encourage other researchers to adopt a similar approach in estimating densities of individually recognisable species.

  15. Counting Cats: Spatially Explicit Population Estimates of Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) Using Unstructured Sampling Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekhuis, Femke; Gopalaswamy, Arjun M

    2016-01-01

    Many ecological theories and species conservation programmes rely on accurate estimates of population density. Accurate density estimation, especially for species facing rapid declines, requires the application of rigorous field and analytical methods. However, obtaining accurate density estimates of carnivores can be challenging as carnivores naturally exist at relatively low densities and are often elusive and wide-ranging. In this study, we employ an unstructured spatial sampling field design along with a Bayesian sex-specific spatially explicit capture-recapture (SECR) analysis, to provide the first rigorous population density estimates of cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) in the Maasai Mara, Kenya. We estimate adult cheetah density to be between 1.28 ± 0.315 and 1.34 ± 0.337 individuals/100km2 across four candidate models specified in our analysis. Our spatially explicit approach revealed 'hotspots' of cheetah density, highlighting that cheetah are distributed heterogeneously across the landscape. The SECR models incorporated a movement range parameter which indicated that male cheetah moved four times as much as females, possibly because female movement was restricted by their reproductive status and/or the spatial distribution of prey. We show that SECR can be used for spatially unstructured data to successfully characterise the spatial distribution of a low density species and also estimate population density when sample size is small. Our sampling and modelling framework will help determine spatial and temporal variation in cheetah densities, providing a foundation for their conservation and management. Based on our results we encourage other researchers to adopt a similar approach in estimating densities of individually recognisable species.

  16. An unstructured-mesh finite-volume MPDATA for compressible atmospheric dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kühnlein, Christian, E-mail: christian.kuehnlein@ecmwf.int; Smolarkiewicz, Piotr K., E-mail: piotr.smolarkiewicz@ecmwf.int

    2017-04-01

    An advancement of the unstructured-mesh finite-volume MPDATA (Multidimensional Positive Definite Advection Transport Algorithm) is presented that formulates the error-compensative pseudo-velocity of the scheme to rely only on face-normal advective fluxes to the dual cells, in contrast to the full vector employed in previous implementations. This is essentially achieved by expressing the temporal truncation error underlying the pseudo-velocity in a form consistent with the flux-divergence of the governing conservation law. The development is especially important for integrating fluid dynamics equations on non-rectilinear meshes whenever face-normal advective mass fluxes are employed for transport compatible with mass continuity—the latter being essential for flux-form schemes. In particular, the proposed formulation enables large-time-step semi-implicit finite-volume integration of the compressible Euler equations using MPDATA on arbitrary hybrid computational meshes. Furthermore, it facilitates multiple error-compensative iterations of the finite-volume MPDATA and improved overall accuracy. The advancement combines straightforwardly with earlier developments, such as the nonoscillatory option, the infinite-gauge variant, and moving curvilinear meshes. A comprehensive description of the scheme is provided for a hybrid horizontally-unstructured vertically-structured computational mesh for efficient global atmospheric flow modelling. The proposed finite-volume MPDATA is verified using selected 3D global atmospheric benchmark simulations, representative of hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic flow regimes. Besides the added capabilities, the scheme retains fully the efficacy of established finite-volume MPDATA formulations.

  17. A superlinearly convergent finite volume method for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations on staggered unstructured grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidovic, D.; Segal, A.; Wesseling, P.

    2004-01-01

    A method for linear reconstruction of staggered vector fields with special treatment of the divergence is presented. An upwind-biased finite volume scheme for solving the unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations on staggered unstructured triangular grids that uses this reconstruction is described. The scheme is applied to three benchmark problems and is found to be superlinearly convergent in space

  18. Thermal Protection System Cavity Heating for Simplified and Actual Geometries Using Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations with Unstructured Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloud, Peter L.

    2010-01-01

    Thermal Protection System (TPS) Cavity Heating is predicted using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) on unstructured grids for both simplified cavities and actual cavity geometries. Validation was performed using comparisons to wind tunnel experimental results and CFD predictions using structured grids. Full-scale predictions were made for simplified and actual geometry configurations on the Space Shuttle Orbiter in a mission support timeframe.

  19. An Automated Approach to the Generation of Structured Building Information Models from Unstructured 3d Point Cloud Scans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Evers, Henrik Leander; Wessel, Raoul

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present and evaluate an approach for the automatic generation of building models in IFC BIM format from unstructured Point Cloud scans, as they result from 3dlaser scans of buildings. While the actual measurement process is relatively fast, 85% of the overall time are spend on th...

  20. Learning to Take an Inquiry Stance in Teacher Research: An Exploration of Unstructured Thought-Partner Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton-Sticklor, Nastasia; Bodamer, Scott F.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores a research partnership between a university-based researcher and a middle school science teacher. Our partnership began with project-based inquiry and continued with unstructured thought-partner spaces: meetings with no agenda where we wrestled with problems of practice. Framed as incubation periods, these meetings allowed us…

  1. An Efficient and Robust Method for Lagrangian Magnetic Particle Tracking in Fluid Flow Simulations on Unstructured Grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen Stuart, D.C.; Kleijn, C.R.; Kenjeres, S.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we report on a newly developed particle tracking scheme for fluid flow simulations on 3D unstructured grids, aiming to provide detailed insights in the particle behaviour in complex geometries. A possible field of applications is the Magnetic Drug Targeting (MDT) technique, on which

  2. An Automated Approach to the Generation of Structured Building Information Models from Unstructured 3d Point Cloud Scans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Evers, Henrik Leander; Wessel, Raoul

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present and evaluate an approach for the automatic generation of building models in IFC BIM format from unstructured Point Cloud scans, as they result from 3dlaser scans of buildings. While the actual measurement process is relatively fast, 85% of the overall time are spend...

  3. A numerical formulation using unstructured grids for modeling two-phase flows in porous media considering heterogeneities and capillarity effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurtado, F.S.V.; Maliska, C.R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper briefly describes a two-dimensional numerical formulation using unstructured grids, developed for simulating two-phase immiscible displacements in porous media. The Element-based Finite Volume Method (EbFVM) is used for discretizing the model differential equations. (authors)

  4. A numerical formulation using unstructured grids for modeling two-phase flows in porous media considering heterogeneities and capillarity effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurtado, F.S.V.; Maliska, C.R. [Santa Catarina Federal Univ., Computational Fluid Dynamics Lab., Mechanical Engineering Dept., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    This paper briefly describes a two-dimensional numerical formulation using unstructured grids, developed for simulating two-phase immiscible displacements in porous media. The Element-based Finite Volume Method (EbFVM) is used for discretizing the model differential equations. (authors)

  5. [Father involvement in childbirth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalón, H; Toro, R; Riesco, I; Pinto, M; Silva, C

    2014-10-01

    Recent initiatives have promoted the participation of fathers in the early care of their children. To assess the results of a program to encourage parental involvement in childbirth. Parents of healthy term newborns were randomly allocated to participate either in the birth experience or control. The protocol included: to dry the skin, umbilical cord cutting off, weight, height, and finally give him/her to the mother for the skin-to-skin contact. Heart rate (HR), respiratory (RR) and temperature were evaluated one hour later. In the first outpatient clinic assessment, mothers completed a questionnaire. 127 fathers participated either in the birth experience or control. 62 followed the protocol and 65 the control. Both newborn groups were comparable. Also were fathers in age, education and rurality; mothers in primiparity. Significant differences: night care (37/62, 10/65 59.6% vs 15.4%, pfathers at birth, even belonging to a discouraging socio cultural environment.

  6. Vertical Protocol Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groß, Thomas; Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The security of key exchange and secure channel protocols, such as TLS, has been studied intensively. However, only few works have considered what happens when the established keys are actually used—to run some protocol securely over the established “channel”. We call this a vertical protocol.......e., that the combination cannot introduce attacks that the individual protocols in isolation do not have. In this work, we prove a composability result in the symbolic model that allows for arbitrary vertical composition (including self-composition). It holds for protocols from any suite of channel and application...

  7. The Unstructured Paramyxovirus Nucleocapsid Protein Tail Domain Modulates Viral Pathogenesis through Regulation of Transcriptase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakkar, Vidhi D; Cox, Robert M; Sawatsky, Bevan; da Fontoura Budaszewski, Renata; Sourimant, Julien; Wabbel, Katrin; Makhsous, Negar; Greninger, Alexander L; von Messling, Veronika; Plemper, Richard K

    2018-04-15

    The paramyxovirus replication machinery comprises the viral large (L) protein and phosphoprotein (P-protein) in addition to the nucleocapsid (N) protein, which encapsidates the single-stranded RNA genome. Common to paramyxovirus N proteins is a C-terminal tail (Ntail). The mechanistic role and relevance for virus replication of the structurally disordered central Ntail section are unknown. Focusing initially on members of the Morbillivirus genus, a series of measles virus (MeV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) N proteins were generated with internal deletions in the unstructured tail section. N proteins with large tail truncations remained bioactive in mono- and polycistronic minireplicon assays and supported efficient replication of recombinant viruses. Bioactivity of Ntail mutants extended to N proteins derived from highly pathogenic Nipah virus. To probe an effect of Ntail truncations on viral pathogenesis, recombinant CDVs were analyzed in a lethal CDV/ferret model of morbillivirus disease. The recombinant viruses displayed different stages of attenuation ranging from ameliorated clinical symptoms to complete survival of infected animals, depending on the molecular nature of the Ntail truncation. Reinfection of surviving animals with pathogenic CDV revealed robust protection against a lethal challenge. The highly attenuated virus was genetically stable after ex vivo passaging and recovery from infected animals. Mechanistically, gradual viral attenuation coincided with stepwise altered viral transcriptase activity in infected cells. These results identify the central Ntail section as a determinant for viral pathogenesis and establish a novel platform to engineer gradual virus attenuation for next-generation paramyxovirus vaccine design. IMPORTANCE Investigating the role of the paramyxovirus N protein tail domain (Ntail) in virus replication, we demonstrated in this study that the structurally disordered central Ntail region is a determinant for viral

  8. Simulation of geothermal water extraction in heterogeneous reservoirs using dynamic unstructured mesh optimisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, P.; Pavlidis, D.; Jacquemyn, C.; Lei, Q.; Xie, Z.; Pain, C.; Jackson, M.

    2017-12-01

    It is well known that the pressure gradient into a production well increases with decreasing distance to the well. To properly capture the local pressure drawdown into the well a high grid or mesh resolution is required; moreover, the location of the well must be captured accurately. In conventional simulation models, the user must interact with the model to modify grid resolution around wells of interest, and the well location is approximated on a grid defined early in the modelling process.We report a new approach for improved simulation of near wellbore flow in reservoir scale models through the use of dynamic mesh optimisation and the recently presented double control volume finite element method. Time is discretized using an adaptive, implicit approach. Heterogeneous geologic features are represented as volumes bounded by surfaces. Within these volumes, termed geologic domains, the material properties are constant. Up-, cross- or down-scaling of material properties during dynamic mesh optimization is not required, as the properties are uniform within each geologic domain. A given model typically contains numerous such geologic domains. Wells are implicitly coupled with the domain, and the fluid flows is modelled inside the wells. The method is novel for two reasons. First, a fully unstructured tetrahedral mesh is used to discretize space, and the spatial location of the well is specified via a line vector, ensuring its location even if the mesh is modified during the simulation. The well location is therefore accurately captured, the approach allows complex well trajectories and wells with many laterals to be modelled. Second, computational efficiency is increased by use of dynamic mesh optimization, in which an unstructured mesh adapts in space and time to key solution fields (preserving the geometry of the geologic domains), such as pressure, velocity or temperature, this also increases the quality of the solutions by placing higher resolution where required

  9. Role of the EHD2 unstructured loop in dimerization, protein binding and subcellular localization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kriti Bahl

    Full Text Available The C-terminal Eps 15 Homology Domain proteins (EHD1-4 play important roles in regulating endocytic trafficking. EHD2 is the only family member whose crystal structure has been solved, and it contains an unstructured loop consisting of two proline-phenylalanine (PF motifs: KPFRKLNPF. In contrast, despite EHD2 having nearly 70% amino acid identity with its paralogs, EHD1, EHD3 and EHD4, the latter proteins contain a single KPF or RPF motif, but no NPF motif. In this study, we sought to define the precise role of each PF motif in EHD2's homo-dimerization, binding with the protein partners, and subcellular localization. To test the role of the NPF motif, we generated an EHD2 NPF-to-NAF mutant to mimic the homologous sequences of EHD1 and EHD3. We demonstrated that this mutant lost both its ability to dimerize and bind to Syndapin2. However, it continued to localize primarily to the cytosolic face of the plasma membrane. On the other hand, EHD2 NPF-to-APA mutants displayed normal dimerization and Syndapin2 binding, but exhibited markedly increased nuclear localization and reduced association with the plasma membrane. We then hypothesized that the single PF motif of EHD1 (that aligns with the KPF of EHD2 might be responsible for both binding and localization functions of EHD1. Indeed, the EHD1 RPF motif was required for dimerization, interaction with MICAL-L1 and Syndapin2, as well as localization to tubular recycling endosomes. Moreover, recycling assays demonstrated that EHD1 RPF-to-APA was incapable of supporting normal receptor recycling. Overall, our data suggest that the EHD2 NPF phenylalanine residue is crucial for EHD2 localization to the plasma membrane, whereas the proline residue is essential for EHD2 dimerization and binding. These studies support the recently proposed model in which the EHD2 N-terminal region may regulate the availability of the unstructured loop for interactions with neighboring EHD2 dimers, thus promoting

  10. Three-dimensional Gravity Inversion with a New Gradient Scheme on Unstructured Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, S.; Yin, C.; Gao, X.; Liu, Y.; Zhang, B.

    2017-12-01

    Stabilized gradient-based methods have been proved to be efficient for inverse problems. Based on these methods, setting gradient close to zero can effectively minimize the objective function. Thus the gradient of objective function determines the inversion results. By analyzing the cause of poor resolution on depth in gradient-based gravity inversion methods, we find that imposing depth weighting functional in conventional gradient can improve the depth resolution to some extent. However, the improvement is affected by the regularization parameter and the effect of the regularization term becomes smaller with increasing depth (shown as Figure 1 (a)). In this paper, we propose a new gradient scheme for gravity inversion by introducing a weighted model vector. The new gradient can improve the depth resolution more efficiently, which is independent of the regularization parameter, and the effect of regularization term will not be weakened when depth increases. Besides, fuzzy c-means clustering method and smooth operator are both used as regularization terms to yield an internal consecutive inverse model with sharp boundaries (Sun and Li, 2015). We have tested our new gradient scheme with unstructured grids on synthetic data to illustrate the effectiveness of the algorithm. Gravity forward modeling with unstructured grids is based on the algorithm proposed by Okbe (1979). We use a linear conjugate gradient inversion scheme to solve the inversion problem. The numerical experiments show a great improvement in depth resolution compared with regular gradient scheme, and the inverse model is compact at all depths (shown as Figure 1 (b)). AcknowledgeThis research is supported by Key Program of National Natural Science Foundation of China (41530320), China Natural Science Foundation for Young Scientists (41404093), and Key National Research Project of China (2016YFC0303100, 2017YFC0601900). ReferencesSun J, Li Y. 2015. Multidomain petrophysically constrained inversion and

  11. AGNO: An Adaptive Group Communication Scheme for Unstructured P2P Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tsoumakos, Dimitrios; Roussopoulos, Nick

    2004-01-01

    .... Utilizing search indices, together with a small number of soft-state shortcuts, AGNO achieves effective and bandwidth-efficient content dissemination, without the cost and restrictions of a membership protocol or a DHT...

  12. Meta-analysis and other approaches for synthesizing structured and unstructured data in plant pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherm, H; Thomas, C S; Garrett, K A; Olsen, J M

    2014-01-01

    The term data deluge is used widely to describe the rapidly accelerating growth of information in the technical literature, in scientific databases, and in informal sources such as the Internet and social media. The massive volume and increased complexity of information challenge traditional methods of data analysis but at the same time provide unprecedented opportunities to test hypotheses or uncover new relationships via mining of existing databases and literature. In this review, we discuss analytical approaches that are beginning to be applied to help synthesize the vast amount of information generated by the data deluge and thus accelerate the pace of discovery in plant pathology. We begin with a review of meta-analysis as an established approach for summarizing standardized (structured) data across the literature. We then turn to examples of synthesizing more complex, unstructured data sets through a range of data-mining approaches, including the incorporation of 'omics data in epidemiological analyses. We conclude with a discussion of methodologies for leveraging information contained in novel, open-source data sets through web crawling, text mining, and social media analytics, primarily in the context of digital disease surveillance. Rapidly evolving computational resources provide platforms for integrating large and complex data sets, motivating research that will draw on new types and scales of information to address big questions.

  13. Natural language processing systems for capturing and standardizing unstructured clinical information: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreimeyer, Kory; Foster, Matthew; Pandey, Abhishek; Arya, Nina; Halford, Gwendolyn; Jones, Sandra F; Forshee, Richard; Walderhaug, Mark; Botsis, Taxiarchis

    2017-09-01

    We followed a systematic approach based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses to identify existing clinical natural language processing (NLP) systems that generate structured information from unstructured free text. Seven literature databases were searched with a query combining the concepts of natural language processing and structured data capture. Two reviewers screened all records for relevance during two screening phases, and information about clinical NLP systems was collected from the final set of papers. A total of 7149 records (after removing duplicates) were retrieved and screened, and 86 were determined to fit the review criteria. These papers contained information about 71 different clinical NLP systems, which were then analyzed. The NLP systems address a wide variety of important clinical and research tasks. Certain tasks are well addressed by the existing systems, while others remain as open challenges that only a small number of systems attempt, such as extraction of temporal information or normalization of concepts to standard terminologies. This review has identified many NLP systems capable of processing clinical free text and generating structured output, and the information collected and evaluated here will be important for prioritizing development of new approaches for clinical NLP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Study of two-dimensional flow by triangular unstructured grid around airfoil with dynamic ground effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haghbin, S.; Farahat, S.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the numerical solution of two-dimensional incompressible viscid flow by triangular unstructured grid around airfoil with dynamic ground effect and by using geometric conservation law (GCL) has been represented. In this analysis, after the mesh generation for physical model, for the purpose of adaption of meshes with physical condition, the mesh adaption method has been used. Also, for increasing the speed of results convergence, the Multigrid method has been applied to the solver of governing equations. Because of the movement of meshes in this analysis, by using a spring simulation, the generated meshes have been moved and in every time step for the purpose of controlling the quality of meshes, by considering the EquiAngle Skew coefficient (EAS) and the volume of each mesh, the meshes that had a large EAS and a volume more than and less than defined maximum and minimum value, have been removed and then regenerated. Also, because the continuity and momentum conservations law were insufficient to work with these moving grids, the geometric conservation law was combined with the other conservation laws and a general equation was obtained for the dynamic meshes. For solving this general equation, the Simple Algorithm has been used. According to the results, the dynamic ground effect causes unsteadiness and also the Lift coefficient is increased vibrationally. And with respect to the type of airfoil, the Drag coefficient can decrease or increase vibrationally. (author)

  15. A positional estimation technique for an autonomous land vehicle in an unstructured environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talluri, Raj; Aggarwal, J. K.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a solution to the positional estimation problem of an autonomous land vehicle navigating in an unstructured mountainous terrain. A Digital Elevation Map (DEM) of the area in which the robot is to navigate is assumed to be given. It is also assumed that the robot is equipped with a camera that can be panned and tilted, and a device to measure the elevation of the robot above the ground surface. No recognizable landmarks are assumed to be present in the environment in which the robot is to navigate. The solution presented makes use of the DEM information, and structures the problem as a heuristic search in the DEM for the possible robot location. The shape and position of the horizon line in the image plane and the known camera geometry of the perspective projection are used as parameters to search the DEM. Various heuristics drawn from the geometric constraints are used to prune the search space significantly. The algorithm is made robust to errors in the imaging process by accounting for the worst care errors. The approach is tested using DEM data of areas in Colorado and Texas. The method is suitable for use in outdoor mobile robots and planetary rovers.

  16. Simulating multi-scale oceanic processes around Taiwan on unstructured grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hao-Cheng; Zhang, Yinglong J.; Yu, Jason C. S.; Terng, C.; Sun, Weiling; Ye, Fei; Wang, Harry V.; Wang, Zhengui; Huang, Hai

    2017-11-01

    We validate a 3D unstructured-grid (UG) model for simulating multi-scale processes as occurred in Northwestern Pacific around Taiwan using recently developed new techniques (Zhang et al., Ocean Modeling, 102, 64-81, 2016) that require no bathymetry smoothing even for this region with prevalent steep bottom slopes and many islands. The focus is on short-term forecast for several months instead of long-term variability. Compared with satellite products, the errors for the simulated Sea-surface Height (SSH) and Sea-surface Temperature (SST) are similar to a reference data-assimilated global model. In the nearshore region, comparison with 34 tide gauges located around Taiwan indicates an average RMSE of 13 cm for the tidal elevation. The average RMSE for SST at 6 coastal buoys is 1.2 °C. The mean transport and eddy kinetic energy compare reasonably with previously published values and the reference model used to provide boundary and initial conditions. The model suggests ∼2-day interruption of Kuroshio east of Taiwan during a typhoon period. The effect of tidal mixing is shown to be significant nearshore. The multi-scale model is easily extendable to target regions of interest due to its UG framework and a flexible vertical gridding system, which is shown to be superior to terrain-following coordinates.

  17. [Effects of unstructured video exposure on EEG power in situations of forced attention and rest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan'ko, S G; Boĭtsova, Iu A; Kachalova, L M

    2011-01-01

    Group 1 (N = 30) and group 2 (N = 22) of healthy volunteers participated in the experiment. EEG registration took place while the examinees were in the resting states: with closed eyes; with opened eyes; with opened eyes and being under exposure to TV channel noises (white noise). Group 1 had also to fulfill a task to count randomly appearing symbols on a screen and group 2 had to fulfill a task to find an image in the noises. Averaged values of EEG power in each of the derivations in each of the derivations were calculated for an every examinee and for each of the states. The estimations were done in delta, theta, alpha1, alpha2, beta1, beta2, gamma frequency bands. The received results demonstrate that exposure to unstructured non-informative video noise can lead to significant changes of EEG power in a variety of frequency bands which are most prominent in the band alpha2. The changes are topically widespread, reflecting systemic changes in corresponding brain mechanisms, but are much less intensive if compared to changes between resting states with opened and closed eyes.

  18. Radiation Coupling with the FUN3D Unstructured-Grid CFD Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, William A.

    2012-01-01

    The HARA radiation code is fully-coupled to the FUN3D unstructured-grid CFD code for the purpose of simulating high-energy hypersonic flows. The radiation energy source terms and surface heat transfer, under the tangent slab approximation, are included within the fluid dynamic ow solver. The Fire II flight test, at the Mach-31 1643-second trajectory point, is used as a demonstration case. Comparisons are made with an existing structured-grid capability, the LAURA/HARA coupling. The radiative surface heat transfer rates from the present approach match the benchmark values within 6%. Although radiation coupling is the focus of the present work, convective surface heat transfer rates are also reported, and are seen to vary depending upon the choice of mesh connectivity and FUN3D ux reconstruction algorithm. On a tetrahedral-element mesh the convective heating matches the benchmark at the stagnation point, but under-predicts by 15% on the Fire II shoulder. Conversely, on a mixed-element mesh the convective heating over-predicts at the stagnation point by 20%, but matches the benchmark away from the stagnation region.

  19. Experiences with Text Mining Large Collections of Unstructured Systems Development Artifacts at JPL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Port, Dan; Nikora, Allen; Hihn, Jairus; Huang, LiGuo

    2011-01-01

    Often repositories of systems engineering artifacts at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) are so large and poorly structured that they have outgrown our capability to effectively manually process their contents to extract useful information. Sophisticated text mining methods and tools seem a quick, low-effort approach to automating our limited manual efforts. Our experiences of exploring such methods mainly in three areas including historical risk analysis, defect identification based on requirements analysis, and over-time analysis of system anomalies at JPL, have shown that obtaining useful results requires substantial unanticipated efforts - from preprocessing the data to transforming the output for practical applications. We have not observed any quick 'wins' or realized benefit from short-term effort avoidance through automation in this area. Surprisingly we have realized a number of unexpected long-term benefits from the process of applying text mining to our repositories. This paper elaborates some of these benefits and our important lessons learned from the process of preparing and applying text mining to large unstructured system artifacts at JPL aiming to benefit future TM applications in similar problem domains and also in hope for being extended to broader areas of applications.

  20. A 3D transport-based core analysis code for research reactors with unstructured geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Tengfei; Wu, Hongchun; Zheng, Youqi; Cao, Liangzhi; Li, Yunzhao

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A core analysis code package based on 3D neutron transport calculation in complex geometry is developed. • The fine considerations on flux mapping, control rod effects and isotope depletion are modeled. • The code is proved to be with high accuracy and capable of handling flexible operational cases for research reactors. - Abstract: As an effort to enhance the accuracy in simulating the operations of research reactors, a 3D transport core analysis code system named REFT was developed. HELIOS is employed due to the flexibility of describing complex geometry. A 3D triangular nodal S N method transport solver, DNTR, endows the package the capability of modeling cores with unstructured geometry assemblies. A series of dedicated methods were introduced to meet the requirements of research reactor simulations. Afterwards, to make it more user friendly, a graphical user interface was also developed for REFT. In order to validate the developed code system, the calculated results were compared with the experimental results. Both the numerical and experimental results are in close agreement with each other, with the relative errors of k eff being less than 0.5%. Results for depletion calculations were also verified by comparing them with the experimental data and acceptable consistency was observed in results

  1. Efficient 3D geometric and Zernike moments computation from unstructured surface meshes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozo, José María; Villa-Uriol, Maria-Cruz; Frangi, Alejandro F

    2011-03-01

    This paper introduces and evaluates a fast exact algorithm and a series of faster approximate algorithms for the computation of 3D geometric moments from an unstructured surface mesh of triangles. Being based on the object surface reduces the computational complexity of these algorithms with respect to volumetric grid-based algorithms. In contrast, it can only be applied for the computation of geometric moments of homogeneous objects. This advantage and restriction is shared with other proposed algorithms based on the object boundary. The proposed exact algorithm reduces the computational complexity for computing geometric moments up to order N with respect to previously proposed exact algorithms, from N(9) to N(6). The approximate series algorithm appears as a power series on the rate between triangle size and object size, which can be truncated at any desired degree. The higher the number and quality of the triangles, the better the approximation. This approximate algorithm reduces the computational complexity to N(3). In addition, the paper introduces a fast algorithm for the computation of 3D Zernike moments from the computed geometric moments, with a computational complexity N(4), while the previously proposed algorithm is of order N(6). The error introduced by the proposed approximate algorithms is evaluated in different shapes and the cost-benefit ratio in terms of error, and computational time is analyzed for different moment orders.

  2. Parallel unstructured mesh optimisation for 3D radiation transport and fluids modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorman, G.J.; Pain, Ch. C.; Oliveira, C.R.E. de; Umpleby, A.P.; Goddard, A.J.H.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we describe the theory and application of a parallel mesh optimisation procedure to obtain self-adapting finite element solutions on unstructured tetrahedral grids. The optimisation procedure adapts the tetrahedral mesh to the solution of a radiation transport or fluid flow problem without sacrificing the integrity of the boundary (geometry), or internal boundaries (regions) of the domain. The objective is to obtain a mesh which has both a uniform interpolation error in any direction and the element shapes are of good quality. This is accomplished with use of a non-Euclidean (anisotropic) metric which is related to the Hessian of the solution field. Appropriate scaling of the metric enables the resolution of multi-scale phenomena as encountered in transient incompressible fluids and multigroup transport calculations. The resulting metric is used to calculate element size and shape quality. The mesh optimisation method is based on a series of mesh connectivity and node position searches of the landscape defining mesh quality which is gauged by a functional. The mesh modification thus fits the solution field(s) in an optimal manner. The parallel mesh optimisation/adaptivity procedure presented in this paper is of general applicability. We illustrate this by applying it to a transient CFD (computational fluid dynamics) problem. Incompressible flow past a cylinder at moderate Reynolds numbers is modelled to demonstrate that the mesh can follow transient flow features. (authors)

  3. Multidimensional upwind hydrodynamics on unstructured meshes using graphics processing units - I. Two-dimensional uniform meshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paardekooper, S.-J.

    2017-08-01

    We present a new method for numerical hydrodynamics which uses a multidimensional generalization of the Roe solver and operates on an unstructured triangular mesh. The main advantage over traditional methods based on Riemann solvers, which commonly use one-dimensional flux estimates as building blocks for a multidimensional integration, is its inherently multidimensional nature, and as a consequence its ability to recognize multidimensional stationary states that are not hydrostatic. A second novelty is the focus on graphics processing units (GPUs). By tailoring the algorithms specifically to GPUs, we are able to get speedups of 100-250 compared to a desktop machine. We compare the multidimensional upwind scheme to a traditional, dimensionally split implementation of the Roe solver on several test problems, and we find that the new method significantly outperforms the Roe solver in almost all cases. This comes with increased computational costs per time-step, which makes the new method approximately a factor of 2 slower than a dimensionally split scheme acting on a structured grid.

  4. Simulating the Agulhas system in global ocean models - nesting vs. multi-resolution unstructured meshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biastoch, Arne; Sein, Dmitry; Durgadoo, Jonathan V.; Wang, Qiang; Danilov, Sergey

    2018-01-01

    Many questions in ocean and climate modelling require the combined use of high resolution, global coverage and multi-decadal integration length. For this combination, even modern resources limit the use of traditional structured-mesh grids. Here we compare two approaches: A high-resolution grid nested into a global model at coarser resolution (NEMO with AGRIF) and an unstructured-mesh grid (FESOM) which allows to variably enhance resolution where desired. The Agulhas system around South Africa is used as a testcase, providing an energetic interplay of a strong western boundary current and mesoscale dynamics. Its open setting into the horizontal and global overturning circulations also requires global coverage. Both model configurations simulate a reasonable large-scale circulation. Distribution and temporal variability of the wind-driven circulation are quite comparable due to the same atmospheric forcing. However, the overturning circulation differs, owing each model's ability to represent formation and spreading of deep water masses. In terms of regional, high-resolution dynamics, all elements of the Agulhas system are well represented. Owing to the strong nonlinearity in the system, Agulhas Current transports of both configurations and in comparison with observations differ in strength and temporal variability. Similar decadal trends in Agulhas Current transport and Agulhas leakage are linked to the trends in wind forcing.

  5. Unstructured characteristic method embedded with variational nodal method using domain decomposition techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girardi, E.; Ruggieri, J.M. [CEA Cadarache (DER/SPRC/LEPH), 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. d' Etudes des Reacteurs; Santandrea, S. [CEA Saclay, Dept. Modelisation de Systemes et Structures DM2S/SERMA/LENR, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2005-07-01

    This paper describes a recently-developed extension of our 'Multi-methods,multi-domains' (MM-MD) method for the solution of the multigroup transport equation. Based on a domain decomposition technique, our approach allows us to treat the one-group equation by cooperatively employing several numerical methods together. In this work, we describe the coupling between the Method of Characteristics (integro-differential equation, unstructured meshes) with the Variational Nodal Method (even parity equation, cartesian meshes). Then, the coupling method is applied to the benchmark model of the Phebus experimental facility (Cea Cadarache). Our domain decomposition method give us the capability to employ a very fine mesh in describing a particular fuel bundle with an appropriate numerical method (MOC), while using a much large mesh size in the rest of the core, in conjunction with a coarse-mesh method (VNM). This application shows the benefits of our MM-MD approach, in terms of accuracy and computing time: the domain decomposition method allows us to reduce the Cpu time, while preserving a good accuracy of the neutronic indicators: reactivity, core-to-bundle power coupling coefficient and flux error. (authors)

  6. Unstructured characteristic method embedded with variational nodal method using domain decomposition techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girardi, E.; Ruggieri, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a recently-developed extension of our 'Multi-methods,multi-domains' (MM-MD) method for the solution of the multigroup transport equation. Based on a domain decomposition technique, our approach allows us to treat the one-group equation by cooperatively employing several numerical methods together. In this work, we describe the coupling between the Method of Characteristics (integro-differential equation, unstructured meshes) with the Variational Nodal Method (even parity equation, cartesian meshes). Then, the coupling method is applied to the benchmark model of the Phebus experimental facility (Cea Cadarache). Our domain decomposition method give us the capability to employ a very fine mesh in describing a particular fuel bundle with an appropriate numerical method (MOC), while using a much large mesh size in the rest of the core, in conjunction with a coarse-mesh method (VNM). This application shows the benefits of our MM-MD approach, in terms of accuracy and computing time: the domain decomposition method allows us to reduce the Cpu time, while preserving a good accuracy of the neutronic indicators: reactivity, core-to-bundle power coupling coefficient and flux error. (authors)

  7. Unstructured grid modelling of offshore wind farm impacts on seasonally stratified shelf seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazenave, Pierre William; Torres, Ricardo; Allen, J. Icarus

    2016-06-01

    Shelf seas comprise approximately 7% of the world's oceans and host enormous economic activity. Development of energy installations (e.g. Offshore Wind Farms (OWFs), tidal turbines) in response to increased demand for renewable energy requires a careful analysis of potential impacts. Recent remote sensing observations have identified kilometre-scale impacts from OWFs. Existing modelling evaluating monopile impacts has fallen into two camps: small-scale models with individually resolved turbines looking at local effects; and large-scale analyses but with sub-grid scale turbine parameterisations. This work straddles both scales through a 3D unstructured grid model (FVCOM): wind turbine monopiles in the eastern Irish Sea are explicitly described in the grid whilst the overall grid domain covers the south-western UK shelf. Localised regions of decreased velocity extend up to 250 times the monopile diameter away from the monopile. Shelf-wide, the amplitude of the M2 tidal constituent increases by up to 7%. The turbines enhance localised vertical mixing which decreases seasonal stratification. The spatial extent of this extends well beyond the turbines into the surrounding seas. With significant expansion of OWFs on continental shelves, this work highlights the importance of how OWFs may impact coastal (e.g. increased flooding risk) and offshore (e.g. stratification and nutrient cycling) areas.

