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Sample records for proto-bantu verb paradigms

  1. Alternation vs. Allomorphic Variation in Old English Word-Formation: Evidence from the Derivational Paradigm of Strong Verbs

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    Urraca Carmen Novo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the question of Old English alternations with a view to identifying instances of allomorphic variation attributable to the loss of motivation and the subsequent morphologization of alternations. The focus is on the strong verb and its derivatives, in such a way that the alternations in which the strong verb partakes can be predicted on the basis of phonological principles, whereas allomorphic variation with respect to the strong verb base is unpredictable. Out of 304 derivational paradigms based on strong verbs and comprising 4,853 derivatives, 478 instances have been found of phonologically motivated vocalic alternations. The conclusion is reached that the most frequent alternations are those that have /a/ as source and those with /y/ as target, because /a/ is the point of departure of i-mutation and /y/ its point of arrival. Sixteen instances of allomorphic variation have also been found, of which /e/ ~ /eo/, /e/ ~ /ea/ and /i/ ~ /e/ are relatively frequent.

  2. Auxiliary verbs in Dinka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben

    2007-01-01

    Dinka, a Western Nilotic language, has a class of auxiliary verbs which is remarkable in the following four respects: (i) It is unusually large, comprising some 20 members; (ii) it is grammatically homogeneous in terms of both morphology and syntax; (iii) most of the auxiliary verbs correspond...... to adverbs in languages like English, while the rest are tense-aspect markers; and (iv) it is possible to combine several auxiliary verbs in a single clause. For some of the auxiliary verbs there are extant full verbs from which they have evolved. To some extent, therefore, it is possible to observe what...

  3. Processing of verb tense

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    Kostić Aleksandar Đ.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Processing of Serbian inflected verbs was investigated in two lexical decision experiments. In the first experiment subjects were presented with five forms of future tense, while in the second experiment the same verbs were presented in three forms of present and future tense. The outcome of the first experiment indicates that processing of inflected verb is determined by the amount of information derived from the average probability per congruent personal pronoun of a particular verb form. This implies that the cognitive system is not sensitive to verb person per se, nor to the gender of congruent personal pronoun. Results of the second experiment show that for verb forms of different tenses, presented in the same experiment, the amount of information has to be additionally modulated by tense probability. Such an outcome speaks in favor of cognitive relevance of verb tense.

  4. A Critical Evaluation of the Paradigm Approach in Sepedi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Abstract: This article gives a critical evaluation of the paradigm approach of the Groot Noord-. Sotho Woordeboek to the lemmatisation of verbs and nouns derived from verbs. The verb stem -roba. 'break' with its complicated system of derivations will be taken as a case in point. The paradigm presented for -roba will be ...

  5. ACQUIRING NEW PHRASAL VERBS

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    Hari Supriono

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The acquisition of English demands natural settings in which learners engage with linguistic resources and attempt trial and errors method to express their ideas. These natural settings, for some, traditionally still require the presence of native speakerteachers (NST. However as the growing numbers of non-native speaker teachers (NNST of English in the developing countries makes way to the need for more occupation, the presence of NST on the contrary is lacking in relevance. However, can the NNST fulfill the necessitated language skills as if the classes were to be managed by NST? How much does the competence of NNST level NST‘s? Or, should we see the realm from the other end of the continuum?—thatwhatever norms and levels of competence our students should have should as well be determined by the availability of the resources at hand and the need for English as means of global communication? This paper questions the conventional paradigm in seeing the needs for learners‘ competence in English skills and challenges new generation of English teachers to be creative and realistic in meeting the needs of language acquisition and/or learning of EFLthrough the teaching and acquisition of phrasal verbs.

  6. 500 French verbs for dummies

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    Erotopoulos

    2013-01-01

    Vexed by French verbs? Fear no more! In 500 French Verbs For Dummies, beginning French language learners can find a quick reference for verbs in the basic present tenses. More advanced French speakers can utilize this book to learn more complex verb tenses and conjugations as well as advanced verbs with irregular endings. One page for each of the 500 most commonly used verbs in the French language -alphabetically arranged and numbered for easy referenceSpecial designation of the 50 most essential French verbsA summary of basic French grammar that incl

  7. A characterization of verb use in Turkish agrammatic narrative speech.

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    Arslan, Seçkin; Bamyacı, Elif; Bastiaanse, Roelien

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the characteristics of narrative-speech production and the use of verbs in Turkish agrammatic speakers (n = 10) compared to non-brain-damaged controls (n = 10). To elicit narrative-speech samples, personal interviews and storytelling tasks were conducted. Turkish has a large and regular verb inflection paradigm where verbs are inflected for evidentiality (i.e. direct versus indirect evidence available to the speaker). Particularly, we explored the general characteristics of the speech samples (e.g. utterance length) and the uses of lexical, finite and non-finite verbs and direct and indirect evidentials. The results show that speech rate is slow, verbs per utterance are lower than normal and the verb diversity is reduced in the agrammatic speakers. Verb inflection is relatively intact; however, a trade-off pattern between inflection for direct evidentials and verb diversity is found. The implications of the data are discussed in connection with narrative-speech production studies on other languages.

  8. Abstract Objects of Verbs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robering, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Verbs do often take arguments of quite different types. In an orthodox type-theoretic framework this results in an extreme polysemy of many verbs. In this article, it is shown that this unwanted consequence can be avoided when a theory of "abstract objects" is adopted according to which these obj......Verbs do often take arguments of quite different types. In an orthodox type-theoretic framework this results in an extreme polysemy of many verbs. In this article, it is shown that this unwanted consequence can be avoided when a theory of "abstract objects" is adopted according to which...... these objects represent non-objectual entities in contexts from which they are excluded by type restrictions. Thus these objects are "abstract'' in a functional rather than in an ontological sense: they function as representatives of other entities but they are otherwise quite normal objects. Three examples...

  9. The Imperative Paradigm of Korowai, a language of West Papua

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    de Vries, Lourens; Aikhenvald, Alexandra; Dixon, R.M.W

    2017-01-01

    The imperative paradigm of Korowai, a Papuan language of West Papua, is the richest independent verb paradigm of Korowai: it makes more tense, aspect, mood, person and number distinctions than all other verb paradigms. This formal richness is matched by functional richness: imperatives are used in a

  10. Variation in verb cluster interruption

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    Hendriks, Lotte

    2014-01-01

    Except for finite verbs in main clauses, verbs in Standard Dutch cluster together in a clause-final position. In certain Dutch dialects, non-verbal material can occur within this verb cluster (Verhasselt 1961; Koelmans 1965, among many others). These dialects vary with respect to which types of

  11. Abstract Objects of Verbs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Verbs do often take arguments of quite different types. In an orthodox type-theoretic framework this results in an extreme polysemy of many verbs. In this article, it is shown that this unwanted consequence can be avoided when a theory of "abstract objects" is adopted according to which...... these objects represent non-objectual entities in contexts from which they are excluded by type restrictions. Thus these objects are "abstract'' in a functional rather than in an ontological sense: they function as representatives of other entities but they are otherwise quite normal objects. Three examples...

  12. Verb aspect, alternations and quantification

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    Svetla Koeva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Verb aspect, alternations and quantification In this paper we are briefly discuss the nature of Bulgarian verb aspect and argue that the verb aspect pairs are different lexical units with different (although related meaning, different argument structure (reflecting categories, explicitness and referential status of arguments and different sets of semantic and syntactic alternations. The verb prefixes resulting in perfective verbs derivation in some cases can be interpreted as lexical quantifiers as well. Thus the Bulgarian verb aspect is related (in different way both with the potential for the generation of alternations and with the prefixal lexical quantification. It is shown that the scope of the lexical quantification by means of verbal prefixes is the quantified verb phrase and the scope remains constant in all derived alternations. The paper concerns the basic issues of these complex problems, while the detailed description of the conditions satisfying particular alternation or particular lexical quantification are subject of a more detailed study.

  13. Polyphony and verb forms

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    Jelena Rajić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines some special uses of indicative and subjunctive verb forms in Spanish, which contemporary linguistics explains using the notions of polyphony, evidentials, echoic representation, quotatives, etc. These terms, even though they refer to different characteristics and belong to different theoretical frameworks, share one common feature: they all refer to diverse linguistic forms (discourse markers, linguistic negation, quotatives, echoic utterances, etc. characterized by the presence and interaction of different voices or points of view in one discourse sequence. In this study we are interested in a description of quotative or polyphonic meanings expressed by specific verb forms and tenses, the imperfect and the conditional, and also by indicative forms in subordinate substantive clauses with a negative main verb and by subjunctive forms in subordinate concessive clauses. Our research focuses on the analysis of the linguistic conditions that make possible the evidential use of the conditional, the imperfect and the echoic (metarepresentative interpretation of indicative and subjunctive forms in the above-mentioned contexts. The examples we discuss show that evidential and echoic interpretations are inferential meanings derived from the extralinguistic situation and the knowledge that speakers have of the world.

  14. Effects of verb-argument cues on verb production in persons with aphasia using a verb-final language

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    Jee Eun Sung

    2014-04-01

    PWA showed greater difficulties in producing verbs with more argument structures compared to the normal group. In contrast, PWA presented significantly increased performance on the verb-completion task as the number of verb arguments increased since more cues were provided for 2- or 3-place verbs than 1-place verbs. The current results suggested that the features of more semantic and syntactic units to be activated may induce greater difficulties in retrieving verbs with more arguments, and PWA benefited from the verb-argument cues in verb production.

  15. Aspectual auxiliary verbs in Xitsonga

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    Let him always come' e. á vá hátl-é vá yá étlélà. OPT 3PL quickly-OPT 3PL go sleep. 'Let them quickly go to bed'. 3.4 Negative markers. Negation is marked on AA verbs. The auxiliary verb hatla 'quickly' is negated in three tenses.

  16. Immobile Complex Verbs in Germanic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikner, Sten

    2005-01-01

    the V° requirements or the V* requirements. Haider (1993, p. 62) and Koopman (1995), who also discuss such immobile verbs, only account for verbs with two prefix-like parts (e.g., German uraufführen ‘to perform (a play) for the first time' or Dutch herinvoeren ‘to reintroduce'), not for the more...... frequent type with only one prefix-like part (e.g., German bauchreden/Dutch buikspreken ‘to ventriloquize'). This analysis will try to account not only for the data discussed in Haider (1993) and Koopman (1995) but also for the following: - why immobile verbs include verbs with only one prefix-like part...... are immobile, - why such verbs are not found in Germanic VO-languages such as English and Scandinavian....

  17. A Review on Studies of Phrasal Verb Constructions in ESL Context

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    Maryam Jahedi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to give an overview of studies on phrasal verbs in three decades to present the theoretical and methodological issues, as well as the findings of research. Moreover, this review reveals the developments and paradigm shifts occurred in this area. Previous studies have shown that the research findings have not been incorporated into classroom activities and English Language Teaching (ELT materials. The paper claims that the number of research on the use of phrasal verbs in ESL textbooks is limited and, therefore, further research is needed to examine how phrasal verbs are treated in textbooks in order to help ELT materials developers to present these items more effectively based on research findings. Keywords: Corpus-based studies, ESL learner, Phrasal verbs

  18. Force Dynamics of Verb Complementation

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    Jacek Woźny

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Force Dynamics of Verb Complementation The concepts of motion and force are both extensively discussed in cognitive linguistics literature. But they are discussed separately. The first usually in the context of ‘motion situations’ (Talmy, Slobin, Zlatev, the other as part of the Force Dynamics framework, which was developed by Talmy. The aim of this paper is twofold: first, to argue that the concepts of force and motion should not be isolated but considered as two inseparable parts of force-motion events. The second goal is to prove that the modified Force Dynamics (force-motion framework can be used for precise characterization of the verb complementation patterns. To this end, a random sample of 50 sentences containing the verb ‘went’ is analyzed, demonstrating the differences between the categories of intensive and intransitive complementation with respect to the linguistically coded parameters of force and motion.

  19. Meaning and the English verb

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    Leech, Geoffrey

    2014-01-01

    Every language has its peculiar problems of meaning for the foreign learner. In the English language, some of the biggest yet most fascinating problems are concentrated in the area of the finite verb phrase: in particular, tense, aspect, mood and modality. Meaning and the English Verb describes these fields in detail for teachers and advanced students of English as a foreign or second language. This new third edition uses up-to-date examples to show differences and similarities between American and British english, reflecting a great deal of recent research in this area. It also takes account

  20. Kinematic parameters of signed verbs.

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    Malaia, Evie; Wilbur, Ronnie B; Milkovic, Marina

    2013-10-01

    Sign language users recruit physical properties of visual motion to convey linguistic information. Research on American Sign Language (ASL) indicates that signers systematically use kinematic features (e.g., velocity, deceleration) of dominant hand motion for distinguishing specific semantic properties of verb classes in production ( Malaia & Wilbur, 2012a) and process these distinctions as part of the phonological structure of these verb classes in comprehension ( Malaia, Ranaweera, Wilbur, & Talavage, 2012). These studies are driven by the event visibility hypothesis by Wilbur (2003), who proposed that such use of kinematic features should be universal to sign language (SL) by the grammaticalization of physics and geometry for linguistic purposes. In a prior motion capture study, Malaia and Wilbur (2012a) lent support for the event visibility hypothesis in ASL, but there has not been quantitative data from other SLs to test the generalization to other languages. The authors investigated the kinematic parameters of predicates in Croatian Sign Language ( Hrvatskom Znakovnom Jeziku [HZJ]). Kinematic features of verb signs were affected both by event structure of the predicate (semantics) and phrase position within the sentence (prosody). The data demonstrate that kinematic features of motion in HZJ verb signs are recruited to convey morphological and prosodic information. This is the first crosslinguistic motion capture confirmation that specific kinematic properties of articulator motion are grammaticalized in other SLs to express linguistic features.

  1. The Zulu Ditransitive Verb Phrase

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    Adams, Nikki

    2010-01-01

    In this dissertation, several related aspects of arguments to ditransitive verbs are explored. The aim is to discover in what ways certain asymmetries in what is frequently referred to as a "symmetric object" language are interconnected while still allowing the other symmetric object behavior. These asymmetries are: (1) The requirement that the…

  2. Verb Agreements during On-Line Sentence Processing in Alzheimer's Disease and Frontotemporal Dementia

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    Price, C.C.; Grossman, M.

    2005-01-01

    An on-line ''word detection'' paradigm was used to assess the comprehension of thematic and transitive verb agreements during sentence processing in individuals diagnosed with probable Alzheimer's Disease (AD, n=15) and Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD, n=14). AD, FTD, and control participants (n=17) were asked to listen for a word in a sentence.…

  3. A Review on Studies of Phrasal Verb Constructions in ESL Context

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    Jahedi, Maryam; Mukundan, Jayakaran

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to give an overview of studies on phrasal verbs in three decades to present the theoretical and methodological issues, as well as the findings of research. Moreover, this review reveals the developments and paradigm shifts occurred in this area. Previous studies have shown that the research findings have not been incorporated into…

  4. Body-part specific interactions of action verb processing with motor behaviour.

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    Klepp, Anne; Niccolai, Valentina; Sieksmeyer, Jan; Arnzen, Stephanie; Indefrey, Peter; Schnitzler, Alfons; Biermann-Ruben, Katja

    2017-06-15

    The interaction of action-related language processing with actual movement is an indicator of the functional role of motor cortical involvement in language understanding. This paper describes two experiments using single action verb stimuli. Motor responses were performed with the hand or the foot. To test the double dissociation of language-motor facilitation effects within subjects, Experiments 1 and 2 used a priming procedure where both hand and foot reactions had to be performed in response to different geometrical shapes, which were preceded by action verbs. In Experiment 1, the semantics of the verbs could be ignored whereas Experiment 2 included semantic decisions. Only Experiment 2 revealed a clear double dissociation in reaction times: reactions were facilitated when preceded by verbs describing actions with the matching effector. In Experiment 1, by contrast, there was an interaction between verb-response congruence and a semantic variable related to motor features of the verbs. Thus, the double dissociation paradigm of semantic motor priming was effective, corroborating the role of the motor system in action-related language processing. Importantly, this effect was body part specific. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. [Take] and the ASL Verb Complex: An Autolexical Account

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    Metlay, Donald S.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation will show how linguistic description and an Autolexical account of the bound verb root [take] shed a light on the nature of complex verb constructions in American Sign Language (ASL). This is accomplished by creating a new ASL Verb Complex Model unifying all verbs into one category of VERB. This model also accounts for a variety…

  6. Phonological Planning during Sentence Production: Beyond the Verb.

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    Schnur, Tatiana T

    2011-01-01

    The current study addresses the extent of phonological planning during spontaneous sentence production. Previous work shows that at articulation, phonological encoding occurs for entire phrases, but encoding beyond the initial phrase may be due to the syntactic relevance of the verb in planning the utterance. I conducted three experiments to investigate whether phonological planning crosses multiple grammatical phrase boundaries (as defined by the number of lexical heads of phrase) within a single phonological phrase. Using the picture-word interference paradigm, I found in two separate experiments a significant phonological facilitation effect to both the verb and noun of sentences like "He opens the gate." I also altered the frequency of the direct object and found longer utterance initiation times for sentences ending with a low-frequency vs. high-frequency object offering further support that the direct object was phonologically encoded at the time of utterance initiation. That phonological information for post-verbal elements was activated suggests that the grammatical importance of the verb does not restrict the extent of phonological planning. These results suggest that the phonological phrase is unit of planning, where all elements within a phonological phrase are encoded before articulation. Thus, consistent with other action sequencing behavior, there is significant phonological planning ahead in sentence production.

  7. Structure of Complex Verb Forms in Meiteilon

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    Lourembam Surjit Singh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This piece of work proposes to descriptively investigate the structures of complex verbs in Meiteilon. The categorization of such verbs is based on the nature of semantic and syntactic functions of a lexeme or verbal lexeme. A lexeme or verbal lexeme in Meiteilon may have multifunctional properties in the nature of occurrence. Such lexical items can be co-occurred together in a phrase as single functional word. Specifically, in the co-occurrences of two lexical items, the first component of lexical items has different semantic and syntactic functions in comparison to semantic and syntactic functions of the second component of lexical items. Such co-occurrences of two lexical items are the forms of complex verb that are covered with the term complex predicate in this work. The investigation in constructing complex predicate is thoroughly presenting in this work. Keywords: Structures, complex verb, conjunct verb, compound verb, complex predicate

  8. FUNCTIONAL INTERACTION OF LEXICAL AND GRAMMATICAL FACTORS IN THE ENGLISH VERB SYSTEM

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    Nina Sergeevna Kotova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of the research conducted is revealing the peculiarities of lexical paradigmatics influence upon the usage of aspect and temporal verb forms and the opposite impact as well, i.e. the influence of aspect and temporal verb forms upon the lexical meaning of this verb groups under specific conditions of functioning. The lexical paradigmatics is considered as the system of mutually contrasted semantic features of particular verb groups. In this case, we analyze the paradigmatics in the middle language hierarchy for each language level separately. Methodology. The research is conducted synchronically on the material of the contemporary English verb system. Interaction of lexical and grammatical factors in the English verb system is examined in a functional aspect. Such consideration gives a possibility to differentiate the intrasystem phenomena and phenomena of pragmatic character and expose the system-structural mutual relations of lexical and grammatical factors. The research material is the verb as massive word group. From the point of view of interaction of lexical and grammatical factors in the functional and semantic field representing aspectuality, we get interested in the meaning which realizes in the opposition ofatelicity – telicity(telicity correlates the action with the limit, and atelicity demotes the action irrespectively to its limit. The technique applied to the analysis of lexical and grammatical factors in the English verb system is complex combining descriptive and comparative and functional methods. Results. Interrelations and interdependency of lexical and grammatical paradigmatics create particular sustainability in using the lexical unit of this paradigm with aspect and temporal verb forms. In this case, the tendencies of the language sign developing and changing are expressed in the process of the mutual substitution and interpenetration of grammatical forms primarily under the influence of paradigmatic

  9. German causative events with placement verbs

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    De Knop Sabine

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have described the semantic uses of German posture verbs, but only few have dealt with German placement verbs. The present study wants to make up for this gap. Starting from a collection of examples from the core corpora of the Digitales Wörterbuch der Deutschen Sprache (DWDS and some former studies on posture verbs, it first describes the variety of the most common German placement verbs stellen (‘to put upright’, legen (‘to lay down’, setzen (‘to set’ and stecken (‘to stick’.

  10. The Effects of Verb Argument Complexity on Verb Production in Persons with Aphasia: Evidence from a Subject-Object-Verb Language

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    Sung, Jee Eun

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of verb argument complexity on verb production in individuals with aphasia using a verb-final language. The verb-argument complexity was examined by the number of arguments (1-, 2-, and 3-place) and the types of arguments (unaccusative vs. unergative comparisons). Fifteen Korean-speaking…

  11. Modelling verb selection within argument structure constructions

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    Matusevych, Yevgen; Alishahi, Afra; Backus, Albert

    2017-01-01

    This article looks into the nature of cognitive associations between verbs and argument structure constructions (ASCs). Existing research has shown that distributional and semantic factors affect speakers' choice of verbs in ASCs. A formal account of this theory has been proposed by Ellis,

  12. Toddlers' Verb Lexicon Diversity and Grammatical Outcomes

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    Hadley, Pamela A.; Rispoli, Matthew; Hsu, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The goals of this study were to quantify longitudinal expectations for verb lexicon growth and to determine whether verb lexicon measures were better predictors of later grammatical outcomes than noun lexicon measures. Method: Longitudinal parent-report measures from the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (Fenson et al.,…

  13. THE STRUCTURE OF MORPHEMES OF LITHUANIAN VERBS

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    Asta Kazlauskienė

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to establish and describe the most important phonemic patterns of Lithuanian verb morphemes. The investigation was based on a corpus of 30,000 verb types (verbs and their forms. All words in the corpus were stressed and phonetically transcribed. A computer program was developed to extract statistics out of this corpus. The results indicate that monosyllabic morphemes dominate in Lithuanian. They comprise 97%, 99%, 98%, and 97% of all verb roots, prefixes, derivational suffixes, and endings respectively. Inflectional suffixes and the reflexive affix are exclusively monosyllabic. Pronominal inflection endings are either disyllabic (97% or trisyllabic. There is a high variety of vowelconsonant patterns among verbs: the verb root is represented by 91 patterns, prefixes by 8 patterns, derivational suffixes by 18 patterns, inflectional suffixes by 7 patterns, inflectional endings by 9 patterns, endings of pronominal participles by 7 patterns, and the reflexive affix by 3 different patterns. The consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC pattern appeared to be the most frequent among verb roots (45%, the CV pattern was the most frequent among prefixes (59%, the VC pattern was the most frequent among derivational suffixes (46%, and V pattern was the most frequent among inflectional endings of Lithuanian verbs (76%. In many cases, the root of a verb contains both initial and final consonants (82%. Because of this and because of the tendency to avoid hiatus in Lithuanian, the root can be adjoined by vowel-final prefixes and vowel-initial suffixes or inflectional endings. This appears to be the case, as prefixes are mostly open (80%, and both derivational suffixes (90% and all inflectional endings begin with vowels. Inflectional suffixes do not follow this regularity. Only one-third of them start with a vowel. The hypothesis that the phonemic structure of a verb root might determine the corresponding patterns of its adjoining affixes seems

  14. Decomposability and mental representation of French verbs.

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    Estivalet, Gustavo L; Meunier, Fanny E

    2015-01-01

    In French, regardless of stem regularity, inflectional verbal suffixes are extremely regular and paradigmatic. Considering the complexity of the French verbal system, we argue that all French verbs are polymorphemic forms that are decomposed during visual recognition independently of their stem regularity. We conducted a behavioral experiment in which we manipulated the surface and cumulative frequencies of verbal inflected forms and asked participants to perform a visual lexical decision task. We tested four types of verbs with respect to their stem variants: a. fully regular (parler "to speak," [parl-]); b. phonological change e/E verbs with orthographic markers (répéter "to repeat," [répét-] and [répèt-]); c. phonological change o/O verbs without orthographic markers (adorer "to adore," [ador-] and [adOr-]); and d. idiosyncratic (boire "to drink," [boi-] and [buv-]). For each type of verb, we contrasted four conditions, forms with high and low surface frequencies and forms with high and low cumulative frequencies. Our results showed a significant cumulative frequency effect for the fully regular and idiosyncratic verbs, indicating that different stems within idiosyncratic verbs (such as [boi-] and [buv-]) have distinct representations in the mental lexicon as different fully regular verbs. For the phonological change verbs, we found a significant cumulative frequency effect only when considering the two forms of the stem together ([répét-] and [répèt-]), suggesting that they share a single abstract and under specified phonological representation. Our results also revealed a significant surface frequency effect for all types of verbs, which may reflect the recombination of the stem lexical representation with the functional information of the suffixes. Overall, these results indicate that all inflected verbal forms in French are decomposed during visual recognition and that this process could be due to the regularities of the French inflectional verbal

  15. Decomposability and mental representation of French verbs

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    Gustavo Lopez Estivalet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In French, regardless of stem regularity, inflectional verbal suffixes are extremely regular and paradigmatic. Considering the complexity of the French verbal system, we argue that all French verbs are polymorphemic forms that are decomposed during visual recognition independently of their stem regularity. We conducted a behavioural experiment in which we manipulated the surface and cumulative frequencies of verbal inflected forms and asked participants to perform a visual lexical decision task. We tested four types of verbs with respect to their stem variants: a. fully regular (parler ‘to speak’, [parl-]; b. phonological change e/E verbs with orthographic markers (répéter ‘to repeat’, [répét-] and [répèt-]; c. phonological change o/O verbs without orthographic markers (adorer ‘to adore’, [ador-] and [adOr-]; and d. idiosyncratic (boire ‘to drink’, [boi-] and [buv-]. For each type of verb, we contrasted four conditions, forms with high and low surface frequencies and forms with high and low cumulative frequencies. Our results showed a significant cumulative frequency effect for the fully regular and idiosyncratic verbs, indicating that different stems within idiosyncratic verbs (such as [boi-] and [buv-] have distinct representations in the mental lexicon as different fully regular verbs. For the phonological change verbs, we found a significant cumulative frequency effect only when considering the two forms of the stem together ([répét-] and [répèt-], suggesting that they share a single abstract and underspecified phonological representation. Our results also revealed a significant surface frequency effect for all types of verbs, which may reflect the recombination of the stem lexical representation with the functional information of the suffixes. Overall, these results indicate that all inflected verbal forms in French are decomposed during visual recognition and that this process could be due to the regularities of

  16. A STUDY IN THE ANALYSIS OF THE HINDI VERB.

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    BAHL, KALI C.

    A CONSTITUENT STRUCTURE OF HINDI WAS FORMULATED TO ACCOUNT FOR THE PHENOMENA OF COMPOUND AND CONJUNCT VERBS IN THE LANGUAGE. THE TRADITIONAL CLASS OF CONJUNCT VERBS OR THE COMPOUND VERBS, CONSISTING OF NOUN OR ADJECTIVE PLUS VERB, WAS REINTERPRETED IN THIS ANALYSIS. THE FOUR SECTIONS OF THE TEXT DEALT WITH (1) THE SUBJECT-PREDICATE KERNEL…

  17. On using verbs appropriately in academic English writing

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    Khrabrova Valentina Evgenievna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is concerned with English action verbs as key elements of academic English writing. Due to cognitive and semantic characteristics, verbs in the predicate function, by contrast with deverbative suffixal nouns and adjectives as parts of nominal predicates, convey the meaning of written message more concisely. The article is provided with verb classifications aimed at systematizing the information about verbs and developing a conscious approach to choosing verbs in the writing process. Syntactic transformation, limitation of passive voice forms, substitution of action verbs for stative verbs, adjectives and nouns entail perfecting the second language student writing skills.

  18. Visual variability affects early verb learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twomey, Katherine E; Lush, Lauren; Pearce, Ruth; Horst, Jessica S

    2014-09-01

    Research demonstrates that within-category visual variability facilitates noun learning; however, the effect of visual variability on verb learning is unknown. We habituated 24-month-old children to a novel verb paired with an animated star-shaped actor. Across multiple trials, children saw either a single action from an action category (identical actions condition, for example, travelling while repeatedly changing into a circle shape) or multiple actions from that action category (variable actions condition, for example, travelling while changing into a circle shape, then a square shape, then a triangle shape). Four test trials followed habituation. One paired the habituated verb with a new action from the habituated category (e.g., 'dacking' + pentagon shape) and one with a completely novel action (e.g., 'dacking' + leg movement). The others paired a new verb with a new same-category action (e.g., 'keefing' + pentagon shape), or a completely novel category action (e.g., 'keefing' + leg movement). Although all children discriminated novel verb/action pairs, children in the identical actions condition discriminated trials that included the completely novel verb, while children in the variable actions condition discriminated the out-of-category action. These data suggest that - as in noun learning - visual variability affects verb learning and children's ability to form action categories. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  19. Familiar Verbs Are Not Always Easier than Novel Verbs: How German Pre-School Children Comprehend Active and Passive Sentences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmar, Miriam; Abbot-Smith, Kirsten; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Many studies show a developmental advantage for transitive sentences with familiar verbs over those with novel verbs. It might be that once familiar verbs become entrenched in particular constructions, they would be more difficult to understand (than would novel verbs) in non-prototypical constructions. We provide support for this hypothesis…

  20. Compound verbs in English revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Bagasheva

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Compound verbs (CVs raise a number of puzzling questions concerning their classification, their word formation properties, their basic onomasiological function and their transitory status between “relations” and “conceptual-cores”. Using the constructionist framework in the context of a usage-based network model of language, the paper develops a proposal for the classification of CVs and an account of the semantics of word formation niches of CVs created by analogy, which yield unified semantic analyses. A hypothesis is formulated concerning the acategorial nature of CV internal constituents, which naturally accommodates the proposed classification and word formation niche analyses. A hypothesis is formulated in this context concerning the intermediary status of CVs as language-cognition interface units collapsing the “relation-conceptual core” distinction. Conclusions are drawn relating to the transitory nature of most CVs as nonce creations performing a special function in communicative interaction.

  1. Compound verbs in English revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Bagasheva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Compound verbs (CVs raise a number of puzzling questions concerning their classification, their word formation properties, their basic onomasiological function and their transitory status between “relations” and “conceptual-cores”. Using the constructionist framework in the context of a usage-based network model of language, the paper develops a proposal for the classification of CVs and an account of the semantics of word formation niches of CVs created by analogy, which yield unified semantic analyses. A hypothesis is formulated concerning the acategorial nature of CV internal constituents, which naturally accommodates the proposed classification and word formation niche analyses. A hypothesis is formulated in this context concerning the intermediary status of CVs as language-cognition interface units collapsing the “relation-conceptual core” distinction. Conclusions are drawn relating to the transitory nature of most CVs as nonce creations performing a special function in communicative interaction.

  2. Vowel quality alternation in Dinka verb derivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben

    2017-01-01

    In Dinka, a predominantly monosyllabic and highly fusional Western Nilotic language, vowel quality alternation in the root plays a major and systematic role in the morphology of verbs, together with alternations in vowel length, voice quality, and tone. Earlier work has shown that in the inflecti...... modifications. These include a different distribution of the vowel grades and interaction with a shift in voice quality, to breathy voice.......In Dinka, a predominantly monosyllabic and highly fusional Western Nilotic language, vowel quality alternation in the root plays a major and systematic role in the morphology of verbs, together with alternations in vowel length, voice quality, and tone. Earlier work has shown that in the inflection...... of simple, i. e., underived, transitive verbs, the vowel quality alternation conforms to a vowel height gradation system with three vowel grades. The present article shows that this vowel gradation system is also operative in the morphology of derived verbs with a transitive root, but with certain...

  3. Action verbs are processed differently in metaphorical and literal sentences depending on the semantic match of visual primes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa eTroyer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Language comprehension requires rapid and flexible access to information stored in long-term memory, likely influenced by activation of rich world knowledge and by brain systems that support the processing of sensorimotor content. We hypothesized that while literal language about biological motion might rely on neurocognitive representations of biological motion specific to the details of the actions described, metaphors rely on more generic representations of motion. In a priming and self-paced reading paradigm, participants saw video clips or images of (a an intact point-light walker or (b a scrambled control and read sentences containing literal or metaphoric uses of biological motion verbs either closely or distantly related to the depicted action (walking. We predicted that reading times for literal and metaphorical sentences would show differential sensitivity to the match between the verb and the visual prime. In Experiment 1, we observed interactions between the prime type (walker or scrambled video and the verb type (close or distant match for both literal and metaphorical sentences, but with strikingly different patterns. We found no difference in the verb region of literal sentences for Close-Match verbs after walker or scrambled motion primes, but Distant-Match verbs were read more quickly following walker primes. For metaphorical sentences, the results were roughly reversed, with Distant-Match verbs being read more slowly following a walker compared to scrambled motion. In Experiment 2, we observed a similar pattern following still image primes, though critical interactions emerged later in the sentence. We interpret these findings as evidence for shared recruitment of cognitive and neural mechanisms for processing visual and verbal biological motion information. Metaphoric language using biological motion verbs may recruit neurocognitive mechanisms similar to those used in processing literal language but be represented in a less

  4. The verb Hteti and the structure of auxiliary and modal verbs in Serbo-Croatian

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    Stanimir Rakić

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the distribution of enclitic forms ću, ćeš, će ... and   heverb hteti shows that they cannot be naturally reduced to each other. Thi.s mean. s that the., verb hteti is not.. an auxiliary verb at all, i. e. it does not take part in compound tenses in S.erbo-Croatian. Accord,ing to their complement.& we ha­ve distinguished two verbs hteti - hteti1 and hteti. Hteti is a modal verb, hteti a main verb. Furthermore, we have shown that there is a parallelism between 'complements "da + prezent" and "sentence" which can be best accounted for by a transforma­ tion (18, which may be called in English Subjugation of Infi­ nitive. This analysis has enabled us to present the structure of auxiliary and modal verbs by rewrite rules (34. Finally, we have shown that an alternative analysis in which all verbs are conceived as main verbs is quite feasible. In this new analysis our results are preserved in the form of an obligatory filter.

  5. Scope and semimodal verbs: two approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richter, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I focus on scope phenomena connected with semimodal (and modal verbs and mainly on the syntactic behaviour of these groups of verbs. One important question is: why can semimodal verbs (and modal verbs in epistemic use not have perfect and future tense forms? Taking among other things Reichenbach’s tense system as a starting point I try to point out that the interpretation of a semimodal or a modal in epistemic use is problematic 1. if there is more than one reference time/if the reference time is indefinite or 2. if the verb in question stands together with an auxiliary of future which has a certain modal meaning itself. The comparison of the treatment of these phenomena in the framework of the Semantic Syntax with a non transformational approach (fragment of a categorial grammar shows, that some important transformational rules and principles easily and economically can be represented in a non transformational grammar. The transformational approach needs rules like RAISING and LOWERING (or at least one of the two, and in addition to this a rather extended set of rules for the generation of sentences, while in the categorial system we need only two reduction laws. It has to be investigated whether and to what extent the formation and transformation rules in a transformational grammar on the one hand and the dominance / linear precedence rules together with the lexical entries on the other hand are equivalent.

  6. The ultimate phrasal verb book for ESL and EFL students

    CERN Document Server

    Hart, Carl W

    2017-01-01

    Presents 400 common phrasal verbs as they are used in everyday English. Updated information includes the most commonly used phrasal verbs, hundreds of examples in context and hundreds of exercises to increase fluency and prep for the TOEFL, and more.

  7. A Translation Dictionary of Phrasal Verbs: An Ongoing Project ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Translation Dictionary of Phrasal Verbs: An Ongoing Project. ... Abstract. The paper centres on a plan for an English-Arabic phrasal verb dictionary for Arab trainee translators. Such a dictionary ... AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE ...

  8. Serialising languages: Satellite-framed, verb-framed or neither ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diversity in the coding of the core schema of motion, i.e., Path, has led to a traditional typology of languages into verb-framed and satellite-framed languages. In the former Path is encoded in verbs and in the latter it is encoded in non-verb elements that function as sisters to co-event expressing verbs such as manner ...

  9. Universal Annotation of Slavic Verb Forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeman Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes application of a subset of the Universal Dependencies (UD standard to the group of Slavic languages. The subset in question comprises morphosyntactic features of various verb forms. We systematically document the inventory of features observable with Slavic verbs, giving numerous examples from 10 languages. We demonstrate that terminology in literature may differ, yet the substance remains the same. Our goal is practical. We definitely do not intend to overturn the many decades of research in Slavic comparative linguistics. Instead, we want to put the properties of Slavic verbs in the context of UD, and to propose a unified (Slavic-wide application of UD features and values to them. We believe that our proposal is a compromise that could be accepted by corpus linguists working on all Slavic languages.

  10. Early Verb Constructions in French: Adjacency on the Left Edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneziano, Edy; Clark, Eve V.

    2016-01-01

    Children acquiring French elaborate their early verb constructions by adding adjacent morphemes incrementally at the left edge of core verbs. This hypothesis was tested with 2657 verb uses from four children between 1;3 and 2;7. Consistent with the Adjacency Hypothesis, children added clitic subjects frst only to present tense forms (as in…

  11. English Verb Accuracy of Bilingual Cantonese-English Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezzonico, Stefano; Goldberg, Ahuva; Milburn, Trelani; Belletti, Adriana; Girolametto, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Knowledge of verb development in typically developing bilingual preschoolers may inform clinicians about verb accuracy rates during the 1st 2 years of English instruction. This study aimed to investigate tensed verb accuracy in 2 assessment contexts in 4- and 5-year-old Cantonese-English bilingual preschoolers. Method: The sample included…

  12. Verb and auxiliary movement in agrammatic Broca's aphasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaanse, Y.R.M.; Thompson, C.K.

    Verb production in agrammatic Broca's aphasia has repeatedly been shown to be impaired by a number of investigators. Not only is the number of verbs produced often significantly reduced, but verb inflections and auxiliaries are often omitted as well (e.g., Bastiaanse, Jonkers, & Moltmaker-Osinga,

  13. Learning to categorize verbs and nouns : studies on Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkelens, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Verbs and nouns are elementary notions in linguistics, so the question how children learn to categorize verbs and nouns in their first language is an intriguing one. Children not only have to learn to identify verbs and nouns as belonging to different categories based on perception, they also have

  14. Syntactic flexibility and planning scope: The effect of verb bias on advance planning during sentence recall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maartje evan de Velde

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In sentence production, grammatical advance planning scope depends on contextual factors (e.g., time pressure, linguistic factors (e.g., ease of structural processing, and cognitive factors (e.g., production speed. The present study tests the influence of the availability of multiple syntactic alternatives (i.e., syntactic flexibility on the scope of advance planning during the recall of Dutch dative phrases. We manipulated syntactic flexibility by using verbs with a strong bias or a weak bias towards one structural alternative in sentence frames accepting both verbs (e.g., strong/weak bias: De ober schotelt/serveert de klant de maaltijd [voor] 'The waiter dishes out/serves the customer the meal'. To assess lexical planning scope, we varied the frequency of the first post-verbal noun (N1, Experiment 1 or the second post-verbal noun (N2, Experiment 2. In each experiment, 36 speakers produced the verb phrases in a Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP paradigm. On each trial, they read a sentence presented one word at a time, performed a short distractor task, and then saw a sentence preamble (e.g., De ober… which they had to complete to form the presented sentence. Onset latencies were compared using linear mixed effects models. N1 frequency did not produce any effects. N2 frequency only affected sentence onsets in the weak verb bias condition and especially in slow speakers. These findings highlight the dependency of planning scope during sentence recall on the grammatical properties of the verb and the frequency of post-verbal nouns. Implications for utterance planning in everyday speech are discussed.

  15. Why Are Verbs so Hard to Remember? Effects of Semantic Context on Memory for Verbs and Nouns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earles, Julie L.; Kersten, Alan W.

    2017-01-01

    Three experiments test the theory that verb meanings are more malleable than noun meanings in different semantic contexts, making a previously seen verb difficult to remember when it appears in a new semantic context. Experiment 1 revealed that changing the direct object noun in a transitive sentence reduced recognition of a previously seen verb,…

  16. Analysing English particle verbs: synchrony and diachrony

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elenbaas, M.B.

    2004-01-01

    English has a very productive construction in which a verb is combined with a particle. (1) a. The cleaner knocked (down) the vase (down). b. The police locked (up) the criminal (up). c. The Formula 1 race-driver wrote (off) his car (off). (write off = damage beyond repair) The challenge of

  17. Consonant Alternations in Changing Verb Forms in Modern Russian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Alekseevna Gracheva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to consonant alternations in the verbal final basis that is associated with the processes of verbal form changes. It presents some results of the verbal form analysis that are being conjugated as types 4-8. The source of the material was "Grammatical dictionary of the Russian language" by A.A. Zaliznyak. It is proved that the alternation in verbal forms of modern Russian depends on the character of language levels coordination thus performing the following functions: grammar meaning intensification, lexical homonyms differentiation, and grammar form identification including. The novelty of the data presented in the article consists in defining the principle statement that there exists some variations in the balance between regularity and predictiveness of consonant alternations in verbal forms: the alternation is more predictable if the number of grammema clusters in a paradigm that they mark is lower (type 4 with inflection -ить; on the contrary, the less predictable the alternations are, the bigger grammema clusters in the paradigm are, (i.e. when used for intensifying type 6 (with inflection -ать. The comparison of verbal forms with and without alternations resulted in the following conclusion: an infinitive form of a verb will predict with greater certainly types of alternations in the final basis and point to a definite kind of morphological meaning. The regularities revealed might be used in a descriptive morphology of modern Russian and in practice of teaching Russian as a foreign language.

  18. The behavioural patterns and neural correlates of concrete and abstract verb processing in aphasia: A novel verb semantic battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reem S.W. Alyahya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Typically, processing is more accurate and efficient for concrete than abstract concepts in both healthy adults and individuals with aphasia. While, concreteness effects have been thoroughly documented with respect to noun processing, other words classes have received little attention despite tending to be less concrete than nouns. The aim of the current study was to explore concrete-abstract differences in verbs and identify their neural correlates in post-stroke aphasia. Given the dearth of comprehension tests for verbs, a battery of neuropsychological tests was developed in this study to assess the comprehension of concrete and abstract verbs. Specifically, a sensitive verb synonym judgment test was generated that varied both the items' imageability and frequency, and a picture-to-word matching test with numerous concrete verbs. Normative data were then collected and the tests were administered to a cohort of 48 individuals with chronic post-stroke aphasia to explore the behavioural patterns and neural correlates of verb processing. The results revealed significantly better comprehension of concrete than abstract verbs, aligning with the existing aphasiological literature on noun processing. In addition, the patients performed better during verb comprehension than verb production. Lesion-symptom correlational analyses revealed common areas that support processing of concrete and abstract verbs, including the left anterior temporal lobe, posterior supramarginal gyrus and superior lateral occipital cortex. A direct contrast between them revealed additional regions with graded differences. Specifically, the left frontal regions were associated with processing abstract verbs; whereas, the left posterior temporal and occipital regions were associated with processing concrete verbs. Moreover, overlapping and distinct neural correlates were identified in association with the comprehension and production of concrete verbs. These patient findings

  19. The behavioural patterns and neural correlates of concrete and abstract verb processing in aphasia: A novel verb semantic battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyahya, Reem S W; Halai, Ajay D; Conroy, Paul; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A

    2018-01-01

    Typically, processing is more accurate and efficient for concrete than abstract concepts in both healthy adults and individuals with aphasia. While, concreteness effects have been thoroughly documented with respect to noun processing, other words classes have received little attention despite tending to be less concrete than nouns. The aim of the current study was to explore concrete-abstract differences in verbs and identify their neural correlates in post-stroke aphasia. Given the dearth of comprehension tests for verbs, a battery of neuropsychological tests was developed in this study to assess the comprehension of concrete and abstract verbs. Specifically, a sensitive verb synonym judgment test was generated that varied both the items' imageability and frequency, and a picture-to-word matching test with numerous concrete verbs. Normative data were then collected and the tests were administered to a cohort of 48 individuals with chronic post-stroke aphasia to explore the behavioural patterns and neural correlates of verb processing. The results revealed significantly better comprehension of concrete than abstract verbs, aligning with the existing aphasiological literature on noun processing. In addition, the patients performed better during verb comprehension than verb production. Lesion-symptom correlational analyses revealed common areas that support processing of concrete and abstract verbs, including the left anterior temporal lobe, posterior supramarginal gyrus and superior lateral occipital cortex. A direct contrast between them revealed additional regions with graded differences. Specifically, the left frontal regions were associated with processing abstract verbs; whereas, the left posterior temporal and occipital regions were associated with processing concrete verbs. Moreover, overlapping and distinct neural correlates were identified in association with the comprehension and production of concrete verbs. These patient findings align with data from

  20. Psycholinguistic measures for German verb pairs: Semantic transparency, semantic relatedness, verb family size, and age of reading acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolka, Eva; Eulitz, Carsten

    2018-06-18

    A central issue in visual and spoken word recognition is the lexical representation of complex words-in particular, whether the lexical representation of complex words depends on semantic transparency: Is a complex verb like understand lexically represented as a whole word or via its base stand, given that its meaning is not transparent from the meanings of its parts? To study this issue, a number of stimulus characteristics are of interest that are not yet available in public databases of German. This article provides semantic association ratings, lexical paraphrases, and vector-based similarity measures for German verbs, measuring (a) the semantic transparency between 1,259 complex verbs and their bases, (b) the semantic relatedness between 1,109 verb pairs with 432 different bases, and (c) the vector-based similarity measures of 846 verb pairs. Additionally, we include the verb regularity of all verbs and two counts of verb family size for 184 base verbs, as well as estimates of age of acquisition and age of reading for 200 verbs. Together with lemma and type frequencies from public lexical databases, all measures can be downloaded along with this article. Statistical analyses indicate that verb family size, morphological complexity, frequency, and verb regularity affect the semantic transparency and relatedness ratings as well as the age of acquisition estimates, indicating that these are relevant variables in psycholinguistic experiments. Although lexical paraphrases, vector-based similarity measures, and semantic association ratings may deliver complementary information, the interrater reliability of the semantic association ratings for each verb pair provides valuable information when selecting stimuli for psycholinguistic experiments.

