WorldWideScience

Sample records for protocol encapsulation modules

  1. Photovoltaic module encapsulation design and materials selection, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddihy, E.; Carroll, W.; Coulbert, C.; Gupta, A.; Liang, R. H.

    1982-01-01

    Encapsulation material system requirements, material selection criteria, and the status and properties of encapsulation materials and processes available are presented. Technical and economic goals established for photovoltaic modules and encapsulation systems and their status are described. Available encapsulation technology and data are presented to facilitate design and material selection for silicon flat plate photovoltaic modules, using the best materials available and processes optimized for specific power applications and geographic sites. The operational and environmental loads that encapsulation system functional requirements and candidate design concepts and materials that are identified to have the best potential to meet the cost and performance goals for the flat plate solar array project are described. Available data on encapsulant material properties, fabrication processing, and module life and durability characteristics are presented.

  2. Flat-plate solar array project. Volume 7: Module encapsulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddihy, E.; Coulbert, C.; Gupta, A.; Liang, R.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of the Encapsulation Task was to develop, demonstrate, and qualify photovoltaic (PV) module encapsulation systems that would provide 20 year (later decreased to 30 year) life expectancies in terrestrial environments, and which would be compatible with the cost and performance goals of the Flat-Plate Solar Array (FSA) Project. The scope of the Encapsulation Task included the identification, development, and evaluation of material systems and configurations required to support and protect the optically and electrically active solar cell circuit components in the PV module operating environment. Encapsulation material technologies summarized include the development of low cost ultraviolet protection techniques, stable low cost pottants, soiling resistant coatings, electrical isolation criteria, processes for optimum interface bonding, and analytical and experimental tools for evaluating the long term durability and structural adequacy of encapsulated modules. Field testing, accelerated stress testing, and design studies have demonstrated that encapsulation materials, processes, and configurations are available that meet the FSA cost and performance goals.

  3. Hybrid chip-on-board LED module with patterned encapsulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soer, Wouter Anthon; Helbing, Rene; Huang, Guan

    2018-02-27

    Different wavelength conversion materials, or different concentrations of a wavelength conversion material are used to encapsulate the light emitting elements of different colors of a hybrid light emitting module. In an embodiment of this invention, second light emitting elements (170) of a particular color are encapsulated with a transparent second encapsulant (120;420;520), while first light emitting elements (160) of a different color are encapsulated with a wavelength conversion first encapsulant (110;410;510). In another embodiment of this invention, a particular second set of second and third light emitting elements (170,580) of different colors is encapsulated with a different encapsulant than another first set of first light emitting elements (160).

  4. Encapsulation of high temperature thermoelectric modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvador, James R.; Sakamoto, Jeffrey; Park, Youngsam

    2017-07-11

    A method of encapsulating a thermoelectric device and its associated thermoelectric elements in an inert atmosphere and a thermoelectric device fabricated by such method are described. These thermoelectric devices may be intended for use under conditions which would otherwise promote oxidation of the thermoelectric elements. The capsule is formed by securing a suitably-sized thin-walled strip of oxidation-resistant metal to the ceramic substrates which support the thermoelectric elements. The thin-walled metal strip is positioned to enclose the edges of the thermoelectric device and is secured to the substrates using gap-filling materials. The strip, substrates and gap-filling materials cooperatively encapsulate the thermoelectric elements and exclude oxygen and water vapor from atmospheric air so that the elements may be maintained in an inert, non-oxidizing environment.

  5. Low-cost encapsulation materials for terrestrial solar cell modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddihy, E. F.; Baum, B.; Willis, P.

    1979-01-01

    The paper presents the findings of material surveys intended to identify low cost materials which could be functional as encapsulants (by 1986) for terrestrial solar cell modules. Economic analyses have indicated that in order to meet the low cost goal of $2.70 per sq m, some or all of the following material technologies must be developed or advanced: (1) UV screening outer covers; (2) elastomeric acrylics; (3) weatherproofing and waterproofing of structural wood and paper products; (4) transparent UV stabilizers for the UV-sensitive transparent pottants; and (5) cost-effective utilization of silicone and fluorocarbon materials.

  6. Durable crystalline Si photovoltaic modules based on silicone-sheet encapsulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Kohjiro; Ohwada, Hiroto; Furihata, Tomoyoshi; Masuda, Atsushi

    2018-02-01

    Crystalline Si photovoltaic (PV) modules were fabricated with sheets of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (silicone) as an encapsulant. The long-term durability of the silicone-encapsulated PV modules was experimentally investigated. The silicone-based modules enhanced the long-term durability against potential-induced degradation (PID) and a damp-heat (DH) condition at 85 °C with 85% relative humidity (RH). In addition, we designed and fabricated substrate-type Si PV modules based on the silicone encapsulant and an Al-alloy plate as the substratum, which demonstrated high impact resistance and high incombustible performance. The high chemical stability, high volume resistivity, rubber-like elasticity, and incombustibility of the silicone encapsulant resulted in the high durability of the modules. Our results indicate that silicone is an attractive encapsulation material, as it improves the long-term durability of crystalline Si PV modules.

  7. Thermal and optical performance of encapsulation systems for flat-plate photovoltaic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minning, C. P.; Coakley, J. F.; Perrygo, C. M.; Garcia, A., III; Cuddihy, E. F.

    1981-01-01

    The electrical power output from a photovoltaic module is strongly influenced by the thermal and optical characteristics of the module encapsulation system. Described are the methodology and computer model for performing fast and accurate thermal and optical evaluations of different encapsulation systems. The computer model is used to evaluate cell temperature, solar energy transmittance through the encapsulation system, and electric power output for operation in a terrestrial environment. Extensive results are presented for both superstrate-module and substrate-module design schemes which include different types of silicon cell materials, pottants, and antireflection coatings.

  8. High voltage photo-switch package module having encapsulation with profiled metallized concavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, James S; Sanders, David M; Hawkins, Steven A; Sampayan, Stephen A

    2015-05-05

    A photo-conductive switch package module having a photo-conductive substrate or wafer with opposing electrode-interface surfaces metalized with first metallic layers formed thereon, and encapsulated with a dielectric encapsulation material such as for example epoxy. The first metallic layers are exposed through the encapsulation via encapsulation concavities which have a known contour profile, such as a Rogowski edge profile. Second metallic layers are then formed to line the concavities and come in contact with the first metal layer, to form profiled and metalized encapsulation concavities which mitigate enhancement points at the edges of electrodes matingly seated in the concavities. One or more optical waveguides may also be bonded to the substrate for coupling light into the photo-conductive wafer, with the encapsulation also encapsulating the waveguides.

  9. Reverse micelles as a tool for probing solvent modulation of protein dynamics: Reverse micelle encapsulated hemoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Camille J.; Dantsker, David; Heller, Elizabeth R.; Sabat, Joseph E.; Friedman, Joel M.

    2013-08-01

    Hydration waters impact protein dynamics. Dissecting the interplay between hydration waters and dynamics requires a protein that manifests a broad range of dynamics. Proteins in reverse micelles (RMs) have promise as tools to achieve this objective because the water content can be manipulated. Hemoglobin is an appropriate tool with which to probe hydration effects. We describe both a protocol for hemoglobin encapsulation in reverse micelles and a facile method using PEG and cosolvents to manipulate water content. Hydration properties are probed using the water-sensitive fluorescence from Hb bound pyranine and covalently attached Badan. Protein dynamics are probed through ligand recombination traces derived from photodissociated carbonmonoxy hemoglobin on a log scale that exposes the potential role of both α and β solvent fluctuations in modulating protein dynamics. The results open the possibility of probing hydration level phenomena in this system using a combination of NMR and optical probes.

  10. Defining Threshold Values of Encapsulant and Backsheet Adhesion for PV Module Reliability: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosco, Nicholas S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurtz, Sarah [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eafanti, Joshua [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tracy, Jared [Stanford University; Dauskardt, Reinhold [Stanford University

    2017-08-28

    The width-tapered cantilever beam method is used to quantify the debond energy (adhesion) of encapsulant and backsheet structures of 27 modules collected from the field. The collected population of modules contains both those that have remained in-tact and those with instances of either or both encapsulant and backsheet delamination. From this survey, initial threshold values (an adhesion value above which a module should remain intact throughout its lifetime) for encapsulant and backsheet interfaces are proposed. For encapsulants this value is about 60 J/m2 and for backsheets about 20 J/m2. It is expected that these values will continue to be refined and evolve as the width-tapered cantilever beam method becomes adopted by the PV industry, and that they may aid in the future improvement of accelerated lifetime tests and the development of new, low-cost materials.

  11. Use of Melt Flow Rate Test in Reliability Study of Thermoplastic Encapsulation Materials in Photovoltaic Modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moseley, J.; Miller, D.; Shah, Q.-U.-A. S. J.; Sakurai, K.; Kempe, M.; Tamizhmani, G.; Kurtz, S.

    2011-10-01

    Use of thermoplastic materials as encapsulants in photovoltaic (PV) modules presents a potential concern in terms of high temperature creep, which should be evaluated before thermoplastics are qualified for use in the field. Historically, the issue of creep has been avoided by using thermosetting polymers as encapsulants, such as crosslinked ethylene-co-vinyl acetate (EVA). Because they lack crosslinked networks, however, thermoplastics may be subject to phase transitions and visco-elastic flow at the temperatures and mechanical stresses encountered by modules in the field, creating the potential for a number of reliability and safety issues. Thermoplastic materials investigated in this study include PV-grade uncured-EVA (without curing agents and therefore not crosslinked); polyvinyl butyral (PVB); thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU); and three polyolefins (PO), which have been proposed for use as PV encapsulation. Two approaches were used to evaluate the performance of these materials as encapsulants: module-level testing and a material-level testing.

  12. Emissions and encapsulation of cadmium in CdTe PV modules during fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fthenakis, V.M.; Fuhrmann, M.; Heiser, J.; Fitts, J.; Wang, W. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States). Environmental Sciences Dept.; Lanzirotti, A. [University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States). Consortium for Advanced Radiation Resources

    2005-12-15

    Fires in residential and commercial properties are not uncommon. If such fires involve the roof, photovoltaic arrays mounted on the roof will be exposed to the flames. The amount of cadmium that can be released in fires involving CdTe PV and the magnitude of associated health risks has been debated. The current study aims in delineating this issue. Previous thermogravimetric studies of CdTe, involved pure CdTe and single-glass PV modules. The current study is based on glass-glass CdTe PV modules which are the only ones in the market. Pieces of commercial CdTe photovoltaic (PV) modules, sizes 25x3 cm, were heated to temperatures up to 1100{sup o}C to simulate exposure to residential and commercial building fires. The temperature rate and duration in these experiments were defined according to standard protocols. Four different types of analysis were performed to investigate emissions and redistribution of elements in the matrix of heated CdTe PV modules: (1) measurements of sample weight loss as a function of temperature; (2) analyses of Cd and Te in the gaseous emissions; (3) Cd distribution in the heated glass using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microprobe analysis; and (4) chemical analysis for Cd and Te in the acid-digested glass. These experiments showed that almost all (i.e., 99.5%) of the cadmium content of CdTe PV modules was encapsulated in the molten glass matrix; a small amount of Cd escaped from the perimeter of the samples before the two sheets of glass melted together. Adjusting for this loss in full-size modules, results in 99.96% retention of Cd. Multiplying this with the probability of occurrence for residential fires in wood-frame houses in the US (e.g., 10{sup -4}), results in emissions of 0.06 mg/GWh; the probability of sustained fires and subsequent emissions in adequately designed and maintained utility systems appears to be zero. (Author)

  13. Reverse micelles as a tool for probing solvent modulation of protein dynamics: Reverse micelle encapsulated hemoglobin☆

    OpenAIRE

    Roche, Camille J.; Dantsker, David; Heller, Elizabeth R.; Sabat, Joseph E.; Friedman, Joel M.

    2013-01-01

    Hydration waters impact protein dynamics. Dissecting the interplay between hydration waters and dynamics requires a protein that manifests a broad range of dynamics. Proteins in reverse micelles (RMs) have promise as tools to achieve this objective because the water content can be manipulated. Hemoglobin is an appropriate tool with which to probe hydration effects. We describe both a protocol for hemoglobin encapsulation in reverse micelles and a facile method using PEG and cosolvents to mani...

  14. Final Technical Report - Recovery Act: Organic Coatings as Encapsulants for Low Cost, High Performance PV Modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart Hellring; Jiping Shao; James Poole

    2011-12-05

    The objective of this project was to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing PPG's commercial organic coatings systems as efficient, modernized encapsulants for low cost, high performance, thin film photovoltaic modules. Our hypothesis was that the combination of an anticorrosive coating with a more traditional barrier topcoat would mitigate many electrochemical processes that are now responsible for the significant portion of photovoltaic (PV) failures, thereby nullifying the extremely high moisture barrier requirements of currently used encapsulation technology. Nine commercially available metal primer coatings and six commercially available top coatings were selected for screening. Twenty-one different primer/top coat combinations were evaluated. The primer coatings were shown to be the major contributor to corrosion inhibition, adhesion, and barrier properties. Two primer coatings and one top coating were downselected for testing on specially-fabricated test modules. The coated test modules passed initial current leakage and insulation testing. Damp Heat testing of control modules showed visible corrosion to the bus bar metal, whereas the coated modules showed none. One of the primer/top coat combinations retained solar power performance after Damp Heat testing despite showing some delamination at the EVA/solar cell interface. Thermal Cycling and Humidity Freeze testing resulted in only one test module retaining its power performance. Failure modes depended on the particular primer/top coating combination used. Overall, this study demonstrated that a relatively thin primer/top coating has the potential to replace the potting film and backsheet in crystalline silicon-based photovoltaic modules. Positive signals were received from commercially available coatings developed for applications having performance requirements different from those required for photovoltaic modules. It is likely that future work to redesign and customize these coatings would result in

  15. Alginate micro-encapsulation of mesenchymal stromal cells enhances modulation of the neuro-inflammatory response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucky, Elizabeth C; Schloss, Rene S; Yarmush, Martin L; Shreiber, David I

    2015-10-01

    Modulation of inflammation after brain trauma is a key therapeutic goal aimed at limiting the consequences of the subsequent injury cascade. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been demonstrated to dynamically regulate the inflammatory environment in several tissue systems, including the central nervous system. There has been limited success, however, with the use of direct implantation of cells in the brain caused by low viability and engraftment at the injury site. To circumvent this, we encapsulated MSCs in alginate microspheres and evaluated the ability of these encapsulated MSCs to attenuate inflammation in rat organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHSC). OHSC were administered lipopolysaccharide to induce inflammation and immediately co-cultured with encapsulated or monolayer human MSCs. After 24 h, culture media was assayed for the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) produced by OHSC, as well as MSC-produced trophic mediators. Encapsulated MSCs reduced TNF-α more effectively than did monolayer MSCs. Additionally, there was a strong correlation between increased prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and reduction of TNF-α. In contrast to monolayer MSCs, inflammatory signals were not required to stimulate PGE2 production by encapsulated MSCs. Further encapsulation-stimulated changes were revealed in a multiplex panel analyzing 27 MSC-produced cytokines and growth factors, from which additional mediators with strong correlations to TNF-α levels were identified. These results suggest that alginate encapsulation of MSCs may not only provide an improved delivery vehicle for transplantation but may also enhance MSC therapeutic benefit for treating neuro-inflammation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) for the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility ion exchange module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, T.

    1997-01-01

    The Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) is in need of providing an emergency ion exchange system to remove cesium or strontium from the pool cell in the event of a capsule failure. The emergency system is call the WESF Emergency Ion Exchange System and the packaging is called the WESF ion exchange module (WIXM). The packaging system will meet the onsite transportation requirements for a Type B, highway route controlled quantity package as well as disposal requirements for Category 3 waste

  17. Estimating service lifetimes of a polymer encapsulant for photovoltaic modules from accelerated testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czanderna, A.W.; Pern, F.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-05-01

    In this paper, most of the emphasis is on A9918 ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) used commercially as the pottant for encapsulating photovoltaic (PV) modules, in which the efficiencies in field-deployed modules have been reduced by 10-70% in 4-12 years. Yet, projections were made by several different research groups in the 1980s that the EVA lifetime could range from 2-100 years. The authors (1) elucidate the complexity of the encapsulation problem, (2) indicate the performance losses reported for PV systems deployed since 1981, (3) critically assess the service lifetime predictions for EVA as a PV pottant based on studies by others for which they review the inherent errors in their assumptions about the Arrhenius relation, (4) show how degradation of minimodules in laboratory experiments that simulate reality can produce efficiency losses comparable to those in field-degraded PV modules reported in the literature, and (5) outline an acceptable methodology for making a service lifetime prediction of the polymer encapsulant, including the essential need for relating accelerated lifetime testing to real-time testing with a sufficient number of samples.

  18. Quantum secret sharing protocol using modulated doubly entangled photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuan, Wang; Yong, Zhang

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a quantum secret sharing protocol utilizing polarization modulated doubly entangled photon pairs. The measurement devices are constructed. By modulating the polarizations of entangled photons, the boss could encode secret information on the initial state and share the photons with different members to realize the secret sharing process. This protocol shows the security against intercept-resend attack and dishonest member cheating. The generalized quantum secret sharing protocol is also discussed. (general)

  19. Macro-Encapsulated PCM Cylinder Module Based on Paraffin and Float Stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailiang Huang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Organic phase change material (PCM with macro-encapsulation is attractive in energy storage applications as it has relatively low cost. This study focuses on using PET plastic pipes to encapsulate paraffin and using low-cost float stones to increase the thermal conductivity of PCM modules as they have a special structure of high porosity. Float stones were immersed in the liquid PCM and an ultrasonic welding method used to prevent leakage of the PET plastic pipes. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was used to discover the appearance of the composite PCM. The thermal performance of the PCM cylinder module was analyzed through experimental tests of a constant-temperature water bath and numerical simulations. The result indicates that this PCM Ccylinder module is superior in thermal energy storage compared with the reference module even though fewer PCM was contained and the latent heat loss is considerable. The pipe diameter is an important parameter when using this kind of PCM cylinder module in water tanks.

  20. Mithramycin encapsulated in polymeric micelles by microfluidic technology as novel therapeutic protocol for beta-thalassemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capretto, Lorenzo; Mazzitelli, Stefania; Brognara, Eleonora; Lampronti, Ilaria; Carugo, Dario; Hill, Martyn; Zhang, Xunli; Gambari, Roberto; Nastruzzi, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    This report shows that the DNA-binding drug, mithramycin, can be efficiently encapsulated in polymeric micelles (PM-MTH), based on Pluronic® block copolymers, by a new microfluidic approach. The effect of different production parameters has been investigated for their effect on PM-MTH characteristics. The compared analysis of PM-MTH produced by microfluidic and conventional bulk mixing procedures revealed that microfluidics provides a useful platform for the production of PM-MTH with improved controllability, reproducibility, smaller size, and polydispersity. Finally, an investigation of the effects of PM-MTH, produced by microfluidic and conventional bulk mixing procedures, on the erythroid differentiation of both human erythroleukemia and human erythroid precursor cells is reported. It is demonstrated that PM-MTH exhibited a slightly lower toxicity and more pronounced differentiative activity when compared to the free drug. In addition, PM-MTH were able to upregulate preferentially γ-globin messenger ribonucleic acid production and to increase fetal hemoglobin (HbF) accumulation, the percentage of HbF-containing cells, and their HbF content without stimulating α-globin gene expression, which is responsible for the clinical symptoms of β-thalassemia. These results represent an important first step toward a potential clinical application, since an increase in HbF could alleviate the symptoms underlying β-thalassemia and sickle cell anemia. In conclusion, this report suggests that PM-MTH produced by microfluidic approach warrants further evaluation as a potential therapeutic protocol for β-thalassemia. PMID:22287841

  1. Mithramycin encapsulated in polymeric micelles by microfluidic technology as novel therapeutic protocol for beta-thalassemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capretto L

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lorenzo Capretto1, Stefania Mazzitelli2, Eleonora Brognara2, Ilaria Lampronti2, Dario Carugo1, Martyn Hill1, Xunli Zhang1, Roberto Gambari2, Claudio Nastruzzi31Engineering Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK; 2Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, ItalyAbstract: This report shows that the DNA-binding drug, mithramycin, can be efficiently encapsulated in polymeric micelles (PM-MTH, based on Pluronic® block copolymers, by a new microfluidic approach. The effect of different production parameters has been investigated for their effect on PM-MTH characteristics. The compared analysis of PM-MTH produced by microfluidic and conventional bulk mixing procedures revealed that microfluidics provides a useful platform for the production of PM-MTH with improved controllability, reproducibility, smaller size, and polydispersity. Finally, an investigation of the effects of PM-MTH, produced by microfluidic and conventional bulk mixing procedures, on the erythroid differentiation of both human erythroleukemia and human erythroid precursor cells is reported. It is demonstrated that PM-MTH exhibited a slightly lower toxicity and more pronounced differentiative activity when compared to the free drug. In addition, PM-MTH were able to upregulate preferentially γ-globin messenger ribonucleic acid production and to increase fetal hemoglobin (HbF accumulation, the percentage of HbF-containing cells, and their HbF content without stimulating α-globin gene expression, which is responsible for the clinical symptoms of ß-thalassemia. These results represent an important first step toward a potential clinical application, since an increase in HbF could alleviate the symptoms underlying ß-thalassemia and sickle cell anemia. In conclusion, this report suggests that PM-MTH produced by microfluidic approach warrants further evaluation as a potential therapeutic protocol

  2. Modulation of Rat Cecal Microbiota by Administration of Raffinose and Encapsulated Bifidobacterium breve

    OpenAIRE

    Dinoto, Achmad; Suksomcheep, Akarat; Ishizuka, Satoshi; Kimura, Hanae; Hanada, Satoshi; Kamagata, Yoichi; Asano, Kozo; Tomita, Fusao; Yokota, Atsushi

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the effects of administration of raffinose and encapsulated Bifidobacterium breve JCM 1192T cells on the rat cecal microbiota, in a preclinical synbiotic study groups of male WKAH/Hkm Slc rats were fed for 3 weeks with four different test diets: basal diet (group BD), basal diet supplemented with raffinose (group RAF), basal diet supplemented with encapsulated B. breve (group CB), and basal diet supplemented with both raffinose and encapsulated B. breve (group RCB). The bacteri...

  3. Development of Novel Protocol for Preclinical Monitoring the Release of Adjuvants Encapsulated Mucosal Delivery Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ibrahim-Saeed

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work contributes in vaccines down-stream process by introducing a novel platform for in-vitro monitoring of vaccine-adjuvant delivery profile as a crucial preclinical optimizing step in mucosal vaccines. Nano and micro particles of Calcium phosphate (Cap vaccine-adjuvant were encapsulated in Chitosan and Alginate polymeric carriers. Adjuvants release profiles monitored in a permeable bag at 37°C, pH 2, incubated in isotonic buffer for 96 hours. The released Calcium in the outer buffer was monitored and compared in-addition to the carrier’s swelling and biophysical properties. The adjuvants and carriers did not interfere with the proliferation of cultured hepatocytes an indicator of their safe use; Chitosan’s viscosity and swelling were higher than Alginate. Chitosan’s Zeta-potential was significantly high positive, while Cap and Alginate were negative. The prepared CaP and Chitosan particles were in nano-size, while the ready-made CaP adjuvant and Alginate were in micro-size using zeta-seizer and scanning electron-micrograph. The release of nano-size particle was in ascending, extended and controlled manner compared to micro-size adjuvant. Moreover, nano-adjuvant release profile from Chitosan was superior compared to Alginate. The core controlling factors in vaccine-adjuvant sustained release includes; smaller adjuvant particles (nano-size, carrier’s low swelling, high viscosity and importantly carrier-adjuvant entrapment reversibility. Chitosan offers sustained ascending superior capacity in releasing Nano-Cap adjuvant. This novel in-vitro pre-clinical study answer a crucial downstream preparative step for optimizing mucosal vaccines before their direct routine in-vivo trial on animal regardless of adjuvant’s particle size or delivery kinetics.

  4. Development of New Low-Cost, High-Performance, PV Module Encapsulant/Packaging Materials: Final Technical Progress Report, 22 October 2002 - 15 November 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucker, R.

    2008-04-01

    Report on objectives to work with U.S.-based PV module manufacturers (c-Si, a-Si, CIS, other thin films) to develop/qualify new low-cost, high-performance PV module encapsulant/packaging materials, and processes using the packaging materials.

  5. Degradation analysis of the encapsulation polymer in photovoltaic modules by Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peike, Cornelia

    2015-07-01

    Understanding the degradation behavior of photovoltaic modules is of great importance for the production of reliable and durable PV modules. Within this work, the applicability of Raman spectroscopy as a non-destructive method for PV module degradation analysis was investigated. In addition, the influence of polymer stabilizers on the photochemical discoloration of EVA as well as the impact of EVA aging on the cell metallization degradation under damp-heat conditions was studied.

  6. Excimer laser: a module of the alopecia areata common protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, Amy J

    2013-12-01

    Alopecia areata (AA) is an autoimmune condition characterized by T cell-mediated attack of the hair follicle. The inciting antigenic stimulus is unknown. A dense perbulbar lymphocytic infiltrate and reproducible immunologic abnormalities are hallmark features of the condition. The cellular infiltrate primarily consists of activated T lymphocytes and antigen-presenting Langerhans cells. The xenon chloride excimer laser emits its total energy at the wavelength of 308 nm and therefore is regarded as a "super-narrowband" UVB light source. Excimer laser treatment is highly effective in psoriasis, another T cell-mediated disorder that shares many immunologic features with AA. The excimer laser is superior in inducing T cell apoptosis in vitro compared with narrowband UVB, with paralleled improved clinical efficacy. The excimer laser has been used successfully in patients with AA. In this context, evaluation of the potential benefit of 308-nm excimer laser therapy in the treatment of AA is clinically warranted. Herein, the use of a common treatment protocol with a specifically designed module to study the outcome of excimer laser treatment on moderate-to-severe scalp AA in adults is described.

  7. Parametric Amplification Protocol for Frequency-Modulated Magnetic Resonance Force Microscopy Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, Lee; Moore, Eric; Lee, Sanggap; Hickman, Steven; Marohn, John

    2011-03-01

    We present data and theoretical signal and noise calculations for a protocol using parametric amplification to evade the inherent tradeoff between signal and detector frequency noise in force-gradient magnetic resonance force microscopy signals, which are manifested as a modulated frequency shift of a high- Q microcantilever. Substrate-induced frequency noise has a 1 / f frequency dependence, while detector noise exhibits an f2 dependence on modulation frequency f . Modulation of sample spins at a frequency that minimizes these two contributions typically results in a surface frequency noise power an order of magnitude or more above the thermal limit and may prove incompatible with sample spin relaxation times as well. We show that the frequency modulated force-gradient signal can be used to excite the fundamental resonant mode of the cantilever, resulting in an audio frequency amplitude signal that is readily detected with a low-noise fiber optic interferometer. This technique allows us to modulate the force-gradient signal at a sufficiently high frequency so that substrate-induced frequency noise is evaded without subjecting the signal to the normal f2 detector noise of conventional demodulation.

  8. Sequential attack with intensity modulation on the differential-phase-shift quantum-key-distribution protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsurumaru, Toyohiro

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the security of the differential-phase-shift quantum-key-distribution (DPSQKD) protocol by introducing an improved version of the so-called sequential attack, which was originally discussed by Waks et al. [Phys. Rev. A 73, 012344 (2006)]. Our attack differs from the original form of the sequential attack in that the attacker Eve modulates not only the phases but also the amplitude in the superposition of the single-photon states which she sends to the receiver. Concentrating especially on the 'discretized Gaussian' intensity modulation, we show that our attack is more effective than the individual attack, which had been the best attack up to present. As a result of this, the recent experiment with communication distance of 100 km reported by Diamanti et al. [Opt. Express 14, 13073 (2006)] turns out to be insecure. Moreover, it can be shown that in a practical experimental setup which is commonly used today, the communication distance achievable by the DPSQKD protocol is less than 95 km

  9. Do we need 3D tube current modulation information for accurate organ dosimetry in chest CT? Protocols dose comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Rendon, Xochitl; Zhang, Guozhi; Coudyzer, Walter; Develter, Wim; Bosmans, Hilde; Zanca, Federica

    2017-11-01

    To compare the lung and breast dose associated with three chest protocols: standard, organ-based tube current modulation (OBTCM) and fast-speed scanning; and to estimate the error associated with organ dose when modelling the longitudinal (z-) TCM versus the 3D-TCM in Monte Carlo simulations (MC) for these three protocols. Five adult and three paediatric cadavers with different BMI were scanned. The CTDI vol of the OBTCM and the fast-speed protocols were matched to the patient-specific CTDI vol of the standard protocol. Lung and breast doses were estimated using MC with both z- and 3D-TCM simulated and compared between protocols. The fast-speed scanning protocol delivered the highest doses. A slight reduction for breast dose (up to 5.1%) was observed for two of the three female cadavers with the OBTCM in comparison to the standard. For both adult and paediatric, the implementation of the z-TCM data only for organ dose estimation resulted in 10.0% accuracy for the standard and fast-speed protocols, while relative dose differences were up to 15.3% for the OBTCM protocol. At identical CTDI vol values, the standard protocol delivered the lowest overall doses. Only for the OBTCM protocol is the 3D-TCM needed if an accurate (<10.0%) organ dosimetry is desired. • The z-TCM information is sufficient for accurate dosimetry for standard protocols. • The z-TCM information is sufficient for accurate dosimetry for fast-speed scanning protocols. • For organ-based TCM schemes, the 3D-TCM information is necessary for accurate dosimetry. • At identical CTDI vol , the fast-speed scanning protocol delivered the highest doses. • Lung dose was higher in XCare than standard protocol at identical CTDI vol .

  10. Do we need 3D tube current modulation information for accurate organ dosimetry in chest CT? Protocols dose comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Rendon, Xochitl; Develter, Wim [KU Leuven, Department of Imaging and Pathology, Division of Medical Physics and Quality Assessment, Leuven (Belgium); Zhang, Guozhi; Coudyzer, Walter; Zanca, Federica [University Hospitals of the KU Leuven, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium); Bosmans, Hilde [KU Leuven, Department of Imaging and Pathology, Division of Medical Physics and Quality Assessment, Leuven (Belgium); University Hospitals of the KU Leuven, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium)

    2017-11-15

    To compare the lung and breast dose associated with three chest protocols: standard, organ-based tube current modulation (OBTCM) and fast-speed scanning; and to estimate the error associated with organ dose when modelling the longitudinal (z-) TCM versus the 3D-TCM in Monte Carlo simulations (MC) for these three protocols. Five adult and three paediatric cadavers with different BMI were scanned. The CTDI{sub vol} of the OBTCM and the fast-speed protocols were matched to the patient-specific CTDI{sub vol} of the standard protocol. Lung and breast doses were estimated using MC with both z- and 3D-TCM simulated and compared between protocols. The fast-speed scanning protocol delivered the highest doses. A slight reduction for breast dose (up to 5.1%) was observed for two of the three female cadavers with the OBTCM in comparison to the standard. For both adult and paediatric, the implementation of the z-TCM data only for organ dose estimation resulted in 10.0% accuracy for the standard and fast-speed protocols, while relative dose differences were up to 15.3% for the OBTCM protocol. At identical CTDI{sub vol} values, the standard protocol delivered the lowest overall doses. Only for the OBTCM protocol is the 3D-TCM needed if an accurate (<10.0%) organ dosimetry is desired. (orig.)

  11. Clinical Experience With Image-Guided Radiotherapy in an Accelerated Partial Breast Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, Charles E.; Tallhamer, Michael M.S.; Johnson, Tim; Hunter, Kari C.M.D.; Howell, Kathryn; Kercher, Jane; Widener, Jodi; Kaske, Terese; Paul, Devchand; Sedlacek, Scot; Carter, Dennis L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the feasibility of fiducial markers for the use of image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) in an accelerated partial breast intensity modulated radiotherapy protocol. Methods and Materials: Nineteen patients consented to an institutional review board approved protocol of accelerated partial breast intensity-modulated radiotherapy with fiducial marker placement and treatment with IGRT. Patients (1 patient with bilateral breast cancer; 20 total breasts) underwent ultrasound guided implantation of three 1.2- x 3-mm gold markers placed around the surgical cavity. For each patient, table shifts (inferior/superior, right/left lateral, and anterior/posterior) and minimum, maximum, mean error with standard deviation were recorded for each of the 10 BID treatments. The dose contribution of daily orthogonal films was also examined. Results: All IGRT patients underwent successful marker placement. In all, 200 IGRT treatment sessions were performed. The average vector displacement was 4 mm (range, 2-7 mm). The average superior/inferior shift was 2 mm (range, 0-5 mm), the average lateral shift was 2 mm (range, 1-4 mm), and the average anterior/posterior shift was 3 mm (range, 1 5 mm). Conclusions: This study shows that the use of IGRT can be successfully used in an accelerated partial breast intensity-modulated radiotherapy protocol. The authors believe that this technique has increased daily treatment accuracy and permitted reduction in the margin added to the clinical target volume to form the planning target volume.

  12. Update on cellular encapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kate E; Johnson, Robert C; Papas, Klearchos K

    2018-05-06

    There is currently a significant disparity between the number of patients who need lifesaving transplants and the number of donated human organs. Xenotransplantation is a way to address this disparity and attempts to enable the use of xenogeneic tissues have persisted for centuries. While immunologic incompatibilities have presented a persistent impediment to their use, encapsulation may represent a way forward for the use of cell-based xenogeneic therapeutics without the need for immunosuppression. In conjunction with modern innovations such as the use of bioprinting, incorporation of immune modulating molecules into capsule membranes, and genetic engineering, the application of xenogeneic cells to treat disorders ranging from pain to liver failure is becoming increasingly realistic. The present review discusses encapsulation in the context of xenotransplantation, focusing on the current status of clinical trials, persistent issues such as antigen shedding, oxygen availability, and donor selection, and recent developments that may address these limitations. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. POLYETHYLENE ENCAPSULATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalb, P.

    2001-01-01

    Polyethylene microencapsulation physically homogenizes and incorporates mixed waste particles within a molten polymer matrix, forming a solidified final waste form upon cooling. Each individual particle of waste is embedded within the polymer block and is surrounded by a durable, leach-resistant coating. The process has been successfully applied for the treatment of a broad range of mixed wastes, including evaporator concentrate salts, soil, sludges, incinerator ash, off-gas blowdown solutions, decontamination solutions, molten salt oxidation process residuals, ion exchange resins, granular activated carbon, shredded dry active waste, spill clean-up residuals, depleted uranium powders, and failed grout waste forms. For waste streams containing high concentrations of soluble toxic metal contaminants, additives can be used to further reduce leachability, thus improving waste loadings while meeting or exceeding regulatory disposal criteria. In this configuration, contaminants are both chemically stabilized and physically solidified, making the process a true stabilization/solidification (S/S) technology. Unlike conventional hydraulic cement grouts or thermosetting polymers, thermoplastic polymers such as polyethylene require no chemical. reaction for solidification. Thus, a stable, solid, final waste form product is assured on cooling. Variations in waste chemistry over time do not affect processing parameters and do not require reformulation of the recipe. Incorporation of waste particles within the polymer matrix serves as an aggregate and improves the mechanical strength and integrity of the waste form. The compressive strength of polyethylene microencapsulated waste forms varies based on the type and quantity of waste encapsulated, but is typically between 7 and 17.2 MPa (1000 and 2500 psi), well above the minimum strength of 0.4 MPa (160 psi) recommended by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for low-level radioactive waste forms in support of 10 CFR 61

  14. Encapsulation of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pordes, O.; Plows, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    A method is described for encapsulating a particular radioactive waste which consists of suspending the waste in a viscous liquid encapsulating material, of synthetic resin monomers or prepolymers, and setting the encapsulating material by addition or condensation polymerization to form a solid material in which the waste is dispersed. (author)

  15. The sleep and circadian modulation of neural reward pathways: a protocol for a pair of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Jamie E M; Murray, Greg

    2017-12-02

    Animal research suggests that neural reward activation may be systematically modulated by sleep and circadian function. Whether humans also exhibit sleep and circadian modulation of neural reward pathways is unclear. This area is in need of further research, as it has implications for the involvement of sleep and circadian function in reward-related disorders. The aim of this paper is to describe the protocol for a pair of systematic literature reviews to synthesise existing literature related to (1) sleep and (2) circadian modulation of neural reward pathways in healthy human populations. A systematic review of relevant online databases (Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science, ProQuest, PsycINFO and EBSCOhost) will be conducted. Reference lists, relevant reviews and supplementary data will be searched for additional articles. Articles will be included if (a) they contain a sleep- or circadian-related predictor variable with a neural reward outcome variable, (b) use a functional magnetic resonance imaging protocol and (c) use human samples. Articles will be excluded if study participants had disorders known to affect the reward system. The articles will be screened by two independent authors. Two authors will complete the data extraction form, with two authors independently completing the quality assessment tool for the selected articles, with a consensus reached with a third author if needed. Narrative synthesis methods will be used to analyse the data. The findings from this pair of systematic literature reviews will assist in the identification of the pathways involved in the sleep and circadian function modulation of neural reward in healthy individuals, with implications for disorders characterised by dysregulation in sleep, circadian rhythms and reward function. PROSPERO CRD42017064994.

  16. Software Modules for the Proximity-1 Space Link Interleaved Time Synchronization (PITS) Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Simon S.; Veregge, John R.; Gao, Jay L.; Clare, Loren P.; Mills, David

    2012-01-01

    The Proximity-1 Space Link Interleaved Time Synchronization (PITS) protocol provides time distribution and synchronization services for space systems. A software prototype implementation of the PITS algorithm has been developed that also provides the test harness to evaluate the key functionalities of PITS with simulated data source and sink. PITS integrates time synchronization functionality into the link layer of the CCSDS Proximity-1 Space Link Protocol. The software prototype implements the network packet format, data structures, and transmit- and receive-timestamp function for a time server and a client. The software also simulates the transmit and receive-time stamp exchanges via UDP (User Datagram Protocol) socket between a time server and a time client, and produces relative time offsets and delay estimates.

  17. Encapsulation by Janus spheroids

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Wei; Liu, Ya; Brett, Genevieve; Gunton, James D.

    2011-01-01

    The micro/nano encapsulation technology has acquired considerable attention in the fields of drug delivery, biomaterial engineering, and materials science. Based on recent advances in chemical particle synthesis, we propose a primitive model of an encapsulation system produced by the self-assembly of Janus oblate spheroids, particles with oblate spheroidal bodies and two hemi-surfaces coded with dissimilar chemical properties. Using Monte Carlo simulation, we investigate the encapsulation sys...

  18. Encapsulation plant at Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nystroem, Anders

    2007-08-01

    SKB has already carried out a preliminary study of an encapsulation plant detached from Clab (Central interim storage for spent fuels). This stand-alone encapsulation plant was named FRINK and its assumed siting was the above-ground portion of the final repository, irrespective of the repository's location. The report previously presented was produced in cooperation with BNFL Engineering Ltd in Manchester and the fuel reception technical solution was examined by Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH (GNS) in Hannover and by Societe Generale pour les Techniques Nouvelles (SGN) in Paris. This report is an update of the earlier preliminary study report and is based on the assumption that the encapsulation plant and also the final repository will be sited in the Forsmark area. SKB's main alternative for siting the encapsulation plant is next to Clab. Planning of this facility is ongoing and technical solutions from the planning work have been incorporated in this report. An encapsulation plant placed in proximity to any final repository in Forsmark forms part of the alternative presentation in the application for permission to construct and operate an installation at Clab. The main technical difference between the planned encapsulation plant at Clab and an encapsulation plant at a final repository at Forsmark is how the fuel is managed and prepared before actual encapsulation. Fuel reception at the encapsulation plant in Forsmark would be dry, i.e. there would be no water-filled pools at the facility. Clab is used for verificatory fuel measurements, sorting and drying of the fuel before transport to Forsmark. This means that Clab will require a measure of rebuilding and supplementary equipment. In purely technical terms, the prospects for building an encapsulation plant sited at Forsmark are good. A description of the advantages and drawbacks of siting the encapsulation plant at Clab as opposed to any final repository at Forsmark is presented in a separate report

  19. Encapsulation plant at Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nystroem, Anders

    2007-08-15

    SKB has already carried out a preliminary study of an encapsulation plant detached from Clab (Central interim storage for spent fuels). This stand-alone encapsulation plant was named FRINK and its assumed siting was the above-ground portion of the final repository, irrespective of the repository's location. The report previously presented was produced in cooperation with BNFL Engineering Ltd in Manchester and the fuel reception technical solution was examined by Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH (GNS) in Hannover and by Societe Generale pour les Techniques Nouvelles (SGN) in Paris. This report is an update of the earlier preliminary study report and is based on the assumption that the encapsulation plant and also the final repository will be sited in the Forsmark area. SKB's main alternative for siting the encapsulation plant is next to Clab. Planning of this facility is ongoing and technical solutions from the planning work have been incorporated in this report. An encapsulation plant placed in proximity to any final repository in Forsmark forms part of the alternative presentation in the application for permission to construct and operate an installation at Clab. The main technical difference between the planned encapsulation plant at Clab and an encapsulation plant at a final repository at Forsmark is how the fuel is managed and prepared before actual encapsulation. Fuel reception at the encapsulation plant in Forsmark would be dry, i.e. there would be no water-filled pools at the facility. Clab is used for verificatory fuel measurements, sorting and drying of the fuel before transport to Forsmark. This means that Clab will require a measure of rebuilding and supplementary equipment. In purely technical terms, the prospects for building an encapsulation plant sited at Forsmark are good. A description of the advantages and drawbacks of siting the encapsulation plant at Clab as opposed to any final repository at Forsmark is presented in a separate

  20. Encapsulation of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, J.L.; Boyle, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    Toxic waste materials are encapsulated by the method wherein the waste material in liquid or finely divided solid form is uniformly dispersed in a vinyl ester resin or an unsaturated polyester and the resin cured under conditions that the exotherm does not rise above the temperature at which the integrity of the encapsulating material is destroyed

  1. A quantitative method for photovoltaic encapsulation system optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, A., III; Minning, C. P.; Cuddihy, E. F.

    1981-01-01

    It is pointed out that the design of encapsulation systems for flat plate photovoltaic modules requires the fulfillment of conflicting design requirements. An investigation was conducted with the objective to find an approach which will make it possible to determine a system with optimum characteristics. The results of the thermal, optical, structural, and electrical isolation analyses performed in the investigation indicate the major factors in the design of terrestrial photovoltaic modules. For defect-free materials, minimum encapsulation thicknesses are determined primarily by structural considerations. Cell temperature is not strongly affected by encapsulant thickness or thermal conductivity. The emissivity of module surfaces exerts a significant influence on cell temperature. Encapsulants should be elastomeric, and ribs are required on substrate modules. Aluminum is unsuitable as a substrate material. Antireflection coating is required on cell surfaces.

  2. Comparison of radiation doses using weight-based protocol and dose modulation techniques for patients undergoing biphasic abdominal computed tomography examinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livingstone Roshan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Computed tomography (CT of the abdomen contributes a substantial amount of man-made radiation dose to patients and use of this modality is on the increase. This study intends to compare radiation dose and image quality using dose modulation techniques and weight- based protocol exposure parameters for biphasic abdominal CT. Using a six-slice CT scanner, a prospective study of 426 patients who underwent abdominal CT examinations was performed. Constant tube potentials of 90 kV and 120 kV were used for all arterial and portal venous phase respectively. The tube current-time product for weight-based protocol was optimized according to patient′s body weight; this was automatically selected in dose modulations. The effective dose using weight-based protocol, angular and z-axis dose modulation was 11.3 mSv, 9.5 mSv and 8.2 mSv respectively for the patient′s body weight ranging from 40 to 60 kg. For patients of body weights ranging 60 to 80 kg, the effective doses were 13.2 mSv, 11.2 mSv and 10.6 mSv respectively. The use of dose modulation technique resulted in a reduction of 16 to 28% in radiation dose with acceptable diagnostic accuracy in comparison to the use of weight-based protocol settings.

  3. Encapsulation with structured triglycerides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipids provide excellent materials to encapsulate bioactive compounds for food and pharmaceutical applications. Lipids are renewable, biodegradable, and easily modified to provide additional chemical functionality. The use of structured lipids that have been modified with photoactive properties are ...

  4. Photovoltaic module and laminate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunea, Gabriela E.; Kim, Sung Dug; Kavulak, David F.J.

    2018-04-10

    A photovoltaic module is disclosed. The photovoltaic module has a first side directed toward the sun during normal operation and a second, lower side. The photovoltaic module comprises a perimeter frame and a photovoltaic laminate at least partially enclosed by and supported by the perimeter frame. The photovoltaic laminate comprises a transparent cover layer positioned toward the first side of the photovoltaic module, an upper encapsulant layer beneath and adhering to the cover layer, a plurality of photovoltaic solar cells beneath the upper encapsulant layer, the photovoltaic solar cells electrically interconnected, a lower encapsulant layer beneath the plurality of photovoltaic solar cells, the upper and lower encapsulant layers enclosing the plurality of photovoltaic solar cells, and a homogenous rear environmental protection layer, the rear environmental protection layer adhering to the lower encapsulant layer, the rear environmental protection layer exposed to the ambient environment on the second side of the photovoltaic module.

  5. Modeling an array of encapsulated germanium detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kshetri, R

    2012-01-01

    A probability model has been presented for understanding the operation of an array of encapsulated germanium detectors generally known as composite detector. The addback mode of operation of a composite detector has been described considering the absorption and scattering of γ-rays. Considering up to triple detector hit events, we have obtained expressions for peak-to-total and peak-to-background ratios of the cluster detector, which consists of seven hexagonal closely packed encapsulated HPGe detectors. Results have been obtained for the miniball detectors comprising of three and four seven hexagonal closely packed encapsulated HPGe detectors. The formalism has been extended to the SPI spectrometer which is a telescope of the INTEGRAL satellite and consists of nineteen hexagonal closely packed encapsulated HPGe detectors. This spectrometer comprises of twelve detector modules surrounding the cluster detector. For comparison, we have considered a spectrometer comprising of nine detector modules surrounding the three detector configuration of miniball detector. In the present formalism, the operation of these sophisticated detectors could be described in terms of six probability amplitudes only. Using experimental data on relative efficiency and fold distribution of cluster detector as input, the fold distribution and the peak-to-total, peak-to-background ratios have been calculated for the SPI spectrometer and other composite detectors at 1332 keV. Remarkable agreement between experimental data and results from the present formalism has been observed for the SPI spectrometer.

  6. FPGA based data-flow injection module at 10 Gbit/s reading data from network exported storage and using standard protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemouzy, B; Garnier, J-C; Neufeld, N

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the LHCb readout upgrade is to accelerate the DAQ to 40 MHz. Such a DAQ system will certainly employ 10 Gigabit or similar technologies and might also need new networking protocols such as a customized, light-weight TCP or more specialized protocols. A test module is being implemented to be integrated in the existing LHCb infrastructure. It is a multiple 10-Gigabit traffic generator, driven by a Stratix IV FPGA, and flexible enough to generate LHCb's raw data packets. Traffic data are either internally generated or read from external storage via the network. We have implemented a light-weight industry standard protocol ATA over Ethernet (AoE) and we present an outlook of using a file-system on these network-exported disk-drivers.

  7. LHCb: FPGA based data-flow injection module at 10 Gbit/s reading data from network exported storage and using standard protocols

    CERN Multimedia

    Lemouzy, B; Garnier, J-C

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the LHCb readout upgrade is to speed up the DAQ to 40 MHz. Such a DAQ system will certainly employ 10 Gigabit or similar technologies and might also need new networking protocols such as a customized, light-weight TCP or more specialised protocols. A test module is being implemented, which integrates in the existing LHCb infrastructure. It is a multiple 10-Gigabit traffic generator, driven by a Stratix IV FPGA, which is flexibile enough to either generate LHCb's raw data packets internally or read them from external storage via the network. For reading the data we have implemented a light-weight industry standard protocol ATA over Ethernet (AoE) and we present an outlook of using a filesystem on these network-exported disk-drivers.

  8. Review of encapsulation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaulis, L.

    1996-09-01

    The use of encapsulation technology to produce a compliant waste form is an outgrowth from existing polymer industry technology and applications. During the past 12 years, the Department of Energy (DOE) has been researching the use of this technology to treat mixed wastes (i.e., containing hazardous and radioactive wastes). The two primary encapsulation techniques are microencapsulation and macroencapsulation. Microencapsulation is the thorough mixing of a binding agent with a powdered waste, such as incinerator ash. Macroencapsulation coats the surface of bulk wastes, such as lead debris. Cement, modified cement, and polyethylene are the binding agents which have been researched the most. Cement and modified cement have been the most commonly used binding agents to date. However, recent research conducted by DOE laboratories have shown that polyethylene is more durable and cost effective than cements. The compressive strength, leachability, resistance to chemical degradation, etc., of polyethylene is significantly greater than that of cement and modified cement. Because higher waste loads can be used with polyethylene encapsulant, the total cost of polyethylene encapsulation is significantly less costly than cement treatment. The only research lacking in the assessment of polyethylene encapsulation treatment for mixed wastes is pilot and full-scale testing with actual waste materials. To date, only simulated wastes have been tested. The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site had planned to conduct pilot studies using actual wastes during 1996. This experiment should provide similar results to the previous tests that used simulated wastes. If this hypothesis is validated as anticipated, it will be clear that polyethylene encapsulation should be pursued by DOE to produce compliant waste forms

  9. Implementation of an image guided intensity-modulated protocol for post-prostatectomy radiotherapy: planning data and acute toxicity outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chua, Benjamin; Min, Myo; Wood, Maree; Edwards, Sarah; Hoffmann, Matthew; Greenham, Stuart; Kovendy, Andrew; McKay, Michael J.; Shakespeare, Thomas P.

    2013-01-01

    There is substantial interest in implementation of image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IG-IMRT) in the post-prostatectomy setting. We describe our implementation of IG-IMRT, and examine how often published organ-at-risk (OAR) constraints were met. Furthermore, we evaluate the incidence of acute genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicities when patients were treated according to our protocol. Patients were eligible if they received post-prostatectomy radiotherapy (PPRT). Planning data were collected prospectively, and toxicity assessments were collected before, during and after treatment. Seventy-five eligible patients received either 64Gy (19%) or 66Gy (81%) in a single phase to the prostate bed. Suggested rectal dose-constraints of V40Gy<60% and V60Gy<40% were met in 64 (85%) and 75 (100%) patients, respectively. IMRT-specific rectal dose-constraints of V40Gy<35% and V65Gy<17% were achieved in 5 (7%) and 57 (76%) of patients. Bladder dose-constraint (V50Gy<50%) was met in 58 (77%) patients. Two patients (3%) experienced new grade 3 genitourinary toxicity and one patient (1%) experienced new grade 3 gastrointestinal toxicity. All grade 3 toxicities had improved by 3-month review. Overall deterioration in urinary and gastrointestinal symptoms occurred in 33 (44%) and 35 (47%) of patients respectively. We report on our implementation of PPRT which takes into account nationally adopted guidelines, with a margin reduction supported by use of daily image guidance. Non-IMRT OAR constraints were met in most cases. IMRT-specific constraints were less often achieved despite margin reductions, suggesting the need for review of guidelines. Severe toxicity was rare, and most patients did not experience deterioration in urinary or bowel function attributable to radiotherapy.

  10. Implementation of an image guided intensity-modulated protocol for post-prostatectomy radiotherapy: planning data and acute toxicity outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Benjamin; Min, Myo; Wood, Maree; Edwards, Sarah; Hoffmann, Matthew; Greenham, Stuart; Kovendy, Andrew; McKay, Michael J; Shakespeare, Thomas P

    2013-08-01

    There is substantial interest in implementation of image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IG-IMRT) in the post-prostatectomy setting. We describe our implementation of IG-IMRT, and examine how often published organ-at-risk (OAR) constraints were met. Furthermore, we evaluate the incidence of acute genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicities when patients were treated according to our protocol. Patients were eligible if they received post-prostatectomy radiotherapy (PPRT). Planning data were collected prospectively, and toxicity assessments were collected before, during and after treatment. Seventy-five eligible patients received either 64 Gy (19%) or 66 Gy (81%) in a single phase to the prostate bed. Suggested rectal dose-constraints of V40Gy < 60% and V60Gy < 40% were met in 64 (85%) and 75 (100%) patients, respectively. IMRT-specific rectal dose-constraints of V40Gy < 35% and V65Gy < 17% were achieved in 5 (7%) and 57 (76%) of patients. Bladder dose-constraint (V50Gy < 50%) was met in 58 (77%) patients. Two patients (3%) experienced new grade 3 genitourinary toxicity and one patient (1%) experienced new grade 3 gastroinestinal toxicity. All grade 3 toxicities had improved by 3-month review. Overall deterioration in urinary and gastrointestinal symptoms occurred in 33 (44%) and 35 (47%) of patients respectively. We report on our implementation of PPRT which takes into account nationally adopted guidelines, with a margin reduction supported by use of daily image guidance. Non-IMRT OAR constraints were met in most cases. IMRT-specific constraints were less often achieved despite margin reductions, suggesting the need for review of guidelines. Severe toxicity was rare, and most patients did not experience deterioration in urinary or bowel function attributable to radiotherapy. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology © 2013 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  11. Transport of encapsulated nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broman, Ulrika; Dybeck, Peter; Ekendahl, Ann-Mari

    2005-12-01

    The transport system for encapsulated fuel is described, including a preliminary drawing of a transport container. In the report, the encapsulation plant is assumed to be located to Oskarshamn, and the repository to Oskarshamn or Forsmark

  12. Subcutaneous encapsulated fat necrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aydin, Dogu; Berg, Jais O

    2016-01-01

    We have described subcutaneous encapsulated fat necrosis, which is benign, usually asymptomatic and underreported. Images have only been published on two earlier occasions, in which the necrotic nodules appear "pearly" than the cloudy yellow surface in present case. The presented image may help...

  13. Encapsulation Processing and Manufacturing Yield Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, P.

    1985-01-01

    Evaluation of the ethyl vinyl acetate (EVA) encapsulation system is presented. This work is part of the materials baseline needed to demonstrate a 30 year module lifetime capability. Process and compound variables are both being studied along with various module materials. Results have shown that EVA should be stored rolled up, and enclosed in a plastic bag to retard loss of peroxide curing agents. The TBEC curing agent has superior shelf life and processing than the earlier Lupersol-101 curing agent. Analytical methods were developed to test for peroxide content, and experimental methodologies were formalized.

  14. Encapsulation Efficiency, Oscillatory Rheometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Mohammad Hassani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoliposomes are one of the most important polar lipid-based nanocarriers which can be used for encapsulation of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic active compounds. In this research, nanoliposomes based on lecithin-polyethylene glycol-gamma oryzanol were prepared by using a modified thermal method. Only one melting peak in DSC curve of gamma oryzanol bearing liposomes was observed which could be attributed to co-crystallization of both compounds. The addition of gamma oryzanol, caused to reduce the melting point of 5% (w/v lecithin-based liposome from 207°C to 163.2°C. At high level of lecithin, increasing of liposome particle size (storage at 4°C for two months was more obvious and particle size increased from 61 and 113 to 283 and 384 nanometers, respectively. The encapsulation efficiency of gamma oryzanol increased from 60% to 84.3% with increasing lecithin content. The encapsulation stability of oryzanol in liposome was determined at different concentrations of lecithin 3, 5, 10, 20% (w/v and different storage times (1, 7, 30 and 60 days. In all concentrations, the encapsulation stability slightly decreased during 30 days storage. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM images showed relatively spherical to elliptic particles which indicated to low extent of particles coalescence. The oscillatory rheometry showed that the loss modulus of liposomes were higher than storage modulus and more liquid-like behavior than solid-like behavior. The samples storage at 25°C for one month, showed higher viscoelastic parameters than those having been stored at 4°C which were attributed to higher membrane fluidity at 25°C and their final coalescence.Nanoliposomes are one of the most important polar lipid based nanocarriers which can be used for encapsulation of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic active compounds. In this research, nanoliposomes based on lecithin-polyethylene glycol-gamma oryzanol were prepared by using modified thermal method. Only one

  15. Encapsulating spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischer, L.R.; Gunasekaran, M.

    1979-01-01

    A system is described for encapsulating spent nuclear fuel discharged from nuclear reactors in the form of rods or multi-rod assemblies. The rods are completely and contiguously enclosed in concrete in which metallic fibres are incorporated to increase thermal conductivity and polymers to decrease fluid permeability. This technique provides the advantage of acceptable long-term stability for storage over the conventional underwater storage method. Examples are given of suitable concrete compositions. (UK)

  16. Selective encapsulation by Janus particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wei, E-mail: wel208@mrl.ucsb.edu [Materials Research Laboratory, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Ruth, Donovan; Gunton, James D. [Department of Physics, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015 (United States); Rickman, Jeffrey M. [Department of Physics, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015 (United States)

    2015-06-28

    We employ Monte Carlo simulation to examine encapsulation in a system comprising Janus oblate spheroids and isotropic spheres. More specifically, the impact of variations in temperature, particle size, inter-particle interaction range, and strength is examined for a system in which the spheroids act as the encapsulating agents and the spheres as the encapsulated guests. In this picture, particle interactions are described by a quasi-square-well patch model. This study highlights the environmental adaptation and selectivity of the encapsulation system to changes in temperature and guest particle size, respectively. Moreover, we identify an important range in parameter space where encapsulation is favored, as summarized by an encapsulation map. Finally, we discuss the generalization of our results to systems having a wide range of particle geometries.

  17. A new energy-efficient MAC protocol with noise-based transmitted-reference modulation for wireless sensor network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morshed, S.; Heijenk, Geert; Meijerink, Arjan; Ye, D.; van der Zee, Ronan A.R.; Bentum, Marinus Jan

    2013-01-01

    Energy-constrained behavior of sensor nodes is one of the most important criteria for successful deployment of wireless sensor networks. The medium access control (MAC) protocol determines to a large extent the time a sensor node transceiver spends listening or transmitting, and hence the energy

  18. TR-MAC: an energy-efficient MAC protocol for wireless sensor networks exploiting noise-based transmitted reference modulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morshed, S.; Dimitrova, D.C.; Brogle, M.; Braun, T.; Heijenk, Gerhard J.

    Energy-constrained behavior of sensor nodes is one of the most important criteria for successful deployment of wireless sensor net- works. The medium access control (MAC) protocol determines the time a sensor node transceiver spends listening or transmitting, and hence the energy consumption of the

  19. Swedish encapsulation station review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Sven Olof; Brunzell, P.; Heibel, R.; McCarthy, J.; Pennington, C.; Rusch, C.; Varley, G.