  8. Split-Cell Exponential Characteristic Transport Method for Unstructured Tetrahedral Meshes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, Charles R.; Miller, Rodney L.; Mathews, Kirk A.

    2001-01-01

    The nonlinear, exponential characteristic (EC) method is extended to unstructured meshes of tetrahedral cells in three-dimensional Cartesian coordinates. The split-cell approach developed for the linear characteristic (LC) method on such meshes is used. Exponential distributions of the source within a cell and of the inflow flux on upstream faces of the cell are assumed. The coefficients of these distributions are determined by nonlinear root solving so as to match the zeroth and first moments of the source or entering flux. Good conditioning is achieved by casting the formulas for the moments of the source, inflow flux, and solution flux as sums of positive functions and by using accurate and robust algorithms for evaluation of those functions. Various test problems are used to compare the performance of the EC and LC methods. The EC method is somewhat less accurate than the LC method in regions of net out leakage but is strictly positive and retains good accuracy with optically thick cells, as in shielding problems, unlike the LC method. The computational cost per cell is greater for the EC method, but the use of substantially coarser meshes can make the EC method less expensive in total cost. The EC method, unlike the LC method, may fail if negative cross sections or angular quadrature weights are used. It is concluded that the EC and LC methods should be practical, reliable, and complimentary schemes for these meshes

  9. River salinity on a mega-delta, an unstructured grid model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricheno, Lucy; Saiful Islam, Akm; Wolf, Judith

    2014-05-01

    With an average freshwater discharge of around 40,000 m3/s the BGM (Brahmaputra Ganges and Meghna) river system has the third largest discharge worldwide. The BGM river delta is a low-lying fertile area covering over 100,000 km2 mainly in India and Bangladesh. Approximately two-thirds of the Bangladesh people work in agriculture and these local livelihoods depend on freshwater sources directly linked to river salinity. The finite volume coastal ocean model (FVCOM) has been applied to the BGM delta in order to simulate river salinity under present and future climate conditions. Forced by a combination of regional climate model predictions, and a basin-wide river catchment model, the 3D baroclinic delta model can determine river salinity under the current climate, and make predictions for future wet and dry years. The river salinity demonstrates a strong seasonal and tidal cycle, making it important for the model to be able to capture a wide range of timescales. The unstructured mesh approach used in FVCOM is required to properly represent the delta's structure; a complex network of interconnected river channels. The model extends 250 km inland in order to capture the full extent of the tidal influence and grid resolutions of 10s of metres are required to represent narrow inland river channels. The use of FVCOM to simulate flows so far inland is a novel challenge, which also requires knowledge of the shape and cross-section of the river channels.

  10. Study of two-dimensional flow by triangular unstructured grid around airfoil with dynamic ground effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haghbin, S.; Farahat, S. [Sistan and Baluchestan Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Zahedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: sadegh_haghbin@yahoo.com

    2004-07-01

    In this paper, the numerical solution of two-dimensional incompressible viscid flow by triangular unstructured grid around airfoil with dynamic ground effect and by using geometric conservation law (GCL) has been represented. In this analysis, after the mesh generation for physical model, for the purpose of adaption of meshes with physical condition, the mesh adaption method has been used. Also, for increasing the speed of results convergence, the Multigrid method has been applied to the solver of governing equations. Because of the movement of meshes in this analysis, by using a spring simulation, the generated meshes have been moved and in every time step for the purpose of controlling the quality of meshes, by considering the EquiAngle Skew coefficient (EAS) and the volume of each mesh, the meshes that had a large EAS and a volume more than and less than defined maximum and minimum value, have been removed and then regenerated. Also, because the continuity and momentum conservations law were insufficient to work with these moving grids, the geometric conservation law was combined with the other conservation laws and a general equation was obtained for the dynamic meshes. For solving this general equation, the Simple Algorithm has been used. According to the results, the dynamic ground effect causes unsteadiness and also the Lift coefficient is increased vibrationally. And with respect to the type of airfoil, the Drag coefficient can decrease or increase vibrationally. (author)

  11. Balanced Central Schemes for the Shallow Water Equations on Unstructured Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryson, Steve; Levy, Doron

    2004-01-01

    We present a two-dimensional, well-balanced, central-upwind scheme for approximating solutions of the shallow water equations in the presence of a stationary bottom topography on triangular meshes. Our starting point is the recent central scheme of Kurganov and Petrova (KP) for approximating solutions of conservation laws on triangular meshes. In order to extend this scheme from systems of conservation laws to systems of balance laws one has to find an appropriate discretization of the source terms. We first show that for general triangulations there is no discretization of the source terms that corresponds to a well-balanced form of the KP scheme. We then derive a new variant of a central scheme that can be balanced on triangular meshes. We note in passing that it is straightforward to extend the KP scheme to general unstructured conformal meshes. This extension allows us to recover our previous well-balanced scheme on Cartesian grids. We conclude with several simulations, verifying the second-order accuracy of our scheme as well as its well-balanced properties.

  12. Unstructured Grid Adaptation: Status, Potential Impacts, and Recommended Investments Toward CFD Vision 2030

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Michael A.; Krakos, Joshua A.; Michal, Todd; Loseille, Adrien; Alonso, Juan J.

    2016-01-01

    Unstructured grid adaptation is a powerful tool to control discretization error for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). It has enabled key increases in the accuracy, automation, and capacity of some fluid simulation applications. Slotnick et al. provides a number of case studies in the CFD Vision 2030 Study: A Path to Revolutionary Computational Aerosciences to illustrate the current state of CFD capability and capacity. The authors forecast the potential impact of emerging High Performance Computing (HPC) environments forecast in the year 2030 and identify that mesh generation and adaptivity continue to be significant bottlenecks in the CFD work flow. These bottlenecks may persist because very little government investment has been targeted in these areas. To motivate investment, the impacts of improved grid adaptation technologies are identified. The CFD Vision 2030 Study roadmap and anticipated capabilities in complementary disciplines are quoted to provide context for the progress made in grid adaptation in the past fifteen years, current status, and a forecast for the next fifteen years with recommended investments. These investments are specific to mesh adaptation and impact other aspects of the CFD process. Finally, a strategy is identified to diffuse grid adaptation technology into production CFD work flows.

  13. Assessment of the Unstructured Grid Software TetrUSS for Drag Prediction of the DLR-F4 Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirzadeh, Shahyar Z.; Frink, Neal T.

    2002-01-01

    An application of the NASA unstructured grid software system TetrUSS is presented for the prediction of aerodynamic drag on a transport configuration. The paper briefly describes the underlying methodology and summarizes the results obtained on the DLR-F4 transport configuration recently presented in the first AIAA computational fluid dynamics (CFD) Drag Prediction Workshop. TetrUSS is a suite of loosely coupled unstructured grid CFD codes developed at the NASA Langley Research Center. The meshing approach is based on the advancing-front and the advancing-layers procedures. The flow solver employs a cell-centered, finite volume scheme for solving the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations on tetrahedral grids. For the present computations, flow in the viscous sublayer has been modeled with an analytical wall function. The emphasis of the paper is placed on the practicality of the methodology for accurately predicting aerodynamic drag data.

  14. 5D {sup 13}C-detected experiments for backbone assignment of unstructured proteins with a very low signal dispersion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novacek, Jiri [Masaryk University, Faculty of Science, NCBR, and CEITEC (Czech Republic); Zawadzka-Kazimierczuk, Anna [University of Warsaw, Faculty of Chemistry (Poland); Papouskova, Veronika; Zidek, Lukas, E-mail: lzidek@chemi.muni.cz [Masaryk University, Faculty of Science, NCBR, and CEITEC (Czech Republic); Sanderova, Hana; Krasny, Libor [Institute of Microbiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Laboratory of Molecular Genetics of Bacteria and Department of Bacteriology (Czech Republic); Kozminski, Wiktor [University of Warsaw, Faculty of Chemistry (Poland); Sklenar, Vladimir [Masaryk University, Faculty of Science, NCBR, and CEITEC (Czech Republic)

    2011-05-15

    Two novel 5D NMR experiments (CACONCACO, NCOCANCO) for backbone assignment of disordered proteins are presented. The pulse sequences exploit relaxation properties of the unstructured proteins and combine the advantages of {sup 13}C-direct detection, non-uniform sampling, and longitudinal relaxation optimization to maximize the achievable resolution and minimize the experimental time. The pulse sequences were successfully tested on the sample of partially disordered delta subunit from RNA polymerase from Bacillus subtilis. The unstructured part of this 20 kDa protein consists of 81 amino acids with frequent sequential repeats. A collection of 0.0003% of the data needed for a conventional experiment with linear sampling was sufficient to perform an unambiguous assignment of the disordered part of the protein from a single 5D spectrum.

  15. Unstructured socialization and territorialization. A street-ethnographic take on urban youth in a medium-sized town in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, David Thore; Frostholm, Peter Hornbæk

    Abstract / Journal of youth studies Conference 2015 Peter Frostholm Olesen & David Thore Gravesen Unstructured socialization and territorialization. A street-ethnographic take on urban youth in a medium-sized town in Denmark. In 2013, the municipality in Horsens, a medium-sized provincial town...... in Denmark, bestowed the city's children and young people a skater / parkour / ball-cage facility right on the city's central squares. The facility serves as a territorial meeting place for a number of conflicting groups of adolescents with different codes of behavior based on their cultural orientation...... and sense of belonging to certain districts of the city. Through positioning battles of various kinds the groups fight for space and place for their unstructured socialization processes with their peers. Officially, the municipality donated the facility to give local children and young people an opportunity...

  16. Development of a Two-Phase Flow Analysis Code based on a Unstructured-Mesh SIMPLE Algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Tae; Park, Ik Kyu; Cho, Heong Kyu; Yoon, Han Young; Kim, Kyung Doo; Jeong, Jae Jun

    2008-09-15

    For analyses of multi-phase flows in a water-cooled nuclear power plant, a three-dimensional SIMPLE-algorithm based hydrodynamic solver CUPID-S has been developed. As governing equations, it adopts a two-fluid three-field model for the two-phase flows. The three fields represent a continuous liquid, a dispersed droplets, and a vapour field. The governing equations are discretized by a finite volume method on an unstructured grid to handle the geometrical complexity of the nuclear reactors. The phasic momentum equations are coupled and solved with a sparse block Gauss-Seidel matrix solver to increase a numerical stability. The pressure correction equation derived by summing the phasic volume fraction equations is applied on the unstructured mesh in the context of a cell-centered co-located scheme. This paper presents the numerical method and the preliminary results of the calculations.

  17. A matrix-free implicit unstructured multigrid finite volume method for simulating structural dynamics and fluid structure interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, X.; Zhao, Y.; Huang, X. Y.; Xia, G. H.; Su, X. H.

    2007-07-01

    A new three-dimensional (3D) matrix-free implicit unstructured multigrid finite volume (FV) solver for structural dynamics is presented in this paper. The solver is first validated using classical 2D and 3D cantilever problems. It is shown that very accurate predictions of the fundamental natural frequencies of the problems can be obtained by the solver with fast convergence rates. This method has been integrated into our existing FV compressible solver [X. Lv, Y. Zhao, et al., An efficient parallel/unstructured-multigrid preconditioned implicit method for simulating 3d unsteady compressible flows with moving objects, Journal of Computational Physics 215(2) (2006) 661-690] based on the immersed membrane method (IMM) [X. Lv, Y. Zhao, et al., as mentioned above]. Results for the interaction between the fluid and an immersed fixed-free cantilever are also presented to demonstrate the potential of this integrated fluid-structure interaction approach.

  18. Parental involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezra S Simon

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Parent-Teacher Associations and other community groups can play a significant role in helping to establish and run refugee schools; their involvement can also help refugee adults adjust to their changed circumstances.

  19. Modeling and simulation of xylitol production in bioreactor by Debaryomyces nepalensis NCYC 3413 using unstructured and artificial neural network models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappu, J Sharon Mano; Gummadi, Sathyanarayana N

    2016-11-01

    This study examines the use of unstructured kinetic model and artificial neural networks as predictive tools for xylitol production by Debaryomyces nepalensis NCYC 3413 in bioreactor. An unstructured kinetic model was proposed in order to assess the influence of pH (4, 5 and 6), temperature (25°C, 30°C and 35°C) and volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient kLa (0.14h(-1), 0.28h(-1) and 0.56h(-1)) on growth and xylitol production. A feed-forward back-propagation artificial neural network (ANN) has been developed to investigate the effect of process condition on xylitol production. ANN configuration of 6-10-3 layers was selected and trained with 339 experimental data points from bioreactor studies. Results showed that simulation and prediction accuracy of ANN was apparently higher when compared to unstructured mechanistic model under varying operational conditions. ANN was found to be an efficient data-driven tool to predict the optimal harvest time in xylitol production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Novel high-performance purification protocol of recombinant CNBP suitable for biochemical and biophysical characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challier, Emilse; Lisa, María-Natalia; Nerli, Bibiana B; Calcaterra, Nora B; Armas, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Cellular nucleic acid binding protein (CNBP) is a highly conserved multi-zinc knuckle protein that enhances c-MYC expression, is related to certain human muscular diseases and is required for proper rostral head development. CNBP binds to single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and RNA and acts as nucleic acid chaperone. Despite the advances made concerning CNBP biological roles, a full knowledge about the structure-function relationship has not yet been achieved, likely due to difficulty in obtaining pure and tag-free CNBP. Here, we report a fast, simple, reproducible, and high-performance expression and purification protocol that provides recombinant tag-free CNBP from Escherichia coli cultures. We determined that tag-free CNBP binds its molecular targets with higher affinity than tagged-CNBP. Furthermore, fluorescence spectroscopy revealed the presence of a unique and conserved tryptophan, which is exposed to the solvent and involved, directly or indirectly, in nucleic acid binding. Size-exclusion HPLC revealed that CNBP forms homodimers independently of nucleic acid binding and coexist with monomers as non-interconvertible forms or in slow equilibrium. Circular dichroism spectroscopy showed that CNBP has a secondary structure dominated by random-coil and β-sheet coincident with the sequence-predicted repetitive zinc knuckles motifs, which folding is required for CNBP structural stability and biochemical activity. CNBP structural stability increased in the presence of single-stranded nucleic acid targets similar to other unstructured nucleic acid chaperones. Altogether, data suggest that CNBP is a flexible protein with interspersed structured zinc knuckles, and acquires a more rigid structure upon nucleic acid binding. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The French dosimetry protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutreix, A.

    1985-01-01

    After a general introduction the protocol is divided in five sections dealing with: determination of the quality of X-ray, γ-ray and electron beams; the measuring instrument; calibration of the reference instrument; determination of the reference absorbed dose in the user's beams; determination of the absorbed dose in water at other points, in other conditions. The French protocol is not essentially different from the Nordic protocol and it is based on the experience gained in using both the American and the Nordic protocols. Therefore, only the main difference with the published protocols are discussed. (Auth.)

  2. A C-terminal segment of the V{sub 1}R vasopressin receptor is unstructured in the crystal structure of its chimera with the maltose-binding protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adikesavan, Nallini Vijayarangan; Mahmood, Syed Saad; Stanley, Nithianantham; Xu, Zhen; Wu, Nan [Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106-4935 (United States); Thibonnier, Marc [Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106-4935 (United States); Shoham, Menachem, E-mail: mxs10@case.edu [Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106-4935 (United States)

    2005-04-01

    The 1.8 Å crystal structure of an MBP-fusion protein with the C-terminal cytoplasmic segment of the V1 vasopressin receptor reveals that the receptor segment is unstructured. The V{sub 1} vascular vasopressin receptor (V{sub 1}R) is a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) involved in the regulation of body-fluid osmolality, blood volume and blood pressure. Signal transduction is mediated by the third intracellular loop of this seven-transmembrane protein as well as by the C-terminal cytoplasmic segment. A chimera of the maltose-binding protein (MBP) and the C-terminal segment of V{sub 1}R has been cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized. The crystals belong to space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 51.10, b = 66.56, c = 115.72 Å, β = 95.99°. The 1.8 Å crystal structure reveals the conformation of MBP and part of the linker region of this chimera, with the C-terminal segment being unstructured. This may reflect a conformational plasticity in the C-terminal segment that may be necessary for proper function of V{sub 1}R.

  3. Thermodynamic Database for the Terrestrial and Planetary Mantle Studies: Where we stand, and some future directions involving experimental studies, numerical protocol for EoS and atomistic calculations (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, J.; Tirone, M.; Sorcar, N.

    2013-12-01

    Reliable thermodynamic databases for rock forming minerals are essential for petrological and geodynamic studies. While the available databases (1-3) represent laudable efforts, none seems to be completely satisfactory. We show inter-comparison of phase diagrams computed from different databases and also their comparisons with experimental phase diagrams in complex systems. The results show good agreement and also significant disagreements in some P-T-X regimes; resolution of these disagreements via new experimental and thermodynamic data is needed to sort out the problems and make further progress. Two of the main challenges in the development of databases (4) seem to be (a) appropriate formulation of an EoS for solids that is suitable for studies of Earth and planetary interiors and (b) relatively simple formulations of thermodynamic mixing properties of mantle minerals that perform well within the compositional space of interest. While work on EoS formulation continues, we present a semi-empirical numerical approach that creates a consistent set of material properties (α, K, Cp, Cv) up to very high P-T conditions by satisfying certain physical constraints. Adequate experimental data are not available to constrain the mixing properties of several minerals that would be valid over the compositional range of interest in the natural environments. We have, thus, pursued an alternative approach on the basis of physical and crystal-chemical data. It is found that combination of elastic mixing energy, incorporating the effect of multi-atom interactions (5, 6), and crystal-field (CF) energy of mixing provide enthalpy of mixing in binary solid solutions that are in good agreement with experimental and calorimetric data. The CF-splitting vs. composition in a solid solution involving transition metal ion may be approximated by a semi-empirical relation using mean metal-oxygen bond-distance when such data are not available from spectroscopic studies. We also discuss the

  4. Divergence-free MHD on unstructured meshes using high order finite volume schemes based on multidimensional Riemann solvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsara, Dinshaw S.; Dumbser, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Several advances have been reported in the recent literature on divergence-free finite volume schemes for Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). Almost all of these advances are restricted to structured meshes. To retain full geometric versatility, however, it is also very important to make analogous advances in divergence-free schemes for MHD on unstructured meshes. Such schemes utilize a staggered Yee-type mesh, where all hydrodynamic quantities (mass, momentum and energy density) are cell-centered, while the magnetic fields are face-centered and the electric fields, which are so useful for the time update of the magnetic field, are centered at the edges. Three important advances are brought together in this paper in order to make it possible to have high order accurate finite volume schemes for the MHD equations on unstructured meshes. First, it is shown that a divergence-free WENO reconstruction of the magnetic field can be developed for unstructured meshes in two and three space dimensions using a classical cell-centered WENO algorithm, without the need to do a WENO reconstruction for the magnetic field on the faces. This is achieved via a novel constrained L2-projection operator that is used in each time step as a postprocessor of the cell-centered WENO reconstruction so that the magnetic field becomes locally and globally divergence free. Second, it is shown that recently-developed genuinely multidimensional Riemann solvers (called MuSIC Riemann solvers) can be used on unstructured meshes to obtain a multidimensionally upwinded representation of the electric field at each edge. Third, the above two innovations work well together with a high order accurate one-step ADER time stepping strategy, which requires the divergence-free nonlinear WENO reconstruction procedure to be carried out only once per time step. The resulting divergence-free ADER-WENO schemes with MuSIC Riemann solvers give us an efficient and easily-implemented strategy for divergence-free MHD on

  5. Development of a core outcome set for studies involving patients undergoing major lower limb amputation for peripheral arterial disease: study protocol for a systematic review and identification of a core outcome set using a Delphi survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambler, Graeme K; Bosanquet, David C; Brookes-Howell, Lucy; Thomas-Jones, Emma; Waldron, Cherry-Ann; Edwards, Adrian G K; Twine, Christopher P

    2017-12-28

    research involving patients undergoing major lower limb amputation for PAD. This will help with the design of future trials and facilitate meta-analyses of trial data. PROSPERO: CRD42017059329 . Registered on 30 March 2017. 975 . Registered on 5 April 2017.

  6. Development of a Decision Aid for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Involving Intensive Care Unit Patients' and Health Professionals' Participation Using User-Centered Design and a Wiki Platform for Rapid Prototyping: A Research Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyland, Daren Keith; Ebell, Mark H; Dupuis, Audrey; Lavoie-Bérard, Carole-Anne; Légaré, France; Archambault, Patrick Michel

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is an intervention used in cases of cardiac arrest to revive patients whose heart has stopped. Because cardiac arrest can have potentially devastating outcomes such as severe neurological deficits even if CPR is performed, patients must be involved in determining in advance if they want CPR in the case of an unexpected arrest. Shared decision making (SDM) facilitates discussions about goals of care regarding CPR in intensive care units (ICUs). Patient decision aids (DAs) are proven to support the implementation of SDM. Many patient DAs about CPR exist, but they are not universally implemented in ICUs in part due to lack of context and cultural adaptation. Adaptation to local context is an important phase of implementing any type of knowledge tool such as patient DAs. User-centered design supported by a wiki platform to perform rapid prototyping has previously been successful in creating knowledge tools adapted to the needs of patients and health professionals (eg, asthma action plans). This project aims to explore how user-centered design and a wiki platform can support the adaptation of an existing DA for CPR to the local context. Objective The primary objective is to use an existing DA about CPR to create a wiki-based DA that is adapted to the context of a single ICU and tailorable to individual patient’s risk factors while employing user-centered design. The secondary objective is to document the use of a wiki platform for the adaptation of patient DAs. Methods This study will be conducted in a mixed surgical and medical ICU at Hôtel-Dieu de Lévis, Quebec, Canada. We plan to involve all 5 intensivists and recruit at least 20 alert and oriented patients admitted to the ICU and their family members if available. In the first phase of this study, we will observe 3 weeks of daily interactions between patients, families, intensivists, and other allied health professionals. We will specifically observe 5 dyads of

  7. A 3D unstructured grid nearshore hydrodynamic model based on the vortex force formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Peng; Li, Ming; van der A, Dominic A.; van der Zanden, Joep; Wolf, Judith; Chen, Xueen; Wang, Caixia

    2017-08-01

    A new three-dimensional nearshore hydrodynamic model system is developed based on the unstructured-grid version of the third generation spectral wave model SWAN (Un-SWAN) coupled with the three-dimensional ocean circulation model FVCOM to enable the full representation of the wave-current interaction in the nearshore region. A new wave-current coupling scheme is developed by adopting the vortex-force (VF) scheme to represent the wave-current interaction. The GLS turbulence model is also modified to better reproduce wave-breaking enhanced turbulence, together with a roller transport model to account for the effect of surface wave roller. This new model system is validated first against a theoretical case of obliquely incident waves on a planar beach, and then applied to three test cases: a laboratory scale experiment of normal waves on a beach with a fixed breaker bar, a field experiment of oblique incident waves on a natural, sandy barred beach (Duck'94 experiment), and a laboratory study of normal-incident waves propagating around a shore-parallel breakwater. Overall, the model predictions agree well with the available measurements in these tests, illustrating the robustness and efficiency of the present model for very different spatial scales and hydrodynamic conditions. Sensitivity tests indicate the importance of roller effects and wave energy dissipation on the mean flow (undertow) profile over the depth. These tests further suggest to adopt a spatially varying value for roller effects across the beach. In addition, the parameter values in the GLS turbulence model should be spatially inhomogeneous, which leads to better prediction of the turbulent kinetic energy and an improved prediction of the undertow velocity profile.

  8. Verification & Validation of High-Order Short-Characteristics-Based Deterministic Transport Methodology on Unstructured Grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azmy, Yousry; Wang, Yaqi

    2013-01-01

    The research team has developed a practical, high-order, discrete-ordinates, short characteristics neutron transport code for three-dimensional configurations represented on unstructured tetrahedral grids that can be used for realistic reactor physics applications at both the assembly and core levels. This project will perform a comprehensive verification and validation of this new computational tool against both a continuous-energy Monte Carlo simulation (e.g. MCNP) and experimentally measured data, an essential prerequisite for its deployment in reactor core modeling. Verification is divided into three phases. The team will first conduct spatial mesh and expansion order refinement studies to monitor convergence of the numerical solution to reference solutions. This is quantified by convergence rates that are based on integral error norms computed from the cell-by-cell difference between the code's numerical solution and its reference counterpart. The latter is either analytic or very fine- mesh numerical solutions from independent computational tools. For the second phase, the team will create a suite of code-independent benchmark configurations to enable testing the theoretical order of accuracy of any particular discretization of the discrete ordinates approximation of the transport equation. For each tested case (i.e. mesh and spatial approximation order), researchers will execute the code and compare the resulting numerical solution to the exact solution on a per cell basis to determine the distribution of the numerical error. The final activity comprises a comparison to continuous-energy Monte Carlo solutions for zero-power critical configuration measurements at Idaho National Laboratory's Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). Results of this comparison will allow the investigators to distinguish between modeling errors and the above-listed discretization errors introduced by the deterministic method, and to separate the sources of uncertainty.

  9. A non-hybrid method for the PDF equations of turbulent flows on unstructured grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakosi, J.; Franzese, P.; Boybeyi, Z.

    2008-01-01

    In probability density function (PDF) methods of turbulent flows, the joint PDF of several flow variables is computed by numerically integrating a system of stochastic differential equations for Lagrangian particles. A set of parallel algorithms is proposed to provide an efficient solution of the PDF transport equation modeling the joint PDF of turbulent velocity, frequency and concentration of a passive scalar in geometrically complex configurations. In the vicinity of walls the flow is resolved by an elliptic relaxation technique down to the viscous sublayer, explicitly modeling the high anisotropy and inhomogeneity of the low-Reynolds-number wall region without damping or wall-functions. An unstructured Eulerian grid is employed to extract Eulerian statistics, to solve for quantities represented at fixed locations of the domain (i.e., the mean pressure and the elliptic relaxation tensor) and to track particles. All three aspects regarding the grid make use of the finite element method employing the simplest linear shapefunctions. To model the small-scale mixing of the transported scalar, the interaction by exchange with the conditional mean (IECM) model is adopted. An adaptive algorithm to compute the velocity-conditioned scalar mean is proposed that homogenizes the statistical error over the sample space with no assumption on the shape of the underlying velocity PDF. Compared to other hybrid particle-in-cell approaches for the PDF equations, the current methodology is consistent without the need for consistency conditions. The algorithm is tested by computing the dispersion of passive scalars released from concentrated sources in two different turbulent flows: the fully developed turbulent channel flow and a street canyon (or cavity) flow. Algorithmic details on estimating conditional and unconditional statistics, particle tracking and particle-number control are presented in detail. Relevant aspects of performance and parallelism on cache-based shared memory

  10. Radial basis function interpolation of unstructured, three-dimensional, volumetric particle tracking velocimetry data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casa, L D C; Krueger, P S

    2013-01-01

    Unstructured three-dimensional fluid velocity data were interpolated using Gaussian radial basis function (RBF) interpolation. Data were generated to imitate the spatial resolution and experimental uncertainty of a typical implementation of defocusing digital particle image velocimetry. The velocity field associated with a steadily rotating infinite plate was simulated to provide a bounded, fully three-dimensional analytical solution of the Navier–Stokes equations, allowing for robust analysis of the interpolation accuracy. The spatial resolution of the data (i.e. particle density) and the number of RBFs were varied in order to assess the requirements for accurate interpolation. Interpolation constraints, including boundary conditions and continuity, were included in the error metric used for the least-squares minimization that determines the interpolation parameters to explore methods for improving RBF interpolation results. Even spacing and logarithmic spacing of RBF locations were also investigated. Interpolation accuracy was assessed using the velocity field, divergence of the velocity field, and viscous torque on the rotating boundary. The results suggest that for the present implementation, RBF spacing of 0.28 times the boundary layer thickness is sufficient for accurate interpolation, though theoretical error analysis suggests that improved RBF positioning may yield more accurate results. All RBF interpolation results were compared to standard Gaussian weighting and Taylor expansion interpolation methods. Results showed that RBF interpolation improves interpolation results compared to the Taylor expansion method by 60% to 90% based on the average squared velocity error and provides comparable velocity results to Gaussian weighted interpolation in terms of velocity error. RMS accuracy of the flow field divergence was one to two orders of magnitude better for the RBF interpolation compared to the other two methods. RBF interpolation that was applied to

  11. Baseline Validation of Unstructured Grid Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes Toward Flow Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joslin, Ronald D.; Viken, Sally A.

    2001-01-01

    The value of the use of the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes methodology for active flow control applications is assessed. An experimental flow control database exists for a NACA0015 airfoil modified at the leading edge to implement a fluidic actuator; hence, this configuration is used. Computational results are documented for the baseline wing configuration (no control) with the experimental results and assumes two-dimensional flow. The baseline wing configuration has discontinuities at the leading edge, trailing edge, and aft of midchord on the upper surface. A limited number of active flow control applications have been tested in the laboratory and in flight. These applications include dynamic stall control using a deformable leading edge, separation control for takeoff and landing flight conditions using piezoelectric devices, pulsed vortex generators, zero-net-mass oscillations, and thrust vectoring with zero-net-mass piezoelectric-driven oscillatory actuation. As yet, there is no definitive comparison with experimental data that indicates current computational capabilities can quantitatively predict the large aerodynamic performance gains achieved with active flow control in the laboratory. However, one study using the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) methodology has shown good quantitative agreement with experimental results for an isolated zero-net-mass actuator. In addition, some recent studies have used RANS to demonstrate qualitative performance gains compared with the experimental data for separation control on an airfoil. Those quantitative comparisons for both baseline and flow control cases indicated that computational results were in poor quantitative agreement with the experiments. The current research thrust will investigate the potential use of an unstructured grid RANS approach to predict aerodynamic performance for active flow control applications building on the early studies. First the computational results must quantitatively match

  12. A novel consistent and well-balanced algorithm for simulations of multiphase flows on unstructured grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jitendra Kumar; Natarajan, Ganesh

    2017-12-01

    consistent transport and balanced force treatment results in a numerically stable solution procedure and physically consistent results. The algorithm proposed in this study qualifies as a robust approach to simulate multiphase flows with high density ratios on unstructured meshes and may be realised in existing flow solvers with relative ease.

  13. High order spectral volume and spectral difference methods on unstructured grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Ravishekar

    The spectral volume (SV) and the spectral difference (SD) methods were developed by Wang and Liu and their collaborators for conservation laws on unstructured grids. They were introduced to achieve high-order accuracy in an efficient manner. Recently, these methods were extended to three-dimensional systems and to the Navier Stokes equations. The simplicity and robustness of these methods have made them competitive against other higher order methods such as the discontinuous Galerkin and residual distribution methods. Although explicit TVD Runge-Kutta schemes for the temporal advancement are easy to implement, they suffer from small time step limited by the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) condition. When the polynomial order is high or when the grid is stretched due to complex geometries or boundary layers, the convergence rate of explicit schemes slows down rapidly. Solution strategies to remedy this problem include implicit methods and multigrid methods. A novel implicit lower-upper symmetric Gauss-Seidel (LU-SGS) relaxation method is employed as an iterative smoother. It is compared to the explicit TVD Runge-Kutta smoothers. For some p-multigrid calculations, combining implicit and explicit smoothers for different p-levels is also studied. The multigrid method considered is nonlinear and uses Full Approximation Scheme (FAS). An overall speed-up factor of up to 150 is obtained using a three-level p-multigrid LU-SGS approach in comparison with the single level explicit method for the Euler equations for the 3rd order SD method. A study of viscous flux formulations was carried out for the SV method. Three formulations were used to discretize the viscous fluxes: local discontinuous Galerkin (LDG), a penalty method and the 2nd method of Bassi and Rebay. Fourier analysis revealed some interesting advantages for the penalty method. These were implemented in the Navier Stokes solver. An implicit and p-multigrid method was also implemented for the above. An overall speed

  14. Network protocols and sockets

    OpenAIRE

    BALEJ, Marek

    2010-01-01

    My work will deal with network protocols and sockets and their use in programming language C#. It will therefore deal programming network applications on the platform .NET from Microsoft and instruments, which C# provides to us. There will describe the tools and methods for programming network applications, and shows a description and sample applications that work with sockets and application protocols.

