WorldWideScience

Sample records for protocol core module

  1. Internet Core Protocols Help for Network Administrators

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, Eric

    2000-01-01

    If you've ever been responsible for a network, you know that sinkingfeeling: your pager has gone off at 2 a.m., the network is broken, and you can't figure out why by using a dial-in connection from home. You drive into the office, dig out your protocol analyzer, and spend the next fourhours trying to put things back together before the staff shows up for work. When this happens, you often find yourself looking at the low-level guts of the Internet protocols: you're deciphering individual packets, trying to figure out what is (or isn't) happening. Until now, the only real guide to the protoc

  2. Quantum secret sharing protocol using modulated doubly entangled photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuan, Wang; Yong, Zhang

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a quantum secret sharing protocol utilizing polarization modulated doubly entangled photon pairs. The measurement devices are constructed. By modulating the polarizations of entangled photons, the boss could encode secret information on the initial state and share the photons with different members to realize the secret sharing process. This protocol shows the security against intercept-resend attack and dishonest member cheating. The generalized quantum secret sharing protocol is also discussed. (general)

  3. Development of whole core thermal-hydraulic analysis program ACT. 3. Coupling core module with primary heat transport system module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtaka, Masahiko; Ohshima, Hiroyuki

    1998-10-01

    A whole core thermal-hydraulic analysis program ACT is being developed for the purpose of evaluating detailed in-core thermal hydraulic phenomena of fast reactors including inter-wrapper flow under various reactor operation conditions. In this work, the core module as a main part of the ACT developed last year, which simulates thermal-hydraulics in the subassemblies and the inter-subassembly gaps, was coupled with an one dimensional plant system thermal-hydraulic analysis code LEDHER to simulate transients in the primary heat transport system and to give appropriate boundary conditions to the core model. The effective algorithm to couple these two calculation modules was developed, which required minimum modification of them. In order to couple these two calculation modules on the computing system, parallel computing technique using PVM (Parallel Virtual Machine) programming environment was applied. The code system was applied to analyze an out-of-pile sodium experiment simulating core with 7 subassemblies under transient condition for code verification. It was confirmed that the analytical results show a similar tendency of experimental results. (author)

  4. Ultrabroadband polarization splitter based on three-core photonic crystal fiber with a modulation core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tongtong; Lou, Shuqin; Wang, Xin; Zhou, Min; Lian, Zhenggang

    2016-08-10

    We design an ultrabroadband polarization splitter based on three-core photonic crystal fiber (PCF). A modulation core and two fluorine-doped cores are introduced to achieve an ultrawide bandwidth. The properties of three-core PCF are modeled by using the full-vector finite element method along with the full-vector beam propagation method. Numerical results demonstrate that an ultrabroadband splitter with 320 nm bandwidth with an extinction ratio as low as -20  dB can be achieved by using 52.8 mm long three-core PCF. This splitter also has high compatibility with standard single-mode fibers as the input and output ports due to low splicing loss of 0.02 dB. All the air holes in the proposed structure are circular holes and arranged in a triangular lattice that makes it easy to fabricate.

  5. Modulational Instability in Linearly Coupled Asymmetric Dual-Core Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjunan Govindarajan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigate modulational instability (MI in asymmetric dual-core nonlinear directional couplers incorporating the effects of the differences in effective mode areas and group velocity dispersions, as well as phase- and group-velocity mismatches. Using coupled-mode equations for this system, we identify MI conditions from the linearization with respect to small perturbations. First, we compare the MI spectra of the asymmetric system and its symmetric counterpart in the case of the anomalous group-velocity dispersion (GVD. In particular, it is demonstrated that the increase of the inter-core linear-coupling coefficient leads to a reduction of the MI gain spectrum in the asymmetric coupler. The analysis is extended for the asymmetric system in the normal-GVD regime, where the coupling induces and controls the MI, as well as for the system with opposite GVD signs in the two cores. Following the analytical consideration of the MI, numerical simulations are carried out to explore nonlinear development of the MI, revealing the generation of periodic chains of localized peaks with growing amplitudes, which may transform into arrays of solitons.

  6. Introduction to Open Core Protocol Fastpath to System-on-Chip Design

    CERN Document Server

    Schwaderer, W David

    2012-01-01

    This book introduces Open Core Protocol (OCP), not as a conventional hardware communications protocol but as a meta-protocol: a means for describing and capturing the communications requirements of an IP core, and mapping them to a specific set of signals with known semantics.  Readers will learn the capabilities of OCP as a semiconductor hardware interface specification that allows different System-On-Chip (SoC) cores to communicate.  The OCP methodology presented enables intellectual property designers to design core interfaces in standard ways. This facilitates reusing OCP-compliant cores across multiple SoC designs which, in turn, drastically reduces design times, support costs, and overall cost for electronics/SoCs. Provides a comprehensive introduction to Open Core Protocol, which is more accessible than the full specification; Designed as a hands-on, how-to guide to semiconductor design; Includes numerous, real “usage examples” which are not available in the full specification; Integrates coverag...

  7. Nuclear-fuel-cycle education: Module 5. In-core fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, S.H.

    1980-07-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop a series of educational modules for use in nuclear-fuel-cycle education. These modules are designed for use in a traditional classroom setting by lectures or in a self-paced, personalized system of instruction. This module on in-core fuel management contains information on computational methods and theory; in-core fuel management using the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University computer modules; pressurized water reactor in-core fuel management; boiling water reactor in-core fuel management; and in-core fuel management for gas-cooled and fast reactors

  8. Excimer laser: a module of the alopecia areata common protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, Amy J

    2013-12-01

    Alopecia areata (AA) is an autoimmune condition characterized by T cell-mediated attack of the hair follicle. The inciting antigenic stimulus is unknown. A dense perbulbar lymphocytic infiltrate and reproducible immunologic abnormalities are hallmark features of the condition. The cellular infiltrate primarily consists of activated T lymphocytes and antigen-presenting Langerhans cells. The xenon chloride excimer laser emits its total energy at the wavelength of 308 nm and therefore is regarded as a "super-narrowband" UVB light source. Excimer laser treatment is highly effective in psoriasis, another T cell-mediated disorder that shares many immunologic features with AA. The excimer laser is superior in inducing T cell apoptosis in vitro compared with narrowband UVB, with paralleled improved clinical efficacy. The excimer laser has been used successfully in patients with AA. In this context, evaluation of the potential benefit of 308-nm excimer laser therapy in the treatment of AA is clinically warranted. Herein, the use of a common treatment protocol with a specifically designed module to study the outcome of excimer laser treatment on moderate-to-severe scalp AA in adults is described.

  9. Core Health Outcomes In Childhood Epilepsy (CHOICE): protocol for the selection of a core outcome set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Christopher; Dunkley, Colin; Gibbon, Frances M; Currier, Janet; Roberts, Deborah; Rogers, Morwenna; Crudgington, Holly; Bray, Lucy; Carter, Bernie; Hughes, Dyfrig; Tudur Smith, Catrin; Williamson, Paula R; Gringras, Paul; Pal, Deb K

    2017-11-28

    There is increasing recognition that establishing a core set of outcomes to be evaluated and reported in trials of interventions for particular conditions will improve the usefulness of health research. There is no established core outcome set for childhood epilepsy. The aim of this work is to select a core outcome set to be used in evaluative research of interventions for children with rolandic epilepsy, as an exemplar of common childhood epilepsy syndromes. First we will identify what outcomes should be measured; then we will decide how to measure those outcomes. We will engage relevant UK charities and health professional societies as partners, and convene advisory panels for young people with epilepsy and parents of children with epilepsy. We will identify candidate outcomes from a search for trials of interventions for childhood epilepsy, statutory guidance and consultation with our advisory panels. Families, charities and health, education and neuropsychology professionals will be invited to participate in a Delphi survey following recommended practices in the development of core outcome sets. Participants will be able to recommend additional outcome domains. Over three rounds of Delphi survey participants will rate the importance of candidate outcome domains and state the rationale for their decisions. Over the three rounds we will seek consensus across and between families and health professionals on the more important outcomes. A face-to-face meeting will be convened to ratify the core outcome set. We will then review and recommend ways to measure the shortlisted outcomes using clinical assessment and/or patient-reported outcome measures. Our methodology is a proportionate and pragmatic approach to expediently produce a core outcome set for evaluative research of interventions aiming to improve the health of children with epilepsy. A number of decisions have to be made when designing a study to develop a core outcome set including defining the scope

  10. On-chip COMA cache-coherence protocol for microgrids of microthreaded cores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, L.; Jesshope, C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes an on-chip COMA cache coherency protocol to support the microthread model of concurrent program composition. The model gives a sound basis for building multi-core computers as it captures concurrency, abstracts communication and identifies resources, such as processor groups

  11. Secure Protocol and IP Core for Configuration of Networking Hardware IPs in the Smart Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Urbina

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the incorporation and constant evolution of communication networks in the electricity sector have given rise to the so-called Smart Grid, which is why it is necessary to have devices that are capable of managing new communication protocols, guaranteeing the strict requirements of processing required by the electricity sector. In this context, intelligent electronic devices (IEDs with network architectures are currently available to meet the communication, real-time processing and interoperability requirements of the Smart Grid. The new generation IEDs include an Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA, to support specialized networking switching architectures for the electric sector, as the IEEE 1588-aware High-availability Seamless Redundancy/Parallel Redundancy Protocol (HSR/PRP. Another advantage to using an FPGA is the ability to update or reconfigure the design to support new requirements that are being raised to the standards (IEC 61850. The update of the architecture implemented in the FPGA can be done remotely, but it is necessary to establish a cyber security mechanism since the communication link generates vulnerability in the case the attacker gains physical access to the network. The research presented in this paper proposes a secure protocol and Intellectual Property (IP core for configuring and monitoring the networking IPs implemented in a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA. The FPGA based implementation proposed overcomes this issue using a light Layer-2 protocol fully implemented on hardware and protected by strong cryptographic algorithms (AES-GCM, defined in the IEC 61850-90-5 standard. The proposed secure protocol and IP core are applicable in any field where remote configuration over Ethernet is required for IP cores in FPGAs. In this paper, the proposal is validated in communications hardware for Smart Grids.

  12. Feasibility of applying home-made amorphous core to induction module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Sifu; Li Xin; Huang Ziping

    2008-01-01

    The application of the homemade 1K101 amorphous core in induction module is reported in this paper. The properties of magnetic, insulation and stability are studied with the cores. A pulse with pulse width of 120 ns (FWFM), flattop of 72 ns (±1%) and rise time of 17 ns can be obtained with single-pulse induction module. Triple-pulse with the rise time of 35 ns, flat-top of 60 ns (±1%) and pulse width of 120 ns (FWFM) was obtained when tested with a formal linear induction module at MHz repetition burst mode. The effective average flux swing of the amorphous core is about 1.41 T. The cores work well with triple-pulse of 282 kV. The properties of the cores are stable and suitable for induction module. (authors)

  13. A core eating network and its modulations underlie diverse eating phenomena

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Jing|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/411887548; Papies, Esther K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304832766; Barsalou, Lawrence W.

    2016-01-01

    We propose that a core eating network and its modulations account for much of what is currently known about the neural activity underlying a wide range of eating phenomena in humans (excluding homeostasis and related phenomena). The core eating network is closely adapted from a network that Kaye,

  14. Exposure calculation code module for reactor core analysis: BURNER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vondy, D.R.; Cunningham, G.W.

    1979-02-01

    The code module BURNER for nuclear reactor exposure calculations is presented. The computer requirements are shown, as are the reference data and interface data file requirements, and the programmed equations and procedure of calculation are described. The operating history of a reactor is followed over the period between solutions of the space, energy neutronics problem. The end-of-period nuclide concentrations are determined given the necessary information. A steady state, continuous fueling model is treated in addition to the usual fixed fuel model. The control options provide flexibility to select among an unusually wide variety of programmed procedures. The code also provides user option to make a number of auxiliary calculations and print such information as the local gamma source, cumulative exposure, and a fine scale power density distribution in a selected zone. The code is used locally in a system for computation which contains the VENTURE diffusion theory neutronics code and other modules.

  15. Exposure calculation code module for reactor core analysis: BURNER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vondy, D.R.; Cunningham, G.W.

    1979-02-01

    The code module BURNER for nuclear reactor exposure calculations is presented. The computer requirements are shown, as are the reference data and interface data file requirements, and the programmed equations and procedure of calculation are described. The operating history of a reactor is followed over the period between solutions of the space, energy neutronics problem. The end-of-period nuclide concentrations are determined given the necessary information. A steady state, continuous fueling model is treated in addition to the usual fixed fuel model. The control options provide flexibility to select among an unusually wide variety of programmed procedures. The code also provides user option to make a number of auxiliary calculations and print such information as the local gamma source, cumulative exposure, and a fine scale power density distribution in a selected zone. The code is used locally in a system for computation which contains the VENTURE diffusion theory neutronics code and other modules

  16. How Does Amino Acid Ligand Modulate Au Core Structure and Characteristics in Peptide Coated Au Nanocluster?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Li, Xu; Zhao, Hongkang; Zhao, Lina

    2018-03-01

    The atomic structures and the corresponding physicochemical properties of peptide coated Au nanoclusters determine their distinctive biological targeting applications. To learn the modulation of amino acid ligand on the atomic structure and electronic characteristics of coated Au core is the fundamental knowledge for peptide coated Au nanocluster design and construction. Based on our recent coated Au nanocluster configuration study (Nanoscale, 2016, 8, 11454), we built the typically simplified Au13(Cys-Au-Cys) system to more clearly learn the basic modulation information of amino acid ligand on Au core by the density functional theory (DFT) calculations. There are two isomers as ligand adjacent bonding (Iso1) and diagonal bonding (Iso2) to Au13 cores. The geometry optimizations indicate the adjacent bonding Iso1 is more stable than Iso2. More important, the Au13 core of Iso1 distorts much more significantly than that of Iso2 by Cys-Au-Cys bonding through the root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) analysis, which modulate their electronic characteristics in different ways. In addition, the frontier molecular orbital results of Au13(Cys-Au-Cys) isomers confirm that the Au cores mainly determine the blue shifts of Au13(Cys-Au-Cys) systems versus the original Au13 core in their UV-visible absorption spectrum studies. The configuration of Au13 core performs deformation under Cys-Au-Cys ligand modulation to reach new stability with distinct atomic structure and electronic properties, which could be the theory basis for peptide coated AuNCs design and construction.

  17. Development of core thermal-hydraulics module for intelligent reactor design system (IRDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugo, Teruhiko; Nakagawa, Masayuki; Fujii, Sadao.

    1994-08-01

    We have developed an innovative reactor core thermal-hydraulics module where a designer can easily and efficiently evaluate his design concept of a new type reactor in the thermal-hydraulics field. The main purpose of this module is to decide a feasible range of basic design parameters of a reactor core in a conceptual design stage of a new type reactor. The module is to be implemented in Intelligent Reactor Design System (IRDS). The module has the following characteristics; 1) to deal with several reactor types, 2) four thermal hydraulics and fuel behavior analysis codes are installed to treat different type of reactors and design detail, 3) to follow flexibly modification of a reactor concept, 4) to provide analysis results in an understandable way so that a designer can easily evaluate feasibility of his concept, and so on. The module runs on an engineering workstation (EWS) and has a user-friendly man-machine interface on a pre- and post-processing. And it is equipped with a function to search a feasible range called as Design Window, for two design parameters by artificial intelligence (AI) technique and knowledge engineering. In this report, structure, guidance for users of an usage of the module and instruction of input data for analysis modules are presented. (author)

  18. Plasmonic modulator based on thin metal-semiconductor-metal waveguide with gain core

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia; Malureanu, Radu; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    We focus on plasmonic modulators with a gain core to be implemented as active nanodevices in photonic integrated circuits. In particular, we analyze metal–semiconductor–metal (MSM) waveguides with InGaAsP-based active material layers. A MSM waveguide enables high field localization and therefore...

  19. CONSIDER - Core Outcome Set in IAD Research: study protocol for establishing a core set of outcomes and measurements in incontinence-associated dermatitis research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Bussche, Karen; De Meyer, Dorien; Van Damme, Nele; Kottner, Jan; Beeckman, Dimitri

    2017-10-01

    This study protocol describes the methodology for the development of a core set of outcomes and a core set of measurements for incontinence-associated dermatitis. Incontinence is a widespread disorder with an important impact on quality of life. One of the most common complications is incontinence-associated dermatitis, resulting from chemical and physical irritation of the skin barrier, triggering inflammation and skin damage. Managing incontinence-associated dermatitis is an important challenge for nurses. Several interventions have been assessed in clinical trials, but heterogeneity in study outcomes complicates the comparability and standardization. To overcome this challenge, the development of a core outcome set, a minimum set of outcomes and measurements to be assessed in clinical research, is needed. A project team, International Steering Committee and panelists will be involved to guide the development of the core outcome set. The framework of the Harmonizing Outcomes Measures for Eczema roadmap endorsed by Cochrane Skin Group Core Outcomes Set Initiative, is used to inform the project design. A systematic literature review, interviews to integrate the patients' perspective and a consensus study with healthcare researchers and providers using the Delphi procedure will be performed. The project was approved by the Ethics review Committee (April 2016). This is the first project that will identify a core outcome set of outcomes and measurements for incontinence-associated dermatitis research. A core outcome set will reduce possible reporting bias, allow results comparisons and statistical pooling across trials and strengthen evidence-based practice and decision-making. This project has been registered in the Core Outcome Measures in Effectiveness Trials (COMET) database and is part of the Cochrane Skin Group Core Outcomes Set Initiative (CSG-COUSIN). © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Parametric Amplification Protocol for Frequency-Modulated Magnetic Resonance Force Microscopy Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, Lee; Moore, Eric; Lee, Sanggap; Hickman, Steven; Marohn, John

    2011-03-01

    We present data and theoretical signal and noise calculations for a protocol using parametric amplification to evade the inherent tradeoff between signal and detector frequency noise in force-gradient magnetic resonance force microscopy signals, which are manifested as a modulated frequency shift of a high- Q microcantilever. Substrate-induced frequency noise has a 1 / f frequency dependence, while detector noise exhibits an f2 dependence on modulation frequency f . Modulation of sample spins at a frequency that minimizes these two contributions typically results in a surface frequency noise power an order of magnitude or more above the thermal limit and may prove incompatible with sample spin relaxation times as well. We show that the frequency modulated force-gradient signal can be used to excite the fundamental resonant mode of the cantilever, resulting in an audio frequency amplitude signal that is readily detected with a low-noise fiber optic interferometer. This technique allows us to modulate the force-gradient signal at a sufficiently high frequency so that substrate-induced frequency noise is evaded without subjecting the signal to the normal f2 detector noise of conventional demodulation.

  1. Sequential attack with intensity modulation on the differential-phase-shift quantum-key-distribution protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsurumaru, Toyohiro

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the security of the differential-phase-shift quantum-key-distribution (DPSQKD) protocol by introducing an improved version of the so-called sequential attack, which was originally discussed by Waks et al. [Phys. Rev. A 73, 012344 (2006)]. Our attack differs from the original form of the sequential attack in that the attacker Eve modulates not only the phases but also the amplitude in the superposition of the single-photon states which she sends to the receiver. Concentrating especially on the 'discretized Gaussian' intensity modulation, we show that our attack is more effective than the individual attack, which had been the best attack up to present. As a result of this, the recent experiment with communication distance of 100 km reported by Diamanti et al. [Opt. Express 14, 13073 (2006)] turns out to be insecure. Moreover, it can be shown that in a practical experimental setup which is commonly used today, the communication distance achievable by the DPSQKD protocol is less than 95 km

  2. Do we need 3D tube current modulation information for accurate organ dosimetry in chest CT? Protocols dose comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Rendon, Xochitl; Zhang, Guozhi; Coudyzer, Walter; Develter, Wim; Bosmans, Hilde; Zanca, Federica

    2017-11-01

    To compare the lung and breast dose associated with three chest protocols: standard, organ-based tube current modulation (OBTCM) and fast-speed scanning; and to estimate the error associated with organ dose when modelling the longitudinal (z-) TCM versus the 3D-TCM in Monte Carlo simulations (MC) for these three protocols. Five adult and three paediatric cadavers with different BMI were scanned. The CTDI vol of the OBTCM and the fast-speed protocols were matched to the patient-specific CTDI vol of the standard protocol. Lung and breast doses were estimated using MC with both z- and 3D-TCM simulated and compared between protocols. The fast-speed scanning protocol delivered the highest doses. A slight reduction for breast dose (up to 5.1%) was observed for two of the three female cadavers with the OBTCM in comparison to the standard. For both adult and paediatric, the implementation of the z-TCM data only for organ dose estimation resulted in 10.0% accuracy for the standard and fast-speed protocols, while relative dose differences were up to 15.3% for the OBTCM protocol. At identical CTDI vol values, the standard protocol delivered the lowest overall doses. Only for the OBTCM protocol is the 3D-TCM needed if an accurate (<10.0%) organ dosimetry is desired. • The z-TCM information is sufficient for accurate dosimetry for standard protocols. • The z-TCM information is sufficient for accurate dosimetry for fast-speed scanning protocols. • For organ-based TCM schemes, the 3D-TCM information is necessary for accurate dosimetry. • At identical CTDI vol , the fast-speed scanning protocol delivered the highest doses. • Lung dose was higher in XCare than standard protocol at identical CTDI vol .

  3. Do we need 3D tube current modulation information for accurate organ dosimetry in chest CT? Protocols dose comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Rendon, Xochitl; Develter, Wim [KU Leuven, Department of Imaging and Pathology, Division of Medical Physics and Quality Assessment, Leuven (Belgium); Zhang, Guozhi; Coudyzer, Walter; Zanca, Federica [University Hospitals of the KU Leuven, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium); Bosmans, Hilde [KU Leuven, Department of Imaging and Pathology, Division of Medical Physics and Quality Assessment, Leuven (Belgium); University Hospitals of the KU Leuven, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium)

    2017-11-15

    To compare the lung and breast dose associated with three chest protocols: standard, organ-based tube current modulation (OBTCM) and fast-speed scanning; and to estimate the error associated with organ dose when modelling the longitudinal (z-) TCM versus the 3D-TCM in Monte Carlo simulations (MC) for these three protocols. Five adult and three paediatric cadavers with different BMI were scanned. The CTDI{sub vol} of the OBTCM and the fast-speed protocols were matched to the patient-specific CTDI{sub vol} of the standard protocol. Lung and breast doses were estimated using MC with both z- and 3D-TCM simulated and compared between protocols. The fast-speed scanning protocol delivered the highest doses. A slight reduction for breast dose (up to 5.1%) was observed for two of the three female cadavers with the OBTCM in comparison to the standard. For both adult and paediatric, the implementation of the z-TCM data only for organ dose estimation resulted in 10.0% accuracy for the standard and fast-speed protocols, while relative dose differences were up to 15.3% for the OBTCM protocol. At identical CTDI{sub vol} values, the standard protocol delivered the lowest overall doses. Only for the OBTCM protocol is the 3D-TCM needed if an accurate (<10.0%) organ dosimetry is desired. (orig.)

  4. Modulational instability and generation of pulse trains in asymmetric dual-core nonlinear optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganapathy, R.; Malomed, Boris A.; Porsezian, K.

    2006-01-01

    Instability of continuous-wave (CW) states is investigated in a system of two parallel-coupled fibers, with a pumped (active) nonlinear dispersive core and a lossy (passive) linear one. Modulational instability (MI) conditions are found from linearized equations for small perturbations, the results being drastically different for the normal and anomalous group-velocity dispersion (GVD) in the active core. Simulations of the full system demonstrate that the development of the MI in the former regime leads to establishment of a regular or chaotic array of pulses, if the MI saturates, or a chain of well-separated peaks with continuously growing amplitudes if the instability does not saturate. In the anomalous-GVD regime, a chain of return-to-zero (RZ) peaks, or a single RZ peak emerge, also with growing amplitudes. The latter can be used as a source of RZ pulses for optical telecommunications

  5. Using Mouse Mammary Tumor Cells to Teach Core Biology Concepts: A Simple Lab Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlrath, Victoria; Trye, Alice; Aguanno, Ann

    2015-06-18

    Undergraduate biology students are required to learn, understand and apply a variety of cellular and molecular biology concepts and techniques in preparation for biomedical, graduate and professional programs or careers in science. To address this, a simple laboratory module was devised to teach the concepts of cell division, cellular communication and cancer through the application of animal cell culture techniques. Here the mouse mammary tumor (MMT) cell line is used to model for breast cancer. Students learn to grow and characterize these animal cells in culture and test the effects of traditional and non-traditional chemotherapy agents on cell proliferation. Specifically, students determine the optimal cell concentration for plating and growing cells, learn how to prepare and dilute drug solutions, identify the best dosage and treatment time course of the antiproliferative agents, and ascertain the rate of cell death in response to various treatments. The module employs both a standard cell counting technique using a hemocytometer and a novel cell counting method using microscopy software. The experimental procedure lends to open-ended inquiry as students can modify critical steps of the protocol, including testing homeopathic agents and over-the-counter drugs. In short, this lab module requires students to use the scientific process to apply their knowledge of the cell cycle, cellular signaling pathways, cancer and modes of treatment, all while developing an array of laboratory skills including cell culture and analysis of experimental data not routinely taught in the undergraduate classroom.

  6. Stress, trauma and PTSD: translational insights into the core synaptic circuitry and its modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Maxwell R; Hatton, Sean N; Lagopoulos, Jim

    2016-06-01

    Evidence is considered as to whether behavioral criteria for diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are applicable to that of traumatized animals and whether the phenomena of acquisition, extinction and reactivation of fear behavior in animals are also successfully applicable to humans. This evidence suggests an affirmative answer in both cases. Furthermore, the deficits in gray matter found in PTSD, determined with magnetic resonance imaging, are also observed in traumatized animals, lending neuropsychological support to the use of animals to probe what has gone awry in PTSD. Such animal experiments indicate that the core synaptic circuitry mediating behavior following trauma consists of the amygdala, ventral-medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, all of which are modulated by the basal ganglia. It is not clear if this is the case in PTSD as the observations using fMRI are equivocal and open to technical objections. Nevertheless, the effects of the basal ganglia in controlling glutamatergic synaptic transmission through dopaminergic and serotonergic synaptic mechanisms in the core synaptic circuitry provides a ready explanation for why modifying these mechanisms delays extinction in animal models and predisposes towards PTSD. In addition, changes of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the core synaptic circuitry have significant effects on acquisition and extinction in animal experiments with single nucleotide polymorphisms in the BDNF gene predisposing to PTSD.

  7. Twin-Twin Transfusion Syndrome: study protocol for developing, disseminating, and implementing a core outcome set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Asma; Perry, Helen; Duffy, James; Reed, Keith; Baschat, Ahmet; Deprest, Jan; Hecher, Kurt; Lewi, Liesbeth; Lopriore, Enrico; Oepkes, Dick

    2017-07-14

    Twin-Twin Transfusion Syndrome (TTTS) is associated with an increased risk of perinatal mortality and morbidity. Several treatment interventions have been described for TTTS, including fetoscopic laser surgery, amnioreduction, septostomy, expectant management, and pregnancy termination. Over the last decade, fetoscopic laser surgery has become the primary treatment. The literature to date reports on many different outcomes, making it difficult to compare results or combine data from individual studies, limiting the value of research to guide clinical practice. With the advent and ongoing development of new therapeutic techniques, this is more important than ever. The development and use of a core outcome set has been proposed to address these issues, prioritising outcomes important to the key stakeholders, including patients. We aim to produce, disseminate, and implement a core outcome set for TTTS. An international steering group has been established to oversee the development of this core outcome set. This group includes healthcare professionals, researchers and patients. A systematic review is planned to identify previously reported outcomes following treatment for TTTS. Following completion, the identified outcomes will be evaluated by stakeholders using an international, multi-perspective online modified Delphi method to build consensus on core outcomes. This method encourages the participants towards consensus 'core' outcomes. All key stakeholders will be invited to participate. The steering group will then hold a consensus meeting to discuss results and form a core outcome set to be introduced and measured. Once core outcomes have been agreed, the next step will be to determine how they should be measured, disseminated, and implemented within an international context. The development, dissemination, and implementation of a core outcome set in TTTS will enable its use in future clinical trials, systematic reviews and clinical practice guidelines. This is

  8. Modulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 3 by hepatitis C virus core protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngo, HT; Pham, Long; Kim, JW

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is highly dependent on cellular proteins for its own propagation. In order to identify the cellular factors involved in HCV propagation, we performed protein microarray assays using the HCV core protein as a probe. Of ~9,000 host proteins immobilized in a microarray...... inducers. Binding of HCV core to MAPKAPK3 was confirmed by in vitro pulldown assay and further verified by coimmunoprecipitation assay. HCV core protein interacted with MAPKAPK3 through amino acid residues 41 to 75 of core and the N-terminal half of kinase domain of MAPKAPK3. In addition, both RNA...... increased HCV IRES-mediated translation and MAPKAPK3-dependent HCV IRES activity was further increased by core protein. These data suggest that HCV core may modulate MAPKAPK3 to facilitate its own propagation....

  9. Developing core economic outcome sets for asthma studies: a protocol for a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hounsome, Natalia; Fitzsimmons, Deborah; Phillips, Ceri; Patel, Anita

    2017-08-11

    Core outcome sets are standardised lists of outcomes, which should be measured and reported in all clinical studies of a specific condition. This study aims to develop core outcome sets for economic evaluations in asthma studies. Economic outcomes include items such as costs, resource use or quality-adjusted life years. The starting point in developing core outcome sets will be conducting a systematic literature review to establish a preliminary list of reporting items to be considered for inclusion in the core outcome set. We will conduct literature searches of peer-reviewed studies published from January 1990 to January 2017. These will include any comparative or observational studies (including economic models) and systematic reviews reporting economic outcomes. All identified economic outcomes will be tabulated together with the major study characteristics, such as population, study design, the nature and intensity of the intervention, mode of data collection and instrument(s) used to derive an outcome. We will undertake a 'realist synthesis review' to analyse the identified economic outcomes. The outcomes will be summarised in the context of evaluation perspectives, types of economic evaluation and methodological approaches. Parallel to undertaking a systematic review, we will conduct semistructured interviews with stakeholders (including people with personal experience of asthma, health professionals, researchers and decision makers) in order to explore additional outcomes which have not been considered, or used, in published studies. The list of outcomes generated from the systematic review and interviews with stakeholders will form the basis of a Delphi survey to refine the identified outcomes into a core outcome set. The review will not involve access to individual-level data. Findings from our systematic review will be communicated to a broad range of stakeholders including clinical guideline developers, research funders, trial registries, ethics

  10. HBV core protein allosteric modulators differentially alter cccDNA biosynthesis from de novo infection and intracellular amplification pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fang; Zhao, Qiong; Cheng, Junjun; Qi, Yonghe; Su, Qing; Wei, Lai; Li, Wenhui; Chang, Jinhong

    2017-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) core protein assembles viral pre-genomic (pg) RNA and DNA polymerase into nucleocapsids for reverse transcriptional DNA replication to take place. Several chemotypes of small molecules, including heteroaryldihydropyrimidines (HAPs) and sulfamoylbenzamides (SBAs), have been discovered to allosterically modulate core protein structure and consequentially alter the kinetics and pathway of core protein assembly, resulting in formation of irregularly-shaped core protein aggregates or “empty” capsids devoid of pre-genomic RNA and viral DNA polymerase. Interestingly, in addition to inhibiting nucleocapsid assembly and subsequent viral genome replication, we have now demonstrated that HAPs and SBAs differentially modulate the biosynthesis of covalently closed circular (ccc) DNA from de novo infection and intracellular amplification pathways by inducing disassembly of nucleocapsids derived from virions as well as double-stranded DNA-containing progeny nucleocapsids in the cytoplasm. Specifically, the mistimed cuing of nucleocapsid uncoating prevents cccDNA formation during de novo infection of hepatocytes, while transiently accelerating cccDNA synthesis from cytoplasmic progeny nucleocapsids. Our studies indicate that elongation of positive-stranded DNA induces structural changes of nucleocapsids, which confers ability of mature nucleocapsids to bind CpAMs and triggers its disassembly. Understanding the molecular mechanism underlying the dual effects of the core protein allosteric modulators on nucleocapsid assembly and disassembly will facilitate the discovery of novel core protein-targeting antiviral agents that can more efficiently suppress cccDNA synthesis and cure chronic hepatitis B. PMID:28945802

  11. HBV core protein allosteric modulators differentially alter cccDNA biosynthesis from de novo infection and intracellular amplification pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fang; Zhao, Qiong; Sheraz, Muhammad; Cheng, Junjun; Qi, Yonghe; Su, Qing; Cuconati, Andrea; Wei, Lai; Du, Yanming; Li, Wenhui; Chang, Jinhong; Guo, Ju-Tao

    2017-09-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) core protein assembles viral pre-genomic (pg) RNA and DNA polymerase into nucleocapsids for reverse transcriptional DNA replication to take place. Several chemotypes of small molecules, including heteroaryldihydropyrimidines (HAPs) and sulfamoylbenzamides (SBAs), have been discovered to allosterically modulate core protein structure and consequentially alter the kinetics and pathway of core protein assembly, resulting in formation of irregularly-shaped core protein aggregates or "empty" capsids devoid of pre-genomic RNA and viral DNA polymerase. Interestingly, in addition to inhibiting nucleocapsid assembly and subsequent viral genome replication, we have now demonstrated that HAPs and SBAs differentially modulate the biosynthesis of covalently closed circular (ccc) DNA from de novo infection and intracellular amplification pathways by inducing disassembly of nucleocapsids derived from virions as well as double-stranded DNA-containing progeny nucleocapsids in the cytoplasm. Specifically, the mistimed cuing of nucleocapsid uncoating prevents cccDNA formation during de novo infection of hepatocytes, while transiently accelerating cccDNA synthesis from cytoplasmic progeny nucleocapsids. Our studies indicate that elongation of positive-stranded DNA induces structural changes of nucleocapsids, which confers ability of mature nucleocapsids to bind CpAMs and triggers its disassembly. Understanding the molecular mechanism underlying the dual effects of the core protein allosteric modulators on nucleocapsid assembly and disassembly will facilitate the discovery of novel core protein-targeting antiviral agents that can more efficiently suppress cccDNA synthesis and cure chronic hepatitis B.

  12. HBV core protein allosteric modulators differentially alter cccDNA biosynthesis from de novo infection and intracellular amplification pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Guo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV core protein assembles viral pre-genomic (pg RNA and DNA polymerase into nucleocapsids for reverse transcriptional DNA replication to take place. Several chemotypes of small molecules, including heteroaryldihydropyrimidines (HAPs and sulfamoylbenzamides (SBAs, have been discovered to allosterically modulate core protein structure and consequentially alter the kinetics and pathway of core protein assembly, resulting in formation of irregularly-shaped core protein aggregates or "empty" capsids devoid of pre-genomic RNA and viral DNA polymerase. Interestingly, in addition to inhibiting nucleocapsid assembly and subsequent viral genome replication, we have now demonstrated that HAPs and SBAs differentially modulate the biosynthesis of covalently closed circular (ccc DNA from de novo infection and intracellular amplification pathways by inducing disassembly of nucleocapsids derived from virions as well as double-stranded DNA-containing progeny nucleocapsids in the cytoplasm. Specifically, the mistimed cuing of nucleocapsid uncoating prevents cccDNA formation during de novo infection of hepatocytes, while transiently accelerating cccDNA synthesis from cytoplasmic progeny nucleocapsids. Our studies indicate that elongation of positive-stranded DNA induces structural changes of nucleocapsids, which confers ability of mature nucleocapsids to bind CpAMs and triggers its disassembly. Understanding the molecular mechanism underlying the dual effects of the core protein allosteric modulators on nucleocapsid assembly and disassembly will facilitate the discovery of novel core protein-targeting antiviral agents that can more efficiently suppress cccDNA synthesis and cure chronic hepatitis B.

  13. Losses analysis of soft magnetic ring core under sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPWM) and space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hezhe; Li, Yongjian; Wang, Shanming; Zhu, Jianguo; Yang, Qingxin; Zhang, Changgeng; Li, Jingsong

    2018-05-01

    Practical core losses in electrical machines differ significantly from those experimental results using the standardized measurement method, i.e. Epstein Frame method. In order to obtain a better approximation of the losses in an electrical machine, a simulation method considering sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPWM) and space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) waveforms is proposed. The influence of the pulse width modulation (PWM) parameters on the harmonic components in SPWM and SVPWM is discussed by fast Fourier transform (FFT). Three-level SPWM and SVPWM are analyzed and compared both by simulation and experiment. The core losses of several ring samples magnetized by SPWM, SVPWM and sinusoidal alternating current (AC) are obtained. In addition, the temperature rise of the samples under SPWM, sinusoidal excitation are analyzed and compared.

  14. Reliability and accuracy of a video analysis protocol to assess core ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Dawn A; Delgadillo, James Q; Fredericson, Michael; McConnell, Jennifer; Hodgins, Melissa; Besier, Thor F

    2011-03-01

    To develop and test a method to measure core ability in healthy athletes with 2-dimensional video analysis software (SiliconCOACH). Specific objectives were to: (1) develop a standardized exercise battery with progressions of increasing difficulty to evaluate areas of core ability in elite athletes; (2) develop an objective and quantitative grading rubric with the use of video analysis software; (3) assess the test-retest reliability of the exercise battery; (4) assess the interrater and intrarater reliability of the video analysis system; and (5) assess the accuracy of the assessment. Test-retest repeatability and accuracy. Testing was conducted in the Stanford Human Performance Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA. Nine female gymnasts currently training with the Stanford Varsity Women's Gymnastics Team participated in testing. Participants completed a test battery composed of planks, side planks, and leg bridges of increasing difficulty. Subjects completed two 20-minute testing sessions within a 4- to 10-day period. Two-dimensional sagittal-plane video was captured simultaneously with 3-dimensional motion capture. The main outcome measures were pelvic displacement and time that elapsed until failure occurred, as measured with SiliconCOACH video analysis software. Test-retest and interrater and intrarater reliability of the video analysis measures was assessed. Accuracy as compared with 3-dimensional motion capture also was assessed. Levels reached during the side planks and leg bridges had an excellent test-retest correlation (r(2) = 0.84, r(2) = 0.95). Pelvis displacements measured by examiner 1 and examiner 2 had an excellent correlation (r(2) = 0.86, intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.92). Pelvis displacements measured by examiner 1 during independent grading sessions had an excellent correlation (r(2) = 0.92). Pelvis displacements from the plank and from a set of combined plank and side plank exercises both had an excellent correlation with 3

  15. A new thermal-hydraulic core module based on the drift-flux model for the DSNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverman, I.; Shapira, M.; Saphier, D.; Elias, E.

    1996-01-01

    As a part of expanding the capabilities of the reactor calculations group at Soreq - NRC a new core fuel channel module is under development. The module solves the energy equations inside the fuel rod and mass, momentum and energy equations in the coolant channel. The module uses an approximation to the drift-flux model for the solution of the coolant conditions. This module is a part of DSNP library of modules and is used in the transient simulation of nuclear power plants. Several test cases were executed simulating the AP600 PWR. Comparison of the channel model with COBRA-4I and RELAP-5 calculations have shown good agreement. It was found that the previous homogeneous equilibrium model produced adequate results for power plant simulation until boiling conditions appear in a fuel channel (authors)

  16. A new thermal-hydraulic core module based on the drift-flux model for the DSNP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverman, I; Shapira, M; Saphier, D [Israel Atomic Energy Commission, Yavne (Israel). Soreq Nuclear Research Center; Elias, E [Technion-Israel Inst. of Tech., Haifa (Israel). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1996-12-01

    As a part of expanding the capabilities of the reactor calculations group at Soreq - NRC a new core fuel channel module is under development. The module solves the energy equations inside the fuel rod and mass, momentum and energy equations in the coolant channel. The module uses an approximation to the drift-flux model for the solution of the coolant conditions. This module is a part of DSNP library of modules and is used in the transient simulation of nuclear power plants. Several test cases were executed simulating the AP600 PWR. Comparison of the channel model with COBRA-4I and RELAP-5 calculations have shown good agreement. It was found that the previous homogeneous equilibrium model produced adequate results for power plant simulation until boiling conditions appear in a fuel channel (authors).

  17. Clinical Experience With Image-Guided Radiotherapy in an Accelerated Partial Breast Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, Charles E.; Tallhamer, Michael M.S.; Johnson, Tim; Hunter, Kari C.M.D.; Howell, Kathryn; Kercher, Jane; Widener, Jodi; Kaske, Terese; Paul, Devchand; Sedlacek, Scot; Carter, Dennis L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the feasibility of fiducial markers for the use of image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) in an accelerated partial breast intensity modulated radiotherapy protocol. Methods and Materials: Nineteen patients consented to an institutional review board approved protocol of accelerated partial breast intensity-modulated radiotherapy with fiducial marker placement and treatment with IGRT. Patients (1 patient with bilateral breast cancer; 20 total breasts) underwent ultrasound guided implantation of three 1.2- x 3-mm gold markers placed around the surgical cavity. For each patient, table shifts (inferior/superior, right/left lateral, and anterior/posterior) and minimum, maximum, mean error with standard deviation were recorded for each of the 10 BID treatments. The dose contribution of daily orthogonal films was also examined. Results: All IGRT patients underwent successful marker placement. In all, 200 IGRT treatment sessions were performed. The average vector displacement was 4 mm (range, 2-7 mm). The average superior/inferior shift was 2 mm (range, 0-5 mm), the average lateral shift was 2 mm (range, 1-4 mm), and the average anterior/posterior shift was 3 mm (range, 1 5 mm). Conclusions: This study shows that the use of IGRT can be successfully used in an accelerated partial breast intensity-modulated radiotherapy protocol. The authors believe that this technique has increased daily treatment accuracy and permitted reduction in the margin added to the clinical target volume to form the planning target volume.

  18. The small GTPase Cdc42 modulates the number of exocytosis-competent dense-core vesicles in PC12 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Mai [Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 3-8-1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan); Kitaguchi, Tetsuya [Cell Signaling Group, Waseda Bioscience Research Institute in Singapore (WABOIS), Waseda University, 11 Biopolis Way, 05-01/02 Helios, Singapore 138667 (Singapore); Numano, Rika [The Electronics-Inspired Interdisciplinary Research Institute (EIIRIS), Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tennpaku-cho, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Ikematsu, Kazuya [Forensic Pathology and Science, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Kakeyama, Masaki [Laboratory of Environmental Health Sciences, Center for Disease Biology and Integrative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Murata, Masayuki; Sato, Ken [Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 3-8-1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan); Tsuboi, Takashi, E-mail: takatsuboi@bio.c.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 3-8-1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan)

    2012-04-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Regulation of exocytosis by Rho GTPase Cdc42. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cdc42 increases the number of fusion events from newly recruited vesicles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cdc42 increases the number of exocytosis-competent dense-core vesicles. -- Abstract: Although the small GTPase Rho family Cdc42 has been shown to facilitate exocytosis through increasing the amount of hormones released, the precise mechanisms regulating the quantity of hormones released on exocytosis are not well understood. Here we show by live cell imaging analysis under TIRF microscope and immunocytochemical analysis under confocal microscope that Cdc42 modulated the number of fusion events and the number of dense-core vesicles produced in the cells. Overexpression of a wild-type or constitutively-active form of Cdc42 strongly facilitated high-KCl-induced exocytosis from the newly recruited plasma membrane vesicles in PC12 cells. By contrast, a dominant-negative form of Cdc42 inhibited exocytosis from both the newly recruited and previously docked plasma membrane vesicles. The number of intracellular dense-core vesicles was increased by the overexpression of both a wild-type and constitutively-active form of Cdc42. Consistently, activation of Cdc42 by overexpression of Tuba, a Golgi-associated guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Cdc42 increased the number of intracellular dense-core vesicles, whereas inhibition of Cdc42 by overexpression of the Cdc42/Rac interactive binding domain of neuronal Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein decreased the number of them. These findings suggest that Cdc42 facilitates exocytosis by modulating both the number of exocytosis-competent dense-core vesicles and the production of dense-core vesicles in PC12 cells.

  19. The small GTPase Cdc42 modulates the number of exocytosis-competent dense-core vesicles in PC12 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Mai; Kitaguchi, Tetsuya; Numano, Rika; Ikematsu, Kazuya; Kakeyama, Masaki; Murata, Masayuki; Sato, Ken; Tsuboi, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Regulation of exocytosis by Rho GTPase Cdc42. ► Cdc42 increases the number of fusion events from newly recruited vesicles. ► Cdc42 increases the number of exocytosis-competent dense-core vesicles. -- Abstract: Although the small GTPase Rho family Cdc42 has been shown to facilitate exocytosis through increasing the amount of hormones released, the precise mechanisms regulating the quantity of hormones released on exocytosis are not well understood. Here we show by live cell imaging analysis under TIRF microscope and immunocytochemical analysis under confocal microscope that Cdc42 modulated the number of fusion events and the number of dense-core vesicles produced in the cells. Overexpression of a wild-type or constitutively-active form of Cdc42 strongly facilitated high-KCl-induced exocytosis from the newly recruited plasma membrane vesicles in PC12 cells. By contrast, a dominant-negative form of Cdc42 inhibited exocytosis from both the newly recruited and previously docked plasma membrane vesicles. The number of intracellular dense-core vesicles was increased by the overexpression of both a wild-type and constitutively-active form of Cdc42. Consistently, activation of Cdc42 by overexpression of Tuba, a Golgi-associated guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Cdc42 increased the number of intracellular dense-core vesicles, whereas inhibition of Cdc42 by overexpression of the Cdc42/Rac interactive binding domain of neuronal Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome protein decreased the number of them. These findings suggest that Cdc42 facilitates exocytosis by modulating both the number of exocytosis-competent dense-core vesicles and the production of dense-core vesicles in PC12 cells.

  20. The sleep and circadian modulation of neural reward pathways: a protocol for a pair of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Jamie E M; Murray, Greg

    2017-12-02

    Animal research suggests that neural reward activation may be systematically modulated by sleep and circadian function. Whether humans also exhibit sleep and circadian modulation of neural reward pathways is unclear. This area is in need of further research, as it has implications for the involvement of sleep and circadian function in reward-related disorders. The aim of this paper is to describe the protocol for a pair of systematic literature reviews to synthesise existing literature related to (1) sleep and (2) circadian modulation of neural reward pathways in healthy human populations. A systematic review of relevant online databases (Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science, ProQuest, PsycINFO and EBSCOhost) will be conducted. Reference lists, relevant reviews and supplementary data will be searched for additional articles. Articles will be included if (a) they contain a sleep- or circadian-related predictor variable with a neural reward outcome variable, (b) use a functional magnetic resonance imaging protocol and (c) use human samples. Articles will be excluded if study participants had disorders known to affect the reward system. The articles will be screened by two independent authors. Two authors will complete the data extraction form, with two authors independently completing the quality assessment tool for the selected articles, with a consensus reached with a third author if needed. Narrative synthesis methods will be used to analyse the data. The findings from this pair of systematic literature reviews will assist in the identification of the pathways involved in the sleep and circadian function modulation of neural reward in healthy individuals, with implications for disorders characterised by dysregulation in sleep, circadian rhythms and reward function. PROSPERO CRD42017064994.

  1. Software Modules for the Proximity-1 Space Link Interleaved Time Synchronization (PITS) Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Simon S.; Veregge, John R.; Gao, Jay L.; Clare, Loren P.; Mills, David

    2012-01-01

    The Proximity-1 Space Link Interleaved Time Synchronization (PITS) protocol provides time distribution and synchronization services for space systems. A software prototype implementation of the PITS algorithm has been developed that also provides the test harness to evaluate the key functionalities of PITS with simulated data source and sink. PITS integrates time synchronization functionality into the link layer of the CCSDS Proximity-1 Space Link Protocol. The software prototype implements the network packet format, data structures, and transmit- and receive-timestamp function for a time server and a client. The software also simulates the transmit and receive-time stamp exchanges via UDP (User Datagram Protocol) socket between a time server and a time client, and produces relative time offsets and delay estimates.

  2. SecureCore Software Architecture: Trusted Management Layer (TML) Kernel Extension Module Integration Guide

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shifflett, David J; Clark, Paul C; Irvine, Cynthia E; Nguyen, Thuy D; Vidas, Timothy M; Levin, Timothy E

    2007-01-01

    .... The purpose of the SecureCore research project is to investigate fundamental architectural features required for the trusted operation of mobile computing devices such as smart cards, embedded...

  3. SecureCore Software Architecture: Trusted Management Layer (TML) Kernel Extension Module Interface Specification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shifflett, David J; Clark, Paul C; Irvine, Cynthia E; Nguyen, Thuy D; Vidas, Timothy M; Levin, Timothy E

    2008-01-01

    .... The purpose of the SecureCore research project is to investigate fundamental architectural features required for the trusted operation of mobile computing devices such as smart cards, embedded...

  4. In situ observation of modulated light emission of fiber fuse synchronized with void train over hetero-core splice point.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-ichi Todoroki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fiber fuse is a process of optical fiber destruction under the action of laser radiation, found 20 years ago. Once initiated, opical discharge runs along the fiber core region to the light source and leaves periodic voids whose shape looks like a bullet pointing the direction of laser beam. The relation between damage pattern and propagation mode of optical discharge is still unclear even after the first in situ observation three years ago. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Fiber fuse propagation over hetero-core splice point (Corning SMF-28e and HI 1060 was observed in situ. Sequential photographs obtained at intervals of 2.78 micros recorded a periodic emission at the tail of an optical discharge pumped by 1070 nm and 9 W light. The signal stopped when the discharge ran over the splice point. The corresponding damage pattern left in the fiber core region included a segment free of periodicity. CONCLUSIONS: The spatial modulation pattern of the light emission agreed with the void train formed over the hetero-core splice point. Some segments included a bullet-shaped void pointing in the opposite direction to the laser beam propagation although the sequential photographs did not reveal any directional change in the optical discharge propagation.

  5. Generalized Thermohydraulics Module GENFLO for Combining With the PWR Core Melting Model, BWR Recriticality Neutronics Model and Fuel Performance Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miettinen, Jaakko; Hamalainen, Anitta; Pekkarinen, Esko

    2002-01-01

    Thermal hydraulic simulation capability for accident conditions is needed at present in VTT in several programs. Traditional thermal hydraulic models are too heavy for simulation in the analysis tasks, where the main emphasis is the rapid neutron dynamics or the core melting. The GENFLO thermal hydraulic model has been developed at VTT for special applications in the combined codes. The basic field equations in GENFLO are for the phase mass, the mixture momentum and phase energy conservation equations. The phase separation is solved with the drift flux model. The basic variables to be solved are the pressure, void fraction, mixture velocity, gas enthalpy, liquid enthalpy, and concentration of non-condensable gas fractions. The validation of the thermohydraulic solution alone includes large break LOCA reflooding experiments and in specific for the severe accident conditions QUENCH tests. In the recriticality analysis the core neutronics is simulated with a two-dimensional transient neutronics code TWODIM. The recriticality with one rapid prompt peak is expected during a severe accident scenario, where the control rods have been melted and ECCS reflooding is started after the depressurization. The GENFLO module simulates the BWR thermohydraulics in this application. The core melting module has been developed for the real time operator training by using the APROS engineering simulators. The core heatup, oxidation, metal and fuel pellet relocation and corium pool formation into the lower plenum are calculated. In this application the GENFLO model simulates the PWR vessel thermohydraulics. In the fuel performance analysis the fuel rod transient behavior is simulated with the FRAPTRAN code. GENFLO simulates the subchannel around a single fuel rod and delivers the heat transfer on the cladding surface for the FRAPTRAN. The transient boundary conditions for the subchannel are transmitted from the system code for operational transient, loss of coolant accidents and

  6. Central GLP-1 receptor activation modulates cocaine-evoked phasic dopamine signaling in the nucleus accumbens core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Samantha M; Roitman, Mitchell F

    2017-07-01

    Drugs of abuse increase the frequency and magnitude of brief (1-3s), high concentration (phasic) dopamine release events in terminal regions. These are thought to be a critical part of drug reinforcement and ultimately the development of addiction. Recently, metabolic regulatory peptides, including the satiety signal glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), have been shown to modulate cocaine reward-driven behavior and sustained dopamine levels after cocaine administration. Here, we use fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) to explore GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) modulation of dynamic dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) during cocaine administration. We analyzed dopamine release events in both the NAc shell and core, as these two subregions are differentially affected by cocaine and uniquely contribute to motivated behavior. We found that central delivery of the GLP-1R agonist Exendin-4 suppressed the induction of phasic dopamine release events by intravenous cocaine. This effect was selective for dopamine signaling in the NAc core. Suppression of phasic signaling in the core by Exendin-4 could not be attributed to interference with cocaine binding to one of its major substrates, the dopamine transporter, as cocaine-induced increases in reuptake were unaffected. The results suggest that GLP-1R activation, instead, exerts its suppressive effects by altering dopamine release - possibly by suppressing the excitability of dopamine neurons. Given the role of NAc core dopamine in the generation of conditioned responses based on associative learning, suppression of cocaine-induced dopamine signaling in this subregion by GLP-1R agonism may decrease the reinforcing properties of cocaine. Thus, GLP-1Rs remain viable targets for the treatment and prevention of cocaine seeking, taking and relapse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [MATCHE: Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking Education.] Consumer Approach Strand: Core. Module I-A-3: Consumer Rights and Responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sharman

    This competency-based preservice home economics teacher education module on consumer rights and responsibilities is the third in a set of four core curriculum modules on consumer approach to homemaking education. (This set is part of a larger series of sixty-seven on the Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking Education…

  8. Simulation tests for temperature mixing in a core bottom model of the HTR-module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damm, G.; Wehrlein, R.

    1992-01-01

    Interatom and Siemens are developing a helium-cooled Modular High Temperature Reactor. Under nominal operating conditions temperature differences of up to 120deg C will occur in the 700deg C hot helium flow leaving the core. In addition, cold gas leakages into the hot gas header can produce even higher temperature differences in the coolant flow. At the outlet of the reactor only a very low temperature difference of maximum ± 15deg C is allowed in order to avoid damages at the heat exchanging components due to alternating thermal loads. Since it is not possible to calculate the complex flow behaviour, experimental investigations of the temperature mixing in the core bottom had to be carried out in order to guarantee the necessary reduction of temperature differences in the helium. The presented air simulation tests in a 1:2.9 scaled plexiglas model of the core bottom showed an extremely high mixing rate of the hot gas header and the hot gas duct of the reactor. The temperature mixing of the simulated coolant flow as well as the leakage flows was larger than 95%. Transfered to reactor conditions this means a temperature difference of only ± 3deg C for the main flow at a quite resonable pressure drop. For the cold gas leakages temperature differences in the hot gas up to 400deg C proved to be permissible. The results of the simulation experiments in the Aerodynamic Test Facility of Interatom permitted to design a shorter bottom reflector of the core. (orig.)