    1998-06-01

    In the Encapsulation Station (ES) Review performed by NAC International, a number of different areas have been studied. The main objectives with the review have been to: Perform an independent review of the cost estimates for the ES presented in SKB's document 'Plan 1996'. This has been made through comparisons between the ES and BNFL's Waste Encapsulation Plant (WEP) at Sellafield as well as with the CLAB facility. Review the location of the ES (at the CLAB site or at the final repository) and its interaction with other parts of the Swedish system for spent fuel management. Review the logistics and plant capacity of the ES. Identify important safety aspects of the ES as a basis for future licensing activities. Based on NAC International's experience of casks for transport and storage of spent fuel, review the basic design of the copper/steel canister and the transport cask. This review insides design, manufacturing, handling and licensing aspects. Perform an overall comparison between the ES project and the CLAB project with the objective to identify major project risks and discuss their mitigation

  20. Swedish encapsulation station review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Sven Olof; Brunzell, P.; Heibel, R.; McCarthy, J.; Pennington, C.; Rusch, C.; Varley, G. [NAC International, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    1998-06-01

    In the Encapsulation Station (ES) Review performed by NAC International, a number of different areas have been studied. The main objectives with the review have been to: Perform an independent review of the cost estimates for the ES presented in SKB`s document `Plan 1996`. This has been made through comparisons between the ES and BNFL`s Waste Encapsulation Plant (WEP) at Sellafield as well as with the CLAB facility. Review the location of the ES (at the CLAB site or at the final repository) and its interaction with other parts of the Swedish system for spent fuel management. Review the logistics and plant capacity of the ES. Identify important safety aspects of the ES as a basis for future licensing activities. Based on NAC International`s experience of casks for transport and storage of spent fuel, review the basic design of the copper/steel canister and the transport cask. This review insides design, manufacturing, handling and licensing aspects. Perform an overall comparison between the ES project and the CLAB project with the objective to identify major project risks and discuss their mitigation 19 refs, 9 figs, 35 tabs

  1. Micro-Encapsulation of Probiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiners, Jean-Antoine

    Micro-encapsulation is defined as the technology for packaging with the help of protective membranes particles of finely ground solids, droplets of liquids or gaseous materials in small capsules that release their contents at controlled rates over prolonged periods of time under the influences of specific conditions (Boh, 2007). The material encapsulating the core is referred to as coating or shell.

  2. Encapsulation of Clay Platelets inside Latex Particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorn, D.J.; Ming, W.; Herk, van A.M.; Fernando, R.H.; Sung, Li-Piin

    2009-01-01

    We present our recent attempts in encapsulating clay platelets inside latex particles by emulsion polymerization. Face modification of clay platelets by cationic exchange has been shown to be insufficient for clay encapsulation, leading to armored latex particles. Successful encapsulation of

  3. Palisaded encapsulated neuroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adesh S Manchanda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Palisaded encapsulated neuroma (PEN is a benign cutaneous or mucosal neural tumor which, usually, presents as a solitary, firm, asymptomatic, papule or nodule showing striking predilection for the face. It occurs commonly in middle age, and there is no sex predilection. Oral PEN are not common, and these lesions must be distinguished from other peripheral nerve sheath tumors such as the neurofibroma, neurilemma (schwannoma, and traumatic neuroma. The major challenge in dealing with lesions of PEN is to avoid the misdiagnosis of neural tumors that may be associated with systemic syndromes such as neurofibromatosis and multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 2B. Here, we present a case of benign PEN of the gingiva in the left anterior mandibular region, laying importance on immunohistochemical staining in diagnosing such lesions.

  4. Encapsulated scintillation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toepke, I.L.

    1982-01-01

    A scintillation detector crystal is encapsulated in a hermetically sealed housing having a glass window. The window may be mounted in a ring by a compression seal formed during cooling of the ring and window after heating. The window may be chemically bonded to the ring with or without a compression seal. The ring is welded to the housing along thin weld flanges to reduce the amount of weld heat which must be applied. A thin section is provided to resist the flow of welding heat to the seal between the ring and the window thereby forming a thermal barrier. The thin section may be provided by a groove cut partially through the wall of the ring. A layer of PTFE between the tubular body and the crystal minimizes friction created by thermal expansion. Spring washers urge the crystal towards the window. (author)

  5. Liposome-encapsulated chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børresen, B.; Hansen, A. E.; Kjær, A.

    2018-01-01

    Cytotoxic drugs encapsulated into liposomes were originally designed to increase the anticancer response, while minimizing off-target adverse effects. The first liposomal chemotherapeutic drug was approved for use in humans more than 20years ago, and the first publication regarding its use...... to inherent issues with the enhanced permeability and retention effect, the tumour phenomenon which liposomal drugs exploit. This effect seems very heterogeneously distributed in the tumour. Also, it is potentially not as ubiquitously occurring as once thought, and it may prove important to select patients...... not resolve the other challenges that liposomal chemotherapy faces, and more work still needs to be done to determine which veterinary patients may benefit the most from liposomal chemotherapy....

  6. New process encapsulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, J.J.

    1982-01-01

    The results of the various aspects of this study indicate that the encapsulation process is not only capable of reducing the percent of Radon-222 emanation but also reduces the possibility of the leaching of toxic elements. Radon-222 emanation after solidification showed a 93.51% reduction from the slurry. The Gamma Spectral Analyses of short-lived Radon daughters supported the above findings. Leach studies on solidified refinery waste and transformer oils indicate there is a significant reduction in the possibility of toxic substances leaching out of the solidified samples. Further studies are needed to confirm the results of this investigation; however, the present findings indicate that the process could substantially reduce Radon-222 exhalation into the environment from uranium tailings ponds and reduce toxic leachates from hazardous waste materials

  7. Efficient Asymmetric Index Encapsulation Scheme for Anonymous Content Centric Networking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Ma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Content Centric Networking (CCN is an effective communication paradigm that well matches the features of wireless environments. To be considered a viable candidate in the emerging wireless networks, despite the clear benefits of location-independent security, CCN must at least have parity with existing solutions for confidential and anonymous communication. This paper designs a new cryptographic scheme, called Asymmetric Index Encapsulation (AIE, that enables the router to test whether an encapsulated header matches the token without learning anything else about both of them. We suggest using the AIE as the core protocol of anonymous Content Centric Networking. A construction of AIE which strikes a balance between efficiency and security is given. The scheme is proved to be secure based on the DBDH assumption in the random oracle with tight reduction, while the encapsulated header and the token in our system consist of only three elements.

  8. Measuring of the Chlorophyll a Fluorescence in Calcium Alginate-Encapsulated Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibeth Paola Delgadillo Rodríguez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Immobilization of algae has many applications, such as water bioremediation and production of metabolites. One of the variables that can be determined in the immobilized algae is chlorophyll a fluorescence, because this parameter is related to the physiological response of these organisms. Therefore, the objective of this study was to explore a method for measuring the chlorophyll a fluorescence in calcium alginate-encapsulated algae. To do this, two species of microalgae (Scenedesmus ovalternus LAUN 001 and Parachlorella kessleri LAUN 002 were grown in monocultures in both free culture conditions (10 mL of algae preparation in 250 mL of Basal Bold Medium and encapsulated (250 spheres in 250 mL of Basal Bold Medium. Different measurement protocols of chlorophyll a fluorescence of photosystem II (PSII were performed by varying a the preadaptation time to darkness (10, 15 and 30 min, b the light intensity of the non-modulated fluorometer (between 1000 and 3500 μmoles m-2s-1, and c the time of exposure to actinic light (1, 2 and 5 s. The optimal conditions for the measurement of the maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm in encapsulated algae were established as follow: a 30 min of preadaptation time; b 3000 μmoles m-2s-1 of the fluorometer light intensity; and c 1 to 2 s of exposure to actinic light. The following values in the photochemical activity of algae in non-stressful conditions were found: 0.760 – 0.764 for S. ovalternus, and 0.732 – 0.748 for P. kessleri. This methodology allows to observe some changes in the photochemical activity related with variations in the factors under which are the immobilized algae.

  9. OSR encapsulation basis -- 100-KW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meichle, R.H.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide the basis for a change in the Operations Safety Requirement (OSR) encapsulated fuel storage requirements in the 105 KW fuel storage basin which will permit the handling and storing of encapsulated fuel in canisters which no longer have a water-free space in the top of the canister. The scope of this report is limited to providing the change from the perspective of the safety envelope (bases) of the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) and Operations Safety Requirements (OSR). It does not change the encapsulation process itself

  10. Photovoltaic module with adhesion promoter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Grace

    2013-10-08

    Photovoltaic modules with adhesion promoters and methods for fabricating photovoltaic modules with adhesion promoters are described. A photovoltaic module includes a solar cell including a first surface and a second surface, the second surface including a plurality of interspaced back-side contacts. A first glass layer is coupled to the first surface by a first encapsulating layer. A second glass layer is coupled to the second surface by a second encapsulating layer. At least a portion of the second encapsulating layer is bonded directly to the plurality of interspaced back-side contacts by an adhesion promoter.

  11. Gravity Probe B Encapsulated

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    In this photo, the Gravity Probe B (GP-B) space vehicle is being encapsulated atop the Delta II launch vehicle. The GP-B is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Launched April 20, 2004 , the GP-B program was managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Image credit to Russ Underwood, Lockheed Martin Corporation).

  12. Sclerosing Encapsulating Peritonitis; Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman O. Machado

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (SEP is a rare chronic inflammatory condition of the peritoneum with an unknown aetiology. Also known as abdominal cocoon, the condition occurs when loops of the bowel are encased within the peritoneal cavity by a membrane, leading to intestinal obstruction. Due to its rarity and nonspecific clinical features, it is often misdiagnosed. The condition presents with recurrent episodes of small bowel obstruction and can be idiopathic or secondary; the latter is associated with predisposing factors such as peritoneal dialysis or abdominal tuberculosis. In the early stages, patients can be managed conservatively; however, surgical intervention is necessary for those with advanced stage intestinal obstruction. A literature review revealed 118 cases of SEP; the mean age of these patients was 39 years and 68.0% were male. The predominant presentation was abdominal pain (72.0%, distension (44.9% or a mass (30.5%. Almost all of the patients underwent surgical excision (99.2% without postoperative complications (88.1%.

  13. Encapsulation process for diffraction gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratzsch, Stephan; Kley, Ernst-Bernhard; Tünnermann, Andreas; Szeghalmi, Adriana

    2015-07-13

    Encapsulation of grating structures facilitates an improvement of the optical functionality and/or adds mechanical stability to the fragile structure. Here, we introduce novel encapsulation process of nanoscale patterns based on atomic layer deposition and micro structuring. The overall size of the encapsulated structured surface area is only restricted by the size of the available microstructuring and coating devices; thus, overcoming inherent limitations of existing bonding processes concerning cleanliness, roughness, and curvature of the components. Finally, the process is demonstrated for a transmission grating. The encapsulated grating has 97.5% transmission efficiency in the -1st diffraction order for TM-polarized light, and is being limited by the experimental grating parameters as confirmed by rigorous coupled wave analysis.

  14. Encapsulated microsensors for reservoir interrogation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Eddie Elmer; Aines, Roger D.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.

    2016-03-08

    In one general embodiment, a system includes at least one microsensor configured to detect one or more conditions of a fluidic medium of a reservoir; and a receptacle, wherein the receptacle encapsulates the at least one microsensor. In another general embodiment, a method include injecting the encapsulated at least one microsensor as recited above into a fluidic medium of a reservoir; and detecting one or more conditions of the fluidic medium of the reservoir.

  15. A cluster randomised controlled trial of the Climate Schools: Ecstasy and Emerging Drugs Module in Australian secondary schools: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champion, Katrina E; Teesson, Maree; Newton, Nicola C

    2013-12-12

    The use of ecstasy is a public health problem and is associated with a range of social costs and harms. In recent years, there has been growing concern about the availability and misuse of new and emerging drugs designed to mimic the effects of illicit drugs, including ecstasy. This, coupled with the fact that the age of use and the risk factors for using ecstasy and emerging drugs are similar, provides a compelling argument to implement prevention for these substances simultaneously. The proposed study will evaluate whether a universal Internet-based prevention program, known as the Climate Schools: Ecstasy and Emerging Drugs Module, can address and prevent the use of ecstasy and emerging drugs among adolescents. A cluster randomised controlled trial will be conducted among Year 10 students (aged 15-16 years) from 12 secondary schools in Sydney, Australia. Schools will be randomly assigned to either the Climate Schools intervention group or the control group. All students will complete a self-report questionnaire at baseline, immediately post-intervention, and 6-, 12- and 24-months post-baseline. The primary outcome measures will include ecstasy and emerging drug-related knowledge, intentions to use these substances in the future, and the patterns of use of ecstasy and emerging drugs. A range of secondary outcomes will also be assessed, including beliefs and attitudes about ecstasy and emerging drugs, peer pressure resistance, other substance use and mental health outcomes. To our knowledge, this will be the first evaluation of an Internet-based program designed to specifically target ecstasy and NED use among adolescents. If deemed effective, the Climate Schools: Ecstasy and Emerging Drugs Module will provide schools with an interactive and novel prevention program for ecstasy and emerging drugs that can be readily implemented by teachers. This trial is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN12613000708752.

  16. Comparison of size modulation and conventional standard automated perimetry with the 24-2 test protocol in glaucoma patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirasawa, Kazunori; Shoji, Nobuyuki; Kasahara, Masayuki; Matsumura, Kazuhiro; Shimizu, Kimiya

    2016-05-01

    This prospective randomized study compared test results of size modulation standard automated perimetry (SM-SAP) performed with the Octopus 600 and conventional SAP (C-SAP) performed with the Humphrey Field Analyzer (HFA) in glaucoma patients. Eighty-eight eyes of 88 glaucoma patients underwent SM-SAP and C-SAP tests with the Octopus 600 24-2 Dynamic and HFA 24-2 SITA-Standard, respectively. Fovea threshold, mean defect, and square loss variance of SM-SAP were significantly correlated with the corresponding C-SAP indices (P < 0.001). The false-positive rate was slightly lower, and false-negative rate slightly higher, with SM-SAP than C-SAP (P = 0.002). Point-wise threshold values obtained with SM-SAP were moderately to strongly correlated with those obtained with C-SAP (P < 0.001). The correlation coefficients of the central zone were significantly lower than those of the middle to peripheral zone (P = 0.031). The size and depth of the visual field (VF) defect were smaller (P = 0.039) and greater (P = 0.043), respectively, on SM-SAP than on C-SAP. Although small differences were observed in VF sensitivity in the central zone, the defect size and depth and the reliability indices between SM-SAP and C-SAP, global indices of the two testing modalities were well correlated.

  17. Examination of a Size-Change Test for Photovoltaic Encapsulation Materials: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D. C.; Wohlgemuth, J. H.; Gu, X.; Ji, L.; Kelly, G.; Gu, X.; Nickel, N.; Norum, P.; Shioda, T.; Tamizhmani, G.

    2012-08-01

    We examine a proposed test standard that can be used to evaluate the maximum representative change in linear dimensions of sheet encapsulation products for photovoltaic modules (resulting from their thermal processing). The proposed protocol is part of a series of material-level tests being developed within Working Group 2 of the Technical Committee 82 of the International Electrotechnical Commission. The characterization tests are being developed to aid module design (by identifying the essential characteristics that should be communicated on a datasheet), quality control (via internal material acceptance and process control), and failure analysis. Discovery and interlaboratory experiments were used to select particular parameters for the size-change test. The choice of a sand substrate and aluminum carrier is explored relative to other options. The temperature uniformity of +/- 5C for the substrate was confirmed using thermography. Considerations related to the heating device (hot-plate or oven) are explored. The time duration of 5 minutes was identified from the time-series photographic characterization of material specimens (EVA, ionomer, PVB, TPO, and TPU). The test procedure was revised to account for observed effects of size and edges. The interlaboratory study identified typical size-change characteristics, and also verified the absolute reproducibility of +/- 5% between laboratories.

  18. Examination of a size-change test for photovoltaic encapsulation materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David C.; Gu, Xiaohong; Ji, Liang; Kelly, George; Nickel, Nichole; Norum, Paul; Shioda, Tsuyoshi; Tamizhmani, Govindasamy; Wohlgemuth, John H.

    2012-10-01

    We examine a proposed test standard that can be used to evaluate the maximum representative change in linear dimensions of sheet encapsulation products for photovoltaic modules (resulting from their thermal processing). The proposed protocol is part of a series of material-level tests being developed within Working Group 2 of the Technical Committee 82 of the International Electrotechnical Commission. The characterization tests are being developed to aid module design (by identifying the essential characteristics that should be communicated on a datasheet), quality control (via internal material acceptance and process control), and failure analysis. Discovery and interlaboratory experiments were used to select particular parameters for the size-change test. The choice of a sand substrate and aluminum carrier is explored relative to other options. The temperature uniformity of +/-5°C for the substrate was confirmed using thermography. Considerations related to the heating device (hot-plate or oven) are explored. The time duration of 5 minutes was identified from the time-series photographic characterization of material specimens (EVA, ionomer, PVB, TPO, and TPU). The test procedure was revised to account for observed effects of size and edges. The interlaboratory study identified typical size-change characteristics, and also verified the absolute reproducibility of +/-5% between laboratories.

  19. Encapsulated Curcumin for Transdermal Administration

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop a proniosomal carrier system of curcumin for transdermal delivery. Methods: Proniosomes of curcumin were prepared by encapsulation of the drug in a mixture of Span 80, cholesterol and diethyl ether by ether injection method, and then investigated as a transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS).

  20. Device for encapsulating radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suthanthiran, K.

    1994-01-01

    A capsule for encapsulating radioactive material for radiation treatment comprising two or more interfitting sleeves, wherein each sleeve comprises a closed bottom portion having a circumferential wall extending therefrom, and an open end located opposite the bottom portion. The sleeves are constructed to fit over one another to thereby establish an effectively sealed capsule container. 3 figs

  1. Encapsulation of polymer photovoltaic prototypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C

    2006-01-01

    A simple and efficient method for the encapsulation of polymer and organic photovoltaic prototypes is presented. The method employs device preparation on glass substrates with subsequent sealing using glass fiber reinforced thermosetting epoxy (prepreg) against a back plate. The method allows...

  2. Reactants encapsulation and Maillard Reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troise, A.D.; Fogliano, V.

    2013-01-01

    In the last decades many efforts have been addressed to the control of Maillard Reaction products in different foods with the aim to promote the formation of compounds having the desired color and flavor and to reduce the concentration of several potential toxic molecules. Encapsulation, already

  3. Technology of mammalian cell encapsulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uludag, H; De Vos, P; Tresco, PA

    2000-01-01

    Entrapment of mammalian cells in physical membranes has been practiced since the early 1950s when it was originally introduced as a basic research tool. The method has since been developed based on the promise of its therapeutic usefulness in tissue transplantation. Encapsulation physically isolates

  4. Encapsulation of polymer photovoltaic prototypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krebs, Frederik C. [The Danish Polymer Centre, RISOE National Laboratory, P.O. Box 49, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2006-12-15

    A simple and efficient method for the encapsulation of polymer and organic photovoltaic prototypes is presented. The method employs device preparation on glass substrates with subsequent sealing using glass fiber reinforced thermosetting epoxy (prepreg) against a back plate. The method allows for transporting oxygen and water sensitive devices outside a glove box environment after sealing and enables sharing of devices between research groups such that efficiency and stability can be evaluated in different laboratories. (author)

  5. Zeolite encapsulation of H2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, S.; Lakner, J.F.

    1982-08-01

    Experiments with H 2 have shown that it is possible to encapsulate gases in the structure of certain molecular sieves. This method may offer a better means of temporarily storing and disposing of tritium over some others presently in use. The method may also prove safer, and may enable isotope separation, and removal of 3 He. Initial experiments were performed with H 2 to screen potential candidates for use with tritium

  6. Nanocarriers from GRAS Zein Proteins to Encapsulate Hydrophobic Actives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissmueller, Nikolas T; Lu, Hoang D; Hurley, Amanda; Prud'homme, Robert K

    2016-11-14

    One factor limiting the expansion of nanomedicines has been the high cost of the materials and processes required for their production. We present a continuous, scalable, low cost nanoencapsulation process, Flash Nanoprecipitation (FNP) that enables the production of nanocarriers (NCs) with a narrow size distribution using zein corn proteins. Zein is a low cost, GRAS protein (having the FDA status of "Generally Regarded as Safe") currently used in food applications, which acts as an effective encapsulant for hydrophobic compounds using FNP. The four-stream FNP configuration allows the encapsulation of very hydrophobic compounds in a way that is not possible with previous precipitation processes. We present the encapsulation of several model active compounds with as high as 45 wt % drug loading with respect to zein concentration into ∼100 nm nanocarriers. Three examples are presented: (1) the pro-drug antioxidant, vitamin E-acetate, (2) an anticholera quorum-sensing modulator CAI-1 ((S)-3-hydroxytridecan-4-one; CAI-1 that reduces Vibrio cholerae virulence by modulating cellular communication), and (3) hydrophobic fluorescent dyes with a range of hydrophobicities. The specific interaction between zein and the milk protein, sodium caseinate, provides stabilization of the NCs in PBS, LB medium, and in pH 2 solutions. The stability and size changes in the three media provide information on the mechanism of assembly of the zein/active/casein NC.

  7. Emulation of Industrial Control Field Device Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    today. The protocol operates at the application layer of the open systems interconnection ( OSI ) model, meaning it operates independently of the...the OSI model. Their job is to receive serial data from an MTU in the Modbus RTU or ASCII protocol, encapsulate and transmit the data to another modem...facing connection and out-of-band logging capabilities over the other LAN -facing connection. Despite the fact that the hardware configuration of the

  8. Solvent-induced controllable synthesis, single-crystal to single-crystal transformation and encapsulation of Alq3 for modulated luminescence in (4,8)-connected metal-organic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Ya-Qian; Jiang, Hai-Long; Li, Shun-Li; Xu, Qiang

    2012-07-16

    In this work, for the first time, we have systematically demonstrated that solvent plays crucial roles in both controllable synthesis of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and their structural transformation process. With solvent as the only variable, five new MOFs with different structures have been constructed, in which one MOF undergoes solvent-induced single-crystal to single-crystal (SCSC) transformation that involves not only solvent exchange but also the cleavage and formation of coordination bonds. Particularly, a significant crystallographic change has been realized through an unprecedented three-step SCSC transformation process. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that the obtained MOF could be an excellent host for chromophores such as Alq3 for modulated luminescent properties.

  9. Encapsulation methods for organic electrical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Yigal D.; Chu, William Siu-Keung; MacQueen, David Brent; Shi, Yijian

    2013-06-18

    The disclosure provides methods and materials suitable for use as encapsulation barriers in electronic devices. In one embodiment, for example, there is provided an electroluminescent device or other electronic device encapsulated by alternating layers of a silicon-containing bonding material and a ceramic material. The encapsulation methods provide, for example, electronic devices with increased stability and shelf-life. The invention is useful, for example, in the field of microelectronic devices.

  10. Perspective of metal encapsulation of waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardine, L.J.; Steindler, M.J.

    1978-01-01

    A conceptual flow sheet is presented for encapsulating solid, stabilized calcine (e.g., supercalcine) in a solid lead alloy, using existing or developing technologies. Unresolved and potential problem areas of the flow sheet are outlined and suggestions are made as how metal encapsulation might be applied to other solid wastes from the fuel cycle. It is concluded that metal encapsulation is a technique applicable to many forms of solid wastes and is likely to meet future waste isolation criteria and regulations

  11. Epoxy encapsulant as serendipitous dosimeters during radiological/nuclear events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkyoumb, J.H. [Carderock Division, Naval Surface Warfare Center, 9500 MacArthur Blvd., West Bethesda, MD 20817-5700 (United States)], E-mail: jhbarky@earthlink.net; Mathur, V.K. [Carderock Division, Naval Surface Warfare Center, 9500 MacArthur Blvd., West Bethesda, MD 20817-5700 (United States)

    2008-02-15

    The radiation response of a smart chip (embedded integrated circuit) module has been reported earlier using the technique of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). It was found that a smart chip module could be used to evaluate the personnel exposure in the accident dosimetry range. Through subsequent experiments, the radiation sensitivity of the chip module was traced to the epoxy encapsulant provided to protect the chip from the environment and physical damage and that the radiation sensitivity of the epoxy is due to the silica used as the 'filler' for controlling the thixotropic properties of the epoxy used for 'glob top' or 'dam-and-fill' encapsulation. It is desirable to retain the ability to use the smart chip as an accident dosimeter without requiring a modification of standard manufacturing process for which an infrastructure already exists to avoid additional costs. For this reason, we have investigated commercially available filled and unfilled epoxies both as received from the manufacturer and compared their response with epoxies to which commercial fillers are added. In this work we investigate the OSL response of various epoxies commonly used for potting of electronic circuits with and without various filler materials for their potential to be used as a casualty dosimeter in the exposure range of 0.5-10 Gy.

  12. Polyphosphonate induced coacervation of chitosan: Encapsulation of proteins/enzymes and their biosensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hailing; Cui, Yanyun; Li, Pan; Zhou, Yiming; Chen, Yu; Tang, Yawen; Lu, Tianhong

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Based on the coacervation of chitosan via the ionotropic crosslinking interaction, proteins/enzymes can be encapsulated in situ into chitosan matrix. -- Highlights: •The ionotropic crosslinking interactions result in the coacervation of chitosan. •A phosphonate-assisted encapsulation of proteins in chitosan matrix is introduced. •The encapsulated proteins retain their bioactivity. •The encapsulation method can be used to fabricate various chitosan-based biosensors. -- Abstract: Based on the polyphosphonate-assisted coacervation of chitosan, a simple and versatile procedure for the encapsulation of proteins/enzymes in chitosan–carbon nanotubes (CNTs) composites matrix was developed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy dispersive spectrum (EDS) mapping demonstrated the hemoglobin (Hb) uniformly distributed into chitosan–CNTs composites matrix. Raman measurements indicated the CNTs in composites matrix retained the electronic and structural integrities of the pristine CNTs. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy displayed the encapsulated Hb preserved their near-native structure, indicating the polyphosphonate–chitosan–CNTs composites possessed excellent biocompatibility for the encapsulation of proteins/enzymes. Electrochemical measurements indicated the encapsulated Hb could directly exchange electron with the substrate electrode. Moreover, the modified electrode showed excellent bioelectrocatalytic activity for the reduction of hydrogen peroxide. Under optimum experimental conditions, the fabricated electrochemical sensor displayed the fast response (less than 3 s), wide linear range (7.0 × 10 −7 to 2.0 × 10 −3 M) and low detection limit (4.0 × 10 −7 M) for the determination of hydrogen peroxide. This newly developed protocol was simple and mild and would certainly

  13. Polyphosphonate induced coacervation of chitosan: Encapsulation of proteins/enzymes and their biosensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hailing; Cui, Yanyun; Li, Pan; Zhou, Yiming; Chen, Yu, E-mail: ndchenyu@yahoo.cn; Tang, Yawen; Lu, Tianhong

    2013-05-07

    Graphical abstract: Based on the coacervation of chitosan via the ionotropic crosslinking interaction, proteins/enzymes can be encapsulated in situ into chitosan matrix. -- Highlights: •The ionotropic crosslinking interactions result in the coacervation of chitosan. •A phosphonate-assisted encapsulation of proteins in chitosan matrix is introduced. •The encapsulated proteins retain their bioactivity. •The encapsulation method can be used to fabricate various chitosan-based biosensors. -- Abstract: Based on the polyphosphonate-assisted coacervation of chitosan, a simple and versatile procedure for the encapsulation of proteins/enzymes in chitosan–carbon nanotubes (CNTs) composites matrix was developed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy dispersive spectrum (EDS) mapping demonstrated the hemoglobin (Hb) uniformly distributed into chitosan–CNTs composites matrix. Raman measurements indicated the CNTs in composites matrix retained the electronic and structural integrities of the pristine CNTs. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy displayed the encapsulated Hb preserved their near-native structure, indicating the polyphosphonate–chitosan–CNTs composites possessed excellent biocompatibility for the encapsulation of proteins/enzymes. Electrochemical measurements indicated the encapsulated Hb could directly exchange electron with the substrate electrode. Moreover, the modified electrode showed excellent bioelectrocatalytic activity for the reduction of hydrogen peroxide. Under optimum experimental conditions, the fabricated electrochemical sensor displayed the fast response (less than 3 s), wide linear range (7.0 × 10{sup −7} to 2.0 × 10{sup −3} M) and low detection limit (4.0 × 10{sup −7} M) for the determination of hydrogen peroxide. This newly developed protocol was simple and mild and

  14. Promising design options for the encapsulated nuclear heat source reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conway, L.; Carelli, M.D.; Dzodzo, M. [Westinghouse Science and Technology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Hossain, Q.; Brown, N.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Wade, D.C.; Sienick, J.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Greenspan, E.; Kastenberg, W.E.; Saphier, D. [University of California Dept of Nuclear Engineering, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Promising design options for the Encapsulated Nuclear Heat Source (ENHS) liquid-metal cooled fast reactor were identified during the first year of the DOE NERI program sponsored feasibility study. Many opportunities for incorporation of innovations in design and fabrication were identified. Three of the innovations are hereby described: a novel IHX (intermediate heat exchanger) made of a relatively small number of rectangular channels, an ENHS module design featuring 100% natural circulation, and a novel conceptual design of core support and fuelling. As a result of the first year study the ENHS concept appears more practical and more promising than perceived at the outset of this study. (authors)

  15. Promising design options for the encapsulated nuclear heat source reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conway, L.; Carelli, M.D.; Dzodzo, M.; Hossain, Q.; Brown, N.W.; Wade, D.C.; Sienick, J.J.; Greenspan, E.; Kastenberg, W.E.; Saphier, D.

    2001-01-01

    Promising design options for the Encapsulated Nuclear Heat Source (ENHS) liquid-metal cooled fast reactor were identified during the first year of the DOE NERI program sponsored feasibility study. Many opportunities for incorporation of innovations in design and fabrication were identified. Three of the innovations are hereby described: a novel IHX (intermediate heat exchanger) made of a relatively small number of rectangular channels, an ENHS module design featuring 100% natural circulation, and a novel conceptual design of core support and fuelling. As a result of the first year study the ENHS concept appears more practical and more promising than perceived at the outset of this study. (authors)

  16. Laminated photovoltaic modules using back-contact solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, James M.; Garrett, Stephen E.; Morgan, William P.; Worobey, Walter

    1999-09-14

    Photovoltaic modules which comprise back-contact solar cells, such as back-contact crystalline silicon solar cells, positioned atop electrically conductive circuit elements affixed to a planar support so that a circuit capable of generating electric power is created. The modules are encapsulated using encapsulant materials such as EVA which are commonly used in photovoltaic module manufacture. The module designs allow multiple cells to be electrically connected in a single encapsulation step rather than by sequential soldering which characterizes the currently used commercial practices.

  17. Preliminary investigation of cryopreservation by encapsulation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) of Brassidium Shooting Star, a new commercial ornamental orchid hybrid, were cryopreserved by an encapsulation-dehydration technique. The effects of PLB size, various sucrose concentrations in preculture media and sodium alginate concentration for encapsulation were the main ...

  18. Different encapsulation strategies for implanted electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winkler Sebastian

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent advancements in implant technology include increasing application of electronic systems in the human body. Hermetic encapsulation of electronic components is necessary, specific implant functions and body environments must be considered. Additional functions such as wireless communication systems require specialized technical solutions for the encapsulation.

  19. Encapsulation of nodal segments of lobelia chinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weng Hing Thong

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Lobelia chinensis served as an important herb in traditional chinese medicine. It is rare in the field and infected by some pathogens. Therefore, encapsulation of axillary buds has been developed for in vitro propagation of L. chinensis. Nodal explants of L. chinensis were used as inclusion materials for encapsulation. Various combinations of calcium chloride and sodium alginate were tested. Encapsulation beads produced by mixing 50 mM calcium chloride and 3.5% sodium alginate supported the optimal in vitro conversion potential. The number of multiple shoots formed by encapsulated nodal segments was not significantly different from the average of shoots produced by non-encapsulated nodal segments. The encapsulated nodal segments regenerated in vitro on different medium. The optimal germination and regeneration medium was Murashige-Skoog medium. Plantlets regenerated from the encapsulated nodal segments were hardened, acclimatized and established well in the field, showing similar morphology with parent plants. This encapsulation technology would serve as an alternative in vitro regeneration system for L. chinensis.

  20. Limonene encapsulation in freeze dried gellan systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evageliou, Vasiliki; Saliari, Dimitra

    2017-05-15

    The encapsulation of limonene in freeze-dried gellan systems was investigated. Surface and encapsulated limonene content was determined by measurement of the absorbance at 252nm. Gellan matrices were both gels and solutions. For a standard gellan concentration (0.5wt%) gelation was induced by potassium or calcium chloride. Furthermore, gellan solutions of varying concentrations (0.25-1wt%) were also studied. Limonene was added at two different concentrations (1 and 2mL/100g sample). Gellan gels encapsulated greater amounts of limonene than solutions. Among all gellan gels, the KCl gels had the greater encapsulated limonene content. However, when the concentration of limonene was doubled in these KCl gels, the encapsulated limonene decreased. The surface limonene content was significant, especially for gellan solutions. The experimental conditions and not the mechanical properties of the matrices were the dominant factor in the interpretation of the observed results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Design, analysis, and test verification of advanced encapsulation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, A.; Minning, C.

    1981-01-01

    Thermal, optical, structural, and electrical isolation analyses are decribed. Major factors in the design of terrestrial photovoltaic modules are discussed. Mechanical defects in the different layers of an encapsulation system, it was found, would strongly influence the minimum pottant thickness required for electrical isolation. Structural, optical, and electrical properties, a literature survey indicated, are hevily influenced by the presence of moisture. These items, identified as technology voids, are discussed. Analyses were based upon a 1.2 meter square module using 10.2 cm (4-inch) square cells placed 1.3 mm apart as shown in Figure 2-2. Sizing of the structural support member of a module was determined for a uniform, normal pressure load of 50 psf, corresponding to the pressure difference generated between the front and back surface of a module by a 100 mph wind. Thermal and optical calculations were performed for a wind velocity of 1 meter/sec parallel to the ground and for module tilt (relative to the local horizontal) of 37 deg. Placement of a module in a typical array field is illustrated.

  2. Design, analysis, and test verification of advanced encapsulation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, A.; Minning, C.

    1981-11-01

    Thermal, optical, structural, and electrical isolation analyses are decribed. Major factors in the design of terrestrial photovoltaic modules are discussed. Mechanical defects in the different layers of an encapsulation system, it was found, would strongly influence the minimum pottant thickness required for electrical isolation. Structural, optical, and electrical properties, a literature survey indicated, are hevily influenced by the presence of moisture. These items, identified as technology voids, are discussed. Analyses were based upon a 1.2 meter square module using 10.2 cm (4-inch) square cells placed 1.3 mm apart as shown in Figure 2-2. Sizing of the structural support member of a module was determined for a uniform, normal pressure load of 50 psf, corresponding to the pressure difference generated between the front and back surface of a module by a 100 mph wind. Thermal and optical calculations were performed for a wind velocity of 1 meter/sec parallel to the ground and for module tilt (relative to the local horizontal) of 37 deg. Placement of a module in a typical array field is illustrated.

  3. High throughput single-cell and multiple-cell micro-encapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagus, Todd P; Edd, Jon F

    2012-06-15

    drops is calculated using P(k) = (k x D(k))/Σ(k' x D(k)'). The subtle difference between the two metrics is that D(k) relates to the utilization of aqueous fluid and the amount of drop sorting that must be completed following encapsulation, and P(k) relates to the utilization of the cell sample. As an example, one could use a dilute cell suspension (low λ) to encapsulate drops where most drops containing cells would contain just one cell. While the efficiency metric P(k) would be high, the majority of drops would be empty (low D(k)), thus requiring a sorting mechanism to remove empty drops, also reducing throughput. Combining drop generation with inertial ordering provides the ability to encapsulate drops with more predictable numbers of cells per drop and higher throughputs than random encapsulation. Inertial focusing was first discovered by Segre and Silberberg and refers to the tendency of finite-sized particles to migrate to lateral equilibrium positions in channel flow. Inertial ordering refers to the tendency of the particles and cells to passively organize into equally spaced, staggered, constant velocity trains. Both focusing and ordering require sufficiently high flow rates (high Reynolds number) and particle sizes (high Particle Reynolds number). Here, the Reynolds number Re =uD(h)/ν and particle Reynolds number Rep =Re(a/D(h))², where u is a characteristic flow velocity, D(h) [=2wh/(w+h)] is the hydraulic diameter, ν is the kinematic viscosity, a is the particle diameter, w is the channel width, and h is the channel height. Empirically, the length required to achieve fully ordered trains decreases as Re and Re(p) increase. Note that the high Re and Re(p) requirements (for this study on the order of 5 and 0.5, respectively) may conflict with the need to keep aqueous flow rates low to avoid jetting at the drop generation nozzle. Additionally, high flow rates lead to higher shear stresses on cells, which are not addressed in this protocol. The previous

  4. Investigation of test methods, material properties, and processes for solar cell encapsulants. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willis, P. B.; Baum, B.; Schnitzer, H. S.

    1980-07-01

    The goal of this program is to identify, evaluate, and recommend encapsulant materials and processes for the production of cost-effective, long-life solar cell modules. Technical activities during the past year have covered a number of topics and have emphasized the development of solar module encapsulation technology that employs ethylene/vinyl acetate, copolymer (EVA) as the pottant. These activities have included: (1) continued production of encapsulation grade EVA in sheet form to meet the needs of the photovoltaic industry; (2) investigations of three non-blocking techniques for EVA sheet; (3) performed an economic analysis of the high volume production of each pottant in order to estimate the large volume selling price (EVA, EPDM, aliphatic urethane, PVC plastisol, and butyl acrylate); (4) initiated an experimental corrosion protection program to determine if metal components could be successfully protected by encapsulation; (5) began an investigation to determine the maximum temperature which can be tolerated by the candidate pottant material in the event of hot spot heating or other temperature override; (6) continuation of surveys of potentially useful outer cover materials; and (7) continued with the accelerated artificial weathering of candidate encapsulation materials. Study results are presented. (WHK)

  5. Effectiveness of adolescent suicide prevention e-learning modules that aim to improve knowledge and self-confidence of gatekeepers: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Ghoncheh, Rezvan; Kerkhof, Ad JFM; Koot, Hans M

    2014-01-01

    Background Providing e-learning modules can be an effective strategy for enhancing gatekeepers’ knowledge, self-confidence and skills in adolescent suicide prevention. The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of an online training program called Mental Health Online which consists of eight short e-learning modules, each capturing an important aspect of the process of recognition, guidance and referral of suicidal adolescents (12–20 years). The primary outcomes of this study are par...

  6. Effectiveness of adolescent suicide prevention e-learning modules that aim to improve knowledge and self-confidence of gatekeepers: Study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Ghoncheh, R.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.; Koot, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Providing e-learning modules can be an effective strategy for enhancing gatekeepers' knowledge, self-confidence and skills in adolescent suicide prevention. The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of an online training program called Mental Health Online which consists of eight short e-learning modules, each capturing an important aspect of the process of recognition, guidance and referral of suicidal adolescents (12-20 years). The primary outcomes of this study are pa...

  7. Bioremediation protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sheehan, David

    1997-01-01

    ..., .. . . . . .. ,. . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . .. . .. 3 2 Granular Nina Sludge Christiansen, Consortia lndra for Bioremediation, M. Mathrani, and Birgitte K. Ahring . 23 PART II PROTOCOLS...

  8. Advanced development of PV encapsulants. Semiannual technical progress report, June 30, 1995--December 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holley, W.A. [Springborn Laboratories, Inc., Enfield, CT (United States)

    1996-06-01

    The goals of the NREL PVMaT program are, among others, to reduce module manufacturing costs and improve the quality, and we might add here the reliability, of manufactured PV products. One component critical to the service life of PV modules is the useful life of the EVA resin-based encapsulant which is employed extensively by module manufacturers on a worldwide basis. This pottant has been in commercial use since 1982, and over that time has proven to be a dependable material from the standpoint of production, module fabrication, and end-use. But despite the widespread acceptance of the EVA resin-based A9918 and similar formulations for PV encapsulation, some module producers, end-users, and investigators have reported a yellowing or browning phenomenon with EVA resin-based encapsulants in the field. Wile the incidence of this discoloration/degradation appeared at comparatively few sites at the time that this present program was conceived, it raised serious concern as to the long term reliability of EVA resin-based encapsulation systems. Consequently, under the NREL PVMaT program, Springborn Laboratories proposed a comprehensive study of the EVA aging and discoloration problem and its possible solution(s). During the first year of this program, accelerated U.V. aging methods were surveyed. On careful review of the various types of accelerated U.V. aging equipment available, an Atlas Ci35A Weather-Ometer Xenon Exposure System was selected as appropriate equipment for this work. The following report summarizes how this accelerated aging technique has been used to develop a family of solutions to the discoloration problem, the most significant of which is a series of EVA-based encapsulants which are resistant to discoloration.

  9. Recommendations for a head and neck IMRT quality assurance protocol; Recommandations pour un protocole d'assurance de qualite de la radiotherapie conformationnelle avec modulation d'intensite des cancers de la tete et du cou

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zefkili, S. [Institut Curie, Service de Physique Medicale, 75 - Paris (France); Tomsej, M. [Cliniques Univ. Saint Luc, Service de Radiotherapie, Bruxelles (Belgium); Aletti, P.; Marchesi, V. [Centre Alexis-Vautrin, Unite de Radiophysique, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Bidault, F. [Centre de Lutte Contre le Cancer Georges-Francois-Leclerc, Unite de Radiophysique, 21 - Dijon (France); Bridier, A. [Institut Gustave Roussy, 94 - Villejuif (France). Service de Radio-Physique; Marcie, S. [Centre Antoine-Lacassagne, Unite de Radiophysique, 06 - Nice (France)

    2004-12-01

    Head and neck tumors represent very interesting targets for IMRT techniques because of the complex shape of the structures and the organs at risk close by. The use of this kind of techniques requires a quality assurance protocol. The physicists of the GORTEC group shared their experience to define some recommendations in order to draw up a QA protocol. The dosimetric verification of the treatment plans (in terms of absolute and relative dose), the control of the reproducibility of the patient positioning and the use of a record and verify system to control the different parameters form the main parts of these recommendations. Each chapter comprises a description of the different methods, recommendations concerning the equipment, the adopted tolerances, the frequency of controls. At the end of each chapter, a table summarizes the main actions to carry out. These recommendations will allow to harmonize our practices whatever the softwares and the accelerator that are being used. They will simplify the task of the teams that wish to implement IMRT for head and neck tumors. (author)

  10. Adjuvant whole abdominal intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for high risk stage FIGO III patients with ovarian cancer (OVAR-IMRT-01) – Pilot trial of a phase I/II study: study protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochet, Nathalie; Jensen, Alexandra D; Sterzing, Florian; Munter, Marc W; Eichbaum, Michael H; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Debus, Juergen; Harms, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    The prognosis for patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer remains poor despite aggressive surgical resection and platinum-based chemotherapy. More than 60% of patients will develop recurrent disease, principally intraperitoneal, and die within 5 years. The use of whole abdominal irradiation (WAI) as consolidation therapy would appear to be a logical strategy given its ability to sterilize small tumour volumes. Despite the clinically proven efficacy of whole abdominal irradiation, the use of radiotherapy in ovarian cancer has profoundly decreased mainly due to high treatment-related toxicity. Modern intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) could allow to spare kidneys, liver, and bone marrow while still adequately covering the peritoneal cavity with a homogenous dose. The OVAR-IMRT-01 study is a single center pilot trial of a phase I/II study. Patients with advanced ovarian cancer stage FIGO III (R1 or R2< 1 cm) after surgical resection and platinum-based chemotherapy will be treated with whole abdomen irradiation as consolidation therapy using intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to a total dose of 30 Gy in 1.5 Gy fractions. A total of 8 patients will be included in this trial. For treatment planning bone marrow, kidneys, liver, spinal cord, vertebral bodies and pelvic bones are defined as organs at risk. The planning target volume includes the entire peritoneal cavity plus pelvic and para-aortic node regions. The primary endpoint of the study is the evaluation of the feasibility of intensity-modulated WAI and the evaluation of the study protocol. Secondary endpoint is evaluation of the toxicity of intensity modulated WAI before continuing with the phase I/II study. The aim is to explore the potential of IMRT as a new method for WAI to decrease the dose to kidneys, liver, bone marrow while covering the peritoneal cavity with a homogenous dose, and to implement whole abdominal intensity-modulated radiotherapy into the adjuvant multimodal

  11. Effectiveness of adolescent suicide prevention e-learning modules that aim to improve knowledge and self-confidence of gatekeepers: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoncheh, Rezvan; Kerkhof, Ad J F M; Koot, Hans M

    2014-02-08

    Providing e-learning modules can be an effective strategy for enhancing gatekeepers' knowledge, self-confidence and skills in adolescent suicide prevention. The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of an online training program called Mental Health Online which consists of eight short e-learning modules, each capturing an important aspect of the process of recognition, guidance and referral of suicidal adolescents (12-20 years). The primary outcomes of this study are participant's ratings on perceived knowledge, perceived self-confidence, and actual knowledge regarding adolescent suicidality. A randomized controlled trial will be carried out among 154 gatekeepers. After completing the first assessment (pre-test), participants will be randomly assigned to either the experimental group or the waitlist control group. One week after completing the first assessment the experimental group will have access to the website Mental Health Online containing the eight e-learning modules and additional information on adolescent suicide prevention. Participants in both conditions will be assessed 4 weeks after completing the first assessment (post-test), and 12 weeks after completing the post-test (follow-up). At post-test, participants from the experimental group are asked to complete an evaluation questionnaire on the modules. The waitlist control group will have access to the modules and additional information on the website after completing the follow-up assessment. Gatekeepers can benefit from e-learning modules on adolescent suicide prevention. This approach allows them to learn about this sensitive subject at their own pace and from any given location, as long as they have access to the Internet. Given the flexible nature of the program, each participant can compose his/her own training creating an instant customized course with the required steps in adolescent suicide prevention. Netherlands Trial Register NTR3625.

  12. It's a wrap: encapsulation as a management tool for marine biofouling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalah, Javier; Brook, Rosemary; Cahill, Patrick; Fletcher, Lauren M; Hopkins, Grant A

    2016-01-01

    Encapsulation of fouled structures is an effective tool for countering incursions by non-indigenous biofoulers. However, guidelines for the implementation of encapsulation treatments are yet to be established. This study evaluated the effects of temperature, biomass, community composition, treatment duration and the biocide acetic acid on biofoulers. In laboratory trials using the model organisms Ciona spp. and Mytilus galloprovincialis, increasing the temperature or biomass speeded up the development of a toxic environment. Total mortality for Ciona spp. occurred within 72 and 24 h at 10 and 19°C, respectively. M. galloprovincialis survived up to 18 days, with high biomass increasing mortality at 10°C only. In a field study, three-month-old and four-year-old communities were encapsulated with and without acetic acid. Mortality took up to 10 days for communities encapsulated without acetic acid, compared to 48 h with acetic acid. The insights gained from this study will be useful in developing standardised encapsulation protocols.

  13. Effectiveness of adolescent suicide prevention e-learning modules that aim to improve knowledge and self-confidence of gatekeepers: Study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghoncheh, R.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.; Koot, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Providing e-learning modules can be an effective strategy for enhancing gatekeepers' knowledge, self-confidence and skills in adolescent suicide prevention. The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of an online training program called Mental Health Online which consists of

  14. Nutritional management of encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: intradialytic parenteral nutrition, nutritional management, encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis ... reflection of fluid retention and the underlying inflammatory process, ... The patient appeared weak and frail, with severe generalised muscle ... was recommended on diagnosis of EPS to prevent further peritoneal.

  15. Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candido, Paula de Castro Menezes; Werner, Andrea de Freitas; Pereira, Izabela Machado Flores; Matos, Breno Assuncao; Pfeilsticker, Rudolf Moreira; Silva Filho, Raul, E-mail: paulacmcandido@yahoo.com.br [Hospital Felicio Rocho, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-01-15

    Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis, a rare cause of bowel obstruction, was described as a complication associated with peritoneal dialysis which is much feared because of its severity. The authors report a case where radiological findings in association with clinical symptoms have allowed for a noninvasive diagnosis of sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis, emphasizing the high sensitivity and specificity of computed tomography to demonstrate the characteristic findings of such a condition. (author)

  16. Encapsulated Islet Transplantation: Where Do We Stand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaithilingam, Vijayaganapathy; Bal, Sumeet; Tuch, Bernard E

    2017-01-01

    Transplantation of pancreatic islets encapsulated within immuno-protective microcapsules is a strategy that has the potential to overcome graft rejection without the need for toxic immunosuppressive medication. However, despite promising preclinical studies, clinical trials using encapsulated islets have lacked long-term efficacy, and although generally considered clinically safe, have not been encouraging overall. One of the major factors limiting the long-term function of encapsulated islets is the host's immunological reaction to the transplanted graft which is often manifested as pericapsular fibrotic overgrowth (PFO). PFO forms a barrier on the capsule surface that prevents the ingress of oxygen and nutrients leading to islet cell starvation, hypoxia and death. The mechanism of PFO formation is still not elucidated fully and studies using a pig model have tried to understand the host immune response to empty alginate microcapsules. In this review, the varied strategies to overcome or reduce PFO are discussed, including alginate purification, altering microcapsule geometry, modifying alginate chemical composition, co-encapsulation with immunomodulatory cells, administration of pharmacological agents, and alternative transplantation sites. Nanoencapsulation technologies, such as conformal and layer-by-layer coating technologies, as well as nanofiber, thin-film nanoporous devices, and silicone based NanoGland devices are also addressed. Finally, this review outlines recent progress in imaging technologies to track encapsulated cells, as well as promising perspectives concerning the production of insulin-producing cells from stem cells for encapsulation.

  17. Study of curved glass photovoltaic module and module electrical isolation design requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    The design of a 1.2 by 2.4 m curved glass superstrate and support clip assembly is presented, along with the results of finite element computer analysis and a glass industry survey conducted to assess the technical and economic feasibility of the concept. Installed costs for four curved glass module array configurations are estimated and compared with cost previously reported for comparable flat glass module configurations. Electrical properties of candidate module encapsulation systems are evaluated along with present industry practice for the design and testing of electrical insulation systems. Electric design requirements for module encapsulation systems are also discussed.

  18. Programmable synchronous communications module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horelick, D.

    1979-10-01

    The functional characteristics of a programmable, synchronous serial communications CAMAC module with buffering in block format are described. Both bit and byte oriented protocols can be handled in full duplex depending on the program implemented. The main elements of the module are a Signetics 2652 Multi-Protocol Communications Controller, a Zilog Z-808 8 bit microprocessor with PROM and RAM, and FIFOs for buffering

  19. Encapsulation in the food industry: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, B F; Kermasha, S; Alli, I; Mulligan, C N

    1999-05-01

    Encapsulation involves the incorporation of food ingredients, enzymes, cells or other materials in small capsules. Applications for this technique have increased in the food industry since the encapsulated materials can be protected from moisture, heat or other extreme conditions, thus enhancing their stability and maintaining viability. Encapsulation in foods is also utilized to mask odours or tastes. Various techniques are employed to form the capsules, including spray drying, spray chilling or spray cooling, extrusion coating, fluidized bed coating, liposome entrapment, coacervation, inclusion complexation, centrifugal extrusion and rotational suspension separation. Each of these techniques is discussed in this review. A wide variety of foods is encapsulated--flavouring agents, acids bases, artificial sweeteners, colourants, preservatives, leavening agents, antioxidants, agents with undesirable flavours, odours and nutrients, among others. The use of encapsulation for sweeteners such as aspartame and flavours in chewing gum is well known. Fats, starches, dextrins, alginates, protein and lipid materials can be employed as encapsulating materials. Various methods exist to release the ingredients from the capsules. Release can be site-specific, stage-specific or signalled by changes in pH, temperature, irradiation or osmotic shock. In the food industry, the most common method is by solvent-activated release. The addition of water to dry beverages or cake mixes is an example. Liposomes have been applied in cheese-making, and its use in the preparation of food emulsions such as spreads, margarine and mayonnaise is a developing area. Most recent developments include the encapsulation of foods in the areas of controlled release, carrier materials, preparation methods and sweetener immobilization. New markets are being developed and current research is underway to reduce the high production costs and lack of food-grade materials.

  20. Cytokine production induced by non-encapsulated and encapsulated Porphyromonas gingivalis strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunnen, A.; Dekker, D.C.; van Pampus, M.G.; Harmsen, H.J.; Aarnoudse, J.G.; Abbas, F.; Faas, M.M.

    Objective: Although the exact reason is not known, encapsulated gram-negative Porphyromonas gingivalis strains are more virulent than non-encapsulated strains. Since difference in virulence properties may be due to difference in cytokine production following recognition of the bacteria or their

  1. Photopolymerizable liquid encapsulants for microelectronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baikerikar, Kiran K.

    2000-10-01

    Plastic encapsulated microelectronic devices consist of a silicon chip that is physically attached to a leadframe, electrically interconnected to input-output leads, and molded in a plastic that is in direct contact with the chip, leadframe, and interconnects. The plastic is often referred to as the molding compound, and is used to protect the chip from adverse mechanical, thermal, chemical, and electrical environments. Encapsulation of microelectronic devices is typically accomplished using a transfer molding process in which the molding compound is cured by heat. Most transfer molding processes suffer from significant problems arising from the high operating temperatures and pressures required to fill the mold. These aspects of the current process can lead to thermal stresses, incomplete mold filling, and wire sweep. In this research, a new strategy for encapsulating microelectronic devices using photopolymerizable liquid encapsulants (PLEs) has been investigated. The PLEs consist of an epoxy novolac-based vinyl ester resin (˜25 wt.%), fused silica filler (70--74 wt.%), and a photoinitiator, thermal initiator, and silane coupling agent. For these encapsulants, the use of light, rather than heat, to initiate the polymerization allows precise control over when the reaction starts, and therefore completely decouples the mold filling and the cure. The low viscosity of the PLEs allows for low operating pressures and minimizes problems associated with wire sweep. In addition, the in-mold cure time for the PLEs is equivalent to the in-mold cure times of current transfer molding compounds. In this thesis, the thermal and mechanical properties, as well as the viscosity and adhesion of photopolymerizable liquid encapsulants, are reported in order to demonstrate that a UV-curable formulation can have the material properties necessary for microelectronic encapsulation. In addition, the effects of the illumination time, postcure time, fused silica loading, and the inclusion

  2. Encapsulation layer design and scalability in encapsulated vertical 3D RRAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Muxi; Fang, Yichen; Wang, Zongwei; Chen, Gong; Pan, Yue; Yang, Xue; Yin, Minghui; Yang, Yuchao; Li, Ming; Cai, Yimao; Huang, Ru

    2016-01-01

    Here we propose a novel encapsulated vertical 3D RRAM structure with each resistive switching cell encapsulated by dielectric layers, contributing to both the reliability improvement of individual cells and thermal disturbance reduction of adjacent cells due to the effective suppression of unwanted oxygen vacancy diffusion. In contrast to the traditional vertical 3D RRAM, encapsulated bar-electrodes are adopted in the proposed structure substituting the previous plane-electrodes, thus encapsulated resistive switching cells can be naturally formed by simply oxidizing the tip of the metal bar-electrodes. In this work, TaO x -based 3D RRAM devices with SiO 2 and Si 3 N 4 as encapsulation layers are demonstrated, both showing significant advantages over traditional unencapsulated vertical 3D RRAM. Furthermore, it was found thermal conductivity and oxygen blocking ability are two key parameters of the encapsulation layer design influencing the scalability of vertical 3D RRAM. Experimental and simulation data show that oxygen blocking ability is more critical for encapsulation layers in the relatively large scale, while thermal conductivity becomes dominant as the stacking layers scale to the sub-10 nm regime. Finally, based on the notable impacts of the encapsulation layer on 3D RRAM scaling, an encapsulation material with both excellent oxygen blocking ability and high thermal conductivity such as AlN is suggested to be highly desirable to maximize the advantages of the proposed encapsulated structure. The findings in this work could pave the way for reliable ultrahigh-density storage applications in the big data era. (paper)

  3. Treatment of locally advanced carcinomas of head and neck with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in combination with cetuximab and chemotherapy: the REACH protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habl, Gregor; Münter, Marc W; Jensen, Alexandra D; Potthoff, Karin; Uhl, Matthias; Hof, Holger; Hajda, Jacek; Simon, Christian; Debus, Jürgen; Krempien, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Primary treatment of carcinoma of the oro-/hypopharynx or larynx may consist of combined platinum-containing chemoradiotherapy. In order to improve clinical outcome (i.e. local control/overall survival), combined therapy is intensified by the addition of the EGFR inhibitor cetuximab (Erbitux ® ). Radiation therapy (RT) is carried out as intensity-modulated RT (IMRT) to avoid higher grade acute and late toxicity by sparing of surrounding normal tissues. The REACH study is a prospective phase II study combining chemoradiotherapy with carboplatin/5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) and the monoclonal epidermal growth factor-receptor (EGFR) antibody cetuximab (Erbitux ® ) as intensity-modulated radiation therapy in patients with locally advanced squamous-cell carcinomas of oropharynx, hypopharynx or larynx. Patients receive weekly chemotherapy infusions in the 1 st and 5 th week of RT. Additionally, cetuximab is administered weekly throughout the treatment course. IMRT is delivered as in a classical concomitant boost concept (bid from fraction 16) to a total dose of 69,9 Gy. Primary endpoint of the trial is local-regional control (LRC). Disease-free survival, progression-free survival, overall survival, toxicity, proteomic and genomic analyses are secondary endpoints. The aim is to explore the efficacy as well as the safety and feasibility of this combined radioimmunchemotherapy in order to improve the outcome of patients with advanced head and neck cancer. ISRCTN87356938

  4. Treatment of locally advanced carcinomas of head and neck with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT in combination with cetuximab and chemotherapy: the REACH protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Christian

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary treatment of carcinoma of the oro-/hypopharynx or larynx may consist of combined platinum-containing chemoradiotherapy. In order to improve clinical outcome (i.e. local control/overall survival, combined therapy is intensified by the addition of the EGFR inhibitor cetuximab (Erbitux®. Radiation therapy (RT is carried out as intensity-modulated RT (IMRT to avoid higher grade acute and late toxicity by sparing of surrounding normal tissues. Methods/Design The REACH study is a prospective phase II study combining chemoradiotherapy with carboplatin/5-Fluorouracil (5-FU and the monoclonal epidermal growth factor-receptor (EGFR antibody cetuximab (Erbitux® as intensity-modulated radiation therapy in patients with locally advanced squamous-cell carcinomas of oropharynx, hypopharynx or larynx. Patients receive weekly chemotherapy infusions in the 1st and 5th week of RT. Additionally, cetuximab is administered weekly throughout the treatment course. IMRT is delivered as in a classical concomitant boost concept (bid from fraction 16 to a total dose of 69,9 Gy. Discussion Primary endpoint of the trial is local-regional control (LRC. Disease-free survival, progression-free survival, overall survival, toxicity, proteomic and genomic analyses are secondary endpoints. The aim is to explore the efficacy as well as the safety and feasibility of this combined radioimmunchemotherapy in order to improve the outcome of patients with advanced head and neck cancer. Trial registration ISRCTN87356938

  5. Sol-gel method for encapsulating molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Ashley, Carol S.; Bhatia, Rimple; Singh, Anup K.

    2002-01-01

    A method for encapsulating organic molecules, and in particular, biomolecules using sol-gel chemistry. A silica sol is prepared from an aqueous alkali metal silicate solution, such as a mixture of silicon dioxide and sodium or potassium oxide in water. The pH is adjusted to a suitably low value to stabilize the sol by minimizing the rate of siloxane condensation, thereby allowing storage stability of the sol prior to gelation. The organic molecules, generally in solution, is then added with the organic molecules being encapsulated in the sol matrix. After aging, either a thin film can be prepared or a gel can be formed with the encapsulated molecules. Depending upon the acid used, pH, and other processing conditions, the gelation time can be from one minute up to several days. In the method of the present invention, no alcohols are generated as by-products during the sol-gel and encapsulation steps. The organic molecules can be added at any desired pH value, where the pH value is generally chosen to achieve the desired reactivity of the organic molecules. The method of the present invention thereby presents a sufficiently mild encapsulation method to retain a significant portion of the activity of the biomolecules, compared with the activity of the biomolecules in free solution.