  15. Second order finite volume scheme for Maxwell's equations with discontinuous electromagnetic properties on unstructured meshes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismagilov, Timur Z., E-mail: ismagilov@academ.org

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents a second order finite volume scheme for numerical solution of Maxwell's equations with discontinuous dielectric permittivity and magnetic permeability on unstructured meshes. The scheme is based on Godunov scheme and employs approaches of Van Leer and Lax–Wendroff to increase the order of approximation. To keep the second order of approximation near dielectric permittivity and magnetic permeability discontinuities a novel technique for gradient calculation and limitation is applied near discontinuities. Results of test computations for problems with linear and curvilinear discontinuities confirm second order of approximation. The scheme was applied to modelling propagation of electromagnetic waves inside photonic crystal waveguides with a bend.

  16. An Automated Approach to the Generation of Structured Building Information Models from Unstructured 3d Point Cloud Scans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Evers, Henrik Leander; Wessel, Raoul

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present and evaluate an approach for the automatic generation of building models in IFC BIM format from unstructured Point Cloud scans, as they result from 3dlaser scans of buildings. While the actual measurement process is relatively fast, 85% of the overall time are spend...... on the interpretation and transformation of the resulting Point Cloud data into information, which can be used in architectural and engineering design workflows. Our approach to tackle this problem, is in contrast to existing ones which work on the levels of points, based on the detection of building elements...

  17. Overlapping Schwarz for Nonlinear Problems. An Element Agglomeration Nonlinear Additive Schwarz Preconditioned Newton Method for Unstructured Finite Element Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, X C; Marcinkowski, L; Vassilevski, P S

    2005-02-10

    This paper extends previous results on nonlinear Schwarz preconditioning ([4]) to unstructured finite element elliptic problems exploiting now nonlocal (but small) subspaces. The non-local finite element subspaces are associated with subdomains obtained from a non-overlapping element partitioning of the original set of elements and are coarse outside the prescribed element subdomain. The coarsening is based on a modification of the agglomeration based AMGe method proposed in [8]. Then, the algebraic construction from [9] of the corresponding non-linear finite element subproblems is applied to generate the subspace based nonlinear preconditioner. The overall nonlinearly preconditioned problem is solved by an inexact Newton method. Numerical illustration is also provided.

  18. Protein blotting protocol for beginners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrasovits, Lars A

    2014-01-01

    The transfer and immobilization of biological macromolecules onto solid nitrocellulose or nylon (polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF)) membranes subsequently followed by specific detection is referred to as blotting. DNA blots are called Southerns after the inventor of the technique, Edwin Southern. By analogy, RNA blots are referred to as northerns and protein blots as westerns (Burnette, Anal Biochem 112:195-203, 1981). With few exceptions, western blotting involves five steps, namely, sample collection, preparation, separation, immobilization, and detection. In this chapter, protocols for the entire process from sample collection to detection are described.

  19. The Kyoto Protocol. An economic appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grubb, M.

    2000-05-01

    This paper examines the overall economics of the Kyoto Protocol on climate change, in three main parts. The first part explores the structure of the Protocol and how this matches against classical economic criteria of an 'optimal' climate change agreement. This discussion also considers the nature of and reasons for shortcomings, and the prospects for its evolution. Given the various flexibilities in the agreement, the Kyoto Protocol is far more economically efficient in its structure than any previous global environmental agreement. The central conclusion is that, from an economic perspective, the Protocol's structure for industrialised country commitments is as good as could reasonably be expected. The second part of the paper explores more closely the economics of the commitments themselves and how they combine with the various flexibilities, briefly reviewing the available literature and using a simple spreadsheet model of how the commitments might combine with trading mechanisms under a range of assumptions. Flexibility is intrinsic and necessary, but it is argued that the allocations to Russia and Ukraine in particular mean that unlimited flexibility could render the Protocol's commitments weaker in their impacts than is economically desirable to address climate change. It is argued that, should this prove to be the case, access to the large surplus in the transition economies could be used as a control valve to limit the costs of the Protocol to within acceptable limits. Finally, the paper considers the issues of developing country involvement in the Kyoto Protocol, and the Protocol's longer-term impact and evolution, including its impact on technological evolution and dissemination and the evolution of future commitments. It is argued that taking account of such issues critically affects views of the Protocol

  20. Involving women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbo, J

    1994-01-01

    I am a primary health care (PHC) coordinator working with the May Day Rural project, a local NGO involved in integrated approaches and programs with rural communities in the Ga District of the Greater-Accra region in Ghana. When we talk about the community development approach we must first and foremost recognize that we are talking about women, because in the developing world frequent childbirths mean that her burden of mortality is higher than a man's; her workload is extremely heavy--whether in gardening, farming, other household duties, caring for the sick, or the rearing of children; she has a key role in PHC and community development, because men are always looking for greener pastures elsewhere, leaving the women behind. Women's concerns are critical in most health care projects and women and children are their main beneficiaries. Why not include women in the management team, project design, implementation and evaluation processes? That is what the May Day Rural project is practicing, encouraging women's participation and creating a relationship of trust. full text

  1. Desensitization protocols and their outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marfo, Kwaku; Lu, Amy; Ling, Min; Akalin, Enver

    2011-04-01

    In the last decade, transplantation across previously incompatible barriers has increasingly become popular because of organ donor shortage, availability of better methods of detecting and characterizing anti-HLA antibodies, ease of diagnosis, better understanding of antibody-mediated rejection, and the availability of effective regimens. This review summarizes all manuscripts published since the first publication in 2000 on desensitized patients and discusses clinical outcomes including acute and chronic antibody-mediated rejection rate, the new agents available, kidney paired exchange programs, and the future directions in sensitized patients. There were 21 studies published between 2000 and 2010, involving 725 patients with donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies (DSAs) who underwent kidney transplantation with different desensitization protocols. All studies were single center and retrospective. The patient and graft survival were 95% and 86%, respectively, at a 2-year median follow-up. Despite acceptable short-term patient and graft survivals, acute rejection rate was 36% and acute antibody-mediated rejection rate was 28%, which is significantly higher than in nonsensitized patients. Recent studies with longer follow-up of those patients raised concerns about long-term success of desensitization protocols. The studies utilizing protocol biopsies in desensitized patients also reported higher subclinical and chronic antibody-mediated rejection. An association between the strength of DSAs determined by median fluorescence intensity values of Luminex single-antigen beads and risk of rejection was observed. Two new agents, bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor, and eculizumab, an anti-complement C5 antibody, were recently introduced to desensitization protocols. An alternative intervention is kidney paired exchange, which should be considered first for sensitized patients. © 2011 by the American Society of Nephrology

  2. Advanced flooding-based routing protocols for underwater sensor networks

    OpenAIRE

    Isufi, E.; Dol, H.; Leus, G.J.T.

    2016-01-01

    Flooding-based protocols are a reliable solution to deliver packets in underwater sensor networks. However, these protocols potentially involve all the nodes in the forwarding process. Thus, the performance and energy efficiency are not optimal. In this work, we propose some advances of a flooding-based protocol with the goal to improve the performance and the energy efficiency. The first idea considers the node position information in order to reduce the number of relays that may apply flood...

  3. Comparative Analysis of Different Protocols to Manage Large Scale Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Anil Rao Pimplapure; Dr Jayant Dubey; Prashant Sen

    2013-01-01

    In recent year the numbers, complexity and size is increased in Large Scale Network. The best example of Large Scale Network is Internet, and recently once are Data-centers in Cloud Environment. In this process, involvement of several management tasks such as traffic monitoring, security and performance optimization is big task for Network Administrator. This research reports study the different protocols i.e. conventional protocols like Simple Network Management Protocol and newly Gossip bas...

  4. Protocol Fuel Mix reporting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-07-01

    The protocol in this document describes a method for an Electricity Distribution Company (EDC) to account for the fuel mix of electricity that it delivers to its customers, based on the best available information. Own production, purchase and sale of electricity, and certificates trading are taken into account. In chapter 2 the actual protocol is outlined. In the appendixes additional (supporting) information is given: (A) Dutch Standard Fuel Mix, 2000; (B) Calculation of the Dutch Standard fuel mix; (C) Procedures to estimate and benchmark the fuel mix; (D) Quality management; (E) External verification; (F) Recommendation for further development of the protocol; (G) Reporting examples

  5. Coded Splitting Tree Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to multiple access control called coded splitting tree protocol. The approach builds on the known tree splitting protocols, code structure and successive interference cancellation (SIC). Several instances of the tree splitting protocol are initiated, each...... instance is terminated prematurely and subsequently iterated. The combined set of leaves from all the tree instances can then be viewed as a graph code, which is decodable using belief propagation. The main design problem is determining the order of splitting, which enables successful decoding as early...

  6. Playing With Population Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Koegler

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Population protocols have been introduced as a model of sensor networks consisting of very limited mobile agents with no control over their own movement: A collection of anonymous agents, modeled by finite automata, interact in pairs according to some rules. Predicates on the initial configurations that can be computed by such protocols have been characterized under several hypotheses. We discuss here whether and when the rules of interactions between agents can be seen as a game from game theory. We do so by discussing several basic protocols.

  7. ATM and Internet protocol

    CERN Document Server

    Bentall, M; Turton, B

    1998-01-01

    Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is a protocol that allows data, sound and video being transferred between independent networks via ISDN links to be supplied to, and interpreted by, the various system protocols.ATM and Internet Protocol explains the working of the ATM and B-ISDN network for readers with a basic understanding of telecommunications. It provides a handy reference to everyone working with ATM who may not require the full standards in detail, but need a comprehensive guide to ATM. A substantial section is devoted to the problems of running IP over ATM and there is some discussion o

  8. A bias correction for covariance estimators to improve inference with generalized estimating equations that use an unstructured correlation matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgate, Philip M

    2013-07-20

    Generalized estimating equations (GEEs) are routinely used for the marginal analysis of correlated data. The efficiency of GEE depends on how closely the working covariance structure resembles the true structure, and therefore accurate modeling of the working correlation of the data is important. A popular approach is the use of an unstructured working correlation matrix, as it is not as restrictive as simpler structures such as exchangeable and AR-1 and thus can theoretically improve efficiency. However, because of the potential for having to estimate a large number of correlation parameters, variances of regression parameter estimates can be larger than theoretically expected when utilizing the unstructured working correlation matrix. Therefore, standard error estimates can be negatively biased. To account for this additional finite-sample variability, we derive a bias correction that can be applied to typical estimators of the covariance matrix of parameter estimates. Via simulation and in application to a longitudinal study, we show that our proposed correction improves standard error estimation and statistical inference. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Knowledge and theme discovery across very large biological data sets using distributed queries: a prototype combining unstructured and structured data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma S Mudunuri

    Full Text Available As the discipline of biomedical science continues to apply new technologies capable of producing unprecedented volumes of noisy and complex biological data, it has become evident that available methods for deriving meaningful information from such data are simply not keeping pace. In order to achieve useful results, researchers require methods that consolidate, store and query combinations of structured and unstructured data sets efficiently and effectively. As we move towards personalized medicine, the need to combine unstructured data, such as medical literature, with large amounts of highly structured and high-throughput data such as human variation or expression data from very large cohorts, is especially urgent. For our study, we investigated a likely biomedical query using the Hadoop framework. We ran queries using native MapReduce tools we developed as well as other open source and proprietary tools. Our results suggest that the available technologies within the Big Data domain can reduce the time and effort needed to utilize and apply distributed queries over large datasets in practical clinical applications in the life sciences domain. The methodologies and technologies discussed in this paper set the stage for a more detailed evaluation that investigates how various data structures and data models are best mapped to the proper computational framework.

  10. Finite volume method for radiative heat transfer in an unstructured flow solver for emitting, absorbing and scattering media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazdallah, Moncef; Feldheim, Véronique; Claramunt, Kilian; Hirsch, Charles

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the implementation of the finite volume method to solve the radiative transfer equation in a commercial code. The particularity of this work is that the method applied on unstructured hexahedral meshes does not need a pre-processing step establishing a particular marching order to visit all the control volumes. The solver simply visits the faces of the control volumes as numbered in the hexahedral unstructured mesh. A cell centred mesh and a spatial differencing step scheme to relate facial radiative intensities to nodal intensities is used. The developed computer code based on FVM has been integrated in the CFD solver FINE/Open from NUMECA Int. Radiative heat transfer can be evaluated within systems containing uniform, grey, emitting, absorbing and/or isotropically or linear anisotropically scattering medium bounded by diffuse grey walls. This code has been validated for three test cases. The first one is a three dimensional rectangular enclosure filled with emitting, absorbing and anisotropically scattering media. The second is the differentially heated cubic cavity. The third one is the L-shaped enclosure. For these three test cases a good agreement has been observed when temperature and heat fluxes predictions are compared with references taken, from literature.

  11. A study on the unstructured music database—Taking the Bo people’s music and its music iconography database as an example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yutong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An unstructured music iconography data system constructed by key technologies like Dublin Core, Lucene technology and MVC framework is studied in this paper. Results indicate that the traditional directory tree and the existing indexing and searching tools are severely insufficient in the organization and management of the massive unstructured data. Relevant documents can be searched effectively and rapidly through the index established by provided by BeFS. Key technologies, such as Dublin Core, Lucene technology and MVC framework, can be applied to the construction of the enormous unstructured database of music and image resources. The database system test can be divided into two links, functional test and performance test. The test results of the Bo people’s music and image database system obtained through the tested design scheme indicate that the performance of the system is relatively high and able to satisfy the concurrent access of massive data with excellent user experience.

  12. Mobile Internet Protocol Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brachfeld, Lawrence

    1999-01-01

    ...) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP). Mobile IP allows mobile computers to send and receive packets addressed with their home network IP address, regardless of the IP address of their current point of attachment on the Internet...

  13. Comparison of test protocols for standard room/corner tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. H. White; M. A. Dietenberger; H. Tran; O. Grexa; L. Richardson; K. Sumathipala; M. Janssens

    1998-01-01

    As part of international efforts to evaluate alternative reaction-to-fire tests, several series of room/comer tests have been conducted. This paper reviews the overall results of related projects in which different test protocols for standard room/corner tests were used. Differences in the test protocols involved two options for the ignition burner scenario and whether...

  14. Comparison of protocols for genomic DNA extraction from 'velame ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    usuario

    2013-07-24

    Jul 24, 2013 ... involving C. linearifolius, we compared the efficiency of six protocols for genomic DNA extraction previously ... phytic, with diverse aspect and floristics, average rainfall between ..... The variation observed for DNA concentrations estimated with .... performed with protocol 1 (data not shown), or still, bands.

  15. USA-USSR protocol

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    On 30 November the USA Atomic Energy Commission and the USSR State Committee for the Utilization of Atomic Energy signed, in Washington, a protocol 'on carrying out of joint projects in the field of high energy physics at the accelerators of the National Accelerator Laboratory (Batavia) and the Institute for High Energy Physics (Serpukhov)'. The protocol will be in force for five years and can be extended by mutual agreement.

  16. Multiple-correction hybrid k-exact schemes for high-order compressible RANS-LES simulations on fully unstructured grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pont, Grégoire; Brenner, Pierre; Cinnella, Paola; Maugars, Bruno; Robinet, Jean-Christophe

    2017-12-01

    A Godunov's type unstructured finite volume method suitable for highly compressible turbulent scale-resolving simulations around complex geometries is constructed by using a successive correction technique. First, a family of k-exact Godunov schemes is developed by recursively correcting the truncation error of the piecewise polynomial representation of the primitive variables. The keystone of the proposed approach is a quasi-Green gradient operator which ensures consistency on general meshes. In addition, a high-order single-point quadrature formula, based on high-order approximations of the successive derivatives of the solution, is developed for flux integration along cell faces. The proposed family of schemes is compact in the algorithmic sense, since it only involves communications between direct neighbors of the mesh cells. The numerical properties of the schemes up to fifth-order are investigated, with focus on their resolvability in terms of number of mesh points required to resolve a given wavelength accurately. Afterwards, in the aim of achieving the best possible trade-off between accuracy, computational cost and robustness in view of industrial flow computations, we focus more specifically on the third-order accurate scheme of the family, and modify locally its numerical flux in order to reduce the amount of numerical dissipation in vortex-dominated regions. This is achieved by switching from the upwind scheme, mostly applied in highly compressible regions, to a fourth-order centered one in vortex-dominated regions. An analytical switch function based on the local grid Reynolds number is adopted in order to warrant numerical stability of the recentering process. Numerical applications demonstrate the accuracy and robustness of the proposed methodology for compressible scale-resolving computations. In particular, supersonic RANS/LES computations of the flow over a cavity are presented to show the capability of the scheme to predict flows with shocks

  17. Interactive verification of Markov chains: Two distributed protocol case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Hölzl

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Probabilistic model checkers like PRISM only check probabilistic systems of a fixed size. To guarantee the desired properties for an arbitrary size, mathematical analysis is necessary. We show for two case studies how this can be done in the interactive proof assistant Isabelle/HOL. The first case study is a detailed description of how we verified properties of the ZeroConf protocol, a decentral address allocation protocol. The second case study shows the more involved verification of anonymity properties of the Crowds protocol, an anonymizing protocol.

  18. The VIPER project (Visualization Integration Platform for Exploration Research): a biologically inspired autonomous reconfigurable robotic platform for diverse unstructured environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Oliver J.; Tolle, Charles R.

    2004-09-01

    Over the last decade the world has seen numerous autonomous vehicle programs. Wheels and track designs are the basis for many of these vehicles. This is primarily due to four main reasons: a vast preexisting knowledge base for these designs, energy efficiency of power sources, scalability of actuators, and the lack of control systems technologies for handling alternate highly complex distributed systems. Though large efforts seek to improve the mobility of these vehicles, many limitations still exist for these systems within unstructured environments, e.g. limited mobility within industrial and nuclear accident sites where existing plant configurations have been extensively changed. These unstructured operational environments include missions for exploration, reconnaissance, and emergency recovery of objects within reconfigured or collapsed structures, e.g. bombed buildings. More importantly, these environments present a clear and present danger for direct human interactions during the initial phases of recovery operations. Clearly, the current classes of autonomous vehicles are incapable of performing in these environments. Thus the next generation of designs must include highly reconfigurable and flexible autonomous robotic platforms. This new breed of autonomous vehicles will be both highly flexible and environmentally adaptable. Presented in this paper is one of the most successful designs from nature, the snake-eel-worm (SEW). This design implements shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators which allow for scaling of the robotic SEW designs from sub-micron scale to heavy industrial implementations without major conceptual redesigns as required in traditional hydraulic, pneumatic, or motor driven systems. Autonomous vehicles based on the SEW design posses the ability to easily move between air based environments and fluid based environments with limited or no reconfiguration. Under a SEW designed vehicle, one not only achieves vastly improved maneuverability within a

  19. In silico toxicology protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myatt, Glenn J; Ahlberg, Ernst; Akahori, Yumi; Allen, David; Amberg, Alexander; Anger, Lennart T; Aptula, Aynur; Auerbach, Scott; Beilke, Lisa; Bellion, Phillip; Benigni, Romualdo; Bercu, Joel; Booth, Ewan D; Bower, Dave; Brigo, Alessandro; Burden, Natalie; Cammerer, Zoryana; Cronin, Mark T D; Cross, Kevin P; Custer, Laura; Dettwiler, Magdalena; Dobo, Krista; Ford, Kevin A; Fortin, Marie C; Gad-McDonald, Samantha E; Gellatly, Nichola; Gervais, Véronique; Glover, Kyle P; Glowienke, Susanne; Van Gompel, Jacky; Gutsell, Steve; Hardy, Barry; Harvey, James S; Hillegass, Jedd; Honma, Masamitsu; Hsieh, Jui-Hua; Hsu, Chia-Wen; Hughes, Kathy; Johnson, Candice; Jolly, Robert; Jones, David; Kemper, Ray; Kenyon, Michelle O; Kim, Marlene T; Kruhlak, Naomi L; Kulkarni, Sunil A; Kümmerer, Klaus; Leavitt, Penny; Majer, Bernhard; Masten, Scott; Miller, Scott; Moser, Janet; Mumtaz, Moiz; Muster, Wolfgang; Neilson, Louise; Oprea, Tudor I; Patlewicz, Grace; Paulino, Alexandre; Lo Piparo, Elena; Powley, Mark; Quigley, Donald P; Reddy, M Vijayaraj; Richarz, Andrea-Nicole; Ruiz, Patricia; Schilter, Benoit; Serafimova, Rositsa; Simpson, Wendy; Stavitskaya, Lidiya; Stidl, Reinhard; Suarez-Rodriguez, Diana; Szabo, David T; Teasdale, Andrew; Trejo-Martin, Alejandra; Valentin, Jean-Pierre; Vuorinen, Anna; Wall, Brian A; Watts, Pete; White, Angela T; Wichard, Joerg; Witt, Kristine L; Woolley, Adam; Woolley, David; Zwickl, Craig; Hasselgren, Catrin

    2018-04-17

    The present publication surveys several applications of in silico (i.e., computational) toxicology approaches across different industries and institutions. It highlights the need to develop standardized protocols when conducting toxicity-related predictions. This contribution articulates the information needed for protocols to support in silico predictions for major toxicological endpoints of concern (e.g., genetic toxicity, carcinogenicity, acute toxicity, reproductive toxicity, developmental toxicity) across several industries and regulatory bodies. Such novel in silico toxicology (IST) protocols, when fully developed and implemented, will ensure in silico toxicological assessments are performed and evaluated in a consistent, reproducible, and well-documented manner across industries and regulatory bodies to support wider uptake and acceptance of the approaches. The development of IST protocols is an initiative developed through a collaboration among an international consortium to reflect the state-of-the-art in in silico toxicology for hazard identification and characterization. A general outline for describing the development of such protocols is included and it is based on in silico predictions and/or available experimental data for a defined series of relevant toxicological effects or mechanisms. The publication presents a novel approach for determining the reliability of in silico predictions alongside experimental data. In addition, we discuss how to determine the level of confidence in the assessment based on the relevance and reliability of the information. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Protocol: using virus-induced gene silencing to study the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in Pisum sativum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønlund, Mette; Olsen, Anne; Johansen, Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    , the available PEBV-VIGS protocols are inadequate for studying genes involved in the symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Here we describe a PEBV-VIGS protocol suitable for reverse genetics studies in pea of genes involved in the symbiosis with AMF and show its effectiveness in silencing genes...... involved in the early and late stages of AMF symbiosis....

  1. A second-order cell-centered Lagrangian ADER-MOOD finite volume scheme on multidimensional unstructured meshes for hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscheri, Walter; Dumbser, Michael; Loubère, Raphaël; Maire, Pierre-Henri

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we develop a conservative cell-centered Lagrangian finite volume scheme for the solution of the hydrodynamics equations on unstructured multidimensional grids. The method is derived from the Eucclhyd scheme discussed in [47,43,45]. It is second-order accurate in space and is combined with the a posteriori Multidimensional Optimal Order Detection (MOOD) limiting strategy to ensure robustness and stability at shock waves. Second-order of accuracy in time is achieved via the ADER (Arbitrary high order schemes using DERivatives) approach. A large set of numerical test cases is proposed to assess the ability of the method to achieve effective second order of accuracy on smooth flows, maintaining an essentially non-oscillatory behavior on discontinuous profiles, general robustness ensuring physical admissibility of the numerical solution, and precision where appropriate.

  2. Social influence and adolescent health-related physical activity in structured and unstructured settings: role of channel and type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spink, Kevin S; Wilson, Kathleen S; Ulvick, Jocelyn

    2012-08-01

    Social influence channels (e.g., parents) and types (e.g., compliance) have each been related to physical activity independently, but little is known about how these two categories of influence may operate in combination. This study examined the relationships between various combinations of social influence and physical activity among youth across structured and unstructured settings. Adolescents (N=304), classified as high or low active, reported the social influence combinations they received for being active. Participants identified three channels and three types of influence associated with being active. For structured activity, compliance with peers and significant others predicted membership in the high active group (values of psocial influence, when examining health-related physical activity.

  3. Numerical Study of Detonation Wave Propagation in the Variable Cross-Section Channel Using Unstructured Computational Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Lopato

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The work is dedicated to the numerical study of detonation wave initiation and propagation in the variable cross-section axisymmetric channel filled with the model hydrogen-air mixture. The channel models the large-scale device for the utilization of worn-out tires. Mathematical model is based on two-dimensional axisymmetric Euler equations supplemented by global chemical kinetics model. The finite volume computational algorithm of the second approximation order for the calculation of two-dimensional flows with detonation waves on fully unstructured grids with triangular cells is developed. Three geometrical configurations of the channel are investigated, each with its own degree of the divergence of the conical part of the channel from the point of view of the pressure from the detonation wave on the end wall of the channel. The problem in consideration relates to the problem of waste recycling in the devices based on the detonation combustion of the fuel.

  4. Three-Dimensional Incompressible Navier-Stokes Flow Computations about Complete Configurations Using a Multiblock Unstructured Grid Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Chunhua; Hyams, Daniel G.; Sreenivas, Kidambi; Gaither, J. Adam; Marcum, David L.; Whitfield, David L.

    2000-01-01

    A multiblock unstructured grid approach is presented for solving three-dimensional incompressible inviscid and viscous turbulent flows about complete configurations. The artificial compressibility form of the governing equations is solved by a node-based, finite volume implicit scheme which uses a backward Euler time discretization. Point Gauss-Seidel relaxations are used to solve the linear system of equations at each time step. This work employs a multiblock strategy to the solution procedure, which greatly improves the efficiency of the algorithm by significantly reducing the memory requirements by a factor of 5 over the single-grid algorithm while maintaining a similar convergence behavior. The numerical accuracy of solutions is assessed by comparing with the experimental data for a submarine with stem appendages and a high-lift configuration.

  5. An unstructured finite volume solver for two phase water/vapour flows based on an elliptic oriented fractional step method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechitoua, N.; Boucker, M.; Lavieville, J.; Pigny, S.; Serre, G.

    2003-01-01

    Based on experience gained at EDF and Cea, a more general and robust 3-dimensional (3D) multiphase flow solver has been being currently developed for over three years. This solver, based on an elliptic oriented fractional step approach, is able to simulate multicomponent/multiphase flows. Discretization follows a 3D full unstructured finite volume approach, with a collocated arrangement of all variables. The non linear behaviour between pressure and volume fractions and a symmetric treatment of all fields are taken into account in the iterative procedure, within the time step. It greatly enforces the realizability of volume fractions (i.e 0 < α < 1), without artificial numerical needs. Applications to widespread test cases as static sedimentation, water hammer and phase separation are shown to assess the accuracy and the robustness of the flow solver in different flow conditions, encountered in nuclear reactors pipes. (authors)

  6. Business protocol in integrated Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Pavelová, Nina

    2009-01-01

    The first chapter devotes to definitions of basic terms such as protocol or business protocol, to differences between protocol and etiquette, and between social etiquette and business etiquette. The second chapter focuses on the factors influencing the European business protocol. The third chapter is devoted to the etiquette of business protocol in the European countries. It touches the topics such as punctuality and planning of business appointment, greeting, business cards, dress and appear...

  7. Security Protocols in a Nutshell

    OpenAIRE

    Toorani, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Security protocols are building blocks in secure communications. They deploy some security mechanisms to provide certain security services. Security protocols are considered abstract when analyzed, but they can have extra vulnerabilities when implemented. This manuscript provides a holistic study on security protocols. It reviews foundations of security protocols, taxonomy of attacks on security protocols and their implementations, and different methods and models for security analysis of pro...

  8. Three-dimensional dynamic rupture simulation with a high-order discontinuous Galerkin method on unstructured tetrahedral meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Pelties, Christian

    2012-02-18

    Accurate and efficient numerical methods to simulate dynamic earthquake rupture and wave propagation in complex media and complex fault geometries are needed to address fundamental questions in earthquake dynamics, to integrate seismic and geodetic data into emerging approaches for dynamic source inversion, and to generate realistic physics-based earthquake scenarios for hazard assessment. Modeling of spontaneous earthquake rupture and seismic wave propagation by a high-order discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method combined with an arbitrarily high-order derivatives (ADER) time integration method was introduced in two dimensions by de la Puente et al. (2009). The ADER-DG method enables high accuracy in space and time and discretization by unstructured meshes. Here we extend this method to three-dimensional dynamic rupture problems. The high geometrical flexibility provided by the usage of tetrahedral elements and the lack of spurious mesh reflections in the ADER-DG method allows the refinement of the mesh close to the fault to model the rupture dynamics adequately while concentrating computational resources only where needed. Moreover, ADER-DG does not generate spurious high-frequency perturbations on the fault and hence does not require artificial Kelvin-Voigt damping. We verify our three-dimensional implementation by comparing results of the SCEC TPV3 test problem with two well-established numerical methods, finite differences, and spectral boundary integral. Furthermore, a convergence study is presented to demonstrate the systematic consistency of the method. To illustrate the capabilities of the high-order accurate ADER-DG scheme on unstructured meshes, we simulate an earthquake scenario, inspired by the 1992 Landers earthquake, that includes curved faults, fault branches, and surface topography. Copyright 2012 by the American Geophysical Union.

  9. The unstructured linker arms of Mlh1-Pms1 are important for interactions with DNA during mismatch repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plys, Aaron J.; Rogacheva, Maria V.; Greene, Eric C.; Alani, Eric

    2012-01-01

    DNA mismatch repair (MMR) models have proposed that MSH proteins identify DNA polymerase errors while interacting with the DNA replication fork. MLH proteins (primarily Mlh1-Pms1 in baker’s yeast) then survey the genome for lesion-bound MSH proteins. The resulting MSH-MLH complex formed at a DNA lesion initiates downstream steps in repair. MLH proteins act as dimers and contain long (20 – 30 nanometers) unstructured arms that connect two terminal globular domains. These arms can vary between 100 to 300 amino acids in length, are highly divergent between organisms, and are resistant to amino acid substitutions. To test the roles of the linker arms in MMR, we engineered a protease cleavage site into the Mlh1 linker arm domain of baker’s yeast Mlh1-Pms1. Cleavage of the Mlh1 linker arm in vitro resulted in a defect in Mlh1-Pms1 DNA binding activity, and in vivo proteolytic cleavage resulted in a complete defect in MMR. We then generated a series of truncation mutants bearing Mlh1 and Pms1 linker arms of varying lengths. This work revealed that MMR is greatly compromised when portions of the Mlh1 linker are removed, whereas repair is less sensitive to truncation of the Pms1 linker arm. Purified complexes containing truncations in Mlh1 and Pms1 linker arms were analyzed and found to have differential defects in DNA binding that also correlated with the ability to form a ternary complex with Msh2-Msh6 and mismatch DNA. These observations are consistent with the unstructured linker domains of MLH proteins providing distinct interactions with DNA during MMR. PMID:22659005

  10. Axisymmetric charge-conservative electromagnetic particle simulation algorithm on unstructured grids: Application to microwave vacuum electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Dong-Yeop; Omelchenko, Yuri A.; Moon, Haksu; Borges, Ben-Hur V.; Teixeira, Fernando L.

    2017-10-01

    We present a charge-conservative electromagnetic particle-in-cell (EM-PIC) algorithm optimized for the analysis of vacuum electronic devices (VEDs) with cylindrical symmetry (axisymmetry). We exploit the axisymmetry present in the device geometry, fields, and sources to reduce the dimensionality of the problem from 3D to 2D. Further, we employ 'transformation optics' principles to map the original problem in polar coordinates with metric tensor diag (1 ,ρ2 , 1) to an equivalent problem on a Cartesian metric tensor diag (1 , 1 , 1) with an effective (artificial) inhomogeneous medium introduced. The resulting problem in the meridian (ρz) plane is discretized using an unstructured 2D mesh considering TEϕ-polarized fields. Electromagnetic field and source (node-based charges and edge-based currents) variables are expressed as differential forms of various degrees, and discretized using Whitney forms. Using leapfrog time integration, we obtain a mixed E - B finite-element time-domain scheme for the full-discrete Maxwell's equations. We achieve a local and explicit time update for the field equations by employing the sparse approximate inverse (SPAI) algorithm. Interpolating field values to particles' positions for solving Newton-Lorentz equations of motion is also done via Whitney forms. Particles are advanced using the Boris algorithm with relativistic correction. A recently introduced charge-conserving scatter scheme tailored for 2D unstructured grids is used in the scatter step. The algorithm is validated considering cylindrical cavity and space-charge-limited cylindrical diode problems. We use the algorithm to investigate the physical performance of VEDs designed to harness particle bunching effects arising from the coherent (resonance) Cerenkov electron beam interactions within micro-machined slow wave structures.

  11. Time-domain analysis of planar microstrip devices using a generalized Yee-algorithm based on unstructured grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedney, Stephen D.; Lansing, Faiza

    1993-01-01

    The generalized Yee-algorithm is presented for the temporal full-wave analysis of planar microstrip devices. This algorithm has the significant advantage over the traditional Yee-algorithm in that it is based on unstructured and irregular grids. The robustness of the generalized Yee-algorithm is that structures that contain curved conductors or complex three-dimensional geometries can be more accurately, and much more conveniently modeled using standard automatic grid generation techniques. This generalized Yee-algorithm is based on the the time-marching solution of the discrete form of Maxwell's equations in their integral form. To this end, the electric and magnetic fields are discretized over a dual, irregular, and unstructured grid. The primary grid is assumed to be composed of general fitted polyhedra distributed throughout the volume. The secondary grid (or dual grid) is built up of the closed polyhedra whose edges connect the centroid's of adjacent primary cells, penetrating shared faces. Faraday's law and Ampere's law are used to update the fields normal to the primary and secondary grid faces, respectively. Subsequently, a correction scheme is introduced to project the normal fields onto the grid edges. It is shown that this scheme is stable, maintains second-order accuracy, and preserves the divergenceless nature of the flux densities. Finally, for computational efficiency the algorithm is structured as a series of sparse matrix-vector multiplications. Based on this scheme, the generalized Yee-algorithm has been implemented on vector and parallel high performance computers in a highly efficient manner.