  9. Sea ice and pollution-modulated changes in Greenland ice core methanesulfonate and bromine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maselli, Olivia J.; Chellman, Nathan J.; Grieman, Mackenzie; Layman, Lawrence; McConnell, Joseph R.; Pasteris, Daniel; Rhodes, Rachael H.; Saltzman, Eric; Sigl, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Reconstruction of past changes in Arctic sea ice extent may be critical for understanding its future evolution. Methanesulfonate (MSA) and bromine concentrations preserved in ice cores have both been proposed as indicators of past sea ice conditions. In this study, two ice cores from central and north-eastern Greenland were analysed at sub-annual resolution for MSA (CH3SO3H) and bromine, covering the time period 1750-2010. We examine correlations between ice core MSA and the HadISST1 ICE sea ice dataset and consult back trajectories to infer the likely source regions. A strong correlation between the low-frequency MSA and bromine records during pre-industrial times indicates that both chemical species are likely linked to processes occurring on or near sea ice in the same source regions. The positive correlation between ice core MSA and bromine persists until the mid-20th century, when the acidity of Greenland ice begins to increase markedly due to increased fossil fuel emissions. After that time, MSA levels decrease as a result of declining sea ice extent but bromine levels increase. We consider several possible explanations and ultimately suggest that increased acidity, specifically nitric acid, of snow on sea ice stimulates the release of reactive Br from sea ice, resulting in increased transport and deposition on the Greenland ice sheet.

  10. A plasmonic modulator based on metal-insulator-metal waveguide with barium titanate core

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    We design a plasmonic modulator which can be utilized as a compact active device in photonic integrated circuits. The active material, barium titanate (BaTiO3), is sandwiched between metal plates and changes its refractive index under applied voltage. Some degree of switching of ferroelectric...

  11. Verification of the CENTRM Module for Adaptation of the SCALE Code to NGNP Prismatic and PBR Core Designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The generation of multigroup cross sections lies at the heart of the very high temperature reactor (VHTR) core design, whether the prismatic (block) or pebble-bed type. The design process, generally performed in three steps, is quite involved and its execution is crucial to proper reactor physics analyses. The primary purpose of this project is to develop the CENTRM cross-section processing module of the SCALE code package for application to prismatic or pebble-bed core designs. The team will include a detailed outline of the entire processing procedure for application of CENTRM in a final report complete with demonstration. In addition, they will conduct a thorough verification of the CENTRM code, which has yet to be performed. The tasks for this project are to: Thoroughly test the panel algorithm for neutron slowing down; Develop the panel algorithm for multi-materials; Establish a multigroup convergence 1D transport acceleration algorithm in the panel formalism; Verify CENTRM in 1D plane geometry; Create and test the corresponding transport/panel algorithm in spherical and cylindrical geometries; and, Apply the verified CENTRM code to current VHTR core design configurations for an infinite lattice, including assessing effectiveness of Dancoff corrections to simulate TRISO particle heterogeneity.

  12. Verification of the CENTRM Module for Adaptation of the SCALE Code to NGNP Prismatic and PBR Core Designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganapol, Barry; Maldonado, Ivan

    2014-01-23

    The generation of multigroup cross sections lies at the heart of the very high temperature reactor (VHTR) core design, whether the prismatic (block) or pebble-bed type. The design process, generally performed in three steps, is quite involved and its execution is crucial to proper reactor physics analyses. The primary purpose of this project is to develop the CENTRM cross-section processing module of the SCALE code package for application to prismatic or pebble-bed core designs. The team will include a detailed outline of the entire processing procedure for application of CENTRM in a final report complete with demonstration. In addition, they will conduct a thorough verification of the CENTRM code, which has yet to be performed. The tasks for this project are to: Thoroughly test the panel algorithm for neutron slowing down; Develop the panel algorithm for multi-materials; Establish a multigroup convergence 1D transport acceleration algorithm in the panel formalism; Verify CENTRM in 1D plane geometry; Create and test the corresponding transport/panel algorithm in spherical and cylindrical geometries; and, Apply the verified CENTRM code to current VHTR core design configurations for an infinite lattice, including assessing effectiveness of Dancoff corrections to simulate TRISO particle heterogeneity.

  13. Verification of the CENTRM Module for Adaptation of the SCALE Code to NGNP Prismatic and PBR Core Designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganapol, Barry; Maldonodo, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    The generation of multigroup cross sections lies at the heart of the very high temperature reactor (VHTR) core design, whether the prismatic (block) or pebble-bed type. The design process, generally performed in three steps, is quite involved and its execution is crucial to proper reactor physics analyses. The primary purpose of this project is to develop the CENTRM cross-section processing module of the SCALE code package for application to prismatic or pebble-bed core designs. The team will include a detailed outline of the entire processing procedure for application of CENTRM in a final report complete with demonstration. In addition, they will conduct a thorough verification of the CENTRM code, which has yet to be performed. The tasks for this project are to: Thoroughly test the panel algorithm for neutron slowing down; Develop the panel algorithm for multi-materials; Establish a multigroup convergence 1D transport acceleration algorithm in the panel formalism; Verify CENTRM in 1D plane geometry; Create and test the corresponding transport/panel algorithm in spherical and cylindrical geometries; and, Apply the verified CENTRM code to current VHTR core design configurations for an infinite lattice, including assessing effectiveness of Dancoff corrections to simulate TRISO particle heterogeneity

  14. Development of a Chemical Equilibrium Model for a Molten Core-Concrete Interaction Analysis Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jae Uk; Lee, Dae Young; Park, Chang Hwan [FNC Technology Co., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    This molten core could interact with the reactor cavity region which consists of concrete. In this process, components of molten core react with components of concrete through a lot of chemical reactions. As a result, many kinds of gas species are generated and those move up forming rising bubbles into the reactor containment atmosphere. These rising bubbles are the carrier of the many kinds of the aerosols coming from the MCCI (Molten Core Concrete Interaction) layers. To evaluate the amount of the aerosols released from the MCCI layers, the amount of the gas species generated from those layers should be calculated. The chemical equilibrium state originally implies the final state of the multiple chemical reactions; therefore, investigating the equilibrium composition of molten core can be applicable to predict the gas generation status. The most common way for finding the chemical equilibrium state is a minimization of total Gibbs free energy of the system. In this paper, the method to make good guess of initial state is suggested and chemical reaction results are compared with results of CSSI report No 164. Total mass of system and the number of atoms of each element are conserved. The tendency of calculation results is similar with results presented in CSNI Report except a few species. These differences may be caused by absence of Gibbs energy data of the species such as Fe{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}, CaFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, U(OH){sub 3}, UO(OH), UO{sub 2}(OH), U{sub 3}O{sub 7}, La, Ce.

  15. Hepatitis C Virus Core Protein Modulates Endoglin (CD105) Signaling Pathway for Liver Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Young-Chan; Sasaki, Reina; Meyer, Keith; Ray, Ranjit

    2017-11-01

    Endoglin is part of the TGF-β receptor complex and has a crucial role in fibrogenesis and angiogenesis. It is also an important protein for tumor growth, survival, and cancer cell metastasis. In a previous study, we have shown that hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) state and cancer stem-like cell (CSC) properties in human hepatocytes. Our array data suggested that endoglin (CD105) mRNA is significantly upregulated in HCV-associated CSCs. In this study, we have observed increased endoglin expression on the cell surface of an HCV core-expressing hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell line or immortalized human hepatocytes (IHH) and activation of its downstream signaling molecules. The status of phospho-SMAD1/5 and the expression of inhibitor of DNA binding protein 1 (ID1) were upregulated in HCV-infected cells or viral core gene-transfected cells. Additionally, we observed upregulation of endoglin/ID1 mRNA expression in chronic HCV patient liver biopsy samples. CSC generation by HCV core protein was dependent on the endoglin signaling pathway using activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK1) Fc blocking peptide and endoglin small interfering RNA (siRNA). Further, follow-up from in vitro analysis suggested that the antiapoptosis Bcl2 protein, proliferation-related cyclin D1 protein, and CSC-associated Hes1, Notch1, Nanog, and Sox2 proteins are enhanced during infection or ectopic expression of HCV core protein. IMPORTANCE Endoglin plays a crucial role in fibrogenesis and angiogenesis and is an important protein for tumor growth, survival, and cancer cell metastasis. Endoglin enhances ALK1-SMAD1/5 signaling in different cell types, leading to increased proliferation and migration responses. We have observed endoglin expression on the HCV core-expressing cell surface of human hepatocyte origin and activation of phospho-SMAD1/5 and ID1 downstream signaling molecules. ID1 protein plays a role in CSC properties, and we found that

  16. Comparison of radiation doses using weight-based protocol and dose modulation techniques for patients undergoing biphasic abdominal computed tomography examinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livingstone Roshan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Computed tomography (CT of the abdomen contributes a substantial amount of man-made radiation dose to patients and use of this modality is on the increase. This study intends to compare radiation dose and image quality using dose modulation techniques and weight- based protocol exposure parameters for biphasic abdominal CT. Using a six-slice CT scanner, a prospective study of 426 patients who underwent abdominal CT examinations was performed. Constant tube potentials of 90 kV and 120 kV were used for all arterial and portal venous phase respectively. The tube current-time product for weight-based protocol was optimized according to patient′s body weight; this was automatically selected in dose modulations. The effective dose using weight-based protocol, angular and z-axis dose modulation was 11.3 mSv, 9.5 mSv and 8.2 mSv respectively for the patient′s body weight ranging from 40 to 60 kg. For patients of body weights ranging 60 to 80 kg, the effective doses were 13.2 mSv, 11.2 mSv and 10.6 mSv respectively. The use of dose modulation technique resulted in a reduction of 16 to 28% in radiation dose with acceptable diagnostic accuracy in comparison to the use of weight-based protocol settings.

  17. Genetic-background modulation of core and variable autistic-like symptoms in Fmr1 knock-out mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Pietropaolo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: No animal models of autism spectrum disorders (ASD with good construct validity are currently available; using genetic models of pathologies characterized by ASD-like deficits, but with known causes, may be therefore a promising strategy. The Fmr1-KO mouse is an example of this approach, modeling Fragile X syndrome, a well-known genetic disorder presenting ASD symptoms. The Fmr1-KO is available on different genetic backgrounds (FVB versus C57BL/6, which may explain some of the conflicting results that have been obtained with these mutants up till now. METHODS: Fmr1 KO and their wild-type littermates on both the FVB and C57BL/6 genetic backgrounds were examined on a battery of tests modeling the clinical symptoms of ASD, including the triad of core symptoms (alterations in social interaction and communication, presence of repetitive behaviors, as well as the secondary symptoms (disturbances in sensori-motor reactivity and in circadian patterns of activity, epileptic events. RESULTS: Fmr1-KO mice displayed autistic-like core symptoms of altered social interaction and occurrence of repetitive behaviors with additional hyperactivity. The genetic background modulated the effects of the Fmr1 deletion and it appears that the C57BL/6 background may be more suitable for further research on core autistic-like symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: The Fmr1-mouse line does not recapitulate all of the main core and secondary ASD symptoms, but still can be useful to elucidate the neurobiological mechanisms underlying specific ASD-like endophenotypes.

  18. Development of a core outcome set for clinical trials in facial aging: study protocol for a systematic review of the literature and identification of a core outcome set using a Delphi survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlessinger, Daniel I; Iyengar, Sanjana; Yanes, Arianna F; Henley, Jill K; Ashchyan, Hovik J; Kurta, Anastasia O; Patel, Payal M; Sheikh, Umar A; Franklin, Matthew J; Hanna, Courtney C; Chen, Brian R; Chiren, Sarah G; Schmitt, Jochen; Deckert, Stefanie; Furlan, Karina C; Poon, Emily; Maher, Ian A; Cartee, Todd V; Sobanko, Joseph F; Alam, Murad

    2017-08-01

    Facial aging is a concern for many patients. Wrinkles, loss of volume, and discoloration are common physical manifestations of aging skin. Genetic heritage, prior ultraviolet light exposure, and Fitzpatrick skin type may be associated with the rate and type of facial aging. Although many clinical trials assess the correlates of skin aging, there is heterogeneity in the outcomes assessed, which limits the quality of evaluation and comparison of treatment modalities. To address the inconsistency in outcomes, in this project we will develop a core set of outcomes that are to be evaluated in all clinical trials relevant to facial aging. A long list of measureable outcomes will be created from four sources: (1) systematic medical literature review, (2) patient interviews, (3) other published sources, and (4) stakeholder involvement. Two rounds of Delphi processes with homogeneous groups of physicians and patients will be performed to prioritize and condense the list. At a consensus meeting attended by physicians, patients, and stakeholders, outcomes will be further condensed on the basis of participant scores. By the end of the meeting, members will vote and decide on a final recommended set of core outcomes. Subsequent to this, specific measures will be selected or created to assess these outcomes. The aim of this study is to develop a core outcome set and relevant measures for clinical trials relevant to facial aging. We hope to improve the reliability and consistency of outcome reporting of skin aging, thereby enabling improved evaluation of treatment efficacy and patient satisfaction. Core Outcome Measures in Effectiveness Trials (COMET) Initiative, accessible at http://www.comet-initiative.org/studies/details/737 . Core Outcomes Set Initiative, (CSG-COUSIN) accessible at https://www.uniklinikum-dresden.de/de/das-klinikum/universitaetscentren/zegv/cousin/meet-the-teams/project-groups/core-outcome-set-for-the-appearance-of-facial-aging . Protocol version date is 28

  19. Lumbopelvic Core Stabilization Exercise and Pain Modulation Among Individuals with Chronic Nonspecific Low Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paungmali, Aatit; Joseph, Leonard H; Sitilertpisan, Patraporn; Pirunsan, Ubon; Uthaikhup, Sureeporn

    2017-11-01

    Lumbopelvic stabilization training (LPST) may provide therapeutic benefits on pain modulation in chronic nonspecific low back pain conditions. This study aimed to examine the effects of LPST on pain threshold and pain intensity in comparison with the passive automated cycling intervention and control intervention among patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain. A within-subject, repeated-measures, crossover randomized controlled design was conducted among 25 participants (7 males and 18 females) with chronic nonspecific low back pain. All the participants received 3 different types of experimental interventions, which included LPST, the passive automated cycling intervention, and the control intervention randomly, with 48 hours between the sessions. The pressure pain threshold (PPT), hot-cold pain threshold, and pain intensity were estimated before and after the interventions. Repeated-measures analysis of variance showed that LPST provided therapeutic effects as it improved the PPT beyond the placebo and control interventions (P pain intensity under the LPST condition was significantly better than that under the passive automated cycling intervention and controlled intervention (P pain threshold under the LPST condition also showed a significant trend of improvement beyond the control (P pain threshold were evident. Lumbopelvic stabilization training may provide therapeutic effects by inducing pain modulation through an improvement in the pain threshold and reduction in pain intensity. LPST may be considered as part of the management programs for treatment of chronic low back pain. © 2017 World Institute of Pain.

  20. Hepatitis B virus core protein allosteric modulators can distort and disrupt intact capsids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlicksup, Christopher John; Wang, Joseph Che-Yen; Francis, Samson; Venkatakrishnan, Balasubramanian; Turner, William W; VanNieuwenhze, Michael; Zlotnick, Adam

    2018-01-29

    Defining mechanisms of direct-acting antivirals facilitates drug development and our understanding of virus function. Heteroaryldihydropyrimidines (HAPs) inappropriately activate assembly of hepatitis B virus (HBV) core protein (Cp), suppressing formation of virions. We examined a fluorophore-labeled HAP, HAP-TAMRA. HAP-TAMRA induced Cp assembly and also bound pre-assembled capsids. Kinetic and spectroscopic studies imply that HAP-binding sites are usually not available but are bound cooperatively. Using cryo-EM, we observed that HAP-TAMRA asymmetrically deformed capsids, creating a heterogeneous array of sharp angles, flat regions, and outright breaks. To achieve high resolution reconstruction (HAP-TAMRA caused quasi-sixfold vertices to become flatter and fivefold more angular. This transition led to asymmetric faceting. That a disordered crosslink could rescue symmetry implies that capsids have tensegrity properties. Capsid distortion and disruption is a new mechanism by which molecules like the HAPs can block HBV infection. © 2017, Schlicksup et al.

  1. Hepatitis B virus core protein allosteric modulators can distort and disrupt intact capsids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlicksup, Christopher John; Wang, Joseph Che-Yen; Francis, Samson; Venkatakrishnan, Balasubramanian; Turner, William W; VanNieuwenhze, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Defining mechanisms of direct-acting antivirals facilitates drug development and our understanding of virus function. Heteroaryldihydropyrimidines (HAPs) inappropriately activate assembly of hepatitis B virus (HBV) core protein (Cp), suppressing formation of virions. We examined a fluorophore-labeled HAP, HAP-TAMRA. HAP-TAMRA induced Cp assembly and also bound pre-assembled capsids. Kinetic and spectroscopic studies imply that HAP-binding sites are usually not available but are bound cooperatively. Using cryo-EM, we observed that HAP-TAMRA asymmetrically deformed capsids, creating a heterogeneous array of sharp angles, flat regions, and outright breaks. To achieve high resolution reconstruction (particle symmetry. We deduced that HAP-TAMRA caused quasi-sixfold vertices to become flatter and fivefold more angular. This transition led to asymmetric faceting. That a disordered crosslink could rescue symmetry implies that capsids have tensegrity properties. Capsid distortion and disruption is a new mechanism by which molecules like the HAPs can block HBV infection. PMID:29377794

  2. Hepatitis C virus core protein expression leads to biphasic regulation of the p21 cdk inhibitor and modulation of hepatocyte cell cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Hau; Mudryj, Maria; Guadalupe, Moraima; Dandekar, Satya

    2003-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) Core protein is implicated in viral pathogenesis by the modulation of hepatocyte gene expression and function. To determine the effect of Core protein on the cell-cycle control of hepatocytes, a HepG2 cell line containing a Flag-tagged Core under the control of an inducible promoter was generated. Initial Core protein expression included the presence of unprocessed (191 aa) and processed (173 aa) forms of the Core proteins with the processed form becoming dominant later. Expression of the 191 aa form of Core protein corresponded to an increase in the expression of the p21, a decrease in cdk2-dependent kinase activity, and a decrease in the percentage of cells in S-phase along with an accumulation of cells in the G 0 /G 1 phase of the cell cycle. As the processed form accumulated, the p21 levels started to decline, suggesting that Core protein regulates p21 expression in a biphasic manner. These findings implicate Core protein in potentially modulating hepatocyte cell cycle differentially in the early stages of infection through biphasic regulation of p21 cdk kinase inhibitor

  3. Band structure of Si/Ge core-shell nanowires along the [110] direction modulated by external uniaxial strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Xihong; Tang Fu; Logan, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Strain modulated electronic properties of Si/Ge core-shell nanowires along the [110] direction were reported, on the basis of first principles density-functional theory calculations. In particular, the energy dispersion relationship of the conduction/valence band was explored in detail. At the Γ point, the energy levels of both bands are significantly altered by applied uniaxial strain, which results in an evident change of the band gap. In contrast, for the K vectors far away from Γ, the variation of the conduction/valence band with strain is much reduced. In addition, with a sufficient tensile strain (∼1%), the valence band edge shifts away from Γ, which indicates that the band gap of the Si/Ge core-shell nanowires experiences a transition from direct to indirect. Our studies further showed that effective masses of charge carriers can also be tuned using the external uniaxial strain. The effective mass of the hole increases dramatically with tensile strain, while strain shows a minimal effect on tuning the effective mass of the electron. Finally, the relation between strain and the conduction/valence band edge is discussed thoroughly in terms of site-projected wavefunction characters.

  4. Spectral broadening of 25 fs laser pulses via self-phase modulation in a neon filled hollow core fibre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weichert, Stefan

    2017-05-15

    The goal of this work was the realisation of a setup for spectral broadening and subsequent compression of 25 fs laser pulses provided by a commercial Ti:Sapphire based CPA laser system by means of the hollow core fibre chirped mirror compressor technique. For the spectral broadening a vessel containing the hollow waveguide filled with a noble gas serving as the nonlinear medium was set up and an alignment procedure was developed. Neon was chosen as the nonlinear medium for the self-phase modulation of the pulses. With this setup spectral broadening, sufficient for supporting sub 5 fs pulses, was observed. The spectra at different input energies and neon gas pressures were measured and the stability of these and their respective Fourier transform-limited pulses determined in order to find an operating point. For the compression of the self-phase modulated pulses a chirped mirror compressor was designed and set up, but not tested yet. The layout of a single-shot intensity autocorrelator capable of estimating the pulse duration of sub 10 fs pulses was given.

  5. Spectral broadening of 25 fs laser pulses via self-phase modulation in a neon filled hollow core fibre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weichert, Stefan

    2017-05-01

    The goal of this work was the realisation of a setup for spectral broadening and subsequent compression of 25 fs laser pulses provided by a commercial Ti:Sapphire based CPA laser system by means of the hollow core fibre chirped mirror compressor technique. For the spectral broadening a vessel containing the hollow waveguide filled with a noble gas serving as the nonlinear medium was set up and an alignment procedure was developed. Neon was chosen as the nonlinear medium for the self-phase modulation of the pulses. With this setup spectral broadening, sufficient for supporting sub 5 fs pulses, was observed. The spectra at different input energies and neon gas pressures were measured and the stability of these and their respective Fourier transform-limited pulses determined in order to find an operating point. For the compression of the self-phase modulated pulses a chirped mirror compressor was designed and set up, but not tested yet. The layout of a single-shot intensity autocorrelator capable of estimating the pulse duration of sub 10 fs pulses was given.

  6. Simplified PCR protocols for INNO-LiPA HBV Genotyping and INNO-LiPA HBV PreCore assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qutub, Mohammed O.; Germer, Jeffrey J.; Rebers, Sjoerd P. H.; Mandrekar, Jayawant N.; Beld, Marcel G. H. M.; Yao, Joseph D. C.

    2006-01-01

    INNO-LiPA HBV Genotyping (LiPA HBV GT) and INNO-LiPA HBV PreCore (LiPA HBV PC) are commercially available assays for hepatitis B virus (HBV) characterization. These assays are labor-intensive and may be prone to exogenous DNA contamination due to their use of nested PCR amplification procedures and

  7. Lipopolysaccharide from Crypt-Specific Core Microbiota Modulates the Colonic Epithelial Proliferation-to-Differentiation Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoaki Naito

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We identified a crypt-specific core microbiota (CSCM dominated by strictly aerobic, nonfermentative bacteria in murine cecal and proximal colonic (PC crypts and hypothesized that, among its possible functions, it may affect epithelial regeneration. In the present work, we isolated representative CSCM strains using selective media based upon our initial 16S rRNA-based molecular identification (i.e., Acinetobacter, Delftia, and Stenotrophomonas. Their tropism for the crypt was confirmed, and their influence on epithelial regeneration was demonstrated in vivo by monocolonization of germfree mice. We also showed that lipopolysaccharide (LPS, through its endotoxin activity, was the dominant bacterial agonist controlling proliferation. The relevant molecular mechanisms were analyzed using colonic crypt-derived organoids exposed to bacterial sonicates or highly purified LPS as agonists. We identified a Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4-dependent program affecting crypts at different stages of epithelial differentiation. LPS played a dual role: it repressed cell proliferation through RIPK3-mediated necroptosis of stem cells and cells of the transit-amplifying compartment and concurrently enhanced cell differentiation, particularly the goblet cell lineage.

  8. Functional Genomic Screening Reveals Core Modulators of Echinocandin Stress Responses in Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavia Caplan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Candida albicans is a leading cause of death due to fungal infection. Treatment of systemic candidiasis often relies on echinocandins, which disrupt cell wall synthesis. Resistance is readily acquired via mutations in the drug target gene, FKS1. Both basal tolerance and resistance to echinocandins require cellular stress responses. We performed a systematic analysis of 3,030 C. albicans mutants to define circuitry governing cellular responses to echinocandins. We identified 16 genes for which deletion or transcriptional repression enhanced echinocandin susceptibility, including components of the Pkc1-MAPK signaling cascade. We discovered that the molecular chaperone Hsp90 is required for the stability of Pkc1 and Bck1, establishing key mechanisms through which Hsp90 mediates echinocandin resistance. We also discovered that perturbation of the CCT chaperonin complex causes enhanced echinocandin sensitivity, altered cell wall architecture, and aberrant septin localization. Thus, we provide insights into the mechanisms by which cellular chaperones enable crucial responses to echinocandin-induced stress. : Caplan et al. screen 3,030 Candida albicans mutants to define circuitry governing cellular responses to echinocandins, the first-line therapy for systemic candidiasis. They reveal that the molecular chaperone Hsp90 is required for stability of Pkc1 and Bck1 and that the CCT chaperonin complex is a key modulator of echinocandin susceptibility. Keywords: fungal pathogen, Candida albicans, echinocandins, Hsp90, Pkc1, CCT complex, client protein, stress response, functional genomic screen, drug resistance

  9. Pilates based core stability training in ambulant individuals with multiple sclerosis: protocol for a multi-centre randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Freeman, Jennifer; Fox, Esther; Gear, Margaret; Hough, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background People with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) frequently experience balance and mobility impairments, including reduced trunk stability. Pilates-based core stability training, which is aimed at improving control of the body's stabilising muscles, is popular as a form of exercise with people with MS and therapists. A replicated single case series study facilitated by the Therapists in MS Group in the United Kingdom (UK) provides preliminary evidence that this approach can improve bal...

  10. Development of a core outcome set for orthodontic trials using a mixed-methods approach: protocol for a multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsichlaki, Aliki; O'Brien, Kevin; Johal, Ama; Marshman, Zoe; Benson, Philip; Colonio Salazar, Fiorella B; Fleming, Padhraig S

    2017-08-04

    Orthodontic treatment is commonly undertaken in young people, with over 40% of children in the UK needing treatment and currently one third having treatment, at a cost to the National Health Service in England and Wales of £273 million each year. Most current research about orthodontic care does not consider what patients truly feel about, or want, from treatment, and a diverse range of outcomes is being used with little consistency between studies. This study aims to address these problems, using established methodology to develop a core outcome set for use in future clinical trials of orthodontic interventions in children and young people. This is a mixed-methods study incorporating four distinct stages. The first stage will include a scoping review of the scientific literature to identify primary and secondary outcome measures that have been used in previous orthodontic clinical trials. The second stage will involve qualitative interviews and focus groups with orthodontic patients aged 10 to 16 years to determine what outcomes are important to them. The outcomes elicited from these two stages will inform the third stage of the study in which a long-list of outcomes will be ranked in terms of importance using electronic Delphi surveys involving clinicians and patients. The final stage of the study will involve face-to-face consensus meetings with all stakeholders to discuss and agree on the outcome measures that should be included in the final core outcome set. This research will help to inform patients, parents, clinicians and commissioners about outcomes that are important to young people undergoing orthodontic treatment. Adoption of the core outcome set in future clinical trials of orthodontic treatment will make it easier for results to be compared, contrasted and combined. This should translate into improved decision-making by all stakeholders involved. The project has been registered on the Core Outcome Measures in Effectiveness Trials ( COMET ) website

  11. Endogenous and exogenous components in the circadian variation of core body temperature in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiddinga, AE; Beersma, DGM; VandenHoofdakker, RH

    Core body temperature is predominantly modulated by endogenous and exogenous components. In the present study we tested whether these two components can be reliably assessed in a protocol which lasts for only 120 h. In this so-called forced desynchrony protocol, 12 healthy male subjects (age 23.7

  12. FPGA based data-flow injection module at 10 Gbit/s reading data from network exported storage and using standard protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemouzy, B; Garnier, J-C; Neufeld, N

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the LHCb readout upgrade is to accelerate the DAQ to 40 MHz. Such a DAQ system will certainly employ 10 Gigabit or similar technologies and might also need new networking protocols such as a customized, light-weight TCP or more specialized protocols. A test module is being implemented to be integrated in the existing LHCb infrastructure. It is a multiple 10-Gigabit traffic generator, driven by a Stratix IV FPGA, and flexible enough to generate LHCb's raw data packets. Traffic data are either internally generated or read from external storage via the network. We have implemented a light-weight industry standard protocol ATA over Ethernet (AoE) and we present an outlook of using a file-system on these network-exported disk-drivers.

  13. LHCb: FPGA based data-flow injection module at 10 Gbit/s reading data from network exported storage and using standard protocols

    CERN Multimedia

    Lemouzy, B; Garnier, J-C

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the LHCb readout upgrade is to speed up the DAQ to 40 MHz. Such a DAQ system will certainly employ 10 Gigabit or similar technologies and might also need new networking protocols such as a customized, light-weight TCP or more specialised protocols. A test module is being implemented, which integrates in the existing LHCb infrastructure. It is a multiple 10-Gigabit traffic generator, driven by a Stratix IV FPGA, which is flexibile enough to either generate LHCb's raw data packets internally or read them from external storage via the network. For reading the data we have implemented a light-weight industry standard protocol ATA over Ethernet (AoE) and we present an outlook of using a filesystem on these network-exported disk-drivers.

  14. INVESTIGATION ON THERMAL-FLOW CHARACTERISTICS OF HTGR CORE USING THERMIX-KONVEK MODULE AND VSOP'94 CODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarmono Sudarmono

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The failure of heat removal system of water-cooled reactor such as PWR in Three Mile Islands and Fukushima Daiichi BWR makes nuclear society starting to consider the use of high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR. Reactor Physics and Technology Division – Center for Nuclear Reactor Safety and Technology  (PTRKN has tasks to perform research and development on the conceptual design of cogeneration gas cooled reactor with medium power level of 200 MWt. HTGR is one of nuclear energy generation system, which has high energy efficiency, and has high and clean inherent safety level. The geometry and structure of the HTGR200 core are designed to produce the output of helium gas coolant temperature as high as 950 °C to be used for hydrogen production and other industrial processes in co-generative way. The output of very high temperature helium gas will cause thermal stress on the fuel pebble that threats the integrity of fission product confinement. Therefore, it is necessary to perform thermal-flow evaluation to determine the temperature distribution in the graphite and fuel pebble in the HTGR core. The evaluation was carried out by Thermix-Konvek module code that has been already integrated into VSOP'94 code. The HTGR core geometry was done using BIRGIT module code for 2-D model (RZ model with 5 channels of pebble flow in active core in the radial direction. The evaluation results showed that the highest and lowest temperatures in the reactor core are 999.3 °C and 886.5 °C, while the highest temperature of TRISO UO2 is 1510.20 °C in the position (z= 335.51 cm; r=0 cm. The analysis done based on reactor condition of 120 kg/s of coolant mass flow rate, 7 MPa of pressure and 200 MWth of power. Compared to the temperature distribution resulted between VSOP’94 code and fuel temperature limitation as high as 1600 oC, there is enough safety margin from melting or disintegrating. Keywords: Thermal-Flow, VSOP’94, Thermix-Konvek, HTGR, temperature

  15. Rat nucleus accumbens core astrocytes modulate reward and the motivation to self-administer ethanol after abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Cecilia; Freitas, Kelen C C; Zou, Shiping; Poland, Ryan S; Syed, Wahab A; Urban, Daniel J; Minter, Sabrina C; Shelton, Keith L; Hauser, Kurt F; Negus, S Stevens; Knapp, Pamela E; Bowers, M Scott

    2014-11-01

    Our understanding of the active role that astrocytes play in modulating neuronal function and behavior is rapidly expanding, but little is known about the role that astrocytes may play in drug-seeking behavior for commonly abused substances. Given that the nucleus accumbens is critically involved in substance abuse and motivation, we sought to determine whether nucleus accumbens astrocytes influence the motivation to self-administer ethanol following abstinence. We found that the packing density of astrocytes that were expressing glial fibrillary acidic protein increased in the nucleus accumbens core (NAcore) during abstinence from EtOH self-administration. No change was observed in the nucleus accumbens shell. This increased NAcore astrocyte density positively correlated with the motivation for ethanol. Astrocytes can communicate with one another and influence neuronal activity through gap-junction hemichannels. Because of this, the effect of blocking gap-junction hemichannels on the motivation for ethanol was examined. The motivation to self-administer ethanol after 3 weeks abstinence was increased following microinjection of gap-junction hemichannel blockers into the NAcore at doses that block both neuronal and astrocytic channels. In contrast, no effect was observed following microinjection of doses that are not thought to block astrocytic channels or following microinjection of either dose into the nucleus accumbens shell. Additionally, the motivation for sucrose after 3 weeks abstinence was unaffected by NAcore gap-junction hemichannel blockers. Next, Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADDs) were selectively expressed in NAcore astrocytes to test the effect of astrocyte stimulation. DREADD activation increased cytosolic calcium in primary astrocytes, facilitated responding for rewarding brain stimulation, and reduced the motivation for ethanol after 3 weeks abstinence. This is the first work to modulate drug-seeking behavior with

  16. Pilates based core stability training in ambulant individuals with multiple sclerosis: protocol for a multi-centre randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freeman Jennifer

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People with Multiple Sclerosis (MS frequently experience balance and mobility impairments, including reduced trunk stability. Pilates-based core stability training, which is aimed at improving control of the body's stabilising muscles, is popular as a form of exercise with people with MS and therapists. A replicated single case series study facilitated by the Therapists in MS Group in the United Kingdom (UK provides preliminary evidence that this approach can improve balance and mobility in ambulant people with MS; further evidence is needed to substantiate these findings to ensure that limited time, energy, finances and resources are used to best effect. This study builds upon the pilot work undertaken in the case series study by implementing a powered randomised controlled study, with the aims of: 1 Establishing the effectiveness of core stability training 2 Comparing core stability training with standardised physiotherapy exercise 3 Exploring underlying mechanisms of change associated with this intervention Methods This is a multi-centre, double blind, block randomised, controlled trial. Eligible participants will be recruited from 4 UK centres. Participants will be randomly allocated to one of three groups: Pilates based core stability training, standardised physiotherapy exercise or contract-relax relaxation sessions (placebo control. All will receive face to face training sessions over a 12 week period; together with a 15 minute daily home programme. All will be assessed by a blinded assessor before training, at the end of the 12 week programme and at 4 week follow-up. The primary outcome measure is the 10 metre timed walk. Secondary outcome measures are the MS walking Scale (MSWS-12, the Functional Reach (forwards and lateral, a 10 point Numerical Rating Scale to determine "Difficulty in carrying a drink when walking", and the Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC Scale. In addition, ultrasound imaging of the

  17. Pilates based core stability training in ambulant individuals with multiple sclerosis: protocol for a multi-centre randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Jennifer; Fox, Esther; Gear, Margaret; Hough, Alan

    2012-04-05

    People with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) frequently experience balance and mobility impairments, including reduced trunk stability. Pilates-based core stability training, which is aimed at improving control of the body's stabilising muscles, is popular as a form of exercise with people with MS and therapists. A replicated single case series study facilitated by the Therapists in MS Group in the United Kingdom (UK) provides preliminary evidence that this approach can improve balance and mobility in ambulant people with MS; further evidence is needed to substantiate these findings to ensure that limited time, energy, finances and resources are used to best effect.This study builds upon the pilot work undertaken in the case series study by implementing a powered randomised controlled study, with the aims of: 1 Establishing the effectiveness of core stability training; 2 Comparing core stability training with standardised physiotherapy exercise; 3 Exploring underlying mechanisms of change associated with this intervention This is a multi-centre, double blind, block randomised, controlled trial. Eligible participants will be recruited from 4 UK centres. Participants will be randomly allocated to one of three groups: Pilates based core stability training, standardised physiotherapy exercise or contract-relax relaxation sessions (placebo control). All will receive face to face training sessions over a 12 week period; together with a 15 minute daily home programme. All will be assessed by a blinded assessor before training, at the end of the 12 week programme and at 4 week follow-up. The primary outcome measure is the 10 metre timed walk. Secondary outcome measures are the MS walking Scale (MSWS-12), the Functional Reach (forwards and lateral), a 10 point Numerical Rating Scale to determine "Difficulty in carrying a drink when walking", and the Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) Scale. In addition, ultrasound imaging of the abdominal muscles will be performed before

  18. Implementation of an image guided intensity-modulated protocol for post-prostatectomy radiotherapy: planning data and acute toxicity outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chua, Benjamin; Min, Myo; Wood, Maree; Edwards, Sarah; Hoffmann, Matthew; Greenham, Stuart; Kovendy, Andrew; McKay, Michael J.; Shakespeare, Thomas P.

    2013-01-01

    There is substantial interest in implementation of image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IG-IMRT) in the post-prostatectomy setting. We describe our implementation of IG-IMRT, and examine how often published organ-at-risk (OAR) constraints were met. Furthermore, we evaluate the incidence of acute genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicities when patients were treated according to our protocol. Patients were eligible if they received post-prostatectomy radiotherapy (PPRT). Planning data were collected prospectively, and toxicity assessments were collected before, during and after treatment. Seventy-five eligible patients received either 64Gy (19%) or 66Gy (81%) in a single phase to the prostate bed. Suggested rectal dose-constraints of V40Gy<60% and V60Gy<40% were met in 64 (85%) and 75 (100%) patients, respectively. IMRT-specific rectal dose-constraints of V40Gy<35% and V65Gy<17% were achieved in 5 (7%) and 57 (76%) of patients. Bladder dose-constraint (V50Gy<50%) was met in 58 (77%) patients. Two patients (3%) experienced new grade 3 genitourinary toxicity and one patient (1%) experienced new grade 3 gastrointestinal toxicity. All grade 3 toxicities had improved by 3-month review. Overall deterioration in urinary and gastrointestinal symptoms occurred in 33 (44%) and 35 (47%) of patients respectively. We report on our implementation of PPRT which takes into account nationally adopted guidelines, with a margin reduction supported by use of daily image guidance. Non-IMRT OAR constraints were met in most cases. IMRT-specific constraints were less often achieved despite margin reductions, suggesting the need for review of guidelines. Severe toxicity was rare, and most patients did not experience deterioration in urinary or bowel function attributable to radiotherapy.

  19. Implementation of an image guided intensity-modulated protocol for post-prostatectomy radiotherapy: planning data and acute toxicity outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Benjamin; Min, Myo; Wood, Maree; Edwards, Sarah; Hoffmann, Matthew; Greenham, Stuart; Kovendy, Andrew; McKay, Michael J; Shakespeare, Thomas P

    2013-08-01

    There is substantial interest in implementation of image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IG-IMRT) in the post-prostatectomy setting. We describe our implementation of IG-IMRT, and examine how often published organ-at-risk (OAR) constraints were met. Furthermore, we evaluate the incidence of acute genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicities when patients were treated according to our protocol. Patients were eligible if they received post-prostatectomy radiotherapy (PPRT). Planning data were collected prospectively, and toxicity assessments were collected before, during and after treatment. Seventy-five eligible patients received either 64 Gy (19%) or 66 Gy (81%) in a single phase to the prostate bed. Suggested rectal dose-constraints of V40Gy < 60% and V60Gy < 40% were met in 64 (85%) and 75 (100%) patients, respectively. IMRT-specific rectal dose-constraints of V40Gy < 35% and V65Gy < 17% were achieved in 5 (7%) and 57 (76%) of patients. Bladder dose-constraint (V50Gy < 50%) was met in 58 (77%) patients. Two patients (3%) experienced new grade 3 genitourinary toxicity and one patient (1%) experienced new grade 3 gastroinestinal toxicity. All grade 3 toxicities had improved by 3-month review. Overall deterioration in urinary and gastrointestinal symptoms occurred in 33 (44%) and 35 (47%) of patients respectively. We report on our implementation of PPRT which takes into account nationally adopted guidelines, with a margin reduction supported by use of daily image guidance. Non-IMRT OAR constraints were met in most cases. IMRT-specific constraints were less often achieved despite margin reductions, suggesting the need for review of guidelines. Severe toxicity was rare, and most patients did not experience deterioration in urinary or bowel function attributable to radiotherapy. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology © 2013 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  20. Experimental terrestrial soil-core microcosm test protocol. A method for measuring the potential ecological effects, fate, and transport of chemicals in terrestrial ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Voris, P.; Tolle, D.A.; Arthur, M.F.

    1985-06-01

    In order to protect the environment properly and have a realistic appraisal of how a chemical will act in the environment, tests of ecological effects and chemical fate must be performed on complex assemblages of biotic and abiotic components (i.e., microcosms) as well as single species. This protocol is one which could be added to a series of tests recently developed as guidelines for Section 4 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (P.L. 94-469; U.S.C., Section 2601-2629). The terrestrial soil-core microcosm is designed to supply site-specific and possibly regional information on the probable chemical fate and ecological effects resulting from release of a chemical substance to a terrestrial ecosystem. The EPA will use the data resulting from this test system to compare the potential hazards of a chemical with others that have been previously evaluated.

  1. Hepatitis C Virus core+1/ARF Protein Modulates the Cyclin D1/pRb Pathway and Promotes Carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Savvina; Karakasiliotis, Ioannis; Mavromara, Penelope

    2018-05-01

    Viruses often encompass overlapping reading frames and unconventional translation mechanisms in order to maximize the output from a minimum genome and to orchestrate their timely gene expression. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) possesses such an unconventional open reading frame (ORF) within the core-coding region, encoding an additional protein, initially designated ARFP, F, or core+1. Two predominant isoforms of core+1/ARFP have been reported, core+1/L, initiating from codon 26, and core+1/S, initiating from codons 85/87 of the polyprotein coding region. The biological significance of core+1/ARFP expression remains elusive. The aim of the present study was to gain insight into the functional and pathological properties of core+1/ARFP through its interaction with the host cell, combining in vitro and in vivo approaches. Our data provide strong evidence that the core+1/ARFP of HCV-1a stimulates cell proliferation in Huh7-based cell lines expressing either core+1/S or core+1/L isoforms and in transgenic liver disease mouse models expressing core+1/S protein in a liver-specific manner. Both isoforms of core+1/ARFP increase the levels of cyclin D1 and phosphorylated Rb, thus promoting the cell cycle. In addition, core+1/S was found to enhance liver regeneration and oncogenesis in transgenic mice. The induction of the cell cycle together with increased mRNA levels of cell proliferation-related oncogenes in cells expressing the core+1/ARFP proteins argue for an oncogenic potential of these proteins and an important role in HCV-associated pathogenesis. IMPORTANCE This study sheds light on the biological importance of a unique HCV protein. We show here that core+1/ARFP of HCV-1a interacts with the host machinery, leading to acceleration of the cell cycle and enhancement of liver carcinogenesis. This pathological mechanism(s) may complement the action of other viral proteins with oncogenic properties, leading to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. In addition, given that

  2. A new energy-efficient MAC protocol with noise-based transmitted-reference modulation for wireless sensor network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morshed, S.; Heijenk, Geert; Meijerink, Arjan; Ye, D.; van der Zee, Ronan A.R.; Bentum, Marinus Jan

    2013-01-01

    Energy-constrained behavior of sensor nodes is one of the most important criteria for successful deployment of wireless sensor networks. The medium access control (MAC) protocol determines to a large extent the time a sensor node transceiver spends listening or transmitting, and hence the energy

  3. TR-MAC: an energy-efficient MAC protocol for wireless sensor networks exploiting noise-based transmitted reference modulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morshed, S.; Dimitrova, D.C.; Brogle, M.; Braun, T.; Heijenk, Gerhard J.

    Energy-constrained behavior of sensor nodes is one of the most important criteria for successful deployment of wireless sensor net- works. The medium access control (MAC) protocol determines the time a sensor node transceiver spends listening or transmitting, and hence the energy consumption of the

  4. Reactor core fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvennoinen, P.

    1976-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: concepts of reactor physics; neutron diffusion; core heat transfer; reactivity; reactor operation; variables of core management; computer code modules; alternative reactor concepts; methods of optimization; general system aspects. (U.K.)

  5. The CANopen Controller IP Core: Implementation, Synthesis and Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caramia, Maurizio; Bolognino, Luca; Montagna, Mario; Tosi, Pietro; Errico, Walter; Bigongiari, Franco; Furano, Gianluca

    2011-08-01

    This paper will describe the implementation and test results of the CANopen Controller IP Core (CCIPC) implemented by Thales Alenia Space and SITAEL Aerospace with the support of ESA in the frame of the EXOMARS Project. The CCIPC is a configurable VHDL implementation of the CANOPEN protocol [1]; it is foreseen to be used as CAN bus slave controller within the EXOMARS Entry Descending and Landing Demonstrato Module (EDM) and Rover Module. The CCIPC features, configuration capability, synthesis and test results will be described and the evidence of the state of maturity of this innovative IP core will be demonstrated.

  6. Enhanced thermoelectric transport in modulation-doped GaN/AlGaN core/shell nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Erdong; Martinez, Julio A; Li, Qiming; Pan, Wei; Wang, George T; Swartzentruber, Brian

    2016-01-01

    The thermoelectric properties of unintentionally n-doped core GaN/AlGaN core/shell N-face nanowires are reported. We found that the temperature dependence of the electrical conductivity is consistent with thermally activated carriers with two distinctive donor energies. The Seebeck coefficient of GaN/AlGaN nanowires is more than twice as large as that for the GaN nanowires alone. However, an outer layer of GaN deposited onto the GaN/AlGaN core/shell nanowires decreases the Seebeck coefficient at room temperature, while the temperature dependence of the electrical conductivity remains the same. We attribute these observations to the formation of an electron gas channel within the heavily-doped GaN core of the GaN/AlGaN nanowires. The room-temperature thermoelectric power factor for the GaN/AlGaN nanowires can be four times higher than the GaN nanowires. Selective doping in bandgap engineered core/shell nanowires is proposed for enhancing the thermoelectric power. (paper)

  7. Enhanced thermoelectric transport in modulation-doped GaN/AlGaN core/shell nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Erdong; Li, Qiming; Swartzentruber, Brian; Pan, Wei; Wang, George T; Martinez, Julio A

    2016-01-08

    The thermoelectric properties of unintentionally n-doped core GaN/AlGaN core/shell N-face nanowires are reported. We found that the temperature dependence of the electrical conductivity is consistent with thermally activated carriers with two distinctive donor energies. The Seebeck coefficient of GaN/AlGaN nanowires is more than twice as large as that for the GaN nanowires alone. However, an outer layer of GaN deposited onto the GaN/AlGaN core/shell nanowires decreases the Seebeck coefficient at room temperature, while the temperature dependence of the electrical conductivity remains the same. We attribute these observations to the formation of an electron gas channel within the heavily-doped GaN core of the GaN/AlGaN nanowires. The room-temperature thermoelectric power factor for the GaN/AlGaN nanowires can be four times higher than the GaN nanowires. Selective doping in bandgap engineered core/shell nanowires is proposed for enhancing the thermoelectric power.

  8. Ternary thiophene-X-thiophene semiconductor building blocks (X = fluorene, carbazole, phenothiazine): Modulating electronic properties and electropolymerization ability by tuning the X core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tacca, Alessandra, E-mail: alessandra.tacca@eni.com [Centro Ricerche per le Energie non Convenzionali, Istituto ENI Donegani, ENI S.p.A., Via G. Fauser 4, 28100 Novara (Italy); Po, Riccardo; Caldararo, Maria; Chiaberge, Stefano; Gila, Liliana; Longo, Luca [Centro Ricerche per le Energie non Convenzionali, Istituto ENI Donegani, ENI S.p.A., Via G. Fauser 4, 28100 Novara (Italy); Mussini, Patrizia Romana [Dipartimento di Chimica Fisica ed Elettrochimica, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via Golgi 19, 20133 Milano (Italy); Pellegrino, Andrea; Perin, Nicola; Salvalaggio, Mario; Savoini, Alberto; Spera, Silvia [Centro Ricerche per le Energie non Convenzionali, Istituto ENI Donegani, ENI S.p.A., Via G. Fauser 4, 28100 Novara (Italy)

    2011-07-30

    Highlights: > Effect of aromatic core on electronic properties in thiophene-X-thiophene trimers. > The lower the electron richness of X core, the deeper the HOMO level. > Different thiophene positions on X lead to kinked structure with lower conjugation. > The fluorene structure exhibits the lowest Stokes shift and the highest quantum yield. > The corresponding polymers obtained through three routes were studied. - Abstract: To achieve rationalization criteria for target-oriented molecular design of Th-X-Th (Th = thiophene) semiconductor building blocks, we have carried out an extensive investigation on the effects of the X core (X = fluorene, carbazole or phenothiazine) on the electronic properties and polymerization ability of Th-X-Th monomers and on the electronic and structural properties of the corresponding periodic conducting polymers -(Th-X-Th){sub n}-, obtained by electropolymerization and, for comparison's sake, by FeCl{sub 3}-catalyzed polymerization and/or Suzuki coupling. The effects of molecule bending and of solubilising bulky alkyl substituents have also been considered. The systematic, exhaustive template sequence combined with a rigorous, multitechnique investigation protocol affords a unique data library and a complete set of reliable interpretative/predictive guidelines.

  9. Cell type-specific sorting of neuropeptides : a mechanism to modulate peptide composition of large dense core vesicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klumperman, J.; Spijker, S.; Minnen, J. van; Sharp-Baker, H.; Smit, A.B.; Geraerts, W.P.M.

    1996-01-01

    The CNS of Lymnaea stagnalis contains two populations of egg-laying hormone (ELH)-producing neurons that differ in size and topology. In type I neurons, all peptides located C-terminally from the cleavage site Arg-Ser-Arg-Arg180-183 are sorted into secretory large dense-core vesicles (LDCV), whereas

  10. Residues in the membrane-spanning domain core modulate conformation and fusogenicity of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang Liang; Hunter, Eric

    2010-01-01

    The membrane-spanning domain (MSD) of human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein (Env) is critical for its biological activity. Initial studies have defined an almost invariant 'core' structure in the MSD and demonstrated that it is crucial for anchoring Env in the membrane and virus entry. We show here that amino acid substitutions in the MSD 'core' do not influence specific virus-cell attachment, nor CD4 receptor and CXCR4 coreceptor recognition by Env. However, substitutions within the MSD 'core' delayed the kinetics and reduced the efficiency of cell-cell fusion mediated by Env. Although we observed no evidence that membrane fusion mediated by the MSD core mutants was arrested at a hemifusion stage, impaired Env fusogenicity was correlated with minor conformational changes in the V2, C1, and C5 regions in gp120 and the immunodominant loop in gp41. These changes could delay initiation of the conformational changes required in the fusion process.

  11. Synthesis of bimetallic Pt-Pd core-shell nanocrystals and their high electrocatalytic activity modulated by Pd shell thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yujing; Wang, Zhi Wei; Chiu, Chin-Yi; Ruan, Lingyan; Yang, Wenbing; Yang, Yang; Palmer, Richard E.; Huang, Yu

    2012-01-01

    Bimetallic Pt-Pd core-shell nanocrystals (NCs) are synthesized through a two-step process with controlled Pd thickness from sub-monolayer to multiple atomic layers. The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalytic activity and methanol oxidation reactivity of the core-shell NCs for fuel cell applications in alkaline solution are systematically studied and compared based on different Pd thickness. It is found that the Pd shell helps to reduce the over-potential of ORR by up to 50mV when compared to commercial Pd black, while generating up to 3-fold higher kinetic current density. The carbon monoxide poisoning test shows that the bimetallic NCs are more resistant to the CO poisoning than Pt NCs and Pt black. It is also demonstrated that the bimetallic Pt-Pd core-shell NCs can enhance the current density of the methanol oxidation reaction, lowering the over-potential by 35 mV with respect to the Pt core NCs. Further investigation reveals that the Pd/Pt ratio of 1/3, which corresponds to nearly monolayer Pd deposition on Pt core NCs, gives the highest oxidation current density and lowest over-potential. This study shows for the first time the systematic investigation of effects of Pd atomic shells on Pt-Pd bimetallic nanocatalysts, providing valuable guidelines for designing high-performance catalysts for fuel cell applications.Bimetallic Pt-Pd core-shell nanocrystals (NCs) are synthesized through a two-step process with controlled Pd thickness from sub-monolayer to multiple atomic layers. The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalytic activity and methanol oxidation reactivity of the core-shell NCs for fuel cell applications in alkaline solution are systematically studied and compared based on different Pd thickness. It is found that the Pd shell helps to reduce the over-potential of ORR by up to 50mV when compared to commercial Pd black, while generating up to 3-fold higher kinetic current density. The carbon monoxide poisoning test shows that the bimetallic NCs are more

  12. A cluster randomised controlled trial of the Climate Schools: Ecstasy and Emerging Drugs Module in Australian secondary schools: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champion, Katrina E; Teesson, Maree; Newton, Nicola C

    2013-12-12

    The use of ecstasy is a public health problem and is associated with a range of social costs and harms. In recent years, there has been growing concern about the availability and misuse of new and emerging drugs designed to mimic the effects of illicit drugs, including ecstasy. This, coupled with the fact that the age of use and the risk factors for using ecstasy and emerging drugs are similar, provides a compelling argument to implement prevention for these substances simultaneously. The proposed study will evaluate whether a universal Internet-based prevention program, known as the Climate Schools: Ecstasy and Emerging Drugs Module, can address and prevent the use of ecstasy and emerging drugs among adolescents. A cluster randomised controlled trial will be conducted among Year 10 students (aged 15-16 years) from 12 secondary schools in Sydney, Australia. Schools will be randomly assigned to either the Climate Schools intervention group or the control group. All students will complete a self-report questionnaire at baseline, immediately post-intervention, and 6-, 12- and 24-months post-baseline. The primary outcome measures will include ecstasy and emerging drug-related knowledge, intentions to use these substances in the future, and the patterns of use of ecstasy and emerging drugs. A range of secondary outcomes will also be assessed, including beliefs and attitudes about ecstasy and emerging drugs, peer pressure resistance, other substance use and mental health outcomes. To our knowledge, this will be the first evaluation of an Internet-based program designed to specifically target ecstasy and NED use among adolescents. If deemed effective, the Climate Schools: Ecstasy and Emerging Drugs Module will provide schools with an interactive and novel prevention program for ecstasy and emerging drugs that can be readily implemented by teachers. This trial is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN12613000708752.

  13. Comparison of size modulation and conventional standard automated perimetry with the 24-2 test protocol in glaucoma patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirasawa, Kazunori; Shoji, Nobuyuki; Kasahara, Masayuki; Matsumura, Kazuhiro; Shimizu, Kimiya

    2016-05-01

    This prospective randomized study compared test results of size modulation standard automated perimetry (SM-SAP) performed with the Octopus 600 and conventional SAP (C-SAP) performed with the Humphrey Field Analyzer (HFA) in glaucoma patients. Eighty-eight eyes of 88 glaucoma patients underwent SM-SAP and C-SAP tests with the Octopus 600 24-2 Dynamic and HFA 24-2 SITA-Standard, respectively. Fovea threshold, mean defect, and square loss variance of SM-SAP were significantly correlated with the corresponding C-SAP indices (P < 0.001). The false-positive rate was slightly lower, and false-negative rate slightly higher, with SM-SAP than C-SAP (P = 0.002). Point-wise threshold values obtained with SM-SAP were moderately to strongly correlated with those obtained with C-SAP (P < 0.001). The correlation coefficients of the central zone were significantly lower than those of the middle to peripheral zone (P = 0.031). The size and depth of the visual field (VF) defect were smaller (P = 0.039) and greater (P = 0.043), respectively, on SM-SAP than on C-SAP. Although small differences were observed in VF sensitivity in the central zone, the defect size and depth and the reliability indices between SM-SAP and C-SAP, global indices of the two testing modalities were well correlated.