  6. Nondestructive Assay Options for Spent Fuel Encapsulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobin, Stephen J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jansson, Peter [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)

    2014-10-02

    This report describes the role that nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques and systems of NDA techniques may have in the context of an encapsulation and deep geological repository. The potential NDA needs of an encapsulation and repository facility include safeguards, heat content, and criticality. Some discussion of the facility needs is given, with the majority of the report concentrating on the capability and characteristics of individual NDA instruments and techniques currently available or under development. Particular emphasis is given to how the NDA techniques can be used to determine the heat production of an assembly, as well as meet the dual safeguards needs of 1) determining the declared parameters of initial enrichment, burn-up, and cooling time and 2) detecting defects (total, partial, and bias). The report concludes with the recommendation of three integrated systems that might meet the combined NDA needs of the encapsulation/repository facility.

  7. Suppression of intrinsic roughness in encapsulated graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Joachim Dahl; Gunst, Tue; Gregersen, Søren Schou

    2017-01-01

    Roughness in graphene is known to contribute to scattering effects which lower carrier mobility. Encapsulating graphene in hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) leads to a significant reduction in roughness and has become the de facto standard method for producing high-quality graphene devices. We have...... fabricated graphene samples encapsulated by hBN that are suspended over apertures in a substrate and used noncontact electron diffraction measurements in a transmission electron microscope to measure the roughness of encapsulated graphene inside such structures. We furthermore compare the roughness...... of these samples to suspended bare graphene and suspended graphene on hBN. The suspended heterostructures display a root mean square (rms) roughness down to 12 pm, considerably less than that previously reported for both suspended graphene and graphene on any substrate and identical within experimental error...

  8. Encapsulation - how it will be achieved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlow, P.

    1990-01-01

    The work of the new Encapsulation Plant at British Nuclear Fuel Limited's (BNFL) Sellafield site is described in this article. Intermediate-level radioactive materials are encapsulated in a cement matrix in 500 litre stainless steel drums suitable for storage, transport and disposal. The drums will be stored in an above-ground air-cooled store until UK Nirex Limited have built the planned underground disposal facility. The concept of product specification is explored as it applies to the four stages of nuclear waste management, namely, processing, storage, transport and disposal. By following this approach the encapsulation plant will work within government regulations and the public concerns over safety and environmental issues can be met. U.K

  9. Performance evaluation soil samples utilizing encapsulation technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlgran, James R.

    1999-01-01

    Performance evaluation soil samples and method of their preparation using encapsulation technology to encapsulate analytes which are introduced into a soil matrix for analysis and evaluation by analytical laboratories. Target analytes are mixed in an appropriate solvent at predetermined concentrations. The mixture is emulsified in a solution of polymeric film forming material. The emulsified solution is polymerized to form microcapsules. The microcapsules are recovered, quantitated and introduced into a soil matrix in a predetermined ratio to form soil samples with the desired analyte concentration.

  10. Encapsulated social perception of emotional expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smortchkova, Joulia

    2017-01-01

    In this paper I argue that the detection of emotional expressions is, in its early stages, informationally encapsulated. I clarify and defend such a view via the appeal to data from social perception on the visual processing of faces, bodies, facial and bodily expressions. Encapsulated social perception might exist alongside processes that are cognitively penetrated, and that have to do with recognition and categorization, and play a central evolutionary function in preparing early and rapid responses to the emotional stimuli. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Suitability of cement encapsulated ILW for transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzpatrick, J.

    1989-01-01

    ILW arising during the reprocessing of nuclear fuel is to be encapsulated in cement in nominal 500-litre drums. It is important that the waste package produced can be safely transported to a deep repository. Preliminary assessments of the performances of waste packages during transport for a number of the ILW streams to be generated at Sellafield have been carried out. The results show that the proposed encapsulation process produces a waste package which can be transported to an acceptable standard of safety and which does not prejudice any aspects of transport. (author)

  12. An Online Learning Module to Increase Self-Efficacy and Involvement in Care for Patients With Advanced Lung Cancer: Research Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Anna; Shaw, Tim; Nagrial, Adnan; Pene, Christopher; Rabbets, Melanie; Carlino, Matteo; Zachulski, Clare; Phillips, Jane; Birnbaum, Robert; Gandhi, Tejal; Harnett, Paul

    2016-08-08

    Improving patient care for individuals with lung cancer is a priority due to the increasing burden of the disease globally. One way this can be done is by improving patient self-management capabilities through increasing their self-efficacy. This can improve positive outcomes for patients with chronic conditions and increase their ability to manage the challenges of such illnesses. Unfortunately, patients with chronic conditions often struggle to travel far from home to engage with patient education events, a common means of improving self-efficacy. The development of more accessible tools for improving patient self-efficacy is required to increase quality of life for patients with chronic conditions. To evaluate the feasibility of delivering symptom identification and management information to patients with advanced lung cancer using an online program. This article describes a pre-post test study to evaluate a Qstream online learning platform to improve patient self-efficacy for managing advanced lung cancer symptoms. Undertaking this program should increase participant knowledge about the side-effects they may experience as a result of their treatment and in turn increase help-seeking behavior and self-efficacy for the participant cohort. Quantitative data collected by the Qstream platform on the completion rates of participants will be used as a tool to evaluate the intervention. Additionally, validated scales will be used to collect data on patient self-efficacy. Qualitative data will also be collected via an exit survey and thematic content analysis of semi-structured interviews. The research is in the preliminary stages but thus far a protocol has been approved in support of the project. Additionally, advisory committee members have been identified and initial meetings have been undertaken. Development of new approaches for increasing patient understanding of their care is important to ensure high quality care continues to be delivered in the clinical setting.

  13. Encapsulation of thermal energy storage media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhau, Jaspreet; Goswami, Dharendra; Jotshi, Chand K.; Stefanakos, Elias K.

    2017-09-19

    In one embodiment, a phase change material is encapsulated by forming a phase change material pellet, coating the pellet with flexible material, heating the coated pellet to melt the phase change material, wherein the phase change materials expands and air within the pellet diffuses out through the flexible material, and cooling the coated pellet to solidify the phase change material.

  14. Antidiabetic Activity from Gallic Acid Encapsulated Nanochitosan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purbowatiningrum; Ngadiwiyana; Ismiyarto; Fachriyah, E.; Eviana, I.; Eldiana, O.; Amaliyah, N.; Sektianingrum, A. N.

    2017-02-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) has become a health problem in the world because it causes death. One of the phenolic compounds that have antidiabetic activity is gallic acid. However, the use of this compound still provides unsatisfactory results due to its degradation during the absorption process. The solution offered to solve the problem is by encapsulated it within chitosan nanoparticles that serve to protect the bioactive compound from degradation, increases of solubility and delivery of a bioactive compound to the target site by using freeze-drying technique. The result of chitosan nanoparticle’s Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) showed that chitosan nanoparticle’s size is uniform and it is smaller than chitosan. The value of encapsulation efficiency (EE) of gallic acid which encapsulated within chitosan nanoparticles is about 50.76%. Inhibition test result showed that gallic acid-chitosan nanoparticles at 50 ppm could inhibite α-glucosidase activity in 28.87% with 54.94 in IC50. So it can be concluded that gallic acid can be encapsulated in nanoparticles of chitosan and proved that it could inhibit α-glucosidase.

  15. Magic ferritin: A novel chemotherapeutic encapsulation bullet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simsek, Ece; Akif Kilic, Mehmet

    2005-01-01

    The dissociation of apoferritin into subunits at pH 2 followed by its reformation at pH 7.4 in the presence of doxorubicin-HCl gives rise to a solution containing five doxorubicin-HCl molecules trapped within the apoferritin. This is the first report showing that ferritin can encapsulate an anti-cancer drug into its cavity

  16. Bioactive Compounds And Encapsulation Of Yanang ( Tiliacora ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Furthermore, this paper reports the design of the experimental method for optimization of Yanang encapsulation using three independent variables: the ratio of core material (Yanang), to wall material (gum Arabic), gum Arabic concentration and inlet temperature of spray drying on bioactive compounds stability. The stability ...

  17. Secure Hybrid Encryption from Weakened Key Encapsulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Hofheinz (Dennis); E. Kiltz (Eike); A. Menezes

    2007-01-01

    textabstractWe put forward a new paradigm for building hybrid encryption schemes from constrained chosen-ciphertext secure (CCCA) key-encapsulation mechanisms (KEMs) plus authenticated symmetric encryption. Constrained chosen-ciphertext security is a new security notion for KEMs that we propose. It

  18. Anisotropic silica mesostructures for DNA encapsulation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The encapsulation of biomolecules in inert meso or nanostructures is an important step towards controlling drug delivery agents. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) are of immense importance owing to their high surface area, large pore size, uniform particle size and chemical inertness. Reverse micellar method with ...

  19. Factors influencing insulin secretion from encapsulated islets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, BJ; Faas, MM; de Vos, P

    2003-01-01

    Adequate regulation of glucose levels by a microencapsulated pancreatic islet graft requires a minute-to-minute regulation of blood glucose. To design such a transplant, it is mandatory to have sufficient insight in factors influencing the kinetics of insulin secretion by encapsulated islets. The

  20. Oxygen Measurements in Liposome Encapsulated Hemoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phiri, Joshua Benjamin

    Liposome encapsulated hemoglobins (LEH's) are of current interest as blood substitutes. An analytical methodology for rapid non-invasive measurements of oxygen in artificial oxygen carriers is examined. High resolution optical absorption spectra are calculated by means of a one dimensional diffusion approximation. The encapsulated hemoglobin is prepared from fresh defibrinated bovine blood. Liposomes are prepared from hydrogenated soy phosphatidylcholine (HSPC), cholesterol and dicetylphosphate using a bath sonication method. An integrating sphere spectrophotometer is employed for diffuse optics measurements. Data is collected using an automated data acquisition system employing lock-in -amplifiers. The concentrations of hemoglobin derivatives are evaluated from the corresponding extinction coefficients using a numerical technique of singular value decomposition, and verification of the results is done using Monte Carlo simulations. In situ measurements are required for the determination of hemoglobin derivatives because most encapsulation methods invariably lead to the formation of methemoglobin, a nonfunctional form of hemoglobin. The methods employed in this work lead to high resolution absorption spectra of oxyhemoglobin and other derivatives in red blood cells and liposome encapsulated hemoglobin (LEH). The analysis using singular value decomposition method offers a quantitative means of calculating the fractions of oxyhemoglobin and other hemoglobin derivatives in LEH samples. The analytical methods developed in this work will become even more useful when production of LEH as a blood substitute is scaled up to large volumes.

  1. Nanoprecipitation process: From encapsulation to drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Rivas, Claudia Janeth; Tarhini, Mohamad; Badri, Waisudin; Miladi, Karim; Greige-Gerges, Hélène; Nazari, Qand Agha; Galindo Rodríguez, Sergio Arturo; Román, Rocío Álvarez; Fessi, Hatem; Elaissari, Abdelhamid

    2017-10-30

    Drugs encapsulation is a suitable strategy in order to cope with the limitations of conventional dosage forms such as unsuitable bioavailability, stability, taste, and odor. Nanoprecipitation technique has been used in the pharmaceutical and agricultural research as clean alternative for other drug carrier formulations. This technique is based on precipitation mechanism. Polymer precipitation occurs after the addition of a non-solvent to a polymer solution in four steps mechanism: supersaturation, nucleation, growth by condensation, and growth by coagulation that leads to the formation of polymer nanoparticles or aggregates. The scale-up of laboratory-based nanoprecipitation method shows a good reproducibility. In addition, flash nanoprecipitation is a good strategy for industrial scale production of nanoparticles. Nanoprecipitation is usually used for encapsulation of hydrophobic or hydrophilic compounds. Nanoprecipitation was also shown to be a good alternative for the encapsulation of natural compounds. As a whole, process and formulation related parameters in nanoprecipitation technique have critical effect on nanoparticles characteristics. Biodegradable or non-biodegradable polymers have been used for the preparation of nanoparticles intended to in vivo studies. Literature studies have demonstrated the biodistribution of the active loaded nanoparticles in different organs after administration via various routes. In general, in vitro drug release from nanoparticles prepared by nanoprecipitation includes two phases: a first phase of "burst release" which is followed by a second phase of prolonged release. Moreover, many encapsulated active molecules have been commercialized in the pharmaceutical market. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Nano spray drying for encapsulation of pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpagaus, Cordin; Collenberg, Andreas; Rütti, David; Assadpour, Elham; Jafari, Seid Mahdi

    2018-05-17

    Many pharmaceuticals such as pills, capsules, or tablets are prepared in a dried and powdered form. In this field, spray drying plays a critical role to convert liquid pharmaceutical formulations into powders. In addition, in many cases it is necessary to encapsulate bioactive drugs into wall materials to protect them against harsh process and environmental conditions, as well as to deliver the drug to the right place and at the correct time within the body. Thus, spray drying is a common process used for encapsulation of pharmaceuticals. In view of the rapid progress of nanoencapsulation techniques in pharmaceutics, nano spray drying is used to improve drug formulation and delivery. The nano spray dryer developed in the recent years provides ultrafine powders at nanoscale and high product yields. In this paper, after explaining the concept of nano spray drying and understanding the key elements of the equipment, the influence of the process parameters on the final powders properties, like particle size, morphology, encapsulation efficiency, drug loading and release, will be discussed. Then, numerous application examples are reviewed for nano spray drying and encapsulation of various drugs in the early stages of product development along with a brief overview of the obtained results and characterization techniques. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Antidiabetic activity from cinnamaldydhe encapsulated by nanochitosan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purbowatingrum; Ngadiwiyana; Fachriyah, E.; Ismiyarto; Ariestiani, B.; Khikmah

    2018-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a disease characterized by chronic hyperglycemia and metabolic disorders of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats due to reduced function of insulin. Treatment of diabetes can be done by insulin therapy or hypoglycemic drugs. Hypoglycemic drugs usually contain compounds that can inhibit the action of α-glucosidase enzymes that play a role in breaking carbohydrates into blood sugar. Cinnamaldehyde has α-glucosidase inhibit activity because it has a functional group of alkene that is conjugated with a benzene ring and a carbonyl group. However, the use of this compound still provides unsatisfactory results due to its degradation during the absorption process. The solution offered to solve the problem is by encapsulated it within chitosan nanoparticles that serve to protect the bioactive compound from degradation, increases of solubility and delivery of a bioactive compound to the target site by using freeze-drying technique. The value of encapsulation efficiency (EE) of cinnamaldyhde which encapsulated within chitosan nanoparticles is about 74%. Inhibition test result showed that cinnamaldehyde-chitosan nanoparticles at 100 ppm could inhibit α-glucosidase activity in 23.9% with 134,13 in IC50. So it can be concluded that cinnamaldehyde can be encapsulated in nanoparticles of chitosan and proved that it could inhibit α-glucosidase.

  4. Process for encapsulating active agents in gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yilmaz, G.; Jongboom, R.O.J.; Oosterhaven, J.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process for encapsulating an active agent in a biopolymer in the form of a gel, comprising the steps of: a) forming a dispersion or solution of the biopolymer in water; and b) adding the active agent to the dispersion or solution obtained in step a); wherein the

  5. Treatment of Diabetes with Encapsulated Islets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, Paul; Spasojevic, Milica; Faas, Marijke M.; Pedraz, JL; Orive, G

    2010-01-01

    Cell encapsulation has been proposed for the treatment of a wide variety of diseases since it allows for transplantation of cells in the absence of undesired immunosuppression. The technology has been proposed to be a solution for the treatment of diabetes since it potentially allows a mandatory

  6. Plastic Encapsulated Microcircuits (PEMs) Reliability Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandor, M.

    2000-01-01

    It is reported by some users and has been demonstrated by others via testing and qualification that the quality and reliability of plastic-encapsulated microcircuits (PEMs) manufactured today are excellent in commercial applications and closely equivalent, and in some cases superior to their hemetic counterparts.

  7. Treatment of non-small cell lung cancer with intensity-modulated radiation therapy in combination with cetuximab: the NEAR protocol (NCT00115518)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, AD; Hoess, A; Haberkorn, U; Huber, PE; Steins, M; Thomas, M; Debus, J; Herfarth, KK; Münter, MW; Bischoff, H; Haselmann, R; Timke, C; Krempien, R; Sterzing, F; Nill, S; Heeger, S

    2006-01-01

    Even today, treatment of Stage III NSCLC still poses a serious challenge. So far, surgical resection is the treatment of choice. Patients whose tumour is not resectable or who are unfit to undergo surgery are usually referred to a combined radio-chemotherapy. However, combined radio-chemotherapeutic treatment is also associated with sometimes marked side effects but has been shown to be more efficient than radiation therapy alone. Nevertheless, there is a significant subset of patients whose overall condition does not permit administration of chemotherapy in a combined-modality treatment. It could be demonstrated though, that NSCLCs often exhibit over-expression of EGF-receptors hence providing an excellent target for the monoclonal EGFR-antagonist cetuximab (Erbitux ® ) which has already been shown to be effective in colorectal as well as head-and-neck tumours with comparatively mild side-effects. The NEAR trial is a prospective phase II feasibility study combining a monoclonal EGF-receptor antibody with loco-regional irradiation in patients with stage III NSCLC. This trial aims at testing the combination's efficacy and rate of development of distant metastases with an accrual of 30 patients. Patients receive weekly infusions of cetuximab (Erbitux ® ) plus loco-regional radiation therapy as intensity-modulated radiation therapy. After conclusion of radiation treatment patients continue to receive weekly cetuximab for 13 more cycles. The primary objective of the NEAR trial is to evaluate toxicities and feasibility of the combined treatment with cetuximab (Erbitux ® ) and IMRT loco-regional irradiation. Secondary objectives are remission rates, 3-year-survival and local/systemic progression-free survival

  8. Treatment of non-small cell lung cancer with intensity-modulated radiation therapy in combination with cetuximab: the NEAR protocol (NCT00115518

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoess A

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Even today, treatment of Stage III NSCLC still poses a serious challenge. So far, surgical resection is the treatment of choice. Patients whose tumour is not resectable or who are unfit to undergo surgery are usually referred to a combined radio-chemotherapy. However, combined radio-chemotherapeutic treatment is also associated with sometimes marked side effects but has been shown to be more efficient than radiation therapy alone. Nevertheless, there is a significant subset of patients whose overall condition does not permit administration of chemotherapy in a combined-modality treatment. It could be demonstrated though, that NSCLCs often exhibit over-expression of EGF-receptors hence providing an excellent target for the monoclonal EGFR-antagonist cetuximab (Erbitux® which has already been shown to be effective in colorectal as well as head-and-neck tumours with comparatively mild side-effects. Methods/design The NEAR trial is a prospective phase II feasibility study combining a monoclonal EGF-receptor antibody with loco-regional irradiation in patients with stage III NSCLC. This trial aims at testing the combination's efficacy and rate of development of distant metastases with an accrual of 30 patients. Patients receive weekly infusions of cetuximab (Erbitux® plus loco-regional radiation therapy as intensity-modulated radiation therapy. After conclusion of radiation treatment patients continue to receive weekly cetuximab for 13 more cycles. Discussion The primary objective of the NEAR trial is to evaluate toxicities and feasibility of the combined treatment with cetuximab (Erbitux® and IMRT loco-regional irradiation. Secondary objectives are remission rates, 3-year-survival and local/systemic progression-free survival.

  9. Protocol for the isotoxic intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC): a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslett, Kate; Franks, Kevin; Hanna, Gerard G; Harden, Susan; Hatton, Matthew; Harrow, Stephen; McDonald, Fiona; Ashcroft, Linda; Falk, Sally; Groom, Nicki; Harris, Catherine; McCloskey, Paula; Whitehurst, Philip; Bayman, Neil; Faivre-Finn, Corinne

    2016-04-15

    The majority of stage III patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are unsuitable for concurrent chemoradiotherapy, the non-surgical gold standard of care. As the alternative treatment options of sequential chemoradiotherapy and radiotherapy alone are associated with high local failure rates, various intensification strategies have been employed. There is evidence to suggest that altered fractionation using hyperfractionation, acceleration, dose escalation, and individualisation may be of benefit. The MAASTRO group have pioneered the concept of 'isotoxic' radiotherapy allowing for individualised dose escalation using hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy based on predefined normal tissue constraints. This study aims to evaluate whether delivering isotoxic radiotherapy using intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is achievable. Isotoxic IMRT is a multicentre feasibility study. From June 2014, a total of 35 patients from 7 UK centres, with a proven histological or cytological diagnosis of inoperable NSCLC, unsuitable for concurrent chemoradiotherapy will be recruited. A minimum of 2 cycles of induction chemotherapy is mandated before starting isotoxic radiotherapy. The dose of radiation will be increased until one or more of the organs at risk tolerance or the maximum dose of 79.2 Gy is reached. The primary end point is feasibility, with accrual rates, local control and overall survival our secondary end points. Patients will be followed up for 5 years. The study has received ethical approval (REC reference: 13/NW/0480) from the National Research Ethics Service (NRES) Committee North West-Greater Manchester South. The trial is conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and Good Clinical Practice (GCP). The trial results will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and presented internationally. NCT01836692; Pre-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence

  10. Cryptographic Protocols:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler, Martin Joakim Bittel

    cryptography was thus concerned with message confidentiality and integrity. Modern cryptography cover a much wider range of subjects including the area of secure multiparty computation, which will be the main topic of this dissertation. Our first contribution is a new protocol for secure comparison, presented...... implemented the comparison protocol in Java and benchmarks show that is it highly competitive and practical. The biggest contribution of this dissertation is a general framework for secure multiparty computation. Instead of making new ad hoc implementations for each protocol, we want a single and extensible...... in Chapter 2. Comparisons play a key role in many systems such as online auctions and benchmarks — it is not unreasonable to say that when parties come together for a multiparty computation, it is because they want to make decisions that depend on private information. Decisions depend on comparisons. We have...

  11. Photochemical approach to high-barrier films for the encapsulation of flexible laminary electronic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prager, L., E-mail: lutz.prager@iom-leipzig.de [Leibniz-Institut für Oberflächenmodifizierung e.V., Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Helmstedt, U. [Leibniz-Institut für Oberflächenmodifizierung e.V., Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Herrnberger, H. [Solarion AG, Pereser Höhe 1, Breitscheidstraße 45, 04442 Zwenkau (Germany); Kahle, O. [Fraunhofer-Einrichtung für Polymermaterialien und Composite PYCO, Kantstraße 55, 14513 Teltow (Germany); Kita, F. [AZ Electronic Materials Germany GmbH, Rheingaustraße 190-196, 65203 Wiesbaden (Germany); Münch, M. [Solarion AG, Pereser Höhe 1, Breitscheidstraße 45, 04442 Zwenkau (Germany); Pender, A.; Prager, A.; Gerlach, J.W. [Leibniz-Institut für Oberflächenmodifizierung e.V., Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Stasiak, M. [Fraunhofer-Einrichtung für Polymermaterialien und Composite PYCO, Kantstraße 55, 14513 Teltow (Germany)

    2014-11-03

    Based on results of preceding research and development, thin gas barriers were made by wet application of perhydropolysilazane solution onto polymer films and its subsequent photo-initiated conversion to dense silica layers applying vacuum ultraviolet irradiation. Compared to the state of the art, these layers were sufficiently improved and characterized by spectroscopic methods, by scanning electron microscopy and by gas permeation measurements. Water vapor transmission rates (WVTR) below 10{sup −2} g m{sup −2} d{sup −1} were achieved. In this way, single barrier films were developed and produced on a pilot plant from roll to roll, 250 mm wide, at speeds up to 10 m min{sup −1}. Two films were laminated using adhesives curable with ultraviolet (UV) light and evaluated by peel tests, gas permeation measurement and climate testing. It could be shown that the described high-barrier laminates which exhibit WVTR ≈ 5 × 10{sup −4} g m{sup −2} d{sup −1}, determined by the calcium mirror method, are suitable for encapsulation of flexible thin-film photovoltaic modules. Durability of the encapsulated modules could be verified in several climate tests including damp-heat, thermo-cycle (heating, freezing, wetting) and UV exposures which are equivalent to more than 20 years of endurance at outdoor conditions in temperate climate. In the frame of further research and technical development it seems to be possible to design a cost efficient industrial scale process for the production of encapsulation films for photovoltaic applications. - Highlights: • Dense silica barrier layers were developed by a photochemical approach. • Polymer based barrier films were laminated yielding flexible high-barrier films. • Using these laminates photovoltaic test modules were encapsulated and tested. • A durability of more than 20 years at outdoor conditions could be proved.

  12. Immunochemical protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pound, John D

    1998-01-01

    ... easy and important refinements often are not published. This much anticipated 2nd edition of Immunochemzcal Protocols therefore aims to provide a user-friendly up-to-date handbook of reliable techniques selected to suit the needs of molecular biologists. It covers the full breadth of the relevant established immunochemical methods, from protein blotting and immunoa...

  13. Acoustically excited encapsulated microbubbles and mitigation of biofouling

    KAUST Repository

    Qamar, Adnan

    2017-08-31

    Provided herein is a universally applicable biofouling mitigation technology using acoustically excited encapsulated microbubbles that disrupt biofilm or biofilm formation. For example, a method of reducing biofilm formation or removing biofilm in a membrane filtration system is provided in which a feed solution comprising encapsulated microbubbles is provided to the membrane under conditions that allow the encapsulated microbubbles to embed in a biofilm. Sonication of the embedded, encapsulated microbubbles disrupts the biofilm. Thus, provided herein is a membrane filtration system for performing the methods and encapsulated microbubbles specifically selected for binding to extracellular polymeric substances (EFS) in a biofilm.

  14. Radioprotective activity of curcumin-encapsulated liposomes against genotoxicity caused by Gamma Cobalt-60 irradiation in human blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh-Hiep; Pham, Ngoc-Duy; Dong, Bingxue; Nguyen, Thi-Huynh-Nga; Bui, Chi-Bao; Hadinoto, Kunn

    2017-11-01

    While the radioprotective activity of curcumin against genotoxicity has been well established, its poor oral bioavailability has limited its successful clinical applications. Nanoscale formulations, including liposomes, have been demonstrated to improve curcumin bioavailability. The objective of the present work was (1) to prepare and characterize curcumin-encapsulated liposomes (i.e. size, colloidal stability, encapsulation efficiency, and payload), and (2) subsequently to evaluate their radioprotective activity against genotoxicity in human blood cells caused by Gamma Cobalt-60 irradiation. The curcumin-encapsulated liposomes were prepared by lipid-film hydration method using commercial phosphatidylcholine (i.e. Phospholipon ® 90G). The blood cells were obtained from healthy male donors (n = 3) under an approved ethics protocol. The cell uptake and the radioprotective activity of the curcumin-encapsulated liposomes were characterized by fluorescence microscopy and micronucleus assay, respectively. Nanoscale curcumin-encapsulated liposomes exhibiting good physical characteristics and successful uptake by the human blood cells were successfully prepared. The radioprotective activity of the curcumin-encapsulated liposomes was found to be dependent on the curcumin concentration, where an optimal concentration existed (i.e. 30 μg/mL) independent of the irradiation dose, above which the radioprotective activity had become stagnant (i.e. no more reduction in the micronuclei frequency). The present results established for the first time the radioprotective activity of curcumin-encapsulated liposomes in human blood cells, which coupled by its well-established bioavailability, boded well for its potential application as a nanoscale delivery system of other radioprotective phytochemicals.

  15. Multimode Communication Protocols Enabling Reconfigurable Radios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berlemann Lars

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the realization and application of a generic protocol stack for reconfigurable wireless communication systems. This focus extends the field of software-defined radios which usually concentrates on the physical layer. The generic protocol stack comprises common protocol functionality and behavior which are extended through specific parts of the targeted radio access technology. This paper considers parameterizable modules of basic protocol functions residing in the data link layer of the ISO/OSI model. System-specific functionality of the protocol software is realized through adequate parameterization and composition of the generic modules. The generic protocol stack allows an efficient realization of reconfigurable protocol software and enables a completely reconfigurable wireless communication system. It is a first step from side-by-side realized, preinstalled modes in a terminal towards a dynamic reconfigurable anymode terminal. The presented modules of the generic protocol stack can also be regarded as a toolbox for the accelerated and cost-efficient development of future communication protocols.

  16. Thin film Encapsulations of Flexible Organic Light Emitting Diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai Fa-Ta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Various encapsulated films for flexible organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs were studied in this work, where gas barrier layers including inorganic Al2O3 thin films prepared by atomic layer deposition, organic Parylene C thin films prepared by chemical vapor deposition, and their combination were considered. The transmittance and water vapor transmission rate of the various organic and inorgabic encapsulated films were tested. The effects of the encapsulated films on the luminance and current density of the OLEDs were discussed, and the life time experiments of the OLEDs with these encapsulated films were also conducted. The results showed that the transmittance are acceptable even the PET substrate were coated two Al2O3 and Parylene C layers. The results also indicated the WVTR of the PET substrate improved by coating the barrier layers. In the encapsulation performance, it indicates the OLED with Al2O3 /PET, 1 pair/PET, and 2 pairs/PET presents similarly higher luminance than the other two cases. Although the 1 pair/PET encapsulation behaves a litter better luminance than the 2 pairs/PET encapsulation, the 2 pairs/PET encapsulation has much better life time. The OLED with 2 pairs/PET encapsulation behaves near double life time to the 1 pair encapsulation, and four times to none encapsulation.

  17. New trends in encapsulation of liposoluble vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonnet, M; Lethuaut, L; Boury, F

    2010-09-15

    Liposoluble vitamins (A, D, E, and K) and carotenoids have many benefits on health. They are provided mainly by foods. At pharmacological doses, they can also be used to treat skin diseases, several types of cancer or decrease oxidative stress. These molecules are sensitive to oxidation, thus encapsulation might constitute an appropriate mean to preserve their properties during storage and enhance their physiological potencies. Formulation processes have been adapted for sensitive molecule, limiting their exposure to high temperature, light or oxygen. Each administration pathway, oral, systemic, topical, transdermal and local, requires different particle sizes and release profile. Encapsulation can lead to greater efficiency allowing smaller administration doses thus diminishing potential hypervitaminosis syndrome appearance and side effects. Carrier formulation can be based on vitamin dissolution in lipid media and its stabilization by surfactant mixture, on its entrapment in a matrix or molecular system. Suitability of each type of carrier will be discussed for each pathway. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Design documentation: Krypton encapsulation preconceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knecht, D.A.

    1994-10-01

    US EPA regulations limit the release of Krypton-85 to the environment from commercial facilities after January 1, 1983. In order to comply with these regulations, Krypton-85, which would be released during reprocessing of commercial nuclear fuel, must be collected and stored. Technology currently exists for separation of krypton from other inert gases, and for its storage as a compressed gas in steel cylinders. The requirements, which would be imposed for 100-year storage of Krypton-85, have led to development of processes for encapsulation of krypton within a stable solid matrix. The objective of this effort was to provide preconceptual engineering designs, technical evaluations, and life cycle costing data for comparison of two alternate candidate processes for encapsulation of Krypton-85. This report has been prepared by The Ralph M. Parsons Company for the US Department of Energy

  19. Design documentation: Krypton encapsulation preconceptual design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knecht, D.A. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1994-10-01

    US EPA regulations limit the release of Krypton-85 to the environment from commercial facilities after January 1, 1983. In order to comply with these regulations, Krypton-85, which would be released during reprocessing of commercial nuclear fuel, must be collected and stored. Technology currently exists for separation of krypton from other inert gases, and for its storage as a compressed gas in steel cylinders. The requirements, which would be imposed for 100-year storage of Krypton-85, have led to development of processes for encapsulation of krypton within a stable solid matrix. The objective of this effort was to provide preconceptual engineering designs, technical evaluations, and life cycle costing data for comparison of two alternate candidate processes for encapsulation of Krypton-85. This report has been prepared by The Ralph M. Parsons Company for the US Department of Energy.

  20. Hanford waste encapsulation: strontium and cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, R.R.

    1976-06-01

    The strontium and cesium fractions separated from high radiation level wastes at Hanford are converted to the solid strontium fluoride and cesium chloride salts, doubly encapsulated, and stored underwater in the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF). A capsule contains approximately 70,000 Ci of 137 Cs or 70,000 to 140,000 Ci of 90 Sr. Materials for fabrication of process equipment and capsules must withstand a combination of corrosive chemicals, high radiation dosages and frequently, elevated temperatures. The two metals selected for capsules, Hastelloy C-276 for strontium fluoride and 316-L stainless steel for cesium chloride, are adequate for prolonged containment. Additional materials studies are being done both for licensing strontium fluoride as source material and for second generation process equipment

  1. Encapsulated Ball Bearings for Rotary Micro Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    occurrence as well as the overall tribological properties of the bearing mechanism. Firstly, the number of stainless steel balls influences not only the load...stacks.iop.org/JMM/17/S224 Abstract We report on the first encapsulated rotary ball bearing mechanism using silicon microfabrication and stainless steel balls...The method of capturing stainless steel balls within a silicon race to support a silicon rotor both axially and radially is developed for rotary micro

  2. Encapsulating peritonitis: computed tomography and surgical correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadow, Juliana Santos; Fingerhut, Carla Jeronimo Peres; Fernandes, Vinicius de Barros; Coradazzi, Klaus Rizk Stuhr; Silva, Lucas Marciel Soares; Penachim, Thiago Jose, E-mail: vinicius.barros.fernandes@gmail.com [Pontificia Universidade Catolica de Campinas (PUC-Campinas), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Hospital e Maternidade Celso Pierro

    2014-07-15

    Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis is a rare and frequently severe entity characterized by total or partial involvement of small bowel loops by a membrane of fibrous tissue. The disease presents with nonspecific clinical features of intestinal obstruction, requiring precise imaging diagnosis to guide the treatment. The present report emphasizes the importance of computed tomography in the diagnosis of this condition and its confirmation by surgical correlation. (author)

  3. High-Performance CCSDS AOS Protocol Implementation in FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clare, Loren P.; Torgerson, Jordan L.; Pang, Jackson

    2010-01-01

    The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) Advanced Orbiting Systems (AOS) space data link protocol provides a framing layer between channel coding such as LDPC (low-density parity-check) and higher-layer link multiplexing protocols such as CCSDS Encapsulation Service, which is described in the following article. Recent advancement in RF modem technology has allowed multi-megabit transmission over space links. With this increase in data rate, the CCSDS AOS protocol implementation needs to be optimized to both reduce energy consumption and operate at a high rate.

  4. Examination of a Standardized Test for Evaluating the Degree of Cure of EVA Encapsulation (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D.; Wohlgemuth, J.; Gu, X.; Haldeman, S.; Hidalgo, M.; Malguth, E.; Reid, C.; Shioda, T.; Schulze, S.; Wang, Z.

    2013-11-01

    The curing of cross-linkable encapsulation is a critical consideration for photovoltaic (PV) modules manufactured using a lamination process. Concerns related to ethylene-co-vinyl acetate (EVA) include the quality (e.g., expiration and uniformity) of the films or completion (duration) of the cross-linking of the EVA within a laminator. Because these issues are important to both EVA and module manufacturers, an international standard has recently been proposed by the Encapsulation Task-Group within the Working Group 2 (WG2) of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Committee 82 (TC82) for the quantification of the degree of cure for EVA encapsulation. The present draft of the standard calls for the use of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) as the rapid, enabling secondary (test) method. Both the residual enthalpy- and melt/freeze-DSC methods are identified. The DSC methods are calibrated against the gel content test, the primary (reference) method. Aspects of other established methods, including indentation and rotor cure metering, were considered by the group. Key details of the test procedure will be described.

  5. Examination of a Standardized Test for Evaluating the Degree of Cure of EVA Encapsulation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D. C.; Gu, X.; Haldenman, S.; Hidalgo, M.; Malguth, E.; Reid, C. G.; Shioda, T.; Schulze, S. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Wohlgemuth, J. H.

    2013-11-01

    The curing of cross-linkable encapsulation is a critical consideration for photovoltaic (PV) modules manufactured using a lamination process. Concerns related to ethylene-co-vinyl acetate (EVA) include the quality (e.g., expiration and uniformity) of the films or completion (duration) of the cross-linking of the EVA within a laminator. Because these issues are important to both EVA and module manufacturers, an international standard has recently been proposed by the Encapsulation Task-Group within the Working Group 2 (WG2) of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Committee 82 (TC82) for the quantification of the degree of cure for EVA encapsulation. The present draft of the standard calls for the use of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) as the rapid, enabling secondary (test) method. Both the residual enthalpy- and melt/freeze-DSC methods are identified. The DSC methods are calibrated against the gel content test, the primary (reference) method. Aspects of other established methods, including indentation and rotor cure metering, were considered by the group. Key details of the test procedure will be described.

  6. Micelle-encapsulated fullerenes in aqueous electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ala-Kleme, T., E-mail: timo.ala-kleme@utu.fi [Department of Chemistry, University of Turku, 20014 Turku (Finland); Maeki, A.; Maeki, R.; Kopperoinen, A.; Heikkinen, M.; Haapakka, K. [Department of Chemistry, University of Turku, 20014 Turku (Finland)

    2013-03-15

    Different micellar particles Mi(M{sup +}) (Mi=Triton X-100, Triton N-101 R, Triton CF-10, Brij-35, M{sup +}=Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Cs{sup +}) have been prepared in different aqueous H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}/MOH background electrolytes. It has been observed that these particles can be used to disperse the highly hydrophobic spherical [60]fullerene (1) and ellipsoidal [70]fullerene (2). This dispersion is realised as either micelle-encapsulated monomers Mi(M{sup +})1{sub m} and Mi(M{sup +})2{sub m} or water-soluble micelle-bound aggregates Mi(M{sup +})1{sub agg} and Mi(M{sup +})2{sub agg}, where especially the hydration degree and polyoxyethylene (POE) thickness of the micellar particle seems to play a role of vital importance. Further, the encapsulation microenvironment of 1{sub m} was found to depend strongly on the selected monovalent electrolyte cation, i.e., the encapsulated 1{sub m} is accommodated in the more hydrophobic microenvironment the higher the cationic solvation number is. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different micellar particles is used to disperse [60]fullerene and [70]fullerene. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fullerene monomers or aggregates are dispersed encaging or bounding by micelles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effective facts are hydration degree and polyoxyethylene thickness of micelle.

  7. Ultrasonographic findings of sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jong Kyu; Lee, Hae Kyung; Moon, Chul; Hong, Hyun Sook; Kwon, Kwi Hyang; Choi, Deuk Lin [Soonchunhyangi University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-15

    To evaluate the ultrasonographic findings of the patients with sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (SEP). Thirteen patients with surgically confirmed sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis were involved in this study. Because of intestinal obstruction, all patients had received operations. Among 13 patients, 12 cases had continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) for 2 months-12 years and 4 months from (mean; 6 years and 10 months), owing to chronic renal failure and one patient had an operation due to variceal bleeding caused by liver cirrhosis. On ultrasonographic examination, all patients showed loculated ascites which were large (n=7) or small (n=6) in amount with multiple separations. The small bowel loops were tethered posteriorly perisaltic movement and covered with the thick membrane. The ultrasonographic of findings of sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis were posteriorly tethered small bowels covered with a thick membrane and loculated ascites with multiple septa. Ultrasonographic examination can detect the thin membrane covering the small bowel loops in the early phase of the disease, therefore ultrasonography would be a helpful modality to diagnose SEP early.

  8. Micro-Encapsulated Phase Change Materials: A Review of Encapsulation, Safety and Thermal Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Hassan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Phase change materials (PCMs have been identified as potential candidates for building energy optimization by increasing the thermal mass of buildings. The increased thermal mass results in a drop in the cooling/heating loads, thus decreasing the energy demand in buildings. However, direct incorporation of PCMs into building elements undermines their structural performance, thereby posing a challenge for building integrity. In order to retain/improve building structural performance, as well as improving energy performance, micro-encapsulated PCMs are integrated into building materials. The integration of microencapsulation PCMs into building materials solves the PCM leakage problem and assures a good bond with building materials to achieve better structural performance. The aim of this article is to identify the optimum micro-encapsulation methods and materials for improving the energy, structural and safety performance of buildings. The article reviews the characteristics of micro-encapsulated PCMs relevant to building integration, focusing on safety rating, structural implications, and energy performance. The article uncovers the optimum combinations of the shell (encapsulant and core (PCM materials along with encapsulation methods by evaluating their merits and demerits.

  9. The encapsulated nuclear heat source reactor for proliferation-resistant nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, N.W.; Hossain, Q.; Carelli, M.D.; Conway, L.; Dzodzo, M.; Greenspan, E.; Saphier, D.

    2001-01-01

    The encapsulated nuclear heat source (ENHS) is a modular reactor that was selected by the 1999 DOE NERI program as a candidate ''Generation-IV'' reactor concept. It is a fast neutron spectrum reactor cooled by Pb-Bi using natural circulation. It is designed for passive load following, for high level of passive safety, and for 15 years without refueling. One of the unique features of the ENHS is that the fission-generated heat is transferred from the primary coolant to the secondary coolant across the reactor vessel wall by conduction-providing for an essentially sealed module that is easy to install and replace. Because the fuel is encapsulated within a heavy steel container throughout its life it provides a unique improvement to the proliferation resistance of the nuclear fuel cycle. This paper presents the innovative technology of the ENHS. (author)

  10. Encapsulated nuclear heat source reactors for energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, E.; Susplugas, A.; Hong, S.G.; Monti, L.; Sumini, M.; Okawa, T.

    2006-01-01

    A spectrum of Encapsulated Nuclear Heat Source (ENHS) reactors have been conceptually designed over the last few years; they span a power range from 10 MWe to -200 MWe and consider a number of coolants and fuel types. Common features of all these designs include very long life cores - exceeding 20 effective full power years; nearly zero burnup reactivity swing; natural circulation; superb safety; autonomous load following capability; simplicity of operation and maintenance. ENHS reactors could be of particular interest for providing electricity, thermal energy and, possibly, desalinated water to communities that are not connected to a central electricity grid such as to many pacific islands and to remote communities in the mainland of different countries. ENHS reactors provide energy security by virtue of a couple of features: (1) Once an ENHS reactor is commissioned, the community has assured clean energy supply for at least 20 years without needing fuel supply. (2) The energy value of the fuel loaded (in the factory) in the ENHS module is preserved; what is needed for generating energy for additional 20+ years is to remove the fission products, add depleted uranium for makeup fuel, refabricate fuel rods and load into a new module. This fuel recycling is envisioned done by either the supplier country or by a regional or international fuel cycle centre. As the ENHS module is replaced at its entirety at the end of the core life - that is brought about by radiation damage, the ENHS plant life is likely to last for over 100 years. The above features also offer exceptional stability in the price of energy generated by the ENHS reactor. The reference ENHS design will be described followed by a brief description of the design options developed and a summary of their performance characteristics

  11. Study protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Benjamin E; Hendrick, Paul; Bateman, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    avoidance behaviours, catastrophising, self-efficacy, sport and leisure activity participation, and general quality of life. Follow-up will be 3 and 6 months. The analysis will focus on descriptive statistics and confidence intervals. The qualitative components will follow a thematic analysis approach....... DISCUSSION: This study will evaluate the feasibility of running a definitive large-scale trial on patients with patellofemoral pain, within the NHS in the UK. We will identify strengths and weaknesses of the proposed protocol and the utility and characteristics of the outcome measures. The results from...... this study will inform the design of a multicentre trial. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN35272486....

  12. Simultaneous ultrasound-assisted water extraction and β-cyclodextrin encapsulation of polyphenols from Mangifera indica stem bark in counteracting TNFα-induced endothelial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mura, Marzia; Palmieri, Daniela; Garella, Davide; Di Stilo, Antonella; Perego, Patrizia; Cravotto, Giancarlo; Palombo, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    This study proposes an alternative technique to prevent heat degradation induced by classic procedures of bioactive compound extraction, comparing classical maceration/decoction in hot water of polyphenols from Mango (Mangifera indica L.) (MI) with ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) in a water solution of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) at room temperature and testing their biological activity on TNFα-induced endothelial dysfunction. Both extracts counteracted TNFα effects on EAhy926 cells, down-modulating interleukin-6, interleukin-8, cyclooxygenase-2 and intracellular adhesion molecule-1, while increasing endothelial nitric oxide synthase levels. β-CD extract showed higher efficacy in improving endothelial function. These effects were abolished after pre-treatment with the oestrogen receptor inhibitor ICI1182,780. Moreover, the β-CD extract induced Akt activation and completely abolished the TNFα-induced p38MAPK phosphorylation. UAE and β-CD encapsulation provide an efficient extraction protocol that increases polyphenol bioavailability. Polyphenols from MI play a protective role on endothelial cells and may be further considered as oestrogen-like molecules with vascular protective properties.

  13. Encapsulation of iron nanoparticles in alginate biopolymer for trichloroethylene remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezbaruah, Achintya N.; Shanbhogue, Sai Sharanya; Simsek, Senay; Khan, Eakalak

    2011-01-01

    Nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI) particles (10–90 nm) were encapsulated in biodegradable calcium-alginate capsules for the first time for application in environmental remediation. Encapsulation is expected to offers distinct advances over entrapment. Trichloroethylene (TCE) degradation was 89–91% in 2 h, and the reaction followed pseudo first order kinetics for encapsulated NZVI systems with an observed reaction rate constant (k obs ) of 1.92–3.23 × 10 −2 min −1 and a surface normalized reaction rate constant (k sa ) of 1.02–1.72 × 10 −3 L m −2 min −1 . TCE degradation reaction rates for encapsulated and bare NZVI were similar indicating no adverse affects of encapsulation on degradation kinetics. The shelf-life of encapsulated NZVI was found to be four months with little decrease in TCE removal efficiency.

  14. Encapsulation of hazardous wastes into agglomerates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guloy, A.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using the cementitious properties and agglomeration characteristics of coal conversion byproducts to encapsulate and immobilize hazardous waste materials. The intention was to establish an economical way of co-utilization and co-disposal of wastes. In addition, it may aid in the eradication of air pollution problems associated with the fine-powdery nature of fly ash. Encapsulation into agglomerates is a novel approach of treating toxic waste. Although encapsulation itself is not a new concept, existing methods employ high-cost resins that render them economically unfeasible. In this investigation, the toxic waste was contained in a concrete-like matrix whereby fly ash and other cementitious waste materials were utilized. The method incorporates the principles of solidification, stabilization and agglomeration. Another aspect of the study is the evaluation of the agglomeration as possible lightweight aggregates. Since fly ash is commercially used as an aggregate, it would be interesting to study the effect of incorporating toxic wastes in the strength development of the granules. In the investigation, the fly ash self-cementation process was applied to electroplating sludges as the toxic waste. The process hoped to provide a basis for delisting of the waste as hazardous and, thereby greatly minimize the cost of its disposal. Owing to the stringent regulatory requirements for hauling and disposal of hazardous waste, the cost of disposal is significant. The current practice for disposal is solidifying the waste with portland cement and dumping the hardened material in the landfill where the cost varies between $700--950/ton. Partially replacing portland cement with fly ash in concrete has proven beneficial, therefore applying the same principles in the treatment of toxic waste looked very promising

  15. Thermoresponsive latexes for fragrance encapsulation and release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popadyuk, N; Popadyuk, A; Kohut, A; Voronov, A

    2016-04-01

    To synthesize cross-linked latex particles protecting the encapsulated fragrance at ambient temperatures and facilitating the release of cargo at the temperature of the surface of the skin that varies in different regions of the body between 33.5 and 36.9°C. Poly(stearyl acrylate) (PSA), a polymer with long crystallizable alkyl side chains (undergoes order-disorder transitions at 45°C), was chosen as the main component of the polymer particles. As a result, new thermoresponsive polymer particles for fragrance encapsulation were synthesized and characterized, including assessing the performance of particles in triggered release by elevated temperature. To obtain network domains of various crystallinity, stearyl acrylate was copolymerized with dipropylene glycol acrylate caprylate (DGAC) (comonomer) in the presence of a dipropylene glycol diacrylate sebacate (cross-linker) using the miniemulsion process. Comonomers and a cross-linker were mixed directly in a fragrance during polymerization. Fragrance release was evaluated at 25, 31, 35 and 39°C to demonstrate a new material potential in personal/health care skin-related applications. Particles protect the fragrance from evaporation at 25°C. The fragrance release rate gradually increases at 31, 35 and 39°C. Two slopes were found on release plots. The first slope corresponds to a rapid fragrance release. The second slope indicates a subsequent reduction in the release rate. Crystalline-to-amorphous transition of PSA triggers the release of fragrances from cross-linked latex particles at elevated temperatures. The presence of the encapsulated fragrance, as well as the inclusion of amorphous fragments in the polymer network, reduces the particle crystallinity and enhances the release. Release profiles can be tuned by temperature and controlled by the amount of loaded fragrance and the ratio of comonomers in the feed mixture. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  16. Analysis of Double-encapsulated Fuel Rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hales, Jason Dean [Idaho National Laboratory; Medvedev, Pavel G [Idaho National Laboratory; Novascone, Stephen Rhead [Idaho National Laboratory; Perez, Danielle Marie [Idaho National Laboratory; Williamson, Richard L [Idaho National Laboratory

    2014-09-01

    In an LWR fuel rod, the cladding encapsulates the fuel, contains fission products, and transfers heat directly to the water coolant. In some situations, it may be advantageous to separate the cladding from the coolant through use of a secondary cladding or capsule. This may be done to increase confidence that the fuel or fission products will not mix with the coolant, to provide a mechanism for controlling the rod temperature, or to place multiple experimental rodlets within a single housing. With an axisymmetric assumption, it is possible to derive closed-form expressions for the temperature profile in a fuel rod using radially-constant thermal conductivity in the fuel. This is true for both a traditional fuel-cladding rod and a double-encapsulated fuel (fuel, cladding, capsule) configuration. Likewise, it is possible to employ a fuel performance code to analyse both a traditional and a double-encapsulated fuel. In the case of the latter, two sets of gap heat transfer conditions must be imposed. In this work, we review the equations associated with radial heat transfer in a cylindrical system, present analytic and computational results for a postulated power and gas mixture history for IFA-744, and describe the analysis of the AFC-2A, 2B metallic fuel alloy experiments at the Advanced Test Reactor, including the effect of a release of fission products into the cladding-capsule gap. The computational results for these two cases were obtained using BISON, a fuel performance code under development at Idaho National Laboratory.

  17. Electrospun Phospholipid Fibers as Micro-Encapsulation and Antioxidant Matrices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shekarforoush, Elhamalsadat; Mendes, Ana Carina Loureiro; Baj, Vanessa

    2017-01-01

    Electrospun phospholipid (asolectin) microfibers were investigated as antioxidants and encapsulation matrices for curcumin and vanillin. These phospholipid microfibers exhibited antioxidant properties which increased after the encapsulation of both curcumin and vanillin. The total antioxidant...... capacity (TAC) and the total phenolic content (TPC) of curcumin/phospholipid and vanillin/phospholipid microfibers remained stable over time at different temperatures (refrigerated, ambient) and pressures (vacuum, ambient). ¹H-NMR confirmed the chemical stability of both encapsulated curcumin and vanillin...

  18. Encapsulation of electroless copper patterns into diamond films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimenov, S.M.; Shafeev, G.A.; Lavrischev, S.V. [General Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The results are reported on encapsulating copper lines into diamond films grown by a DC plasma CVD. The process includes the steps of (i) laser activation of diamond for electroless metal plating, (ii) electroless copper deposition selectively onto the activated surface regions, and (iii) diamond regrowth on the Cu-patterned diamond films. The composition and electrical properties of the encapsulated copper lines were examined, revealing high purity and low electrical resistivity of the encapsulated electroless copper.

  19. Investigations into encapsulation of intermediate level wastes containing organic components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, J.

    1988-01-01

    A product evaluation programme was set up to investigate the properties of a variety of matrix-waste formulations prior to their encapsulation. The waste/matrix forms were defined and characterised and waste pretreatments studied. Potential encapsulation matrices were investigated for their suitability for individual waste streams. The physical, chemical and thermal properties, radiation stability and leaching behaviour of the formulations were studied. Operational and design limits for the encapsulation plant were defined. (U.K.)

  20. Method of encapsulating waste radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrester, J.A.; Rootham, M.W.

    1982-01-01

    When encapsulating radioactive waste including radioactive liquid having a retardant therein which retards the setting of cements by preventing hydration at cement particles in the mix, the liquid is mixed with ordinary Portland cement and subjected, in a high shear mixer, to long term shear far in excess of that needed to form ordinary grout. The controlled utilization of the retardants plus shear produces a thixotropic paste with extreme moldability which will not bleed, and finally sets more rapidly than can be expected with normal cement mixtures forming a very strong product. (author)

  1. Encapsulation of high temperature molten salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxley, James D.; Mathur, Anoop Kumar

    2017-05-16

    The present disclosure relates to a method of encapsulating microcapsules containing relatively high temperature phase change materials and the microcapsules so produced. The microcapsules are coated with an inorganic binder, film former and an inorganic filler. The microcapsules may include a sacrificial layer that is disposed between the particle and the coating. The microcapsules may also include an inner coating layer, sacrificial layer and outer coating layer. The microcapsules are particularly useful for thermal energy storage in connection with, e.g., heat collected from concentrating solar collectors.

  2. Computed tomography appearances of sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, C.; Al-Zwae, K.; Nair, S.; Cast, J.E.I.

    2007-01-01

    Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (SEP) is a serious complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD) characterized by thickened peritoneal membranes, which lead to decreased ultra-filtration and intestinal obstruction. Its early clinical features are nonspecific, and it is often diagnosed late following laparotomy and peritoneal biopsy, when the patient develops small bowel obstruction, which can be a life-threatening complication. However, this is changing with increasing awareness of computed tomography (CT) findings in SEP. CT can yield an early, non-invasive diagnosis that may improve patient outcome. We present a review of the CT appearances of SEP

  3. Process for the encapsulation of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pordes, O.; Plows, J.P.; Hill, M.L.

    1980-01-01

    Radioactive waste material, particularly radioactive ion exchange resin in the wet condition, is encapsulated in a polyurethane by dispersing the waste in an aqueous emulsion of an organic polyol, a polyisocyanate and an hydraulic cement and allowing the emulsion to set to form a monolithic block. If desired the emulsion may also contain additional filler e.g. sand or aggregate to increase the density of the final product. Preferred polyurethanes are those made from a polyester polyol and an organic diisocyanate, particularly hexamethylene diisocyanate. (author)

  4. Computed tomography appearances of sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, C. [Department of Radiology, Hull Royal Infirmary, Hull (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: cheriangeorge@hotmail.com; Al-Zwae, K. [Department of Radiology, Hull Royal Infirmary, Hull (United Kingdom); Nair, S. [Department of Radiology, Hull Royal Infirmary, Hull (United Kingdom); Cast, J.E.I. [Department of Radiology, Hull Royal Infirmary, Hull (United Kingdom)

    2007-08-15

    Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (SEP) is a serious complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD) characterized by thickened peritoneal membranes, which lead to decreased ultra-filtration and intestinal obstruction. Its early clinical features are nonspecific, and it is often diagnosed late following laparotomy and peritoneal biopsy, when the patient develops small bowel obstruction, which can be a life-threatening complication. However, this is changing with increasing awareness of computed tomography (CT) findings in SEP. CT can yield an early, non-invasive diagnosis that may improve patient outcome. We present a review of the CT appearances of SEP.

  5. Encapsulation of testosterone by chitosan nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanphai, P; Tajmir-Riahi, H A

    2017-05-01

    The loading of testosterone by chitosan nanoparticles was investigated, using multiple spectroscopic methods, thermodynamic analysis, TEM images and modeling. Thermodynamic parameters showed testosterone-chitosan bindings occur mainly via H-bonding and van der Waals contacts. As polymer size increased more stable steroid-chitosan conjugates formed and hydrophobic contact was also observed. The loading efficacy of testosterone-nanocarrier was 40-55% and increased as chitosan size increased. Testosterone encapsulation markedly alters chitosan morphology. Chitosan nanoparticles are capable of transporting testosterone in vitro. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Multichip module technology for automotive application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. Wayne; Evans, John L.; Bosley, Larry

    1995-01-01

    Advancements in multichip module technology are creating design freedoms previously unavailable to design engineers. These advancements are opening new markets for laminate based multichip module products. In particular, material improvements in laminate printed wiring boards are allowing multichip module technology to meet more stringent environmental conditions. In addition, improvements in encapsulants and adhesives are enhancing the capabilities of multichip module technology to meet harsh environment. Furthermore, improvements in manufacturing techniques are providing the reliability improvements necessary for use in high quality electronic systems. These advances are making multichip module technology viable for high volume, harsh environment applications like under-the-hood automotive electronics. This paper will provide a brief review of multichip module technology, a discussion of specific research activities with Chrysler for use of multichip modules in automotive engine controllers and finally a discussion of prototype multichip modules fabricated and tested.

  7. Viscous effects in liquid encapsulated liquid bridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Duane T.

    2002-01-01

    An analytical derivation of the surface deflections and the streamfunctions for the flow inside a liquid encapsulated liquid bridge has been derived using an asymptotic expansion about a small capillary number. The model assumes an initially flat and cylindrical interface under the assumption that the densities of both fluids are equal. To simplify the analysis, the top and bottom walls are assumed to be stress-free and the Reynolds number is assumed to be negligible. Flow is generated either by a moving outer wall (shear-driven flow) or by applying a temperature difference across the top and bottom walls (Marangoni-driven flow). The resulting equations show that for the shear-driven flow, as the viscosity ratio increases, the surface deflections increase monotonically. For the Marangoni-driven flow there exist values of the viscosity ratio where the surface deflections reach a minimum and then switch signs. This investigation shows that it may be possible in more realistic systems to use an outer encapsulating liquid of the proper viscosity ratio to stabilize the liquid-liquid interface during float zone crystal growth

  8. Idiopathic sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (or abdominal cocoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Legakis Nikolaos

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Idiopathic sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (or abdominal cocoon is a rare cause of small bowel obstruction, especially in adult population. Diagnosis is usually incidental at laparotomy. We discuss one such rare case, outlining the fact that an intra-operative surprise diagnosis could have been facilitated by previous investigations. Case presentation A 56 year-old man presented in A&E department with small bowel ileus. He had a history of 6 similar episodes of small bowel obstruction in the past 4 years, which resolved with conservative treatment. Pre-operative work-up did not reveal any specific etiology. At laparotomy, a fibrous capsule was revealed, in which small bowel loops were encased, with the presence of interloop adhesions. A diagnosis of abdominal cocoon was established and extensive adhesiolysis was performed. The patient had an uneventful recovery and follow-up. Conclusion Idiopathic sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis, although rare, may be the cause of a common surgical emergency such as small bowel ileus, especially in cases with attacks of non-strangulating obstruction in the same individual. A high index of clinical suspicion may be generated by the recurrent character of small bowel ileus combined with relevant imaging findings and lack of other plausible etiologies. Clinicians must rigorously pursue a preoperative diagnosis, as it may prevent a "surprise" upon laparotomy and result in proper management.

  9. Idiopathic sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (or abdominal cocoon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafimidis, Costas; Katsarolis, Ioannis; Vernadakis, Spyros; Rallis, George; Giannopoulos, George; Legakis, Nikolaos; Peros, George

    2006-02-13

    Idiopathic sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (or abdominal cocoon) is a rare cause of small bowel obstruction, especially in adult population. Diagnosis is usually incidental at laparotomy. We discuss one such rare case, outlining the fact that an intra-operative surprise diagnosis could have been facilitated by previous investigations. A 56 year-old man presented in A&E department with small bowel ileus. He had a history of 6 similar episodes of small bowel obstruction in the past 4 years, which resolved with conservative treatment. Pre-operative work-up did not reveal any specific etiology. At laparotomy, a fibrous capsule was revealed, in which small bowel loops were encased, with the presence of interloop adhesions. A diagnosis of abdominal cocoon was established and extensive adhesiolysis was performed. The patient had an uneventful recovery and follow-up. Idiopathic sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis, although rare, may be the cause of a common surgical emergency such as small bowel ileus, especially in cases with attacks of non-strangulating obstruction in the same individual. A high index of clinical suspicion may be generated by the recurrent character of small bowel ileus combined with relevant imaging findings and lack of other plausible etiologies. Clinicians must rigorously pursue a preoperative diagnosis, as it may prevent a "surprise" upon laparotomy and result in proper management.