  12. Leisure-time physical activity behavior: structured and unstructured choices according to sex, age, and level of physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Jorge; Esculcas, Carlos

    2002-01-01

    The main goals of this cross-sectional survey were (a) to describe the associations between sex, age, and physical activity behavior and (b) to describe the age and sex-related associations with the choice of structured (formal) and unstructured (nonformal) physical activity programs. At baseline, data were selected randomly from 1,013 students, from the 7th to the 12th grades. A response rate of 73% (n = 739) was obtained. Accordingly, the sample of this study consisted of 594 adolescents (304 females and 290 males) with mean age of 15.9 years (range 13-20). Physical activity was assessed by means of a questionnaire. A questionnaire about leisure activities was applied to the sample to define the nominal variable "nature of physical activity." The data showed that significantly more girls than boys (p < or = .001) belonged to the sedentary group (80.7% girls) and low activity group (64.5% girls). Boys more frequently belonged to the more active groups (92.1%; p < or = .001). The older participants were more engaged in formal physical activities, whereas the younger mostly chose informal ones whatever their level of physical activity. There were more significant differences in girls' physical activity groups (chi 2 = 20.663, p < or = .001) than in boys' (chi 2 = 7.662, p < or = .05). Furthermore, active girls chose more structured physical activities than their sedentary counterparts (18.8% vs. 83.3%). However, boys preferred unstructured activities regardless of physical activity group (83.7% vs. 58.5%; p < or = .05). It can be concluded that as age increased, organized sports activities became a relatively more important component of total weekly activity for both male and female participants.

  13. DNA repair protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjergbæk, Lotte

    In its 3rd edition, this Methods in Molecular Biology(TM) book covers the eukaryotic response to genomic insult including advanced protocols and standard techniques in the field of DNA repair. Offers expert guidance for DNA repair, recombination, and replication. Current knowledge of the mechanisms...... that regulate DNA repair has grown significantly over the past years with technology advances such as RNA interference, advanced proteomics and microscopy as well as high throughput screens. The third edition of DNA Repair Protocols covers various aspects of the eukaryotic response to genomic insult including...... recent advanced protocols as well as standard techniques used in the field of DNA repair. Both mammalian and non-mammalian model organisms are covered in the book, and many of the techniques can be applied with only minor modifications to other systems than the one described. Written in the highly...

  14. Breaking Megrelishvili protocol using matrix diagonalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzaki, Muhammad; Triantoro Murdiansyah, Danang; Adi Prabowo, Satrio

    2018-03-01

    In this article we conduct a theoretical security analysis of Megrelishvili protocol—a linear algebra-based key agreement between two participants. We study the computational complexity of Megrelishvili vector-matrix problem (MVMP) as a mathematical problem that strongly relates to the security of Megrelishvili protocol. In particular, we investigate the asymptotic upper bounds for the running time and memory requirement of the MVMP that involves diagonalizable public matrix. Specifically, we devise a diagonalization method for solving the MVMP that is asymptotically faster than all of the previously existing algorithms. We also found an important counterintuitive result: the utilization of primitive matrix in Megrelishvili protocol makes the protocol more vulnerable to attacks.

  15. Automatic Generation of Network Protocol Gateways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bromberg, Yérom-David; Réveillère, Laurent; Lawall, Julia

    2009-01-01

    for describing protocol behaviors, message structures, and the gateway logic.  Z2z includes a compiler that checks essential correctness properties and produces efficient code. We have used z2z to develop a number of gateways, including SIP to RTSP, SLP to UPnP, and SMTP to SMTP via HTTP, involving a range......The emergence of networked devices in the home has made it possible to develop applications that control a variety of household functions. However, current devices communicate via a multitude of incompatible protocols, and thus gateways are needed to translate between them.  Gateway construction......, however, requires an intimate knowledge of the relevant protocols and a substantial understanding of low-level network programming, which can be a challenge for many application programmers. This paper presents a generative approach to gateway construction, z2z, based on a domain-specific language...

  16. Structured Transition Protocol for Children with Cystinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupesh Raina

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The transition from pediatric to adult medical services has a greater impact on the care of adolescents or young adults with chronic diseases such as cystinosis. This transition period is a time of psychosocial development and new responsibilities placing these patients at increased risk of non-adherence. This can lead to serious adverse effects such as graft loss and progression of the disease. Our transition protocol will provide patients, families, physicians, and all those involved a structured guide to transitioning cystinosis patients. This structured protocol depends on four areas of competency: Recognition, Insight, Self-reliance, and Establishment of healthy habits (RISE. This protocol has not been tested and therefore challenges not realized. With a focus on medical, social, and educational/vocational aspects, we aim to improve transition for cystinosis patients in all aspects of their lives.

  17. Latest approaches of Kyoto protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matei, M.; Matei, L.

    2005-01-01

    Recently EURELECTRIC welcome the proposal of new EC Directive concerning the inclusion in the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) of credits from the project mechanisms - Joint Implementation (JI) and Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The proposed Directive is an amendment to the EU Emissions Trading Directive adopted in June 2003. EURELECTRIC calls for unlimited use of credits in ETS. The draft Directive provides for the application of these mechanisms to begin as of 2008, on condition that the Kyoto Protocol does actually enter into force, an event which is still dependent on Russia's ratification. Such ratification has been subject to contradictory statements from the Russian Government, and the question of whether their signature to the Protocol is forthcoming is still fraught with uncertainty. Although it is not anticipated that significant quantities of JI or CDM certified credits will be available in the period 2005-2007, those that do become available would provide some additional liquidity in the emissions trading market. There is a direct relation between the coming ETS and electricity pricing: environmental policy is the driver, based on the need to switch to a low-carbon future and manage the necessary investments in a rational manner - and emissions trading is the best solution available. Romania has good opportunities to be involved in the greenhouse gases market, both in ETS and JI mechanisms. Some JI projects between Romanian and The Netherlands are already done or underway. (author)

  18. Protocol Monitoring Energy Conservation; Protocol Monitoring Energiebesparing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boonekamp, P.G.M. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands); Mannaerts, H. [Centraal Planburea CPB, Den Haag (Netherlands); Tinbergen, W. [Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek CBS, Den Haag (Netherlands); Vreuls, H.H.J. [Nederlandse onderneming voor energie en milieu Novem, Utrecht (Netherlands); Wesselink, B. [Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieuhygiene RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    2001-12-01

    On request of the Dutch ministry of Economic Affairs five institutes have collaborated to create a 'Protocol Monitoring Energy Conservation', a common method and database to calculate the amount of energy savings realised in past years. The institutes concerned are the Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), the Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis (CPB), the Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), the National Agency for Energy and Environment (Novem) and the Netherlands Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM). The institutes have agreed upon a clear definition of energy use and energy savings. The demarcation with renewable energy, the saving effects of substitution between energy carriers and the role of import and export of energy have been elaborated. A decomposition method is used to split up the observed change in energy use in a number of effects, on a national and sectoral level. This method includes an analysis of growth effects, effects of structural changes in production and consumption activities and savings on end use or with more efficient conversion processes. To calculate these effects the total energy use is desegregated as much as possible. For each segment a reference energy use is calculated according to the trend in a variable which is supposed to be representative for the use without savings. The difference with the actual energy use is taken as the savings realised. Results are given for the sectors households, industry, agriculture, services and government, transportation and the energy sector; as well as a national figure. A special feature of the protocol method is the application of primary energy use figures in the determination of savings for end users. This means that the use of each energy carrier is increased with a certain amount, according to the conversion losses caused elsewhere in the energy system. The losses concern the base year energy sector and losses abroad for imports of secondary

  19. WDM Network and Multicasting Protocol Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Kirci

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical technology gains extensive attention and ever increasing improvement because of the huge amount of network traffic caused by the growing number of internet users and their rising demands. However, with wavelength division multiplexing (WDM, it is easier to take the advantage of optical networks and optical burst switching (OBS and to construct WDM networks with low delay rates and better data transparency these technologies are the best choices. Furthermore, multicasting in WDM is an urgent solution for bandwidth-intensive applications. In the paper, a new multicasting protocol with OBS is proposed. The protocol depends on a leaf initiated structure. The network is composed of source, ingress switches, intermediate switches, edge switches, and client nodes. The performance of the protocol is examined with Just Enough Time (JET and Just In Time (JIT reservation protocols. Also, the paper involves most of the recent advances about WDM multicasting in optical networks. WDM multicasting in optical networks is given as three common subtitles: Broadcast and-select networks, wavelength-routed networks, and OBS networks. Also, in the paper, multicast routing protocols are briefly summarized and optical burst switched WDM networks are investigated with the proposed multicast schemes.

  20. Supporting Adaptation of Wireless Communication Protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhomeja, L.D.; Soomro, I.A.; Malkani, Y.A.

    2016-01-01

    Pervasive devices such as mobile phones and PDAs (Personal Digital Assistants) come with different wireless communication capabilities, for example, WiFi (Wireless Fidelity), Bluetooth, IrDA (Infrared), etc. In order for pervasive devices to interact with each other, they need to have matching (alike) communication capabilities, otherwise such heterogeneous devices would not be able to interact with each other. In this paper we address this issue and propose a system that makes devices with heterogeneous wireless communication capabilities communicate with each other. The proposed system supports adaptation of wireless communication protocols through a proxy, which sits between a client and a server, and supports adaptation of wireless communication protocols. Its functionality involves intercepting a request made by a client with a different wireless communication capability (e.g. Bluetooth) from what the server has (e.g. WiFi), connecting to the server and then sending results back to the client. We have tested the system by implementing a messaging service application and running it on the system. The proxy supports all Bluetooth protocols, i.e. OBEX (Object Exchange), L2CAP (Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol), RFCOM (Radio Frequency Communication) and WiFi protocol and can run on (J2MW (Java 2 Micro Edition) enabled mobile phones which support both Bluetooth and WiFi capabilities. (author)

  1. Immunocytochemical methods and protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Javois, Lorette C

    1999-01-01

    ... monoclonal antibodies to study cell differentiation during embryonic development. For a select few disciplines volumes have been published focusing on the specific application of immunocytochemical techniques to that discipline. What distinguished Immunocytochemical Methods and Protocols from earlier books when it was first published four years ago was i...

  2. Critical Response Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingson, Charlene; Roehrig, Gillian; Bakkum, Kris; Dubinsky, Janet M.

    2016-01-01

    This article introduces the Critical Response Protocol (CRP), an arts-based technique that engages students in equitable critical discourse and aligns with the "Next Generation Science Standards" vision for providing students opportunities for language learning while advancing science learning (NGSS Lead States 2013). CRP helps teachers…

  3. Principles of Protocol Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Robin

    This is a new and updated edition of a book first published in 1994. The book introduces the reader to the principles used in the construction of a large range of modern data communication protocols, as used in distributed computer systems of all kinds. The approach taken is rather a formal one...

  4. Protocol for Communication Networking for Formation Flying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Esther; Okino, Clayton; Gao, Jay; Clare, Loren

    2009-01-01

    diverse local-area networks, this protocol offers both (1) a random- access mode needed for the early PFF deployment phase and (2) a time-bounded-services mode needed during PFF-maintenance operations. Switching between these two modes could be controlled by upper-layer entities using standard link-management mechanisms. Because the early deployment phase of a PFF mission can be expected to involve multihop relaying to achieve network connectivity (see figure), the proposed protocol includes the open shortest path first (OSPF) network protocol that is commonly used in the Internet. Each spacecraft in a PFF network would be in one of seven distinct states as the mission evolved from initial deployment, through coarse formation, and into precise formation. Reconfiguration of the formation to perform different scientific observations would also cause state changes among the network nodes. The application protocol provides for recognition and tracking of the seven states for each node and for protocol changes under specified conditions to adapt the network and satisfy communication requirements associated with the current PFF mission phase. Except during early deployment, when peer-to-peer random access discovery methods would be used, the application protocol provides for operation in a centralized manner.

  5. Satellite Communications Using Commercial Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.; Griner, James H.; Dimond, Robert; Frantz, Brian D.; Kachmar, Brian; Shell, Dan

    2000-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center has been working with industry, academia, and other government agencies in assessing commercial communications protocols for satellite and space-based applications. In addition, NASA Glenn has been developing and advocating new satellite-friendly modifications to existing communications protocol standards. This paper summarizes recent research into the applicability of various commercial standard protocols for use over satellite and space- based communications networks as well as expectations for future protocol development. It serves as a reference point from which the detailed work can be readily accessed. Areas that will be addressed include asynchronous-transfer-mode quality of service; completed and ongoing work of the Internet Engineering Task Force; data-link-layer protocol development for unidirectional link routing; and protocols for aeronautical applications, including mobile Internet protocol routing for wireless/mobile hosts and the aeronautical telecommunications network protocol.

  6. Epistemic Protocols for Distributed Gossiping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof R. Apt

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Gossip protocols aim at arriving, by means of point-to-point or group communications, at a situation in which all the agents know each other's secrets. We consider distributed gossip protocols which are expressed by means of epistemic logic. We provide an operational semantics of such protocols and set up an appropriate framework to argue about their correctness. Then we analyze specific protocols for complete graphs and for directed rings.

  7. Symmetric cryptographic protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Ramkumar, Mahalingam

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on protocols and constructions that make good use of symmetric pseudo random functions (PRF) like block ciphers and hash functions - the building blocks for symmetric cryptography. Readers will benefit from detailed discussion of several strategies for utilizing symmetric PRFs. Coverage includes various key distribution strategies for unicast, broadcast and multicast security, and strategies for constructing efficient digests of dynamic databases using binary hash trees.   •        Provides detailed coverage of symmetric key protocols •        Describes various applications of symmetric building blocks •        Includes strategies for constructing compact and efficient digests of dynamic databases

  8. Diplomacy and Diplomatic Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lect. Ph.D Oana Iucu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to observe relationships and determining factors between diplomacyand diplomatic protocol as outlined by historical and contextual analyses. The approach is very dynamic,provided that concepts are able to show their richness, antiquity and polyvalence at the level of connotations,semantics, grammatical and social syntax. The fact that this information is up to date determines anattitude of appreciation and a state of positive contamination.

  9. Resolving high-frequency internal waves generated at an isolated coral atoll using an unstructured grid ocean model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayson, Matthew D.; Ivey, Gregory N.; Jones, Nicole L.; Fringer, Oliver B.

    2018-02-01

    We apply the unstructured grid hydrodynamic model SUNTANS to investigate the internal wave dynamics around Scott Reef, Western Australia, an isolated coral reef atoll located on the edge of the continental shelf in water depths of 500,m and more. The atoll is subject to strong semi-diurnal tidal forcing and consists of two relatively shallow lagoons separated by a 500 m deep, 2 km wide and 15 km long channel. We focus on the dynamics in this channel as the internal tide-driven flow and resulting mixing is thought to be a key mechanism controlling heat and nutrient fluxes into the reef lagoons. We use an unstructured grid to discretise the domain and capture both the complex topography and the range of internal wave length scales in the channel flow. The model internal wave field shows super-tidal frequency lee waves generated by the combination of the steep channel topography and strong tidal flow. We evaluate the model performance using observations of velocity and temperature from two through water-column moorings in the channel separating the two reefs. Three different global ocean state estimate datasets (global HYCOM, CSIRO Bluelink, CSIRO climatology atlas) were used to provide the model initial and boundary conditions, and the model outputs from each were evaluated against the field observations. The scenario incorporating the CSIRO Bluelink data performed best in terms of through-water column Murphy skill scores of water temperature and eastward velocity variability in the channel. The model captures the observed vertical structure of the tidal (M2) and super-tidal (M4) frequency temperature and velocity oscillations. The model also predicts the direction and magnitude of the M2 internal tide energy flux. An energy analysis reveals a net convergence of the M2 energy flux and a divergence of the M4 energy flux in the channel, indicating the channel is a region of either energy transfer to higher frequencies or energy loss to dissipation. This conclusion is

  10. Multidimensional Riemann problem with self-similar internal structure. Part II - Application to hyperbolic conservation laws on unstructured meshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsara, Dinshaw S.; Dumbser, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Multidimensional Riemann solvers that have internal sub-structure in the strongly-interacting state have been formulated recently (D.S. Balsara (2012, 2014) [5,16]). Any multidimensional Riemann solver operates at the grid vertices and takes as its input all the states from its surrounding elements. It yields as its output an approximation of the strongly interacting state, as well as the numerical fluxes. The multidimensional Riemann problem produces a self-similar strongly-interacting state which is the result of several one-dimensional Riemann problems interacting with each other. To compute this strongly interacting state and its higher order moments we propose the use of a Galerkin-type formulation to compute the strongly interacting state and its higher order moments in terms of similarity variables. The use of substructure in the Riemann problem reduces numerical dissipation and, therefore, allows a better preservation of flow structures, like contact and shear waves. In this second part of a series of papers we describe how this technique is extended to unstructured triangular meshes. All necessary details for a practical computer code implementation are discussed. In particular, we explicitly present all the issues related to computational geometry. Because these Riemann solvers are Multidimensional and have Self-similar strongly-Interacting states that are obtained by Consistency with the conservation law, we call them MuSIC Riemann solvers. (A video introduction to multidimensional Riemann solvers is available on http://www.elsevier.com/xml/linking-roles/text/html". The MuSIC framework is sufficiently general to handle general nonlinear systems of hyperbolic conservation laws in multiple space dimensions. It can also accommodate all self-similar one-dimensional Riemann solvers and subsequently produces a multidimensional version of the same. In this paper we focus on unstructured triangular meshes. As examples of different systems of conservation laws we

  11. A parallel electrostatic Particle-in-Cell method on unstructured tetrahedral grids for large-scale bounded collisionless plasma simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averkin, Sergey N.; Gatsonis, Nikolaos A.

    2018-06-01

    An unstructured electrostatic Particle-In-Cell (EUPIC) method is developed on arbitrary tetrahedral grids for simulation of plasmas bounded by arbitrary geometries. The electric potential in EUPIC is obtained on cell vertices from a finite volume Multi-Point Flux Approximation of Gauss' law using the indirect dual cell with Dirichlet, Neumann and external circuit boundary conditions. The resulting matrix equation for the nodal potential is solved with a restarted generalized minimal residual method (GMRES) and an ILU(0) preconditioner algorithm, parallelized using a combination of node coloring and level scheduling approaches. The electric field on vertices is obtained using the gradient theorem applied to the indirect dual cell. The algorithms for injection, particle loading, particle motion, and particle tracking are parallelized for unstructured tetrahedral grids. The algorithms for the potential solver, electric field evaluation, loading, scatter-gather algorithms are verified using analytic solutions for test cases subject to Laplace and Poisson equations. Grid sensitivity analysis examines the L2 and L∞ norms of the relative error in potential, field, and charge density as a function of edge-averaged and volume-averaged cell size. Analysis shows second order of convergence for the potential and first order of convergence for the electric field and charge density. Temporal sensitivity analysis is performed and the momentum and energy conservation properties of the particle integrators in EUPIC are examined. The effects of cell size and timestep on heating, slowing-down and the deflection times are quantified. The heating, slowing-down and the deflection times are found to be almost linearly dependent on number of particles per cell. EUPIC simulations of current collection by cylindrical Langmuir probes in collisionless plasmas show good comparison with previous experimentally validated numerical results. These simulations were also used in a parallelization

  12. Automatic Validation of Protocol Narration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodei, Chiara; Buchholtz, Mikael; Degano, Pierpablo

    2003-01-01

    We perform a systematic expansion of protocol narrations into terms of a process algebra in order to make precise some of the detailed checks that need to be made in a protocol. We then apply static analysis technology to develop an automatic validation procedure for protocols. Finally, we...

  13. Dysphonia risk screening protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Nemr

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To propose and test the applicability of a dysphonia risk screening protocol with score calculation in individuals with and without dysphonia. METHOD: This descriptive cross-sectional study included 365 individuals (41 children, 142 adult women, 91 adult men and 91 seniors divided into a dysphonic group and a non-dysphonic group. The protocol consisted of 18 questions and a score was calculated using a 10-cm visual analog scale. The measured value on the visual analog scale was added to the overall score, along with other partial scores. Speech samples allowed for analysis/assessment of the overall degree of vocal deviation and initial definition of the respective groups and after six months, the separation of the groups was confirmed using an acoustic analysis. RESULTS: The mean total scores were different between the groups in all samples. Values ranged between 37.0 and 57.85 in the dysphonic group and between 12.95 and 19.28 in the non-dysphonic group, with overall means of 46.09 and 15.55, respectively. High sensitivity and specificity were demonstrated when discriminating between the groups with the following cut-off points: 22.50 (children, 29.25 (adult women, 22.75 (adult men, and 27.10 (seniors. CONCLUSION: The protocol demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity in differentiating groups of individuals with and without dysphonia in different sample groups and is thus an effective instrument for use in voice clinics.

  14. Dysphonia risk screening protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemr, Katia; Simões-Zenari, Marcia; da Trindade Duarte, João Marcos; Lobrigate, Karen Elena; Bagatini, Flavia Alves

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To propose and test the applicability of a dysphonia risk screening protocol with score calculation in individuals with and without dysphonia. METHOD: This descriptive cross-sectional study included 365 individuals (41 children, 142 adult women, 91 adult men and 91 seniors) divided into a dysphonic group and a non-dysphonic group. The protocol consisted of 18 questions and a score was calculated using a 10-cm visual analog scale. The measured value on the visual analog scale was added to the overall score, along with other partial scores. Speech samples allowed for analysis/assessment of the overall degree of vocal deviation and initial definition of the respective groups and after six months, the separation of the groups was confirmed using an acoustic analysis. RESULTS: The mean total scores were different between the groups in all samples. Values ranged between 37.0 and 57.85 in the dysphonic group and between 12.95 and 19.28 in the non-dysphonic group, with overall means of 46.09 and 15.55, respectively. High sensitivity and specificity were demonstrated when discriminating between the groups with the following cut-off points: 22.50 (children), 29.25 (adult women), 22.75 (adult men), and 27.10 (seniors). CONCLUSION: The protocol demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity in differentiating groups of individuals with and without dysphonia in different sample groups and is thus an effective instrument for use in voice clinics. PMID:27074171

  15. A direct Arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian ADER-WENO finite volume scheme on unstructured tetrahedral meshes for conservative and non-conservative hyperbolic systems in 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscheri, Walter; Dumbser, Michael

    2014-10-01

    In this paper we present a new family of high order accurate Arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) one-step ADER-WENO finite volume schemes for the solution of nonlinear systems of conservative and non-conservative hyperbolic partial differential equations with stiff source terms on moving tetrahedral meshes in three space dimensions. A WENO reconstruction technique is used to achieve high order of accuracy in space, while an element-local space-time Discontinuous Galerkin finite element predictor on moving curved meshes is used to obtain a high order accurate one-step time discretization. Within the space-time predictor the physical element is mapped onto a reference element using a high order isoparametric approach, where the space-time basis and test functions are given by the Lagrange interpolation polynomials passing through a predefined set of space-time nodes. Since our algorithm is cell-centered, the final mesh motion is computed by using a suitable node solver algorithm. A rezoning step as well as a flattener strategy are used in some of the test problems to avoid mesh tangling or excessive element deformations that may occur when the computation involves strong shocks or shear waves. The ALE algorithm presented in this article belongs to the so-called direct ALE methods because the final Lagrangian finite volume scheme is based directly on a space-time conservation formulation of the governing PDE system, with the rezoned geometry taken already into account during the computation of the fluxes. We apply our new high order unstructured ALE schemes to the 3D Euler equations of compressible gas dynamics, for which a set of classical numerical test problems has been solved and for which convergence rates up to sixth order of accuracy in space and time have been obtained. We furthermore consider the equations of classical ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) as well as the non-conservative seven-equation Baer-Nunziato model of compressible multi-phase flows with

  16. Unstructured Grid Euler Method Assessment for Aerodynamics Performance Prediction of the Complete TCA Configuration at Supersonic Cruise Speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari, Farhad

    1999-01-01

    Unstructured grid Euler computations, performed at supersonic cruise speed, are presented for a proposed high speed civil transport configuration, designated as the Technology Concept Airplane (TCA) within the High Speed Research (HSR) Program. The numerical results are obtained for the complete TCA cruise configuration which includes the wing, fuselage, empennage, diverters, and flow through nacelles at Mach 2.4 for a range of angles-of-attack and sideslip. The computed surface and off-surface flow characteristics are analyzed and the pressure coefficient contours on the wing lower surface are shown to correlate reasonably well with the available pressure sensitive paint results, particularly, for the complex shock wave structures around the nacelles. The predicted longitudinal and lateral/directional performance characteristics are shown to correlate very well with the measured data across the examined range of angles-of-attack and sideslip. The results from the present effort have been documented into a NASA Controlled-Distribution report which is being presently reviewed for publication.

  17. "Anonymous Meltdown": Content Themes Emerging in a Nonfacilitated, Peer-only, Unstructured, Asynchronous Online Support Group for Family Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefenbeck, Cynthia A; Klemm, Paula R; Hayes, Evelyn R

    2017-12-01

    By providing care for loved ones in the home, family caregivers save millions of dollars for our overtaxed healthcare system. Support groups can lighten the psychological burden of caregiving. Nonprofessionally facilitated (or peer) online caregiver support groups can help meet a critical need in healthcare as a low-cost resource for caregivers. Online caregiver peer support groups can promote the health and well-being of family caregivers and, by extension, the patients themselves, resulting in cost-savings for society. A better understanding of these types of groups is of critical importance, given the unrelenting pace of demographic shift in the United States. The purpose of this study was to examine content themes emerging from an unstructured, asynchronous online peer support group for family caregivers of people with chronic illness. Qualitative content analysis was used, yielding six themes: "experiencing the emotional toll," "need for catharsis/venting," "finding the silver linings," "seeking specific advice/problem solving," "realizing home is no longer a haven," and "adapting to the caregiver role." The themes reflect what emerged organically in an online support group that was not professionally facilitated or structured in any way. Heterogeneity in the relationship between caregivers and care recipients may negatively affect outcomes and requires further study.

  18. Integration of Neuroimaging and Microarray Datasets  through Mapping and Model-Theoretic Semantic Decomposition of Unstructured Phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spiro P. Pantazatos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available An approach towards heterogeneous neuroscience dataset integration is proposed that uses Natural Language Processing (NLP and a knowledge-based phenotype organizer system (PhenOS to link ontology-anchored terms to underlying data from each database, and then maps these terms based on a computable model of disease (SNOMED CT®. The approach was implemented using sample datasets from fMRIDC, GEO, The Whole Brain Atlas and Neuronames, and allowed for complex queries such as “List all disorders with a finding site of brain region X, and then find the semantically related references in all participating databases based on the ontological model of the disease or its anatomical and morphological attributes”. Precision of the NLP-derived coding of the unstructured phenotypes in each dataset was 88% (n = 50, and precision of the semantic mapping between these terms across datasets was 98% (n = 100. To our knowledge, this is the first example of the use of both semantic decomposition of disease relationships and hierarchical information found in ontologies to integrate heterogeneous phenotypes across clinical and molecular datasets.

  19. DynEarthSol2D: An efficient unstructured finite element method to study long-term tectonic deformation

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, E.; Tan, E.; Lavier, L. L.; Calo, Victor M.

    2013-01-01

    Many tectonic problems require to treat the lithosphere as a compressible elastic material, which can also flow viscously or break in a brittle fashion depending on the stress level applied and the temperature conditions. We present a flexible methodology to address the resulting complex material response, which imposes severe challenges on the discretization and rheological models used. This robust, adaptive, two-dimensional, finite element method solves the momentum balance and the heat equation in Lagrangian form using unstructured meshes. An implementation of this methodology is released to the public with the publication of this paper and is named DynEarthSol2D (available at http://bitbucket.org/tan2/dynearthsol2). The solver uses contingent mesh adaptivity in places where shear strain is focused (localization) and a conservative mapping assisted by marker particles to preserve phase and facies boundaries during remeshing. We detail the solver and verify it in a number of benchmark problems against analytic and numerical solutions from the literature. These results allow us to verify and validate our software framework and show its improved performance by an order of magnitude compared against an earlier implementation of the Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua algorithm.

  20. A higher-order conservation element solution element method for solving hyperbolic differential equations on unstructured meshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilyeu, David

    This dissertation presents an extension of the Conservation Element Solution Element (CESE) method from second- to higher-order accuracy. The new method retains the favorable characteristics of the original second-order CESE scheme, including (i) the use of the space-time integral equation for conservation laws, (ii) a compact mesh stencil, (iii) the scheme will remain stable up to a CFL number of unity, (iv) a fully explicit, time-marching integration scheme, (v) true multidimensionality without using directional splitting, and (vi) the ability to handle two- and three-dimensional geometries by using unstructured meshes. This algorithm has been thoroughly tested in one, two and three spatial dimensions and has been shown to obtain the desired order of accuracy for solving both linear and non-linear hyperbolic partial differential equations. The scheme has also shown its ability to accurately resolve discontinuities in the solutions. Higher order unstructured methods such as the Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method and the Spectral Volume (SV) methods have been developed for one-, two- and three-dimensional application. Although these schemes have seen extensive development and use, certain drawbacks of these methods have been well documented. For example, the explicit versions of these two methods have very stringent stability criteria. This stability criteria requires that the time step be reduced as the order of the solver increases, for a given simulation on a given mesh. The research presented in this dissertation builds upon the work of Chang, who developed a fourth-order CESE scheme to solve a scalar one-dimensional hyperbolic partial differential equation. The completed research has resulted in two key deliverables. The first is a detailed derivation of a high-order CESE methods on unstructured meshes for solving the conservation laws in two- and three-dimensional spaces. The second is the code implementation of these numerical methods in a computer code. For

  1. Validation of a Node-Centered Wall Function Model for the Unstructured Flow Code FUN3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Jan-Renee; Vasta, Veer N.; White, Jeffery

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the implementation of two wall function models in the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computational uid dynamics (CFD) code FUN3D is described. FUN3D is a node centered method for solving the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations on unstructured computational grids. The first wall function model, based on the work of Knopp et al., is used in conjunction with the one-equation turbulence model of Spalart-Allmaras. The second wall function model, also based on the work of Knopp, is used in conjunction with the two-equation k-! turbulence model of Menter. The wall function models compute the wall momentum and energy flux, which are used to weakly enforce the wall velocity and pressure flux boundary conditions in the mean flow momentum and energy equations. These wall conditions are implemented in an implicit form where the contribution of the wall function model to the Jacobian are also included. The boundary conditions of the turbulence transport equations are enforced explicitly (strongly) on all solid boundaries. The use of the wall function models is demonstrated on four test cases: a at plate boundary layer, a subsonic di user, a 2D airfoil, and a 3D semi-span wing. Where possible, different near-wall viscous spacing tactics are examined. Iterative residual convergence was obtained in most cases. Solution results are compared with theoretical and experimental data for several variations of grid spacing. In general, very good comparisons with data were achieved.

  2. DynEarthSol2D: An efficient unstructured finite element method to study long-term tectonic deformation

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, E.

    2013-05-01

    Many tectonic problems require to treat the lithosphere as a compressible elastic material, which can also flow viscously or break in a brittle fashion depending on the stress level applied and the temperature conditions. We present a flexible methodology to address the resulting complex material response, which imposes severe challenges on the discretization and rheological models used. This robust, adaptive, two-dimensional, finite element method solves the momentum balance and the heat equation in Lagrangian form using unstructured meshes. An implementation of this methodology is released to the public with the publication of this paper and is named DynEarthSol2D (available at http://bitbucket.org/tan2/dynearthsol2). The solver uses contingent mesh adaptivity in places where shear strain is focused (localization) and a conservative mapping assisted by marker particles to preserve phase and facies boundaries during remeshing. We detail the solver and verify it in a number of benchmark problems against analytic and numerical solutions from the literature. These results allow us to verify and validate our software framework and show its improved performance by an order of magnitude compared against an earlier implementation of the Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua algorithm.