  14. Education and training for advanced practice: Principles of course design and assessment applied to a 'stereotactic needle core biopsy of the breast' module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, Anne-Marie

    2006-01-01

    In order to realise the promise of the NHS Plan, radiographers are extending their practice to encompass tasks previously undertaken by radiologists and advancing their practice by taking responsibility for clinical decision-making and autonomous membership of multidisciplinary healthcare teams. In partnership with clinical service providers Higher Education Institutes are devising programmes of study to support such professional development. This article reviews the design of a 20 credit post-graduate (M level) module in stereotactic needle core biopsy of the breast. Particular consideration is given to underpinning educational principles of course design and assessment and how these are applied in order that teaching, learning and assessment have academic rigour and clinical competence of successful students is assured

  15. Synthesis of core-fluorescent four-armed star and dicyclic 8-shaped poly(THF)s by electrostatic self-assembly and covalent fixation (ESA–CF) protocol

    KAUST Repository

    Fujiwara, Susumu; Yamamoto, Takuya; Tezuka, Yasuyuki; Habuchi, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    A pair of four-armed star and dicyclic 8-shaped poly(tetrahydrofuran)s, poly(THF)s, possessing a perylene diimide group at the core position (Ia and Ib, respectively) were synthesized by means of an electrostatic self-assembly and covalent fixation (ESA–CF) protocol. Mono- and bifunctional poly(THF)s having N-phenylpiperidinium salt end groups accompanying a perylene diimide tetracarboxylate as a counteranion were prepared by the ion-exchange reaction, and the subsequent covalent conversion by reflux in toluene afforded the corresponding core-fluorescent four-armed star and dicyclic 8-shaped poly(THF)s, (Ia and Ib, respectively) for the use of single-molecule fluorescence microscopy measurements.

  16. Synthesis of core-fluorescent four-armed star and dicyclic 8-shaped poly(THF)s by electrostatic self-assembly and covalent fixation (ESA–CF) protocol

    KAUST Repository

    Fujiwara, Susumu

    2013-12-07

    A pair of four-armed star and dicyclic 8-shaped poly(tetrahydrofuran)s, poly(THF)s, possessing a perylene diimide group at the core position (Ia and Ib, respectively) were synthesized by means of an electrostatic self-assembly and covalent fixation (ESA–CF) protocol. Mono- and bifunctional poly(THF)s having N-phenylpiperidinium salt end groups accompanying a perylene diimide tetracarboxylate as a counteranion were prepared by the ion-exchange reaction, and the subsequent covalent conversion by reflux in toluene afforded the corresponding core-fluorescent four-armed star and dicyclic 8-shaped poly(THF)s, (Ia and Ib, respectively) for the use of single-molecule fluorescence microscopy measurements.

  17. Feasibility, reliability, and validity of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory ™ generic core scales, cancer module, and multidimensional fatigue scale in long-term adult survivors of pediatric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Rhonda S; Paxton, Raheem J; Palla, Shana L; Yang, Grace; Askins, Martha A; Joy, Shaini E; Ater, Joann L

    2012-10-01

    Most health-related quality of life assessments are designed for either children or adults and have not been evaluated for adolescent and young adult survivors of pediatric cancer. The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility, reliability, and validity of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL ™ Generic Core Scales, Cancer Module, and Multidimensional Fatigue Scale in adult survivors of pediatric cancer. Adult survivors (n = 64; Mean age 35 year old; >2 years after treatment) completed the PedsQL™ Generic Core Scales, Cancer Module, and Multidimensional Fatigue Scale. Feasibility was examined with floor and ceiling effects; and internal consistency was determined by Cronbach's coefficient alpha calculations. Inter-factor correlations were also assessed. Significant ceiling effects were observed for the scales of social function, nausea, procedural anxiety, treatment anxiety, and communication. Internal consistency for all subscales was within the recommended ranges (α ≥ 0.70). Moderate to strong correlations between most Cancer Module and Generic Core Scales (r = 0.25 to r = 0.76) and between the Multidimensional Fatigue Scale and Generic Core Scales (r = 0.37 to r = 0.73). The PedsQL™ Generic Core Scales, Cancer Module, and Multidimensional Fatigue Scale appear to be feasible for an older population of pediatric cancer survivors; however, some of the Cancer Module Scales (nausea, procedural/treatment anxiety, and communication) were deemed not relevant for long-term survivors. More information is needed to determine whether the issues addressed by these modules are meaningful to long-term adult survivors of pediatric cancers. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Systematic Profiling of Poly(A)+ Transcripts Modulated by Core 3’ End Processing and Splicing Factors Reveals Regulatory Rules of Alternative Cleavage and Polyadenylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wencheng; You, Bei; Hoque, Mainul; Zheng, Dinghai; Luo, Wenting; Ji, Zhe; Park, Ji Yeon; Gunderson, Samuel I.; Kalsotra, Auinash; Manley, James L.; Tian, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Alternative cleavage and polyadenylation (APA) results in mRNA isoforms containing different 3’ untranslated regions (3’UTRs) and/or coding sequences. How core cleavage/polyadenylation (C/P) factors regulate APA is not well understood. Using siRNA knockdown coupled with deep sequencing, we found that several C/P factors can play significant roles in 3’UTR-APA. Whereas Pcf11 and Fip1 enhance usage of proximal poly(A) sites (pAs), CFI-25/68, PABPN1 and PABPC1 promote usage of distal pAs. Strong cis element biases were found for pAs regulated by CFI-25/68 or Fip1, and the distance between pAs plays an important role in APA regulation. In addition, intronic pAs are substantially regulated by splicing factors, with U1 mostly inhibiting C/P events in introns near the 5’ end of gene and U2 suppressing those in introns with features for efficient splicing. Furthermore, PABPN1 inhibits expression of transcripts with pAs near the transcription start site (TSS), a property possibly related to its role in RNA degradation. Finally, we found that groups of APA events regulated by C/P factors are also modulated in cell differentiation and development with distinct trends. Together, our results support an APA code where an APA event in a given cellular context is regulated by a number of parameters, including relative location to the TSS, splicing context, distance between competing pAs, surrounding cis elements and concentrations of core C/P factors. PMID:25906188

  19. Systematic profiling of poly(A+ transcripts modulated by core 3' end processing and splicing factors reveals regulatory rules of alternative cleavage and polyadenylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wencheng Li

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Alternative cleavage and polyadenylation (APA results in mRNA isoforms containing different 3' untranslated regions (3'UTRs and/or coding sequences. How core cleavage/polyadenylation (C/P factors regulate APA is not well understood. Using siRNA knockdown coupled with deep sequencing, we found that several C/P factors can play significant roles in 3'UTR-APA. Whereas Pcf11 and Fip1 enhance usage of proximal poly(A sites (pAs, CFI-25/68, PABPN1 and PABPC1 promote usage of distal pAs. Strong cis element biases were found for pAs regulated by CFI-25/68 or Fip1, and the distance between pAs plays an important role in APA regulation. In addition, intronic pAs are substantially regulated by splicing factors, with U1 mostly inhibiting C/P events in introns near the 5' end of gene and U2 suppressing those in introns with features for efficient splicing. Furthermore, PABPN1 inhibits expression of transcripts with pAs near the transcription start site (TSS, a property possibly related to its role in RNA degradation. Finally, we found that groups of APA events regulated by C/P factors are also modulated in cell differentiation and development with distinct trends. Together, our results support an APA code where an APA event in a given cellular context is regulated by a number of parameters, including relative location to the TSS, splicing context, distance between competing pAs, surrounding cis elements and concentrations of core C/P factors.

  20. A core outcome set for localised prostate cancer effectiveness trials: protocol for a systematic review of the literature and stakeholder involvement through interviews and a Delphi survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLennan, Steven; Bekema, Hendrika J; Williamson, Paula R; Campbell, Marion K; Stewart, Fiona; MacLennan, Sara J; N'Dow, James M O; Lam, Thomas B L

    2015-03-04

    Prostate cancer is a growing health problem worldwide. The management of localised prostate cancer is controversial. It is unclear which of several surgical, radiotherapeutic, ablative, and surveillance treatments is the most effective. All have cost, process and recovery, and morbidity implications which add to treatment decision-making complexity for patients and healthcare professionals. Evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) is not optimal because of uncertainty as to what constitutes important outcomes. Another issue hampering evidence synthesis is heterogeneity of outcome definition, measurement, and reporting. This project aims to determine which outcomes are the most important to patients and healthcare professionals, and use these findings to recommend a standardised core outcome set for comparative effectiveness trials of treatments for localised prostate cancer, to optimise decision-making. The range of potentially important outcomes and measures will be identified through systematic reviews of the literature and semi-structured interviews with patients. A consultation exercise involving representatives from two key stakeholder groups (patients and healthcare professionals) will ratify the list of outcomes to be entered into a three round Delphi study. The Delphi process will refine and prioritise the list of identified outcomes. A methodological substudy (nested RCT design) will also be undertaken. Participants will be randomised after round one of the Delphi study to one of three feedback groups, based on different feedback strategies, in order to explore the potential impact of feedback strategies on participant responses. This may assist the design of a future core outcome set and Delphi studies. Following the Delphi study, a final consensus meeting attended by representatives from both stakeholder groups will determine the final recommended core outcome set. This study will inform clinical practice and future trials of interventions of

  1. Widely tunable broadband deep-ultraviolet to visible wavelength generation by the cross phase modulation in a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, J H; Sang, X Z; Wu, Q; Yu, C X; Shen, X W; Wang, K R; Yan, B B; Teng, Y L; Farrell, G; Zhou, G Y; Xia, C M; Han, Y; Li, S G; Hou, L T

    2013-01-01

    The deep-ultraviolet (UV) to visible wavelengths are efficiently generated for the first time by the cross phase modulation (XPM) between the red-shifted solitons and the blue-shifted dispersive waves (DWs) in the fundamental guided mode of the multi-knots of a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber cladding (HC-PCFC). When the femtosecond pulses with a wavelength of 850 nm and average power of 300 mW are coupled into the knots 1–3, the conversion efficiency η uv−v of 11% and bandwidth B uv−v of 100 nm in the deep-UV region are experimentally obtained. The multi-milliwatt ultrashort pulses are tunable over the deep-UV (below 200 nm) to visible spectral region by adjusting the wavelengths of the pump pulses in different knots. It is expected that these widely tunable broadband ultrashort deep-UV–visible pulse sources could have important applications in ultrafast photonics, femtochemisty, photobiology, and UV–visible resonant Raman scattering. (letter)

  2. Validation of modified forms of the PedsQL generic core scales and cancer module scales for adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer or a blood disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Jane E; King, Madeleine T; Smith, Narelle F

    2009-03-01

    To validate two health-related quality of life (HRQOL) measures, the PedsQL Generic Core and Cancer Module adolescent forms (13-18 years), after modification for 16-25-year-old adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer or a blood disorder. AYA patients and nominated proxies were recruited from three Sydney hospitals. Modified forms were administered by telephone or in clinics/wards. Analyses included correlations, factor analysis, and analysis of variance of known-groups (defined by the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale). Eighty-eight patients and 79 proxies completed questionnaires. Factor structures consistent with those of the unmodified forms confirmed construct validity. Cronbach's alpha ranged 0.81-0.98. Inter-scale correlations were as hypothesized, confirming discriminant validity. Statistically significant differences between groups with mild, moderate, and severe symptoms (P < 0.05) confirmed clinical validity. These modified forms provide reliable and valid measures of HRQOL in AYA with cancer or a blood disorder, suitable for clinical trials, research, and practice.

  3. Clock domain crossing modules for OCP-style read/write interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlev, Mathias; Sparsø, Jens

    The open core protocol (OCP) is an openly licensed, configurable, and scalable interface protocol for on-chip subsystem communications. The protocol defines read and write transactions from a master towards a slave across a point-to-point connection and the protocol assumes a single common clock....... This paper presents the design of two OCP clock domain crossing interface modules, that can be used to construct systems with multiple clock domains. One module (called OCPio) supports a single word read-write interface and the other module (called OCPburst) supports a four word burst read-write interface......-style read-write transaction interfaces. An OCP interface typically has control signals related to both the master issuing a read or write request and the slave producing a response. If all these control signals are passed across the clock domain boundary and synchronized it may add significant latency...

  4. Development of a core outcome set for studies involving patients undergoing major lower limb amputation for peripheral arterial disease: study protocol for a systematic review and identification of a core outcome set using a Delphi survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambler, Graeme K; Bosanquet, David C; Brookes-Howell, Lucy; Thomas-Jones, Emma; Waldron, Cherry-Ann; Edwards, Adrian G K; Twine, Christopher P

    2017-12-28

    The development of a standardised reporting set is important to ensure that research is directed towards the most important outcomes and that data is comparable. To ensure validity, the set must be agreed by a consensus of stakeholders including patients, healthcare professionals and lay representatives. There is currently no agreed core outcome set for patients undergoing major lower limb amputation for peripheral arterial disease (PAD) for either short- or medium-term research outcomes. By developing these sets we aim to rationalise future trial outcomes, facilitate meta-analysis and improve the quality and applicability of amputation research. We will undertake a comprehensive systematic review of studies of patients undergoing major lower limb amputation for PAD. Data regarding all primary and secondary outcomes reported in relevant studies will be extracted and summarised as outcome domains. We will then undertake focus groups with key stakeholders (patients, carers, health and social care workers) to collect qualitative data to identify the main short- and medium-term research outcomes for patients undergoing major lower limb amputation. Results of the systematic review and focus groups will be combined to create a comprehensive list of potential key outcomes. Stakeholders (patients, researchers and health and social care workers) will then be polled to determine which of the outcomes are considered to be important in a general context using a three-phase Delphi process. After preliminary analysis, results will be presented at a face-to-face meeting of key stakeholders for discussion and voting on the final set of core outcomes. This project is being run in parallel with a feasibility trial assessing perineural catheters in patients undergoing lower limb amputation (the PLACEMENT trial). Full ethical approval has been granted for the study (Wales REC 3 reference number 16/WA/0353). Core outcome sets will be developed for short- and medium-term outcomes of

  5. The Crystal Structures of the N-terminal Photosensory Core Module of Agrobacterium Phytochrome Agp1 as Parallel and Anti-parallel Dimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, Soshichiro; Scheerer, Patrick; Zubow, Kristina; Michael, Norbert; Inomata, Katsuhiko; Lamparter, Tilman; Krauß, Norbert

    2016-09-23

    Agp1 is a canonical biliverdin-binding bacteriophytochrome from the soil bacterium Agrobacterium fabrum that acts as a light-regulated histidine kinase. Crystal structures of the photosensory core modules (PCMs) of homologous phytochromes have provided a consistent picture of the structural changes that these proteins undergo during photoconversion between the parent red light-absorbing state (Pr) and the far-red light-absorbing state (Pfr). These changes include secondary structure rearrangements in the so-called tongue of the phytochrome-specific (PHY) domain and structural rearrangements within the long α-helix that connects the cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase, adenylyl cyclase, and FhlA (GAF) and the PHY domains. We present the crystal structures of the PCM of Agp1 at 2.70 Å resolution and of a surface-engineered mutant of this PCM at 1.85 Å resolution in the dark-adapted Pr states. Whereas in the mutant structure the dimer subunits are in anti-parallel orientation, the wild-type structure contains parallel subunits. The relative orientations between the PAS-GAF bidomain and the PHY domain are different in the two structures, due to movement involving two hinge regions in the GAF-PHY connecting α-helix and the tongue, indicating pronounced structural flexibility that may give rise to a dynamic Pr state. The resolution of the mutant structure enabled us to detect a sterically strained conformation of the chromophore at ring A that we attribute to the tight interaction with Pro-461 of the conserved PRXSF motif in the tongue. Based on this observation and on data from mutants where residues in the tongue region were replaced by alanine, we discuss the crucial roles of those residues in Pr-to-Pfr photoconversion. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. The Crystal Structures of the N-terminal Photosensory Core Module of Agrobacterium Phytochrome Agp1 as Parallel and Anti-parallel Dimers*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, Soshichiro; Scheerer, Patrick; Zubow, Kristina; Michael, Norbert; Inomata, Katsuhiko; Lamparter, Tilman; Krauß, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Agp1 is a canonical biliverdin-binding bacteriophytochrome from the soil bacterium Agrobacterium fabrum that acts as a light-regulated histidine kinase. Crystal structures of the photosensory core modules (PCMs) of homologous phytochromes have provided a consistent picture of the structural changes that these proteins undergo during photoconversion between the parent red light-absorbing state (Pr) and the far-red light-absorbing state (Pfr). These changes include secondary structure rearrangements in the so-called tongue of the phytochrome-specific (PHY) domain and structural rearrangements within the long α-helix that connects the cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase, adenylyl cyclase, and FhlA (GAF) and the PHY domains. We present the crystal structures of the PCM of Agp1 at 2.70 Å resolution and of a surface-engineered mutant of this PCM at 1.85 Å resolution in the dark-adapted Pr states. Whereas in the mutant structure the dimer subunits are in anti-parallel orientation, the wild-type structure contains parallel subunits. The relative orientations between the PAS-GAF bidomain and the PHY domain are different in the two structures, due to movement involving two hinge regions in the GAF-PHY connecting α-helix and the tongue, indicating pronounced structural flexibility that may give rise to a dynamic Pr state. The resolution of the mutant structure enabled us to detect a sterically strained conformation of the chromophore at ring A that we attribute to the tight interaction with Pro-461 of the conserved PRXSF motif in the tongue. Based on this observation and on data from mutants where residues in the tongue region were replaced by alanine, we discuss the crucial roles of those residues in Pr-to-Pfr photoconversion. PMID:27466363

  7. Measuring health-related quality of life in children with cancer living in mainland China: feasibility, reliability and validity of the Chinese mandarin version of PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales and 3.0 Cancer Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Yi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL is widely used instrument to measure pediatric health-related quality of life (HRQOL for children aged 2 to 18 years. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the feasibility, reliability and validity of the Chinese mandarin version of the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales and 3.0 Cancer Module in a group of Chinese children with cancer. Methods The PedsQL 4.0 Genetic Core Scales and the PedsQL 3.0 Cancer Module were administered to children with cancer (aged 5-18 years and parents of such children (aged 2-18 years. For comparison, a survey on a demographically group-matched sample of the general population with children (aged 5-18 and parents of children (aged 2-18 years was conducted with the PedsQL 4.0 Genetic Core Scales. Result The minimal mean percentage of missing item responses (except the School Functioning scale supported the feasibility of the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales and 3.0 Cancer Module for Chinese children with cancer. Most of the scales showed satisfactory reliability with Cronbach's α of exceeding 0.70, and all scales demonstrated sufficient test-retest reliability. Assessing the clinical validity of the questionnaires, statistically significant difference was found between healthy children and children with cancer, and between children on-treatment versus off-treatment ≥12 months. Positive significant correlations were observed between the scores of the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scale and the PedsQL 3.0 Cancer Module. Exploratory factor analysis demonstrated sufficient factorial validity. Moderate to good agreement was found between child self- and parent proxy-reports. Conclusion The findings support the feasibility, reliability and validity of the Chinese Mandarin version of PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales and 3.0 Cancer Module in children with cancer living in mainland China.

  8. Development of a core outcome set for clinical trials in inflammatory bowel disease: study protocol for a systematic review of the literature and identification of a core outcome set using a Delphi survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Christopher; Panaccione, Remo; Fedorak, Richard N; Parker, Claire E; Khanna, Reena; Levesque, Barrett G; Sandborn, William J; Feagan, Brian G; Jairath, Vipul

    2017-06-09

    Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), the main forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), are chronic, progressive and disabling disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. Although data from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) provide the foundation of evidence that validates medical therapy for IBD, considerable heterogeneity exists in the measured outcomes used in these studies. Furthermore, in recent years, there has been a paradigm shift in IBD treatment targets, moving from symptom-based scoring to improvement or normalisation of objective measures of inflammation such as endoscopic appearance, inflammatory biomarkers and histological and radiographic end points. The abundance of new treatment options and evolving end points poses opportunities and challenges for all stakeholders involved in drug development. Accordingly, there exists a need to harmonise measures used in clinical trials through the development of a core outcome set (COS). The development of an IBD-specific COS includes four steps. First, a systematic literature review is performed to identify outcomes previously used in IBD RCTs. Second, semistructured qualitative interviews are conducted with key stakeholders, including patients, clinicians, researchers, pharmaceutical industry representatives, healthcare payers and regulators to identify additional outcomes of importance. Using the outcomes generated from literature review and stakeholder interviews, an international two-round Delphi survey is conducted to prioritise outcomes for inclusion in the COS. Finally, a consensus meeting is held to ratify the COS and disseminate findings for application in future IBD trials. Given that over 30 novel therapeutic compounds are in development for IBD treatment, the design of robust clinical trials measuring relevant and standardised outcomes is crucial. Standardising outcomes through a COS will reduce heterogeneity in trial reporting, facilitate valid comparisons of new therapies and improve

  9. The 'Outcome Reporting in Brief Intervention Trials: Alcohol' (ORBITAL) framework: protocol to determine a core outcome set for efficacy and effectiveness trials of alcohol screening and brief intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorter, G W; Heather, N; Bray, Jeremy W; Giles, E L; Holloway, A; Barbosa, C; Berman, A H; O'Donnell, A J; Clarke, M; Stockdale, K J; Newbury-Birch, D

    2017-12-22

    The evidence base to assess the efficacy and effectiveness of alcohol brief interventions (ABI) is weakened by variation in the outcomes measured and by inconsistent reporting. The 'Outcome Reporting in Brief Intervention Trials: Alcohol' (ORBITAL) project aims to develop a core outcome set (COS) and reporting guidance for its use in future trials of ABI in a range of settings. An international Special Interest Group was convened through INEBRIA (International Network on Brief Interventions for Alcohol and Other Drugs) to inform the development of a COS for trials of ABI. ORBITAL will incorporate a systematic review to map outcomes used in efficacy and effectiveness trials of ABI and their measurement properties, using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) criteria. This will support a multi-round Delphi study to prioritise outcomes. Delphi panellists will be drawn from a range of settings and stakeholder groups, and the Delphi study will also be used to determine if a single COS is relevant for all settings. A consensus meeting with key stakeholder representation will determine the final COS and associated guidance for its use in trials of ABI. ORBITAL will develop a COS for alcohol screening and brief intervention trials, with outcomes stratified into domains and guidance on outcome measurement instruments. The standardisation of ABI outcomes and their measurement will support the ongoing development of ABI studies and a systematic synthesis of emerging research findings. We will track the extent to which the COS delivers on this promise through an exploration of the use of the guidance in the decade following COS publication.

  10. Human eIF3b and eIF3a serve as the nucleation core for the assembly of eIF3 into two interconnected modules: the yeast-like core and the octamer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wagner, Susan; Herrmannová, Anna; Šikrová, Darina; Valášek, Leoš Shivaya

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 22 (2016), s. 10772-10788 ISSN 0305-1048 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-05394S EU Projects: Wellcome Trust(GB) 090812/B/09/A Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Human eIF3b * nucleation core * yeast -like core Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 10.162, year: 2016

  11. Effectiveness of adolescent suicide prevention e-learning modules that aim to improve knowledge and self-confidence of gatekeepers: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Ghoncheh, Rezvan; Kerkhof, Ad JFM; Koot, Hans M

    2014-01-01

    Background Providing e-learning modules can be an effective strategy for enhancing gatekeepers’ knowledge, self-confidence and skills in adolescent suicide prevention. The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of an online training program called Mental Health Online which consists of eight short e-learning modules, each capturing an important aspect of the process of recognition, guidance and referral of suicidal adolescents (12–20 years). The primary outcomes of this study are par...

  12. Effectiveness of adolescent suicide prevention e-learning modules that aim to improve knowledge and self-confidence of gatekeepers: Study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Ghoncheh, R.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.; Koot, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Providing e-learning modules can be an effective strategy for enhancing gatekeepers' knowledge, self-confidence and skills in adolescent suicide prevention. The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of an online training program called Mental Health Online which consists of eight short e-learning modules, each capturing an important aspect of the process of recognition, guidance and referral of suicidal adolescents (12-20 years). The primary outcomes of this study are pa...

  13. Bioremediation protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sheehan, David

    1997-01-01

    ..., .. . . . . .. ,. . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . .. . .. 3 2 Granular Nina Sludge Christiansen, Consortia lndra for Bioremediation, M. Mathrani, and Birgitte K. Ahring . 23 PART II PROTOCOLS...

  14. Phase III study of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer satisfaction with cancer care core questionnaire (EORTC PATSAT-C33) and specific complementary outpatient module (EORTC OUT-PATSAT7).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brédart, A; Anota, A; Young, T; Tomaszewski, K A; Arraras, J I; Moura De Albuquerque Melo, H; Schmidt, H; Friend, E; Bergenmar, M; Costantini, A; Vassiliou, V; Hureaux, J; Marchal, F; Tomaszewska, I M; Chie, W-C; Ramage, J; Beaudeau, A; Conroy, T; Bleiker, E; Kulis, D; Bonnetain, F; Aaronson, N K

    2018-01-01

    Advances in cancer care delivery require revision and further development of questionnaires assessing patients' perceived quality of care. This study pre-tested the revised EORTC satisfaction with cancer care core questionnaire applicable in both the cancer inpatient and outpatient settings, and its new, outpatient-specific complementary module. The process of revision, development of the extended application, and pre-testing of these questionnaires was based on phases I to III of the "EORTC Quality of Life Group Module Development Guidelines." In phase III, patients in 11 countries in four European regions, South America and Asia completed provisional versions of the questionnaires. Fifty-seven relevant issues selected from literature reviews and input from experts were operationalized into provisional items, and subsequently translated into ten languages. Assessment of understanding, acceptability, redundancy and relevance by patients (n = 151) from oncology inpatient wards, and outpatient chemotherapy, radiotherapy and consultation settings, led to retention of, deletion of and merging of 40, 14 and 6 items respectively. Cronbach's alpha coefficients for hypothesized questionnaire scales were above 0.80. Our results provide preliminary support for the 33-item EORTC Satisfaction with cancer care core questionnaire and the 7-item complementary module specific for the outpatient care setting. A large scale phase IV cross-cultural psychometric study is now underway. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Recommendations for a head and neck IMRT quality assurance protocol; Recommandations pour un protocole d'assurance de qualite de la radiotherapie conformationnelle avec modulation d'intensite des cancers de la tete et du cou

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zefkili, S. [Institut Curie, Service de Physique Medicale, 75 - Paris (France); Tomsej, M. [Cliniques Univ. Saint Luc, Service de Radiotherapie, Bruxelles (Belgium); Aletti, P.; Marchesi, V. [Centre Alexis-Vautrin, Unite de Radiophysique, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Bidault, F. [Centre de Lutte Contre le Cancer Georges-Francois-Leclerc, Unite de Radiophysique, 21 - Dijon (France); Bridier, A. [Institut Gustave Roussy, 94 - Villejuif (France). Service de Radio-Physique; Marcie, S. [Centre Antoine-Lacassagne, Unite de Radiophysique, 06 - Nice (France)

    2004-12-01

    Head and neck tumors represent very interesting targets for IMRT techniques because of the complex shape of the structures and the organs at risk close by. The use of this kind of techniques requires a quality assurance protocol. The physicists of the GORTEC group shared their experience to define some recommendations in order to draw up a QA protocol. The dosimetric verification of the treatment plans (in terms of absolute and relative dose), the control of the reproducibility of the patient positioning and the use of a record and verify system to control the different parameters form the main parts of these recommendations. Each chapter comprises a description of the different methods, recommendations concerning the equipment, the adopted tolerances, the frequency of controls. At the end of each chapter, a table summarizes the main actions to carry out. These recommendations will allow to harmonize our practices whatever the softwares and the accelerator that are being used. They will simplify the task of the teams that wish to implement IMRT for head and neck tumors. (author)

  16. Adjuvant whole abdominal intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for high risk stage FIGO III patients with ovarian cancer (OVAR-IMRT-01) – Pilot trial of a phase I/II study: study protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochet, Nathalie; Jensen, Alexandra D; Sterzing, Florian; Munter, Marc W; Eichbaum, Michael H; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Debus, Juergen; Harms, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    The prognosis for patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer remains poor despite aggressive surgical resection and platinum-based chemotherapy. More than 60% of patients will develop recurrent disease, principally intraperitoneal, and die within 5 years. The use of whole abdominal irradiation (WAI) as consolidation therapy would appear to be a logical strategy given its ability to sterilize small tumour volumes. Despite the clinically proven efficacy of whole abdominal irradiation, the use of radiotherapy in ovarian cancer has profoundly decreased mainly due to high treatment-related toxicity. Modern intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) could allow to spare kidneys, liver, and bone marrow while still adequately covering the peritoneal cavity with a homogenous dose. The OVAR-IMRT-01 study is a single center pilot trial of a phase I/II study. Patients with advanced ovarian cancer stage FIGO III (R1 or R2< 1 cm) after surgical resection and platinum-based chemotherapy will be treated with whole abdomen irradiation as consolidation therapy using intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to a total dose of 30 Gy in 1.5 Gy fractions. A total of 8 patients will be included in this trial. For treatment planning bone marrow, kidneys, liver, spinal cord, vertebral bodies and pelvic bones are defined as organs at risk. The planning target volume includes the entire peritoneal cavity plus pelvic and para-aortic node regions. The primary endpoint of the study is the evaluation of the feasibility of intensity-modulated WAI and the evaluation of the study protocol. Secondary endpoint is evaluation of the toxicity of intensity modulated WAI before continuing with the phase I/II study. The aim is to explore the potential of IMRT as a new method for WAI to decrease the dose to kidneys, liver, bone marrow while covering the peritoneal cavity with a homogenous dose, and to implement whole abdominal intensity-modulated radiotherapy into the adjuvant multimodal

  17. Effectiveness of adolescent suicide prevention e-learning modules that aim to improve knowledge and self-confidence of gatekeepers: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoncheh, Rezvan; Kerkhof, Ad J F M; Koot, Hans M

    2014-02-08

    Providing e-learning modules can be an effective strategy for enhancing gatekeepers' knowledge, self-confidence and skills in adolescent suicide prevention. The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of an online training program called Mental Health Online which consists of eight short e-learning modules, each capturing an important aspect of the process of recognition, guidance and referral of suicidal adolescents (12-20 years). The primary outcomes of this study are participant's ratings on perceived knowledge, perceived self-confidence, and actual knowledge regarding adolescent suicidality. A randomized controlled trial will be carried out among 154 gatekeepers. After completing the first assessment (pre-test), participants will be randomly assigned to either the experimental group or the waitlist control group. One week after completing the first assessment the experimental group will have access to the website Mental Health Online containing the eight e-learning modules and additional information on adolescent suicide prevention. Participants in both conditions will be assessed 4 weeks after completing the first assessment (post-test), and 12 weeks after completing the post-test (follow-up). At post-test, participants from the experimental group are asked to complete an evaluation questionnaire on the modules. The waitlist control group will have access to the modules and additional information on the website after completing the follow-up assessment. Gatekeepers can benefit from e-learning modules on adolescent suicide prevention. This approach allows them to learn about this sensitive subject at their own pace and from any given location, as long as they have access to the Internet. Given the flexible nature of the program, each participant can compose his/her own training creating an instant customized course with the required steps in adolescent suicide prevention. Netherlands Trial Register NTR3625.

  18. Proteomics Core

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Proteomics Core is the central resource for mass spectrometry based proteomics within the NHLBI. The Core staff help collaborators design proteomics experiments in a...

  19. Effectiveness of adolescent suicide prevention e-learning modules that aim to improve knowledge and self-confidence of gatekeepers: Study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghoncheh, R.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.; Koot, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Providing e-learning modules can be an effective strategy for enhancing gatekeepers' knowledge, self-confidence and skills in adolescent suicide prevention. The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of an online training program called Mental Health Online which consists of

  20. Crosstalk Analysis of 32-Core Dense Space Division Multiplexed System for Higher Order Modulation Formats Using an Integrated Cladding-Pumped Amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castro, C.; Jain, S.; Jung, Y.

    2017-01-01

    We analyse the crosstalk performance of a fully integrated inline amplified 32-core link for 100G QPSK, 150G 8QAM, 200G 16-QAM, and 250G 32QAM in a recirculating loop. Transmission distances over 1000 km are confirmed for 8-QAM and QPSK channels.......We analyse the crosstalk performance of a fully integrated inline amplified 32-core link for 100G QPSK, 150G 8QAM, 200G 16-QAM, and 250G 32QAM in a recirculating loop. Transmission distances over 1000 km are confirmed for 8-QAM and QPSK channels....

  1. The CORE study protocol: a stepped wedge cluster randomised controlled trial to test a co-design technique to optimise psychosocial recovery outcomes for people affected by mental illness in the community mental health setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Victoria J; Chondros, Patty; Piper, Donella; Callander, Rosemary; Weavell, Wayne; Godbee, Kali; Potiriadis, Maria; Richard, Lauralie; Densely, Konstancja; Herrman, Helen; Furler, John; Pierce, David; Schuster, Tibor; Iedema, Rick; Gunn, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Introduction User engagement in mental health service design is heralded as integral to health systems quality and performance, but does engagement improve health outcomes? This article describes the CORE study protocol, a novel stepped wedge cluster randomised controlled trial (SWCRCT) to improve psychosocial recovery outcomes for people with severe mental illness. Methods An SWCRCT with a nested process evaluation will be conducted over nearly 4 years in Victoria, Australia. 11 teams from four mental health service providers will be randomly allocated to one of three dates 9 months apart to start the intervention. The intervention, a modified version of Mental Health Experience Co-Design (MH ECO), will be delivered to 30 service users, 30 carers and 10 staff in each cluster. Outcome data will be collected at baseline (6 months) and at completion of each intervention wave. The primary outcome is improvement in recovery score using the 24-item Revised Recovery Assessment Scale for service users. Secondary outcomes are improvements to user and carer mental health and well-being using the shortened 8-item version of the WHOQOL Quality of Life scale (EUROHIS), changes to staff attitudes using the 19-item Staff Attitudes to Recovery Scale and recovery orientation of services using the 36-item Recovery Self Assessment Scale (provider version). Intervention and usual care periods will be compared using a linear mixed effects model for continuous outcomes and a generalised linear mixed effects model for binary outcomes. Participants will be analysed in the group that the cluster was assigned to at each time point. Ethics and dissemination The University of Melbourne, Human Research Ethics Committee (1340299.3) and the Federal and State Departments of Health Committees (Project 20/2014) granted ethics approval. Baseline data results will be reported in 2015 and outcomes data in 2017. Trial registration number Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN

  2. Programmable synchronous communications module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horelick, D.

    1979-10-01

    The functional characteristics of a programmable, synchronous serial communications CAMAC module with buffering in block format are described. Both bit and byte oriented protocols can be handled in full duplex depending on the program implemented. The main elements of the module are a Signetics 2652 Multi-Protocol Communications Controller, a Zilog Z-808 8 bit microprocessor with PROM and RAM, and FIFOs for buffering

  3. 18F-FDG uptake in the colon is modulated by metformin but not associated with core body temperature and energy expenditure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lonneke Bahler

    Full Text Available Physiological colonic 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG uptake is a frequent finding on 18F-FDG positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET-CT. Interestingly, metformin, a glucose lowering drug associated with moderate weight loss, is also associated with an increased colonic 18F-FDG uptake. Consequently, increased colonic glucose use might partly explain the weight losing effect of metformin when this results in an increased energy expenditure and/or core body temperature. Therefore, we aimed to determine whether metformin modifies the metabolic activity of the colon by increasing glucose uptake.In this open label, non-randomized, prospective mechanistic study, we included eight lean and eight overweight males. We measured colonic 18F-FDG uptake on PET-CT, energy expenditure and core body temperature before and after the use of metformin. The maximal colonic 18F-FDG uptake was measured in 5 separate segments (caecum, colon ascendens,-transversum,-descendens and sigmoid.The maximal colonic 18F-FDG uptake increased significantly in all separate segments after the use of metformin. There was no significant difference in energy expenditure or core body temperature after the use of metformin. There was no correlation between maximal colonic 18F-FDG uptake and energy expenditure or core body temperature.Metformin significantly increases colonic 18F-FDG uptake, but this increased uptake is not associated with an increase in energy expenditure or core body temperature. Although the colon might be an important site of the glucose plasma lowering actions of metformin, this mechanism of action does not explain directly any associated weight loss.

  4. 18F-FDG uptake in the colon is modulated by metformin but not associated with core body temperature and energy expenditure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahler, Lonneke; Holleman, Frits; Chan, Man-Wai; Booij, Jan; Hoekstra, Joost B.; Verberne, Hein J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Physiological colonic 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) uptake is a frequent finding on 18F-FDG positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET-CT). Interestingly, metformin, a glucose lowering drug associated with moderate weight loss, is also associated with an increased colonic 18F-FDG uptake. Consequently, increased colonic glucose use might partly explain the weight losing effect of metformin when this results in an increased energy expenditure and/or core body temperature. Therefore, we aimed to determine whether metformin modifies the metabolic activity of the colon by increasing glucose uptake. Methods In this open label, non-randomized, prospective mechanistic study, we included eight lean and eight overweight males. We measured colonic 18F-FDG uptake on PET-CT, energy expenditure and core body temperature before and after the use of metformin. The maximal colonic 18F-FDG uptake was measured in 5 separate segments (caecum, colon ascendens,—transversum,—descendens and sigmoid). Results The maximal colonic 18F-FDG uptake increased significantly in all separate segments after the use of metformin. There was no significant difference in energy expenditure or core body temperature after the use of metformin. There was no correlation between maximal colonic 18F-FDG uptake and energy expenditure or core body temperature. Conclusion Metformin significantly increases colonic 18F-FDG uptake, but this increased uptake is not associated with an increase in energy expenditure or core body temperature. Although the colon might be an important site of the glucose plasma lowering actions of metformin, this mechanism of action does not explain directly any associated weight loss. PMID:28464031

  5. Treatment of locally advanced carcinomas of head and neck with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in combination with cetuximab and chemotherapy: the REACH protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habl, Gregor; Münter, Marc W; Jensen, Alexandra D; Potthoff, Karin; Uhl, Matthias; Hof, Holger; Hajda, Jacek; Simon, Christian; Debus, Jürgen; Krempien, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Primary treatment of carcinoma of the oro-/hypopharynx or larynx may consist of combined platinum-containing chemoradiotherapy. In order to improve clinical outcome (i.e. local control/overall survival), combined therapy is intensified by the addition of the EGFR inhibitor cetuximab (Erbitux ® ). Radiation therapy (RT) is carried out as intensity-modulated RT (IMRT) to avoid higher grade acute and late toxicity by sparing of surrounding normal tissues. The REACH study is a prospective phase II study combining chemoradiotherapy with carboplatin/5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) and the monoclonal epidermal growth factor-receptor (EGFR) antibody cetuximab (Erbitux ® ) as intensity-modulated radiation therapy in patients with locally advanced squamous-cell carcinomas of oropharynx, hypopharynx or larynx. Patients receive weekly chemotherapy infusions in the 1 st and 5 th week of RT. Additionally, cetuximab is administered weekly throughout the treatment course. IMRT is delivered as in a classical concomitant boost concept (bid from fraction 16) to a total dose of 69,9 Gy. Primary endpoint of the trial is local-regional control (LRC). Disease-free survival, progression-free survival, overall survival, toxicity, proteomic and genomic analyses are secondary endpoints. The aim is to explore the efficacy as well as the safety and feasibility of this combined radioimmunchemotherapy in order to improve the outcome of patients with advanced head and neck cancer. ISRCTN87356938

  6. Treatment of locally advanced carcinomas of head and neck with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT in combination with cetuximab and chemotherapy: the REACH protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Christian

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary treatment of carcinoma of the oro-/hypopharynx or larynx may consist of combined platinum-containing chemoradiotherapy. In order to improve clinical outcome (i.e. local control/overall survival, combined therapy is intensified by the addition of the EGFR inhibitor cetuximab (Erbitux®. Radiation therapy (RT is carried out as intensity-modulated RT (IMRT to avoid higher grade acute and late toxicity by sparing of surrounding normal tissues. Methods/Design The REACH study is a prospective phase II study combining chemoradiotherapy with carboplatin/5-Fluorouracil (5-FU and the monoclonal epidermal growth factor-receptor (EGFR antibody cetuximab (Erbitux® as intensity-modulated radiation therapy in patients with locally advanced squamous-cell carcinomas of oropharynx, hypopharynx or larynx. Patients receive weekly chemotherapy infusions in the 1st and 5th week of RT. Additionally, cetuximab is administered weekly throughout the treatment course. IMRT is delivered as in a classical concomitant boost concept (bid from fraction 16 to a total dose of 69,9 Gy. Discussion Primary endpoint of the trial is local-regional control (LRC. Disease-free survival, progression-free survival, overall survival, toxicity, proteomic and genomic analyses are secondary endpoints. The aim is to explore the efficacy as well as the safety and feasibility of this combined radioimmunchemotherapy in order to improve the outcome of patients with advanced head and neck cancer. Trial registration ISRCTN87356938

  7. The CORE study protocol: a stepped wedge cluster randomised controlled trial to test a co-design technique to optimise psychosocial recovery outcomes for people affected by mental illness in the community mental health setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Victoria J; Chondros, Patty; Piper, Donella; Callander, Rosemary; Weavell, Wayne; Godbee, Kali; Potiriadis, Maria; Richard, Lauralie; Densely, Konstancja; Herrman, Helen; Furler, John; Pierce, David; Schuster, Tibor; Iedema, Rick; Gunn, Jane

    2015-03-24

    User engagement in mental health service design is heralded as integral to health systems quality and performance, but does engagement improve health outcomes? This article describes the CORE study protocol, a novel stepped wedge cluster randomised controlled trial (SWCRCT) to improve psychosocial recovery outcomes for people with severe mental illness. An SWCRCT with a nested process evaluation will be conducted over nearly 4 years in Victoria, Australia. 11 teams from four mental health service providers will be randomly allocated to one of three dates 9 months apart to start the intervention. The intervention, a modified version of Mental Health Experience Co-Design (MH ECO), will be delivered to 30 service users, 30 carers and 10 staff in each cluster. Outcome data will be collected at baseline (6 months) and at completion of each intervention wave. The primary outcome is improvement in recovery score using the 24-item Revised Recovery Assessment Scale for service users. Secondary outcomes are improvements to user and carer mental health and well-being using the shortened 8-item version of the WHOQOL Quality of Life scale (EUROHIS), changes to staff attitudes using the 19-item Staff Attitudes to Recovery Scale and recovery orientation of services using the 36-item Recovery Self Assessment Scale (provider version). Intervention and usual care periods will be compared using a linear mixed effects model for continuous outcomes and a generalised linear mixed effects model for binary outcomes. Participants will be analysed in the group that the cluster was assigned to at each time point. The University of Melbourne, Human Research Ethics Committee (1340299.3) and the Federal and State Departments of Health Committees (Project 20/2014) granted ethics approval. Baseline data results will be reported in 2015 and outcomes data in 2017. Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12614000457640. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For

  8. Modular core component support for nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, L.M.; Anthony, A.J.

    1975-01-01

    The core of a nuclear reactor is made up of a plurality of support modules for containing components such as fuel elements, reflectors and control rods. Each module includes a component support portion located above a grid plate in a low-pressure coolant zone and a coolant inlet portion disposed within a module receptacle which depends from the grid plate into a zone of high-pressure coolant. Coolant enters the module through aligned openings within the receptacle and module inlet portion and flows upward into contact with the core components. The modules are hydraulically balanced within the receptacles to prevent expulsion by the upward coolant forces. (U.S.)

  9. The FA Core Complex Contains a Homo-dimeric Catalytic Module for the Symmetric Mono-ubiquitination of FANCI-FANCD2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Swuec

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Activation of the main DNA interstrand crosslink repair pathway in higher eukaryotes requires mono-ubiquitination of FANCI and FANCD2 by FANCL, the E3 ligase subunit of the Fanconi anemia core complex. FANCI and FANCD2 form a stable complex; however, the molecular basis of their ubiquitination is ill defined. FANCD2 mono-ubiquitination by FANCL is stimulated by the presence of the FANCB and FAAP100 core complex components, through an unknown mechanism. How FANCI mono-ubiquitination is achieved remains unclear. Here, we use structural electron microscopy, combined with crosslink-coupled mass spectrometry, to find that FANCB, FANCL, and FAAP100 form a dimer of trimers, containing two FANCL molecules that are ideally poised to target both FANCI and FANCD2 for mono-ubiquitination. The FANCC-FANCE-FANCF subunits bridge between FANCB-FANCL-FAAP100 and the FANCI-FANCD2 substrate. A transient interaction with FANCC-FANCE-FANCF alters the FANCI-FANCD2 configuration, stabilizing the dimerization interface. Our data provide a model to explain how equivalent mono-ubiquitination of FANCI and FANCD2 occurs.

  10. An Online Learning Module to Increase Self-Efficacy and Involvement in Care for Patients With Advanced Lung Cancer: Research Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Anna; Shaw, Tim; Nagrial, Adnan; Pene, Christopher; Rabbets, Melanie; Carlino, Matteo; Zachulski, Clare; Phillips, Jane; Birnbaum, Robert; Gandhi, Tejal; Harnett, Paul

    2016-08-08

    Improving patient care for individuals with lung cancer is a priority due to the increasing burden of the disease globally. One way this can be done is by improving patient self-management capabilities through increasing their self-efficacy. This can improve positive outcomes for patients with chronic conditions and increase their ability to manage the challenges of such illnesses. Unfortunately, patients with chronic conditions often struggle to travel far from home to engage with patient education events, a common means of improving self-efficacy. The development of more accessible tools for improving patient self-efficacy is required to increase quality of life for patients with chronic conditions. To evaluate the feasibility of delivering symptom identification and management information to patients with advanced lung cancer using an online program. This article describes a pre-post test study to evaluate a Qstream online learning platform to improve patient self-efficacy for managing advanced lung cancer symptoms. Undertaking this program should increase participant knowledge about the side-effects they may experience as a result of their treatment and in turn increase help-seeking behavior and self-efficacy for the participant cohort. Quantitative data collected by the Qstream platform on the completion rates of participants will be used as a tool to evaluate the intervention. Additionally, validated scales will be used to collect data on patient self-efficacy. Qualitative data will also be collected via an exit survey and thematic content analysis of semi-structured interviews. The research is in the preliminary stages but thus far a protocol has been approved in support of the project. Additionally, advisory committee members have been identified and initial meetings have been undertaken. Development of new approaches for increasing patient understanding of their care is important to ensure high quality care continues to be delivered in the clinical setting.

  11. Treatment of non-small cell lung cancer with intensity-modulated radiation therapy in combination with cetuximab: the NEAR protocol (NCT00115518)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, AD; Hoess, A; Haberkorn, U; Huber, PE; Steins, M; Thomas, M; Debus, J; Herfarth, KK; Münter, MW; Bischoff, H; Haselmann, R; Timke, C; Krempien, R; Sterzing, F; Nill, S; Heeger, S

    2006-01-01

    Even today, treatment of Stage III NSCLC still poses a serious challenge. So far, surgical resection is the treatment of choice. Patients whose tumour is not resectable or who are unfit to undergo surgery are usually referred to a combined radio-chemotherapy. However, combined radio-chemotherapeutic treatment is also associated with sometimes marked side effects but has been shown to be more efficient than radiation therapy alone. Nevertheless, there is a significant subset of patients whose overall condition does not permit administration of chemotherapy in a combined-modality treatment. It could be demonstrated though, that NSCLCs often exhibit over-expression of EGF-receptors hence providing an excellent target for the monoclonal EGFR-antagonist cetuximab (Erbitux ® ) which has already been shown to be effective in colorectal as well as head-and-neck tumours with comparatively mild side-effects. The NEAR trial is a prospective phase II feasibility study combining a monoclonal EGF-receptor antibody with loco-regional irradiation in patients with stage III NSCLC. This trial aims at testing the combination's efficacy and rate of development of distant metastases with an accrual of 30 patients. Patients receive weekly infusions of cetuximab (Erbitux ® ) plus loco-regional radiation therapy as intensity-modulated radiation therapy. After conclusion of radiation treatment patients continue to receive weekly cetuximab for 13 more cycles. The primary objective of the NEAR trial is to evaluate toxicities and feasibility of the combined treatment with cetuximab (Erbitux ® ) and IMRT loco-regional irradiation. Secondary objectives are remission rates, 3-year-survival and local/systemic progression-free survival

  12. Treatment of non-small cell lung cancer with intensity-modulated radiation therapy in combination with cetuximab: the NEAR protocol (NCT00115518

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoess A

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Even today, treatment of Stage III NSCLC still poses a serious challenge. So far, surgical resection is the treatment of choice. Patients whose tumour is not resectable or who are unfit to undergo surgery are usually referred to a combined radio-chemotherapy. However, combined radio-chemotherapeutic treatment is also associated with sometimes marked side effects but has been shown to be more efficient than radiation therapy alone. Nevertheless, there is a significant subset of patients whose overall condition does not permit administration of chemotherapy in a combined-modality treatment. It could be demonstrated though, that NSCLCs often exhibit over-expression of EGF-receptors hence providing an excellent target for the monoclonal EGFR-antagonist cetuximab (Erbitux® which has already been shown to be effective in colorectal as well as head-and-neck tumours with comparatively mild side-effects. Methods/design The NEAR trial is a prospective phase II feasibility study combining a monoclonal EGF-receptor antibody with loco-regional irradiation in patients with stage III NSCLC. This trial aims at testing the combination's efficacy and rate of development of distant metastases with an accrual of 30 patients. Patients receive weekly infusions of cetuximab (Erbitux® plus loco-regional radiation therapy as intensity-modulated radiation therapy. After conclusion of radiation treatment patients continue to receive weekly cetuximab for 13 more cycles. Discussion The primary objective of the NEAR trial is to evaluate toxicities and feasibility of the combined treatment with cetuximab (Erbitux® and IMRT loco-regional irradiation. Secondary objectives are remission rates, 3-year-survival and local/systemic progression-free survival.

  13. Protocol for the isotoxic intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC): a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslett, Kate; Franks, Kevin; Hanna, Gerard G; Harden, Susan; Hatton, Matthew; Harrow, Stephen; McDonald, Fiona; Ashcroft, Linda; Falk, Sally; Groom, Nicki; Harris, Catherine; McCloskey, Paula; Whitehurst, Philip; Bayman, Neil; Faivre-Finn, Corinne

    2016-04-15

    The majority of stage III patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are unsuitable for concurrent chemoradiotherapy, the non-surgical gold standard of care. As the alternative treatment options of sequential chemoradiotherapy and radiotherapy alone are associated with high local failure rates, various intensification strategies have been employed. There is evidence to suggest that altered fractionation using hyperfractionation, acceleration, dose escalation, and individualisation may be of benefit. The MAASTRO group have pioneered the concept of 'isotoxic' radiotherapy allowing for individualised dose escalation using hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy based on predefined normal tissue constraints. This study aims to evaluate whether delivering isotoxic radiotherapy using intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is achievable. Isotoxic IMRT is a multicentre feasibility study. From June 2014, a total of 35 patients from 7 UK centres, with a proven histological or cytological diagnosis of inoperable NSCLC, unsuitable for concurrent chemoradiotherapy will be recruited. A minimum of 2 cycles of induction chemotherapy is mandated before starting isotoxic radiotherapy. The dose of radiation will be increased until one or more of the organs at risk tolerance or the maximum dose of 79.2 Gy is reached. The primary end point is feasibility, with accrual rates, local control and overall survival our secondary end points. Patients will be followed up for 5 years. The study has received ethical approval (REC reference: 13/NW/0480) from the National Research Ethics Service (NRES) Committee North West-Greater Manchester South. The trial is conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and Good Clinical Practice (GCP). The trial results will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and presented internationally. NCT01836692; Pre-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence

  14. Cryptographic Protocols:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler, Martin Joakim Bittel

    cryptography was thus concerned with message confidentiality and integrity. Modern cryptography cover a much wider range of subjects including the area of secure multiparty computation, which will be the main topic of this dissertation. Our first contribution is a new protocol for secure comparison, presented...... implemented the comparison protocol in Java and benchmarks show that is it highly competitive and practical. The biggest contribution of this dissertation is a general framework for secure multiparty computation. Instead of making new ad hoc implementations for each protocol, we want a single and extensible...... in Chapter 2. Comparisons play a key role in many systems such as online auctions and benchmarks — it is not unreasonable to say that when parties come together for a multiparty computation, it is because they want to make decisions that depend on private information. Decisions depend on comparisons. We have...

  15. A Student Selected Component (or Special Study Module) in Forensic and Legal Medicine: Design, delivery, assessment and evaluation of an optional module as an addition to the medical undergraduate core curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Kieran M; Wilkinson, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    The General Medical Council (United Kingdom) advocates development of non-core curriculum Student Selected Components and their inclusion in all undergraduate medical school curricula. This article describes a rationale for the design, delivery, assessment and evaluation of Student Selected Components in Forensic and Legal Medicine. Reference is made to the available evidence based literature pertinent to the delivery of undergraduate medical education in the subject area. A Student Selected Component represents an opportunity to highlight the importance of the legal aspects of medical practice, to raise the profile of the discipline of Forensic and Legal Medicine amongst undergraduate medical students and to introduce students to the possibility of a future career in the area. The authors refer to their experiences of design, delivery, assessment and evaluation of Student Selected Components in Forensic and Legal Medicine at their respective Universities in the Republic of Ireland (Galway) and in the United Kingdom (Oxford). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Immunochemical protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pound, John D

    1998-01-01

    ... easy and important refinements often are not published. This much anticipated 2nd edition of Immunochemzcal Protocols therefore aims to provide a user-friendly up-to-date handbook of reliable techniques selected to suit the needs of molecular biologists. It covers the full breadth of the relevant established immunochemical methods, from protein blotting and immunoa...

  17. Reliability and Validity of the Turkish Version of the PedsQL 3.0 Cancer Module for 2- to 7-Year-Old and the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales for 5- to 7-Year-Old: The Hacettepe University Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldız Kabak, Vesile; Yakut, Yavuz; Çetin, Mualla; Düger, Tülin

    2016-09-05

    The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability and validity of the Turkish version of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) 3.0 Cancer Module for 2- to 7-year-old and the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales for 5- to 7-year-old in childhood cancer. The PedsQL 3.0 Cancer Module and PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales were administered to children with cancer and their parents at Hacettepe University. Internal consistency was determined by using Cronbach's alpha and test-retest reliability was determined by using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Construct validity was assessed by comparing the results of the PedsQL 3.0 Cancer Module with those of the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales. Cronbach's alpha of the PedsQL 3.0 Cancer Module varied from 0.803 to 0.873 and that of the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales from 0.665 to 0.841. Test-retest ICC values of the PedsQL 3.0 Cancer Module varied from 0.877 to 0.949 and those of the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales from 0.681 to 0.824. The correlation of the PedsQL 3.0 Cancer Module with subscale scores of the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales showed that there were excellent to fair correlations between the two scales. The relationship between parent proxy-report and child self-report of the PedsQL 3.0 Cancer Module had very good correlation (r=0.694, p3.0 Cancer Module in 2- to 4-year-old and 5- to 7-year-old and the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales in 5- to 7-year-old in childhood cancer.