  10. Beyond protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanderhoeven, Sonia; Branquart, Etienne; Casaer, Jim

    2017-01-01

    Risk assessment tools for listing invasive alien species need to incorporate all available evidence and expertise. Beyond the wealth of protocols developed to date, we argue that the current way of performing risk analysis has several shortcomings. In particular, lack of data on ecological impact...... information on risk and the exploration of improved methods for decision making on biodiversity management. This is crucial for efficient conservation resource allocation and uptake by stakeholders and the public......., transparency and repeatability of assessments as well as the incorporation of uncertainty should all be explicitly considered. We recommend improved quality control of risk assessments through formalized peer review with clear feedback between assessors and reviewers. Alternatively, a consensus building...

  11. Investigation of test methods, material properties, and processes for solar cell encapsulants. Fourteenth quarterly progress report, August 12, 1978-November 12, 1979. [EVA, EPDM, aliphatic urethane, PVC plastisol, and butyl acrylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willis, P. B.; Baum, B.; Schnitzer, H. S.

    1979-12-01

    Springborn Laboratories is engaged in a study of evaluating potentially useful encapsulating materials for Task 3 of the Low-Cost Silicon Solar Array project (LSA) funded by DOE. The goal of this program is to identify, evaluate, and recommend encapsulant materials and processes for the production of cost-effective, long-life solar cell modules. This report presents the results of a cost analysis of candidate potting compounds for long life solar module encapsulation. Additionally, the two major encapsulation processes, sheet lamination and liquid casting, are costed on the basis of a large scale production facility. Potting compounds studied include EVA, sheet, clear; EVA, sheet, pigmented; EPDM, sheet, clear; Aliphatic urethane, syrup; PVC Plastisol; Butyl acrylate, syrup; and Butyl acrylate, sheet.

  12. Families of quantum fingerprinting protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovitz, Benjamin; Lütkenhaus, Norbert

    2018-03-01

    We introduce several families of quantum fingerprinting protocols to evaluate the equality function on two n -bit strings in the simultaneous message passing model. The original quantum fingerprinting protocol uses a tensor product of a small number of O (logn ) -qubit high-dimensional signals [H. Buhrman et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 167902 (2001), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.87.167902], whereas a recently proposed optical protocol uses a tensor product of O (n ) single-qubit signals, while maintaining the O (logn ) information leakage of the original protocol [J. M. Arazola and N. Lütkenhaus, Phys. Rev. A 89, 062305 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevA.89.062305]. We find a family of protocols which interpolate between the original and optical protocols while maintaining the O (logn ) information leakage, thus demonstrating a tradeoff between the number of signals sent and the dimension of each signal. There has been interest in experimental realization of the recently proposed optical protocol using coherent states [F. Xu et al., Nat. Commun. 6, 8735 (2015), 10.1038/ncomms9735; J.-Y. Guan et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 240502 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.240502], but as the required number of laser pulses grows linearly with the input size n , eventual challenges for the long-time stability of experimental setups arise. We find a coherent state protocol which reduces the number of signals by a factor 1/2 while also reducing the information leakage. Our reduction makes use of a simple modulation scheme in optical phase space, and we find that more complex modulation schemes are not advantageous. Using a similar technique, we improve a recently proposed coherent state protocol for evaluating the Euclidean distance between two real unit vectors [N. Kumar et al., Phys. Rev. A 95, 032337 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevA.95.032337] by reducing the number of signals by a factor 1/2 and also reducing the information leakage.

  13. Considerations for successful transplantation of encapsulated pancreatic islets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, P; Hamel, AF; Tatarkiewicz, K

    Encapsulation of pancreatic islets allows for transplantion in the absence of immunosuppression. The technology is based on the principle that transplanted tissue is protected for the host immune system by an artificial membrane. Encapsulation offers a solution to the shortage of donors in clinical

  14. Melting of Pb clusters encapsulated in large fullerenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delogu, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Encapsulation significantly increases the melting point of nanometer-sized Pb particles with respect to the corresponding unsupported ones. Highlights: → Nanometer-sized Pb particles are encapsulated in fullerene cages. → Their thermal behavior is studied by molecular dynamics simulations. → Encapsulated particles undergo a pressure rise as temperature increases. → Encapsulated particles melt at temperatures higher than unsupported ones. - Abstract: Molecular dynamics simulations have been employed to explore the melting behavior of nanometer-sized Pb particles encapsulated in spherical and polyhedral fullerene cages of suitable size. The encapsulated particles, as well as the corresponding unsupported ones for comparison, were submitted to a gradual temperature rise. Encapsulation is shown to severely affect the thermodynamic behavior of Pb particles due to the different thermal expansion coefficients of particles and cages. This determines a volume constraint that induces a rise of pressure inside the fullerene cages, which operate for particles as rigid confinement systems. The result is that surface pre-melting and melting processes occur in encapsulated particles at temperatures higher than in unsupported ones.

  15. The interpretation of encapsulating anaphors in Spanish and their functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Lotte

    2014-01-01

    Encapsulating anaphors differ from other types of anaphor by having one or more situations - not an entity - as its referent. The main aim of the article is to propose a hypothesis for how anaphoric encapsulation is resolved. The hypothesis builds on the cognitive linguistic theory of instruction...

  16. Comparisons of alternative sites for the encapsulation plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havel, R.

    2000-12-01

    This report discuses the pros and cons of localizing the spent fuel encapsulation plant at the planned Swedish repository for spent nuclear fuel or at CLAB (Central interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel). After weighing together all aspects (economy, technology, safety, transports, personnel and environment) it is concluded that building the encapsulation plant in direct connection to CLAB is the most advantageous alternative

  17. Characterization studies of lower and non-TDI polyurethane encapsulants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, M.H.

    1993-09-01

    Polyurethane prepolymers containing toluene diisocyanate (TDI) are used within the Nuclear Weapons complex for many adhesive and encapsulation applications. As part of a program for minimizing hazards to workers and the environment, TDI will be eliminated. This report presents evaluation of alternative encapsulants

  18. Mechanical Robustness and Hermeticity Monitoring for MEMS Thin Film Encapsulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santagata, F.

    2011-01-01

    Many Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) require encapsulation, to prevent delicate sensor structures being exposed to external perturbations such as dust, humidity, touching, and gas pressure. An upcoming and cost-effective way of encapsulation is zero-level packaging or thin-film

  19. Comparative assessment of plasmid DNA delivery by encapsulation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To compare the gene delivery effectiveness of plasmid DNA (pDNA) encapsulated within poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles with that adsorbed on PLGA nanoparticles. Methods: PLGA nanoparticles were prepared using solvent-evaporation method. To encapsulate pDNA within the particles, ...

  20. Plantlets from encapsulated shoot buds of Catalpa ovata G. Don

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Wysokińska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Shoot buds isolated from in vitro shoot cultures of Catalpa ovata G. Don were encapsulated using 3% sodium alginate with sucrose (3% and 50 mM calcium chloride. The morphogenic response of encapsulated buds was affected by such factors, like composition of the media and the presence of growth regulators. The highest frequency of plantlet germination from encapsulated buds (70% within 4 weeks was obtained on Woody Plant medium (WP (Lloyd and McCown 1980 containing indole-3-butyric acid (IBA (1 mg/l. The process was substantially inhibited by cold-storage (4oC of encapsulated buds. In this case, the frequency response ranged from 3% to 22% dependent on storage period (28 or 42 days and the presence of the paraffin coat covering the alginate capsules. The plantlets developed from both unstored and stored encapsulated buds of C. ovata were transplanted to soil and grew in pots to phenotypically normal plants.

  1. Electromagnetic properties of conducting polymers encapsulated in an insulating matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esnouf, Stephane

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this work is to study the electronic properties of conducting polymers encapsulated in zeolite. We studied two kinds of polymers: intrinsic conducting polymers (poly-pyrrole) and pyrolyzed polymers (polyacrylonitrile and poly-furfuryl alcohol). These systems were characterized by electron paramagnetic resonance and microwave conductivity measurements. In the first part, we present the preparation and the characterization of encapsulated poly-pyrrole. Conductivity measurements show that the encapsulated material is insulating, certainly because a strong interaction with the zeolite traps the charge carriers. In the second part, we focus on pyrolyzed encapsulated polyacrylonitrile. This system has a metal-like susceptibility at room temperature and a relatively high microwave conductivity. These results demonstrate the formation during the pyrolysis of extended aromatic clusters. Finally, we study pyrolyzed encapsulated poly-furfuryl alcohol. We show that the only effect of the pyrolysis is to fragment the polymers. We also discuss the spin relaxation and the EPR line broadening. (author) [fr

  2. Method of producing zeolite encapsulated nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The invention therefore relates to a method for producing zeolite, zeolite-like or zeotype encapsulated metal nanoparticles, the method comprises the steps of: 1) Adding one or more metal precursors to a silica or alumina source; 2) Reducing the one or more metal precursors to form metal...... nanoparticles on the surface of the silica or alumina source; 3) Passing a gaseous hydrocarbon, alkyl alcohol or alkyl ether over the silica or alumina supported metal nanoparticles to form a carbon template coated zeolite, zeolite-like or zeotype precursor composition; 4a) Adding a structure directing agent...... to the carbon template coated zeolite, zeolite-like or zeotype precursor composition thereby creating a zeolite, zeolite-like or zeotype gel composition; 4b) Crystallising the zeolite, zeolite-like or zeotype gel composition by subjecting said composition to a hydrothermal treatment; 5) Removing the carbon...

  3. Leach characterization of cement encapsulated wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, D.M.; Scheetz, B.E.; Wakeley, L.D.; Barnes, M.W.

    1982-01-01

    Matrix encapsulation of defense nuclear waste as well as intermediate-level commercial wastes within a low-temperature cementitious composite were investigated. The cements for this study included both as-received and modified calcium silicate and calcium aluminate cements. Specimens were prepared following conventional formulation techniques designed to produce dense monoliths, followed by curing at 60 0 C. An alternative preparation procedure is contrasted in which the specimens were ''warm'' pressed in a uniaxial press at 150 0 C at 50,000 psi for 0.5 h. Specimens of the waste/cement composites were leached in deionized water following three different procedures which span a wide range of temperatures and solution saturation conditions. Aluminate and compositionally adjusted silicate cements exhibited a better retentivity for Cs and Sr than did the as-received silicate cement. 15 refs

  4. Boron nitride encapsulated graphene infrared emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnard, H. R.; Zossimova, E.; Mahlmeister, N. H.; Lawton, L. M.; Luxmoore, I. J.; Nash, G. R.

    2016-01-01

    The spatial and spectral characteristics of mid-infrared thermal emission from devices containing a large area multilayer graphene layer, encapsulated using hexagonal boron nitride, have been investigated. The devices were run continuously in air for over 1000 h, with the emission spectrum covering the absorption bands of many important gases. An approximate solution to the heat equation was used to simulate the measured emission profile across the devices yielding an estimated value of the characteristic length, which defines the exponential rise/fall of the temperature profile across the device, of 40 μm. This is much larger than values obtained in smaller exfoliated graphene devices and reflects the device geometry, and the increase in lateral heat conduction within the devices due to the multilayer graphene and boron nitride layers.

  5. Boron nitride encapsulated graphene infrared emitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnard, H. R.; Zossimova, E.; Mahlmeister, N. H.; Lawton, L. M.; Luxmoore, I. J.; Nash, G. R., E-mail: g.r.nash@exeter.ac.uk [College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QF (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-28

    The spatial and spectral characteristics of mid-infrared thermal emission from devices containing a large area multilayer graphene layer, encapsulated using hexagonal boron nitride, have been investigated. The devices were run continuously in air for over 1000 h, with the emission spectrum covering the absorption bands of many important gases. An approximate solution to the heat equation was used to simulate the measured emission profile across the devices yielding an estimated value of the characteristic length, which defines the exponential rise/fall of the temperature profile across the device, of 40 μm. This is much larger than values obtained in smaller exfoliated graphene devices and reflects the device geometry, and the increase in lateral heat conduction within the devices due to the multilayer graphene and boron nitride layers.

  6. Encapsulated magnetite particles for biomedical application

    CERN Document Server

    Landfester, K

    2003-01-01

    The process of miniemulsification allows the generation of small, homogeneous, and stable droplets containing monomer or polymer precursors and magnetite which are then transferred by polymer reactions to the final polymer latexes, keeping their particular identity without serious exchange kinetics involved. It is shown that the miniemulsion process can excellently be used for the formulation of polymer-coated magnetic nanoparticles which can further be used for biomedical applications. The use of high shear, appropriate surfactants, and the addition of a hydrophobe in order to suppress the influence of Ostwald ripening are key factors for the formation of the small and stable droplets in miniemulsion and will be discussed. Two different approaches based on miniemulsion processes for the encapsulation of magnetite into polymer particles will be presented in detail.

  7. Encapsulation and Nano-Encapsulation of Papain Active Sites to Enhance Radiolityc Stability and Decrease Toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lugão, A. B.; Varca, G. H.C.; Mathor, M. B.; Santos Lopes, P.; Rogero, M. S.S.; Rogero, J.R., E-mail: ablugao@ipen.br [Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242 Cidade Universitaria, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Papain is used as an ingredient in various enzymatic debridement preparations. Those paste-like preparations are based on water solution and usually are sterilized by radiation. As a consequence, there is a major decrease in papain activity. Papain containing preparations are used in chronic wounds treatment in order to clean and remove the necrotic tissue. However FDA (2008) is taking an action against such products due to severe adverse events reported in patients submitted to papain treatments. Thus, the main goal of this proposal is to develop encapsulated papain containing membranes based on hydrogels and silicone rubber in an attempt to achieve a controllable distribution of size and delivery profile, a toxicity reduction and provide stability towards radiation processing through molecular encapsulation with β-cyclodextrin, which may also provide protection to the enzyme against radiation induced radiolysis. (author)

  8. Encapsulation and Nano-Encapsulation of Papain Active Sites to Enhance Radiolityc Stability and Decrease Toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugão, A.B.; Varca, G.H.C.; Mathor, M.B.; Santos Lopes, P.; Rogero, M.S.S.; Rogero, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    Papain is used as an ingredient in various enzymatic debridement preparations. Those paste-like preparations are based on water solution and usually are sterilized by radiation. As a consequence, there is a major decrease in papain activity. Papain containing preparations are used in chronic wounds treatment in order to clean and remove the necrotic tissue. However FDA (2008) is taking an action against such products due to severe adverse events reported in patients submitted to papain treatments. Thus, the main goal of this proposal is to develop encapsulated papain containing membranes based on hydrogels and silicone rubber in an attempt to achieve a controllable distribution of size and delivery profile, a toxicity reduction and provide stability towards radiation processing through molecular encapsulation with β-cyclodextrin, which may also provide protection to the enzyme against radiation induced radiolysis. (author)

  9. Treatment of diabetic rats with encapsulated islets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Ian R; Yanay, Ofer; Waldron, Lanaya; Gilbert, Merle; Fuller, Jessica M; Tupling, Terry; Lernmark, Ake; Osborne, William R A

    2008-12-01

    Immunoprotection of islets using bioisolator systems permits introduction of allogeneic cells to diabetic patients without the need for immunosuppression. Using TheraCyte immunoisolation devices, we investigated two rat models of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), BB rats and rats made diabetic by streptozotocin (STZ) treatment. We chose to implant islets after the onset of diabetes to mimic the probable treatment of children with T1DM as they are usually diagnosed after disease onset. We encapsulated 1000 rat islets and implanted them subcutaneously (SQ) into diabetic biobreeding (BB) rats and STZ-induced diabetic rats, defined as two or more consecutive days of blood glucose>350 mg/dl. Rats were monitored for weight and blood glucose. Untreated BB rats rapidly lost weight and were euthanized at >20% weight loss that occurred between 4 and 10 days from implantation. For period of 30-40 days following islet implantation weights of treated rats remained steady or increased. Rapid weight loss occurred after surgical removal of devices that contained insulin positive islets. STZ-treated rats that received encapsulated islets showed steady weight gain for up to 130 days, whereas untreated control rats showed steady weight loss that achieved >20% at around 55 days. Although islet implants did not normalize blood glucose, treated rats were apparently healthy and groomed normally. Autologous or allogeneic islets were equally effective in providing treatment. TheraCyte devices can sustain islets, protect allogeneic cells from immune attack and provide treatment for diabetic-mediated weight loss in both BB rats and STZ-induced diabetic rats.

  10. Investigation of test methods, material properties, and processes for solar cell encapsulants. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willis, P. B.; Baum, B.

    1979-06-01

    The goal of this program is to identify, evaluate, and recommend encapsulant materials and processes for the production of cost-effective, long-life solar cell modules. During the past year, the technical activities emphasized the reformulation of a commercial grade of ethylene/vinyl acetate copolymer for use as a pottant in solar cell module manufacture. After experimenting with a variety of techniques, a vacuum-bag process was developed and found to be an excellent encapsulation method. Adhesive strengths and primers for the bonding of ethylene/vinyl acetate to superstrate and substrate materials was assessed with encouraging results. The weathering effects on ten other polymers exposed to twelve months of weathering in Arizona, Florida, and under EMMAQUA were evaluated by determination of tensile strengths, elongations, optical transmission, etc. As may be expected, the best overall retention of mechanical properties is found for the fluorocarbon polymers, especially FEP. Hard coatings containing ultraviolet absorbers were investigated for the purpose of providing a soil resistant surface and additional weathering stability to the soft EVA pottant. Corrosion studies using a standard salt spray test were used to determine the degree of protection offered to a variety of metals by encapsulation in EVA pottant. A survey of scrim materials was also conducted. These open hole weaves are intended for use as spacers between the cell and substrate to provide a mechanical barrier, improve insulation resistance and prevent migration of the pigmented pottant over the cell surface. A mechanical engineering analysis of composite structural materials for use as substrates was performed. Results are presented in detail. (WHK)

  11. Capacitance-voltage analysis of electrical properties for WSe2 field effect transistors with high-k encapsulation layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Seung-Pil; Shin, Jong Mok; Jang, Ho Kyun; You, Min Youl; Jin, Jun-Eon; Choi, Miri; Cho, Jiung; Kim, Gyu-Tae

    2018-02-01

    Doping effects in devices based on two-dimensional (2D) materials have been widely studied. However, detailed analysis and the mechanism of the doping effect caused by encapsulation layers has not been sufficiently explored. In this work, we present experimental studies on the n-doping effect in WSe2 field effect transistors (FETs) with a high-k encapsulation layer (Al2O3) grown by atomic layer deposition. In addition, we demonstrate the mechanism and origin of the doping effect. After encapsulation of the Al2O3 layer, the threshold voltage of the WSe2 FET negatively shifted with the increase of the on-current. The capacitance-voltage measurements of the metal insulator semiconductor (MIS) structure proved the presence of the positive fixed charges within the Al2O3 layer. The flat-band voltage of the MIS structure of Au/Al2O3/SiO2/Si was shifted toward the negative direction on account of the positive fixed charges in the Al2O3 layer. Our results clearly revealed that the fixed charges in the Al2O3 encapsulation layer modulated the Fermi energy level via the field effect. Moreover, these results possibly provide fundamental ideas and guidelines to design 2D materials FETs with high-performance and reliability.

  12. Tracking hypoxic signaling within encapsulated cell aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiles, Matthew L; Sahai, Suchit; Blanchette, James O

    2011-12-16

    In Diabetes mellitus type 1, autoimmune destruction of the pancreatic β-cells results in loss of insulin production and potentially lethal hyperglycemia. As an alternative treatment option to exogenous insulin injection, transplantation of functional pancreatic tissue has been explored. This approach offers the promise of a more natural, long-term restoration of normoglycemia. Protection of the donor tissue from the host's immune system is required to prevent rejection and encapsulation is a method used to help achieve this aim. Biologically-derived materials, such as alginate and agarose, have been the traditional choice for capsule construction but may induce inflammation or fibrotic overgrowth which can impede nutrient and oxygen transport. Alternatively, synthetic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based hydrogels are non-degrading, easily functionalized, available at high purity, have controllable pore size, and are extremely biocompatible. As an additional benefit, PEG hydrogels may be formed rapidly in a simple photo-crosslinking reaction that does not require application of non-physiological temperatures. Such a procedure is described here. In the crosslinking reaction, UV degradation of the photoinitiator, 1-[4-(2-Hydroxyethoxy)-phenyl]-2-hydroxy-2-methyl-1-propane-1-one (Irgacure 2959), produces free radicals which attack the vinyl carbon-carbon double bonds of dimethacrylated PEG (PEGDM) inducing crosslinking at the chain ends. Crosslinking can be achieved within 10 minutes. PEG hydrogels constructed in such a manner have been shown to favorably support cells, and the low photoinitiator concentration and brief exposure to UV irradiation is not detrimental to viability and function of the encapsulated tissue. While we methacrylate our PEG with the method described below, PEGDM can also be directly purchased from vendors such as Sigma. An inherent consequence of encapsulation is isolation of the cells from a vascular network. Supply of nutrients, notably oxygen

  13. Encapsulation of gold nanoparticles into self-assembling protein nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yongkun

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gold nanoparticles are useful tools for biological applications due to their attractive physical and chemical properties. Their applications can be further expanded when they are functionalized with biological molecules. The biological molecules not only provide the interfaces for interactions between nanoparticles and biological environment, but also contribute their biological functions to the nanoparticles. Therefore, we used self-assembling protein nanoparticles (SAPNs to encapsulate gold nanoparticles. The protein nanoparticles are formed upon self-assembly of a protein chain that is composed of a pentameric coiled-coil domain at the N-terminus and trimeric coiled-coil domain at the C-terminus. The self-assembling protein nanoparticles form a central cavity of about 10 nm in size, which is ideal for the encapsulation of gold nanoparticles with similar sizes. Results We have used SAPNs to encapsulate several commercially available gold nanoparticles. The hydrodynamic size and the surface coating of gold nanoparticles are two important factors influencing successful encapsulation by the SAPNs. Gold nanoparticles with a hydrodynamic size of less than 15 nm can successfully be encapsulated. Gold nanoparticles with citrate coating appear to have stronger interactions with the proteins, which can interfere with the formation of regular protein nanoparticles. Upon encapsulation gold nanoparticles with polymer coating interfere less strongly with the ability of the SAPNs to assemble into nanoparticles. Although the central cavity of the SAPNs carries an overall charge, the electrostatic interaction appears to be less critical for the efficient encapsulation of gold nanoparticles into the protein nanoparticles. Conclusions The SAPNs can be used to encapsulate gold nanoparticles. The SAPNs can be further functionalized by engineering functional peptides or proteins to either their N- or C-termini. Therefore encapsulation of gold

  14. Degradation in PV Encapsulation Transmittance: An Interlaboratory Study Toward a Climate-Specific Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, David C.; Hacke, Peter L.; Kempe, Michael D.; Wohlgemuth, John H.; Annigoni, Eleonora; Sculati-Meillaud, Fanny; Ballion, Amal; Kohl, Michael; Bokria, Jayesh G.; Bruckman, Laura S.; French, Roger H.; Burns, David; Phillips, Nancy H.; Feng; Jiangtao; Elliott, Lamont; Scott, Kurt P.; Fowler, Sean; Gu, Xiaohong; Honeker, Christian C.; Khonkar, Hussam; Perret-Aebi, Laure-Emmanuelle; Shioda, Tsy

    2015-06-14

    Reduced optical transmittance of encapsulation resulting from ultraviolet (UV) degradation has frequently been identified as a cause of decreased PV module performance through the life of installations in the field. The present module safety and qualification standards, however, apply short UV doses only capable of examining design robustness or 'infant mortality' failures. Essential information that might be used to screen encapsulation through product lifetime remains unknown. For example, the relative efficacy of xenon-arc and UVA-340 fluorescent sources or the typical range of activation energy for degradation is not quantified. We have conducted an interlaboratory experiment to provide the understanding that will be used towards developing a climate- and configuration-specific (UV) weathering test. Five representative, known formulations of EVA were studied in addition to one TPU material. Replicate laminated silica/polymer/silica specimens are being examined at 14 institutions using a variety of indoor chambers (including Xe, UVA-340, and metal-halide light sources) or field aging. The solar-weighted transmittance, yellowness index, and the UV cut-off wavelength, determined from the measured hemispherical transmittance, are examined to provide understanding and guidance for the UV light source (lamp type) and temperature used in accelerated UV aging tests. Index Terms -- reliability, durability, thermal activation.

  15. Building a Multi-Discipline Digital Library Through Extending the Dienst Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael L.; Maly, Kurt; Shen, Stewart N. T.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to establish multi-discipline capability for a unified, canonical digital library service for scientific and technical information (STI). This is accomplished by extending the Dienst Protocol to be aware of subject classification of a servers holdings. We propose a hierarchical, general, and extendible subject classification that can encapsulate existing classification systems.

  16. Steel Bar corrosion monitoring based on encapsulated piezoelectric sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ying; Tang, Tianyou

    2018-05-01

    The durability of reinforced concrete has a great impact on the structural bearing capacity, while the corrosion of steel bars is the main reason for the degradation of structural durability. In this paper, a new type of encapsulated cement based piezoelectric sensor is developed and its working performance is verified. The consistency of the finite element simulation and the experimental results shows the feasibility of monitoring the corrosion of steel bars using encapsulated piezoelectric sensors. The research results show that the corrosion conditions of the steel bars can be determined by the relative amplitude of the measured signal through the encapsulated piezoelectric sensor.

  17. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) singly encapsulated cesium chloride capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smyth, W.W.

    1997-01-01

    Three nonstandard Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) cesium chloride capsules are being shipped from WESF (225B building) to the 324 building. They would normally be shipped in the Beneficial Uses Shipping System (BUSS) cask under its US Department of Energy (DOE) license (DOE 1996), but these capsules are nonstandard: one has a damaged or defective weld in the outer layer of encapsulation, and two have the outer encapsulation removed. The 3 capsules, along with 13 other capsules, will be overpacked in the 324 building to meet the requirements for storage in WESF's pool

  18. Solar cell modules with improved backskin and methods for forming same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanoka, Jack I.

    1998-04-21

    A laminated solar cell module with a backskin layer that reduces the materials and labor required during the manufacturing process. The solar cell module includes a rigid front support layer formed of light transmitting material having first and second surfaces. A transparent encapsulant layer has a first surface disposed adjacent the second surface of the front support layer. A plurality of interconnected solar cells have a first surface disposed adjacent a second surface of the transparent encapsulant layer. The backskin layer is formed of a thermoplastic olefin, which includes first ionomer, a second ionomer, glass fiber, and carbon black. A first surface of the backskin layer is disposed adjacent a second surface of the interconnected solar cells. The transparent encapsulant layer and the backskin layer, in combination, encapsulate the interconnected solar cells. An end portion of the backskin layer can be wrapped around the edge of the module for contacting the first surface of the front support layer to form an edge seal. A laminated solar cell module with a backskin layer that reduces the materials and labor required during the manufacturing process. The solar cell module includes a rigid front support layer formed of light transmitting material having first and second surfaces. A transparent encapsulant layer has a first surface disposed adjacent the second surface of the front support layer. A plurality of interconnected solar cells have a first surface disposed adjacent a second surface of the transparent encapsulant layer. The backskin layer is formed of a thermoplastic olefin, which includes first ionomer, a second ionomer, glass fiber, and carbon black. A first surface of the backskin layer is disposed adjacent a second surface of the interconnected solar cells. The transparent encapsulant layer and the backskin layer, in combination, encapsulate the interconnected solar cells. An end portion of the backskin layer can be wrapped around the edge of the

  19. Plastic encapsulated, dye sensitised photovoltaic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, R.J.; Otley, L.C.; Durrant, J.R.; Haque, S.; Xu, C. [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Holmes, A.B.; Park, T.; Schulte, N. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    The report presents the results of a collaborative project that aimed to demonstrate the technical feasibility of a plastic-encapsulated, solid state, dye-sensitised solar cell (DSSC) with an energy conversion efficiency (ECE) of at least 3%. DSSCs offer a possible 'step change' in photovoltaic technology resulting in lower costs compared with existing technologies. The project involved a series of eight main tasks: the development of first and second generation HTM electrolytes; the development of polymer-supported electrolytes; the development of low temperature electrode coating procedures; dye development; cell assembly and testing; component integration; and overall process development. A wide range of innovative HTMs have been synthesised, including materials incorporating both hole-transporting and ion-chelating functional groups. The ruthenium-based dye, N3, remained the preferred sensitising component. The project has produced a system that can routinely achieve over 5% ECE at 0.1 Sun illumination on 1 cm{sup 2} cells using polymer-supported electrolytes.

  20. Molecular glasses for nuclear waste encapsulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ropp, R.C.

    1982-01-01

    The use of a molecular glass based upon a polymerized phosphate of aluminum (PAP), indium or gallium overcomes all of the prior objections to use of glass as a high-level nuclear waste (HLW) encapsulation agent. This HLW glass product could not be made to devitrify, dissolved all of the oxides found in calcine, including the difficultly soluble ones, did not form microcrystallites in the melt or subsequent glass-casting, and possessed a hydrolytic etching rate to boiling water even lower than that of HLW-ZBS glass. A precursor compound, M(H 2 PO 4 ) 3 , is prepared, where M is a trivalent metal selected from the group consisting of aluminum, indium and gallium. The impurity level is carefully controlled so as not to exceed 300 ppm total. The precursor crystals may be washed to remove excess phosphoric acid as desired. HLW is added to the crystals and the mixture is then heated at a controlled heating rate to induce solid state polymerization and to form a melt at 1350 degrees C in which the HLW oxides dissolve rapidly

  1. Operating Cell Temperature Determination in Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chenlo, F.

    2002-01-01

    Two procedures (simplified and complete) to determine me operating cell temperature in photovoltaic modules operating in real conditions assuming isothermal stationary modules are presented in this work. Some examples are included that show me dependence of this temperature on several environmental (sky, ground and ambient temperatures, solar irradiance, wind speed, etc.) and structural (module geometry and size, encapsulating materials, anti reflexive optical coatings, etc.) factors and also on electrical module performance. In a further step temperature profiles for non-isothermal modules are analysed besides transitory effects due to variable irradiance and wind gusts. (Author) 27 refs

  2. A simple encapsulation method for organic optoelectronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Qian-Qian; An Qiao-Shi; Zhang Fu-Jun

    2014-01-01

    The performances of organic optoelectronic devices, such as organic light emitting diodes and polymer solar cells, have rapidly improved in the past decade. The stability of an organic optoelectronic device has become a key problem for further development. In this paper, we report one simple encapsulation method for organic optoelectronic devices with a parafilm, based on ternary polymer solar cells (PSCs). The power conversion efficiencies (PCE) of PSCs with and without encapsulation decrease from 2.93% to 2.17% and from 2.87% to 1.16% after 168-hours of degradation under an ambient environment, respectively. The stability of PSCs could be enhanced by encapsulation with a parafilm. The encapsulation method is a competitive choice for organic optoelectronic devices, owing to its low cost and compatibility with flexible devices. (atomic and molecular physics)

  3. Acoustically excited encapsulated microbubbles and mitigation of biofouling

    KAUST Repository

    Qamar, Adnan; Fortunato, Luca; Leiknes, TorOve

    2017-01-01

    Provided herein is a universally applicable biofouling mitigation technology using acoustically excited encapsulated microbubbles that disrupt biofilm or biofilm formation. For example, a method of reducing biofilm formation or removing biofilm in a

  4. Waste encapsulation and storage facility function analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, D.P.

    1995-09-01

    The document contains the functions, function definitions, function interfaces, function interface definitions, Input Computer Automated Manufacturing Definition (IDEFO) diagrams, and a function hierarchy chart that describe what needs to be performed to deactivate Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF)

  5. Methodology for Evaluating Encapsulated Beneficial Uses of Coal Combustion Residuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    The primary purpose of this document is to present an evaluation methodology developed by the EPA for making determinations about environmental releases from encapsulated products containing coal combustion residuals.

  6. High Resolution NMR Studies of Encapsulated Proteins In Liquid Ethane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Ronald W.; Lefebvre, Brian G.; Wand, A. Joshua

    2005-01-01

    Many of the difficulties presented by large, aggregation-prone, and membrane proteins to modern solution NMR spectroscopy can be alleviated by actively seeking to increase the effective rate of molecular reorientation. An emerging approach involves encapsulating the protein of interest within the protective shell of a reverse micelle, and dissolving the resulting particle in a low viscosity fluid, such as the short chain alkanes. Here we present the encapsulation of proteins with high structural fidelity within reverse micelles dissolved in liquid ethane. The addition of appropriate co-surfactants can significantly reduce the pressure required for successful encapsulation. At these reduced pressures, the viscosity of the ethane solution is low enough to provide sufficiently rapid molecular reorientation to significantly lengthen the spin-spin NMR relaxation times of the encapsulated protein. PMID:16028922

  7. K Basins fuel encapsulation and storage hazard categorization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porten, D.R.

    1994-12-01

    This document establishes the initial hazard categorization for K-Basin fuel encapsulation and storage in the 100 K Area of the Hanford site. The Hazard Categorization for K-Basins addresses the potential for release of radioactive and non-radioactive hazardous material located in the K-Basins and their supporting facilities. The Hazard Categorization covers the hazards associated with normal K-Basin fuel storage and handling operations, fuel encapsulation, sludge encapsulation, and canister clean-up and disposal. The criteria categorizes a facility based on total curies per radionuclide located in the facility. Tables 5-3 and 5-4 display the results in section 5.0. In accordance with DOE-STD-1027 and the analysis provided in section 5.0, the K East Basin fuel encapsulation and storage activity and the K West Basin storage are classified as a open-quotes Category 2close quotes Facility

  8. Performance of Deacetyled Glucomannan as Iron Encapsulation Excipient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wardhani Dyah H.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Encapsulation protects iron from degradation or oxidation possibilities due to its encapsulation material. Glucomannan (GM is a neutral polysaccharide consist of D-mannose and D-glucose connected with β-1,4 linkage. Deactylation transforms solubility of glucomannan as well as its gel structure. These properties support for excipient application. The aim of this work was to determine performance of deacetylated glucomannan as iron matrix. Deacetylation was conducted heterogeneously. Deacetylation did not change the backbone of GM. Higher alkali concentration has better ability to encapsulate iron. Extended deacetylation time and alkali concentration affect insignificantly on the performance of encapsulation to protect iron from oxidation. The release of iron from the matrix influences by deacetylation degree.

  9. Encapsulating probiotics with an interpolymer complex in supercritical carbon dioxide

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moolman, FS

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional encapsulation methods in fortified foods and drug delivery applications present difficulties for ‘actives’, such as probiotics, sensitive to exposure to water, solvents, heat or oxygen, where ‘active’ refers to a material, chemical...

  10. Encapsulation and retention of chelated-copper inside hydrophobic nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hervella, Pablo; Ortiz, Elisa Parra; Needham, David

    2016-01-01

    ) Chelate copper into the octaethyl porphyrin; (3) Encapsulate OEP-Cu in nanoparticles: the encapsulation efficiency of copper into liquid nanoparticles (LNP), solid nanoparticles (SNP) and phospholipid liposomes (PL) was evaluated by UV-Vis and atomic absorption spectroscopy; (4) Retain the encapsulated...... OEP-Cu in the liquid or solid cores of the nanoparticles in the presence of a lipid sink. RESULTS: (1) The size of the nanoparticles was found to be strongly dependent on the Reynolds number and the initial concentration of components for the fast injection technique. At high Reynolds number (2181......), a minimum value for the particle diameter of ∼30nm was measured. (2) Copper was chelated by OEP in a 1:1mol ratio with an association constant of 2.57×10(5)M(-1). (3) The diameter of the nanoparticles was not significantly affected by the presence of OEP or OEP-Cu. The percentage of encapsulation of copper...

  11. Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis: experience of a tertiary referral center.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Phelan, P J

    2010-05-01

    Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) is arguably the most serious complication of chronic peritoneal dialysis (PD) therapy with extremely high mortality rates. We aimed to establish the rates of EPS and factors associated with its development in a single center.

  12. The improved stability of enzyme encapsulated in biomimetic titania particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Yanjun; Sun Qianyun; Jiang Zhongyi; Zhang Lei; Li Jian; Li Lin; Sun Xiaohui

    2009-01-01

    This study demonstrates a novel biomimetic approach for the entrapment of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (YADH) within titania nanoparticles to improve its stability. Protamine was as the template and catalyst for the condensation of titanium (IV) bis(ammonium lactato) dihydroxide (Ti-BALDH) into titania nanoparticles in which YADH was trapped. The as-prepared titania/protamine/YADH composites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The mechanism of YADH encapsulation was tentatively proposed from a series of experimental results. The preliminary investigation showed that encapsulated YADH could retain most of its initial activity. Compared to free YADH, encapsulated YADH exhibited significantly improved thermal, pH and recycling stability. After 5 weeks storage, no substantial loss of catalytic activity for encapsulated YADH was observed

  13. Modeling Encapsulated Microbubble Dynamics at High Pressure Amplitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyse, Jan F.; Bose, Sanjeeb; Iaccarino, Gianluca

    2017-11-01

    Encapsulated microbubbles are commonly used in ultrasound contrast imaging and are of growing interest in therapeutic applications where local cavitation creates temporary perforations in cell membranes allowing for enhanced drug delivery. Clinically used microbubbles are encapsulated by a shell commonly consisting of protein, polymer, or phospholipid; the response of these bubbles to externally imposed ultrasound waves is sensitive to the compressibility of the encapsulating shell. Existing models approximate the shell compressibility via an effective surface tension (Marmottant et al. 2005). We present simulations of microbubbles subjected to high amplitude ultrasound waves (on the order of 106 Pa) and compare the results with the experimental measurements of Helfield et al. (2016). Analysis of critical points (corresponding to maximum and minimum expansion) in the governing Rayleigh-Plesset equation is used to make estimates of the parameters used to characterize the effective surface tension of the encapsulating shell. Stanford Graduate Fellowship.

  14. Electrospun Phospholipid Fibers as Micro-Encapsulation and Antioxidant Matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekarforoush, Elhamalsadat; Mendes, Ana C; Baj, Vanessa; Beeren, Sophie R; Chronakis, Ioannis S

    2017-10-17

    Electrospun phospholipid (asolectin) microfibers were investigated as antioxidants and encapsulation matrices for curcumin and vanillin. These phospholipid microfibers exhibited antioxidant properties which increased after the encapsulation of both curcumin and vanillin. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and the total phenolic content (TPC) of curcumin/phospholipid and vanillin/phospholipid microfibers remained stable over time at different temperatures (refrigerated, ambient) and pressures (vacuum, ambient). ¹H-NMR confirmed the chemical stability of both encapsulated curcumin and vanillin within phospholipid fibers. Release studies in aqueous media revealed that the phenolic bioactives were released mainly due to swelling of the phospholipid fiber matrix over time. The above studies confirm the efficacy of electrospun phospholipid microfibers as encapsulation and antioxidant systems.

  15. Electrospun Phospholipid Fibers as Micro-Encapsulation and Antioxidant Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elhamalsadat Shekarforoush

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Electrospun phospholipid (asolectin microfibers were investigated as antioxidants and encapsulation matrices for curcumin and vanillin. These phospholipid microfibers exhibited antioxidant properties which increased after the encapsulation of both curcumin and vanillin. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC and the total phenolic content (TPC of curcumin/phospholipid and vanillin/phospholipid microfibers remained stable over time at different temperatures (refrigerated, ambient and pressures (vacuum, ambient. 1H-NMR confirmed the chemical stability of both encapsulated curcumin and vanillin within phospholipid fibers. Release studies in aqueous media revealed that the phenolic bioactives were released mainly due to swelling of the phospholipid fiber matrix over time. The above studies confirm the efficacy of electrospun phospholipid microfibers as encapsulation and antioxidant systems.

  16. Introducing lattice strain to graphene encapsulated in hBN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomori, Hikari; Hiraide, Rineka; Ootuka, Youiti; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Kanda, Akinobu

    Due to the characteristic lattice structure, lattice strain in graphene produces an effective gauge field. Theories tell that by controlling spatial variation of lattice strain, one can tailor the electronic state and transport properties of graphene. For example, under uniaxial local strain, graphene exhibits a transport gap at low energies, which is attractive for a graphene application to field effect devices. Here, we develop a method for encapsulating a strained graphene film in hexagonal boron-nitride (hBN). It is known that the graphene carrier mobility is significantly improved by the encapsulation of graphene in hBN, which has never been applied to strained graphene. We encapsulate graphene in hBN using the van der Waals assembly method. Strain is induced by sandwiching a graphene film between patterned hBN sheets. Spatial variation of strain is confirmed with micro Raman spectroscopy. Transport measurement of encapsulated strained graphene is in progress.

  17. Lead macro-encapsulation conceptual and experimental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orebaugh, E.G.

    1993-01-01

    Macro-encapsulation, the regulatory treatment for radioactively contaminated lead (mixed) waste has been conceptually and experimentally evaluated for practical application. Epoxy encapsulants molded around lead billets have proven to be exceptionally rugged, easily applied, have high radiation and chemical stability, and minimize required process equipment and production of secondary wastes. This technology can now be considered developed, and can be applied as discussed in this report

  18. Fragrance encapsulation in polymeric matrices by emulsion electrospinning

    OpenAIRE

    Camerlo Agathe; Vebert-Nardin Corinne; Rossi René Michel; Popa Ana Maria

    2013-01-01

    We present the successful application of emulsion electrospinning for the encapsulation of a model for highly volatile fragrances namely (R) (+) limonene in a poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) fibrous matrix. The influence of the emulsion formulation and of its colloidal properties on the fiber morphology as well as on the limonene encapsulation efficiency is described. The release profile of the fragrance from the electrospun nanofibers over a fifteen days range shows that this type of nanofibrous m...

  19. Application of Electrostatic Extrusion – Flavour Encapsulation and Controlled Release

    OpenAIRE

    Manojlovic, Verica; Rajic, Nevenka; Djonlagic, Jasna; Obradovic, Bojana; Nedovic, Viktor; Bugarski, Branko

    2008-01-01

    The subject of this study was the development of flavour alginate formulations aimed for thermally processed foods. Ethyl vanilline was used as the model flavour compound. Electrostatic extrusion was applied for the encapsulation of ethyl vanilline in alginate gel microbeads. The obtained microbeads with approx. 10 % w/w of ethyl vanilline encapsulated in about 2 % w/w alginate were uniformly sized spheres of about 450 ?m. Chemical characterization by H-NMR spectroscopy revealed that the algi...

  20. Protein encapsulation via porous CaCO3 microparticles templating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volodkin, Dmitry V; Larionova, Natalia I; Sukhorukov, Gleb B

    2004-01-01

    Porous microparticles of calcium carbonate with an average diameter of 4.75 microm were prepared and used for protein encapsulation in polymer-filled microcapsules by means of electrostatic layer-by-layer assembly (ELbL). Loading of macromolecules in porous CaCO3 particles is affected by their molecular weight due to diffusion-limited permeation inside the particles and also by the affinity to the carbonate surface. Adsorption of various proteins and dextran was examined as a function of pH and was found to be dependent both on the charge of the microparticles and macromolecules. The electrostatic effect was shown to govern this interaction. This paper discusses the factors which can influence the adsorption capacity of proteins. A new way of protein encapsulation in polyelectrolyte microcapsules is proposed exploiting the porous, biocompatible, and decomposable microparticles from CaCO3. It consists of protein adsorption in the pores of the microparticles followed by ELbL of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes and further core dissolution. This resulted in formation of polyelectrolyte-filled capsules with protein incorporated in interpenetrating polyelectrolyte network. The properties of CaCO3 microparticles and capsules prepared were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, microelectrophoresis, and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Lactalbumin was encapsulated by means of the proposed technique yielding a content of 0.6 pg protein per microcapsule. Horseradish peroxidase saves 37% of activity after encapsulation. However, the thermostability of the enzyme was improved by encapsulation. The results demonstrate that porous CaCO3 microparticles can be applied as microtemplates for encapsulation of proteins into polyelectrolyte capsules at neutral pH as an optimal medium for a variety of bioactive material, which can also be encapsulated by the proposed method. Microcapsules filled with encapsulated material may find applications in the field of

  1. Dysprosium Acetylacetonato Single-Molecule Magnet Encapsulated in Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Nakanishi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Dy single-molecule magnets (SMMs, which have several potential uses in a variety of applications, such as quantum computing, were encapsulated in multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs by using a capillary method. Encapsulation was confirmed by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM. In alternating current magnetic measurements, the magnetic susceptibilities of the Dy acetylacetonato complexes showed clear frequency dependence even inside the MWCNTs, meaning that this hybrid can be used as magnetic materials in devices.

  2. Air encapsulation. I. Measurement in a field soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayer, M.J.; Hillel, D.

    1986-01-01

    Encapsulated air is an important component of shallow water table fluctuations. Their objective was to measure the quantity and persistence of encapsulated air in a field setting. Using sprinkling rates of either 3.5 x 10 -6 or 3.8 x 10 -5 m s -1 , they brought the water table in a field soil from a depth of 1.5 m to the surface on several occasions. Moisture contents during and after sprinkling were monitored with a neutron probe. Twice following sprinkling, the water table was maintained at the surface for more than 20 d, during which time they continued to monitor moisture contents. With the water table at the surface, differences between the porosity and the measured moisture content were attributed to encapsulated air. Encapsulated air contents ranged from 1.1 to 6.3% of the bulk soil volume, depending on the rate of sprinkling, soil depth, and initial soil moisture content. During ponding, encapsulated air persisted at the 0.3-m depth for up to 28 d. The results indicate that encapsulated air is measurable in a field situation and that its quantity and persistence should be considered in analyzing the results of similar field experiments. 16 references

  3. Encapsulation and delivery of food ingredients using starch based systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fan

    2017-08-15

    Functional ingredients can be encapsulated by various wall materials for controlled release in food and digestion systems. Starch, as one of the most abundant natural carbohydrate polymers, is non-allergenic, GRAS, and cheap. There has been increasing interest of using starch in native and modified forms to encapsulate food ingredients such as flavours, lipids, polyphenols, carotenoids, vitamins, enzymes, and probiotics. Starches from various botanical sources in granular or amorphous forms are modified by chemical, physical, and/or enzymatic means to obtain the desired properties for targeted encapsulation. Other wall materials are also employed in combination with starch to facilitate some types of encapsulation. Various methods of crafting the starch-based encapsulation such as electrospinning, spray drying, antisolvent, amylose inclusion complexation, and nano-emulsification are introduced in this mini-review. The physicochemical and structural properties of the particles are described. The encapsulation systems can positively influence the controlled release of food ingredients in food and nutritional applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of DBD plasma actuators: The double encapsulated electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfani, Rasool; Zare-Behtash, Hossein; Hale, Craig; Kontis, Konstantinos

    2015-04-01

    Plasma actuators are electrical devices that generate a wall bounded jet without the use of any moving parts. For aerodynamic applications they can be used as flow control devices to delay separation and augment lift on a wing. The standard plasma actuator consists of a single encapsulated (ground) electrode. The aim of this project is to investigate the effect of varying the number and distribution of encapsulated electrodes in the dielectric layer. Utilising a transformer cascade, a variety of input voltages are studied for their effect. In the quiescent environment of a Faraday cage the velocity flow field is recorded using particle image velocimetry. Through understanding of the mechanisms involved in producing the wall jet and the importance of the encapsulated electrode a novel actuator design is proposed. The actuator design distributes the encapsulated electrode throughout the dielectric layer. The experiments have shown that actuators with a shallow initial encapsulated electrode induce velocities greater than the baseline case at the same voltage. Actuators with a deep initial encapsulated electrode are able to induce the highest velocities as they can operate at higher voltages without breakdown of the dielectric.

  5. Biodegradable polycaprolactone (PCL) nanosphere encapsulating superoxide dismutase and catalase enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sushant; Singh, Abhay Narayan; Verma, Anil; Dubey, Vikash Kumar

    2013-12-01

    Biodegradable polycaprolactone (PCL) nanosphere encapsulating superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were successfully synthesized using double emulsion (w/o/w) solvent evaporation technique. Characterization of the nanosphere using dynamic light scattering, field emission scanning electron microscope, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed a spherical-shaped nanosphere in a size range of 812 ± 64 nm with moderate protein encapsulation efficiency of 55.42 ± 3.7 % and high in vitro protein release. Human skin HaCat cells were used for analyzing antioxidative properties of SOD- and CAT-encapsulated PCL nanospheres. Oxidative stress condition in HaCat cells was optimized with exposure to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2; 1 mM) as external stress factor and verified through reactive oxygen species (ROS) analysis using H2DCFDA dye. PCL nanosphere encapsulating SOD and CAT together indicated better antioxidative defense against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in human skin HaCat cells in comparison to PCL encapsulating either SOD or CAT alone as well as against direct supplement of SOD and CAT protein solution. Increase in HaCat cells SOD and CAT activities after treatment hints toward uptake of PCL nanosphere into the human skin HaCat cells. The result signifies the role of PCL-encapsulating SOD and CAT nanosphere in alleviating oxidative stress.

  6. Critical factors affecting cell encapsulation in superporous hydrogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, Esha S; Tang, Mary Y; Gemeinhart, Richard A; Ross, Amy E

    2012-01-01

    We recently showed that superporous hydrogel (SPH) scaffolds promote long-term stem cell viability and cell driven mineralization when cells were seeded within the pores of pre-fabricated SPH scaffolds. The possibility of cell encapsulation within the SPH matrix during its fabrication was further explored in this study. The impact of each chemical component used in SPH fabrication and each step of the fabrication process on cell viability was systematically examined. Ammonium persulfate, an initiator, and sodium bicarbonate, the gas-generating compound, were the two components having significant toxicity toward encapsulated cells at the concentrations necessary for SPH fabrication. Cell survival rates were 55.7% ± 19.3% and 88.8% ± 9.4% after 10 min exposure to ammonium persulfate and sodium bicarbonate solutions, respectively. In addition, solution pH change via the addition of sodium bicarbonate had significant toxicity toward encapsulated cells with cell survival of only 50.3% ± 2.5%. Despite toxicity of chemical components and the SPH fabrication method, cells still exhibited significant overall survival rates within SPHs of 81.2% ± 6.8% and 67.0% ± 0.9%, respectively, 48 and 72 h after encapsulation. This method of cell encapsulation holds promise for use in vitro and in vivo as a scaffold material for both hydrogel matrix encapsulation and cell seeding within the pores. (paper)

  7. Comparison of UV-Curing, Hotmelt, and Pressure Sensitive Adhesive as Roll-to-Roll Encapsulation Methods for Polymer Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hösel, Markus; Søndergaard, Roar R.; Jørgensen, Mikkel

    2013-01-01

    The most distinct advantage of the polymer solar cell is the possibility for roll-to-roll (R2R) fabrication compatibility based on printing and coating processes. The R2R encapsulation is the last crucial process step in the manufacturing workflow and is evaluated in this study. Polymer solar cell...... modules are directly printed on barrier foil and encapsulated with the same barrier foil either on the backside or on both sides of the device. The three lamination methods comprise of UV-curable epoxy resin, hotmelt, and pressure sensitive adhesive (PSA). It is shown that a single sided encapsulation...... of the PSA method is the fastest method (in this study) it generates a considerable amount of waste (paper liner) and two lamination steps are required to achieve a sufficient lifetime. We conclude that UV-curing presents the largest advantages of all methods with a good upscaling potential and low embodied...

  8. Spectroscopic and electrochemical characterization of cytochrome c encapsulated in a bio sol-gel matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deriu, Daniela; Pagnotta, Sara Emanuela; Santucci, Roberto; Rosato, Nicola

    2008-08-01

    Sol-gel technique represents a remarkably versatile method for protein encapsulation. To enhance sol-gel biocompatibility, systems envisaging the presence of calcium and phosphates in the sol-gel composition were recently prepared and investigated. Unfortunately, the low pH at which solutions were prepared (pH proteins, because the acidic environment induces protein denaturation. In this paper we apply a new protocol based on the introduction of calcium nitrate to the inorganic phase, with formation of a binary bioactive system. In this case protein encapsulation results versatile and secure, being achieved at a pH close to neutrality (pH 6.0); also, the presence of calcium is expected to enhance system biocompatibility. To determine the properties of the salt-doped sol-gel and the influence exerted on entrapped biosystems, the structural and functional properties of embedded cytochrome c have been investigated. Data obtained indicate that the salt-doped sol-gel induces no significant change in the structure and the redox properties of the embedded protein; also, the matrix increases protein stability. Interestingly, the presence of calcium nitrate appears determinant for refolding of the acid-denatured protein. This is of interest in the perspective of future applications in biosensoristic area.

  9. Matrix-encapsulated waste forms: application to idealized systems, commercial and SRP/INEL wastes, hydrated radiophases and encapsulant phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, R.; Vance, E.R.; McCarthy, G.J.; White, W.B.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes the encapsulation strategy as applied to microscopic-scale encapsulation in ceramics composed of micron-sized grains of possibly more leachable radiophases intimately surrounded by micron-sized grains of more insoluble phases. The encapsulation approach should be valid, almost axiomatic, for defense waste. However, there are still problems to be investigated experimentally. These are (a) because of the dilution, it is difficult to confirm the geometry of the radionuclide-bearing phases relative to that of the matrix: one almost has to use the inverse approach by making leach measurements, (b) deciding between using the highly reactive oxyhydroxide sludges themselves or sintered calcine to be coated, (c) verification of the insolubility of the encapsulant phases in a variety of groundwaters, and (d) the production of ceramics of near-zero porosity, using hot-isostatic pressing, or incorporation in either silicate or phosphate cements

  10. Development of highly durable deep-ultraviolet AlGaN-based LED multichip array with hemispherical encapsulated structures using a selected resin through a detailed feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Shoko; Yamada, Kiho; Hirano, Akira; Ippommatsu, Masamichi; Ito, Masahiro; Morishima, Naoki; Aosaki, Ko; Honda, Yoshio; Amano, Hiroshi; Akasaki, Isamu

    2016-08-01

    To replace mercury lamps with AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet (DUV) LEDs, a simple and low-cost package with increased light extraction efficiency (LEE) is indispensable. Therefore, resin encapsulation is considered to be a key technology. However, the photochemical reactions induced by DUV light cause serious problems, and conventional resins cannot be used. In the former part of this study, a comparison of a silicone resin and fluorine polymers was carried out in terms of their suitability for encapsulation, and we concluded that only one of the fluorine polymers can be used for encapsulation. In the latter part, the endurance of encapsulation using the selected fluorine polymer was investigated, and we confirmed that the selected fluorine polymer can guarantee a lifetime of over 6,000 h at a wavelength of 265 nm. Furthermore, a 3 × 4 array module of encapsulated dies on a simple AlN submount was fabricated, demonstrating the possibility of W/cm2-class lighting.

  11. Vertical Protocol Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groß, Thomas; Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The security of key exchange and secure channel protocols, such as TLS, has been studied intensively. However, only few works have considered what happens when the established keys are actually used—to run some protocol securely over the established “channel”. We call this a vertical protocol.......e., that the combination cannot introduce attacks that the individual protocols in isolation do not have. In this work, we prove a composability result in the symbolic model that allows for arbitrary vertical composition (including self-composition). It holds for protocols from any suite of channel and application...

  12. Software for simulating IMRT protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Thelma C.F.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R. de, E-mail: tcff@ufmg.b, E-mail: campos@nuclear.ufmg.b [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear

    2009-07-01

    The Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy - IMRT is an advanced technique to cancer treatment widely used on oncology around the world. The present paper describes the SOFT-RT software which is a tool for simulating IMRT protocol. Also, it will be present a cerebral tumor case of studied in which three irradiation windows with distinct orientation were applied. The SOFT-RT collect and export data to MCNP code. This code simulates the photon transport on the voxel model. Later, a out-module from SOFT-RT import the results and express the dose-response superimposing dose and voxel model in a tree-dimensional graphic representation. The present paper address the IMRT software and its function as well a cerebral tumor case of studied is showed. The graphic interface of the SOFT-RT illustrates the example case. (author)

  13. Software for simulating IMRT protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, Thelma C.F.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R. de

    2009-01-01

    The Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy - IMRT is an advanced technique to cancer treatment widely used on oncology around the world. The present paper describes the SOFT-RT software which is a tool for simulating IMRT protocol. Also, it will be present a cerebral tumor case of studied in which three irradiation windows with distinct orientation were applied. The SOFT-RT collect and export data to MCNP code. This code simulates the photon transport on the voxel model. Later, a out-module from SOFT-RT import the results and express the dose-response superimposing dose and voxel model in a tree-dimensional graphic representation. The present paper address the IMRT software and its function as well a cerebral tumor case of studied is showed. The graphic interface of the SOFT-RT illustrates the example case. (author)

  14. Power electronic modules design and manufacture

    CERN Document Server

    Sheng, William W

    2004-01-01

    IntroductionSelection ProcedureMaterialsInsulating Substrate and MetallizationBase PlateBonding MaterialPower Interconnection and TerminalEncapsulantPlastic Case and Cover Manufacturing of Power IGBT ModulesManufacturing Process Process Control/Long-Term ReliabilityManufacturing FacilitiesManufacturing Flow Charts DesignThermal ManagementCircuit PartitioningDesign Guidelines and ConsiderationsThermal Results of Different Samples

  15. Fabrication of hemispherical liquid encapsulated structures based on droplet molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizuka, Hiroki; Miki, Norihisa

    2015-12-01

    We have developed and demonstrated a method for forming spherical structures of a thin polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane encapsulating a liquid. Liquid encapsulation can enhance the performance of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices by providing deformability and improved dielectric properties. Parylene deposition and wafer bonding are applied to encapsulate liquid into a MEMS device. In parylene deposition, a parylene membrane is directly formed onto a liquid droplet. However, since the parylene membrane is stiff, the membrane is fragile. Although wafer bonding can encapsulate liquid between two substrates, the surface of the fabricated structure is normally flat. We propose a new liquid encapsulation method by dispensing liquid droplets. At first, a 20 μl PDMS droplet is dispensed on ethylene glycol. A 70 μl glycerin droplet is dispensed into a PDMS casting solution layer. The droplet forms a layer on heated ethylene glycol. Glycerin and ethylene glycol are chosen for their high boiling points. Additionally, a glycerin droplet is dispensed on the layer and surrounded by a thin PDMS casting solution film. The film is baked for 1 h at 75 °C. As the result, a structure encapsulating a liquid in a flexible PDMS membrane is obtained. We investigate the effects of the volume, surface tension, and guide thickness on the shape of the formed structures. We also evaluated the effect of the structure diameter on miniaturization. The structure can be adapted for various functions by changing the encapsulated liquid. We fabricated a stiffness-tunable structure by dispensing a magnetorheoligical fluid droplet with a stiffness that can be changed by an external magnetic field. We also confirmed that the proposed structure can produce stiffness differences that are distinguishable by humans.