  3. International protocol on volatile organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauthier, J.-P.

    1992-01-01

    In August 1991, negotiations between Canada, the USA, and 33 European countries led to an international protocol on reducing the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC), which are responsible for serious ozone pollution problems. This was the third transborder pollution agreement developed under the auspices of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe. Certain aspects of negotiations related to an earlier protocol developed for SO 2 and nitrogen oxide emissions had reappeared during the VOC negotiations, and these aspects are discussed. The VOC protocol proposes three approaches to satisfy basic obligations: reducing VOC emissions of a country by 30%, reducing VOC emissions by 30% in certain regions, and ensuring a freeze in VOC emissions in a country starting on a specified date. The protocol also introduces a new concept, that of zones of tropospheric ozone management. In Canada, plans for management of nitrogen oxides and VOC have been adapted to the ozone problem, and the management plan has been developed by a consultation process involving all sectors of society including industry, environmental groups, and governments. In Canada, it will be sufficient to reduce total VOC emissions by 16% during a first phase and to increase these reductions slightly in the second phase. Special ozone management zones in the Quebec City/Windsor corridor and the Fraser River valley have been established

  4. Near-optimal quantum circuit for Grover's unstructured search using a transverse field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhang; Rieffel, Eleanor G.; Wang, Zhihui

    2017-06-01

    Inspired by a class of algorithms proposed by Farhi et al. (arXiv:1411.4028), namely, the quantum approximate optimization algorithm (QAOA), we present a circuit-based quantum algorithm to search for a needle in a haystack, obtaining the same quadratic speedup achieved by Grover's original algorithm. In our algorithm, the problem Hamiltonian (oracle) and a transverse field are applied alternately to the system in a periodic manner. We introduce a technique, based on spin-coherent states, to analyze the composite unitary in a single period. This composite unitary drives a closed transition between two states that have high degrees of overlap with the initial state and the target state, respectively. The transition rate in our algorithm is of order Θ (1 /√{N }) , and the overlaps are of order Θ (1 ) , yielding a nearly optimal query complexity of T ≃√{N }(π /2 √{2 }) . Our algorithm is a QAOA circuit that demonstrates a quantum advantage with a large number of iterations that is not derived from Trotterization of an adiabatic quantum optimization (AQO) algorithm. It also suggests that the analysis required to understand QAOA circuits involves a very different process from estimating the energy gap of a Hamiltonian in AQO.

  5. Tracing Method with Intra and Inter Protocols Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Mangri

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available MEGACO or H.248 is a protocol enabling acentralized Softswitch (or MGC to control MGsbetween Voice over Packet (VoP networks andtraditional ones. To analyze much deeper the realimplementations it is useful to use a tracing systemwith intra and inter protocols correlation. For thisreason in the case of MEGACO-H.248 it is necessaryto find the appropriate method of correlation with allprotocols involved. Starting from Rel4 a separation ofCP (Control Plane and UP (User Plane managementwithin the networks appears. MEGACO protocol playsan important role in the migration to the new releasesor from monolithic platform to a network withdistributed components.

  6. elsA-Hybrid: an all-in-one structured/unstructured solver for the simulation of internal and external flows. Application to turbomachinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Llave Plata, M.; Couaillier, V.; Le Pape, M.-C.; Marmignon, C.; Gazaix, M.

    2013-03-01

    This paper reports recent work on the extension of the multiblock structured solver elsA to deal with hybrid grids. The new hybrid-grid solver is called elsA-H (elsA-Hybrid), is based on the investigation of a new unstructured-grid module has been built within the original elsA CFD (computational fluid dynamics) system. The implementation benefits from the flexibility of the object-oriented design. The aim of elsA-H is to take advantage of the full potential of structured solvers and unstructured mesh generation by allowing any type of grid to be used within the same simulation process. The main challenge lies in the numerical treatment of the hybrid-grid interfaces where blocks of different type meet. In particular, one must pay attention to the transfer of information across these boundaries, so that the accuracy of the numerical scheme is preserved and flux conservation is guaranteed. In this paper, the numerical approach allowing to achieve this is presented. A comparison between the hybrid and the structured-grid methods is also carried out by considering a fully hexahedral multiblock mesh for which a few blocks have been transformed into unstructured. The performance of elsA-H for the simulation of internal flows will be demonstrated on a number of turbomachinery configurations.

  7. A Deep Penetration Problem Calculation Using AETIUS:An Easy Modeling Discrete Ordinates Transport Code UsIng Unstructured Tetrahedral Mesh, Shared Memory Parallel

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIM, Jong Woon; LEE, Young-Ouk

    2017-09-01

    As computing power gets better and better, computer codes that use a deterministic method seem to be less useful than those using the Monte Carlo method. In addition, users do not like to think about space, angles, and energy discretization for deterministic codes. However, a deterministic method is still powerful in that we can obtain a solution of the flux throughout the problem, particularly as when particles can barely penetrate, such as in a deep penetration problem with small detection volumes. Recently, a new state-of-the-art discrete-ordinates code, ATTILA, was developed and has been widely used in several applications. ATTILA provides the capabilities to solve geometrically complex 3-D transport problems by using an unstructured tetrahedral mesh. Since 2009, we have been developing our own code by benchmarking ATTILA. AETIUS is a discrete ordinates code that uses an unstructured tetrahedral mesh such as ATTILA. For pre- and post- processing, Gmsh is used to generate an unstructured tetrahedral mesh by importing a CAD file (*.step) and visualizing the calculation results of AETIUS. Using a CAD tool, the geometry can be modeled very easily. In this paper, we describe a brief overview of AETIUS and provide numerical results from both AETIUS and a Monte Carlo code, MCNP5, in a deep penetration problem with small detection volumes. The results demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of AETIUS for such calculations.

  8. FRENCH PROTOCOL CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division du Personnel

    1999-01-01

    Senior officials, holders of FRENCH PROTOCOL cards (blue cards) due to expire on 31.12.1999, are requested to return these cards and those of family members, for extension to:Bureau des cartes, bâtiment 33.1-025Should the 3 spaces for authentication on the back of the card be full, please enclose 2 passport photographs for a new card.In the case of children aged 14 and over, an attestation of dependency and a school certificate should be returned with the card.Personnel DivisionTel. 79494/74683

  9. FRENCH PROTOCOL CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2000-01-01

    Senior officials, holders of FRENCH PROTOCOL cards (blue cards) due to expire on 31.12.2000, are requested to return these cards and those of family members, for extension to: Bureau des cartes, Bât 33.1-009/1-015 Should the three spaces for authentication on the back of the card be full, please enclose two passport photographs for a new card. In the case of children aged 14 and over, an attestation of dependency and a school certificate should be returned with the card.

  10. Sincalide - the final protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, E.A.; Notghi, A.; Hesslewood, S.R.; Harding, L.K.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: HIDA biliary studies examine the gallbladder (GB) to give a percentage ejection fraction (EF). Porcine CCK was an accepted agent for stimulating the GB prior to being withdrawn in the UK from 1998. Sincalide (a synthetic CCK) was the suggested replacement. We have tried many administration regimes in an attempt to get results comparable with our established CCK protocols. Dose concentration and length of infusion times have been studied. Initially a dose of 10 ngm/kg/min given over 2 minutes (manufacturer's recommended dose) was used. This gave falsely low ejection fractions. The dose was reduced to 3 ngm/kg/min over 3 minutes as it was felt the higher dose may be causing constriction of the sphincter of Oddi. This gave a slight improvement with 22 % of patients having normal EF (>35 %). The length of infusion was extended to 15 minutes and the dose concentration reduced again to 0.6 ngm/kg/min. 62 % of patients had a normal EF. However, on many of the curves the gallbladder was still contracting on completion of the 15 minute infusion and began to refill immediately after stopping Sincalide. A further change of protocol was indicated. The infusion time was extended to 30 minutes and the dose concentration per minute kept the same. Imaging began at 30 minutes post HIDA injection and continued for a total of 50 minutes. Sincalide infusion began at 35 minutes if a GB was visualized. This protocol has been performed on 17 patients. 53 % of these had a normal result (comparable with a normal rate of 40 % previously established with CCK) with a mean EF of 60 %. The mean EF of patients with abnormal studies was 15 %. Curves showed a plateau by 30 minutes in 94 % of patients indicating that gallbladder contraction was complete. No normal range is available so results were compared with ultrasound (US). All patients who had an abnormal US scan also had abnormal HIDA results. Three patients had a normal US scan and abnormal HIDA study. These are currently

  11. Distributed Network Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    MONITORING AGENCY NAME & ADDRESS(II different from Controlting Office) IS. SECURITY CLASS. (of this report) S Office of Naval Research Unclassified...All protocols are extended to networks with changing. topology. S80 8 4 246 DD0I iA 1473 EDITION OF INOV 65 IS OBSOLETE 8 0 24 SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...to the netowrk . f) Each node knows its adjacent links, but not necessarily the identity of its neighbors, i.e. the nodes at the other end of the links

  12. Compressible flow modelling in unstructured mesh topologies using numerical methods developed for incompressible flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caruso, A.; Mechitoua, N.; Duplex, J.

    1995-01-01

    The R and D thermal hydraulic codes, notably the finite difference codes Melodie (2D) and ESTET (3D) or the 2D and 3D versions of the finite element code N3S were initially developed for incompressible, possibly dilatable, turbulent flows, i.e. those where density is not pressure-dependent. Subsequent minor modifications to these finite difference code algorithms enabled extension of their scope to subsonic compressible flows. The first applications in both single-phase and two flow contexts have now been completed. This paper presents the techniques used to adapt these algorithms for the processing of compressible flows in an N3S type finite element code, whereby complex geometries normally difficult to model in finite difference meshes could be successfully dealt with. The development of version 3.0 of he N3S code led to dilatable flow calculations at lower cost. On this basis, a 2-D prototype version of N3S was programmed, tested and validated, drawing maximum benefit from Cray vectorization possibilities and from physical, numerical or data processing experience with other fluid dynamics codes, such as Melodie, ESTET or TELEMAC. The algorithms are the same as those used in finite difference codes, but their formulation is variational. The first part of the paper deals with the fundamental equations involved, expressed in basic form, together with the associated digital method. The modifications to the k-epsilon turbulence model extended to compressible flows are also described. THe second part presents the algorithm used, indicating the additional terms required by the extension. The third part presents the equations in integral form and the associated matrix systems. The solutions adopted for calculation of the compressibility related terms are indicated. Finally, a few representative applications and test cases are discussed. These include subsonic, but also transsonic and supersonic cases, showing the shock responses of the digital method. The application of

  13. Security and SCADA protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igure, V. M.; Williams, R. D.

    2006-01-01

    Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) networks have replaced discrete wiring for many industrial processes, and the efficiency of the network alternative suggests a trend toward more SCADA networks in the future. This paper broadly considers SCADA to include distributed control systems (DCS) and digital control systems. These networks offer many advantages, but they also introduce potential vulnerabilities that can be exploited by adversaries. Inter-connectivity exposes SCADA networks to many of the same threats that face the public internet and many of the established defenses therefore show promise if adapted to the SCADA differences. This paper provides an overview of security issues in SCADA networks and ongoing efforts to improve the security of these networks. Initially, a few samples from the range of threats to SCADA network security are offered. Next, attention is focused on security assessment of SCADA communication protocols. Three challenges must be addressed to strengthen SCADA networks. Access control mechanisms need to be introduced or strengthened, improvements are needed inside of the network to enhance security and network monitoring, and SCADA security management improvements and policies are needed. This paper discusses each of these challenges. This paper uses the Profibus protocol as an example to illustrate some of the vulnerabilities that arise within SCADA networks. The example Profibus security assessment establishes a network model and an attacker model before proceeding to a list of example attacks. (authors)

  14. Effective home-school partnership: Some strategies to help strengthen parental involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinedu I Okeke

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The primary aim of the study from which this paper derives was to investigate the level of parental involvement in the schooling of their children. The study employed a descriptive case study research design. All data were based on unstructured interviews with the 30 parents whose children attended one of the primary schools located in the London area of England, United Kingdom. The results of the study showed that parents care about their children's education, and want to get involved. However, results also showed that most parents do not always know how to get involved, and some are even intimidated by the operational structures within the school. The study concludes that to effectively involve parents in the affairs of the school, as well as in their children's education, certain strategies must be popularised within the school. It is recommended that parents be made aware of the strategies for their involvement in children's education if such strategies are to be effective.

  15. May the Kyoto protocol produce results?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaureguy-Naudin, M.

    2009-01-01

    A not well managed drastic reduction of greenhouse emissions might result in significant decrease of living standards, but without such reduction efforts, climate change might have five to twenty times higher costs. Thus, while indicating estimated consequences or evolutions of greenhouse emissions and temperature, the author stresses the need of emission reduction. She discusses the role of economic instruments which can be used in policies aimed at the struggle against climate change. She recalls the emission reduction commitments specified in the Kyoto protocol, discusses the present status, operation and results of the international emission trading scheme, the lessons learned after the first years of operation, comments the involvement of emerging countries in relationship with another mechanism defined in the protocol: the Clean Development Mechanism

  16. Arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian Discontinuous Galerkin schemes with a posteriori subcell finite volume limiting on moving unstructured meshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscheri, Walter; Dumbser, Michael

    2017-10-01

    We present a new family of high order accurate fully discrete one-step Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) finite element schemes on moving unstructured meshes for the solution of nonlinear hyperbolic PDE in multiple space dimensions, which may also include parabolic terms in order to model dissipative transport processes, like molecular viscosity or heat conduction. High order piecewise polynomials of degree N are adopted to represent the discrete solution at each time level and within each spatial control volume of the computational grid, while high order of accuracy in time is achieved by the ADER approach, making use of an element-local space-time Galerkin finite element predictor. A novel nodal solver algorithm based on the HLL flux is derived to compute the velocity for each nodal degree of freedom that describes the current mesh geometry. In our algorithm the spatial mesh configuration can be defined in two different ways: either by an isoparametric approach that generates curved control volumes, or by a piecewise linear decomposition of each spatial control volume into simplex sub-elements. Each technique generates a corresponding number of geometrical degrees of freedom needed to describe the current mesh configuration and which must be considered by the nodal solver for determining the grid velocity. The connection of the old mesh configuration at time tn with the new one at time t n + 1 provides the space-time control volumes on which the governing equations have to be integrated in order to obtain the time evolution of the discrete solution. Our numerical method belongs to the category of so-called direct Arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) schemes, where a space-time conservation formulation of the governing PDE system is considered and which already takes into account the new grid geometry (including a possible rezoning step) directly during the computation of the numerical fluxes. We emphasize that our method is a moving mesh method, as opposed to total

  17. [Computerized clinical protocol for occlusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salsench, J; Ferrer, J; Nogueras, J

    1988-11-01

    In making a protocol it is necessary that all members of the team who are going to collect information have the same unity of criterion about the different variables that compose it. The drawing up of this document is as much or more necessary than the protocol itself. In this work we all data collected in the protocol and we give the explanations of each concept.

  18. A glycosylated form of the human cardiac hormone pro B-type natriuretic peptide is an intrinsically unstructured monomeric protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crimmins, Dan L; Kao, Jeffrey L-F

    2008-07-01

    The N-terminal fragment of pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and proBNP are used as gold standard clinical markers of myocardial dysfunction such as cardiac hypertrophy and left ventricle heart failure. The actual circulating molecular forms of these peptides have been the subject of intense investigation particularly since these analytes are measured in clinical assays. Conflicting data has been reported and no firm consensus on the exact nature of the molecular species exists. Because these clinical assays are immunoassay-based, specific epitopes are detected. It is conceivable then that certain epitopes may be masked and therefore unavailable for antibody binding, thus the importance of determining the nature of the circulating molecular forms of these analytes. This situation is an unavoidable Achilles' heel of immunoassays in general. A recombinant O-linked glycosylated form of proBNP has been show to mimic some of the properties of extracted plasma from a heart failure patient. In particular the recombinant and native material co-migrated as diffuse Western-immunostained bands on SDS-PAGE and each band collapsed to an apparent homogeneous band following deglycosylation. Thus, glycosylated-proBNP may be one such circulating form. Here we provide extensive physiochemical characterization for this O-linked protein and compare these results to other described circulating species, non-glycosylated-proBNP and NT-proBNP. It will be shown that glycosylation has no influence on the secondary and quaternary structure of proBNP. In fact, at moderate concentration in benign physiological neutral pH buffer, all three likely circulating species are essentially devoid of major secondary structure, i.e., are intrinsically unstructured proteins (IUPs). Furthermore, all three proteins exist as monomers in solution. These results may have important implications in the design of NT-proBNP/BNP immunoassays.

  19. MOCUM: A two-dimensional method of characteristics code based on constructive solid geometry and unstructured meshing for general geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xue; Satvat, Nader

    2012-01-01

    Highlight: ► A two-dimensional numerical code based on the method of characteristics is developed. ► The complex arbitrary geometries are represented by constructive solid geometry and decomposed by unstructured meshing. ► Excellent agreement between Monte Carlo and the developed code is observed. ► High efficiency is achieved by parallel computing. - Abstract: A transport theory code MOCUM based on the method of characteristics as the flux solver with an advanced general geometry processor has been developed for two-dimensional rectangular and hexagonal lattice and full core neutronics modeling. In the code, the core structure is represented by the constructive solid geometry that uses regularized Boolean operations to build complex geometries from simple polygons. Arbitrary-precision arithmetic is also used in the process of building geometry objects to eliminate the round-off error from the commonly used double precision numbers. Then, the constructed core frame will be decomposed and refined into a Conforming Delaunay Triangulation to ensure the quality of the meshes. The code is fully parallelized using OpenMP and is verified and validated by various benchmarks representing rectangular, hexagonal, plate type and CANDU reactor geometries. Compared with Monte Carlo and deterministic reference solution, MOCUM results are highly accurate. The mentioned characteristics of the MOCUM make it a perfect tool for high fidelity full core calculation for current and GenIV reactor core designs. The detailed representation of reactor physics parameters can enhance the safety margins with acceptable confidence levels, which lead to more economically optimized designs.

  20. Adaptation of an unstructured-mesh, finite-element ocean model to the simulation of ocean circulation beneath ice shelves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Satoshi; Candy, Adam S.; Holland, Paul R.; Piggott, Matthew D.; Jenkins, Adrian

    2013-07-01

    Several different classes of ocean model are capable of representing floating glacial ice shelves. We describe the incorporation of ice shelves into Fluidity-ICOM, a nonhydrostatic finite-element ocean model with the capacity to utilize meshes that are unstructured and adaptive in three dimensions. This geometric flexibility offers several advantages over previous approaches. The model represents melting and freezing on all ice-shelf surfaces including vertical faces, treats the ice shelf topography as continuous rather than stepped, and does not require any smoothing of the ice topography or any of the additional parameterisations of the ocean mixed layer used in isopycnal or z-coordinate models. The model can also represent a water column that decreases to zero thickness at the 'grounding line', where the floating ice shelf is joined to its tributary ice streams. The model is applied to idealised ice-shelf geometries in order to demonstrate these capabilities. In these simple experiments, arbitrarily coarsening the mesh outside the ice-shelf cavity has little effect on the ice-shelf melt rate, while the mesh resolution within the cavity is found to be highly influential. Smoothing the vertical ice front results in faster flow along the smoothed ice front, allowing greater exchange with the ocean than in simulations with a realistic ice front. A vanishing water-column thickness at the grounding line has little effect in the simulations studied. We also investigate the response of ice shelf basal melting to variations in deep water temperature in the presence of salt stratification.

  1. [Multidisciplinary protocol for computed tomography imaging and angiographic embolization of splenic injury due to trauma: assessment of pre-protocol and post-protocol outcomes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, M; Sabaté, A; Magalló, P; García, M A; Domínguez, J; de Lama, M E; López, S

    2011-11-01

    To assess conservative treatment of splenic injury due to trauma, following a protocol for computed tomography (CT) and angiographic embolization. To quantify the predictive value of CT for detecting bleeding and need for embolization. The care protocol developed by the multidisciplinary team consisted of angiography with embolization of lesions revealed by contrast extravasation under CT as well as embolization of grade III-V injuries observed, or grade I-II injuries causing hemodynamic instability and/or need for blood transfusion. We collected data on demographic variables, injury severity score (ISS), angiographic findings, and injuries revealed by CT. Pre-protocol and post-protocol outcomes were compared. The sensitivity and specificity of CT findings were calculated for all patients who required angiographic embolization. Forty-four and 30 angiographies were performed in the pre- and post-protocol periods, respectively. The mean (SD) ISSs in the two periods were 25 (11) and 26 (12), respectively. A total of 24 (54%) embolizations were performed in the pre-protocol period and 28 (98%) after implementation of the protocol. Two and 7 embolizations involved the spleen in the 2 periods, respectively; abdominal laparotomies numbered 32 and 25, respectively, and 10 (31%) vs 4 (16%) splenectomies were performed. The specificity and sensitivity values for contrast extravasation found on CT and followed by embolization were 77.7% and 79.5%. The implementation of this multidisciplinary protocol using CT imaging and angiographic embolization led to a decrease in the number of splenectomies. The protocol allows us to take a more conservative treatment approach.

  2. Static Validation of Security Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodei, Chiara; Buchholtz, Mikael; Degano, P.

    2005-01-01

    We methodically expand protocol narrations into terms of a process algebra in order to specify some of the checks that need to be made in a protocol. We then apply static analysis technology to develop an automatic validation procedure for protocols. Finally, we demonstrate that these techniques ...... suffice to identify several authentication flaws in symmetric and asymmetric key protocols such as Needham-Schroeder symmetric key, Otway-Rees, Yahalom, Andrew secure RPC, Needham-Schroeder asymmetric key, and Beller-Chang-Yacobi MSR...

  3. Unconditionally Secure Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meldgaard, Sigurd Torkel

    This thesis contains research on the theory of secure multi-party computation (MPC). Especially information theoretically (as opposed to computationally) secure protocols. It contains results from two main lines of work. One line on Information Theoretically Secure Oblivious RAMS, and how....... We construct an oblivious RAM that hides the client's access pattern with information theoretic security with an amortized $\\log^3 N$ query overhead. And how to employ a second server that is guaranteed not to conspire with the first to improve the overhead to $\\log^2 N$, while also avoiding...... they are used to speed up secure computation. An Oblivious RAM is a construction for a client with a small $O(1)$ internal memory to store $N$ pieces of data on a server while revealing nothing more than the size of the memory $N$, and the number of accesses. This specifically includes hiding the access pattern...

  4. Protocols for Scholarly Communication

    CERN Document Server

    Pepe, Alberto; Pepe, Alberto; Yeomans, Joanne

    2007-01-01

    CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, has operated an institutional preprint repository for more than 10 years. The repository contains over 850,000 records of which more than 450,000 are full-text OA preprints, mostly in the field of particle physics, and it is integrated with the library's holdings of books, conference proceedings, journals and other grey literature. In order to encourage effective propagation and open access to scholarly material, CERN is implementing a range of innovative library services into its document repository: automatic keywording, reference extraction, collaborative management tools and bibliometric tools. Some of these services, such as user reviewing and automatic metadata extraction, could make up an interesting testbed for future publishing solutions and certainly provide an exciting environment for e-science possibilities. The future protocol for scientific communication should naturally guide authors towards OA publication and CERN wants to help reach a full...

  5. Gene probes: principles and protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aquino de Muro, Marilena; Rapley, Ralph

    2002-01-01

    ... of labeled DNA has allowed genes to be mapped to single chromosomes and in many cases to a single chromosome band, promoting significant advance in human genome mapping. Gene Probes: Principles and Protocols presents the principles for gene probe design, labeling, detection, target format, and hybridization conditions together with detailed protocols, accom...

  6. Developing frameworks for protocol implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Barros Barbosa, C.; de barros Barbosa, C.; Ferreira Pires, Luis

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a method to develop frameworks for protocol implementation. Frameworks are software structures developed for a specific application domain, which can be reused in the implementation of various different concrete systems in this domain. The use of frameworks support a protocol

  7. Protocol to co-operation agreement with Iran

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    A Co-operation Agreement between CERN and Iran will be signed in the coming weeks within the framework of the decisions taken by the Committee of Council and Council in June 1989. In view of implementing this Agreement, a Protocol between CERN and the International Scientific Meetings Office of the Ministry of Science of the Islamic Republic of Iran has been drawn up. It concerns the participation of scientific Institutions of Iran in the CMS Collaboration where CERN is acting on behalf of this Collaboration. This Protocol incorporates the agreement between CMS and ISMO on the Iranese contribution. It does not involve any financial commitment for CERN. The Protocol mainly addresses the status of the Iranese scientists at CERN, the supply by ISMO of the support tables for CMS, as well as the usual provisions concerning delivery and customs, guarantees, responsibilities, intellectual property and disputes. This Protocol is submitted to the Finance Committee for information.

  8. The studsvik BNCT project: structure and the proposed protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capala, J.; Stenstam, B.H.; Skoeld, K.; Henriksson, R.; Salford, L.; Carlsson, J.

    2000-01-01

    The BNCT facility at Studsvik is now ready for clinical trials. Scientific operations of the Studsvik BNCT project are overseen by the Scientific Advisory Board comprised of representatives of all major universities in Sweden. Furthermore, special task groups for clinical and preclinical studies have been formed to facilitate collaboration with academia and to assure the quality of the research. Proposed clinical Phase II trials for glioblastoma are sponsored by the Swedish National Neuro-Oncology Group and, initially, will involve two protocols: Protocol no.1. BNCT for glioblastoma patients who have not received any therapy other than surgery (including stereotactic biopsy only). Protocol no.2. BNCT as a palliative treatment for patients with recurrent glioblastoma following conventional therapies or BNCT. In both protocols, BPA, administered by a 6 hour i.v. infusion, will be used as the boron delivery agent. (author)

  9. Pregnant Teenager Involvement in Sexual Activity and the Social Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Carvalho Sant'Anna

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy during adolescence represents a challenge to society as a whole. Its incidence is increasing and brings about social and medical consequences to both the teen mothers and their children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate pregnant teenager involvement in sexual activity and the social context. The group studied comprised 152 pregnant teenagers attending the Department of Pediatrics, Santa Casa de Sao Paulo (SCSP General Hospital. All information was analyzed. The age at first intercourse was 14.2 years and the average period between first intercourse and pregnancy was 1.4 years. Most pregnancies (75% were neither planned nor wanted, however, most teen mothers (64.3% did not use any contraceptive method. Of the pregnant teenagers, 68.1% came from unstructured families where in 71% of the teen pregnancy cases, there was a role model (mother, sister, or cousin who already experienced teen pregnancy. The average number of school years attended by the analyzed pregnant teenagers was 8.1 years, however, there was a high dropout rate of 40.1%. The age at first intercourse was low and concurs with the high incidence of unstructured families. The average number of school years attended was high, which would theoretically reflect a greater knowledge with regard to human reproduction, pointing to the multicausality of teen pregnancy and the role played by the family. Conclusions: We confirmed that teen pregnancy presents multicausal etiology; sexual initiation of pregnant teenagers was quite early with high dropout rates, which indicated that prevention methodology should be based on early detection of risk factors for elaboration of appropriate prevention proposals.

  10. The Groningen Protocol - the Jewish perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesundheit, Benjamin; Steinberg, Avraham; Blazer, Shraga; Jotkowitz, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Despite significant advances in neonatology, there will always be newborns with serious life-threatening conditions creating most difficult bioethical dilemmas. Active euthanasia for adult patients is one of the most controversial bioethical questions; for severely ill neonates, the issue is even more complex, due to their inability to take part in any decision concerning their future. The Groningen Protocol introduced in 2005 by P.J. Sauer proposes criteria allowing active euthanasia for severely ill, not necessarily terminal, newborns with incurable conditions and poor quality of life in order to spare them unbearable suffering. We discuss the ethical dilemma and ideological foundations of the protocol, the opinions of its defenders and critics, and the dangers involved. The Jewish perspective relating to the subject is presented based on classical Jewish sources, which we trust may enrich modern bioethical debates. In Jewish law, the fetus acquires full legal status only after birth. However, while the lives of terminally ill neonates must in no way be actively destroyed or shortened, there is no obligation to make extraordinary efforts to prolong their lives. Accurate preimplantation or prenatal diagnosis might significantly reduce the incidence of nonviable births, but active killing of infants violates the basic foundations of Jewish law, and opens the 'slippery slope' for uncontrolled abuse. Therefore, we call upon the international medical and bioethical community to reject the Groningen Protocol that permits euthanization and to develop ethical guidelines for the optimal care of severely compromised neonates. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Past and Future of the Kyoto Protocol. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijen, F.; Zoeteman, K.

    2004-01-01

    The present report reflects findings from a study on the realization of and prospects for the Kyoto Protocol. The purpose of the study was (1) to obtain insights into the factors that enabled the realization of the Kyoto Protocol, in particular the interactions among major parties involved; (2) to assess the future opportunities and threats of the Kyoto Protocol, in particular against the backdrop of an increasingly globalised world. The study was conducted from February up to December 2003 by (a) reviewing the literature, especially publications on the negotiation history of the Kyoto process, the social interactions enabling the realization of the Protocol, analyses of strengths and weaknesses, and future climate regimes; (b) conducting a series of interviews with representatives from government, academia, non-governmental organisations, and business, who have been - directly or indirectly - involved in the Kyoto process; (c) internal discussions,brainstorming and analysing the Protocol's strengths and weaknesses, possible future scenarios (including policy options), and the management of a possible failure of the Kyoto Protocol. The present report reflects and integrates the different sources. The first section deals with the past and the present. It discusses how the Kyoto Protocol could be realized despite the divergent interests, reflects on its architecture, and analyses major strengths and weaknesses. In the second section, we present possible future scenarios. We explore how different combinations of domestic and international commitment provide possible realities that national government may face when crafting climate policy. The third section provides an in-depth analysis of the possible event that the Kyoto Protocol fails. We discuss its definition and policy implications. The final section is reserved for overall conclusions and policy recommendations

  12. Protocols for Scholarly Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, A.; Yeomans, J.

    2007-10-01

    CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, has operated an institutional preprint repository for more than 10 years. The repository contains over 850,000 records of which more than 450,000 are full-text OA preprints, mostly in the field of particle physics, and it is integrated with the library's holdings of books, conference proceedings, journals and other grey literature. In order to encourage effective propagation and open access to scholarly material, CERN is implementing a range of innovative library services into its document repository: automatic keywording, reference extraction, collaborative management tools and bibliometric tools. Some of these services, such as user reviewing and automatic metadata extraction, could make up an interesting testbed for future publishing solutions and certainly provide an exciting environment for e-science possibilities. The future protocol for scientific communication should guide authors naturally towards OA publication, and CERN wants to help reach a full open access publishing environment for the particle physics community and related sciences in the next few years.

  13. Who and What Does Involvement Involve?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jeppe Oute; Petersen, Anders; Huniche, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    This article gives an account of aspects of a multi-sited field study of involvement of relatives in Danish psychiatry. By following metaphors of involvement across three sites of the psychiatric systema family site, a clinical site and a policy sitethe first author (J.O.) investigated how...... theoretical perspective laid out by Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe, the aim of this study is to show how the dominant discourse about involvement at the political and clinical sites is constituted by understandings of mentally ill individuals and by political objectives of involvement. The analysis...... the responsibility toward the mental health of the ill individual as well as toward the psychological milieu of the family....

  14. Multi-party quantum key agreement protocol secure against collusion attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Sun, Zhiwei; Sun, Xiaoqiang

    2017-07-01

    The fairness of a secure multi-party quantum key agreement (MQKA) protocol requires that all involved parties are entirely peer entities and can equally influence the outcome of the protocol to establish a shared key wherein no one can decide the shared key alone. However, it is found that parts of the existing MQKA protocols are sensitive to collusion attacks, i.e., some of the dishonest participants can collaborate to predetermine the final key without being detected. In this paper, a multi-party QKA protocol resisting collusion attacks is proposed. Different from previous QKA protocol resisting N-1 coconspirators or resisting 1 coconspirators, we investigate the general circle-type MQKA protocol which can be secure against t dishonest participants' cooperation. Here, t < N. We hope the results of the presented paper will be helpful for further research on fair MQKA protocols.

  15. A Study of Shared-Memory Mutual Exclusion Protocols Using CADP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateescu, Radu; Serwe, Wendelin

    Mutual exclusion protocols are an essential building block of concurrent systems: indeed, such a protocol is required whenever a shared resource has to be protected against concurrent non-atomic accesses. Hence, many variants of mutual exclusion protocols exist in the shared-memory setting, such as Peterson's or Dekker's well-known protocols. Although the functional correctness of these protocols has been studied extensively, relatively little attention has been paid to their non-functional aspects, such as their performance in the long run. In this paper, we report on experiments with the performance evaluation of mutual exclusion protocols using Interactive Markov Chains. Steady-state analysis provides an additional criterion for comparing protocols, which complements the verification of their functional properties. We also carefully re-examined the functional properties, whose accurate formulation as temporal logic formulas in the action-based setting turns out to be quite involved.

  16. Evaluation of Protocol Uniformity Concerning Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy in The Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, Richard H. M.; van Eijk, Daan J.; Lange, Johan F.