  1. Remarks on Causative Verbs and Object Deletion in English

    OpenAIRE

    Onozuka, Hiromi

    2007-01-01

    Rappaport Hovav and Levin (1998) contend that result verbs disallow object deletion becauseof their lexical semantic properties. Their point is that the distinction between result verbs andmanner verbs with their different event structure representation constitutes the important factorwhich dictates the possibility of the variation of argument realization, of which object deletionrepresents one instance. Responding to their claim, Goldberg (2001) presents the evidencewhich mainly concerns the...

  2. Live Action: Can Young Children Learn Verbs From Video?

    OpenAIRE

    Roseberry, Sarah; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Parish-Morris, Julia; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick

    2009-01-01

    The availability of educational programming aimed at infants and toddlers is increasing, yet the effect of video on language acquisition remains unclear. Three studies of 96 children aged 30–42 months investigated their ability to learn verbs from video. Study 1 asked whether children could learn verbs from video when supported by live social interaction. Study 2 tested whether children could learn verbs from video alone. Study 3 clarified whether the benefits of social interaction remained w...

  3. Presentation of the verbs in Bulgarian-Polish electronic dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Dimitrova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Presentation of the verbs in Bulgarian-Polish electronic dictionary This paper briefly discusses the presentation of the verbs in the first electronic Bulgarian-Polish dictionary that is currently being developed under a bilateral collaboration between IMI-BAS and ISS-PAS. Special attention is given to the digital entry classifiers that describe Bulgarian and Polish verbs. Problems related to the correspondence between natural language phenomena and their presentations are discussed. Some examples illustrate the different types of dictionary entries for verbs.

  4. Simultaneous Processing of Noun Cue and to-be-Produced Verb in Verb Generation Task: Electromagnetic Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna V. Butorina

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A long-standing but implicit assumption is that words strongly associated with a presented cue are automatically activated in the memory through rapid spread of activation within brain semantic networks. The current study was aimed to provide direct evidence of such rapid access to words’ semantic representations and to investigate its neural sources using magnetoencephalography (MEG and distributed source localization technique. Thirty-three neurotypical subjects underwent the MEG recording during verb generation task, which was to produce verbs related to the presented noun cues. Brain responses evoked by the noun cues were examined while manipulating the strength of association between the noun and the potential verb responses. The strong vs. weak noun-verb association led to a greater noun-related neural response at 250–400 ms after cue onset, and faster verb production. The cortical sources of the differential response were localized in left temporal pole, previously implicated in semantic access, and left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC, thought to subserve controlled semantic retrieval. The strength of the left VLPFC’s response to the nouns with strong verb associates was positively correlated to the speed of verbs production. Our findings empirically validate the theoretical expectation that in case of a strongly connected noun-verb pair, successful access to target verb representation may occur already at the stage of lexico-semantic analysis of the presented noun. Moreover, the MEG results suggest that contrary to the previous conclusion derived from fMRI studies left VLPFC supports selection of the target verb representations, even if they were retrieved from semantic memory rapidly and effortlessly. The discordance between MEG and fMRI findings in verb generation task may stem from different modes of neural activation captured by phase-locked activity in MEG and slow changes of blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD signal

  5. A Double-Verb Construction in Mbya Guarani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, Robert A.

    The double-verb construction in Mbya Guarani is described. In this construction, the second verb (V2) has a distinctive morphology. It is concluded that the construction, examined from several viewpoints (lexico-semantic, phonological, morphological, and syntactic) is a phrase in which V2 functions as a modifier of V1, and that is different from…

  6. Cerebellum engages in automation of verb-generation skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhi; Wu, Paula; Weng, Xuchu; Bandettini, Peter A

    2014-03-01

    Numerous studies have shown cerebellar involvement in item-specific association, a form of explicit learning. However, very few have demonstrated cerebellar participation in automation of non-motor cognitive tasks. Applying fMRI to a repeated verb-generation task, we sought to distinguish cerebellar involvement in learning of item-specific noun-verb association and automation of verb generation skill. The same set of nouns was repeated in six verb-generation blocks so that subjects practiced generating verbs for the nouns. The practice was followed by a novel block with a different set of nouns. The cerebellar vermis (IV/V) and the right cerebellar lobule VI showed decreased activation following practice; activation in the right cerebellar Crus I was significantly lower in the novel challenge than in the initial verb-generation task. Furthermore, activation in this region during well-practiced blocks strongly correlated with improvement of behavioral performance in both the well-practiced and the novel blocks, suggesting its role in the learning of general mental skills not specific to the practiced noun-verb pairs. Therefore, the cerebellum processes both explicit verbal associative learning and automation of cognitive tasks. Different cerebellar regions predominate in this processing: lobule VI during the acquisition of item-specific association, and Crus I during automation of verb-generation skills through practice.

  7. Testing controlled productive knowledge of adverb-verb collocations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study also reveals that controlled productive knowledge of adverbverb collocations is less problematic. Based on these results, teaching strategies aimed at improving the use of adverb-verb collocations among EFL users are proposed. Keywords: academic writing, adverb-verb collocations, productive knowledge of ...

  8. Verb production and word order in Russian agrammatic speakers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dragoy, Olga; Bastiaanse, Roelien

    2010-01-01

    Background: Verb production has been shown to be impaired in individuals with agrammatic Broca's aphasia. Several theories have linked this deficit to problems with the implementation of grammatical information that the verb contains. In particular, the number and type of arguments associated with a

  9. Exploring Atypical Verb+Noun Combinations in Learner Technical Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzon Marco, Maria Jose

    2011-01-01

    Professional and academic discourse is characterised by a specific phraseology, which usually poses problems for students. This paper investigates atypical verb+noun collocations in a corpus of English technical writing of Spanish students. I focus on the type of verbs that most frequently occurred in these awkward or questionable combinations and…

  10. Noun-Verb Ambiguity in Chronic Undifferentiated Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, Robert; Bekker, Natalie

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated noun-verb retrieval patterns of 30 adults with chronic undifferentiated schizophrenia and 67 typical adults, to determine if schizophrenia affected nouns (associated with temporal lobe function) differently from verbs (associated with frontal lobe function). Stimuli were homophonic homographic homonyms, balanced according…

  11. Verbs and Attention to Relational Roles in English and Tamil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethuraman, Nitya; Smith, Linda B.

    2013-01-01

    English-learning children have been shown to reliably use cues from argument structure in learning verbs. However, languages pair overtly expressed arguments with verbs to varying extents, raising the question of whether children learning all languages expect the same, universal mapping between arguments and relational roles. Three experiments…

  12. Remarks on Causative Verbs and Object Deletion in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onozuka, Hiromi

    2007-01-01

    Rappaport Hovav and Levin [Rappaport Hovav, M., Levin, B., 1998. "Building verb meanings." In: Butt, M., Geuder, W. (Eds.), "The Projection of Arguments: Lexical and Compositional Factors." CSLI Publications, Stanford, pp. 97-134] contend that result verbs disallow object deletion because of their lexical semantic properties. Their point is that…

  13. Learning to Construct Verbs in Navajo and Quechua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Ellen H.; Saville-Troike, Muriel

    2002-01-01

    Navajo and Quechua, both languages with a highly complex morphology, provide intriguing insights into the acquisition of inflectional systems. The development of the verb in the two languages is especially interesting, since the morphology encodes diverse grammatical notions, with the complex verb often constituting the entire sentence. While the…

  14. On the Formation of Verb Compounds in Early Middle Japanese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenchao LI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is dedicated to the formation of verb compounds in Early Middle Japanese, a stage of the Japanese language used in the Heian Period (794–1185. The findings reveal that current verb compounds have come a long way from Old Japanese. Multiple verbs in Old Japanese are assigned to an associate type, rather than a compounding type of relation. Thus, the serial constituents receive equal syntactic weight, giving rise to the extensive use of the coordinate type and succession type of multi-verbs. In Early Middle Japanese, the combinations of the two constituents seem much tighter, giving rise the frequent use of the modifier-predicate V-V. The conclusion emerging from this study is that it was not until Early Middle Japanese that verb compounds in the strict sense appeared. Moreover, two types of verb weakening are observed in Early Middle Japanese: (a transformation of the first verb into a prefix, (b grammaticalization of the second verb into a directional/resultative complement.

  15. Live Action: Can Young Children Learn Verbs from Video?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseberry, Sarah; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Parish-Morris, Julia; Golinkoff, Roberta M.

    2009-01-01

    The availability of educational programming aimed at infants and toddlers is increasing, yet the effect of video on language acquisition remains unclear. Three studies of 96 children aged 30-42 months investigated their ability to learn verbs from video. Study 1 asked whether children could learn verbs from video when supported by live social…

  16. Regularisation of irregular verbs in child English second language ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data was collected from the language of English medium preschool children. The study concludes that when the Blocking Principle interferes, children resort to a novel interlanguage rule that regularises irregular verbs. This interlanguage rule applies in a similar way to all irregular verbs, thus children produce utterances ...

  17. Training verb and sentence production in agrammatic Broca's aphasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Links, Petra; Hurkmans, Joost; Bastiaanse, Roelien

    2010-01-01

    Background: Many aphasic speakers have problems producing verbs at both the word and the sentence level. A treatment programme called ACTION (Bastiaanse, Bunge, Perk, 2004; Bastiaanse, Jonkers, Quak, Varela Put, 1997) has been developed to train verb production of both fluent and non-fluent aphasic

  18. Parallelism Effects and Verb Activation: The Sustained Reactivation Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Sarah M.; Shapiro, Lewis P.; Love, Tracy

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the processes underlying parallelism by evaluating the activation of a parallel element (i.e., a verb) throughout "and"-coordinated sentences. Four points were tested: (1) approximately 1,600ms after the verb in the first conjunct (PP1), (2) immediately following the conjunction (PP2), (3) approximately 1,100ms after the…

  19. Spanish Verbs Visualization: A study and scalable experimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana García Serrano

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it is presented a study on verbs in Spanish and it’s potential to display images from the Wikipedia (Wikimedia. It is designed and developed an Information Retrieval model based on linguistic structures of verbs and an environment that allows all subsequent scaling Spanish verbs. Adesse and EuroWordNet are the linguistic resources selected to bring the theoretical basis of the work. In the absence of an adequate corpus with relevant judgments to the problem, it has been recorded by the second author a subset of visual verbs sufficiently representative and enable to further work on this issue. Finally conclusions about visual verbs as well as the obtained results are provided

  20. Object attraction effects during subject-verb agreement in Persian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiz, Aazam; Cowles, Wind

    2018-04-01

    Subject-verb agreement provides insight into how grammatical and semantic features interact during sentence production, and prior studies have found attraction errors when an intervening local noun is grammatically part of the subject. Two major types of theories have emerged from these studies: control based and competition-based. The current study used an subject-object-verb language with optional subject-verb agreement, Persian, to test the competition-based hypothesis that intervening object nouns may also cause attraction effects, even though objects are not part of the syntactic relationship between the subject and verb. Our results, which did not require speakers to make grammatical errors, show that objects can be attractors for agreement, but this effect appears to be dependent on the type of plural marker on the object. These results support competition-based theories of agreement production, in which agreement may be influenced by attractors that are outside the scope of the subject-verb relationship.

  1. Verb Placement in Second Language Acquisition: Experimental Evidence for the Different Behavior of Auxiliary and Lexical Verbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, Josje

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the acquisition of verb placement by Moroccan and Turkish second language (L2) learners of Dutch. Elicited production data corroborate earlier findings from L2 German that learners who do not produce auxiliaries do not raise lexical verbs over negation, whereas learners who produce auxiliaries do. Data from elicited…

  2. Revisiting verbs of emission: an update on some relevant theoretical accounts of lexical specification and argument structure of emission verbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasa Milivojevic

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the question of what semantic properties lexicalized in verbs determine their syntactic behavior in intransitive motion events and in resultative constructions in English and Serbian. Special attention is devoted to English and Serbian verbs of emission (specifically verbs of sound emission and partly also verbs of light, smell and substance emission regarding their potential to surface as main verbs in these constructions and to combine with directional phrases within specific morphosyntactic templates (unaccusatives and unergatives. The presented research promotes a theoretical view according to which the established syntactic patterns can be applied across the whole class of verbs of emission to express a full er range of atypical verb meanings in motion events. Theoretical conclusions of the research are also relevant for a wider theoretical description of motion events and resultatives in a cross - linguistic perspective. The paper puts forth additional implica tions regarding the projectionalist approach to semantic verb classes against the theoretical framework of Beth Levin (1993. Finally, the paper considers the relevant points of structurally realized similarities via relevant constructional templates in En glish and in Serbian, as well as some important points of morphosyntactic divergence between the two languages. The conclusions presented aim at a more comprehensive contrastive language typology based on language “framing” parameters.

  3. The passive of reflexive verbs in Icelandic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hlíf Árnadóttir

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Reflexive Passive in Icelandic is reminiscent of the so-called New Passive (or New Impersonal in that the oblique case of a passivized object NP is preserved. As is shown by recent surveys, however, speakers who accept the Reflexive Passive do not necessarily accept the New Passive, whereas conversely, speakers who accept the New Passive do also accept the Reflexive Passive. Based on these results we suggest that there is a hierarchy in the acceptance of passive sentences in Icelandic, termed the Passive Acceptability Hierarchy. The validity of this hierarchy is confirmed by our diachronic corpus study of open access digital library texts from Icelandic journals and newspapers dating from the 19th and 20th centuries (tímarit.is. Finally, we sketch an analysis of the Reflexive Passive, proposing that the different acceptability rates of the Reflexive and New Passives lie in the argument status of the object. Simplex reflexive pronouns are semantically dependent on the verbs which select them, and should therefore be analyzed as syntactic arguments only, and not as semantic arguments of these verbs.

  4. The training of verb production in Broca's aphasia : A multiple-baseline across-behaviours study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaanse, R; Hurkmans, J; Links, P

    2006-01-01

    Background: Verb production is often impaired in Broca's aphasia: Action naming is more affected than object naming and in spontaneous speech the number and/or diversity of lexical verbs is low. Because verbs play a pivotal role in the sentence, these verb problems have a serious impact on the

  5. Left-right compatibility in the processing of trading verbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicario, Carmelo M; Rumiati, Raffaella I

    2014-01-01

    The research investigating the nature of cognitive processes involved in the representation of economical outcomes is growing. Within this research, the mental accounting model proposes that individuals may well use cognitive operations to organize, evaluate, and keep track of their financial activities (Thaler, 1999). Here we wanted to test this hypothesis by asking to a group of participants to detect a syntax mistake of verbs indicating incoming and going out activities related to economical profit (trading verbs), swapping (swapping verbs) and thinking (thinking verbs). We reported a left-right compatibility for trading verbs (i.e., participants were faster with their right hand while detecting verb referring to a monetary gain with respect to a monetary loss; and faster with their left hand while detecting a monetary loss with respect to a monetary gain). However, this pattern of result was not reported while detecting swapping verbs. Results are discussed taking into account the mental accounting theory as well as to the spatial mapping of valence hypothesis.

  6. Left-right compatibility in the processing of trading verbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Mario Vicario

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The research investigating the nature of cognitive processes involved in the representation of economical outcomes is growing. Within this research, the mental accounting model proposes that individuals may well use cognitive operations to organize, evaluate, and keep track of their financial activities (Thaler, 1999. Here we wanted to test this hypothesis by asking to a group of participants to detect a syntax mistake of verbs indicating incoming and going out activities related to economical profit (trading verbs, swapping (swapping verbs and thinking (thinking verbs. We reported a left-right compatibility for trading verbs (i.e. participants were faster with their right hand while detecting verb referring to a monetary gain with respect to a monetary loss; and faster with their left hand while detecting a monetary loss with respect to a monetary gain. However, this pattern of result was not reported while detecting swapping verbs. Results are discussed taking into account the mental accounting theory as well as to the spatial mapping of valence hypothesis.

  7. Psych verbs, the Linking Problem, and the Acquisition of Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartshorne, Joshua K.; O'Donnell, Timothy J.; Sudo, Yasutada; Uruwashi, Miki; Lee, Miseon; Snedeker, Jesse

    2016-01-01

    In acquiring language, children must learn to appropriately place the different participants of an event (e.g., causal agent, affected entity) into the correct syntactic positions (e.g., subject, object) so that listeners will know who did what to whom. While many of these mappings can be characterized by broad generalizations, both within and across languages (e.g., semantic agents tend to be mapped onto syntactic subjects), not all verbs fit neatly into these generalizations. One particularly striking example is verbs of psychological state: The experiencer of the state can appear as either the subject (Agnes fears/hates/loves Bartholomew) or the direct object (Agnes frightens/angers/delights Bartholomew). The present studies explore whether this apparent variability in subject/object mapping may actually result from differences in these verbs’ underlying meanings. Specifically, we suggest that verbs like fear describe a habitual attitude towards some entity whereas verbs like frighten describe an externally caused emotional episode. We find that this distinction systematically characterizes verbs in English, Mandarin, and Korean. This pattern is generalized to novel verbs by adults in English, Japanese, and Russian, and even by English-speaking children who are just beginning to acquire psych verbs. This results support a broad role for systematic mappings between semantics and syntax in language acquisition. PMID:27693942

  8. Verbs in the lexicon: Why is hitting easier than breaking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKoon, Gail; Love, Jessica

    2011-11-01

    Adult speakers use verbs in syntactically appropriate ways. For example, they know implicitly that the boy hit at the fence is acceptable but the boy broke at the fence is not. We suggest that this knowledge is lexically encoded in semantic decompositions. The decomposition for break verbs (e.g. crack, smash) is hypothesized to be more complex than that for hit verbs (e.g. kick, kiss). Specifically, the decomposition of a break verb denotes that "an entity changes state as the result of some external force" whereas the decomposition for a hit verb denotes only that "an entity potentially comes in contact with another entity." In this article, verbs of the two types were compared in a lexical decision experiment - Experiment 1 - and they were compared in sentence comprehension experiments with transitive sentences (e.g. the car hit the bicycle and the car broke the bicycle) - Experiments 2 and 3. In Experiment 1, processing times were shorter for the hit than the break verbs and in Experiments 2 and 3, processing times were shorter for the hit sentences than the break sentences, results that are in accord with the complexities of the postulated semantic decompositions.

  9. Correlation of the verb transitivity with other grammatical categories

    OpenAIRE

    LIUBCHENKO TATIANA VIKTOROVNA

    2016-01-01

    The correlation of the verb transitivity with other categories, including voice and aspect is specified in investigation. The article also deals with interpretation of categories “voice” and “diathesis” in linguistics.

  10. The English Primary Auxiliary Verbs: A Linguistic Theoretical Exercise

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    Abstract. Obviously, the fact remains that English Language is a sensitive Language ... Even though the English auxiliary verbs are of two kinds: Primary and Modal auxiliary ..... Therefore we are of the opinion that most speakers lack adequate.

  11. serialising languages: satellite-framed, verb-framed or neither

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    George Saad

    Figure 2: Verb-framed construction type (Slobin 2000: 109). 2 ... 2 An anonymous reviewer asks why we have replaced Talmy's conflation term “Ground” with ..... an S-language may predispose speakers to pay more linguistic attention to.

  12. Verbs and attention to relational roles in English and Tamil*

    Science.gov (United States)

    SETHURAMAN, NITYA; SMITH, LINDA B.

    2013-01-01

    English-learning children have been shown to reliably use cues from argument structure in learning verbs. However, languages pair overtly expressed arguments with verbs to varying extents, raising the question of whether children learning all languages expect the same, universal mapping between arguments and relational roles. Three experiments examined this question by asking how strongly early-learned verbs by themselves, without their corresponding explicitly expressed arguments, point to ‘conceptual arguments’ – the relational roles in a scene. Children aged two to four years and adult speakers of two languages that differ structurally in terms of whether the arguments of a verb are explicitly expressed more (English) or less (Tamil) frequently were compared in their mapping of verbs, presented without any overtly expressed arguments, to a range of scenes. The results suggest different developmental trajectories for language learners, as well as different patterns of adult interpretation, and offer new ways of thinking about the nature of verbs cross-linguistically. PMID:22289295

  13. Training verb argument structure production in agrammatic aphasia: Behavioral and neural recovery patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Cynthia K.; Riley, Ellyn A.; den Ouden, Dirk-Bart; Meltzer-Asscher, Aya; Lukic, Sladjana

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Neuroimaging and lesion studies indicate a left hemisphere network for verb and verb argument structure processing, involving both frontal and temporoparietal brain regions. Although their verb comprehension is generally unimpaired, it is well known that individuals with agrammatic aphasia often present with verb production deficits, characterized by an argument structure complexity hierarchy, indicating faulty access to argument structure representations for production and integration into syntactic contexts. Recovery of verb processing in agrammatism, however, has received little attention and no studies have examined the neural mechanisms associated with improved verb and argument structure processing. In the present study we trained agrammatic individuals on verbs with complex argument structure in sentence contexts and examined generalization to verbs with less complex argument structure. The neural substrates of improved verb production were examined using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Methods Eight individuals with chronic agrammatic aphasia participated in the study (four experimental and four control participants). Production of three-argument verbs in active sentences was trained using a sentence generation task emphasizing the verb’s argument structure and the thematic roles of sentential noun phrases. Before and after training, production of trained and untrained verbs was tested in naming and sentence production and fMRI scans were obtained, using an action naming task. Results Significant pre- to post-training improvement in trained and untrained (one- and two-argument) verbs was found for treated, but not control, participants, with between-group differences found for verb naming, production of verbs in sentences, and production of argument structure. fMRI activation derived from post-treatment compared to pre-treatment scans revealed upregulation in cortical regions implicated for verb and argument structure processing

  14. Membrane paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.H.; Thorne, K.S.

    1986-01-01

    The membrane paradigm is a modified frozen star approach to modeling black holes, with particles and fields assuming a complex, static, boundary-layer type structure (membrane) near the event horizon. The membrane has no effects on the present or future evolution of particles and fields above itself. The mathematical representation is a combination of a formalism containing terms for the shear and bulk viscosity, surface pressure, momentum, temperature, entropy, etc., of the horizon and the 3+1 formalism. The latter model considers a family of three-dimensional spacelike hypersurfaces in one-dimensional time. The membrane model considers a magnetic field threading the hole and undergoing torque from the hole rotation. The field is cleaned by the horizon and distributed over the horizon so that ohmic dissipation is minimized. The membrane paradigm is invalid inside the horizon, but is useful for theoretically probing the properties of slowly evolving black holes

  15. Semantic, phonologic, and verb fluency in Huntington's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Jardim Azambuja

    Full Text Available Abstract Verbal fluency tasks have been identified as important indicators of executive functioning impairment in patients with frontal lobe dysfunction. Although the usual evaluation of this ability considers phonologic and semantic criteria, there is some evidence that fluency of verbs would be more sensitive in disclosing frontostriatal physiopathology since frontal regions primarily mediate retrieval of verbs. Huntington's disease usually affects these circuitries. Objective: To compare three types of verbal fluency task in the assessment of frontal-striatal dysfunction in HD subjects. Methods: We studied 26 Huntington's disease subjects, divided into two subgroups: mild (11 and moderate (15 along with 26 normal volunteers matched for age, gender and schooling, for three types of verbal fluency: phonologic fluency (F-A-S, semantic fluency and fluency of verbs. Results: Huntington's disease subjects showed a significant reduction in the number of words correctly generated in the three tasks when compared to the normal group. Both controls and Huntington's disease subjects showed a similar pattern of decreasing task performance with the greatest number of words being generated by semantic elicitation followed by verbs and lastly phonologic criteria. We did not find greater production of verbs compared with F-A-S and semantic conditions. Moreover, the fluency of verbs distinguished only the moderate group from controls. Conclusion: Our results indicated that phonologic and semantic fluency can be used to evaluate executive functioning, proving more sensitive than verb fluency. However, it is important to point out that the diverse presentations of Huntington's disease means that an extended sample is necessary for more consistent analysis of this issue.

  16. MIDA TEEB TEGEMA-VERB HOIDJAKEELES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reili Argus

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Esimese keele omandamist mõjutab lapsele suunatud keel ehk hoidjakeel, mis pakub lapsele loomuliku keele sellise statistilise struktuuri, kus tõuseb esile mingi keelesüsteemiosa kõige sagedasem, üldisem, prototüüpsem, kesksem ning kõige lihtsam element. Hoidjakeeles esineb teistest verbidest sagedamini verbi tegema. Selle verbi ühendite hulk ja laad muutub lapse kasvades. Üldjoontes võib tegema-verbi tugiverbi konstruktsioonid lapsele suunatud kõnes jaotada kolme suuremasse rühma: kõige enam esineb selliseid ühendeid, kus tegema verbiga esineb koos mõni onomatopoeetiline sõna; tegema-verbi ja adverbi või adjektiivi ühendeid, millega rõhutatakse teelisust,leidub mõnevõrra vähem ning umbes neljandiku moodustavad tegema-verbi ja noomeni ühendid. Püsiühendite ja rutiniseerunud mallide suur hulk (moodustavad lapsele suunatud kõnes tegema-verbi konstruktsioonidest peaaegu poole annab alust oletada, et lapsega kõneleja eelistab kasutada n-ö valmis kujul keeletükke. Kuigi tegema-verbil on oma roll nii leksika kui ka süntaksi omandamises, ilmneb tema olulisus kõige selgemalt vormimoodustuse omandamise kontekstis: just sellest verbist esineb lapsele suunatud kõnes kõige enam eri vorme ning just see on üks kahest varakult omandatud vormimoodustusega verbe ka lapse kõnes.

  17. Translating English and Mandarin Verbs with Argument Structure (Mis)matches Using LCS Representation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Olsen, M. B

    1998-01-01

    ...). The author demonstrates how Lexical Conceptual Structure (LCS) templates allow the same semantic structure to apply both to verbs with thematic roles incorporated in the verb itself, and those requiring external thematic complements...

  18. Certain Verbs Are Syntactically Explicit Quantifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Szabolcsi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Quantification over individuals, times, and worlds can in principle be made explicit in the syntax of the object language, or left to the semantics and spelled out in the meta-language. The traditional view is that quantification over individuals is syntactically explicit, whereas quantification over times and worlds is not. But a growing body of literature proposes a uniform treatment. This paper examines the scopal interaction of aspectual raising verbs (begin, modals (can, and intensional raising verbs (threaten with quantificational subjects in Shupamem, Dutch, and English. It appears that aspectual raising verbs and at least modals may undergo the same kind of overt or covert scope-changing operations as nominal quantifiers; the case of intensional raising verbs is less clear. Scope interaction is thus shown to be a new potential diagnostic of object-linguistic quantification, and the similarity in the scope behavior of nominal and verbal quantifiers supports the grammatical plausibility of ontological symmetry, explored in Schlenker (2006.ReferencesBen-Shalom, D. 1996. Semantic Trees. Ph.D. thesis, UCLA.Bittner, M. 1993. Case, Scope, and Binding. Dordrecht: Reidel.Cresswell, M. 1990. Entities and Indices. Dordrecht: Kluwer.Cresti, D. 1995. ‘Extraction and reconstruction’. Natural Language Semantics 3: 79–122.http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01252885Curry, B. H. & Feys, R. 1958. Combinatory Logic I. Dordrecht: North-Holland.Dowty, D. R. 1988. ‘Type raising, functional composition, and non-constituent conjunction’. In Richard T. Oehrle, Emmon W. Bach & Deirdre Wheeler (eds. ‘Categorial Grammars and Natural Language Structures’, 153–197. Dordrecht: Reidel.Fox, D. 2002. ‘TOn Logical Form’. In Randall Hendrick (ed. ‘Minimalist Syntax’, 82–124. Oxford: Blackwell.Gallin, D. 1975. Intensional and higher-order modal logic: with applications to Montague semantics. North Holland Pub. Co.; American Elsevier Pub. Co., Amsterdam

  19. Lexical Analysis of the Verb "COOK" and Learning Vocabulary: A Corpus Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyono

    2011-01-01

    English verbs have built-in properties that determine how they behave syntactically and generate appropriate meaning associated. With these inherent properties some verbs can fill in only in certain syntactic structures and some in others. The observation of the verb "COOK" using English corpus has revealed its lexical properties…

  20. Auxiliary Verbs, Dictionaries and the Late Evolution of the Italian Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinder, John J.

    2004-01-01

    The use of BE as an auxiliary verb with intransitive verbs has declined in all the Romance languages over the past five centuries. Today, Spanish and Portuguese use only HAVE, in Catalan and Romanian BE occurs in marginal contexts, and in French, BE is used with approximately 40 verbs. Italian is a notable exception, since BE is still used as the…

  1. Chinese Learners' Acquisition of English Verbs: A Corpus-Driven Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linxiao; Jo, Hie-myung

    2012-01-01

    Limited research has investigated advanced language learners' acquisition of English verbs. The current study examines and compares the acquisition pattern of English verbs among Chinese second language (L2) learners at both intermediate and advanced levels to answer the following questions: (1) Do L2 learners acquire regular verbs and irregular…

  2. The On-Line Processing of Verb-Phrase Ellipsis in Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Josee; Shapiro, Lewis P.; Love, Tracy; Grodzinsky, Yosef

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the on-line processing of verb-phrase ellipsis (VPE) constructions in two brain injured populations: Broca's and Anomic aphasics. VPE constructions are built from two simple clauses; the first is the antecedent clause and the second is the ellipsis clause. The ellipsis clause is missing its verb and object (i.e., its verb phrase…

  3. Language Analysis : Phrasal Verbs and Phonological Information in ESL Textbooks

    OpenAIRE

    北山, 長貴; Nagaki, Kitayama

    1996-01-01

    Grammatical terms which are used in both linguistics and applied linguistics are usually fixed. Especially the ones used in grammar textbooks for English as a Second Language (E5L) are fixed. However, there is a term which varies from text to text in ESL grammar. It is the term "phrasal verb". This is what I am interested in; why so many different terminologies are used in each textbook. In this paper I would like to clarify the definition of phrasal verbs by mentioning several studies of phr...

  4. Production of verbs related to body movement in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Parkinson's Disease (PD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousins, Katheryn A Q; Ash, Sharon; Grossman, Murray

    2018-03-01

    Theories of grounded cognition propose that action verb knowledge relies in part on motor processing regions, including premotor cortex. Accordingly, impaired action verb knowledge in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Parkinson's Disease (PD) is thought to be due to motor system degeneration. Upper motor neuron disease in ALS degrades the motor cortex and related pyramidal motor system, while disease in PD is centered in the basal ganglia and can spread to frontostriatal areas that are important to language functioning. These anatomical distinctions in disease may yield subtle differences in the action verb impairment between patient groups. Here we compare verbs where the body is the agent of the action to verbs where the body is the theme. To examine the role of motor functioning in body verb production, we split patient groups into patients with high motor impairment (HMI) and those with low motor impairment (LMI), using disease-specific measures of motor impairment. Regression analyses assessed how verb production in ALS and PD was related to motor system atrophy. We find a dissociation between agent- and theme-body verbs in ALS: ALS HMI were impaired for agent body verbs but not theme verbs, compared to ALS LMI. This dissociation was not present in PD patients, who instead show depressed production for all body verbs. Although patients with cognitive impairment were excluded from this study, cognitive performance significantly correlated with the production of theme verbs in ALS and cognitive/stative verbs in PD. Finally, regression analyses related the agent-theme dissociation in ALS to grey matter atrophy of premotor cortex. These findings support the view that motor dysfunction and disease in premotor cortex contributes to the agent body verb deficit in ALS, and begin to identify some distinct characteristics of impairment for verbs in ALS and PD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Testing the “division of labor hypothesis” of aphasic verb production using big-data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmeen Faroqi-Shah

    2015-05-01

    Individuals with aphasia and healthy controls produced a similar proportion of light verbs (.38, U(298 = 13,129, p > 0.05. Linear regression analysis revealed three significant predictors of high light verb use in aphasia: greater syntactic complexity (high DSS score, lower semantic richness (low idea density and lower Verb Naming Test scores (picture naming of heavy verbs, Cho-Reyes & Thompson, 2012. These findings support the division of labor in aphasia – persons with stronger syntactic abilities produce more light verbs and have lower semantic ability (Gordon & Dell, 2003.

  6. PARADIGMS IN CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    Sabrina Oktoria Sihombing

    2011-01-01

    A paradigm influences what we see and conceive about certain facts. Paradigm can also influence what we accept as a truth. Yet, the debate over which paradigm and methodology is best suit for marketing and consumer behavior has begun since 1980s. Many researchers criticized the domination of logical empiricism paradigm and offered alternative paradigm to understand marketing and consumer behavior. This article discusses several paradigms and methodology, which are part of qualitative paradigm...

  7. Verb Errors of Bilingual and Monolingual Basic Writers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, Olga

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzed the grammatical control of verbs exercised by 145 monolingual English and Generation 1.5 bilingual developmental writers in narrative essays using quantitative and qualitative methods. Generation 1.5 students made more errors than their monolingual peers in each category investigated, albeit in only 2 categories was the…

  8. The Verb Always Leaves IP in V2 Clauses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartz, Bonnie D.; Vikner, Sten

    2007-01-01

    The verb second (V2) phenomenon, as it is found in the Germanic languages, has been the focus of much attention within recent syntactic research. In most of the literature on V2, it is assumed that the verb in all V2 clauses has moved to a head position outside IP, e.g. Cº. In Schwartz & Vikner...... (1989) we claimed that all V2 clauses were CPs, and we referred to this analysis as the 'traditional' analysis. In this paper we shall call it the 'V2 outside IP' analysis, and by using this term we want to convey that although in what follows we will adhere to the view that the verb moves to Cº, any...... analysis in which the verb moves into an Xº which is the sister of IP may be compatible with what we say here. Various alternatives to this analysis have been explored in the literature, and here we will address two in particular: One alternative is that there is an asymmetry between subject...

  9. Verbs: Some properties and their consequences for agrammatic Broca's aphasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaanse, Y.R.M.; Rispens, J.E.; Ruigendijk, E.; Juncos Rabadán, O.; Thompson, C.K.

    2002-01-01

    It has repeatedly been shown that agrammatic Broca's aphasics have serious problems with the retrieval of verbs on action naming tests (Miceli, Silveri, Villa & Caramazza, 1984; Kohn, Lorch Pearson, 1989; Basso, Razzano, Faglioni Zanobio, 1990; Jonkers, 1998; Kim & Thompson, 2000). Less attention

  10. Testing controlled productive knowledge of adverb-verb collocations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A controlled productive test of adverb-verb collocations ..... The third approach to studying collocations, corpus analysis, ..... The collocation web model is thought to match Nation's (2001) psychological .... Theory, analysis, and applications. .... Canadian Modern ... Focus on vocabulary: Mastering the Academic Word List.

  11. Tense Usage Analysis in Verb Distribution in Brazilian Portuguese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoge, Henry W., Comp.

    This section of a four-part research project investigating the syntax of Brazilian Portuguese presents data concerning tense usage in verb distribution. The data are derived from the analysis of selected literary samples from representative and contemporary writers. The selection of authors and tabulation of data are also described. Materials…

  12. Using an Online Dictionary for Identifying the Meanings of Verb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article reports on the results of a study which investigated the use of an online dictionary by Chinese EFL learners in identifying the meanings of verb phrases. Thirty-two stu-dents with English as major subject participated in a meaning determination task with and without the help of the Macmillan English Dictionary ...

  13. 19 VERB SECOND IN AFRIKAANS: IS THIS A UNITARY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KATEVG

    to be weak on this analysis, the lexical verb does not enter into the scope of the tense features ... production of native Afrikaans speakers did not always conform to the prescriptive ... from previous studies investigating the behaviour of Afrikaans ECs - see footnote 21 - which ..... I think that you will the book much enjoy. 25.

  14. Verb movement in Germanic and Celtic languages: a flexible approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeneman, O.

    2010-01-01

    This paper develops a new perspective on the question of what type of verb movement the modern Celtic languages display, V to I movement or V to C movement. Under the standard assumption that the subject remains relatively low in these languages compared to Germanic languages, this category fails to

  15. Cooking verbs and metaphor Contrastive study of Greek and French

    OpenAIRE

    Tsaknaki, Olympia

    2016-01-01

    The present cross-linguistic study deals with cooking verbs in Greek and French in the light of the Conceptual Metaphor Theory. It intends to explore uniformity and diversity in metaphorical conceptualizations and the lexical choices they underlie. It also discusses the significance of metaphor awareness in foreign language teaching.

  16. Verb Movement Variation in Germanic and Optimality Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikner, Sten

    2001-01-01

    This habilitation dissertation falls into two parts. In the first part, "Establishing the typology: Verb Movement in the Germanic VO- and OV-languages", I continue the work in Vikner (1995a, 1997) on the movement of finite verbs across the Germanic languages. Chapter 1 argues that rich finite inf...... data are treated: constructions with auxiliaries, negation and/or do-insertion, and chapter 7 accounts for the differences in distribution between the V2 word order and the non-V2 word order between the languages.......This habilitation dissertation falls into two parts. In the first part, "Establishing the typology: Verb Movement in the Germanic VO- and OV-languages", I continue the work in Vikner (1995a, 1997) on the movement of finite verbs across the Germanic languages. Chapter 1 argues that rich finite...... inflection triggers V°-to-I° movement in the Germanic (and Romance) VO-languages, chapter 2 supports the claim that Yiddish is an OV-language, and chapter 3 defends the view that all Germanic OV-languages except Yiddish do not have V°-to-I° movement. Where Part I tries to establish facts and arguments which...

  17. Variability in the Second Language Acquisition of Verb Morphology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article seeks to make a developmental study of variability in the acquisition of verb morphology by second language (L2) pupils who learn at an English input impoverished school where variability in learner language is often presumed to be quite extensive. By studying variability in such settings, it is hoped that we can ...

  18. Subject-verb agreement: Error production by Tourism undergraduate students

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    Ana Paula Correia

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper, which is part of a more extensive research on verb tense errors, is to investigate the subject-verb agreement errors in the simple present in the texts of a group of Tourism undergraduate students. Based on the concept of interlanguage and following the error analysis model, this descriptive non-experimental study applies qualitative and quantitative procedures. Three types of instruments were used to collect data: a sociolinguistic questionnaire (to define the learners’ profile; the Dialang test (to establish their proficiency level in English; and our own learner corpus (140 texts. Errors were identified and classified by an expert panel in accordance with a verb error taxonomy developed for this study based on the taxonomy established by the Cambridge Learner Corpus. The Markin software was used to code errors in the corpus and the Wordsmith Tools software to analyze the data. Subject-verb agreement errors and their relation with the learners’ proficiency levels are described.

  19. Anna Dziemianko: User-friendliness of Verb Syntax in Pedagogical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Anna Dziemianko. User-friendliness of Verb Syntax in Pedagogical Dictionaries of English. 2006, XII + 229 pp. ISBN-13: 978-3-484-39130-7. ISBN- 10: 3-484-39130-8. Lexicographica. Series Maior 130. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer. Price: €124.

  20. A characterization of verb use in Turkish agrammatic narrative speech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arslan, Seçkin; Bamyacı, Elif; Bastiaanse, Roelien

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the characteristics of narrative-speech production and the use of verbs in Turkish agrammatic speakers (n = 10) compared to non-brain-damaged controls (n = 10). To elicit narrative-speech samples, personal interviews and storytelling tasks were conducted. Turkish has a large

  1. PARADIGMS IN CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

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    Sabrina Oktoria Sihombing

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A paradigm influences what we see and conceive about certain facts. Paradigm can also influence what we accept as a truth. Yet, the debate over which paradigm and methodology is best suit for marketing and consumer behavior has begun since 1980s. Many researchers criticized the domination of logical empiricism paradigm and offered alternative paradigm to understand marketing and consumer behavior. This article discusses several paradigms and methodology, which are part of qualitative paradigm, and compares them with positivism paradigm. This article will also point to the importance of reconciliation between qualitative and quantitative paradigm in order to improve marketing and consumer behavior studies.

  2. Word Order and Voice Influence the Timing of Verb Planning in German Sentence Production

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    Sebastian Sauppe

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Theories of incremental sentence production make different assumptions about when speakers encode information about described events and when verbs are selected, accordingly. An eye tracking experiment on German testing the predictions from linear and hierarchical incrementality about the timing of event encoding and verb planning is reported. In the experiment, participants described depictions of two-participant events with sentences that differed in voice and word order. Verb-medial active sentences and actives and passives with sentence-final verbs were compared. Linear incrementality predicts that sentences with verbs placed early differ from verb-final sentences because verbs are assumed to only be planned shortly before they are articulated. By contrast, hierarchical incrementality assumes that speakers start planning with relational encoding of the event. A weak version of hierarchical incrementality assumes that only the action is encoded at the outset of formulation and selection of lexical verbs only occurs shortly before they are articulated, leading to the prediction of different fixation patterns for verb-medial and verb-final sentences. A strong version of hierarchical incrementality predicts no differences between verb-medial and verb-final sentences because it assumes that verbs are always lexically selected early in the formulation process. Based on growth curve analyses of fixations to agent and patient characters in the described pictures, and the influence of character humanness and the lack of an influence of the visual salience of characters on speakers' choice of active or passive voice, the current results suggest that while verb planning does not necessarily occur early during formulation, speakers of German always create an event representation early.

  3. Word Order and Voice Influence the Timing of Verb Planning in German Sentence Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauppe, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Theories of incremental sentence production make different assumptions about when speakers encode information about described events and when verbs are selected, accordingly. An eye tracking experiment on German testing the predictions from linear and hierarchical incrementality about the timing of event encoding and verb planning is reported. In the experiment, participants described depictions of two-participant events with sentences that differed in voice and word order. Verb-medial active sentences and actives and passives with sentence-final verbs were compared. Linear incrementality predicts that sentences with verbs placed early differ from verb-final sentences because verbs are assumed to only be planned shortly before they are articulated. By contrast, hierarchical incrementality assumes that speakers start planning with relational encoding of the event. A weak version of hierarchical incrementality assumes that only the action is encoded at the outset of formulation and selection of lexical verbs only occurs shortly before they are articulated, leading to the prediction of different fixation patterns for verb-medial and verb-final sentences. A strong version of hierarchical incrementality predicts no differences between verb-medial and verb-final sentences because it assumes that verbs are always lexically selected early in the formulation process. Based on growth curve analyses of fixations to agent and patient characters in the described pictures, and the influence of character humanness and the lack of an influence of the visual salience of characters on speakers' choice of active or passive voice, the current results suggest that while verb planning does not necessarily occur early during formulation, speakers of German always create an event representation early.

  4. Verb-Noun Collocation Proficiency and Academic Years

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    Fatemeh Ebrahimi-Bazzaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Generally vocabulary and collocations in particular have significant roles in language proficiency. A collocation includes two words that are frequently joined concurrently in the memory of native speakers. There have been many linguistic studies trying to define, to describe, and to categorise English collocations. It contains grammatical collocations and lexical collocations which include nouns, adjectives, verbs, and adverb. In the context of a foreign language environment such as Iran, collocational proficiency can be useful because it helps the students improve their language proficiency. This paper investigates the possible relationship between verb-noun collocation proficiency among students from one academic year to the next. To reach this goal, a test of verb-noun collocations was administered to Iranian learners. The participants in the study were 212 Iranian students in an Iranian university. They were selected from the second term of freshman, sophomore, junior, and senior years. The students’ age ranged from 18 to 35.The results of ANOVA showed there was variability in the verb-noun collocations proficiency within each academic year and between the four academic years. The results of a post hoc multiple comparison tests demonstrated that the means are significantly different between the first year and the third and fourth years, and between the third and the fourth academic year; however, students require at least two years to show significant development in verb-noun collocation proficiency. These findings provided a vital implication that lexical collocations are learnt and developed through four academic years of university, but requires at least two years showing significant development in the language proficiency.