  16. Polymer encapsulated dopaminergic cell lines as "alternative neural grafts".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, C B; Greene, L A; Tresco, P A; Winn, S R; Aebischer, P

    1990-01-01

    Our preliminary findings (Jaeger et al., 1988; Aebischer et al., 1989; Tresco et al., 1989) and the studies in progress show that encapsulated dopaminergic cell lines survive enclosure within a semi-permeable membrane. The encapsulated cells remained viable for extended time periods when maintained in vitro. Moreover, encapsulated PC12 and T28 cells have the potential to survive following their implantation into the forebrain of rats. Cell lines are essentially "immortal" because they continue to divide indefinitely. This property allows perpetual "self-renewal" of a given cell population. However, the capacity of continuous uncontrolled cell division may also lead to tumor formation. This in fact is the case for unencapsulated PC12 cell implants placed into the brain of young Sprague Dawley rats (Jaeger, 1985). Cell line encapsulation has the potential to prevent tumor growth (Jaeger et al., 1988). Survival for 6 months in vitro suggests that encapsulation does not preclude long-term maintenance of an homogeneous cell line like PC12 cells. The presence of mitotic figures in the capsules further supports the likelihood of propagation and self renewal of the encapsulated population. Another significant property of cell lines is that they consist of a single, genetically homogeneous cell type. They do not require specific synaptic interactions for their survival. In the case of PC12 and T28 lines, the cells synthesize and release neurotransmitters. Our data show that PC12 and T28 cells continue to release dopamine spontaneously and to express specific transmitters and enzymes following encapsulation. Thus, cell lines such as these may constitute relatively simple "neural implants" exerting their function via humoral release.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Encapsulation of ionic electroactive polymers: reducing the interaction with environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaakson, P.; Aabloo, A.; Tamm, T.

    2016-04-01

    Ionic electro-active polymer (iEAP) actuators are composite materials that change their mechanical properties in response to external electrical stimulus. The interest in these devices is mainly driven by their capability to generate biomimetic movements, and their potential use in soft robotics. The driving voltage of an iEAP-actuator (0.5… 3 V) is at least an order of magnitude lower than that needed for other types of electroactive polymers. To apply iEAP-actuators in potential real-world applications, the capability of operating in different environments (open air, different solvents) must be available. In their natural form, the iEAP-actuators are capable of interacting with the surrounding environment (evaporation of solvent from the electrolyte solution, ion or solvent exchange, humidity effects), therefore, for prevention of unpredictable behavior of the actuator and the contamination of the environment, encapsulation of the actuator is needed. The environmental contamination aspect of the encapsulation material is substantial when selecting an applicable encapsulant. The suitable encapsulant should form thin films, be light in weight, elastic, fit tightly, low cost, and easily reproducible. The main goal of the present study is to identify and evaluate the best potential encapsulation techniques for iEAPactuators. Various techniques like thin film on liquid coating, dip coating, hot pressing, hot rolling; and several materials like polydimethylsiloxane, polyurethane, nitrocellulose, paraffin-composite-films were investigated. The advantages and disadvantages of the combinations of the above mentioned techniques and materials are discussed. Successfully encapsulated iEAP-actuators gained durability and were stably operable for long periods of time under ambient conditions. The encapsulation process also increased the stability of the iEAP-actuator by minimizing the environment effects. This makes controlling iEAP-actuators more straight-forward and

  18. A formulation to encapsulate nootkatone for tick control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behle, Robert W; Flor-Weiler, Lina B; Bharadwaj, Anuja; Stafford, Kirby C

    2011-11-01

    Nootkatone is a component of grapefruit oil that is toxic to the disease-vectoring tick, Ixodes scapularis Say, but unfortunately causes phytotoxicity to treated plants and has a short residual activity due to volatility. We prepared a lignin-encapsulated nootkatone formulation to compare with a previously used emulsifiable formulation for volatility, plant phytotoxicity, and toxicity to unfed nymphs of I. scapularis. Volatility of nootkatone was measured directly by trapping nootkatone vapor in a closed system and indirectly by measuring nootkatone residue on treated filter paper after exposure to simulated sunlight (Xenon). After 24 h in the closed system, traps collected only 15% of the nootkatone applied as the encapsulated formulation compared with 40% applied as the emulsifiable formulation. After a 1-h light exposure, the encapsulated formulation retained 92% of the nootkatone concentration compared with only 26% retained by the emulsifiable formulation. For plant phytotoxicity, cabbage, Brassica oleracea L., leaves treated with the encapsulated formulation expressed less necrosis, retaining greater leaf weight compared with leaves treated with the emusifiable formulation. The nootkatone in the emulsifiable formulation was absorbed by cabbage and oat, Avena sativa L., plants (41 and 60% recovered 2 h after application, respectively), as opposed to 100% recovery from the plants treated with encapsulated nootkatone. Using a treated vial technique, encapsulated nootkatone was significantly more toxic to I. scapularis nymphs (LC50 = 20 ng/cm2) compared with toxicity of the emulsifiable formulation (LC50 = 35 ng/cm2). Thus, the encapsulation of nootkatone improved toxicity for tick control, reduced nootkatone volatility, and reduced plant phytotoxicity.

  19. Entanglement distillation protocols and number theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bombin, H.; Martin-Delgado, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    We show that the analysis of entanglement distillation protocols for qudits of arbitrary dimension D benefits from applying basic concepts from number theory, since the set Z D n associated with Bell diagonal states is a module rather than a vector space. We find that a partition of Z D n into divisor classes characterizes the invariant properties of mixed Bell diagonal states under local permutations. We construct a very general class of recursion protocols by means of unitary operations implementing these local permutations. We study these distillation protocols depending on whether we use twirling operations in the intermediate steps or not, and we study them both analytically and numerically with Monte Carlo methods. In the absence of twirling operations, we construct extensions of the quantum privacy algorithms valid for secure communications with qudits of any dimension D. When D is a prime number, we show that distillation protocols are optimal both qualitatively and quantitatively

  20. Equipment development for automated assembly of solar modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagerty, J. J.

    1982-01-01

    Prototype equipment was developed which allows for totally automated assembly in the three major areas of module manufacture: cell stringing, encapsulant layup and cure and edge sealing. The equipment is designed to be used in conjunction with a standard Unimate 2000B industrial robot although the design is adaptable to other transport systems.

  1. Encapsulation and Nano-Encapsulation of Papain Active Sites to Enhance Radiolityc Stability and Decrease Toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lugão, A. B.; Varca, G. H.C.; Paiffer, F.; Mathor, M. B.; Lopes, P. S.; Rogero, S.; Rogero, J. R. [Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Papain is used as an ingredient in various enzymatic debridement preparations. Those paste-like preparations are based on water solution and usually are sterilized by radiation. As a consequence, there is a major decrease in papain activity. Papain containing preparations are used in chronic wounds treatment in order to clean and remove the necrotic tissue. However FDA (2008) is taking an action against such products due to severe adverse events reported in patients which were submitted to papain treatments. Thus, the main goal of this proposal is to develop encapsulated papain containing membranes based on hydrogels and silicone rubber in an attempt to achieve a controllable distribution of size and delivery profile, a toxicity reduction and provide stability towards radiation processing through nanoencapsulation with cyclodextrins, which may also provide protection to the enzyme against radiation induced radiolysis. (author)

  2. Encapsulation and Nano-Encapsulation of Papain Active Sites to Enhance Radiolityc Stability and Decrease Toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugão, A.B.; Varca, G.H.C.; Paiffer, F.; Mathor, M.B.; Lopes, P.S.; Rogero, S.; Rogero, J.R.

    2009-01-01

    Papain is used as an ingredient in various enzymatic debridement preparations. Those paste-like preparations are based on water solution and usually are sterilized by radiation. As a consequence, there is a major decrease in papain activity. Papain containing preparations are used in chronic wounds treatment in order to clean and remove the necrotic tissue. However FDA (2008) is taking an action against such products due to severe adverse events reported in patients which were submitted to papain treatments. Thus, the main goal of this proposal is to develop encapsulated papain containing membranes based on hydrogels and silicone rubber in an attempt to achieve a controllable distribution of size and delivery profile, a toxicity reduction and provide stability towards radiation processing through nanoencapsulation with cyclodextrins, which may also provide protection to the enzyme against radiation induced radiolysis. (author)

  3. Encapsulation of Curcumin in Self-Assembling Peptide Hydrogels as Injectable Drug Delivery Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunbas, Aysegul; Lee, Seung Joon; Rajasekaran, Sigrid A.; Schneider, Joel P.; Pochan, Darrin J.

    2011-01-01

    Curcumin, a hydrophobic polyphenol, is an extract of turmeric root with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumorigenic properties. Its lack of water solubility and relatively low bioavailability set major limitations for its therapeutic use. In this study, a self-assembling peptide hydrogel is demonstrated to be an effective vehicle for the localized delivery of curcumin over sustained periods of time. The curcumin-hydrogel is prepared in-situ where curcumin encapsulation within the hydrogel network is accomplished concurrently with peptide self-assembly. Physical and in vitro biological studies were used to demonstrate the effectiveness of curcumin-loaded β-hairpin hydrogels as injectable agents for localized curcumin delivery. Notably, rheological characterization of the curcumin loaded hydrogel before and after shear flow have indicated solid-like properties even at high curcumin payloads. In vitro experiments with a medulloblastoma cell line confirm that the encapsulation of the curcumin within the hydrogel does not have an adverse effect on its bioactivity. Most importantly, the rate of curcumin release and its consequent therapeutic efficacy can be conveniently modulated as a function of the concentration of the MAX8 peptide. PMID:21601921

  4. Development of carboxymethyl cellulose-chitosan hybrid micro- and macroparticles for encapsulation of probiotic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, P; Medronho, B; Alves, L; da Silva, G J; Miguel, M G; Lindman, B

    2017-11-01

    Novel carboxymethyl cellulose-chitosan (CMC-Cht) hybrid micro- and macroparticles were successfully prepared in aqueous media either by drop-wise addition or via nozzle-spray methods. The systems were either physically or chemically crosslinked using genipin as the reticulation agent. The macroparticles (ca. 2mm) formed are found to be essentially of the core-shell type, while the microparticles (ca. 5μm) are apparently homogeneous. The crosslinked particles are robust, thermally resistant and less sensitive to pH changes. On the other hand, the physical systems are pH sensitive presenting a remarkable swelling at pH 7.4, while little swelling is observed at pH 2.4. Furthermore, model probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG) was for the first time successfully encapsulated in the CMC-Cht based particles with acceptable viability count. Overall, the systems developed are highly promising for probiotic encapsulation and potential delivery in the intestinal tract with the purpose of modulating gut microbiota and improving human health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Notice of construction for the 105 KE encapsulation activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This is a Notice of Construction for the 105-KE Basin Fuel Encapsulation Activity. This Notice of Construction is being submitted to the State of Washington Department of Health pursuant to the Washington Administrative Code, 246-247, ''Radiation Protection--Air Emissions,'' as amended. The encapsulation activity will consist of all of the activities described in Section 1.3 as necessary to complete encapsulation of the fuel elements and sludge contained in the 105-KE Basin. The encapsulation activity will be carried out on the 105-KE Basin floor under a minimum of 3 m (10 ft) of water. The encapsulation activity.includes emptying irradiated fuel elements from the existing canisters stored in the 105-KE Basin, packaging.these fuel elements in new canisters, packaging sludge from previous fuel inventories and the current inventory in new canisters, capping these canisters of fuel elements and sludge, and returning the new canisters to the storage racks in the basin. The empty canisters will be cleaned and crushed underwater. Packaging and disposal of the crushed canisters will take place above the water

  6. Encapsulation plant preliminary design, phase 2. Repository connected facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukkola, T.

    2006-12-01

    The disposal facility of the spent nuclear fuel will be located in Olkiluoto. The encapsulation plant is a part of the disposal facility. In this report, an independent encapsulation plant is located above the underground repository. In the encapsulation plant, the spent fuel is received and treated for disposal. In the fuel handling cell, the spent fuel assemblies are unloaded from the spent fuel transport casks and loaded into the disposal canisters. The gas atmosphere of the disposal canister is changed, the bolted inner canister lid is closed, and the electron beam welding method is used to close the lid of the outer copper canister. The disposal canisters are cleaned and transferred into the buffer store after the machining and inspection of the copper lid welds. From the buffer store, the disposal canisters are transferred into the repository spaces by help of the canister lift. All needed stages of operation are to be performed safely without any activity releases or remarkable personnel doses. The bentonite block interim storage is associated with the encapsulation plant. The bentonite blocks are made from bentonite powder. The bentonite blocks are used as buffer material around the disposal canister in the deposition hole. The average production rate of the encapsulation plant is 40 canisters per year. The nominal maximum production capacity is 100 canisters per year in one shift operation. (orig.)

  7. Antioxidant Effects of Quercetin and Catechin Encapsulated into PLGA Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Pool

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymeric nanoparticles (PLGA have been developed for the encapsulation and controlled release of quercetin and catechin. Nanoparticles were fabricated using a solvent displacement method. Physicochemical properties were measured by light scattering, scanning electron microscopy and ζ-potential, X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. Encapsulation efficiency and in vitro release profiles were obtained from differential pulse voltammetry experiments. Antioxidant properties of free and encapsulated flavonoids were determined by TBARS, fluorescence spectroscopy and standard chelating activity methods. Relatively small (d≈ 400 nm polymeric nanoparticles were obtained containing quercetin or catechin in a non-crystalline form (EE ≈ 79% and the main interactions between the polymer and each flavonoid were found to consist of hydrogen bonds. In vitro release profiles were pH-dependant, the more acidic pH, the faster release of each flavonoid from the polymeric nanoparticles. The inhibition of the action of free radicals and chelating properties, were also enhanced when quercetin and catechin were encapsulated within PLGA nanoparticles. The information obtained from this study will facilitate the design and fabrication of polymeric nanoparticles as possible oral delivery systems for encapsulation, protection and controlled release of flavonoids aimed to prevent oxidative stress in human body or food products.

  8. The interaction of encapsulated pharmaceutical drugs with a silica matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Everton C; Correa, Gabriel G; Brambilla, Rodrigo; Radtke, Claudio; Baibich, Ione Maluf; dos Santos, João Henrique Z

    2013-03-01

    A series of seven drugs, namely, fluoxetine, gentamicin, lidocaine, morphine, nifedipine, paracetamol and tetracycline, were encapsulated. The encapsulated systems were characterized using a series of complementary techniques: Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), diffusive reflectance spectroscopy in the UV-vis region (DRS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). According to the DRS spectra, most of the encapsulated systems showed a band shift of the maximum absorption when compared with the corresponding bare pharmaceutical. Additionally, after encapsulation, the drugs exhibited infrared band shifts toward higher wavenumbers, which in turn provided insight into potential sites for interaction with the silica framework. The amine group showed a band shift in the spectra of almost all the drugs (except nifedipine and tetracycline). This finding indicates the possibility of a hydrogen bonding interaction between the drug and the silica via electron donation from the amine group to the silica framework. XPS confirmed this interaction between the pharmaceuticals and the silica through the amine group. A correlation was observed between the textural characteristics of the solids and the spectroscopic data, suggesting that the amine groups from the pharmaceuticals were more perturbed upon encapsulation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Islet and Stem Cell Encapsulation for Clinical Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Rahul; Alexander, Michael; Robles, Lourdes; Foster 3rd, Clarence E.; Lakey, Jonathan R.T.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade, improvements in islet isolation techniques have made islet transplantation an option for a certain subset of patients with long-standing diabetes. Although islet transplants have shown improved graft function, adequate function beyond the second year has not yet been demonstrated, and patients still require immunosuppression to prevent rejection. Since allogeneic islet transplants have experienced some success, the next step is to improve graft function while eliminating the need for systemic immunosuppressive therapy. Biomaterial encapsulation offers a strategy to avoid the need for toxic immunosuppression while increasing the chances of graft function and survival. Encapsulation entails coating cells or tissue in a semipermeable biocompatible material that allows for the passage of nutrients, oxygen, and hormones while blocking immune cells and regulatory substances from recognizing and destroying the cell, thus avoiding the need for systemic immunosuppressive therapy. Despite advances in encapsulation technology, these developments have not yet been meaningfully translated into clinical islet transplantation, for which several factors are to blame, including graft hypoxia, host inflammatory response, fibrosis, improper choice of biomaterial type, lack of standard guidelines, and post-transplantation device failure. Several new approaches, such as the use of porcine islets, stem cells, development of prevascularized implants, islet nanocoating, and multilayer encapsulation, continue to generate intense scientific interest in this rapidly expanding field. This review provides a comprehensive update on islet and stem cell encapsulation as a treatment modality in type 1 diabetes, including a historical outlook as well as current and future research avenues. PMID:25148368

  10. Simultant encapsulation of vitamin C and beta-carotene in sesame (Sesamum indicum l.) liposomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudiyanti, D.; Fawrin, H.; Siahaan, P.

    2018-04-01

    In this study sesame liposomes were used to encapsulate both vitamin C and beta-carotene simultaneously. Liposomes were prepared with addition of cholesterol. The encapsulation efficiency (EE) of sesame liposomes for vitamin C in the present of beta-carotene was 77%. The addition of cholesterol increased the encapsulation efficiency. The highest encapsulation efficiency was 89% obtained in liposomes with 10% and 20% cholesterol. Contrary to that, the highest beta-carotene encapsulation efficiency of 78%, was found in the sesame liposomes prepared without the added cholesterol. Results showed that sesame liposomes can be used to encapsulate beta-carotene and vitamin C simultaneously. When beta-carotene and vitamin C were encapsulated concurrently, cholesterol intensified the efficiency of vitamin C encapsulation on the contrary it diminished the efficiency of beta-carotene encapsulation.

  11. The French dosimetry protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutreix, A.

    1985-01-01

    After a general introduction the protocol is divided in five sections dealing with: determination of the quality of X-ray, γ-ray and electron beams; the measuring instrument; calibration of the reference instrument; determination of the reference absorbed dose in the user's beams; determination of the absorbed dose in water at other points, in other conditions. The French protocol is not essentially different from the Nordic protocol and it is based on the experience gained in using both the American and the Nordic protocols. Therefore, only the main difference with the published protocols are discussed. (Auth.)

  12. Charge transfer in conjugated oligomers encapsulated into carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almadori, Y.; Alvarez, L.; Michel, T.; Le Parc, R.; Bantignies, J.L.; Hermet, P.; Sauvajol, J.L. [Laboratoire Charles Coulomb UMR 5521, Universite Montpellier 2, 34095 Montpellier (France); Laboratoire Charles Coulomb UMR 5521, CNRS, 34095 Montpellier (France); Arenal, R. [Laboratoire d' Etude des Microstructures, CNRS-ONERA, 92322 Chatillon (France); Laboratorio de Microscopias Avanzadas, Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragon, U. Zaragoza, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Babaa, R. [Laboratoire de Chimie des Surfaces et Interfaces, CEA, IRAMIS, SPCSI, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Chemical Engineering Department, University of Technology PETRONAS, UTP, Ipoh-Perak (Malaysia); Jouselme, B.; Palacin, S. [Laboratoire de Chimie des Surfaces et Interfaces, CEA, IRAMIS, SPCSI, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2011-11-15

    This study deals with a hybrid system consisting in quaterthiophene derivative encapsulated inside single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Investigations of the encapsulation step are performed by transmission electron microscopy. Raman spectroscopy data point out different behaviors depending on the laser excitation energy with respect to the optical absorption of quaterthiophene. At low excitation energy (far from the oligomer resonance window) there is no significant modification of the Raman spectra before and after encapsulation. By contrast, at high excitation energy (close to the oligomer resonance window), Raman spectra exhibit a G-band shift together with an important RBM intensity loss, suggesting a significant charge transfer between the inserted molecule and the host nanotubes. Those results suggest a photo induced process leading to a significant charge transfer. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Properties of probiotics and encapsulated probiotics in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozyurt, V Hazal; Ötles, Semih

    2014-01-01

    Probiotics are microorganisms which confer health benefits upon application in sufficiently-high viable cell amounts. Probiotics are typically members of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species commonly associated with human gastrointestinal tracts. In the recent past, there has been a rising interest in producing functional foods containing encapsulated probiotic bacteria. Recent studies have been reported using dairy products like cheese, yogurt and ice cream as food carrier, and non-dairy products like meat, fruits, cereals, chocolate, etc. However, the industrial sector contains only few encapsulated probiotic products. Probiotics have been developed by several companies in a capsule or a tablet form. The review compiles probiotics, encapsulation technology and cell life in the food matrices.

  14. Hydrogels for in situ encapsulation of biomimetic membrane arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibragimova, Sania; Jensen, Karin Bagger Stibius; Szewczykowski, Piotr Przemyslaw

    2012-01-01

    to chemically initiated hydrogels; however, for all hydrogels the permeability was several-fold higher than the water permeability of conventional reverse osmosis (RO) membranes. Lifetimes of freestanding BLM arrays in gel precursor solutions were short compared to arrays formed in buffer. However, polymerizing......Hydrogels are hydrophilic, porous polymer networks that can absorb up to thousands of times their own weight in water. They have many potential applications, one of which is the encapsulation of freestanding black lipid membranes (BLMs) for novel separation technologies or biosensor applications....... We investigated gels for in situ encapsulation of multiple BLMs formed across apertures in a hydrophobic ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) support. The encapsulation gels consisted of networks of poly(ethylene glycol)-dimethacrylate or poly(ethylene glycol)-diacrylate polymerized using either...

  15. Encapsulation of biological species in sol-gel matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finnie, K.S.; Bartlett, J.R.; Woolfrey, J.L.

    2000-01-01

    Two examples are given of the gelation of silica sols containing bio catalysts, resulting in their encapsulation in porous matrices. Urease was encapsulated in gels made from a mixture of TMOS and alkyltrimethoxysilane. Enzyme activities, monitored by measuring the rate of production of ammoniacal nitrogen as urea was decomposed, ranged up to 60% of that of the unencapsulated species. Anaerobic sulphate-reducing bacteria were encapsulated in a gel produced from colloidal silica, thus avoiding contact with alcohol. The detection of H 2 S produced in the doped gel indicated that the bacteria were able to continue normal metabolic function within the gel matrix. A gel initially doped with ∼ 5 x 10 5 cells cm -3 , exhibited an optimum sulphate reduction rate of 11 ug h -1 cm -3 ; this reduction rate was quickly re-established after storage of the gel for 14 weeks. Copyright (2000) The Australian Ceramic Society

  16. Polymeric nanoparticles encapsulating white tea extract for nutraceutical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, Vanna; Lubinu, Giuseppe; Madau, Pierluigi; Pala, Nicolino; Nurra, Salvatore; Mariani, Alberto; Sechi, Mario

    2015-02-25

    With the aim to obtain controlled release and to preserve the antioxidant activity of the polyphenols, nanoencapsulation of white tea extract into polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) based on poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and alginate was successfully performed. NPs were prepared by nanoprecipitation method and were characterized in terms of morphology and chemical properties. Total polyphenols and catechins contents before and after encapsulation were determined. Moreover, in vitro release profiles of encapsulated polyphenols from NPs were investigated in simulated gastrointestinal fluids. The antioxidant activity and stability of encapsulated extract were further evaluated. Interestingly, NPs released 20% of the polyphenols in simulated gastric medium, and 80% after 5 h at pH 7.4, showing a good capacity to control the polyphenols delivery. Furthermore, DPPH(•) assay confirmed that white tea extract retained its antioxidant activity and NPs protected tea polyphenols from degradation, thus opening new perspectives for the exploitation of white tea extract-loaded NPs for nutraceutical applications.

  17. Enhanced structural stability of DNA origami nanostructures by graphene encapsulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matković, Aleksandar; Vasić, Borislav; Pešić, Jelena; Gajić, Radoš; Prinz, Julia; Bald, Ilko; Milosavljević, Aleksandar R

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that a single-layer graphene replicates the shape of DNA origami nanostructures very well. It can be employed as a protective layer for the enhancement of structural stability of DNA origami nanostructures. Using the AFM based manipulation, we show that the normal force required to damage graphene encapsulated DNA origami nanostructures is over an order of magnitude greater than for the unprotected ones. In addition, we show that graphene encapsulation offers protection to the DNA origami nanostructures against prolonged exposure to deionized water, and multiple immersions. Through these results we demonstrate that graphene encapsulated DNA origami nanostructures are strong enough to sustain various solution phase processing, lithography and transfer steps, thus extending the limits of DNA-mediated bottom-up fabrication. (paper)

  18. Nuclear-waste encapsulation by metal-matrix casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, R.G.; Nesbitt, J.F.; Slate, S.C.

    1981-05-01

    Several encapsulation casting processes are described that were developed or used at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to embed simulated high-level wastes of two different forms (glass marbles and ceramic pellets) in metal matrices. Preliminary evaluations of these casting processes and the products are presented. Demonstrations have shown that 5- to 10-mm-dia glass marbles can be encapsulated on an engineering scale with lead or lead alloys by gravity or vacuum processes. Marbles approx. 12 mm in dia were successfully encapsulated in a lead alloy on a production scale. Also, 4- to 9-mm-dia ceramic pellets in containers of various sizes were completely penetrated and the individual pellets encased with aluminum-12 wt % silicon alloy by vacuum processes. Indications are that of the casting processes tested, aluminum 12 wt % silicon alloy vacuum-cast around ceramic pellets had the highest degree of infiltration or coverage of pellet surfaces

  19. Encapsulation of bacteria and viruses in electrospun nanofibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salalha, W; Kuhn, J; Dror, Y; Zussman, E

    2006-01-01

    Bacteria and viruses were encapsulated in electrospun polymer nanofibres. The bacteria and viruses were suspended in a solution of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) in water and subjected to an electrostatic field of the order of 1 kV cm -1 . Encapsulated bacteria in this work (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus albus) and bacterial viruses (T7, T4, λ) managed to survive the electrospinning process while maintaining their viability at fairly high levels. Subsequently the bacteria and viruses remain viable during three months at -20 and -55 deg. C without a further decrease in number. The present results demonstrate the potential of the electrospinning process for the encapsulation and immobilization of living biological material

  20. Spent LWR fuel encapsulation and dry storage demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahorich, R.J.; Durrill, D.C.; Cross, T.E.; Unterzuber, R.

    1980-01-01

    In 1977 the Spent Fuel Handling and Packaging Program (SFHPP) was initiated by the Department of Energy to develop and test the capability to satisfactorily encapsulate typical spent fuel assemblies from commercial light-water nuclear power plants and to establish the suitability of one or more surface and near surface concepts for the interim dry storage of the encapsulated spent fuel assemblies. The E-MAD Facility at the Nevada Test Site, which is operated for the Department of Energy by the Advanced Energy Systems Division (AESD) of the Westinghouse Electric Corporation, was chosen as the location for this demonstration because of its extensive existing capabilities for handling highly radioactive components and because of the desirable site characteristics for the proposed storage concepts. This paper describes the remote operations related to the process steps of handling, encapsulating and subsequent dry storage of spent fuel in support of the Demonstration Program

  1. Modification of encapsulation pressure of reverse micelles in liquid ethane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Ronald W; Nucci, Nathaniel V; Wand, A Joshua

    2011-09-01

    Encapsulation within reverse micelles dissolved in low viscosity fluids offers a potential solution to the slow tumbling problem presented by large soluble macromolecules to solution NMR spectroscopy. The reduction in effective macromolecular tumbling is directly dependent upon the viscosity of the solvent. Liquid ethane is of sufficiently low viscosity at pressures below 5000 psi to offer a significant advantage. Unfortunately, the viscosity of liquid ethane shows appreciable pressure dependence. Reverse micelle encapsulation in liquid ethane often requires significantly higher pressures, which obviates the potential advantages offered by liquid ethane over liquid propane. Addition of co-surfactants or co-solvents can be used to manipulate the minimum pressure required to obtain stable, well-behaved solutions of reverse micelles prepared in liquid ethane. A library of potential additives is examined and several candidates suitable for use with encapsulated proteins are described. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Conformally encapsulated multi-electrode arrays with seamless insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabada, Phillipe J.; Shah, Kedar G.; Tolosa, Vanessa; Pannu, Satinderall S.; Tooker, Angela; Delima, Terri; Sheth, Heeral; Felix, Sarah

    2016-11-22

    Thin-film multi-electrode arrays (MEA) having one or more electrically conductive beams conformally encapsulated in a seamless block of electrically insulating material, and methods of fabricating such MEAs using reproducible, microfabrication processes. One or more electrically conductive traces are formed on scaffold material that is subsequently removed to suspend the traces over a substrate by support portions of the trace beam in contact with the substrate. By encapsulating the suspended traces, either individually or together, with a single continuous layer of an electrically insulating material, a seamless block of electrically insulating material is formed that conforms to the shape of the trace beam structure, including any trace backings which provide suspension support. Electrical contacts, electrodes, or leads of the traces are exposed from the encapsulated trace beam structure by removing the substrate.

  3. Encapsulation of black carrot juice using spray and freeze drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali, S; Kar, Abhijit; Mohapatra, Debabandya; Kalia, Pritam

    2015-12-01

    Black carrot juice extracted using pectinase enzyme was encapsulated in three different carrier materials (maltodextrin 20DE, gum arabic and tapioca starch) using spray drying at four inlet temperatures (150, 175, 200 and 225 ℃) and freeze drying at a constant temperature of - 53 ℃ and vacuum of 0.22-0.11 mbar with the constant feed mixture. The products were analyzed for total anthocyanin content, antioxidant activity, water solubility index, encapsulation efficiency and total colour change. For both the drying methods followed in this study, maltodextrin 20DE as the carrier material has proven to be better in retaining maximum anthocyanin and antioxidant activity compared to gum arabic and tapioca starch. The best spray dried product, was obtained at 150 ℃. The most acceptable was the freeze dried product with maximum anthocyanin content, antioxidant activity, water solubility index, encapsulation efficiency and colour change. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Liposome encapsulation of fluorescent nanoparticles: Quantum dots and silica nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.-S.; Yao Jie; Durst, Richard A.

    2006-01-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) and silica nanoparticles (SNs) are relatively new classes of fluorescent probes that overcome the limitations encountered by organic fluorophores in bioassay and biological imaging applications. We encapsulated QDs and SNs in liposomes and separated nanoparticle-loaded liposomes from unencapsulated nanoparticles by size exclusion chromatography. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy was used to measure the average number of nanoparticles inside each liposome. Results indicated that nanoparticle-loaded liposomes were formed and separated from unencapsulated nanoparticles by using a Sepharose gel. As expected, fluorescence self-quenching of nanoparticles inside liposomes was not observed. Each liposome encapsulated an average of three QDs. These studies demonstrated that nanoparticles could be successfully encapsulated into liposomes and provided a methodology to quantify the number of nanoparticles inside each liposome by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy

  5. Evaluation of Encapsulated Inhibitor for Autonomous Corrosion Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsey, M. N.; Li, W.; Buhrow, J. W.; Calle, L. M.; Pearman, B. P.; Zhang, X.

    2015-01-01

    This work concerns the development of smart coating technologies based on microencapsulation for the autonomous control of corrosion. Microencapsulation allows the incorporation of corrosion inhibitors into coating which provides protection through corrosion-controlled release of these inhibitors.One critical aspect of a corrosion protective smart coating is the selection of corrosion inhibitor for encapsulation and comparison of the inhibitor function before and after encapsulation. For this purpose, a systematic approach is being used to evaluate free and encapsulated corrosion inhibitors by salt immersion. Visual, optical microscope, and Scanning Electron Microscope (with low-angle backscatter electron detector) are used to evaluate these inhibitors. It has been found that the combination of different characterization tools provide an effective method for evaluation of early stage localized corrosion and the effectiveness of corrosion inhibitors.

  6. Encapsulation of health-promoting ingredients: applications in foodstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolve, Roberta; Galgano, Fernanda; Caruso, Marisa Carmela; Tchuenbou-Magaia, Fideline Laure; Condelli, Nicola; Favati, Fabio; Zhang, Zhibing

    2016-12-01

    Many nutritional experts and food scientists are interested in developing functional foods containing bioactive agents and many of these health-promoting ingredients may benefit from nano/micro-encapsulation technology. Encapsulation has been proven useful to improve the physical and the chemical stability of bioactive agents, as well as their bioavailability and efficacy, enabling their incorporation into a wide range of formulations aimed to functional food production. There are several reviews concerning nano/micro-encapsulation techniques, but none are focused on the incorporation of the bioactive agents into food matrices. The aim of this paper was to investigate the development of microencapsulated food, taking into account the different bioactive ingredients, the variety of processes, techniques and coating materials that can be used for this purpose.

  7. Protocol Implementation Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho Quaresma, Jose Nuno; Probst, Christian W.

    2010-01-01

    Users expect communication systems to guarantee, amongst others, privacy and integrity of their data. These can be ensured by using well-established protocols; the best protocol, however, is useless if not all parties involved in a communication have a correct implementation of the protocol and a...... Generator framework based on the LySatool and a translator from the LySa language into C or Java....... necessary tools. In this paper, we present the Protocol Implementation Generator (PiG), a framework that can be used to add protocol generation to protocol negotiation, or to easily share and implement new protocols throughout a network. PiG enables the sharing, verification, and translation...

  8. Hot dewatering and resin encapsulation of intermediate level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickman, J.; Birch, D.

    1985-01-01

    The chemistry of the processes involved in the hot dewatering and encapsulation of alumino-ferric hydroxide floc in epoxide resin have been studied. Pretreatment of the floc to reduce resin attack and hydrolysis and to increase the dimensional stability of the solidified wasteform has been evaluated. It has been demonstrated that removal of ammonium nitrate from the floc and control of the residual water in the resin are important factors in ensuring dimensional stability of the solidified resin. Resin systems have been identified which, together with the appropriate waste pretreatment have successfully encapsulated a simulated magnox sludge producing a stable wasteform having mechanical and physical properties comparable with the basic resin. (author)

  9. Amidase encapsulated O-carboxymethyl chitosan nanoparticles for vaccine delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitha, K T; Sreelakshmi, M; Nisha, N; Jayakumar, R; Biswas, Raja

    2014-02-01

    This work reports the development of amidase encapsulated O-carboxymethyl chitosan nanoparticles (Ami-O-CMC NPs) of 300±50 nm size by ionic cross-linking method. The prepared Ami-O-CMC NPs had an encapsulation efficiency of 55.39%. Haemolysis assay and cytotoxicity studies proved the hemocompatibility and cytocompatibility of the prepared NPs. The sustained release of Ami from the NPs is expected to prolong its immunogenicity and in turn lead to development of better protective immunity against Staphylococcus aureus infections. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Microscale Strategies for Generating Cell-Encapsulating Hydrogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Khademhosseini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogels in which cells are encapsulated are of great potential interest for tissue engineering applications. These gels provide a structure inside which cells can spread and proliferate. Such structures benefit from controlled microarchitectures that can affect the behavior of the enclosed cells. Microfabrication-based techniques are emerging as powerful approaches to generate such cell-encapsulating hydrogel structures. In this paper we introduce common hydrogels and their crosslinking methods and review the latest microscale approaches for generation of cell containing gel particles. We specifically focus on microfluidics-based methods and on techniques such as micromolding and electrospinning.

  11. Preparation and structure of carbon encapsulated copper nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Chuncheng; Xiao Feng; Cui Zuolin

    2008-01-01

    Carbon-encapsulated copper nanoparticles were synthesized by a modified arc plasma method using methane as carbon source. The particles were characterized in detail by transmission electron microscope, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, selected-area electron diffraction, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetry. The encapsulated copper nanoparticles were about 30 nm in diameter with 3-5 nm graphitic carbon shells. The outside graphitic carbon layers effectively prevented unwanted oxidation of the copper inside. The effect of the ratio of He/CH 4 on the morphologies and the formation of the carbon shell were investigated

  12. Tuning the conductance of carbon nanotubes with encapsulated molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meunier, Vincent; Sumpter, Bobby G

    2007-01-01

    It was recently shown that a molecule encapsulated inside a carbon nanotube can be used to devise a novel type of non-volatile memory element. At the heart of the mechanism for storing and reading information is the new concept of a molecular gate where the molecule acts as a passive gate that hinders the flow of electrons for a given position relative to the nanotube host. By systematically exploring the effects of encapsulation of an acceptor molecule in a series of carbon nanotubes, we show that the reliability of the memory mechanism is very sensitive to the interaction between the nanotube host and the molecule guest

  13. Multiple encapsulation of LANL waste using polymers. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    Polymer encapsulation of lead shielding/blasting grit (surrogate) mixed waste was optimized at bench scale using melamine formaldehyde, polyurethane, and butadiene thermosetting polymers. Three pellet-based intermediate waste forms, and a final waste form, were prepared, each providing an additional level of integrity. Encapsulated waste integrity was measured by chemical and physical techniques. Compliance was established using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure. Equipment appropriate to pilot-scale demonstration of program techniques was investigated. A preliminary equipment list and layout, and process block flow diagram were prepared

  14. Exergy analysis of encapsulation of photochromic dye by spray drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çay, A.; Akçakoca Kumbasar, E. P.; Morsunbul, S.

    2017-10-01

    Application of exergy analysis methodology for encapsulation of photochromic dyes by spray drying was presented. Spray drying system was investigated considering two subsystems, the heater and the dryer sections. Exergy models for each subsystem were proposed and exergy destruction rate and exergy efficiency of each subsystem and the whole system were computed. Energy and exergy efficiency of the system were calculated to be 5.28% and 3.40%, respectively. It was found that 90% of the total exergy inlet was destroyed during encapsulation by spray drying and the exergy destruction of the heater was found to be higher.

  15. Characterization of encapsulated quantum dots via electron channeling contrast imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deitz, Julia I.; McComb, David W. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Carnevale, Santino D. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); De Graef, Marc [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Grassman, Tyler J., E-mail: grassman.5@osu.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

    2016-08-08

    A method for characterization of encapsulated epitaxial quantum dots (QD) in plan-view geometry using electron channeling contrast imaging (ECCI) is presented. The efficacy of the method, which requires minimal sample preparation, is demonstrated with proof-of-concept data from encapsulated (sub-surface) epitaxial InAs QDs within a GaAs matrix. Imaging of the QDs under multiple diffraction conditions is presented, establishing that ECCI can provide effectively identical visualization capabilities as conventional two-beam transmission electron microscopy. This method facilitates rapid, non-destructive characterization of sub-surface QDs giving immediate access to valuable nanostructural information.

  16. Oxidation of Bioethanol using Zeolite-Encapsulated Gold Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mielby, Jerrik Jørgen; Abildstrøm, Jacob Oskar; Wang, Feng

    2014-01-01

    With the ongoing developments in biomass conversion, the oxidation of bioethanol to acetaldehyde may become a favorable and green alternative to the preparation from ethylene. Here, a simple and effective method to encapsulate gold nanoparticles in zeolite silicalite-1 is reported and their high...... zeolite crystals comprise a broad range of mesopores and contain up to several hundred gold nanoparticles with a diameter of 2-3nm that are distributed inside the zeolites rather than on the outer surface. The encapsulated nanoparticles have good stability and result in 50% conversion of ethanol with 98...

  17. Oxidation of Bioethanol using Zeolite-Encapsulated Gold Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mielby, Jerrik Jørgen; Abildstrøm, Jacob Oskar; Wang, Feng

    2014-01-01

    With the ongoing developments in biomass conversion, the oxidation of bioethanol to acetaldehyde may become a favorable and green alternative to the preparation from ethylene. Here, a simple and effective method to encapsulate gold nanoparticles in zeolite silicalite‐1 is reported and their high...... zeolite crystals comprise a broad range of mesopores and contain up to several hundred gold nanoparticles with a diameter of 2–3 nm that are distributed inside the zeolites rather than on the outer surface. The encapsulated nanoparticles have good stability and result in 50 % conversion of ethanol with 98...

  18. Study Application of RADIUS Protocol on Ethernet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Fang; YANG Huan-yu; LI Hong

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents how to apply the RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial In User Service)protocol ,which is generally applied to dial-up network, to the authentication & charge of Broad Band accessing control system on Ethernet. It is provided that the Broad Band accessing control system included a self-designed communication protocol is used in communicating between an terminal user and Network Access Server .The interface module on the servers side and the Radius system is also given in this article.

  19. 40 CFR 180.1107 - Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the requirement... killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens is exempt from the...

  20. Alginate-hydroxypropylcellulose hydrogel microbeads for alkaline phosphatase encapsulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karewicz, A.; Zasada, K.; Bielska, D.; Douglas, T.E.L.; Jansen, J.A.; Leeuwenburgh, S.C.G.; Nowakowska, M.

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing interest in using proteins as therapeutics agents. Unfortunately, they suffer from limited stability and bioavailability. We aimed to develop a new delivery system for proteins. ALP, a model protein, was successfully encapsulated in the physically cross-linked sodium

  1. Biocatalysis with Sol-Gel Encapsulated Acid Phosphatase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Suhasini; Tran, Vu; Ho, Maggie K.-M.; Phan, Chieu; Chin, Elizabeth; Wemmer, Zeke; Sommerhalter, Monika

    2010-01-01

    This experiment was performed in an upper-level undergraduate biochemistry laboratory course. Students learned how to immobilize an enzyme in a sol-gel matrix and how to perform and evaluate enzyme-activity measurements. The enzyme acid phosphatase (APase) from wheat germ was encapsulated in sol-gel beads that were prepared from the precursor…

  2. Evaluation Selection of Encapsulating Plastics for Ordnance Electronic Assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    ISP-100 Dow Two-component urethane (>70D) 10 B635/1- 4BD Uniroyal Two-component urethane (ɟD) 68 4. CIRCUIT ENCAPSULATION 4.1 Introduction This phase...HARRY DIAs ’ND LABORATORIES 3975 MCMM RD ATTN CO/ TD /TSO/DIVISION DIRFXTORS ATTN JERRY KRAMR ATTN RECORD COPY, 81200 CINCINNATI, ON 45245 ATTN HDL LIBRARY

  3. Preparation and in vitro evaluation of amoxicillin encapsulated in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To optimize and characterize amoxicillin encapsulated in mucoadhesive alginate-coated chitosan microparticles for the treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcers caused by Helicobacter pylori. Methods: Eighteen batches of various ratios of chitosan, sodium alginate and calcium chloride were prepared by ...

  4. Synthetic seed technology for encapsulation and regrowth of in vitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, various concentrations of sodium alginate solutions and calcium chloride solutions were tested in order to optimize the size, shape and texture of alginate synthetic seeds or beads for Acacia hybrid bud-sprouting. The shoot buds and axillary buds from in vitro Acacia hybrids, as explants were encapsulated with ...

  5. (Electro-) mechanical characteristics of electrostatically driven vacuum encapsulated polysilicon resonators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tilmans, H.A.C.; Tilmans, H.A.C.; Legtenberg, Rob; Legtenberg, R.; Schurer, H.; Schurer, H.; IJntema, D.J.; Ijntema, D.J.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt; Fluitman, J.H.J.

    The design, fabrication and performance of vacuum-encapsulated electrostatically driven polysilicon resonating beams, 210-510 μm long, 100 μm wide, and 1.5 μm thick, are described. The shortest beams have a fundamental frequency of 324 kHz, a gauge factor of 2400 and a quality factor of 600 at

  6. Local magnetism in rare-earth metals encapsulated in fullerenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Nadai, C; Mirone, A; Dhesi, SS; Bencok, P; Brookes, NB; Marenne, [No Value; Rudolf, P; Tagmatarchis, N; Shinohara, H; Dennis, TJS; Marenne, I.; Nadaï, C. De

    Local magnetic properties of rare-earth (RE) atoms encapsulated in fullerenes have been characterized using x-ray magnetic circular dichroism and x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The orbital and spin contributions of the magnetic moment have been determined through sum rules and theoretical

  7. Encapsulating culture : European car travel 1900-1940

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mom, G.P.A.

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes the gradual encapsulation of motorists into a closed cocoon and the parallel domestication of a dominant masculine, aggressive subculture of the early automobile. It uncovers the existence of a specific French–Belgian group of (male) avant-garde artists who were at the same

  8. Alginate: A Versatile Biomaterial to Encapsulate Isolated Ovarian Follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanacker, Julie; Amorim, Christiani A

    2017-07-01

    In vitro culture of ovarian follicles isolated or enclosed in ovarian tissue fragments and grafting of isolated ovarian follicles represent a potential alternative to restore fertility in cancer patients who cannot undergo cryopreservation of embryos or oocytes or transplantation of frozen-thawed ovarian tissue. In this regard, respecting the three-dimensional (3D) architecture of isolated follicles is crucial to maintaining their proper follicular physiology. To this end, alginate hydrogel has been widely investigated using follicles from numerous animal species, yielding promising results. The goal of this review is therefore to provide an overview of alginate applications utilizing the biomaterial as a scaffold for 3D encapsulation of isolated ovarian follicles. Different methods of isolated follicle encapsulation in alginate are discussed in this review, as its use of 3D alginate culture systems as a tool for in vitro follicle analysis. Possible improvements of this matrix, namely modification with arginine-glycine-aspartic acid peptide or combination with fibrin, are also summarized. Encouraging results have been obtained in different animal models, and particularly with isolated follicles encapsulated in alginate matrices and grafted to mice. This summary is designed to guide the reader towards development of next-generation alginate scaffolds, with enhanced properties for follicle encapsulation.

  9. Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) Hazards Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    COVEY, L.I.

    2000-01-01

    This report documents the hazards assessment for the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) located on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. This hazards assessment was conducted to provide the emergency planning technical basis for WESF. DOE Orders require an emergency planning hazards assessment for each facility that has the potential to reach or exceed the lowest level emergency classification

  10. Process and system to encapsulate spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunasekaran, Muthian; Fleischer, L.R.

    1980-01-01

    System for encapsulating spent nuclear fuel containing active fission matter and comprised in a metal casing, where concrete covers this casing in a contiguous, uniform and complete manner. It is characterized in that this concrete contains metal fibres to raise the thermal conductivity and polymers for increasing impermeability and that convection facilities are provided for cooling the outer surface of the concrete [fr

  11. Modelling the Energetics of Encapsulation of Atoms and Atomic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user

    2015-07-04

    Jul 4, 2015 ... 3. Encapsulation into carbon nanotubes. Gases. Biomolecules like proteins and DNA. Assemblies of molecules. Drug molecules. Lulevich et al. Nano Lett. 11, 1171 (2011). Quinonero et al. J. Phys. Chem. C 116, 21083 (2012). Zhang et al. ACS Nano 6, 8674 (2012). Chaban et al. ACS Nano 5, 5647 (2011) ...

  12. Encapsulation pilot plant of radioactive wastes in thermosetting resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The thermosetting resins (polyesters, epoxides) are used to encapsulate the low and intermediate - level radioactive wastes. The testing program concerning the drums produced by the pilot plant of the Chooz nuclear power plant is described. The installation operating is examined while thinking of the industrial application. The production costs are then evaluated

  13. Encapsulation method for atom probe tomography analysis of nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, D.J.; Giddings, A.D.; Wu, Y.; Verheijen, M.A.; Prosa, T.J.; Roozeboom, F.; Rice, K.P.; Kessels, W.M.M.; Geiser, B.P.; Kelly, T.F.

    2015-01-01

    Open-space nanomaterials are a widespread class of technologically important materials that are generally incompatible with analysis by atom probe tomography (APT) due to issues with specimen preparation, field evaporation and data reconstruction. The feasibility of encapsulating such non-compact matter in a matrix to enable APT measurements is investigated using nanoparticles as an example. Simulations of field evaporation of a void, and the resulting artifacts in ion trajectory, underpin the requirement that no voids remain after encapsulation. The approach is demonstrated by encapsulating Pt nanoparticles in an ZnO:Al matrix created by atomic layer deposition, a growth technique which offers very high surface coverage and conformality. APT measurements of the Pt nanoparticles are correlated with transmission electron microscopy images and numerical simulations in order to evaluate the accuracy of the APT reconstruction. - Highlights: • Pt nanoparticles were analyzed using atom probe tomography and TEM. • The particles were prepared by encapsulation using atomic layer deposition. • Simulation of field evaporation near a void results in aberrations in ion trajectories. • Apparent differences between TEM and APT analyses are reconciled through simulation of field evaporation from a low-field matrix containing high-field NPs; ion trajectory aberrations are shown to lead to an apparent mixing of the matrix into the NPs.

  14. Process for encapsulating active agents obtaining a gel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yilmaz, G.; Jongboom, R.O.J.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process for encapsulating an active agent in a biopolymer in the form of a gel, comprising the steps of: a) forming a dispersion or solution of the biopolymer in water; and b) adding the active agent to the dispersion or solution obtained in step a); wherein the

  15. Encapsulated Presentation: A New Paradigm of Blended Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Richard; Ray, Jan

    2011-01-01

    This article is a presentation of a new mode of blended learning whose only goal is to enrich the quality of instruction in the face-to-face classroom through the simultaneous delivery of online and face-to-face components. Encapsulated presentation is the delivery of the entire presentation phase of a lesson in the classroom by electronic methods…

  16. Imaging features of encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ti, Joanna P

    2010-07-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to present the spectrum of radiologic findings of encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis in patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). CONCLUSION: Although a rare diagnosis, encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis in patients undergoing CAPD has a high morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis is often delayed because clinical features are insidious and nonspecific. Radiologic imaging may be helpful in the early diagnosis of encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis and in facilitating timely intervention for CAPD patients with encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis.

  17. Safeguards by Design at the Encapsulation Plant in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingegneri, M.; Baird, K.; Park, W.-S.; Coyne, J.M.; Enkhjin, L.; Chew, L.S.; Plenteda, R.; Sprinkle, J.; Yudin, Y.; Ciuculescu, C.; Koutsoyannopoulos, C.; Murtezi, M.; Schwalbach, P.; Vaccaro, S.; Pekkarinen, J.; Thomas, M.; Zein, A.; Honkamaa, T.; Hamalainen, M.; Martikka, E.; Moring, M.; Okko, O.

    2015-01-01

    Finland has launched a spent fuel disposition project to encapsulate all of its spent fuel assemblies and confine the disposal canisters in a deep geological repository. The construction of the underground premises started several years ago with the drilling, blasting and reinforcement of tunnels and shafts to ensure the safe deep underground construction and disposal techniques in the repository, while the design of the encapsulation plant (EP) enters the licencing phase preliminary to its construction. The spent fuel assemblies, which have been safeguarded for decades at the nuclear power plants, are going to be transported to the EP, loaded into copper canisters and stored in underground tunnels where they become inaccessible after backfilling. Safeguards measures are needed to ensure that final spent fuel verification is performed before its encapsulation and that no nuclear material is diverted during the process. This is an opportunity for the inspectorates to have the infrastructure necessary for the safeguards equipment incorporated in the design of the encapsulation plant before licencing for construction occurs. The peculiarity of this project is that it is going to run for more than a century. Therefore, significant changes are to be expected in the technical capabilities available for implementing safeguards (e.g., verification techniques and instruments), as well as in the process itself, e.g., redesign for the encapsulation of future fuel types. For these reasons a high degree of flexibility is required in order to be able to shift to different solutions at a later stage while minimizing the interference with the licencing process and facility operations. This paper describes the process leading to the definition of the technical requirements by IAEA and Euratom to be incorporated in the facility's design. (author)

  18. A chemically stable PVD multilayer encapsulation for lithium microbatteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, J F; Sousa, R; Cunha, D J; Vieira, E M F; Goncalves, L M; Silva, M M; Dupont, L

    2015-01-01

    A multilayer physical vapour deposition (PVD) thin-film encapsulation method for lithium microbatteries is presented. Lithium microbatteries with a lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO 2 ) cathode, a lithium phosphorous oxynitride (LiPON) electrolyte and a metallic lithium anode are under development, using PVD deposition techniques. Metallic lithium film is still the most common anode on this battery technology; however, it presents a huge challenge in terms of material encapsulation (lithium reacts with almost any materials deposited on top and almost instantly begins oxidizing in contact with atmosphere). To prove the encapsulation concept and perform all the experiments, lithium films were deposited by thermal evaporation technique on top of a glass substrate, with previously patterned Al/Ti contacts. Three distinct materials, in a multilayer combination, were tested to prevent lithium from reacting with protection materials and atmosphere. These multilayer films were deposited by RF sputtering and were composed of lithium phosphorous oxide (LiPO), LiPON and silicon nitride (Si 3 N 4 ). To complete the long-term encapsulation after breaking the vacuum, an epoxy was applied on top of the PVD multilayer. In order to evaluate oxidation state of lithium films, the lithium resistance was measured in a four probe setup (cancelling wires/contact resistances) and resistivity calculated, considering physical dimensions. A lithium resistivity of 0.16 Ω μm was maintained for more than a week. This PVD multilayer exonerates the use of chemical vapour deposition (CVD), glove-box chambers and sample manipulation between them, significantly reducing the fabrication cost, since battery and its encapsulation are fabricated in the same PVD chamber. (paper)

  19. A chemically stable PVD multilayer encapsulation for lithium microbatteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, J. F.; Sousa, R.; Cunha, D. J.; Vieira, E. M. F.; Silva, M. M.; Dupont, L.; Goncalves, L. M.

    2015-10-01

    A multilayer physical vapour deposition (PVD) thin-film encapsulation method for lithium microbatteries is presented. Lithium microbatteries with a lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) cathode, a lithium phosphorous oxynitride (LiPON) electrolyte and a metallic lithium anode are under development, using PVD deposition techniques. Metallic lithium film is still the most common anode on this battery technology; however, it presents a huge challenge in terms of material encapsulation (lithium reacts with almost any materials deposited on top and almost instantly begins oxidizing in contact with atmosphere). To prove the encapsulation concept and perform all the experiments, lithium films were deposited by thermal evaporation technique on top of a glass substrate, with previously patterned Al/Ti contacts. Three distinct materials, in a multilayer combination, were tested to prevent lithium from reacting with protection materials and atmosphere. These multilayer films were deposited by RF sputtering and were composed of lithium phosphorous oxide (LiPO), LiPON and silicon nitride (Si3N4). To complete the long-term encapsulation after breaking the vacuum, an epoxy was applied on top of the PVD multilayer. In order to evaluate oxidation state of lithium films, the lithium resistance was measured in a four probe setup (cancelling wires/contact resistances) and resistivity calculated, considering physical dimensions. A lithium resistivity of 0.16 Ω μm was maintained for more than a week. This PVD multilayer exonerates the use of chemical vapour deposition (CVD), glove-box chambers and sample manipulation between them, significantly reducing the fabrication cost, since battery and its encapsulation are fabricated in the same PVD chamber.

  20. Encapsulation and handling of spent nuclear fuel for final disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loennerberg, B.; Larker, H.; Ageskog, L.

    1983-05-01

    The handling and embedding of those metal parts which arrive to the encapsulation station with the fuel is described. For the encapsulation of fuel two alternatives are presented, both with copper canisters but with filling of lead and copper powder respectively. The sealing method in the first case is electron beam welding, in the second case hot isostatic pressing. This has given the headline of the two chapters describing the methods: Welded copper canister and Pressed copper canister. Chapter 1, Welded copper canister, presents the handling of the fuel when it arrives to the encapsulation station, where it is first placed in a buffer pool. From this pool the fuel is transferred to the encapsulation process and thereby separated from fuel boxes and boron glass rod bundles, which are transported together with the fuel. The encapsulation process comprises charging into a copper canister, filling with molten lead, electron beam welding of the lid and final inspection. The transport to and handling in the final repository are described up to the deposition and sealing in the deposition hole. Handling of fuel residues is treated in one of the sections. In chapter 2, Pressed copper canister, only those parts of the handling, which differ from chapter 1 are described. The hot isostatic pressing process is given in the first sections. The handling includes drying, charging into the canister, filling with copper powder, seal lid application and hot isostatic pressing before the final inspection and deposition. In the third chapter, BWR boxes in concrete moulds, the handling of the metal parts, separated from the fuel, are dealt with. After being lifted from the buffer pool they are inserted in a concrete mould, the mould is filled with concrete, covered with a lid and after hardening transferred to its own repository. The deposition in this repository is described. (author)

  1. Antiplasmodial Activity and Toxicological Assessment of Curcumin PLGA-Encapsulated Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busari, Zulaikha A.; Dauda, Kabiru A.; Morenikeji, Olajumoke A.; Afolayan, Funmilayo; Oyeyemi, Oyetunde T.; Meena, Jairam; Sahu, Debasis; Panda, Amulya K.

    2017-01-01

    Curcumin is a polyphenolic pigment isolated from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa (turmeric), a medicinal plant widely used in the ancient Indian and Chinese medicine. The antiplasmodial activity of curcumin is often hampered by its fast metabolism and poor water solubility, thus its incorporation into a delivery system could circumvent this problem. This study aimed to evaluate the in vivo antiplasmodial activity and the toxicity assessment of curcumin incorporated into poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticles. Curcumin was loaded with poly (D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) using solvent evaporation from oil-in-water single emulsion method. The nanoparticles were characterized and evaluated in vivo for antimalarial activities using Peter’s 4-day suppressive protocol in mice model. Hematological and hepatic toxicity assays were performed on whole blood and plasma, respectively. In vivo anti-parasitic test and toxicity assays for free and encapsulated drug were performed at 5 and 10 mg/kg. In vitro cytotoxicity of free and PLGA encapsulated curcumin (Cur-PLGA) to RAW 264.7 cell line was also determined at varying concentrations (1000–7.8 μg/mL). The size and entrapment efficiency of the nanoparticulate drug formulated was 291.2 ± 82.1 nm and 21.8 ± 0.4 respectively. The percentage parasite suppression (56.8%) at 5 mg/kg was significantly higher than in free drug (40.5%) of similar concentration (p 0.05) except in lymphocytes which were significantly higher in Cur-PLGA compared to the free drug (p 0.05). At higher concentrations (1000 and 500 μg/mL), Cur-PLGA entrapped nanoparticle showed higher toxicity compared with the free drug (p 0.05). The antiplasmodial activity and safety of Cur-PLGA was better at lower concentration. PMID:28932197

  2. Guiding principle for crystalline Si photovoltaic modules with high tolerance to acetic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Atsushi; Hara, Yukiko

    2018-04-01

    A guiding principle for highly reliable crystalline Si photovoltaic modules, especially those with high tolerance to acetic acid generated by hydrolysis reaction between water vapor and an ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) encapsulant, is proposed. Degradation behavior evaluated by the damp heat test strongly depends on Ag finger electrodes and also EVA encapsulants. The acetic acid concentration in EVA on the glass side directly determines the degradation behavior. The most important factor for high tolerance is the type of Ag finger electrode materials when using an EVA encapsulant. Photovoltaic modules using newly developed crystalline Si cells with improved Ag finger electrode materials keep their maximum power of 80% of the initial value even after the damp heat test at 85 °C and 85% relative humidity for 10000 h. The pattern of dark regions in electroluminescence images is also discussed on the basis of the dynamics of acetic acid in the modules.

  3. The use of polyurethane as encapsulating method for polymer solar cells—An inter laboratory study on outdoor stability in 8 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Roar; Makris, Theodoros; Lianos, Panagiotis

    2012-01-01

    A new encapsulation method for organic solar cells has been tested on flexible solar modules and cells embedded in polyurethane, sandwiched between a tempered glass plate and a polycarbonate plate. Panels, each containing 10 organic solar modules/cells, were fabricated and installed for outdoor...... exposure in eight different countries for 4½ months. In order to minimize potential deviations in procedures and equipment, one person was responsible for the fabrication, installation and initial and final IV-measurements of the panels using the same equipment for all measurements and calibrations...