    2008-01-01

    Background Iatrogenic bile duct injury remains a current complication of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. One uniform and standardized protocol, based on the “critical view of safety” concept of Strasberg, should reduce the incidence of this complication. Furthermore, owing to the rapid development of minimally invasive surgery, technicians are becoming more frequently involved. To improve communication between the operating team and technicians, standardized actions should also be defined. The aim of this study was to compare existing protocols for laparoscopic cholecystectomy from various Dutch hospitals. Methods Fifteen Dutch hospitals were contacted for evaluation of their protocols for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. All evaluated protocols were divided into six steps and were compared accordingly. Results In total, 13 hospitals responded—5 academic hospitals, 5 teaching hospitals, 3 community hospitals—of which 10 protocols were usable for comparison. Concerning the trocar positions, only minor differences were found. The concept of “critical view of safety” was represented in just one protocol. Furthermore, the order of clipping and cutting the cystic artery and duct differed. Descriptions of instruments and apparatus were also inconsistent. Conclusions Present protocols differ too much to define a universal procedure among surgeons in The Netherlands. The authors propose one (inter)national standardized protocol, including standardized actions. This uniform standardized protocol has to be officially released and recommended by national scientific associations (e.g., the Dutch Society of Surgery) or international societies (e.g., European Association for Endoscopic Surgery and Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons). The aim is to improve patient safety and professional communication, which are necessary for new developments. PMID:18224485

  17. 3D modeling of forces between magnet and HTS in a levitation system using new approach of the control volume method based on an unstructured grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alloui, L., E-mail: lotfi.alloui@lgep.supelec.fr [Laboratoire de Genie Electrique de Paris - LGEP, CNRS UMR 8507, Supelec, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, Universite Paris Sud-Paris 11, Plateau de Moulon, 11 rue Joliot Curie, 91192 Gif-Sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Laboratoire de modelisation des systemes energetiques (LMSE), Universite de Biskra, 07000 Biskra (Algeria); Bouillault, F., E-mail: bouillault@lgep.supelec.fr [Laboratoire de Genie Electrique de Paris - LGEP, CNRS UMR 8507, Supelec, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, Universite Paris Sud-Paris 11, Plateau de Moulon, 11 rue Joliot Curie, 91192 Gif-Sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Bernard, L., E-mail: laurent.bernardl@lgep.supelc.fr [Laboratoire de Genie Electrique de Paris - LGEP, CNRS UMR 8507, Supelec, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, Universite Paris Sud-Paris 11, Plateau de Moulon, 11 rue Joliot Curie, 91192 Gif-Sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Leveque, J., E-mail: jean.leveque@green.uhp-nancy.fr [Groupe de recherche en electronique et electrotechnique de Nancy, Universite Henry Poincare, BP 239, 54506 Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France)

    2012-05-15

    In this paper we present new 3D numerical model to calculate the vertical and the guidance forces in high temperature superconductors taking into account the influence of the flux creep phenomena. In the suggested numerical model, we adopt a new approach of the control volume method. This approach is based on the use of an unstructured grid which can be used to model more complex geometries. A comparison of the control volume method results with experiments verifies the validity of this approach and the proposed numerical model. Based on this model, the levitation force's relaxation at different temperatures was also studied.

  18. Effectiveness of oxaliplatin desensitization protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortijo-Cascajares, Susana; Nacle-López, Inmaculada; García-Escobar, Ignacio; Aguilella-Vizcaíno, María José; Herreros-de-Tejada, Alberto; Cortés-Funes Castro, Hernán; Calleja-Hernández, Miguel-Ángel

    2013-03-01

    Hypersensitivity reaction (HSR) to antineoplastic drugs can force doctors to stop treatment and seek other alternatives. These alternatives may be less effective, not as well tolerated and/or more expensive. Another option is to use desensitization protocols that induce a temporary state of tolerance by gradually administering small quantities of the antineoplastic drug until the therapeutic dosage is reached. The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of oxaliplatin desensitization protocols. A retrospective observational study was carried out between January 2006 and May 2011. The inclusion criteria were patients undergoing chemotherapy treatment with oxaliplatin who had developed an HSR to the drug and who were candidates for continuing the treatment using a desensitization protocol. The patients' clinical records were reviewed and variables were gathered relating to the patient, the treatment, the HSR, and the desensitization protocol administered. The data were analysed using version 18.0 of the statistics program SPSS. A total of 53 desensitization protocols were administered to 21 patients. In 89 % of these cases, no new reactions occurred while the drug was being administered. New reactions of mild severity only occurred in 11 % of cases, and none of these reactions were severe enough for treatment to be stopped. All patients were able to complete the desensitization protocol. This study confirms that oxaliplatin desensitization protocols are safe and effective and allow patients to continue with the treatment that initially caused an HSR.

  19. Protocolized hyperventilation enhances electroconvulsive therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Arriba-Arnau, Aida; Dalmau, Antonia; Soria, Virginia; Salvat-Pujol, Neus; Ribes, Carmina; Sánchez-Allueva, Ana; Menchón, José Manuel; Urretavizcaya, Mikel

    2017-08-01

    Hyperventilation is recommended in electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) to enhance seizures and to increase patients' safety. However, more evidence is needed regarding its effects and the optimum method of application. This prospective study involving 21 subjects compared two procedures, protocolized hyperventilation (PHV) and hyperventilation as usual (HVau), applied to the same patient in two consecutive sessions. Transcutaneous partial pressure of carbon dioxide (TcPCO 2 ) was measured throughout all sessions. Ventilation parameters, hemodynamic measures, seizure characteristics, and side effects were also explored. PHV resulted in lower TcPCO 2 after hyperventilation (p=.008) and over the whole session (p=.035). The lowest TcPCO 2 was achieved after voluntary hyperventilation. Changes in TcPCO 2 from baseline showed differences between HVau and PHV at each session time-point (all p<.05). Between- and within-subjects factors were statistically significant in a general linear model. Seizure duration was greater in PHV sessions (p=.028), without differences in other seizure quality parameters or adverse effects. Correlations were found between hypocapnia induction and seizure quality indexes. Secondary outcomes could be underpowered. PHV produces hypocapnia before the stimulus, modifies patients' TcPCO 2 values throughout the ECT session and lengthens seizure duration. Voluntary hyperventilation is the most important part of the PHV procedure with respect to achieving hypocapnia. A specific ventilation approach, CO 2 quantification and monitoring may be advisable in ECT. PHV is easy to apply in daily clinical practice and does not imply added costs. Ventilation management has promising effects in terms of optimizing ECT technique. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Deterministic secure communication protocol without using entanglement

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Qing-yu

    2003-01-01

    We show a deterministic secure direct communication protocol using single qubit in mixed state. The security of this protocol is based on the security proof of BB84 protocol. It can be realized with current technologies.

  1. Cognitive Protocol Stack Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-30

    an active shooter drill, a science festival scenario, and an emergency response drill involving a simulated dirty bomb attack. The network behavior...operations and provide Internet connectivity to attendees of the science festival . Our passive network measurements provided valuable insights to configure...motivated by the amount of traffic which is increasing dramatically: social media has driven the spread of file sharing (photos, music , and video), while

  2. SIP protocol model for OMNET++

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kucerak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes our new SIP protocol implementation for the OMNeT++ simulation framework. OMNeT++ simulation framework provides an extensive support of IP related protocols, nevertheless a working SIP protocol implementation is missing. Real measurements were also done using a SIPp traffic generator and the results are compared to those obtained by our new SIP model. Since this work is a part of bigger project concerned strictly on measuring "first response times" over networks with a faulty transmission links, the actually collected statistics are focused only this way.

  3. The HPA photon protocol and proposed electron protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitchford, W.G.

    1985-01-01

    The Hospital Physicists Association (HPA) photon dosimetry protocol has been produced and was published in 1983. Revised values of some components of Csub(lambda) and refinements introduced into the theory in the last few years have enabled new Csub(lambda) values to be produced. The proposed HPA electron protocol is at present in draft form and will be published shortly. Both protocels are discussed. (Auth.)

  4. Antibody engineering: methods and protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chames, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    "Antibody Engineering: Methods and Protocols, Second Edition was compiled to give complete and easy access to a variety of antibody engineering techniques, starting from the creation of antibody repertoires and efficient...

  5. Implementation of postoperative handoff protocol

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Standardised handoff protocols have become necessary patient ... improve the perioperative handoff communications from the cardiac operating theatres to the ICU. ..... as you can imagine, there was push-back to the change.

  6. Using Green Star Metrics to Optimize the Greenness of Literature Protocols for Syntheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Rita C. C.; Ribeiro, M. Gabriela T. C.; Machado, Adélio A. S. C.

    2015-01-01

    A procedure to improve the greenness of a synthesis, without performing laboratory work, using alternative protocols available in the literature is presented. The greenness evaluation involves the separate assessment of the different steps described in the available protocols--reaction, isolation, and purification--as well as the global process,…

  7. Data Exchange Protocol in Repsail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gucma Maciej

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Article presents implantation and theoretical considerations of data exchange protocol developed for the RepSail project, where main objective was design and building innovative hybrid yacht. One of problems during the design process was improper functioning of data exchange protocols that were available in the commercially available devices to mention navigation purpose NMEA183 or 2000 as well as automation dedicated ones (CAN and similar. Author shows the basis of the dedicated format of exchange for in board devices.

  8. The Groningen protocol: another perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Jotkowitz, A B; Glick, S

    2006-01-01

    The Groningen protocol allows for the euthanasia of severely ill newborns with a hopeless prognosis and unbearable suffering. We understand the impetus for such a protocol but have moral and ethical concerns with it. Advocates for euthanasia in adults have relied on the concept of human autonomy, which is lacking in the case of infants. In addition, biases can potentially influence the decision making of both parents and physicians. It is also very difficult to weigh the element of quality of...

  9. Identifying influenza-like illness presentation from unstructured general practice clinical narrative using a text classifier rule-based expert system versus a clinical expert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacRae, Jayden; Love, Tom; Baker, Michael G; Dowell, Anthony; Carnachan, Matthew; Stubbe, Maria; McBain, Lynn

    2015-10-06

    We designed and validated a rule-based expert system to identify influenza like illness (ILI) from routinely recorded general practice clinical narrative to aid a larger retrospective research study into the impact of the 2009 influenza pandemic in New Zealand. Rules were assessed using pattern matching heuristics on routine clinical narrative. The system was trained using data from 623 clinical encounters and validated using a clinical expert as a gold standard against a mutually exclusive set of 901 records. We calculated a 98.2 % specificity and 90.2 % sensitivity across an ILI incidence of 12.4 % measured against clinical expert classification. Peak problem list identification of ILI by clinical coding in any month was 9.2 % of all detected ILI presentations. Our system addressed an unusual problem domain for clinical narrative classification; using notational, unstructured, clinician entered information in a community care setting. It performed well compared with other approaches and domains. It has potential applications in real-time surveillance of disease, and in assisted problem list coding for clinicians. Our system identified ILI presentation with sufficient accuracy for use at a population level in the wider research study. The peak coding of 9.2 % illustrated the need for automated coding of unstructured narrative in our study.

  10. Extension of the mixed dual finite element method to the solution of the SPN transport equation in 2D unstructured geometries composed by arbitrary quadrilaterals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lautard, J.J.; Flumiani, T.

    2003-01-01

    The mixed dual finite element method is usually used for the resolution of the SPN transport equations (simplified PN equations) in 3D homogenized geometries (composed by homogenized rectangles or hexagons). This method produces fast results with little memory requirements. We have extended the previous method to the treatment of unstructured geometries composed by quadrilaterals (for the moment limited to 2D), allowing us to treat geometries where fuel pins are exactly represented. The iterative resolution of the resulting matrix system is a generalization of the one already developed for the cartesian and the hexagonal geometries. In order to illustrate and to show the efficiency of this method, results on the NEA-C5G7-MOX benchmark are given. The previous benchmark has been extended for the hexagonal geometry and we provide here some results. This method is a first step towards the treatment of pin by pin core calculations without homogenization. The present solver is a prototype. It shows the efficiency of the method and it has to be extended to 3D calculations as well as to exact transport calculations. We also intend to extend the method to the treatment of unstructured geometries composed by quadrilaterals with curved edges (sectors of a circle).The iterative algorithm has yet to be accelerated using multigrid techniques through a coupling with the present homogenized solver (MINOS). In the future, it will be included in the next generation neutronic toolbox DESCARTES currently under development

  11. Parallel SOR methods with a parabolic-diffusion acceleration technique for solving an unstructured-grid Poisson equation on 3D arbitrary geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, M. A. Uh; Van Bang, D. Pham; Nguyen, K. D.

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a parallel algorithm for the finite-volume discretisation of the Poisson equation on three-dimensional arbitrary geometries. The proposed method is formulated by using a 2D horizontal block domain decomposition and interprocessor data communication techniques with message passing interface. The horizontal unstructured-grid cells are reordered according to the neighbouring relations and decomposed into blocks using a load-balanced distribution to give all processors an equal amount of elements. In this algorithm, two parallel successive over-relaxation methods are presented: a multi-colour ordering technique for unstructured grids based on distributed memory and a block method using reordering index following similar ideas of the partitioning for structured grids. In all cases, the parallel algorithms are implemented with a combination of an acceleration iterative solver. This solver is based on a parabolic-diffusion equation introduced to obtain faster solutions of the linear systems arising from the discretisation. Numerical results are given to evaluate the performances of the methods showing speedups better than linear.

  12. Eye Involvement in TSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eye involvement. Nonretinal and Retinal Eye Findings Facial angiofibromas may involve the eyelids of individuals with TSC, ... the hamartomas have many blood vessels (as are angiofibromas of the skin). Less than half of the ...

  13. Energy-Aware RFID Anti-Collision Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjona, Laura; Simon, Hugo Landaluce; Ruiz, Asier Perallos

    2018-06-11

    The growing interest in mobile devices is transforming wireless identification technologies. Mobile and battery-powered Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) readers, such as hand readers and smart phones, are are becoming increasingly attractive. These RFID readers require energy-efficient anti-collision protocols to minimize the tag collisions and to expand the reader's battery life. Furthermore, there is an increasing interest in RFID sensor networks with a growing number of RFID sensor tags. Thus, RFID application developers must be mindful of tag anti-collision protocols. Energy-efficient protocols involve a low reader energy consumption per tag. This work presents a thorough study of the reader energy consumption per tag and analyzes the main factor that affects this metric: the frame size update strategy. Using the conclusion of this analysis, the anti-collision protocol Energy-Aware Slotted Aloha (EASA) is presented to decrease the energy consumption per tag. The frame size update strategy of EASA is configured to minimize the energy consumption per tag. As a result, EASA presents an energy-aware frame. The performance of the proposed protocol is evaluated and compared with several state of the art Aloha-based anti-collision protocols based on the current RFID standard. Simulation results show that EASA, with an average of 15 mJ consumed per tag identified, achieves a 6% average improvement in the energy consumption per tag in relation to the strategies of the comparison.

  14. MDEP Protocol VICWG-01. MDEP Protocol: Witnessed, Joint, and Multinational Vendor Inspection Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The Multinational Design Evaluation Programme (MDEP) was launched in 2006 by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) with the aim of developing innovative approaches to leverage the resources and knowledge of national regulatory authorities reviewing new reactor designs. MDEP full members are regulators from Canada, People's Republic of China, Finland, France, India, Japan, Republic of Korea, Russian Federation, South Africa, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States of America. The United Arab Emirates and Turkey are associate members. The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) acts as the Technical Secretariat for the MDEP. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) participates in many of the MDEP activities, including harmonisation efforts. The Vendor Inspection Cooperation Working Group (VICWG) is one of the issue-specific working groups that the MDEP members are undertaking with one long term goal of the VICWG being to maximize the use of the results obtained from other regulator's efforts in inspecting vendors. To accomplish this goal, it is vital that the regulators learn about each other's procedures, processes, and regulations. To facilitate the learning process the VICWG is coordinating vendor inspections among the involved regulatory authorities with the purpose of enhancing the understanding of each other's vendor inspection procedures. This programme is administered by the NEA. Involvement in specific inspections provides a number of opportunities for member state regulators to witness other regulators' inspection methods, gain useful information on the quality systems and manufacturing arrangements of specific vendors and where appropriate, actively participate in the inspection. The purpose of this protocol is to provide guidance to regulators that wish to carry out vendor inspections or participate in or witness other regulators' vendor inspections. It also provides

  15. Organizing Patient Involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brehm Johansen, Mette

    hospitals. During the last 25 years, patient involvement and quality improvement have become connected in Danish healthcare policy. However, the ideal of involving patients in quality improvement is described in very general terms and with only few specific expectations of how it is to be carried out...... in practice, as I show in the thesis. In the patient involvement literature, the difficulties of getting patient involvement in quality improvement to have in an impact on the planning and development of healthcare services is, for example, ascribed to conceptual vagueness of patient involvement, differences...... in perspectives, values and understandings between patients and healthcare professionals, or the lack of managerial attention and prioritization....

  16. Monoclonal antibodies technology. Protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acevado Castro, B.E.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: Immunization. The first step in preparing useful monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) is to immunize an animal (Balb/c for example) with an appropriate antigen. Methods (only for soluble antigen): Solubilize selected antigen in Phosphate buffer solution (PBS) at pH 7.2-7.4, ideally at a final concentration per animal between 10 to 50 μg/ml. It is recommended that the antigen under consideration be incorporated into the emulsion adjuvants in 1:1 volumetric relation. We commonly use Frend's adjuvant (FA) to prepared immunized solution. The first immunization should be prepared with complete FA, and the another could be prepared with incomplete FA. It is recommended to inject mice with 0.2 ml intraperitoneal (ip) or subcutaneous (sc). Our experience suggests the sc route is the preferred route. A minimum protocol for immunizing mice to generate cells for preparing hybridomas is s follows: immunize sc on day 0, boost sc on day 21, take a trial bleeding on day 26; if antibody titters are satisfactory, boost ip on day 35 with antigen only, and remove the spleen to obtain cells for fusion on day 38. Fusion protocol. The myeloma cell line we are using is X63 Ag8.653. At the moment of fusion myeloma cells need a good viability (at least a 95%). 1. Remove the spleen cells from immunized mice using sterile conditions. An immune spleen should yield between 7 a 10x10 7 nucleated cells. 2. Place the spleen in 20 ml of serum-free RPMI 1640 in a Petri dish. Using a needle and syringe, inject the spleen with medium to distend and disrupt the spleen stroma and free the nucleated cells. 3. Flush the cell suspension with a Pasteur pipet to disperse clumps of cells. 4. Centrifuge the spleen cell suspension at 250g for 10 min. Resuspend the pellet in serum-free RPMI 1640. Determine cell concentration using Neuhabuer chamber. 5. Mix the myeloma cells and spleen cells in a conical 50-ml tube in serum-free RPMI 1640, 1 x10 7 spleen cells to 1x10 6 myeloma cells (ratio 10:1). Centrifuge

  17. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF DISTINCT SECURED AUTHENTICATION PROTOCOLS USED IN THE RESOURCE CONSTRAINED PLATFORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Prasanna

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Most of the e-commerce and m-commerce applications in the current e-business world, has adopted asymmetric key cryptography technique in their authentication protocol to provide an efficient authentication of the involved parties. This paper exhibits the performance analysis of distinct authentication protocol which implements the public key cryptography like RSA, ECC and HECC. The comparison is made based on key generation, sign generation and sign verification processes. The results prove that the performance achieved through HECC based authentication protocol is better than the ECC- and RSA based authentication protocols.

  18. Development of a research evaluation protocol for NSD research portfolios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, J.

    1999-01-01

    This report is concerned with developing and describing a research evaluation protocol for use by the Nuclear Safety Directorate (NSD), in evaluating their various programmes of research; or aspects of those programmes. The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) has been involved with research evaluation for some considerable time and NSD, as part of HSE, wishes to develop a protocol which, while it meets their needs, is also fully compatible with other HSE approaches. It is intended that the methodology developed by this project will be used for evaluation of the Probabilistic Safety Assessment Portfolio (as a separate project). The usefulness of the methodology will be reviewed in the light of this experience

  19. Families of quantum fingerprinting protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovitz, Benjamin; Lütkenhaus, Norbert

    2018-03-01

    We introduce several families of quantum fingerprinting protocols to evaluate the equality function on two n -bit strings in the simultaneous message passing model. The original quantum fingerprinting protocol uses a tensor product of a small number of O (logn ) -qubit high-dimensional signals [H. Buhrman et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 167902 (2001), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.87.167902], whereas a recently proposed optical protocol uses a tensor product of O (n ) single-qubit signals, while maintaining the O (logn ) information leakage of the original protocol [J. M. Arazola and N. Lütkenhaus, Phys. Rev. A 89, 062305 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevA.89.062305]. We find a family of protocols which interpolate between the original and optical protocols while maintaining the O (logn ) information leakage, thus demonstrating a tradeoff between the number of signals sent and the dimension of each signal. There has been interest in experimental realization of the recently proposed optical protocol using coherent states [F. Xu et al., Nat. Commun. 6, 8735 (2015), 10.1038/ncomms9735; J.-Y. Guan et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 240502 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.240502], but as the required number of laser pulses grows linearly with the input size n , eventual challenges for the long-time stability of experimental setups arise. We find a coherent state protocol which reduces the number of signals by a factor 1/2 while also reducing the information leakage. Our reduction makes use of a simple modulation scheme in optical phase space, and we find that more complex modulation schemes are not advantageous. Using a similar technique, we improve a recently proposed coherent state protocol for evaluating the Euclidean distance between two real unit vectors [N. Kumar et al., Phys. Rev. A 95, 032337 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevA.95.032337] by reducing the number of signals by a factor 1/2 and also reducing the information leakage.

  20. Improvement of "Novel Multiparty Quantum Key Agreement Protocol with GHZ States"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jun; Hwang, Tzonelih

    2017-10-01

    Quantum key agreement (QKA) protocol is a method for negotiating a fair and secure key among mutually untrusted participants. Recently, Xu et al. (Quantum Inf. Process. 13:2587-2594, 2014) proposed a multi-party QKA protocol based on Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states. However, this study points out that Xu et al.'s protocol cannot provide the fairness property. That is, the last involved participant in the protocol can manipulate the final shared secret key without being detected by the other participants. Moreover, according to Yu et al.'s research (2015), Xu et al.'s protocol cannot avoid the public discussion attack too. To avoid these weaknesses, an improved QKA protocol is proposed.

  1. JOINT INVOLVEMENT IN SYPHILIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Zlobina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Joint involvement in syphilis has been considered as casuistry in recent years. At the same time, the high incidence of primary syphilis and the notified cases of late neurosyphilis may suggest that joint involvement in this disease is by no means always verified. Traditionally there are two forms of syphilitic arthritis: primary synovial (involving the articular membranes and sac and primary bone (involving the articular bones and cartilages ones. The paper describes the authors' clinical case of the primary bone form of articular syphilis in a 34-year-old man. 

  2. The Network Protocol Analysis Technique in Snort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qing-Xiu

    Network protocol analysis is a network sniffer to capture data for further analysis and understanding of the technical means necessary packets. Network sniffing is intercepted by packet assembly binary format of the original message content. In order to obtain the information contained. Required based on TCP / IP protocol stack protocol specification. Again to restore the data packets at protocol format and content in each protocol layer. Actual data transferred, as well as the application tier.

  3. Understanding protocol performance: impact of test performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Robert G

    2013-01-01

    This is the second of two articles that examine the factors that determine protocol performance. The objective of these articles is to provide a general understanding of protocol performance that can be used to estimate performance, establish limits on performance, decide if a protocol is justified, and ultimately select a protocol. The first article was concerned with protocol criterion and test correlation. It demonstrated the advantages and disadvantages of different criterion when all tests had the same performance. It also examined the impact of increasing test correlation on protocol performance and the characteristics of the different criteria. To examine the impact on protocol performance when individual tests in a protocol have different performance. This is evaluated for different criteria and test correlations. The results of the two articles are combined and summarized. A mathematical model is used to calculate protocol performance for different protocol criteria and test correlations when there are small to large variations in the performance of individual tests in the protocol. The performance of the individual tests that make up a protocol has a significant impact on the performance of the protocol. As expected, the better the performance of the individual tests, the better the performance of the protocol. Many of the characteristics of the different criteria are relatively independent of the variation in the performance of the individual tests. However, increasing test variation degrades some criteria advantages and causes a new disadvantage to appear. This negative impact increases as test variation increases and as more tests are added to the protocol. Best protocol performance is obtained when individual tests are uncorrelated and have the same performance. In general, the greater the variation in the performance of tests in the protocol, the more detrimental this variation is to protocol performance. Since this negative impact is increased as

  4. Geometrically Flexible and Efficient Flow Analysis of High Speed Vehicles Via Domain Decomposition, Part 1: Unstructured-Grid Solver for High Speed Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Jeffery A.; Baurle, Robert A.; Passe, Bradley J.; Spiegel, Seth C.; Nishikawa, Hiroaki

    2017-01-01

    The ability to solve the equations governing the hypersonic turbulent flow of a real gas on unstructured grids using a spatially-elliptic, 2nd-order accurate, cell-centered, finite-volume method has been recently implemented in the VULCAN-CFD code. This paper describes the key numerical methods and techniques that were found to be required to robustly obtain accurate solutions to hypersonic flows on non-hex-dominant unstructured grids. The methods and techniques described include: an augmented stencil, weighted linear least squares, cell-average gradient method, a robust multidimensional cell-average gradient-limiter process that is consistent with the augmented stencil of the cell-average gradient method and a cell-face gradient method that contains a cell skewness sensitive damping term derived using hyperbolic diffusion based concepts. A data-parallel matrix-based symmetric Gauss-Seidel point-implicit scheme, used to solve the governing equations, is described and shown to be more robust and efficient than a matrix-free alternative. In addition, a y+ adaptive turbulent wall boundary condition methodology is presented. This boundary condition methodology is deigned to automatically switch between a solve-to-the-wall and a wall-matching-function boundary condition based on the local y+ of the 1st cell center off the wall. The aforementioned methods and techniques are then applied to a series of hypersonic and supersonic turbulent flat plate unit tests to examine the efficiency, robustness and convergence behavior of the implicit scheme and to determine the ability of the solve-to-the-wall and y+ adaptive turbulent wall boundary conditions to reproduce the turbulent law-of-the-wall. Finally, the thermally perfect, chemically frozen, Mach 7.8 turbulent flow of air through a scramjet flow-path is computed and compared with experimental data to demonstrate the robustness, accuracy and convergence behavior of the unstructured-grid solver for a realistic 3-D geometry on

  5. The Geneva Protocol of 1925

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mc Elroy, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that when President Gerald Ford signed the instruments of ratification for the Geneva Protocol of 1925 on January 22, 1975, a tortured, half-century-long chapter in U.S. arms control policy was brought to a close. Fifty years earlier, at the Geneva Conference for the Control of the International Trade in Arms, Munitions and Implements of War, the United States had played a key role in drafting and reaching agreement on the Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use in War of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or Other Gases and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare. The protocol, signed by thirty nations, including the United States, on June 17, 1925, prohibits the use in war of asphyxiating, poisonous or other gases, and of all analogous liquids, materials or devices as well as the use of bacteriological methods of warfare

  6. Development of Characterization Protocol for Mixed Liquid Radioactive Waste Classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norasalwa Zakaria; Syed Asraf Wafa; Wo, Y.M.; Sarimah Mahat; Mohamad Annuar Assadat Husain

    2017-01-01

    Mixed organic liquid waste generated from health-care and research activities containing tritium, carbon-14, and other radionuclide posed specific challenges in its management. Often, this waste becomes legacy waste in many nuclear facilities and being considered as 'problematic' waste. One of the most important recommendations made by IAEA is to perform multistage processes aiming at declassification of the waste. At this moment, approximately 3000 bottles of mixed liquid waste, with estimated volume of 6000 litres are currently stored at the National Radioactive Waste Management Centre, Malaysia and some have been stored for more than 25 years. The aim of this study is to develop a characterization protocol towards reclassification of these wastes. The characterization protocol entails waste identification, waste screening and segregation, and analytical radionuclides profiling using analytical procedures involving gross alpha beta, and gamma spectrometry. The results obtained from the characterization protocol are used to establish criteria for speedy classification of the waste. (author)

  7. GENERALIZED MATRIXES OF GALOIS PROTOCOLS EXCHANGE ENCRYPTION KEYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly Beletsky

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The methods of construction of matrix formation the secret protocols legalized subscribers of public communications networks encryption keys. Based key exchange protocols laid asymmetric cryptography algorithms. The solution involves the calculation of one-way functions and is based on the use of generalized Galois arrays of isomorphism relationship with forming elements, and depending on the selected irreducible polynomial generating matrix. A simple method for constructing generalized Galois matrix by the method of filling the diagonal. In order to eliminate the isomorphism of Galois arrays and their constituent elements, limiting the possibility of building one-way functions, Galois matrix subjected to similarity transformation carried out by means of permutation matrices. The variant of the organization of the algebraic attacks on encryption keys sharing protocols and discusses options for easing the consequences of an attack.

  8. The Kyoto protocol development; La viabilite du protocole de Kyoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, R. [Harvard Univ., Barrow, AK (United States); Guesneris, R. [College de France, 75 - Paris (France)

    2002-04-01

    From the author R. Cooper point of view the Kyoto Protocol is a flawed concept. The reasons for dropping Kyoto are presented in this paper insisting that rejecting Kyoto not means to imply that global climate change is not a serious problem. After a presentation of the US policy facing the Climatic Change, some concluding propositions are proposed. (A.L.B.)

  9. Symbolic Analysis of Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Morten

    We present our work on using abstract models for formally analysing cryptographic protocols: First, we present an ecient method for verifying trace-based authenticity properties of protocols using nonces, symmetric encryption, and asymmetric encryption. The method is based on a type system...... of Gordon et al., which we modify to support fully-automated type inference. Tests conducted via an implementation of our algorithm found it to be very ecient. Second, we show how privacy may be captured in a symbolic model using an equivalencebased property and give a formal denition. We formalise...

  10. Syrlic: a Lagrangian code to handle industrial problems involving particles and droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peniguel, C.

    1997-01-01

    Numerous industrial applications require to solve droplets or solid particles trajectories and their effects on the flow. (fuel injection in combustion engine, agricultural spraying, spray drying, spray cooling, spray painting, particles separator, dispersion of pollutant, etc). SYRLIC is being developed to handle the dispersed phase while the continuous phase is tackled by classical Eulerian codes like N3S-EF, N3S-NATUR, ESTET. The trajectory of each droplet is calculated on unstructured grids or structured grids according the Eulerian code with SYRLIC is coupled. The forces applied to each particle are recalculated along each path. The Lagrangian approach treats the convection and the source terms exactly. It is particularly adapted to problems involving a wide range of particles characteristics (diameter, mass, etc). In the near future, wall interaction, heat transfer, evaporation more complex physics, etc, will be included. Turbulent effects will be accounted for by a Langevin equation. The illustration shows the trajectories followed by water droplets (diameter from 1 mm to 4 mm) in a cooling tower. the droplets are falling down due to gravity but are deflected towards the center of the tower because of a lateral wind. It is clear that particles are affected differently according their diameter. The Eulerian flow field used to compute the forces has been generated by N3S-AERO, on an unstructured mesh

  11. Parent Involvement Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Arna

    This handbook on parent involvement, designed to be used with preschool programs, was developed by the Jefferson County Public Schools in Lakewood, Colorado. Included are: (1) a general statement about parent involvement in an early childhood program, (2) a description of the Jefferson County Early Childhood Program, (3) a description of the…

  12. Fibred Coalgebraic Logic and Quantum Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Marsden

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by applications in modelling quantum systems using coalgebraic techniques, we introduce a fibred coalgebraic logic. Our approach extends the conventional predicate lifting semantics with additional modalities relating conditions on different fibres. As this fibred setting will typically involve multiple signature functors, the logic incorporates a calculus of modalities enabling the construction of new modalities using various composition operations. We extend the semantics of coalgebraic logic to this setting, and prove that this extension respects behavioural equivalence. We show how properties of the semantics of modalities are preserved under composition operations, and then apply the calculational aspect of our logic to produce an expressive set of modalities for reasoning about quantum systems, building these modalities up from simpler components. We then demonstrate how these modalities can describe some standard quantum protocols. The novel features of our logic are shown to allow for a uniform description of unitary evolution, and support local reasoning such as "Alice's qubit satisfies condition" as is common when discussing quantum protocols.

  13. The Involved Ostrich

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Andrea; Dobscha, Susan; Geiger, Susi

    2008-01-01

    that the transition into parenthood can be difficult for men due to their lack of a physical connection to the pregnancy, a perception that the baby industry is not designed for them, the continuance of male stereotypes in the media, and also the time available to men to become involved in consumption activities......-natal data. Data revealed that men, according to their partner’s perceptions, used consumption as a virtual umbilical cord, although levels of consumption involvement varied from co-involvement for most purchases, to limited involvement, and/or involvement for ‘large’ items, particularly travel systems...... and technical items. This research also revealed that men partook in highly masculinized forms of “nesting,” and in general shunned pregnancy book reading; although some did engage in “research” activities such as searching the internet for product safety information. We conclude from this study...

  14. Direct Numerical Simulation of Acoustic Waves Interacting with a Shock Wave in a Quasi-1D Convergent-Divergent Nozzle Using an Unstructured Finite Volume Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Trong T.; Mankbadi, Reda R.

    1995-01-01

    Numerical simulation of a very small amplitude acoustic wave interacting with a shock wave in a quasi-1D convergent-divergent nozzle is performed using an unstructured finite volume algorithm with a piece-wise linear, least square reconstruction, Roe flux difference splitting, and second-order MacCormack time marching. First, the spatial accuracy of the algorithm is evaluated for steady flows with and without the normal shock by running the simulation with a sequence of successively finer meshes. Then the accuracy of the Roe flux difference splitting near the sonic transition point is examined for different reconstruction schemes. Finally, the unsteady numerical solutions with the acoustic perturbation are presented and compared with linear theory results.