  5. The Role of Input Frequency and Semantic Transparency in the Acquisition of Verb Meaning: Evidence from Placement Verbs in Tamil and Dutch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, Bhuvana; Gullberg, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    We investigate how Tamil- and Dutch-speaking adults and four- to five-year-old children use caused posture verbs ("lay/stand a bottle on a table") to label placement events in which objects are oriented vertically or horizontally. Tamil caused posture verbs consist of morphemes that individually label the causal and result subevents ("nikka…

  6. Acquisition and evaluation of verb subcategorization resources for biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimell, Laura; Lippincott, Thomas; Verspoor, Karin; Johnson, Helen L; Korhonen, Anna

    2013-04-01

    Biomedical natural language processing (NLP) applications that have access to detailed resources about the linguistic characteristics of biomedical language demonstrate improved performance on tasks such as relation extraction and syntactic or semantic parsing. Such applications are important for transforming the growing unstructured information buried in the biomedical literature into structured, actionable information. In this paper, we address the creation of linguistic resources that capture how individual biomedical verbs behave. We specifically consider verb subcategorization, or the tendency of verbs to "select" co-occurrence with particular phrase types, which influences the interpretation of verbs and identification of verbal arguments in context. There are currently a limited number of biomedical resources containing information about subcategorization frames (SCFs), and these are the result of either labor-intensive manual collation, or automatic methods that use tools adapted to a single biomedical subdomain. Either method may result in resources that lack coverage. Moreover, the quality of existing verb SCF resources for biomedicine is unknown, due to a lack of available gold standards for evaluation. This paper presents three new resources related to verb subcategorization frames in biomedicine, and four experiments making use of the new resources. We present the first biomedical SCF gold standards, capturing two different but widely-used definitions of subcategorization, and a new SCF lexicon, BioCat, covering a large number of biomedical sub-domains. We evaluate the SCF acquisition methodologies for BioCat with respect to the gold standards, and compare the results with the accuracy of the only previously existing automatically-acquired SCF lexicon for biomedicine, the BioLexicon. Our results show that the BioLexicon has greater precision while BioCat has better coverage of SCFs. Finally, we explore the definition of subcategorization using these

  7. Analysis of Tense Interferential of Verbs in Old Narrative Texts

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    Mahmood Barati khansari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract One of the admirable methods to compose stories in Persian verse and prose, is the present Tense verbs in the meaning of past tense. This grammatical point has been hidden in the grammarian and stylist's point of view although it has been repeatedly mentioned in the texts and this point has been not mentioned in the grammatical books but some of the investigators and literati have pointed out it in their correction works. We mention their sayings: firstly, Allame Qazvini, doubtfully, mentions the interferential times of the verbs and inconsistencies of the Tenses in the correction of texts of Jahangoshaye – Joveini Book. He writes in the second footnote 2-3, that the verb Mikonam( I do is in the form of present Tense but its meaning is in the simple past Tense. As it has been observed, in the most old books the form of the verb is in the present tense but its meaning is in simple Tense ( Joveini, 1367, p. 357. Later, Fruzanfar in the correction of grammatical notes of ouhadoddin Kermani's Manaqeb, points to this point and counted it of the Eltefat Literary art ( Fruzanfar, 1347. P. 61 Mohammad Roushan informed this grammatical rule and he writes in the introduction of his book: the application of this kind of verb that is not on the basis of the dependent and independent verbs (Khagushi, 1361, p. 24. Yusofi in his correction on Bidpay Stories points to this grammatical point that it has been hidden of correctors of the book. Ha says that this grammatical point is the prose characteristic of the book. He adds that the characteristic includes in the present stories (Yusofi, 1364, p. 36. Finally, Dr. shfi'ee in his valuable notes on the Mateqol altei their mentions that this style of telling stories – the verb in the present Tense- is less in verse but the verbs in the same meaning and forms were used in old Persian as in the present time but there were inconsistence in the time and the form of the verbs in the past and the grammarians

  8. Analysis of Tense Interferential of Verbs in Old Narrative Texts

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    Amir Zeighami

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract One of the admirable methods to compose stories in Persian verse and prose, is the present Tense verbs in the meaning of past tense. This grammatical point has been hidden in the grammarian and stylist's point of view although it has been repeatedly mentioned in the texts and this point has been not mentioned in the grammatical books but some of the investigators and literati have pointed out it in their correction works. We mention their sayings: firstly, Allame Qazvini, doubtfully, mentions the interferential times of the verbs and inconsistencies of the Tenses in the correction of texts of Jahangoshaye – Joveini Book. He writes in the second footnote 2-3, that the verb Mikonam( I do is in the form of present Tense but its meaning is in the simple past Tense. As it has been observed, in the most old books the form of the verb is in the present tense but its meaning is in simple Tense ( Joveini, 1367, p. 357. Later, Fruzanfar in the correction of grammatical notes of ouhadoddin Kermani's Manaqeb, points to this point and counted it of the Eltefat Literary art ( Fruzanfar, 1347. P. 61 Mohammad Roushan informed this grammatical rule and he writes in the introduction of his book: the application of this kind of verb that is not on the basis of the dependent and independent verbs (Khagushi, 1361, p. 24. Yusofi in his correction on Bidpay Stories points to this grammatical point that it has been hidden of correctors of the book. Ha says that this grammatical point is the prose characteristic of the book. He adds that the characteristic includes in the present stories (Yusofi, 1364, p. 36. Finally, Dr. shfi'ee in his valuable notes on the Mateqol altei their mentions that this style of telling stories – the verb in the present Tense- is less in verse but the verbs in the same meaning and forms were used in old Persian as in the present time but there were inconsistence in the time and the form of the verbs in the past and

  9. L2 speakers decompose morphologically complex verbs: fMRI evidence from priming of transparent derived verbs

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    Sophie eDe Grauwe

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this fMRI long-lag priming study, we investigated the processing of Dutch semantically transparent, derived prefix verbs. In such words, the meaning of the word as a whole can be deduced from the meanings of its parts, e.g. wegleggen ‘put aside’. Many behavioral and some fMRI studies suggest that native (L1 speakers decompose transparent derived words. The brain region usually implicated in morphological decomposition is the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG. In non-native (L2 speakers, the processing of transparent derived words has hardly been investigated, especially in fMRI studies, and results are contradictory: Some studies find more reliance on holistic (i.e. non-decompositional processing by L2 speakers; some find no difference between L1 and L2 speakers. In this study, we wanted to find out whether Dutch transparent derived prefix verbs are decomposed or processed holistically by German L2 speakers of Dutch. Half of the derived verbs (e.g. omvallen ‘fall down’ were preceded by their stem (e.g. vallen ‘fall’ with a lag of 4 to 6 words (‘primed’; the other half (e.g. inslapen ‘fall asleep’ were not (‘unprimed’. L1 and L2 speakers of Dutch made lexical decisions on these visually presented verbs. Both ROI analyses and whole-brain analyses showed that there was a significant repetition suppression effect for primed compared to unprimed derived verbs in the LIFG. This was true both for the analyses over L2 speakers only and for the analyses over the two language groups together. The latter did not reveal any interaction with language group (L1 vs. L2 in the LIFG. Thus, L2 speakers show a clear priming effect in the LIFG, an area that has been associated with morphological decomposition. Our findings are consistent with the idea that L2 speakers engage in decomposition of transparent derived verbs rather than processing them holistically.

  10. Naming abilities: Differentiation between objects and verbs in aphasia

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    Luisa Carmen Spezzano

    Full Text Available Abstract Cognitive Neuropsychology aims to understand the processing mechanisms of normal and injured brain, by means of functional architectural models of information processing. Naming is one of the most important abilities in linguistic processing. Naming of different semantic and grammatical categories differ in their lexical properties and have distinct neuroanatomical substrates. We reviewed literature data on the differences between nouns and verbs in aphasic subjects reported by scientific publications in the form of indexed articles. Studies on naming abilities tended to emphasize the differentiation between nouns and verbs both in their lexical properties and neuroanatomical substrates. Functional neuroimaging studies have improved the state of knowledge regarding category-specific naming abilities, but further studies on different types of aphasia and the use of naming abilities in different contexts are warranted.

  11. Cues and economy in the acquisition of verb movement

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    Kristine Bentzen

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we will discuss how economy principles interact with cues in the input in bilingual first language acquisition. We will look at the acquisition of verb placement in a child acquiring English and Norwegian simultaneously. Based on data from this child, it will be argued that when faced with ambiguous cues with respect to the verb movement parameter, children do not necessarily adopt the default, less marked setting. Rather, they may opt for a setting which yields an overall consistent grammar, even when this grammar contains operations that are more costly than those used in the target language. We will suggest that economy in acquisition may involve consistency in a grammar in correlation with economy in the more traditional sense within minimalism, where moving an element in general is considered more costly than not moving it (Chomsky 1995.

  12. Lexical, Morphological, and Syntactic Characteristics of Verbs in the Spontaneous Production of Italian Children

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    Laura D'Odorico

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates from a developmental point of view the lexical, morphological, and syntactic characteristics of verb production during the first stages of language acquisition. The spontaneous productions of children with different mean length of utterance (MLU were analysed, examining the relative production of different types of verbs (transitive, intransitive, and mixed, the arguments expressed or omitted in the utterances containing a verb, the morphological inflections produced by the children for each verb, and the generalisation of the syntactic construction with which specific verbs were produced. Data are interpreted in support of the hypothesis that children have a limited abstract knowledge of verbs in the early period of multiword utterance production and that the process of abstractness and generalisation develops gradually on the basis of linguistic experience.

  13. Topic: Conjoint and disjoint verb alternations in Dagbani

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samuel

    The data for the study is drawn from two ... speech in linguistic analysis, since it is not influenced by the particular research agenda. Though a native speaker of the Tomosili dialect myself, the generalizations concerning the verb ..... buy.PERF book. 'Mandeeya has bought a book.' c. Bì-hí máá sà. 3 kú-yà pàm DJ child.PL.

  14. Production of verb tenses in children with cochlear implants

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    Sokolovac Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of verb tenses leads to better language development of children with cochlear implants. The aim of this study was to assess the acquisition of verb tenses in children with cochlear implants. The sample included 60 children, aged from 9 to 15, with average intellectual abilities. The study group consisted of 30 patients with cochlear implants, with no additional disabilities. The control group consisted of 30 subjects with typical speech - language development and preserved hearing. The acquisition of basic tenses was assessed by 'Corpus for the Assessment of the Use of Tenses' (Dimić, 2003. Significant statistical differences were found in the use of the present tense in children with cochlear implants and hearing children (t=-4.385; p<0.001 as well as in the use of the past tense (t=-4.650; p<0.001, and the future tense (t=-4.269; p<0.001. There was also a significant difference in the use of irregular verb 'go' (t=-3.958; p<0.001, as well as in the combination of the present and the past tense (t=-5.806; p<0.001. The present tense was used correctly by most children with cochlear implants (70%, followed by the past tense (53%, and finally the future tense (23%. Children with cochlear implants, even after several years of re/habilitation, do not reach the grammatical development of children with normal hearing.

  15. Nouns and verbs in the vocabulary acquisition of Italian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Odorico, Laura; Fasolo, Mirco

    2007-11-01

    The vocabulary development of 24 Italian children aged between 1;4 and 1;6 at the beginning of the study was longitudinally monitored on a monthly basis using the Italian version of the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory drawn up by their mothers. This study analyzes data from children for whom two sampling stages were available; the first corresponding to a vocabulary size as close as possible to 200 words (mean 217, range 167-281), the second to a vocabulary size ranging from 400 to 650 words (mean 518, range 416-648). The children's vocabulary composition was analyzed by calculating, for each sampling stage, the percentage of common nouns, verbs and closed-class words. The increase in percentage points of the various lexical items between the first and second sampling stages was also analyzed. Data confirmed the predominance of nouns over verbs and closed-class words at both sampling stages, while verbs and closed-class words showed a higher percentage increase than nouns. The results provide evidence that children who reached the first sampling point at an earlier age had a higher percentage of nouns than children who reached the same stage at an older age. However, in the passage from the first to the second sampling point no relationship emerged between a style of acquisition based on the acquisition of nouns and an increase in the rate of vocabulary growth.

  16. Understanding and use of phrasal verbs and idioms in medical/nursing texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polackova, G

    2008-01-01

    Phrasal verbs and idioms are frequently used in everyday English. They are also used in more specific language as equivalents for special terms. The use of phrasal verbs and idioms by native patients and health care workers makes their communication easier and less confusing. Non-native medical workers often come across with English phrasal verbs (idioms) in authentic texts and communication. They should be able to recognize them and after analyzing their meaning include them into their own active vocabulary (Ref. 5).

  17. VERB A Social Marketing Campaign to Increase Physical Activity Among Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Faye Wong; Marian Huhman; Carrie Heitzler; Lori Asbury; Rosemary Bretthauer-Mueller; Susan McCarthy; Paula Londe

    2004-01-01

    The VERB campaign is a multiethnic media campaign with a goal to increase and maintain physical activity among tweens, or children aged nine to 13 years. Parents, especially mothers aged 29 to 46, and other sources of influence on tweens (e.g., teachers, youth program leaders) are the secondary audiences of the VERB initiative. VERB applies sophisticated commercial marketing techniques to address the public health problem of sedentary lifestyles of American children, using the social marketin...

  18. Aspectual Morphemes as Verb Classifiers in Slavic and Non-Slavic Languages

    OpenAIRE

    Menzenski, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    This paper was presented at the Slavic Linguistics Society Annual Meeting in Seattle, Washington on September 19 2014.   Abstract: Janda et al. (2013) propose an analysis of Russian aspectual prefixes as verb classifiers, arguing that the prefix which forms the 'natural perfective' from a given verb serves to classify that verb according to its semantic characteristics. This analysis contrasts with the traditional analysis of Russian aspect, described by Tixonov (1998) and others, in...

  19. Russian language for Persian learners A research on the difficulties of learning motion verbs of

    OpenAIRE

    ایزانلو ایزانلو

    2009-01-01

    Since motion verbs of Russian language is one of those complex issues in Russian language syntax, Iranian students who are learning Russian language face problems when learning this grammatical category. These problems in learning appear in two stages. a)The stage of learning and understanding the meaning of these verbs in the Russian language itself; b) The stage of transition of these verbs from Russian language into Persian language when translating texts into Persian. It seems that the di...

  20. Understanding of action-related and abstract verbs in comparison: a behavioral and TMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innocenti, Alessandro; De Stefani, Elisa; Sestito, Mariateresa; Gentilucci, Maurizio

    2014-02-01

    Does the comprehension of both action-related and abstract verbs rely on motor simulation? In a behavioral experiment, in which a semantic task was used, response times to hand-action-related verbs were briefer than those to abstract verbs and both decreased with repetition of presentation. In a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) experiment, single-pulse stimulation was randomly delivered over hand motor area of the left primary motor cortex to measure cortical-spinal excitability at 300 or 500 ms after verb presentation. Two blocks of trials were run. In each block, the same verbs were randomly presented. In the first block, stimulation induced an increase in motor evoked potentials only when TMS was applied 300 ms after action-related verb presentation. In the second block, no modulation of motor cortex was found according to type of verb and stimulation-delay. These results confirm that motor simulation can be used to understand action rather than abstract verbs. Moreover, they suggest that with repetition, the semantic processing for action verbs does not require activation of primary motor cortex anymore.

  1. Effects of relative embodiment in lexical and semantic processing of verbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, David M; Kwan, Rachel; Pexman, Penny M; Siakaluk, Paul D

    2014-06-01

    Research examining semantic richness effects in visual word recognition has shown that multiple dimensions of meaning are activated in the process of word recognition (e.g., Yap et al., 2012). This research has, however, been limited to nouns. In the present research we extended the semantic richness approach to verb stimuli in order to investigate how verb meanings are represented. We characterized a dimension of relative embodiment for verbs, based on the bodily sense described by Borghi and Cimatti (2010), and collected ratings on that dimension for 687 English verbs. The relative embodiment ratings revealed that bodily experience was judged to be more important to the meanings of some verbs (e.g., dance, breathe) than to others (e.g., evaporate, expect). We then tested the effects of relative embodiment and imageability on verb processing in lexical decision (Experiment 1), action picture naming (Experiment 2), and syntactic classification (Experiment 3). In all three experiments results showed facilitatory effects of relative embodiment, but not imageability: latencies were faster for relatively more embodied verbs, even after several other lexical variables were controlled. The results suggest that relative embodiment is an important aspect of verb meaning, and that the semantic richness approach holds promise as a strategy for investigating other aspects of verb meaning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Acquiring and processing verb argument structure: distributional learning in a miniature language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonnacott, Elizabeth; Newport, Elissa L; Tanenhaus, Michael K

    2008-05-01

    Adult knowledge of a language involves correctly balancing lexically-based and more language-general patterns. For example, verb argument structures may sometimes readily generalize to new verbs, yet with particular verbs may resist generalization. From the perspective of acquisition, this creates significant learnability problems, with some researchers claiming a crucial role for verb semantics in the determination of when generalization may and may not occur. Similarly, there has been debate regarding how verb-specific and more generalized constraints interact in sentence processing and on the role of semantics in this process. The current work explores these issues using artificial language learning. In three experiments using languages without semantic cues to verb distribution, we demonstrate that learners can acquire both verb-specific and verb-general patterns, based on distributional information in the linguistic input regarding each of the verbs as well as across the language as a whole. As with natural languages, these factors are shown to affect production, judgments and real-time processing. We demonstrate that learners apply a rational procedure in determining their usage of these different input statistics and conclude by suggesting that a Bayesian perspective on statistical learning may be an appropriate framework for capturing our findings.

  3. NARRATIVE PERSPECTIVE MEDIATED BY MANNER OF MOTION VERBS

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    Olesea BODEAN-VOZIAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There is typological variation in the way languages encode manner as an element of a motion event. Languages like English view it as relevant, and the lexicalization of the variety of ways to move results in a rich class of motion verbs, contrary to other types of languages, like Romanian, which leave the manner element to be encoded by verbids or adverbs (for these reasons some linguists refer to the first type as manner-rich and second type as manner-poor languages. Still, several studies contrasting typologically different languages showed that languages of the latter type are not so poor in manner-of-motion verbs. The question then might rather be: which manner components are more likely to be lexicalized?For research purposes, we distinguish manner in terms of objective elements (medium, speed or intensity and subjective elements (attitude, intention. The aim of the study is to focus on the manner-of-motion verbs that embed an evaluative or qualitative dimension of motion and to examine the way these verbs encode somebody’s perspective in a narrative. The first question in such a case is whose evaluation or point of view is being represented. The second one is how the subjective point of view (narrative perspective mediated through manner-of-motion verbs in an English narrative (The Lord of the Rings, by J.R.R. Tolkien is translated into Romanian, supposedly a manner-poor or low-manner language.PERSPECTIVA NARATIVĂ MEDIATĂ DE VERBELE DE MIŞCARE DE MODExistă o variaţie tipologică în felul în care limbile codifică modul ca element al unui eveniment de mişcare. Limbile precum engleza îl percep drept unul relevant, iar lexicalizarea gamei de mijloace de redare a mişcării a dat naştere unei clase bogate de verbe de mişcare, contrar altor tipuri de limbi, aşa ca româna, în care elementul ce redă modul este codificat de gerunziu sau adverbe. Din aceasta cauză, unii lingvişti numesc primul tip limbi bogate în verbe de mod (

  4. Spoken Verb Processing in Spanish: An Analysis Using a New Online Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Semilla M.; Bates, Elizabeth A.; Orozco-Fegueroa, Araceli; Wicha, Nicole Y. Y.

    2010-01-01

    Verbs are one of the basic building blocks of grammar, yet few studies have examined the grammatical, morphological, and phonological factors contributing to lexical access and production of Spanish verb inflection. This report describes an online data set that incorporates psycholinguistic dimensions for 50 of the most common early-acquired…

  5. Sentence production with verbs of alternating transitivity in agrammatic Broca's aphasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaanse, Y.R.M.; van Zonneveld, R.M.

    Bastiaanse, Koekkoek And Van Zonneveld (2003) hypothesized that individuals with Broca's aphasia have problems with sentences in which the verb and its arguments are not in their base position. The present study is meant to test this hypothesis with the help of verbs with alternating transitivity:

  6. Ueber das Mannheimer Woerterbuch zur Verbvalenz (About the Mannheim Dictionary of Verb Valence)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Helmut

    1976-01-01

    Describes the purpose, structure and application of this monolingual verb lexicon, which indicates the morphosyntactic environments of the most common German verbs. Mention is made of the forthcoming valence lexicon. The book is for teachers and textbook writers. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  7. Hitting the nail on the head: Force vectors in verb semantics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldschmidt, A.; Zwarts, J.

    2016-01-01

    Hitting the nail on the head: Forces in verb meanings Anja Goldschmidt (UU) & Joost Zwarts (UU) There is a growing recognition of the role of forces in verb meanings, starting with the seminal work of Leonard Talmy (Talmy 1985). In one line of research these forces are analyzed in terms of vectors,

  8. Attention to body-parts varies with visual preference and verb-effector associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Ty W; Maouene, Josita; Sethuraman, Nitya

    2017-05-01

    Theories of embodied conceptual meaning suggest fundamental relations between others' actions, language, and our own actions and visual attention processes. Prior studies have found that when people view an image of a neutral body in a scene they first look toward, in order, the head, torso, hands, and legs. Other studies show associations between action verbs and the body-effectors used in performing the action (e.g., "jump" with feet/legs; "talk" with face/head). In the present experiment, the visual attention of participants was recorded with a remote eye-tracking system while they viewed an image of an actor pantomiming an action and heard a concrete action verb. Participants manually responded whether or not the action image was a good example of the verb they heard. The eye-tracking results confirmed that participants looked at the head most, followed by the hands, and the feet least of all; however, visual attention to each of the body-parts also varied as a function of the effector associated with the spoken verb on image/verb congruent trials, particularly for verbs associated with the legs. Overall, these results suggest that language influences some perceptual processes; however, hearing auditory verbs did not alter the previously reported fundamental hierarchical sequence of directed attention, and fixations on specific body-effectors may not be essential for verb comprehension as peripheral visual cues may be sufficient to perform the task.

  9. Interpersonal lexicon : Structural evidence from two independently constructed verb-based taxonomies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Raad, B.

    1999-01-01

    In this study the structure of interpersonal behavior is investigated according to the principles of the so-called psycholexical approach. As bases for this study, we used the data from a taxonomy of interpersonal behavior verbs and a subset of data from a taxonomy of interpersonal tl-nir verbs. The

  10. Verb Learning in 14- and 18-Month-Old English-Learning Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Angela Xiaoxue; Lidz, Jeffrey

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigates English-learning infants' early understanding of the link between the grammatical category "verb" and the conceptual category "event," and their ability to recruit morphosyntactic information online to learn novel verb meanings. We report two experiments using an infant-controlled…

  11. Noun or Verb? Adult Readers' Sensitivity to Spelling Cues to Grammatical Category in Word Endings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Nenagh; Nilsson, Jodi; Arciuli, Joanne

    2009-01-01

    The spelling of many disyllabic English word endings holds cues to their grammatical category, beyond obvious inflectional endings such as "-ing" for verbs. For example, some letter sequences are clearly associated with nouns (e.g., "-oon") and others with verbs (e.g., "-erge"). This study extended recent research by Arciuli and Cupples (2006),…

  12. Children's Production of Subject-Verb Agreement in Hebrew When Gender and Context Are Ambiguous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karniol, Rachel; Artzi, Sigal; Ludmer, Maya

    2016-01-01

    Third and 5th grade Hebrew-speaking children performed two sentence completion tasks, one requiring the assignment of male, female, or gender-ambiguous names and the inflection of verbs for male-stereotyped, female-stereotyped, and gender-neutral activities, and the other task, of inflecting verbs for male- and female-stereotyped activities…

  13. Modelling analogical change : A history of Swedish and Frisian verb inflection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strik, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Why did Shakespeare write 'shak’d' when we say 'shook'? Why do some people say 'dived' and others 'dove'? These questions have to do with how we inflect verbs for past tense, and how those strategies vary across time and space. This dissertation sheds light on the issue through case studies of verbs

  14. On the L2 acquisition of Spanish-subject verb inversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guerra Rivera, Alexia; Coopmans, Peter; Baauw, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the acquisition of Spanish subject-verb inversion in wh-questions by Dutch L2 learners. The optional or obligatory application of this rule in Spanish wh-questions depends on the argument versus adjunct status of the wh-element. In Dutch,subject-verb inversionis obligatory in

  15. Distributional structure in language: contributions to noun-verb difficulty differences in infant word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willits, Jon A; Seidenberg, Mark S; Saffran, Jenny R

    2014-09-01

    What makes some words easy for infants to recognize, and other words difficult? We addressed this issue in the context of prior results suggesting that infants have difficulty recognizing verbs relative to nouns. In this work, we highlight the role played by the distributional contexts in which nouns and verbs occur. Distributional statistics predict that English nouns should generally be easier to recognize than verbs in fluent speech. However, there are situations in which distributional statistics provide similar support for verbs. The statistics for verbs that occur with the English morpheme -ing, for example, should facilitate verb recognition. In two experiments with 7.5- and 9.5-month-old infants, we tested the importance of distributional statistics for word recognition by varying the frequency of the contextual frames in which verbs occur. The results support the conclusion that distributional statistics are utilized by infant language learners and contribute to noun-verb differences in word recognition. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Complement Syntax, Mental Verbs, and Theory of Mind in Children Who Are Deaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keddington, Holly B.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted in three parts. Each part analyzed theory of mind (ToM) development in children who are deaf in relation to mental verb and complement syntax understanding. In the first part, participants were given a series of tests for the purpose of correlational analysis of ToM, mental verb understanding, and memory for…

  17. Development of Lexical and Syntactic Representations: The Acquisition of Symmetrical and Asymmetrical Verbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurcanli, Ozge

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation concerns the acquisition of the interaction between lexicosemantic properties of verbs and syntax, focusing on symmetrical and asymmetrical verbs in different syntactic structures. Based on linguistic evidence, it is shown that two conceptual categories, Mutuality and Number, interact to give rise to four event-types: Single…

  18. Special Report: Conflicting Data on Spanish Intransitive Verbs in Two Leading Dictionaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschner, Richard V.; Flemming, Jennifer

    1996-01-01

    Presents a conflation of and a comparison between the 1,646 verbs the Royal Academy's "Diccionario de la lengua espanola" (Dictionary of the Spanish Language) classifies as solely or partly intransitive and the 1,382 verbs that are so classified by the "Pequeno Larousse ilustrado" (Illustrated Larousse Small Dictionary).…

  19. How Does Dissociation between Written and Oral Forms Affect Reading: Evidence from Auxiliary Verbs in Arabic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Raphiq

    2011-01-01

    In Arabic, auxiliary verbs are necessary in the written language, but absent from the oral language. This is contrary to languages such as English and French in which auxiliary verbs are mandatory in both written and oral languages. This fact was exploited to examine if dissociation between written and oral forms affects reading measures like…

  20. Production and Processing of Subject-Verb Agreement in Monolingual Dutch Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Elma; Vasic, Nada; de Jong, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors investigated whether errors with subject-verb agreement in monolingual Dutch children with specific language impairment (SLI) are influenced by verb phonology. In addition, the productive and receptive abilities of Dutch acquiring children with SLI regarding agreement inflection were compared. Method: An SLI…

  1. Verb inflection in Monolingual Dutch and Sequential Bilingual Turkish-Dutch Children with and without SLI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Elma; De Jong, Jan; Orgassa, Antje; Baker, Anne; Weerman, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Both children with specific language impairment (SLI) and children who acquire a second language (L2) make errors with verb inflection. This overlap between SLI and L2 raises the question if verb inflection can discriminate between L2 children with and without SLI. In this study we addressed this question for Dutch. The secondary goal of the study…

  2. An Analysis of Stative Verbs Used with the Progressive Aspect in Corpus-Informed Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belli, Serap Atasever

    2018-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether contemporary corpus-informed grammar textbooks written for English language learners and teachers presented the progressive use of stative verbs and if yes, which stative verbs were presented to occur with the progressive aspect and for which functions they took this aspect. A corpus of six electronic…

  3. Hitting the nail on the head: Force vectors in verb semantics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldschmidt, A.; Zwarts, J.

    2016-01-01

    We present an analysis of force verbs, like hit, as involving paths with force-dynamic properties, modelled through force vectors. This allows us to explain a number of observations about the lexical meaning and composition of these verbs. For instance, force adverbs such as hard specify the

  4. A Common Mechanism in Verb and Noun Naming Deficits in Alzheimer's Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almor, Amit; Aronoff, Justin M.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.; Gonnerman, Laura M.; Kempler, Daniel; Hintiryan, Houri; Hayes, UnJa L.; Arunachalam, Sudha; Andersen, Elaine S.

    2009-01-01

    We tested the ability of Alzheimer's patients and elderly controls to name living and non-living nouns, and manner and instrument verbs. Patients' error patterns and relative performance with different categories showed evidence of graceful degradation for both nouns and verbs, with particular domain-specific impairments for living nouns and…

  5. Electrophysiology of subject-verb agreement mediated by speakers’ gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana eHanulíková

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An important property of speech is that it explicitly conveys features of a speaker's identity such as age or gender. This event-related potential (ERP study examined the effects of social information provided by a speaker’s gender, i.e. the conceptual representation of gender, on subject-verb agreement. Despite numerous studies on agreement, little is known about syntactic computations generated by speaker characteristics extracted from the acoustic signal. Slovak is well suited to investigate this issue because it is a morphologically rich language in which agreement involves features for number, case, and gender. Grammaticality of a sentence can be evaluated by checking a speaker’s gender as conveyed by his/her voice. We examined how conceptual information about speaker gender, which is not syntactic but rather social and pragmatic in nature, is interpreted for the computation of agreement patterns. ERP responses to verbs disagreeing with the speaker's gender (e.g., a sentence including a masculine verbal inflection spoken by a female person 'the neighbours were upset because I *stoleMASC plums’ elicited a larger early posterior negativity compared to correct sentences. When the agreement was purely syntactic and did not depend on the speaker’s gender, a disagreement between a formally-marked subject and the verb inflection (e.g., the womanFEM *stoleMASC plums resulted in a larger P600 preceded by a larger anterior negativity compared to the control sentences. This result is in line with proposals according to which the recruitment of non-syntactic information such as the gender of the speaker results in N400-like effects, while formally-marked syntactic features lead to structural integration as reflected in a LAN/P600 complex.

  6. Electrophysiology of subject-verb agreement mediated by speakers' gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanulíková, Adriana; Carreiras, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    An important property of speech is that it explicitly conveys features of a speaker's identity such as age or gender. This event-related potential (ERP) study examined the effects of social information provided by a speaker's gender, i.e., the conceptual representation of gender, on subject-verb agreement. Despite numerous studies on agreement, little is known about syntactic computations generated by speaker characteristics extracted from the acoustic signal. Slovak is well suited to investigate this issue because it is a morphologically rich language in which agreement involves features for number, case, and gender. Grammaticality of a sentence can be evaluated by checking a speaker's gender as conveyed by his/her voice. We examined how conceptual information about speaker gender, which is not syntactic but rather social and pragmatic in nature, is interpreted for the computation of agreement patterns. ERP responses to verbs disagreeing with the speaker's gender (e.g., a sentence including a masculine verbal inflection spoken by a female person 'the neighbors were upset because I (∗)stoleMASC plums') elicited a larger early posterior negativity compared to correct sentences. When the agreement was purely syntactic and did not depend on the speaker's gender, a disagreement between a formally marked subject and the verb inflection (e.g., the womanFEM (∗)stoleMASC plums) resulted in a larger P600 preceded by a larger anterior negativity compared to the control sentences. This result is in line with proposals according to which the recruitment of non-syntactic information such as the gender of the speaker results in N400-like effects, while formally marked syntactic features lead to structural integration as reflected in a LAN/P600 complex.

  7. Comparison of Different Test Construction Strategies in the Development of a Gender Fair Interest Inventory Using Verbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, Eunike; Hell, Benedikt; Passler, Katja

    2012-01-01

    Three test construction strategies are described and illustrated in the development of the Verb Interest Test (VIT), an inventory that assesses vocational interests using verbs. Verbs might be a promising alternative to the descriptions of occupational activities used in most vocational interest inventories because they are context-independent,…

  8. Effects of Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus on Naming and Reading Nouns and Verbs in Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveri, Maria Caterina; Ciccarelli, Nicoletta; Baldonero, Eleonora; Piano, Carla; Zinno, Massimiliano; Soleti, Francesco; Bentivoglio, Anna Rita; Albanese, Alberto; Daniele, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    An impairment for verbs has been described in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), suggesting that a disruption of frontal-subcortical circuits may result in dysfunction of the neural systems involved in action-verb processing. A previous study suggested that deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) during verb generation…

  9. New energy paradigm?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldoni, Giovanni

    2007-01-01

    The rise of oil prices, the difficulties in markets liberalization, and the poor results of competition have convinced many that a new energy paradigm is necessary. Taking the original definition of scientific paradigm, it doesn't seem that a practical solution could be found outside the present paradigm of energy policy, made of privatisation, liberalisation and competition [it

  10. The VERB campaign: applying a branding strategy in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbury, Lori D; Wong, Faye L; Price, Simani M; Nolin, Mary Jo

    2008-06-01

    A branding strategy was an integral component of the VERB Youth Media Campaign. Branding has a long history in commercial marketing, and recently it has also been applied to public health campaigns. This article describes the process that the CDC undertook to develop a physical activity brand that would resonate with children aged 9-13 years (tweens), to launch an unknown brand nationally, to build the brand's equity, and to protect and maintain the brand's integrity. Considerations for branding other public health campaigns are also discussed.

  11. Exploring atypical verb+noun combinations in learner technical writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Luzón Marco

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Professional and academic discourse is characterised by a specific phraseology, which usually poses problems for students. This paper investigates atypical verb+noun collocations in a corpus of English technical writing of Spanish students. I focus on the type of verbs that most frequently occurred in these awkward or questionable combinations and attempt to explore the reasons why the learners deviate from NS's norms. The analysis indicates that these learners tend to have problems with a set of sub-technical and high-frequency verbs. Deviant combinations involving these verbs are frequently the result of a deficient knowledge of the phraseology of academic and technical discourse. The unawareness of collocations that are typical of this discourse often leads students to create V+N combinations by relying on the “Open Choice Principle” (Sinclair, 1991 or by using patterns from their mother tongue.El discurso profesional y académico se caracteriza por una fraseología específica, que suele plantear problemas a los estudiantes. Este artículo investiga colocaciones de verbo+nombre atípicas en un corpus de textos técnicos en inglés escritos por estudiantes españoles. El estudio se centra en los verbos que más frecuentemente aparecen en estas combinaciones atípicas y explora las razones por las que los estudiantes se desvían de la norma. El análisis indica que estos estudiantes suelen tener problemas con un grupo de verbos sub-técnicos y verbos de alta frecuencia. Las combinaciones atípicas en las que estos verbos aparecen son frecuentemente el resultado de un conocimiento deficiente de la fraseología del discurso académico y técnico. El desconocimiento de colocaciones que son típicas de este discurso a menudo lleva a los estudiantes a crear combinaciones basándose en el “principio de opción abierta” (Sinclair, 1991 o a usar colocaciones prestadas de su lengua materna.

  12. A propos du verbe traduire et du nom traduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly Flaux

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the main semantic and syntactic properties of the verb traduire ‘to translate’ and of the noun traduction ‘translation’. First, the different meanings of these two words will be outlined, in French and in other languages; it will be shown that the Husserlian notion of “ideal object” is essential to give a real account of the linguistic properties of the noun traduction when it denotes a text translated from one language into another; furthermore, the notion of ideality is important for the study of many nouns of music or language and might be extended to the domain of fine arts.

  13. A Logical Approach to Modal Verbs 3. “Must”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imre Attila

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article aims at a logical approach to discussing must, organized around the core meaning of necessity, split into epistemic (logical necessity and deontic necessity (obligation. After discussing must as a central modal auxiliary, we present various meanings of must, relying on authoritative sources published for international (English, Hungarian, and Romanian students. Possible issues of teaching must are also dealt with, supported by data from a popular TV series containing modal verbs. The conclusion discusses the importance and relativity of a number of occurrences, trying to offer a possible teaching option for modals stemming from practice.

  14. Between grammar and dictionary: With special reference to Slovene verb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žele Andreja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Slovene resources confirm that verbal aspect and aspectualness depend on the morphological, lexical, syntactic, and other characteristics of a particular language. Since verbal aspect is directly connected to the meaning of a particular verb, as well as its structural and semantic-syntactic abilities, it is considered to be an essential characteristic in terms of the language system of every language. The specific features of aspectualness, especially if we take into account its connectedness to a given language system, are confirmed by various contrastive studies, which also place considerable emphasis on a number of general aspectual characteristics that can be applied to all languages. Within every language system, for example, the grammatical (morphological, lexical, and syntactic aspectualness are distinguished from one another, whereas in the case of a particular text, the relationship between aspect, time, and mood cannot be overlooked. What remains central in both current and future discussions is establishing the relationship between aspectualness and temporality within a particular language or languages. Cases of ‘aspectual competitiveness’, related to the temporal structure of a given sentence, have been noted in Slovene as well, especially in examples like Sem že večerjal - Sem že povečerjal (‘I already had dinner - I already finished my dinner’, Vedno smo k obstoječemu doprinesli tudi nekaj novega - Vedno smo k obstoječemu doprinašali tudi nekaj novega (‘We always contributed something new to the existing condition - We always used to contribute something new to the existing condition’, etc. That the behavior of the imperfect may vary in the past and future is shown by examples like Temperatura se je dvigovala ‘višala, padala in spet višala’ (The temperature kept rising ‘rising, falling, and rising again’, Temperatura se bo dvigovala ‘vedno samo navzgor, brez nihanja’ (The temperature will keep on

  15. Verb Movement and the Licensing of NP-positions in the Germanic Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikner, Sten

    1990-01-01

    In this dissertation, I want to discuss a certain set of interrelated phenomena in Danish and other Germanic languages. What   I am interested in is the position of the finite verb, the factors that determine this verb-position, and the consequences that the choice of position has for other...... into which other positions NPs may occupy, and how they depend on certain verb movements either taking place in the same sentence, or at least being possible in the language in question. The thesis is organised as follows: In chapter 1, I briefly introduce the theoretical background for my study, and discuss...... a number of definitions central to the following chapters. In chapter 2, I discuss the two kinds of movement of the finite verb found in the Germanic languages: Verb Second (V2) and V-to-I movement, and their distrib­ution across the Germanic languages. (French (and to some extent Italian) is sometimes...

  16. Verbal aspect category and some ways of distinguishing of aspect pairs of verbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V. Sheyko

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses one of the most complex grammatical categories of the verb - category of the aspect, it is noted that there are still unsolved issues relating to the status of this category, its volume, ratio to the aspect pairs of verbs. One group of scientists after V.V. Vinogradov calls category of aspect as word-changing on the basis of the lexical identity of aspect pairs, another group, and in particular I.G. Miloslavsky, relates it to the formative, the third group, which representative is L.A. Mesenyashina, tryes to find a compromise, and those verbs, which syntactic-functional series are identical, calls paired, and those verbs in which there are significant differences in compatibility, calls different lexems. Thus it is accounted only the compatibility of verbs with the word forms, as well as many verbs can act as a reference in subordinate clauses, and in this case their compatibility in different lexical-semantic versions may vary. It is shown on the example of the verbs “чувствовать – почувствовать», which in the majority of lexicographical sources are named paired verbs, but their compatibility is not the same, and therefore, they can not be called as aspect pair. Therefore, in determining the pair/unpair verbs we should proceed from the same or not the same invariant meaning of verbs (in the terminology of A. Timberlake, take into account their multiple meanings and compatibility in different LSV and consider compatibility not only at the level of word forms, but also at the level of a complex sentence.

  17. On the Tupi-Guaranian prehistory of the Siriono verb

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    Roland Hemmauer

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows that the verbal morphosyntax of Siriono, which is synchronically highly divergent from that of other Tupi-Guaranian (TG languages, can be derived from the recon structed proto-TG (PTG system. Arguments will be presented to show that the SA=A series of person markers (e.g. PTG 1SG *a- has merged with the SO=O series (e.g. PTG 1SG *če- in the 1st and 2nd plural persons in Siriono. In spite of this partial merger of two series of person markers, morphological ele ments that appeared in PTG between the personal prefix and the stem of transitive verbs have been retained in Siriono with an identical distribution. The partial merger of the SA=A series with the SO=O series is explained by a combination of phonological and syntactic motivations. Additional evidence is drawn from Siriono’s closely related sister language Yuki. Apart from this, the prefix k- that occurs on third-person forms of ‘comitative-causative’ verbs in Siriono has retained a trace of the PTG third-person prefix *o- in spite of the emergence of an innovated third-person prefix e-. These facts are taken as evidence of a PTG origin of the Siriono system.

  18. Online Sentence Comprehension in PPA: Verb-Based Integration and Prediction

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    Jennifer E Mack

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Impaired language comprehension is frequently observed in primary progressive aphasia (PPA. Word comprehension deficits are characteristic of the semantic variant (PPA-S whereas sentence comprehension deficits are more prevalent in the agrammatic (PPA-G and logopenic (PPA-L variants (Amici et al., 2007; Gorno-Tempini et al., 2011; Thompson et al., 2013. Word and sentence comprehension deficits have also been shown to have distinct neural substrates in PPA (Mesulam, Thompson, Weintraub, & Rogalski, in press. However, little is known about the relationship between word and sentence comprehension processes in PPA, specifically how words are accessed, combined, and used to predict upcoming elements within a sentence. A previous study demonstrated that listeners with stroke-induced agrammatic aphasia rapidly access verb meanings and use them to semantically integrate verb-arguments; however, they show deficits in using verb meanings predictively (Mack, Ji, & Thompson, 2013. The present study tested whether listeners with PPA are able to access verb meanings and to use this information to integrate and predict verb-arguments. Methods. Fifteen adults with PPA (8 with PPA-G, 3 with PPA-L, and 4 with PPA-S and ten age-matched controls participated in two eyetracking experiments. In both experiments, participants heard sentences with restrictive verbs that were semantically compatible with only one object in a four-picture visual array (e.g., eat when the array included a cake and three non-edible objects and unrestrictive verbs (e.g., move that were compatible with all four objects. The verb-based integration experiment tested access to verb meaning and its effects on integration of the direct object (e.g., Susan will eat/move the cake; the verb-based prediction experiment examined prediction of the direct object (e.g., Susan will eat/move the …. The dependent variable was the rate of fixations on the target picture (e.g., the cake in the

  19. Language-invariant verb processing regions in Spanish-English bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willms, Joanna L; Shapiro, Kevin A; Peelen, Marius V; Pajtas, Petra E; Costa, Albert; Moo, Lauren R; Caramazza, Alfonso

    2011-07-01

    Nouns and verbs are fundamental grammatical building blocks of all languages. Studies of brain-damaged patients and healthy individuals have demonstrated that verb processing can be dissociated from noun processing at a neuroanatomical level. In cases where bilingual patients have a noun or verb deficit, the deficit has been observed in both languages. This suggests that the noun-verb distinction may be based on neural components that are common across languages. Here we investigated the cortical organization of grammatical categories in healthy, early Spanish-English bilinguals using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a morphophonological alternation task. Four regions showed greater activity for verbs than for nouns in both languages: left posterior middle temporal gyrus (LMTG), left middle frontal gyrus (LMFG), pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA), and right middle occipital gyrus (RMOG); no regions showed greater activation for nouns. Multi-voxel pattern analysis within verb-specific regions showed indistinguishable activity patterns for English and Spanish, indicating language-invariant bilingual processing. In LMTG and LMFG, patterns were more similar within than across grammatical category, both within and across languages, indicating language-invariant grammatical class information. These results suggest that the neural substrates underlying verb-specific processing are largely independent of language in bilinguals, both at the macroscopic neuroanatomical level and at the level of voxel activity patterns. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. First-person and third-person verbs in visual motion-perception regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papeo, Liuba; Lingnau, Angelika

    2015-02-01

    Verb-related activity is consistently found in the left posterior lateral cortex (PLTC), encompassing also regions that respond to visual-motion perception. Besides motion, those regions appear sensitive to distinctions among the entities beyond motion, including that between first- vs. third-person ("third-person bias"). In two experiments, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we studied whether the implied subject (first/third-person) and/or the semantic content (motor/non-motor) of verbs modulate the neural activity in the left PLTC-regions responsive during basic- and biological-motion perception. In those sites, we found higher activity for verbs than for nouns. This activity was modulated by the person (but not the semantic content) of the verbs, with stronger response to third- than first-person verbs. The third-person bias elicited by verbs supports a role of motion-processing regions in encoding information about the entity beyond (and independently from) motion, and sets in a new light the role of these regions in verb processing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Conceptual representation of verbs in bilinguals: semantic field effects and a second-language performance paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segalowitz, Norman; de Almeida, Roberto G

    2002-01-01

    It is well known that bilinguals perform better in their first language (L1) than in their second lanaguage (L2) in a wide range of linguistic tasks. In recent studies, however, the authors have found that bilingual participants can demonstrate faster response times to L1 stimuli than to L2 stimuli in one classification task and the reverse in a different classification task. In the current study, they investigated the reasons for this "L2-better-than-L1" effect. English-French bilinguals performed one word relatedness and two categorization tasks with verbs of motion (e.g., run) and psychological verbs (e.g., admire) in both languages. In the word relatedness task, participants judged how closely related pairs of verbs from both categories were. In a speeded semantic categorization task, participants classified the verbs according to their semantic category (psychological or motion). In an arbitrary classification task, participants had to learn how verbs had been assigned to two arbitrary categories. Participants performed better in L1 in the semantic classification task but paradoxically better in L2 in the arbitrary classification task. To account for these effects, the authors used the ratings from the word relatedness task to plot three-dimensional "semantic fields" for the verbs. Cross-language field differences were found to be significantly related to the paradoxical performance and to fluency levels. The results have implications for understanding of how bilinguals represent verbs in the mental lexicon. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  2. An Investigation of the Problems Jordanian EFL Learners Encounter in Presupposition Triggered by Certain Factive Verbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamzah Saleh Ghammaz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at investigating the problems that Jordanian EFL learners encounter in presupposition triggered by certain factive verbs. Specifically, it sought to find out whether there is a relationship between the subjects’ proficiency level in English and their correct recognition of presupposition triggered by certain factive verbs. It also aims at identifying which factive verbs are much more difficult than others in terms of the presupposed meaning. The subjects of the study were 70 adult learners of English at the University of Jordan. They belong to two different proficiency levels: Intermediate and Advanced. A special test was prepared to elicit the data needed for investigation. The test required the subjects to circle the best choice that presupposes a given sentence. The results showed that the Advanced Group outperformed the Intermediate Group on all the target factive verbs, and the factive verb “ be aware of ” proved to be the most difficult one followed by “forget”. The importance of this study lies in that it invistigates the semantic behaviour of some verbs in English language what contributes to understanding the general semantic system of the language, and this is the main tast of linguists. The study recommended that further investigation should be made in the area of presupposition and factive verbs in order to pinpoint the sources of difficulty for learners. The results of those investigations can be used to improve EFL learning and teaching in Jordan.