  4. Antiplasmodial Activity and Toxicological Assessment of Curcumin PLGA-Encapsulated Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulaikha A. Busari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin is a polyphenolic pigment isolated from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa (turmeric, a medicinal plant widely used in the ancient Indian and Chinese medicine. The antiplasmodial activity of curcumin is often hampered by its fast metabolism and poor water solubility, thus its incorporation into a delivery system could circumvent this problem. This study aimed to evaluate the in vivo antiplasmodial activity and the toxicity assessment of curcumin incorporated into poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA nanoparticles. Curcumin was loaded with poly (D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA using solvent evaporation from oil-in-water single emulsion method. The nanoparticles were characterized and evaluated in vivo for antimalarial activities using Peter’s 4-day suppressive protocol in mice model. Hematological and hepatic toxicity assays were performed on whole blood and plasma, respectively. In vivo anti-parasitic test and toxicity assays for free and encapsulated drug were performed at 5 and 10 mg/kg. In vitro cytotoxicity of free and PLGA encapsulated curcumin (Cur-PLGA to RAW 264.7 cell line was also determined at varying concentrations (1000–7.8 μg/mL. The size and entrapment efficiency of the nanoparticulate drug formulated was 291.2 ± 82.1 nm and 21.8 ± 0.4 respectively. The percentage parasite suppression (56.8% at 5 mg/kg was significantly higher than in free drug (40.5% of similar concentration (p < 0.05 but not at 10 mg/kg (49.5% at 4-day post-treatment. There were no significant differences in most of the recorded blood parameters in free curcumin and PLGA encapsulated nanoparticulate form (p > 0.05 except in lymphocytes which were significantly higher in Cur-PLGA compared to the free drug (p < 0.05. There were no significant differences in hepatotoxic biomarkers; aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase concentrations in various treatment groups (p > 0.05. At higher concentrations (1000 and 500 μg/mL, Cur

  5. Proteinaceous Resin and Hydrophilic Encapsulation: A Self-Healing-Related Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ting

    .g. hydrophilic agent encapsulation, was addressed through the development of novel polyurethane-Poly(melamine-formaldehyde) (PU-PMF) dual-component capsules. Remarkably, the external PU insulation layer was fabricated through interfacial polymerization based on a water-in-oil-in-oil (W/O/O) emulsion template. Surface tension was identified as the main driving factor for the formation of the external oil phase. The internal PMF layer was observed to strongly influence the internal morphology of the capsule. A protocol was developed, and a typical capsule with dense and neat shell morphology with a shell/capsule diameter (around 3 %) was fabricated. This study provides solutions for the two aforementioned obstacles related to the development of the healing system for the protein-based materials.

  6. Post-Lamination Manufacturing Process Automation for Photovoltaic Modules; Annual Technical Progress Report: 15 June 1999--14 July 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowlan, M. J.; Murach, J. M.; Sutherland, S. F.; Lewis, E. R.; Hogan, S. J.

    2000-09-29

    Spire is addressing the PVMaT project goals of photovoltaic (PV) module cost reduction and improved module manufacturing process technology. New cost-effective automation processes are being developed for post-lamination PV module assembly, where post-lamination is defined as the processes after the solar cells are encapsulated. These processes apply to both crystalline and thin-film solar cell modules. Four main process areas are being addressed: (1) Module buffer storage and handling between steps; (2) Module edge trimming, edge sealing, and framing; (3) Junction-box installation; and (4) Testing for module performance, electrical isolation, and ground-path continuity.

  7. Flexible packaging for PV modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.

    2008-08-01

    Economic, flexible packages that provide needed level of protection to organic and some other PV cells over >25-years have not yet been developed. However, flexible packaging is essential in niche large-scale applications. Typical configuration used in flexible photovoltaic (PV) module packaging is transparent frontsheet/encapsulant/PV cells/flexible substrate. Besides flexibility of various components, the solder bonds should also be flexible and resistant to fatigue due to cyclic loading. Flexible front sheets should provide optical transparency, mechanical protection, scratch resistance, dielectric isolation, water resistance, UV stability and adhesion to encapsulant. Examples are Tefzel, Tedlar and Silicone. Dirt can get embedded in soft layers such as silicone and obscure light. Water vapor transmittance rate (WVTR) of polymer films used in the food packaging industry as moisture barriers are ~0.05 g/(m2.day) under ambient conditions. In comparison, light emitting diodes employ packaging components that have WVTR of ~10-6 g/(m2.day). WVTR of polymer sheets can be improved by coating them with dense inorganic/organic multilayers. Ethylene vinyl acetate, an amorphous copolymer used predominantly by the PV industry has very high O2 and H2O diffusivity. Quaternary carbon chains (such as acetate) in a polymer lead to cleavage and loss of adhesional strength at relatively low exposures. Reactivity of PV module components increases in presence of O2 and H2O. Adhesional strength degrades due to the breakdown of structure of polymer by reactive, free radicals formed by high-energy radiation. Free radical formation in polymers is reduced when the aromatic rings are attached at regular intervals. This paper will review flexible packaging for PV modules.

  8. Dosimetric study of a new polymer encapsulated palladium-103 seed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, S; Vynckier, S

    2005-01-01

    The use of low-energy photon emitters for brachytherapy applications, as in the treatment of prostate or ocular tumours, has increased significantly over the last few years. Several new seed models utilizing 103 Pd and 125 I have recently been introduced. Following the TG43U1 recommendations of the AAPM (American Association of Physicists in Medicine) (Rivard et al 2004 Med. Phys. 31 633), dose distributions around these low-energy photon emitters are characterized by the dose rate constant, the radial dose function and the anisotropy function in water. These functions and constants can be measured for each new seed in a solid phantom (i.e. solid water such as WT1) using high spatial resolution detectors such as very small thermoluminescent detectors. These experimental results in solid water must then be converted into liquid water by using Monte Carlo simulations. This paper presents the dosimetric parameters of a new palladium seed, OptiSeed TM (produced by International Brachytherapy (IBt), Seneffe, Belgium), made with a biocompatible polymeric shell and with a design that differs from the hollow titanium encapsulated seed, InterSource 103 , produced by the same company. A polymer encapsulation was chosen by the company IBt in order to reduce the quantity of radioactive material needed for a given dose rate, and to improve the symmetry of the radiation field around the seed. The necessary experimental data were obtained by measurements with LiF thermoluminescent dosimeters (1 mm 3 ) in a solid water phantom (WT1) and then converted to values in liquid water using Monte Carlo calculations (MCNP-4C). Comparison of the results with a previous study by Reniers et al (2002 Appl. Radiat. Isot. 57 805) shows very good agreement for the dose rate constant and for the radial dose function. In addition, the results also indicate an improvement in isotropy compared to a conventional titanium encapsulated seed. The relative dose (anisotropy value relative to 90 deg.) from

  9. Network protocols and sockets

    OpenAIRE

    BALEJ, Marek

    2010-01-01

    My work will deal with network protocols and sockets and their use in programming language C#. It will therefore deal programming network applications on the platform .NET from Microsoft and instruments, which C# provides to us. There will describe the tools and methods for programming network applications, and shows a description and sample applications that work with sockets and application protocols.

  10. Stability Comparison of Free and Encapsulated Lactobacilus casei ATCC 393 in Yoghurt for Long Time Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Lelia POP

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available An innovative method of L. casei ATCC 393 encapsulation has been reported in the present study using pectin combined with alginate. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of encapsulation on the survival of L. casei ATCC 393 in yoghurt during long time storage, free or encapsulated in alginate and alginate pectin microspheres, and influence over yoghurt properties, particularly acidification. Over 35 days of storage in yoghurt, the encapsulated probiotic cells proved a higher viability compared with free probiotic cells. An even higher viability and stability was observed for the samples where pectin was used. Pectin acts as prebiotic during encapsulation of L. casei ATCC 393.

  11. Non-Destructive Failure Detection and Visualization of Artificially and Naturally Aged PV Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele C. Eder

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Several series of six-cell photovoltaic test-modules—intact and with deliberately generated failures (micro-cracks, cell cracks, glass breakage and connection defects—were artificially and naturally aged. They were exposed to various stress conditions (temperature, humidity and irradiation in different climate chambers in order to identify (i the stress-induced effects; (ii the potential propagation of the failures and (iii their influence on the performance. For comparison, one set of test-modules was also aged in an outdoor test site. All photovoltaic (PV modules were thoroughly electrically characterized by electroluminescence and performance measurements before and after the accelerated ageing and the outdoor test. In addition, the formation of fluorescence effects in the encapsulation of the test modules in the course of the accelerated ageing tests was followed over time using UV-fluorescence imaging measurements. It was found that the performance of PV test modules with mechanical module failures was rather unaffected upon storage under various stress conditions. However, numerous micro-cracks led to a higher rate of degradation. The polymeric encapsulate of the PV modules showed the build-up of distinctive fluorescence effects with increasing lifetime as the encapsulant material degraded under the influence of climatic stress factors (mainly irradiation by sunlight and elevated temperature by forming fluorophores. The induction period for the fluorescence effects of the polymeric encapsulant to be detectable was ~1 year of outdoor weathering (in middle Europe and 300 h of artificial irradiation (with 1000 W/m2 artificial sunlight 300–2500 nm. In the presence of irradiation, oxygen—which permeated into the module through the polymeric backsheet—bleached the fluorescence of the encapsulant top layer between the cells, above cell cracks and micro-cracks. Thus, UV-F imaging is a perfect tool for on-site detection of module failures

  12. Degradation in PV Encapsulation Strength of Attachment: An Interlaboratory Study Towards a Climate-Specific Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, David; Annigoni, Eleonora; Ballion, Amal; Bokria, Jayesh G.; Bruckman, Laura S.; Burns, David M.; Chen, Xinxin; Feng, Jiangtao; French, Roger H.; Fowler, Sean; Honeker, Christian C.; Kempe, Michael; Khonkar, Hussam; Kohl, Michael; Perret-Aebi, Laure-Emmanuelle; Phillips, Nancy H.; Scott, Kurt P.; Sculati-Meillaud, Fanny; Wohlgemuth, John

    2016-06-06

    Reduced strength of attachment of the encapsulant resulting from the outdoor environment, including ultraviolet (UV) radiation, may decrease photovoltaic (PV) module lifetime by enabling widespread corrosion of internal components. To date, few studies exist showing how the adhesion of PV components varies with environmental stress. We have conducted an interlaboratory experiment to provide an understanding that will be used to develop climatic specific module tests. Factors examined in the study included the UV light source (lamp type), temperature, and humidity to be proposed for use in accelerated aging tests. A poly (ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (EVA) formulation often used in veteran PV installations was studied using a compressive shear test - to quantify the strength of attachment at the EVA/glass interface. Replicate laminated glass/polymer/glass coupon specimens were weathered at 12 institutions using a variety of indoor chambers or field aging. Shear strength, shear strain, and toughness were measured using a mechanical load-frame for the compressive shear test, with subsequent optical imaging and electron microscopy of the separated surfaces.

  13. FEM Simulation of Influence of Protective Encapsulation on MEMS Pressure Sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Qingshan; Janting, Jakob; Branebjerg, Jens

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the work is to evaluate the feasibility of packaging a MEMS silicon pressure sensor by using either a polymer encapsulation or a combination of a polymer encapsulation and a metallic protection Membrane (fig. 1). The potential application of the protected sensor is for harsh...... environments. Several steps of simulation are carried out:1) Comparisons of the sensitivities are made among the non-encapsulated silicon sensor, the polymer encapsulated and polymer with metal encapsulated sensor. This is for evaluating whether the encapsulating materials reduce the pressure sensitivity...... whether the metallic membrane / coating will peel off when applying the maximum pressure, which is 4000 bar leading to high shear stress between the metallic membrane and the polymer encapsulation material.3) Thermal calculations are made to evaluate the influence of the environment on the packaged sensor...

  14. Stabilization of Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase from Rhodotorula glutinis by Encapsulation in Polyethyleneimine-Mediated Biomimetic Silica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jiandong; Liang, Longhao; Han, Cong; Lin Liu, Rong

    2015-06-01

    Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) from Rhodotorula glutinis was encapsulated within polyethyleneimine-mediated biomimetic silica. The main factors in the preparation of biomimetic silica were optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). Compared to free PAL (about 2 U), the encapsulated PAL retained more than 43 % of their initial activity after 1 h of incubation time at 60 °C, whereas free PAL lost most of activity in the same conditions. It was clearly indicated that the thermal stability of PAL was improved by encapsulation. Moreover, the encapsulated PAL exhibited the excellent stability of the enzyme against denaturants and storage stability, and pH stability was improved by encapsulation. Operational stability of 7 reaction cycles showed that the encapsulated PAL was stable. Nevertheless, the K m value of encapsulated PAL in biomimetic silica was higher than that of the free PAL due to lower total surface area and increased mass transfer resistance.

  15. Polyethylene encapsulation full-scale technology demonstration. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalb, P.D.; Lageraaen, P.R.

    1994-10-01

    A full-scale integrated technology demonstration of a polyethylene encapsulation process, sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD), was conducted at the Environmental ampersand Waste Technology Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL.) in September 1994. As part of the Polymer Solidification National Effort, polyethylene encapsulation has been developed and tested at BNL as an alternative solidification technology for improved, cost-effective treatment of low-level radioactive (LLW), hazardous and mixed wastes. A fully equipped production-scale system, capable of processing 900 kg/hr (2000 lb/hr), has been installed at BNL. The demonstration covered all facets of the integrated processing system including pre-treatment of aqueous wastes, precise feed metering, extrusion processing, on-line quality control monitoring, and process control

  16. Lipid Membrane Encapsulation of a 3D DNA Nano Octahedron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrault, Steven D; Shih, William M

    2017-01-01

    Structural DNA nanotechnology methods such as DNA origami allow for the synthesis of highly precise nanometer-scale materials (Rothemund, Nature 440:297-302, 2006; Douglas et al., Nature 459:414-418, 2009). These offer compelling advantages for biomedical applications. Such materials can suffer from structural instability in biological environments due to denaturation and nuclease digestion (Hahn et al., ACS Nano 2014; Perrault and Shih, ACS Nano 8:5132-5140, 2014). Encapsulation of DNA nanostructures in a lipid membrane compartmentalizes them from their environment and prevents denaturation and nuclease digestion (Perrault and Shih, ACS Nano 8:5132-5140, 2014). Here, we describe the encapsulation of a 50 nm DNA nanostructure having the geometry of a wireframe octahedron in a phospholipid membrane containing poly-(ethylene glycol), resulting in biocompatible DNA nanostructures.

  17. Methanation of CO2 over Zeolite-Encapsulated Nickel Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goodarzi, Farnoosh; Kang, Liqun; Wang, Feng Ryan

    2018-01-01

    in an increased metal dispersion and, consequently, a high catalytic activity for CO2 methanation. With a gas hourly space velocity of 60000 ml/g catalyst h-1 and H2/CO2=4, the zeolite-encapsulated Ni nanoparticles result in 60% conversion at 450°C, which corresponds to a site-time yield of around 304 mol CH4/mol......Efficient methanation of CO2 relies on the development of more selective and stable heterogeneous catalysts. Here we present a simple and effective method to encapsulate Ni nanoparticles in zeolite silicalite-1. In this method, the zeolite is modified by selective desilication, which creates intra...

  18. Cellulase immobilization on magnetic nanoparticles encapsulated in polymer nanospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Janaina S; Araújo, Pedro H H; Sayer, Claudia; Souza, Antonio A U; Viegas, Alexandre C; de Oliveira, Débora

    2017-04-01

    Immobilization of cellulases on magnetic nanoparticles, especially magnetite nanoparticles, has been the main approach studied to make this enzyme, economically and industrially, more attractive. However, magnetite nanoparticles tend to agglomerate, are very reactive and easily oxidized in air, which has strong impact on their useful life. Thus, it is very important to provide proper surface coating to avoid the mentioned problems. This study aimed to investigate the immobilization of cellulase on magnetic nanoparticles encapsulated in polymeric nanospheres. The support was characterized in terms of morphology, average diameter, magnetic behavior and thermal decomposition analyses. The polymer nanospheres containing encapsulated magnetic nanoparticles showed superparamagnetic behavior and intensity average diameter about 150 nm. Immobilized cellulase exhibited broader temperature stability than in the free form and great reusability capacity, 69% of the initial enzyme activity was maintained after eight cycles of use. The magnetic support showed potential for cellulase immobilization and allowed fast and easy biocatalyst recovery through a single magnet.

  19. Nanoscale encapsulation: the structure of cations in hydrophobic microporous aluminosilicates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasserman, S.R.; Yuchs, S.E.; Giaquinta, D.; Soderholm, L.; Song, Kang.

    1996-01-01

    Hydrophobic microporous aluminosilicates, created by organic surface modification of inherently hydrophilic materials such as zeolites and clays, are currently being investigated as storage media for hazardous cations. Use of organic monolayers to modify the surface of an aluminosilicate after introducing an ion into the zeolite/clay reduces the interaction of water with the material. Resulting systems are about 20 times more resistant to leaching of stored ion. XAS spectra from the encapsulated ion demonstrate that byproducts from the organic modifier can complex with the stored cation. This complexation can result in a decreased affinity of the cation for the aluminosilicate matrix. Changing the organic modifier eliminates this problem. XAS spectra also indicate that the reactivity and speciation of the encapsulated ion may change upon application of the hydrophobic layer

  20. Microfabrication process for patterning metallic lithium encapsulated electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oukassi, Sami; Dunoyer, Nicolas; Salot, Raphael; Martin, Steve

    2009-01-01

    This work presents recent achievements concerning thin film encapsulation of metallic lithium negative electrode. In the context of this study, the encapsulation stack includes polymer and dielectric layers combined in such way to optimize barrier performances of the whole structure towards oxygen and water vapor permeation. The first part of this work is dedicated to the description of the barrier stack architecture and properties. A second part presents the application of a microfabrication process to the metallic lithium negative electrode and barrier stack so as to have very small features (100 μm x 100 μm patterns). The microfabrication process includes several steps of photolithography and etching (dry and wet) blocks, which allows us to reach the target critical dimensions. These results show a method of patterning functional metallic lithium. It demonstrates the feasibility of energy sources miniaturization which is an important issue in the field of autonomous and wireless sensor networks.

  1. Some thermal analysis aspects of metal encapsulated waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardine, L.J.; Steindler, M.J.

    1978-01-01

    This paper is to summarize two waste management schemes: (1) packaging for extended storage of LWR spent fuel assemblies, with the capability for simple conversion either to terminal storage if a ''throwaway'' fuel cycle is ultimately adopted or to a form that can be reprocessed and (2) packaging for the terminal storage of solidified high-level wastes when the reprocessing of spent fuel is initiated. Only concepts utilizing metals or metal alloys to encapsulate either spent fuel or solidified high-level waste forms have been considered. Conceptual process flow sheets have been constructed to allow potential advantages and disadvantages of encapsulation alternatives to be identified in comparison with more conventional reference processes. Identification is also made of uncertainties of the analysis due to a lack of fundamental data required to perform evaluations. 3 tables

  2. Morphology of a graphene nanoribbon encapsulated in a carbon nanotube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Furuhashi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The morphologies of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs encapsulated in single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs are investigated using molecular-dynamics (MD simulation. The GNRs are assumed to be hydrogen-terminated and formed by connecting polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, perylene or coronene molecules. The combined structures consisting of a GNR and an encapsulating SWNT are equilibrated at room temperature. It is shown that if the diameter of a SWNT is larger than the sum of the width of the GNR and twice the length of a C-H bond, a twisted GNR is obtained, whereas if the diameter of a SWNT is smaller than the sum of the two, the cross section of the SWNT cannot maintain its original circular shape and elliptically distorts, and a non-twisted GNR or a twisted GNR of long pitch is obtained. The estimated pitch of a regularly-twisted GNR agrees with the experimentally observed one in order of magnitude.

  3. Preparation of encapsulated proteins dissolved in low viscosity fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrhardt, Mark R.; Flynn, Peter F.; Wand, A. Joshua

    1999-01-01

    The majority of proteins are too large to be comprehensively examined by solution NMR methods, primarily because they tumble too slowly in solution. One potential approach to making the NMR relaxation properties of large proteins amenable to modern solution NMR techniques is to encapsulate them in a reverse micelle which is dissolved in a low viscosity fluid. Unfortunately, promising low viscosity fluids such as the short chain alkanes, supercritical carbon dioxide, and various halocarbon refrigerants all require the application of significant pressure to be kept liquefied at room temperature. Here we describe the design and use of a simple cost effective NMR tube suitable for the preparation of solutions of proteins encapsulated in reverse micelles dissolved in such fluids

  4. Micropillar arrays enabling single microbial cell encapsulation in hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyun Joo; Lee, Kyoung G; Seok, Seunghwan; Choi, Bong Gill; Lee, Moon-Keun; Park, Tae Jung; Park, Jung Youn; Kim, Do Hyun; Lee, Seok Jae

    2014-06-07

    Single microbial cell encapsulation in hydrogels is an important task to find valuable biological resources for human welfare. The conventional microfluidic designs are mainly targeted only for highly dispersed spherical bioparticles. Advanced structures should be taken into consideration for handling such aggregated and non-spherical microorganisms. Here, to address the challenge, we propose a new type of cylindrical-shaped micropillar array in a microfluidic device for enhancing the dispersion of cell clusters and the isolation of individual cells into individual micro-hydrogels for potential practical applications. The incorporated micropillars act as a sieve for the breaking of Escherichia coli (E. coli) clusters into single cells in a polymer mixture. Furthermore, the combination of hydrodynamic forces and a flow-focusing technique will improve the probability of encapsulation of a single cell into each hydrogel with a broad range of cell concentrations. This proposed strategy and device would be a useful platform for genetically modified microorganisms for practical applications.

  5. Microfluidics and BIO-encapsulation for drug- and cell-therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloisi, A.; Toma, C. C.; Di Corato, R.; Rinaldi, R.

    2017-08-01

    We present the construction and the application of biocompatible micro- and nano-structures that can be administered systemically and transport in a targeted and effective way drugs, small molecules, stem cells or immune system cells. These polymeric nano-systems represent a primary goal for the treatment of a wide family of neurological/systemic disorders, as well as tumors and/or acute injuries. As natural, biocompatible, biodegradable and non-immunogenic building blocks, alginate and chitosan are been currently exploited. Ionotropic pre-gelation of the alginate core, followed by chitosan polyelectrolyte complexation, allows to encapsulate selected active molecules by means of physical entrapment and electrostatic interactions within sub-micron sized hydrogel vesicles. Here we present a microfluidicassisted assembly method of nano- and micro-vesicles -under sterile, closed environment and gas exchange adjustable conditions, which is a critical issue, when the cargo to be uploaded is very sensitive. Polymer/polymer and polymer/drug mass ratio relationship are crucial in order to attain the optimum in terms of shuttle size and cargo concentration. By modulating polymer reticulation conditions, it become possible to control drug loading efficiency as well as drug delivery dynamics. Recent results on the application of these vesicles for the encapsulation and delivery of Inhibin-A and Decorin, proteins involved in acute kidney injury (AKI), for Renal tubular cell regeneration will be presented. Finally, the impact of these polysaccharide sub-micron vesicles on Human Immune cells and the metabolic and functional activity of cells embedded in the assembled vesicles will be presented and discussed.

  6. A VXI-GPIB protocol converter based on DSP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Yuanfeng; Yu Xiaoqi; Lu Jingping

    2006-01-01

    A VXI-GPIB protocol converter based on DSP is introduced. The word-serial protocol with the message-based interface is implemented by EPLD and DSP. The GPIB functions are implemented by programming to the GPIB control chip. The transfer from VXI messages to GPIB functions is implemented by DSP. As an example of application, the control functions for oscilloscopes have been implemented in a VXI-GPIB heterogeneous system using such modules. (authors)

  7. Non-destructive evaluation of water ingress in photovoltaic modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bora, Mihail; Kotovsky, Jack

    2017-03-07

    Systems and techniques for non-destructive evaluation of water ingress in photovoltaic modules include and/or are configured to illuminate a photovoltaic module comprising a photovoltaic cell and an encapsulant with at least one beam of light having a wavelength in a range from about 1400 nm to about 2700 nm; capture one or more images of the illuminated photovoltaic module, each image relating to a water content of the photovoltaic module; and determine a water content of the photovoltaic module based on the one or more images. Systems preferably include one or more of a light source, a moving mirror, a focusing lens, a beam splitter, a stationary mirror, an objective lens and an imaging module.

  8. Inorganic Substrates and Encapsulation Layers for Transient Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    as substrates and encapsulating materials, with demonstrated options that range from films of silk fibroin, polycaprolactone (PCL), polyglycolic...PDMS) (Dow Corning , USA) coated on glass slides to facilitate processing. SiO2 (~1 μm) was deposited by PECVD on these foils for electrical...with laminating the foils Fe, Mo, W, and Zn, ~10 μm thick (Goodfellow, USA) on glass slides coated with PDMS (Dow Corning Co., USA) as temporary

  9. Low and medium activity solid wastes processing and encapsulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taillard, D.; Claes, J.; Hennart, D.

    1983-01-01

    This work, carried out under contract with the European Atomic Energy Community, describes the techniques in use for waste management. The activity of low and medium activity solid wastes is from few curies to few tens of curies per cubic meter, they are produced by nuclear facilities and are often complex mixtures. Radioactive wastes are characterized and processing and conditioning are described. Leaching, stability, mechanical resistance and radiolysis of encapsulated wastes are examined. Handling, storage and disposal are treated

  10. Encapsulation methods and dielectric layers for organic electrical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Yigal D; Chu, William Siu-Keung; MacQueen, David Brent; Shi, Yijan

    2013-07-02

    The disclosure provides methods and materials suitable for use as encapsulation barriers and dielectric layers in electronic devices. In one embodiment, for example, there is provided an electroluminescent device or other electronic device with a dielectric layer comprising alternating layers of a silicon-containing bonding material and a ceramic material. The methods provide, for example, electronic devices with increased stability and shelf-life. The invention is useful, for example, in the field of microelectronic devices.

  11. Liposomal nanoparticles encapsulating iloprost exhibit enhanced vasodilation in pulmonary arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain PP

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Pritesh P Jain,1 Regina Leber,1,2 Chandran Nagaraj,1 Gerd Leitinger,3 Bernhard Lehofer,4 Horst Olschewski,1,5 Andrea Olschewski,1,6 Ruth Prassl,1,4 Leigh M Marsh11Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Lung Vascular Research, 2Biophysics Division, Institute of Molecular Biosciences, University of Graz, 3Research Unit Electron Microscopic Techniques, Institute of Cell Biology, Histology, and Embryology, 4Institute of Biophysics, 5Division of Pulmonology, Department of Internal Medicine, 6Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Medical University of Graz, Graz, AustriaAbstract: Prostacyclin analogues are standard therapeutic options for vasoconstrictive diseases, including pulmonary hypertension and Raynaud’s phenomenon. Although effective, these treatment strategies are expensive and have several side effects. To improve drug efficiency, we tested liposomal nanoparticles as carrier systems. In this study, we synthesized liposomal nanoparticles tailored for the prostacyclin analogue iloprost and evaluated their pharmacologic efficacy on mouse intrapulmonary arteries, using a wire myograph. The use of cationic lipids, stearylamine, or 1,2-di-(9Z-octadecenoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP in liposomes promoted iloprost encapsulation to at least 50%. The addition of cholesterol modestly reduced iloprost encapsulation. The liposomal nanoparticle formulations were tested for toxicity and pharmacologic efficacy in vivo and ex vivo, respectively. The liposomes did not affect the viability of human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. Compared with an equivalent concentration of free iloprost, four out of the six polymer-coated liposomal formulations exhibited significantly enhanced vasodilation of mouse pulmonary arteries. Iloprost that was encapsulated in liposomes containing the polymer polyethylene glycol exhibited concentration-dependent relaxation of arteries. Strikingly, half the concentration of iloprost in liposomes elicited

  12. Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility interim operational safety requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Covey, L I

    2000-01-01

    The Interim Operational Safety Requirements (IOSRs) for the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) define acceptable conditions, safe boundaries, bases thereof, and management or administrative controls required to ensure safe operation during receipt and inspection of cesium and strontium capsules from private irradiators; decontamination of the capsules and equipment; surveillance of the stored capsules; and maintenance activities. Controls required for public safety, significant defense-in-depth, significant worker safety, and for maintaining radiological consequences below risk evaluation guidelines (EGs) are included.

  13. Sol-gel encapsulation for controlled drug release and biosensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jonathan

    The main focus of this dissertation is to investigate the use of sol-gel encapsulation of biomolecules for controlled drug release and biosensing. Controlled drug release has advantages over conventional therapies in that it maintains a constant, therapeutic drug level in the body for prolonged periods of time. The anti-hypertensive drug Captopril was encapsulated in sol-gel materials of various forms, such as silica xerogels and nanoparticles. The primary objective was to show that sol-gel silica materials are promising drug carriers for controlled release by releasing Captopril at a release rate that is within a therapeutic range. We were able to demonstrate desired release for over a week from Captopril-doped silica xerogels and overall release from Captopril-doped silica nanoparticles. As an aside, the antibiotic Vancomycin was also encapsulated in these porous silica nanoparticles and desired release was obtained for several days in-vitro. The second part of the dissertation focuses on immobilizing antibodies and proteins in sol-gel to detect various analytes, such as hormones and amino acids. Sol-gel competitive immunoassays on antibody-doped silica xerogels were used for hormone detection. Calibration for insulin and C-peptide in standard solutions was obtained in the nM range. In addition, NASA-Ames is also interested in developing a reagentless biosensor using bacterial periplasmic binding proteins (bPBPs) to detect specific biomarkers, such as amino acids and phosphate. These bPBPs were doubly labeled with two different fluorophores and encapsulated in silica xerogels. Ligand-binding experiments were performed on the bPBPs in solution and in sol-gel. Ligand-binding was monitored by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between the two fluorophores on the bPBP. Titration data show that one bPBP has retained its ligand-binding properties in sol-gel.

  14. Encapsulation of curcumin in polyelectrolyte nanocapsules and their neuroprotective activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepanowicz, Krzysztof; Jantas, Danuta; Piotrowski, Marek; Staroń, Jakub; Leśkiewicz, Monika; Regulska, Magdalena; Lasoń, Władysław; Warszyński, Piotr

    2016-09-01

    Poor water solubility and low bioavailability of lipophilic drugs can be potentially improved with the use of delivery systems. In this study, encapsulation of nanoemulsion droplets was utilized to prepare curcumin nanocarriers. Nanosize droplets containing the drug were encapsulated in polyelectrolyte shells formed by the layer-by-layer (LbL) adsorption of biocompatible polyelectrolytes: poly-L-lysine (PLL) and poly-L-glutamic acid (PGA). The size of synthesized nanocapsules was around 100 nm. Their biocompatibility and neuroprotective effects were evaluated on the SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cell line using cell viability/toxicity assays (MTT reduction, LDH release). Statistically significant toxic effect was clearly observed for PLL coated nanocapsules (reduction in cell viability about 20%-60%), while nanocapsules with PLL/PGA coating did not evoke any detrimental effects on SH-SY5Y cells. Curcumin encapsulated in PLL/PGA showed similar neuroprotective activity against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced cell damage, as did 5 μM curcumin pre-dissolved in DMSO (about 16% of protection). Determination of concentration of curcumin in cell lysate confirmed that curcumin in nanocapsules has cell protective effect in lower concentrations (at least 20 times) than when given alone. Intracellular mechanisms of encapsulated curcumin-mediated protection engaged the prevention of the H2O2-induced decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) but did not attenuate Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) formation. The obtained results indicate the utility of PLL/PGA shell nanocapsules as a promising, alternative way of curcumin delivery for neuroprotective purposes with improved efficiency and reduced toxicity.

  15. Method of encapsulating solid radioactive waste material for storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunnell, L.R.; Bates, J.L.

    1976-01-01

    High-level radioactive wastes are encapsulated in vitreous carbon for long-term storage by mixing the wastes as finely divided solids with a suitable resin, formed into an appropriate shape and cured. The cured resin is carbonized by heating under a vacuum to form vitreous carbon. The vitreous carbon shapes may be further protected for storage by encasement in a canister containing a low melting temperature matrix material such as aluminum to increase impact resistance and improve heat dissipation. 8 claims

  16. Encapsulation of spent nuclear fuel-safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soederman, E.

    1983-04-01

    Two methods of encapsulation are studied, both including a copper canister. In one process the copper canister with the spent fuel is filled with copper powder and pressed to solid copper metal at high pressure. In the other process lead is cast around the fuel before the canister is sealed by electron beam welding. The activity decay of the fuel has been going on for 40 years before it arrives to the encapsulation station. This is the basic reason for expecting less activity release and less contamination of the plant than would be the case with fuel recently taken out from the reactors. In analysing the plant safety, experience from the nuclear power plants, from the planning of the Swedish central storage facility for spent fuel (CLAB) and from La Hague has been used. The analysis is also based on experience of todays technology, although it should be possible to improve the encapsulation process further before time has come to actually build the plant. The environment activity release will be very low, both at normal operation and following accidents in the plant. Using very conservative release rates also the most severe anticipated accident in the plant will induce a dose to critical group of only 3 μSv. The staff dose can also be kept low. Due to remote handling, fuel damage will not primarily give staff dose. Of the totally anticipated staff dose of 150 man mSv/year the greatest portion will come from external radiation during repair work in areas where fuel containing canisters by failure can not be taken away. The hot isostatic pressed (HIP) canister process contains more operations than does the lead casting and welding procedure. It is therefore expected to give the highest activity release and staff dose unless extra measures are taken to keep them low. Using remote operation and adequate equipment the encapsulation station with any of the two processes can be built and run with good radiological safety. (author)

  17. Accelerated thermal aging of rubber modified epoxy encapsulants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayre, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    A program is outlined to enable prediction of physical properties of rubber modified epoxy encapsulants over the life time of the extended life neutron generators. Preliminary results show that the chief aging phenomenon occurring is increased crosslink density of the epoxy matrix. No changes in the rubber phase have been detected. The effect of increased epoxy crosslink density has been higher volume resistivity at 66 0 C, increased tensile strength, and decreased ultimate elongation

  18. Though active on RINm5F insulinoma cells and cultured pancreatic islets, recombinant IL-22 fails to modulate cytotoxicity and disease in a protocol of streptozotocin-induced experimental diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anika eBerner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin (IL-22 is a cytokine displaying tissue protective and pro-regenerative functions in various preclinical disease models. Anti-bacterial, pro-proliferative, and anti-apoptotic properties mediated by activation of the transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT-3 are key to biological functions of this IL-10 family member. Herein, we introduce RINm5F insulinoma cells as rat ß-cell line that, under the influence of IL-22, displays activation of STAT3 with induction of its downstream gene targets Socs3, Bcl3, and Reg3ß. In addition, IL-22 also activates STAT1 in this cell type. To refine those observations, IL-22 biological activity was evaluated using ex vivo cultivated murine pancreatic islets. In accord with data on RINm5F cells, islet exposure to IL-22 activated STAT3 and upregulation of STAT3-inducible Socs3, Bcl3, and STEAP4 was evident under those conditions. As these observations supported the hypothesis that IL-22 may exert protective functions in toxic ß-cell injury, application of IL-22 was investigated in murine multiple-low-dose streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetes. For that purpose, recombinant IL-22 was administered thrice either immediately before and at disease onset (at d4, d6, d8 or closely thereafter (at d8, d10, d12. These two IL-22-treatment periods coincide with two early peaks of ß-cell injury detectable in this model. Notably, none of the two IL-22-treatment strategies affected diabetes incidence or blood glucose levels in STZ-treated mice. Moreover, pathological changes in islet morphology analyzed 28 days after disease induction were not ameliorated by IL-22 administration. Taken together, despite being active on rat RINm5F insulinoma cells and murine pancreatic islets, recombinant IL-22 fails to protect pancreatic ß-cells in the tested protocols from toxic effects of STZ and thus is unable to ameliorate disease in the widely used model of STZ-induced diabetes.

  19. Protocol Fuel Mix reporting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-07-01

    The protocol in this document describes a method for an Electricity Distribution Company (EDC) to account for the fuel mix of electricity that it delivers to its customers, based on the best available information. Own production, purchase and sale of electricity, and certificates trading are taken into account. In chapter 2 the actual protocol is outlined. In the appendixes additional (supporting) information is given: (A) Dutch Standard Fuel Mix, 2000; (B) Calculation of the Dutch Standard fuel mix; (C) Procedures to estimate and benchmark the fuel mix; (D) Quality management; (E) External verification; (F) Recommendation for further development of the protocol; (G) Reporting examples

  20. Coded Splitting Tree Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to multiple access control called coded splitting tree protocol. The approach builds on the known tree splitting protocols, code structure and successive interference cancellation (SIC). Several instances of the tree splitting protocol are initiated, each...... instance is terminated prematurely and subsequently iterated. The combined set of leaves from all the tree instances can then be viewed as a graph code, which is decodable using belief propagation. The main design problem is determining the order of splitting, which enables successful decoding as early...

  1. Playing With Population Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Koegler

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Population protocols have been introduced as a model of sensor networks consisting of very limited mobile agents with no control over their own movement: A collection of anonymous agents, modeled by finite automata, interact in pairs according to some rules. Predicates on the initial configurations that can be computed by such protocols have been characterized under several hypotheses. We discuss here whether and when the rules of interactions between agents can be seen as a game from game theory. We do so by discussing several basic protocols.

  2. ATM and Internet protocol

    CERN Document Server

    Bentall, M; Turton, B

    1998-01-01

    Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is a protocol that allows data, sound and video being transferred between independent networks via ISDN links to be supplied to, and interpreted by, the various system protocols.ATM and Internet Protocol explains the working of the ATM and B-ISDN network for readers with a basic understanding of telecommunications. It provides a handy reference to everyone working with ATM who may not require the full standards in detail, but need a comprehensive guide to ATM. A substantial section is devoted to the problems of running IP over ATM and there is some discussion o

  3. Encapsulated Bacillus anthracis interacts closely with liver endothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piris-Gimenez, Alejandro; Corre, Jean-Philippe; Jouvion, Gregory; Candela, Thomas; Khun, Huot; Goossens, Pierre L

    2009-11-01

    The Bacillus anthracis poly-gamma-D-glutamate capsule is essential for virulence. It impedes phagocytosis and protects bacilli from the immune system, thus promoting systemic dissemination. To further define the virulence mechanisms brought into play by the capsule, we characterized the interactions between encapsulated nontoxinogenic B. anthracis and its host in vivo through histological analysis, perfusion, and competition experiments with purified capsule. Clearance of encapsulated bacilli from the blood was rapid (>90% clearance within 5 min), with 75% of the bacteria being trapped in the liver. Competition experiments with purified capsule polyglutamate inhibited this interaction. At the septicemic phase of cutaneous infection with spores, the encapsulated bacilli were trapped in the vascular spaces of the liver and interacted closely with the liver endothelium in the sinusoids and terminal and portal veins. They often grow as microcolonies containing capsular material shed by the bacteria. We show that, in addition to its inhibitory effect on the interaction with the immune system, the capsule surrounding B. anthracis plays an active role in mediating the trapping of the bacteria within the liver and may thus contribute to anthrax pathogenesis. Because other microorganisms produce polyglutamate, it may also represent a general mechanism of virulence or in vivo survival.

  4. Liposomal encapsulated Zn-DTPA for removing intracellular 169Yb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blank, M.L.; Cress, E.A.; Byrd, B.L.; Washburn, L.C.; Snyder, F.

    1980-01-01

    Multilamellar liposomes possessing neutral positive or negative charges were tested for their capacity to encapsulate sodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) and for their selectivity in depositing in specific tissues after being injected into rats. Negative-charged liposomes had the greatest trapping efficiency over a wide range of lipid-to-aqueous phase ratios. In contrast, except for lung, liposomal charge had no significant effect on the tissue distribution of encapsulated EDTA; liver and spleen exhibited the highest uptake with all preparations. The proportion of encapsulated EDTA taken up by the liver decreased as the amount of injected liposomes was increased. Free zinc diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (Zn-DTPA) and multilamellar liposomes containing entrapped Zn-DTPA were administered to rats that had been injected with 169 Yb-citrate 24 hr earlier. At doses of 14 mg Zn-DTPA per kg body weight, both free Zn-DPTA and the liposomal-bound Zn-DTPA caused increased removal of 169 Yb from the animals. However, treatment with the liposomal Zn-DTPA caused significantly more of the 169 Yb to be removed than did the free Zn-DTPA treatment by itself. Our data indicate that lipophilic forms of chelators can effectively increase the removal rates of heavy metal contamination in tissues. (author)

  5. Encapsulation of aluminium in geopolymers produced from metakaolin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuenzel, C. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London (United Kingdom); Centre for Advanced Structural Ceramics, Department of Materials, Imperial College London (United Kingdom); Neville, T.P. [Centre for CO_2 Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, University College London (United Kingdom); Omakowski, T. [Flowcrete, Group Ltd., Cheshire (United Kingdom); Vandeperre, L. [Centre for Advanced Structural Ceramics, Department of Materials, Imperial College London (United Kingdom); Boccaccini, A.R. [Institute of Biomaterials, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (Germany); Bensted, J.; Simons, S.J.R. [Centre for CO_2 Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, University College London (United Kingdom); Cheeseman, C.R., E-mail: c.cheeseman@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-01

    Magnox swarf contaminated with trace levels of Al metal is an important UK legacy waste originated from the fuel rod cladding system used in Magnox nuclear power stations. Composite cements made from Portland cement and blast furnace slag form a potential encapsulation matrix. However the high pH of this system causes the Al metal to corrode causing durability issues. Geopolymers derived from metakaolin are being investigated as an alternative encapsulation matrix for Magnox swarf waste and the corrosion kinetics and surface interactions of Al with metakaolin geopolymer are reported in this paper. It is shown that the pH of the geopolymer paste can be controlled by the selection of metakaolin and the sodium silicate solution used to form the geopolymer. A decrease in pH of the activation solution reduces corrosion of the Al metal and increases the stability of bayerite and gibbsite layers formed on the Al surface. The bayerite and gibbsite act as a passivation layer which inhibits further corrosion and mitigates H{sub 2} generation. The research shows that optimised metakaolin geopolymers have potential to be used to encapsulate legacy Magnox swarf wastes.

  6. Mercuric iodide semiconductor detectors encapsulated in polymeric resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Joao F. Trencher; Santos, Robinson A. dos; Ferraz, Caue de M.; Oliveira, Adriano S.; Velo, Alexandre F.; Mesquita, Carlos H. de; Hamada, Margarida M., E-mail: mmhamada@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Disch, Christian; Fiederle, Michael [Albert-Ludwigs Universität Freiburg - UniFreibrug, Freiburg Materials Research Center - FMF, Freiburg (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The development of new semiconductor radiation detectors always finds many setback factors, such as: high concentration of impurities in the start materials, poor long term stability, the surface oxidation and other difficulties discussed extensively in the literature, that limit their use. In this work was studied, the application of a coating resin on HgI2 detectors, in order to protect the semiconductor crystal reactions from atmospheric gases and to isolate electrically the surface of the crystals. Four polymeric resins were analyzed: Resin 1: 50% - 100%Heptane, 10% - 25% methylcyclohexane, <1% cyclohexane; Resin 2: 25% - 50% ethanol, 25% - 50% acetone, <2,5% ethylacetate; Resin 3: 50% - 100% methylacetate, 5% - 10% n-butylacetate; Resin 4: 50% - 100% ethyl-2-cyanacrylat. The influence of the polymeric resin type used on the spectroscopic performance of the HgI{sub 2} semiconductor detector is, clearly, demonstrated. The better result was found for the detector encapsulated with Resin 3. An increase of up to 26 times at the stability time was observed for the detectors encapsulated compared to that non-encapsulated detector. (author)

  7. Atomically Precise Nanocluster Assemblies Encapsulating Plasmonic Gold Nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Amrita; Fernandez, Ann Candice; Som, Anirban; Mondal, Biswajit; Natarajan, Ganapati; Paramasivam, Ganesan; Lahtinen, Tanja; Häkkinen, Hannu; Nonappa, Nonappa; Pradeep, Thalappil

    2018-04-01

    We present the self-assembled structures of atomically precise, ligand-protected noble metal nanoclusters leading to encapsulation of plasmonic gold nanorods (GNRs). Unlike highly sophisticated DNA nanotechnology, our approach demonstrates a strategically simple hydrogen bonding-directed self-assembly of nanoclusters leading to octahedral nanocrystals encapsulating GNRs. Specifically, we use the p-mercaptobenzoic acid (pMBA) protected atomically precise nanocluster, Na4[Ag44(pMBA)30] and pMBA functionalized GNRs. High resolution transmission and scanning transmission electron tomographic reconstructions suggest that the geometry of the GNR surface is responsible for directing the assembly of silver nanoclusters via H-bonding leading to octahedral symmetry. Further, use of water dispersible gold nanoclusters, Au~250(pMBA)n and Au102(pMBA)44 also formed layered shells encapsulating GNRs. Such cluster assemblies on colloidal particles present a new category of precision hybrids with diverse possibilities. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Nutritional value of micro-encapsulated fish oils in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenquist, Annemette; Hølmer, Gunhild Kofoed

    1996-01-01

    The nutritional value of a micro-encapsulated fish oil product has been investigated. Three groups of 10 male Wistar rats each were fed dietscontaining 20% (w/w) of fat, and only the type and form of the fat added was different. In the test groups 5% (w/w) of fish oil either as such or in amicro......-encapsulated form was incorporated in the diets. The remaining fat was lard supplemented with corn oil to a dietary content of linoleic acid at10% (w/w). The control group received lard and corn oil only. A mixture similar to the dry matter in the micro-encapsulated product was alsoadded to the diets not containing...... this product. The uptake of marine (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) from both types of fish oil supplementwas reflected in the fatty acid profiles of liver phosphatidyl cholines (PC), phosphatidyl ethanolamines (PE), triglycerides (TG) and cardiolipin (CL).A suppression of the elongation of linoleic...

  9. Nootkatone encapsulation by cyclodextrins: Effect on water solubility and photostability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kfoury, Miriana; Landy, David; Ruellan, Steven; Auezova, Lizette; Greige-Gerges, Hélène; Fourmentin, Sophie

    2017-12-01

    Nootkatone (NO) is a sesquiterpenoid volatile flavor, used in foods, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals, possessing also insect repellent activity. Its application is limited because of its low aqueous solubility and stability; this could be resolved by encapsulation in cyclodextrins (CDs). This study evaluated the encapsulation of NO by CDs using phase solubility studies, Isothermal Titration Calorimetry, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy and molecular modeling. Solid CD/NO inclusion complex was prepared and characterized for encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity using UV-Visible. Thermal properties were investigated by thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis and release studies were performed using multiple headspace extraction. Formation constants (K f ) proved the formation of stable inclusion complexes. NO aqueous solubility, photo- and thermal stability were enhanced and the release could be insured from solid complex in aqueous solution. This suggests that CDs are promising carrier to improve NO properties and, consequently, to enlarge its use in foods, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals preparations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Application of Electrostatic Extrusion - Flavour Encapsulation and Controlled Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manojlovic, Verica; Rajic, Nevenka; Djonlagic, Jasna; Obradovic, Bojana; Nedovic, Viktor; Bugarski, Branko

    2008-03-03

    The subject of this study was the development of flavour alginate formulationsaimed for thermally processed foods. Ethyl vanilline was used as the model flavourcompound. Electrostatic extrusion was applied for the encapsulation of ethyl vanilline inalginate gel microbeads. The obtained microbeads with approx. 10 % w/w of ethylvanilline encapsulated in about 2 % w/w alginate were uniformly sized spheres of about450 μm. Chemical characterization by H-NMR spectroscopy revealed that the alginateused in this study had a high content (67 %) of guluronic residues and was rich in GG diadblocks (FGG = 55%) and thus presented a high-quality immobilisation matrix. The thermalbehaviour of alginate beads encapsulating ethyl vanilline was investigated bythermogravimetric (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry measurements (TG-DSC)under heating conditions which mimicked usual food processing to provide informationabout thermal decomposition of alginate matrix and kinetics of aroma release. Two wellresolved weight losses were observed. The first one was in the 50-150 °C temperaturerange with the maximum at approx. 112 °C, corresponding to the dehydration of thepolymer network. The second loss in the 220-325 °C temperature range, with a maximumat ~ 247 °C corresponded to the release of vanilline. The obtained results indicate that up to230 °C most of the vanilline remained intacta, while prolonged heating at elevatedtemperatures led to the entire loss of the aroma compound.

  11. Application of Electrostatic Extrusion – Flavour Encapsulation and Controlled Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manojlovic, Verica; Rajic, Nevenka; Djonlagic, Jasna; Obradovic, Bojana; Nedovic, Viktor; Bugarski, Branko

    2008-01-01

    The subject of this study was the development of flavour alginate formulations aimed for thermally processed foods. Ethyl vanilline was used as the model flavour compound. Electrostatic extrusion was applied for the encapsulation of ethyl vanilline in alginate gel microbeads. The obtained microbeads with approx. 10 % w/w of ethyl vanilline encapsulated in about 2 % w/w alginate were uniformly sized spheres of about 450 μm. Chemical characterization by H-NMR spectroscopy revealed that the alginate used in this study had a high content (67 %) of guluronic residues and was rich in GG diad blocks (FGG = 55%) and thus presented a high-quality immobilisation matrix. The thermal behaviour of alginate beads encapsulating ethyl vanilline was investigated by thermogravimetric (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry measurements (TG-DSC) under heating conditions which mimicked usual food processing to provide information about thermal decomposition of alginate matrix and kinetics of aroma release. Two well resolved weight losses were observed. The first one was in the 50-150 °C temperature range with the maximum at approx. 112 °C, corresponding to the dehydration of the polymer network. The second loss in the 220-325 °C temperature range, with a maximum at ∼ 247 °C corresponded to the release of vanilline. The obtained results indicate that up to 230 °C most of the vanilline remained intacta, while prolonged heating at elevated temperatures led to the entire loss of the aroma compound. PMID:27879775

  12. Biological applications of zinc imidazole framework through protein encapsulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawan Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The robustness of biomolecules is always a significant challenge in the application of biostorage in biotechnology or pharmaceutical research. To learn more about biostorage in porous materials, we investigated the feasibility of using zeolite imidazolate framework (ZIF-8 with respect to protein encapsulation. Here, bovine serum albumin (BSA was selected as a model protein for encapsulation with the synthesis of ZIF-8 using water as a media. ZIF-8 exhibited excellent protein adsorption capacity through successive adsorption of free BSA with the formation of hollow crystals. The loading of protein in ZIF-8 crystals is affected by the molecular weight due to diffusion-limited permeation inside the crystals and also by the affinity of the protein to the pendent group on the ZIF-8 surface. The polar nature of BSA not only supported adsorption on the solid surface, but also enhanced the affinity of crystal spheres through weak coordination interactions with the ZIF-8 framework. The novel approach tested in this study was therefore successful in achieving protein encapsulation with porous, biocompatible, and decomposable microcrystalline ZIF-8. The presence of both BSA and FITC–BSA in ZIF-8 was confirmed consistently by spectroscopy as well as optical and electron microscopy.

  13. Optimization of Water Content for the Cryopreservation Of Allium sativum In Vitro Cultures by Encapsulation-Dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, P T; Souch, G R; Zamecnik, J; Harding, K

    There is a general requirement to determine and correlate water content to viability for the standardization of conservation protocols to facilitate effective cryostorage of plant germplasm. This study examined water content as a critical factor to optimize the cryostorage of Allium sativum. Stem discs were excised from post-harvest, stored bulbs prior to cryopreservation by encapsulation-dehydration and water content was determined gravimetrically. Survival of cryopreserved stem discs was 42.5 %, with 22.5 % exhibiting shoot regrowth following 6 h desiccation. Gravimetric data demonstrated a correlation between water content corresponding with survival / regrowth from desiccated, cryopreserved stem discs. For encapsulated stem discs a 25 % residual moisture and corresponding water content of 0.36 g H2O g -1 d.wt correlated with maximal survival following ~6.5 h of desiccation. The data concurs with the literature suggesting the formation of a stable vitrified state and a 'window' for optimal survival and regrowth that is between 6 - 10 h desiccation. Further studies using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) are suggested to substantiate these findings.

  14. Mobile Internet Protocol Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brachfeld, Lawrence

    1999-01-01

    ...) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP). Mobile IP allows mobile computers to send and receive packets addressed with their home network IP address, regardless of the IP address of their current point of attachment on the Internet...

  15. USA-USSR protocol

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    On 30 November the USA Atomic Energy Commission and the USSR State Committee for the Utilization of Atomic Energy signed, in Washington, a protocol 'on carrying out of joint projects in the field of high energy physics at the accelerators of the National Accelerator Laboratory (Batavia) and the Institute for High Energy Physics (Serpukhov)'. The protocol will be in force for five years and can be extended by mutual agreement.

  16. Accelerated/abbreviated test methods of the low-cost silicon solar array project. Study 4, task 3: Encapsulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolyer, J. M.; Mann, N. R.

    1977-01-01

    Methods of accelerated and abbreviated testing were developed and applied to solar cell encapsulants. These encapsulants must provide protection for as long as 20 years outdoors at different locations within the United States. Consequently, encapsulants were exposed for increasing periods of time to the inherent climatic variables of temperature, humidity, and solar flux. Property changes in the encapsulants were observed. The goal was to predict long term behavior of encapsulants based upon experimental data obtained over relatively short test periods.

  17. Encapsulation of phytosterols and phytosterol esters in liposomes made with soy phospholipids by high pressure homogenization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fan C; Acevedo, Nuria; Marangoni, Alejandro G

    2017-11-15

    Phytosterols and phytosterol esters were encapsulated within large unilamellar liposomes prepared with soy phospholipids using a microfluidizer. The average particle diameter of these liposomal vesicles increased with increasing amounts of encapsulated phytosterols, especially with increasing free sterol content. The phytosterol content, liposomal particle size, and phytosterol encapsulation efficiency started to plateau when liposomes were prepared with MOPS buffer dispersions that contained 50 mg ml -1 soy phospholipid and more than 4% phytosterol blend, suggesting the saturation of phytosterol encapsulation. We proposed an encapsulation mechanism of free sterols and phytosterol esters in liposomes, where free sterols were mainly encapsulated within the lumen of these liposomes as crystals, and sterol esters and some free sterols were incorporated within the phospholipid bilayer of the liposomal membrane. The results from this work could provide the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industries a practical method to produce loaded liposomes using inexpensive phospholipid mixtures for the delivery of bioactive ingredients.

  18. Novel encapsulation systems and processes for overcoming the challenges of polypharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlu-Gul, Mine; Topcu, Ahmet Alptekin; Shams, Talayeh; Mahalingam, Suntharavathanan; Edirisinghe, Mohan

    2014-10-01

    The encapsulation process has been studied to develop smart drug delivery systems for decades. In particular, micro-encapsulation and nano-encapsulation approaches have gained wide interest in the development of particulate drug delivery and achieved progress in specialties such as nano-medicine. Encapsulation technologies have evolved through various platforms including emulsion solvent evaporation, spray drying and polymer conjugation. Among current encapsulation methods, electrohydrodynamic and microfluidic processes stand out by enabling the making of formulations with uniform shape and nanoscale size. Pressurized gyration is a new method of combining rotation and controlled pressure to produce encapsulated structures of various morphologies. In this review we address key developments in electrohydrodynamic, microfluidic, their combined and new approaches as well as their potential to obtain combined therapies with desired drug release profiles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. In silico toxicology protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myatt, Glenn J; Ahlberg, Ernst; Akahori, Yumi; Allen, David; Amberg, Alexander; Anger, Lennart T; Aptula, Aynur; Auerbach, Scott; Beilke, Lisa; Bellion, Phillip; Benigni, Romualdo; Bercu, Joel; Booth, Ewan D; Bower, Dave; Brigo, Alessandro; Burden, Natalie; Cammerer, Zoryana; Cronin, Mark T D; Cross, Kevin P; Custer, Laura; Dettwiler, Magdalena; Dobo, Krista; Ford, Kevin A; Fortin, Marie C; Gad-McDonald, Samantha E; Gellatly, Nichola; Gervais, Véronique; Glover, Kyle P; Glowienke, Susanne; Van Gompel, Jacky; Gutsell, Steve; Hardy, Barry; Harvey, James S; Hillegass, Jedd; Honma, Masamitsu; Hsieh, Jui-Hua; Hsu, Chia-Wen; Hughes, Kathy; Johnson, Candice; Jolly, Robert; Jones, David; Kemper, Ray; Kenyon, Michelle O; Kim, Marlene T; Kruhlak, Naomi L; Kulkarni, Sunil A; Kümmerer, Klaus; Leavitt, Penny; Majer, Bernhard; Masten, Scott; Miller, Scott; Moser, Janet; Mumtaz, Moiz; Muster, Wolfgang; Neilson, Louise; Oprea, Tudor I; Patlewicz, Grace; Paulino, Alexandre; Lo Piparo, Elena; Powley, Mark; Quigley, Donald P; Reddy, M Vijayaraj; Richarz, Andrea-Nicole; Ruiz, Patricia; Schilter, Benoit; Serafimova, Rositsa; Simpson, Wendy; Stavitskaya, Lidiya; Stidl, Reinhard; Suarez-Rodriguez, Diana; Szabo, David T; Teasdale, Andrew; Trejo-Martin, Alejandra; Valentin, Jean-Pierre; Vuorinen, Anna; Wall, Brian A; Watts, Pete; White, Angela T; Wichard, Joerg; Witt, Kristine L; Woolley, Adam; Woolley, David; Zwickl, Craig; Hasselgren, Catrin

    2018-04-17

    The present publication surveys several applications of in silico (i.e., computational) toxicology approaches across different industries and institutions. It highlights the need to develop standardized protocols when conducting toxicity-related predictions. This contribution articulates the information needed for protocols to support in silico predictions for major toxicological endpoints of concern (e.g., genetic toxicity, carcinogenicity, acute toxicity, reproductive toxicity, developmental toxicity) across several industries and regulatory bodies. Such novel in silico toxicology (IST) protocols, when fully developed and implemented, will ensure in silico toxicological assessments are performed and evaluated in a consistent, reproducible, and well-documented manner across industries and regulatory bodies to support wider uptake and acceptance of the approaches. The development of IST protocols is an initiative developed through a collaboration among an international consortium to reflect the state-of-the-art in in silico toxicology for hazard identification and characterization. A general outline for describing the development of such protocols is included and it is based on in silico predictions and/or available experimental data for a defined series of relevant toxicological effects or mechanisms. The publication presents a novel approach for determining the reliability of in silico predictions alongside experimental data. In addition, we discuss how to determine the level of confidence in the assessment based on the relevance and reliability of the information. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Formulation, stabilisation and encapsulation of bacteriophage for phage therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Danish J; Sokolov, Ilya J; Vinner, Gurinder K; Mancuso, Francesco; Cinquerrui, Salvatore; Vladisavljevic, Goran T; Clokie, Martha R J; Garton, Natalie J; Stapley, Andrew G F; Kirpichnikova, Anna

    2017-11-01

    Against a backdrop of global antibiotic resistance and increasing awareness of the importance of the human microbiota, there has been resurgent interest in the potential use of bacteriophages for therapeutic purposes, known as phage therapy. A number of phage therapy phase I and II clinical trials have concluded, and shown phages don't present significant adverse safety concerns. These clinical trials used simple phage suspensions without any formulation and phage stability was of secondary concern. Phages have a limited stability in solution, and undergo a significant drop in phage titre during processing and storage which is unacceptable if phages are to become regulated pharmaceuticals, where stable dosage and well defined pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics are de rigueur. Animal studies have shown that the efficacy of phage therapy outcomes depend on the phage concentration (i.e. the dose) delivered at the site of infection, and their ability to target and kill bacteria, arresting bacterial growth and clearing the infection. In addition, in vitro and animal studies have shown the importance of using phage cocktails rather than single phage preparations to achieve better therapy outcomes. The in vivo reduction of phage concentration due to interactions with host antibodies or other clearance mechanisms may necessitate repeated dosing of phages, or sustained release approaches. Modelling of phage-bacterium population dynamics reinforces these points. Surprisingly little attention has been devoted to the effect of formulation on phage therapy outcomes, given the need for phage cocktails, where each phage within a cocktail may require significantly different formulation to retain a high enough infective dose. This review firstly looks at the clinical needs and challenges (informed through a review of key animal studies evaluating phage therapy) associated with treatment of acute and chronic infections and the drivers for phage encapsulation. An important driver

  1. Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) Interim Status Closure Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SIMMONS, F.M.