  15. Comparison of structured and unstructured physical activity training on predicted VO2max and heart rate variability in adolescents - a randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vivek Kumar; Subramanian, Senthil Kumar; Radhakrishnan, Krishnakumar; Rajendran, Rajathi; Ravindran, Balasubramanian Sulur; Arunachalam, Vinayathan

    2017-05-01

    Physical inactivity contributes to many health issues. The WHO-recommended physical activity for adolescents encompasses aerobic, resistance, and bone strengthening exercises aimed at achieving health-related physical fitness. Heart rate variability (HRV) and maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) are considered as noninvasive measures of cardiovascular health. The objective of this study is to compare the effect of structured and unstructured physical training on maximal aerobic capacity and HRV among adolescents. We designed a single blinded, parallel, randomized active-controlled trial (Registration No. CTRI/2013/08/003897) to compare the physiological effects of 6 months of globally recommended structured physical activity (SPA), with that of unstructured physical activity (USPA) in healthy school-going adolescents. We recruited 439 healthy student volunteers (boys: 250, girls: 189) in the age group of 12-17 years. Randomization across the groups was done using age and gender stratified randomization method, and the participants were divided into two groups: SPA (n=219, boys: 117, girls: 102) and USPA (n=220, boys: 119, girls: 101). Depending on their training status and gender the participants in both SPA and USPA groups were further subdivided into the following four sub-groups: SPA athlete boys (n=22) and girls (n=17), SPA nonathlete boys (n=95) and girls (n=85), USPA athlete boys (n=23) and girls (n=17), and USPA nonathlete boys (n=96) and girls (n=84). We recorded HRV, body fat%, and VO2 max using Rockport Walk Fitness test before and after the intervention. Maximum aerobic capacity and heart rate variability increased significantly while heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and body fat percentage decreased significantly after both SPA and USPA intervention. However, the improvement was more in SPA as compared to USPA. SPA is more beneficial for improving cardiorespiratory fitness, HRV, and reducing body fat percentage in terms of

  16. Application of the FUN3D Unstructured-Grid Navier-Stokes Solver to the 4th AIAA Drag Prediction Workshop Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Hammond, Dana P.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Pirzadeh, S. Z.; Rumsey, Christopher L.

    2010-01-01

    FUN3D Navier-Stokes solutions were computed for the 4th AIAA Drag Prediction Workshop grid convergence study, downwash study, and Reynolds number study on a set of node-based mixed-element grids. All of the baseline tetrahedral grids were generated with the VGRID (developmental) advancing-layer and advancing-front grid generation software package following the gridding guidelines developed for the workshop. With maximum grid sizes exceeding 100 million nodes, the grid convergence study was particularly challenging for the node-based unstructured grid generators and flow solvers. At the time of the workshop, the super-fine grid with 105 million nodes and 600 million elements was the largest grid known to have been generated using VGRID. FUN3D Version 11.0 has a completely new pre- and post-processing paradigm that has been incorporated directly into the solver and functions entirely in a parallel, distributed memory environment. This feature allowed for practical pre-processing and solution times on the largest unstructured-grid size requested for the workshop. For the constant-lift grid convergence case, the convergence of total drag is approximately second-order on the finest three grids. The variation in total drag between the finest two grids is only 2 counts. At the finest grid levels, only small variations in wing and tail pressure distributions are seen with grid refinement. Similarly, a small wing side-of-body separation also shows little variation at the finest grid levels. Overall, the FUN3D results compare well with the structured-grid code CFL3D. The FUN3D downwash study and Reynolds number study results compare well with the range of results shown in the workshop presentations.

  17. [Chinese Protocol of Diagnosis and Treatment of Colorectal Cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors in China. In 2012 one million thirty six thousand cases of colorectal cancer were diagnosed all over the world, two hundred fifty three thousand cases were diagnosed in China (accounted for 18.6%). China has the largest number of new cases of colorectal cancer in the world. Colorectal cancer has becoming a serious threat of Chinese residents' health. In 2010, the National Ministry of Health organized colorectal cancer expertise of the Chinese Medical Association to write the "Chinese Protocol of Diagnosis and Treatment of Colorectal Cancer" (2010edition), and publish it publicly. In recent years, the National Health and Family Planning Commission has organized experts to revised the protocol 2 times: the first time in 2015, the second time in 2017. The revised part of "Chinese Protocol of Diagnosis and Treatment of Colorectal Cancer" (2017 edition) involves new progress in the field of imaging examination, pathological evaluation, surgery, chemotherpy and radiotherapy. The 2017 edition of the protocol not only referred to the contents of the international guidelines, but also combined with the specific national conditions and clinical practice in China, and also included many evidence-based clinical data in China recently. The 2017 edition of the protocol would further promote the standardization of diagnosis and treatment of colorectal cancer in China, improve the survival and prognosis of patients, and benefit millions of patients with colorectal cancer and their families.

  18. Conducting Clinically Based Intimate Partner Violence Research: Safety Protocol Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jocelyn C; Glass, Nancy E; Campbell, Jacquelyn C

    Maintaining safety is of utmost importance during research involving participants who have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV). Limited guidance on safety protocols to protect participants is available, particularly information related to technology-based approaches to informed consent, data collection, and contacting participants during the course of a study. The purpose of the article is to provide details on the safety protocol developed and utilized with women receiving care at an urban HIV clinic and who were taking part in an observational study of IPV, mental health symptoms, and substance abuse and their relationship to HIV treatment adherence. The protocol presents the technological strategies to promote safety and allow autonomy in participant decision-making throughout the research process, including Voice over Internet Protocol telephone numbers, and tablet-based eligibility screening and data collection. Protocols for management of participants at risk for suicide and/or intimate partner homicide that included automated high-risk messaging to participants and research staff and facilitated disclosure of risk to clinical staff based on participant preferences are discussed. Use of technology and partnership with clinic staff helped to provide an environment where research regarding IPV could be conducted without undue burden or risk to participants. Utilizing tablet-based survey administration provided multiple practical and safety benefits for participants. Most women who screened into high-risk categories for suicide or intimate partner homicide did not choose to have their results shared with their healthcare providers, indicating the importance of allowing participants control over information sharing whenever possible.

  19. Petri Nets in Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crazzolara, Federico; Winskel, Glynn

    2001-01-01

    A process language for security protocols is presented together with a semantics in terms of sets of events. The denotation of process is a set of events, and as each event specifies a set of pre and postconditions, this denotation can be viewed as a Petri net. By means of an example we illustrate...

  20. Improving the DGK comparison protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veugen, P.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    When processing signals in the encrypted domain, homomorphic encryption can be used to enable linear operations on encrypted data. Comparison of encrypted data however requires an additional protocol between the parties and will be relatively expensive. A well-known and frequently used comparison

  1. Performance Evaluation of Security Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodei, Chiara; Buchholtz, Mikael; Curti, Michele

    2005-01-01

    We use a special operational semantics which drives us in inferring quantitative measures on systems describing cryptographis cryptographic protocols. We assign rates to transitions by only looking at these labels. The rates reflect the distributed architecture running applications and the use...... of possibly different cryptosystems. We then map transition systems to Markov chains and evaluate performance of systems, using standard tools....

  2. Art. 1 Eerste Protocol EVRM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelmann, E.

    2014-01-01

    Het recht op bezit is niet in het Europees Verdrag ter bescherming van de rechten van de mens en de fundamentele vrijheden (hierna: EVRM) neergelegd, maar in het Eerste Protocol daarbij (hierna: EP), dat in 1954 in werking is getreden. Het is van belang voor ogen te houden dat de Tweede Wereldoorlog

  3. Bundle Security Protocol for ION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleigh, Scott C.; Birrane, Edward J.; Krupiarz, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    This software implements bundle authentication, conforming to the Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) Internet Draft on Bundle Security Protocol (BSP), for the Interplanetary Overlay Network (ION) implementation of DTN. This is the only implementation of BSP that is integrated with ION.

  4. Affinity biosensors: techniques and protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rogers, Kim R; Mulchandani, Ashok

    1998-01-01

    ..., and government to begin or expand their biosensors research. This volume, Methods in Biotechnology vol. 7: Affinity Biosensors: Techniques and Protocols, describes a variety of classical and emerging transduction technologies that have been interfaced to bioaffinity elements (e.g., antibodies and receptors). Some of the reas...

  5. High Entropy Random Selection Protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Buhrman (Harry); M. Christandl (Matthias); M. Koucky (Michal); Z. Lotker (Zvi); B. Patt-Shamir; M. Charikar; K. Jansen; O. Reingold; J. Rolim

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, we construct protocols for two parties that do not trust each other, to generate random variables with high Shannon entropy. We improve known bounds for the trade off between the number of rounds, length of communication and the entropy of the outcome.

  6. A Student Teamwork Induction Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamau, Caroline; Spong, Abigail

    2015-01-01

    Faulty group processes have harmful effects on performance but there is little research about intervention protocols to pre-empt them in higher education. This naturalistic experiment compared a control cohort with an inducted cohort. The inducted cohort attended a workshop, consultations, elected a leader and used tools (a group log and group…

  7. Cognitive Communications Protocols for SATCOM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-20

    communications protocols for satellite and space communications with possible broad applications in defense, homeland-security as well as consumer ...communications with possible broad applications in defense, homeland-security, and civilian as well as consumer telecommunications. Such cognitive...vulnerable against smart jammers that may attempt to learn the cognitive radios own behavior . In response, our second class of proposed algorithms

  8. IDEA and Family Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Emin Öztürk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA gives many rights to parents with special needs in terms of involvement and participation. Given the importance of family involvement in the special education process, and federal legislation that increasingly mandated and supported such involvement over time, considerable research has focused on the multiple ways that relationships between schools and families in the special education decision making process have played out. Educational professionals should create a positive climate for CLD families so that they feel more comfortable and therefore are able to participate more authentically and meaningfully.

  9. Group covariant protocols for quantum string commitment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsurumaru, Toyohiro

    2006-01-01

    We study the security of quantum string commitment (QSC) protocols with group covariant encoding scheme. First we consider a class of QSC protocol, which is general enough to incorporate all the QSC protocols given in the preceding literatures. Then among those protocols, we consider group covariant protocols and show that the exact upperbound on the binding condition can be calculated. Next using this result, we prove that for every irreducible representation of a finite group, there always exists a corresponding nontrivial QSC protocol which reaches a level of security impossible to achieve classically

  10. Parental Involvement in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Tessa

    1979-01-01

    Arguments in favor of increased parental involvement, particularly in nursery education, are presented. Opposition to participation from parents and teachers is discussed and specific areas in which cooperation might be possible are suggested along with different levels of participation. (JMF)

  11. HIGH-VELOCITY RESISTANCE EXERCISE PROTOCOLS IN OLDER WOMEN: EFFECTS ON CARDIOVASCULAR RESPONSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo P. da Silva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Acute cardiovascular responses to different high-velocity resistance exercise protocols were compared in untrained older women. Twelve apparently healthy volunteers (62.6 ± 2.9 y performed three different protocols in the bench press (BP. All protocols involved three sets of 10 repetitions performed with a 10RM load and 2 minutes of rest between sets. The continuous protocol (CP involved ten repetitions with no pause between repetitions. The discontinuous protocols were performed with a pause of five (DP5 or 15 (DP15 seconds between the fifth and sixth repetitions. Heart rate (HR, systolic blood pressure (SBP, rate pressure product (RPP, Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE, and blood lactate (BLa were assessed at baseline and at the end of all exercise sets. Factorial ANOVA was used to compare the cardiovascular response among different protocols. Compared to baseline, HR and RPP were significantly (p < 0.05 higher after the third set in all protocols. HR and RPP were significantly (p < 0.05 lower in DP5 and DP15 compared with CP for the BP exercise. Compared to baseline, RPE increased significantly (p < 0.05 with each subsequent set in all protocols. Blood lactate concentration during DP5 and DP15 was significantly lower than CP. It appears that discontinuous high-velocity resistance exercise has a lower cardiovascular demand than continuous resistance exercise in older women

  12. Improvement In MAODV Protocol Using Location Based Routing Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur Sharnjeet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy saving is difficult in wireless sensor network (WSN due to limited resources. Each node in WSN is constrained by their limited battery power for their energy. The energy is reduced as the time goes off due to the packet transmission and reception. Energy management techniques are necessary to minimize the total power consumption of all the nodes in the network in order to maximize its life span. Our proposed protocol Location based routing (LBR aimed to find a path which utilizes the minimum energy to transmit the packets between the source and the destination. The required energy for the transmission and reception of data is evaluated in MATLAB. LBR is implemented on Multicast Ad hoc On Demand Distance Vector Routing Protocol (MAODV to manage the energy consumption in the transmission and reception of data. Simulation results of LBR show the energy consumption has been reduced.

  13. Using Ovsynch protocol versus Cosynch protocol in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Valeriu Caraba

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available As a research on the reproductive physiology and endocrinology surrounding the estrous cycle in dairy cattle has been compiled, several estrous synchronization programs have been developed for use with dairy cows. These include several programs that facilitate the mass breeding of all animals at a predetermined time (timed-AI rather than the detection of estrus. We studied on 15 dary cows which were synchronized by Ovsynch and Cosynch programs. The estrus response for cows in Ovsynch protocol was of 63%. Pregnancy per insemination at 60 days was of 25%. Estrus response for cow in Cosynch protocol was of 57%. Pregnancy per insemination at 60 days was of 57%. Synchronization of ovulation using Ovsynch protocols can provide an effective way to manage reproduction in lactating dairy cows by eliminating the need for estrus detection. These are really efficient management programs for TAI of dairy cows that are able to reduce both the labour costs and the extra handling to daily estrus detection and AI.

  14. Novel Multi-Party Quantum Key Agreement Protocol with G-Like States and Bell States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Shi-Qi; Chen, Hua-Ying; Gong, Li-Hua

    2018-03-01

    A significant aspect of quantum cryptography is quantum key agreement (QKA), which ensures the security of key agreement protocols by quantum information theory. The fairness of an absolute security multi-party quantum key agreement (MQKA) protocol demands that all participants can affect the protocol result equally so as to establish a shared key and that nobody can determine the shared key by himself/herself. We found that it is difficult for the existing multi-party quantum key agreement protocol to withstand the collusion attacks. Put differently, it is possible for several cooperated and untruthful participants to determine the final key without being detected. To address this issue, based on the entanglement swapping between G-like state and Bell states, a new multi-party quantum key agreement protocol is put forward. The proposed protocol makes full use of EPR pairs as quantum resources, and adopts Bell measurement and unitary operation to share a secret key. Besides, the proposed protocol is fair, secure and efficient without involving a third party quantum center. It demonstrates that the protocol is capable of protecting users' privacy and meeting the requirement of fairness. Moreover, it is feasible to carry out the protocol with existing technologies.

  15. Development and implementation of the Dutch protocol for rehabilitative management in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, J P; de Groot, I J M; Joha, B C; van Haelst, J M; van Gorcom, P; Kalmijn, S

    2004-12-01

    In the Netherlands, rehabilitation care plays an important role in the symptomatic and palliative treatment of ALS patients. However, until 1999 there were no guidelines or practice parameters available for the management of ALS. Therefore, the Dutch protocol for rehabilitative management in ALS was developed. We describe the development process, the outcome and implementation of the protocol. A concept management protocol was written and the Delphi method was selected to develop the protocol further. This method comprises repetitive discussion sessions from postulates, using a combination of written questionnaires and work-conferences. Between 80 and 90 persons (rehabilitation team members of different professional backgrounds and neurologists) were involved in this process. The protocol was implemented by sending it to all consultants in rehabilitation medicine in the Netherlands; they were asked to inform all the treatment team members about the final protocol and to implement it in their treatment of ALS patients. The protocol was developed in 1999, implemented in 2000 and evaluated in 2001. Recommendations for improvement were made during the evaluation and improvements are currently being developed by an expert group. The protocol is widely used (88.9%) by consultants in rehabilitation medicine and their treatment teams in the Netherlands. The Dutch protocol for rehabilitative management was developed to provide an optimal and adequate care plan for patients with ALS. It is widely used in the Netherlands.

  16. Novel Multi-Party Quantum Key Agreement Protocol with G-Like States and Bell States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Shi-Qi; Chen, Hua-Ying; Gong, Li-Hua

    2018-06-01

    A significant aspect of quantum cryptography is quantum key agreement (QKA), which ensures the security of key agreement protocols by quantum information theory. The fairness of an absolute security multi-party quantum key agreement (MQKA) protocol demands that all participants can affect the protocol result equally so as to establish a shared key and that nobody can determine the shared key by himself/herself. We found that it is difficult for the existing multi-party quantum key agreement protocol to withstand the collusion attacks. Put differently, it is possible for several cooperated and untruthful participants to determine the final key without being detected. To address this issue, based on the entanglement swapping between G-like state and Bell states, a new multi-party quantum key agreement protocol is put forward. The proposed protocol makes full use of EPR pairs as quantum resources, and adopts Bell measurement and unitary operation to share a secret key. Besides, the proposed protocol is fair, secure and efficient without involving a third party quantum center. It demonstrates that the protocol is capable of protecting users' privacy and meeting the requirement of fairness. Moreover, it is feasible to carry out the protocol with existing technologies.

  17. Phase Transition in Protocols Minimizing Work Fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solon, Alexandre P.; Horowitz, Jordan M.

    2018-05-01

    For two canonical examples of driven mesoscopic systems—a harmonically trapped Brownian particle and a quantum dot—we numerically determine the finite-time protocols that optimize the compromise between the standard deviation and the mean of the dissipated work. In the case of the oscillator, we observe a collection of protocols that smoothly trade off between average work and its fluctuations. However, for the quantum dot, we find that as we shift the weight of our optimization objective from average work to work standard deviation, there is an analog of a first-order phase transition in protocol space: two distinct protocols exchange global optimality with mixed protocols akin to phase coexistence. As a result, the two types of protocols possess qualitatively different properties and remain distinct even in the infinite duration limit: optimal-work-fluctuation protocols never coalesce with the minimal-work protocols, which therefore never become quasistatic.

  18. Database communication protocol analyses and security detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Qun; Liu Qiushi

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we introduced the analysis of TDS protocol in the communication application between Client and Server about SYBASE and MICROSOFT SQL SERVER and do some test for some bugs existed in the protocol. (authors)

  19. Developing security protocols in χ-Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crazzolara, Federico; Milicia, Giuseppe

    2002-01-01

    It is of paramount importance that a security protocol effectively enforces the desired security requirements. The apparent simplicity of informal protocol descriptions hides the inherent complexity of their interactions which, often, invalidate informal correctness arguments and justify the effort...

  20. Genomics protocols [Methods in molecular biology, v. 175

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Starkey, Michael P; Elaswarapu, Ramnath

    2001-01-01

    ... to the larger community of researchers who have recognized the potential of genomics research and may themselves be beginning to explore the technologies involved. Some of the techniques described in Genomics Protocols are clearly not restricted to the genomics field; indeed, a prerequisite for many procedures in this discipline is that they require an extremely high throughput, beyond the scope of the average investigator. However, what we have endeavored here to achieve is both to compile a collection of...

  1. Debate - Achievements of the Trafficking Protocol: Perspectives from the former UN Special Rapporteur on Trafficking in Persons

    OpenAIRE

    Joy N Ezeilo

    2015-01-01

    The United Nations (UN) Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, Supplementing the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, 2000 (Trafficking Protocol), is a watershed in galvanising the global movement against human trafficking. Thanks to the Protocol, international and regional bodies, along with civil society groups, have become involved in researching the issue and supporting anti-trafficking efforts; and states have begun...

  2. From protocol to published report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berendt, Louise; Callréus, Torbjörn; Petersen, Lene Grejs

    2016-01-01

    and published reports of academic clinical drug trials. METHODS: A comparison was made between study protocols and their corresponding published reports. We assessed the overall consistency, which was defined as the absence of discrepancy regarding study type (categorized as either exploratory or confirmatory...... in 1999, 2001, and 2003, 95 of which fulfilled the eligibility criteria and had at least one corresponding published report reporting data on trial subjects. Overall consistency was observed in 39% of the trials (95% CI: 29 to 49%). Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) constituted 72% (95% CI: 63 to 81......%) of the sample, and 87% (95% CI: 80 to 94%) of the trials were hospital based. CONCLUSIONS: Overall consistency between protocols and their corresponding published reports was low. Motivators for the inconsistencies are unknown but do not seem restricted to economic incentives....

  3. Superposition Attacks on Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Funder, Jakob Løvstad; Nielsen, Jesper Buus

    2011-01-01

    of information. In this paper, we introduce a fundamentally new model of quantum attacks on classical cryptographic protocols, where the adversary is allowed to ask several classical queries in quantum superposition. This is a strictly stronger attack than the standard one, and we consider the security......Attacks on classical cryptographic protocols are usually modeled by allowing an adversary to ask queries from an oracle. Security is then defined by requiring that as long as the queries satisfy some constraint, there is some problem the adversary cannot solve, such as compute a certain piece...... of several primitives in this model. We show that a secret-sharing scheme that is secure with threshold $t$ in the standard model is secure against superposition attacks if and only if the threshold is lowered to $t/2$. We use this result to give zero-knowledge proofs for all of NP in the common reference...

  4. Cardiovascular involvement in myositis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Louise P

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to provide an update on cardiovascular involvement in idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM). Studies from the past 18 months are identified and reviewed. Finally, the clinical impact of these findings is discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: Epidemiological...... on cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging suggests that CMR should be considered as a potentially viable diagnostic tool to evaluate the possibility of silent myocardial inflammation in IIM with normal routine noninvasive evaluation. SUMMARY: Updated literature on cardiovascular involvement in IIM has...... identified an increased risk for subclinical and clinical cardiovascular disease in these rare inflammatory muscle diseases....

  5. Feasible quantum communication complexity protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvao, Ernesto F.

    2002-01-01

    I show that a simple multiparty communication task can be performed more efficiently with quantum communication than with classical communication, even with low detection efficiency η. The task is a communication complexity problem in which distant parties need to compute a function of the distributed inputs, while minimizing the amount of communication between them. A realistic quantum optical setup is suggested that can demonstrate a five-party quantum protocol with higher-than-classical performance, provided η>0.33

  6. Cost estimation of Kyoto Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giulio, Enzo

    2005-01-01

    This article proposes a reflection on important aspects in the costs determination performance of Kyoto Protocol. The evaluation of the main models evidence possible impacts on the economies. A key role in the determination of the cost is represented by the relative hypothesis to emission trading and the projects CDM-JI and from the political capacity at the cost negative or equal to zero [it

  7. Building America House Simulation Protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendron, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Engebrecht, Cheryn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2010-09-01

    The House Simulation Protocol document was developed to track and manage progress toward Building America's multi-year, average whole-building energy reduction research goals for new construction and existing homes, using a consistent analytical reference point. This report summarizes the guidelines for developing and reporting these analytical results in a consistent and meaningful manner for all home energy uses using standard operating conditions.

  8. Behavior Protocols for Software Components

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plášil, František; Višňovský, Stanislav

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 11 (2002), s. 1056-1076 ISSN 0098-5589 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA2030902; GA ČR GA201/99/0244 Grant - others:Eureka(XE) Pepita project no.2033 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : behavior protocols * component-based programming * software architecture Subject RIV: JC - Computer Hardware ; Software Impact factor: 1.170, year: 2002

  9. Bioinspired Security Analysis of Wireless Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrocchi, Marinella; Spognardi, Angelo; Santi, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    work, this paper investigates feasibility of adopting fraglets as model for specifying security protocols and analysing their properties. In particular, we give concrete sample analyses over a secure RFID protocol, showing evolution of the protocol run as chemical dynamics and simulating an adversary...

  10. Formal analysis of a fair payment protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G. Cederquist; M.T. Dashti (Mohammad)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractWe formally specify a payment protocol. This protocol is intended for fair exchange of time-sensitive data. Here the ?-CRL language is used to formalize the protocol. Fair exchange properties are expressed in the regular alternation-free ?-calculus. These properties are then verified

  11. Formal Analysis of a Fair Payment Protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cederquist, J.G.; Dashti, M.T.

    2004-01-01

    We formally specify a payment protocol. This protocol is intended for fair exchange of timesensitive data. Here the μCRL language is used to formalize the protocol. Fair exchange properties are expressed in the regular alternation-free μ-calculus. These properties are then verified using the finite

  12. Formal Analysis of a Fair Payment Protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cederquist, J.G.; Dashti, Muhammad Torabi; Dimitrakos, Theo; Martinelli, Fabio

    We formally specify a payment protocol described by Vogt et al. This protocol is intended for fair exchange of time-sensitive data. Here the mCRL language is used to formalize the protocol. Fair exchange properties are expressed in the regular alternation-free mu-calculus. These properties are then

  13. Advanced dementia pain management protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoro-Lorite, Mercedes; Canalias-Reverter, Montserrat

    Pain management in advanced dementia is complex because of neurological deficits present in these patients, and nurses are directly responsible for providing interventions for the evaluation, management and relief of pain for people suffering from this health problem. In order to facilitate and help decision-makers, pain experts recommend the use of standardized protocols to guide pain management, but in Spain, comprehensive pain management protocols have not yet been developed for advanced dementia. This article reflects the need for an integrated management of pain in advanced dementia. From the review and analysis of the most current and relevant studies in the literature, we performed an approximation of the scales for the determination of pain in these patients, with the observational scale PAINAD being the most recommended for the hospital setting. In addition, we provide an overview for comprehensive management of pain in advanced dementia through the conceptual framework «a hierarchy of pain assessment techniques by McCaffery and Pasero» for the development and implementation of standardized protocols, including a four-phase cyclical process (evaluation, planning/performance, revaluation and recording), which can facilitate the correct management of pain in these patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Order Entry Protocols Are an Amenable Target for Workflow Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudor, James; Klochko, Chad; Patel, Milind; Siegal, Daniel

    2018-04-21

    Order entry protocol selection of advanced imaging studies is labor-intensive, can disrupt workflow, and may displace staff from more valuable tasks. The aim of this study was to explore and compare the behaviors of radiologic technologists and radiologists when determining protocol to identify opportunities for workflow automation. A data set of over 273,000 cross-sectional examination orders from four hospitals within our health system was created. From this data set, we isolated the 12 most frequently requested examinations, which represent almost 50% of the entirety of advanced imaging volume. Intergroup comparisons were made between behavior of radiologic technologists and radiologists or residents when determining protocol. Frequencies of changes were calculated. Common parameters of changed examinations were identified. The overall change rate for both radiologists and residents (4%) is very low and comparable to the overall change rate of radiologic technologists (1%). The change rates for the 12 most ordered examinations were calculated and compared individually. Most examinations that underwent change involved a patient with a low estimated glomerular filtration rate, a patient with a contrast allergy, or a provider ordering a general examination but in fact wanting an organ-specific protocol or an angiographic study. Order entry protocol selection of the most frequently ordered advanced imaging examinations was rarely a value-added activity because these examinations are rarely changed. Changes follow predictable patterns that make order entry protocol selection of most radiology orders for advanced imaging amenable to workflow automation. Copyright © 2018 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Who Involves Whom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Clifford

    1979-01-01

    The author reviews the development of a parents' group at the Bradford Grange School (Manchester, United Kingdom) for ESN (educationally subnormal) children. Problems with the initial parents' group are pointed out, successful approaches are considered, and the importance of parent involvement is stressed. (SBH)

  16. PATTERNS AND FACTORS INVOLVED

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Between 1*' of July 1996 and 30'h of June 2000 a total of 3583 patients were registered at the accident and emergency unit of Nnamdi. Azikiwe ... The case files of these were reviewed with a view to ascertaining the causes and factors involved in the deaths of these patients. The .... H.I.V/AIDS related complications 23 6.8.

  17. The Palermo Protocol: Trafficking Takes it All

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jónína Einarsdóttir

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Palermo Protocol is the outcome of bargain and lobbying with global institutions, NGOs and government representatives embattling to enforce their interests. The outcome is the concept of trafficking that embraces the struggles against prostitution, slavery and child labour. This broad concept has allowed various local cultural practices and survival strategies of those who live under difficult conditions to become classified as trafficking. While such definition may facilitate fundraising there are adverse consequences to be considered. Firstly, hazardous conditions of children that obviously are not trafficking tend to become ignored. Second, the victims of “real” trafficking become invisible by the excessive number of children allegedly trafficked. Third, the broad definition of trafficking has contributed to criminalization of whole communities and consequent conflicts between NGOs engaged in anti-trafficking activities and the communities involved. Such a situation is not in the best interest of the children involved. Rather than spending huge amount of resources on the conventional anti-trafficking measures there is a need to address the root causes of whatsoever unacceptable condition a child is suffering from.

  18. Model-Checking Driven Design of QoS-Based Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate and reliable routing protocols with Quality of Service (QoS support determine the mission-critical application efficiency in WSNs. This paper proposes a model-checking design driven framework for designing the QoS-based routing protocols of WSNs, which involves the light-weight design process, the timed automata model, and the alternative QoS verification properties. The accurate feedback of continually model checking in the iterative design process effectively stimulates the parameter tuning of the protocols. We demonstrate the straightforward and modular characteristics of the proposed framework in designing a prototype QoS-based routing protocol. The prototype study shows that the model-checking design framework may complement other design methods and ensure the QoS implementation of the QoS-based routing protocol design for WSNs.

  19. The A4 project: physics data processing using the Google protocol buffer library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebke, Johannes; Waller, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present the High Energy Physics data format, processing toolset and analysis library A4, providing fast I/O of structured data using the Google protocol buffer library. The overall goal of A4 is to provide physicists with tools to work efficiently with billions of events, providing not only high speeds, but also automatic metadata handling, a set of UNIX-like tools to operate on A4 files, and powerful and fast histogramming capabilities. At present, A4 is an experimental project, but it has already been used by the authors in preparing physics publications. We give an overview of the individual modules of A4, provide examples of use, and supply a set of basic benchmarks. We compare A4 read performance with the common practice of storing unstructured data in ROOT trees. For the common case of storing a variable number of floating-point numbers per event, speedups in read speed of up to a factor of six are observed.

  20. Nonblocking and orphan free message logging protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvisi, Lorenzo; Hoppe, Bruce; Marzullo, Keith

    1992-12-01

    Currently existing message logging protocols demonstrate a classic pessimistic vs. optimistic tradeoff. We show that the optimistic-pessimistic tradeoff is not inherent to the problem of message logging. We construct a message-logging protocol that has the positive features of both optimistic and pessimistic protocol: our protocol prevents orphans and allows simple failure recovery; however, it requires no blocking in failure-free runs. Furthermore, this protocol does not introduce any additional message overhead as compared to one implemented for a system in which messages may be lost but processes do not crash.

  1. Oral breathing: new early treatment protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Denotti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral breathing is a respiratory dysfunction that affects approximately 10-15% of child population. It is responsable of local effects and systemic effects, both immediate and long-term. They affect the growth of the subject and his physical health in many ways: pediatric, psycho-behavioral and cognitive. The etiology is multifactorial. It’s important the establishment of a vicious circle involving more areas and it is essential to stop it as soon as possible. In order to correct this anomaly, the pediatric dentist must be able to make a correct diagnosis to treat early the disfunction and to avoid the onset of cascade mechanisms. Who plays a central role is the pediatrician who first and frequently come into contact with little patients. He can identify the anomalies, and therefore collaborate with other specialists, including the dentist. The key aspect that guides us in the diagnosis, and allows us to identify the oral respirator, is the “adenoid facies”. The purpose of the study is to highlight the importance and benefits of an early and multidisciplinary intervention (pediatric, orthopedic-orthodontic-functional. A sample of 20 patients was selected with the following inclusion criteria: mouth breathing, transverse discrepancy > 4 mm, early mixed dentition, central and lateral permenent incisors, overjet increased, lip and nasal incompetence, snoring and/or sleep apnea episodes. The protocol of intervention includes the use of the following devices and procedures: a maxillary rapid expander (to correct the transverse discrepancy, to increase the amplitude of the upper respiratory airway and to reduce nasal resistances tract in association with myo-functional devices (nasal stimulator and oral obturator. They allow the reconstruction of a physiological balance between the perioral musculature and tongue, the acquisition of nasal and lips competence and the reduction of overjet. This protocol speeds up and stabilizes the results. The

  2. Employing think-aloud protocols and constructive interaction to test the usability of online library catalogues: A methodological comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Den Haak, M. J.; De Jong, M. D T; Schellens, P. J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a comparative study of three usability test approaches: concurrent think-aloud protocols, retrospective think-aloud protocols, and constructive interaction. These three methods were compared by means of an evaluation of an online library catalogue, which involved four points of

  3. Employing think-aloud protocols and constructive interaction to test the usability of online library catalogues: a methodological comparison.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Haak, M.J.; de Jong, Menno D.T.; Schellens, P.J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a comparative study of three usability test approaches: concurrent think-aloud protocols, retrospective think-aloud protocols, and constructive interaction. These three methods were compared by means of an evaluation of an online library catalogue, which involved four points of

  4. Ancestors protocol for scalable key management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Gollmann

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Group key management is an important functional building block for secure multicast architecture. Thereby, it has been extensively studied in the literature. The main proposed protocol is Adaptive Clustering for Scalable Group Key Management (ASGK. According to ASGK protocol, the multicast group is divided into clusters, where each cluster consists of areas of members. Each cluster uses its own Traffic Encryption Key (TEK. These clusters are updated periodically depending on the dynamism of the members during the secure session. The modified protocol has been proposed based on ASGK with some modifications to balance the number of affected members and the encryption/decryption overhead with any number of the areas when a member joins or leaves the group. This modified protocol is called Ancestors protocol. According to Ancestors protocol, every area receives the dynamism of the members from its parents. The main objective of the modified protocol is to reduce the number of affected members during the leaving and joining members, then 1 affects n overhead would be reduced. A comparative study has been done between ASGK protocol and the modified protocol. According to the comparative results, it found that the modified protocol is always outperforming the ASGK protocol.