  3. Effect of action verbs on the performance of a complex movement.

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    Tahar Rabahi

    Full Text Available The interaction between language and motor action has been approached by studying the effect of action verbs, kinaesthetic imagery and mental subtraction upon the performance of a complex movement, the squat vertical jump (SVJ. The time of flight gave the value of the height of the SVJ and was measured with an Optojump® and a Myotest® apparatuses. The results obtained by the effects of the cognitive stimuli showed a statistically significant improvement of the SVJ performance after either loudly or silently pronouncing, hearing or reading the verb saute (jump in French language. Action verbs specific for other motor actions (pince = pinch, lèche = lick or non-specific (bouge = move showed no or little effect. A meaningless verb for the French subjects (tiáo = jump in Chinese showed no effect as did rêve (dream, tombe (fall and stop. The verb gagne (win improved significantly the SVJ height, as did its antonym perds (lose suggesting a possible influence of affects in the subjects' performance. The effect of the specific action verb jump upon the heights of SVJ was similar to that obtained after kinaesthetic imagery and after mental subtraction of two digits numbers from three digits ones; possibly, in the latter, because of the intervention of language in calculus. It appears that the effects of the specific action verb jump did seem effective but not totally exclusive for the enhancement of the SVJ performance. The results imply an interaction among language and motor brain areas in the performance of a complex movement resulting in a clear specificity of the corresponding action verb. The effect upon performance may probably be influenced by the subjects' intention, increased attention and emotion produced by cognitive stimuli among which action verbs.

  4. The Next Paradigm

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    Bernardo Kastrup

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to perceive the world, we need more than just raw sensory input: a subliminal paradigm of thought is required to interpret raw sensory data and, thereby, create the objects and events we perceive around ourselves. As such, the world we see reflects our own unexamined, culture-bound assumptions and expectations, which explains why every generation in history has believed that it more or less understood the world. Today, we perceive a world of objects and events outside and independent of mind, which merely reflects our current paradigm of thought. Anomalies that contradict this paradigm have been accumulated by physicists over the past couple of decades, which will eventually force our culture to move to a new paradigm. Under this new paradigm, a form of universal mind will be viewed as nature’s sole fundamental entity. In this paper, I offer a sketch of what the new paradigm may look like.

  5. Didaktiske paradigmer og refleksion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Torben Spanget

    2014-01-01

    analysis of subject didactics by Sigmund Ongstad. The two positions offer fundamentally different insights into didactics. Nielsen’s position establishes didactics as a knowledge domain and Ongstad’s position points to the dynamics of subject didactics by analyzing communication as a basic aspect. Krogh...... this article. A possible utilitarian didactical paradigm, already indicated by Krogh as a historical paradigm prominent in our time, is also discussed. It is suggested that reflection could be seen as a normative response to the utilitarian paradigm, and not as a paradigm in its own right. It is concluded...

  6. Unlocking past emotion: verb use affects mood and happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, William

    2013-01-01

    In the research reported here, I examined whether the verbs applied to descriptions of past emotional experiences influence present mood and happiness. Participants who described a positive experience using the imperfective aspect, which implies ongoing progression, subsequently reported more positive mood and greater happiness than did participants who described a positive experience using the perfective aspect, which implies completion; likewise, participants who described a negative experience using the imperfective aspect subsequently reported more negative mood and less happiness than did participants who described a negative experience using the perfective aspect. These effects were traced to enhanced memory for the described emotional experience in the imperfective condition relative to the perfective condition. The findings demonstrate how formal features of language shape both the reinstatement of past affective reactions and happiness judgments, and may have practical applications for improving subjective well-being.

  7. A morphophonological analysis of the velar insert in Italian verbs

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    Nicola Lampitelli

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes a particular group of Italian irregular verbs that are characterized by the insertion of [g] between the root and the inflectional markers. Despite the apparent unetymological status of such a velar insert (Rohlfs 1968, it is shown that the allomorphy of the root depends on the internal organization of the segmental material with respect to a fixed template made of a strict alternation of onsets (C and nuclei (V. The analyses are couched within the CVCV framework (Lowenstamm 1996; Scheer 2004 and are consistent with a syntactic approach to word- formation such as Distributed Morphology (Halle & Marantz 1993; Embick 2010. This article is part of the special collection: Motivating Form in Morpho-Syntax

  8. Dynamic paradigm of turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhamedov, Alfred M.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a dynamic paradigm of turbulence is proposed. The basic idea consists in the novel definition of chaotic structure given with the help of Pfaff system of PDE associated with the turbulent dynamics. A methodological analysis of the new and the former paradigm is produced

  9. An Integrative Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammack, Phillip L.

    2005-01-01

    Through the application of life course theory to the study of sexual orientation, this paper specifies a new paradigm for research on human sexual orientation that seeks to reconcile divisions among biological, social science, and humanistic paradigms. Recognizing the historical, social, and cultural relativity of human development, this paradigm…

  10. Rhyme and Word Placement in Storybooks Support High-Level Verb Mapping in 3- to 5-Year-Olds

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    Kirsten Read

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available High-level verbs can be especially challenging for young children to initially map to meaning. This study manipulated the format of a storybook designed to support such verb learning from shared reading. We tested whether 3- to 5-year-olds (n = 38 could remember the referents of eight new verbs when presented as essential actions within a narrative story but with differences in placement. Children were randomly assigned to either a rhymed condition, in which target verbs were heard at the end of rhyming stanzas making them maximally appreciable, or a control condition, where the verbs were presented in the same story, but not in final position or within a rhymed stanza. After hearing the story, each child was given three sets of retention questions testing their identification, demonstration, and production of the target verbs. Children identified and successfully demonstrated more target verbs in the rhymed condition than the control condition, and only in the rhymed condition did children’s initial verb mappings exceed chance. No differences between conditions were found in children’s ability to produce the target verbs, in part because of how often they reverted to more generic terms to describe the actions in the story. Nonetheless, these findings support the hypothesis that giving children maximal support within a storybook reading context can facilitate an initial grasp on challenging verbs.

  11. VERB - a social marketing campaign to increase physical activity among youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Faye; Huhman, Marian; Heitzler, Carrie; Asbury, Lori; Bretthauer-Mueller, Rosemary; McCarthy, Susan; Londe, Paula

    2004-07-01

    The VERB campaign is a multiethnic media campaign with a goal to increase and maintain physical activity among tweens, or children aged nine to 13 years. Parents, especially mothers aged 29 to 46, and other sources of influence on tweens (e.g., teachers, youth program leaders) are the secondary audiences of the VERB initiative. VERB applies sophisticated commercial marketing techniques to address the public health problem of sedentary lifestyles of American children, using the social marketing principles of product, price, place, and promotion. In this paper, we describe how these four principles were applied to formulate the strategies and tactics of the VERB campaign, and we provide examples of the multimedia materials (e.g., posters, print advertising, television, radio spots) that were created.

  12. Latent semantics of action verbs reflect phonetic parameters of intensity and emotional content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Michael Kai

    2015-01-01

    already in toddlers, this study explores whether articulatory and acoustic parameters may likewise differentiate the latent semantics of action verbs. Selecting 3 X 20 emotion, face, and hand related verbs known to activate premotor areas in the brain, their mutual cosine similarities were computed using...... latent semantic analysis LSA, and the resulting adjacency matrices were compared based on two different large scale text corpora; HAWIK and TASA. Applying hierarchical clustering to identify common structures across the two text corpora, the verbs largely divide into combined mouth and hand movements...... versus emotional expressions. Transforming the verbs into their constituent phonemes, and projecting them into an articulatory space framed by tongue height and formant frequencies, the clustered small and large size movements appear differentiated by front versus back vowels corresponding to increasing...

  13. LEXICAL ANALYSIS OF THE VERB COOK AND LEARNING VOCABULARY: A CORPUS STUDY

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    Priyono Priyono

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available English verbs have built-in properties that determine how they behave syntactically and generate appropriate meaning associated. With these inherent properties some verbs can fill in only in certain syntactic structures and some in others. The observation of the verb COOK using English corpus has revealed its lexical properties covering the area of syntax, semantics, and collocation suggesting uniqueness of its behaviours that are distinguishable from other verbs. Having found the lexical properties of COOK, this article concludes that the acquisition of lexicon should include lexical properties that reflect their level of competence. It also argues that the acquisition of lexical properties should be implicit, not through meta-linguistic knowledge. This would render early grammar teaching unnecessary. The acquisition of lexical properties should take place through subconscious process, not explicit grammar instruction. Many of these are grammatical aspects such as word order, sentence construction, grammatical and lexical collocations.

  14. Agrammatic aphasia verb and argument patterns in Kiswahili-English spontaneous language

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    Hillary K. Sang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The spontaneous and narrative language of Kiswahili agrammatic aphasic and non-brain-damaged speakers was analysed. The bilingual participants were also tested in English to enable comparisons of verb production in the two languages. The significance of this study was to characterise bilingual Kiswahili-English spontaneous agrammatic output. This was done by describing Kiswahili-English bilingual output data with a specific focus on the production of verbs. The description involves comparison of verb and argument production in Kiswahili and English. Methods and procedures: The participants recruited for this study were drawn from two groups of participants (six non-fluent aphasic/agrammatic speakers and six non-braindamaged. From each participant, a sample of spontaneous output was tape-recorded in English and Kiswahili based on the description and narration of the Flood rescue picture’ and the ‘Cookie theft picture’. The data elicited were compared for each subject and between the participants and relevant verb parameters have been analysed. The variables that were studied included mean length of utterance (MLU, inflectional errors, verb tokens and types, copulas and auxiliaries. Further, all verbs produced were classified as per their argument structure. Results: The results from English data supported previous findings on agrammatic output. The agrammatic participants produced utterances with shorter MLU and simpler sentence structure. However, Kiswahili data surprisingly showed reversed results, with agrammatic speakers producing longer utterances than non-brain-damaged (NBD controls. The results also revealed selective impairment in some agrammatic speakers who made inflectional errors. The verb argument structure showed contrasting results, with agrammatic speakers preferring transitive verbs whilst the NBD speakers used more intransitive verbs. Conclusions: The study attempts for the first time to characterise English

  15. Noun and verb processing in aphasia: Behavioural profiles and neural correlates

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    Reem S.W. Alyahya

    Full Text Available The behavioural and neural processes underpinning different word classes, particularly nouns and verbs, have been a long-standing area of interest in psycholinguistic, neuropsychology and aphasiology research. This topic has theoretical implications concerning the organisation of the language system, as well as clinical consequences related to the management of patients with language deficits. Research findings, however, have diverged widely, which might, in part, reflect methodological differences, particularly related to controlling the psycholinguistic variations between nouns and verbs. The first aim of this study, therefore, was to develop a set of neuropsychological tests that assessed single-word production and comprehension with a matched set of nouns and verbs. Secondly, the behavioural profiles and neural correlates of noun and verb processing were explored, based on these novel tests, in a relatively large cohort of 48 patients with chronic post-stroke aphasia. A data-driven approach, principal component analysis (PCA, was also used to determine how noun and verb production and comprehension were related to the patients' underlying fundamental language domains. The results revealed no performance differences between noun and verb production and comprehension once matched on multiple psycholinguistic features including, most critically, imageability. Interestingly, the noun-verb differences found in previous studies were replicated in this study once un-matched materials were used. Lesion-symptom mapping revealed overlapping neural correlates of noun and verb processing along left temporal and parietal regions. These findings support the view that the neural representation of noun and verb processing at single-word level are jointly-supported by distributed cortical regions. The PCA generated five fundamental language and cognitive components of aphasia: phonological production, phonological recognition, semantics, fluency, and

  16. Some remarks on Romanian reflexive verbs derived by the prefix "în"

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    Veronica Tomescu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses a small group of Romanian reflexive verbs, denominals derived by means of the prefix în, as well as a group of transitive verbs which are reflexivized. Their behaviour will be briefly considered. A search on the Internet has also been made alongside the dictionary study in order to gain an insight into the frequency of use of certain forms.

  17. Differential Impairment of Noun and Verb Consequent to LH Lesions in Persian Aphasic Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Reza Nilipour; Rabeeh Ariaei; Dr. Hassan Ashayeri

    2003-01-01

    The major focus of this research is on the differential disruption of language abilities subsequent to brain damages as they relate to site and size of lesion, especially left hemisphere lesions which disrupt the production and processing of "Nouns" vs. "Verbs" as two functionally different lexical categories. Several clinical as well as experimental studies reported on different language have shown that nouns and verbs can be independently disrupted due to brain damage. A prevalent impairmen...

  18. Improving production of treated and untreated verbs in aphasia: A meta-analysis

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    Vânia de Aguiar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND. Demographic and clinical predictors of aphasia recovery have been identified in the literature. However, little attention has been devoted to identifying and distinguishing predictors of improvement for different outcomes, e.g., production of treated vs. untreated materials. These outcomes may rely on different mechanisms, and therefore be predicted by different variables. Furthermore, treatment features are not typically accounted for when studying predictors of aphasia recovery. This is partly due to the small numbers of cases reported in studies, but also to limitations of data analysis techniques usually employed. METHOD. We reviewed the literature on predictors of aphasia recovery, and conducted a meta-analysis of single-case studies designed to assess the efficacy of treatments for verb production. The contribution of demographic, clinical, and treatment-related variables was assessed by means of Random Forests (a machine-learning technique used in classification and regression. Two outcomes were investigated: production of treated (for 142 patients and untreated verbs (for 166 patients. RESULTS. Improved production of treated verbs was predicted by a three-way interaction of pre-treatment scores on tests for verb comprehension and word repetition, and the frequency of treatment sessions. Improvement in production of untreated verbs was predicted by an interaction including the use of morphological cues, presence of grammatical impairment, pre-treatment scores on a test for noun comprehension and frequency of treatment sessions. CONCLUSION. Improvement in the production of treated verbs occurs frequently. It may depend on restoring access to and/or knowledge of lexeme representations, and requires relative sparing of semantic knowledge (as measured by verb comprehension and phonological output abilities (including working memory, as measured by word repetition. Improvement in the production of untreated verbs has not been

  19. Influencing the parents of children aged 9-13 years: findings from the VERB campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Simani M; Huhman, Marian; Potter, Lance D

    2008-06-01

    The CDC's VERB campaign was designed to increase physical activity among children aged 9-13 years (tweens). As part of the strategy to surround tweens with support to be physically active, VERB developed messages for parents, the secondary target audience, to encourage them to support their tween's physical activity. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to determine whether parent awareness of VERB was a significant predictor of seven factors that related to parental attitudes, beliefs, and supportive behaviors for tweens' physical activity using the Youth Media Campaign Longitudinal Survey (YMCLS). Parents (N=1946) of U.S. children aged 9-13 years. Advertising directed at tweens through paid television, radio, print, Internet, and schools was the primary VERB intervention; tween advertising could have been also seen by parents. Messages directed at parents encouraging their support of tweens' physical activity were delivered in English through mainly print and radio. In-language messages for Latino and Asian audiences were delivered through print, radio, television, and at events. Parents' awareness of VERB; parents' attitudes, beliefs, and support for their tweens' physical activities. Awareness increased each year of the campaign; more than 50% of parents were aware of VERB by the third year of the campaign. Parents reported that their main source of awareness was television, the main channel used to reach tweens. Awareness of VERB was predictive of positive attitudes about physical activity for all children, belief in the importance of physical activity for their own child, and the number of days parents were physically active with their child. Parents' awareness of VERB was associated with positive attitudes, beliefs, and behavior. Parents' awareness probably resulted from a combination of messages directed to parents and tweens. To maximize audience reach, social marketers who are developing health messages should consider the potential value of

  20. Noun and verb differences in picture naming: past studies and new evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mätzig, Simone; Druks, Judit; Masterson, Jackie; Vigliocco, Gabriella

    2009-06-01

    We re-examine the double dissociation view of noun-verb differences by critically reviewing past lesion studies reporting selective noun or verb deficits in picture naming, and reporting the results of a new picture naming study carried out with aphasic patients and comparison participants. Since there are theoretical arguments and empirical evidence that verb processing is more demanding than noun processing, in the review we distinguished between cases that presented with large and small differences between nouns and verbs. We argued that the latter cases may be accounted for in terms of greater difficulty in processing verbs than nouns. For the cases reporting large differences between nouns and verbs we assessed consistency in lesion localization and consistency in diagnostic classification. More variability both in terms of diagnostic category and lesion sites was found among the verb impaired than the noun impaired patients. In the experimental study, nine aphasic patients and nine age matched neurologically unimpaired individuals carried out a picture naming study that used a large set of materials matched for age of acquisition and in addition to accuracy measures, latencies were also recorded. Despite the patients' variable language deficits, diagnostic category and the matched materials, all patients performed faster and more accurately in naming the object than the action pictures. The comparison participants performed similarly. We also carried out a qualitative analysis of the errors patients made and showed that different types of errors were made in response to object and action pictures. We concluded that action naming places more and different demands on the language processor than object naming. The conclusions of the literature review and the results of the experimental study are discussed in relation to claims previous studies have made on the basis of the double dissociation found between nouns and verbs. We argue that these claims are only

  1. Beyond dichotomies : on the nature and classification of compound verbs in English

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    Alexandra Bagasheva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of compound verbs in English poses numerous problems, among which even their recognition as compounds on grounds of their derivation. Resulting from at least three different word-formation patterns, compound verbs constitute a heterogeneous class of complex lexemes. Their status as actual compound lexemes invites the differentiation between compounding as a word-formation process and compounds as a special class of lexemes. Even within the latter, compound verbs display marked properties at least in relation to the inability of standard classifications of compounds to capture and compromise their lexical uniformity and their heterogeneous origin. The adoption of a position in which it is argued that compound verbs in English constitute a constructional idiom and the application of scalar analytical notions which combine word-formationist and lexical-semantic accounts cast in the general framework of the cognitive linguistic enterprise yield informative generalizations concerning the linguistic and conceptual properties of compound verbs in English. In view of Radden and Dirven's (2007: 41-46 claim that we do not need "more than two basic types of conceptual units things and relations" in order to establish linguistically relevant conceptual distinctions, compound verbs pose a problem for neat dichotomous treatment as they very often both conceptually and in terms of form include a "thing" (e.g. to flat-hunt, to house-sit, to fellow-feel, to case-harden, etc. and thus come closer to a "situation" than to a "relation". Exactly because of the fact that compound verbs profile/perspectivize "situations" as "relations", they function as special construal mechanisms and as such do not fit the subordinate/coordinate distinction, because they name situations. In view of the above the paper treats compound verbs as a constructional idiom whose analysis necessitates the recognition of the role of conceptual conversion mechanisms, scalar

  2. Technical Text Comprehension Difficulties in the Usage of Reflexive Verbs in the French Language

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    Lina Dubikaltytė-Raugalienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The author researches the problems of textual competence and especially the reflexive constructions in the texts of French speciality. It was established that there exists some difference in the usage of reflective verbs in the French and the Lithuanian language especially in the field of passive voice and a wider semantics of modal and aspect verbs and that raises not a fen problems of effective text reading problems.

  3. Grasping hand verbs: oscillatory beta and alpha correlates of action-word processing.

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    Valentina Niccolai

    Full Text Available The grounded cognition framework proposes that sensorimotor brain areas, which are typically involved in perception and action, also play a role in linguistic processing. We assessed oscillatory modulation during visual presentation of single verbs and localized cortical motor regions by means of isometric contraction of hand and foot muscles. Analogously to oscillatory activation patterns accompanying voluntary movements, we expected a somatotopically distributed suppression of beta and alpha frequencies in the motor cortex during processing of body-related action verbs. Magnetoencephalographic data were collected during presentation of verbs that express actions performed using the hands (H or feet (F. Verbs denoting no bodily movement (N were used as a control. Between 150 and 500 msec after visual word onset, beta rhythms were suppressed in H and F in comparison with N in the left hemisphere. Similarly, alpha oscillations showed left-lateralized power suppression in the H-N contrast, although at a later stage. The cortical oscillatory activity that typically occurs during voluntary movements is therefore found to somatotopically accompany the processing of body-related verbs. The combination of a localizer task with the oscillatory investigation applied to verb reading as in the present study provides further methodological possibilities of tracking language processing in the brain.

  4. LEXICAL AND GRAMMATICAL POTENTIAL OF THE VERB LASSEN IN MODERN GERMAN

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    Rogozhnikova Irina Nikolaevna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A solution to the problem of verbal meaning identity is offered with the support of semantic analysis of the verb lassen and determination of grammatical construction types with it. Studies of dictionary definitions helped to reveal formal and conceptual asymmetry of semantic meanings of the verb lassen, which is presented in correlation between homonymy and polysemy. The author characterizes three homonymous verbs: lassen I with the meaning "to get free, separate", lassen II with the meaning "to perform a volition act towards another person", lassen III with the meaning "to cause something". The semantic structure of every homonym is considered as a distinct system of individual meanings tied with chained polysemy relations. The data collected on the homonyms' usage in various texts laid the basis for the typology of grammatical constructions with respect to a functional and semantic factor, indicated coordination between a grammar construction and a certain meaning of the verb lassen. It is stated that the particle sich if joined to the verb lassen may perform two grammatical functions: mainly it is an independent predicate, but in some cases when it is added to the verb lassen II ('to have opportunity to perform some activity' it is transferred into a constituent of a predicate.

  5. Phonological variation in verbs ending in –ear (chantagear and –iar (variar

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    Thaïs Cristófaro Alves da Silva

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the variation between mid and high vowels related to verbal forms in Brazilian Portuguese ending in –ear  (chantagear “to blackmail” and –iar (variar “to vary”. In these two sets of verbs one observes standard forms such as chantag[e]ia  and var[i]a and also non-standard forms such as chantag[i]a and  var[i]ia. It will also be considered regular verbs in –ear that did not show variation: estr[Ei]a.  Based on Usage-Based Phonology (BYBEE, 2001 and Exemplar Model (PIERREHUMBERT, 2001 we will show that in verbs ending in -ear and –iar type frequency and special verbs contribute to speakers generalize morphological  marked patterns. This offer instruments to explain why speaker generalize morphophonological patterns for verbs ending in –ear  (chantagear as verbs ending in –iar (variar. We will also explain why a form like estr[Ei]a does not present variation.

  6. Of Paradigms and Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Martin B.; Matthijs, Matthias

    in the study of policy paradigms. To demonstrate the general applicability of our framework, the paper examines the evolution of British macroeconomic policy making since 1990. We show that various Prime Ministers and their Chancellors were able to reinterpret and redefine the dominant neoliberal understanding......? Despite the profound impact of Peter Hall’s approach to policy paradigms and social learning, there is a burgeoning consensus that transposing a rudimentary ‘Kuhnian’ understanding of paradigms into the context of public policy making leads to a notion of punctuated equilibrium style shifts as the only...

  7. Finite Verb Morphology in the Spontaneous Speech of Dutch-Speaking Children With Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Annemiek; Coene, Martine

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the acquisition of Dutch finite verb morphology is investigated in children with cochlear implants (CIs) with profound hearing loss and in children with hearing aids (HAs) with moderate to severe hearing loss. Comparing these two groups of children increases our insight into how hearing experience and audibility affect the acquisition of morphosyntax. Spontaneous speech samples were analyzed of 48 children with CIs and 29 children with HAs, ages 4 to 7 years. These language samples were analyzed by means of standardized language analysis involving mean length of utterance, the number of finite verbs produced, and target-like subject-verb agreement. The outcomes were interpreted relative to expectations based on the performance of typically developing peers with normal hearing. Outcomes of all measures were correlated with hearing level in the group of HA users and age at implantation in the group of CI users. For both groups, the number of finite verbs that were produced in 50-utterance sample was on par with mean length of utterance and at the lower bound of the normal distribution. No significant differences were found between children with CIs and HAs on any of the measures under investigation. Yet, both groups produced more subject-verb agreement errors than are to be expected for typically developing hearing peers. No significant correlation was found between the hearing level of the children and the relevant measures of verb morphology, both with respect to the overall number of verbs that were used and the number of errors that children made. Within the group of CI users, the outcomes were significantly correlated with age at implantation. When producing finite verb morphology, profoundly deaf children wearing CIs perform similarly to their peers with moderate-to-severe hearing loss wearing HAs. Hearing loss negatively affects the acquisition of subject-verb agreement regardless of the hearing device (CI or HA) that the child is wearing. The

  8. Programming Language Paradigms

    OpenAIRE

    Felician ALECU

    2013-01-01

    This paper's goal is to briefly explain the basic theory behind programming languages and their history while taking a close look at different programming paradigms that are used today as well as describing their differences, benefits, and drawbacks

  9. Comparative Study of the Passive Verb in Arabic and Persian Languages from the Perspective of Grammatical and Semantic

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    Mansooreh Zarkoob

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Verb is one the important categories and main elements of sentence which is sometimes divided in similar types in Arabic and Persian. One of the main types of verb existed in both languages is passive verb. Although this appellation is apparently common in both languages, it seems passive verbs are completely equivalent in both languages but since passive verb in the Persian language has been discussed from different aspects compared with Arabic, in this article we are looking for some answers to these questions that if we can find other structures apart from passive structure which are accounted as passive in their meanings? Which kind of relationship is there between grammatical and semantic structures of passive verb in both languages? What are grammatical and semantic differences and similarities of passive verb in Persian and Arabic languages? The results of this survey decreased translation errors of students. We also state this example as a result of this research that, not only there is an auxiliary verb in both languages is investigated as a passive-maker but also, there are some planar verbs in both languages and also voice changes are occurred in addition to inflection changes.

  10. [Event-related brain potentials when Russian verbs being conjugated: to the problem of language processing modularity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan'ko, S G; Boĭtsova, Iu A; Solov'eva, M L; Chernigovskaia, T V; Medvedev, S V

    2014-01-01

    In the light of alternative conceptions of "two-system" and "single-system" models of language processing the efforts have been undertaken to study brain mechanisnis for generation of regular and irregular forms of Russian verbs. The 19 EEG channels of evoked activity were registered along with casual alternations of speech morphology operations to be compared. Verbs of imperfective aspect in the form of an infinitive, belonging either to a group of productive verbs (default, conventionally regular class), or toan unproductive group of verbs (conventionally irregular class) were presented to healthy subjects. The subjects were requested to produce first person present time forms of these verbs. Results of analysis of event related potentials (ERP) for a group of 22 persons are presented. Statistically reliable ERP amplitude distinctions between the verb groups are found onlyin the latencies 600-850 ms in central and parietal zones of the cortex. In these latencies ERP values associated with a presentation of irregular verbs are negative in relation to ERP values associated with the presentation of regular verbs. The received results are interpreted as a consequence of various complexity of mental work with verbs of these different groups and presumably don't support a hypothesis of universality of the "two-system" brain mechanism for processing of the regular and irregular language forms.

  11. Walking but not barking improves verb recovery: implications for action observation treatment in aphasia rehabilitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Marangolo

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that action observation treatment without concomitant verbal cue has a positive impact on the recovery of verb retrieval deficits in aphasic patients. In agreement with an embodied cognition viewpoint, a hypothesis has been advanced that gestures and language form a single communication system and words whose retrieval is facilitated by gestures are semantically represented through sensory-motor features. However, it is still an open question as to what extent this treatment approach works. Results from the recovery of motor deficits have suggested that action observation promotes motor recovery only for actions that are part of the motor repertoire of the observer. The aim of the present experiment was to further investigate the role of action observation treatment in verb recovery. In particular, we contrasted the effects induced by observing human actions (e.g. dancing, kicking, pointing, eating versus non human actions (e.g. barking, printing. Seven chronic aphasic patients with a selective deficit in verb retrieval underwent an intensive rehabilitation training that included five daily sessions over two consecutive weeks. Each subject was asked to carefully observe 115 video-clips of actions, one at a time and, after observing them, they had to produce the corresponding verb. Two groups of actions were randomly presented: humans versus nonhuman actions. In all patients, significant improvement in verb retrieval was found only by observing video-clips of human actions. Moreover, follow-up testing revealed long-term verb recovery that was still present two months after the two treatments had ended. In support of the multimodal concept representation's proposal, we suggest that just the observation of actions pertaining to the human motor repertoire is an effective rehabilitation approach for verb recovery.

  12. The Dilemma of Learning Phrasal Verbs among EFL learners

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    Salman A. Al Nasarat

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to examine difficulties in interpreting English phrasal verbs (PVs that individual college student of English face during their academic career. Interpretation is an apparent obstacle that Jordanian English students encounter as they learn language systematically. The learners being investigated were divided into two groups including regular students of English language and literature and non-majoring English students who study communication skills in English at Al Hussein Bin Talal University. Basically, the present study attempted to investigate students’ background level and performance to identify the source of weakness in interpreting PVs either orally or based on written texts. The findings would shed light on translating inability and more significantly on interpreting strategies while students work out the meaning of spoken or written PVs combinations.  The overall score obtained by students in the designed test resulted in a plausible explanation for this learning problem and should help for a better course design and instruction as well as effective classroom teaching and curricula.

  13. Winnicott's paradigm outlined

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    Zeljko Loparic

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to present a unified view of Winnicott’s contribution to psychoanalysis. Part I (Sections 1-4 starts off by recalling that, according to some important commentators, Winnicott introduced a change in paradigms in psychoanalysis. In order to show that this change can be viewed as an overall “switch in paradigms”, in the sense given by T. S. Kuhn, this paper presents an account of the Kuhn’s view of science and offers a reconstruction of Freud’s Oedipal, Triangular or “Toddler-in-the-Mother’s-Bed” Paradigm. Part II (Sections 5-13 shows that as early as the 1920’s Winnicott encountered insurmountable anomalies in the Oedipal paradigm and, for that reason, started what can be called revolutionary research for a new framework of psychoanalysis. This research led Winnicott, especially during the last period of his life, to produce an alternative dual or “Baby-on-the-Mother’s-Lap” Paradigm. This new paradigm is described in some detail, especially the paradigmatic dual mother-baby relation and Winnicott’s dominant theory of maturation. Final remarks are made regarding Winnicott’s heritage and the future of psychoanalysis.

  14. Past tense in the brain's time: neurophysiological evidence for dual-route processing of past-tense verbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Iske; Macgregor, Lucy J; Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Shtyrov, Yury

    2013-05-01

    A controversial issue in neuro- and psycholinguistics is whether regular past-tense forms of verbs are stored lexically or generated productively by the application of abstract combinatorial schemas, for example affixation rules. The success or failure of models in accounting for this particular issue can be used to draw more general conclusions about cognition and the degree to which abstract, symbolic representations and rules are psychologically and neurobiologically real. This debate can potentially be resolved using a neurophysiological paradigm, in which alternative predictions of the brain response patterns for lexical and syntactic processing are put to the test. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to record neural responses to spoken monomorphemic words ('hide'), pseudowords ('smide'), regular past-tense forms ('cried') and ungrammatical (overregularised) past-tense forms ('flied') in a passive listening oddball paradigm, in which lexically and syntactically modulated stimuli are known to elicit distinct patterns of the mismatch negativity (MMN) brain response. We observed an enhanced ('lexical') MMN to monomorphemic words relative to pseudowords, but a reversed ('syntactic') MMN to ungrammatically inflected past tenses relative to grammatical forms. This dissociation between responses to monomorphemic and bimorphemic stimuli indicates that regular past tenses are processed more similarly to syntactic sequences than to lexically stored monomorphemic words, suggesting that regular past tenses are generated productively by the application of a combinatorial scheme to their separately represented stems and affixes. We suggest discrete combinatorial neuronal assemblies, which bind classes of sequentially occurring lexical elements into morphologically complex units, as the neurobiological basis of regular past tense inflection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cerebellar activation in verb generation. Activation study with positron emission tomography in normal subjects

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    Yokoyama, Eriko [Inst. for Rehabilitation and Mental Health, Kyowa, Akita (Japan); Kanno, Iwao; Sadato, Norihiro; Senda, Michio; Fujita, Hideaki; Nagata, Ken

    1999-06-01

    To investigate the role of cerebellum in language function, we used the silent verb generation task in PET activation study. Subjects were 11 right-handed, healthy men with the mean age of 24.3. We used two experimental conditions, resting state and verb generation, and measured cerebral blood flow (CBF) alternately and repeatedly, three times for each condition. In the verb generation task, the subject was asked to silently think of as many verbs associated with auditorily given noun as he could. The subtraction image between verb generation and resting state showed activation foci at the left inferior to middle frontal lobe as well as temporal lobe in the supratentorium, consistent with previous studies. In the infratentorium, there were significant foci at bilateral cerebellar hemisphere and brain stem, which was predominantly seen over the right cerebellum. Activations were seen in the superior-lateral part of the right cerebellar hemisphere including the right dentate nucleus, and in the inferior-lateral part of the left cerebellar hemisphere. The amount of CBF increase by the task as compared with the resting condition in the upper cerebellum showed an increasing trend from the first to the third measurement. The present results suggest specific roles of the cerebellum in word retrieval as well as the practice-related changes during verbal learning. (author)

  16. The Design of an Online Concordancing Program for Teaching about Reporting Verbs

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    Joel Bloch

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the use of a web-based concordancing program using an interface design similar to the one used at the MICASE concordancing site to help students appropriately choose reporting verbs. Appropriate reporting verbs are important for asserting credible claims in academic papers. An interface was created that asked the students to make lexical, syntactic, and rhetorical choices based on a preset number of criteria related to the decisions writers make in choosing reporting verbs. Based on these choices, the interface could query a database of sentences that had been derived from a corpus of academic writing. The user would then be provided with a small sample of sentences using reporting verbs that matched the criteria that had been selected. The paper discusses how the assumptions about pedagogy for teaching about reporting verbs were incorporated into the design features of the interface and how the implementation of the concordancing site was integrated with the teaching of grammar and vocabulary in an L2 academic writing class.

  17. Effects of animation on naming and identification across two graphic symbol sets representing verbs and prepositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, Ralf W; Koul, Rajinder; Shane, Howard; Sorce, James; Brock, Kristofer; Harmon, Ashley; Moerlein, Dorothy; Hearn, Emilia

    2014-10-01

    The effects of animation on naming and identification of graphic symbols for verbs and prepositions were studied in 2 graphic symbol sets in preschoolers. Using a 2 × 2 × 2 × 3 completely randomized block design, preschoolers across three age groups were randomly assigned to combinations of symbol set (Autism Language Program [ALP] Animated Graphics or Picture Communication Symbols [PCS]), symbol format (animated or static), and word class (verbs or prepositions). Children were asked to name symbols and to identify a target symbol from an array given the spoken label. Animated symbols were more readily named than static symbols, although this was more pronounced for verbs than for prepositions. ALP symbols were named more accurately than PCS in particular with prepositions. Animation did not facilitate identification. ALP symbols for prepositions were identified better than PCS, but there was no difference for verbs. Finally, older children guessed and identified symbols more effectively than younger children. Animation improves the naming of graphic symbols for verbs. For prepositions, ALP symbols are named more accurately and are more readily identifiable than PCS. Naming and identifying symbols are learned skills that develop over time. Limitations and future research directions are discussed.

  18. The degree of verb movement in embedded clauses in three varieties of Norwegian

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    Kristine Bentzen

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The position of the verb(s in embedded non-V2 contexts varies in Norwegian dialects. In Eastern Norwegian (EastN, all verbs have to follow all adverbs in non-V2 contexts. In Tromsø Northern Norwegian (TrNN main verbs and non-finite auxiliaries have to follow all adverbs, but finite auxiliaries may precede adverbs they take scope over. In Regional Northern Norwegian (ReNN all finite verbs (main/auxiliary may precede all adverbs, and non-finite auxiliaries may precede adverbs they take scope over. These data are accounted for within a remnant movement approach. The variation between the three dialects is argued to follow from differences in how selectional features on auxiliaries and T are checked. It is suggested that auxiliaries are associated with a pair of functional projections (so-called lifters: a VP lifter below and an AdvP lifter above. An auxiliary with these lifters ‘sinks’ below adverbs it takes scope over. Overt feature checking (through adjacency occurs when the lifters are present; covert feature checking occurs when the lifters are absent. In EastN, overt feature checking, and the lifters, is obligatory for all auxiliaries; in TrNN this is obligatory for non-finite auxiliaries but optional for finite auxiliaries; in ReNN this is optional for all auxiliaries.

  19. Cerebellar activation in verb generation. Activation study with positron emission tomography in normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Eriko; Kanno, Iwao; Sadato, Norihiro; Senda, Michio; Fujita, Hideaki; Nagata, Ken

    1999-01-01

    To investigate the role of cerebellum in language function, we used the silent verb generation task in PET activation study. Subjects were 11 right-handed, healthy men with the mean age of 24.3. We used two experimental conditions, resting state and verb generation, and measured cerebral blood flow (CBF) alternately and repeatedly, three times for each condition. In the verb generation task, the subject was asked to silently think of as many verbs associated with auditorily given noun as he could. The subtraction image between verb generation and resting state showed activation foci at the left inferior to middle frontal lobe as well as temporal lobe in the supratentorium, consistent with previous studies. In the infratentorium, there were significant foci at bilateral cerebellar hemisphere and brain stem, which was predominantly seen over the right cerebellum. Activations were seen in the superior-lateral part of the right cerebellar hemisphere including the right dentate nucleus, and in the inferior-lateral part of the left cerebellar hemisphere. The amount of CBF increase by the task as compared with the resting condition in the upper cerebellum showed an increasing trend from the first to the third measurement. The present results suggest specific roles of the cerebellum in word retrieval as well as the practice-related changes during verbal learning. (author)

  20. Infants use known verbs to learn novel nouns: evidence from 15- and 19-month-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Brock; Graf, Eileen; Waxman, Sandra R

    2014-04-01

    Fluent speakers' representations of verbs include semantic knowledge about the nouns that can serve as their arguments. These "selectional restrictions" of a verb can in principle be recruited to learn the meaning of a novel noun. For example, the sentence He ate the carambola licenses the inference that carambola refers to something edible. We ask whether 15- and 19-month-old infants can recruit their nascent verb lexicon to identify the referents of novel nouns that appear as the verbs' subjects. We compared infants' interpretation of a novel noun (e.g., the dax) in two conditions: one in which dax is presented as the subject of animate-selecting construction (e.g., The dax is crying), and the other in which dax is the subject of an animacy-neutral construction (e.g., The dax is right here). Results indicate that by 19months, infants use their representations of known verbs to inform the meaning of a novel noun that appears as its argument. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Age of Acquisition Effects in Chinese EFL learners’ Delexicalized Verb and Collocation Acquisition

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    Miao Haiyan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates age of acquisition (AoA effects and the acquisition of delexicalized verbs and collocations in Chinese EFL learners, and explores the underlying reasons from the connectionist model for these learners’ acquisition characteristics. The data were collected through a translation test consisted of delexialized verb information section and English-Chinese and Chinese-English collocation parts, aiming to focus on Chinese EFL learners’ receptive and productive abilities respectively. As Chinese EFL is a nationally classroom-based practice beginning from early primary school, the pedagogical value and different phases of acquisition are thus taken into consideration in designing the translation test. Research results show that the effects of AoA are significant not only in the learners’ acquisition of individual delexicalized verbs but also in delexicalized collocations. Although learners have long begun to learn delexicalized verbs, their production indicates that early learning does not guarantee total acquisition, because their grasp of delexicalized verbs still stay at the senior middle school level. AoA effects significantly affect the recognition but not the production of collocations. Furthermore, a plateau effect occurs in learners’ acquisition of college-level delexicalized collocations, as their recognition and production have no processing advantages over earlier learned collocations.

  2. The perception and expression of verb morphology in bilinguals with specific language impairment

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    Hourieh Ahadi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Most of the researches are about bilingual children with specific language impairment and importance of it in recognition and treatment. This study aimed to assess verb morphology in bilinguals with specific language impairment (SLI and compare them with normal bilinguals.Methods: Six bilingual (Azeri and Persian children with specific language impairment at the age of 7-8 years were collected from clinics of Tehran, Iran. They were evaluated about verb morphology using narrative speech and specific language impairment test and then, compared with six age-matched and six other language-matched children as control group. Children with specific language impairment were diagnosed by exhibiting a significant delay (more than one year in language that can not be explained by intelligence deficits, hearing loss or visual impairment. We used Man-Whitney test for comparing the groups.Results: Bilingual children with specific language impairment had delay in comparison with their age-matched group in subject-verb agreement (p=0.020 and articulating tense morphemes (p=0.019. They also had meaningful delay in using proper tense of verbs (past, present, and future in comparison with language-matched control group (p=0.029.Conclusion: Comparison of typical development of bilingual children and bilinguals with specific language impairment shows that verb morphology is a good clinical marker for diagnosing and treatment of these children.

  3. Three paradigms of horror

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    Dejan Ognjanović

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Starting with the definition of horror as a literary genre the core story of which is based on a meeting with threatening Otherness whose influx into consensual reality and it’s tacit normality creates unrest and awakens fear in the protagonists and the audience, this paper defines the three key paradigms of the horror genre, based on the causes of fear, or rather the “monstrous” Otherness in them. Paradigm 1 concerns the “fear of one’s own self”: the root of the fear is inside, in the individual psyche, in the split, deceived, or in some other way unreliable self which is, consciously or unconsciously, harmful to others, and ultimately to itself. Paradigm 2 deals with the “Fear of others”: the root of fear is outside and is concerned with other people and other creatures which have an urge to occupy a certain human microcosm. Paradigm 3 is concerned with the “Fear of the numinous”: the root of the fear is mostly situated on the outside; however its shape is amorphous, ambivalent and unknowable. The “monster” is faceless; it touches on primary forces of the divine/demonic, and as such is situated on the very border between inside/outside. All three paradigms, with their main approaches and constitutive elements, are modulated through two basic possible treatments: the conservative and the progressive (liberal, which affords a total of six basic variations of horror. Starting from definitions given by John Carpenter, Robin Wood and his own, the author analyzes representative examples from horror literature and film for each paradigm and its variation, with a special accent on the image of Otherness and its connection to the norm, its intrusion into the status quo, anthropocentrism and the presence or absence of a happy ending. The paper demonstrates the richness of connotative potential within the horror genre and provides a basis for its taxonomy.

  4. Three paradigms of horror

    OpenAIRE

    Dejan Ognjanović

    2016-01-01

    Starting with the definition of horror as a literary genre the core story of which is based on a meeting with threatening Otherness whose influx into consensual reality and it’s tacit normality creates unrest and awakens fear in the protagonists and the audience, this paper defines the three key paradigms of the horror genre, based on the causes of fear, or rather the “monstrous” Otherness in them. Paradigm 1 concerns the “fear of one’s own self”: the root of the fear is inside, in the indivi...

  5. Polysemous Verbs and Modality in Native and Non-Native Argumentative Writing: A Corpus-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Danica; Verdaguer, Isabel

    2009-01-01

    The present study is a corpus-based analysis of a selection of polysemous lexical verbs used to express modality in student argumentative writing. Twenty-three lexical verbs were searched for in three 100,000-word corpora of argumentative essays written in English by American, Filipino and Spanish university students. Concordance lines were…

  6. Teaching Grammar: The Use of The English Auxiliary "BE" Present Tense Verb among Malaysian Form 4 and Form 5 Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jishvithaa, Joanna M.; Tabitha, M.; Kalajahi, Seyed Ali Rezvani

    2013-01-01

    This research paper aims to explore the usage of the English Auxiliary "Be" Present Tense Verb, using corpus based method among Malaysian form 4 and form 5 students. This study is conducted by identifying and classifying the types of errors in the Auxiliary "Be" Present Tense verb in students' compositions from the MCSAW corpus…

  7. Action Speaks Louder than Words: Young Children Differentially Weight Perceptual, Social, and Linguistic Cues to Learn Verbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandone, Amanda C.; Pence, Khara L.; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores how children use two possible solutions to the verb-mapping problem: attention to perceptually salient actions and attention to social and linguistic information (speaker cues). Twenty-two-month-olds attached a verb to one of two actions when perceptual cues (presence/absence of a result) coincided with speaker cues but not…

  8. Characteristics of "Tween" Participants and Non-Participants in the VERB[TM] Summer Scorecard Physical Activity Promotion Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickelson, Jen; Alfonso, Moya L.; McDermott, Robert J.; Bumpus, Elizabeth C.; Bryant, Carol A.; Baldwin, Julie A.

    2011-01-01

    Creating community-based opportunities for youth to be physically active is challenging for many municipalities. A Lexington, Kentucky community coalition designed and piloted a physical activity program, "VERB[TM] summer scorecard (VSS)", leveraging the brand equity of the national VERB[TM]--It's What You Do! campaign. Key elements of…

  9. On an emotional node: modeling sentiment in graphs of action verbs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Michael Kai; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2012-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies have over the past decades established that language is grounded in sensorimotor areas of the brain. Not only action verbs related to face and hand motion but also emotional expressions activate premotor systems in the brain. Hypothesizing that patterns of neural activation...... might be reflected in the latent semantics of words, we apply hierarchical clustering and network graph analysis to quantify the interaction of emotion and motion related action verbs based on two large-scale text corpora. Comparing the word topologies to neural networks we suggest that the co......-activation of associated word forms in the brain resemble the latent semantics of action verbs, which may in turn reflect parameters of force and spatial differentiation underlying action based language....