  18. Reliability and Validity of the Turkish Version of the PedsQL 3.0 Cancer Module for 2- to 7-Year-Old and the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales for 5- to 7-Year-Old: The Hacettepe University Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldız Kabak, Vesile; Yakut, Yavuz; Çetin, Mualla; Düger, Tülin

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability and validity of the Turkish version of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) 3.0 Cancer Module for 2- to 7-year-old and the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales for 5- to 7-year-old in childhood cancer. Materials and Methods: The PedsQL 3.0 Cancer Module and PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales were administered to children with cancer and their parents at Hacettepe University. Internal consistency was determined by using Cronbach’s alpha and test-retest reliability was determined by using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Construct validity was assessed by comparing the results of the PedsQL 3.0 Cancer Module with those of the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales. Results: Cronbach’s alpha of the PedsQL 3.0 Cancer Module varied from 0.803 to 0.873 and that of the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales from 0.665 to 0.841. Test-retest ICC values of the PedsQL 3.0 Cancer Module varied from 0.877 to 0.949 and those of the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales from 0.681 to 0.824. The correlation of the PedsQL 3.0 Cancer Module with subscale scores of the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales showed that there were excellent to fair correlations between the two scales. The relationship between parent proxy-report and child self-report of the PedsQL 3.0 Cancer Module had very good correlation (r=0.694, p3.0 Cancer Module in 2- to 4-year-old and 5- to 7-year-old and the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales in 5- to 7-year-old in childhood cancer. PMID:27095607

  19. Transformer core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehendale, A.; Hagedoorn, Wouter; Lötters, Joost Conrad

    2008-01-01

    A transformer core includes a stack of a plurality of planar core plates of a magnetically permeable material, which plates each consist of a first and a second sub-part that together enclose at least one opening. The sub-parts can be fitted together via contact faces that are located on either side

  20. Transformer core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehendale, A.; Hagedoorn, Wouter; Lötters, Joost Conrad

    2010-01-01

    A transformer core includes a stack of a plurality of planar core plates of a magnetically permeable material, which plates each consist of a first and a second sub-part that together enclose at least one opening. The sub-parts can be fitted together via contact faces that are located on either side

  1. Multimode Communication Protocols Enabling Reconfigurable Radios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berlemann Lars

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the realization and application of a generic protocol stack for reconfigurable wireless communication systems. This focus extends the field of software-defined radios which usually concentrates on the physical layer. The generic protocol stack comprises common protocol functionality and behavior which are extended through specific parts of the targeted radio access technology. This paper considers parameterizable modules of basic protocol functions residing in the data link layer of the ISO/OSI model. System-specific functionality of the protocol software is realized through adequate parameterization and composition of the generic modules. The generic protocol stack allows an efficient realization of reconfigurable protocol software and enables a completely reconfigurable wireless communication system. It is a first step from side-by-side realized, preinstalled modes in a terminal towards a dynamic reconfigurable anymode terminal. The presented modules of the generic protocol stack can also be regarded as a toolbox for the accelerated and cost-efficient development of future communication protocols.

  2. Nuclear reactor core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prescott, R F

    1974-07-11

    The core of the fast neutron reactor consisting, among other components, of fuel elements enriched in plutonium is divided into modules. Each module contains a bundle of four or six elongated components (fuel elements and control rods). In the arrangement with four components, one is kept rigid while the other three are elastically yielding inclined towards the center and lean against the rigid component. In the modules with six pieces, each component is elastically yielding inclined towards a central cavity. In this way, they form a circular arc. A control rod may be placed in the cavity. In order to counteract a relative lateral movement, the outer surfaces of the components which have hexagonal cross-sections have interlocking bearing cushions. The bearing cushions consist of keyway-type ribs or grooves with the wedges or ribs gripping in the grooves of the neighbouring components. In addition, the ribs have oblique entering surfaces.

  3. Core lifter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlov, N G; Edel' man, Ya A

    1981-02-15

    A core lifter is suggested which contains a housing, core-clamping elements installed in the housing depressions in the form of semirings with projections on the outer surface restricting the rotation of the semirings in the housing depressions. In order to improve the strength and reliability of the core lifter, the semirings have a variable transverse section formed from the outside by the surface of the rotation body of the inner arc of the semiring aroung the rotation axis and from the inner a cylindrical surface which is concentric to the outer arc of the semiring. The core-clamping elements made in this manner have the possibility of freely rotating in the housing depressions under their own weight and from contact with the core sample. These semirings do not have weakened sections, have sufficient strength, are inserted into the limited ring section of the housing of the core lifter without reduction in its through opening and this improve the reliability of the core lifter in operation.

  4. Reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azekura, Kazuo; Kurihara, Kunitoshi.

    1992-01-01

    In a BWR type reactor, a great number of pipes (spectral shift pipes) are disposed in the reactor core. Moderators having a small moderating cross section (heavy water) are circulated in the spectral shift pipes to suppress the excess reactivity while increasing the conversion ratio at an initial stage of the operation cycle. After the intermediate stage of the operation cycle in which the reactor core reactivity is lowered, reactivity is increased by circulating moderators having a great moderating cross section (light water) to extend the taken up burnup degree. Further, neutron absorbers such as boron are mixed to the moderator in the spectral shift pipe to control the concentration thereof. With such a constitution, control rods and driving mechanisms are no more necessary, to simplify the structure of the reactor core. This can increase the fuel conversion ratio and control great excess reactivity. Accordingly, a nuclear reactor core of high conversion and high burnup degree can be attained. (I.N.)

  5. Ice Cores

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past temperature, precipitation, atmospheric trace gases, and other aspects of climate and environment derived from ice cores drilled on glaciers and ice...

  6. Data-driven CT protocol review and management—experience from a large academic hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Da; Savage, Cristy A; Li, Xinhua; Liu, Bob

    2015-03-01

    Protocol review plays a critical role in CT quality assurance, but large numbers of protocols and inconsistent protocol names on scanners and in exam records make thorough protocol review formidable. In this investigation, we report on a data-driven cataloging process that can be used to assist in the reviewing and management of CT protocols. We collected lists of scanner protocols, as well as 18 months of recent exam records, for 10 clinical scanners. We developed computer algorithms to automatically deconstruct the protocol names on the scanner and in the exam records into core names and descriptive components. Based on the core names, we were able to group the scanner protocols into a much smaller set of "core protocols," and to easily link exam records with the scanner protocols. We calculated the percentage of usage for each core protocol, from which the most heavily used protocols were identified. From the percentage-of-usage data, we found that, on average, 18, 33, and 49 core protocols per scanner covered 80%, 90%, and 95%, respectively, of all exams. These numbers are one order of magnitude smaller than the typical numbers of protocols that are loaded on a scanner (200-300, as reported in the literature). Duplicated, outdated, and rarely used protocols on the scanners were easily pinpointed in the cataloging process. The data-driven cataloging process can facilitate the task of protocol review. Copyright © 2015 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Study protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Benjamin E; Hendrick, Paul; Bateman, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    avoidance behaviours, catastrophising, self-efficacy, sport and leisure activity participation, and general quality of life. Follow-up will be 3 and 6 months. The analysis will focus on descriptive statistics and confidence intervals. The qualitative components will follow a thematic analysis approach....... DISCUSSION: This study will evaluate the feasibility of running a definitive large-scale trial on patients with patellofemoral pain, within the NHS in the UK. We will identify strengths and weaknesses of the proposed protocol and the utility and characteristics of the outcome measures. The results from...... this study will inform the design of a multicentre trial. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN35272486....

  8. A Pipelined IP Address Lookup Module for 100 Gbps Line Rates and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teuchert, Domenic; Hauger, Simon

    New Internet services and technologies call for higher packet switching capacities in the core network. Thus, a performance bottleneck arises at the backbone routers, as forwarding of Internet Protocol (IP) packets requires to search the most specific entry in a forwarding table that contains up to several hundred thousand address prefixes. The Tree Bitmap algorithm provides a well-balanced solution in respect of storage needs as well as of search and update complexity. In this paper, we present a pipelined lookup module based on this algorithm, which allows for an easy adaption to diverse protocol and hardware constraints. We determined the pipelining degree required to achieve the throughput for a 100 Gbps router line card by analyzing a representative sub-unit for various configured sizes. The module supports IPv4 and IPv6 configurations providing this throughput, as we determined the performance of our design to achieve a processing rate of 178 million packets per second.

  9. Beyond protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanderhoeven, Sonia; Branquart, Etienne; Casaer, Jim

    2017-01-01

    Risk assessment tools for listing invasive alien species need to incorporate all available evidence and expertise. Beyond the wealth of protocols developed to date, we argue that the current way of performing risk analysis has several shortcomings. In particular, lack of data on ecological impact...... information on risk and the exploration of improved methods for decision making on biodiversity management. This is crucial for efficient conservation resource allocation and uptake by stakeholders and the public......., transparency and repeatability of assessments as well as the incorporation of uncertainty should all be explicitly considered. We recommend improved quality control of risk assessments through formalized peer review with clear feedback between assessors and reviewers. Alternatively, a consensus building...

  10. Reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Tetsuaki; Nomura, Teiji; Tokunaga, Kensuke; Okuda, Shin-ichi

    1990-01-01

    Fuel assemblies in the portions where the gradient of fast neutron fluxes between two opposing faces of a channel box is great are kept loaded at the outermost peripheral position of the reactor core also in the second operation cycle in the order to prevent interference between a control rod and the channel box due to bending deformation of the channel box. Further, the fuel assemblies in the second row from the outer most periphery in the first operation cycle are also kept loaded at the second row in the second operation cycle. Since the gradient of the fast neutrons in the reactor core is especially great at the outer circumference of the reactor core, the channel box at the outer circumference is bent such that the surface facing to the center of the reactor core is convexed and the channel box in the second row is also bent to the identical direction, the insertion of the control rod is not interfered. Further, if the positions for the fuels at the outermost periphery and the fuels in the second row are not altered in the second operation cycle, the gaps are not reduced to prevent the interference between the control rod and the channel box. (N.H.)

  11. SMART core protection system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. K.; Park, H. Y.; Koo, I. S.; Park, H. S.; Kim, J. S.; Son, C. H.

    2003-01-01

    SMART COre Protection System(SCOPS) is designed with real-tims Digital Signal Processor(DSP) board and Network Interface Card(NIC) board. SCOPS has a Control Rod POSition (CRPOS) software module while Core Protection Calculator System(CPCS) consists of Core Protection Calculators(CPCs) and Control Element Assembly(CEA) Calculators(CEACs) in the commercial nuclear plant. It's not necessary to have a independent cabinets for SCOPS because SCOPS is physically very small. Then SCOPS is designed to share the cabinets with Plant Protection System(PPS) of SMART. Therefor it's very easy to maintain the system because CRPOS module is used instead of the computer with operating system

  12. Families of quantum fingerprinting protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovitz, Benjamin; Lütkenhaus, Norbert

    2018-03-01

    We introduce several families of quantum fingerprinting protocols to evaluate the equality function on two n -bit strings in the simultaneous message passing model. The original quantum fingerprinting protocol uses a tensor product of a small number of O (logn ) -qubit high-dimensional signals [H. Buhrman et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 167902 (2001), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.87.167902], whereas a recently proposed optical protocol uses a tensor product of O (n ) single-qubit signals, while maintaining the O (logn ) information leakage of the original protocol [J. M. Arazola and N. Lütkenhaus, Phys. Rev. A 89, 062305 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevA.89.062305]. We find a family of protocols which interpolate between the original and optical protocols while maintaining the O (logn ) information leakage, thus demonstrating a tradeoff between the number of signals sent and the dimension of each signal. There has been interest in experimental realization of the recently proposed optical protocol using coherent states [F. Xu et al., Nat. Commun. 6, 8735 (2015), 10.1038/ncomms9735; J.-Y. Guan et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 240502 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.240502], but as the required number of laser pulses grows linearly with the input size n , eventual challenges for the long-time stability of experimental setups arise. We find a coherent state protocol which reduces the number of signals by a factor 1/2 while also reducing the information leakage. Our reduction makes use of a simple modulation scheme in optical phase space, and we find that more complex modulation schemes are not advantageous. Using a similar technique, we improve a recently proposed coherent state protocol for evaluating the Euclidean distance between two real unit vectors [N. Kumar et al., Phys. Rev. A 95, 032337 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevA.95.032337] by reducing the number of signals by a factor 1/2 and also reducing the information leakage.

  13. International Collaboration for the Epidemiology of eGFR in Low and Middle Income Populations - Rationale and core protocol for the Disadvantaged Populations eGFR Epidemiology Study (DEGREE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplin, Ben; Jakobsson, Kristina; Glaser, Jason; Nitsch, Dorothea; Jha, Vivekanand; Singh, Ajay; Correa-Rotter, Ricardo; Pearce, Neil

    2017-01-03

    There is an increasing recognition of epidemics of primarily tubular-interstitial chronic kidney disease (CKD) clustering in agricultural communities in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Although it is currently unclear whether there is a unified underlying aetiology, these conditions have been collectively termed CKD of undetermined cause (CKDu). CKDu is estimated to have led to the premature deaths of tens to hundreds of thousands of young men and women over the last 2 decades. Thus, there is an urgent need to understand the aetiology and pathophysiology of these condition (s). International comparisons have provided the first steps in understanding many chronic diseases, but such comparisons rely on the availability of standardised tools to estimate disease prevalence. This is a particular problem with CKD, since the disease is asymptomatic until the late stages, and the biases inherent in the methods used to estimate the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in population studies are highly variable across populations. We therefore propose a simple standardised protocol to estimate the distribution of GFR in LMIC populations - The Disadvantaged Populations eGFR Epidemiology (DEGREE) Study. This involves the quantification of renal function in a representative adult population-based sample and a requirement for standardisation of serum creatinine measurements, along with storage of samples for future measurements of cystatin C and ascertainment of estimates of body composition, in order to obtain valid comparisons of estimated GFR (eGFR) within and between populations. The methodology we present is potentially applicable anywhere, but our particular focus is on disadvantaged populations in LMICs, since these appear to be most susceptible to CKDu. Although the protocol could also be used in specific groups (e.g. occupational groups, thought to be at excess risk of CKDu) the primary aim of the DEGREE project is characterise the population distribution of e

  14. Core BPEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallwyl, Tim; Højsgaard, Espen

    The Web Services Business Process Execution Language (WS-BPEL) is a language for expressing business process behaviour based on web services. The language is intentionally not minimal but provides a rich set of constructs, allows omission of constructs by relying on defaults, and supports language......, does not allow omissions, and does not contain ignorable elements. We do so by identifying syntactic sugar, including default values, and ignorable elements in WS-BPEL. The analysis results in a translation from the full language to the core subset. Thus, we reduce the effort needed for working...

  15. Effectiveness of the population-based Check your health preventive programme conducted in primary care with 4 years follow-up [the CORE trial]: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maindal, Helle Terkildsen; Støvring, Henrik; Sandbaek, Annelli

    2014-08-29

    The periodic health check-up has been a fundamental part of routine medical practice for decades, despite a lack of consensus regarding its value in health promotion and disease prevention. A large-scale Danish population-based preventive programme 'Check your health' was developed based on available evidence of screening and successive accepted treatment, prevention for diseases and health promotion, and is closely aligned with the current health care system.The objective of the 'Check your health' [CORE] trial is to investigate effectiveness on health outcomes of a preventive health check offered at a population-level to all individuals aged 30-49 years, and to establish the cost-effectiveness. The trial will be conducted as a pragmatic household-cluster randomised controlled trial involving 10,505 individuals. All individuals within a well-defined geographical area in the Central Denmark Region, Denmark (DK) were randomised to be offered a preventive health check (Intervention group, n = 5250) or to maintain routine access to healthcare until a delayed intervention (Comparison group, n = 5255). The programme consists of a health examination which yields an individual risk profile, and according to this participants are assigned to one of the following interventions: (a) referral to a health promoting consultation in general practice, (b) behavioural programmes at the local Health Centre, or (c) no need for follow-up.The primary outcomes at 4 years follow-up are: ten-year-risk of fatal cardiovascular event (Heart-SCORE model), physical activity level (self-report and cardiorespiratory fitness), quality of life (SF12), sick leave and labour market attachment. Cost-effectiveness will be evaluated according to life years gained, direct costs and total health costs. Intention to treat analysis will be performed. Results from the largest Danish health check programme conducted within the current healthcare system, spanning the sectors which share responsibility for

  16. Is extended biopsy protocol justified in all patients with suspected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the significance of an extended 10-core transrectal biopsy protocol in different categories of patients with suspected prostate cancer using digital guidance. Materials and Methods: We studied 125 men who were being evaluated for prostate cancer. They all had an extended 10-core digitally guided ...

  17. Vertical Protocol Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groß, Thomas; Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The security of key exchange and secure channel protocols, such as TLS, has been studied intensively. However, only few works have considered what happens when the established keys are actually used—to run some protocol securely over the established “channel”. We call this a vertical protocol.......e., that the combination cannot introduce attacks that the individual protocols in isolation do not have. In this work, we prove a composability result in the symbolic model that allows for arbitrary vertical composition (including self-composition). It holds for protocols from any suite of channel and application...

  18. Software for simulating IMRT protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Thelma C.F.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R. de, E-mail: tcff@ufmg.b, E-mail: campos@nuclear.ufmg.b [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear

    2009-07-01

    The Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy - IMRT is an advanced technique to cancer treatment widely used on oncology around the world. The present paper describes the SOFT-RT software which is a tool for simulating IMRT protocol. Also, it will be present a cerebral tumor case of studied in which three irradiation windows with distinct orientation were applied. The SOFT-RT collect and export data to MCNP code. This code simulates the photon transport on the voxel model. Later, a out-module from SOFT-RT import the results and express the dose-response superimposing dose and voxel model in a tree-dimensional graphic representation. The present paper address the IMRT software and its function as well a cerebral tumor case of studied is showed. The graphic interface of the SOFT-RT illustrates the example case. (author)

  19. Software for simulating IMRT protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, Thelma C.F.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R. de

    2009-01-01

    The Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy - IMRT is an advanced technique to cancer treatment widely used on oncology around the world. The present paper describes the SOFT-RT software which is a tool for simulating IMRT protocol. Also, it will be present a cerebral tumor case of studied in which three irradiation windows with distinct orientation were applied. The SOFT-RT collect and export data to MCNP code. This code simulates the photon transport on the voxel model. Later, a out-module from SOFT-RT import the results and express the dose-response superimposing dose and voxel model in a tree-dimensional graphic representation. The present paper address the IMRT software and its function as well a cerebral tumor case of studied is showed. The graphic interface of the SOFT-RT illustrates the example case. (author)

  20. A future-proof architecture for telemedicine using loose-coupled modules and HL7 FHIR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gøeg, Kirstine Rosenbeck; Rasmussen, Rune Kongsgaard; Jensen, Lasse; Wollesen, Christian Møller; Larsen, Søren; Pape-Haugaard, Louise Bilenberg

    2018-07-01

    Most telemedicine solutions are proprietary and disease specific which cause a heterogeneous and silo-oriented system landscape with limited interoperability. Solving the interoperability problem would require a strong focus on data integration and standardization in telemedicine infrastructures. Our objective was to suggest a future-proof architecture, that consisted of small loose-coupled modules to allow flexible integration with new and existing services, and the use of international standards to allow high re-usability of modules, and interoperability in the health IT landscape. We identified core features of our future-proof architecture as the following (1) To provide extended functionality the system should be designed as a core with modules. Database handling and implementation of security protocols are modules, to improve flexibility compared to other frameworks. (2) To ensure loosely coupled modules the system should implement an inversion of control mechanism. (3) A focus on ease of implementation requires the system should use HL7 FHIR (Fast Interoperable Health Resources) as the primary standard because it is based on web-technologies. We evaluated the feasibility of our architecture by developing an open source implementation of the system called ORDS. ORDS is written in TypeScript, and makes use of the Express Framework and HL7 FHIR DSTU2. The code is distributed on GitHub. All modules have been tested unit wise, but end-to-end testing awaits our first clinical example implementations. Our study showed that highly adaptable and yet interoperable core frameworks for telemedicine can be designed and implemented. Future work includes implementation of a clinical use case and evaluation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Redefining the modular organization of the core Mediator complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuejuan; Sun, Qianqian; Ding, Zhenrui; Ji, Jinhua; Wang, Jianye; Kong, Xiao; Yang, Jianghong; Cai, Gang

    2014-07-01

    The Mediator complex plays an essential role in the regulation of eukaryotic transcription. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae core Mediator comprises 21 subunits, which are organized into Head, Middle and Tail modules. Previously, the Head module was assigned to a distinct dense domain at the base, and the Middle and Tail modules were identified to form a tight structure above the Head module, which apparently contradicted findings from many biochemical and functional studies. Here, we compared the structures of the core Mediator and its subcomplexes, especially the first 3D structure of the Head + Middle modules, which permitted an unambiguous assignment of the three modules. Furthermore, nanogold labeling pinpointing four Mediator subunits from different modules conclusively validated the modular assignment, in which the Head and Middle modules fold back on one another and form the upper portion of the core Mediator, while the Tail module forms a distinct dense domain at the base. The new modular model of the core Mediator has reconciled the previous inconsistencies between the structurally and functionally defined Mediator modules. Collectively, these analyses completely redefine the modular organization of the core Mediator, which allow us to integrate the structural and functional information into a coherent mechanism for the Mediator's modularity and regulation in transcription initiation.

  2. Side core lifter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelman, Ya A

    1982-01-01

    A side core lifter is proposed which contains a housing with guide slits and a removable core lifter with side projections on the support section connected to the core receiver. In order to preserve the structure of the rock in the core sample by means of guaranteeing rectilinear movement of the core lifter in the rock, the support and core receiver sections are hinged. The device is equipped with a spring for angular shift in the core-reception part.

  3. Entanglement distillation protocols and number theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bombin, H.; Martin-Delgado, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    We show that the analysis of entanglement distillation protocols for qudits of arbitrary dimension D benefits from applying basic concepts from number theory, since the set Z D n associated with Bell diagonal states is a module rather than a vector space. We find that a partition of Z D n into divisor classes characterizes the invariant properties of mixed Bell diagonal states under local permutations. We construct a very general class of recursion protocols by means of unitary operations implementing these local permutations. We study these distillation protocols depending on whether we use twirling operations in the intermediate steps or not, and we study them both analytically and numerically with Monte Carlo methods. In the absence of twirling operations, we construct extensions of the quantum privacy algorithms valid for secure communications with qudits of any dimension D. When D is a prime number, we show that distillation protocols are optimal both qualitatively and quantitatively

  4. The Effect of Core Stabilization Exercise on the Kinematics and Joint Coordination of the Lumbar Spine and Hip During Sit-to-Stand and Stand-to-Sit in Patients With Chronic Nonspecific Low Back Pain (COSCIOUS): Study Protocol for a Randomized Double-Blind Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourahmadi, Mohammad Reza; Ebrahimi Takamjani, Ismail; Jaberzadeh, Shapour; Sarrafzadeh, Javad; Sanjari, Mohammad Ali; Mohsenifar, Holakoo; Bagheri, Rasool; Taghipour, Morteza

    2017-06-01

    Chronic nonspecific low back pain (CNLBP) is among the most prevalent health problems. Lumbar spine and hips kinematics and coordination can be affected in CNLBP. The effects of exercises on the kinematics and coordination of lumbar spine and hips during sit-to-stand (STS) and its reverse have not been evaluated. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of core stabilization exercise on the kinematics and joint coordination of the lumbar spine and hip during STS and its reverse in CNLBP patients. COSCIOUS is a parallel randomized double-blind controlled trial. A total of 30 CNLBP patients and 15 asymptomatic participants will be included. The kinematics and joint coordination of the lumbar spine and hips will be evaluated during STS and its reverse using a motion capture system. The participants will be asked to sit in their usual posture on a stool. Reflective markers will be placed over the T12, S2, anterior and posterior superior iliac spines, greater trochanters, and lateral femoral epicondyles of both legs. The participants will be instructed to stand up at natural speed, remain in the erect posture for 3 seconds, and then sit down. Kinematic variables of the lumbar spine and hip will be computed. Afterward, the CNLBP participants will be allocated at random to receive one of 2 interventions: core stabilization or general exercise. Treatment sessions will be held 3 times per week for 16 sessions. After intervention, CNLBP participants will be assessed again. Funding for the study was provided in 2016 by Iran University of Medical Sciences. The study is expected to last approximately 12 months, depending on recruitment. Findings on the study's primary outcomes are expected to be finalized by December 2017. The results of the study will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. This investigation will evaluate the effects of core stabilization exercise on the kinematics and joint coordination of the lumbar spine and hip during STS and its reverse in

  5. Multi-institutional evaluation of end-to-end protocol for IMRT/VMAT treatment chains utilizing conventional linacs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughery, Brian; Knill, Cory; Silverstein, Evan; Zakjevskii, Viatcheslav; Masi, Kathryn; Covington, Elizabeth; Snyder, Karen; Song, Kwang; Snyder, Michael

    2018-03-20

    We conducted a multi-institutional assessment of a recently developed end-to-end monthly quality assurance (QA) protocol for external beam radiation therapy treatment chains. This protocol validates the entire treatment chain against a baseline to detect the presence of complex errors not easily found in standard component-based QA methods. Participating physicists from 3 institutions ran the end-to-end protocol on treatment chains that include Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core (IROC)-credentialed linacs. Results were analyzed in the form of American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) Task Group (TG)-119 so that they may be referenced by future test participants. Optically stimulated luminescent dosimeter (OSLD), EBT3 radiochromic film, and A1SL ion chamber readings were accumulated across 10 test runs. Confidence limits were calculated to determine where 95% of measurements should fall. From calculated confidence limits, 95% of measurements should be within 5% error for OSLDs, 4% error for ionization chambers, and 4% error for (96% relative gamma pass rate) radiochromic film at 3% agreement/3 mm distance to agreement. Data were separated by institution, model of linac, and treatment protocol (intensity-modulated radiation therapy [IMRT] vs volumetric modulated arc therapy [VMAT]). A total of 97% of OSLDs, 98% of ion chambers, and 93% of films were within the confidence limits; measurements were found outside these limits by a maximum of 4%, consistent despite institutional differences in OSLD reading equipment and radiochromic film calibration techniques. Results from this test may be used by clinics for data comparison. Areas of improvement were identified in the end-to-end protocol that can be implemented in an updated version. The consistency of our data demonstrates the reproducibility and ease-of-use of such tests and suggests a potential role for their use in broad end-to-end QA initiatives. Copyright © 2018 American Association of Medical

  6. The French dosimetry protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutreix, A.

    1985-01-01

    After a general introduction the protocol is divided in five sections dealing with: determination of the quality of X-ray, γ-ray and electron beams; the measuring instrument; calibration of the reference instrument; determination of the reference absorbed dose in the user's beams; determination of the absorbed dose in water at other points, in other conditions. The French protocol is not essentially different from the Nordic protocol and it is based on the experience gained in using both the American and the Nordic protocols. Therefore, only the main difference with the published protocols are discussed. (Auth.)

  7. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 29

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. This page is a quiz on Module 1.

  8. Protocol Implementation Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho Quaresma, Jose Nuno; Probst, Christian W.

    2010-01-01

    Users expect communication systems to guarantee, amongst others, privacy and integrity of their data. These can be ensured by using well-established protocols; the best protocol, however, is useless if not all parties involved in a communication have a correct implementation of the protocol and a...... Generator framework based on the LySatool and a translator from the LySa language into C or Java....... necessary tools. In this paper, we present the Protocol Implementation Generator (PiG), a framework that can be used to add protocol generation to protocol negotiation, or to easily share and implement new protocols throughout a network. PiG enables the sharing, verification, and translation...

  9. Animal MRI Core

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Animal Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Core develops and optimizes MRI methods for cardiovascular imaging of mice and rats. The Core provides imaging expertise,...

  10. Study Application of RADIUS Protocol on Ethernet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Fang; YANG Huan-yu; LI Hong

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents how to apply the RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial In User Service)protocol ,which is generally applied to dial-up network, to the authentication & charge of Broad Band accessing control system on Ethernet. It is provided that the Broad Band accessing control system included a self-designed communication protocol is used in communicating between an terminal user and Network Access Server .The interface module on the servers side and the Radius system is also given in this article.

  11. Fiscal 2000 achievement report on the venture business assisting type regional consortium - Core industry creation type. Comprehensive research and development for reducing ABS (MABS) sensor system into small module for enhancing vehicle steering safety; 2000 nendo chiiki consortium kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Koji no sharyo soansei wo jitsugensuru ABS (MABS) sensor system no kogata module ka ni tsuite no sogo kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The effort aims to develop a sensor system to enable overall VDC (vehicle dynamic control). The goal is to manufacture a small module type sensor system more than 20 times higher than the conventional type in responding speed and accuracy, which will use a novel ABS (anti-lock braking system) capable of direct and real-time measurement of axial forces in the four directions. The prototype module will be a package in which a system-on-a-chip accommodating peripheral circuits is integrated with a sensor. In the effort to develop a novel multi-axial sensing system (MASS) for a smaller ABS, a circuit optimization technology was developed. A dedicated IC (integrated circuit) was developed for a system to process a large volume of signals. In the effort to develop technologies for packaging the novel sensor system and for constructing modules, technologies were developed for integrating sensor components and an IC into one, module junctioning, module installation, simplification of the installation process, and for the manufacturing of modules. Developed in the effort to optimize MASS were technologies involving the selection and evaluation of sensor components and the enhancement of such processes, optimization of the sensor itself, and the improvement of the sensor system for higher efficiency in calculation. Sensor modules were tested aboard vehicles and the compatibility of the system-on-a-chip with the MASS module was confirmed. (NEDO)

  12. Integration of Biosafety into Core Facility Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    This presentation will discuss the implementation of biosafety policies for small, medium and large core laboratories with primary shared objectives of ensuring the control of biohazards to protect core facility operators and assure conformity with applicable state and federal policies, standards and guidelines. Of paramount importance is the educational process to inform core laboratories of biosafety principles and policies and to illustrate the technology and process pathways of the core laboratory for biosafety professionals. Elevating awareness of biohazards and the biosafety regulatory landscape among core facility operators is essential for the establishment of a framework for both project and material risk assessment. The goal of the biohazard risk assessment process is to identify the biohazard risk management parameters to conduct the procedure safely and in compliance with applicable regulations. An evaluation of the containment, protective equipment and work practices for the procedure for the level of risk identified is facilitated by the establishment of a core facility registration form for work with biohazards and other biological materials with potential risk. The final step in the biocontainment process is the assumption of Principal Investigator role with full responsibility for the structure of the site-specific biosafety program plan by core facility leadership. The presentation will provide example biohazard protocol reviews and accompanying containment measures for core laboratories at Yale University.

  13. Computation system for nuclear reactor core analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vondy, D.R.; Fowler, T.B.; Cunningham, G.W.; Petrie, L.M.

    1977-04-01

    This report documents a system which contains computer codes as modules developed to evaluate nuclear reactor core performance. The diffusion theory approximation to neutron transport may be applied with the VENTURE code treating up to three dimensions. The effect of exposure may be determined with the BURNER code, allowing depletion calculations to be made. The features and requirements of the system are discussed and aspects common to the computational modules, but the latter are documented elsewhere. User input data requirements, data file management, control, and the modules which perform general functions are described. Continuing development and implementation effort is enhancing the analysis capability available locally and to other installations from remote terminals

  14. Gas Hydrate Investigations Using Pressure Core Analysis: Current Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultheiss, P.; Holland, M.; Roberts, J.; Druce, M.

    2006-12-01

    Recently there have been a number of major gas hydrate expeditions, both academic and commercially oriented, that have benefited from advances in the practice of pressure coring and pressure core analysis, especially using the HYACINTH pressure coring systems. We report on the now mature process of pressure core acquisition, pressure core handling and pressure core analysis and the results from the analysis of pressure cores, which have revealed important in situ properties along with some remarkable views of gas hydrate morphologies. Pressure coring success rates have improved as the tools have been modified and adapted for use on different drilling platforms. To ensure that pressure cores remain within the hydrate stability zone, tool deployment, recovery and on-deck handling procedures now mitigate against unwanted temperature rises. Core analysis has been integrated into the core transfer protocol and automated nondestructive measurements, including P-wave velocity, gamma density, and X-ray imaging, are routinely made on cores. Pressure cores can be subjected to controlled depressurization experiments while nondestructive measurements are being made, or cores can be stored at in situ conditions for further analysis and subsampling.

  15. Whole core transport calculation for the VHTR hexagonal core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, J. Y.; Kim, K. S.; Lee, C. C.; Joo, H. G.

    2007-01-01

    Recently, the DeCART code which performs the whole core calculation by coupling the radial MOC transport kernel with the axial nodal kernel has equipped a kernel to deal with the hexagonal geometry and applied to the VHTR hexagonal core to examine the accuracy and the computational efficiency of the implemented kernel. The implementation includes a modular ray tracing module based on the hexagonal assembly and a multi-group CMFD module to perform an efficient transport calculation. The requirements for the modular ray are: (1) the assembly based path linking and (2) the complete reflection capabilities. The first requirement is met by adjusting the azimuthal angle and the ray spacing for the modular ray to construct a core ray by the path linking. The second requirement is met by expanding the constructed azimuthal angle in the range of [0,30 degree] to the remained range to reflect completely at the core boundaries. The considered reflecting surface angles for the complete reflection are 30n's (n=1,2,1,12). The CMFD module performs the equivalent diffusion calculation to the radial MOC transport calculation based on the homogenized structure units. The structure units include the hexagonal pin cells and gap cells appearing at the assembly boundary. Therefore, the CMFD module is programmed to deal with the unstructured cells such as the gap cells. The CMFD equation consists of the two parts of (1) the conventional FDM and (2) the current corrective parts. Since the second part of the CMFD equation guarantees the reproducibility of the radial MOC transport solutions for the cell averaged reaction rate and the net current at the cell surfaces, how to build the first part of the CMFD equation is not important. Therefore, the first part of the CMFD equation is roughly built by using the normal distance from the gravity center to the surface. The VHTR core uses helium as a coolant which is realized as a void hole in a neutronics calculation. This void hole which

  16. Core burn-up calculation method of JRR-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Tomoaki; Yamashita, Kiyonobu

    2007-01-01

    SRAC code system is utilized for core burn-up calculation of JRR-3. SRAC code system includes calculation modules such as PIJ, PIJBURN, ANISN and CITATION for making effective cross section and calculation modules such as COREBN and HIST for core burn-up calculation. As for calculation method for JRR-3, PIJBURN (Cell burn-up calculation module) is used for making effective cross section of fuel region at each burn-up step. PIJ, ANISN and CITATION are used for making effective cross section of non-fuel region. COREBN and HIST is used for core burn-up calculation and fuel management. This paper presents details of NRR-3 core burn-up calculation. FNCA Participating countries are expected to carry out core burn-up calculation of domestic research reactor by SRAC code system by utilizing the information of this paper. (author)

  17. Core Hunter 3: flexible core subset selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Beukelaer, Herman; Davenport, Guy F; Fack, Veerle

    2018-05-31

    Core collections provide genebank curators and plant breeders a way to reduce size of their collections and populations, while minimizing impact on genetic diversity and allele frequency. Many methods have been proposed to generate core collections, often using distance metrics to quantify the similarity of two accessions, based on genetic marker data or phenotypic traits. Core Hunter is a multi-purpose core subset selection tool that uses local search algorithms to generate subsets relying on one or more metrics, including several distance metrics and allelic richness. In version 3 of Core Hunter (CH3) we have incorporated two new, improved methods for summarizing distances to quantify diversity or representativeness of the core collection. A comparison of CH3 and Core Hunter 2 (CH2) showed that these new metrics can be effectively optimized with less complex algorithms, as compared to those used in CH2. CH3 is more effective at maximizing the improved diversity metric than CH2, still ensures a high average and minimum distance, and is faster for large datasets. Using CH3, a simple stochastic hill-climber is able to find highly diverse core collections, and the more advanced parallel tempering algorithm further increases the quality of the core and further reduces variability across independent samples. We also evaluate the ability of CH3 to simultaneously maximize diversity, and either representativeness or allelic richness, and compare the results with those of the GDOpt and SimEli methods. CH3 can sample equally representative cores as GDOpt, which was specifically designed for this purpose, and is able to construct cores that are simultaneously more diverse, and either are more representative or have higher allelic richness, than those obtained by SimEli. In version 3, Core Hunter has been updated to include two new core subset selection metrics that construct cores for representativeness or diversity, with improved performance. It combines and outperforms the

  18. k-core covers and the core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez-Rodriguez, E.; Borm, Peter; Estevez-Fernandez, A.; Fiestras-Janeiro, G.; Mosquera, M.A.

    This paper extends the notion of individual minimal rights for a transferable utility game (TU-game) to coalitional minimal rights using minimal balanced families of a specific type, thus defining a corresponding minimal rights game. It is shown that the core of a TU-game coincides with the core of

  19. Network protocols and sockets

    OpenAIRE

    BALEJ, Marek

    2010-01-01

    My work will deal with network protocols and sockets and their use in programming language C#. It will therefore deal programming network applications on the platform .NET from Microsoft and instruments, which C# provides to us. There will describe the tools and methods for programming network applications, and shows a description and sample applications that work with sockets and application protocols.

  20. Nuclear reactor core catcher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear reactor core catcher is described for containing debris resulting from an accident causing core meltdown and which incorporates a method of cooling the debris by the circulation of a liquid coolant. (U.K.)

  1. Seismic core shroud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puri, A.; Mullooly, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    A core shroud is provided, comprising: a coolant boundary, following the shape of the core boundary, for channeling the coolant through the fuel assemblies; a cylindrical band positioned inside the core barrel and surrounding the coolant boundary; and support members extending from the coolant boundary to the band, for transferring load from the coolant boundary to the band. The shroud may be assembled in parts using automated welding techniques, and it may be adjusted to fit the reactor core easily

  2. A VXI-GPIB protocol converter based on DSP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Yuanfeng; Yu Xiaoqi; Lu Jingping

    2006-01-01

    A VXI-GPIB protocol converter based on DSP is introduced. The word-serial protocol with the message-based interface is implemented by EPLD and DSP. The GPIB functions are implemented by programming to the GPIB control chip. The transfer from VXI messages to GPIB functions is implemented by DSP. As an example of application, the control functions for oscilloscopes have been implemented in a VXI-GPIB heterogeneous system using such modules. (authors)

  3. Core Values | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Core Values Core Values NREL's core values are rooted in a safe and supportive work environment guide our everyday actions and efforts: Safe and supportive work environment Respect for the rights physical and social environment Integrity Maintain the highest standard of ethics, honesty, and integrity

  4. Sidewall coring shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelman, Ya A; Konstantinov, L P; Martyshin, A N

    1966-12-12

    A sidewall coring shell consists of a housing and a detachable core catcher. The core lifter is provided with projections, the ends of which are situated in another plane, along the longitudinal axis of the lifter. The chamber has corresponding projections.

  5. Though active on RINm5F insulinoma cells and cultured pancreatic islets, recombinant IL-22 fails to modulate cytotoxicity and disease in a protocol of streptozotocin-induced experimental diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anika eBerner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin (IL-22 is a cytokine displaying tissue protective and pro-regenerative functions in various preclinical disease models. Anti-bacterial, pro-proliferative, and anti-apoptotic properties mediated by activation of the transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT-3 are key to biological functions of this IL-10 family member. Herein, we introduce RINm5F insulinoma cells as rat ß-cell line that, under the influence of IL-22, displays activation of STAT3 with induction of its downstream gene targets Socs3, Bcl3, and Reg3ß. In addition, IL-22 also activates STAT1 in this cell type. To refine those observations, IL-22 biological activity was evaluated using ex vivo cultivated murine pancreatic islets. In accord with data on RINm5F cells, islet exposure to IL-22 activated STAT3 and upregulation of STAT3-inducible Socs3, Bcl3, and STEAP4 was evident under those conditions. As these observations supported the hypothesis that IL-22 may exert protective functions in toxic ß-cell injury, application of IL-22 was investigated in murine multiple-low-dose streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetes. For that purpose, recombinant IL-22 was administered thrice either immediately before and at disease onset (at d4, d6, d8 or closely thereafter (at d8, d10, d12. These two IL-22-treatment periods coincide with two early peaks of ß-cell injury detectable in this model. Notably, none of the two IL-22-treatment strategies affected diabetes incidence or blood glucose levels in STZ-treated mice. Moreover, pathological changes in islet morphology analyzed 28 days after disease induction were not ameliorated by IL-22 administration. Taken together, despite being active on rat RINm5F insulinoma cells and murine pancreatic islets, recombinant IL-22 fails to protect pancreatic ß-cells in the tested protocols from toxic effects of STZ and thus is unable to ameliorate disease in the widely used model of STZ-induced diabetes.

  6. Protocol Fuel Mix reporting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-07-01

    The protocol in this document describes a method for an Electricity Distribution Company (EDC) to account for the fuel mix of electricity that it delivers to its customers, based on the best available information. Own production, purchase and sale of electricity, and certificates trading are taken into account. In chapter 2 the actual protocol is outlined. In the appendixes additional (supporting) information is given: (A) Dutch Standard Fuel Mix, 2000; (B) Calculation of the Dutch Standard fuel mix; (C) Procedures to estimate and benchmark the fuel mix; (D) Quality management; (E) External verification; (F) Recommendation for further development of the protocol; (G) Reporting examples

  7. Coded Splitting Tree Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to multiple access control called coded splitting tree protocol. The approach builds on the known tree splitting protocols, code structure and successive interference cancellation (SIC). Several instances of the tree splitting protocol are initiated, each...... instance is terminated prematurely and subsequently iterated. The combined set of leaves from all the tree instances can then be viewed as a graph code, which is decodable using belief propagation. The main design problem is determining the order of splitting, which enables successful decoding as early...

  8. Playing With Population Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Koegler

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Population protocols have been introduced as a model of sensor networks consisting of very limited mobile agents with no control over their own movement: A collection of anonymous agents, modeled by finite automata, interact in pairs according to some rules. Predicates on the initial configurations that can be computed by such protocols have been characterized under several hypotheses. We discuss here whether and when the rules of interactions between agents can be seen as a game from game theory. We do so by discussing several basic protocols.

  9. ATM and Internet protocol

    CERN Document Server

    Bentall, M; Turton, B

    1998-01-01

    Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is a protocol that allows data, sound and video being transferred between independent networks via ISDN links to be supplied to, and interpreted by, the various system protocols.ATM and Internet Protocol explains the working of the ATM and B-ISDN network for readers with a basic understanding of telecommunications. It provides a handy reference to everyone working with ATM who may not require the full standards in detail, but need a comprehensive guide to ATM. A substantial section is devoted to the problems of running IP over ATM and there is some discussion o

  10. The coupling of the Star-Cd software to a whole-core neutron transport code Decart for PWR applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.W.; Lee, H.C.; Downar, T.J.; Sofu, T.; Weber, D.P.; Joo, H.G.; Cho, J.Y.

    2003-01-01

    As part of a U.S.- Korea collaborative U.S. Department of Energy INERI project, a comprehensive high-fidelity reactor-core modeling capability is being developed for detailed analysis of existing and advanced PWR reactor designs. An essential element of the project has been the development of an interface between the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) module, STAR-CD, and the neutronics module, DeCART. Since the computational mesh for CFD and neutronics calculations are generally different, the capability to average and decompose data on these different meshes has been an important part of code coupling activities. An averaging process has been developed to extract neutronics zone temperatures in the fuel and coolant and to generate appropriate multi group cross sections and densities. Similar procedures have also been established to map the power distribution from the neutronics zones to the mesh structure used in the CFD module. Since MPI is used as the parallel model in STAR-CD and conflicts arise during initiation of a second level of MPI, the interface developed here is based on using TCP/IP protocol sockets to establish communication between the CFD and neutronics modules. Preliminary coupled calculations have been performed for PWR fuel assembly size problems and converged solutions have been achieved for a series of steady-state problems ranging from a single pin to a 1/8 model of a 17 x 17 PWR fuel assembly. (authors)

  11. Rotary core drills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1967-11-30

    The design of a rotary core drill is described. Primary consideration is given to the following component parts of the drill: the inner and outer tube, the core bit, an adapter, and the core lifter. The adapter has the form of a downward-converging sleeve and is mounted to the lower end of the inner tube. The lifter, extending from the adapter, is split along each side so that it can be held open to permit movement of a core. It is possible to grip a core by allowing the lifter to assume a closed position.

  12. EPICS device support module as ATCA system manager for the ITER fast plant system controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Paulo F., E-mail: pricardofc@ipfn.ist.utl.pt [Associação EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico – Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); Santos, Bruno; Gonçalves, Bruno; Carvalho, Bernardo B.; Sousa, Jorge; Rodrigues, A.P.; Batista, António J.N.; Correia, Miguel; Combo, Álvaro [Associação EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico – Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); Correia, Carlos M.B.A. [Centro de Instrumentação, Departamento de Física, Universidade de Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal); Varandas, Carlos A.F. [Associação EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico – Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2013-10-15

    messages from the EPICS device support module, validates and takes proper action in order to execute and acknowledge the required command operation and respond with an operation success or error return code. Each ATCA board contains inventory data that can be retrieved by the ShM controller to determine if there is enough power available for the payload process, provide manufacturer data information, retrieve board model and serial numbers and check number of available board sensors their types and fields. The ShM can provide this inventory data information to the EPICS device support module if is required. ShM module communicates with the ATCA boards through the Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI) controller via IPMI communication protocol on redundant IPMI bus. This communication protocol is managed by the embedded Intelligent Management Platform Controller (IPMC) in the ATCA board side and by the embedded Shelf Management Controller (ShMC) in the ShM side. Queried inventory data information becomes available in the EPICS device support module upon ShM command response. EPICS device support module can be a valuable and good approach for ATCA ESM aiming the integration in the ITER Control and Data Acquisition (CODAC) core system according the ITER specification.

  13. Mobile Internet Protocol Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brachfeld, Lawrence

    1999-01-01

    ...) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP). Mobile IP allows mobile computers to send and receive packets addressed with their home network IP address, regardless of the IP address of their current point of attachment on the Internet...

  14. Development of Core Design Technology for LMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeong Il; Hong, S. G.; Jang, J. W. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    This report describes the contents of core design technology and computer code system development performed during 2005 and 2006 on the objects of nuclear proliferation resistant core and nuclear fuel basic key technology development security. Also, it is including the future application plans for the results and the developed methodology, important information and the materials acquired in this period. Two core designs with single enrichment were considered for the KALIMER-600 during the first year : 1) the first core uses the non-fuel rods such as B4C, ZrH1.8, and dummy rods, 2) the core using different cladding thickness for each core region (inner, middle, and outer cores) without non-fuel rods to flatten the power distribution. In particular, the latter design was intended to simplify the fuel assembly design by eliminating the heterogeneity. It was found that the proposed design satisfy all of the Gen IV SFR design goals on the cycle length longer than 18 EFPM, fuel discharge burnup larger than 80GWd/t, sodium void worth, conversion ratio, reactivity burnup swing and so on. For this object reactor, the structure integrity outside of reactor is confirmed for the radiation exposure during the plant life according to the result of shielding design and evaluation. The transmutation capability and the core characteristics of sodium cooled fast reactor was also evaluated according to the change of MA amount. The reactivity coefficients for the BN-600 reactor with MA fueled are calculated and the results are compared and evaluated with other participants results. Even though the discrepancies between the results of participants are somewhat large but the K-CORE results are close to the average within a standard deviation. To have the capability of 3-dimensional core dynamic analysis such as analyzing power distribution and reactivity variations according to the asymmetric insertion/withdrawal of control rods, the calculation module for core dynamic parameters was

  15. USA-USSR protocol

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    On 30 November the USA Atomic Energy Commission and the USSR State Committee for the Utilization of Atomic Energy signed, in Washington, a protocol 'on carrying out of joint projects in the field of high energy physics at the accelerators of the National Accelerator Laboratory (Batavia) and the Institute for High Energy Physics (Serpukhov)'. The protocol will be in force for five years and can be extended by mutual agreement.

  16. Development of CANDU core monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, M. Y.; Yeam, C. S.; Kwon, O. H.; Kim, K. H.

    2003-01-01

    The research was performed to develop a CANDU Core Monitoring System(CCMS) that enables operators to have efficient core management by monitoring core power distribution, burnup distribution, and the other important core variables and managing the past core history for Wolsong Nuclear Power Plant(NPP) No. 1. CCMS uses RFSP(Reactor Fueling Simulation Program) for continuous core calculation by integrating the algorithm and assumptions validated and uses the information taken from DCC(Digital Control Computer) for the purpose of producing basic input data. CCMS could be largely divided into two modules; CCMS server program and CCMS client program. CCMS server program plays the role in automatic and continuous RFSP run and management of the past output data resulting from the run using Data Base Management System(DBMS). CCMS client program enables users to monitor current and past core status with GUI(Graphic-User Interface) environment predefined. The effectiveness of CCMS was verified by comparing the data resulted from field-test of the system for about 43 hours with the data used in the field of Wolsong NPP No. 1

  17. Improved core protection calculator system algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Tae Young; Park, Young Ho; In, Wang Kee; Bae, Jong Sik; Baeg, Seung Yeob

    2009-01-01

    Core Protection Calculator System (CPCS) is a digitized core protection system which provides core protection functions based on two reactor core operation parameters, Departure from Nucleate Boiling Ratio (DNBR) and Local Power Density (LPD). It generates a reactor trip signal when the core condition exceeds the DNBR or LPD design limit. It consists of four independent channels which adapted a two out of four trip logic. CPCS algorithm improvement for the newly designed core protection calculator system, RCOPS (Reactor COre Protection System), is described in this paper. New features include the improvement of DNBR algorithm for thermal margin, the addition of pre trip alarm generation for auxiliary trip function, VOPT (Variable Over Power Trip) prevention during RPCS (Reactor Power Cutback System) actuation and the improvement of CEA (Control Element Assembly) signal checking algorithm. To verify the improved CPCS algorithm, CPCS algorithm verification tests, 'Module Test' and 'Unit Test', would be performed on RCOPS single channel facility. It is expected that the improved CPCS algorithm will increase DNBR margin and enhance the plant availability by reducing unnecessary reactor trips

  18. Development of CANDU core monitoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, M. Y.; Yeam, C. S.; Kwon, O. H.; Kim, K. H. [Institute for Advanced Engineering, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    The research was performed to develop a CANDU Core Monitoring System(CCMS) that enables operators to have efficient core management by monitoring core power distribution, burnup distribution, and the other important core variables and managing the past core history for Wolsong Nuclear Power Plant(NPP) No. 1. CCMS uses RFSP(Reactor Fueling Simulation Program) for continuous core calculation by integrating the algorithm and assumptions validated and uses the information taken from DCC(Digital Control Computer) for the purpose of producing basic input data. CCMS could be largely divided into two modules; CCMS server program and CCMS client program. CCMS server program plays the role in automatic and continuous RFSP run and management of the past output data resulting from the run using Data Base Management System(DBMS). CCMS client program enables users to monitor current and past core status with GUI(Graphic-User Interface) environment predefined. The effectiveness of CCMS was verified by comparing the data resulted from field-test of the system for about 43 hours with the data used in the field of Wolsong NPP No. 1.

  19. Validation of reactor core protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang-Hoon; Bae, Jong-Sik; Baeg, Seung-Yeob; Cho, Chang-Ho; Kim, Chang-Ho; Kim, Sung-Ho; Kim, Hang-Bae; In, Wang-Kee; Park, Young-Ho

    2008-01-01

    Reactor COre Protection System (RCOPS), an advanced core protection calculator system, is a digitized one which provides core protection function based on two reactor core operation parameters, Departure from Nucleate Boiling Ratio (DNBR) and Local Power Density (LPD). It generates a reactor trip signal when the core condition exceeds the DNBR or LPD design limit. It consists of four independent channels adapted a two-out-of-four trip logic. System configuration, hardware platform and an improved algorithm of the newly designed core protection calculator system are described in this paper. One channel of RCOPS was implemented as a single channel facility for this R and D project where we performed final integration software testing. To implement custom function blocks, pSET is used. Software test is performed by two methods. The first method is a 'Software Module Test' and the second method is a 'Software Unit Test'. New features include improvement of core thermal margin through a revised on-line DNBR algorithm, resolution of the latching problem of control element assembly signal and addition of the pre-trip alarm generation. The change of the on-line DNBR calculation algorithm is considered to improve the DNBR net margin by 2.5%-3.3%. (author)

  20. Modularized Functions of the Fanconi Anemia Core Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaling Huang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Fanconi anemia (FA core complex provides the essential E3 ligase function for spatially defined FANCD2 ubiquitination and FA pathway activation. Of the seven FA gene products forming the core complex, FANCL possesses a RING domain with demonstrated E3 ligase activity. The other six components do not have clearly defined roles. Through epistasis analyses, we identify three functional modules in the FA core complex: a catalytic module consisting of FANCL, FANCB, and FAAP100 is absolutely required for the E3 ligase function, and the FANCA-FANCG-FAAP20 and the FANCC-FANCE-FANCF modules provide nonredundant and ancillary functions that help the catalytic module bind chromatin or sites of DNA damage. Disruption of the catalytic module causes complete loss of the core complex function, whereas loss of any ancillary module component does not. Our work reveals the roles of several FA gene products with previously undefined functions and a modularized assembly of the FA core complex.

  1. The Expanded FindCore Method for Identification of a Core Atom Set for Assessment of Protein Structure Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, David A.; Grullon, Jennifer; Huang, Yuanpeng J.; Tejero, Roberto; Montelione, Gaetano T.

    2014-01-01

    Maximizing the scientific impact of NMR-based structure determination requires robust and statistically sound methods for assessing the precision of NMR-derived structures. In particular, a method to define a core atom set for calculating superimpositions and validating structure predictions is critical to the use of NMR-derived structures as targets in the CASP competition. FindCore (D.A. Snyder and G.T. Montelione PROTEINS 2005;59:673–686) is a superimposition independent method for identifying a core atom set, and partitioning that set into domains. However, as FindCore optimizes superimposition by sensitively excluding not-well-defined atoms, the FindCore core may not comprise all atoms suitable for use in certain applications of NMR structures, including the CASP assessment process. Adapting the FindCore approach to assess predicted models against experimental NMR structures in CASP10 required modification of the FindCore method. This paper describes conventions and a standard protocol to calculate an “Expanded FindCore” atom set suitable for validation and application in biological and biophysical contexts. A key application of the Expanded FindCore method is to identify a core set of atoms in the experimental NMR structure for which it makes sense to validate predicted protein structure models. We demonstrate the application of this Expanded FindCore method in characterizing well-defined regions of 18 NMR-derived CASP10 target structures. The Expanded FindCore protocol defines “expanded core atom sets” that match an expert’s intuition of which parts of the structure are sufficiently well-defined to use in assessing CASP model predictions. We also illustrate the impact of this analysis on the CASP GDT assessment scores. PMID:24327305

  2. HYDRATE CORE DRILLING TESTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John H. Cohen; Thomas E. Williams; Ali G. Kadaster; Bill V. Liddell

    2002-11-01

    The ''Methane Hydrate Production from Alaskan Permafrost'' project is a three-year endeavor being conducted by Maurer Technology Inc. (MTI), Noble, and Anadarko Petroleum, in partnership with the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The project's goal is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition. The project team plans to design and implement a program to safely and economically drill, core and produce gas from arctic hydrates. The current work scope includes drilling and coring one well on Anadarko leases in FY 2003 during the winter drilling season. A specially built on-site core analysis laboratory will be used to determine some of the physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. Prior to going to the field, the project team designed and conducted a controlled series of coring tests for simulating coring of hydrate formations. A variety of equipment and procedures were tested and modified to develop a practical solution for this special application. This Topical Report summarizes these coring tests. A special facility was designed and installed at MTI's Drilling Research Center (DRC) in Houston and used to conduct coring tests. Equipment and procedures were tested by cutting cores from frozen mixtures of sand and water supported by casing and designed to simulate hydrate formations. Tests were conducted with chilled drilling fluids. Tests showed that frozen core can be washed out and reduced in size by the action of the drilling fluid. Washing of the core by the drilling fluid caused a reduction in core diameter, making core recovery very difficult (if not impossible). One successful solution was to drill the last 6 inches of core dry (without fluid circulation). These tests demonstrated that it will be difficult to capture core when drilling in permafrost or hydrates without implementing certain safeguards. Among the coring tests was a simulated hydrate

  3. Is extended biopsy protocol justified in all patients with suspected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-01-03

    Jan 3, 2012 ... Objective: To determine the significance of an extended 10-core transrectal biopsy protocol in different categories of patients with suspected prostate cancer using digital guidance. Materials and Methods: We studied 125 men who were being evaluated for prostate cancer. They all had an extended.