  5. How to write a surgical clinical research protocol: literature review and practical guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Rachel; Schäfer, Juliane; Briel, Matthias; Bucher, Heiner C; Oertli, Daniel; Dell-Kuster, Salome

    2014-02-01

    The study protocol is the core document of every clinical research project. Clinical research in studies involving surgical interventions presents some specific challenges, which need to be accounted for and described in the study protocol. The aim of this review is to provide a practical guide for developing a clinical study protocol for surgical interventions with a focus on methodologic issues. On the basis of an in-depth literature search of methodologic literature and on some cardinal published surgical trials and observational studies, the authors provides a 10-step guide for developing a clinical study protocol in surgery. This practical guide outlines key methodologic issues important when planning an ethically and scientifically sound research project involving surgical interventions, with the ultimate goal of providing high-level evidence relevant for health care decision making in surgery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Generalized routing protocols for multihop relay networks

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Fahd Ahmed

    2011-07-01

    Performance of multihop cooperative networks depends on the routing protocols employed. In this paper we propose the last-n-hop selection protocol, the dual path protocol, the forward-backward last-n-hop selection protocol and the forward-backward dual path protocol for the routing of data through multihop relay networks. The average symbol error probability performance of the schemes is analysed by simulations. It is shown that close to optimal performance can be achieved by using the last-n-hop selection protocol and its forward-backward variant. Furthermore we also compute the complexity of the protocols in terms of number of channel state information required and the number of comparisons required for routing the signal through the network. © 2011 IEEE.

  7. Asymptotic adaptive bipartite entanglement-distillation protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hostens, Erik; Dehaene, Jeroen; De Moor, Bart

    2006-01-01

    We present an asymptotic bipartite entanglement-distillation protocol that outperforms all existing asymptotic schemes. This protocol is based on the breeding protocol with the incorporation of two-way classical communication. Like breeding, the protocol starts with an infinite number of copies of a Bell-diagonal mixed state. Breeding can be carried out as successive stages of partial information extraction, yielding the same result: one bit of information is gained at the cost (measurement) of one pure Bell state pair (ebit). The basic principle of our protocol is at every stage to replace measurements on ebits by measurements on a finite number of copies, whenever there are two equiprobable outcomes. In that case, the entropy of the global state is reduced by more than one bit. Therefore, every such replacement results in an improvement of the protocol. We explain how our protocol is organized as to have as many replacements as possible. The yield is then calculated for Werner states

  8. Short Review on Quantum Key Distribution Protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampouris, Dimitris

    2017-01-01

    Cryptographic protocols and mechanisms are widely investigated under the notion of quantum computing. Quantum cryptography offers particular advantages over classical ones, whereas in some cases established protocols have to be revisited in order to maintain their functionality. The purpose of this paper is to provide the basic definitions and review the most important theoretical advancements concerning the BB84 and E91 protocols. It also aims to offer a summary on some key developments on the field of quantum key distribution, closely related with the two aforementioned protocols. The main goal of this study is to provide the necessary background information along with a thorough review on the theoretical aspects of QKD, concentrating on specific protocols. The BB84 and E91 protocols have been chosen because most other protocols are similar to these, a fact that makes them important for the general understanding of how the QKD mechanism functions.

  9. Microorganisms involved in MIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, K. [Danish Technological Institute (Denmark)

    2011-07-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is a widespread problem that is difficult to detect and assess because of its complex mechanism. This paper presents the involvement of microorganisms in MIC. Some of the mechanisms that cause MIC include hydrogen consumption, production of acids, anode-cathode formation and electron shuttling. A classic bio-corrosive microorganism in the oil and gas industry is sulphate-reducing prokaryotes (SRP). Methanogens also increase corrosion rates in metals. Some of the phylogenetic orders detected while studying SRP and methanogens are archaeoglobales, clostridiales, methanosarcinales and methanothermococcus. There were some implications, such as growth of SRP not being correlated with growth of methanogens; methanogens were included in MIC risk assessment. A few examples are used to display how microorganisms are involved in topside corrosion and microbial community in producing wells. From the study, it can be concluded that, MIC risk assessment includes system data and empirical knowledge of the distribution and number of microorganisms in the system.

  10. Involved Node Radiation Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maraldo, Maja V; Aznar, Marianne C; Vogelius, Ivan R

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: The involved node radiation therapy (INRT) strategy was introduced for patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) to reduce the risk of late effects. With INRT, only the originally involved lymph nodes are irradiated. We present treatment outcome in a retrospective analysis using this strategy...... to 36 Gy). Patients attended regular follow-up visits until 5 years after therapy. RESULTS: The 4-year freedom from disease progression was 96.4% (95% confidence interval: 92.4%-100.4%), median follow-up of 50 months (range: 4-71 months). Three relapses occurred: 2 within the previous radiation field......, and 1 in a previously uninvolved region. The 4-year overall survival was 94% (95% confidence interval: 88.8%-99.1%), median follow-up of 58 months (range: 4-91 months). Early radiation therapy toxicity was limited to grade 1 (23.4%) and grade 2 (13.8%). During follow-up, 8 patients died, none from HL, 7...

  11. Reactors also involve people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurt, H.B.

    1975-01-01

    As the nuclear industry develops it is to be hoped that high quality occupational health programs will evolve along with other sound operational procedures and practices. The immediate involvement of occupational health personnel may well afford a safety factor which will minimize the likelihood of either the selection of personnel not adequate for the full responsibilities of their work or the continuation in responsible positions of personnel who develop handicaps of either a physical or mental nature

  12. Involvement through photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, J

    2016-12-01

    As a photographer living in Tokyo, I have been visiting Suetsugi village regularly to take photographs and show the printed photographs to the residents. What is the role of photography? What does it mean to be involved in the life of Suetsugi through photography? This article discusses some of the answers to these questions 5 years after the accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant.

  13. Getting involved in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banner, Davina; Grant, Lyle G

    2011-01-01

    The need for quality nursing research to promote evidence-based practice and optimize patient care is well recognized. This is particularly pertinent in cardiovascular nursing, where cardiovascular disease continues to be the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide (World Health Organization, 2007). Across the spectrum of academic, clinical, and health care administration nursing roles, research remains fundamental to bridging theory, practice, and education (LoBiondo-Wood, Haber, Cameron, & Singh, 2009). Despite recognition of the importance of nursing research, the gap between research and practice continues to be an ongoing issue (Funk, Tornquist, & Champagne, 1995; Pettengill, Gillies, & Clark, 1994; Rizzuto, Bostrom, Suterm, & Chenitz, 1994; Rolfe, 1998). Nurses are appropriately situated to contribute to research that improves clinical outcomes and health service delivery. However, the majority of nurses in clinical practice do not have a significant research component structured into their nursing role. In this research column, the authors outline the importance of nurses being engaged in research and present some different levels of involvement that nurses may assume. A continuum of nursing research involvement includes asking researchable questions, being a savvy consumer of research evidence, finding your own level of research involvement, and aspiring to lead.

  14. Analyzing the effect of routing protocols on media access control protocols in radio networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, C. L. (Christopher L.); Drozda, M. (Martin); Marathe, A. (Achla); Marathe, M. V. (Madhav V.)

    2002-01-01

    We study the effect of routing protocols on the performance of media access control (MAC) protocols in wireless radio networks. Three well known MAC protocols: 802.11, CSMA, and MACA are considered. Similarly three recently proposed routing protocols: AODV, DSR and LAR scheme 1 are considered. The experimental analysis was carried out using GloMoSim: a tool for simulating wireless networks. The main focus of our experiments was to study how the routing protocols affect the performance of the MAC protocols when the underlying network and traffic parameters are varied. The performance of the protocols was measured w.r.t. five important parameters: (i) number of received packets, (ii) average latency of each packet, (iii) throughput (iv) long term fairness and (v) number of control packets at the MAC layer level. Our results show that combinations of routing and MAC protocols yield varying performance under varying network topology and traffic situations. The result has an important implication; no combination of routing protocol and MAC protocol is the best over all situations. Also, the performance analysis of protocols at a given level in the protocol stack needs to be studied not locally in isolation but as a part of the complete protocol stack. A novel aspect of our work is the use of statistical technique, ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) to characterize the effect of routing protocols on MAC protocols. This technique is of independent interest and can be utilized in several other simulation and empirical studies.

  15. Publication trends of study protocols in rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus, Tiago S; Colquhoun, Heather L

    2017-09-04

    Growing evidence points for the need to publish study protocols in the health field. To observe whether the growing interest in publishing study protocols in the broader health field has been translated into increased publications of rehabilitation study protocols. Observational study using publication data and its indexation in PubMed. Not applicable. Not applicable. PubMed was searched with appropriate combinations of Medical Subject Headings up to December 2014. The effective presence of study protocols was manually screened. Regression models analyzed the yearly growth of publications. Two-sample Z-tests analyzed whether the proportion of Systematic Reviews (SRs) and Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) among study protocols differed from that of the same designs for the broader rehabilitation research. Up to December 2014, 746 publications of rehabilitation study protocols were identified, with an exponential growth since 2005 (r2=0.981; p<0.001). RCT protocols were the most common among rehabilitation study protocols (83%), while RCTs were significantly more prevalent among study protocols than among the broader rehabilitation research (83% vs. 35.8%; p<0.001). For SRs, the picture was reversed: significantly less common among study protocols (2.8% vs. 9.3%; p<0.001). Funding was more often reported by rehabilitation study protocols than the broader rehabilitation research (90% vs. 53.1%; p<0.001). Rehabilitation journals published a significantly lower share of rehabilitation study protocols than they did for the broader rehabilitation research (1.8% vs.16.7%; p<0.001). Identifying the reasons for these discrepancies and reverting unwarranted disparities (e.g. low rate of publication for rehabilitation SR protocols) are likely new avenues for rehabilitation research and its publication. SRs, particularly those aggregating RCT results, are considered the best standard of evidence to guide rehabilitation clinical practice; however, that standard can be improved

  16. Variation in radiographic protocols in paediatric interventional cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFadden, S L; Hughes, C M; Winder, R J

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work is to determine current radiographic protocols in paediatric interventional cardiology (IC) in the UK and Ireland. To do this we investigated which imaging parameters/protocols are commonly used in IC in different hospitals, to identify if a standard technique is used and illustrate any variation in practice. A questionnaire was sent to all hospitals in the UK and Ireland which perform paediatric IC to obtain information on techniques used in each clinical department and on the range of clinical examinations performed. Ethical and research governance approval was sought from the Office for Research Ethics Committees Northern Ireland and the individual trusts. A response rate of 79% was achieved, and a wide variation in technique was found between hospitals. The main differences in technique involved variations in the use of an anti-scatter grid and the use of additional filtration to the radiation beam, frame rates for digital acquisition and pre-programmed projections/paediatric specific programming in the equipment. We conclude that there is no standard protocol for carrying out paediatric IC in the UK or Ireland. Each hospital carries out the IC procedure according to its own local protocols resulting in a wide variation in radiation dose. (paper)

  17. WE-E-304-00: Implementing SBRT Protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    SBRT is having a dramatic impact on radiation therapy of early-stage, locally advanced cancers. A number of national protocols have been and are being developed to assess the clinical efficacy of SBRT for various anatomical sites, such as lung and spine. Physics credentialing for participating and implementation of trial protocols involve a broad spectrum of requirements from image guidance, motion management, to planning technology and dosimetric constrains. For radiation facilities that do not have extensive experiences in SBRT treatment and protocol credentialing, these complex processes of credentialing and implementation could be very challenging and, sometimes, may lead to ineffective even unsuccessful execution of these processes. In this proposal, we will provide comprehensive review of some current SBRT protocols, explain the requirements and their underline rationales, illustrate representative failed and successful experiences, related to SBRT credentialing, and discuss strategies for effective SBRT credentialing and implementation. Learning Objectives: Understand requirements and challenges of SBRT credentailing and implentation Discuss processes and strategies of effective SBRT credentailing Discuss practical considerations, potential pitfalls and solutions of SBRT implentation

  18. Variation in radiographic protocols in paediatric interventional cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, S L; Hughes, C M; Winder, R J

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this work is to determine current radiographic protocols in paediatric interventional cardiology (IC) in the UK and Ireland. To do this we investigated which imaging parameters/protocols are commonly used in IC in different hospitals, to identify if a standard technique is used and illustrate any variation in practice. A questionnaire was sent to all hospitals in the UK and Ireland which perform paediatric IC to obtain information on techniques used in each clinical department and on the range of clinical examinations performed. Ethical and research governance approval was sought from the Office for Research Ethics Committees Northern Ireland and the individual trusts. A response rate of 79% was achieved, and a wide variation in technique was found between hospitals. The main differences in technique involved variations in the use of an anti-scatter grid and the use of additional filtration to the radiation beam, frame rates for digital acquisition and pre-programmed projections/paediatric specific programming in the equipment. We conclude that there is no standard protocol for carrying out paediatric IC in the UK or Ireland. Each hospital carries out the IC procedure according to its own local protocols resulting in a wide variation in radiation dose.

  19. Three-stage treatment protocol for recalcitrant distal femoral nonunion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ching-Hou; Chiu, Yen-Chun; Tu, Yuan-Kun; Yen, Cheng-Yo; Wu, Chin-Hsien

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we proposed a three-stage treatment protocol for recalcitrant distal femoral nonunion and aimed to analyze the clinical results. We retrospective reviewed 12 consecutive patients with recalcitrant distal femoral nonunion undergoing our three-stage treatment protocol from January 2010 to December 2014 in our institute. The three-stage treatment protocol comprised debridement of the nonunion site, lengthening to eliminate leg length discrepancy, deformity correction, stabilization with a locked plate, filling of the defect with cement spacer for inducing membrane formation, and bone reconstruction using a cancellous bone autograft (Masquelet technique) or free vascularized fibular bone graft. The bone union time, wound complication, lower limbs alignment, amount of lengthening, knee range of motion, and functional outcomes were evaluated. Osseous union with angular deformity lengthening was 5.88 cm (range 3.5-12 cm). Excellent or good outcomes were obtained in 9 patients. Although the current study involved only a small number of patients and the intervention comprised three stages, we believe that such a protocol may be a valuable alternative for the treatment of recalcitrant distal femoral nonunion.

  20. Updating the U.S. SMART dispersant efficacy monitoring protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trudel, K.; Belore, R.; VanHaverbeke, M.; Mullin, J.

    2009-01-01

    The Special Monitoring of Applied Response Technologies (SMART) is a written dispersant effectiveness monitoring protocol developed in the United States in the mid 1990s. It has been the subject of considerable review and research since its development. This paper reported on the 2007-2008 review of the SMART dispersant effectiveness monitoring protocol which involved the following 3 tasks: (1) stakeholders reviewed their experience with SMART and identified the key deficiencies in the current protocol, (2) the SMART monitoring experience gathered during dispersant effectiveness testing at the Ohmsett National Oil Spill Response Test Facility was reviewed to evaluate the usefulness of existing SMART decision criteria, (3) available commercial off-the-shelf instruments (COTS) were surveyed to identify the instruments that might be more effective or simpler to use than those presently in use. The review concluded that the three-tiered approach in SMART was appropriate, but better guidance was needed for users. In addition, the fluorometer historically used for monitoring of dispersed oil was found to have several operating challenges and should be replaced with more modern equipment. It was recommended that all U.S. government sponsored monitoring teams work with identical instruments and operating protocols. The COTS survey identified 6 potentially suitable submersible and field-portable fluorometers and three particle-size analyzers. 26 refs., 5 tabs., 1 fig

  1. WE-E-304-00: Implementing SBRT Protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-06-15

    SBRT is having a dramatic impact on radiation therapy of early-stage, locally advanced cancers. A number of national protocols have been and are being developed to assess the clinical efficacy of SBRT for various anatomical sites, such as lung and spine. Physics credentialing for participating and implementation of trial protocols involve a broad spectrum of requirements from image guidance, motion management, to planning technology and dosimetric constrains. For radiation facilities that do not have extensive experiences in SBRT treatment and protocol credentialing, these complex processes of credentialing and implementation could be very challenging and, sometimes, may lead to ineffective even unsuccessful execution of these processes. In this proposal, we will provide comprehensive review of some current SBRT protocols, explain the requirements and their underline rationales, illustrate representative failed and successful experiences, related to SBRT credentialing, and discuss strategies for effective SBRT credentialing and implementation. Learning Objectives: Understand requirements and challenges of SBRT credentailing and implentation Discuss processes and strategies of effective SBRT credentailing Discuss practical considerations, potential pitfalls and solutions of SBRT implentation.

  2. Development of a manualized protocol of massage therapy for clinical trials in osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ather

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical trial design of manual therapies may be especially challenging as techniques are often individualized and practitioner-dependent. This paper describes our methods in creating a standardized Swedish massage protocol tailored to subjects with osteoarthritis of the knee while respectful of the individualized nature of massage therapy, as well as implementation of this protocol in two randomized clinical trials. Methods The manualization process involved a collaborative process between methodologic and clinical experts, with the explicit goals of creating a reproducible semi-structured protocol for massage therapy, while allowing some latitude for therapists’ clinical judgment and maintaining consistency with a prior pilot study. Results The manualized protocol addressed identical specified body regions with distinct 30- and 60-min protocols, using standard Swedish strokes. Each protocol specifies the time allocated to each body region. The manualized 30- and 60-min protocols were implemented in a dual-site 24-week randomized dose-finding trial in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee, and is currently being implemented in a three-site 52-week efficacy trial of manualized Swedish massage therapy. In the dose-finding study, therapists adhered to the protocols and significant treatment effects were demonstrated. Conclusions The massage protocol was manualized, using standard techniques, and made flexible for individual practitioner and subject needs. The protocol has been applied in two randomized clinical trials. This manualized Swedish massage protocol has real-world utility and can be readily utilized both in the research and clinical settings. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00970008 (18 August 2009

  3. Optical protocols for terabit networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, P. L.; Lambert, J. L.; Morookian, J. M.; Bergman, L. A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a new fiber-optic local area network technology providing 100X improvement over current technology, has full crossbar funtionality, and inherent data security. Based on optical code-division multiple access (CDMA), using spectral phase encoding/decoding of optical pulses, networking protocols are implemented entirely in the optical domain and thus conventional networking bottlenecks are avoided. Component and system issues for a proof-of-concept demonstration are discussed, as well as issues for a more practical and commercially exploitable system. Possible terrestrial and aerospace applications of this technology, and its impact on other technologies are explored. Some initial results toward realization of this concept are also included.

  4. A Lightweight RFID Grouping-Proof Protocol Based on Parallel Mode and DHCP Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhicai Shi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A Radio Frequency Identification (RFID grouping-proof protocol is to generate an evidence of the simultaneous existence of a group of tags and it has been applied to many different fields. For current grouping-proof protocols, there still exist some flaws such as low grouping-proof efficiency, being vulnerable to trace attack and information leakage. To improve the secure performance and efficiency, we propose a lightweight RFID grouping-proof protocol based on parallel mode and DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol mechanism. Our protocol involves multiple readers and multiple tag groups. During the grouping-proof period, one reader and one tag group are chosen by the verifier by means of DHCP mechanism. When only a part of the tags of the chosen group exist, the protocol can also give the evidence of their co-existence. Our protocol utilizes parallel communication mode between reader and tags so as to ensure its grouping-proof efficiency. It only uses Hash function to complete the mutual authentication among verifier, readers and tags. It can preserve the privacy of the RFID system and resist the attacks such as eavesdropping, replay, trace and impersonation. Therefore the protocol is secure, flexible and efficient. It only uses some lightweight operations such as Hash function and a pseudorandom number generator. Therefore it is very suitable to some low-cost RFID systems.

  5. An entropy stable nodal discontinuous Galerkin method for the two dimensional shallow water equations on unstructured curvilinear meshes with discontinuous bathymetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wintermeyer, Niklas [Mathematisches Institut, Universität zu Köln, Weyertal 86-90, 50931 Köln (Germany); Winters, Andrew R., E-mail: awinters@math.uni-koeln.de [Mathematisches Institut, Universität zu Köln, Weyertal 86-90, 50931 Köln (Germany); Gassner, Gregor J. [Mathematisches Institut, Universität zu Köln, Weyertal 86-90, 50931 Köln (Germany); Kopriva, David A. [Department of Mathematics, The Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States)

    2017-07-01

    We design an arbitrary high-order accurate nodal discontinuous Galerkin spectral element approximation for the non-linear two dimensional shallow water equations with non-constant, possibly discontinuous, bathymetry on unstructured, possibly curved, quadrilateral meshes. The scheme is derived from an equivalent flux differencing formulation of the split form of the equations. We prove that this discretization exactly preserves the local mass and momentum. Furthermore, combined with a special numerical interface flux function, the method exactly preserves the mathematical entropy, which is the total energy for the shallow water equations. By adding a specific form of interface dissipation to the baseline entropy conserving scheme we create a provably entropy stable scheme. That is, the numerical scheme discretely satisfies the second law of thermodynamics. Finally, with a particular discretization of the bathymetry source term we prove that the numerical approximation is well-balanced. We provide numerical examples that verify the theoretical findings and furthermore provide an application of the scheme for a partial break of a curved dam test problem.

  6. Involvement Without Participation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsén, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The article presents a case study of a knowledge-intensive company that launched a 2-year project to improve their psychosocial working environment. All parties agreed on the project, and the methods used aimed to promote the involvement of the employees. Surprisingly, the psychosocial working...... environment did not improve; on the contrary, it deteriorated. The article highlights cultural and structural obstacles to the process, including an inadequate understanding of organisational learning and a narrow focus on market and competition. The endeavours did not consistently increase delegation...

  7. Policies and protocols for preventing transmission of HIV infection in oral health care in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunbodede, E O; Rudolph, M J

    2002-12-01

    , the large unstructured sex industry, high prevalence of sexually transmitted infections and lack of funding. All of these have an impact on oral health. Future policy directions identified included 'increasing access to HIV information and postexposure prophylaxis' 'shift towards care and support for those living with HIV/AIDS with emphasis on community and home-based care' and 'improving intersectoral co-ordination and collaboration'. The study demonstrated gaps in availability and access to policies and protocols on HIV/AIDS by managers and health workers. Specific strategic recommendations are made for oral health.

  8. Using semantics for representing experimental protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, Olga; García, Alexander; López, Federico; Corcho, Oscar

    2017-11-13

    An experimental protocol is a sequence of tasks and operations executed to perform experimental research in biological and biomedical areas, e.g. biology, genetics, immunology, neurosciences, virology. Protocols often include references to equipment, reagents, descriptions of critical steps, troubleshooting and tips, as well as any other information that researchers deem important for facilitating the reusability of the protocol. Although experimental protocols are central to reproducibility, the descriptions are often cursory. There is the need for a unified framework with respect to the syntactic structure and the semantics for representing experimental protocols. In this paper we present "SMART Protocols ontology", an ontology for representing experimental protocols. Our ontology represents the protocol as a workflow with domain specific knowledge embedded within a document. We also present the S ample I nstrument R eagent O bjective (SIRO) model, which represents the minimal common information shared across experimental protocols. SIRO was conceived in the same realm as the Patient Intervention Comparison Outcome (PICO) model that supports search, retrieval and classification purposes in evidence based medicine. We evaluate our approach against a set of competency questions modeled as SPARQL queries and processed against a set of published and unpublished protocols modeled with the SP Ontology and the SIRO model. Our approach makes it possible to answer queries such as Which protocols use tumor tissue as a sample. Improving reporting structures for experimental protocols requires collective efforts from authors, peer reviewers, editors and funding bodies. The SP Ontology is a contribution towards this goal. We build upon previous experiences and bringing together the view of researchers managing protocols in their laboratory work. Website: https://smartprotocols.github.io/ .

  9. Physical Therapy Protocols for Arthroscopic Bankart Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFroda, Steven F; Mehta, Nabil; Owens, Brett D

    Outcomes after arthroscopic Bankart repair can be highly dependent on compliance and participation in physical therapy. Additionally, there are many variations in physician-recommended physical therapy protocols. The rehabilitation protocols of academic orthopaedic surgery departments vary widely despite the presence of consensus protocols. Descriptive epidemiology study. Level 3. Web-based arthroscopic Bankart rehabilitation protocols available online from Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME)-accredited orthopaedic surgery programs were included for review. Individual protocols were reviewed to evaluate for the presence or absence of recommended therapies, goals for completion of ranges of motion, functional milestones, exercise start times, and recommended time to return to sport. Thirty protocols from 27 (16.4%) total institutions were identified out of 164 eligible for review. Overall, 9 (30%) protocols recommended an initial period of strict immobilization. Variability existed between the recommended time periods for sling immobilization (mean, 4.8 ± 1.8 weeks). The types of exercises and their start dates were also inconsistent. Goals to full passive range of motion (mean, 9.2 ± 2.8 weeks) and full active range of motion (mean, 12.2 ± 2.8 weeks) were consistent with other published protocols; however, wide ranges existed within the reviewed protocols as a whole. Only 10 protocols (33.3%) included a timeline for return to sport, and only 3 (10%) gave an estimate for return to game competition. Variation also existed when compared with the American Society of Shoulder and Elbow Therapists' (ASSET) consensus protocol. Rehabilitation protocols after arthroscopic Bankart repair were found to be highly variable. They also varied with regard to published consensus protocols. This discrepancy may lead to confusion among therapists and patients. This study highlights the importance of attending surgeons being very clear and specific with

  10. Implementation of the Kyoto protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-07-01

    The Rio Earth summit in 1992 has been the starting point of an international awareness about the global risk of climatic change. At this occasion, the richest countries committed themselves to stabilize their greenhouse gas emissions and to reach by the year 2000 an emissions level equivalent to the one of 1990. The Kyoto protocol in 1997 has permitted to convert this will into juridically constraining quantitative commitments. In 2005, Russia ratified the protocol while in 2001 the USA refused to do so. Because the commitments signed are ambitious, flexibility mechanisms have been implemented: 'emission permits' (emissions trading), 'joint implementation' allowing the investments abroad for greenhouse gases abatement in another developed country, and 'clean development mechanisms' when investments are made in a developing country. The Marrakech conference of December 2001 has permitted to fix up the eligibility criteria of projects belonging to the joint implementation and clean development mechanisms. The effective implementation of these mechanisms still raises technical difficulties to evaluate and measure the effective abatement of greenhouse gas emissions. (J.S.)

  11. Involvement in Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Gavin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A total of 1,096 adolescents participated in 123 focus groups regarding the perceived outcomes of their involvement in sports and physical activity (PA. The groups, segmented by grade level, sex, and school types, were conducted in both public and private high schools in Montreal, Quebec. We sought to understand, through the participants’ own words, their perception of the outcome matrix of involvement in sports and PA. Focus group questions emphasized changes that adolescents associated with such engagement. In particular, participants were asked how sports and PA might influence behaviors, emotional states, personal characteristics, and other outcomes. Twelve themes were identified in the responses: Positive Health and Physical Changes (18.5%, Activity-Related Positive Emotions (15.6%, and Personal Learning (11.3% were most prevalent in the discussions. A cluster of deeper personal changes thematically described as Self-Identity, Autonomy, and Positive Character Development accounted for another 16.5% of the responses. Relatively few commentaries emphasized negative effects (7.1%. Converting the proportions of qualitative data into a quantitative index allowed us to analyze potential differences in emphasis according to sex, age, and school type. Though a few significant findings emerged, the larger pattern was of a uniform perceptual map across the variables for this adolescent sample. Implications drawn from this investigation highlight the need to clearly articulate concrete pathways to positive nonphysical changes (e.g., mood states, autonomy, positive character development from engagements in sports and PA.

  12. Public interest group involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelley, P.

    1986-01-01

    Including public interest groups in the siting process for nuclear waste disposal facilities is of great importance. Controversial sitings often result in litigation, but involving public interest groups early in the process will lessen the change of this. They act as surrogates for the general public and should be considered as members of the team. It is important to remember though, that all public interest groups are different. In choosing public panels such as public advisory committees, members should not be chosen on the basis of some quota. Opposition groups should not be excluded. Also, it is important to put the right person in charge of the committee. The goal of public involvement is to identify the conflicts. This must be done during the decision process, because conflicts must be known before they can be eliminated. Regarding litigation, it is important to ease through and around legal battles. If the siting process has integrity and a good faith effort has been shown, the court should uphold the effort. In addition, it is important to be negotiable and to eliminate shortcuts

  13. Summary Report on Unconditionally Secure Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Salvail, Louis; Cachin, Christian

    This document describes the state of the art snd some of the main open problems in the area of unconditionally secure cryptographic protocols. The most essential part of a cryptographic protocol is not its being secure. Imagine a cryptographic protocol which is secure, but where we do not know...... that it is secure. Such a protocol would do little in providing security. When all comes to all, cryptographic security is done for the sake of people, and the essential part of security is for people what it has always been, namely to feel secure. To feel secure employing a given cryptographic protocol we need...... to know that is is secure. I.e. we need a proof that it is secure. Today the proof of security of essentially all practically employed cryptographic protocols relies on computational assumptions. To prove that currently employed ways to communicate securely over the Internet are secure we e.g. need...

  14. In-memory interconnect protocol configuration registers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Kevin Y.; Roberts, David A.

    2017-09-19

    Systems, apparatuses, and methods for moving the interconnect protocol configuration registers into the main memory space of a node. The region of memory used for storing the interconnect protocol configuration registers may also be made cacheable to reduce the latency of accesses to the interconnect protocol configuration registers. Interconnect protocol configuration registers which are used during a startup routine may be prefetched into the host's cache to make the startup routine more efficient. The interconnect protocol configuration registers for various interconnect protocols may include one or more of device capability tables, memory-side statistics (e.g., to support two-level memory data mapping decisions), advanced memory and interconnect features such as repair resources and routing tables, prefetching hints, error correcting code (ECC) bits, lists of device capabilities, set and store base address, capability, device ID, status, configuration, capabilities, and other settings.

  15. The Simplest Protocol for Oblivious Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chou, Tung; Orlandi, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Oblivious Transfer (OT) is the fundamental building block of cryptographic protocols. In this paper we describe the simplest and most efficient protocol for 1-out-of-n OT to date, which is obtained by tweaking the Diffie-Hellman key-exchange protocol. The protocol achieves UC-security against...... active and adaptive corruptions in the random oracle model. Due to its simplicity, the protocol is extremely efficient and it allows to perform m 1-out-of-n OTs using only: - Computation: (n+1)m+2 exponentiations (mn for the receiver, mn+2 for the sender) and - Communication: 32(m+1) bytes (for the group...... optimizations) is at least one order of magnitude faster than previous work. Category / Keywords: cryptographic protocols / Oblivious Transfer, UC Security, Elliptic Curves, Efficient Implementation...

  16. In-memory interconnect protocol configuration registers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kevin Y.; Roberts, David A.

    2017-09-19

    Systems, apparatuses, and methods for moving the interconnect protocol configuration registers into the main memory space of a node. The region of memory used for storing the interconnect protocol configuration registers may also be made cacheable to reduce the latency of accesses to the interconnect protocol configuration registers. Interconnect protocol configuration registers which are used during a startup routine may be prefetched into the host's cache to make the startup routine more efficient. The interconnect protocol configuration registers for various interconnect protocols may include one or more of device capability tables, memory-side statistics (e.g., to support two-level memory data mapping decisions), advanced memory and interconnect features such as repair resources and routing tables, prefetching hints, error correcting code (ECC) bits, lists of device capabilities, set and store base address, capability, device ID, status, configuration, capabilities, and other settings.

  17. Blockchain Consensus Protocols in the Wild

    OpenAIRE

    Cachin, Christian; Vukolić, Marko

    2017-01-01

    A blockchain is a distributed ledger for recording transactions, maintained by many nodes without central authority through a distributed cryptographic protocol. All nodes validate the information to be appended to the blockchain, and a consensus protocol ensures that the nodes agree on a unique order in which entries are appended. Consensus protocols for tolerating Byzantine faults have received renewed attention because they also address blockchain systems. This work discusses the process o...

  18. VANET Routing Protocols: Pros and Cons

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Bijan; Ibrahim, Md.; Bikas, Md. Abu Naser

    2012-01-01

    VANET (Vehicular Ad-hoc Network) is a new technology which has taken enormous attention in the recent years. Due to rapid topology changing and frequent disconnection makes it difficult to design an efficient routing protocol for routing data among vehicles, called V2V or vehicle to vehicle communication and vehicle to road side infrastructure, called V2I. The existing routing protocols for VANET are not efficient to meet every traffic scenarios. Thus design of an efficient routing protocol h...

  19. Security analysis of session initiation protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Dobson, Lucas E.

    2010-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The goal of this thesis is to investigate the security of the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP). This was accomplished by researching previously discovered protocol and implementation vulnerabilities, evaluating the current state of security tools and using those tools to discover new vulnerabilities in SIP software. The CVSS v2 system was used to score protocol and implementation vulnerabilities to give them a meaning that was us...

  20. Bitcoin-NG: A Scalable Blockchain Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Eyal, Ittay; Gencer, Adem Efe; Sirer, Emin Gun; van Renesse, Robbert

    2015-01-01

    Cryptocurrencies, based on and led by Bitcoin, have shown promise as infrastructure for pseudonymous online payments, cheap remittance, trustless digital asset exchange, and smart contracts. However, Bitcoin-derived blockchain protocols have inherent scalability limits that trade-off between throughput and latency and withhold the realization of this potential. This paper presents Bitcoin-NG, a new blockchain protocol designed to scale. Based on Bitcoin's blockchain protocol, Bitcoin-NG is By...