  10. The Two-Level Theory of Verb Meaning: An Approach to Integrating the Semantics of Action with the Mirror Neuron System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmerer, David; Gonzalez-Castillo, Javier

    2010-01-01

    Verbs have two separate levels of meaning. One level reflects the uniqueness of every verb and is called the "root". The other level consists of a more austere representation that is shared by all the verbs in a given class and is called the "event structure template". We explore the following hypotheses about how, with specific reference to the…

  11. Verb-Noun Collocations in Written Discourse of Iranian EFL Learners

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    Fatemeh Ebrahimi-Bazzaz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available When native speakers of English write, they employ both grammatical rules and collocations. Collocations are words that are present in the memory of native speakers as ready-made prefabricated chunks. Non-native speakers who wish to acquire native-like fluency should give appropriate attention to collocations in writing in order not to produce sentences that native speakers may consider odd. The present study tries to explore the use of verb-noun collocations in written discourse of English as foreign language (EFL among Iranian EFL learners from one academic year to the next in Iran. To measure the use of verb-noun collocations in written discourse, there was a 60-minute task of writing story  based on a series of six pictures whereby for each picture, three verb-noun collocations were measured, and nouns were provided to limit the choice of collocations. The results of the statistical analysis of ANOVA for the research question indicated that there was a significant difference in the use of lexical verb-noun collocations in written discourse both between and within the four academic years. The results of a post hoc multiple comparison tests confirmed that the means are significantly different between the first year and the third and fourth years, between the second and the fourth, and between the third and the fourth academic year which indicate substantial development in verb-noun collocation proficiency.  The vital implication is that the learners could use verb-noun collocations in productive skill of writing.

  12. Paradigms in object recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutihac, R.; Mutihac, R.C.

    1999-09-01

    A broad range of approaches has been proposed and applied for the complex and rather difficult task of object recognition that involves the determination of object characteristics and object classification into one of many a priori object types. Our paper revises briefly the three main different paradigms in pattern recognition, namely Bayesian statistics, neural networks, and expert systems. (author)

  13. Programming Language Paradigms

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    Bartoníček Jan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper's goal is to briefly explain the basic theory behind programming languages and their history while taking a close look at different programming paradigms that are used today as well as describing their differences, benefits, and drawbacks

  14. Shifting the paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiss, Katalin; Brozik, Anna; Kucsma, Nora

    2012-01-01

    ABCB6, a member of the adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family, has been proposed to be responsible for the mitochondrial uptake of porphyrins. Here we show that ABCB6 is a glycoprotein present in the membrane of mature erythrocytes and in exosomes released from reticuloc...... paradigm linking the expression and function of ABCB6 to mitochondria....

  15. Deconstructing Research: Paradigms Lost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifonas, Peter Pericles

    2009-01-01

    In recent decades, proponents of naturalistic and/or critical modes of inquiry advocating the use of ethnographic techniques for the narrative-based study of phenomena within pedagogical contexts have challenged the central methodological paradigm of educational research: that is, the tendency among its practitioners to adhere to quantitative…

  16. The role of derivational paradigms with adjectival base in Old English word-formation

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    Carmen Novo Urraca

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to identify the primary adjectives of Old English as well as to gather the derivational paradigms that revolve around them. All in all, 459 primary adjectives are identified, which function as base of 6,587 derivatives. Two conclusions are drawn from the analysis. In the first place, the concept of derivational paradigm contributes to the explanation of the overall organization of the lexicon, while allowing for the discussion of questions that are at the core of current morphological theory, such as recursivity and productivity. The conclusion is drawn that primary adjectives play a significant role in Old English derivation. Even though they are not as productive as strong verbs, primary adjectives function as base of derivation of a significant number of non-basic terms, which, moreover, belong to all lexical categories and nearly all grammatical classes.

  17. Scandinavian object shift, remnant VP-topicalisation, verb particles and causatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engels, Eva; Vikner, Sten

    2013-01-01

    constructions in Danish and Swedish, namely particle verb constructions and causative constructions with Danish "lade" and Swedish "låta" ‘let’. It is shown how differences in the VP-internal object position give rise to mirror image sequences concerning Object Shift in connection with verb second (Vº......On the basis of an examination of remnant VP-topicalisation constructions, this paper argues for an order preservation analysis of Scandinavian Object Shift. Extending the empirical database, we account for the phenomena in an Optimality Theoretic framework. The paper focusses on two particular...

  18. Typological Analysis of the Yakut and German Polysemantic Verbs KEL and KOMMEN

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    Svetlana Mitrofanovna Prokopieva

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of language semantics of the polysemantic verbs kel and kommen of the modern Yakut and German languages brings us to the domain of concepts. Interest in typological studies of languages, in particular, in comparative studies of concept structure of polysemantic verbs has increased thanks to cognitive linguistics which is currently the most intensively developing field of linguistics. The direct nominative meaning of the Yakut verb kel and the German kommen reflects the main components of the concept structure that can be assigned to the concept core: object, operation, result. The purpose of this paper is the typological analysis of lexicographic codification of the phenomenon of polysemy in various languages of the Turkic and German language families. The study is of complex character; to reveal universal and specific ethnic-cultural features of compared Yakut and German linguistic units we used the inductive-deductive method, i.e. theoretical conclusions result from the analysis of practical material. Using the component analysis, lexical units were separated into smallest meaningful parts. Distributive method was used to analyze actualization of meanings of the Yakut and German polysemantic verbs ‘kel’ and ‘kommen’ in context. The typological analysis was invoked to reveal ethnic specifics of compared Yakut and German polysemantic verbs. The polysemantic verbs kel and kommen share the following concepts through subject: ‘man’, ‘animal’, ‘time’, ‘artifact’, ‘emotional-physical state’, and ‘abstract notion’. All concepts given above, 15 lexico-semantic variants, 2 grammatical meanings of the polysemantic word kel and 18 meanings of the verb kommen are represented and codified according to all lexicographic rules and requirements in the Great Academic Dictionary of the Yakut Language and the Great German-Russian Dictionary that are an inexhaustible source for further research into comparative and

  19. Word Class Ratios and Genres in Written Japanese: Revisiting the Modifier Verb Ratio

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    Bor HODOŠČEK

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the variability of genres in the Balanced Corpus of Contemporary Written Japanese using the modifier-verb ratio proposed by Kabashima and Jukaku (1965. Using bagplots to quantifying the relation between noun and modifier-verb ratios, as well as some summary statistics obtain from them, we attempt to classify genres according to Kabashima and Jugaku (1965. Our initial analysis confirms previous research results, while at the same time uncovering some contradictions in the ratios of the genre of magazines.

  20. CP-recursion and the derivation of verb second in Germanic main and embedded clauses

    OpenAIRE

    Vikner, Sten

    2017-01-01

    This paper will give an overview of the verb second (V2) phenomenon, as found in both main and embedded clauses in Germanic, and it will also explore a particular derivation of (embedded) V2, in terms of a cP/CP-distinction.All the Germanic languages except modern English (but including e. g. Old English) are V2, i. e. in all declarative main clauses and in all wh-questions, the finite verb is in the second position, regardless of whether the first position is occupied by the subject or by so...

  1. Feature-Specific Event-Related Potential Effects to Action- and Sound-Related Verbs during Visual Word Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Margot; Trumpp, Natalie M; Kiefer, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Grounded cognition theories suggest that conceptual representations essentially depend on modality-specific sensory and motor systems. Feature-specific brain activation across different feature types such as action or audition has been intensively investigated in nouns, while feature-specific conceptual category differences in verbs mainly focused on body part specific effects. The present work aimed at assessing whether feature-specific event-related potential (ERP) differences between action and sound concepts, as previously observed in nouns, can also be found within the word class of verbs. In Experiment 1, participants were visually presented with carefully matched sound and action verbs within a lexical decision task, which provides implicit access to word meaning and minimizes strategic access to semantic word features. Experiment 2 tested whether pre-activating the verb concept in a context phase, in which the verb is presented with a related context noun, modulates subsequent feature-specific action vs. sound verb processing within the lexical decision task. In Experiment 1, ERP analyses revealed a differential ERP polarity pattern for action and sound verbs at parietal and central electrodes similar to previous results in nouns. Pre-activation of the meaning of verbs in the preceding context phase in Experiment 2 resulted in a polarity-reversal of feature-specific ERP effects in the lexical decision task compared with Experiment 1. This parallels analogous earlier findings for primed action and sound related nouns. In line with grounded cognitions theories, our ERP study provides evidence for a differential processing of action and sound verbs similar to earlier observation for concrete nouns. Although the localizational value of ERPs must be viewed with caution, our results indicate that the meaning of verbs is linked to different neural circuits depending on conceptual feature relevance.

  2. The resilience of paradigm mixes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Farsund, Arild Aurvåg; Langhelle, Oluf

    2017-01-01

    This paper argues that a policy regime based on a paradigm mix may be resilient when challenged by changing power balances and new agendas. Controversies between the actors can be contained within the paradigm mix as it enables them to legitimize different ideational positions. Rather than engaging...... context changed. The paradigm mix proved sufficiently flexible to accommodate food security concerns and at the same time continue to take steps toward further liberalization. Indeed, the main players have not challenged the paradigm mix....

  3. CHANGE OF ENERGY PARADIGM

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    Ionut PURICA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We are at the beginning of a change of paradigm in the energy systems of the whole World. Both new resources being found and exploited and the new technologies for energy conversion, transport and distribution, along with the associated artificial intelligence systems, are starting to create new futures, with different living values, for the greatest machine created by men: the energy system. Some relevant elements are presented in the paper along with the position and the perspectives of Romania.

  4. Prosodic Disambiguation of Noun/Verb Homophones in Child-Directed Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conwell, Erin

    2017-01-01

    One strategy that children might use to sort words into grammatical categories such as noun and verb is distributional bootstrapping, in which local co-occurrence information is used to distinguish between categories. Words that can be used in more than one grammatical category could be problematic for this approach. Using naturalistic corpus…

  5. Nouns, verbs, objects, actions, and abstractions: local fMRI activity indexes semantics, not lexical categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Rachel L; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2014-05-01

    Noun/verb dissociations in the literature defy interpretation due to the confound between lexical category and semantic meaning; nouns and verbs typically describe concrete objects and actions. Abstract words, pertaining to neither, are a critical test case: dissociations along lexical-grammatical lines would support models purporting lexical category as the principle governing brain organisation, whilst semantic models predict dissociation between concrete words but not abstract items. During fMRI scanning, participants read orthogonalised word categories of nouns and verbs, with or without concrete, sensorimotor meaning. Analysis of inferior frontal/insula, precentral and central areas revealed an interaction between lexical class and semantic factors with clear category differences between concrete nouns and verbs but not abstract ones. Though the brain stores the combinatorial and lexical-grammatical properties of words, our data show that topographical differences in brain activation, especially in the motor system and inferior frontal cortex, are driven by semantics and not by lexical class. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Does Lexical Stress Influence 17-Month-Olds' Mapping of Verbs and Nouns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jennifer; Mihalicz, Patrick; Thiessen, Erik; Curtin, Suzanne

    2018-01-01

    English-learning infants attend to lexical stress when learning new words. Attention to lexical stress might be beneficial for word learning by providing an indication of the grammatical class of that word. English disyllabic nouns commonly have trochaic (strong-weak) stress, whereas English disyllabic verbs commonly have iambic (weak-strong)…

  7. Automatically Generating Questions to Support the Acquisition of Particle Verbs: Evaluating via Crowdsourcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinkina, Maria; Ruiz, Simón; Meurers, Detmar

    2017-01-01

    We integrate insights from research in Second Language Acquisition (SLA) and Computational Linguistics (CL) to generate text-based questions. We discuss the generation of wh- questions as functionally-driven input enhancement facilitating the acquisition of particle verbs and report the results of two crowdsourcing studies. The first study shows…

  8. A Descriptive Enquiry into Subject-Verb Concord in English Existential Constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchida, Takehiro

    2011-01-01

    Subject-verb concord in English existential constructions is often viewed as problematic from both prescriptive and descriptive approaches to grammar and causes considerable confusion among teachers and learners of English as a second language (ESL). This paper aims to disentangle debates over the curious usage of the "there" + plural noun phrase…

  9. Dissociable intrinsic functional networks support noun-object and verb-action processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huichao; Lin, Qixiang; Han, Zaizhu; Li, Hongyu; Song, Luping; Chen, Lingjuan; He, Yong; Bi, Yanchao

    2017-12-01

    The processing mechanism of verbs-actions and nouns-objects is a central topic of language research, with robust evidence for behavioral dissociation. The neural basis for these two major word and/or conceptual classes, however, remains controversial. Two experiments were conducted to study this question from the network perspective. Experiment 1 found that nodes of the same class, obtained through task-evoked brain imaging meta-analyses, were more strongly connected with each other than nodes of different classes during resting-state, forming segregated network modules. Experiment 2 examined the behavioral relevance of these intrinsic networks using data from 88 brain-damaged patients, finding that across patients the relative strength of functional connectivity of the two networks significantly correlated with the noun-object vs. verb-action relative behavioral performances. In summary, we found that verbs-actions and nouns-objects are supported by separable intrinsic functional networks and that the integrity of such networks accounts for the relative noun-object- and verb-action-selective deficits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. What’s Done is Done: Verb Aspect and Verbatim Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan Salomon-Amend

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Grammatical verb aspect uses morphosyntactic cues (‘-ed’, ‘-ing’ to convey whether an action is, for example, complete (“walked” or on-going (“was walking” and has shown notable comprehension ramifications for a reader’s event model. Additionally, research suggests that the reader quickly forgets verbatim surface-form information, such as morphosyntactic cues, while the event model remains intact. The current study used three different memory tests to probe readers’ event models of the texts, testing readers’ event model at retrieval. More importantly, we explored whether participants could have biased memory for the perfective aspect consistent with events unfolding in the narrative world. We show that verbs in the perfective aspect were remembered more accurately than those in the imperfective aspect. Moreover, imperfective verbs had a stronger tendency to be misremembered as being in the perfective aspect. That is, readers’ memory seems to be affected by the passage of narrative time, rather than maintaining fidelity to the temporal status of the verb at original presentation.

  11. Estrutura do Verbo no Portugues Coloquial (Verb Structure in Colloquial Portuguese).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes, Eunice

    In this study the author uses the techniques of modern descriptive linguistics to analyze various features of the Portuguese verb system. The analysis is based on the colloquial, spontaneous speech of educated natives of Rio de Janeiro and is divided into four chapters: Phonology (pp. 6-29), Morphophonemics (pp. 30-49), Morphology (pp. 50-86), and…

  12. Grammar rules for the isiZulu complex verb | Maria Keet | Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The isiZulu verb is known for its morphological complexity, which is a subject of on-going linguistics research, as well as for prospects of computational use, such as controlled natural language interfaces, machine translation and spellcheckers. To this end, we seek to answer the question as to what the precise grammar ...

  13. Effects of Animation on Naming and Identification across Two Graphic Symbol Sets Representing Verbs and Prepositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, Ralf W.; Koul, Rajinder; Shane, Howard; Sorce, James; Brock, Kristofer; Harmon, Ashley; Moerlein, Dorothy; Hearn, Emilia

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The effects of animation on naming and identification of graphic symbols for verbs and prepositions were studied in 2 graphic symbol sets in preschoolers. Method: Using a 2 × 2 × 2 × 3 completely randomized block design, preschoolers across three age groups were randomly assigned to combinations of symbol set (Autism Language Program…

  14. Sensitivity to subject-verb agreement in spoken language in children with developmental dyslexia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rispens, J; Roeleven, S; Koster, C

    The principle aim of this paper was to investigate sensitivity to subject-verb agreement morphology in children with developmental dyslexia. An auditory grammaticality judgement task was used to compare morphosyntactic abilities of primary school dyslexic children relative to normally developing

  15. The morphosyntax of verbs of motion in serial constructions: a crosslinguistic study in three signed languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benedicto, E.; Cvejanov, S.; Quer, J.; Quer, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides a comparative analysis of the structural properties of serial verb constructions (SVC) in three sign languages: LSA (Lengua de Señas Argentina, Argentinean Sign Language), LSC (Llengua de Signes Catalana, Catalan Sign Language) and ASL (American Sign Language). The paper presents

  16. Words to Sleep On: Naps Facilitate Verb Generalization in Habitually and Nonhabitually Napping Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, Michelle; Leclerc, Julia A.; Gómez, Rebecca L.

    2017-01-01

    A nap soon after encoding leads to better learning in infancy. However, whether napping plays the same role in preschoolers' learning is unclear. In Experiment 1 (N = 39), 3-year-old habitual and nonhabitual nappers learned novel verbs before a nap or a period of wakefulness and received a generalization test examining word extension to novel…

  17. Universal and Language-Specific Patterns in the Acquisition of Verb Argument Structures in German

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leischner, Franziska N.; Weissenborn, Jürgen; Naigles, Letitia R.

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated the influence of universal and language-specific morpho-syntactic properties (i.e., flexible word order, case) on the acquisition of verb argument structures in German compared with English. To this end, 65 three- to nine-year-old German learning children and adults were asked to act out grammatical ("The sheep…

  18. Semantic Categorization of Placement Verbs in L1 and L2 Danish and Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadierno, Teresa; Ibarretxe-Antuñano, Iraide; Hijazo-Gascón, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates semantic categorization of the meaning of placement verbs by Danish and Spanish native speakers and two groups of intermediate second language (L2) learners (Danish learners of L2 Spanish and Spanish learners of L2 Danish). Participants described 31 video clips picturing different types of placement events. Cluster analyses…

  19. The Effects of Conceptual Metaphors on the Acquisition of Phrasal Verbs by Turkish EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartal, Galip; Uner, Seda

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of conceptual metaphors on Turkish EFL learners' acquisition of phrasal verbs. The participants were 120 beginner, elementary, and pre-intermediate level students. The research follows a pre and post-test quasi-experimental research design. The students were assigned to proficiency levels according to their…

  20. Verb argument structure in narrative speech: Mining the AphasiaBank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk B. Den Ouden

    2015-04-01

    These results show that verb retrieval itself is not limited by argument structure complexity in speakers with aphasia, suggesting that problems with VAS may occur ‘down the line’, i.e. with the use of VAS in sentence production and/or processing.

  1. The Acquisition of Subject-Verb Agreement in Written French: From Novices to Experts' Errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayol, Michel; Largy, Pierre; Hupet, Michel

    1999-01-01

    Aims at demonstrating the gradual automatization of subject-verb agreement operation in young writers by examining developmental changes in the occurrence of agreement errors. Finds that subjects' performance moved from systematic errors to attraction errors through an intermediate phase. Concludes that attraction errors are a byproduct of the…

  2. Subject-Verb Agreement in Children and Adults: Serial or Hierarchical Processing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negro, Isabelle; Chanquoy, Lucile; Fayol, Michel; Louis-Sidney, Maryse

    2005-01-01

    Two processes, serial and hierarchical, are generally opposed to account for grammatical encoding in language production. In a developmental perspective, the question addressed here is whether the subject-verb agreement during writing is computed serially, once the words are linearly ordered in the sentence, or hierarchically, as soon as the…

  3. BOLD Response to Motion Verbs in Left Posterior Middle Temporal Gyrus during Story Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallentin, Mikkel; Nielsen, Andreas Hojlund; Vuust, Peter; Dohn, Anders; Roepstorff, Andreas; Lund, Torben Ellegaard

    2011-01-01

    A primary focus within neuroimaging research on language comprehension is on the distribution of semantic knowledge in the brain. Studies have shown that the left posterior middle temporal gyrus (LPMT), a region just anterior to area MT/V5, is important for the processing of complex action knowledge. It has also been found that motion verbs cause…

  4. Sentence Imitation as a Marker of SLI in Czech: Disproportionate Impairment of Verbs and Clitics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smolík, Filip; Vávrů, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 3 (2014), s. 837-849 ISSN 1092-4388 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP407/10/2047 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : sentences * specific language impairment * verbs Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 2.070, year: 2014 http://jslhr.pubs.asha.org/Article.aspx?articleid=1865523

  5. Making Sense of Phrasal Verbs: A Cognitive Linguistic Account of L2 Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Rafael Alejo

    2010-01-01

    Phrasal verbs (PVs) have recently been the object of interest by linguists given their status as phraseological units whose meaning is non-compositional and opaque. They constitute a perfect case for theories of language processing and language acquisition to be tested. Cognitive linguists have participated in this debate and shown a certain…

  6. L1 influence in the L2 acquisition of isiXhosa verb placement by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1. Introduction. In second language (L2) acquisition research conducted within ..... versus Afrikaans-speaking beginner learners of isiXhosa, with regard to verb ..... Language contact within one home is also illustrated by the case of the four L1 ...

  7. A Morphological Analysis of English-Igbo Merged Verbs in Code ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the influence of Igbo morphemes on English verb structure in code-mixed/switched utterances. There is overwhelming evidence that English and Igbo languages interfere with each other in informal conversations of the Igbo-English bilinguals. This calls for researches to ascertain the degree of English ...

  8. Studies on the s_dm.t=f verb form in Classical Egyptian

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zonhoven, Ludovicus Martinus Johannes

    1997-01-01

    This study is devoted to some synchronic aspects of the sDm.t=f verb form, primarily its meaning and uses in Classical Egyptian. In the introduction some attention is paid to the history of the studies of the form and its origin, an aspect which will receive no further consideration. In accordance

  9. EEG source reconstruction evidence for the noun-verb neural dissociation along semantic dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bin; Dang, Jianwu; Zhang, Gaoyan

    2017-09-17

    One of the long-standing issues in neurolinguistic research is about the neural basis of word representation, concerning whether grammatical classification or semantic difference causes the neural dissociation of brain activity patterns when processing different word categories, especially nouns and verbs. To disentangle this puzzle, four orthogonalized word categories in Chinese: unambiguous nouns (UN), unambiguous verbs (UV), ambiguous words with noun-biased semantics (AN), and ambiguous words with verb-biased semantics (AV) were adopted in an auditory task for recording electroencephalographic (EEG) signals from 128 electrodes on the scalps of twenty-two subjects. With the advanced current density reconstruction (CDR) algorithm and the constraint of standardized low-resolution electromagnetic tomography, the spatiotemporal brain dynamics of word processing were explored with the results that in multiple time periods including P1 (60-90ms), N1 (100-140ms), P200 (150-250ms) and N400 (350-450ms), noun-verb dissociation over the parietal-occipital and frontal-central cortices appeared not only between the UN-UV grammatical classes but also between the grammatically identical but semantically different AN-AV pairs. The apparent semantic dissociation within one grammatical class strongly suggests that the semantic difference rather than grammatical classification could be interpreted as the origin of the noun-verb neural dissociation. Our results also revealed that semantic dissociation occurs from an early stage and repeats in multiple phases, thus supporting a functionally hierarchical word processing mechanism. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Perceptual verbs in gabriel garcía márquez's novel "one hundred years of solitude"

    OpenAIRE

    Kriščiūnaitė, Agnė

    2017-01-01

    Perceptual Verbs in Gabriel García Márquez's Novel "One Hundred Years of Solitude" This BA thesis presents an analysis of the perception Spanish and Lithuanian verbs (further – PV) in Gabriel García Márquez’s novel One Hundred Years of Solitude and its translation to Lithuanian by E. Treinienė and N. A. Petrauskienė released by the title of Šimtas metų vienatvės in 2006. According to the analysis of the five senses of perception verbs are classified into five semantic cate...

  11. The peopleware paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, C G

    1996-08-01

    Manufacturing managements and practitioners alike are at long last realizing that the heartbeat of competitive advantage springs from peopleware, not hardware and software. But despite this heightened awareness the problem persists even among manufacturing professionals--they may talk a good game about priortizing people and quality, but all too many have precious little idea of how to go about it with constancy of purpose. This article bridges the gap and addresses the key issues in adopting the powerful new peopleware paradigm that provides the positive motivational climate for the improvement-change journey toward world-class performance through teamwork, innovation, and continuous improvement.

  12. Competitiveness: new economic paradigm?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Peñaloza

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays competitiveness is made up of “the new” paradigm that allows to prevail in the global World. Thus, it is inevitable to ask, was it required to be competitive to be successful in the international trade arena? Recognizing the discussion about it and its theoretical-conceptual density, the present paper studies this old notion whose meaning, in essence, is always the same one. This applies even though new realities in the present world-wide atmosphere confer to it a distinguishing character and new and old players are forced to organize actions and bring efforts together to obtain the competitive supremacy.

  13. CzEngClass – Towards a Lexicon of Verb Synonyms with Valency Linked to Semantic Roles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urešová Zdeňka

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce our ongoing project about synonymy in bilingual context. This project aims at exploring semantic ‘equivalence’ of verb senses of generally different verbal lexemes in a bilingual (Czech-English setting. Specifically, it focuses on their valency behavior within such equivalence groups. We believe that using bilingual context (translation as an important factor in the delimitation of classes of synonymous lexical units (verbs, in our case may help to specify the verb senses, also with regard to the (semantic roles relation to other verb senses and roles of their arguments more precisely than when using monolingual corpora. In our project, we work “bottom-up”, i.e., from an evidence as recorded in our corpora and not “top-down”, from a predefined set of semantic classes.

  14. Verbal Semantics Drives Early Anticipatory Eye Movements during the Comprehension of Verb-Initial Sentences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauppe, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Studies on anticipatory processes during sentence comprehension often focus on the prediction of postverbal direct objects. In subject-initial languages (the target of most studies so far), however, the position in the sentence, the syntactic function, and the semantic role of arguments are often conflated. For example, in the sentence "The frog will eat the fly" the syntactic object ("fly") is at the same time also the last word and the patient argument of the verb. It is therefore not apparent which kind of information listeners orient to for predictive processing during sentence comprehension. A visual world eye tracking study on the verb-initial language Tagalog (Austronesian) tested what kind of information listeners use to anticipate upcoming postverbal linguistic input. The grammatical structure of Tagalog allows to test whether listeners' anticipatory gaze behavior is guided by predictions of the linear order of words, by syntactic functions (e.g., subject/object), or by semantic roles (agent/patient). Participants heard sentences of the type "Eat frog fly" or "Eat fly frog" (both meaning "The frog will eat the fly") while looking at displays containing an agent referent ("frog"), a patient referent ("fly") and a distractor. The verb carried morphological marking that allowed the order and syntactic function of agent and patient to be inferred. After having heard the verb, listeners fixated on the agent irrespective of its syntactic function or position in the sentence. While hearing the first-mentioned argument, listeners fixated on the corresponding referent in the display accordingly and then initiated saccades to the last-mentioned referent before it was encountered. The results indicate that listeners used verbal semantics to identify referents and their semantic roles early; information about word order or syntactic functions did not influence anticipatory gaze behavior directly after the verb was heard. In this verb-initial language, event semantics

  15. Verbal semantics drives early anticipatory eye movements during the comprehension of verb-initial sentences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian eSauppe

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies on anticipatory processes during sentence comprehension often focus on the prediction of postverbal direct objects. In subject-initial languages (the target of most studies so far, however, the position in the sentence, the syntactic function, and the semantic role of arguments are often conflated. For example, in the sentence The frog will eat the fly the syntactic object (fly is at the same time also the last word and the patient argument of the verb. It is therefore not apparent which kind of information listeners orient to for predictive processing during sentence comprehension. A visual world eye tracking study on the verb-initial language Tagalog (Austronesian tested what kind of information listeners use to anticipate upcoming postverbal linguistic input. The grammatical structure of Tagalog allows to test whether listeners' anticipatory gaze behavior is guided by predictions of the linear order of words, by syntactic functions (e.g., subject/object, or by semantic roles (agent/patient. Participants heard sentences of the type Eat frog fly or Eat fly frog (both meaning The frog will eat the fly while looking at displays containing an agent referent (frog, a patient referent (fly and a distractor. The verb carried morphological marking that allowed the order and syntactic function of agent and patient to be inferred. After having heard the verb, listeners fixated on the agent irrespective of its syntactic function or position in the sentence. While hearing the first-mentioned argument, listeners fixated on the corresponding referent in the display accordingly and then initiated saccades to the last-mentioned referent before it was encountered. The results indicate that listeners used verbal semantics to identify referents and their semantic roles early; information about word order or syntactic functions did not influence anticipatory gaze behavior directly after the verb was heard. In this verb-initial language, event semantics

  16. The WIMP Paradigm: Current Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    The WIMP paradigm is the glue that joins together much of the high energy and cosmic frontiers. It postulates that most of the matter in the Universe is made of weakly-interacting massive particles, with implications for a broad range of experiments and observations. I will review the WIMP paradigm's underlying motivations, its current status in view of rapid experimental progress on several fronts, and recent theoretical variations on the WIMP paradigm theme.

  17. PARADIGM OF ACCOUNTING CHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanta Iacob

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The words and phrases swop with each other and the apparent stability of a word’s meaning sometimes change in time. This explains why the generic term of accounting is used when referring to the qualities attributed to accounting,but also when it comes to organizing financial accounting function within the entity, and when referring concretely to keeping a double record with its specific means, methods and tools specific, respectively seen as a technical accounting.Speaking about the qualities of accounting, but also about the organizational form it takes, we note that there is a manifold meaning of the word accounting, which is why the purpose of this article is to demonstrate that the paradigm shift aimed at a new set of rules and if the rules changes, then we can change the very purpose of accounting.

  18. Paradigms for parasite conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Eric R; Carlson, Colin J; Bueno, Veronica M; Burgio, Kevin R; Cizauskas, Carrie A; Clements, Christopher F; Seidel, Dana P; Harris, Nyeema C

    2016-08-01

    Parasitic species, which depend directly on host species for their survival, represent a major regulatory force in ecosystems and a significant component of Earth's biodiversity. Yet the negative impacts of parasites observed at the host level have motivated a conservation paradigm of eradication, moving us farther from attainment of taxonomically unbiased conservation goals. Despite a growing body of literature highlighting the importance of parasite-inclusive conservation, most parasite species remain understudied, underfunded, and underappreciated. We argue the protection of parasitic biodiversity requires a paradigm shift in the perception and valuation of their role as consumer species, similar to that of apex predators in the mid-20th century. Beyond recognizing parasites as vital trophic regulators, existing tools available to conservation practitioners should explicitly account for the unique threats facing dependent species. We built upon concepts from epidemiology and economics (e.g., host-density threshold and cost-benefit analysis) to devise novel metrics of margin of error and minimum investment for parasite conservation. We define margin of error as the risk of accidental host extinction from misestimating equilibrium population sizes and predicted oscillations, while minimum investment represents the cost associated with conserving the additional hosts required to maintain viable parasite populations. This framework will aid in the identification of readily conserved parasites that present minimal health risks. To establish parasite conservation, we propose an extension of population viability analysis for host-parasite assemblages to assess extinction risk. In the direst cases, ex situ breeding programs for parasites should be evaluated to maximize success without undermining host protection. Though parasitic species pose a considerable conservation challenge, adaptations to conservation tools will help protect parasite biodiversity in the face of

  19. Analysing learning outcomes in an Electrical Engineering curriculum using illustrative verbs derived from Bloom's Taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meda, Lawrence; Swart, Arthur James

    2018-05-01

    Learning outcomes are essential to any curriculum in education, where they need to be clear, observable and measurable. However, some academics structure learning outcomes in a way that does not promote student learning. The purpose of this article is to present the analyses of learning outcomes of an Electrical Engineering curriculum offered at a University of Technology in South Africa, in order to determine if academics are structuring them in a way that enables student learning. A qualitative case study is used where the learning outcomes from 33 study guides are reviewed using illustrative verbs derived from Bloom's Taxonomy. Results indicate that 9% of all the learning outcomes are unclear, 10% are unobservable and 23% are unmeasurable. A key recommendation is to provide regular workshops to assist academics in reviewing their learning outcomes using the illustrative verbs derived from Bloom's Taxonomy, thereby ensuring that their learning outcomes promote student learning.

  20. Cognitive semantic networks: emotional verbs throw a tantrum but don't bite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Michael Kai; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2012-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies have over the past decades established that language is grounded in sensorimotor areas of the brain. The same neuronal circuits seem involved whether we literally pick up a ball or in a phrase refer to grasping an idea. However recent findings have demonstrated that not only ...... semantic analysis, multidimensional scaling, hierarchical clustering and network graph analysis to quantify their interaction and identify parameters of force and spatial differentiation which we propose cognitively relate emotions to sensorimotor action schemas....... leg, hand and face related but also emotional action verbs activate premotor systems in the brain. Hypothesizing that the force and spatial parameters which define action based language might also be reflected in the latent semantics of words, we select motor and emotion related verbs and apply latent...

  1. Bringing "play" to life: the use of experiential marketing in the VERB campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitzler, Carrie D; Asbury, Lori D; Kusner, Stella L

    2008-06-01

    Given the abundance of advertising and media that children and adolescents are exposed to today, it is increasingly important to incorporate nontraditional channels and venues in strategies designed to reach them. One such channel that the CDC's VERB campaign employed was experiential marketing, which is defined here as a live event or experience that gives the target audience the opportunity to see a product and experience it for themselves. Experiential marketing and the tactics that the VERB campaign used to reach children aged 9-13 years (tweens) with health messages about physical activity are described, including a discussion about how other public health campaigns might use experiential marketing and other commercial marketing techniques to reach the public with public health messages.

  2. The Role of Modal Verbs in Research Papers in the Field of Logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polona Vičič

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Research papers, an essential vehicle for disseminating new knowledge and findings, have long been valued for their linguistic objectivity and impersonality. However, more recent approaches to research paper writing suggest that authors should also take an “argumentative position” (White, 2003 by projecting their stance and encouraging the readers to actively engage in the process of reading and evaluating the text (Hyland, 2005; Scollon, 1994. An important linguistic feature, frequently employed for both objective and subjective presentation of claims, is modality and within it modal verbs, which through their modal meanings express different communicative functions. In recognition of genre- and discipline-specific norms, the present paper will focus on quantitative and qualitative analysis of modal verbs and their meanings and functions in logistics research papers, whereby the ultimate goal is to show what practical implications the study’s results may have for the teaching of English to students of logistics.

  3. Semantic priming effects of synonyms, antonyms, frame, implication and verb-object categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Skënderi-Rakipllari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Semantic priming has been a major subject of interest for psycholinguists, whose aim is to discover how lexical memory is structured and organized. The facilitation process of word retrieval through semantic priming has long been studied. The present research is aimed to reveal which semantic category has the best priming effect. Through a lexical decision task experiment we compared the reaction times of masked primed pairs and unprimed pairs. In addition, we analyzed the reaction times and priming effect of connected semantic relations: antonymy, frame, synonymy, implication and verb-object. The data collected and interpreted unveiled that the mean reaction times of primed pairs were shorter than those of unprimed pairs. As to semantic priming, the most significantly primed pairs were those of implications and verb- objects, and not those of synonymy or antonymy as it might be expected.

  4. BOLD response to motion verbs in left posterior middle temporal gyrus during story comprehension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallentin, Mikkel; Nielsen, Andreas Højlund; Vuust, Peter

    2011-01-01

    A primary focus within neuroimaging research on language comprehension is on the distribution of semantic knowledge in the brain. Studies have shown that the left posterior middle temporal gyrus (LPMT), a region just anterior to area MT/V5, is important for the processing of complex action...... knowledge. It has also been found that motion verbs cause activation in LPMT. In this experiment we investigated whether this effect could be replicated in a setting resembling real life language comprehension, i.e. without any overt behavioral task during passive listening to a story. During f......, clauses containing motion verbs were accompanied by a robust activation of LPMT with no other significant effects, consistent with the hypothesis that this brain region is important for processing motion knowledge, even during naturalistic language comprehension conditions....

  5. Feasibility of A Novel Treatment of Abstract Verbs in Aphasia and Apraxia of Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dallin John Bailey

    2015-05-01

    Results were been obtained for the first of two planned treatment phases for both participants. Results indicated improved sentence production attributable to the treatment for one of the two participants. The Conservative Dual Criterion (CDC; Swoboda, Kratochwill, & Levin, 2010 was used to aid in visual inspection of graphed probe data. These results indicate the feasibility of the treatment for increasing sentence production with abstract verbs in persons with chronic aphasia and AOS.

  6. Combination of verbs in Russian language and their translation in Persian language

    OpenAIRE

    احمدی ، شیخی احمدی ، شیخی

    2009-01-01

    Like sentences, combination of words is the main part of syntax in Persian language as well as in Russian language and plays an important role in sentence structures of these languages. Combination of words in Russian language is divided into three categories: verbal combinations, nominal and adverbial combinations. The writers of this article have studied combination of verbs in Russian language and their translation in Persian language.

  7. Verbal semantics drives early anticipatory eye movements during the comprehension of verb-initial sentences

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastian eSauppe; Sebastian eSauppe; Sebastian eSauppe

    2016-01-01

    Studies on anticipatory processes during sentence comprehension often focus on the prediction of postverbal direct objects. In subject-initial languages (the target of most studies so far), however, the position in the sentence, the syntactic function, and the semantic role of arguments are often conflated. For example, in the sentence The frog will eat the fly the syntactic object (fly) is at the same time also the last word and the patient argument of the verb. It is therefore not apparent ...

  8. Verb agreement in the third plural person in European Portuguese: variation or semi-categorical rules?

    OpenAIRE

    Cássio Florêncio Rubio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to characterize the verb agreement in the third person plural in the European Portuguese, and to present the points involved in this phenomenon. For the analysis, we resorted on the Theory of Linguistic Variation (LABOV 1972, 1994, 2003). The interviews debated in the quantitative analysis are from “Reference Corpus of Contemporary Portuguese”, published by the Linguistics Centre of the University of Lisbon (CLUL). The results show the influence of subject position,...

  9. Posture verbs in French-speaking CLIL and non-CLIL learners of Dutch

    OpenAIRE

    Hiligsmann, Philippe; Spinhayer, Camille; Josse, Amélie; Eurosla 26 Conference

    2016-01-01

    Recent research on Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) has confirmed that CLIL learners clearly outperform non-CLIL learners (Dalton-Puffer 2011). Although lexicon has often received pride of place in CLIL research, it is striking that studies have rarely been pushed beyond the word level. This paper therefore investigates the acquisition of Dutch posture verb constructions (PVs) in French-speaking (non-)CLIL learners. As in other Germanic languages, Dutch frequently uses compulso...

  10. Internal and External Dynamics in Language: Evidence from Verb Regularity in a Historical Corpus of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuskley, Christine F.; Pugliese, Martina; Castellano, Claudio; Colaiori, Francesca; Loreto, Vittorio; Tria, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Human languages are rule governed, but almost invariably these rules have exceptions in the form of irregularities. Since rules in language are efficient and productive, the persistence of irregularity is an anomaly. How does irregularity linger in the face of internal (endogenous) and external (exogenous) pressures to conform to a rule? Here we address this problem by taking a detailed look at simple past tense verbs in the Corpus of Historical American English. The data show that the language is open, with many new verbs entering. At the same time, existing verbs might tend to regularize or irregularize as a consequence of internal dynamics, but overall, the amount of irregularity sustained by the language stays roughly constant over time. Despite continuous vocabulary growth, and presumably, an attendant increase in expressive power, there is no corresponding growth in irregularity. We analyze the set of irregulars, showing they may adhere to a set of minority rules, allowing for increased stability of irregularity over time. These findings contribute to the debate on how language systems become rule governed, and how and why they sustain exceptions to rules, providing insight into the interplay between the emergence and maintenance of rules and exceptions in language. PMID:25084006

  11. Wide-focus subject-verb inversion in Ibero-Romance: A locative account

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    Alice Corr

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the hypothesis that wide-focus subject-verb inversion in Ibero-Romance is a type of locative inversion, involving a null locative argument. Ibero-Romance displays fine-grained, systematic variation determined by verbal class and variety, offering evidence that Ibero-Romance neutral word order is SVO, rather than VSO as claimed by some null-subject accounts. It is proposed that ‘locative’ subject-verb inversion is a consequence of grammatically-encoded deictic features correlating with the semantic properties of the verbs involved. The locative element, available unequally across Ibero-Romance, can surface in different positions in the left periphery, yielding the variation encountered. The data indicate that the licensing of these constructions depends neither on the null-subject parameter, since this type of inversion also occurs in non- and partial null-subject varieties, nor on the unaccusative/unergative division, though in both cases a degree of correspondence exists.

  12. Catalyzing community action within a national campaign: VERB community and national partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretthauer-Mueller, Rosemary; Berkowitz, Judy M; Thomas, Melonie; McCarthy, Susan; Green, Lula Anna; Melancon, Heidi; Courtney, Anita H; Bryant, Carol A; Dodge, Kristin

    2008-06-01

    The VERB campaign used a social marketing approach to deliver its message through the mass media, school and community promotions, and partnerships to encourage children aged 9-13 years (tweens) to be physically active every day. This paper presents the VERB campaign's community and national partnership strategy, highlights three successful partnerships, and discusses challenges associated with the efforts. The national advertising generated awareness of and affinity for the product's brand and motivated the primary audience to seek out the product. The campaign's national and community partners were engaged to facilitate a product-distribution channel. The campaign developed a three-pronged partnership strategy to integrate the promotion with the placement of the campaign's product (physical activity): (1) reframe the way physical activity is positioned and delivered; (2) connect the brand to the point-of-purchase; and (3) refer (or drive) the audience to the action outlets, opportunities, places, spaces and programs to purchase the product. The VERB campaign provided partners with marketing training and resources to assist them as they leveraged tweens' brand awareness and supported regular physical activity among tweens. The method of technical assistance and the types of marketing tools were provided in relationship to four characteristics of the partner: (1) partner's network, (2) leaders and champions in the network, (3) partner's financial resources for community campaigns; and (4) partner's understanding of the marketing mindset. Coordinated, collaborative, and strong mass-media and community-based interventions within a national social marketing campaign can sustain the immediate effects of such campaigns.

  13. Exploring Emotive Verbs in Persian and English Short Stories: A Contrastive Sociopragmatic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Keihaneh; Biria, Reza

    2017-04-01

    Current developments in the areas of discourse analysis and cross-cultural studies have led to an increased interest in the way people of different cultures express their affections on various occasions. Individuals learn how to regulate their emotional reactions according to sociocultural norms of behavior defined by the cultures to which they belong. Accordingly, this article aimed to investigate the linguistic expression of emotions in English and Persian short stories in order to fathom out the impact of culture on the way feelings are expressed cross-culturally. For this purpose, a corpus of eight different English and Persian short stories, four in each language, was selected based on a purposive sampling method. Then, using Devon's (The origin of emotions, 2006) typology of emotions, different types of emotive verbs were selected as the unit of analysis. Finally, the frequency and percentage values of emotive verb tokens used in these stories were carefully tabulated in terms of types and their respective metalinguistic categories introduced by Wierzbicka (Emotions across languages and cultures: diversity and universals, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1999). The results obtained from the analysis of the targeted corpora reflected that English and Persian writers employ different types of emotive verbs in expressing their feelings. Essentially, the findings of the present study may have important implications for language teachers, material developers, and course designers.

  14. Variant patterns of Subject-Verb agreement in Portuguese: morphological and phonological issues

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    Maria Antónia Mota

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we start from a basic assumption: agreement is a most relevant operation for the Portuguese language speakers as a whole. The data from different varieties of Portuguese support this view, both in the Subject-Verb domain and within the NP, as well as the fact that speakers don’t prefer the simplest solutions: the most productive plural agreement forms are the most complex ones, morphologically and phonologically. We focus the discussion on the interplay between different linguistic factors intervening in and promoting variant overt and covert patterns of agreement (the existence of agreement and the presence of visible marks, as expected in standard canonical schemes, constitute two separate questions. More specifically, we claim that it is worth to take into account the matching between the morphological and the phonological properties and features of the verb cells, in order to fully understand the attested variant outputs and the variant patterns of subject-verb agreement. We assume that the 3rdplural person-number marker has to be described in morphophonological terms, and we conclude that agreement is a morpho-phono-syntactic process, sensitive to the lexical-semantic features and discourse properties of the controller.

  15. Is Moving More Memorable than Proving? Effects of Embodiment and Imagined Enactment on Verb Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, David M; Pexman, Penny M

    2016-01-01

    Theories of embodied cognition propose that sensorimotor information is simulated during language processing (e.g., Barsalou, 1999). Previous studies have demonstrated that differences in simulation can have implications for word processing; for instance, lexical processing is facilitated for verbs that have relatively more embodied meanings (e.g., Sidhu et al., 2014). Here we examined the effects of these differences on memory for verbs. We observed higher rates of recognition (Experiments 1a-2a) and recall accuracy (Experiments 2b-3b) for verbs with a greater amount of associated bodily information (i.e., an embodiment effect). We also examined how this interacted with the imagined enactment effect: a memory benefit for actions that one imagines performing (e.g., Ditman et al., 2010). We found that these two effects did not interact (Experiment 3b), suggesting that the memory benefits of automatic simulation (i.e., the embodiment effect) and deliberate simulation (i.e., the imagined enactment effect) are distinct. These results provide evidence for the role of simulation in language processing, and its effects on memory.