  4. In silico toxicology protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myatt, Glenn J; Ahlberg, Ernst; Akahori, Yumi; Allen, David; Amberg, Alexander; Anger, Lennart T; Aptula, Aynur; Auerbach, Scott; Beilke, Lisa; Bellion, Phillip; Benigni, Romualdo; Bercu, Joel; Booth, Ewan D; Bower, Dave; Brigo, Alessandro; Burden, Natalie; Cammerer, Zoryana; Cronin, Mark T D; Cross, Kevin P; Custer, Laura; Dettwiler, Magdalena; Dobo, Krista; Ford, Kevin A; Fortin, Marie C; Gad-McDonald, Samantha E; Gellatly, Nichola; Gervais, Véronique; Glover, Kyle P; Glowienke, Susanne; Van Gompel, Jacky; Gutsell, Steve; Hardy, Barry; Harvey, James S; Hillegass, Jedd; Honma, Masamitsu; Hsieh, Jui-Hua; Hsu, Chia-Wen; Hughes, Kathy; Johnson, Candice; Jolly, Robert; Jones, David; Kemper, Ray; Kenyon, Michelle O; Kim, Marlene T; Kruhlak, Naomi L; Kulkarni, Sunil A; Kümmerer, Klaus; Leavitt, Penny; Majer, Bernhard; Masten, Scott; Miller, Scott; Moser, Janet; Mumtaz, Moiz; Muster, Wolfgang; Neilson, Louise; Oprea, Tudor I; Patlewicz, Grace; Paulino, Alexandre; Lo Piparo, Elena; Powley, Mark; Quigley, Donald P; Reddy, M Vijayaraj; Richarz, Andrea-Nicole; Ruiz, Patricia; Schilter, Benoit; Serafimova, Rositsa; Simpson, Wendy; Stavitskaya, Lidiya; Stidl, Reinhard; Suarez-Rodriguez, Diana; Szabo, David T; Teasdale, Andrew; Trejo-Martin, Alejandra; Valentin, Jean-Pierre; Vuorinen, Anna; Wall, Brian A; Watts, Pete; White, Angela T; Wichard, Joerg; Witt, Kristine L; Woolley, Adam; Woolley, David; Zwickl, Craig; Hasselgren, Catrin

    2018-04-17

    The present publication surveys several applications of in silico (i.e., computational) toxicology approaches across different industries and institutions. It highlights the need to develop standardized protocols when conducting toxicity-related predictions. This contribution articulates the information needed for protocols to support in silico predictions for major toxicological endpoints of concern (e.g., genetic toxicity, carcinogenicity, acute toxicity, reproductive toxicity, developmental toxicity) across several industries and regulatory bodies. Such novel in silico toxicology (IST) protocols, when fully developed and implemented, will ensure in silico toxicological assessments are performed and evaluated in a consistent, reproducible, and well-documented manner across industries and regulatory bodies to support wider uptake and acceptance of the approaches. The development of IST protocols is an initiative developed through a collaboration among an international consortium to reflect the state-of-the-art in in silico toxicology for hazard identification and characterization. A general outline for describing the development of such protocols is included and it is based on in silico predictions and/or available experimental data for a defined series of relevant toxicological effects or mechanisms. The publication presents a novel approach for determining the reliability of in silico predictions alongside experimental data. In addition, we discuss how to determine the level of confidence in the assessment based on the relevance and reliability of the information. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. The core paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, G. C.; Higgins, G. H.

    1973-01-01

    Rebuttal of suggestions from various critics attempting to provide an escape from the seeming paradox originated by Higgins and Kennedy's (1971) proposed possibility that the liquid in the outer core was thermally stably stratified and that this stratification might prove a powerful inhibitor to circulation of the outer core fluid of the kind postulated for the generation of the earth's magnetic field. These suggestions are examined and shown to provide no reasonable escape from the core paradox.

  6. Creating Open Digital Library Using XML Implementation of OAi-PMH Protocol at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Vesely, M; Le Meur, Jean-Yves; Simko, Tibor

    2002-01-01

    This article describes the implementation of the OAi-PMH protocol within the CERN Document Server (CDS). In terms of the protocol, CERN acts both as a data provider and service provider and the two core applications are described. The application of XML Schema and XSLT technology is emphasized.

  7. Creating Open Digital Library Using XML: Implementation of OAi-PMH Protocol at CERN

    OpenAIRE

    Vesely, M; Baron, T; Le Meur, Jean-Yves; Simko, Tibor

    2002-01-01

    This article describes the implementation of the OAi-PMH protocol within the CERN Document Server (CDS). In terms of the protocol, CERN acts both as a data provider and service provider and the two core applications are described. The application of XML Schema and XSLT technology is emphasized.

  8. Nuclear reactor core flow baffling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berringer, R.T.

    1979-01-01

    A flow baffling arrangement is disclosed for the core of a nuclear reactor. A plurality of core formers are aligned with the grids of the core fuel assemblies such that the high pressure drop areas in the core are at the same elevations as the high pressure drop areas about the core periphery. The arrangement minimizes core bypass flow, maintains cooling of the structure surrounding the core, and allows the utilization of alternative beneficial components such as neutron reflectors positioned near the core

  9. Sediment Core Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides instrumentation and expertise for physical and geoacoustic characterization of marine sediments.DESCRIPTION: The multisensor core logger measures...

  10. Microprocessor-controlled CAMAC data link module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, J.M.

    1978-05-01

    Communication between the central control computer and remote, satellite data-acquisition/control stations at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) is presently accomplished through the use of CAMAC-based Data Link modules. With the advent of the microprocessor, a new philosophy for digital data communications has evolved. Data Link modules containing microprocessor controllers provide link management and communication network protocol through algorithms executed in the Data Link microprocessor. 13 figures

  11. Business protocol in integrated Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Pavelová, Nina

    2009-01-01

    The first chapter devotes to definitions of basic terms such as protocol or business protocol, to differences between protocol and etiquette, and between social etiquette and business etiquette. The second chapter focuses on the factors influencing the European business protocol. The third chapter is devoted to the etiquette of business protocol in the European countries. It touches the topics such as punctuality and planning of business appointment, greeting, business cards, dress and appear...

  12. Security Protocols in a Nutshell

    OpenAIRE

    Toorani, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Security protocols are building blocks in secure communications. They deploy some security mechanisms to provide certain security services. Security protocols are considered abstract when analyzed, but they can have extra vulnerabilities when implemented. This manuscript provides a holistic study on security protocols. It reviews foundations of security protocols, taxonomy of attacks on security protocols and their implementations, and different methods and models for security analysis of pro...

  13. Irreducible Specht modules are signed Young modules

    OpenAIRE

    Hemmer, David J.

    2005-01-01

    Recently Donkin defined signed Young modules as a simultaneous generalization of Young and twisted Young modules for the symmetric group. We show that in odd characteristic, if a Specht module $S^\\lambda$ is irreducible, then $S^\\lambda$ is a signed Young module. Thus the set of irreducible Specht modules coincides with the set of irreducible signed Young modules. This provides evidence for our conjecture that the signed Young modules are precisely the class of indecomposable self-dual module...

  14. DNA repair protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjergbæk, Lotte

    In its 3rd edition, this Methods in Molecular Biology(TM) book covers the eukaryotic response to genomic insult including advanced protocols and standard techniques in the field of DNA repair. Offers expert guidance for DNA repair, recombination, and replication. Current knowledge of the mechanisms...... that regulate DNA repair has grown significantly over the past years with technology advances such as RNA interference, advanced proteomics and microscopy as well as high throughput screens. The third edition of DNA Repair Protocols covers various aspects of the eukaryotic response to genomic insult including...... recent advanced protocols as well as standard techniques used in the field of DNA repair. Both mammalian and non-mammalian model organisms are covered in the book, and many of the techniques can be applied with only minor modifications to other systems than the one described. Written in the highly...

  15. Can Psychiatric Rehabilitation Be Core to CORE?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olney, Marjorie F.; Gill, Kenneth J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In this article, we seek to determine whether psychiatric rehabilitation principles and practices have been more fully incorporated into the Council on Rehabilitation Education (CORE) standards, the extent to which they are covered in four rehabilitation counseling "foundations" textbooks, and how they are reflected in the…

  16. METHOD AND MODULE FOR OPTICAL SUBCARRIER LABELLING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    The present invention relates to optical labelling in WDM networks, in that it provides a method and a module to be used in subcarrier label generation and switching in network edge nodes and core switch nodes. The methods and modules are typically employed in Optical Subcarrier Multiplexing (OSCM......) transmitters. The payload and the label are encoded independently on optical carrier and subcarrier signals respectively, using electro-optical modulators. The invention applies single or double sideband carrier-suppressed modulation to generate subcarrier signals for encoding of the label. Thereby the payload...... encoded carrier signal and the label encoded subcarrier signal can be coupled directly without prior filtering....

  17. Manufacturing development for the SAFE 100 kW core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, Robert; Roman, Jose; Salvail, Pat

    2002-01-01

    In stark contrast to what is sometimes considered the norm in traditional manufacturing processes, engineers at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) arc in the practice of altering the standard in an effort to realize other potential methods in core manufacturing. While remaining within the bounds of the materials database, we are researching into core manufacturing techniques that may have been overlooked in the past due to funding and/or time constraints. To augment proven core fabrication capabilities we are pursuing plating processes as another possible method for core build-up and assembly. Although brazing and a proprietary HIP cycle are used for module assembly (proven track record for stability and endurance), it is prudent to pursue secondary or backup methods of module and core assembly. For this reason heat tube manufacture and module assembly by means of plating is being investigated. Potentially, the plating processes will give engineers the ability to manufacture replacement modules for any module that might fail to perform nominally, and to assemble/disassemble a complete core in much less time than would be required for the conventional Braze-HIP process. Another area of improvement in core manufacturing capabilities is the installation of a sodium and lithium liquid metal heat pipe fill machine. This, along with the ability to Electron Beam Weld heat pipe seals and wet-in the pipes in the necessary vacuum atmosphere, will eliminate the need to ship potentially hazardous components outside for processing. In addition to developing core manufacturing techniques, the SAFE manufacturing team has been evaluating the thermal heat transfer characteristics, and manufacturability of several heat exchanger design concepts

  18. Protocol Monitoring Energy Conservation; Protocol Monitoring Energiebesparing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boonekamp, P.G.M. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands); Mannaerts, H. [Centraal Planburea CPB, Den Haag (Netherlands); Tinbergen, W. [Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek CBS, Den Haag (Netherlands); Vreuls, H.H.J. [Nederlandse onderneming voor energie en milieu Novem, Utrecht (Netherlands); Wesselink, B. [Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieuhygiene RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    2001-12-01

    On request of the Dutch ministry of Economic Affairs five institutes have collaborated to create a 'Protocol Monitoring Energy Conservation', a common method and database to calculate the amount of energy savings realised in past years. The institutes concerned are the Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), the Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis (CPB), the Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), the National Agency for Energy and Environment (Novem) and the Netherlands Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM). The institutes have agreed upon a clear definition of energy use and energy savings. The demarcation with renewable energy, the saving effects of substitution between energy carriers and the role of import and export of energy have been elaborated. A decomposition method is used to split up the observed change in energy use in a number of effects, on a national and sectoral level. This method includes an analysis of growth effects, effects of structural changes in production and consumption activities and savings on end use or with more efficient conversion processes. To calculate these effects the total energy use is desegregated as much as possible. For each segment a reference energy use is calculated according to the trend in a variable which is supposed to be representative for the use without savings. The difference with the actual energy use is taken as the savings realised. Results are given for the sectors households, industry, agriculture, services and government, transportation and the energy sector; as well as a national figure. A special feature of the protocol method is the application of primary energy use figures in the determination of savings for end users. This means that the use of each energy carrier is increased with a certain amount, according to the conversion losses caused elsewhere in the energy system. The losses concern the base year energy sector and losses abroad for imports of secondary

  19. PWR core design calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trkov, A.; Ravnik, M.; Zeleznik, N.

    1992-01-01

    Functional description of the programme package Cord-2 for PWR core design calculations is presented. Programme package is briefly described. Use of the package and calculational procedures for typical core design problems are treated. Comparison of main results with experimental values is presented as part of the verification process. (author) [sl

  20. Replaceable LMFBR core components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, E.A.; Cunningham, G.W.

    1976-01-01

    Much progress has been made in understanding material and component performance in the high temperature, fast neutron environment of the LMFBR. Current data have provided strong assurance that the initial core component lifetime objectives of FFTF and CRBR can be met. At the same time, this knowledge translates directly into the need for improved core designs that utilize improved materials and advanced fuels required to meet objectives of low doubling times and extended core component lifetimes. An industrial base for the manufacture of quality core components has been developed in the US, and all procurements for the first two core equivalents for FFTF will be completed this year. However, the problem of fabricating recycled plutonium while dramatically reducing fabrication costs, minimizing personnel exposure, and protecting public health and safety must be addressed

  1. Lunar Core and Tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. G.; Boggs, D. H.; Ratcliff, J. T.

    2004-01-01

    Variations in rotation and orientation of the Moon are sensitive to solid-body tidal dissipation, dissipation due to relative motion at the fluid-core/solid-mantle boundary, and tidal Love number k2 [1,2]. There is weaker sensitivity to flattening of the core-mantle boundary (CMB) [2,3,4] and fluid core moment of inertia [1]. Accurate Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) measurements of the distance from observatories on the Earth to four retroreflector arrays on the Moon are sensitive to lunar rotation and orientation variations and tidal displacements. Past solutions using the LLR data have given results for dissipation due to solid-body tides and fluid core [1] plus Love number [1-5]. Detection of CMB flattening, which in the past has been marginal but improving [3,4,5], now seems significant. Direct detection of the core moment has not yet been achieved.

  2. Internal core tightener

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brynsvold, G.V.; Snyder, H.J. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    An internal core tightener is disclosed which is a linear actuated (vertical actuation motion) expanding device utilizing a minimum of moving parts to perform the lateral tightening function. The key features are: (1) large contact areas to transmit loads during reactor operation; (2) actuation cam surfaces loaded only during clamping and unclamping operation; (3) separation of the parts and internal operation involved in the holding function from those involved in the actuation function; and (4) preloaded pads with compliant travel at each face of the hexagonal assembly at the two clamping planes to accommodate thermal expansion and irradiation induced swelling. The latter feature enables use of a ''fixed'' outer core boundary, and thus eliminates the uncertainty in gross core dimensions, and potential for rapid core reactivity changes as a result of core dimensional change. 5 claims, 12 drawing figures

  3. Optimization and Verification of the TR-MAC Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morshed, S.; Heijenk, Geert

    2015-01-01

    Energy-efficiency is an important requirement in the design of communication protocols for wireless sensor networks (WSN). TR-MAC is an energy-efficient medium access control (MAC) layer protocol for low power WSN that exploits transmitted-reference (TR) modulation in the physical layer. The

  4. Immunocytochemical methods and protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Javois, Lorette C

    1999-01-01

    ... monoclonal antibodies to study cell differentiation during embryonic development. For a select few disciplines volumes have been published focusing on the specific application of immunocytochemical techniques to that discipline. What distinguished Immunocytochemical Methods and Protocols from earlier books when it was first published four years ago was i...

  5. Critical Response Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingson, Charlene; Roehrig, Gillian; Bakkum, Kris; Dubinsky, Janet M.

    2016-01-01

    This article introduces the Critical Response Protocol (CRP), an arts-based technique that engages students in equitable critical discourse and aligns with the "Next Generation Science Standards" vision for providing students opportunities for language learning while advancing science learning (NGSS Lead States 2013). CRP helps teachers…

  6. Linear Logical Voting Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DeYoung, Henry; Schürmann, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    Current approaches to electronic implementations of voting protocols involve translating legal text to source code of an imperative programming language. Because the gap between legal text and source code is very large, it is difficult to trust that the program meets its legal specification. In r...

  7. Principles of Protocol Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Robin

    This is a new and updated edition of a book first published in 1994. The book introduces the reader to the principles used in the construction of a large range of modern data communication protocols, as used in distributed computer systems of all kinds. The approach taken is rather a formal one...

  8. Electronic Voting Protocol Using Identity-Based Cryptography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Gallegos-Garcia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic voting protocols proposed to date meet their properties based on Public Key Cryptography (PKC, which offers high flexibility through key agreement protocols and authentication mechanisms. However, when PKC is used, it is necessary to implement Certification Authority (CA to provide certificates which bind public keys to entities and enable verification of such public key bindings. Consequently, the components of the protocol increase notably. An alternative is to use Identity-Based Encryption (IBE. With this kind of cryptography, it is possible to have all the benefits offered by PKC, without neither the need of certificates nor all the core components of a Public Key Infrastructure (PKI. Considering the aforementioned, in this paper we propose an electronic voting protocol, which meets the privacy and robustness properties by using bilinear maps.

  9. Electronic Voting Protocol Using Identity-Based Cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos-Garcia, Gina; Tapia-Recillas, Horacio

    2015-01-01

    Electronic voting protocols proposed to date meet their properties based on Public Key Cryptography (PKC), which offers high flexibility through key agreement protocols and authentication mechanisms. However, when PKC is used, it is necessary to implement Certification Authority (CA) to provide certificates which bind public keys to entities and enable verification of such public key bindings. Consequently, the components of the protocol increase notably. An alternative is to use Identity-Based Encryption (IBE). With this kind of cryptography, it is possible to have all the benefits offered by PKC, without neither the need of certificates nor all the core components of a Public Key Infrastructure (PKI). Considering the aforementioned, in this paper we propose an electronic voting protocol, which meets the privacy and robustness properties by using bilinear maps.

  10. Clean Development Mechanism: Core of Kyoto Mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myung Kyun [United Nations Environment Programme (Denmark)

    2000-06-01

    Kyoto protocol is a foundation for achieving an ultimate goal of UNFCCC, which is to stabilizing greenhouse gas concentration in the air. The clean development system is a core element for successful implementation of Kyoto protocol with other Kyoto mechanisms. While UNFCCC requires a new paradigm changing to sustainable development considering demand and future environment from the past supply-oriented resource consumption, the clean development system will be used as a means of successful establishment of a new paradigm in 21st century. As environmental problem is integrated with economic problem and each country is thriving for securing its own economic benefit in the issue of environmental conservation, Korea should do its best to have both of global environmental conservation and economic benefit for its own. 1 tab.

  11. Core Outcome Domains for early phase clinical trials of sound-, psychology-, and pharmacology-based interventions to manage chronic subjective tinnitus in adults: the COMIT'ID study protocol for using a Delphi process and face-to-face meetings to establish consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fackrell, Kathryn; Smith, Harriet; Colley, Veronica; Thacker, Brian; Horobin, Adele; Haider, Haúla F; Londero, Alain; Mazurek, Birgit; Hall, Deborah A

    2017-08-23

    The reporting of outcomes in clinical trials of subjective tinnitus indicates that many different tinnitus-related complaints are of interest to investigators, from perceptual attributes of the sound (e.g. loudness) to psychosocial impacts (e.g. quality of life). Even when considering one type of intervention strategy for subjective tinnitus, there is no agreement about what is critically important for deciding whether a treatment is effective. The main purpose of this observational study is, therefore to, develop Core Outcome Domain Sets for the three different intervention strategies (sound, psychological, and pharmacological) for adults with chronic subjective tinnitus that should be measured and reported in every clinical trial of these interventions. Secondary objectives are to identify the strengths and limitations of our study design for recruiting and reducing attrition of participants, and to explore uptake of the core outcomes. The 'Core Outcome Measures in Tinnitus: International Delphi' (COMIT'ID) study will use a mixed-methods approach that incorporates input from health care users at the pre-Delphi stage, a modified three-round Delphi survey and final consensus meetings (one for each intervention). The meetings will generate recommendations by stakeholder representatives on agreed Core Outcome Domain Sets specific to each intervention. A subsequent step will establish a common cross-cutting Core Outcome Domain Set by identifying the common outcome domains included in all three intervention-specific Core Outcome Domain Sets. To address the secondary objectives, we will gather feedback from participants about their experience of taking part in the Delphi process. We aspire to conduct an observational cohort study to evaluate uptake of the core outcomes in published studies at 7 years following Core Outcome Set publication. The COMIT'ID study aims to develop a Core Outcome Domain Set that is agreed as critically important for deciding whether a

  12. Model Additional Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockwood, Laura

    2001-01-01

    Since the end of the cold war a series of events has changed the circumstances and requirements of the safeguards system. The discovery of a clandestine nuclear weapons program in Iraq, the continuing difficulty in verifying the initial report of Democratic People's Republic of Korea upon entry into force of their safeguards agreement, and the decision of the South African Government to give up its nuclear weapons program and join the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons have all played a role in an ambitious effort by IAEA Member States and the Secretariat to strengthen the safeguards system. A major milestone in this effort was reached in May 1997 when the IAEA Board of Governors approved a Model Protocol Additional to Safeguards Agreements. The Model Additional Protocol was negotiated over a period of less than a year by an open-ended committee of the Board involving some 70 Member States and two regional inspectorates. The IAEA is now in the process of negotiating additional protocols, State by State, and implementing them. These additional protocols will provide the IAEA with rights of access to information about all activities related to the use of nuclear material in States with comprehensive safeguards agreements and greatly expanded physical access for IAEA inspectors to confirm or verify this information. In conjunction with this, the IAEA is working on the integration of these measures with those provided for in comprehensive safeguards agreements, with a view to maximizing the effectiveness and efficiency, within available resources, the implementation of safeguards. Details concerning the Model Additional Protocol are given. (author)

  13. [Study for lung sound acquisition module based on ARM and Linux].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qiang; Li, Wenfeng; Zhang, Xixue; Li, Junmin; Liu, Longqing

    2011-07-01

    A acquisition module with ARM and Linux as a core was developed. This paper presents the hardware configuration and the software design. It is shown that the module can extract human lung sound reliably and effectively.

  14. Bismuth ferrite as low-loss switchable material for plasmonic waveguide modulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia; Zhukovsky, Sergei; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2014-01-01

    We propose new designs of plasmonic modulators, which can beused for dynamic signal switching in photonic integrated circuits. We studyperformance of a plasmonic waveguide modulator with bismuth ferrite as atunable material. The bismuth ferrite core is sandwiched between metalplates (metal...

  15. Core reset system design for linear induction accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durga Praveen Kumar, D.; Mitra, S.; Sharma, Archana; Nagesh, K.V.; Chakravarthy, D.P.

    2006-01-01

    A repetitive pulsed power system based Linear Induction Accelerator (LIA-200) is being developed at BARC to get an electron beam of 200keV, 5kA, 50ns, 10-100 Hz. Amorphous core is the heart of these accelerators. It serves various functions in different subsystems viz. pulse power modulator, pulse transformer, magnetic switches and induction cavities. One of the factors that make the magnetic components compact is utilization of the total flux swing available in the core. In the present system, magnetic switches, pulse transformers, and induction cavity are designed to avail the full flux swing available in the core. For achieving this objective, flux density in the core has to be kept at the reverse saturation, before the main pulse is applied. The electrical circuit which makes it possible is called the core reset system. In this paper the details of core reset system designed for LIA-200 are described. (author)

  16. Earth's inner core: Innermost inner core or hemispherical variations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lythgoe, K. H.; Deuss, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412396610; Rudge, J. F.; Neufeld, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    The structure of Earth's deep inner core has important implications for core evolution, since it is thought to be related to the early stages of core formation. Previous studies have suggested that there exists an innermost inner core with distinct anisotropy relative to the rest of the inner core.

  17. Dependence of Core and Extended Flux on Core Dominance ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Based on two extragalactic radio source samples, the core dominance parameter is calculated, and the correlations between the core/extended flux density and core dominance parameter are investi- gated. When the core dominance parameter is lower than unity, it is linearly correlated with the core flux density, ...

  18. Signed Young Modules and Simple Specht Modules

    OpenAIRE

    Danz, Susanne; Lim, Kay Jin

    2015-01-01

    By a result of Hemmer, every simple Specht module of a finite symmetric group over a field of odd characteristic is a signed Young module. While Specht modules are parametrized by partitions, indecomposable signed Young modules are parametrized by certain pairs of partitions. The main result of this article establishes the signed Young module labels of simple Specht modules. Along the way we prove a number of results concerning indecomposable signed Young modules that are of independent inter...

  19. Korrelasjon mellom core styrke, core stabilitet og utholdende styrke i core

    OpenAIRE

    Berg-Olsen, Andrea Marie; Fugelsøy, Eivor; Maurstad, Ann-Louise

    2010-01-01

    Formålet med studien var å se hvilke korrelasjon det er mellom core styrke, core stabilitet og utholdende styrke i core. Testingen bestod av tre hoveddeler hvor vi testet core styrke, core stabilitet og utholdende styrke i core. Innenfor core styrke og utholdende styrke i core ble tre ulike tester utført. Ved måling av core stabilitet ble det gjennomført kun en test. I core styrke ble isometrisk abdominal fleksjon, isometrisk rygg ekstensjon og isometrisk lateral fleksjon testet. Sit-ups p...

  20. Memory Modulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozendaal, Benno; McGaugh, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Our memories are not all created equally strong: Some experiences are well remembered while others are remembered poorly, if at all. Research on memory modulation investigates the neurobiological processes and systems that contribute to such differences in the strength of our memories. Extensive

  1. Module descriptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincenti, Gordon; Klausen, Bodil; Kjær Jensen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    The Module Descriptor including a Teacher’s Guide explains and describes how to work innovatively and co-creatively with wicked problems and young people. The descriptor shows how interested educators and lecturers in Europe can copy the lessons of the Erasmus+ project HIP when teaching their own...

  2. Windscale pile core surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, R.F.; Mathews, R.F.

    1996-01-01

    The two Windscale Piles were closed down, defueled as far as possible and mothballed for thirty years following a fire in the core of Pile 1 in 1957 resulting from the spontaneous release of stored Wigner energy in the graphite moderator. Decommissioning of the reactors commenced in 1987 and has reached the stage where the condition of both cores needs to be determined. To this end, non-intrusive and intrusive surveys and sampling of the cores have been planned and partly implemented. The objectives for each Pile differ slightly. The location and quantity of fuel remaining in the damaged core of Pile 1 needed to be established, whereas the removal of all fuel from Pile 2 needed to be confirmed. In Pile 1, the possible existence of a void in the core is to be explored and in Pile 2, the level of Wigner energy remaining required to be quantified. Levels of radioactivity in both cores needed to be measured. The planning of the surveys is described including strategy, design, safety case preparation and the remote handling and viewing equipment required to carry out the inspection, sampling and monitoring work. The results from the completed non-intrusive survey of Pile 2 are summarised. They confirm that the core is empty and the graphite is in good condition. The survey of Pile 1 has just started. (UK)

  3. A software defined RTU multi-protocol automatic adaptation data transmission method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Huiying; Xu, Xingwu; Wang, Zhanfeng; Ma, Weijun; Li, Sheng; Su, Yong; Pan, Yunpeng

    2018-02-01

    Remote terminal unit (RTU) is the core device of the monitor system in hydrology and water resources. Different devices often have different communication protocols in the application layer, which results in the difficulty in information analysis and communication networking. Therefore, we introduced the idea of software defined hardware, and abstracted the common feature of mainstream communication protocols of RTU application layer, and proposed a uniformed common protocol model. Then, various communication protocol algorithms of application layer are modularized according to the model. The executable codes of these algorithms are labeled by the virtual functions and stored in the flash chips of embedded CPU to form the protocol stack. According to the configuration commands to initialize the RTU communication systems, it is able to achieve dynamic assembling and loading of various application layer communication protocols of RTU and complete the efficient transport of sensor data from RTU to central station when the data acquisition protocol of sensors and various external communication terminals remain unchanged.

  4. Development of core design and analyses technology for integral reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zee, Sung Quun; Lee, C. C.; Song, J. S. and others

    1999-03-01

    Integral reactors are developed for the applications such as sea water desalination, heat energy for various industries, and power sources for large container ships. In order to enhance the inherent and passive safety features, low power density concept is chosen for the integral reactor SMART. Moreover, ultra-longer cycle and boron-free operation concepts are reviewed for better plant economy and simple design of reactor system. Especially, boron-free operation concept brings about large difference in core configurations and reactivity controls from those of the existing large size commercial nuclear power plants and also causes many differences in the safety aspects. The ultimate objectives of this study include detailed core design of a integral reactor, development of the core design system and technology, and finally acquisition of the system design certificate. The goal of the first stage is the conceptual core design, that is, to establish the design bases and requirements suitable for the boron-free concept, to develop a core loading pattern, to analyze the nuclear, thermal and hydraulic characteristics of the core and to perform the core shielding design. Interface data for safety and performance analyses including fuel design data are produced for the relevant design analysis groups. Nuclear, thermal and hydraulic, shielding design and analysis code systems necessary for the core conceptual design are established through modification of the existing design tools and newly developed methodology and code modules. Core safety and performance can be improved by the technology development such as boron-free core optimization, advaned core monitoring and operational aid system. Feasiblity study on the improvement of the core protection and monitoring system will also contribute toward core safety and performance. Both the conceptual core design study and the related technology will provide concrete basis for the next design phase. This study will also

  5. Development of core design and analyses technology for integral reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zee, Sung Quun; Lee, C. C.; Song, J. S. and others

    1999-03-01

    Integral reactors are developed for the applications such as sea water desalination, heat energy for various industries, and power sources for large container ships. In order to enhance the inherent and passive safety features, low power density concept is chosen for the integral reactor SMART. Moreover, ultra-longer cycle and boron-free operation concepts are reviewed for better plant economy and simple design of reactor system. Especially, boron-free operation concept brings about large difference in core configurations and reactivity controls from those of the existing large size commercial nuclear power plants and also causes many differences in the safety aspects. The ultimate objectives of this study include detailed core design of a integral reactor, development of the core design system and technology, and finally acquisition of the system design certificate. The goal of the first stage is the conceptual core design, that is, to establish the design bases and requirements suitable for the boron-free concept, to develop a core loading pattern, to analyze the nuclear, thermal and hydraulic characteristics of the core and to perform the core shielding design. Interface data for safety and performance analyses including fuel design data are produced for the relevant design analysis groups. Nuclear, thermal and hydraulic, shielding design and analysis code systems necessary for the core conceptual design are established through modification of the existing design tools and newly developed methodology and code modules. Core safety and performance can be improved by the technology development such as boron-free core optimization, advaned core monitoring and operational aid system. Feasiblity study on the improvement of the core protection and monitoring system will also contribute toward core safety and performance. Both the conceptual core design study and the related technology will provide concrete basis for the next design phase. This study will also

  6. Core shroud corner joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Charles B.; Forsyth, David R.

    2013-09-10

    A core shroud is provided, which includes a number of planar members, a number of unitary corners, and a number of subassemblies each comprising a combination of the planar members and the unitary corners. Each unitary corner comprises a unitary extrusion including a first planar portion and a second planar portion disposed perpendicularly with respect to the first planar portion. At least one of the subassemblies comprises a plurality of the unitary corners disposed side-by-side in an alternating opposing relationship. A plurality of the subassemblies can be combined to form a quarter perimeter segment of the core shroud. Four quarter perimeter segments join together to form the core shroud.

  7. IGCSE core mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Wall, Terry

    2013-01-01

    Give your core level students the support and framework they require to get their best grades with this book dedicated to the core level content of the revised syllabus and written specifically to ensure a more appropriate pace. This title has been written for Core content of the revised Cambridge IGCSE Mathematics (0580) syllabus for first teaching from 2013. ? Gives students the practice they require to deepen their understanding through plenty of practice questions. ? Consolidates learning with unique digital resources on the CD, included free with every book. We are working with Cambridge

  8. Induction accelerator test module for HIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faltens, A.

    1991-04-01

    An induction linac test module suitable for investigating the drive requirements and the longitudinal coupling impedance of a high-power ion induction linac has been constructed by the Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) group at LBL. The induction linac heavy ion driver for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) as presently envisioned uses multiple parallel beams which are transported in separate focusing channels but accelerated together in the induction modules. The resulting induction modules consequently have large beam apertures-1--2 meters in diameter- and correspondingly large outside diameters. The module geometry is related to a low-frequency ''gap capacity'' and high-frequency structural resonances, which are affected by the magnetic core loading and the module pulser impedance. A description of the test module and preliminary results are presented. 3 figs

  9. Satellite Communications Using Commercial Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.; Griner, James H.; Dimond, Robert; Frantz, Brian D.; Kachmar, Brian; Shell, Dan

    2000-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center has been working with industry, academia, and other government agencies in assessing commercial communications protocols for satellite and space-based applications. In addition, NASA Glenn has been developing and advocating new satellite-friendly modifications to existing communications protocol standards. This paper summarizes recent research into the applicability of various commercial standard protocols for use over satellite and space- based communications networks as well as expectations for future protocol development. It serves as a reference point from which the detailed work can be readily accessed. Areas that will be addressed include asynchronous-transfer-mode quality of service; completed and ongoing work of the Internet Engineering Task Force; data-link-layer protocol development for unidirectional link routing; and protocols for aeronautical applications, including mobile Internet protocol routing for wireless/mobile hosts and the aeronautical telecommunications network protocol.

  10. Precision Time Protocol support hardware for ATCA control and data acquisition system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, Miguel, E-mail: miguelfc@ipfn.ist.utl.pt [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Sousa, Jorge; Carvalho, Bernardo B.; Santos, Bruno; Carvalho, Paulo F.; Rodrigues, António P.; Combo, Álvaro M.; Pereira, Rita C. [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Correia, Carlos M.B.A. [Centro de Instrumentação, Departamento de Física, Universidade de Coimbra, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Gonçalves, Bruno [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • ATCA based control and data acquisition subsystem has been developed at IPFN. • PTP and time stamping were implemented with VHDL and PTP daemon (PTPd) codes. • The RTM (…) provides PTP synchronization with an external GMC. • The main advantage is that timestamps are generated closer to the Physical Layer at the GMII. • IPFN's upgrade consistently exhibited jitter values below 25 ns RMS. - Abstract: An in-house, Advanced Telecom Computing Architecture (ATCA) based control and data acquisition (C&DAQ) subsystem has been developed at Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear (IPFN), aiming for compliance with the ITER Fast Plant System Controller (FPSC). Timing and synchronization for the ATCA modules connects to ITER Control, Data Access and Communication (CODAC) through the Timing Communication Network (TCN), which uses IEEE 1588-2008 Precision Time Protocol (PTP) to synchronize devices to a Grand Master Clock (GMC). The TCN infrastructure was tested for an RMS jitter under the limit of 50 ns. Therefore, IPFN's hardware, namely the ATCA-PTSW-AMC4 hub-module, which is in charge of timing and synchronization distribution for all subsystem endpoints, shall also perform within this jitter limit. This paper describes a relevant upgrade, applied to the ATCA-PTSW-AMC4 hardware, to comply with these requirements – in particular, the integration of an add-on module “RMC-TMG-1588” on its Rear Transition Module (RTM). This add-on is based on a commercial FPGA-based module from Trenz Electronic, using the ZHAW “PTP VHDL code for timestamping unit and clock”, which features clock offset and drift correction and hardware-assisted time stamping. The main advantage is that timestamps are generated closer to the Physical Layer, at the Gigabit Ethernet Media Independent Interface (GMII), avoiding the timing uncertainties accumulated through the upper layers. PTP code and user software run in a MicroBlaze™ soft-core CPU with Linux in the

  11. Precision Time Protocol support hardware for ATCA control and data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correia, Miguel; Sousa, Jorge; Carvalho, Bernardo B.; Santos, Bruno; Carvalho, Paulo F.; Rodrigues, António P.; Combo, Álvaro M.; Pereira, Rita C.; Correia, Carlos M.B.A.; Gonçalves, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • ATCA based control and data acquisition subsystem has been developed at IPFN. • PTP and time stamping were implemented with VHDL and PTP daemon (PTPd) codes. • The RTM (…) provides PTP synchronization with an external GMC. • The main advantage is that timestamps are generated closer to the Physical Layer at the GMII. • IPFN's upgrade consistently exhibited jitter values below 25 ns RMS. - Abstract: An in-house, Advanced Telecom Computing Architecture (ATCA) based control and data acquisition (C&DAQ) subsystem has been developed at Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear (IPFN), aiming for compliance with the ITER Fast Plant System Controller (FPSC). Timing and synchronization for the ATCA modules connects to ITER Control, Data Access and Communication (CODAC) through the Timing Communication Network (TCN), which uses IEEE 1588-2008 Precision Time Protocol (PTP) to synchronize devices to a Grand Master Clock (GMC). The TCN infrastructure was tested for an RMS jitter under the limit of 50 ns. Therefore, IPFN's hardware, namely the ATCA-PTSW-AMC4 hub-module, which is in charge of timing and synchronization distribution for all subsystem endpoints, shall also perform within this jitter limit. This paper describes a relevant upgrade, applied to the ATCA-PTSW-AMC4 hardware, to comply with these requirements – in particular, the integration of an add-on module “RMC-TMG-1588” on its Rear Transition Module (RTM). This add-on is based on a commercial FPGA-based module from Trenz Electronic, using the ZHAW “PTP VHDL code for timestamping unit and clock”, which features clock offset and drift correction and hardware-assisted time stamping. The main advantage is that timestamps are generated closer to the Physical Layer, at the Gigabit Ethernet Media Independent Interface (GMII), avoiding the timing uncertainties accumulated through the upper layers. PTP code and user software run in a MicroBlaze™ soft-core CPU with Linux in the same FPGA

  12. Epistemic Protocols for Distributed Gossiping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof R. Apt

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Gossip protocols aim at arriving, by means of point-to-point or group communications, at a situation in which all the agents know each other's secrets. We consider distributed gossip protocols which are expressed by means of epistemic logic. We provide an operational semantics of such protocols and set up an appropriate framework to argue about their correctness. Then we analyze specific protocols for complete graphs and for directed rings.

  13. Heterogeneous gas core reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, N.J.; Dugan, E.T.

    1983-01-01

    A heterogeneous gas core nuclear reactor is disclosed comprising a core barrel provided interiorly with an array of moderator-containing tubes and being otherwise filled with a fissile and/or fertile gaseous fuel medium. The fuel medium may be flowed through the chamber and through an external circuit in which heat is extracted. The moderator may be a fluid which is flowed through the tubes and through an external circuit in which heat is extracted. The moderator may be a solid which may be cooled by a fluid flowing within the tubes and through an external heat extraction circuit. The core barrel is surrounded by moderator/coolant material. Fissionable blanket material may be disposed inwardly or outwardly of the core barrel

  14. iPSC Core

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSC) Core was created in 2011 to accelerate stem cell research in the NHLBI by providing investigators consultation, technical...

  15. Core Flight Software

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AES Core Flight Software (CFS) project purpose is to analyze applicability, and evolve and extend the reusability of the CFS system originally developed by...

  16. PWR degraded core analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gittus, J.H.

    1982-04-01

    A review is presented of the various phenomena involved in degraded core accidents and the ensuing transport of fission products from the fuel to the primary circuit and the containment. The dominant accident sequences found in the PWR risk studies published to date are briefly described. Then chapters deal with the following topics: the condition and behaviour of water reactor fuel during normal operation and at the commencement of degraded core accidents; the generation of hydrogen from the Zircaloy-steam and the steel-steam reactions; the way in which the core deforms and finally melts following loss of coolant; debris relocation analysis; containment integrity; fission product behaviour during a degraded core accident. (U.K.)

  17. Symmetric cryptographic protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Ramkumar, Mahalingam

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on protocols and constructions that make good use of symmetric pseudo random functions (PRF) like block ciphers and hash functions - the building blocks for symmetric cryptography. Readers will benefit from detailed discussion of several strategies for utilizing symmetric PRFs. Coverage includes various key distribution strategies for unicast, broadcast and multicast security, and strategies for constructing efficient digests of dynamic databases using binary hash trees.   •        Provides detailed coverage of symmetric key protocols •        Describes various applications of symmetric building blocks •        Includes strategies for constructing compact and efficient digests of dynamic databases

  18. Restraint system for core elements of a reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Class, G.

    1975-01-01

    In a nuclear reactor, a core element bundle formed of a plurality of side-by-side arranged core elements is surrounded by restraining elements that exert a radially inwardly directly restraining force generating friction forces between the core elements in a restraining plane that is transverse to the core element axes. The adjoining core elements are in rolling contact with one another in the restraining plane by virtue of rolling-type bearing elements supported in the core elements. (Official Gazette)

  19. Heterogeneous gas core reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, K.I.

    1977-01-01

    Preliminary investigations of a heterogeneous gas core reactor (HGCR) concept suggest that this potential power reactor offers distinct advantages over other existing or conceptual reactor power plants. One of the most favorable features of the HGCR is the flexibility of the power producing system which allows it to be efficiently designed to conform to a desired optimum condition without major conceptual changes. The arrangement of bundles of moderator/coolant channels in a fissionable gas or mixture of gases makes a truly heterogeneous nuclear reactor core. It is this full heterogeneity for a gas-fueled reactor core which accounts for the novelty of the heterogeneous gas core reactor concept and leads to noted significant advantages over previous gas core systems with respect to neutron and fuel economy, power density, and heat transfer characteristics. The purpose of this work is to provide an insight into the design, operating characteristics, and safety of a heterogeneous gas core reactor system. The studies consist mainly of neutronic, energetic and kinetic analyses of the power producing and conversion systems as a preliminary assessment of the heterogeneous gas core reactor concept and basic design. The results of the conducted research indicate a high potential for the heterogeneous gas core reactor system as an electrical power generating unit (either large or small), with an overall efficiency as high as 40 to 45%. The HGCR system is found to be stable and safe, under the conditions imposed upon the analyses conducted in this work, due to the inherent safety of ann expanding gaseous fuel and the intrinsic feedback effects of the gas and water coolant

  20. Diplomacy and Diplomatic Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lect. Ph.D Oana Iucu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to observe relationships and determining factors between diplomacyand diplomatic protocol as outlined by historical and contextual analyses. The approach is very dynamic,provided that concepts are able to show their richness, antiquity and polyvalence at the level of connotations,semantics, grammatical and social syntax. The fact that this information is up to date determines anattitude of appreciation and a state of positive contamination.

  1. SCORPIO: a framework for core surveillance systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, Oe.; Tsuiki, Makoto

    1999-01-01

    The first version of the core surveillance system SCORPIO was installed at Unit 2, Ringhals, in 1984. It was implemented on Norsk Data mini-computers with a fully graphical user-interface. The main purpose was to provide a practical tool for reactor operators and reactor physicists for on-line monitoring and predictive analysis of core behaviour. A second version of SCORPIO was developed in 1993-1995 and implemented on Unix workstations. In addition to upgrading the system at Ringhals, the system was installed by Duke Power, USA, on 7 reactors. SCORPIO was also installed on the Sizewell B reactor. Recently a new framework has been developed which further enhances the flexibility and capabilities for implementing core surveillance systems in different types of nuclear power plants. Modules can be added and replaced in an easy manner. It allows fast and reliable communication of data between modules based on the Software Bus tool developed by IFE. Further, the Picasso-3 user interface management system supports efficient implementation of different user interfaces. Both Unix and Windows NT platforms are supported. The new framework has been applied in development and installation of a SCORPIO-VVER version for the Dukovany NPP, Czech Republic. Here it was of particular importance to provide a flexible system for integration of modules originating from different companies. Development of a BWR version is now in progress. This means that SCORPIO will be available for all the major reactor types, and synergy is obtained by application of a common framework both with respect to system implementation and maintenance. By using the SCORPIO framework, the development time is reduced and the maintenance work is carried out more efficiently, compared to developing systems with lower-level tools. For instance, the MMI can be developed and tested independently of the physics modules

  2. Automatic Validation of Protocol Narration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodei, Chiara; Buchholtz, Mikael; Degano, Pierpablo

    2003-01-01

    We perform a systematic expansion of protocol narrations into terms of a process algebra in order to make precise some of the detailed checks that need to be made in a protocol. We then apply static analysis technology to develop an automatic validation procedure for protocols. Finally, we...

  3. Dysphonia risk screening protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Nemr

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To propose and test the applicability of a dysphonia risk screening protocol with score calculation in individuals with and without dysphonia. METHOD: This descriptive cross-sectional study included 365 individuals (41 children, 142 adult women, 91 adult men and 91 seniors divided into a dysphonic group and a non-dysphonic group. The protocol consisted of 18 questions and a score was calculated using a 10-cm visual analog scale. The measured value on the visual analog scale was added to the overall score, along with other partial scores. Speech samples allowed for analysis/assessment of the overall degree of vocal deviation and initial definition of the respective groups and after six months, the separation of the groups was confirmed using an acoustic analysis. RESULTS: The mean total scores were different between the groups in all samples. Values ranged between 37.0 and 57.85 in the dysphonic group and between 12.95 and 19.28 in the non-dysphonic group, with overall means of 46.09 and 15.55, respectively. High sensitivity and specificity were demonstrated when discriminating between the groups with the following cut-off points: 22.50 (children, 29.25 (adult women, 22.75 (adult men, and 27.10 (seniors. CONCLUSION: The protocol demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity in differentiating groups of individuals with and without dysphonia in different sample groups and is thus an effective instrument for use in voice clinics.

  4. Dysphonia risk screening protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemr, Katia; Simões-Zenari, Marcia; da Trindade Duarte, João Marcos; Lobrigate, Karen Elena; Bagatini, Flavia Alves

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To propose and test the applicability of a dysphonia risk screening protocol with score calculation in individuals with and without dysphonia. METHOD: This descriptive cross-sectional study included 365 individuals (41 children, 142 adult women, 91 adult men and 91 seniors) divided into a dysphonic group and a non-dysphonic group. The protocol consisted of 18 questions and a score was calculated using a 10-cm visual analog scale. The measured value on the visual analog scale was added to the overall score, along with other partial scores. Speech samples allowed for analysis/assessment of the overall degree of vocal deviation and initial definition of the respective groups and after six months, the separation of the groups was confirmed using an acoustic analysis. RESULTS: The mean total scores were different between the groups in all samples. Values ranged between 37.0 and 57.85 in the dysphonic group and between 12.95 and 19.28 in the non-dysphonic group, with overall means of 46.09 and 15.55, respectively. High sensitivity and specificity were demonstrated when discriminating between the groups with the following cut-off points: 22.50 (children), 29.25 (adult women), 22.75 (adult men), and 27.10 (seniors). CONCLUSION: The protocol demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity in differentiating groups of individuals with and without dysphonia in different sample groups and is thus an effective instrument for use in voice clinics. PMID:27074171

  5. FBR type reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamiya, Tadashi; Kawashima, Katsuyuki; Fujimura, Koji; Murakami, Tomoko.

    1995-01-01

    Neutron reflectors are disposed at the periphery of a reactor core fuel region and a blanket region, and a neutron shielding region is disposed at the periphery of them. The neutron reflector has a hollow duct structure having a sealed upper portion, a lower portion opened to cooling water, in which a gas and coolants separately sealed in the inside thereof. A driving pressure of a primary recycling pump is lowered upon reduction of coolant flow rate, then the liquid level of coolants in the neutron reflector is lowered due to imbalance between the driving pressure and a gas pressure, so that coolants having an effect as a reflector are eliminated from the outer circumference of the reactor core. Therefore, the amount of neutrons leaking from the reactor core is increased, and negative reactivity is charged to the reactor core. The negative reactivity of the neutron reflector is made greater than a power compensation reactivity. Since this enables reactor scram by using an inherent performance of the reactor core, the reactor core safety of an LMFBR-type reactor can be improved. (I.N.)

  6. The earths innermost core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanda, J.N.

    1989-01-01

    A new earth model is advanced with a solid innermost core at the centre of the Earth where elements heavier than iron, over and above what can be retained in solution in the iron core, are collected. The innermost core is separated from the solid iron-nickel core by a shell of liquid copper. The innermost core has a natural vibration measured on the earth's surface as the long period 26 seconds microseisms. The earth was formed initially as a liquid sphere with a relatively thin solid crust above the Byerly discontinuity. The trace elements that entered the innermost core amounted to only 0.925 ppm of the molten mass. Gravitational differentiation must have led to the separation of an explosive thickness of pure 235 U causing a fission explosion that could expel beyond the Roche limit a crustal scab which would form the centre piece of the moon. A reservoir of helium floats on the liquid copper. A small proportion of helium-3, a relic of the ancient fission explosion present there will spell the exciting magnetic field. The field is stable for thousands of years because of the presence of large quantity of helium-4 which accounts for most of the gaseous collisions that will not disturb the atomic spin of helium-3 atoms. This field is prone to sudden reversals after long periods of stability. (author). 14 refs

  7. A 350 MW HTR with an annular pebble bed core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dazhong; Jiang Zhiqiang; Gao Zuying; Xu Yuanhui

    1992-12-01

    A conceptual design of HTR-module with an annular pebble bed core was proposed. This design can increase the unit power capacity of HTR-Module from 200 MWt to 350 MWt while it can keep the inherent safety characteristics of modular reactor. The preliminary safety analysis results for 350 MW HTR are given. In order to solve the problem of uneven helium outlet temperature distribution a gas flow mixing structure at bottom of core was designed. The experiment results of a gas mixing simulation test rig show that the mixing function can satisfy the design requirements

  8. Universal Reconfigurable Translator Module (URTM) Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, Edward; Machan, Roman; Jones, Rob

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the Universal Reconfigurable Translation Module, or URTM. The URTM was developed by Sigma Space Corporation for NASA in order to translate specific serial protocols, both logically and physically. At present, the prototype configuration has targeted MIL-STD-1553B (RT and BC), IEEE 1394b (Firewire), and ECSS-E-50-12A (SpaceWire). The objectives of this program were to study the feasibility of a configurable URTM to translate serial link data as might be used in a space-flight mission and to design, develop, document, and deliver an engineering prototype model of the URTM with a path to spaceflight. By simply connecting two of the three Physical Interface Modules (PIM) on either end of the RPTM (Reconfigurable Protocol Translator Module), the URTM then self configures via a library of interface translation functions, thereby allowing the two data links to communicate seamlessly.

  9. ESP8266 WI-FI MODULE FOR MONITORING SYSTEM APPLICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Tae-Gue Oh; Chung-Hyuk Yim; Gyu-Sik Kim

    2017-01-01

    The ESP8266 Wi-Fi module is a self-contained system-on-chip (SOC) with integrated TCP/IP protocol stacks that can give any microcontroller access to a Wi-Fi network. In this paper, the interface between the ESP8266 Wi-Fi module and arduino MCU is studied for monitoring system application. Through some experimental studies, we believe that the ESP8266 Wi-Fi module is very useful for monitoring system application.

  10. Energy integration into core businesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Styan, G. [Tolko Industries Ltd., Castlegar, BC (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    An outline of Tolko Industries was presented with reference to their recent focus on biomass energy conversion. Tolko Industries has doubled its size twice over the last 10 year period, and now owns co-generation facilities and electrical generation contracts, along with significant capital investments. Current energy assets of the company are focused on process steam/heat energy with 3 small co-generation facilities. It was suggested that projects displacing natural gas have had the highest potential energy payback in Tolko facilities. A residuals summary for hog fuel, chips, and sawdust and shavings was presented. The company's core business focus is on sawmills, OSB, veneer, plywood and kraft paper. The company also has access to a large volume of biomass. Details of the Tolko's Nexterra Biomass Gasification Project were presented, along with details of the working scale pilot and phased in proposal plans. It was noted that Nexterra now produces enough biomass on site to be self-sufficient throughout its entire operational process. Tolko's expanded use of biomass technology to address emission abatement has resulted in funding from Enercan. Details of greenhouse gas (GHG) offsets were provided. It was concluded that efficient energy use and cost of supply creates a competitive advantage in the manufacturing industry. The Kyoto Protocol has provided advantages for biomass fuel development. tabs., figs.

  11. Multidimensional, multiphysics simulations of core-collapse supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messer, O E B [National Center for Computational Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6008 (United States); Bruenn, S W [Department of Physics, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL 33431-0991 (United States); Blondin, J M [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-8202 (United States); Hix, W R; Mezzacappa, A [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6354 (United States)

    2008-07-15

    CHIMERA is a multi-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics code designed to study core-collapse supernovae. The code is made up of three essentially independent parts: a hydrodynamics module, a nuclear burning module, and a neutrino transport solver combined within an operator-split approach. We review the code's architecture and some recently improved implementations used in the code. We also briefly discuss preliminary results obtained with the code in three spatial dimensions.

  12. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 25

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review: clarity, accuracy, consistency with EPA policy, and enforceability.

  13. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about the consequences of improper labeling.

  14. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 23

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Lists types of labels that do not require review.

  15. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 16

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about the importance of labels and the role in enforcement.

  16. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about positive effects from proper labeling.

  17. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 21

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about types of labels.

  18. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 22

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about what labels require review.

  19. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 18

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. This section discusses the types of labels.

  20. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 26

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about mandatory and advisory label statements.

  1. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. This page is about which labels require review.

  2. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 27

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. See examples of mandatory and advisory label statements.

  3. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 19

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. This section covers supplemental distributor labeling.

  4. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. See an overview of the importance of labels.

  5. On-line generation of core monitoring power distribution in the SCOMS couppled with core design code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K. B.; Kim, K. K.; In, W. K.; Ji, S. K.; Jang, M. H.

    2002-01-01

    The paper provides the description of the methodology and main program module of power distribution calculation of SCOMS(SMART COre Monitoring System). The simulation results of the SMART core using the developed SCOMS are included. The planar radial peaking factor(Fxy) is relatively high in SMART core because control banks are inserted to the core at normal operation. If the conventional core monitoring method is adapted to SMART, highly skewed planar radial peaking factor Fxy yields an excessive conservatism and reduces the operation margin. In addition to this, the error of the core monitoring would be enlarged and thus operating margin would be degraded, because it is impossible to precalculate the core monitoring constants for all the control banks configurations taking into account the operation history in the design stage. To get rid of these drawbacks in the conventional power distribution calculation methodology, new methodology to calculate the three dimensional power distribution is developed. Core monitoring constants are calculated with the core design code (MASTER) which is on-line coupled with SCOMS. Three dimensional (3D) power distribution and the several peaking factors are calculated using the in-core detector signals and core monitoring constant provided at real time. Developed methodology is applied to the SMART core and the various core states are simulated. Based on the simulation results, it is founded that the three dimensional peaking factor to calculate the Linear Power Density and the pseudo hot-pin axial power distribution to calculate the Departure Nucleate Boiling Ratio show the more conservative values than those of the best-estimated core design code, and SCOMS adapted developed methodology can secures the more operation margin than the conventional methodology

  6. Core skills assessment to improve mathematical competency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Michael; Bowe, Brian; Fhloinn, Eabhnat Ní

    2013-12-01

    Many engineering undergraduates begin third-level education with significant deficiencies in their core mathematical skills. Every year, in the Dublin Institute of Technology, a diagnostic test is given to incoming first-year students, consistently revealing problems in basic mathematics. It is difficult to motivate students to address these problems; instead, they struggle through their degree, carrying a serious handicap of poor core mathematical skills, as confirmed by exploratory testing of final year students. In order to improve these skills, a pilot project was set up in which a 'module' in core mathematics was developed. The course material was basic, but 90% or higher was required to pass. Students were allowed to repeat this module throughout the year by completing an automated examination on WebCT populated by a question bank. Subsequent to the success of this pilot with third-year mechanical engineering students, the project was extended to five different engineering programmes, across three different year-groups. Full results and analysis of this project are presented, including responses to interviews carried out with a selection of the students involved.