    2000-01-01

    This document describes the planned activities and performance standards for closing the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF). WESF is located within the 225B Facility in the 200 East Area on the Hanford Facility. Although this document is prepared based on Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 265, Subpart G requirements, closure of the storage unit will comply with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-610 regulations pursuant to Section 5.3 of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Action Plan (Ecology et al. 1996). Because the intention is to clean close WESF, postclosure activities are not applicable to this interim status closure plan. To clean close the storage unit, it will be demonstrated that dangerous waste has not been left onsite at levels above the closure performance standard for removal and decontamination. If it is determined that clean closure is not possible or environmentally is impracticable, the interim status closure plan will be modified to address required postclosure activities. WESF stores cesium and strontium encapsulated salts. The encapsulated salts are stored in the pool cells or process cells located within 225B Facility. The dangerous waste is contained within a double containment system to preclude spills to the environment. In the unlikely event that a waste spill does occur outside the capsules, operating methods and administrative controls require that waste spills be cleaned up promptly and completely, and a notation made in the operating record. Because dangerous waste does not include source, special nuclear, and by-product material components of mixed waste, radionuclides are not within the scope of this documentation. The information on radionuclides is provided only for general knowledge

  2. Encapsulation of curcumin in polymeric nanoparticles for antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffersson Krishan Trigo Gutierrez

    Full Text Available Curcumin (CUR has been used as photosensitizer in antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy (aPDT. However its poor water solubility, instability, and scarce bioavalibility hinder its in vivo application. The aim of this study was to synthesize curcumin in polymeric nanoparticles (NP and to evaluate their antimicrobial photodynamic effect and cytoxicity. CUR in anionic and cationic NP was synthesized using polylactic acid and dextran sulfate by the nanoprecipitation method. For cationic NP, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide was added. CUR-NP were characterized by physicochemical properties, photodegradation, encapsulation efficiency and release of curcumin from nanoparticles. CUR-NP was compared with free CUR in 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO as a photosensitizer for aPDT against planktonic and biofilms (mono-, dual- and triple-species cultures of Streptococcus mutans, Candida albicans and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The cytotoxicity effect of formulations was evaluated on keratinocytes. Data were analysed by parametric (ANOVA and non-parametric (Kruskal-Wallis tests (α = 0.05. CUR-NP showed alteration in the physicochemical properties along time, photodegradation similar to free curcumin, encapsulation efficiency up to 67%, and 96% of release after 48h. After aPDT planktonic cultures showed reductions from 0.78 log10 to complete eradication, while biofilms showed no antimicrobial effect or reductions up to 4.44 log10. Anionic CUR-NP showed reduced photoinactivation of biofilms. Cationic CUR-NP showed microbicidal effect even in absence of light. Anionic formulations showed no cytotoxic effect compared with free CUR and cationic CUR-NP and NP. The synthesized formulations improved the water solubility of CUR, showed higher antimicrobial photodynamic effect for planktonic cultures than for biofilms, and the encapsulation of CUR in anionic NP reduced the cytotoxicity of 10% DMSO used for free CUR.

  3. Encapsulation of curcumin in polymeric nanoparticles for antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigo Gutierrez, Jeffersson Krishan; Zanatta, Gabriela Cristina; Ortega, Ana Laura Mira; Balastegui, Maria Isabella Cuba; Sanitá, Paula Volpato; Pavarina, Ana Cláudia; Barbugli, Paula Aboud

    2017-01-01

    Curcumin (CUR) has been used as photosensitizer in antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy (aPDT). However its poor water solubility, instability, and scarce bioavalibility hinder its in vivo application. The aim of this study was to synthesize curcumin in polymeric nanoparticles (NP) and to evaluate their antimicrobial photodynamic effect and cytoxicity. CUR in anionic and cationic NP was synthesized using polylactic acid and dextran sulfate by the nanoprecipitation method. For cationic NP, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide was added. CUR-NP were characterized by physicochemical properties, photodegradation, encapsulation efficiency and release of curcumin from nanoparticles. CUR-NP was compared with free CUR in 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as a photosensitizer for aPDT against planktonic and biofilms (mono-, dual- and triple-species) cultures of Streptococcus mutans, Candida albicans and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The cytotoxicity effect of formulations was evaluated on keratinocytes. Data were analysed by parametric (ANOVA) and non-parametric (Kruskal-Wallis) tests (α = 0.05). CUR-NP showed alteration in the physicochemical properties along time, photodegradation similar to free curcumin, encapsulation efficiency up to 67%, and 96% of release after 48h. After aPDT planktonic cultures showed reductions from 0.78 log10 to complete eradication, while biofilms showed no antimicrobial effect or reductions up to 4.44 log10. Anionic CUR-NP showed reduced photoinactivation of biofilms. Cationic CUR-NP showed microbicidal effect even in absence of light. Anionic formulations showed no cytotoxic effect compared with free CUR and cationic CUR-NP and NP. The synthesized formulations improved the water solubility of CUR, showed higher antimicrobial photodynamic effect for planktonic cultures than for biofilms, and the encapsulation of CUR in anionic NP reduced the cytotoxicity of 10% DMSO used for free CUR. PMID:29107978

  4. Process engineering of high voltage alginate encapsulation of mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gryshkov, Oleksandr; Pogozhykh, Denys; Zernetsch, Holger; Hofmann, Nicola; Mueller, Thomas; Glasmacher, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    Encapsulation of stem cells in alginate beads is promising as a sophisticated drug delivery system in treatment of a wide range of acute and chronic diseases. However, common use of air flow encapsulation of cells in alginate beads fails to produce beads with narrow size distribution, intact spherical structure and controllable sizes that can be scaled up. Here we show that high voltage encapsulation (≥ 15 kV) can be used to reproducibly generate spherical alginate beads (200–400 μm) with narrow size distribution (± 5–7%) in a controlled manner under optimized process parameters. Flow rate of alginate solution ranged from 0.5 to 10 ml/h allowed producing alginate beads with a size of 320 and 350 μm respectively, suggesting that this approach can be scaled up. Moreover, we found that applied voltages (15–25 kV) did not alter the viability and proliferation of encapsulated mesenchymal stem cells post-encapsulation and cryopreservation as compared to air flow. We are the first who employed a comparative analysis of electro-spraying and air flow encapsulation to study the effect of high voltage on alginate encapsulated cells. This report provides background in application of high voltage to encapsulate living cells for further medical purposes. Long-term comparison and work on alginate–cell interaction within these structures will be forthcoming. - Highlights: • High voltage alginate encapsulation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) was designed. • Reproducible and spherical alginate beads were generated via high voltage. • Air flow encapsulation was utilized as a comparative approach to high voltage. • High voltage did not alter the viability and proliferation of encapsulated MSCs. • High voltage encapsulation can be scaled up and applied in cell-based therapy

  5. High Throughput Single-cell and Multiple-cell Micro-encapsulation

    OpenAIRE

    Lagus, Todd P.; Edd, Jon F.

    2012-01-01

    Microfluidic encapsulation methods have been previously utilized to capture cells in picoliter-scale aqueous, monodisperse drops, providing confinement from a bulk fluid environment with applications in high throughput screening, cytometry, and mass spectrometry. We describe a method to not only encapsulate single cells, but to repeatedly capture a set number of cells (here we demonstrate one- and two-cell encapsulation) to study both isolation and the interactions between cells in groups of ...

  6. Microprocessor-controlled CAMAC data link module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, J.M.

    1978-05-01

    Communication between the central control computer and remote, satellite data-acquisition/control stations at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) is presently accomplished through the use of CAMAC-based Data Link modules. With the advent of the microprocessor, a new philosophy for digital data communications has evolved. Data Link modules containing microprocessor controllers provide link management and communication network protocol through algorithms executed in the Data Link microprocessor. 13 figures

  7. Business protocol in integrated Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Pavelová, Nina

    2009-01-01

    The first chapter devotes to definitions of basic terms such as protocol or business protocol, to differences between protocol and etiquette, and between social etiquette and business etiquette. The second chapter focuses on the factors influencing the European business protocol. The third chapter is devoted to the etiquette of business protocol in the European countries. It touches the topics such as punctuality and planning of business appointment, greeting, business cards, dress and appear...

  8. Security Protocols in a Nutshell

    OpenAIRE

    Toorani, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Security protocols are building blocks in secure communications. They deploy some security mechanisms to provide certain security services. Security protocols are considered abstract when analyzed, but they can have extra vulnerabilities when implemented. This manuscript provides a holistic study on security protocols. It reviews foundations of security protocols, taxonomy of attacks on security protocols and their implementations, and different methods and models for security analysis of pro...

  9. Irreducible Specht modules are signed Young modules

    OpenAIRE

    Hemmer, David J.

    2005-01-01

    Recently Donkin defined signed Young modules as a simultaneous generalization of Young and twisted Young modules for the symmetric group. We show that in odd characteristic, if a Specht module $S^\\lambda$ is irreducible, then $S^\\lambda$ is a signed Young module. Thus the set of irreducible Specht modules coincides with the set of irreducible signed Young modules. This provides evidence for our conjecture that the signed Young modules are precisely the class of indecomposable self-dual module...

  10. Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) Waste Analysis Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SIMMONS, F.M.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this waste analysis plan (WAP) is to document waste analysis activities associated with the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) to comply with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-300(1), (2), (3), (4), (5), and (6). WESF is an interim status other storage-miscellaneous storage unit. WESF stores mixed waste consisting of radioactive cesium and strontium salts. WESF is located in the 200 East Area on the Hanford Facility. Because dangerous waste does not include source, special nuclear, and by-product material components of mixed waste, radionuclides are not within the scope of this documentation. The information on radionuclides is provided only for general knowledge

  11. Poly (DADMAC) encapsulation in PES microcapsules utilizing gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, Sanju; Varshney, Lalit; Tirumalesh, Keesari; Sabharwal, Sunil

    2009-01-01

    In this communication, a method for encapsulation of a polymeric resin using radiation technology is reported. The quaternary ammonium resin, polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDADMAC) was incorporated in the core of a preformed hollow polyethersulfone microcapsule, using radiation technology, for the extraction of anions from aqueous solutions. The idea was to introduce the monomer into the porous microcapsules and initiate polymerization by radiation to trap the polymer formed inside the capsule. The resultant capsule was able to take up and exchange some anions (F - , Cl - , Br - , NO 3 2- and SO 4 2- ) at relatively low concentrations

  12. Preparation of SnSe thin films by encapsulated selenization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabar D. Hutagalung; Samsudi Sakrani; Yussof Wahab

    1994-01-01

    Tin selenide thin films were prepared by encapsulated selenization. A stacked layer of evaporated Sn and Se films were annealed in a carbon block at temperatures 100 - 500 degree Celsius for 3 hours. X-ray analysis and SEM (Scanning electron) micrograph results showed that SnSe was initially formed at 150 degree Celsius with crystal size 30.0 nm and reached optimum formation at 200 daximum of 57.4 % yield of 5-decene. Other factors such as reaction temperatures, types of solvent and wt% of rhenium loadings influence the activity of the catalytic system

  13. Cementing a wellbore using cementing material encapsulated in a shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.; Duoss, Eric B.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.; Cowan, Kenneth Michael

    2016-08-16

    A system for cementing a wellbore penetrating an earth formation into which a pipe extends. A cement material is positioned in the space between the wellbore and the pipe by circulated capsules containing the cement material through the pipe into the space between the wellbore and the pipe. The capsules contain the cementing material encapsulated in a shell. The capsules are added to a fluid and the fluid with capsules is circulated through the pipe into the space between the wellbore and the pipe. The shell is breached once the capsules contain the cementing material are in position in the space between the wellbore and the pipe.

  14. Cementing a wellbore using cementing material encapsulated in a shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.; Duoss, Eric B.; Floyd, III, William C.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.; Vericella, John J.; Cowan, Kenneth Michael

    2017-03-14

    A system for cementing a wellbore penetrating an earth formation into which a pipe extends. A cement material is positioned in the space between the wellbore and the pipe by circulated capsules containing the cement material through the pipe into the space between the wellbore and the pipe. The capsules contain the cementing material encapsulated in a shell. The capsules are added to a fluid and the fluid with capsules is circulated through the pipe into the space between the wellbore and the pipe. The shell is breached once the capsules contain the cementing material are in position in the space between the wellbore and the pipe.

  15. DNA repair protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjergbæk, Lotte

    In its 3rd edition, this Methods in Molecular Biology(TM) book covers the eukaryotic response to genomic insult including advanced protocols and standard techniques in the field of DNA repair. Offers expert guidance for DNA repair, recombination, and replication. Current knowledge of the mechanisms...... that regulate DNA repair has grown significantly over the past years with technology advances such as RNA interference, advanced proteomics and microscopy as well as high throughput screens. The third edition of DNA Repair Protocols covers various aspects of the eukaryotic response to genomic insult including...... recent advanced protocols as well as standard techniques used in the field of DNA repair. Both mammalian and non-mammalian model organisms are covered in the book, and many of the techniques can be applied with only minor modifications to other systems than the one described. Written in the highly...

  16. Micro-Encapsulation of non-aqueous solvents for energy-efficient carbon capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolaroff, Joshua K; Ye, Congwang; Oakdale, James [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Baker, Sarah; Nugyen, Du; Smith, William; Aines, Roger

    2016-11-14

    Here, we demonstrate micro-encapsulation of several promising designer solvents: an IL, PCIL, and CO2BOL. We develop custom polymers that cure by UV light in the presence of each solvent while maintaining high CO2 permeability. We use several new process strategies to accommodate the viscosity and phase changes. We then measure and compare the CO2 absorption rate and capacity as well as the multi-cycle performance of the encapsulated solvents. These results are compared with previous work on encapsulated sodium carbonate solution. The prospects for designer solvents to reduce the cost of post-combustion capture and the implications for process design with encapsulated solvents are discussed.

  17. Assessment of genetic fidelity in Rauvolfia serpentina plantlets grown from synthetic (encapsulated) seeds following in vitro storage at 4 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faisal, Mohammad; Alatar, Abdulrahman A; Ahmad, Naseem; Anis, Mohammad; Hegazy, Ahmad K

    2012-05-03

    An efficient method was developed for plant regeneration and establishment from alginate encapsulated synthetic seeds of Rauvolfia serpentina. Synthetic seeds were produced using in vitro proliferated microshoots upon complexation of 3% sodium alginate prepared in Llyod and McCown woody plant medium (WPM) and 100 mM calcium chloride. Re-growth ability of encapsulated nodal segments was evaluated after storage at 4 °C for 0, 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks and compared with non-encapsulated buds. Effects of different media viz; Murashige and Skoog medium; Lloyd and McCown woody Plant medium, Gamborg’s B5 medium and Schenk and Hildebrandt medium was also investigated for conversion into plantlets. The maximum frequency of conversion into plantlets from encapsulated nodal segments stored at 4 °C for 4 weeks was achieved on woody plant medium supplement with 5.0 μM BA and 1.0 μM NAA. Rooting in plantlets was achieved in half-strength Murashige and Skoog liquid medium containing 0.5 μM indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) on filter paper bridges. Plantlets obtained from stored synseeds were hardened, established successfully ex vitro and were morphologically similar to each other as well as their mother plant. The genetic fidelity of Rauvolfia clones raised from synthetic seeds following four weeks of storage at 4 °C were assessed by using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. All the RAPD and ISSR profiles from generated plantlets were monomorphic and comparable to the mother plant, which confirms the genetic stability among the clones. This synseed protocol could be useful for establishing a particular system for conservation, short-term storage and production of genetically identical and stable plants before it is released for commercial purposes.

  18. Interplanetary Overlay Network Bundle Protocol Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleigh, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    The Interplanetary Overlay Network (ION) system's BP package, an implementation of the Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) Bundle Protocol (BP) and supporting services, has been specifically designed to be suitable for use on deep-space robotic vehicles. Although the ION BP implementation is unique in its use of zero-copy objects for high performance, and in its use of resource-sensitive rate control, it is fully interoperable with other implementations of the BP specification (Internet RFC 5050). The ION BP implementation is built using the same software infrastructure that underlies the implementation of the CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems) File Delivery Protocol (CFDP) built into the flight software of Deep Impact. It is designed to minimize resource consumption, while maximizing operational robustness. For example, no dynamic allocation of system memory is required. Like all the other ION packages, ION's BP implementation is designed to port readily between Linux and Solaris (for easy development and for ground system operations) and VxWorks (for flight systems operations). The exact same source code is exercised in both environments. Initially included in the ION BP implementations are the following: libraries of functions used in constructing bundle forwarders and convergence-layer (CL) input and output adapters; a simple prototype bundle forwarder and associated CL adapters designed to run over an IPbased local area network; administrative tools for managing a simple DTN infrastructure built from these components; a background daemon process that silently destroys bundles whose time-to-live intervals have expired; a library of functions exposed to applications, enabling them to issue and receive data encapsulated in DTN bundles; and some simple applications that can be used for system checkout and benchmarking.

  19. Protocol Monitoring Energy Conservation; Protocol Monitoring Energiebesparing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boonekamp, P.G.M. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands); Mannaerts, H. [Centraal Planburea CPB, Den Haag (Netherlands); Tinbergen, W. [Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek CBS, Den Haag (Netherlands); Vreuls, H.H.J. [Nederlandse onderneming voor energie en milieu Novem, Utrecht (Netherlands); Wesselink, B. [Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieuhygiene RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    2001-12-01

    On request of the Dutch ministry of Economic Affairs five institutes have collaborated to create a 'Protocol Monitoring Energy Conservation', a common method and database to calculate the amount of energy savings realised in past years. The institutes concerned are the Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), the Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis (CPB), the Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), the National Agency for Energy and Environment (Novem) and the Netherlands Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM). The institutes have agreed upon a clear definition of energy use and energy savings. The demarcation with renewable energy, the saving effects of substitution between energy carriers and the role of import and export of energy have been elaborated. A decomposition method is used to split up the observed change in energy use in a number of effects, on a national and sectoral level. This method includes an analysis of growth effects, effects of structural changes in production and consumption activities and savings on end use or with more efficient conversion processes. To calculate these effects the total energy use is desegregated as much as possible. For each segment a reference energy use is calculated according to the trend in a variable which is supposed to be representative for the use without savings. The difference with the actual energy use is taken as the savings realised. Results are given for the sectors households, industry, agriculture, services and government, transportation and the energy sector; as well as a national figure. A special feature of the protocol method is the application of primary energy use figures in the determination of savings for end users. This means that the use of each energy carrier is increased with a certain amount, according to the conversion losses caused elsewhere in the energy system. The losses concern the base year energy sector and losses abroad for imports of secondary

  20. Review of the radiation protection calculations for the encapsulation plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranta-aho, A.

    2008-09-01

    The radiation protection calculations of the encapsulation plant have been carried out with the MCNP5 Monte Carlo code. The focus of the study has been in the parts of the encapsulation plant where the spent fuel is handled after discharge from the transportation casks i.e. the fuel handling cell, the fuel drying station, the canister transfer corridor, the welding chamber, the weld inspection room, the canister buffer storage and the canister lift. The protection against radiation hazard has been mainly designed with thick concrete walls. Additionally, the entrances to the rooms with shielding requirements have been equipped with mazes. The present design excludes doors with shielding properties. The aim of this work was to verify and evaluate the necessary wall thicknesses and the functioning of the mazes in the current design. The calculations verified that for the most parts of the facility, the currently designed walls thicknesses provide adequate protection against radiation from the different spent fuel assembly configurations. Some corrective actions however seem necessary in order to stay clearly below desired radiation limits. For the most parts the functioning of the mazes was inadequate. In some of the cases a different design of the maze will be sufficient action but in some cases the radiation protection can only be secured by heavy doors for practical reasons. (orig.)

  1. Radiosensitizing Silica Nanoparticles Encapsulating Docetaxel for Treatment of Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belz, Jodi; Castilla-Ojo, Noelle; Sridhar, Srinivas; Kumar, Rajiv

    2017-01-01

    The applications of nanoparticles in oncology include enhanced drug delivery, efficient tumor targeting, treatment monitoring, and diagnostics. The "theranostic properties" associated with nanoparticles have shown enhanced delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs with superior imaging capabilities and minimal toxicities. In conventional chemotherapy, only a fraction of the administered drug reaches the tumor site or cancer cells. For successful translation of these formulations, it is imperative to evaluate the design and properties of these nanoparticles. Here, we describe the design of ultra-small silica nanoparticles to encapsulate a radiosensitizing drug for combined chemoradiation therapy. The small size of nanoparticles allows for better dispersion and uptake of the drug within the highly vascularized tumor tissue. Silica nanoparticles are synthesized using an oil-in-water microemulsion method. The microemulsion method provides a robust synthetic route in which the inner hydrophobic core is used to encapsulate chemotherapy drug, docetaxel while the outer hydrophilic region provides dispersibility of the synthesized nanoparticles in an aqueous environment. Docetaxel is commonly used for treatment of resistant or metastatic prostate cancer, and is known to have radiosensitizing properties. Here, we describe a systematic approach for synthesizing these theranostic nanoparticles for application in prostate cancer.

  2. Dome shaped micro-laser encapsulated in a flexible film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioppolo, T.; Manzo, M.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we demonstrated multimode laser emission from a dome shaped micro-scale resonator encapsulated in a flexible polymer film. The resonator with a radius of ~60 microns was made of Norland Blocking Adhesive (NBA 107) doped with a solution of rhodamine 6G and ethanol. The dome was encapsulated in a flexible polymeric film made of polydymethylsiloxane (PDMS) with a thickness of 1 mm. The micro-scale laser was optically pumped using a frequency doubled Q-switch Nd:YAG laser with pulse repetition of 10 Hz and pulse duration of 9 ns. Experiments were carried out to investigate the lasing properties of this laser structure. The pumping threshold for multimode laser emission was below 100 µJ cm-2. The average optical quality factor for all observed laser modes was of the order of 104. Using a fluence of 315.8 µJ cm-2 it was observed that the intensity of the laser emission dropped by 62% after 5 min of operation. These results showed that these solid state flexible lasers are easy to fabricate and can be integrated into novel flexible photonic devices and novel photonic sensors.

  3. Encapsulation of Aloe Vera and Its Effect During Yogur Incubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Adolfo Parra Huertas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The yogurt is milk derivative highly consumed around the world,as well as aloe vera. Both have reports tocontribute to human health. The purpose of this research is to determine the effect of the addition of capsules with aloe vera during the incubation of yogurt. Aloeverawas encapsulated in alginate at two different concentrations, 1% and 2%,addingthe capsules from the moment of incubation and comparing the effect of the addition of capsules withthe non-addition of them. For these samples were determined: pH, acidity, syneresis, lactic acid bacteria count, sensory evaluation and proximate analysis. The results indicated that for the three treatments pH values and acid behaved similarly to each characteristic of the yogurt during incubation. The lactic acid bacteria count indicated that treatment with capsules containing 2% sodium alginate had higher counts. Sensorially, three treatments had a favorable acceptability; proximate analysis had favorable values . In conclusion,the tests showed the viability of encapsulated aloe vera in the manufacture of yogurt during incubation time without being affected by the concentration of sodium alginate.

  4. Self-assembled rosette nanotubes encapsulate and slowly release dexamethasone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Y

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Yupeng Chen1,2, Shang Song2, Zhimin Yan3, Hicham Fenniri3, Thomas J Webster2,41Department of Chemistry, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA; 2School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA; 3National Institute for Nanotechnology and Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada; 4Department of Orthopedics, Brown University, Providence, RI, USAAbstract: Rosette nanotubes (RNTs are novel, self-assembled, biomimetic, synthetic drug delivery materials suitable for numerous medical applications. Because of their amphiphilic character and hollow architecture, RNTs can be used to encapsulate and deliver hydrophobic drugs otherwise difficult to deliver in biological systems. Another advantage of using RNTs for drug delivery is their biocompatibility, low cytotoxicity, and their ability to engender a favorable, biologically-inspired environment for cell adhesion and growth. In this study, a method to incorporate dexamethasone (DEX, an inflammatory and a bone growth promoting steroid into RNTs was developed. The drug-loaded RNTs were characterized using diffusion ordered nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (DOSY NMR and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Results showed for the first time that DEX can be easily and quickly encapsulated into RNTs and released to promote osteoblast (bone-forming cell functions over long periods of time. As a result, RNTs are presented as a novel material for the targeted delivery of hydrophobic drugs otherwise difficult to deliver.Keywords: nanotubes, drug delivery, self-assembly, physiological conditions

  5. The encapsulation of trimetallic nitride clusters in fullerene cages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorn, H.C.; Stevenson, S.; Craft, J.; Cromer, F.; Duchamp, J.; Rice, G.; Glass, T.; Harich, K.; Fowler, P.W.; Heine, T.; Hajdu, E.; Bible, R.; Olmstead, M.M.; Maitra, K.; Fisher, A.J.; Balch, A.L.

    2000-01-01

    The Kratschmer-Huffman electric-arc generator typically produces endohedral metallofullerenes in low yields with a wide array of different products, but the introduction of nitrogen leads to a new family of encapsulates. A family of endohedral metallofullerenes A n B 3-n N at C 2n (n=0-3, x=34, 39, and 40) where A and B are Group III and rare-earth metals is formed by a trimetallic nitride template (TNT) process in relatively high yields. The archetypal representative of this new class is the stable endohedral metallofullerene, Sc 3 N at C 80 containing a triscandium nitride cluster encapsulated in an icosahedron (I h ), C 80 cage. The Sc 3 N at C 80 is formed in yields even exceeding empty-cage C 84 . Other prominent scandium TNT members are Sc 3 N at C 68 and Sc 3 N at C 78 . The former Sc 3 N at C 68 molecule represents an exception to the well known isolated pentagon rule (IPR). These new molecules were purified by chromatography with corresponding characterization by various spectroscopic approaches. In this paper we focus on the characterization and properties of this fascinating new class of materials

  6. Single Walled Carbon Nanotube Based Air Pocket Encapsulated Ultraviolet Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Jin; Han, Jin-Woo; Kim, Beomseok; Meyyappan, M

    2017-11-22

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) is a promising candidate as a sensor material for the sensitive detection of gases/vapors, biomarkers, and even some radiation, as all these external variables affect the resistance and other properties of nanotubes, which forms the basis for sensing. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation does not impact the nanotube properties given the substantial mismatch of bandgaps and therefore, CNTs have never been considered for UV sensing, unlike the popular ZnO and other oxide nanwires. It is well-known that UV assists the adsorption/desorption characteristics of oxygen on carbon nanotubes, which changes the nanotube resistance. Here, we demonstrate a novel sensor structure encapsulated with an air pocket, where the confined air is responsible for the UV sensing mechanism and assures sensor stability and repeatability over time. In addition to the protection from any contamination, the air pocket encapsulated sensor offers negligible baseline drift and fast recovery compared to previously reported sensors. The air pocket isolated from the outside environment can act as a stationary oxygen reservoir, resulting in consistent sensor characteristics. Furthermore, this sensor can be used even in liquid environments.

  7. On-chip Magnetic Separation and Cell Encapsulation in Droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, A.; Byvank, T.; Bharde, A.; Miller, B. L.; Chalmers, J. J.; Sooryakumar, R.; Chang, W.-J.; Bashir, R.

    2012-02-01

    The demand for high-throughput single cell assays is gaining importance because of the heterogeneity of many cell suspensions, even after significant initial sorting. These suspensions may display cell-to-cell variability at the gene expression level that could impact single cell functional genomics, cancer, stem-cell research and drug screening. The on-chip monitoring of individual cells in an isolated environment could prevent cross-contamination, provide high recovery yield and ability to study biological traits at a single cell level These advantages of on-chip biological experiments contrast to conventional methods, which require bulk samples that provide only averaged information on cell metabolism. We report on a device that integrates microfluidic technology with a magnetic tweezers array to combine the functionality of separation and encapsulation of objects such as immunomagnetically labeled cells or magnetic beads into pico-liter droplets on the same chip. The ability to control the separation throughput that is independent of the hydrodynamic droplet generation rate allows the encapsulation efficiency to be optimized. The device can potentially be integrated with on-chip labeling and/or bio-detection to become a powerful single-cell analysis device.

  8. Encapsulant Adhesion to Surface Metallization on Photovoltaic Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tracy, Jared; Bosco, Nick; Dauskardt, Reinhold

    2017-11-01

    Delamination of encapsulant materials from PV cell surfaces often appears to originate at regions with metallization. Using a fracture mechanics based metrology, the adhesion of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) encapsulant to screen-printed silver metallization was evaluated. At room temperature, the fracture energy Gc [J/m2] of the EVA/silver interface (952 J/m2) was ~70% lower than that of the EVA/antireflective (AR) coating (>2900 J/m2) and ~60% lower than that of the EVA to the surface of cell (2265 J/m2). After only 300 h of damp heat aging, the adhesion energy of the silver interface dropped to and plateaued at ~50-60 J/m2 while that of the EVA/AR coating and EVA/cell remained mostly unchanged. Elemental surface analysis showed that the EVA separates from the silver in a purely adhesive manner, indicating that bonds at the interface were likely displaced in the presence of humidity and chemical byproducts at elevated temperature, which in part accounts for the propensity of metalized surfaces to delaminate in the field.

  9. Durability of incinerator ash waste encapsulated in modified sulfur cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalb, P.D.; Heiser, J.H. III; Pietrzak, R.; Colombo, P.

    1991-01-01

    Waste form stability under anticipated disposal conditions is an important consideration for ensuring continued isolation of contaminants from the accessible environment. Modified sulfur cement is a relatively new material and has only recently been applied as a binder for encapsulation of mixed wastes. Little data are available concerning its long-term durability. Therefore, a series of property evaluation tests for both binder and waste-binder combinations have been conducted to examine potential waste form performance under storage and disposal conditions. These tests include compressive strength, biodegradation, radiation stability, water immersion, thermal cycling, and leaching. Waste form compressive strength increased with ash waste loadings to 30.5 MPa at a maximum incinerator ash loading of 43 wt %. Biodegradation testing resulted in no visible microbial growth of either bacteria or fungi. Initial radiation stability testing did not reveal statistically significant deterioration in structural integrity. Results of 90 day water immersion tests were dependent on the type of ash tested. There were no statistically significant changes in compressive strength detected after completion of thermal cycle testing. Radionuclides from ash waste encapsulated in modified sulfur cement leached between 5 and 8 orders of magnitude slower than the leach index criterion established by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for low-level radioactive waste. Modified sulfur cement waste forms containing up to 43 wt % incinerator fly ash passed EPA Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) criteria for lead and cadmium leachability. 11 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  10. Stability and loading properties of curcumin encapsulated in Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Yaser; Sabahi, Hossein; Rahaie, Mahdi

    2016-11-15

    Curcumin (Cur), a polyphenols with pharmacological function, was successfully encapsulated in algae (Alg) cell (Chlorella vulgaris) as confirmed by fluorescence microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Fluorescence micrographs, TGA, DSC and FTIR spectra suggested the hypothesis inclusion Cur in Nano-empty spaces inside cell wall of Alg. The TGA analysis showed that the thermal stability of Alg and Cur at algae/curcumin complex was 3.8% and 33% higher than their free forms at 0-300°C and 300-600°C ranges, respectively. After encapsulation in Alg cells, the photostability of Cur was enhanced by about 2.5-fold. Adsorption isotherm of Cur into Alg was fitted with the Freundlich isotherm. The microcapsules were loaded with Cur up to about 55% w/w which is much higher than other reported bio-carriers. In conclusion, the data proved that Chlorella vulgaris cell can be used as a new stable carrier for Cur. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Surface modification of protein enhances encapsulation in chitosan nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyani, Rina D.; Andrade, Mariana; Quester, Katrin; Gaytán, Paul; Huerta-Saquero, Alejandro; Vazquez-Duhalt, Rafael

    2018-04-01

    Chitosan nanoparticles have a huge potential as nanocarriers for environmental and biomedical purposes. Protein encapsulation in nano-sized chitosan provides protection against inactivation, proteolysis, and other alterations due to environmental conditions, as well as the possibility to be targeted to specific tissues by ligand functionalization. In this work, we demonstrate that the chemical modification of the protein surface enhances the protein loading in chitosan nanocarriers. Encapsulation of green fluorescent protein and the cytochrome P450 was studied. The increase of electrostatic interactions between the free amino groups of chitosan and the increased number of free carboxylic groups in the protein surface enhance the protein loading, protein retention, and, thus, the enzymatic activity of chitosan nanoparticles. The chemical modification of protein surface with malonic acid moieties reduced drastically the protein isoelectric point increasing the protein interaction with the polycationic biomaterial and chitosan. The chemical modification of protein does not alter the morphology of chitosan nanoparticles that showed an average diameter of 18 nm, spheroidal in shape, and smooth surfaced. The strategy of chemical modification of protein surface, shown here, is a simple and efficient technique to enhance the protein loading in chitosan nanoparticles. This technique could be used for other nanoparticles based on polycationic or polyanionic materials. The increase of protein loading improves, doubtless, the performance of protein-loaded chitosan nanoparticles for biotechnological and biomedical applications.

  12. Improving catalase-based propelled motor endurance by enzyme encapsulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmchen, Juliane; Baeza, Alejandro; Ruiz-Molina, Daniel; Vallet-Regí, Maria

    2014-07-01

    Biocatalytic propulsion is expected to play an important role in the future of micromotors as it might drastically increase the number of available fuelling reactions. However, most of the enzyme-propelled micromotors so far reported still rely on the degradation of peroxide by catalase, in spite of being vulnerable to relatively high peroxide concentrations. To overcome this limitation, herein we present a strategy to encapsulate the catalase and to graft the resulting enzyme capsules on motor particles. Significant improvement of the stability in the presence of peroxide and other aggressive agents has been observed.Biocatalytic propulsion is expected to play an important role in the future of micromotors as it might drastically increase the number of available fuelling reactions. However, most of the enzyme-propelled micromotors so far reported still rely on the degradation of peroxide by catalase, in spite of being vulnerable to relatively high peroxide concentrations. To overcome this limitation, herein we present a strategy to encapsulate the catalase and to graft the resulting enzyme capsules on motor particles. Significant improvement of the stability in the presence of peroxide and other aggressive agents has been observed. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr02459a

  13. Thermoplastic encapsulation of waste surrogates by high-shear mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lageraaen, P.R.; Kalb, P.D.; Patel, B.R.

    1995-12-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has developed a robust, extrusion-based polyethylene encapsulation process applicable to a wide range of solid and aqueous low-level radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes. However, due to the broad range of physical and chemical properties of waste materials, pretreatment of these wastes is often required to make them amenable to processing with polyethylene. As part of the scope of work identified in FY95 open-quotes Removal and Encapsulation of Heavy Metals from Ground Water,close quotes EPA SERDP No. 387, that specifies a review of potential thermoplastic processing techniques, and in order to investigate possible pretreatment alternatives, BNL conducted a vendor test of the Draiswerke Gelimat (thermokinetic) mixer on April 25, 1995 at their test facility in Mahwah, NJ. The Gelimat is a batch operated, high-shear, high-intensity fluxing mixer that is often used for mixing various materials and specifically in the plastics industry for compounding additives such as stabilizers and/or colorants with polymers

  14. Current and Future Perspectives on Alginate Encapsulated Pancreatic Islet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Berit L; Coron, Abba E; Skjak-Braek, Gudmund

    2017-04-01

    Transplantation of pancreatic islets in immune protective capsules holds the promise as a functional cure for type 1 diabetes, also about 40 years after the first proof of principal study. The concept is simple in using semipermeable capsules that allow the ingress of oxygen and nutrients, but limit the access of the immune system. Encapsulated human islets have been evaluated in four small clinical trials where the procedure has been evaluated as safe, but lacking long-term efficacy. Host reactions toward the biomaterials used in the capsules may be one parameter limiting the long-term function of the graft in humans. The present article briefly discusses important capsule properties such as stability, permeability and biocompatibility, as well as possible strategies to overcome current challenges. Also, recent progress in capsule development as well as the production of insulin-producing cells from human stem cells that gives promising perspectives for the transplantation of encapsulated insulin-producing tissue is briefly discussed. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017;6:1053-1058. © 2017 The Authors Stem Cells Translational Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AlphaMed Press.

  15. Cisplatin encapsulated nanoparticle as a therapeutic agent for anticancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eka Putra, Gusti Ngurah Putu; Huang, Leaf; Hsu, Yih-Chih

    2016-03-01

    The knowledge of manipulating size of biomaterials encapsulated drug into nano-scale particles has been researched and developed in treating cancer. Cancer is the second worldwide cause of death, therefore it is critical to treat cancers challenging with therapeutic modality of various mechanisms. Our preliminary investigation has studied cisplatin encapsulated into lipid-based nanoparticle and examined the therapeutic effect on xenografted animal model. We used mice with tumor volume ranging from 195 to 214 mm3 and then few mice were grouped into three groups including: control (PBS), lipid platinum chloride (LPC) nanoparticles and CDDP (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) at dose of 3mg cisplatin /kg body weight. The effect of the treatment was observed for 12 days post-injection. It showed that LPC NPs demonstrated a better therapeutic effect compared to CDDP at same 3mg cisplatin/kg drug dose of tumor size reduction, 96.6% and 11.1% respectively. In addition, mouse body weight loss of LPC, CDDP and PBS treated group are 12.1%, 24.3% and 1.4%. It means that by compared to CDDP group, LPC group demonstrated less side effect as not much reduction of body weight have found. Our findings have shown to be a potential modality to further investigate as a feasible cancer therapy modality.

  16. GOLD NANOPARTICLES ENCAPSULATED IN A POLYMERIC MATRIX OF SODIUM ALGINATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Lelia POP

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Plasmonic nanoparticles can be used as building blocks for the design of multifunctional systems based on polymeric capsules. The use of functionalised particles in therapeutics and imaging and understanding their effect on the cell functions are among the current challenges in nanobiotechnology and nanomedicine. The aim of the study was to manufacture and characterize polymeric microstructures by encapsulating plasmonic gold nanoparticles in biocompatible matrix of sodium alginate. The gold nanoparticles were obtained by reduction of tetracluoroauric acid with sodium citrate. To characterize the microcapsules, UV-Vis and FTIR spectroscopy, optical and confocal microscopy experiments were performed. In vitro cytotoxicity tests on HFL-1 cells were also performed. The capsules have spherical shape and 120 μm diameter. The presence of encapsulated gold nanoparticles is also shown by confocal microscopy. In vitro tests show that the microcapsules are not cytotoxic upon 24 h of cells exposure to microcapsules concentrations ranging from 2.5 to 25 capsules per cell. The obtained microcapsules of sodium alginate loaded with plasmonic gold nanoparticles could potentially be considered as release systems for biologically relevant molecules.

  17. Dome shaped micro-laser encapsulated in a flexible film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioppolo, T; Manzo, M

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrated multimode laser emission from a dome shaped micro-scale resonator encapsulated in a flexible polymer film. The resonator with a radius of ∼60 microns was made of Norland Blocking Adhesive (NBA 107) doped with a solution of rhodamine 6G and ethanol. The dome was encapsulated in a flexible polymeric film made of polydymethylsiloxane (PDMS) with a thickness of 1 mm. The micro-scale laser was optically pumped using a frequency doubled Q-switch Nd:YAG laser with pulse repetition of 10 Hz and pulse duration of 9 ns. Experiments were carried out to investigate the lasing properties of this laser structure. The pumping threshold for multimode laser emission was below 100 µJ cm −2 . The average optical quality factor for all observed laser modes was of the order of 10 4 . Using a fluence of 315.8 µJ cm −2 it was observed that the intensity of the laser emission dropped by 62% after 5 min of operation. These results showed that these solid state flexible lasers are easy to fabricate and can be integrated into novel flexible photonic devices and novel photonic sensors. (paper)

  18. Optimization and Verification of the TR-MAC Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morshed, S.; Heijenk, Geert

    2015-01-01

    Energy-efficiency is an important requirement in the design of communication protocols for wireless sensor networks (WSN). TR-MAC is an energy-efficient medium access control (MAC) layer protocol for low power WSN that exploits transmitted-reference (TR) modulation in the physical layer. The

  19. Durability of Polymeric Encapsulation Materials for a PMMA/glass Concentrator Photovoltaic System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, David C.; Kempe, Michael D.; Muller, Matthew T; Gray, Matthew H.; Araki, Kenji; Kurtz, Sarah R.

    2014-04-08

    The durability of polymeric encapsulation materials was examined using outdoor exposure at the nominal geometric concentration of 500 suns. The results for 36 months cumulative field deployment are presented for materials including: poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate), (EVA); polyvinyl butyral (PVB); ionomer; polyethylene/ polyoctene copolymer (PO); thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU); poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS); poly(diphenyl dimethyl siloxane) (PDPDMS); and poly(phenyl-methyl siloxane) (PPMS). Measurements of the field conditions including ambient temperature and ultraviolet (UV) dose were recorded at the test site during the experiment. Measurements for the experiment included optical transmittance (with subsequent analysis of solar-weighted transmittance, UV cut-off wavelength, and yellowness index), mass, visual photography, photoelastic imaging, and fluorescence spectroscopy. While the results to date for EVA are presented and discussed, examination here focuses more on the siloxane materials. A specimen recently observed to fail by thermal decomposition is discussed in terms of the implementation of the experiment as well as its fluorescence signature, which was observed to become more pronounced with age. Modulated thermogravimetry (allowing determination of the activation energy of thermal decomposition) was performed on a subset of the siloxanes to quantify the propensity for decomposition at elevated temperatures. Supplemental, Pt-catalyst- and primer-solutions as well as peroxide-cured PDMS specimens were examined to assess the source of the luminescence. The results of the study including the change in optical transmittance, observed failure modes, and subsequent analyses of the failure modes are described in the conclusions.

  20. Immunocytochemical methods and protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Javois, Lorette C

    1999-01-01

    ... monoclonal antibodies to study cell differentiation during embryonic development. For a select few disciplines volumes have been published focusing on the specific application of immunocytochemical techniques to that discipline. What distinguished Immunocytochemical Methods and Protocols from earlier books when it was first published four years ago was i...

  1. Critical Response Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingson, Charlene; Roehrig, Gillian; Bakkum, Kris; Dubinsky, Janet M.

    2016-01-01

    This article introduces the Critical Response Protocol (CRP), an arts-based technique that engages students in equitable critical discourse and aligns with the "Next Generation Science Standards" vision for providing students opportunities for language learning while advancing science learning (NGSS Lead States 2013). CRP helps teachers…

  2. Linear Logical Voting Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DeYoung, Henry; Schürmann, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    Current approaches to electronic implementations of voting protocols involve translating legal text to source code of an imperative programming language. Because the gap between legal text and source code is very large, it is difficult to trust that the program meets its legal specification. In r...

  3. Principles of Protocol Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Robin

    This is a new and updated edition of a book first published in 1994. The book introduces the reader to the principles used in the construction of a large range of modern data communication protocols, as used in distributed computer systems of all kinds. The approach taken is rather a formal one...

  4. Modulation characteristics of graphene-based thermal emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlmeister, Nathan Howard; Lawton, Lorreta Maria; Luxmoore, Isaac John; Nash, Geoffrey Richard

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated the modulation characteristics of the emission from a graphene-based thermal emitter both experimentally and through simulations using finite element method modelling. Measurements were performed on devices containing square multilayer graphene emitting areas, with the devices driven by a pulsed DC drive current over a range of frequencies. Simulations show that the dominant heat path is from the emitter to the underlying substrate, and that the thermal resistance between the graphene and the substrate determines the modulation characteristics. This is confirmed by measurements made on devices in which the emitting area is encapsulated by hexagonal boron nitride.

  5. Model Additional Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockwood, Laura

    2001-01-01

    Since the end of the cold war a series of events has changed the circumstances and requirements of the safeguards system. The discovery of a clandestine nuclear weapons program in Iraq, the continuing difficulty in verifying the initial report of Democratic People's Republic of Korea upon entry into force of their safeguards agreement, and the decision of the South African Government to give up its nuclear weapons program and join the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons have all played a role in an ambitious effort by IAEA Member States and the Secretariat to strengthen the safeguards system. A major milestone in this effort was reached in May 1997 when the IAEA Board of Governors approved a Model Protocol Additional to Safeguards Agreements. The Model Additional Protocol was negotiated over a period of less than a year by an open-ended committee of the Board involving some 70 Member States and two regional inspectorates. The IAEA is now in the process of negotiating additional protocols, State by State, and implementing them. These additional protocols will provide the IAEA with rights of access to information about all activities related to the use of nuclear material in States with comprehensive safeguards agreements and greatly expanded physical access for IAEA inspectors to confirm or verify this information. In conjunction with this, the IAEA is working on the integration of these measures with those provided for in comprehensive safeguards agreements, with a view to maximizing the effectiveness and efficiency, within available resources, the implementation of safeguards. Details concerning the Model Additional Protocol are given. (author)

  6. Signed Young Modules and Simple Specht Modules

    OpenAIRE

    Danz, Susanne; Lim, Kay Jin

    2015-01-01

    By a result of Hemmer, every simple Specht module of a finite symmetric group over a field of odd characteristic is a signed Young module. While Specht modules are parametrized by partitions, indecomposable signed Young modules are parametrized by certain pairs of partitions. The main result of this article establishes the signed Young module labels of simple Specht modules. Along the way we prove a number of results concerning indecomposable signed Young modules that are of independent inter...

  7. A comprehensive overview on the micro- and nano-technological encapsulation advances for enhancing the chemical stability and bioavailability of carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukoulis, Christos; Bohn, Torsten

    2018-01-02

    Carotenoids are lipophilic secondary plant compounds, and their consumption within fruits and vegetables has been positively correlated with a decreased risk of developing several chronic diseases. However, their bioavailability is often compromised due to incomplete release from the food matrix, poor solubility and potential degradation during digestion. In addition, carotenoids in food products are prone to oxidative degradation, not only lowering the nutritional value of the product but also triggering other quality deteriorative changes, such as formation of lipid pro-oxidants (free radicals), development of discolorations or off-flavor defects. Encapsulation refers to a physicochemical process, aiming to entrap an active substance in structurally engineered micro- or nano-systems, in order to develop an effective thermodynamical and physical barrier against deteriorative environmental conditions, such as water vapor, oxygen, light, enzymes or pH. In this context, encapsulation of carotenoids has shown to be a very effective strategy to improve their chemical stability under common processing conditions including storage. In addition, encapsulation may also enhance bioavailability (via influencing bioaccessibility and absorption) of lipophilic bioactives, via modulating their release kinetics from the carrier system, solubility and interfacial properties. In the present paper, it is aimed to present the state of the art of carotenoid microencapsulation in order to enhance storability and bioavailability alike.

  8. Memory Modulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozendaal, Benno; McGaugh, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Our memories are not all created equally strong: Some experiences are well remembered while others are remembered poorly, if at all. Research on memory modulation investigates the neurobiological processes and systems that contribute to such differences in the strength of our memories. Extensive

  9. Module descriptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincenti, Gordon; Klausen, Bodil; Kjær Jensen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    The Module Descriptor including a Teacher’s Guide explains and describes how to work innovatively and co-creatively with wicked problems and young people. The descriptor shows how interested educators and lecturers in Europe can copy the lessons of the Erasmus+ project HIP when teaching their own...

  10. Activity of encapsulated Lactobacillus bulgaricus in alginate-whey protein microspheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Yan Chen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, alginate-whey protein was used as wall materials for encapsulating Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (L. bulgaricus. The characteristics of encapsulated and free L. bulgaricus showed that the free L. bulgaricus lost viability after 1 min exposure to simulated gastric fluid (SGF at pH 2.0 and 2.5. However, the viability of encapsulated L. bulgaricus did not decrease in SGF at pH 2.5 for 2 h incubation. The viable numbers of encapsulated L. bulgaricus decreased less than 1.0 log unit for 2 h incubation in SGF at pH 2.0. For bile stability, only 1.2 log units and 2.0 log units viability of the encapsulated L. bulgaricus was lost in 1 and 2% bile for 1 h exposure, respectively, compared with no survival of free L. bulgaricus under the same conditions. Encapsulated L. bulgaricus was completely released from the microspheres in simulated intestinal fluid (SIF, pH 6.8 in 3 h. The viability of the encapsulated L. bulgaricus retained more 8.0 log CFU/g after stored at 4°C for four weeks. However, for free L. bulgaricus, only around 3.0 log CFU/mL was found at the same storage conditions. Results showed that the encapsulation could improve the stability of L. bulgaricus.

  11. A Comparative Cytotoxic Evaluation of Disulfiram Encapsulated PLGA Nanoparticles on MCF-7 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasehee, Hamidreza; Ghavamzadeh, Ardeshir; Alimoghaddam, Kamran; Ghaffari, Seyed-Hamidollah; Faghihi, Shahab

    2017-04-01

    Background: Disulfiram is oral aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) inhibitor that has been used in the treatment of alcoholism. Recent studies show that this drug has anticancer properties; however, its rapid degradation has limited its clinical application. Encapsulation of disulfiram polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) may improve its anticancer activities and protect rapid degradation of the drug. Materials and Methods: A poly (lactide-co-Glycolide) (PLGA) was developed for encapsulation of disulfiram and its delivery into breast cancer cells. Disulfiram encapsulated PLGA NPs were prepared by nanoprecipitation method and were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The loading and encapsulation efficiency of NPs were determined using UV-Visible spectroscopy. Cell cytotoxicity of free and encapsulated form of disulfiram is also determined using MTT assay. Results: Disulfiram encapsulated PLGA NPs had uniform size with 165 nm. Drug loading and entrapment efficiency were 5.35 ±0.03% and 58.85±1.01%. The results of MTT assay showed that disulfiram encapsulated PLGA NPs were more potent in induction of apoptosis compare to free disulfiram. Conclusion: Based on the results obtained in the present study it can be concluded that encapsulation of disulfiram with PLGA can protect its degradation in improve its cytotoxicity on breast cancer cells.

  12. Survival of encapsulated Lactobacillus plantarum during isothermal heating and bread baking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, L.; Chen, Xiao Dong; Boom, R.M.; Schutyser, M.A.I.

    2018-01-01

    The effect of encapsulation on the survival of Lactobacillus plantarum during isothermal heating and bread baking was investigated. Four encapsulating materials were evaluated, i.e., reconstituted skim milk (RSM), gum arabic (GA), maltodextrin (MD) and inulin. Freeze dried bacteria survived better

  13. On the constraints of encapsulated knowledge : Clinical case representations by medical experts and subexperts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rikers, Remy MJP; Schmidt, Henk G; Boshuizen, Henny PA

    2002-01-01

    This article is concerned with the role of so-called encapsulated knowledge and biomedical knowledge in the process of diagnosing clinical cases within and outside the medical specialist's domain of expertise. Based on the theory of knowledge encapsulation, we predicted that subexperts (i.e.,

  14. Zein-based colloidal particles for encapsulation and delivery of epigallocatechin gallate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donsì, F.; Voudouris, P.; Veen, S.J.; Velikov, K.P.

    Zein, a water insoluble plant protein from a renewable natural source, has been identified as a highly promising material for the production of protein-based colloidal particles for the encapsulation of lipophilic compounds. However, the encapsulation of hydrophilic, water-soluble, bioactive

  15. Light outputs of LED with various refractive indices and geometrical structures of encapsulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung-Tae [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Kyoung-Woo; Hwang, Jung-Ha; Kwon, Ho-Ki [LG Innotek Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Si-Hyun [Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    In this paper we present the results of experiments and simulations for the light output power from LEDs for various refractive indices and the geometrical structures of the LED encapsulants. InGaN-based LED chips were fabricated and were bonded in Ag reflector cups within polyphthalamide (PPA) chip carriers; then, encapsulants with various refractive indices and the geometrical structures were fabricated onto them by using a dispensing method. The light output power with the encapsulant was shown to increase with the refractive index of the encapsulant materials in the case of a spherical encapsulant while it decreased in the case of a flat geometry encapsulant. We performed ray tracing simulations for the LED light output and confirmed that the simulation results were consistent with our experimentally measured results. In addition, the light output with the encapsulant rapidly increased with the sidewall angle of the chip carrier in the case of the flat encapsulant while it was not affected by the sidewall angle, remaining constant, in the case of the spherical geometry.

  16. Light outputs of LED with various refractive indices and geometrical structures of encapsulants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyung-Tae; Jo, Kyoung-Woo; Hwang, Jung-Ha; Kwon, Ho-Ki; Park, Si-Hyun

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of experiments and simulations for the light output power from LEDs for various refractive indices and the geometrical structures of the LED encapsulants. InGaN-based LED chips were fabricated and were bonded in Ag reflector cups within polyphthalamide (PPA) chip carriers; then, encapsulants with various refractive indices and the geometrical structures were fabricated onto them by using a dispensing method. The light output power with the encapsulant was shown to increase with the refractive index of the encapsulant materials in the case of a spherical encapsulant while it decreased in the case of a flat geometry encapsulant. We performed ray tracing simulations for the LED light output and confirmed that the simulation results were consistent with our experimentally measured results. In addition, the light output with the encapsulant rapidly increased with the sidewall angle of the chip carrier in the case of the flat encapsulant while it was not affected by the sidewall angle, remaining constant, in the case of the spherical geometry.

  17. Use of Electrohydrodynamic Processing for Encapsulation of Sensitive Bioactive Compounds and Applications in Food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; García Moreno, Pedro Jesús; Mendes, Ana Carina Loureiro

    2018-01-01

    or in the gastrointestinal tract. For that purpose, efficient encapsulation of the compounds may be required. Spray drying is one of the most commonly used encapsulation techniques in the food industry, but it uses high temperature, which can lead to decomposition of the bioactive compounds. Recently, alternative...

  18. Novel encapsulation technique for incorporation of high permittivity fillers into silicone elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazurek, Piotr Stanislaw; Hvilsted, Søren; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2014-01-01

    permittivity fillers, 2) Grafting of high permittivity molecules onto the polymer backbone in the elastomer, and 3) Encapsulation of high permittivity fillers. The approach investigated here is a new type of encapsulation which does not interfere with the mechanical properties to the same content...

  19. Encapsulation of pancreatic islets for transplantation in diabetes : the untouchable islets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, P; Marchetti, P

    The aim of encapsulation of pancreatic islets is to transplant in the absence of immunosuppression. It is based on the principle that transplanted tissue is protected from the host immune system by an artificial membrane. Encapsulation allows for application of insulin-secreting cells of animal or

  20. Polycaprolactone Thin-Film Micro- and Nanoporous Cell-Encapsulation Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyitray, Crystal E; Chang, Ryan; Faleo, Gaetano; Lance, Kevin D; Bernards, Daniel A; Tang, Qizhi; Desai, Tejal A

    2015-06-23

    Cell-encapsulating devices can play an important role in advancing the types of tissue available for transplantation and further improving transplant success rates. To have an effective device, encapsulated cells must remain viable, respond to external stimulus, and be protected from immune responses, and the device itself must elicit a minimal foreign body response. To address these challenges, we developed a micro- and a nanoporous thin-film cell encapsulation device from polycaprolactone (PCL), a material previously used in FDA-approved biomedical devices. The thin-film device construct allows long-term bioluminescent transfer imaging, which can be used for monitoring cell viability and device tracking. The ability to tune the microporous and nanoporous membrane allows selective protection from immune cell invasion and cytokine-mediated cell death in vitro, all while maintaining typical cell function, as demonstrated by encapsulated cells' insulin production in response to glucose stimulation. To demonstrate the ability to track, visualize, and monitor the viability of cells encapsulated in implanted thin-film devices, we encapsulated and implanted luciferase-positive MIN6 cells in allogeneic mouse models for up to 90 days. Lack of foreign body response in combination with rapid neovascularization around the device shows promise in using this technology for cell encapsulation. These devices can help elucidate the metrics required for cell encapsulation success and direct future immune-isolation therapies.

  1. Satellite Communications Using Commercial Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.; Griner, James H.; Dimond, Robert; Frantz, Brian D.; Kachmar, Brian; Shell, Dan

    2000-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center has been working with industry, academia, and other government agencies in assessing commercial communications protocols for satellite and space-based applications. In addition, NASA Glenn has been developing and advocating new satellite-friendly modifications to existing communications protocol standards. This paper summarizes recent research into the applicability of various commercial standard protocols for use over satellite and space- based communications networks as well as expectations for future protocol development. It serves as a reference point from which the detailed work can be readily accessed. Areas that will be addressed include asynchronous-transfer-mode quality of service; completed and ongoing work of the Internet Engineering Task Force; data-link-layer protocol development for unidirectional link routing; and protocols for aeronautical applications, including mobile Internet protocol routing for wireless/mobile hosts and the aeronautical telecommunications network protocol.

  2. Epistemic Protocols for Distributed Gossiping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof R. Apt

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Gossip protocols aim at arriving, by means of point-to-point or group communications, at a situation in which all the agents know each other's secrets. We consider distributed gossip protocols which are expressed by means of epistemic logic. We provide an operational semantics of such protocols and set up an appropriate framework to argue about their correctness. Then we analyze specific protocols for complete graphs and for directed rings.

  3. Symmetric cryptographic protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Ramkumar, Mahalingam

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on protocols and constructions that make good use of symmetric pseudo random functions (PRF) like block ciphers and hash functions - the building blocks for symmetric cryptography. Readers will benefit from detailed discussion of several strategies for utilizing symmetric PRFs. Coverage includes various key distribution strategies for unicast, broadcast and multicast security, and strategies for constructing efficient digests of dynamic databases using binary hash trees.   •        Provides detailed coverage of symmetric key protocols •        Describes various applications of symmetric building blocks •        Includes strategies for constructing compact and efficient digests of dynamic databases

  4. Diplomacy and Diplomatic Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lect. Ph.D Oana Iucu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to observe relationships and determining factors between diplomacyand diplomatic protocol as outlined by historical and contextual analyses. The approach is very dynamic,provided that concepts are able to show their richness, antiquity and polyvalence at the level of connotations,semantics, grammatical and social syntax. The fact that this information is up to date determines anattitude of appreciation and a state of positive contamination.

  5. A solution phase fabrication of magnetic nanoparticles encapsulated in carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Xianwen; Zhu Guoxing; Xia Chuanjun; Ye Yin

    2006-01-01

    To avoid high energy consumption, intensive use of hardware and high cost in the manufacture of nanoparticles encapsulated in carbon, a simple, efficient and economical solution-phase method for the fabrication of FeNi at C nanostructures has been explored. The reaction to the magnetic metal at C structures here is conducted at a relatively low temperature (160 deg. C) and this strategy can be transferred to prepare other transition metal at C core-shell nanostructures. The saturation magnetization of metal in metal at C nanostructures is similar to those of the corresponding buck metals. Magnetic metal at C nanostructures with magnetic metal nanoparticles inside and a functionalized carbon surface outside may not only provide the opportunity to tailor the magnetic properties for magnetic storage devices and therapeutics but also make possible the loading of other functional molecules (e.g. enzymes, antigens) for clinic diagnostics, molecular biology, bioengineering, and catalysis

  6. Failure analysis of leakage current in plastic encapsulated packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, S.J.; Cheang, F.T.