  16. Effects of imitating gestures during encoding or during retrieval of novel verbs on children's test performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Nooijer, Jacqueline A; van Gog, Tamara; Paas, Fred; Zwaan, Rolf A

    2013-09-01

    Research has shown that observing and imitating gestures can foster word learning and that imitation might be more beneficial than observation, which is in line with theories of Embodied Cognition. This study investigated when imitation of gestures is most effective, using a 2×2×2×3 mixed design with between-subjects factors Imitation during Encoding (IE; Yes/No) and Imitation during Retrieval (IR; Yes/No), and within-subjects factors Time of Testing (Immediate/Delayed) and Verb Type (Object manipulation/Locomotion/Abstract). Primary school children (N=115) learned 15 novel verbs (five of each type). They were provided with a verbal definition and a video of the gesture. Depending on assigned condition, they additionally received no imitation instructions, instructions to imitate the gesture immediately (i.e., during encoding; IE), instructions to imitate (from memory) during the first posttest (i.e., during retrieval; IR), or both (IE-IR). Based on the literature, all three imitation conditions could be predicted to be more effective than no imitation. On an immediate and delayed posttest, only the object-manipulation verbs were differentially affected by instructional method, with IE and IR being more effective than no imitation on the immediate test; IE-IR and no imitation did not differ significantly. After a one week delay, only IR was more effective than no imitation, suggesting that imitation during retrieval is most effective for learning object-manipulation words. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The Dangling model in the construction of compound sentences with regard to verb tenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Mehravaran

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A sentence is the most complete syntactic unit of a language. The construction of a sentence is the most comprehensive, controversial and fascinating syntactic issue in the language grammar. The message or intention is usually conveyed through a sentence. In fact, the communicative function of a language is carried out via a sentence. A sentence can be classified in to different categories from different perspectives: semantically, constructively or performatively either with a verb or without a verb and also with regard to the construction. With regard to the construction, a sentence is either simple or compound. A simple sentence is the one with a complete meaning which only has one verb. It must be born in mind that a sentence is a complete unit whit meaning and there can be a hesitation after that. There for units of speech that have a verb without a complete meaning and there can be no silence or hesitation after them cannot be regarded as a sentence. Since they are dependent upon another sentence to be completed. They are called phrases. Such phrases can be incorporated in compound sentences make main and subordinate clauses. Compound sentences are widely discussed whit in grammatical constructions, but their types and that how have been built their various constructions are less adequately discussed. With regard to the manner of construction of compound sentences, the widest linguistic amenities can be observed in the sentences. There is not such complexity or disagreement over simple sentences but compound sentences have been less adequately investigated and there is room for more discussion and debate. Because, in some grammars, without considering the construction criteria, all sentences that are connected to one another, whit connectives are called compound sentences. This paper has precisely investigated compound sentences and has elaborated on the construction criteria of compound sentences. The study has also pointed to

  18. The Dangling model in the construction of compound sentences with regard to verb tenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Mehravaran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A sentence is the most complete syntactic unit of a language. The construction of a sentence is the most comprehensive, controversial and fascinating syntactic issue in the language grammar. The message or intention is usually conveyed through a sentence. In fact, the communicative function of a language is carried out via a sentence. A sentence can be classified in to different categories from different perspectives: semantically, constructively or performatively either with a verb or without a verb and also with regard to the construction. With regard to the construction, a sentence is either simple or compound. A simple sentence is the one with a complete meaning which only has one verb. It must be born in mind that a sentence is a complete unit whit meaning and there can be a hesitation after that. There for units of speech that have a verb without a complete meaning and there can be no silence or hesitation after them cannot be regarded as a sentence. Since they are dependent upon another sentence to be completed. They are called phrases. Such phrases can be incorporated in compound sentences make main and subordinate clauses. Compound sentences are widely discussed whit in grammatical constructions, but their types and that how have been built their various constructions are less adequately discussed. With regard to the manner of construction of compound sentences, the widest linguistic amenities can be observed in the sentences. There is not such complexity or disagreement over simple sentences but compound sentences have been less adequately investigated and there is room for more discussion and debate. Because, in some grammars, without considering the construction criteria, all sentences that are connected to one another, whit connectives are called compound sentences. This paper has precisely investigated compound sentences and has elaborated on the construction criteria of compound sentences. The study has also pointed to

  19. Category learning in the color-word contingency learning paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, James R; Augustinova, Maria; De Houwer, Jan

    2018-04-01

    In the typical color-word contingency learning paradigm, participants respond to the print color of words where each word is presented most often in one color. Learning is indicated by faster and more accurate responses when a word is presented in its usual color, relative to another color. To eliminate the possibility that this effect is driven exclusively by the familiarity of item-specific word-color pairings, we examine whether contingency learning effects can be observed also when colors are related to categories of words rather than to individual words. To this end, the reported experiments used three categories of words (animals, verbs, and professions) that were each predictive of one color. Importantly, each individual word was presented only once, thus eliminating individual color-word contingencies. Nevertheless, for the first time, a category-based contingency effect was observed, with faster and more accurate responses when a category item was presented in the color in which most of the other items of that category were presented. This finding helps to constrain episodic learning models and sets the stage for new research on category-based contingency learning.

  20. Differential Impairment of Noun and Verb Consequent to LH Lesions in Persian Aphasic Patients

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    Dr. Reza Nilipour

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available The major focus of this research is on the differential disruption of language abilities subsequent to brain damages as they relate to site and size of lesion, especially left hemisphere lesions which disrupt the production and processing of "Nouns" vs. "Verbs" as two functionally different lexical categories. Several clinical as well as experimental studies reported on different language have shown that nouns and verbs can be independently disrupted due to brain damage. A prevalent impairment in naming actions (Producing verbs is reported in non-fluent aphasic patients, with lesions involving left frontal lobe, whereas a selective in naming objects (Producing nouns has been observed in amnesic patients, with lesions involving the temporal lobe and the temporal lobe and the posterior association aresas. This research is a theoretical and fundamental based on descriptive and analytical method. The aphasic data in this research were obtained by assessing each patient's aphasic symptoms using a standard Persian aphasia test (Paradis, Nilipoure, Paribakht, 1989 as well as post-test analysis of each patient' connected descriptive speech. The subjects were selected form among aphasics who referred to speech therapy centers in Tehran during a pe5iod of one year since autumn 1999. The subjects selected in the study were a homogenous group with left hemisphere lesions due to CVA. They were educated adult right handed. Speakers of Persian without any risk factor such as nicotine, alcohol or any addiction and diabetes with no gross depression or anxiety problems or face and oral paralysis and hemiaopsia. The subjects in this study comprised to adults ranging between 33 and 76 years of age. The results indicated that there are significant correlation between: 1 The production of nouns and left hemisphere lesion. 2 The production of verbs and left hemisphere lesion. 3 Brain lesion and language deficits. 4 The site of lesion and language abilities

  1. Using the Predictability Criterion for Selecting Extended Verbs for Shona Dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Chabata

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The paper examines the "predictability criterion", a classificatory tool which is used in selecting affixed word forms for dictionary entries. It focuses on the criterion as it has been used by the African Languages Lexical (ALLEX Project for selecting extended verbs to enter as headwords in the Project's first monolingual Shona dictionary Duramazwi ReChiShona. The article also examines the status of Shona verbal extensions in terms of their semantic input to the verb stems they are attached to. The paper was originally motivated by two observations: (a that predictability seems to be a matter of degree; and (b that the predictability criterion tended to be used inconsistently in the selection of extended verbs and senses for Duramazwi ReChiShona. An analysis of 412 productively extended verbs that were entered as headwords in Duramazwi ReChiShona shows that verbal extensions can bring both predictable and unpredictable senses to the verb stems they are attached to. The paper demonstrates that for an effective use of the predictability criterion for selecting extended verbs for Shona dictionaries, there is need for the lexicographer to have an in-depth understanding of the kinds of semantic movements that are caused when verb stems are extended. It shows the need to view verbal extensions in Shona as derivational morphemes, not inflectional morphemes as some earlier scholars have concluded.

     

     

    Die gebruik van die voorspelbaarheidskriterium om uitgebreide werkwoorde te selekteer vir Shonawoordeboeke

    Hierdie artikel ondersoek die "voorspelbaarheidskriterium", 'n klassifikasiehulpmiddel wat gebruik word om geaffigeerde woordvorme te selekteer as woordeboekinskrywings. Dit fokus op die kriterium soos dit gebruik is deur die African Language Lexical (ALLEX Project vir die selektering van uitgebreide werkwoorde as lemmas in die Projek se eerste eentalige Shonawoordeboek Duramazwi ReChiShona. In

  2. Perceptual effects of linguistic category priming: the Stapel and Semin (2007) paradigm revisited in twelve experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    IJzerman, Hans; Regenberg, Nina F E; Saddlemyer, Justin; Koole, Sander L

    2015-05-01

    Linguistic category priming is a novel paradigm to examine automatic influences of language on cognition (Semin, 2008). An initial article reported that priming abstract linguistic categories (adjectives) led to more global perceptual processing, whereas priming concrete linguistic categories (verbs) led to more local perceptual processing (Stapel & Semin, 2007). However, this report was compromised by data fabrication by the first author, so that it remains unclear whether or not linguistic category priming influences perceptual processing. To fill this gap in the literature, the present article reports 12 studies among Dutch and US samples examining the perceptual effects of linguistic category priming. The results yielded no evidence of linguistic category priming effects. These findings are discussed in relation to other research showing cultural variations in linguistic category priming effects (IJzerman, Saddlemyer, & Koole, 2014). The authors conclude by highlighting the importance of conducting and publishing replication research for achieving scientific progress. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Thinking Cap Plus Thinking Zap: tDCS of Frontopolar Cortex Improves Creative Analogical Reasoning and Facilitates Conscious Augmentation of State Creativity in Verb Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Adam E; Spiegel, Katherine A; Giangrande, Evan J; Weinberger, Adam B; Gallagher, Natalie M; Turkeltaub, Peter E

    2017-04-01

    Recent neuroimaging evidence indicates neural mechanisms that support transient improvements in creative performance (augmented state creativity) in response to cognitive interventions (creativity cueing). Separately, neural interventions via tDCS show encouraging potential for modulating neuronal function during creative performance. If cognitive and neural interventions are separately effective, can they be combined? Does state creativity augmentation represent "real" creativity, or do interventions simply yield divergence by diminishing meaningfulness/appropriateness? Can augmenting state creativity bolster creative reasoning that supports innovation, particularly analogical reasoning? To address these questions, we combined tDCS with creativity cueing. Testing a regionally specific hypothesis from neuroimaging, high-definition tDCS-targeted frontopolar cortex activity recently shown to predict state creativity augmentation. In a novel analogy finding task, participants under tDCS formulated substantially more creative analogical connections in a large matrix search space (creativity indexed via latent semantic analysis). Critically, increased analogical creativity was not due to diminished accuracy in discerning valid analogies, indicating "real" creativity rather than inappropriate divergence. A simpler relational creativity paradigm (modified verb generation) revealed a tDCS-by-cue interaction; tDCS further enhanced creativity cue-related increases in semantic distance. Findings point to the potential of noninvasive neuromodulation to enhance creative relational cognition, including augmentation of the deliberate effort to formulate connections between distant concepts. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Effects of TMS on different stages of motor and non-motor verb processing in the primary motor cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuba Papeo

    Full Text Available The embodied cognition hypothesis suggests that motor and premotor areas are automatically and necessarily involved in understanding action language, as word conceptual representations are embodied. This transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS study explores the role of the left primary motor cortex in action-verb processing. TMS-induced motor-evoked potentials from right-hand muscles were recorded as a measure of M1 activity, while participants were asked either to judge explicitly whether a verb was action-related (semantic task or to decide on the number of syllables in a verb (syllabic task. TMS was applied in three different experiments at 170, 350 and 500 ms post-stimulus during both tasks to identify when the enhancement of M1 activity occurred during word processing. The delays between stimulus onset and magnetic stimulation were consistent with electrophysiological studies, suggesting that word recognition can be differentiated into early (within 200 ms and late (within 400 ms lexical-semantic stages, and post-conceptual stages. Reaction times and accuracy were recorded to measure the extent to which the participants' linguistic performance was affected by the interference of TMS with M1 activity. No enhancement of M1 activity specific for action verbs was found at 170 and 350 ms post-stimulus, when lexical-semantic processes are presumed to occur (Experiments 1-2. When TMS was applied at 500 ms post-stimulus (Experiment 3, processing action verbs, compared with non-action verbs, increased the M1-activity in the semantic task and decreased it in the syllabic task. This effect was specific for hand-action verbs and was not observed for action-verbs related to other body parts. Neither accuracy nor RTs were affected by TMS. These findings suggest that the lexical-semantic processing of action verbs does not automatically activate the M1. This area seems to be rather involved in post-conceptual processing that follows the retrieval of motor

  5. The role of syntax in complex networks: Local and global importance of verbs in a syntactic dependency network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čech, Radek; Mačutek, Ján; Žabokrtský, Zdeněk

    2011-10-01

    Syntax of natural language has been the focus of linguistics for decades. The complex network theory, being one of new research tools, opens new perspectives on syntax properties of the language. Despite numerous partial achievements, some fundamental problems remain unsolved. Specifically, although statistical properties typical for complex networks can be observed in all syntactic networks, the impact of syntax itself on these properties is still unclear. The aim of the present study is to shed more light on the role of syntax in the syntactic network structure. In particular, we concentrate on the impact of the syntactic function of a verb in the sentence on the complex network structure. Verbs play the decisive role in the sentence structure (“local” importance). From this fact we hypothesize the importance of verbs in the complex network (“global” importance). The importance of verb in the complex network is assessed by the number of links which are directed from the node representing verb to other nodes in the network. Six languages (Catalan, Czech, Dutch, Hungarian, Italian, Portuguese) were used for testing the hypothesis.

  6. 2.5-year-olds use cross-situational consistency to learn verbs under referential uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Rose M; Fisher, Cynthia

    2012-02-01

    Recent evidence shows that children can use cross-situational statistics to learn new object labels under referential ambiguity (e.g., Smith & Yu, 2008). Such evidence has been interpreted as support for proposals that statistical information about word-referent co-occurrence plays a powerful role in word learning. But object labels represent only a fraction of the vocabulary children acquire, and arguably represent the simplest case of word learning based on observations of world scenes. Here we extended the study of cross-situational word learning to a new segment of the vocabulary, action verbs, to permit a stronger test of the role of statistical information in word learning. In two experiments, on each trial 2.5-year-olds encountered two novel intransitive (e.g., "She's pimming!"; Experiment 1) or transitive verbs (e.g., "She's pimming her toy!"; Experiment 2) while viewing two action events. The consistency with which each verb accompanied each action provided the only source of information about the intended referent of each verb. The 2.5-year-olds used cross-situational consistency in verb learning, but also showed significant limits on their ability to do so as the sentences and scenes became slightly more complex. These findings help to define the role of cross-situational observation in word learning. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The Consumption Paradigm in Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Ardianto

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available This article elaborates consumption paradigm in marketing. In background, this paper reviews different perspectives of consumption: economic perspective and marketing perspective. In ontology, this work describes various issues regarding consumption view. In epistemology, this article demonstrates how marketers especially researches explore the consumption phenomena. In methodology, the article describes experiential marketing –one of applied consumption paradigm in marketing, which could be an alternative choice of marketing practices.

  8. In my own words: the translation of reporting verbs on the parallel corpus the adventures of Huckleberry Finn — As aventuras de Huck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Alves

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2016v36n1p34 This article examines Monteiro Lobato’s (retextualization of Mark Twain’s The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. The analysis focuses on reporting verbs in instances of direct speech. The methodology used for data collection is based on Corpus Linguistics and the analysis built on the hallidayan systemic-functional grammar. The aim of this paper is to explore patterns in the choice of reporting verbs in Twain’s and Lobato’s textualizations particularly in connection with neutral verbs, such as ‘say’ in English and ‘dizer’ in Portuguese. Results show that Lobato’s (retextualization tends to select Free Direct Discourse, (instead of Direct Discourse and a wider variety of reporting verbs, there being no single verb accounting for more than 25% of all occurrences of direct discourse examined. The neutral verb ‘say’ was also observed to have been (retextualized by reporting verbs that signal speech function, indicating either information giving or demanding, and by verbs that realize an additional feature or specify speech connotation.

  9. In my own words: the translation of reporting verbs on the parallel corpus the adventures of Huckleberry Finn — As aventuras de Huck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Alves

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines Monteiro Lobato’s (retextualization of Mark Twain’s The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. The analysis focuses on reporting verbs in instances of direct speech. The methodology used for data collection is based on Corpus Linguistics and the analysis built on the hallidayan systemic-functional grammar. The aim of this paper is to explore patterns in the choice of reporting verbs in Twain’s and Lobato’s textualizations particularly in connection with neutral verbs, such as ‘say’ in English and ‘dizer’ in Portuguese. Results show that Lobato’s (retextualization tends to select Free Direct Discourse, (instead of Direct Discourse and a wider variety of reporting verbs, there being no single verb accounting for more than 25% of all occurrences of direct discourse examined. The neutral verb ‘say’ was also observed to have been (retextualized by reporting verbs that signal speech function, indicating either information giving or demanding, and by verbs that realize an additional feature or specify speech connotation.

  10. Successful Written Subject-Verb Agreement: An Online Analysis of the Procedure Used by Students in Grades 3, 5 and 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamargot, Denis; Flouret, Lisa; Larocque, Denis; Caporossi, Gilles; Pontart, Virginie; Paduraru, Carmen; Morisset, Pauline; Fayol, Michel

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to (1) investigate the procedure responsible for successful written subject-verb agreement, and (2) describe how it develops across grades. Students in Grades 3, 5 and 12 were asked to read noun-noun-verb sentences aloud (e.g., "Le chien des voisins mange" ["The dog of the neighbors eats"]) and write out…

  11. The Influence of Semantic and Morphological Complexity of Verbs on Sentence Recall: Implications for the Nature of Conceptual Representation and Category-Specific Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobayyen, F.; de Almeida, R.G.

    2005-01-01

    One hundred and forty normal undergraduate students participated in a Proactive Interference (PI) experiment with sentences containing verbs from four different semantic and morphological classes (lexical causatives, morphological causatives, and morphologically complex and simplex perception verbs). Past research has shown significant PI build-up…

  12. METAPHORIZATION AND METONYMIZATIO: DIACHRONIC DEVELOPMENT OF VERBS OF VOLITION IN SOUTHERN MIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao-Hsia Chang

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the diachrony of the verbs of volition ai and beh in Southern Min (SM. The data include historical SM texts (16th-19th century, folk songs in the late 19th to early 20th century, and contemporary natural Taiwanese Southern Min conversations. The results mainly mark two stages of the development of ai and beh: historical (before 1900 and contemporary SM. Since the 16th century (Ming Dynasty, ai has been used as a verb of volition indicating love, intention or hope. As for historical ai, it marked future, specialized however for predicting an adverse future. In contemporary SM, a sense of necessity emerged with the use of ai denoting general agreement among people. Seven senses are attributed to historical beh: want/intention/hope, future, excessiveness, necessity, proximity and conditionality. In contemporary SM, the indication of the want of an entity has become a less preferred use, and necessity is only preserved when indicating puzzlement and helplessness. The diachronic developments of ai and beh demonstrate an interplay of metaphorization and metonymization (Traugott and Dasher 2002:27. Metaphorization contributes first to the semantic shift of ai and beh from “to want; to love” to “to intend to” and a concurrent categorical change from lexical verb into auxiliary, and second, to the evolution of future. Metonymization activates an even wider range of uses and meaning change, including the pragmatic strengthening of interpretations such as excessiveness (beh, necessity (ai, beh, proximity (beh and conditional (beh, and prediction of an undesirable future (ai.

  13. Theory of mind and preschoolers' understanding of implicit causality in verbs: A comparison between Serbian and Hungarian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agota Major

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the effect of theory of mind, age and mother tongue on the implicit causality effect in preschoolers from two different language backgrounds. Serbian and Hungarian native speakers aged 3–7 years participated in the study. After taking part in a Theory of Mind task, children were presented verbs in simple „Subject verb Object” sentences describing interactions between two participants, with the interactions being based on emotional, mental or visual experiences. Children were asked “Why does S verb O?” and their responses were categorized as containing an inference about the sentence-S or the sentence-O. The results show that Theory of Mind is a significant factor in the emergence of implicit causality, with age of participants and mother tongue being also contributing to explaining patterns of implicit causality.

  14. Language-Game and Language Tendency: Conceptual Correlation (on the Example of the Modern Transitivity of Russian Intransitive Verbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Nekrylova

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the clarification of the question of the possibility of correlation between the concepts of language-game and the language trend, which is carried out on the example of modern transitive Russian intransitive verbs. Said correlation is concretized by elucidating the possibility of a gradual transition from a language-game to the transitivity of intransitive verbs to the empirically confirmed tendency of their transition. The opinions of the researchers of the language-game concerning the possibility of manifesting such a tendency are supported by examples that show the gradual transition of the language-game into the transitivity of intransitive verbs into the corresponding linguistic tendency.

  15. Chinese L1 children's English L2 verb morphology over time: individual variation in long-term outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Johanne; Tulpar, Yasemin; Arppe, Antti

    2016-05-01

    This study examined accuracy in production and grammaticality judgements of verb morphology by eighteen Chinese-speaking children learning English as a second language (L2) followed longitudinally from four to six years of exposure to English, and who began to learn English at age 4;2. Children's growth in accuracy with verb morphology reached a plateau by six years, where 11/18 children did not display native-speaker levels of accuracy for one or more morphemes. Variation in children's accuracy with verb morphology was predicted by their English vocabulary size and verbal short-term memories primarily, and quality and quantity of English input at home secondarily. This study shows that even very young L2 learners might not all catch up to native speakers in this time frame and that non-age factors play a role in determining individual variation in child L2 learners' long-term outcomes with English morphology.

  16. Verbal Semantics Drives Early Anticipatory Eye Movements during the Comprehension of Verb-Initial Sentences

    OpenAIRE

    Sauppe, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Studies on anticipatory processes during sentence comprehension often focus on the prediction of postverbal direct objects. In subject-initial languages (the target of most studies so far), however, the position in the sentence, the syntactic function, and the semantic role of arguments are often conflated. For example, in the sentence “The frog will eat the fly” the syntactic object (“fly”) is at the same time also the last word and the patient argument of the verb. It is therefore not appar...

  17. Verb agreement in the third plural person in European Portuguese: variation or semi-categorical rules?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássio Florêncio Rubio

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to characterize the verb agreement in the third person plural in the European Portuguese, and to present the points involved in this phenomenon. For the analysis, we resorted on the Theory of Linguistic Variation (LABOV 1972, 1994, 2003. The interviews debated in the quantitative analysis are from “Reference Corpus of Contemporary Portuguese”, published by the Linguistics Centre of the University of Lisbon (CLUL. The results show the influence of subject position, semantic feature of the subject, and morphological type of the subject in Linguistics.

  18. Nouns and verbs in Chintang: children's usage and surrounding adult speech

    OpenAIRE

    Stoll, Sabine; Bickel, Balthasar; Lieven, Elena; Banjade, Goma; Bhatta, Toya Nath; Gaenszle, Martin; Paudyal, Netra P; Pettigrew, Judith; Rai, Ichchha Purna; Rai, Manoj; Rai, Novel Kishore

    2012-01-01

    peer-reviewed Analyzing the development of the noun-to-verb ratio in a longitudinal corpus of four Chintang (Sino-Tibetan) children, we find that up to about age four, children have a significantly higher ratio than adults. Previous cross-linguistic research rules out an explanation of this in [*] This research was made by possible by Grant Nos. BI 799/1-2 and II/81 961 from the Volkswagen Foundation (DoBeS program). Author contributions: Stoll designed the study; Bickel ...

  19. Studies on the s_dm.t=f verb form in Classical Egyptian

    OpenAIRE

    Zonhoven, Ludovicus Martinus Johannes

    1997-01-01

    This study is devoted to some synchronic aspects of the sDm.t=f verb form, primarily its meaning and uses in Classical Egyptian. In the introduction some attention is paid to the history of the studies of the form and its origin, an aspect which will receive no further consideration. In accordance with present common opinion the sDm.t=f is here considered to belong to the suffix conjugation. Ch. I is primarily concerned with the active Dr sDm.t=f construction, but begins with a general introd...

  20. Did augmenting the VERB campaign advertising in select communities have an effect on awareness, attitudes, and physical activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Judy M; Huhman, Marian; Nolin, Mary Jo

    2008-06-01

    Although VERB was designed as a national media campaign, funding and donated media time enabled more-intensive advertising and marketing in certain communities. To investigate the effect of increased advertising on physical activity outcomes, six "high-dose" communities were selected to receive more hours of advertising and additional promotional activities. Longitudinal quasi-experimental design comparing outcomes in six communities that received additional VERB marketing activities with outcomes in a comparison group that received only the national dose of advertising. Two cohorts of dyads of youth aged 9-13 years (tweens) and one parent at baseline (2002), followed for 2 years. During the first year of the VERB campaign, each of the six high-dose communities received 50% more advertising and conducted special campaign activities. During the second year, only four of the six communities received the larger dose of advertising and additional promotional activities because of reduced funding. Awareness and understanding of VERB messages; attitudes about physical activity (self-efficacy, social influences, and outcome expectations); and physical activity behaviors. After 1 year, tweens in the high-dose communities reported higher levels of awareness and understanding of VERB and scored higher on the social influences scale than did tweens in a comparison group in areas that received only the national dose of advertising. After 2 years, tweens in the high-dose communities reported higher awareness and understanding of VERB, greater self-efficacy, more sessions of free-time physical activity per week, and were more active on the day before being surveyed than tweens in the comparison group who received the average national dose. Providing communities with a higher dose of marketing activities and sustaining those activities over time yields more positive outcomes.

  1. Polysemous Verbs and Modality in Native and Non-Native Argumentative Writing: A Corpus-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danica Salazar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study is a corpus-based analysis of a selection of polysemous lexical verbs used to express modality in student argumentative writing. Twenty-three lexical verbs were searched for in three 100,000-word corpora of argumentative essays written in English by American, Filipino and Spanish university students. Concordance lines were examined to determine their use in the three corpora. After presenting the overall results for all verbs studied, more in-depth linguistic analysis was performed on the polysemous verb feel. These analyses revealed that the non-native writers, unlike their native counterparts, had a limited grasp of the full range of meanings of lexical verbs such as feel. It also showed that all student writers under study employed only a restricted range of lexical verbs to convey modal meanings in their writing.En este artículo presentamos un análisis de una selección de verbos polisémicos, utilizados para expresar modalidad, en tres corpus de textos argumentativos escritos en inglés por estudiantes universitarios americanos, filipinos y españoles. Después de exponer los resultados generales, se presenta un análisis más exhaustivo del verbo polisémico feel, que revela que los estudiantes no nativos, a diferencia de los nativos, tienen un conocimiento limitado de su diversidad de sentidos. También muestra que todos los estudiantes analizados usaron un repertorio restringido de verbos léxicos que expresan modalidad.

  2. Effects of a mass media campaign to increase physical activity among children: year-1 results of the VERB campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhman, Marian; Potter, Lance D; Wong, Faye L; Banspach, Stephen W; Duke, Jennifer C; Heitzler, Carrie D

    2005-08-01

    To determine the effects of a mass media campaign on the levels of physical activity among children 9 to 13 years of age. A prospective, longitudinal, quasi-experimental design was used. A baseline survey was conducted in April to June 2002, before the launch of VERB advertising. Random-digit-dialing methods were used to survey a nationally representative sample of children and parents. The follow-up survey was repeated with the same cohort of children and parents in April to June 2003. Propensity scoring was used to determine the campaign's effects on awareness and physical activity behaviors. United States. A total of 3120 parent-child dyads. Intervention. The VERB campaign is a multiethnic campaign that combines paid advertisements with school and community promotions and Internet activities to encourage children 9 to 13 years of age to be physically active every day. Launched in 2002 by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, VERB uses commercial marketing methods to advertise being physically active as cool, fun, and a chance to have a good time with friends. Using the VERB brand, paid advertising ran nationally from June 2002 through June 2003, targeting 9- to 13-year-old youths. Children's awareness of the campaign and self-reported estimates of free-time and organized physical activity sessions during nonschool hours in the week before the interview. After 1 year, 74% of children surveyed were aware of the VERB campaign. Levels of reported sessions of free-time physical activity increased for subgroups of children 9 to 13 years of age. A pattern of effects across 2 measures was observed for younger children (9-10 years of age), girls, children whose parents had less than a high school education, children from urban areas that were densely populated, and children who were low active at baseline. These subgroups engaged in more median weekly sessions of free-time physical activity than did children who were unaware of VERB and, as the children's level

  3. TYPES OF PEDAGOGIC INFORMATION FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF SKILLS RELATED TO THE USE OF FRENCH PAST TENSE VERB FORMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Аліна Андрущенко

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The author built the types of pedagogic information to develop the programme to teach the usage of the most frequent French past tense verb forms in oral and written speech to students of Linguistic Higher Educational Institutions (faculties, analyzed the selection criteria of all the types of pedagogic information, as well as selected the authentic French texts to provide for the said programme, gave the examples of exercises aimed at the formation of skills related to the use of the past tense verb forms.

  4. Bio-SimVerb and Bio-SimLex: wide-coverage evaluation sets of word similarity in biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Billy; Pyysalo, Sampo; Vulić, Ivan; Korhonen, Anna

    2018-02-05

    Word representations support a variety of Natural Language Processing (NLP) tasks. The quality of these representations is typically assessed by comparing the distances in the induced vector spaces against human similarity judgements. Whereas comprehensive evaluation resources have recently been developed for the general domain, similar resources for biomedicine currently suffer from the lack of coverage, both in terms of word types included and with respect to the semantic distinctions. Notably, verbs have been excluded, although they are essential for the interpretation of biomedical language. Further, current resources do not discern between semantic similarity and semantic relatedness, although this has been proven as an important predictor of the usefulness of word representations and their performance in downstream applications. We present two novel comprehensive resources targeting the evaluation of word representations in biomedicine. These resources, Bio-SimVerb and Bio-SimLex, address the previously mentioned problems, and can be used for evaluations of verb and noun representations respectively. In our experiments, we have computed the Pearson's correlation between performances on intrinsic and extrinsic tasks using twelve popular state-of-the-art representation models (e.g. word2vec models). The intrinsic-extrinsic correlations using our datasets are notably higher than with previous intrinsic evaluation benchmarks such as UMNSRS and MayoSRS. In addition, when evaluating representation models for their abilities to capture verb and noun semantics individually, we show a considerable variation between performances across all models. Bio-SimVerb and Bio-SimLex enable intrinsic evaluation of word representations. This evaluation can serve as a predictor of performance on various downstream tasks in the biomedical domain. The results on Bio-SimVerb and Bio-SimLex using standard word representation models highlight the importance of developing dedicated

  5. Pourquoi certains verbes admettent-ils les objets implicites indéfinis ? Une réponse pragmatique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bourmayan Anouch

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Les objets implicites indéfinis – ou OIIs – sont des constituants de sens correspondant sur un plan sémantique à des arguments objet de valeur indéfinie. Ils sont donc paraphrasables par des compléments d'objet direct indéfinis. Cependant, ces constituants sont implicites, au sens où ils n'apparaissent pas dans la forme de surface de l'énoncé. Ainsi, lorsque j'affirme (1, mon énoncé présente les mêmes conditions de vérité que (2 : (1 Marie mange. (2 Marie mange quelque chose. Affirmer que Marie mange, c'est bien affirmer que Marie mange quelque chose. Et comprendre l'énoncé en (1, c'est comprendre qu'il signifie (2. En d'autres termes, (1 met en jeu un OII. Or il semble que parmi les verbes pouvant apparaître avec un complément d'objet direct, tous n'admettent pas l'omission de l'objet et l'interprétation avec un OII. Ainsi, on ne peut pas dire « je suis en train de mettre », au sens de « je suis en train de mettre quelque chose ». Comment expliquer ce contraste entre « manger « et « mettre » ? Plus généralement, comment rendre compte de la distribution des OIIs ? Dans cet article, j'examine tour à tour quatre analyses qui ont été proposées dans la littérature, à savoir l'approche lexicaliste arbitraire, selon laquelle la capacité d'un verbe à admettre les OIIs est déterminée lexicalement mais ne peut être dérivée d'aucun autre trait sémantique du verbe, l'approche lexicaliste aspectuelle, selon laquelle la capacité d'un verbe à admettre les OIIs est déterminée lexicalement, mais peut être dérivée des propriétés aspectuelles du verbe, l'approche lexicaliste événementielle, selon laquelle la capacité d'un verbe à admettre les OIIs est déterminée par la nature de la structure événementielle du verbe, et l'approche constructionniste, selon laquelle les OIIs sont autorisés par des constructions grammaticales spécifiques qui font partie de la connaissance grammaticale des

  6. Semantic Categories in the Domain of Motion Verbs by Adult Speakers of Danish, German, and Turkish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessen, Moiken

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Languages differ in the ways they divide the world. This study applies cluster analysis to understand how and why languages differ in the way they express motion events. It further lays out what the parameters of the structure of the semantic space of motion are, based on data collected from participants who were adult speakers of Danish, German, and Turkish. The participants described 37 video clips depicting a large variety of motion events. The results of the study show that the segmentation of the semantic space displays a great deal of variation across all three groups. Turkish differs from German and Danish with respect to the features used to segment the semantic space – namely by using vector orientation. German and Danish differ greatly with respect to (a how fine-grained the distinctions made are, and (b how motion verbs with a common Germanic root are distributed across the semantic space. Consequently, this study illustrates that the parameters applied for categorization by speakers are, to some degree, related to typological membership, in relation to Talmy's typological framework for the expression of motion events. Finally, the study shows that the features applied for categorization differ across languages and that typological membership is not necessarily a predictor of elaboration of the motion verb lexicon.

  7. Investigating Thematic Roles through Implicit Learning: Evidence from Light Verb Constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Wittenberg

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The syntactic structure of a sentence is usually a strong predictor of its meaning: Each argument noun phrase (i.e., Subject and Object should map onto exactly one thematic role (i.e., Agent and Patient, respectively. Some constructions, however, are exceptions to this pattern. This paper investigates how the syntactic structure of an utterance contributes to its construal, using ditransitive English light verb constructions, such as “Nils gave a hug to his brother,” as an example of such mismatches: Hugging is a two-role event, but the ditransitive syntactic structure suggests a three-role event. Data from an eye-tracking experiment and behavioral categorization data reveal that listeners learn to categorize sentences according to the number of thematic roles they convey, independent of their syntax. Light verb constructions, however, seem to form a category of their own, in which the syntactic structure leads listeners down an initial incorrect assignment of thematic roles, from which they only partly recover. These results suggest an automatic influence of syntactic argument structure on semantic interpretation and event construal, even in highly frequent constructions.

  8. The semantics of verbs in the dissolution and development of language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahey, M; Feier, C D

    1982-03-01

    Evidence of the dissolution (DL) of verbs was examined in the written logs kept daily for 4 1/2 years by a woman (Mrs. W) who suffered from cerebral atrophy of unknown origin. Results were compared with similar analyses of written samples obtained from elementary school children (CWL), from normal adults (AWL) and from the literature on early oral language development (COL). The major finding of this study was that the sequence of the dissolution of verbs, in terms of the meanings expressed, mirrored the sequence of early acquisition. In the DL data reported here, Mrs. W continued to write about dynamic events after she ceased writing about stative events; in COL, children talk about dynamic events before stative events. Based on the AWL and CWL data, frequency of use is rejected as an explanation for the dominance and stability of dynamic relations in DL. Rather, it is suggested that the expression of dynamic relations may be less complex than the expression of stative relations due to possible differences in imagery and implication, but particularly due to the linguistic contexts in which each can be expressed.

  9. A person is not a number: discourse involvement in subject-verb agreement computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Simona; Molinaro, Nicola; Rizzi, Luigi; Carreiras, Manuel

    2011-09-02

    Agreement is a very important mechanism for language processing. Mainstream psycholinguistic research on subject-verb agreement processing has emphasized the purely formal and encapsulated nature of this phenomenon, positing an equivalent access to person and number features. However, person and number are intrinsically different, because person conveys extra-syntactic information concerning the participants in the speech act. To test the person-number dissociation hypothesis we investigated the neural correlates of subject-verb agreement in Spanish, using person and number violations. While number agreement violations produced a left-anterior negativity followed by a P600 with a posterior distribution, the negativity elicited by person anomalies had a centro-posterior maximum and was followed by a P600 effect that was frontally distributed in the early phase and posteriorly distributed in the late phase. These data reveal that the parser is differentially sensitive to the two features and that it deals with the two anomalies by adopting different strategies, due to the different levels of analysis affected by the person and number violations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Paradigm Shifts in Ophthalmic Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebag, J; Sadun, Alfredo A; Pierce, Eric A

    2016-08-01

    Future advances in ophthalmology will see a paradigm shift in diagnostics from a focus on dysfunction and disease to better measures of psychophysical function and health. Practical methods to define genotypes will be increasingly important and non-invasive nanotechnologies are needed to detect molecular changes that predate histopathology. This is not a review nor meant to be comprehensive. Specific topics have been selected to illustrate the principles of important paradigm shifts that will influence the future of ophthalmic diagnostics. It is our impression that future evaluation of vision will go beyond visual acuity to assess ocular health in terms of psychophysical function. The definition of disease will incorporate genotype into what has historically been a phenotype-centric discipline. Non-invasive nanotechnologies will enable a paradigm shift from disease detection on a cellular level to a sub-cellular molecular level. Vision can be evaluated beyond visual acuity by measuring contrast sensitivity, color vision, and macular function, as these provide better insights into the impact of aging and disease. Distortions can be quantified and the psychophysical basis of vision can be better evaluated than in the past by designing tests that assess particular macular cell function(s). Advances in our understanding of the genetic basis of eye diseases will enable better characterization of ocular health and disease. Non-invasive nanotechnologies can assess molecular changes in the lens, vitreous, and macula that predate visible pathology. Oxygen metabolism and circulatory physiology are measurable indices of ocular health that can detect variations of physiology and early disease. This overview of paradigm shifts in ophthalmology suggests that the future will see significant improvements in ophthalmic diagnostics. The selected topics illustrate the principles of these paradigm shifts and should serve as a guide to further research and development. Indeed

  11. The synthesis paradigm in genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, William R

    2014-02-01

    Experimental genetics with model organisms and mathematically explicit genetic theory are generally considered to be the major paradigms by which progress in genetics is achieved. Here I argue that this view is incomplete and that pivotal advances in genetics--and other fields of biology--are also made by synthesizing disparate threads of extant information rather than generating new information from experiments or formal theory. Because of the explosive expansion of information in numerous "-omics" data banks, and the fragmentation of genetics into numerous subdisciplines, the importance of the synthesis paradigm will likely expand with time.

  12. Transmission pricing: paradigms and methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirmohammadi, Dariush [Pacific Gas and Electric Co., San Francisco, CA (United States); Vieira Filho, Xisto; Gorenstin, Boris [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pereira, Mario V.P. [Power System Research, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    In this paper we describe the principles of several paradigms and methodologies for pricing transmission services. The paper outlines some of the main characteristics of these paradigms and methodologies such as where they may be used for best results. Due to their popularity, power flow based MW-mile and short run marginal cost pricing methodologies will be covered in some detail. We conclude the paper with examples of the application of these two pricing methodologies for pricing transmission services in Brazil. (author) 25 refs., 2 tabs.

  13. CNN a paradigm for complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Chua, Leon O

    1998-01-01

    Revolutionary and original, this treatise presents a new paradigm of EMERGENCE and COMPLEXITY, with applications drawn from numerous disciplines, including artificial life, biology, chemistry, computation, physics, image processing, information science, etc.CNN is an acronym for Cellular Neural Networks when used in the context of brain science, or Cellular Nonlinear Networks, when used in the context of emergence and complexity. A CNN is modeled by cells and interactions: cells are defined as dynamical systems and interactions are defined via coupling laws. The CNN paradigm is a universal Tur

  14. Subject-Verb Agreement and Verbal Short-Term Memory: A Perspective from Greek Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalioti, Marina; Stavrakaki, Stavroula; Manouilidou, Christina; Talli, Ioanna

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the performance of school age Greek-speaking children with SLI on verbal short-term memory (VSTM) and Subject-Verb (S-V) agreement in comparison to chronological age controls and younger typically developing children. VSTM abilities were assessed by means of a non-word repetition task (NRT) and an elicited production task,…

  15. Mothers' Talk to Children with Down Syndrome, Language Impairment, or Typical Development about Familiar and Unfamiliar Nouns and Verbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Elizabeth Kay-Raining; Cleave, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated how forty-six mothers modified their talk about familiar and unfamiliar nouns and verbs when interacting with their children with Down Syndrome (DS), language impairment (LI), or typical development (TD). Children (MLUs < 2·7) were group-matched on expressive vocabulary size. Mother-child dyads were recorded playing with…

  16. Rôle des verbes de base dans l'acquisition de la L1 par les enfants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tout enfant biologiquement normal mis dans les conditions sociales requises acquiert sans heurts sa langue maternelle (L1) (Klein 1989). Cependant, cette forme d'acquisition apparemment facile, relève d'un travail cognitif complexe et sélectif (Afola-Amey, 2006). Certes, les noms s'acquièrent plus vite mais les verbes ...

  17. The Syntactic Analysis of Pronoun Homofunction Considering Verb Structure and the Function of Connected Pronouns in Passive-Emotional Sentences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Irani

    2017-04-01

       All these sentences express a kind of passive and emotional reaction; hence, it must certainly be considered to get the meaning of such sentences. Khābash gereft, for example, means he fell asleep.In the other hand, paying attention to the meaning will notably be effective in determining the verb type in structure and the grammatical role of the words in such sentences. According to the authors of this research, unlike some ideas, the verb structure is not compounded in these sentences, but is a nominal/adjectival component before the homo-function, recognized to be a part of the compound verb by some grammarians and linguists, has a subject role; and the homo-function is also a simple verb completely agreeing in suffix with the subject. The role of the pronoun suffixes, also, must be determined paying special attention to their role in traditional grammar because we think sometimes proposing ideas on some grammatical points might not bring about acceptable results regardless of their background and historic relations. Since pronoun suffixes occur only as objects, complements and genitives, the joint pronouns in these sentences are not an exception and have the same roles. The accompanying noun or adjective is the subject. The disjoint initial noun or pronoun, the “pronoun homo-role”, can be replaced by the pronoun suffix in some sentences, but makes the sentence ungrammatical in most cases.

  18. Past tense in the brain's time: Neurophysiological evidence for dual-route processing of past-tense verbs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, I.; Pulvermüller, F.; Shtyrov, Y.

    2013-01-01

    A controversial issue in neuro- and psycholinguistics is whether regular past-tense forms of verbs are stored lexically or generated productively by the application of abstract combinatorial schemas, for example affixation rules. The success or failure of models in accounting for this particular

  19. The Effects of Form-Focused Instruction on the Acquisition of Subject-Verb Inversion in German

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindseth, Martina

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the effects of form-focused instruction (FFI) on the acquisition of subject-verb inversion word order in declarative sentences in German. A group of U.S. college students who participated in a semester-long study abroad program in Germany and were comparable in terms of preprogram oral proficiency levels and accuracy scores in…

  20. Objects, Events and "to Be" Verbs in Spanish--An ERP Study of the Syntax-Semantics Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone-Fernandez, Barbara; Molinaro, Nicola; Carreiras, Manuel; Barber, Horacio A.

    2012-01-01

    In Spanish, objects and events at subject position constrain the selection of different forms of the auxiliary verb "to be": locative predicates about objects require "estar en", while those relating to events require "ser en", both translatable as "to be in". Subjective ratings showed that while the "object + ser + en" is considered as incorrect,…

  1. Emptiness is not so empty: The meaning of the Russian prefix вы- in the natural perfective verbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Pozolotina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the meaning of the so-called "empty" prefix вы- (‘out-' of natural perfective verbs in the Russian language. It is argued that the prefix is not semantically empty, but displays meanings that can be analyzed as a radial category.

  2. The Semantic Shift of the Sensory Verb “ting (听” and Relevant Problems in Chinese Dialects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Shuaichen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The semantic shift exists in Chinese dialects. This paper takes the sensory verb “ting (听” as an example to describe its semantic shift and distribution, and to summarize its usage and distinguishing types. Furthermore, it tries to explore the motivations and mechanisms behind the semantic shift from the perspectives of typology, cultural cognition and lexical history.

  3. Programming Language: Concepts and Paradigms

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Lizama, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    The article presents the concepts that govern around the programming languages and the paradigms of the programming and the influence in the development of the software. El artículo presenta los conceptos que rigen a los lenguajes de programación y los paradigmas de la programación y como estos influyen en el desarrollo del software.

  4. Understanding the land management paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    There is a worldwide need to build understanding of the land management paradigm and for institutional development to establish sustainable national concepts. This includes creation and adoption of a policy on land development, and an approach that combines the land administration...

  5. Artificial life, the new paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Paez, Jose Jesus

    1998-01-01

    A chronological synthesis of the most important facts is presented in the theoretical development and computational simulation that they have taken to the formation of a new paradigm that is known as artificial life; their characteristics and their main investigation lines are analyzed. Finally, a description of its work is made in the National University of Colombia

  6. The Two-Level Theory of verb meaning: An approach to integrating the semantics of action with the mirror neuron system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmerer, David; Gonzalez-Castillo, Javier

    2010-01-01

    Verbs have two separate levels of meaning. One level reflects the uniqueness of every verb and is called the "root". The other level consists of a more austere representation that is shared by all the verbs in a given class and is called the "event structure template". We explore the following hypotheses about how, with specific reference to the motor features of action verbs, these two distinct levels of semantic representation might correspond to two distinct levels of the mirror neuron system. Hypothesis 1: Root-level motor features of verb meaning are partially subserved by somatotopically mapped mirror neurons in the left primary motor and/or premotor cortices. Hypothesis 2: Template-level motor features of verb meaning are partially subserved by representationally more schematic mirror neurons in Brodmann area 44 of the left inferior frontal gyrus. Evidence has been accumulating in support of the general neuroanatomical claims made by these two hypotheses-namely, that each level of verb meaning is associated with the designated cortical areas. However, as yet no studies have satisfied all the criteria necessary to support the more specific neurobiological claims made by the two hypotheses-namely, that each level of verb meaning is associated with mirror neurons in the pertinent brain regions. This would require demonstrating that within those regions the same neuronal populations are engaged during (a) the linguistic processing of particular motor features of verb meaning, (b) the execution of actions with the corresponding motor features, and (c) the observation of actions with the corresponding motor features. 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. THE CASE FOR VERB-ADJECTIVE COLLOCATIONS: CORPUS-BASED ANALYSIS AND LEXICOGRAPHICAL TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Almela

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This article explores a type of co-occurrence pattern which cannot be adequately described by existing models of collocation, and for which combinatory dictionaries have yet failed to provide sufficient information. The phenomenon of “oblique inter-collocation”, as I propose to call it, is characterised by a concatenation of syntagmatic preferences which partially contravenes the habitual grammatical order of semantic selection. In particular, I will examine some of the effects which the verb cause exerts on the distribution of attributive adjectives in the context of specific noun classes. The procedure for detecting and describing patterns of oblique inter-collocation is illustrated by means of SketchEngine corpus query tools. Based on the data extracted from a large-scale corpus, this paper carries out a critical analysis of the micro-structure in Oxford Collocations Dictionary.