  7. Trigger Timing Module for SVD2 upgrade at Belle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, M.C.; Gao, Z.W.; Guo, Y.N.; Kawasaki, T.; Ueno, K.; Velikzhanin, Y.S.

    2003-01-01

    We have developed a Trigger Timing Module (TTM2) for the control and readout electronics (CORE) of the upgraded Silicon Vertex Detector (SVD2) for use in the BELLE experiment. Eleven Trigger Timing Modules located at one VME-crate provide timing and strobe signals for the SVD2 CORE electronics and make communication between SVD2 and Global Decision Logic of the BELLE data acquisition system. The main motivation to make a new TTM design is to avoid glitches

  8. A tree routing protocol for cognitive radio network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Hashem

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive Radio (CR technology is an agile solution for spectrum congestion and spectrum access utilization problems that result from the legacy fixed spectrum management policies. CR technology can exploit unused licensed band to meet the increasing demand for radio frequency. The routing process faces many challenges in CR Network (CRN such as the absence of centralized infrastructure, the coordination between the routing module and spectrum management module, in addition to the frequent link failure due to the sudden appearance of PUs. In this paper we propose a Tree routing protocol for cognitive radio network (C-TRP that jointly utilizes the tree routing algorithm with a spectrum management module in routing decisions, and also we proposed a new metric used in taking the best route decisions. In addition, we enhance the traditional tree routing algorithm by using a neighbor table technique that speeds up the forwarding data packets. Moreover, we add a robust recovery module to C-TRP to resume the network in case of the link failure. The main motivation in the design of C-TRP is quick data transmission and maximization of date rates. The performance evaluation is carried out in NS2 simulator. The simulation results proved that C-TRP protocol achieves better performance in terms of average “PDR”, “end-to-end delay” and “routing overhead ratio “compared to “CTBR” and “STOD-RP” routing protocols.

  9. Reactor core control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, Hiroki

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a reactor core control device, in which switching from a manual operation to an automatic operation, and the control for the parameter of an automatic operation device are facilitated. Namely, the hysteresis of the control for the operation parameter by an manual operation input means is stored. The hysteresis of the control for the operation parameter is collected. The state of the reactor core simulated by an operation control to which the collected operation parameters are manually inputted is determined as an input of the reactor core state to the automatic input means. The record of operation upon manual operation is stored as a hysteresis of control for the operation parameter, but the hysteresis information is not only the result of manual operation of the operation parameter. This is results of operation conducted by a skilled operator who judge the state of the reactor core to be optimum. Accordingly, it involves information relevant to the reactor core state. Then, it is considered that the optimum automatic operation is not deviated greatly from the manual operation. (I.S.)

  10. European ERANOS formulaire for fast reactor core analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimpault, Gerald

    2003-01-01

    ERANOS code scheme was developed within the European collaboration on fast reactors. It contains all the functions required to calculate a complete set of core, shielding and fuel cycle parameters for LMFR cores. Nuclear data are taken from recent evaluations (JEF2.2) and adjusted on integral experiments (ERALIB1). Calculational scheme uses the ECCO cell code to generate cross section data. Whole core calculations are carried out using the spatial modules BISTRO (Sn) and TGVNARIANT (nodal method). Validation is based on integral and power reactor experiments. Integral experiments are also used for adjustment of nuclear data

  11. Safety characteristics of the US advanced liquid metal reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magee, P.M.; Dubberley, A.E.; Gyorey, G.L.; Lipps, A.J.; Wu, T.

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) design employs innovative, passive features to provide an unprecedented level of public safety and the ability to demonstrate this safety to the public. The key features employed in the core design to produce the desired passive safety characteristics are: a small core with a tight restraint system, the use of metallic U-Pu-Zr fuel, control rod withdrawal limiters, and gas expansion modules. In addition, the reactor vessel and closure are designed to have the capability to withstand, with large margins, the maximum possible core disruptive accident without breach and radiological release. (author)

  12. Fostering critical thinking and collaborative learning skills among medical students through a research protocol writing activity in the curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Soumendra; Mohammed, Ciraj Ali

    2018-06-01

    This intervention was aimed to analyse the effect of academic writing and journal critiquing as educational approaches in improving critical thinking and collaborative learning among undergraduate medical students. A research proposal writing format was created for the 4th year medical students of Melaka Manipal Medical College, Malaysia during their ophthalmology clinical postings. The students worked in small groups and developed research protocols through an evidence based approach. This was followed by writing reflective summaries in academic portfolios about the activity undertaken. A mixed methods study was designed to explore the possible role of collaborative research proposal writing in enhancing critical thinking and collaborative learning. Analysis of reflections submitted by 188 medical students after the intervention indicate that majority of them found an improvement in their skills of critical thinking and collaborative learning as a result of research protocol writing. All participants agreed that the model helped in applying concepts to new situations in the form of designing their own study, which reflected in enhanced higher order cognitive skills. This study shows that the introduction of a structured module in the core medical curriculum that focuses on research writing skills embedded with collaborative and reflective practices can enhance collaborative learning, critical thinking, and reasoning among medical students.

  13. Fostering critical thinking and collaborative learning skills among medical students through a research protocol writing activity in the curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumendra Sahoo

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose This intervention was aimed to analyse the effect of academic writing and journal critiquing as educational approaches in improving critical thinking and collaborative learning among undergraduate medical students. Methods A research proposal writing format was created for the 4th year medical students of Melaka Manipal Medical College, Malaysia during their ophthalmology clinical postings. The students worked in small groups and developed research protocols through an evidence based approach. This was followed by writing reflective summaries in academic portfolios about the activity undertaken.A mixed methods study was designed to explore the possible role of collaborative research proposal writing in enhancing critical thinking and collaborative learning. Results Analysis of reflections submitted by 188 medical students after the intervention indicate that majority of them found an improvement in their skills of critical thinking and collaborative learning as a result of research protocol writing. All participants agreed that the model helped in applying concepts to new situations in the form of designing their own study, which reflected in enhanced higher order cognitive skills. Conclusion This study shows that the introduction of a structured module in the core medical curriculum that focuses on research writing skills embedded with collaborative and reflective practices can enhance collaborative learning, critical thinking, and reasoning among medical students.

  14. FRENCH PROTOCOL CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division du Personnel

    1999-01-01

    Senior officials, holders of FRENCH PROTOCOL cards (blue cards) due to expire on 31.12.1999, are requested to return these cards and those of family members, for extension to:Bureau des cartes, bâtiment 33.1-025Should the 3 spaces for authentication on the back of the card be full, please enclose 2 passport photographs for a new card.In the case of children aged 14 and over, an attestation of dependency and a school certificate should be returned with the card.Personnel DivisionTel. 79494/74683

  15. FRENCH PROTOCOL CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2000-01-01

    Senior officials, holders of FRENCH PROTOCOL cards (blue cards) due to expire on 31.12.2000, are requested to return these cards and those of family members, for extension to: Bureau des cartes, Bât 33.1-009/1-015 Should the three spaces for authentication on the back of the card be full, please enclose two passport photographs for a new card. In the case of children aged 14 and over, an attestation of dependency and a school certificate should be returned with the card.

  16. Sincalide - the final protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, E.A.; Notghi, A.; Hesslewood, S.R.; Harding, L.K.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: HIDA biliary studies examine the gallbladder (GB) to give a percentage ejection fraction (EF). Porcine CCK was an accepted agent for stimulating the GB prior to being withdrawn in the UK from 1998. Sincalide (a synthetic CCK) was the suggested replacement. We have tried many administration regimes in an attempt to get results comparable with our established CCK protocols. Dose concentration and length of infusion times have been studied. Initially a dose of 10 ngm/kg/min given over 2 minutes (manufacturer's recommended dose) was used. This gave falsely low ejection fractions. The dose was reduced to 3 ngm/kg/min over 3 minutes as it was felt the higher dose may be causing constriction of the sphincter of Oddi. This gave a slight improvement with 22 % of patients having normal EF (>35 %). The length of infusion was extended to 15 minutes and the dose concentration reduced again to 0.6 ngm/kg/min. 62 % of patients had a normal EF. However, on many of the curves the gallbladder was still contracting on completion of the 15 minute infusion and began to refill immediately after stopping Sincalide. A further change of protocol was indicated. The infusion time was extended to 30 minutes and the dose concentration per minute kept the same. Imaging began at 30 minutes post HIDA injection and continued for a total of 50 minutes. Sincalide infusion began at 35 minutes if a GB was visualized. This protocol has been performed on 17 patients. 53 % of these had a normal result (comparable with a normal rate of 40 % previously established with CCK) with a mean EF of 60 %. The mean EF of patients with abnormal studies was 15 %. Curves showed a plateau by 30 minutes in 94 % of patients indicating that gallbladder contraction was complete. No normal range is available so results were compared with ultrasound (US). All patients who had an abnormal US scan also had abnormal HIDA results. Three patients had a normal US scan and abnormal HIDA study. These are currently

  17. Distributed Network Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    MONITORING AGENCY NAME & ADDRESS(II different from Controlting Office) IS. SECURITY CLASS. (of this report) S Office of Naval Research Unclassified...All protocols are extended to networks with changing. topology. S80 8 4 246 DD0I iA 1473 EDITION OF INOV 65 IS OBSOLETE 8 0 24 SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...to the netowrk . f) Each node knows its adjacent links, but not necessarily the identity of its neighbors, i.e. the nodes at the other end of the links

  18. [caCORE: core architecture of bioinformation on cancer research in America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qin; Zhang, Yan-lei; Xie, Zhi-yun; Zhang, Qi-peng; Hu, Zhang-zhi

    2006-04-18

    A critical factor in the advancement of biomedical research is the ease with which data can be integrated, redistributed and analyzed both within and across domains. This paper summarizes the Biomedical Information Core Infrastructure built by National Cancer Institute Center for Bioinformatics in America (NCICB). The main product from the Core Infrastructure is caCORE--cancer Common Ontologic Reference Environment, which is the infrastructure backbone supporting data management and application development at NCICB. The paper explains the structure and function of caCORE: (1) Enterprise Vocabulary Services (EVS). They provide controlled vocabulary, dictionary and thesaurus services, and EVS produces the NCI Thesaurus and the NCI Metathesaurus; (2) The Cancer Data Standards Repository (caDSR). It provides a metadata registry for common data elements. (3) Cancer Bioinformatics Infrastructure Objects (caBIO). They provide Java, Simple Object Access Protocol and HTTP-XML application programming interfaces. The vision for caCORE is to provide a common data management framework that will support the consistency, clarity, and comparability of biomedical research data and information. In addition to providing facilities for data management and redistribution, caCORE helps solve problems of data integration. All NCICB-developed caCORE components are distributed under open-source licenses that support unrestricted usage by both non-profit and commercial entities, and caCORE has laid the foundation for a number of scientific and clinical applications. Based on it, the paper expounds caCORE-base applications simply in several NCI projects, of which one is CMAP (Cancer Molecular Analysis Project), and the other is caBIG (Cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid). In the end, the paper also gives good prospects of caCORE, and while caCORE was born out of the needs of the cancer research community, it is intended to serve as a general resource. Cancer research has historically

  19. The PWR cores management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barral, J.C.; Rippert, D.; Johner, J.

    2000-01-01

    During the meeting of the 25 january 2000, organized by the SFEN, scientists and plant operators in the domain of the PWR debated on the PWR cores management. The five first papers propose general and economic information on the PWR and also the fast neutron reactors chains in the electric power market: statistics on the electric power industry, nuclear plant unit management, the ITER project and the future of the thermonuclear fusion, the treasurer's and chairman's reports. A second part offers more technical papers concerning the PWR cores management: performance and optimization, in service load planning, the cores management in the other countries, impacts on the research and development programs. (A.L.B.)

  20. Molten core retention assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lampe, R.F.

    1976-01-01

    Molten fuel produced in a core overheating accident is caught by a molten core retention assembly consisting of a horizontal baffle plate having a plurality of openings therein, heat exchange tubes having flow holes near the top thereof mounted in the openings, and a cylindrical imperforate baffle attached to the plate and surrounding the tubes. The baffle assembly is supported from the core support plate of the reactor by a plurality of hanger rods which are welded to radial beams passing under the baffle plate and intermittently welded thereto. Preferably the upper end of the cylindrical baffle terminates in an outwardly facing lip to which are welded a plurality of bearings having slots therein adapted to accept the hanger rods

  1. Core status computing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hiroyuki.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To calculate power distribution, flow rate and the like in the reactor core with high accuracy in a BWR type reactor. Constitution: Total flow rate signals, traverse incore probe (TIP) signals as the neutron detector signals, thermal power signals and pressure signals are inputted into a process computer, where the power distribution and the flow rate distribution in the reactor core are calculated. A function generator connected to the process computer calculates the absolute flow rate passing through optional fuel assemblies using, as variables, flow rate signals from the introduction part for fuel assembly flow rate signals, data signals from the introduction part for the geometrical configuration data at the flow rate measuring site of fuel assemblies, total flow rate signals for the reactor core and the signals from the process computer. Numerical values thus obtained are given to the process computer as correction signals to perform correction for the experimental data. (Moriyama, K.)

  2. TMI-2 core examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbins, R.R.; MacDonald, P.E.; Owen, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    The examination of the damaged core at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) reactor is structured to address the following safety issues: fission product release, transport, and deposition; core coolability; containment integrity; and recriticality during severe accidents; as well as zircaloy cladding ballooning and oxidation during so-called design basis accidents. The numbers of TMI-2 components or samples to be examined, the priority of each examination, the safety issue addressed by each examination, the principal examination techniques to be employed, and the data to be obtained and the principal uses of the data are discussed in this paper

  3. Superconducting tin core fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homa, Daniel; Liang, Yongxuan; Hill, Cary; Kaur, Gurbinder; Pickrell, Gary

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrated superconductivity in a fiber with a tin core and fused silica cladding. The fibers were fabricated via a modified melt-draw technique and maintained core diameters ranging from 50-300 microns and overall diameters of 125-800 microns. Superconductivity of this fiber design was validated via the traditional four-probe test method in a bath of liquid helium at temperatures on the order of 3.8 K. The synthesis route and fiber design are perquisites to ongoing research dedicated all-fiber optoelectronics and the relationships between superconductivity and the material structures, as well as corresponding fabrication techniques. (orig.)

  4. LMFBR core design analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, M.; Yang, J.C.; Yoh, K.C.; Suk, S.D.; Soh, D.S.; Kim, Y.M.

    1980-01-01

    The design parameters of a commercial-scale fast breeder reactor which is currently under construction by regeneration of these data is preliminary analyzed. The analysis of nuclear and thermal characteristics as well as safety features of this reactor is emphasized. And the evaluation of the initial core mentioned in the system description is carried out in the areas of its kinetics and control system, and, at the same time, the flow distribution of sodium and temperature distribution of the initial FBR core system are calculated. (KAERI INIS Section)

  5. Nuclear core catchers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golden, M.P.; Tilbrook, R.W.; Heylmun, N.F.

    1976-01-01

    A receptacle is described for taking the molten fragments of a nuclear reactor during a reactor core fusion accident. The receptacle is placed under the reactor. It includes at least one receptacle for the reactor core fragments, with a dome shaped part to distribute the molten fragments and at least one outside layer of alumina bricks around the dome. The characteristic of this receptacle is that the outer layer of bricks contains neutron poison rods which pass through the bricks and protrude in relation to them [fr

  6. Organizing Core Tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen

    has remained much the same within the last 10 years. However, how the core task has been organized has changed considerable under the influence of various “organizing devices”. The paper focusses on how organizing devices such as risk assessment, output-focus, effect orientation, and treatment...... projects influence the organization of core tasks within the tax administration. The paper shows that the organizational transformations based on the use of these devices have had consequences both for the overall collection of revenue and for the employees’ feeling of “making a difference”. All in all...

  7. GREEN CORE HOUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NECULAI Oana

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Green Core House is a construction concept with low environmental impact, having as main central element a greenhouse. The greenhouse has the innovative role to use the biomass energy provided by plants to save energy. Although it is the central piece, the greenhouse is not the most innovative part of the Green Core House, but the whole building ensemble because it integrates many other sustainable systems as "waste purification systems", "transparent photovoltaic panels" or "double skin façades".

  8. PWR core design calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trkov, A; Ravnik, M; Zeleznik, N [Inst. Jozef Stefan, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    1992-07-01

    Functional description of the programme package Cord-2 for PWR core design calculations is presented. Programme package is briefly described. Use of the package and calculational procedures for typical core design problems are treated. Comparison of main results with experimental values is presented as part of the verification process. (author) [Slovenian] Opisali smo programski paket CORD-2, ki se uporablja pri projektnih izracunih sredice pri upravljanju tlacnovodnega reaktorja. Prikazana je uporaba paketa in racunskih postopkov za tipicne probleme, ki nastopajo pri projektiranju sredice. Primerjava glavnih rezultatov z eksperimentalnimi vrednostmi je predstavljena kot del preveritvenega procesa. (author)

  9. Computation system for nuclear reactor core analysis. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vondy, D.R.; Fowler, T.B.; Cunningham, G.W.; Petrie, L.M.

    1977-04-01

    This report documents a system which contains computer codes as modules developed to evaluate nuclear reactor core performance. The diffusion theory approximation to neutron transport may be applied with the VENTURE code treating up to three dimensions. The effect of exposure may be determined with the BURNER code, allowing depletion calculations to be made. The features and requirements of the system are discussed and aspects common to the computational modules, but the latter are documented elsewhere. User input data requirements, data file management, control, and the modules which perform general functions are described. Continuing development and implementation effort is enhancing the analysis capability available locally and to other installations from remote terminals.

  10. Security and SCADA protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igure, V. M.; Williams, R. D.

    2006-01-01

    Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) networks have replaced discrete wiring for many industrial processes, and the efficiency of the network alternative suggests a trend toward more SCADA networks in the future. This paper broadly considers SCADA to include distributed control systems (DCS) and digital control systems. These networks offer many advantages, but they also introduce potential vulnerabilities that can be exploited by adversaries. Inter-connectivity exposes SCADA networks to many of the same threats that face the public internet and many of the established defenses therefore show promise if adapted to the SCADA differences. This paper provides an overview of security issues in SCADA networks and ongoing efforts to improve the security of these networks. Initially, a few samples from the range of threats to SCADA network security are offered. Next, attention is focused on security assessment of SCADA communication protocols. Three challenges must be addressed to strengthen SCADA networks. Access control mechanisms need to be introduced or strengthened, improvements are needed inside of the network to enhance security and network monitoring, and SCADA security management improvements and policies are needed. This paper discusses each of these challenges. This paper uses the Profibus protocol as an example to illustrate some of the vulnerabilities that arise within SCADA networks. The example Profibus security assessment establishes a network model and an attacker model before proceeding to a list of example attacks. (authors)

  11. Computer based core monitoring system for an operating CANDU reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Moon Young; Kwon, O Hwan; Kim, Kyung Hwa; Yeom, Choong Sub

    2004-01-01

    The research was performed to develop a CANDU-6 Core Monitoring System(CCMS) that enables operators to have efficient core management by monitoring core power distribution, burnup distribution, and the other important core variables and managing the past core history for Wolsong nuclear power plant unit 1. The CCMS uses Reactor Fueling Simulation Program(RFSP, developed by AECL) for continuous core calculation by integrating the algorithm and assumptions validated and uses the information taken from Digital Control Computer(DCC) for the purpose of producing basic input data. The CCMS has two modules; CCMS server program and CCMS client program. The CCMS server program performs automatic and continuous core calculation and manages overall output controlled by DataBase Management System. The CCMS client program enables users to monitor current and past core status in the predefined GUI(Graphic-User Interface) environment. For the purpose of verifying the effectiveness of CCMS, we compared field-test data with the data used for Wolsong unit 1 operation. In the verification the mean percent differences of both cases were the same(0.008%), which showed that the CCMS could monitor core behaviors well

  12. Maximum stellar iron core mass

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An analytical method of estimating the mass of a stellar iron core, just prior to core collapse, is described in this paper. The method employed depends, in part, upon an estimate of the true relativistic mass increase experienced by electrons within a highly compressed iron core, just prior to core collapse, and is significantly ...

  13. Effects of Lumbar Core Stability Exercise Programme on Knee Pain, Range of Motion, and Function Post Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Panchal

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: Institutional conventional exercise protocol is effective in reducing pain and improving the ROM post and lumbar core stability exercise programme is effective in improving function, post ACL reconstruction.

  14. Experimental observation of spontaneous depolarized guided acoustic-wave Brillouin scattering in side cores of a multicore fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Neisei; Mizuno, Yosuke; Nakamura, Kentaro; Set, Sze Yun; Yamashita, Shinji

    2018-06-01

    Spontaneous depolarized guided acoustic-wave Brillouin scattering (GAWBS) was experimentally observed in one of the side cores of an uncoated multicore fiber (MCF). The frequency bandwidth in the side core was up to ∼400 MHz, which is 0.5 times that in the central core. The GAWBS spectrum of the side core of the MCF included intrinsic peaks, which had different acoustic resonance frequencies from those of the central core. In addition, the spontaneous depolarized GAWBS in the central/side core was unaffected by that in the other core. These results will lead to the development of polarization/phase modulators using an MCF.

  15. Core losses of an inverter-fed permanent magnet synchronous motor with an amorphous stator core under no-load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Denis

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM with a stator core made of amorphous magnetic material (AMM is presented. The IPMSM is driven by a voltage source three-phase inverter with classical pulse width modulation (PWM control. The core losses under no-load condition are measured by experiment and compared to an equivalent IPMSM with a stator core made of NO steel. Under these conditions, the core losses are influenced by the stator, rotor and magnet shapes but also by the PWM carrier signal that implies a high frequency harmonic in the magnetic flux density. It is demonstrated that the AMM can reduce the core losses by about 56 %.

  16. Nuclear core baffling apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, F.W. Jr.; Silverblatt, B.L.; Knight, C.B.; Berringer, R.T.

    1979-01-01

    An apparatus for baffling the flow of reactor coolant fluid into and about the core of a nuclear reactor is described. The apparatus includes a plurality of longitudinally aligned baffle plates with mating surfaces that allow longitudinal growth with temperature increases while alleviating both leakage through the aligned plates and stresses on the components supporting the plates

  17. The Uncommon Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohler, Jason

    2013-01-01

    This author contends that the United States neglects creativity in its education system. To see this, he states, one may look at the Common Core State Standards. If one searches the English Language Arts and Literacy standards for the words "creative," "innovative," and "original"--and any associated terms, one will…

  18. Utah's New Mathematics Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utah State Office of Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Utah has adopted more rigorous mathematics standards known as the Utah Mathematics Core Standards. They are the foundation of the mathematics curriculum for the State of Utah. The standards include the skills and understanding students need to succeed in college and careers. They include rigorous content and application of knowledge and reflect…

  19. Some Core Contested Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomsky, Noam

    2015-01-01

    Core concepts of language are highly contested. In some cases this is legitimate: real empirical and conceptual issues arise. In other cases, it seems that controversies are based on misunderstanding. A number of crucial cases are reviewed, and an approach to language is outlined that appears to have strong conceptual and empirical motivation, and…

  20. Reactor core structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashinakagawa, Emiko; Sato, Kanemitsu.

    1992-01-01

    Taking notice on the fact that Fe based alloys and Ni based alloys are corrosion resistant in a special atmosphere of a nuclear reactor, Fe or Ni based alloys are applied to reactor core structural components such as fuel cladding tubes, fuel channels, spacers, etc. On the other hand, the neutron absorption cross section of zirconium is 0.18 barn while that of iron is 2.52 barn and that of nickel is 4.6 barn, which amounts to 14 to 25 times compared with that of zirconium. Accordingly, if the reactor core structural components are constituted by the Fe or Ni based alloys, neutron economy is lowered. Since it is desirable that neutrons contribute to uranium fission with least absorption to the reactor core structural components, the reactor core structural components are constituted with the Fe or Ni based alloys of good corrosion resistance only at a portion in contact with reactor water, that is, at a surface portion, while the main body is constituted with zircalloy in the present invention. Accordingly, corrosion resistnace can be kept while keeping small neutron absorption cross section. (T.M.)

  1. Investigation of EAS cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaulov S.B.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of nuclear-electromagnetic cascade models in air in the late forties have shown informational content of the study of cores of extensive air showers (EAS. These investigations were the main goal in different experiments which were carried out over many years by a variety of methods. Outcomes of such investigations obtained in the HADRON experiment using an X-ray emulsion chamber (XREC as a core detector are considered. The Ne spectrum of EAS associated with γ-ray families, spectra of γ-rays (hadrons in EAS cores and the Ne dependence of the muon number, ⟨Nμ⟩, in EAS with γ-ray families are obtained for the first time at energies of 1015–1017 eV with this method. A number of new effects were observed, namely, an abnormal scaling violation in hadron spectra which are fundamentally different from model predictions, an excess of muon number in EAS associated with γ-ray families, and the penetrating component in EAS cores. It is supposed that the abnormal behavior of γ-ray spectra and Ne dependence of the muon number are explained by the emergence of a penetrating component in the 1st PCR spectrum ‘knee’ range. Nuclear and astrophysical explanations of the origin of the penetrating component are discussed. The necessity of considering the contribution of a single close cosmic-ray source to explain the PCR spectrum in the knee range is noted.

  2. Plutonium cores of zenith

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barclay, F R; Cameron, I R; Drageset, A; Freemantle, R G; Wilson, D J

    1965-03-15

    The report describes a series of experiments carried out with plutonium fuel in the heated zero power reactor ZENITH, with the aim of testing current theoretical methods, with particular reference to excess reactivity, temperature coefficients, differential spectrum and reaction rate distributions. Two cores of widely different fissile/moderator atom ratios were loaded in order to test the theory under significantly varied spectrum conditions.

  3. Core damage risk indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szikszai, T.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to show a method for the fast recalculation of the PSA. To avoid the information loose, it is necessary to simplify the PSA models, or at least reorganize them. The method, introduced in this document, require that preparation, so we try to show, how to do that. This document is an introduction. This is the starting point of the work related to the development of the risk indicators. In the future, with the application of this method, we are going to show an everyday use of the PSA results to produce the indicators of the core damage risk. There are two different indicators of the plant safety performance, related to the core damage risk. The first is the core damage frequency indicator (CDFI), and the second is the core damage probability indicator (CDPI). Of course, we cannot describe all of the possible ways to use these indicators, rather we will try to introduce the requirements to establish such an indicator system and the calculation process

  4. Core calculations of JMTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagao, Yoshiharu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    In material testing reactors like the JMTR (Japan Material Testing Reactor) of 50 MW in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, the neutron flux and neutron energy spectra of irradiated samples show complex distributions. It is necessary to assess the neutron flux and neutron energy spectra of an irradiation field by carrying out the nuclear calculation of the core for every operation cycle. In order to advance core calculation, in the JMTR, the application of MCNP to the assessment of core reactivity and neutron flux and spectra has been investigated. In this study, in order to reduce the time for calculation and variance, the comparison of the results of the calculations by the use of K code and fixed source and the use of Weight Window were investigated. As to the calculation method, the modeling of the total JMTR core, the conditions for calculation and the adopted variance reduction technique are explained. The results of calculation are shown. Significant difference was not observed in the results of neutron flux calculations according to the difference of the modeling of fuel region in the calculations by K code and fixed source. The method of assessing the results of neutron flux calculation is described. (K.I.)

  5. Emergency core cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Ken.

    1989-01-01

    In PWR type reactors, a cooling water spray portion of emergency core cooling pipelines incorporated into pipelines on high temperature side is protruded to the inside of an upper plenum. Upon rupture of primary pipelines, pressure in a pressure vessel is abruptly reduced to generate a great amount of steams in the reactor core, which are discharged at a high flow rate into the primary pipelines on high temperature side. However, since the inside of the upper plenum has a larger area and the steam flow is slow, as compared with that of the pipelines on the high temperature side, ECCS water can surely be supplied into the reactor core to promote the re-flooding of the reactor core and effectively cool the reactor. Since the nuclear reactor can effectively be cooled to enable the promotion of pressure reduction and effective supply of coolants during the period of pressure reduction upon LOCA, the capacity of the pressure accumulation vessel can be decreased. Further, the re-flooding time for the reactor is shortened to provide an effect contributing to the improvement of the safety and the reduction of the cost. (N.H.)

  6. Inflation targeting and core inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Julie Smith

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the interaction of core inflation and inflation targeting as a monetary policy regime. Interest in core inflation has grown because of inflation targeting. Core inflation is defined in numerous ways giving rise to many potential measures; this paper defines core inflation as the best forecaster of inflation. A cross-country study finds before the start of inflation targeting, but not after, core inflation differs between non-inflation targeters and inflation targeters. Thr...

  7. [Computerized clinical protocol for occlusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salsench, J; Ferrer, J; Nogueras, J

    1988-11-01

    In making a protocol it is necessary that all members of the team who are going to collect information have the same unity of criterion about the different variables that compose it. The drawing up of this document is as much or more necessary than the protocol itself. In this work we all data collected in the protocol and we give the explanations of each concept.

  8. CORE annual report 2006; CORE Jahresbericht 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gut, A

    2007-04-15

    This annual report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) summarises the activities of the Swiss Federal Commission on Energy Research CORE in 2006. The six main areas of work during the period 2004 - 2007 are examined, including a review of the SFOE's energy research programme, a road-map for the way towards the realisation of a 2000-watt society, the formulation of an energy research concept for 2008 - 2011, international co-operation, the dissemination of information and the assessment of existing and new instruments. International activities and Switzerland's involvement in energy research within the framework of the International Energy Agency IEA are discussed. New and existing projects are listed and the work done at the Competence Centre for Energy and Mobility noted. The Swiss Technology Award 2007 is presented. Information supplied to interested bodies to help improve knowledge on research work being done and to help make discussions on future energy supply more objective is discussed.

  9. MEMORY MODULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roozendaal, Benno; McGaugh, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Our memories are not all created equally strong: Some experiences are well remembered while others are remembered poorly, if at all. Research on memory modulation investigates the neurobiological processes and systems that contribute to such differences in the strength of our memories. Extensive evidence from both animal and human research indicates that emotionally significant experiences activate hormonal and brain systems that regulate the consolidation of newly acquired memories. These effects are integrated through noradrenergic activation of the basolateral amygdala which regulates memory consolidation via interactions with many other brain regions involved in consolidating memories of recent experiences. Modulatory systems not only influence neurobiological processes underlying the consolidation of new information, but also affect other mnemonic processes, including memory extinction, memory recall and working memory. In contrast to their enhancing effects on consolidation, adrenal stress hormones impair memory retrieval and working memory. Such effects, as with memory consolidation, require noradrenergic activation of the basolateral amygdala and interactions with other brain regions. PMID:22122145

  10. Static Validation of Security Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodei, Chiara; Buchholtz, Mikael; Degano, P.

    2005-01-01

    We methodically expand protocol narrations into terms of a process algebra in order to specify some of the checks that need to be made in a protocol. We then apply static analysis technology to develop an automatic validation procedure for protocols. Finally, we demonstrate that these techniques ...... suffice to identify several authentication flaws in symmetric and asymmetric key protocols such as Needham-Schroeder symmetric key, Otway-Rees, Yahalom, Andrew secure RPC, Needham-Schroeder asymmetric key, and Beller-Chang-Yacobi MSR...

  11. Elevations in core and muscle temperature impairs repeated sprint performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drust, B.; Rasmussen, P.; Mohr, Magni

    2005-01-01

    on a cycle ergometer in normal (approximately 20 degrees C, control) and hot (40 degrees C, hyperthermia) environments. RESULTS: Completion of the intermittent protocol in the heat elevated core and muscle temperatures (39.5 +/- 0.2 degrees C; 40.2 +/- 0.4 degrees C), heart rate (178 +/- 11 beats min(-1...... metabolic fatigue agents and we, therefore, suggest that it may relate to the influence of high core temperature on the function of the central nervous system.......)), rating of perceived exertion (RPE) (18 +/- 1) and noradrenaline (38.9 +/- 13.2 micromol l(-1)) (all P

  12. Unconditionally Secure Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meldgaard, Sigurd Torkel

    This thesis contains research on the theory of secure multi-party computation (MPC). Especially information theoretically (as opposed to computationally) secure protocols. It contains results from two main lines of work. One line on Information Theoretically Secure Oblivious RAMS, and how....... We construct an oblivious RAM that hides the client's access pattern with information theoretic security with an amortized $\\log^3 N$ query overhead. And how to employ a second server that is guaranteed not to conspire with the first to improve the overhead to $\\log^2 N$, while also avoiding...... they are used to speed up secure computation. An Oblivious RAM is a construction for a client with a small $O(1)$ internal memory to store $N$ pieces of data on a server while revealing nothing more than the size of the memory $N$, and the number of accesses. This specifically includes hiding the access pattern...

  13. Protocols for Scholarly Communication

    CERN Document Server

    Pepe, Alberto; Pepe, Alberto; Yeomans, Joanne

    2007-01-01

    CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, has operated an institutional preprint repository for more than 10 years. The repository contains over 850,000 records of which more than 450,000 are full-text OA preprints, mostly in the field of particle physics, and it is integrated with the library's holdings of books, conference proceedings, journals and other grey literature. In order to encourage effective propagation and open access to scholarly material, CERN is implementing a range of innovative library services into its document repository: automatic keywording, reference extraction, collaborative management tools and bibliometric tools. Some of these services, such as user reviewing and automatic metadata extraction, could make up an interesting testbed for future publishing solutions and certainly provide an exciting environment for e-science possibilities. The future protocol for scientific communication should naturally guide authors towards OA publication and CERN wants to help reach a full...

  14. Microtubules provide directional information for core PCP function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matis, Maja; Russler-Germain, David A; Hu, Qie; Tomlin, Claire J; Axelrod, Jeffrey D

    2014-01-01

    Planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling controls the polarization of cells within the plane of an epithelium. Two molecular modules composed of Fat(Ft)/Dachsous(Ds)/Four-jointed(Fj) and a ‘PCP-core’ including Frizzled(Fz) and Dishevelled(Dsh) contribute to polarization of individual cells. How polarity is globally coordinated with tissue axes is unresolved. Consistent with previous results, we find that the Ft/Ds/Fj-module has an effect on a MT-cytoskeleton. Here, we provide evidence for the model that the Ft/Ds/Fj-module provides directional information to the core-module through this MT organizing function. We show Ft/Ds/Fj-dependent initial polarization of the apical MT-cytoskeleton prior to global alignment of the core-module, reveal that the anchoring of apical non-centrosomal MTs at apical junctions is polarized, observe that directional trafficking of vesicles containing Dsh depends on Ft, and demonstrate the feasibility of this model by mathematical simulation. Together, these results support the hypothesis that Ft/Ds/Fj provides a signal to orient core PCP function via MT polarization. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02893.001 PMID:25124458

  15. iTOUGH2 Universal Optimization Using the PEST Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finsterle, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    , the PEST protocol [Doherty, 2007] has been implemented into iTOUGH2. This protocol enables communication between the application (which can be a single 'black-box' executable or a script or batch file that calls multiple codes) and iTOUGH2. The concept requires that for the application model: (1) Input is provided on one or more ASCII text input files; (2) Output is returned to one or more ASCII text output files; (3) The model is run using a system command (executable or script/batch file); and (4) The model runs to completion without any user intervention. For each forward run invoked by iTOUGH2, select parameters cited within the application model input files are then overwritten with values provided by iTOUGH2, and select variables cited within the output files are extracted and returned to iTOUGH2. It should be noted that the core of iTOUGH2, i.e., its optimization routines and related analysis tools, remains unchanged; it is only the communication format between input parameters, the application model, and output variables that are borrowed from PEST. The interface routines have been provided by Doherty [2007]. The iTOUGH2-PEST architecture is shown in Figure 1. This manual contains installation instructions for the iTOUGH2-PEST module, and describes the PEST protocol as well as the input formats needed in iTOUGH2. Examples are provided that demonstrate the use of model-independent optimization and analysis using iTOUGH2.

  16. ITER Central Solenoid Module Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, John [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2016-09-23

    The fabrication of the modules for the ITER Central Solenoid (CS) has started in a dedicated production facility located in Poway, California, USA. The necessary tools have been designed, built, installed, and tested in the facility to enable the start of production. The current schedule has first module fabrication completed in 2017, followed by testing and subsequent shipment to ITER. The Central Solenoid is a key component of the ITER tokamak providing the inductive voltage to initiate and sustain the plasma current and to position and shape the plasma. The design of the CS has been a collaborative effort between the US ITER Project Office (US ITER), the international ITER Organization (IO) and General Atomics (GA). GA’s responsibility includes: completing the fabrication design, developing and qualifying the fabrication processes and tools, and then completing the fabrication of the seven 110 tonne CS modules. The modules will be shipped separately to the ITER site, and then stacked and aligned in the Assembly Hall prior to insertion in the core of the ITER tokamak. A dedicated facility in Poway, California, USA has been established by GA to complete the fabrication of the seven modules. Infrastructure improvements included thick reinforced concrete floors, a diesel generator for backup power, along with, cranes for moving the tooling within the facility. The fabrication process for a single module requires approximately 22 months followed by five months of testing, which includes preliminary electrical testing followed by high current (48.5 kA) tests at 4.7K. The production of the seven modules is completed in a parallel fashion through ten process stations. The process stations have been designed and built with most stations having completed testing and qualification for carrying out the required fabrication processes. The final qualification step for each process station is achieved by the successful production of a prototype coil. Fabrication of the first

  17. Ice cores and palaeoclimate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krogh Andersen, K.; Ditlevsen, P.; Steffensen, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    Ice cores from Greenland give testimony of a highly variable climate during the last glacial period. Dramatic climate warmings of 15 to 25 deg. C for the annual average temperature in less than a human lifetime have been documented. Several questions arise: Why is the Holocene so stable? Is climatic instability only a property of glacial periods? What is the mechanism behind the sudden climate changes? Are the increased temperatures in the past century man-made? And what happens in the future? The ice core community tries to attack some of these problems. The NGRIP ice core currently being drilled is analysed in very high detail, allowing for a very precise dating of climate events. It will be possible to study some of the fast changes on a year by year basis and from this we expect to find clues to the sequence of events during rapid changes. New techniques are hoped to allow for detection of annual layers as far back as 100,000 years and thus a much improved time scale over past climate changes. It is also hoped to find ice from the Eemian period. If the Eemian layers confirm the GRIP sequence, the Eemian was actually climatically unstable just as the glacial period. This would mean that the stability of the Holocene is unique. It would also mean, that if human made global warming indeed occurs, we could jeopardize the Holocene stability and create an unstable 'Eemian situation' which ultimately could start an ice age. Currenlty mankind is changing the composition of the atmosphere. Ice cores document significant increases in greenhouse gases, and due to increased emissions of sulfuric and nitric acid from fossil fuel burning, combustion engines and agriculture, modern Greenland snow is 3 - 5 times more acidic than pre-industrial snow (Mayewski et al., 1986). However, the magnitude and abruptness of the temperature changes of the past century do not exceed the magnitude of natural variability. It is from the ice core perspective thus not possible to attribute the

  18. Study of core support barrel vibration monitoring using ex-core neutron noise analysis and fuzzy logic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian, Robby; Song, Seon Ho; Kang, Hyun Gook

    2015-01-01

    The application of neutron noise analysis (NNA) to the ex-core neutron detector signal for monitoring the vibration characteristics of a reactor core support barrel (CSB) was investigated. Ex-core flux data were generated by using a nonanalog Monte Carlo neutron transport method in a simulated CSB model where the implicit capture and Russian roulette technique were utilized. First and third order beam and shell modes of CSB vibration were modeled based on parallel processing simulation. A NNA module was developed to analyze the ex-core flux data based on its time variation, normalized power spectral density, normalized cross-power spectral density, coherence, and phase differences. The data were then analyzed with a fuzzy logic module to determine the vibration characteristics. The ex-core neutron signal fluctuation was directly proportional to the CSB's vibration observed at 8Hz and15Hzin the beam mode vibration, and at 8Hz in the shell mode vibration. The coherence result between flux pairs was unity at the vibration peak frequencies. A distinct pattern of phase differences was observed for each of the vibration models. The developed fuzzy logic module demonstrated successful recognition of the vibration frequencies, modes, orders, directions, and phase differences within 0.4 ms for the beam and shell mode vibrations.

  19. Emergency core cooling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzaki, Kiyoshi; Inoue, Akihiro.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To improve core cooling effect by making the operation region for a plurality of water injection pumps more broader. Constitution: An emergency reactor core cooling device actuated upon failure of recycling pipe ways is adapted to be fed with cooling water through a thermal sleeve by way of a plurality of water injection pump from pool water in a condensate storage tank and a pressure suppression chamber as water feed source. Exhaust pipes and suction pipes of each of the pumps are connected by way of switching valves and the valves are switched so that the pumps are set to a series operation if the pressure in the pressure vessel is high and the pumps are set to a parallel operation if the pressure in the pressure vessel is low. (Furukawa, Y.)

  20. Birefringent hollow core fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, John

    2007-01-01

    Hollow core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF), fabricated according to a nominally non-birefringent design, shows a degree of un-controlled birefringence or polarization mode dispersion far in excess of conventional non polarization maintaining fibers. This can degrade the output pulse in many...... applications, and places emphasis on the development of polarization maintaining (PM) HC-PCF. The polarization cross-coupling characteristics of PM HC-PCF are very different from those of conventional PM fibers. The former fibers have the advantage of suffering far less from stress-field fluctuations...... and an increased overlap between the polarization modes at the glass interfaces. The interplay between these effects leads to a wavelength for optimum polarization maintenance, lambda(PM), which is detuned from the wavelength of highest birefringence. By a suitable fiber design involving antiresonance of the core...

  1. Plasma core reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latham, T.S.; Rodgers, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    Analytical and experimental investigations are being conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of fissioning uranium plasma core reactors and to characterize space and terrestrial applications for such reactors. Uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) fuel is injected into core cavities and confined away from the surface by argon buffer gas injected tangentially from the peripheral walls. Power, in the form of thermal radiation emitted from the high-temperature nuclear fuel, is transmitted through fused-silica transparent walls to working fluids which flow in axial channels embedded in segments of the cavity walls. Radiant heat transfer calculations were performed for a six-cavity reactor configuration; each cavity is approximately 1 m in diameter by 4.35 m in length. Axial working fluid channels are located along a fraction of each cavity peripheral wall

  2. Reactor core cooling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Masahiro.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To safely and effectively cool down the reactor core after it has been shut down but is still hot due to after-heat. Constitution: Since the coolant extraction nozzle is situated at a location higher than the coolant injection nozzle, the coolant sprayed from the nozzle, is free from sucking immediately from the extraction nozzle and is therefore used effectively to cool the reactor core. As all the portions from the top to the bottom of the reactor are cooled simultaneously, the efficiency of the reactor cooling process is increased. Since the coolant extraction nozzle can be installed at a point considerably higher than the coolant injection nozzle, the distance from the coolant surface to the point of the coolant extraction nozzle can be made large, preventing cavitation near the coolant extraction nozzle. Therefore, without increasing the capacity of the heat exchanger, the reactor can be cooled down after a shutdown safely and efficiently. (Kawakami, Y.)

  3. Some core contested concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomsky, Noam

    2015-02-01

    Core concepts of language are highly contested. In some cases this is legitimate: real empirical and conceptual issues arise. In other cases, it seems that controversies are based on misunderstanding. A number of crucial cases are reviewed, and an approach to language is outlined that appears to have strong conceptual and empirical motivation, and to lead to conclusions about a number of significant issues that differ from some conventional beliefs.

  4. Schumpeter's core works revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Esben Sloth

    2012-01-01

    This paper organises Schumpeter’s core books in three groups: the programmatic duology,the evolutionaryeconomic duology,and the socioeconomic synthesis. By analysing these groups and their interconnections from the viewpoint of modern evolutionaryeconomics,the paper summarises resolved problems a...... and points at remaining challenges. Its analyses are based on distinctions between microevolution and macroevolution, between economic evolution and socioeconomic coevolution, and between Schumpeter’s three major evolutionary models (called Mark I, Mark II and Mark III)....

  5. Intrinsically secure fast reactors with dense cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slessarev, Igor

    2007-01-01

    Secure safety, resistance to weapons material proliferation and problems of long-lived wastes remain the most important 'painful points' of nuclear power. Many innovative reactor concepts have been developed aimed at a radical enhancement of safety. The promising potential of innovative nuclear reactors allows for shifting accents in current reactor safety 'strategy' to reveal this worth. Such strategy is elaborated focusing on the priority for intrinsically secure safety features as well as on sure protection being provided by the first barrier of defence. Concerning the potential of fast reactors (i.e. sodium cooled, lead-cooled, etc.), there are no doubts that they are able to possess many favourable intrinsically secure safety features and to lay the proper foundation for a new reactor generation. However, some of their neutronic characteristics have to be radically improved. Among intrinsically secure safety properties, the following core parameters are significantly important: reactivity margin values, reactivity feed-back and coolant void effects. Ways of designing intrinsically secure safety features in fast reactors (titled hereafter as Intrinsically Secure Fast Reactors - ISFR) can be found in the frame of current reactor technologies by radical enhancement of core neutron economy and by optimization of core compositions. Simultaneously, respecting resistance to proliferation, by using non-enriched fuel feed as well as a core breeding gain close to zero, are considered as the important features (long-lived waste problems will be considered in a separate paper). This implies using the following reactor design options as well as closed fuel cycles with natural U as the reactor feed: ·Ultra-plate 'dense cores' of the ordinary (monolithic) type with negative total coolant void effects. ·Modular type cores. Multiple dense modules can be embedded in the common reflector for achieving the desired NPP total power. The modules can be used also independently (as

  6. caCORE: a common infrastructure for cancer informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covitz, Peter A; Hartel, Frank; Schaefer, Carl; De Coronado, Sherri; Fragoso, Gilberto; Sahni, Himanso; Gustafson, Scott; Buetow, Kenneth H

    2003-12-12

    Sites with substantive bioinformatics operations are challenged to build data processing and delivery infrastructure that provides reliable access and enables data integration. Locally generated data must be processed and stored such that relationships to external data sources can be presented. Consistency and comparability across data sets requires annotation with controlled vocabularies and, further, metadata standards for data representation. Programmatic access to the processed data should be supported to ensure the maximum possible value is extracted. Confronted with these challenges at the National Cancer Institute Center for Bioinformatics, we decided to develop a robust infrastructure for data management and integration that supports advanced biomedical applications. We have developed an interconnected set of software and services called caCORE. Enterprise Vocabulary Services (EVS) provide controlled vocabulary, dictionary and thesaurus services. The Cancer Data Standards Repository (caDSR) provides a metadata registry for common data elements. Cancer Bioinformatics Infrastructure Objects (caBIO) implements an object-oriented model of the biomedical domain and provides Java, Simple Object Access Protocol and HTTP-XML application programming interfaces. caCORE has been used to develop scientific applications that bring together data from distinct genomic and clinical science sources. caCORE downloads and web interfaces can be accessed from links on the caCORE web site (http://ncicb.nci.nih.gov/core). caBIO software is distributed under an open source license that permits unrestricted academic and commercial use. Vocabulary and metadata content in the EVS and caDSR, respectively, is similarly unrestricted, and is available through web applications and FTP downloads. http://ncicb.nci.nih.gov/core/publications contains links to the caBIO 1.0 class diagram and the caCORE 1.0 Technical Guide, which provide detailed information on the present caCORE architecture

  7. BWR type reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatemichi, Shin-ichiro.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To eliminate the variation in the power distribution of a BWR type reactor core in the axial direction even if the flow rate is increased or decreased by providing a difference in the void coefficient between the upper part and the lower parts of the reactor core, and increasing the void coefficient at the lower part of the reactor core. Constitution: The void coefficient of the lower region from the center to the lower part along the axial direction of a nuclear fuel assembly is increased to decrease the dependence on the flow rate of the axial power distribution of the nuclear fuel assembly. That is, a water/fuel ratio is varied, the water in non-boiled region is increased or the neutron spectrum is varied so as to vary the void coefficient. In order to exemplify it, the rate of the internal pellets of the fuel rod of the nuclear fuel assembly or the shape of the channel box is varied. Accordingly, the power does not considerably vary even if the flow rate is altered since the power is varied in the power operation. (Yoshihara, H.)

  8. Emergency core cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Masaki.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To actuate an automatic pressure down system (ADS) and a low pressure emergency core cooling system (ECCS) upon water level reduction of a nuclear reactor other than loss of coolant accidents (LOCA). Constitution: ADS in a BWR type reactor is disposed for reducing the pressure in a reactor container thereby enabling coolant injection from a low pressure ECCS upon LOCA. That is, ADS has been actuated by AND signal for a reactor water level low signal and a dry well pressure high signal. In the present invention, ADS can be actuated further also by AND signal of the reactor water level low signal, the high pressure ECCS and not-operation signal of reactor isolation cooling system. In such an emergency core cooling system thus constituted, ADS operates in the same manner as usual upon LOCA and, further, ADS is operated also upon loss of feedwater accident in the reactor pressure vessel in the case where there is a necessity for actuating the low pressure ECCS, although other high pressure ECCS and reactor isolation cooling system are not operated. Accordingly, it is possible to improve the reliability upon reactor core accident and mitigate the operator burden. (Horiuchi, T.)

  9. Gene probes: principles and protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aquino de Muro, Marilena; Rapley, Ralph

    2002-01-01

    ... of labeled DNA has allowed genes to be mapped to single chromosomes and in many cases to a single chromosome band, promoting significant advance in human genome mapping. Gene Probes: Principles and Protocols presents the principles for gene probe design, labeling, detection, target format, and hybridization conditions together with detailed protocols, accom...

  10. Developing frameworks for protocol implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Barros Barbosa, C.; de barros Barbosa, C.; Ferreira Pires, Luis

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a method to develop frameworks for protocol implementation. Frameworks are software structures developed for a specific application domain, which can be reused in the implementation of various different concrete systems in this domain. The use of frameworks support a protocol

  11. On TCP-based Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) Server Overload Control

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Charles; Schulzrinne, Henning

    2010-01-01

    The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) server overload management has attracted interest since SIP is being widely deployed in the Next Generation Networks (NGN) as a core signaling protocol. Yet all existing SIP overload control work is focused on SIP-over-UDP, despite the fact that TCP is increasingly seen as the more viable choice of SIP transport. This paper answers the following questions: is the existing TCP flow control capable of handling the SIP overload problem? If not, why and how c...

  12. Fast Convolution Module (Fast Convolution Module)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bierens, L

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the design and realisation of a real-time range azimuth compression module, the so-called 'Fast Convolution Module', based on the fast convolution algorithm developed at TNO-FEL...

  13. Protocols for Scholarly Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, A.; Yeomans, J.

    2007-10-01

    CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, has operated an institutional preprint repository for more than 10 years. The repository contains over 850,000 records of which more than 450,000 are full-text OA preprints, mostly in the field of particle physics, and it is integrated with the library's holdings of books, conference proceedings, journals and other grey literature. In order to encourage effective propagation and open access to scholarly material, CERN is implementing a range of innovative library services into its document repository: automatic keywording, reference extraction, collaborative management tools and bibliometric tools. Some of these services, such as user reviewing and automatic metadata extraction, could make up an interesting testbed for future publishing solutions and certainly provide an exciting environment for e-science possibilities. The future protocol for scientific communication should guide authors naturally towards OA publication, and CERN wants to help reach a full open access publishing environment for the particle physics community and related sciences in the next few years.

  14. Module theory, extending modules and generalizations

    CERN Document Server

    Tercan, Adnan

    2016-01-01

    The main focus of this monograph is to offer a comprehensive presentation of known and new results on various generalizations of CS-modules and CS-rings. Extending (or CS) modules are generalizations of injective (and also semisimple or uniform) modules. While the theory of CS-modules is well documented in monographs and textbooks, results on generalized forms of the CS property as well as dual notions are far less present in the literature. With their work the authors provide a solid background to module theory, accessible to anyone familiar with basic abstract algebra. The focus of the book is on direct sums of CS-modules and classes of modules related to CS-modules, such as relative (injective) ejective modules, (quasi) continuous modules, and lifting modules. In particular, matrix CS-rings are studied and clear proofs of fundamental decomposition results on CS-modules over commutative domains are given, thus complementing existing monographs in this area. Open problems round out the work and establish the...

  15. Molten salt reactors: reactor cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    In this critical analysis of the MSBR I project are examined the problems concerning the reactor core. Advantages of breeding depend essentially upon solutions to technological problems like continuous reprocessing or graphite behavior under neutron irradiation. Graphite deformation, moderator unloading, control rods and core instrumentation require more studies. Neutronics of the core, influence of core geometry and salt composition, fuel evolution, and thermohydraulics are reviewed [fr

  16. WNP-2 core model upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golightly, C.E.; Ravindranath, T.K.; Belblidia, L.A.; O'Farrell, D.; Andersen, P.S.

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes the core model upgrade of the WNP-2 training simulator and the reasons for the upgrade. The core model as well as the interface with the rest of the simulator are briefly described . The paper also describes the procedure that will be used by WNP-2 to update the simulator core data after future core reloads. Results from the fully integrated simulator are presented. (author)

  17. On-line core monitoring with CORE MASTER / PRESTO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindahl, S.O.; Borresen, S.; Ovrum, S.

    1986-01-01

    Advanced calculational tools are instrumental in improving reactor plant capacity factors and fuel utilization. The computer code package CORE MASTER is an integrated system designed to achieve this objective. The system covers all main activities in the area of in-core fuel management for boiling water reactors; design, operation support, and on-line core monitoring. CORE MASTER operates on a common data base, which defines the reactor and documents the operating history of the core and of all fuel bundles ever used

  18. Synthesis of triangular Au core-Ag shell nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rai, Akhilesh; Chaudhary, Minakshi; Ahmad, Absar; Bhargava, Suresh; Sastry, Murali

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a simple and reproducible method for the synthesis of triangular Au core-Ag shell nanoparticles. The triangular gold core is obtained by the reduction of gold ions by lemongrass extract. Utilizing the negative charge on the gold nanotriangles, silver ions are bound to their surface and thereafter reduced by ascorbic acid under alkaline conditions. The thickness of the silver shell may be modulated by varying the pH of the reaction medium. The formation of the Au core-Ag shell triangular nanostructures has been followed by UV-vis-NIR Spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements. The sharp vertices of the triangles coupled with the core-shell structure is expected to have potential for application in surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy and in the sensitive detection of biomolecules

  19. Hollow-Core Fiber Lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Lin (Inventor); Tjoelker, Robert L. (Inventor); Burt, Eric A. (Inventor); Huang, Shouhua (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Hollow-core capillary discharge lamps on the millimeter or sub-millimeter scale are provided. The hollow-core capillary discharge lamps achieve an increased light intensity ratio between 194 millimeters (useful) and 254 millimeters (useless) light than conventional lamps. The capillary discharge lamps may include a cone to increase light output. Hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (HCPCF) may also be used.

  20. Dual-core Itanium Processor

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Intel’s first dual-core Itanium processor, code-named "Montecito" is a major release of Intel's Itanium 2 Processor Family, which implements the Intel Itanium architecture on a dual-core processor with two cores per die (integrated circuit). Itanium 2 is much more powerful than its predecessor. It has lower power consumption and thermal dissipation.

  1. Maximum stellar iron core mass

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    60, No. 3. — journal of. March 2003 physics pp. 415–422. Maximum stellar iron core mass. F W GIACOBBE. Chicago Research Center/American Air Liquide ... iron core compression due to the weight of non-ferrous matter overlying the iron cores within large .... thermal equilibrium velocities will tend to be non-relativistic.