    1989-12-01

    Plastic encapsulated packages exhibit high leakage current after a few hundred hours steam pressure pot test. The present study investigates two possible sources of leakage current, the mold compound and the lead frame tape used for taping the lead frame fingers. The results of the study indicate that the leakage current is independent of the frame and is not caused by the mold compound. The data further indicates that it is the ionic contents and acrylic-based adhesive layer of the lead frame tapes which cause the leakage current. To eliminate the leakage current, lead frame tape with low ionic contents and non acrylic-based adhesive should be used. (author). 1 fig., 2 tabs, 3 graphs

  7. Separation of rubidium from irradiated aluminum-encapsulated uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horwitz, E.P.; Schmitz, F.J.; Rokop, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    A procedure was developed for separating rubidium from irradiated aluminum encapsulated uranium. The separations procedure produces a final ultra-high purity RbCl product for subsequent high performance mass spectrometric analysis. The procedure involves first removing most of the macro-components and fission products by strong base anion exchange using, first, concentrated HCl, then oxalic acid media and second, selectively separating rubidium from alkaline-earth ions and other alkali-metal ions, including cesium, using Bio-Rex-40 cation-exchange resin. The resultant RbCl is then put through a final vacuum sublimation step. Ultra-pure reagents and specially clean glassware are used throughout the procedure to minimize contamination by naturally-occurring rubidium

  8. Optimization of the encapsulation process of bituminized radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Jarine E.C.; Tello, Clédola C.O.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to propose alternatives for the deposition of bituminized waste in metallic packages coated with a cementitious matrix for surface repository, aiming to meet the standards criteria and increasing the integrity of the metallic packaging during the planned storage time, transportation and disposal. For this purpose, tests will be carried out to evaluate cement pastes and mortar with cementitious additives, aiming at the durability and reduction of pores. Leaching tests with different thicknesses will also be carried out, where optimization of the encapsulation can meet safety, durability and economy standards for the repository, as well as practices that contribute to reduce environmental impacts and the economic burden imposed on future generations

  9. Encapsulation of resveratrol in spherical particles of food grade hydrogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balanč Bojana D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports about the preparation and characterization of hydrogel particles containing liposomes loaded with resveratrol as an active compound. The materials used for preparation of the particles were chosen to be suitable for food industry. Different polymer concentrations affect particles shape, size, size distribution, as well as the release kinetics of resveratrol. The diameter of particles varied from 360 to 754 μm, while the narrow size distribution was observed for all types of particles. Release studies were performed in Franz diffusion cell and the results showed the prolonged release of resveratrol from all samples, but the sample with the highest content of polymer (2.5% w/w in particular stood out. The research provides useful information about liposomes containing active compound encapsulated in hydrogel matrices and offers the basis for its application in the food industry.

  10. Encapsulation of spent nuclear fuel in ceramic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forberg, S.; Westermark, T.

    1983-03-01

    The international situation with regard to deposition of spent nuclear fuel is surveyed, with emphasis on encapsulation in ceramic materials. The feasibility and advantages of ceramic containers, thermodynamic stable in groundwater, are discussed as well as the possibility to ensure that stability for longevity by engineered measures. The design prerequisite are summarized and suggestions are made for a conceptual design, comprising rutile containers with stacks of coiled fuel pins. A novel technique is suggested for the homogeneous sealing of rutile containers at low temperatures. acceptable also for the fuel pin package. Key points are given for research, demonstration and verifications of the design foundations and for future improvements. Of which a few ideas are exemplified. (author)

  11. Characterising encapsulated nuclear waste using cosmic-ray muon tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarkson, A.; Hamilton, D.J.; Hoek, M.; Ireland, D.G.; Kaiser, R.; Keri, T.; Lumsden, S.; Mahon, D.F.; McKinnon, B.; Murray, M.; Nutbeam-Tuffs, S.; Yang, G.; Johnstone, J.R.; Shearer, C.; Zimmerman, C.

    2015-01-01

    Tomographic imaging techniques using the Coulomb scattering of cosmic-ray muons have been shown previously to successfully identify and characterise low- and high-Z materials within an air matrix using a prototype scintillating-fibre tracker system. Those studies were performed as the first in a series to assess the feasibility of this technology and image reconstruction techniques in characterising the potential high-Z contents of legacy nuclear waste containers for the U.K. Nuclear Industry. The present work continues the feasibility study and presents the first images reconstructed from experimental data collected using this small-scale prototype system of low- and high-Z materials encapsulated within a concrete-filled stainless-steel container. Clear discrimination is observed between the thick steel casing, the concrete matrix and the sample materials assayed. These reconstructed objects are presented and discussed in detail alongside the implications for future industrial scenarios

  12. Double concave cesium encapsulation by two charged sumanenyl bowls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spisak, Sarah N.; Wei, Zheng; Petrukhina, Marina A. [Department of Chemistry, University at Albany, State University of New York, Albany, NY (United States); Rogachev, Andrey Yu. [Department of Chemistry, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Amaya, Toru [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Suita (Japan); Hirao, Toshikazu [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Suita (Japan); The Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University (Japan)

    2017-03-01

    The controlled reaction of Na and Cs, two alkali metals of different ionic sizes and binding abilities, with sumanene (C{sub 21}H{sub 12}) affords a novel type of organometallic sandwich [Cs(C{sub 21}H{sub 11}{sup -}){sub 2}]{sup -}, which crystallized as a solvent-separated ion pair with a [Na(18-crown-6)(THF){sub 2}]{sup +} cation (where THF=tetrahydrofuran). The unprecedented double concave encapsulation of a metal ion by two bowl-shaped sumanenyl anions in [Cs(C{sub 21}H{sub 11}{sup -}){sub 2}]{sup -} was revealed crystallographically. Evaluation of bonding and energetics of the remarkable product was accomplished computationally (B2PLYP-D/TZVP/ZORA), providing insights into its formation. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Fuel cell electrode interconnect contact material encapsulation and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derose, Anthony J.; Haltiner, Jr., Karl J.; Gudyka, Russell A.; Bonadies, Joseph V.; Silvis, Thomas W.

    2016-05-31

    A fuel cell stack includes a plurality of fuel cell cassettes each including a fuel cell with an anode and a cathode. Each fuel cell cassette also includes an electrode interconnect adjacent to the anode or the cathode for providing electrical communication between an adjacent fuel cell cassette and the anode or the cathode. The interconnect includes a plurality of electrode interconnect protrusions defining a flow passage along the anode or the cathode for communicating oxidant or fuel to the anode or the cathode. An electrically conductive material is disposed between at least one of the electrode interconnect protrusions and the anode or the cathode in order to provide a stable electrical contact between the electrode interconnect and the anode or cathode. An encapsulating arrangement segregates the electrically conductive material from the flow passage thereby, preventing volatilization of the electrically conductive material in use of the fuel cell stack.

  14. Interaction energy for a fullerene encapsulated in a carbon nanotorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarapat, Pakhapoom; Baowan, Duangkamon; Hill, James M.

    2018-06-01

    The interaction energy of a fullerene symmetrically situated inside a carbon nanotorus is studied. For these non-bonded molecules, the main interaction originates from the van der Waals energy which is modelled by the 6-12 Lennard-Jones potential. Upon utilising the continuum approximation which assumes that there are infinitely many atoms that are uniformly distributed over the surfaces of the molecules, the total interaction energy between the two structures is obtained as a surface integral over the spherical and the toroidal surfaces. This analytical energy is employed to determine the most stable configuration of the torus encapsulating the fullerene. The results show that a torus with major radius around 20-22 Å and minor radius greater than 6.31 Å gives rise to the most stable arrangement. This study will pave the way for future developments in biomolecules design and drug delivery system.

  15. Processing glass-pyrochlore composites for nuclear waste encapsulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pace, S.; Cannillo, V.; Wu, J.; Boccaccini, D.N.; Seglem, S.; Boccaccini, A.R.

    2005-01-01

    Glass matrix composites have been developed as alternative materials to immobilize nuclear solid waste, in particular actinides. These composites are made of soda borosilicate glass matrix, into which particles of lanthanum zirconate pyrochlore are encapsulated in concentrations of 30 vol.%. The fabrication process involves powder mixing followed by hot-pressing. At the relatively low processing temperature used (620 deg. C), the pyrochlore crystalline structure of the zirconate, which is relevant for containment of radioactive nuclei, remains unaltered. The microstructure of the composites exhibits a homogeneous distribution of isolated pyrochlore particles in the glass matrix and strong bonding at the matrix-particle interfaces. Hot-pressing was found to lead to high densification (95% th.d.) of the composite. The materials are characterized by relatively high elastic modulus, flexural strength, hardness and fracture toughness. A numerical approach using a microstructure-based finite element solver was used in order to investigate the mechanical properties of the composites

  16. Encapsulation of cobalt nanoparticles in cross-linked-polymer cages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatamie, Shadie [Department of Electronic-Science, Fergusson College, Pune 411 004 (India); Dhole, S.D. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India); Ding, J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, 7, Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117574 (Singapore); Kale, S.N. [Department of Electronic-Science, Fergusson College, Pune 411 004 (India)], E-mail: sangeetakale2004@gmail.com

    2009-07-15

    Nanoparticles embedded in polymeric cages give rise to interesting applications ranging from nanocatalysis to drug-delivery systems. In this context, we report on synthesis of cobalt (Co) nanoparticles trapped in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix to yield self-supporting magnetic films in PVA slime. A 20 nm, Co formed in FCC geometry encapsulated with a weak citrate coat when caged in PVA matrix exhibited persistence of magnetism and good radio-frequency response. Cross-linking of PVA chains to form cage-like structures to arrest Co nanoparticles therein, is believed to be the reason for oxide-free nature of Co, promising applications in biomedicine as well as in radio-frequency shielding.

  17. Laboratory test of source encapsulation for decreasing PCB concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolarik, Barbara; Andersen, Helle Vibeke; Markowicz, Pawel

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of encapsulation of tertiary PCB sources with PERMASORB™ Adsorber Wallpaper and the surface emissions trap (cTrap) on indoor air concentration of PCBs and on the PCB content in the source. The 40 weeks long laboratory investigation shows reduction of the air...... concentration by approx. 90% for both wallpapers, a level comparable to source removal. The potential for extraction of PCBs from the contaminated materials stays unclear for both wallpapers. The cTrap has shown potential to accumulate PCBs, however the total content of PCB in investigated sources has...... apparently increased. The opposite was observed for the PERMASORB™, where the total PCB content in the sources has decreased, with however only small concentration of PCBs in the wallpaper measured at the end of the experiment....

  18. Reliability performance testing of totally encapsulating chemical protective suits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.S.; Swearengen, P.M.

    1991-01-01

    The need to assure a high degree of reliability for totally encapsulating chemical protective (TECP) suits has been recognized by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Hazards Control Department for some time. The following four tests were proposed as necessary to provide complete evaluation of TECP suit performance: 1. Quantitative leak test (ASTM draft), 2. Worst-case chemical exposure test (conceptual), 3. Pressure leak-rate test (complete, ASTM F1057-87), and 4. Chemical leak-rate test (ASTM draft). This paper reports on these tests which should be applied to measuring TECP suit performance in two stages: design qualification tests and field use tests. Test 1, 2, and 3 are used as design qualification tests, and tests 3 and 4 are used as field use tests

  19. Encapsulation of ILW raffinate in the Dounreay cementation plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, G.F.

    1998-01-01

    The Dounreay Cementation Plant has been designed and constructed to encapsulate the first cycle liquid raffinate arising from the reprocessing of irradiated Research Reactor fuel into a cementitious matrix. The acidic liquid waste is conditioned with sodium hydroxide prior to mixing with the cement powders (a 9:1 ratio of Blast Furnace Slag / Ordinary Portland Cement with 5% Lime). The complete cement mixing process is performed within the 500-liter drum, which provides the waste package primary containment. The plant has recently been commissioned and has commenced routine operation, processing stocks of existing raffinate that has been stored at Dounreay for up to 30 years. The waste loading per drum has been optimised within the constraints of the chemical composition of the raffinate, with an expected plant throughput of 2.5 m 3 /week. (author)

  20. Thermal degradation kinetics of phycocyanin encapsulation as an antioxidant agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilamsari, A. M.; Yunanda, A.; Hadiyanto, H.

    2018-01-01

    Phycocyanin is a blue-light pigment that found in Cyanobacteria and two Eukaryotics algae such as Rhodophyta and Crytophyta. Phycocyanin is soluble in water and has a strong fluorescent properties as an antioxidant and normally used in food industry, cosmetic, biotechnology, and drug. However, Phycocyanin is easily damaged by a heating process. The aim of this study is to obtain the optimal condition of phycocyanin encapsulation with different coating materials, Chitosan and Carrageenan, by the calculation of heat resistance of antioxidant activity (D), range of temperature that increase the rate of degradation (Z), rate constant of degradation (k), and activation energy (Ea). The ratio of phycocyanin and the coating material are 2% (w/v) and 2 % (w/v).

  1. Production of biodiesel using lipase encapsulated in κ-carrageenan

    CERN Document Server

    Ravindra, Pogaku

    2015-01-01

    This book explores a novel technique for processing biodiesel using lipase immobilization by encapsulation and its physical properties, stability characteristics, and application in stirred tank and re-circulated packed bed immobilized reactors for biodiesel production. The enzymatic processing of biodiesel addresses many of the problems associated with chemical processing. It requires only moderate operating conditions and yields a high-quality product with a high level of conversion and the life cycle assessment of enzymatic biodiesel production has more favourable environmental consequences. The chemical processing problems of waste water treatment are lessened and soap formation is not an issue, meaning that waste oil with higher FFA can be used as the feedstock. The by product glycerol does not require any purification and it can be sold at higher price. However, soluble enzymatic processing is not perfect. It is costly, the enzyme cannot be recycled and its removal from the product is difficult. For...

  2. Thermal hydraulic analysis of the encapsulated nuclear heat source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sienicki, J.J.; Wade, D.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    2001-07-01

    An analysis has been carried out of the steady state thermal hydraulic performance of the Encapsulated Nuclear Heat Source (ENHS) 125 MWt, heavy liquid metal coolant (HLMC) reactor concept at nominal operating power and shutdown decay heat levels. The analysis includes the development and application of correlation-type analytical solutions based upon first principles modeling of the ENHS concept that encompass both pure as well as gas injection augmented natural circulation conditions, and primary-to-intermediate coolant heat transfer. The results indicate that natural circulation of the primary coolant is effective in removing heat from the core and transferring it to the intermediate coolant without the attainment of excessive coolant temperatures. (authors)

  3. Characterising encapsulated nuclear waste using cosmic-ray muon tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, A.; Hamilton, D. J.; Hoek, M.; Ireland, D. G.; Johnstone, J. R.; Kaiser, R.; Keri, T.; Lumsden, S.; Mahon, D. F.; McKinnon, B.; Murray, M.; Nutbeam-Tuffs, S.; Shearer, C.; Yang, G.; Zimmerman, C.

    2015-03-01

    Tomographic imaging techniques using the Coulomb scattering of cosmic-ray muons have been shown previously to successfully identify and characterise low- and high-Z materials within an air matrix using a prototype scintillating-fibre tracker system. Those studies were performed as the first in a series to assess the feasibility of this technology and image reconstruction techniques in characterising the potential high-Z contents of legacy nuclear waste containers for the U.K. Nuclear Industry. The present work continues the feasibility study and presents the first images reconstructed from experimental data collected using this small-scale prototype system of low- and high-Z materials encapsulated within a concrete-filled stainless-steel container. Clear discrimination is observed between the thick steel casing, the concrete matrix and the sample materials assayed. These reconstructed objects are presented and discussed in detail alongside the implications for future industrial scenarios.

  4. Materials-based process tolerances for neutron generator encapsulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, Ryan S.; Adolf, Douglas Brian; Stavig, Mark Edwin

    2007-01-01

    Variations in the neutron generator encapsulation process can affect functionality. However, instead of following the historical path in which the effects of process variations are assessed directly through functional tests, this study examines how material properties key to generator functionality correlate with process variations. The results of this type of investigation will be applicable to all generators and can provide insight on the most profitable paths to process and material improvements. Surprisingly, the results at this point imply that the process is quite robust, and many of the current process tolerances are perhaps overly restrictive. The good news lies in the fact that our current process ensures reproducible material properties. The bad new lies in the fact that it would be difficult to solve functional problems by changes in the process

  5. Soluto-capillary convection in micro-encapsulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, P.; Zebib, A.

    2005-01-01

    Spherical shells used as laser targets in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments are made by micro-encapsulation. In one phase of manufacturing, the spherical shells contain a solvent (fluoro-benzene, FB) and a solute (polystyrene, PAMS) in a water-FB environment. Evaporation of the FB results in the desired hardened plastic hollow spherical shells, 1-2 mm in diameter. Perfect sphericity is demanded for efficient fusion ignition and the observed surface roughness maybe driven by Marangoni instabilities due to surface tension dependence on the FB concentration (buoyant forces are negligible in this micro-scale problem). Here we model this drying process and compute nonlinear, time-dependent, axisymmetric, variable viscosity, infinite Schmidt number soluto-capillary convection in the shells. Comparison with results from linear theory and available experiments are made. (authors)

  6. Materials-based process tolerances for neutron generator encapsulation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, Ryan S.; Adolf, Douglas Brian; Stavig, Mark Edwin

    2007-10-01

    Variations in the neutron generator encapsulation process can affect functionality. However, instead of following the historical path in which the effects of process variations are assessed directly through functional tests, this study examines how material properties key to generator functionality correlate with process variations. The results of this type of investigation will be applicable to all generators and can provide insight on the most profitable paths to process and material improvements. Surprisingly, the results at this point imply that the process is quite robust, and many of the current process tolerances are perhaps overly restrictive. The good news lies in the fact that our current process ensures reproducible material properties. The bad new lies in the fact that it would be difficult to solve functional problems by changes in the process.

  7. 40 CFR 180.1108 - Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety San Diego encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... thuringiensis variety San Diego encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the requirement... into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety San Diego encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens is...

  8. Formation of an interpolymer complex in supercritical carbon dioxide and its application in the encapsulation of probiotics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moolman, S

    2006-02-27

    Full Text Available Traditional encapsulation methods present difficulties for sensitive actives such as probiotics, due to exposure to water/solvents, heat, oxygen, etc. The authors present a novel encapsulation technology utilising the formation of an interpolymer...

  9. Automatic Validation of Protocol Narration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodei, Chiara; Buchholtz, Mikael; Degano, Pierpablo

    2003-01-01

    We perform a systematic expansion of protocol narrations into terms of a process algebra in order to make precise some of the detailed checks that need to be made in a protocol. We then apply static analysis technology to develop an automatic validation procedure for protocols. Finally, we...

  10. Dysphonia risk screening protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Nemr

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To propose and test the applicability of a dysphonia risk screening protocol with score calculation in individuals with and without dysphonia. METHOD: This descriptive cross-sectional study included 365 individuals (41 children, 142 adult women, 91 adult men and 91 seniors divided into a dysphonic group and a non-dysphonic group. The protocol consisted of 18 questions and a score was calculated using a 10-cm visual analog scale. The measured value on the visual analog scale was added to the overall score, along with other partial scores. Speech samples allowed for analysis/assessment of the overall degree of vocal deviation and initial definition of the respective groups and after six months, the separation of the groups was confirmed using an acoustic analysis. RESULTS: The mean total scores were different between the groups in all samples. Values ranged between 37.0 and 57.85 in the dysphonic group and between 12.95 and 19.28 in the non-dysphonic group, with overall means of 46.09 and 15.55, respectively. High sensitivity and specificity were demonstrated when discriminating between the groups with the following cut-off points: 22.50 (children, 29.25 (adult women, 22.75 (adult men, and 27.10 (seniors. CONCLUSION: The protocol demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity in differentiating groups of individuals with and without dysphonia in different sample groups and is thus an effective instrument for use in voice clinics.

  11. Dysphonia risk screening protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemr, Katia; Simões-Zenari, Marcia; da Trindade Duarte, João Marcos; Lobrigate, Karen Elena; Bagatini, Flavia Alves

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To propose and test the applicability of a dysphonia risk screening protocol with score calculation in individuals with and without dysphonia. METHOD: This descriptive cross-sectional study included 365 individuals (41 children, 142 adult women, 91 adult men and 91 seniors) divided into a dysphonic group and a non-dysphonic group. The protocol consisted of 18 questions and a score was calculated using a 10-cm visual analog scale. The measured value on the visual analog scale was added to the overall score, along with other partial scores. Speech samples allowed for analysis/assessment of the overall degree of vocal deviation and initial definition of the respective groups and after six months, the separation of the groups was confirmed using an acoustic analysis. RESULTS: The mean total scores were different between the groups in all samples. Values ranged between 37.0 and 57.85 in the dysphonic group and between 12.95 and 19.28 in the non-dysphonic group, with overall means of 46.09 and 15.55, respectively. High sensitivity and specificity were demonstrated when discriminating between the groups with the following cut-off points: 22.50 (children), 29.25 (adult women), 22.75 (adult men), and 27.10 (seniors). CONCLUSION: The protocol demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity in differentiating groups of individuals with and without dysphonia in different sample groups and is thus an effective instrument for use in voice clinics. PMID:27074171

  12. Encapsulation of phase change materials using rice-husk-char

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gondora, Wayne; Doudin, Khalid; Nowakowski, Daniel J.; Xiao, Bo; Ding, Yulong; Bridgwater, Tony; Yuan, Qingchun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Rice-husk-char particles are successfully used in the encapsulation of phase change materials. • Carbon-based phase change microcapsules aim at using the high thermal conductivity of carbon materials. • Carbon from biomass can be used in low and intermediate heat harvest and storage. • Carbon in biomass is captured and to be used in improving energy efficiency. - Abstract: This paper explored a new approach to prepare phase change microcapsules using carbon-based particles via Pickering emulsions for energy storage applications. Rice-husk-char, a by-product in biofuel production, containing 53.58 wt% of carbon was used as a model carbon-based material to encapsulate hexadecane. As a model phase change material, hexadecane was emulsified in aqueous suspensions of rice-husk-char nanoparticles. Water soluble polymers poly(diallyldimethyl-ammonium chloride) and poly(sodium styrene sulfonate) were used to fix the rice-husk-char nanoparticles on the emulsion droplets through layer-by-layer assembly to enhance the structural stability of the microcapsules. The microcapsules formed are composed of a thin shell encompassing a large core consisting of hexadecane. Thermal gravimetrical and differential scanning calorimeter analyses showed the phase change enthalpy of 80.9 kJ kg"−"1 or 120.0 MJ m"−"3. Design criteria of phase change microcapsules and preparation considerations were discussed in terms of desired applications. This work demonstrated possible utilisations of biomass-originated carbon-based material for thermal energy recovery and storage applications, which can be a new route of carbon capture and utilisation.

  13. A thermal study of an encapsulated electrical transformer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, A. [Unidad Geotermia, Temixco (Mexico). Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas; Espinosa-Paredes, G. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Vicentina (Mexico). Dpto. de Ingenieria de Procesos e Hidraulica; Hernandez, I. [Centro de Sistemas de Manufactura, Nuevo Leon (Mexico). Instituto Tecnologico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey

    2002-11-01

    A thermal study of a 45 KVA-prototype encapsulated transformer is described. Casting resin systems were used as insulating systems for encapsulated electric transformers. Normal transformer operation is at full load and, thus the conductor and insulating system becomes hot owing to current circulation through the winding. To determine the various temperature distributions throughout the transformer, the thermal properties of the insulating system and boundary conditions must be known, so that hot spots are located via numerical modelling and maximum permissible temperatures are not attained. Results presented herein include thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and specific heat capacity. Thermal conductivity was obtained experimentally by means of the line-source technique at various temperatures, between room temperature and 155{sup o}C which is the thermal limit of class F insulators. The thermal diffusivity was obtained by parameter estimation by fitting an approximate analytical model to the temperature-time data of the thermal conductivity experiment. Specific heat capacity was obtained from the definition of thermal diffusivity and the insulating-system density. In order to improve the electrical performance of the transformer criteria, a numerical simulation of the different dielectric structures was made using computer program. The boundary conditions for the thermal simulation stage were also determined experimentally from temperature test runs. Finally, in order to obtain data for thermal design, a numerical simulation of the high tension winding was carried out. The thermal simulation stage was performed at different current densities in the conductor with and without electrostatic shields to determine the temperature field and maximum attainable temperatures. Maximum transformer temperature were found to be 15-20{sup o}C below its thermal limit and a correlation of maximum temperature as function of circulating current was developed for design

  14. NEEDLE REVISION WITH MITOMYCIN-C IN ENCAPSULATED BLEBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Zarei

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available "nThe most common cause of failure during the first trimester after trabeculectomy is encapsulated bleb and needling bleb revision is a less invasive method in the management of refractory cases. The purpose of this study is to determine the efficacy and safety of mitomycin-C (MMC augmented bleb revision of failed filtration surgery. This study is a before-after (paired observation. 33 patients with failed trabeculectomy because of bleb encapsulation, whose intraocular pressure (IOP was not reduced under 21 mmHg despite of medications and digital massage , underwent needling bleb revision and subconjunctival injection of 0.1 ml MMC (0.4 mg/ml.The mean follow-up time was 9.24 ± 5.27 months (1-20 months. Statistical analysis of the data included the paired two-tailed Student's t test for preoperative and postoperative IOP and number of medications. 36 needling procedures (mean, 1.09 ± 0.21 revisions per eye were performed on 33 eyes. Patients were between 10-80 years old (mean, 45.67 ± 22.41 years and mean follow-up was 9.24 ± 5.27 months. IOP decreased from 29.06 ± 5.03 mmHg to 18.21 ± 6.76 mmHg at last follow-up (P= 0.000. Antiglaucoma medications decreased from 2.18 ± 0.58 to 1.36 ± 0.29 at last follow-up (P= 0.000.Overall, 6 (18.2% of 33 cases achieved a complete success and 20 (60.6% of cases achieved a qualified success. The complications of this procedure were subconjunctival hemorrhage (17 cases, hyphema (5 cases and conjunctival button hole (2 cases. Needling bleb revision with mitomycin-C appears to be an effective and relatively safe way to revive failed filtration surgery.

  15. Universal Reconfigurable Translator Module (URTM) Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, Edward; Machan, Roman; Jones, Rob

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the Universal Reconfigurable Translation Module, or URTM. The URTM was developed by Sigma Space Corporation for NASA in order to translate specific serial protocols, both logically and physically. At present, the prototype configuration has targeted MIL-STD-1553B (RT and BC), IEEE 1394b (Firewire), and ECSS-E-50-12A (SpaceWire). The objectives of this program were to study the feasibility of a configurable URTM to translate serial link data as might be used in a space-flight mission and to design, develop, document, and deliver an engineering prototype model of the URTM with a path to spaceflight. By simply connecting two of the three Physical Interface Modules (PIM) on either end of the RPTM (Reconfigurable Protocol Translator Module), the URTM then self configures via a library of interface translation functions, thereby allowing the two data links to communicate seamlessly.

  16. ESP8266 WI-FI MODULE FOR MONITORING SYSTEM APPLICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Tae-Gue Oh; Chung-Hyuk Yim; Gyu-Sik Kim

    2017-01-01

    The ESP8266 Wi-Fi module is a self-contained system-on-chip (SOC) with integrated TCP/IP protocol stacks that can give any microcontroller access to a Wi-Fi network. In this paper, the interface between the ESP8266 Wi-Fi module and arduino MCU is studied for monitoring system application. Through some experimental studies, we believe that the ESP8266 Wi-Fi module is very useful for monitoring system application.

  17. Potential-induced degradation of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 photovoltaic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Seira; Jonai, Sachiko; Hara, Kohjiro; Komaki, Hironori; Shimizu-Kamikawa, Yukiko; Shibata, Hajime; Niki, Shigeru; Kawakami, Yuji; Masuda, Atsushi

    2015-08-01

    Potential-induced degradation (PID) of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) photovoltaic (PV) modules fabricated from integrated submodules is investigated. PID tests were performed by applying a voltage of -1000 V to connected submodule interconnector ribbons at 85 °C. The normalized energy conversion efficiency of a standard module decreases to 0.2 after the PID test for 14 days. This reveals that CIGS modules suffer PID under this experimental condition. In contrast, a module with non-alkali glass shows no degradation, which implies that the degradation occurs owing to alkali metal ions, e.g., Na+, migrating from the cover glass. The results of dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometry show Na accumulation in the n-ZnO transparent conductive oxide layer of the degraded module. A CIGS PV module with an ionomer (IO) encapsulant instead of a copolymer of ethylene and vinyl acetate shows no degradation. This reveals that the IO encapsulant can prevent PID of CIGS modules. A degraded module can recover from its performance losses by applying +1000 V to connected submodule interconnector ribbons from an Al plate placed on the test module.

  18. Encapsulation and Hemocyte Numbers in Crocidolomia pavonana and Spodoptera litura Fabricius (Lepidoptera Attacked by Parasitoid Eriborus argenteopilosus Cameron (Hymenoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAMAYANTI BUCHORI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Eriborus argenteopilosus is the most important parasitoid attacking cabbage pest Crocidolomia pavonana in Indonesia. Previous studies proved that parasitoid encapsulation was found to be an important factor limiting the effectiveness of the parasitoid in controlling pest population in the field. Since 1998, we have conducted series studies to investigate encapsulation mechanism developed by hosts against parasitoid, responses of parasitoid toward encapsulation ability and to determine factors that may help parasitoid avoid encapsulation. Parasitoid responses were examined on two different hosts C. pavonana and Spodoptera litura. Our findings showed that parasitization level was found to be high both on C. pavonana and S. litura. Encapsulation occurred to be high in all larva stages of C. pavonana, in contrast encapsulation was recorded very low in all larvae stages of S. litura. We recorded that encapsulation in the larval body of C. pavonana was completed in 72 hours and mostly occurred in higher larval stage. Melanization was only recorded in encapsulated parasitoid inside larva body of C. pavonana, not in S. litura. We recorded that encapsulation increased blood cell number of both larvae C. pavonana and S. litura. Encapsulation may affect development of immature parasitoid. Weight of S. litura's pupae containing encapsulated parasitoid was found to be lower in S. litura, but not in C. pavonana. Our investigation also proved that superparasitism may help parasitoid avoid encapsulation.

  19. On the use of OSL of chip card modules with molding for retrospective and accident dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woda, Clemens; Fiedler, Irene; Spöttl, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The potential of optically stimulated luminescence of wire-bond chip card modules with molded encapsulations for retrospective and accident dosimetry is investigated. Contact-based and contactless modules were studied, the latter finding potential use in electronic documents (e.g. electronic passports, electronic identity cards). Investigations were carried out on intact as well as chemically prepared modules, extracting the filler material. Contact-based modules are characterized according to zero dose signal, correlation between OSL and TL, dose response and long-term signal stability. For prepared modules, the minimum detectable dose immediately after irradiation is 3 mGy and between 20 and 200 mGy for contact-based and contactless modules, respectively. Dose recovery tests on contact-based modules indicate that the developed methodology yields results with sufficient accuracy for measurements promptly after irradiation, whereas a systematic underestimation is observed for longer delay times. The reasons for this behaviour are as yet not fully understood.

  20. A tree routing protocol for cognitive radio network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Hashem

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive Radio (CR technology is an agile solution for spectrum congestion and spectrum access utilization problems that result from the legacy fixed spectrum management policies. CR technology can exploit unused licensed band to meet the increasing demand for radio frequency. The routing process faces many challenges in CR Network (CRN such as the absence of centralized infrastructure, the coordination between the routing module and spectrum management module, in addition to the frequent link failure due to the sudden appearance of PUs. In this paper we propose a Tree routing protocol for cognitive radio network (C-TRP that jointly utilizes the tree routing algorithm with a spectrum management module in routing decisions, and also we proposed a new metric used in taking the best route decisions. In addition, we enhance the traditional tree routing algorithm by using a neighbor table technique that speeds up the forwarding data packets. Moreover, we add a robust recovery module to C-TRP to resume the network in case of the link failure. The main motivation in the design of C-TRP is quick data transmission and maximization of date rates. The performance evaluation is carried out in NS2 simulator. The simulation results proved that C-TRP protocol achieves better performance in terms of average “PDR”, “end-to-end delay” and “routing overhead ratio “compared to “CTBR” and “STOD-RP” routing protocols.

  1. Encapsulated Unresolved Subdural Hematoma Mimicking Acute Epidural Hematoma: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Soo; Kim, Hyo-Joon; Kwon, Chang-Young

    2014-01-01

    Encapsulated acute subdural hematoma (ASDH) has been uncommonly reported. To our knowledge, a few cases of lentiform ASDH have been reported. The mechanism of encapsulated ASDH has been studied but not completely clarified. Encapsulated lentiform ASDH on a computed tomography (CT) scan mimics acute epidural hematoma (AEDH). Misinterpretation of biconvex-shaped ASDH on CT scan as AEDH often occurs and is usually identified by neurosurgical intervention. We report a case of an 85-year-old man presenting with a 2-day history of mental deterioration and right-sided weakness. CT scan revealed a biconvex-shaped hyperdense mass mixed with various densities of blood along the left temporoparietal cerebral convexity, which was misinterpreted as AEDH preoperatively. Emergency craniectomy was performed, but no AEDH was found beneath the skull. In the subdural space, encapsulated ASDH was located. En block resection of encapsulated ASDH was done. Emergency craniectomy confirmed that the preoperatively diagnosed AEDH was an encapsulated ASDH postoperatively. Radiologic studies of AEDH-like SDH allow us to establish an easy differential diagnosis between AEDH and ASDH by distinct features. More histological studies will provide us information on the mechanism underlying encapsulated ASDH. PMID:27169052

  2. Retention of gene expression in porcine islets after agarose encapsulation and long-term culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumpala, Pradeep R., E-mail: pdumpala@rixd.org [The Rogosin Institute – Xenia Division, 740 Birch Road, Xenia, OH 45385 (United States); Holdcraft, Robert W.; Martis, Prithy C.; Laramore, Melissa A. [The Rogosin Institute – Xenia Division, 740 Birch Road, Xenia, OH 45385 (United States); Parker, Thomas S.; Levine, Daniel M. [The Rogosin Institute, 505 East 70th Street, New York, NY 10021 (United States); Smith, Barry H. [The Rogosin Institute, 505 East 70th Street, New York, NY 10021 (United States); NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021 (United States); Gazda, Lawrence S. [The Rogosin Institute – Xenia Division, 740 Birch Road, Xenia, OH 45385 (United States)

    2016-08-05

    Agarose encapsulation of porcine islets allows extended in vitro culture, providing ample time to determine the functional capacity of the islets and conduct comprehensive microbiological safety testing prior to implantation as a treatment for type 1 diabetes mellitus. However, the effect that agarose encapsulation and long-term culture may have on porcine islet gene expression is unknown. The aim of the present study was to compare the transcriptome of encapsulated porcine islets following long-term in vitro culture against free islets cultured overnight. Global gene expression analysis revealed no significant change in the expression of 98.47% of genes. This indicates that the gene expression profile of free islets is highly conserved following encapsulation and long-term culture. Importantly, the expression levels of genes that code for critical hormones secreted by islets (insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin) as well as transcripts encoding proteins involved in their packaging and secretion are unchanged. While a small number of genes known to play roles in the insulin secretion and insulin signaling pathways are differentially expressed, our results show that overall gene expression is retained following islet isolation, agarose encapsulation, and long-term culture. - Highlights: • Effect of agarose encapsulation and 8 week culture on porcine islets was analyzed. • Transcriptome analysis revealed no significant change in a majority (98%) of genes. • Agarose encapsulation allows for long-term culture of porcine islets. • Islet culture allows for functional and microbial testing prior to clinical use.

  3. Encapsulation in alginate-skim milk microspheres improves viability of Lactobacillus bulgaricus in stimulated gastrointestinal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ling-Xia; Fang, Xiu-Juan; Yu, Zhen; Xin, Yang; Liu, Xiao-Ying; Shi, Lu-E; Tang, Zhen-Xing

    2013-05-01

    Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (L. bulgaricus) was encapsulated in alginate-skim milk microspheres. Characteristics of encapsulated L. bulgaricus, such as pH stability, bile stability, storage stability and release property, were studied in this paper. The viability of free L. bulgaricus was not observed after 1 min in simulated gastric fluids (SGF) at pH 2.5 or 2.0. Compared with that of free L. bulgaricus, the viability of encapsulated L. bulgaricus only decreased 0.7 log CFU/g and 2 log CFU/g after 2.0 h incubation in SGF at pH 2.5 and pH 2.0, respectively. L. bulgaricus was also sensitive to bile solution. The viability of free L. bulgaricus was fully lost after 1 h incubation in 1 and 2% bile solution, while the viability of encapsulated L. bulgaricus was only lost 2 log CFU/g and 2.6 log CFU/g in 1 and 2% bile solution at the same time, respectively. Encapsulated L. bulgaricus could be completely released from microspheres in simulated intestinal fluid (pH 6.8) within 2 h. The viability of encapsulated L. bulgaricus retained around 8 log CFU/g when stored at 4°C for 30 days. The current encapsulation technique enables a large proportion of L. bulgaricus to remain good bioactive in a simulated gastrointestinal tract environment.

  4. Using ß-cyclodextrin and Arabic Gum as Wall Materials for Encapsulation of Saffron Essential Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atefi, Mohsen; Nayebzadeh, Kooshan; Mohammadi, Abdorreza; Mortazavian, Amir Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Saffron essential oil has a pleasant aroma and medicinal activities. However, it is sensible into the environmental condition. Therefore, it should be protected against unwanted changes during storage or processing. Encapsulation is introduced as a process by which liable materials are protected from unwanted changes. In the present study, different ratios (0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25, and 100:0) of ß-cyclodextrin (ß-CD) and arabic gum (GA) were used as wall martial for encapsulation saffron essential oil. In order to calculate of loading capacity (LC) and encapsulation efficiency (EE), and release (RE), safranal was determined as indicator of saffron essential oil using GC. According to the results, the highest LC and EE were related to the mixture of ß-CD/GA at a 75:25 ratio. In contrast, the lowest encapsulate hygroscopicity (EH) and RE were observed when only ß-CD was applied as wall material (P≤0.05). Comparing the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermograms of the control and encapsulate of ß-CD/GA (75:25) confirmed encapsulation of saffron essential oil. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images with high magnifications showed the rhombic structure that partially coated by GA. The mixture of ß-CD/GA at a 75:25 ratio can be recommended for saffron essential oil encapsulation.

  5. Retention of gene expression in porcine islets after agarose encapsulation and long-term culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumpala, Pradeep R.; Holdcraft, Robert W.; Martis, Prithy C.; Laramore, Melissa A.; Parker, Thomas S.; Levine, Daniel M.; Smith, Barry H.; Gazda, Lawrence S.

    2016-01-01

    Agarose encapsulation of porcine islets allows extended in vitro culture, providing ample time to determine the functional capacity of the islets and conduct comprehensive microbiological safety testing prior to implantation as a treatment for type 1 diabetes mellitus. However, the effect that agarose encapsulation and long-term culture may have on porcine islet gene expression is unknown. The aim of the present study was to compare the transcriptome of encapsulated porcine islets following long-term in vitro culture against free islets cultured overnight. Global gene expression analysis revealed no significant change in the expression of 98.47% of genes. This indicates that the gene expression profile of free islets is highly conserved following encapsulation and long-term culture. Importantly, the expression levels of genes that code for critical hormones secreted by islets (insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin) as well as transcripts encoding proteins involved in their packaging and secretion are unchanged. While a small number of genes known to play roles in the insulin secretion and insulin signaling pathways are differentially expressed, our results show that overall gene expression is retained following islet isolation, agarose encapsulation, and long-term culture. - Highlights: • Effect of agarose encapsulation and 8 week culture on porcine islets was analyzed. • Transcriptome analysis revealed no significant change in a majority (98%) of genes. • Agarose encapsulation allows for long-term culture of porcine islets. • Islet culture allows for functional and microbial testing prior to clinical use.

  6. Postmortem analysis of encapsulation around long-term ventricular endocardial pacing leads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candinas, R; Duru, F; Schneider, J; Lüscher, T F; Stokes, K

    1999-02-01

    To analyze the site and thickness of encapsulation around ventricular endocardial pacing leads and the extent of tricuspid valve adhesion, from today's perspective, with implications for lead removal and sensor location. Gross cardiac postmortem analysis was performed in 11 cases (8 female and 3 male patients; mean age, 78+/-7 years). None of the patients had died because of pacemaker malfunction. The mean implant time was 61+/-60 months (range, 4 to 184). The observations ranged from encapsulation only at the tip of the pacing lead to complete encapsulation along the entire length of the pacing lead within the right ventricle. Substantial areas of adhesion at the tricuspid valve apparatus were noted in 7 of the 11 cases (64%). The firmly attached leads could be removed only by dissection, and in some cases, removal was possible only by damaging the associated structures. No specific optimal site for sensor placement could be identified along the ventricular portion of the pacing leads; however, the fibrotic response was relatively less prominent in the atrial chamber. Extensive encapsulation is present in most long-term pacemaker leads, which may complicate lead removal. The site and thickness of encapsulation seem to be highly variable. Tricuspid valve adhesion, which is usually underestimated, may be severe. In contrast to earlier reports, our study demonstrates that the extent of fibrotic encapsulation may not be related to the duration since lead implantation. Moreover, we noted no ideal encapsulation-free site for sensors on the ventricular portion of long-term pacing leads.

  7. Comparative studies on osmosis based encapsulation of sodium diclofenac in porcine and outdated human erythrocyte ghosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukara, Katarina; Drvenica, Ivana; Ilić, Vesna; Stančić, Ana; Mišić, Danijela; Vasić, Borislav; Gajić, Radoš; Vučetić, Dušan; Kiekens, Filip; Bugarski, Branko

    2016-12-20

    The objective of our study was to develop controlled drug delivery system based on erythrocyte ghosts for amphiphilic compound sodium diclofenac considering the differences between erythrocytes derived from two readily available materials - porcine slaughterhouse and outdated transfusion human blood. Starting erythrocytes, empty erythrocyte ghosts and diclofenac loaded ghosts were compared in terms of the encapsulation efficiency, drug releasing profiles, size distribution, surface charge, conductivity, surface roughness and morphology. The encapsulation of sodium diclofenac was performed by an osmosis based process - gradual hemolysis. During this process sodium diclofenac exerted mild and delayed antihemolytic effect and increased potassium efflux in porcine but not in outdated human erythrocytes. FTIR spectra revealed lack of any membrane lipid disorder and chemical reaction with sodium diclofenac in encapsulated ghosts. Outdated human erythrocyte ghosts with detected nanoscale damages and reduced ability to shrink had encapsulation efficiency of only 8%. On the other hand, porcine erythrocyte ghosts had encapsulation efficiency of 37% and relatively slow drug release rate. More preserved structure and functional properties of porcine erythrocytes related to their superior encapsulation and release performances, define them as more appropriate for the usage in sodium diclofenac encapsulation process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The Effect of Alcohol on Bead Performance of Encapsulated Iron Using Deacetylated Glucomannan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wardhani Dyah H.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The success of encapsulation to protect iron from inhibitor degradation or oxidation depends on many factors including the excipient characteritics. Glucomannan, a neutral heterosaccharide, has a potential for the excipient. To improve the excipient performances, glucomannan is deacetylated to remove the acetyl groups by reacted with Na2CO3. This deacylated glucomannan is subject to bead formation after iron loading. The alcohol solution is commonly used in bead forming as dehydration medium during the encapsulation process. The objective of this work was to study the effect of alcohol on the bead performance of encapsulated iron using deacetylated glucomannan. The bead forming was conducted by dropping the excipient into ethanol and isopropyl alcohol (IPA solution at various concentrations (50, 60, 70, 80 and 90% and two condition temperatures (27-30° and 7-10°C. The encapsulation samples were subject to yield (YE and efficiency of encapsulation (EE. The concentration of alcohol showed a positive impact on the yield and efficiency of encapsulation. Ethanol has a better performance compared with that of IPA regarding yield and efficiency of encapsulation. The optimum of yield bead formation (69.67% and highest EE (66.80% were obtained at 90% ethanol. Temperature of dehydration did not affect the YE and EE significantly.

  9. UV-screening chitosan nanocontainers: increasing the photostability of encapsulated materials and controlled release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anumansirikul, Nattaporm; Wittayasuporn, Mayura; Klinubol, Patcharawalai; Tachaprutinun, A; Wanichwecharungruang, Supason P

    2008-01-01

    Methyl ether terminated poly(ethylene glycol)-4-methoxycinnamoylphthaloylchitosan (PCPLC), a UV absorptive polymer, and methyl ether terminated poly(ethylene glycol)-phthaloylchitosan (PPLC) were synthesized, characterized and self-assembled into stable water-dispersible spherical nanoparticles. The encapsulation of a model compound, 2-ethylhexyl-4-methoxycinnamate (EHMC), was carried out to give particles with 67% (w/w) EHMC loading. The E to Z photoisomerization of EHMC encapsulated inside both particles was monitored and compared to non-encapsulated EHMC. Minimal E to Z photoisomerization was observed when EHMC was encapsulated in PCPLC particles prepared from a polymer with a maximum degree of 4-methoxycinnamoyl substitution. The results indicated that the grafted UVB absorptive chromophore, 4-methoxycinnamoyl moieties, situated at the shell of PCPLC nanoparticles acted as a UV-filtering barrier, protecting the encapsulated EHMC from the UVB radiation, thus minimizing its photoisomerization. In vitro experiments revealed the pH-dependent controlled release of EHMC from PCPLC and PPLC particles. Ex vivo experiments, using a Franz diffusion cell with baby mouse skin, indicated that neither PPLC nor PCPLC particles could penetrate the skin into the receptor medium after a 24 h topical application. When applied on the baby mouse skin, both EHMC-encapsulated PPLC and EHMC-encapsulated PCPLC showed comparable controlled releases of the EHMC. The released EHMC could transdermally penetrate the baby mouse skin

  10. UV-screening chitosan nanocontainers: increasing the photostability of encapsulated materials and controlled release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anumansirikul, Nattaporm; Wittayasuporn, Mayura; Klinubol, Patcharawalai; Tachaprutinun, A.; Wanichwecharungruang, Supason P.

    2008-05-01

    Methyl ether terminated poly(ethylene glycol)-4-methoxycinnamoylphthaloylchitosan (PCPLC), a UV absorptive polymer, and methyl ether terminated poly(ethylene glycol)-phthaloylchitosan (PPLC) were synthesized, characterized and self-assembled into stable water-dispersible spherical nanoparticles. The encapsulation of a model compound, 2-ethylhexyl-4-methoxycinnamate (EHMC), was carried out to give particles with 67% (w/w) EHMC loading. The E to Z photoisomerization of EHMC encapsulated inside both particles was monitored and compared to non-encapsulated EHMC. Minimal E to Z photoisomerization was observed when EHMC was encapsulated in PCPLC particles prepared from a polymer with a maximum degree of 4-methoxycinnamoyl substitution. The results indicated that the grafted UVB absorptive chromophore, 4-methoxycinnamoyl moieties, situated at the shell of PCPLC nanoparticles acted as a UV-filtering barrier, protecting the encapsulated EHMC from the UVB radiation, thus minimizing its photoisomerization. In vitro experiments revealed the pH-dependent controlled release of EHMC from PCPLC and PPLC particles. Ex vivo experiments, using a Franz diffusion cell with baby mouse skin, indicated that neither PPLC nor PCPLC particles could penetrate the skin into the receptor medium after a 24 h topical application. When applied on the baby mouse skin, both EHMC-encapsulated PPLC and EHMC-encapsulated PCPLC showed comparable controlled releases of the EHMC. The released EHMC could transdermally penetrate the baby mouse skin.

  11. Optimization of NMR spectroscopy of encapsulated proteins dissolved in low viscosity fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nucci, Nathaniel V.; Marques, Bryan S.; Bédard, Sabrina; Dogan, Jakob; Gledhill, John M.; Moorman, Veronica R.; Peterson, Ronald W.; Valentine, Kathleen G.; Wand, Alison L.; Wand, A. Joshua

    2011-01-01

    Comprehensive application of solution NMR spectroscopy to studies of macromolecules remains fundamentally limited by the molecular rotational correlation time. For proteins, molecules larger than 30 kDa require complex experimental methods, such as TROSY in conjunction with isotopic labeling schemes that are often expensive and generally reduce the potential information available. We have developed the reverse micelle encapsulation strategy as an alternative approach. Encapsulation of proteins within the protective nano-scale water pool of a reverse micelle dissolved in ultra-low viscosity nonpolar solvents overcomes the slow tumbling problem presented by large proteins. Here, we characterize the contributions from the various components of the protein-containing reverse micelle system to the rotational correlation time of the encapsulated protein. Importantly, we demonstrate that the protein encapsulated in the reverse micelle maintains a hydration shell comparable in size to that seen in bulk solution. Using moderate pressures, encapsulation in ultra-low viscosity propane or ethane can be used to magnify this advantage. We show that encapsulation in liquid ethane can be used to reduce the tumbling time of the 43 kDa maltose binding protein from ∼23 to ∼10 ns. These conditions enable, for example, acquisition of TOCSY-type data resolved on the adjacent amide NH for the 43 kDa encapsulated maltose binding protein dissolved in liquid ethane, which is typically impossible for proteins of such size without use of extensive deuteration or the TROSY effect.

  12. Design, characterisation and application of alginate-based encapsulated pig liver esterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, Jan; Gröger, Harald; Patel, Anant V

    2018-06-05

    Encapsulation of hydrolases in biopolymer-based hydrogels often suffers from low activities and encapsulation efficiencies along with high leaching and unsatisfactory recycling properties. Exemplified for the encapsulation of pig liver esterase the coating of alginate and chitosan beads have been studied by creating various biopolymer hydrogel beads. Enzyme activity and encapsulation efficiency were notably enhanced by chitosan coating of alginate beads while leaching remained nearly unchanged. This was caused by the enzymatic reaction acidifying the matrix, which increased enzyme retention through enhanced electrostatic enzyme-alginate interaction but decreased activity through enzyme deactivation. A practical and ready-to-use method for visualising pH in beads during reaction by co-encapsulation of a conventional pH indicator was also found. Our method proves that pH control inside the beads can only be realised by buffering. The resulting beads provided a specific activity of 0.267 μmol ∙ min -1 ∙ mg -1 , effectiveness factor 0.88, encapsulation efficiency of 88%, 5% leaching and good recycling properties. This work will contribute towards better understanding and application of encapsulated hydrolases for enzymatic syntheses. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Elevating bioavailability of curcumin via encapsulation with a novel formulation of artificial oil bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ming-Tsung; Tsai, Tong-Rong; Lee, Chun-Yann; Wei, Yu-Sheng; Chen, Ying-Jie; Chen, Chun-Ren; Tzen, Jason T C

    2013-10-09

    Utilization of curcumin has been limited due to its poor oral bioavailability. Oral bioavailability of hydrophobic compounds might be elevated via encapsulation in artificial seed oil bodies. This study aimed to improve oral bioavailability of curcumin via this encapsulation. Unfortunately, curcumin was indissoluble in various seed oils. A mixed dissolvent formula was used to dissolve curcumin, and the admixture was successfully encapsulated in artificial oil bodies stabilized by recombinant sesame caleosin. The artificial oil bodies of relatively small sizes (150 nm) were stably solidified in the forms of powder and tablet. Oral bioavailability of curcumin with or without encapsulation in artificial oil bodies was assessed in Sprague-Dawley male rats. The results showed that encapsulation of curcumin significantly elevated its bioavailability and provided the highest maximum whole blood concentration (Cmax), 37 ± 28 ng/mL, in the experimental animals 45 ± 17 min (t(max)) after oral administration. Relative bioavailability calculated on the basis of the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) was increased by 47.7 times when curcumin was encapsulated in the artificial oil bodies. This novel formulation of artificial oil bodies seems to possess great potential to encapsulate hydrophobic drugs for oral administration.

  14. FRENCH PROTOCOL CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division du Personnel

    1999-01-01

    Senior officials, holders of FRENCH PROTOCOL cards (blue cards) due to expire on 31.12.1999, are requested to return these cards and those of family members, for extension to:Bureau des cartes, bâtiment 33.1-025Should the 3 spaces for authentication on the back of the card be full, please enclose 2 passport photographs for a new card.In the case of children aged 14 and over, an attestation of dependency and a school certificate should be returned with the card.Personnel DivisionTel. 79494/74683

  15. FRENCH PROTOCOL CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2000-01-01

    Senior officials, holders of FRENCH PROTOCOL cards (blue cards) due to expire on 31.12.2000, are requested to return these cards and those of family members, for extension to: Bureau des cartes, Bât 33.1-009/1-015 Should the three spaces for authentication on the back of the card be full, please enclose two passport photographs for a new card. In the case of children aged 14 and over, an attestation of dependency and a school certificate should be returned with the card.

  16. Sincalide - the final protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, E.A.; Notghi, A.; Hesslewood, S.R.; Harding, L.K.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: HIDA biliary studies examine the gallbladder (GB) to give a percentage ejection fraction (EF). Porcine CCK was an accepted agent for stimulating the GB prior to being withdrawn in the UK from 1998. Sincalide (a synthetic CCK) was the suggested replacement. We have tried many administration regimes in an attempt to get results comparable with our established CCK protocols. Dose concentration and length of infusion times have been studied. Initially a dose of 10 ngm/kg/min given over 2 minutes (manufacturer's recommended dose) was used. This gave falsely low ejection fractions. The dose was reduced to 3 ngm/kg/min over 3 minutes as it was felt the higher dose may be causing constriction of the sphincter of Oddi. This gave a slight improvement with 22 % of patients having normal EF (>35 %). The length of infusion was extended to 15 minutes and the dose concentration reduced again to 0.6 ngm/kg/min. 62 % of patients had a normal EF. However, on many of the curves the gallbladder was still contracting on completion of the 15 minute infusion and began to refill immediately after stopping Sincalide. A further change of protocol was indicated. The infusion time was extended to 30 minutes and the dose concentration per minute kept the same. Imaging began at 30 minutes post HIDA injection and continued for a total of 50 minutes. Sincalide infusion began at 35 minutes if a GB was visualized. This protocol has been performed on 17 patients. 53 % of these had a normal result (comparable with a normal rate of 40 % previously established with CCK) with a mean EF of 60 %. The mean EF of patients with abnormal studies was 15 %. Curves showed a plateau by 30 minutes in 94 % of patients indicating that gallbladder contraction was complete. No normal range is available so results were compared with ultrasound (US). All patients who had an abnormal US scan also had abnormal HIDA results. Three patients had a normal US scan and abnormal HIDA study. These are currently

  17. Distributed Network Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    MONITORING AGENCY NAME & ADDRESS(II different from Controlting Office) IS. SECURITY CLASS. (of this report) S Office of Naval Research Unclassified...All protocols are extended to networks with changing. topology. S80 8 4 246 DD0I iA 1473 EDITION OF INOV 65 IS OBSOLETE 8 0 24 SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...to the netowrk . f) Each node knows its adjacent links, but not necessarily the identity of its neighbors, i.e. the nodes at the other end of the links

  18. Process development for automated solar cell and module production. Task 4. Automated array assembly. Quarterly report No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagerty, J. J.

    1980-10-15

    Work has been divided into five phases. The first phase is to modify existing hardware and controlling computer software to: (1) improve cell-to-cell placement accuracy, (2) improve the solder joint while reducing the amount of solder and flux smear on the cell's surface, and (3) reduce the system cycle time to 10 seconds. The second phase involves expanding the existing system's capabilities to be able to reject broken cells and make post-solder electrical tests. Phase 3 involves developing new hardware to allow for the automated encapsulation of solar modules. This involves three discrete pieces of hardware: (1) a vacuum platen end effector for the robot which allows it to pick up the 1' x 4' array of 35 inter-connected cells. With this, it can also pick up the cover glass and completed module, (2) a lamination preparation station which cuts the various encapsulation components from roll storage and positions them for encapsulation, and (3) an automated encapsulation chamber which interfaces with the above two and applies the heat and vacuum to cure the encapsulants. Phase 4 involves the final assembly of the encapsulated array into a framed, edge-sealed module completed for installation. For this we are using MBA's Glass Reinforced Concrete (GRC) in panels such as those developed by MBA for JPL under contract No. 955281. The GRC panel plays the multiple role of edge frame, substrate and mounting structure. An automated method of applying the edge seal will also be developed. The final phase (5) is the fabrication of six 1' x 4' electrically active solar modules using the above developed equipment. Progress is reported. (WHK)

  19. Encapsulating fatty acid esters of bioactive compounds in starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay Ma, Ursula Vanesa

    Interest in the use of many bioactive compounds in foods is growing in large part because of the apparent health benefits of these molecules. However, many of these compounds can be easily degraded during processing, storage, or their passage through the gastrointestinal tract before reaching the target site. In addition, they can be bitter, acrid, or astringent, which may negatively affect the sensory properties of the product. Encapsulation of these molecules may increase their stability during processing, storage, and in the gastrointestinal tract, while providing controlled release properties. The ability of amylose to form inclusion complexes and spherulites while entrapping certain compounds has been suggested as a potential method for encapsulation of certain molecules. However, complex formation and spherulitic crystallization are greatly affected by the type of inclusion molecules, type of starch, and processing conditions. The objectives of the present investigation were to: (a) study the effect of amylose, amylopectin, and intermediate material on spherulite formation and its microstructure; (b) investigate the formation of amylose and high amylose starch inclusion complexes with ascorbyl palmitate, retinyl palmitate, and phytosterol esters; (c) evaluate the ability of spherulites to form in the presence of fatty acid esters and to entrap ascorbyl palmitate, retinyl palmitate, and phytosterol esters; and (d) evaluate the effect of processing conditions on spherulite formation and fatty acid ester entrapment. Higher ratios of linear to branched molecules resulted in the formation of more and rounder spherulites with higher heat stability. In addition to the presence of branches, it appears that spherulitic crystallization is also affected by other factors, such as degree of branching, chain length, and chain length distribution. Amylose and Hylon VII starch formed inclusion complexes with fatty acid esters of ascorbic acid, retinol, or phytosterols

  20. Rapid fabrication of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} encapsulations for organic electronic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Kamran; Ali, Junaid [Department of Mechatronics Engineering, Jeju National University, Jeju 690-756 (Korea, Republic of); Mehdi, Syed Murtuza [Department of Mechanical Engineering, NED University of Engineering and Technology, Karachi 75270 (Pakistan); Choi, Kyung-Hyun, E-mail: amm@jejunu.ac.kr [Department of Mechatronics Engineering, Jeju National University, Jeju 690-756 (Korea, Republic of); An, Young Jin [Jeonnam Science and Technology Promotion Center, Yeongam-gun, Jeollanam-do 526-897 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} encapsulations are being developed through a unique R2R-AALD system. • The encapsulations have resulted in life time enhancement of PVP memristor devices. • The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} encapsulated memristor performed with superior stability for four weeks. • Encapsulated devices performed efficiently even after bending test for 100 cycles. - Abstract: Organic electronics have earned great reputation in electronic industry yet they suffer technical challenges such as short lifetimes and low reliability because of their susceptibility to water vapor and oxygen which causes their fast degradation. This paper report on the rapid fabrication of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} encapsulations through a unique roll-to-roll atmospheric atomic layer deposition technology (R2R-AALD) for the life time enhancement of organic poly (4-vinylphenol) (PVP) memristor devices. The devices were then categorized into two sets. One was processed with R2R-AALD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} encapsulations at 50 °C and the other one was kept as un-encapsulated. The field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) results revealed that pin holes and other irregularities in PVP films with average arithmetic roughness (R{sub a}) of 9.66 nm have been effectively covered by Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} encapsulation having R{sub a} of 0.92 nm. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy XPS spectrum for PVP film showed peaks of C 1s and O 1s at the binding energies of 285 eV and 531 eV, respectively. The respective appearance of Al 2p, Al 2s, and O 1s peaks at the binding energies of 74 eV, 119 eV, and 531 eV, confirms the fabrication of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films. Electrical current–voltage (I–V) measurements confirmed that the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} encapsulation has a huge influence on the performance, robustness and life time of memristor devices. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} encapsulated memristor performed with superior stability for four weeks whereas the un-encapsulated devices could only last for one