  8. Agreement processing and attraction errors in aging: evidence from subject-verb agreement in German.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifegerste, Jana; Hauer, Franziska; Felser, Claudia

    2017-11-01

    Effects of aging on lexical processing are well attested, but the picture is less clear for grammatical processing. Where age differences emerge, these are usually ascribed to working-memory (WM) decline. Previous studies on the influence of WM on agreement computation have yielded inconclusive results, and work on aging and subject-verb agreement processing is lacking. In two experiments (Experiment 1: timed grammaticality judgment, Experiment 2: self-paced reading + WM test), we investigated older (OA) and younger (YA) adults' susceptibility to agreement attraction errors. We found longer reading latencies and judgment reaction times (RTs) for OAs. Further, OAs, particularly those with low WM scores, were more accepting of sentences with attraction errors than YAs. OAs showed longer reading latencies for ungrammatical sentences, again modulated by WM, than YAs. Our results indicate that OAs have greater difficulty blocking intervening nouns from interfering with the computation of agreement dependencies. WM can modulate this effect.

  9. RHETORICAL PATTERNS, VERB TENSE, AND VOICE IN CROSS DISCIPLINARY RESEARCH ARTICLE ABSTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifah Hanidar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates research article abstracts in terms of their rhetorical patterns and the use of verb tenses and voice. A total of 40 abstracts were selected from four international journals in the fields of Biology, Mechanical Engineering, Linguistics, and Medicine. A four move model was adopted from Hardjanto (1997 to analyze the structure of the abstracts. The results show that all the abstracts have Move 1, creating a research space; 70% have Move 2, describing research procedure; 85% have Move 3, summarizing principal results; and 85% have Move 4, evaluating results. All the abstracts in medicine have Moves 1, 2, 3 and 4, whereas the most common pattern in Biology is Moves 1, 3 and 4, in Mechanical Engineering Moves 1, 2 and 3, and in Linguistics Moves 1, 2 and 4. This seems to suggest that there is a disciplinary variation in the structuring of RA abstracts in the four disciplines under investigation. With regard to the use of verb tense and voice in each move, the present tense and past tense in the active voice and the past tense in the passive voice were the most frequently used tenses. The present tense in the active voice was frequently used in Moves 1 and 4, while the past tense in the active voice was commonly used in Move 3 and the past tense in the passive voice was frequently found in Move 2. Furthermore, it was found that the present tense in the active voice was frequently used in Biology, Mechanical Engineering and Linguistics, whereas the past tense in the active voice occurred more frequently in Medicine, and the past tense in the passive voice was more frequently found in Mechanical Engineering than in other disciplines.

  10. The Morphosyntactic Structure of the Noun and Verb Phrases in Dholuo/Kiswahili Code Switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jael Anyango Ojanga

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Code switching, the use of any two or more languages or dialects interchangeably in a single communication context, is a common linguistic practice owing to the trend of multilingualism in the world today. In many situations of language in contact, constituents of one language can be found within the constituents of another language in a number of linguistic phenomenon namely lexical borrowing, transferring, interference, code switching and diffusion (Annamalai, 1989. Codeswitching is one of the linguistic phenomenon claimed to be the most prevalent and common mode of interaction among multilingual speakers. Brock and Eastman (1971 suggest that topic discussed influences the choice of the language. Nouns and verbs have been found to be the most code switched elements in bilingual exchange. The study took a qualitative approach with the descriptive research design. It was guided by the Matrix Language Frame Model which was formulated by Myers-Scotton in1993. This model expounds on the realization and structure of the major word classes as used in code switching. Data was collected in Nyangeta Zone, Winam Division of Kisumu East District. Winam Division is mostly inhabited by elite Dholuo L1 speakers. A sample of twenty four teachers was purposively selected to provide data needed for the study. Focus group discussion was used to collect a corpus of Dholuo/Kiswahili data which was recorded through audio taping. The recorded data was then analyzed morphosyntactaically using the Matrix Language Frame Model. The data revealed that the noun and verb phrases were realized under three categories: Matrix Language Island constituent (ML Island ML+EL and Embedded Language Island (EL Island. Keywords: Code switching, multilingualism, morphosyntactic

  11. Policy paradigms, transnationalism, and domestic politics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Skogstad, Grace Darlene

    2011-01-01

    Policy Paradigms, Transnationalism, and Domestic Politics offers a variety of perspectives on the development of policy paradigms -- the ideas that structure thinking about what can and should be done in a policy domain...

  12. Black hole evaporation: a paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashtekar, Abhay; Bojowald, Martin

    2005-01-01

    A paradigm describing black hole evaporation in non-perturbative quantum gravity is developed by combining two sets of detailed results: (i) resolution of the Schwarzschild singularity using quantum geometry methods and (ii) time evolution of black holes in the trapping and dynamical horizon frameworks. Quantum geometry effects introduce a major modification in the traditional spacetime diagram of black hole evaporation, providing a possible mechanism for recovery of information that is classically lost in the process of black hole formation. The paradigm is developed directly in the Lorentzian regime and necessary conditions for its viability are discussed. If these conditions are met, much of the tension between expectations based on spacetime geometry and structure of quantum theory would be resolved

  13. Three Paradigms of Social Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Marc Daigneault

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available “Ideas,” which are defined as the normative and cognitive beliefs of actors, are fundamental to a full understanding of the welfare state and, in particular, of social assistance. However, policy ideas have been neglected in most typologies of social assistance regimes. Based on a selective review of the literature, this article proposes a brief but systematic analysis of policy paradigms in the field of social assistance. Three ideal types that emphasize the ideational dimension of social assistance are analyzed, namely, the entitlement, workfare, and activation paradigms. The value of the typology lies in its utility for characterizing the ideational orientation of social assistance regimes. Specifically, the typology provides a yardstick for measuring the ideas of policy actors with respect to social assistance and can facilitate the conduct of case studies, comparative research, and causal analyses on this policy sector.

  14. Exploring Paradigms of Crime Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soothill, Keith; Christoffersen, Mogens N.; Hussain, Azhar

    2010-01-01

    Using Danish registers for a 1980 birth cohort of 29,944 males with parental information and following up these cases for 25 years, the study considers four paradigms of crime reduction (parental child rearing, structural factors around adolescence, locality and individual resources). Focusing on...... have more widespread benefits, but the assumed causal links need to be further explored. The use of population registers, under controlled conditions, provides an important window on criminal careers....

  15. Storytelling, advertising and paradigm fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, David

    2012-01-01

    'The art of storytelling in the modern age is fundamentally important. So, how we create stories for a screen-based culture is vitally important to master' (Hegarty, 2011, p.96-97). This paper explores the potential benefit of fusing aspects of creative writing with the curriculum of the BA Creative Advertising programme (BACAP) at Leeds College of Art (LCA) in order to address Sir John Hegarty's assertion. In particular it will focus on the characteristics of the 'classical paradigms' us...

  16. Mandarin functional MRI Language paradigms

    OpenAIRE

    Ci, He; van Graan, Andre; Gonz?lvez, Gloria; Thompson, Pamela; Hill, Andrea; Duncan, John S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective The objective of this study was to implement convenient, fast, and accurate Mandarin task paradigms for functional MRI, and to locate the Chinese language functional areas in frontal and temporal lobes. Materials and Methods Nineteen healthy Chinese volunteers participated in this study, which utilized a block design with four language tasks: auditory naming (AN), picture naming (PN), verbal fluency?character (VFC), and verbal fluency?letter (VFL). All functional images wer...

  17. Les Champs semantiques de l'action a travers le vocabulaire fondamental (Semantic Fields and Verbs in the Dictionary of Basic Vocabulary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons-Ridler, Suzanne

    1986-01-01

    The verbs in Gougenheim's Basic Dictionary are regrouped according to three classifications (synonyms, antonyms, and association) and organized according to semantic fields. Exercises designed to emphasize these relationships are suggested. (MSE)

  18. The metaphor in the grammaticalization process of the verb DANAR to express inceptive aspect with extension of the action in Brazilian Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Franco de Paula

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present how a metaphor acts in the grammaticalization process of the verb DANAR, from Brazilian Portuguese, ranging from the full lexical verb to the grammatical, auxiliary verb in constructions like: "The kid danou(-se to cry", hereby referred to as V1DANAR + (pron + (prep + V2infinitive. We support that this new usage of DANAR, perceived as a marker of an inceptive aspect with an extension of action, is a consequence of a metaphorical cognitive process that involves imagetic schemes of motion and force, which already existed within the concrete form of DANAR, which justifies that this verb, although not the archetypal aspect marker, may have updated this grammatical category.

  19. Social Marketing as a Framework for Youth Physical Activity Initiatives: a 10-Year Retrospective on the Legacy of CDC's VERB Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhman, Marian; Kelly, Ryan P; Edgar, Timothy

    2017-06-01

    In 2002, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) launched the VERB. It's what you do! campaign to increase physical activity among tweens and concomitantly respond to the rise in childhood obesity. This retrospective study summarizes the history of the VERB campaign's social marketing approach and its effectiveness in promoting behavior change in the targeted population. The legacy of VERB, which ended in 2006, is discussed, with an emphasis on examining initiatives over the last decade and the degree to which they followed (or did not follow) the structural and thematic lead of the campaign. The article ends with suggestions for how VERB still has the potential to inform other social marketing campaigns going forward.

  20. About hypotheses and paradigms: exploring the Discreetness-Chance Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaellis, Eugene

    2006-01-01

    Hypotheses generally conform to paradigms which, over time, change, usually tardily, after they have become increasingly difficult to sustain under the impact of non-conforming evidence and alternative hypotheses, but more important, when they no longer are comfortably ensconced in the surrounding social-economic-political-cultural milieu. It is asserted that this milieu is the most important factor in shaping scientific theorizing. Some examples are cited: the rejection of the evidence that the world orbits around the sun (suspected by Pythagoras) in favor of centuries-long firm adherence to the Ptolemaic geocentric system; the early acceptance of Natural Selection in spite of its tautological essence and only conjectural supporting evidence, because it justified contemporaneous social-political ideologies as typified by, e.g., Spencer and Malthus. Economic, social, and cultural factors are cited as providing the ground, i.e., ideational substrate, for what is cited as the Discreetness-Chance Paradigm (DCP), that has increasingly dominated physics, biology, and medicine for over a century and which invokes small, discrete packets of energy/matter (quanta, genes, microorganisms, aberrant cells) functioning within an environment of statistical, not determined, causality. There is speculation on a possible paradigmatic shift from the DCP, which has fostered the proliferation, parallel with ("splitting") taxonomy, of alleged individual disease entities, their diagnoses, and, when available, their specific remedies, something particularly prominent in, e.g., psychiatry's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, a codified compendium of alleged mental and behavioral disorders, but evident in any textbook of diagnosis and treatment of physical ailments. This presumed paradigm shift may be reflected in Western medicine, presently increasingly empirical and atomized, towards a growing acceptance of a more generalized, subject-oriented, approach to health and disease, a non

  1. Switching Between Noun and Verb Agreement Rules Comes at a Cost: Cross-Sectional and Interventional Studies in a Developmental Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Reybroeck Marie

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study clarifies the impact of switching context between noun and verb number agreement rules in written language production. In Experiment 1, children from grade 3 to 6 were asked to fill in sentences with nouns and verbs in either a switching condition (noun followed by verb or a repeating condition (noun followed by noun. The results showed that third- and fourth-grade children produced more erroneous agreements in the switching condition than in the repeating condition, showing that switching between rules comes at a cost, whereas fifth- and sixth-grade participants’ performance was not affected by the switching context. Based on these findings, Experiment 2 aimed to assess whether a switching treatment offers a greater opportunity to improve the acquisition of grammatical agreement production, as compared to a simple treatment. Teachers from grade 3 gave either a switching treatment (mixed noun and verb exercises or a simple treatment (noun exercises followed by verb exercises. The results show that children learned better from the switching treatment than from the simple treatment. These findings highlight the cost of switching between noun and verb agreement rules during the acquisition of grammatical number agreement and also how grammatical spelling acquisition can be improved at school.

  2. Paradigm for new scientific technology; Shinkagaku gijutsu paradigm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shindo, Y [National Chemical Lab. for Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-01-05

    This paper reviews the current status from the standpoint of chemical engineers facing the coming of the 21st century, and surveys the paradigm for new scientific technologies. The criticism is mixed with unique opinions everywhere, such as `departure of students from scientific and engineering faculties is none other than the result of a market principle`, `national burden of trillions of yens should not be spent only under a justice of advancement of the science`, and `the global civilization itself has no other way but to change from the conventional expansive development type of the western country style to the internal development type of the oriental country style`. Values that define the paradigm for new scientific technologies may include such keywords as saturation in technology, baseless expansion of research projects, criticism on science, market principle, and centering human being. It should be looked at seriously that profit from research and development should exceed the cast invested therein in the future, and scientific technologies that serve truly the society should be aimed at. These efforts will result in one of the large pillars that support the future in which creation of new functions is aimed at as a result of structuring the new systems. Trying to overcome the environmental problems is one of them.

  3. The Paradigm of Distributed Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    This presentation aims to focus on and develop the notion of distributed creativity from a cultural psychological perspective. It will start by outlining the need for a cultural psychological paradigm of creative expression and argue that this perspective is primarily concerned with what can...... be called ‘distributed creativity’. Drawing on related literature on distributed cognition (Hutchins, 2000), I will consider here the three inter-related ways in which creative action is distributed: across people, across people and objects, and across time. This particular understanding of creativity...

  4. Psychiatry beyond the current paradigm.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bracken, Pat

    2012-12-01

    A series of editorials in this Journal have argued that psychiatry is in the midst of a crisis. The various solutions proposed would all involve a strengthening of psychiatry\\'s identity as essentially \\'applied neuroscience\\'. Although not discounting the importance of the brain sciences and psychopharmacology, we argue that psychiatry needs to move beyond the dominance of the current, technological paradigm. This would be more in keeping with the evidence about how positive outcomes are achieved and could also serve to foster more meaningful collaboration with the growing service user movement.

  5. Do children with SLI use verbs to predict arguments and adjuncts: evidence from eye movements during listening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Llorenç eAndreu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Different psycholinguistic theories have suggested the importance of verb semantics in rapidly anticipating upcoming information during real-time sentence comprehension. To date, no study has examined if children use verbs to predict arguments and adjuncts in sentence comprehension using children with specific language impairment (SLI.Twenty-five children with SLI (aged 5 years and 3 months to 8 years and 2 months, twenty-five age-matched controls (aged 5 years and 3 months to 8 years and 2 months, twenty-five MLU-w controls (aged 3 years and 3 months to 7 years and 1 month, and 31 adults took part in the study. The eye movements of participants were monitored while they heard twenty-four sentences, such as El hombre lee con atención un cuento en la cama (translation: The man carefully reads a storybook in bed, in the presence of four depicted objects, one of which was the target (storybook, another, the competitor (bed, and another two, distracters (wardrobe and grape. The proportion of looks revealed that, when the meaning of the verb was retrieved, the upcoming argument and adjunct referents were rapidly anticipated. However, the proportion of looks at the theme, source/goal and instrument referents were significantly higher than the looks at the locatives. This pattern was found in adults as well as children with and without language impairment. The present results suggest that, in terms of sentence comprehension, the ability to understand verb information is not severely impaired in children with SLI.

  6. Semantic Models of Sentences with Verbs of Motion in Standard Language and in Scientific Language Used in Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vita Banionytė

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The semantic models of sentences with verbs of motion in German standard language and in scientific language used in biology are analyzed in the article. In its theoretic part it is affirmed that the article is based on the semantic theory of the sentence. This theory, in its turn, is grounded on the correlation of semantic predicative classes and semantic roles. The combination of semantic predicative classes and semantic roles is expressed by the main semantic formula – proposition. In its practical part the differences between the semantic models of standard and scientific language used in biology are explained. While modelling sentences with verbs of motion, two groups of semantic models of sentences are singled out: that of action (Handlung and process (Vorgang. The analysis shows that the semantic models of sentences with semantic action predicatives dominate in the text of standard language while the semantic models of sentences with semantic process predicatives dominate in the texts of scientific language used in biology. The differences how the doer and direction are expressed in standard and in scientific language are clearly seen and the semantic cases (Agens, Patiens, Direktiv1 help to determine that. It is observed that in scientific texts of high level of specialization (biology science in contrast to popular scientific literature models of sentences with moving verbs are usually seldom found. They are substituted by denominative constructions. In conclusions it is shown that this analysis can be important in methodics, especially planning material for teaching professional-scientific language.

  7. Preemption versus Entrenchment: Towards a Construction-General Solution to the Problem of the Retreat from Verb Argument Structure Overgeneralization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Ambridge

    Full Text Available Participants aged 5;2-6;8, 9;2-10;6 and 18;1-22;2 (72 at each age rated verb argument structure overgeneralization errors (e.g., *Daddy giggled the baby using a five-point scale. The study was designed to investigate the feasibility of two proposed construction-general solutions to the question of how children retreat from, or avoid, such errors. No support was found for the prediction of the preemption hypothesis that the greater the frequency of the verb in the single most nearly synonymous construction (for this example, the periphrastic causative; e.g., Daddy made the baby giggle, the lower the acceptability of the error. Support was found, however, for the prediction of the entrenchment hypothesis that the greater the overall frequency of the verb, regardless of construction, the lower the acceptability of the error, at least for the two older groups. Thus while entrenchment appears to be a robust solution to the problem of the retreat from error, and one that generalizes across different error types, we did not find evidence that this is the case for preemption. The implication is that the solution to the retreat from error lies not with specialized mechanisms, but rather in a probabilistic process of construction competition.

  8. Combined convective and diffusive modeling of the ring current and radiation belt electron dynamics using the VERB-4D code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aseev, N.; Shprits, Y.; Drozdov, A.; Kellerman, A. C.; Wang, D.

    2017-12-01

    Ring current and radiation belts are key elements in the global dynamics of the Earth's magnetosphere. Comprehensive mathematical models are useful tools that allow us to understand the multiscale dynamics of these charged particle populations. In this work, we present results of simulations of combined ring current - radiation belt electron dynamics using the four-dimensional Versatile Electron Radiation Belt (VERB-4D) code. The VERB-4D code solves the modified Fokker-Planck equation including convective terms and models simultaneously ring current (1 - 100 keV) and radiation belt (100 keV - several MeV) electron dynamics. We apply the code to the number of geomagnetic storms that occurred in the past, compare the results with different satellite observations, and show how low-energy particles can affect the high-energy populations. Particularly, we use data from Polar Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) mission that provides a very good MLT coverage with 1.5-hour time resolution. The POES data allow us to validate the approach of the VERB-4D code for modeling MLT-dependent processes such as electron drift, wave-particle interactions, and magnetopause shadowing. We also show how different simulation parameters and empirical models can affect the results, making a particular emphasis on the electric and magnetic field models. This work will help us reveal advantages and disadvantages of the approach behind the code and determine its prediction efficiency.

  9. Testing a hierarchy-of-effects model: pathways from awareness to outcomes in the VERB campaign 2002-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Adrian; Bowles, Heather R; Huhman, Marian; Heitzler, Carrie D; Owen, Neville; Smith, Ben J; Reger-Nash, Bill

    2008-06-01

    The McGuire hierarchy-of-effects (HOE) model, used extensively in mass-media interventions to describe the mechanisms for understanding effects, has not been tested in physical activity campaigns. Data collected at baseline (2002) and follow-up (2003) surveys in the VERB evaluation were used in structural equation modeling to test pathways and hierarchies of campaign effects. Population-based cohort of youth aged 9-13 years (N=2364) for whom complete baseline and follow-up data were available. Awareness of the VERB campaign, understanding of the VERB message, attitude toward being active, outcome expectations, and physical activity participation. Among youth aged 9-13 years (tweens) in the study cohort, significant paths were identified between awareness and understanding (0.72, pmodel and suggest that increased awareness and understanding were the key proximal effects that led to behavior change. A distinct sequence of effects, which bypassed attitudes and outcome expectations, was found for these U.S. young people. The findings could inform the design of future campaigns to address youth physical activity.

  10. L'accord sujet-verbe : acquis en fin d'école primaire, vraiment ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brissaud Catherine

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Nous avons mené un recueil de données longitudinal (réparti sur trois années scolaires : de février 2009 à juin 2011. Cette étude a pour objectif de mieux comprendre les procédures développées par des élèves de 8 à 11 ans alors qu’ils évoluent de l'étape morphémique vers l'étape orthographique d'acquisition de l'orthographe grammaticale. Nous nous concentrons sur une compétence particulièrement attendue en fin d'école primaire : la réussite de l'accord sujet-verbe. Nous présentons les "portraits orthographiques" de quatre élèves à travers l'analyse de l'évolution de leurs compétences en situation de dictée (sur deux ans et de production écrite (sur une année scolaire. Nous élargissons ensuite aux productions des CM2 lors des évaluations nationales. Nous montrons que ces élèves ont des évolutions similaires mais assez fortement décalées dans le temps. C'est la maîtrise de procédures morphosyntaxiques (qui coexistent alors avec les procédures morphosémantiques développées en premier lieu qui permet d'améliorer puis stabiliser leurs choix orthographiques. L'accord sujet-verbe reste cependant une compétence "en cours d'acquisition", donc fragile, pour de nombreux élèves en fin d'école primaire. Il est donc important de réfléchir à des dispositifs et des outils susceptibles de favoriser le développement de ces procédures morphosyntaxiques et leur intégration dans une démarche réflexive d'analyse et de contrôle.

  11. The detour paradigm in animal cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabadayi, Can; Bobrowicz, Katarzyna; Osvath, Mathias

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we review one of the oldest paradigms used in animal cognition: the detour paradigm. The paradigm presents the subject with a situation where a direct route to the goal is blocked and a detour must be made to reach it. Often being an ecologically valid and a versatile tool, the detour paradigm has been used to study diverse cognitive skills like insight, social learning, inhibitory control and route planning. Due to the relative ease of administrating detour tasks, the paradigm has lately been used in large-scale comparative studies in order to investigate the evolution of inhibitory control. Here we review the detour paradigm and some of its cognitive requirements, we identify various ecological and contextual factors that might affect detour performance, we also discuss developmental and neurological underpinnings of detour behaviors, and we suggest some methodological approaches to make species comparisons more robust.

  12. Tools for language: patterned iconicity in sign language nouns and verbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padden, Carol; Hwang, So-One; Lepic, Ryan; Seegers, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    When naming certain hand-held, man-made tools, American Sign Language (ASL) signers exhibit either of two iconic strategies: a handling strategy, where the hands show holding or grasping an imagined object in action, or an instrument strategy, where the hands represent the shape or a dimension of the object in a typical action. The same strategies are also observed in the gestures of hearing nonsigners identifying pictures of the same set of tools. In this paper, we compare spontaneously created gestures from hearing nonsigning participants to commonly used lexical signs in ASL. Signers and gesturers were asked to respond to pictures of tools and to video vignettes of actions involving the same tools. Nonsigning gesturers overwhelmingly prefer the handling strategy for both the Picture and Video conditions. Nevertheless, they use more instrument forms when identifying tools in pictures, and more handling forms when identifying actions with tools. We found that ASL signers generally favor the instrument strategy when naming tools, but when describing tools being used by an actor, they are significantly more likely to use more handling forms. The finding that both gesturers and signers are more likely to alternate strategies when the stimuli are pictures or video suggests a common cognitive basis for differentiating objects from actions. Furthermore, the presence of a systematic handling/instrument iconic pattern in a sign language demonstrates that a conventionalized sign language exploits the distinction for grammatical purpose, to distinguish nouns and verbs related to tool use. Copyright © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  13. Free Online Translators: A Comparative Assessment in Terms of Idioms and Phrasal Verbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marziyeh Taleghani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Free online translators are in fact statistical machine translators that create translator models using parallel corpora. Although it’s not a new subject and many works are reported on that in recent years, it still suffers from lots of shortcomings and has a long way ahead. While the literature on machine translators is vast, there are only a few that evaluate free online machine translators in specific terms like idioms. The aim of this paper is to evaluate and compare four free online translators in terms of translating English idioms (including idiomatic phrasal verbs into Persian. To that end, ten chosen texts from the book “oxford word Skills: idioms and phrasal verbs” were translated by four online translators, www.bing.com, www.translate.google.com , www.freetranslation.com and www.targoman.com , and the obtained results were compared in a subjectively method based on Aryanpur English to Persian dictionary. Comparison of the results shows that www.targoman.com has a better performance in translating idioms from English to Persian and as a result, it can be the best choice if the aim is to do so.

  14. Subsequent to suppression: Downstream comprehension consequences of noun/verb ambiguity in natural reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stites, Mallory C.; Federmeier, Kara D.

    2015-01-01

    We used eye-tracking to investigate the downstream processing consequences of encountering noun/verb (NV) homographs (i.e., park) in semantically neutral but syntactically constraining contexts. Target words were followed by a prepositional phrase containing a noun that was plausible for only one meaning of the homograph. Replicating previous work, we found increased first fixation durations on NV homographs compared to unambiguous words, which persisted into the next sentence region. At the downstream noun, we found plausibility effects following ambiguous words that were correlated with the size of a reader's first fixation effect, suggesting that this effect reflects the recruitment of processing resources necessary to suppress the homograph's context-inappropriate meaning. Using these same stimuli, Lee and Federmeier (2012) found a sustained frontal negativity to the NV homographs, and, on the downstream noun, found a plausibility effect that was also positively correlated with the size of a reader's ambiguity effect. Together, these findings suggest that when only syntactic constraints are available, meaning selection recruits inhibitory mechanisms that can be measured in both first fixation slowdown and ERP ambiguity effects. PMID:25961358

  15. For a new look at 'lexical errors': evidence from semantic approximations with verbs in aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvignau, Karine; Tran, Thi Mai; Manchon, Mélanie

    2013-08-01

    The ability to understand the similarity between two phenomena is fundamental for humans. Designated by the term analogy in psychology, this ability plays a role in the categorization of phenomena in the world and in the organisation of the linguistic system. The use of analogy in language often results in non-standard utterances, particularly in speakers with aphasia. These non-standard utterances are almost always studied in a nominal context and considered as errors. We propose a study of the verbal lexicon and present findings that measure, by an action-video naming task, the importance of verb-based non-standard utterances made by 17 speakers with aphasia ("la dame déshabille l'orange"/the lady undresses the orange, "elle casse la tomate"/she breaks the tomato). The first results we have obtained allow us to consider these type of utterances from a new perspective: we propose to eliminate the label of "error", suggesting that they may be viewed as semantic approximations based upon a relationship of inter-domain synonymy and are ingrained in the heart of the lexical system.

  16. How textbooks (and learners get it wrong: A corpus study of modal auxiliary verbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayo Reinders

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Many elements contribute to the relative difficulty in acquiring specific aspects of English as a foreign language (Goldschneider & DeKeyser, 2001. Modal auxiliary verbs (e.g. could, might, are examples of a structure that is difficult for many learners. Not only are they particularly complex semantically, but especially in the Malaysian context reported on in this paper, there is no direct equivalent in the students’ L1. In other words, they are a good example of a structure for which successful acquisition depends very much on the quality of the input and instruction students receive. This paper reports on analysis of a 230,000 word corpus of Malaysian English textbooks, in which it was found that the relative frequency of the modals did not match that found in native speaker corpora such as the BNC. We compared the textbook corpus with a learner corpus of Malaysian form 4 learners and found no direct relationship between frequency of presentation of target forms in the textbooks and their use by students in their writing. We also found a very large percentage of errors in students’ writing. We suggest a number of possible reasons for these findings and discuss the implications for materials developers and teachers.

  17. ENVIRONMENTALISM AND CLASSIC PARADIGMS OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    D. D. Miniaeva

    2014-01-01

    This article examines an environmentalism integration process into Three classical paradigms of international relations theory (Liberalism, Realism and Marxism) into Three classical paradigms of international relations theory (Liberalism, Realism and Marxism). The main purpose of this study is to reveal the result of this integration. Methods used in this article include analysis and comparison of "ecological" paradigms on selected parameters (the nature of international relations, actors, ta...

  18. The Oral Paradigm and Snapchat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oren Soffer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this short essay, I argue that the ephemeral nature of emerging instant-messaging applications, such as Snapchat, applies an oral paradigm. While online discourse of computer-mediated communication shares many qualities with oral communication, the case of ephemeral applications is unique, as the oral features are already integrated in the application technology design and as orality is often implemented on highly visual products. Snapchat applies technology that fades visual contents as if they were spoken words fading in the air after utterance. Moreover, Snapchat’s promise to delete all messages from its database after they are viewed echoes a key characteristic of primary oral culture: that is, the inability (and in our case, the obligation not to store knowledge. In this, Snapchat demonstrates counter-logic to the contemporary grammar of new media, which is based on information aggregation.

  19. Toward a New Energy Paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farhad Mahmud

    2006-01-01

    More than 50% of the developing world does not have access to electricity. It is our belief that it is as much a problem of distribution as of production. The traditional approach of power distribution through a national grid system is remarkably slow. Alternate methods are not sought because of an implicit assumption that it is an area that would necessarily involve large infra-structural undertaking. However, the traditional distribution paradigm can be challenged by new developments in fuel cell technology that can open up the possibility of involvement of small private initiatives in the distribution of power in remote areas where grid penetration has not taken place. This would require distribution re-engineering in an innovative and practical way based on advancement in new technology (fuel cells in our case). Our business approach would require a shift in focus away from production to distribution in addressing the issue. (authors)

  20. Shield calculations, optimization vs. paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornejo D, N.; Hernandez S, A.; Martinez G, A.

    2006-01-01

    Many shieldings have been designed under the criteria of 'Maximum dose rates of project'. It has created the paradigm of those 'low dose rates', for the one which not few specialists would consider unacceptable levels of dose rate superior to the units of μSv.h -1 , independently of the exposure times. At the present time numerous shieldings are being designed considering dose restrictions in real times of exposure. After these new shieldings, the dose rates could be notably superior to those after traditional shieldings, without it implies inadequate designs or constructive errors. In the work significant differences in levels of dose rates and thickness of shieldings estimated by both methods for some typical facilities. It was concluded that the use of real times of exposure is more adequate for the optimization of the Radiological Protection, although this method demands bigger care in its application. (Author)

  1. Shielding calculations. Optimization vs. Paradigms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornejo Diaz, Nestor; Hernandez Saiz, Alejandro; Martinez Gonzalez, Alina

    2005-01-01

    Many radiation shielding barriers in Cuba have been designed according to the criterion of Maxi-mum Projected Dose Rates. This fact has created the paradigm of low dose rates. Because of this, dose rate levels greater than units of Sv.h-1 would be considered unacceptable by many specialists, regardless of the real exposure times. Nowadays many shielding barriers are being designed using dose constraints in real exposure times. Behind the new barriers, dose rates could be notably greater than those behind the traditional ones, and it does not imply inadequate designs or constructive errors. In this work were obtained significant differences in dose rate levels and shield-ing thicknesses calculated by both methods for some typical installations. The work concludes that real exposure time approach is more adequate in order to optimise Radiation Protection, although this method should be carefully applied

  2. Emerging Paradigms in Machine Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Lakhmi; Howlett, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This  book presents fundamental topics and algorithms that form the core of machine learning (ML) research, as well as emerging paradigms in intelligent system design. The  multidisciplinary nature of machine learning makes it a very fascinating and popular area for research.  The book is aiming at students, practitioners and researchers and captures the diversity and richness of the field of machine learning and intelligent systems.  Several chapters are devoted to computational learning models such as granular computing, rough sets and fuzzy sets An account of applications of well-known learning methods in biometrics, computational stylistics, multi-agent systems, spam classification including an extremely well-written survey on Bayesian networks shed light on the strengths and weaknesses of the methods. Practical studies yielding insight into challenging problems such as learning from incomplete and imbalanced data, pattern recognition of stochastic episodic events and on-line mining of non-stationary ...

  3. Children's grammatical categories of verb and noun: a comparative look at children with specific language impairment (SLI) and normal language (NL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skipp, Amy; Windfuhr, Kirsten L; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2002-01-01

    The study investigated the development of grammatical categories (noun and verb) in young language learners. Twenty-eight children with specific language impairment (SLI) with a mean language age of 35 months and 28 children with normal language (NL) with a mean language age of 34 months were exposed to four novel verbs and four novel nouns during 10 experimental child-directed play sessions. The lexical items were modelled with four experimentally controlled argument structures. Both groups of children showed little productivity with syntactic marking of arguments in the novel verb conditions. Thus, both groups of children mostly followed the surface structure of the model presented to them, regardless of the argument they were trying to express. Therefore, there was little evidence of verb-general processes. In contrast, both groups used nouns in semantic roles that had not been modelled for them. Importantly, however, children with SLI still appeared to be more input dependent than NL children. This suggests that children with NL were working with a robust noun schema, whereas children with SLI were not. Taken together, the findings suggest that neither group of children had a grammatical category of verb, but demonstrated a general knowledge of the grammatical category of noun. These findings are discussed in relation to current theories of normal and impaired language development.

  4. Recalling Arabic and English Prefixed and Suffixed Verbs among Arabic-English Bilingual Speakers: An Experimental Study in Relation to Working Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyar Othman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study focuses on how prefixes and suffixes in Arabic and English impact one’s working memory capacity to recall verbs.  Further, it deals with whether or not Arabic-English bilingual speakers recall Arabic and English prefixed and suffixed verbs differently. To investigate this, the study was conducted in the form of two experiments on a group of 10 graduate students. The first experiment was on Arabic prefixed and suffixed verbs, whereas the second experiment was conducted similarly on English. The study concluded that suffixed Arabic verbs were recalled more than the prefixed ones, whereas in English the result was contrary where the participants could recall prefixed verbs more than the suffixed ones. This shows that L2 (Second Language does not differ from L1 (First Language in the effort exerted to recall words. Rather, the findings may suggest that it is easier to recall words in the second language, which might be due to the intensive instruction received in the second language. The study also discovered that several other factors played important roles in making the participants recall the items such as word-length effect, frequency and recency of the words.

  5. Is This the Paradigm Shift We Need?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirvis, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Dr. Woocher's essay, states Mirvis, is seminal in the field of Jewish education. It proposes a new paradigm for Jewish education in North America. This proposed paradigm is supported by a comprehensive multi-disciplinary research drawing on literature from education, philosophy, history, sociology, psychology, and economics. The essay reflects a…

  6. Testing the membrane paradigm with holography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, J.; Heller, M.P.; Pinzani-Fokeeva, N.

    2015-01-01

    One version of the membrane paradigm states that, as far as outside observers are concerned, black holes can be replaced by a dissipative membrane with simple physical properties located at the stretched horizon. We demonstrate that such a membrane paradigm is incomplete in several aspects. We argue

  7. Programming Paradigms in Computer Science Education

    OpenAIRE

    Bolshakova, Elena

    2005-01-01

    Main styles, or paradigms of programming – imperative, functional, logic, and object-oriented – are shortly described and compared, and corresponding programming techniques are outlined. Programming languages are classified in accordance with the main style and techniques supported. It is argued that profound education in computer science should include learning base programming techniques of all main programming paradigms.

  8. Towards a New Paradigm of Moral Personhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimer, Jeremy A.; Walker, Lawrence J.

    2008-01-01

    Moral psychology is between paradigms. Kohlberg's model of moral rationality has proved inadequate in explaining action; yet its augmentation--moral personality--awaits empirical embodiment. This article addresses some critical issues in developing a comprehensive empirical paradigm of moral personhood. Is a first-person or a third-person…

  9. Understanding paradigms used for nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Kathryn; Olson, Joanne K

    2006-02-01

    The aims of this paper are to add clarity to the discussion about paradigms for nursing research and to consider integrative strategies for the development of nursing knowledge. Paradigms are sets of beliefs and practices, shared by communities of researchers, which regulate inquiry within disciplines. The various paradigms are characterized by ontological, epistemological and methodological differences in their approaches to conceptualizing and conducting research, and in their contribution towards disciplinary knowledge construction. Researchers may consider these differences so vast that one paradigm is incommensurable with another. Alternatively, researchers may ignore these differences and either unknowingly combine paradigms inappropriately or neglect to conduct needed research. To accomplish the task of developing nursing knowledge for use in practice, there is a need for a critical, integrated understanding of the paradigms used for nursing inquiry. We describe the evolution and influence of positivist, postpositivist, interpretive and critical theory research paradigms. Using integrative review, we compare and contrast the paradigms in terms of their philosophical underpinnings and scientific contribution. A pragmatic approach to theory development through synthesis of cumulative knowledge relevant to nursing practice is suggested. This requires that inquiry start with assessment of existing knowledge from disparate studies to identify key substantive content and gaps. Knowledge development in under-researched areas could be accomplished through integrative strategies that preserve theoretical integrity and strengthen research approaches associated with various philosophical perspectives. These strategies may include parallel studies within the same substantive domain using different paradigms; theoretical triangulation to combine findings from paradigmatically diverse studies; integrative reviews; and mixed method studies. Nurse scholars are urged to

  10. Planning and production of grammatical and lexical verbs in multi-word messages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violaine Michel Lange

    Full Text Available Grammatical words represent the part of grammar that can be most directly contrasted with the lexicon. Aphasiological studies, linguistic theories and psycholinguistic studies suggest that their processing is operated at different stages in speech production. Models of sentence production propose that at the formulation stage, lexical words are processed at the functional level while grammatical words are processed at a later positional level. In this study we consider proposals made by linguistic theories and psycholinguistic models to derive two predictions for the processing of grammatical words compared to lexical words. First, based on the assumption that grammatical words are less crucial for communication and therefore paid less attention to, it is predicted that they show shorter articulation times and/or higher error rates than lexical words. Second, based on the assumption that grammatical words differ from lexical words in being dependent on a lexical host, it is hypothesized that the retrieval of a grammatical word has to be put on hold until its lexical host is available, and it is predicted that this is reflected in longer reaction times (RTs for grammatical compared to lexical words. We investigated these predictions by comparing fully homonymous sentences with only a difference in verb status (grammatical vs. lexical elicited by a specific context. We measured RTs, duration and accuracy rate. No difference in duration was observed. Longer RTs and a lower accuracy rate for grammatical words were reported, successfully reflecting grammatical word properties as defined by linguistic theories and psycholinguistic models. Importantly, this study provides insight into the span of encoding and grammatical encoding processes in speech production.

  11. LEXICAL AND CONTEXTUAL VARIABILITY OF IDIOMATIC PHRASAL VERBS IN HARRY POTTER AND THE DEATHLY HALLOWS MOVIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghofar Romli

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The popularity of Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows (HPDH as a novel is almost accentuated in the movie version. However, the fascination of watching the movies may be interrupted by the problems arising from the use of some problematic expressions in the original language, especially idiomatic phrasal verbs (IPVs. The Indonesian viewers who happen to be learners of English as a Foreign Language (EFL will not have the fullest understanding of the story/text/sentence of the movies when they translate idiom lexically as the meaning of an idiom cannot be predicted from its individual constituents (Langlotz, 2006:4. This paper undergoes some procedures of the analysis starting from the process of data collection, progressing to selection, filtering, and labeling. It extracts PVs in HPDH (97 in HPDH part one and 70 in part two using linguistic concepts of PV. Later by limiting the PVs under conventional and characteristics modelling function of idioms, IPVs can be identified and served as the primary data. The final phase of the analysis wants to see how lexical interpretation, relying on Oxford Advanced Learner‘s Dictionary 8th Edition (OALD 8th ed, and Halidayan contextual variability (field, tenor and mode help classifying and explaining the meanings of the IPVs. Finally it is expected that this paper can offer appropriate logical and contextual interpretations of the IPVs. This way, by watching the HPDH, learners of English can gain better understanding of the movies and, more importantly, better knowledge of IPVs as inseparable part of their competence of EFL.

  12. Planning and production of grammatical and lexical verbs in multi-word messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messerschmidt, Maria; Harder, Peter; Siebner, Hartwig Roman; Boye, Kasper

    2017-01-01

    Grammatical words represent the part of grammar that can be most directly contrasted with the lexicon. Aphasiological studies, linguistic theories and psycholinguistic studies suggest that their processing is operated at different stages in speech production. Models of sentence production propose that at the formulation stage, lexical words are processed at the functional level while grammatical words are processed at a later positional level. In this study we consider proposals made by linguistic theories and psycholinguistic models to derive two predictions for the processing of grammatical words compared to lexical words. First, based on the assumption that grammatical words are less crucial for communication and therefore paid less attention to, it is predicted that they show shorter articulation times and/or higher error rates than lexical words. Second, based on the assumption that grammatical words differ from lexical words in being dependent on a lexical host, it is hypothesized that the retrieval of a grammatical word has to be put on hold until its lexical host is available, and it is predicted that this is reflected in longer reaction times (RTs) for grammatical compared to lexical words. We investigated these predictions by comparing fully homonymous sentences with only a difference in verb status (grammatical vs. lexical) elicited by a specific context. We measured RTs, duration and accuracy rate. No difference in duration was observed. Longer RTs and a lower accuracy rate for grammatical words were reported, successfully reflecting grammatical word properties as defined by linguistic theories and psycholinguistic models. Importantly, this study provides insight into the span of encoding and grammatical encoding processes in speech production. PMID:29091940

  13. Developmental relationships between speech and writing: is verb-phrase anaphora production a special case?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Morag L; Cooper, Lynn S M

    2013-09-01

    Young children's speech is typically more linguistically sophisticated than their writing. However, there are grounds for asking whether production of cohesive devices, such as verb-phrase anaphora (VPA), might represent an exception to this developmental pattern, as cohesive devices are generally more important in writing than in speech and so might be expected to be more frequent in children's writing than in their speech. The study reported herein aims to compare the frequency of children's production of VPA constructions (e.g., Mary is eating an apple and so is John) between a written and a spoken task. Forty-eight children participated from each of two age groups: 7-year-olds and 10-year-olds. All the children received both a spoken and a written sentence completion task designed to elicit production of VPA. Task order was counterbalanced. VPA production was significantly more frequent in speech than in writing and when the spoken task was presented first. Surprisingly, the 7-year-olds produced VPA constructions more frequently than the 10-year-olds. Despite the greater importance of cohesion in writing than in speech, children's production of VPA is similar to their production of most other aspects of language in that more sophisticated constructions are used more frequently in speech than in writing. Children's written production of cohesive devices could probably be enhanced by presenting spoken tasks immediately before written tasks. The lower frequency of VPA production in the older children may reflect syntactic priming effects or a belief that they should produce sentences that are as fully specified as possible. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  14. Planning and production of grammatical and lexical verbs in multi-word messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel Lange, Violaine; Messerschmidt, Maria; Harder, Peter; Siebner, Hartwig Roman; Boye, Kasper

    2017-01-01

    Grammatical words represent the part of grammar that can be most directly contrasted with the lexicon. Aphasiological studies, linguistic theories and psycholinguistic studies suggest that their processing is operated at different stages in speech production. Models of sentence production propose that at the formulation stage, lexical words are processed at the functional level while grammatical words are processed at a later positional level. In this study we consider proposals made by linguistic theories and psycholinguistic models to derive two predictions for the processing of grammatical words compared to lexical words. First, based on the assumption that grammatical words are less crucial for communication and therefore paid less attention to, it is predicted that they show shorter articulation times and/or higher error rates than lexical words. Second, based on the assumption that grammatical words differ from lexical words in being dependent on a lexical host, it is hypothesized that the retrieval of a grammatical word has to be put on hold until its lexical host is available, and it is predicted that this is reflected in longer reaction times (RTs) for grammatical compared to lexical words. We investigated these predictions by comparing fully homonymous sentences with only a difference in verb status (grammatical vs. lexical) elicited by a specific context. We measured RTs, duration and accuracy rate. No difference in duration was observed. Longer RTs and a lower accuracy rate for grammatical words were reported, successfully reflecting grammatical word properties as defined by linguistic theories and psycholinguistic models. Importantly, this study provides insight into the span of encoding and grammatical encoding processes in speech production.

  15. Black holes: the membrane paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorne, K.S.; Price, R.H.; Macdonald, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    The physics of black holes is explored in terms of a membrane paradigm which treats the event horizon as a two-dimensional membrane embedded in three-dimensional space. A 3+1 formalism is used to split Schwarzschild space-time and the laws of physics outside a nonrotating hole, which permits treatment of the atmosphere in terms of the physical properties of thin slices. The model is applied to perturbed slowly or rapidly rotating and nonrotating holes, and to quantify the electric and magnetic fields and eddy currents passing through a membrane surface which represents a stretched horizon. Features of tidal gravitational fields in the vicinity of the horizon, quasars and active galalctic nuclei, the alignment of jets perpendicular to accretion disks, and the effects of black holes at the center of ellipsoidal star clusters are investigated. Attention is also given to a black hole in a binary system and the interactions of black holes with matter that is either near or very far from the event horizon. Finally, a statistical mechanics treatment is used to derive a second law of thermodynamics for a perfectly thermal atmosphere of a black hole

  16. Self-organized criticality paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, I.; Stoeckel, J.; Hron, M.; Horacek, J.; Jakubka, K.; Kryska, L.