  2. Core TuLiP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czenko, M.R.; Etalle, Sandro

    2007-01-01

    We propose CoreTuLiP - the core of a trust management language based on Logic Programming. CoreTuLiP is based on a subset of moded logic programming, but enjoys the features of TM languages such as RT; in particular clauses are issued by different authorities and stored in a distributed manner. We

  3. A three-dimensional computer code for the nonlinear dynamic response of an HTGR core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subudhi, M.; Lasker, L.; Koplik, B.; Curreri, J.; Goradia, H.

    1979-01-01

    A three-dimensional dynamic code has been developed to determine the nonlinear response of an HTGR core. The HTGR core consists of several thousands of hexagonal core blocks. These are arranged in layers stacked together. Each layer contains many core blocks surrounded on their outer periphery by reflector blocks. The entire assembly is contained within a prestressed concrete reactor vessel. Gaps exist between adjacent blocks in any horizontal plane. Each core block in a given layer is connected to the blocks directly above and below it via three dowell pins. The present analytical study is directed towards an investigation of the nonlinear response of the reactor core blocks in the event of a seismic occurrence. The computer code is developed for a specific mathematical model which represents a vertical arrangement of layers of blocks. This comprises a 'block module' of core elements which would be obtained by cutting a cylindrical portion consisting of seven fuel blocks per layer. It is anticipated that a number of such modules properly arranged could represent the entire core. Hence, the predicted response of this module would exhibit the response characteristics of the core. (orig.)

  4. Three-dimensional computer code for the nonlinear dynamic response of an HTGR core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subudhi, M.; Lasker, L.; Koplik, B.; Curreri, J.; Goradia, H.

    1979-01-01

    A three-dimensional dynamic code has been developed to determine the nonlinear response of an HTGR core. The HTGR core consists of several thousands of hexagonal core blocks. These are arranged inlayers stacked together. Each layer contains many core blocks surrounded on their outer periphery by reflector blocks. The entire assembly is contained within a prestressed concrete reactor vessel. Gaps exist between adjacent blocks in any horizontal plane. Each core block in a given layer is connected to the blocks directly above and below it via three dowell pins. The present analystical study is directed towards an invesstigation of the nonlinear response of the reactor core blocks in the event of a seismic occurrence. The computer code is developed for a specific mathemtical model which represents a vertical arrangement of layers of blocks. This comprises a block module of core elements which would be obtained by cutting a cylindrical portion consisting of seven fuel blocks per layer. It is anticipated that a number of such modules properly arranged could represent the entire core. Hence, the predicted response of this module would exhibit the response characteristics of the core

  5. Effectiveness of oxaliplatin desensitization protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortijo-Cascajares, Susana; Nacle-López, Inmaculada; García-Escobar, Ignacio; Aguilella-Vizcaíno, María José; Herreros-de-Tejada, Alberto; Cortés-Funes Castro, Hernán; Calleja-Hernández, Miguel-Ángel

    2013-03-01

    Hypersensitivity reaction (HSR) to antineoplastic drugs can force doctors to stop treatment and seek other alternatives. These alternatives may be less effective, not as well tolerated and/or more expensive. Another option is to use desensitization protocols that induce a temporary state of tolerance by gradually administering small quantities of the antineoplastic drug until the therapeutic dosage is reached. The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of oxaliplatin desensitization protocols. A retrospective observational study was carried out between January 2006 and May 2011. The inclusion criteria were patients undergoing chemotherapy treatment with oxaliplatin who had developed an HSR to the drug and who were candidates for continuing the treatment using a desensitization protocol. The patients' clinical records were reviewed and variables were gathered relating to the patient, the treatment, the HSR, and the desensitization protocol administered. The data were analysed using version 18.0 of the statistics program SPSS. A total of 53 desensitization protocols were administered to 21 patients. In 89 % of these cases, no new reactions occurred while the drug was being administered. New reactions of mild severity only occurred in 11 % of cases, and none of these reactions were severe enough for treatment to be stopped. All patients were able to complete the desensitization protocol. This study confirms that oxaliplatin desensitization protocols are safe and effective and allow patients to continue with the treatment that initially caused an HSR.

  6. Edge and core dynamics in harness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, R.

    2007-01-01

    Resistive kink oscillations in tokamak plasmas are usually treated as core localized events, yet there there are several mechanisms by which they may interact with the edge dynamics. This suggests that we may regulate edge oscillatory behaviour, or ELMs, by harnessing the natural or contrived sawtooth period and amplitude. In this work I investigate core-edge oscillatory entrainment through direct propagation of heat pulses, inductive coupling, and global higher order resonance effects. In the core of auxiliary heated tokamak plasmas the ineluctable rhythm of slow buildup and rapid conversion of potential energy governs electron and heat radial transport. The growth phase of the sawtooth is accompanied by significant reconnection, then during the collapse the temperature and density in the core fall dramatically. There is evidence from experiments in reversed field pinch devices that ensuing energy fluxes can affect flow shear and confinement at the edge. The basis for this study is the dynamical (BDS) model for edge plasma behavior that was derived from electrostatic resistive MHD equations. The BDS model reflects the major qualitative features of edge dynamics that have been observed, such as L-H transitions and associated ELMs, hysteresis, and spontaneous reversal of poloidal shear flow. Under poorly dissipative conditions the transient behavior of the model can exhibit period-doubling, blue-sky, homoclinic, and other exotic bifurcations. Thus we might ask questions such as: Is it possible to mode-lock the edge dynamics to the core sawteeth? Can we induce, or prevent, a change in direction of shear flow? What about MHD effects? Is core-edge communication one way or is there some feedback? In the simplest prototype for coupled core-edge dynamics I model the sawtooth crash as a periodic power input to the edge potential energy reservoir. This is effected by coupling the BDS model to the dynamical system u = u(1 - u 2 - x 2 ) - ω s x, x = x(1-u 2 -x 2 ) + ω s u

  7. Intrathymic immune modulation prevents acute rejection but not the development of graft arteriosclerosis (chronic rejection)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillebrands, JL; Raue, HP; Klatter, FA; Hylkema, MN; Platteel, [No Value; Hardonk-Wubbena, A; Nieuwenhuis, P; Rozing, J

    2001-01-01

    Background. We showed previously that our intrathymic immune modulation protocol induces virtually permanent graft survival of simultaneously transplanted cardiac allografts in MHC-incompatible rat strain combinations. It is, however, unknown whether this procedure prevents the development of graft

  8. Automated Core Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Yoko; Aiyoshi, Eitaro

    2005-01-01

    Multistate searching methods are a subfield of distributed artificial intelligence that aims to provide both principles for construction of complex systems involving multiple states and mechanisms for coordination of independent agents' actions. This paper proposes a multistate searching algorithm with reinforcement learning for the automatic core design of a boiling water reactor. The characteristics of this algorithm are that the coupling structure and the coupling operation suitable for the assigned problem are assumed and an optimal solution is obtained by mutual interference in multistate transitions using multiagents. Calculations in an actual plant confirmed that the proposed algorithm increased the convergence ability of the optimization process

  9. Ice Sheets & Ice Cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Troels Bøgeholm

    Since the discovery of the Ice Ages it has been evident that Earth’s climate is liable to undergo dramatic changes. The previous climatic period known as the Last Glacial saw large oscillations in the extent of ice sheets covering the Northern hemisphere. Understanding these oscillations known....... The first part concerns time series analysis of ice core data obtained from the Greenland Ice Sheet. We analyze parts of the time series where DO-events occur using the so-called transfer operator and compare the results with time series from a simple model capable of switching by either undergoing...

  10. Nuclear reactor core assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxi, C.B.

    1978-01-01

    The object of the present invention is to provide a fast reactor core assembly design for use with a fluid coolant such as liquid sodium or carbon monoxide incorporating a method of increasing the percentage of coolant flow though the blanket elements relative to the total coolant flow through the blanket and fuel elements during shutdown conditions without using moving parts. It is claimed that deterioration due to reactor radiation or temperature conditions is avoided and ready modification or replacement is possible. (U.K.)

  11. Reload core safety verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svetlik, M.; Minarcin, M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a brief look at the process of reload core safety evaluation and verification in Slovak Republic. It gives an overview of experimental verification of selected nuclear parameters in the course of physics testing during reactor start-up. The comparison of IAEA recommendations and testing procedures at Slovak and European nuclear power plants of similar design is included. An introduction of two level criteria for evaluation of tests represents an effort to formulate the relation between safety evaluation and measured values (Authors)

  12. RB reactor benchmark cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesic, M.

    1998-01-01

    A selected set of the RB reactor benchmark cores is presented in this paper. The first results of validation of the well-known Monte Carlo MCNP TM code and adjoining neutron cross section libraries are given. They confirm the idea for the proposal of the new U-D 2 O criticality benchmark system and support the intention to include this system in the next edition of the recent OECD/NEA Project: International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Experiment, in near future. (author)

  13. SMART core preliminary nuclear design-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Chan; Ji, Seong Kyun; Chang, Moon Hee

    1997-06-01

    Three loading patterns for 330 MWth SMART core are constructed for 25, 33 and 29 CRDMs, and one loading pattern for larger 69-FA core with 45 CRDMs is also constructed for comparison purpose. In this study, the core consists of 57 reduced height Korean Optimized Fuel Assemblies (KOFAs) developed by KAERI. The enrichment of fuel is 4.95 w/o. As a main burnable poison, 35% B-10 enriched B{sub 4}C-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} shim is used. To control stuck rod worth, some gadolinia bearing fuel rods are used. The U-235 enrichment of the gadolinia bearing fuel rods is 1.8 w/o as used in KOFA. All patterns return cycle length of about 3 years. Three loading patterns except 25-CRDM pattern satisfy cold shutdown condition of keff {<=} 0.99 without soluble boron. These three patterns also satisfy the refueling condition of keff {<=} 0.95. In addition to the construction of loading pattern, an editing module of MASTER PPI files for rod power history generation is developed and rod power histories are generated for 29-CRDM loading pattern. Preliminary Fq design limit is suggested as 3.71 based on KOFA design experience. (author). 9 tabs., 45 figs., 16 refs.

  14. Dynamic Musical Communication of Core Affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole eFlaig

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Is there something special about the way music communicates feelings? Theorists since Meyer (1956 have attempted to explain how music could stimulate varied and subtle affective experiences by violating learned expectancies, or by mimicking other forms of social interaction. Our proposal is that music speaks to the brain in its own language; it need not imitate any other form of communication. We review recent theoretical and empirical literature, which suggests that all conscious processes consist of dynamic neural events, produced by spatially dispersed processes in the physical brain. Intentional thought and affective experience arise as dynamical aspects of neural events taking place in multiple brain areas simultaneously. At any given moment, this content comprises a unified scene that is integrated into a dynamic core through synchrony of neuronal oscillations. We propose that 1 neurodynamic synchrony with musical stimuli gives rise to musical qualia including tonal and temporal expectancies, and that 2 music-synchronous responses couple into core neurodynamics, enabling music to directly modulate core affect. Expressive music performance, for example, may recruit rhythm-synchronous neural responses to support affective communication. We suggest that the dynamic relationship between musical expression and the experience of affect presents a unique opportunity for the study of emotional experience. This may help elucidate the neural mechanisms underlying arousal and valence, and offer a new approach to exploring the complex dynamics of the how and why of emotional experience.

  15. How cores grow by pebble accretion. I. Direct core growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwers, M. G.; Vazan, A.; Ormel, C. W.

    2018-03-01

    Context. Planet formation by pebble accretion is an alternative to planetesimal-driven core accretion. In this scenario, planets grow by the accretion of cm- to m-sized pebbles instead of km-sized planetesimals. One of the main differences with planetesimal-driven core accretion is the increased thermal ablation experienced by pebbles. This can provide early enrichment to the planet's envelope, which influences its subsequent evolution and changes the process of core growth. Aims: We aim to predict core masses and envelope compositions of planets that form by pebble accretion and compare mass deposition of pebbles to planetesimals. Specifically, we calculate the core mass where pebbles completely evaporate and are absorbed before reaching the core, which signifies the end of direct core growth. Methods: We model the early growth of a protoplanet by calculating the structure of its envelope, taking into account the fate of impacting pebbles or planetesimals. The region where high-Z material can exist in vapor form is determined by the temperature-dependent vapor pressure. We include enrichment effects by locally modifying the mean molecular weight of the envelope. Results: In the pebble case, three phases of core growth can be identified. In the first phase (Mcore mixes outwards, slowing core growth. In the third phase (Mcore > 0.5M⊕), the high-Z inner region expands outwards, absorbing an increasing fraction of the ablated material as vapor. Rainout ends before the core mass reaches 0.6 M⊕, terminating direct core growth. In the case of icy H2O pebbles, this happens before 0.1 M⊕. Conclusions: Our results indicate that pebble accretion can directly form rocky cores up to only 0.6 M⊕, and is unable to form similarly sized icy cores. Subsequent core growth can proceed indirectly when the planet cools, provided it is able to retain its high-Z material.

  16. Deterministic secure communication protocol without using entanglement

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Qing-yu

    2003-01-01

    We show a deterministic secure direct communication protocol using single qubit in mixed state. The security of this protocol is based on the security proof of BB84 protocol. It can be realized with current technologies.

  17. SIP protocol model for OMNET++

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kucerak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes our new SIP protocol implementation for the OMNeT++ simulation framework. OMNeT++ simulation framework provides an extensive support of IP related protocols, nevertheless a working SIP protocol implementation is missing. Real measurements were also done using a SIPp traffic generator and the results are compared to those obtained by our new SIP model. Since this work is a part of bigger project concerned strictly on measuring "first response times" over networks with a faulty transmission links, the actually collected statistics are focused only this way.

  18. The HPA photon protocol and proposed electron protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitchford, W.G.

    1985-01-01

    The Hospital Physicists Association (HPA) photon dosimetry protocol has been produced and was published in 1983. Revised values of some components of Csub(lambda) and refinements introduced into the theory in the last few years have enabled new Csub(lambda) values to be produced. The proposed HPA electron protocol is at present in draft form and will be published shortly. Both protocels are discussed. (Auth.)

  19. Fault discovery protocol for passive optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajduczenia, Marek; Fonseca, Daniel; da Silva, Henrique J. A.; Monteiro, Paulo P.

    2007-06-01

    All existing flavors of passive optical networks (PONs) provide an attractive alternative to legacy copper-based access lines deployed between a central office (CO) of the service provider (SP) and a customer site. One of the most challenging tasks for PON network planners is the reduction of the overall cost of employing protection schemes for the optical fiber plant while maintaining a reasonable level of survivability and reducing the downtime, thus ensuring acceptable levels of quality of service (QoS) for end subscribers. The recently growing volume of Ethernet PONs deployment [Kramer, IEEE 802.3, CFI (2006)], connected with low-cost electronic and optical components used in the optical network unit (ONU) modules, results in the situation where remote detection of faulty/active subscriber modules becomes indispensable for proper operation of an EPON system. The problem of the remote detection of faulty ONUs in the system is addressed where the upstream channel is flooded with the cw transmission from one or more damaged ONUs and standard communication is severed, providing a solution that is applicable in any type of PON network, regardless of the operating protocol, physical structure, and data rate.

  20. Core outcome sets in women's and newborn health: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Jmn; Rolph, R; Gale, C; Hirsch, M; Khan, K S; Ziebland, S; McManus, R J

    2017-09-01

    Variation in outcome collection and reporting is a serious hindrance to progress in our specialty; therefore, over 80 journals have come together to support the development, dissemination, and implementation of core outcome sets. This study systematically reviewed and characterised registered, progressing, or completed core outcome sets relevant to women's and newborn health. Systematic search using the Core Outcome Measures in Effectiveness Trial initiative and the Core Outcomes in Women's and Newborn Health initiative databases. Registry entries, protocols, systematic reviews, and core outcome sets. Descriptive statistics to describe characteristics and results. There were 49 core outcome sets registered in maternal and newborn health, with the majority registered in 2015 (n = 22; 48%) or 2016 (n = 16; 32%). Benign gynaecology (n = 8; 16%) and newborn health (n = 3; 6%) are currently under-represented. Twenty-four (52%) core outcome sets were funded by international (n = 1; core outcome sets were completed: reconstructive breast surgery (11 outcomes), preterm birth (13 outcomes), epilepsy in pregnancy (29 outcomes), and maternity care (48 outcomes). The quantitative, qualitative, and consensus methods used to develop core outcome sets varied considerably. Core outcome sets are currently being developed across women's and newborn health, although coverage of topics is variable. Development of further infrastructure to develop, disseminate, and implement core outcome sets is urgently required. Forty-nine women's and newborn core outcome sets registered. 50% funded. 7 protocols, 20 systematic reviews, and 4 core outcome sets published. @coreoutcomes @jamesmnduffy. © 2017 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  1. TMI-2 core examination plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, D.E.; MacDonald, P.E.; Hobbins, R.R.; Ploggr, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    The Three Mile Island (TMI-2) core examination is divided into four stages: (1) before removing the head; (2) before removing the plenum; (3) during defueling; and (4) offsite examinations. Core examinations recommended during the first three stages are primarily devoted to documenting the post-accident condition of the core. The detailed analysis of core damage structures will be performed during offsite examinations at government and commercial hot cell facilities. The primary objectives of these examinations are to enhance the understanding of the degraded core accident sequence, to develop the technical bases for reactor regulations, and to improve LWR design and operation

  2. Monitoring an electric cable core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, S.; Marris, A.

    1984-01-01

    A method of, and apparatus for, continuously monitoring an advancing core having a continuous covering comprises directing X-ray radiation laterally towards the advancing covered core; continuously forming an X-ray image pattern of the advancing covered core and translating the image pattern into a visible image pattern; continuously transforming the visible pattern into a digital bit pattern; and processing the digital bit pattern using a microprocessor with interfacing electronics to provide an image profile of the advancing covered core and/or to provide analogue and/or digital signals indicative of the overall diameter and eccentricity of the covered core and of the thickness of the covering. (author)

  3. Winning Cores in Parity Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester, Steen

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the novel notion of winning cores in parity games and develop a deterministic polynomial-time under-approximation algorithm for solving parity games based on winning core approximation. Underlying this algorithm are a number properties about winning cores which are interesting...... in their own right. In particular, we show that the winning core and the winning region for a player in a parity game are equivalently empty. Moreover, the winning core contains all fatal attractors but is not necessarily a dominion itself. Experimental results are very positive both with respect to quality...

  4. Initial charge reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiyono, Takeshi

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To effectivity burn fuels and improve the economical performance in an inital charge reactor core of BWR type reactors or the likes. Constitution: In a reactor core constituted with a plurality of fuel assemblies which are to be partially replaced upon fuel replacement, the density of the fissionable materials and the moderator - fuel ratio of a fuel assembly is set corresponding to the period till that fuel assembly is replaced, in which the density of the nuclear fissionable materials is lowered and the moderator - fuel ratio is increased for the fuel assembly with a shorter period from the fueling to the fuel exchange and, while on the other hand, the density of the fissionable materials is increased and the moderator - fuel ratio is decreased for the fuel assembly with a longer period from the fueling to the replacement. Accordingly, since the moderator - fuel ratio is increased for the fuel assembly to be replaced in a shorter period, the neutrons moderating effect is increased to increase the reactivity. (Horiuchi, T.)

  5. Statistical core design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelkers, E.; Heller, A.S.; Farnsworth, D.A.; Kearfott, K.J.

    1978-01-01

    The report describes the statistical analysis of DNBR thermal-hydraulic margin of a 3800 MWt, 205-FA core under design overpower conditions. The analysis used LYNX-generated data at predetermined values of the input variables whose uncertainties were to be statistically combined. LYNX data were used to construct an efficient response surface model in the region of interest; the statistical analysis was accomplished through the evaluation of core reliability; utilizing propagation of the uncertainty distributions of the inputs. The response surface model was implemented in both the analytical error propagation and Monte Carlo Techniques. The basic structural units relating to the acceptance criteria are fuel pins. Therefore, the statistical population of pins with minimum DNBR values smaller than specified values is determined. The specified values are designated relative to the most probable and maximum design DNBR values on the power limiting pin used in present design analysis, so that gains over the present design criteria could be assessed for specified probabilistic acceptance criteria. The results are equivalent to gains ranging from 1.2 to 4.8 percent of rated power dependent on the acceptance criterion. The corresponding acceptance criteria range from 95 percent confidence that no pin will be in DNB to 99.9 percent of the pins, which are expected to avoid DNB

  6. Nuclear reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Jun-ichi; Aoyama, Motoo; Ishibashi, Yoko; Mochida, Takaaki; Haikawa, Katsumasa; Yamanaka, Akihiro.

    1995-01-01

    A reactor core is radially divided into an inner region, an outer region and an outermost region. As a fuel, three kinds of fuels, namely, a high enrichment degree fuel at 3.4%, a middle enrichment degree fuel at 2.3% and a low enrichment degree at 1.1% of a fuel average enrichment degree of fission product are used. Each of the fuels is bisected to upper and lower portions at an axial center thereof. The difference of average enrichment degrees between upper and lower portions is 0.1% for the high enrichment degree fuel, 0.3% for the middle enrichment degree fuel and 0.2% for the low enrichment degree fuel. In addition, the composition of fuels in each of radial regions comprises 100% of the low enrichment degree fuels in the outermost region, 91% of the higher enrichment degree fuels and 9% of the middle enrichment degree fuels in the outer region, and 34% of the high enrichment degree fuels and 30% of the middle enrichment degree fuels in the inner region. With such a constitution, fuel economy can be improved while maintaining the thermal margin in an initially loaded reactor core of a BWR type reactor. (I.N.)

  7. Development of an RF accelerating structure loaded with multi-ring magnetic cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Yuichi; Kageyama, Tatsuya; Kato, Ichiro; Yamashita, Satoru

    2012-01-01

    In order to upgrade the J-PARC rings (RCS and MR) for more beam powers, the existing accelerating structures for both rings need to be improved for better performance especially in the long-term reliability. As a solution for this purpose, we have proposed a new accelerating structure loaded with multi-ring core modules. Each core module consists of three ring FINEMET cores with different radial sizes concentrically arranged and sandwiched between two glass epoxy plates with flow channels grooved on the surfaces. The Fe-based FINEMET cores are to be cooled with the turbulent flow of Fluorinert (chemically inert perfluorinated liquid). Therefore, the cores need neither impregnation nor coating with epoxy resin for anti corrosion. A half-gap cavity loaded with three core modules, which is a minimum configuration for the performance test, is under fabrication. Additionally, a high efficient solid state RF amplifier is under development. Thirty two amplifier modules, each of which is a push-pull class-D amplifier driven by power MOSFET hybrids, are combined to deliver RF power up to 60 kW (peak power with a duty factor of 50%) at frequencies 1.7 ± 0.2MHz. The amplitude of the RF output can be modulated by changing the voltage across the drain and source of the power MOSFET in proportion to the wave envelope. This paper reports the recent status of our R and D activities. (author)

  8. Models of the earth's core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, D. J.

    1981-01-01

    Combined inferences from seismology, high-pressure experiment and theory, geomagnetism, fluid dynamics, and current views of terrestrial planetary evolution lead to models of the earth's core with five basic properties. These are that core formation was contemporaneous with earth accretion; the core is not in chemical equilibrium with the mantle; the outer core is a fluid iron alloy containing significant quantities of lighter elements and is probably almost adiabatic and compositionally uniform; the more iron-rich inner solid core is a consequence of partial freezing of the outer core, and the energy release from this process sustains the earth's magnetic field; and the thermodynamic properties of the core are well constrained by the application of liquid-state theory to seismic and labroatory data.

  9. Antibody engineering: methods and protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chames, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    "Antibody Engineering: Methods and Protocols, Second Edition was compiled to give complete and easy access to a variety of antibody engineering techniques, starting from the creation of antibody repertoires and efficient...

  10. Implementation of postoperative handoff protocol

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Standardised handoff protocols have become necessary patient ... improve the perioperative handoff communications from the cardiac operating theatres to the ICU. ..... as you can imagine, there was push-back to the change.

  11. User interface design and system integration aspects of core monitoring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, O.; Bodal, T.; Hornaes, A.; Porsmyr, J.

    2000-01-01

    The present paper describes our experience with the SCORPIO core monitoring system using generic building blocks for the MMI and system integration. In this context the different layers of the software system are discussed starting with the communication system, interfacing of various modules (e.g. physics codes), administration of several modules and generation of graphical user interfaces for different categories of end-users. A method by which re-use of software components can make the system development and maintenance more efficient is described. Examples are given from different system installation projects. The methodology adopted is considered particularly important in the future, as it is anticipated that core monitoring systems will be expanded with new functions (e.g. information from technical specifications, procedures, noise analysis, etc). Further, efficient coupling of off-line tools for core physics calculations and on-line modules in core monitoring can pave the way for cost savings. (authors)

  12. Experimental evidence of body centered cubic iron in Earth's core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrubiak, R.; Meng, Y.; Shen, G.

    2017-12-01

    The Earth's core is mainly composed of iron. While seismic evidence has shown a liquid outer core and a solid inner core, the crystalline nature of the solid iron at the core condition remains debated, largely due to the difficulties in experimental determination of exact polymorphs at corresponding pressure-temperature conditions. We have examined crystal structures of iron up to 220 GPa and 6000 K with x-ray diffraction using a double-sided laser heating system at HPCAT, Advanced Photon Source. The iron sample is confined in a small chamber surrounded by single crystal MgO. The laser power can be modulated together with temperature measurements. The modulated heating of iron in an MgO single crystal matrix allows for microstructure analysis during heating and after the sample is quenched. We present experimental evidence of a body-centered-cubic (BCC) iron from about 100 GPa and 3000 K to at least 220 GPa and 4000 K. The observed BCC phase may be consistent with a theoretically predicted BCC phase that is dynamically stable in similar pressure-temperature conditions [1]. We will discuss the stability region of the BCC phase and the melting curve of iron and their implications in the nature of the Earth's inner core. References: A. B. Belonoshko et al., Nat. Geosci., 1-6 (2017).

  13. Network protocol 'EPAP'; Network protokoru 'EPAP'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobori, T.; Fujita, F.; Iwamoto, S. [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Toyo (Japan)

    2000-10-10

    The Ethernet, a standard of information networks, has begun to be applied to the control local area network (LAN). To apply the Ethernet to the field level, Fuji Electric has newly developed the communication protocol 'Ethernet precision access protocol (EPAP)' in which a command/response method is structured on the user datagram protocol (UDP) to realize real time and high reliability. Further, we have implemented the EPAP on the bus interface module of the open PIO. This paper outlines the EPAP and its implementation. (author)

  14. Data Exchange Protocol in Repsail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gucma Maciej

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Article presents implantation and theoretical considerations of data exchange protocol developed for the RepSail project, where main objective was design and building innovative hybrid yacht. One of problems during the design process was improper functioning of data exchange protocols that were available in the commercially available devices to mention navigation purpose NMEA183 or 2000 as well as automation dedicated ones (CAN and similar. Author shows the basis of the dedicated format of exchange for in board devices.

  15. The Groningen protocol: another perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Jotkowitz, A B; Glick, S

    2006-01-01

    The Groningen protocol allows for the euthanasia of severely ill newborns with a hopeless prognosis and unbearable suffering. We understand the impetus for such a protocol but have moral and ethical concerns with it. Advocates for euthanasia in adults have relied on the concept of human autonomy, which is lacking in the case of infants. In addition, biases can potentially influence the decision making of both parents and physicians. It is also very difficult to weigh the element of quality of...

  16. Burnup dependent core neutronic calculations for research and training reactors via SCALE4.4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tombakoglu, M.; Cecen, Y.

    2001-01-01

    In this work, the full core modelling is performed to improve neutronic analyses capability for nuclear research reactors using SCALE4.4 code system. KENOV.a module of SCALE4.4 code system is utilized for full core neutronic analysis. The ORIGEN-S module is coupled with the KENOV.a module to perform burnup dependent neutronic analyses. Results of neutronic calculations for 1 st cycle of Cekmece TR-2 research reactor are presented. In particular, coupling of KENOV.a and ORIGEN-S modules of SCALE4.4 is discussed. The preliminary results of 2-D burnup dependent neutronic calculations are also given. These results are extended to burnup dependent core calculations of TRIGA Mark-II research reactors. The code system developed here is similar to the code system that couples MCNP and ORIGEN2.(author)

  17. Remote Memory Access Protocol Target Node Intellectual Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Omar

    2013-01-01

    The MagnetoSpheric Multiscale (MMS) mission had a requirement to use the Remote Memory Access Protocol (RMAP) over its SpaceWire network. At the time, no known intellectual property (IP) cores were available for purchase. Additionally, MMS preferred to implement the RMAP functionality with control over the low-level details of the design. For example, not all the RMAP standard functionality was needed, and it was desired to implement only the portions of the RMAP protocol that were needed. RMAP functionality had been previously implemented in commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) products, but the IP core was not available for purchase. The RMAP Target IP core is a VHDL (VHSIC Hardware Description Language description of a digital logic design suitable for implementation in an FPGA (field-programmable gate array) or ASIC (application-specific integrated circuit) that parses SpaceWire packets that conform to the RMAP standard. The RMAP packet protocol allows a network host to access and control a target device using address mapping. This capability allows SpaceWire devices to be managed in a standardized way that simplifies the hardware design of the device, as well as the development of the software that controls the device. The RMAP Target IP core has some features that are unique and not specified in the RMAP standard. One such feature is the ability to automatically abort transactions if the back-end logic does not respond to read/write requests within a predefined time. When a request times out, the RMAP Target IP core automatically retracts the request and returns a command response with an appropriate status in the response packet s header. Another such feature is the ability to control the SpaceWire node or router using RMAP transactions in the extended address range. This allows the SpaceWire network host to manage the SpaceWire network elements using RMAP packets, which reduces the number of protocols that the network host needs to support.

  18. Reduced multiplication modules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    if M is a von Neumann regular module (VNM); i.e., every principal submodule of M is a summand submodule. Also if M is an injective R-module, then M is a VNM. Keywords. Multiplication module; reduced module; minimal prime submodule;. Zariski topology; extremally disconnected. 1. Introduction. In this paper all rings are ...

  19. Waves in the core and mechanical core-mantle interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jault, D.; Finlay, Chris

    2015-01-01

    This Chapter focuses on time-dependent uid motions in the core interior, which can beconstrained by observations of the Earth's magnetic eld, on timescales which are shortcompared to the magnetic diusion time. This dynamics is strongly inuenced by the Earth's rapid rotation, which rigidies...... the motions in the direction parallel to the Earth'srotation axis. This property accounts for the signicance of the core-mantle topography.In addition, the stiening of the uid in the direction parallel to the rotation axis gives riseto a magnetic diusion layer attached to the core-mantle boundary, which would...... otherwisebe dispersed by Alfven waves. This Chapter complements the descriptions of large-scaleow in the core (8.04), of turbulence in the core (8.06) and of core-mantle interactions(8.12), which can all be found in this volume. We rely on basic magnetohydrodynamictheory, including the derivation...

  20. Core cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeppner, G.

    1980-01-01

    The reactor cooling system transports the heat liberated in the reactor core to the component - heat exchanger, steam generator or turbine - where the energy is removed. This basic task can be performed with a variety of coolants circulating in appropriately designed cooling systems. The choice of any one system is governed by principles of economics and natural policies, the design is determined by the laws of nuclear physics, thermal-hydraulics and by the requirement of reliability and public safety. PWR- and BWR- reactors today generate the bulk of nuclear energy. Their primary cooling systems are discussed under the following aspects: 1. General design, nuclear physics constraints, energy transfer, hydraulics, thermodynamics. 2. Design and performance under conditions of steady state and mild transients; control systems. 3. Design and performance under conditions of severe transients and loss of coolant accidents; safety systems. (orig./RW)

  1. The true 'core' splitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallerbach, J.

    1978-01-01

    Massive unemployment and the fear of a barred future put at present the unions and civil initiative to the apparent alternatives; securing work places or securing life and future. How the 'atomic fight' is fought and its result can have considerable consequences for our society. This volume presents a dialogue: Firstly the situation and environment must be understood giving rise to the controversial arguments. Reports, analyses and interviews are presented on this as basic structure for the future discussion. The quality and direction of the technical progress are dealt with in the core of the discussion. Is atomic technology acceptable. Who should decide and whom does it serve. What is progress going to look like anyway. (orig.) [de

  2. Emergency core cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubokoya, Takashi; Okataku, Yasukuni.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To maintain the fuel soundness upon loss of primary coolant accidents in a pressure tube type nuclear reactor by injecting cooling heavy water at an early stage, to suppress the temperature of fuel cans at a lower level. Constitution: When a thermometer detects the temperature rise and a pressure gauge detects that the pressure for the primary coolants is reduced slightly from that in the normal operation upon loss of coolant accidents in the vicinity of the primary coolant circuit, heavy water is caused to flow in the heavy water feed pipeway by a controller. This enables to inject the heavy water into the reactor core in a short time upon loss of the primary coolant accidents to suppress the temperature rise in the fuel can thereby maintain the fuel soundness. (Moriyama, K.)

  3. The core and cosmopolitans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlander, Linus; Frederiksen, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Users often interact and help each other solve problems in communities, but few scholars have explored how these relationships provide opportunities to innovate. We analyze the extent to which people positioned within the core of a community as well as people that are cosmopolitans positioned...... across multiple external communities affect innovation. Using a multimethod approach, including a survey, a complete database of interactions in an online community, content coding of interactions and contributions, and 36 interviews, we specify the types of positions that have the strongest effect...... on innovation. Our study shows that dispositional explanations for user innovation should be complemented by a relational view that emphasizes how these communities differ from other organizations, the types of behaviors this enables, and the effects on innovation....

  4. Adult educators' core competences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    2016-01-01

    ” requirements, organising them into four thematic subcategories: (1) communicating subject knowledge; (2) taking students’ prior learning into account; (3) supporting a learning environment; and (4) the adult educator’s reflection on his or her own performance. At the end of his analysis of different competence......Abstract Which competences do professional adult educators need? This research note discusses the topic from a comparative perspective, finding that adult educators’ required competences are wide-ranging, heterogeneous and complex. They are subject to context in terms of national and cultural...... environment as well as the kind of adult education concerned (e.g. basic education, work-related education etc.). However, it seems that it is possible to identify certain competence requirements which transcend national, cultural and functional boundaries. This research note summarises these common or “core...

  5. CORE annual report 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gut, A.

    2007-04-01

    This annual report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) summarises the activities of the Swiss Federal Commission on Energy Research CORE in 2006. The six main areas of work during the period 2004 - 2007 are examined, including a review of the SFOE's energy research programme, a road-map for the way towards the realisation of a 2000-watt society, the formulation of an energy research concept for 2008 - 2011, international co-operation, the dissemination of information and the assessment of existing and new instruments. International activities and Switzerland's involvement in energy research within the framework of the International Energy Agency IEA are discussed. New and existing projects are listed and the work done at the Competence Centre for Energy and Mobility noted. The Swiss Technology Award 2007 is presented. Information supplied to interested bodies to help improve knowledge on research work being done and to help make discussions on future energy supply more objective is discussed

  6. IRIS core criticality calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jecmenica, R.; Trontl, K.; Pevec, D.; Grgic, D.

    2003-01-01

    Three-dimensional Monte Carlo computer code KENO-VI of CSAS26 sequence of SCALE-4.4 code system was applied for pin-by-pin calculations of the effective multiplication factor for the first cycle IRIS reactor core. The effective multiplication factors obtained by the above mentioned Monte Carlo calculations using 27-group ENDF/B-IV library and 238-group ENDF/B-V library have been compared with the effective multiplication factors achieved by HELIOS/NESTLE, CASMO/SIMULATE, and modified CORD-2 nodal calculations. The results of Monte Carlo calculations are found to be in good agreement with the results obtained by the nodal codes. The discrepancies in effective multiplication factor are typically within 1%. (author)

  7. Understanding core conductor fabrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swenson, D E

    2011-01-01

    ESD Association standard test method ANSI/ESD STM2.1 - Garments (STM2.1), provides electrical resistance test procedures that are applicable for materials and garments that have surface conductive or surface dissipative properties. As has been reported in other papers over the past several years 1 fabrics are now used in many industries for electrostatic control purposes that do not have surface conductive properties and therefore cannot be evaluated using the procedures in STM2.1 2 . A study was conducted to compare surface conductive fabrics with samples of core conductor fibre based fabrics in order to determine differences and similarities with regards to various electrostatic properties. This work will be used to establish a new work item proposal within WG-2, Garments, in the ESD Association Standards Committee in the USA.

  8. Um mundo de cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elis Artz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A pintura de Elis Artz é feita com muita alma e transborda alegria. A vitalidade de seu trabalho transparece nas cores fortes e nos traços simples e harmoniosos. Confira o trabalho da artista nesta edição da Revista Jangada. ELIS by ELIS Descobri meu talento artístisco e criativo há uns 25 anos. Nasci no Brasil e me mudei para os EUA 10 anos atrás por puro amor. Embora seja psicóloga de formação, o meu apreço pela pintura só cresceu e, com o passar dos anos, a paixão pelas tintas me direcionou a fazer cursos com artistas brasileiros renomados. Já morando nos EUA e com essa grande paixão adormecida, durante anos, decidi me entregar para as cores que sempre me trouxeram alegria e cor para os meus dias. Embora muitas de minhas pinturas tenham ido para minha família e amigos no Brasil, vendi inúmeras outras pelo país através de exposições em galerias de arte. Em 2014, fui uma das artistas em destaque no MTD ART nos Estados Unidos. Minha obra estava dentro de cada ônibus das cidades de Champaign e Urbana e exposta em destaque na Estação de Trem. Em maio de 2015, tive o prazer de ter outro trabalho meu nos outdoors da cidade, destacando a minha tela 'Frida' o ano inteiro e de expor em conjunto com alguns artistas locais no final de outubro. Desde então, tenho pintado cada vez mais e me interessado em divulgar o meu trabalho. E, como diria um amigo meu "Elis, você me mostrou que a vida não é só preto no branco". Ele estava certo.

  9. Growth outside the core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zook, Chris; Allen, James

    2003-12-01

    Growth in an adjacent market is tougher than it looks; three-quarters of the time, the effort fails. But companies can change those odds dramatically. Results from a five-year study of corporate growth conducted by Bain & Company reveal that adjacency expansion succeeds only when built around strong core businesses that have the potential to become market leaders. And the best place to look for adjacency opportunities is inside a company's strongest customers. The study also found that the most successful companies were able to consistently, profitably outgrow their rivals by developing a formula for pushing out the boundaries of their core businesses in predictable, repeatable ways. Companies use their repeatability formulas to expand into any number of adjacencies. Some companies make repeated geographic moves, as Vodafone has done in expanding from one geographic market to another over the past 13 years, building revenues from $1 billion in 1990 to $48 billion in 2003. Others apply a superior business model to new segments. Dell, for example, has repeatedly adapted its direct-to-customer model to new customer segments and new product categories. In other cases, companies develop hybrid approaches. Nike executed a series of different types of adjacency moves: it expanded into adjacent customer segments, introduced new products, developed new distribution channels, and then moved into adjacent geographic markets. The successful repeaters in the study had two common characteristics. First, they were extraordinarily disciplined, applying rigorous screens before they made an adjacency move. This discipline paid off in the form of learning curve benefits, increased speed, and lower complexity. And second, in almost all cases, they developed their repeatable formulas by studying their customers and their customers' economics very, very carefully.

  10. Core catcher for nuclear reactor core meltdown containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driscoll, M.J.; Bowman, F.L.

    1978-01-01

    A bed of graphite particles is placed beneath a nuclear reactor core outside the pressure vessel but within the containment building to catch the core debris in the event of failure of the emergency core cooling system. Spray cooling of the debris and graphite particles together with draining and flooding of coolant fluid of the graphite bed is provided to prevent debris slump-through to the bottom of the bed

  11. Advanced core-analyses for subsurface characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pini, R.

    2017-12-01

    The heterogeneity of geological formations varies over a wide range of length scales and represents a major challenge for predicting the movement of fluids in the subsurface. Although they are inherently limited in the accessible length-scale, laboratory measurements on reservoir core samples still represent the only way to make direct observations on key transport properties. Yet, properties derived on these samples are of limited use and should be regarded as sample-specific (or `pseudos'), if the presence of sub-core scale heterogeneities is not accounted for in data processing and interpretation. The advent of imaging technology has significantly reshaped the landscape of so-called Special Core Analysis (SCAL) by providing unprecedented insight on rock structure and processes down to the scale of a single pore throat (i.e. the scale at which all reservoir processes operate). Accordingly, improved laboratory workflows are needed that make use of such wealth of information by e.g., referring to the internal structure of the sample and in-situ observations, to obtain accurate parameterisation of both rock- and flow-properties that can be used to populate numerical models. We report here on the development of such workflow for the study of solute mixing and dispersion during single- and multi-phase flows in heterogeneous porous systems through a unique combination of two complementary imaging techniques, namely X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET). The experimental protocol is applied to both synthetic and natural porous media, and it integrates (i) macroscopic observations (tracer effluent curves), (ii) sub-core scale parameterisation of rock heterogeneities (e.g., porosity, permeability and capillary pressure), and direct 3D observation of (iii) fluid saturation distribution and (iv) the dynamic spreading of the solute plumes. Suitable mathematical models are applied to reproduce experimental observations, including both 1D and 3D

  12. Modulational effects in accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satogata, T.

    1997-01-01

    We discuss effects of field modulations in accelerators, specifically those that can be used for operational beam diagnostics and beam halo control. In transverse beam dynamics, combined effects of nonlinear resonances and tune modulations influence diffusion rates with applied tune modulation has been demonstrated. In the longitudinal domain, applied RF phase and voltage modulations provide mechanisms for parasitic halo transport, useful in slow crystal extraction. Experimental experiences with transverse tune and RF modulations are also discussed

  13. OTN Transport of Baseband Radio Serial Protocols in C-RAN Architecture for Mobile Network Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Checko, Aleksandra; Kardaras, Georgios; Lanzani, Christian Fabio Alessandro; Temple, Dan; Mathiasen, Carsten; Pedersen, Lars A.; Klaps, Bert

    2014-01-01

    This white paper presents a proof of concept implementation of digital baseband radio data transport over Optical Transport Network (OTN) compliant to 3GPP Long Term Evolution – Advanced (LTE-A) standard enabling Cloud Radio Access Network (C-RAN) architecture. The transport between the baseband module and a remote radio module is compliant to Common Public Radio Interface (CPRI) and to the OBSAI reference point 3 - 01 (RP3-01) interface protocols, respectively. The purpose is to demonstrate ...

  14. Four-fluid model of PWR degraded cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearing, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the new two-dimensional, four-fluid fluid dynamics and heat transfer (FLUIDS) module of the MELPROG code. MELPROG is designed to give an integrated, mechanistic treatment of pressurized water reactor (PWR) core meltdown accidents from accident initiation to vessel melt-through. The code has a modular data storage and transfer structure, with each module providing the others with boundary conditions at each computational time step. Thus the FLUIDS module receives mass and energy source terms from the fuel pin module, the structures module, and the debris bed module, and radiation energy source terms from the radiation module. MELPROG, which models the reactor vessel, is also designed to model the vessel as a component in the TRAC/PF1 networking solution of a PWR reactor coolant system (RCS). The coupling between TRAC and MELPROG is implicit in the fluid dynamics of the reactor coolant (liquid water and steam) allowing an accurate simulation of the coupling between the vessel and the rest of the RCS during an accident. This paper deals specifically with the numerical model of fluid dynamics and heat transfer within the reactor vessel, which allows a much more realistic simulation (with less restrictive assumptions on physical behavior) of the accident than has been possible before

  15. Monoclonal antibodies technology. Protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acevado Castro, B.E.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: Immunization. The first step in preparing useful monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) is to immunize an animal (Balb/c for example) with an appropriate antigen. Methods (only for soluble antigen): Solubilize selected antigen in Phosphate buffer solution (PBS) at pH 7.2-7.4, ideally at a final concentration per animal between 10 to 50 μg/ml. It is recommended that the antigen under consideration be incorporated into the emulsion adjuvants in 1:1 volumetric relation. We commonly use Frend's adjuvant (FA) to prepared immunized solution. The first immunization should be prepared with complete FA, and the another could be prepared with incomplete FA. It is recommended to inject mice with 0.2 ml intraperitoneal (ip) or subcutaneous (sc). Our experience suggests the sc route is the preferred route. A minimum protocol for immunizing mice to generate cells for preparing hybridomas is s follows: immunize sc on day 0, boost sc on day 21, take a trial bleeding on day 26; if antibody titters are satisfactory, boost ip on day 35 with antigen only, and remove the spleen to obtain cells for fusion on day 38. Fusion protocol. The myeloma cell line we are using is X63 Ag8.653. At the moment of fusion myeloma cells need a good viability (at least a 95%). 1. Remove the spleen cells from immunized mice using sterile conditions. An immune spleen should yield between 7 a 10x10 7 nucleated cells. 2. Place the spleen in 20 ml of serum-free RPMI 1640 in a Petri dish. Using a needle and syringe, inject the spleen with medium to distend and disrupt the spleen stroma and free the nucleated cells. 3. Flush the cell suspension with a Pasteur pipet to disperse clumps of cells. 4. Centrifuge the spleen cell suspension at 250g for 10 min. Resuspend the pellet in serum-free RPMI 1640. Determine cell concentration using Neuhabuer chamber. 5. Mix the myeloma cells and spleen cells in a conical 50-ml tube in serum-free RPMI 1640, 1 x10 7 spleen cells to 1x10 6 myeloma cells (ratio 10:1). Centrifuge

  16. Ultra-compact plasmonic waveguide modulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia

    of developing new material platforms for integrated plasmonic devices. Furthermore, novel plasmonic materials such as transparent conductive oxides and transition metal nitrides can offer a variety of new opportunities. In particular, they offer adjustable/tailorable and nonlinear optical properties, dynamic...... modulators based on ultra-compact waveguides with different active cores. Plasmonic modulators with the active core such as indium phosphides or ferroelectrics sandwiched between metal plates have promising characteristics. Apart from the speed and dimensions advantages, the metal plates can serve...... as electrodes for electrical pumping of the active material making it easier to integrate. Including an additional layer in the plasmonic waveguide, in particular an ultrathin transparent conductive oxide film, allows the control of the dispersive properties of the waveguide and thus the higher efficiency...

  17. AGR core safety assessment methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLachlan, N.; Reed, J.; Metcalfe, M.P.

    1996-01-01

    To demonstrate the safety of its gas-cooled graphite-moderated AGR reactors, nuclear safety assessments of the cores are based upon a methodology which demonstrates no component failures, geometrical stability of the structure and material properties bounded by a database. All AGRs continue to meet these three criteria. However, predictions of future core behaviour indicate that the safety case methodology will eventually need to be modified to deal with new phenomena. A new approach to the safety assessment of the cores is currently under development, which can take account of these factors while at the same time providing the same level of protection for the cores. This approach will be based on the functionality of the core: unhindered movement of control rods, continued adequate cooling of the fuel and the core, continued ability to charge and discharge fuel. (author). 5 figs

  18. Model-based prototyping of an interoperability protocol for mobile ad-hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kristensen, L.M.; Westergaard, M.; Norgaard, P.C.; Romijn, J.; Smith, G.; Pol, van de J.

    2005-01-01

    We present an industrial project conducted at Ericsson Danmark A/S, Telebit where formal methods in the form of Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets or CPNs) have been used for the specification of an interoperability protocol for routing packets between fixed core networks and mobile ad-hoc networks. The

  19. Overview of core disruptive accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchaterre, J.F.

    1977-01-01

    An overview of the analysis of core-disruptive accidents is given. These analyses are for the purpose of understanding and predicting fast reactor behavior in severe low probability accident conditions, to establish the consequences of such conditions and to provide a basis for evaluating consequence limiting design features. The methods are used to analyze core-disruptive accidents from initiating event to complete core disruption, the effects of the accident on reactor structures and the resulting radiological consequences are described

  20. Coupling between core and cladding modes in a helical core fiber with large core offset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napiorkowski, Maciej; Urbanczyk, Waclaw

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed the effect of resonant coupling between core and cladding modes in a helical core fiber with large core offset using the fully vectorial method based on the transformation optics formalism. Our study revealed that the resonant couplings to lower order cladding modes predicted by perturbative methods and observed experimentally in fibers with small core offsets are in fact prohibited for larger core offsets. This effect is related to the lack of phase matching caused by elongation of the optical path of the fundamental modes in the helical core. Moreover, strong couplings to the cladding modes of the azimuthal modal number much higher than predicted by perturbative methods may be observed for large core offsets, as the core offset introduces higher order angular harmonics in the field distribution of the fundamental modes. Finally, in contrast to previous studies, we demonstrate the existence of spectrally broad polarization sensitive couplings to the cladding modes suggesting that helical core fibers with large core offsets may be used as broadband circular polarizers. (paper)

  1. Bidirectional lipid droplet velocities are controlled by differential binding strengths of HCV core DII protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney K Lyn

    Full Text Available Host cell lipid droplets (LD are essential in the hepatitis C virus (HCV life cycle and are targeted by the viral capsid core protein. Core-coated LDs accumulate in the perinuclear region and facilitate viral particle assembly, but it is unclear how mobility of these LDs is directed by core. Herein we used two-photon fluorescence, differential interference contrast imaging, and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopies, to reveal novel core-mediated changes to LD dynamics. Expression of core protein's lipid binding domain II (DII-core induced slower LD speeds, but did not affect directionality of movement on microtubules. Modulating the LD binding strength of DII-core further impacted LD mobility, revealing the temporal effects of LD-bound DII-core. These results for DII-core coated LDs support a model for core-mediated LD localization that involves core slowing down the rate of movement of LDs until localization at the perinuclear region is accomplished where LD movement ceases. The guided localization of LDs by HCV core protein not only is essential to the viral life cycle but also poses an interesting target for the development of antiviral strategies against HCV.

  2. Models of the earth's core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, D.J.

    1981-01-01

    The combination of seismology, high pressure experiment and theory, geomagnetism, fluid dynamics, and current views of terrestrial planetary evolution lead to strong constraints on core models. The synthesis presented here is devoted to the defense of the following properties: (1) core formation was contemporaneous with earth accretion; (2) the outer, liquid core is predominately iron but cannot be purely iron; (3) the inner core-outer core boundary represents a thermodynamic equilibrium between a liquid alloys and a predominanately iron solid; (4) thermodynamic and transport properties of outer core can be estimated from liquid-state theories; and (5) the outer core is probably adiabatic and uniform in composition. None of these propositions are universally accepted by geophysicists. But, the intent of this paper is to present a coherent picture which explains most of the data with the fewest ad hoc assumptions. Areas in which future progress is both essential and likely are geo- and cosmochronology, seismological determinations of core structure, fluid dynamics of the core and mantle, and condensed matter physics

  3. Wire core reactor for NTP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harty, R.B.

    1991-01-01

    The development of the wire core system for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) that took place from 1963 to 1965 is discussed. A wire core consists of a fuel wire with spacer wires. It's an annular flow core having a central control rod. There are actually four of these, with beryllium solid reflectors on both ends and all the way around. Much of the information on the concept is given in viewgraph form. Viewgraphs are presented on design details of the wire core, the engine design, engine weight vs. thrust, a technique used to fabricate the wire fuel element, and axial temperature distribution

  4. Nuclear reactor with several cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swars, H.

    1977-01-01

    Several sodium-cooled cores in separate vessels with removable closures are placed in a common reactor tank. Each individual vessel is protected against the consequences of an accident in the relevant core. Maintenance devices and inlet and outlet pipes for the coolant are also arranged within the reactor tank. The individual vessels are all enclosed by coolant in a way that in case of emergency cooling or refuelling each core can be continued to be cooled by means of the coolant loops of the other cores. (HP) [de

  5. Biochemistry Instrumentation Core Technology Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The UCLA-DOE Biochemistry Instrumentation Core Facility provides the UCLA biochemistry community with easy access to sophisticated instrumentation for a wide variety...

  6. Core barrel inner tube lifter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffers, J P

    1968-07-16

    A core drill with means for selectively lifting a core barrel inner tube consists of a lifting means connected to the core barrel inner tube assembly. It has a closable passage to permit drilling fluid normally to pass through it. The lifting means has a normally downward facing surface and a means to direct drilling fluid pressure against that surface so that on closure of the passage to fluid flow, the pressure of the drilling fluid is caused to act selectively on it. This causes the lifting means to rise and lift the core barrel. (7 claims)

  7. TMI-2 core debris analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, B.A.; Carlson, E.R.

    1985-01-01

    One of the ongoing examination tasks for the damaged TMI-2 reactor is analysis of samples of debris obtained from the debris bed presently at the top of the core. This paper summarizes the results reported in the TMI-2 Core Debris Grab Sample Examination and Analysis Report, which will be available early in 1986. The sampling and analysis procedures are presented, and information is provided on the key results as they relate to the present core condition, peak temperatures during the transient, temperature history, chemical interactions, and core relocation. The results are then summarized

  8. Meltdown reactor core cooling facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Tsuyoshi.

    1992-01-01

    The meltdown reactor core cooling facility comprises a meltdown reactor core cooling tank, a cooling water storage tank situates at a position higher than the meltdown reactor core cooling tank, an upper pipeline connecting the upper portions of the both of the tanks and a lower pipeline connecting the lower portions of them. Upon occurrence of reactor core meltdown, a high temperature meltdown reactor core is dropped on the cooling tank to partially melt the tank and form a hole, from which cooling water is flown out. Since the water source of the cooling water is the cooling water storage tank, a great amount of cooling water is further dropped and supplied and the reactor core is submerged and cooled by natural convection for a long period of time. Further, when the lump of the meltdown reactor core is small and the perforated hole of the meltdown reactor cooling tank is small, cooling water is boiled by the high temperature lump intruding into the meltdown reactor core cooling tank and blown out from the upper pipeline to the cooling water storage tank to supply cooling water from the lower pipeline to the meltdown reactor core cooling tank. Since it is constituted only with simple static facilities, the facility can be simplified to attain improvement of reliability. (N.H.)

  9. Fort St. Vrain core performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEachern, D.W.; Brown, J.R.; Heller, R.A.; Franek, W.J.

    1977-07-01

    The Fort St. Vrain High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor core performance has been evaluated during the startup testing phase of the reactor operation. The reactor is graphite moderated, helium cooled, and uses coated particle fuel and on-line flow control to each of the 37 refueling regions. Principal objectives of startup testing were to determine: core and control system reactivity, radial power distribution, flow control capability, and initial fission product release. Information from the core demonstrates that Technical Specifications are being met, performance of the core and fuel is as expected, flow and reactivity control are predictable and simple for the operator to carry out

  10. Recommendations on practice of conditioned pain modulation (CPM) testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnitsky, D; Bouhassira, D; Drewes, A M; Fillingim, R B; Granot, M; Hansson, P; Landau, R; Marchand, S; Matre, D; Nilsen, K B; Stubhaug, A; Treede, R D; Wilder-Smith, O H G

    2015-07-01

    Protocols for testing conditioned pain modulation (CPM) vary between different labs/clinics. In order to promote research and clinical application of this tool, we summarize the recommendations of interested researchers consensus meeting regarding the practice of CPM and report of its results. © 2014 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  11. Characterizing the Core via K-Core Covers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez, S.M.; Borm, P.E.M.; Estevez, A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper extends the notion of individual minimal rights for a transferable utility game (TU-game) to coalitional minimal rights using minimal balanced families of a specific type, thus defining a corresponding minimal rights game. It is shown that the core of a TU-game coincides with the core of

  12. Adult educators' core competences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    2016-06-01

    Which competences do professional adult educators need? This research note discusses the topic from a comparative perspective, finding that adult educators' required competences are wide-ranging, heterogeneous and complex. They are subject to context in terms of national and cultural environment as well as the kind of adult education concerned (e.g. basic education, work-related education etc.). However, it seems that it is possible to identify certain competence requirements which transcend national, cultural and functional boundaries. This research note summarises these common or "core" requirements, organising them into four thematic subcategories: (1) communicating subject knowledge; (2) taking students' prior learning into account; (3) supporting a learning environment; and (4) the adult educator's reflection on his or her own performance. At the end of his analysis of different competence profiles, the author notes that adult educators' ability to train adult learners in a way which then enables them to apply and use what they have learned in practice (thus performing knowledge transfer) still seems to be overlooked.

  13. Emergency core cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Kenji; Oikawa, Hirohide.

    1990-01-01

    The device according to this invention can ensure cooling water required for emerency core cooling upon emergence such as abnormally, for example, loss of coolant accident, without using dynamic equipments such as a centrifugal pump or large-scaled tank. The device comprises a pressure accumulation tank containing a high pressure nitrogen gas and cooling water inside, a condensate storage tank, a pressure suppression pool and a jet stream pump. In this device there are disposed a pipeline for guiding cooling water in the pressure accumulation tank as a jetting water to a jetting stream pump, a pipeline for guiding cooling water stored in the condensate storage tank and the pressure suppression pool as pumped water to the jetting pump and, further, a pipeline for guiding the discharged water from the jet stream pump which is a mixed stream of pumped water and jetting water into the reactor pressure vessel. In this constitution, a sufficient amount of water ranging from relatively high pressure to low pressure can be supplied into the reactor pressure vessel, without increasing the size of the pressure accumulation tank. (I.S.)

  14. Emergency core cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Akira; Kobayashi, Masahide.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To enable a stable operation of an emergency core cooling system by preventing the system from the automatic stopping at an abnormally high level of the reactor water during its operation. Constitution: A pump flow rate signal and a reactor water level signal are used and, when the reactor water level is increased to a predetermined level, the pump flow rate is controlled by the reactor water level signal instead of the flow rate signal. Specifically, when the reactor water level is gradually increased by the water injection from the pump and exceeds a setting signal for the water level, the water level deviation signal acts as a demand signal for the decrease in the flow rate of the pump and the output signal from the water level controller is also decreased depending on the control constant. At a certain point, the output signal from the water level controller becomes smaller than the output signal from the flow rate controller. Thus, the output signal from the water level controller is outputted as the output signal for the lower level preference device. In this way, the reactor water level and the pump flow rate can be controlled within a range not exceeding the predetermined pump flow rate. (Horiuchi, T.)

  15. Emergency core cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Nobuaki.

    1993-01-01

    A reactor comprises a static emergency reactor core cooling system having an automatic depressurization system and a gravitationally dropping type water injection system and a container cooling system by an isolation condenser. A depressurization pipeline of the automatic depressurization system connected to a reactor pressure vessel branches in the midway. The branched depressurizing pipelines are extended into an upper dry well and a lower dry well, in which depressurization valves are disposed at the top end portions of the pipelines respectively. If loss-of-coolant accidents should occur, the depressurization valve of the automatic depressurization system is actuated by lowering of water level in the pressure vessel. This causes nitrogen gases in the upper and the lower dry wells to transfer together with discharged steams effectively to a suppression pool passing through a bent tube. Accordingly, the gravitationally dropping type water injection system can be actuated faster. Further, subsequent cooling for the reactor vessel can be ensured sufficiently by the isolation condenser. (I.N.)

  16. Necrosome core machinery: MLKL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Yang, Yu; He, Wenyan; Sun, Liming

    2016-06-01

    In the study of regulated cell death, the rapidly expanding field of regulated necrosis, in particular necroptosis, has been drawing much attention. The signaling of necroptosis represents a sophisticated form of a death pathway. Anti-caspase mechanisms (e.g., using inhibitors of caspases, or genetic ablation of caspase-8) switch cell fate from apoptosis to necroptosis. The initial extracellular death signals regulate RIP1 and RIP3 kinase activation. The RIP3-associated death complex assembly is necessary and sufficient to initiate necroptosis. MLKL was initially identified as an essential mediator of RIP1/RIP3 kinase-initiated necroptosis. Recent studies on the signal transduction using chemical tools and biomarkers support the idea that MLKL is able to make more functional sense for the core machinery of the necroptosis death complex, called the necrosome, to connect to the necroptosis execution. The experimental data available now have pointed that the activated MLKL forms membrane-disrupting pores causing membrane leakage, which extends the prototypical concept of morphological and biochemical events following necroptosis happening in vivo. The key role of MLKL in necroptosis signaling thus sheds light on the logic underlying this unique "membrane-explosive" cell death pathway. In this review, we provide the general concepts and strategies that underlie signal transduction of this form of cell death, and then focus specifically on the role of MLKL in necroptosis.

  17. The Network Protocol Analysis Technique in Snort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qing-Xiu

    Network protocol analysis is a network sniffer to capture data for further analysis and understanding of the technical means necessary packets. Network sniffing is intercepted by packet assembly binary format of the original message content. In order to obtain the information contained. Required based on TCP / IP protocol stack protocol specification. Again to restore the data packets at protocol format and content in each protocol layer. Actual data transferred, as well as the application tier.

  18. Understanding protocol performance: impact of test performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Robert G

    2013-01-01

    This is the second of two articles that examine the factors that determine protocol performance. The objective of these articles is to provide a general understanding of protocol performance that can be used to estimate performance, establish limits on performance, decide if a protocol is justified, and ultimately select a protocol. The first article was concerned with protocol criterion and test correlation. It demonstrated the advantages and disadvantages of different criterion when all tests had the same performance. It also examined the impact of increasing test correlation on protocol performance and the characteristics of the different criteria. To examine the impact on protocol performance when individual tests in a protocol have different performance. This is evaluated for different criteria and test correlations. The results of the two articles are combined and summarized. A mathematical model is used to calculate protocol performance for different protocol criteria and test correlations when there are small to large variations in the performance of individual tests in the protocol. The performance of the individual tests that make up a protocol has a significant impact on the performance of the protocol. As expected, the better the performance of the individual tests, the better the performance of the protocol. Many of the characteristics of the different criteria are relatively independent of the variation in the performance of the individual tests. However, increasing test variation degrades some criteria advantages and causes a new disadvantage to appear. This negative impact increases as test variation increases and as more tests are added to the protocol. Best protocol performance is obtained when individual tests are uncorrelated and have the same performance. In general, the greater the variation in the performance of tests in the protocol, the more detrimental this variation is to protocol performance. Since this negative impact is increased as

  19. Programmable genetic algorithm IP core for sensing and surveillance applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katkoori, Srinivas; Fernando, Pradeep; Sankaran, Hariharan; Stoica, Adrian; Keymeulen, Didier; Zebulum, Ricardo

    2009-05-01

    Real-time evolvable systems are possible with a hardware implementation of Genetic Algorithms (GA). We report the design of an IP core that implements a general purpose GA engine which has been successfully synthesized and verified on a Xilinx Virtex II Pro FPGA Device (XC2VP30). The placed and routed IP core has an area utilization of only 13% and clock speed of 50MHz. The GA core can be customized in terms of the population size, number of generations, cross-over and mutation rates, and the random number generator seed. The GA engine can be tailored to a given application by interfacing with the application specific fitness evaluation module as well as the required storage memory (to store the current and new populations). The core is soft in nature i.e., a gate-level netlist is provided which can be readily integrated with the user's system. The GA IP core can be readily used in FPGA based platforms for space and military applications (for e.g., surveillance, target tracking). The main advantages of the IP core are its programmability, small footprint, and low power consumption. Examples of concept systems in sensing and surveillance domains will be presented.

  20. Low-Power Embedded DSP Core for Communication Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Ya-Lan; Chen, Wei-Hao; Tan, Ming Hsuan; Lin, Maw-Ching; Jou, Shyh-Jye

    2003-12-01

    This paper proposes a parameterized digital signal processor (DSP) core for an embedded digital signal processing system designed to achieve demodulation/synchronization with better performance and flexibility. The features of this DSP core include parameterized data path, dual MAC unit, subword MAC, and optional function-specific blocks for accelerating communication system modulation operations. This DSP core also has a low-power structure, which includes the gray-code addressing mode, pipeline sharing, and advanced hardware looping. Users can select the parameters and special functional blocks based on the character of their applications and then generating a DSP core. The DSP core has been implemented via a cell-based design method using a synthesizable Verilog code with TSMC 0.35[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]m SPQM and 0.25[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]m 1P5M library. The equivalent gate count of the core area without memory is approximately 50 k. Moreover, the maximum operating frequency of a[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] version is 100 MHz (0.35[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]m) and 140 MHz (0.25[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]m).

  1. EPICS IOC module development and implementation for the ISTTOK machine subsystem operation and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Paulo, E-mail: pricardofc@ipfn.ist.utl.pt [Associacao EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear-Laboratorio Associado, Instituto Superior Tecnico, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Duarte, Andre; Pereira, Tiago; Carvalho, Bernardo; Sousa, Jorge; Fernandes, Horacio [Associacao EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear-Laboratorio Associado, Instituto Superior Tecnico, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Correia, Carlos [Grupo de Electronica e Instrumentacao-Centro de Instrumentacao, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade de Coimbra, P-3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Goncalves, Bruno; Varandas, Carlos [Associacao EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear-Laboratorio Associado, Instituto Superior Tecnico, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2011-10-15

    This paper presents a developed, tested and integrated EPICS IOC (I/O controller) module solution for the ISTTOK tokamak machine operation and control for the vacuum and gas injection systems. The work is organized in two software layers which communicate through a serial RS-232 communication protocol. The first software layer is an EPICS IOC module running as a computer server application capable of receiving requests from remote or local clients providing driver interface to the system by forwarding requested commands and receiving system and control operation status. The second software layer is the firmware running in Microchip dsPIC microcontroller modules which performs the interface from RS-232 optical fiber serial protocol to EPICS IOC module. The dsPIC module communicates to the ISTTOK tokamak sensors and actuators via RS-485 and is programmed with a new protocol developed for this purpose that allows EPICS IOC module command sending/receiving, machine operation control and monitoring and system status information. Communication between EPICS IOC module and clients is achieved via a TCP/IP and UDP protocol referred as Channel Access. In addition, the EPICS IOC module provides user client applications access allowing operators to perform remote or local monitoring, operation and control.

  2. The Geneva Protocol of 1925

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mc Elroy, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that when President Gerald Ford signed the instruments of ratification for the Geneva Protocol of 1925 on January 22, 1975, a tortured, half-century-long chapter in U.S. arms control policy was brought to a close. Fifty years earlier, at the Geneva Conference for the Control of the International Trade in Arms, Munitions and Implements of War, the United States had played a key role in drafting and reaching agreement on the Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use in War of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or Other Gases and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare. The protocol, signed by thirty nations, including the United States, on June 17, 1925, prohibits the use in war of asphyxiating, poisonous or other gases, and of all analogous liquids, materials or devices as well as the use of bacteriological methods of warfare

  3. Update on the MRI Core of the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Clifford R; Bernstein, Matt A; Borowski, Bret J; Gunter, Jeffrey L; Fox, Nick C; Thompson, Paul M; Schuff, Norbert; Krueger, Gunnar; Killiany, Ronald J; DeCarli, Charles S; Dale, Anders M; Weiner, Michael W

    2010-01-01

    Functions of the ADNI MRI core fall into three categories: (1) those of the central MRI core lab at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, needed to generate high quality MRI data in all subjects at each time point; (2) those of the funded ADNI MRI core imaging analysis groups responsible for analyzing the MRI data, and (3) the joint function of the entire MRI core in designing and problem solving MR image acquisition, pre-processing and analyses methods. The primary objective of ADNI was and continues to be improving methods for clinical trials in Alzheimer's disease. Our approach to the present (“ADNI-GO”) and future (“ADNI-2”, if funded) MRI protocol will be to maintain MRI methodological consistency in previously enrolled “ADNI-1” subjects who are followed longitudinally in ADNI-GO and ADNI-2. We will modernize and expand the MRI protocol for all newly enrolled ADNI-GO and ADNI-2 subjects. All newly enrolled subjects will be scanned at 3T with a core set of three sequence types: 3D T1-weighted volume, FLAIR, and a long TE gradient echo volumetric acquisition for micro hemorrhage detection. In addition to this core ADNI-GO and ADNI-2 protocol, we will perform vendor specific pilot sub-studies of arterial spin labeling perfusion, resting state functional connectivity and diffusion tensor imaging. One each of these sequences will be added to the core protocol on systems from each MRI vendor. These experimental sub-studies are designed to demonstrate the feasibility of acquiring useful data in a multi-center (but single vendor) setting for these three emerging MRI applications. PMID:20451869

  4. Core-to-core uniformity improvement in multi-core fiber Bragg gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindley, Emma; Min, Seong-Sik; Leon-Saval, Sergio; Cvetojevic, Nick; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Lawrence, Jon; Gris-Sanchez, Itandehui; Birks, Tim; Haynes, Roger; Haynes, Dionne

    2014-07-01

    Multi-core fiber Bragg gratings (MCFBGs) will be a valuable tool not only in communications but also various astronomical, sensing and industry applications. In this paper we address some of the technical challenges of fabricating effective multi-core gratings by simulating improvements to the writing method. These methods allow a system designed for inscribing single-core fibers to cope with MCFBG fabrication with only minor, passive changes to the writing process. Using a capillary tube that was polished on one side, the field entering the fiber was flattened which improved the coverage and uniformity of all cores.

  5. Messaging Performance of FIPA Interaction Protocols in Networked Embedded Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García JoséAPérez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Agent-based technologies in production control systems could facilitate seamless reconfiguration and integration of mechatronic devices/modules into systems. Advances in embedded controllers which are continuously improving computational capabilities allow for software modularization and distribution of decisions. Agent platforms running on embedded controllers could hide the complexity of bootstrap and communication. Therefore, it is important to investigate the messaging performance of the agents whose main motivation is the resource allocation in manufacturing systems (i.e., conveyor system. The tests were implemented using the FIPA-compliant JADE-LEAP agent platform. Agent containers were distributed through networked embedded controllers, and agents were communicating using request and contract-net FIPA interaction protocols. The test scenarios are organized in intercontainer and intracontainer communications. The work shows the messaging performance for the different test scenarios using both interaction protocols.

  6. Messaging Performance of FIPA Interaction Protocols in Networked Embedded Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Jehovani López Orozco

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Agent-based technologies in production control systems could facilitate seamless reconfiguration and integration of mechatronic devices/modules into systems. Advances in embedded controllers which are continuously improving computational capabilities allow for software modularization and distribution of decisions. Agent platforms running on embedded controllers could hide the complexity of bootstrap and communication. Therefore, it is important to investigate the messaging performance of the agents whose main motivation is the resource allocation in manufacturing systems (i.e., conveyor system. The tests were implemented using the FIPA-compliant JADE-LEAP agent platform. Agent containers were distributed through networked embedded controllers, and agents were communicating using request and contract-net FIPA interaction protocols. The test scenarios are organized in intercontainer and intracontainer communications. The work shows the messaging performance for the different test scenarios using both interaction protocols.

  7. Design specifications for manufacturability of MCM-C multichip modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, C.; Blazek, R.; Desch, J.; Elarton, J.; Kautz, D.; Markley, D.; Morgenstern, H.; Stewart, R.; Warner, L.

    1995-06-01

    The scope of this document is to establish design guidelines for electronic circuitry packaged as multichip modules of the ceramic substrate variety, although many of these guidelines are applicable to other types of multichip modules. The guidelines begin with prerequisite information which must be developed between customer and designer of the multichip module. The core of the guidelines focuses on the many considerations that must be addressed during the multichip module design. The guidelines conclude with the resulting deliverables from the design which satisfy customer requirements and/or support the multichip module fabrication and testing processes. Considerable supporting information, checklists, and design constraints are captured in specific appendices and used as reference information in the main body text. Finally some real examples of multichip module design are presented.

  8. Ecophysiology of novel core phylotypes in activated sludge wastewater treatment plants with nutrient removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIlroy, Simon Jon; Awata, Takanori; Nierychlo, Marta

    limited to no information is available for their ecophysiology in activated sludge. A combination of MAR-FISH and SIP was applied to identify members of the genera Rhodoferax, Dechloromonas and Sulfuritalea, all within the class Betaproteobacteria, to be core denitrifiers in these systems. Similar...... may explain why many of these core organisms have not attracted attention during the many years of research into the ecology of these systems. The future goal will be to obtain genome sequences for members of these core genera, applying recently developed protocols for the assembly of genomes from...

  9. The Kyoto protocol development; La viabilite du protocole de Kyoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, R. [Harvard Univ., Barrow, AK (United States); Guesneris, R. [College de France, 75 - Paris (France)

    2002-04-01

    From the author R. Cooper point of view the Kyoto Protocol is a flawed concept. The reasons for dropping Kyoto are presented in this paper insisting that rejecting Kyoto not means to imply that global climate change is not a serious problem. After a presentation of the US policy facing the Climatic Change, some concluding propositions are proposed. (A.L.B.)

  10. Symbolic Analysis of Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Morten

    We present our work on using abstract models for formally analysing cryptographic protocols: First, we present an ecient method for verifying trace-based authenticity properties of protocols using nonces, symmetric encryption, and asymmetric encryption. The method is based on a type system...... of Gordon et al., which we modify to support fully-automated type inference. Tests conducted via an implementation of our algorithm found it to be very ecient. Second, we show how privacy may be captured in a symbolic model using an equivalencebased property and give a formal denition. We formalise...

  11. Nuclear reactor core stabilizing arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabsen, F.S.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclear reactor core stabilizing arrangement is described wherein a plurality of actuators, disposed in a pattern laterally surrounding a group of elongated fuel assemblies, press against respective contiguous fuel assemblies on the periphery of the group to reduce the clearance between adjacent fuel assemblies thereby forming a more compacted, vibration resistant core structure. 7 claims, 4 drawing figures

  12. Complicated Politics to the Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinn, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    People dislike the Common Core for several different reasons, and so it is important to disaggregate the sources of opposition and to assess and then to dispel some of the myths that have built up around it. It also is important to understand the unusual political alliances that have emerged in opposition to Common Core implementation and how they…

  13. Toward full MOX core design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouviere, G.; Guillet, J.L.; Bruna, G.B.; Pelet, J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a selection of the main preliminary results of a study program sponsored by COGEMA and currently carried out by FRAMATOME. The objective of this study is to investigate the feasibility of full MOX core loading in a French 1300 MWe PWR, a recent and widespread standard nuclear power plant. The investigation includes core nuclear design, thermal hydraulic and systems aspects. (authors)

  14. Collapsing stellar cores and supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, R J [Nordisk Inst. for Teoretisk Atomfysik, Copenhagen (Denmark); Noorgaard, H [Nordisk Inst. for Teoretisk Atomfysik, Copenhagen (Denmark); Chicago Univ., IL (USA). Enrico Fermi Inst.); Bond, J R [Niels Bohr Institutet, Copenhagen (Denmark); California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena (USA). W.K. Kellogg Radiation Lab.)

    1979-05-01

    The evolution of a stellar core is studied during its final quasi-hydrostatic contraction. The core structure and the (poorly known) properties of neutron rich matter are parametrized to include most plausible cases. It is found that the density-temperature trajectory of the material in the central part of the core (the core-center) is insensitive to nearly all reasonable parameter variations. The central density at the onset of the dynamic phase of the collapse (when the core-center begins to fall away from the rest of the star) and the fraction of the emitted neutrinos which are trapped in the collapsing core-center depend quite sensitively on the properties of neutron rich matter. We estimate that the amount of energy Ecm which is imparted to the core-mantle by the neutrinos which escape from the imploded core-center can span a large range of values. For plausible choices of nuclear and model parameters Ecm can be large enough to yield a supernova event.

  15. The INTEGRAL Core Observing Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, C.; Gehrels, N.; Lund, Niels

    1999-01-01

    The Core Programme of the INTEGRAL mission is defined as the portion of the scientific programme covering the guaranteed time observations for the INTEGRAL Science Working Team. This paper describes the current status of the Core Programme preparations and summarizes the key elements...... of the observing programme....

  16. Status of core nuclear design technology for future fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Hyung Kook; Jung, Hyung Guk; Noh, Jae Man; Kim, Yeong Il; Kim, Taek Kyum; Gil, Choong Sup; Kim, Jung Do; Kim, Young Jin; Sohn, Dong Seong

    1997-01-01

    The effective utilization of nuclear resource is more important factor to be considered in the design of next generation PWR in addition to the epochal consideration on economics and safety. Assuming that MOX fuel can be considered as one of the future fuel corresponding to the above request, the establishment of basic technology for the MOX core design has been performed : : the specification of the technical problem through the preliminary core design and nuclear characteristic analysis of MOX, the development and verification of the neutron library for lattice code, and the acquisition of data to be used for verification of lattice and core analysis codes. The following further studies will be done in future: detailed verification of library E63LIB/A, development of the spectral history effect treatment module, extension of decay chain, development of new homogenization for the MOX fuel assembly. (author). 6 refs., 7 tabs., 2 figs

  17. Thermal radiation in gas core nuclear reactors for space propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slutz, S.A.; Gauntt, R.O.; Harms, G.A.; Latham, T.; Roman, W.; Rodgers, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    A diffusive model of the radial transport of thermal radiation out of a cylindrical core of fissioning plasma is presented. The diffusion approximation is appropriate because the opacity of uranium is very high at the temperatures of interest (greater than 3000 K). We make one additional simplification of assuming constant opacity throughout the fuel. This allows the complete set of solutions to be expressed as a single function. This function is approximated analytically to facilitate parametric studies of the performance of a test module of the nuclear light bulb gas-core nuclear-rocket-engine concept, in the Annular Core Research Reactor at Sandia National Laboratories. Our findings indicate that radiation temperatures in range of 4000-6000 K are attainable, which is sufficient to test the high specific impulse potential (approximately 2000 s) of this concept. 15 refs

  18. Implementation of a quality control protocol in a radiotherapy planning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condori, P.; Paucar, R.

    2004-01-01

    Due to the impossibility of each particular case analysis and taking as example the spanish protocol (Under revision), necessary tests have been performed for the verification of the calculations for the Multidata planning system, including: calculation algorithms, reconstruction of the rectangular beams, light modulators, irregular fields, fields summation, weights, normalization, prescription and calculation of UM, for the teletherapy planning

  19. Core barrel plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolino, R.W.; Hopkins, R.J.; Congleton, R.L.; Popalis, C.H.

    1986-01-01

    A plug is described for preventing flow through a port in a core barrel of a pressurized water nuclear reactor which consists of: a substantially cylindrical body formed with a cylindrical portion and a flange and defining a tapered leading open end with the other end being closed by an end plug attached to the flange, the body defining a bore therein extending from the open end to the end plug with the bore having a smaller diameter near the open end than near the end plug, the cylindrical portion having a lip near the open end and being formed with longitudinal slots extending from the open end toward the flange and extending entirely through the thickness of the cylindrical portion, the cylindrical portion having a circumferential first groove on the outer surface thereof located near the forwardmost portion of the cylindrical portion but not in the section of the cylindrical portion that has the slots therein, and a plurality of circumferential second grooves on the outer surface thereof located in the section of the cylindrical portion that has the slots therein, the first and second grooves establishing a seal between the cylindrical portion and the inside surface of the port when the cylindrical portion is expanded, and the flange and the end plug having a passageway defined therein for introducing a fluid into the body; a metal ring disposed in each of the second grooves; a mandrel slidably disposed and captured in the body and capable of being moved toward the open end of the body when the fluid is introduced through the passageway, thereby causing the cylindrical portion to be expanded into contact with the inside surface of the port; and a locking mechanism disposed in the end plug for preventing inadvertent movement of the mandrel

  20. SCORPIO - VVER core surveillance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalesky, K.; Svarny, J.; Novak, L.; Rosol, J.; Horanes, A.

    1997-01-01

    The Halden Project has developed the core surveillance system SCORPIO which has two parallel modes of operation: the Core Follow Mode and the Predictive Mode. The main motivation behind the development of SCORPIO is to make a practical tool for reactor operators which can increase the quality and quantity of information presented on core status and dynamic behavior. This can first of all improve plant safety as undesired core conditions are detected and prevented. Secondly, more flexible and efficient plant operation is made possible. So far the system has only been implemented on western PWRs but the basic concept is applicable to a wide range of reactor including WWERs. The main differences between WWERs and typical western PWRs with respect to core surveillance requirements are outlined. The development of a WWER version of SCORPIO was initiated in cooperation with the Nuclear Research Institute at Rez and industry partners in the Czech Republic. The first system will be installed at the Dukovany NPP. (author)

  1. Electroabsorption optical modulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skogen, Erik J.

    2017-11-21

    An electroabsorption modulator incorporates waveguiding regions along the length of the modulator that include quantum wells where at least two of the regions have quantum wells with different bandgaps. In one embodiment of the invention, the regions are arranged such that the quantum wells have bandgaps with decreasing bandgap energy along the length of the modulator from the modulator's input to its output. The bandgap energy of the quantum wells may be decreased in discrete steps or continuously. Advantageously, such an arrangement better distributes the optical absorption as well as the carrier density along the length of the modulator. Further advantageously, the modulator may handle increased optical power as compared with prior art modulators of similar dimensions, which allows for improved link gain when the optical modulator is used in an analog optical communication link.

  2. CDC 7600 module slice

    CERN Multimedia

    Each module contained 8 circuit cards for a total of about 300-500 uncovered transistors packaged with face plates so the Freon plates wouldn't touch the circuits. (cooling plates that surrounded each module).

  3. Exploration Augmentation Module Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Exploration Augmentation Module (EAM) project goal is to design and deliver a flight module that is to be deployed to Earth-Lunar Distant Retrograde Orbit (DRO)....

  4. Modulator R and D for the NLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koontz, Roland F

    2000-01-01

    Planning for the Next Linear Collider (NLC) continues at SLAC, Fermilab, and Lawrence Livermore Lab with help from many other members of the high energy physics community. The frequency of the proposed accelerator is X-band. An X-band klystron developed at SLAC has produced 75 MW peak power capable of driving the NLC. Modulator development to drive this klystron is proceeding on two interconnected paths, one using IGBT (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors) switched induction cores to drive multiple (8) klystrons, and the second path supported by SBIR grants looking at direct IGBT switching or IGBT switches in conjunction with optimized conventional pulse transformers. Conventional thyratron modulators are not yet out of the picture as the long term reliability of IGBT's in pulse service must still be proved. This paper reviews some of the modulator designs current in development

  5. Core body temperature in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikens, Marc J; Gorbach, Alexander M; Eden, Henry S; Savastano, David M; Chen, Kong Y; Skarulis, Monica C; Yanovski, Jack A

    2011-05-01

    A lower core body temperature set point has been suggested to be a factor that could potentially predispose humans to develop obesity. We tested the hypothesis that obese individuals have lower core temperatures than those in normal-weight individuals. In study 1, nonobese [body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) temperature-sensing capsules, and we measured core temperatures continuously for 24 h. In study 2, normal-weight (BMI of 18-25) and obese subjects swallowed temperature-sensing capsules to measure core temperatures continuously for ≥48 h and kept activity logs. We constructed daily, 24-h core temperature profiles for analysis. Mean (±SE) daily core body temperature did not differ significantly between the 35 nonobese and 46 obese subjects (36.92 ± 0.03°C compared with 36.89 ± 0.03°C; P = 0.44). Core temperature 24-h profiles did not differ significantly between 11 normal-weight and 19 obese subjects (P = 0.274). Women had a mean core body temperature ≈0.23°C greater than that of men (36.99 ± 0.03°C compared with 36.76 ± 0.03°C; P body temperature. It may be necessary to study individuals with function-altering mutations in core temperature-regulating genes to determine whether differences in the core body temperature set point affect the regulation of human body weight. These trials were registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00428987 and NCT00266500.

  6. CDC 6600 Cordwood Module

    CERN Multimedia

    1964-01-01

    The CDC 6600 cordwood module containing 64 silicon transistors. The module was mounted between two plates that were cooled conductive by a refrigeration unit via the front panel. The construction of this module uses the cord method, so called because the resistors seem to be stacked like cord between the two circuit boards in order to obtain a high density. The 6600 model contained nearly 6,000 such modules.

  7. Fiber Laser Component Testing for Space Qualification Protocol Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falvey, S.; Buelow, M.; Nelson, B.; Starcher, Y.; Thienel, L.; Rhodes, C.; Tull, Jackson; Drape, T.; Westfall, C.

    A test protocol for the space qualifying of Ytterbium-doped diode-pumped fiber laser (DPFL) components was developed under the Bright Light effort, sponsored by AFRL/VSE. A literature search was performed and summarized in an AMOS 2005 conference paper that formed the building blocks for the development of the test protocol. The test protocol was developed from the experience of the Bright Light team, the information in the literature search, and the results of a study of the Telcordia standards. Based on this protocol developed, test procedures and acceptance criteria for a series of vibration, thermal/vacuum, and radiation exposure tests were developed for selected fiber laser components. Northrop Grumman led the effort in vibration and thermal testing of these components at the Aerospace Engineering Facility on Kirtland Air Force Base, NM. The results of the tests conducted have been evaluated. This paper discusses the vibration and thermal testing that was executed to validate the test protocol. The lessons learned will aid in future assessments and definition of space qualification protocols. Components representative of major items within a Ytterbium-doped diode-pumped fiber laser were selected for testing; including fibers, isolators, combiners, fiber Bragg gratings, and laser diodes. Selection of the components was based on guidelines to test multiple models of typical fiber laser components. A goal of the effort was to test two models (i.e. different manufacturers) of each type of article selected, representing different technologies for the same type of device. The test articles did not include subsystems or systems. These components and parts may not be available commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS), and, in fact, many are custom articles, or newly developed by the manufacturer. The primary goal for this effort is a completed taxonomy that lists all relevant laser components, modules, subsystems, and interfaces, and cites the documentation for space

  8. Modulating lignin in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apuya, Nestor; Bobzin, Steven Craig; Okamuro, Jack; Zhang, Ke

    2013-01-29

    Materials and methods for modulating (e.g., increasing or decreasing) lignin content in plants are disclosed. For example, nucleic acids encoding lignin-modulating polypeptides are disclosed as well as methods for using such nucleic acids to generate transgenic plants having a modulated lignin content.

  9. An investigation into modulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heine, E.

    1988-01-01

    In the framework of the MEA-update it is important to establish which modulators are necessary. In this report it is lookedif the existing modulators can be maintained or new modulators have to be made. Besides technical aspects also material expenses and necessary manpower play a role. 12 figs.; 6 tabs

  10. Weakly Coretractable Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Inaam M. A.; Al-aeashi, Shukur N.

    2018-05-01

    If R is a ring with identity and M is a unitary right R-module. Here we introduce the class of weakly coretractable module. Some basic properties are investigated and some relationships between these modules and other related one are introduced.

  11. Petri Nets in Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crazzolara, Federico; Winskel, Glynn

    2001-01-01

    A process language for security protocols is presented together with a semantics in terms of sets of events. The denotation of process is a set of events, and as each event specifies a set of pre and postconditions, this denotation can be viewed as a Petri net. By means of an example we illustrate...

  12. Improving the DGK comparison protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veugen, P.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    When processing signals in the encrypted domain, homomorphic encryption can be used to enable linear operations on encrypted data. Comparison of encrypted data however requires an additional protocol between the parties and will be relatively expensive. A well-known and frequently used comparison

  13. Performance Evaluation of Security Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodei, Chiara; Buchholtz, Mikael; Curti, Michele

    2005-01-01

    We use a special operational semantics which drives us in inferring quantitative measures on systems describing cryptographis cryptographic protocols. We assign rates to transitions by only looking at these labels. The rates reflect the distributed architecture running applications and the use...... of possibly different cryptosystems. We then map transition systems to Markov chains and evaluate performance of systems, using standard tools....

  14. Art. 1 Eerste Protocol EVRM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelmann, E.

    2014-01-01

    Het recht op bezit is niet in het Europees Verdrag ter bescherming van de rechten van de mens en de fundamentele vrijheden (hierna: EVRM) neergelegd, maar in het Eerste Protocol daarbij (hierna: EP), dat in 1954 in werking is getreden. Het is van belang voor ogen te houden dat de Tweede Wereldoorlog

  15. Bundle Security Protocol for ION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleigh, Scott C.; Birrane, Edward J.; Krupiarz, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    This software implements bundle authentication, conforming to the Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) Internet Draft on Bundle Security Protocol (BSP), for the Interplanetary Overlay Network (ION) implementation of DTN. This is the only implementation of BSP that is integrated with ION.

  16. Affinity biosensors: techniques and protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rogers, Kim R; Mulchandani, Ashok

    1998-01-01

    ..., and government to begin or expand their biosensors research. This volume, Methods in Biotechnology vol. 7: Affinity Biosensors: Techniques and Protocols, describes a variety of classical and emerging transduction technologies that have been interfaced to bioaffinity elements (e.g., antibodies and receptors). Some of the reas...

  17. High Entropy Random Selection Protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Buhrman (Harry); M. Christandl (Matthias); M. Koucky (Michal); Z. Lotker (Zvi); B. Patt-Shamir; M. Charikar; K. Jansen; O. Reingold; J. Rolim

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, we construct protocols for two parties that do not trust each other, to generate random variables with high Shannon entropy. We improve known bounds for the trade off between the number of rounds, length of communication and the entropy of the outcome.

  18. A Student Teamwork Induction Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamau, Caroline; Spong, Abigail

    2015-01-01

    Faulty group processes have harmful effects on performance but there is little research about intervention protocols to pre-empt them in higher education. This naturalistic experiment compared a control cohort with an inducted cohort. The inducted cohort attended a workshop, consultations, elected a leader and used tools (a group log and group…

  19. Cognitive Communications Protocols for SATCOM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-20

    communications protocols for satellite and space communications with possible broad applications in defense, homeland-security as well as consumer ...communications with possible broad applications in defense, homeland-security, and civilian as well as consumer telecommunications. Such cognitive...vulnerable against smart jammers that may attempt to learn the cognitive radios own behavior . In response, our second class of proposed algorithms

  20. How to write a surgical clinical research protocol: literature review and practical guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Rachel; Schäfer, Juliane; Briel, Matthias; Bucher, Heiner C; Oertli, Daniel; Dell-Kuster, Salome

    2014-02-01

    The study protocol is the core document of every clinical research project. Clinical research in studies involving surgical interventions presents some specific challenges, which need to be accounted for and described in the study protocol. The aim of this review is to provide a practical guide for developing a clinical study protocol for surgical interventions with a focus on methodologic issues. On the basis of an in-depth literature search of methodologic literature and on some cardinal published surgical trials and observational studies, the authors provides a 10-step guide for developing a clinical study protocol in surgery. This practical guide outlines key methodologic issues important when planning an ethically and scientifically sound research project involving surgical interventions, with the ultimate goal of providing high-level evidence relevant for health care decision making in surgery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Epistemology and ontology in core ontologies: FOLaw and LRI-Core, two core ontologies for law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breukers, J.A.P.J.; Hoekstra, R.J.

    2004-01-01

    For more than a decade constructing ontologies for legal domains, we, at the Leibniz Center for Law, felt really the need to develop a core ontology for law that would enable us to re-use the common denominator of the various legal domains. In this paper we present two core ontologies for law. The

  2. Amplitude modulation detection with concurrent frequency modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj, Naveen K

    2016-09-01

    Human speech consists of concomitant temporal modulations in amplitude and frequency that are crucial for speech perception. In this study, amplitude modulation (AM) detection thresholds were measured for 550 and 5000 Hz carriers with and without concurrent frequency modulation (FM), at AM rates crucial for speech perception. Results indicate that adding 40 Hz FM interferes with AM detection, more so for 5000 Hz carrier and for frequency deviations exceeding the critical bandwidth of the carrier frequency. These findings suggest that future cochlear implant processors, encoding speech fine-structures may consider limiting the FM to narrow bandwidth and to low frequencies.

  3. Blockchain protocols in clinical trials: Transparency and traceability of consent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchoufi, Mehdi; Porcher, Raphael; Ravaud, Philippe

    2018-01-01

    Clinical trial consent for protocols and their revisions should be transparent for patients and traceable for stakeholders. Our goal is to implement a process allowing for collection of patients’ informed consent, which is bound to protocol revisions, storing and tracking the consent in a secure, unfalsifiable and publicly verifiable way, and enabling the sharing of this information in real time. For that, we build a consent workflow using a trending technology called Blockchain. This is a distributed technology that brings a built-in layer of transparency and traceability. From a more general and prospective point of view, we believe Blockchain technology brings a paradigmatical shift to the entire clinical research field. We designed a Proof-of-Concept protocol consisting of time-stamping each step of the patient’s consent collection using Blockchain, thus archiving and historicising the consent through cryptographic validation in a securely unfalsifiable and transparent way. For each protocol revision, consent was sought again.  We obtained a single document, in an open format, that accounted for the whole consent collection process: a time-stamped consent status regarding each version of the protocol. This document cannot be corrupted and can be checked on any dedicated public website. It should be considered a robust proof of data. However, in a live clinical trial, the authentication system should be strengthened to remove the need for third parties, here trial stakeholders, and give participative control to the peer users. In the future, the complex data flow of a clinical trial could be tracked by using Blockchain, which core functionality, named Smart Contract, could help prevent clinical trial events not occurring in the correct chronological order, for example including patients before they consented or analysing case report form data before freezing the database. Globally, Blockchain could help with reliability, security, transparency and could be

  4. Blockchain protocols in clinical trials: Transparency and traceability of consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchoufi, Mehdi; Porcher, Raphael; Ravaud, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Clinical trial consent for protocols and their revisions should be transparent for patients and traceable for stakeholders. Our goal is to implement a process allowing for collection of patients' informed consent, which is bound to protocol revisions, storing and tracking the consent in a secure, unfalsifiable and publicly verifiable way, and enabling the sharing of this information in real time. For that, we build a consent workflow using a trending technology called Blockchain. This is a distributed technology that brings a built-in layer of transparency and traceability. From a more general and prospective point of view, we believe Blockchain technology brings a paradigmatical shift to the entire clinical research field. We designed a Proof-of-Concept protocol consisting of time-stamping each step of the patient's consent collection using Blockchain, thus archiving and historicising the consent through cryptographic validation in a securely unfalsifiable and transparent way. For each protocol revision, consent was sought again.  We obtained a single document, in an open format, that accounted for the whole consent collection process: a time-stamped consent status regarding each version of the protocol. This document cannot be corrupted and can be checked on any dedicated public website. It should be considered a robust proof of data. However, in a live clinical trial, the authentication system should be strengthened to remove the need for third parties, here trial stakeholders, and give participative control to the peer users. In the future, the complex data flow of a clinical trial could be tracked by using Blockchain, which core functionality, named Smart Contract, could help prevent clinical trial events not occurring in the correct chronological order, for example including patients before they consented or analysing case report form data before freezing the database. Globally, Blockchain could help with reliability, security, transparency and could be a

  5. Modelling of reactor control and protection systems in the core simulator program GARLIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beraha, D.; Lupas, O.; Ploegert, K.

    1984-01-01

    For analysis of the interaction between control and limitation systems and the power distribution in the reactor core, a valuable tool is provided by the joint simulation of the core and the interacting systems. To this purpose, the core simulator GARLIC has been enhanced by models of the systems for controlling and limiting the reactor power and the power distribution in the core as well as by modules for calculating safety related core parameters. The computer-based core protection system, first installed in the Grafenrheinfeld NPP, has been included in the simulation. In order to evaluate the accuracy of GARLIC-simulations, the code has been compared with a design code in the train of a verification phase. The report describes the program extensions and the results of the verification. (orig.) [de

  6. A Practical Core Loss Model for Filter Inductors of Power Electronic Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matsumori, Hiroaki; Shimizu, Toshihisa; Wang, Xiongfei

    2018-01-01

    This paper proposes a core loss model for filter inductors of power electronic converters. The model allows a computationally efficient analysis on the core loss of the inductor under the square voltage excitation and the premagnetization condition. First, the core loss of the filter inductor under...... buck chopper excitation is evaluated with the proposed model and compared with the conventional methods. The comparison shows that the proposed method results in a better core loss prediction under the premagnetized condition than that of conventional alternatives. Then, the core loss of the filter...... inductor with the pulsewidth modulated inverter excitation is evaluated, which shows that the proposed model not only accurately predicts the core loss but also identifies the hysteresis loss part. These results demonstrate that the approach can further be used for the development of magnetic materials...

  7. Development and Psychometric Properties of the Dialysis Module of the WHOQOL-BREF Taiwan Version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Chang Yang

    2006-01-01

    Conclusion: Besides broader coverage than the core WHOQOL-BREF(TW, the dialysis module of the WHOQOL-BREF(TW is a valid, reliable and sensitive QOL instrument for the assessment of HD patients in Taiwan.

  8. Chamber service module (CSM1) for MDT

    CERN Document Server

    Binchi, P

    2002-01-01

    CSM-1 is the second and latest version of the high speed electronic unit whose primary task is to multiplex serial data from up to 18 ASD /TDC cards located at the ends of the Monitored Drift Tubes. Each CSM will capture data from all 24 channel TDC (AMT-2 units) of a given chamber and transfer it along a single optic fiber to the MROD, the event builder and readout driver. The core of the board is a Xilinx VirtexII FPGA which will use JTAG protocol (IEEE Std. 1149.1) for logic configuration parameter loading.

  9. Group covariant protocols for quantum string commitment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsurumaru, Toyohiro

    2006-01-01

    We study the security of quantum string commitment (QSC) protocols with group covariant encoding scheme. First we consider a class of QSC protocol, which is general enough to incorporate all the QSC protocols given in the preceding literatures. Then among those protocols, we consider group covariant protocols and show that the exact upperbound on the binding condition can be calculated. Next using this result, we prove that for every irreducible representation of a finite group, there always exists a corresponding nontrivial QSC protocol which reaches a level of security impossible to achieve classically

  10. HOW STARLESS ARE STARLESS CORES?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnee, Scott; Friesen, Rachel; Di Francesco, James; Johnstone, Doug; Enoch, Melissa; Sadavoy, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present the results of Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy continuum and spectral line observations of the dense core Per-Bolo 45. Although this core has previously been classified as starless, we find evidence for an outflow and conclude that Per-Bolo 45 is actually an embedded, low-luminosity protostar. We discuss the impact of newly discovered, low-luminosity, embedded objects in the Perseus molecular cloud on starless core and protostar lifetimes. We estimate that the starless core lifetime has been overestimated by 4%-18% and the Class 0/I protostellar lifetime has been underestimated by 5%-20%. Given the relatively large systematic uncertainties involved in these calculations, variations on the order of 10% do not significantly change either core lifetimes or the expected protostellar luminosity function. Finally, we suggest that high-resolution (sub)millimeter surveys of known cores lacking near-infrared and mid-infrared emission are necessary to make an accurate census of starless cores.

  11. Challenges for proteomics core facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilley, Kathryn S; Deery, Michael J; Gatto, Laurent

    2011-03-01

    Many analytical techniques have been executed by core facilities established within academic, pharmaceutical and other industrial institutions. The centralization of such facilities ensures a level of expertise and hardware which often cannot be supported by individual laboratories. The establishment of a core facility thus makes the technology available for multiple researchers in the same institution. Often, the services within the core facility are also opened out to researchers from other institutions, frequently with a fee being levied for the service provided. In the 1990s, with the onset of the age of genomics, there was an abundance of DNA analysis facilities, many of which have since disappeared from institutions and are now available through commercial sources. Ten years on, as proteomics was beginning to be utilized by many researchers, this technology found itself an ideal candidate for being placed within a core facility. We discuss what in our view are the daily challenges of proteomics core facilities. We also examine the potential unmet needs of the proteomics core facility that may also be applicable to proteomics laboratories which do not function as core facilities. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Core principles of evolutionary medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunspan, Daniel Z; Nesse, Randolph M; Barnes, M Elizabeth; Brownell, Sara E

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background and objectives Evolutionary medicine is a rapidly growing field that uses the principles of evolutionary biology to better understand, prevent and treat disease, and that uses studies of disease to advance basic knowledge in evolutionary biology. Over-arching principles of evolutionary medicine have been described in publications, but our study is the first to systematically elicit core principles from a diverse panel of experts in evolutionary medicine. These principles should be useful to advance recent recommendations made by The Association of American Medical Colleges and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute to make evolutionary thinking a core competency for pre-medical education. Methodology The Delphi method was used to elicit and validate a list of core principles for evolutionary medicine. The study included four surveys administered in sequence to 56 expert panelists. The initial open-ended survey created a list of possible core principles; the three subsequent surveys winnowed the list and assessed the accuracy and importance of each principle. Results Fourteen core principles elicited at least 80% of the panelists to agree or strongly agree that they were important core principles for evolutionary medicine. These principles over-lapped with concepts discussed in other articles discussing key concepts in evolutionary medicine. Conclusions and implications This set of core principles will be helpful for researchers and instructors in evolutionary medicine. We recommend that evolutionary medicine instructors use the list of core principles to construct learning goals. Evolutionary medicine is a young field, so this list of core principles will likely change as the field develops further. PMID:29493660

  13. Mediator kinase module and human tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Alison D; Oldenbroek, Marieke; Boyer, Thomas G

    2015-01-01

    Mediator is a conserved multi-subunit signal processor through which regulatory informatiosn conveyed by gene-specific transcription factors is transduced to RNA Polymerase II (Pol II). In humans, MED13, MED12, CDK8 and Cyclin C (CycC) comprise a four-subunit "kinase" module that exists in variable association with a 26-subunit Mediator core. Genetic and biochemical studies have established the Mediator kinase module as a major ingress of developmental and oncogenic signaling through Mediator, and much of its function in signal-dependent gene regulation derives from its resident CDK8 kinase activity. For example, CDK8-targeted substrate phosphorylation impacts transcription factor half-life, Pol II activity and chromatin chemistry and functional status. Recent structural and biochemical studies have revealed a precise network of physical and functional subunit interactions required for proper kinase module activity. Accordingly, pathologic change in this activity through altered expression or mutation of constituent kinase module subunits can have profound consequences for altered signaling and tumor formation. Herein, we review the structural organization, biological function and oncogenic potential of the Mediator kinase module. We focus principally on tumor-associated alterations in kinase module subunits for which mechanistic relationships as opposed to strictly correlative associations are established. These considerations point to an emerging picture of the Mediator kinase module as an oncogenic unit, one in which pathogenic activation/deactivation through component change drives tumor formation through perturbation of signal-dependent gene regulation. It follows that therapeutic strategies to combat CDK8-driven tumors will involve targeted modulation of CDK8 activity or pharmacologic manipulation of dysregulated CDK8-dependent signaling pathways.

  14. Divisible ℤ-modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Futa Yuichi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we formalize the definition of divisible ℤ-module and its properties in the Mizar system [3]. We formally prove that any non-trivial divisible ℤ-modules are not finitely-generated.We introduce a divisible ℤ-module, equivalent to a vector space of a torsion-free ℤ-module with a coefficient ring ℚ. ℤ-modules are important for lattice problems, LLL (Lenstra, Lenstra and Lovász base reduction algorithm [15], cryptographic systems with lattices [16] and coding theory [8].

  15. Unstructured Computational Aerodynamics on Many Integrated Core Architecture

    KAUST Repository

    Al Farhan, Mohammed A.

    2016-06-08

    Shared memory parallelization of the flux kernel of PETSc-FUN3D, an unstructured tetrahedral mesh Euler flow code previously studied for distributed memory and multi-core shared memory, is evaluated on up to 61 cores per node and up to 4 threads per core. We explore several thread-level optimizations to improve flux kernel performance on the state-of-the-art many integrated core (MIC) Intel processor Xeon Phi “Knights Corner,” with a focus on strong thread scaling. While the linear algebraic kernel is bottlenecked by memory bandwidth for even modest numbers of cores sharing a common memory, the flux kernel, which arises in the control volume discretization of the conservation law residuals and in the formation of the preconditioner for the Jacobian by finite-differencing the conservation law residuals, is compute-intensive and is known to exploit effectively contemporary multi-core hardware. We extend study of the performance of the flux kernel to the Xeon Phi in three thread affinity modes, namely scatter, compact, and balanced, in both offload and native mode, with and without various code optimizations to improve alignment and reduce cache coherency penalties. Relative to baseline “out-of-the-box” optimized compilation, code restructuring optimizations provide about 3.8x speedup using the offload mode and about 5x speedup using the native mode. Even with these gains for the flux kernel, with respect to execution time the MIC simply achieves par with optimized compilation on a contemporary multi-core Intel CPU, the 16-core Sandy Bridge E5 2670. Nevertheless, the optimizations employed to reduce the data motion and cache coherency protocol penalties of the MIC are expected to be of value for CFD and many other unstructured applications as many-core architecture evolves. We explore large-scale distributed-shared memory performance on the Cray XC40 supercomputer, to demonstrate that optimizations employed on Phi hybridize to this context, where each of

  16. Unstructured Computational Aerodynamics on Many Integrated Core Architecture

    KAUST Repository

    Al Farhan, Mohammed A.; Kaushik, Dinesh K.; Keyes, David E.

    2016-01-01

    Shared memory parallelization of the flux kernel of PETSc-FUN3D, an unstructured tetrahedral mesh Euler flow code previously studied for distributed memory and multi-core shared memory, is evaluated on up to 61 cores per node and up to 4 threads per core. We explore several thread-level optimizations to improve flux kernel performance on the state-of-the-art many integrated core (MIC) Intel processor Xeon Phi “Knights Corner,” with a focus on strong thread scaling. While the linear algebraic kernel is bottlenecked by memory bandwidth for even modest numbers of cores sharing a common memory, the flux kernel, which arises in the control volume discretization of the conservation law residuals and in the formation of the preconditioner for the Jacobian by finite-differencing the conservation law residuals, is compute-intensive and is known to exploit effectively contemporary multi-core hardware. We extend study of the performance of the flux kernel to the Xeon Phi in three thread affinity modes, namely scatter, compact, and balanced, in both offload and native mode, with and without various code optimizations to improve alignment and reduce cache coherency penalties. Relative to baseline “out-of-the-box” optimized compilation, code restructuring optimizations provide about 3.8x speedup using the offload mode and about 5x speedup using the native mode. Even with these gains for the flux kernel, with respect to execution time the MIC simply achieves par with optimized compilation on a contemporary multi-core Intel CPU, the 16-core Sandy Bridge E5 2670. Nevertheless, the optimizations employed to reduce the data motion and cache coherency protocol penalties of the MIC are expected to be of value for CFD and many other unstructured applications as many-core architecture evolves. We explore large-scale distributed-shared memory performance on the Cray XC40 supercomputer, to demonstrate that optimizations employed on Phi hybridize to this context, where each of

  17. Theme-Based Bidisciplinary Chemistry Laboratory Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leber, Phyllis A.; Szczerbicki, Sandra K.

    1996-12-01

    A thematic approach to each of the two introductory chemistry laboratory sequences, general and organic chemistry, not only provides an element of cohesion but also stresses the role that chemistry plays as the "central science" and emphasizes the intimate link between chemistry and other science disciplines. Thus, in general chemistry the rubric "Environmental Chemistry" affords connections to the geosciences, whereas experiments on the topic of "Plant Assays" bridge organic chemistry and biology. By establishing links with other science departments, the theme-based laboratory experiments will satisfy the following multidisciplinary criteria: (i) to demonstrate the general applicability of core methodologies to the sciences, (ii) to help students relate concepts to a broader multidisciplinary context, (iii) to foster an attitude of both independence and cooperation that can transcend the teaching laboratory to the research arena, and (iv) to promote greater cooperation and interaction between the science departments. Fundamentally, this approach has the potential to impact the chemistry curriculum significantly by including student decision-making in the experimental process. Furthermore, the incorporation of GC-MS, a powerful tool for separation and identification as well as a state-of-the-art analytical technique, in the modules will enhance the introductory general and organic chemistry laboratory sequences by making them more instrument-intensive and by providing a reliable and reproducible means of obtaining quantitative analyses. Each multifaceted module has been designed to meet the following criteria: (i) a synthetic protocol including full spectral characterization of products, (ii) quantitative and statistical analyses of data, and (iii) construction of a database of results. The database will provide several concrete functions. It will foster the idea that science is a continuous incremental process building on the results of earlier experimentalists

  18. Improvement In MAODV Protocol Using Location Based Routing Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur Sharnjeet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy saving is difficult in wireless sensor network (WSN due to limited resources. Each node in WSN is constrained by their limited battery power for their energy. The energy is reduced as the time goes off due to the packet transmission and reception. Energy management techniques are necessary to minimize the total power consumption of all the nodes in the network in order to maximize its life span. Our proposed protocol Location based routing (LBR aimed to find a path which utilizes the minimum energy to transmit the packets between the source and the destination. The required energy for the transmission and reception of data is evaluated in MATLAB. LBR is implemented on Multicast Ad hoc On Demand Distance Vector Routing Protocol (MAODV to manage the energy consumption in the transmission and reception of data. Simulation results of LBR show the energy consumption has been reduced.

  19. Assessing Core Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2004-12-01

    Catherine Palomba and Trudy Banta offer the following definition of assessment, adapted from one provided by Marches in 1987. Assessment in the systematic collection, review, and use of information about educational programs undertaken for the purpose of improving student learning and development. (Palomba and Banta 1999). It is widely recognized that sophisticated computing technologies are becoming a key element in today's classroom instructional techniques. Regardless, the Professor must be held responsible for creating an instructional environment in which the technology actually supplements learning outcomes of the students. Almost all academic disciplines have found a niche for computer-based instruction in their respective professional domain. In many cases, it is viewed as an essential and integral part of the educational process. Educational institutions are committing substantial resources to the establishment of dedicated technology-based laboratories, so that they will be able to accommodate and fulfill students' desire to master certain of these specific skills. This type of technology-based instruction may raise some fundamental questions about the core competencies of the student learner. Some of the most important questions are : 1. Is the utilization of these fast high-powered computers and user-friendly software programs creating a totally non-challenging instructional environment for the student learner ? 2. Can technology itself all too easily overshadow the learning outcomes intended ? 3. Are the educational institutions simply training students how to use technology rather than educating them in the appropriate field ? 4. Are we still teaching content-driven courses and analysis oriented subject matter ? 5. Are these sophisticated modern era technologies contributing to a decline in the Critical Thinking Capabilities of the 21st century technology-savvy students ? The author tries to focus on technology as a tool and not on the technology

  20. Using Ovsynch protocol versus Cosynch protocol in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Valeriu Caraba

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available As a research on the reproductive physiology and endocrinology surrounding the estrous cycle in dairy cattle has been compiled, several estrous synchronization programs have been developed for use with dairy cows. These include several programs that facilitate the mass breeding of all animals at a predetermined time (timed-AI rather than the detection of estrus. We studied on 15 dary cows which were synchronized by Ovsynch and Cosynch programs. The estrus response for cows in Ovsynch protocol was of 63%. Pregnancy per insemination at 60 days was of 25%. Estrus response for cow in Cosynch protocol was of 57%. Pregnancy per insemination at 60 days was of 57%. Synchronization of ovulation using Ovsynch protocols can provide an effective way to manage reproduction in lactating dairy cows by eliminating the need for estrus detection. These are really efficient management programs for TAI of dairy cows that are able to reduce both the labour costs and the extra handling to daily estrus detection and AI.