    2000-01-01

    According to the paradigm of the Self-Organized Criticality (SOC), the anomalous transport in tokamaks is caused by fast transient processes - avalanches. One of the manifestations of these phenomena should be 1/f decay of electrostatic fluctuations power spectra in a certain frequency range. In this paper, the frequency spectra of floating potential, density and fluctuation-induced flux, measured by poloidal and radial arrays of Langmuir probes on the CASTOR tokamak, are presented. The floating potential and the fluctuation-induced flux decay from 30 kHz up to 100 kHz as f -1 . The plasma density decays as f -1 in a more narrow band, 20 to 40 kHz. The possible limitation of SOC behavior for frequencies higher than 100 kHz due to intermittency is stressed. For this reason the Probability Distribution Functions (PDFs) of floating potential fluctuations were computed at different time scales using wavelet transform. A clear departure of the computed PDFs from Gaussianity, which is a classical signature of intermittency, is observed at time scales under 10 μs (100 kHz). (author)

  17. MDMA and the "ecstasy paradigm".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jon C

    2014-01-01

    For nearly 30 years, there has been a steady flow of research papers highlighting the dangers of MDMA and the implications for ecstasy users. After such a long time, it would be reasonable to expect that these dangers would be obvious due to the large number of ecstasy users. The available evidence does not indicate that there are millions of ecstasy users experiencing any problems linked to their ecstasy use. The "precautionary principle" suggests that, in the absence of knowing for certain, "experts" should argue that MDMA be avoided. However, this may have been taken too far, as the dire warnings do not seem to be reducing with the lack of epidemiological evidence of clinically relevant problems. The "ecstasy paradigm" is one way of articulating this situation, in that the needs of research funders and publication bias lead to a specific set of subcultural norms around what information is acceptable in the public domain. By digging a little deeper, it is easy to find problems with the evidence base that informs the public debate around MDMA. The key question is whether it is acceptable to maintain this status quo given the therapeutic potential of MDMA.

  18. Cancer: shift of the paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, Anatoly V

    2008-12-01

    Cancer is usually considered to be a by-product of design limitations of a multicellular organism and its intrinsic fallibility. However, recent data prompt a revision of some established notions about carcinogenesis and form a new paradigm of carcinogenesis as a highly conserved biological phenomenon - a programmed death of an organism. This altruistic program, which is unleashed when mutagenesis surpasses a certain critical threshold, gives a population the important benefit acting as a guardian of the gene pool against the spread of certain mutant genes. A growing body of evidence supports this point of view: (i) epigenetic changes leading to cancer arise early, simultaneously in many cells and look like deterministic regulation; (ii) concept of cancer stem cell suggests a view of carcinogenesis not as vague transformation but as well known differentiation; (iii) tumor/host relations usually perceived as antagonistic are, in reality, synergistic; (iv) death of an individual from cancer is predetermined and results apparently from a specific activity (killer function) of cancer cell and (v) evolutionary conservation indicates that cancer comes with a general advantage that explains its evolutionary success. A holistic approach to carcinogenesis suggests new avenues of research and new therapeutic strategy.

  19. Compilation of Japanese Basic Verb Usage Handbook for JFL Learners: A Project Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant PARDESHI

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article we introduce a collaborative research project entitled 'nihongogakushuushayou kihondoushi youhouhandbook no sakusei (Compilation of Japanese Basic Verb Usage Handbook for Japanese as Foreign Language (JFL Learners' carried out at the National Institute for Japanese Language and Linguistics (NINJAL and report on the progress of its research product, namely, a prototype of a basic verb usage handbook (referred to as 'handbook' below. The handbook differs in many ways from the conventional printed dictionaries or electronic dictionaries available at present. First, the handbook is compiled online and will be made available on internet for free access. Secondly, the handbook is corpus-based: the contents of the entry are written taking into consideration the actual use of the headword using the BCCWJ corpus. Also, it contains illustrative examples of a particular meaning culled from the BCCWJ corpus as well as those coined by the entry-writers. Third, the framework used in the description of semantic issues (polysemy network, cognitive mechanism underlying semantic extensions and semantic relationships among various meanings, etc. is cognitive grammar, which adopts prototype approach. Fourth, it includes audio-visual contents (such as audio files and animations/video clips etc. for effective understanding, acquisition and retention of various meanings of a polysemous verb. Fifth, the handbook is bi-lingual (Japanese-Chinese, Japanese-Korean and Japanese-Marathi and incorporates insights of contrastive studies and second language acquisition. The handbook is an attempt to share cutting edge research insights of various branches of linguistics with Japanese language pedagogy. It is hoped that the handbook will prove to be useful for JFL learners as well as Japanese language teachers across the globe. -----Članek predstavlja skupinski raziskovalni projekt z naslovom ‘Nihongogakushuushayou kihondoushi youhouhandbook no sakusei

  20. Use of nouns and verbs in the oral narrative of individuals with hearing impairment and normal hearing between 5 and 11 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Endo Amemiya

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Nouns and verbs indicate actions in oral communication. However, hearing impairment can compromise the acquisition of oral language to such an extent that appropriate use of these can be challenging. The objective of this study was to compare the use of nouns and verbs in the oral narrative of hearing-impaired and hearing children. DESIGN AND SETTING: Analytical cross-sectional study at the Department of Speech-Language and Hearing Sciences, Universidade Federal de São Paulo. METHODS: Twenty-one children with moderate to profound bilateral neurosensory hearing impairment and twenty-one with normal hearing (controls were matched according to sex, school year and school type. A board showing pictures was presented to each child, to elicit a narrative and measure their performance in producing nouns and verbs. RESULTS: Twenty-two (52.4% of the subjects were males. The mean age was 8 years (standard deviation, SD = 1.5. Comparing averages between the groups of boys and girls, we did not find any significant difference in their use of nouns, but among verbs, there was a significant difference regarding use of the imperative (P = 0.041: more frequent among boys (mean = 2.91. There was no significant difference in the use of nouns and verbs between deaf children and hearers, in relation to school type. Regarding use of the indicative, there was a nearly significant trend (P = 0.058. CONCLUSION: Among oralized hearing-impaired children who underwent speech therapy, their performance regarding verbs and noun use was similar to that of their hearing counterparts.

  1. Ostracism Online: A social media ostracism paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Wouter; Levordashka, Ana; Ruff, Johanna R; Kraaijeveld, Steven; Lueckmann, Jan-Matthis; Williams, Kipling D

    2015-06-01

    We describe Ostracism Online, a novel, social media-based ostracism paradigm designed to (1) keep social interaction experimentally controlled, (2) provide researchers with the flexibility to manipulate the properties of the social situation to fit their research purposes, (3) be suitable for online data collection, (4) be convenient for studying subsequent within-group behavior, and (5) be ecologically valid. After collecting data online, we compared the Ostracism Online paradigm with the Cyberball paradigm (Williams & Jarvis Behavior Research Methods, 38, 174-180, 2006) on need-threat and mood questionnaire scores (van Beest & Williams Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 91, 918-928, 2006). We also examined whether ostracized targets of either paradigm would be more likely to conform to their group members than if they had been included. Using a Bayesian analysis of variance to examine the individual effects of the different paradigms and to compare these effects across paradigms, we found analogous effects on need-threat and mood. Perhaps because we examined conformity to the ostracizers (rather than neutral sources), neither paradigm showed effects of ostracism on conformity. We conclude that Ostracism Online is a cost-effective, easy to use, and ecologically valid research tool for studying the psychological and behavioral effects of ostracism.

  2. Evolution of the radiological protection paradigms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sordi, Gian Maria A.A.

    2009-01-01

    We consider as initial radiological protection paradigms those in vigour after the release of the atomic energy for pacific usages in 1955. In that occasion, only one paradigm was introduced, presently named dose limitation system. After arguing about the basis that raised the paradigm, we introduced the guidance, that is, the measurements to be implemented to comply with the paradigm. In that occasion, they were two, i.e., the radiation dose monitoring and the workplace classification. Afterwards, the reasons that caused the radiological protection paradigms changes in force until 1995 are discussed. The initial paradigm was modified introducing the justification and the optimization principles, adding that the radiological protection should be economical and effective. The guidance also increased to four: personal monitoring, workplace classification, reference level and workers classification. Afterwards, we give the main justifications for the present paradigms that besides the formers were added the dose constraints, the potential exposure and the annual risk limits. Due to these modifications, the workers classifications were eliminated from the guidance, but the potential exposure and the search for the dose constraints were added. Eventually, we discuss the tendencies for the next future and the main changes introduced by the ICRP in the Publication 103, 2007. (author)

  3. Verbs of locomotion like идти (to go – ходить (to walk: some thoughts on their semantic description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samedova Nezrin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The author presents the analysis of discussions about the semantic description of traditionally postulated verbs of locomotion like идти /to go/ - ходить /to walk/. The analysis reveals that there are very few ideas on the nature of the verbs that are uncontroversial. The second objective of the author is to propose a theory that not only incorporates ideas of several generations of eminent researchers but is also consistent within itself, comprehensive and as simple as possible.

  4. The Cognitive Paradigm Ontology: Design and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Angela R.

    2013-01-01

    We present the basic structure of the Cognitive Paradigm Ontology (CogPO) for human behavioral experiments. While the experimental psychology and cognitive neuroscience literature may refer to certain behavioral tasks by name (e.g., the Stroop paradigm or the Sternberg paradigm) or by function (a working memory task, a visual attention task), these paradigms can vary tremendously in the stimuli that are presented to the subject, the response expected from the subject, and the instructions given to the subject. Drawing from the taxonomy developed and used by the BrainMap project (www.brainmap.org) for almost two decades to describe key components of published functional imaging results, we have developed an ontology capable of representing certain characteristics of the cognitive paradigms used in the fMRI and PET literature. The Cognitive Paradigm Ontology is being developed to be compliant with the Basic Formal Ontology (BFO), and to harmonize where possible with larger ontologies such as RadLex, NeuroLex, or the Ontology of Biomedical Investigations (OBI). The key components of CogPO include the representation of experimental conditions focused on the stimuli presented, the instructions given, and the responses requested. The use of alternate and even competitive terminologies can often impede scientific discoveries. Categorization of paradigms according to stimulus, response, and instruction has been shown to allow advanced data retrieval techniques by searching for similarities and contrasts across multiple paradigm levels. The goal of CogPO is to develop, evaluate, and distribute a domain ontology of cognitive paradigms for application and use in the functional neuroimaging community. PMID:21643732

  5. Gas transmission : a paradigm shift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornelson, D.W.

    1997-01-01

    The evolution of energy markets in North America was discussed. The investment opportunities that are possible in a deregulated energy market, be it in production or in the generation of energy commodities, in the development of midstream infrastructure, or in the provision of energy services, were outlined. Deregulation of crude oil, natural gas and electricity has resulted in significant changes in the structure of energy markets and the way in which customers are served. One of the advantages of competition regarding power generation is that it has turned energy into a commodity which has resulted in greater customer choice and efficiency. As one example of midstream infrastructure development, the Alliance Pipeline project was described. This project was conceived as a means to enhance the value of western Canadian natural gas. The 1,900 mile pipeline will run from British Columbia, through Alberta into Chicago where it will interconnect with the North American gas transmission grid. The pipeline is an efficient means of transporting energy from Western Canada to North American markets, and Alliance, as a lowest cost transporter, will continue to put pressure on the traditional infrastructure to become even more competitive at the margin. As such, Alliance represents a paradigm shift in energy transportation, and serves as an excellent example of the type of investment opportunity that a deregulated market can provide. It was suggested that innovation and competition in a deregulated North American energy market will continue to increase. As electricity is deregulated, the energy market will respond more quickly to changes in supply and demand than it did in the past, in an effort to satisfy the needs of investors and customers. This will provide increased opportunities for restructuring and further competition

  6. PARADIGM OF EDUCATION FOR THE INFORMATION SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy M. Bogachkov

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering total crisis in education in Informational Age, we suggest that to overcome the crisis, it is necessary to promote pedagogical science up from "pre-paradigm stage” to the "paradigm stage". For this purpose it is necessary to separate the "educational science" from "education." “Educational paradigm” in such study will be the subject of the science. The key concepts for the "pedagogical paradigm" should be the concepts of "educational practice", "class of problems" and "educational text". We offer some axioms around these concepts.

  7. The Prerequisites for a Degrowth Paradigm Shift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch-Hansen, Hubert

    2018-01-01

    What would it take for a degrowth paradigm shift to take place? Drawing on contemporary critical political economy scholarship, this article identifies four prerequisites for socio-economic paradigm shifts: deep crisis, an alternative political project, a comprehensive coalition of social forces...... currently facing humanity. On the other hand, the prospects for a degrowth paradigm shift remain bleak: unlike political projects that became hegemonic in the past, degrowth has neither support from a comprehensive coalition of social forces nor any consent to its agenda among the broader population....

  8. Anticipating Syntax during Reading: Evidence from the Boundary Change Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, Trevor; Traxler, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Previous evidence suggests that grammatical constraints have a rapid influence during language comprehension, particularly at the level of word categories (noun, verb, preposition). These findings are in conflict with a recent study from Angele, Laishley, Rayner, and Liversedge (2014), in which sentential fit had no early influence on word…

  9. Conceptual plural information is used to guide early parsing decisions: Evidence from garden-path sentences with reciprocal verbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patson, Nikole D; Ferreira, Fernanda

    2009-05-01

    In three eyetracking studies, we investigated the role of conceptual plurality in initial parsing decisions in temporarily ambiguous sentences with reciprocal verbs (e.g., While the lovers kissed the baby played alone). We varied the subject of the first clause using three types of plural noun phrases: conjoined noun phrases (the bride and the groom), plural definite descriptions (the lovers), and numerically quantified noun phrases (the two lovers). We found no evidence for garden-path effects when the subject was conjoined (Ferreira & McClure, 1997), but traditional garden-path effects were found with the other plural noun phrases. In addition, we tested plural anaphors that had a plural antecedent present in the discourse. We found that when the antecedent was conjoined, garden-path effects were absent compared to cases in which the antecedent was a plural definite description. Our results indicate that the parser is sensitive to the conceptual representation of a plural constituent. In particular, it appears that a Complex Reference Object (Moxey et al., 2004) automatically activates a reciprocal reading of a reciprocal verb.

  10. Beyond desertification: New paradigms for dryland landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The dryland desertification paradigm focuses on losses of ecosystem services accompanying transitions from grasslands to systems dominated by bare ground or woody plants unpalatable for domestic livestock. However, recent studies reveal complex transitions across a range of environmental conditions ...

  11. The safety implications of emerging software paradigms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suski, G.J.; Persons, W.L.; Johnson, G.L.

    1994-10-01

    This paper addresses some of the emerging software paradigms that may be used in developing safety-critical software applications. Paradigms considered in this paper include knowledge-based systems, neural networks, genetic algorithms, and fuzzy systems. It presents one view of the software verification and validation activities that should be associated with each paradigm. The paper begins with a discussion of the historical evolution of software verification and validation. Next, a comparison is made between the verification and validation processes used for conventional and emerging software systems. Several verification and validation issues for the emerging paradigms are discussed and some specific research topics are identified. This work is relevant for monitoring and control at nuclear power plants

  12. Major Development Communication Paradigms and Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    info

    major paradigms of development and communication practices on graphic ... mobilize, educate and persuade target audience to support human development ... facilitates the understanding of the themes, issues and facts of a campaign.

  13. Paradigms and pragmatism: approaches to medical statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, M J

    2000-01-01

    Until recently, the dominant philosophy of science was that due to Karl Popper, with its doctrine that the proper task of science was the formulation of hypotheses followed by attempts at refuting them. In spite of the close analogy with significance testing, these ideas do not fit well with the practice of medical statistics. The same can be said of the later philosophy of Thomas Kuhn, who maintains that science proceeds by way of revolutionary upheavals separated by periods of relatively pedestrian research which are governed by what Kuhn refers to as paradigms. Through there have been paradigm shifts in the history of statistics, a degree of continuity can also be discerned. A current paradigm shift is embodied in the spread of Bayesian ideas. It may be that a future paradigm will emphasise the pragmatic approach to statistics that is associated with the name of Daniel Schwartz.

  14. New Indivisible Planetary Science Paradigm: Consequence of Questioning Popular Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvin Herndon, J.

    2014-05-01

    Progress in science involves replacing less precise understanding with more precise understanding. In science and in science education one should always question popular ideas; ask "What's wrong with this picture?" Finding limitations, conflicts or circumstances that require special ad hoc consideration sometimes is the key to making important discoveries. For example, from thermodynamic considerations, I found that the 'standard model of solar system formation' leads to insufficiently massive planetary cores. That understanding led me to discover a new indivisible planetary science paradigm. Massive-core planets formed by condensing and raining-out from within giant gaseous protoplanets at high pressures and high temperatures, accumulating heterogeneously on the basis of volatility with liquid core-formation preceding mantle-formation; the interior states of oxidation resemble that of the Abee enstatite chondrite. Core-composition was established during condensation based upon the relative solubilities of elements, including uranium, in liquid iron in equilibrium with an atmosphere of solar composition at high pressures and high temperatures. Uranium settled to the central region and formed planetary nuclear fission reactors, producing heat and planetary magnetic fields. Earth's complete condensation included a ~300 Earth-mass gigantic gas/ice shell that compressed the rocky kernel to about 66% of Earth's present diameter. T-Tauri eruptions, associated with the thermonuclear ignition of the Sun, stripped the gases away from the Earth and the inner planets. The T-Tauri outbursts stripped a portion of Mercury's incompletely condensed protoplanet and transported it to the region between Mars and Jupiter where it fused with in-falling oxidized condensate from the outer regions of the Solar System, forming the parent matter of ordinary chondrite meteorites, the main-Belt asteroids, and veneer for the inner planets, especially Mars. With its massive gas/ice shell

  15. A Viable Paradigm for Quantum Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Jagdish

    2010-10-01

    After a brief discussion of the EPR paradox, Bell's inequality, and Aspect's experiment, arguments will be presented in favor of the following statements: ``As it stands, Quantum mechanics is incomplete. There is further hidden structure, which would involve variables. No influence can move faster than light. The wave function is one whole thing and any change in its structure instantly influences its outcomes. Bell's theorem has not been applied correctly. There is a better paradigm.'' The said paradigm will be presented.

  16. International business and the eclectic paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The eclectic paradigm has become the dominant theoretical basis in the study of international business, multinational corporations and internationalization since 1980. However, developments such as economic globalization and the subsequent growth of global and alliance capitalism have fundamentally......, finance, evolutionary economics, resource-based theory or strategic management? Can it be utilized to explain new developments in international business and economics? Do these require new ideas and concepts to be integrated within the eclectic paradigm? What are the new challenges to which international...

  17. Project management: a new service delivery paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. van der Walt

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In line with international trends in governance, the South African Government’s initial focus on the development of policy frameworks, structures and systems in order to give effect to the values and principles of the Constitution, shifted to the most critical issue, namely service delivery. The Government became increasingly aware that a significant expansion in the scope and quality of service provision was not possible with traditional delivery settings and approaches. There is growing evidence that there is a need for a significant departure from conventional approaches and that a leap into a new service delivery paradigm is necessary. Increasingly this new paradigm highlights the need to further develop the government’s project management skills and applications with a view to achieving improved delivery capability. In this article the focus will be placed on the changing service delivery paradigm – from an “old” traditional model through the transition to a “new” paradigm. This paradigm is shaped by international and national trends and events in government. The contribution and advantages of project management applications for effective governance are highlighted and the article concludes with an explanation of project management organisational arrangements necessary to support the new paradigm.

  18. The Underlying Social Dynamics of Paradigm Shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Sickert, Carlos; Cosmelli, Diego; Claro, Francisco; Fuentes, Miguel Angel

    2015-01-01

    We develop here a multi-agent model of the creation of knowledge (scientific progress or technological evolution) within a community of researchers devoted to such endeavors. In the proposed model, agents learn in a physical-technological landscape, and weight is attached to both individual search and social influence. We find that the combination of these two forces together with random experimentation can account for both i) marginal change, that is, periods of normal science or refinements on the performance of a given technology (and in which the community stays in the neighborhood of the current paradigm); and ii) radical change, which takes the form of scientific paradigm shifts (or discontinuities in the structure of performance of a technology) that is observed as a swift migration of the knowledge community towards the new and superior paradigm. The efficiency of the search process is heavily dependent on the weight that agents posit on social influence. The occurrence of a paradigm shift becomes more likely when each member of the community attaches a small but positive weight to the experience of his/her peers. For this parameter region, nevertheless, a conservative force is exerted by the representatives of the current paradigm. However, social influence is not strong enough to seriously hamper individual discovery, and can act so as to empower successful individual pioneers who have conquered the new and superior paradigm.

  19. The Underlying Social Dynamics of Paradigm Shifts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rodriguez-Sickert

    Full Text Available We develop here a multi-agent model of the creation of knowledge (scientific progress or technological evolution within a community of researchers devoted to such endeavors. In the proposed model, agents learn in a physical-technological landscape, and weight is attached to both individual search and social influence. We find that the combination of these two forces together with random experimentation can account for both i marginal change, that is, periods of normal science or refinements on the performance of a given technology (and in which the community stays in the neighborhood of the current paradigm; and ii radical change, which takes the form of scientific paradigm shifts (or discontinuities in the structure of performance of a technology that is observed as a swift migration of the knowledge community towards the new and superior paradigm. The efficiency of the search process is heavily dependent on the weight that agents posit on social influence. The occurrence of a paradigm shift becomes more likely when each member of the community attaches a small but positive weight to the experience of his/her peers. For this parameter region, nevertheless, a conservative force is exerted by the representatives of the current paradigm. However, social influence is not strong enough to seriously hamper individual discovery, and can act so as to empower successful individual pioneers who have conquered the new and superior paradigm.

  20. Looking for a Location: Dissociated Effects of Event-Related Plausibility and Verb-Argument Information on Predictive Processing in Aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Rebecca A; Dickey, Michael Walsh; Warren, Tessa

    2016-12-01

    This study examined the influence of verb-argument information and event-related plausibility on prediction of upcoming event locations in people with aphasia, as well as older and younger, neurotypical adults. It investigated how these types of information interact during anticipatory processing and how the ability to take advantage of the different types of information is affected by aphasia. This study used a modified visual-world task to examine eye movements and offline photo selection. Twelve adults with aphasia (aged 54-82 years) as well as 44 young adults (aged 18-31 years) and 18 older adults (aged 50-71 years) participated. Neurotypical adults used verb argument status and plausibility information to guide both eye gaze (a measure of anticipatory processing) and image selection (a measure of ultimate interpretation). Argument status did not affect the behavior of people with aphasia in either measure. There was only limited evidence of interaction between these 2 factors in eye gaze data. Both event-related plausibility and verb-based argument status contributed to anticipatory processing of upcoming event locations among younger and older neurotypical adults. However, event-related likelihood had a much larger role in the performance of people with aphasia than did verb-based knowledge regarding argument structure.

  1. Uma investigação dos sentidos de um phrasal verb por meio dos corpora e dicionários on-line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliana Fernandes Bonalumi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nesta pesquisa analisamos o uso do phrasal verbs throw up encontrado em dois corpora on-line originalmente escritos em língua inglesa, a saber: British National Corpus (BNC e Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA, bem como no livro didático adotado em sala de aula New English File Upper-Intermediate, com o suporte dos dicionários on-line Cambridge Online Dictionary e Macmillan Dictionary. Objetivamos identificar, classificar e generalizar o uso e significados do phrasal verb selecionado para a análise nos respectivos corpora on-line em relação ao seu uso e significado no livro didático anteriormente mencionado. Por meio dos corpora e dicionários on-line, o aluno expandirá seu conhecimento acerca do uso e significados de um determinado phrasal verb, como o analisado nesta investigação. Palavras-chave: linguística de corpus; ensino movido por dados; phrasal verbs.

  2. -p ADVERB-VERB SUFFIX IN KIRIM TATARIAN DIALECT FROM ESKISEHIR AND SURROUNDINGS / ESKISEHIR VE YÖRESI KIRIM TATAR AĞZINDA -p ZARF-FIIL EKI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Arzu S. Ertane BAYDAR

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, -p adverb-verb suffix used in Kırım Tatarian accent inEskisehir and surroundings was researched all aspects and its vocal structureand functions were presented with rich samples; the meanings of the samplesin Turkish are shown in paranthesis.

  3. Teaching Semantic Prosody of English Verbs through the DDL Approach and Its Effect on Learners' Vocabulary Choice Appropriateness in a Persian EFL Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoory, Niloofar; Jafarpour, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    This study examined teaching SP of English verbs through the data-driven learning (DDL) approach and its effect on learners' vocabulary choice appropriateness in the Persian English foreign language (EFL) context. In the present study, two male intact classes were selected. One of these two classes was randomly selected as a treatment group and…

  4. Dialect Variation of Copula and Auxiliary Verb BE: African American English-Speaking Children with and without Gullah/Geechee Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Jessica R.; Oetting, Janna B.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: We compared copula and auxiliary verb BE use by African American English-speaking children with and without a creole heritage, using Gullah/Geechee as the creole criterion, to determine if differences exist, the nature of the differences, and the impact of the differences on interpretations of ability. Method: Data came from 38 children,…

  5. Review Article: Yamada, Jeni "Laura: A Case for the Modularity of Language"; Tomasello, Michael "First Verbs: A Case Study of Early Grammatical Development."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatz, Marilyn

    1994-01-01

    Jeni Yamada's "Laura" and Michael Tomasello's "First Verbs" continue a tradition of providing useful information on the language ability of individuals in a depth rarely found in multisubject studies; however, these efforts are unusual for case studies in that both take strong theoretical positions on the essence of language and language learning.…

  6. Intergenerational Transmission of Cultural Values in Korean American Families: An Analysis of the Verb Suffix "-ta", Part One and Part Two

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eunjin

    2008-01-01

    Drawing on the concept of language socialization, this study investigates ways in which parents and grandparents of three-generational Korean-American households socialize children into certain cultural values through the use of a particular linguistic feature in Korean: the verb suffix "-ta". All six participating families had at least one child…

  7. Active training paradigm for motor imagery BCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junhua; Zhang, Liqing

    2012-06-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) allows the use of brain activities for people to directly communicate with the external world or to control external devices without participation of any peripheral nerves and muscles. Motor imagery is one of the most popular modes in the research field of brain-computer interface. Although motor imagery BCI has some advantages compared with other modes of BCI, such as asynchronization, it is necessary to require training sessions before using it. The performance of trained BCI system depends on the quality of training samples or the subject engagement. In order to improve training effect and decrease training time, we proposed a new paradigm where subjects participated in training more actively than in the traditional paradigm. In the traditional paradigm, a cue (to indicate what kind of motor imagery should be imagined during the current trial) is given to the subject at the beginning of a trial or during a trial, and this cue is also used as a label for this trial. It is usually assumed that labels for trials are accurate in the traditional paradigm, although subjects may not have performed the required or correct kind of motor imagery, and trials may thus be mislabeled. And then those mislabeled trials give rise to interference during model training. In our proposed paradigm, the subject is required to reconfirm the label and can correct the label when necessary. This active training paradigm may generate better training samples with fewer inconsistent labels because it overcomes mistakes when subject's motor imagination does not match the given cues. The experiments confirm that our proposed paradigm achieves better performance; the improvement is significant according to statistical analysis.

  8. She runs, the road runs, my mind runs, bad blood runs between us: literal and figurative motion verbs: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero Lauro, Leonor J; Mattavelli, Giulia; Papagno, Costanza; Tettamanti, Marco

    2013-12-01

    The role of sensory-motor components in language processing is a central topic in cognitive neuroscience. Recent studies showed that the processing of action words recruits cortical motor regions involved in the planning and execution of the described actions. However, it remains unclear to what extent the abstract versus concrete nature of the described motion modulates the activation of premotor and motor areas and how the agent affects this modulation. Here, we contribute to this line of research by investigating the comprehension of motion verbs, used in a literal versus figurative context, in an fMRI study with normal subjects in which the somatotopy of activation was investigated by presenting motion verbs that involve upper vs. lower limbs. A set of sentences including a motion verb used in a literal, fictive (only lower limb), metaphorical, or idiomatic way was studied. Cognition verbs were also included as control. We found that figurative sentences compared to literal ones produced a greater activation of a bilateral fronto-temporal network, in line with previous studies. Moreover, fictive motion activated a more posterior region, involving primary visual areas and motion sensitive visual areas, but also the left middle frontal gyrus. Crucially, the left precentral gyrus was activated in the case of the upper limb for literal and metaphorical motion sentence types, but not idiomatic sentences. For fictive motion, we found a lower limb-related somatotopic effect, also present for literal sentences, while the evidence for metaphorical and idiomatic sentences was less strong. In conclusion, our results confirm that premotor areas are activated by language understanding, but to a different degree depending on the specific literal versus figurative context in which motion verbs appear. Therefore, they support weak embodied views suggesting that the motor system enhances the comprehension of linguistically encoded actions. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  9. Verb-second word order after German weil ‘because’: Psycholinguistic theory from corpus-linguistic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Kempen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In present-day spoken German, subordinate clauses introduced by the connector 'weil '‘because’ occur with two orders of subject, finite verb, and object(s. In addition to 'weil 'clauses with verb-final word order (“VF”; standard in subordinate clauses one often hears 'weil 'clauses with SVO, the standard order of main clauses (“verb-second”, V2. The “'weil'-V2” phenomenon is restricted to sentences where the 'weil 'clause follows the main clause, and is virtually absent from formal (written, edited German, occurring only in extemporaneous speech. Extant accounts of 'weil'-V2 focus on the interpretation of 'weil'-V2 clauses by the hearer, in particular on the type of discourse relation licensed by 'weil'-V2 vs. 'weil'-VF: causal/propositional or inferential/epistemic. Focusing instead on the production of 'weil 'clauses by the speaker, we examine a collection of about 1,000 sentences featuring a causal connector ('weil, da 'or 'denn' after the main clause, all extracted from a corpus of spoken German dialogues and annotated with tags denoting major prosodic and syntactic boundaries, and various types of disfluencies (pauses, hesitations. Based on the observed frequency patterns and on known linguistic properties of the connectors, we propose that 'weil'-V2 is caused by miscoordination between the mechanisms for lexical retrieval and grammatical encoding: Due to its high frequency, the lexical item 'weil 'is often selected prematurely, while the grammatical encoder is still working on the syntactic shape of the 'weil 'clause. 'Weil'-V2 arises when pragmatic and processing factors drive the encoder to discontinue the current sentence, and to plan the clause following 'weil 'in the form of the main clause of an independent, new sentence. Thus, the speaker continues with a V2 clause, seemingly in violation of the VF constraint imposed by the preceding 'weil'. We also explore implications of the model regarding the interpretation of

  10. Cancer research in need of a scientific revolution: Using `paradigm ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It has been proposed that science proceeds not only by accumulating data but also through paradigm shifts. Here, we propose to use the concept of `paradigm shift' as a method of investigation when dominant paradigms fail to achieve their promises. The first step in using the `paradigm shift' method in cancer research ...

  11. ENVIRONMENTALISM AND CLASSIC PARADIGMS OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. D. Miniaeva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines an environmentalism integration process into Three classical paradigms of international relations theory (Liberalism, Realism and Marxism into Three classical paradigms of international relations theory (Liberalism, Realism and Marxism. The main purpose of this study is to reveal the result of this integration. Methods used in this article include analysis and comparison of "ecological" paradigms on selected parameters (the nature of international relations, actors, targets, tools, processes. Results of research show that the beginning of the XXI century is distinguished by the development of new types of political concepts that explain interaction of elements in modern international relations in the area of environmental protection. The reason of these changes lies in the phenomena of environmentalism integration into Three paradigms of international relations. However, we cannot say that any of the examined paradigms accumulated all features of environmentalism without their modification. Better to say, it's rather similar to adaptation of environmental ideas. Therefore, to understand modern international relations processes, it is necessary to take into account their environmental element. Purchase on Elibrary.ru > Buy nowDOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2070-7568-2014-3-4

  12. Understanding Mixed Emotions: Paradigms and Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreibig, Sylvia D.; Gross, James J.

    2017-01-01

    In this review, we examine the paradigms and measures available for experimentally studying mixed emotions in the laboratory. For eliciting mixed emotions, we describe a mixed emotions film library that allows for the repeated elicitation of a specific homogeneous mixed emotional state and appropriately matched pure positive, pure negative, and neutral emotional states. For assessing mixed emotions, we consider subjective and objective measures that fall into univariate, bivariate, and multivariate measurement categories. As paradigms and measures for objectively studying mixed emotions are still in their early stages, we conclude by outlining future directions that focus on the reliability, temporal dynamics, and response coherence of mixed emotions paradigms and measures. This research will build a strong foundation for future studies and significantly advance our understanding of mixed emotions. PMID:28804752

  13. A New Paradigm for Chemical Engineering?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    evidence of this change comes from the jobs taken by graduating chemical engineering professionals in North America, Europe, and some of the Asian countries. In terms of where the graduating chemical engineers are going to work, a clear shift from the commodity chemical industry to the product oriented...... businesses has been observed. There is an increasing trend within the chemical industry to focus on products and the sustainable processes that can make them. Do these changes point to a paradigm shift in chemical engineering as a discipline? Historically, two previous paradigm shifts in chemical engineering...... corresponded to major shifts in chemical engineering as a discipline, which affected not only the education of chemical engineers, but also the development of chemical engineering as a discipline. Has the time come for a new paradigm shift that will prepare the current and future chemical engineering graduates...

  14. The semantics of «lacuna modifications» (a case study for the verbs of sound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivlieva I. V.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available the article examines the insufficiently explored domain of Russian verbal word formation synthesis – the lacuna (gap field. For the first time ever, the term «lacuna (gap modification» is being introduced into linguistic usage. This new term is defined, the well-grounded classification of lacuna types is presented, and the methods for creating an adequate lexicographic index of lacunas (gaps is provided. Using the methods of componential analysis and synthesis, the lacuna charts and diagrams for the verbs of sound are constructed. Data obtained from the Russian native speakers’ questionnaire is used for clarification purposes. The results of the research set forward the identification methodology and consistent description techniques for lacunas (gaps with respect to their future codification in various dictionaries, e.g., thesaurus, word-formation, etc.

  15. Representacions gramaticals i activitat metalingüística dels alumnes de secundària : la categoria verb

    OpenAIRE

    Durán Rivas, Carme

    2009-01-01

    L’article descriu una investigació sobre la representació gramatical que alumnes de l’últim curs de la secundària obligatòria han construït sobre la categoria verb, una noció de gran dificultat epistemològica. La finalitat última és identificar les estràtegies que han fet servir per conceptualizar-la i conèixer les dificultats amb què es troben com un primer pas per, d’una banda, entendre com es produeix el procés d’interiorització dels coneixements gramaticals i, d’una altra, poder dissenyar...

  16. VERBE DE COMPORTAMENT VERBAL ÎN LIMBA ROMÂNĂ ŞI ÎN GREACA MODERNĂ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena JUNGHIETU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fiecare limbă naţională fixează în inventarul ei lexical experienţa social-istorică unică a unui popor concret, pentru ai cărui reprezentanţi sunt esenţiale şi semnificative anumite obiecte, fenomene, activităţi etc. Această semnificaţie este condiţionată de specificul modului de viaţă şi al culturii naţionale a colectivităţii date. Din acest punct de vedere, studie­rea comparativă a verbelor de comportament din cele două limbi – româna şi greaca – este de o actualitate deosebită, deoarece anume în verbele de comportament îşi găsesc reflectare valorile specifice ale poporului dat: caracterul relaţiilor interumane, atitudinea individului faţă de mediul natural şi social, faţă de muncă etc.VERBAL BEHAVIORAL IN ROMANIAN AND MODERN GREEKEach national language fix in its lexical inventory the unique social and historical experience of a nation concretely, for whose representatives are essential and significant some objects, events, activities etc. This meaning is subject to specific lifestyle and national culture of this community. From this point of view, comparative study of behavioral verbs of the two languages - Romanian and Greek – is particularly topical because especially those verbs of behavior are reflected specific values of the given nation: nature of human relationships, the individual attitude toward the natural and social environment, towards to work etc.

  17. School on Cloud: Towards a Paradigm Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsopoulos, Kostis C.; Kotsanis, Yannis C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the basic concept of the EU Network School on Cloud: Namely, that present conditions require a new teaching and learning paradigm based on the integrated dimension of education, when considering the use of cloud computing. In other words, it is suggested that there is a need for an integrated approach which is simultaneously…

  18. Den postmoderna stadens två paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tom

    2005-01-01

    the attention of politicians, planners and architects today is focused on the individual, not the collective. But the policy of the third way has no counterpart in an urbanism torn between two paradigms. Tom Nielsen paints the picture of what has to urban development since the welfare state...

  19. Redesigning Higher Education: Embracing a New Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, William R.; Watson, Sunnie Lee

    2014-01-01

    Higher education is under enormous pressure to transform itself and embrace a new paradigm. Operating under an outdated model that no longer aligns with the realities of modern society, institutions of higher education are recognizing the need to drastically remake themselves or possibly cease to exist. This article explores the current landscape…

  20. A postfoundationalist research paradigm of practical theology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Kyu Park

    2010-10-01

    This article examines and argues for postfoundationalism – transversal reason, interdisciplinarity and interpreted experience – as a viable theological option against rigid foundationalism and relativistic nonfoundationalism. Also discussed are the process and the interdisciplinary nature of practical theology. It is suggested that narrative research and social constructionism should be part of the research paradigm of postfoundational practical theology.

  1. New Paradigms for Computer Aids to Invention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langston, M. Diane

    Many people are interested in computer aids to rhetorical invention and want to know how to evaluate an invention aid, what the criteria are for a good one, and how to assess the trade-offs involved in buying one product or another. The frame of reference for this evaluation is an "old paradigm," which treats the computer as if it were…

  2. Diet and Cancer: The Fourth Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter C. Willett, MD, DrPH, an international expert in diet and nutrition, with posts as a Professor of Epidemiology and Nutrition and Chairman of the Department of Nutrition at Harvard School of Public Health and as Professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School, presented "Diet and Cancer: The Fourth Paradigm".

  3. Challenging paradigms in estuarine ecology and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, M.; Whitfield, A. K.

    2011-10-01

    For many years, estuarine science has been the 'poor relation' in aquatic research - freshwater scientists ignored estuaries as they tended to get confused by salt and tides, and marine scientists were more preoccupied by large open systems. Estuaries were merely regarded by each group as either river mouths or sea inlets respectively. For the past four decades, however, estuaries (and other transitional waters) have been regarded as being ecosystems in their own right. Although often not termed as such, this has led to paradigms being generated to summarise estuarine structure and functioning and which relate to both the natural science and management of these systems. This paper defines, details and affirms these paradigms that can be grouped into those covering firstly the science (definitions, scales, linkages, productivity, tolerances and variability) and secondly the management (pressures, valuation, health and services) of estuaries. The more 'science' orientated paradigms incorporate the development and types of ecotones, the nature of stressed and variable systems (with specific reference to resilience and redundancy), the relationship between generalists and specialists produced by environmental tolerance, the relevance of scale in relation to functioning and connectivity, the sources of production and degree of productivity, the biodiversity-ecosystem functioning and the stress-subsidy debates. The more 'management' targeted paradigms include the development and effects of exogenic unmanaged pressures and endogenic managed pressures, the perception of health and the ability to manage estuaries (related to internal and external influences), and the influence of all of these on the production of ecosystem services and societal benefits.

  4. THE NEW PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION PARADIGM DIRECTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    CHERVYAKOVA OLHA VOLODYMYRIVNA

    2017-01-01

    This article presents aspects of public administration paradigm of using disciplinary matrix, a public management model based on a feedback mechanism in the subject-subject interaction, which is the basis of theoretical and methodological establishment in public administration science (Public administration) in Ukraine.

  5. Trace elements as paradigms of developmental neurotoxicants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Herz, Katherine T

    2015-01-01

    Trace elements have contributed unique insights into developmental neurotoxicity and serve as paradigms for such adverse effects. Many trace elements are retained in the body for long periods and can be easily measured to assess exposure by inexpensive analytical methods that became available...

  6. 06472 Abstracts Collection - XQuery Implementation Paradigms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boncz, Peter A.; Grust, Torsten; Siméon, Jerome; Boncz, P.A.; Grust, T.; Siméon, J.; van Keulen, Maurice

    From 19.11.2006 to 22.11.2006, the Dagstuhl Seminar 06472 ``XQuery Implementation Paradigms'' was held in the International Conference and Research Center (IBFI), Schloss Dagstuhl. During the seminar, several participants presented their current research, and ongoing work and open problems were

  7. Answer Set Programming and Other Computing Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yunsong

    2013-01-01

    Answer Set Programming (ASP) is one of the most prominent and successful knowledge representation paradigms. The success of ASP is due to its expressive non-monotonic modeling language and its efficient computational methods originating from building propositional satisfiability solvers. The wide adoption of ASP has motivated several extensions to…

  8. Toward an Ecological Paradigm in Adventure Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beringer, Almut

    2004-01-01

    Many forms of adventure therapy, in particular wilderness therapy, rely on challenges in the outdoors to achieve objectives of client change. While nature is drawn on as a medium for therapy and healing, some adventure therapists give nature little if any mention when it comes to explaining therapeutic success. The dominant paradigm in psychology…

  9. ACCOUNTING PARADIGMS WHICH FAVOR HISTORICAL COST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Gabriel CRISTEA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Henning Kirkegaard shows that the evolution of accounting is to shift from one paradigm to another . Business continuity perspective should guide the company into the future , without confine it exclusively in the past. Accounting in its classical form , however, can not be dissociated from the historical cost evaluation .

  10. On the solitary wave paradigm for tsunamis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Per A.; Fuhrman, David R.; Schäffer, Hemming Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Since the 1970s, solitary waves have commonly been used to model tsunamis especially in experimental and mathematical studies. Unfortunately, the link to geophysical scales is not well established, and in this work we question the geophysical relevance of this paradigm. In part 1, we simulate...

  11. Evolving conservation paradigms for the Anthropocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariel E. Lugo

    2014-01-01

    The Anthropocene will have fundamental effects on the species composition, function, and structure of the ecosystems of the world. Land management agencies such as the USDA Forest Service will need to adapt their policies and conservation activities to avoid engaging in continuous conflict with natural processes and unfamiliar biotic assemblages. Conservation paradigms...

  12. A new paradigm for doing Reformed dogmatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. Spykman

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available When discussing Reformational Theology: A New Paradigm for Doing Dogmatics some people may call it my opus magnum. Perhaps time 'will tell. The book has only recently - early 1992 - entered the marketplace of theological ideas. How critic readers and reviewers respond will go a long way toward settling the case.

  13. Moral Developmental Science between Changing Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Monika

    2012-01-01

    This review encompasses a time-span of about 50 years of research on morality and moral development. It discusses Kohlberg's (1984) work as a milestone that constituted the cognitive developmental viewpoint of morality and that dominated research for about three decades. In this paradigm the role of reasoning and deliberation was emphasized as the…

  14. Paradigms of Interaction Between Culture and Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Bahrani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Political thought as a normative knowledge seeks a good society and the means for its realization. Accordingly, every intellectual paradigm introduces us a social and individual situation which is the best. This model, itself requires a dramatic change in the culture and flourishes it. In another words, there is a necessary relationship between the elements of political thought and the culture in every society. This relationship is twofold, so it is impossible to indicate whether which aspect is the first. So every paradigm feeds some special elements into the current culture of society, while there is it feedback. It is important that political thought goes in search of condition for cultural flourishing which is according whit the criteria of good society. This paper focuses on most important paradigm in political thought history and shows the trend in which indicates the relationships between political thought and culture. This trend looks at human beings as "citizen", then "the individual"; and in the modem era, paradigms of "critical modem", "postmodern", and "communitarian" has a key role in prospering the realm of culture.

  15. Fourth Generation War: Paradigm for Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    PARADIGM FOR CHANGE by Ghanshyam Singh Katoch June 2005 Thesis Advisor : Kalev Sepp Second Reader...Approved by: Kalev Sepp Thesis Advisor Douglas Borer Second Reader Gordon McCormick Chairman, Department of Defense...combination of all the resources of the government, not just the army. d. Economy of Effort A Robo -Soldier is a small, tracked, electrically powered vehicle

  16. Operationalizing Social Justice Counseling: Paradigm to Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Judith A.

    2011-01-01

    Social justice counseling, like all humanistic models, recognizes the dignity of each human being, affirms the right of all people to choose and work toward their own goals, and asserts the importance of service to community. The social justice paradigm brings a special emphasis on the role of the environment. (Contains 1 figure and 1 table.)

  17. VERB-VISUALITY IN MAFALDA’S COMIC STRIP: LINGUISTIC COURTESY/DISCOURTESY AND HUMOR IN THE DIALOGUE OF THE FIGURATIVE NARRATIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto Baptista Andrade

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available How to read a comic strip? What dialogical relations can such a genre perform, considering its hybrid nature of languages? It is proposed, in this article, to analyze a Mafalda’s comic strip, character created by Quino, as a discursive hybrid genre, observing the verb-visuality that constitutes the discourse, as well as exploring the meaning effects that arise from the dialogical relations. The marks of linguistic politeness and impoliteness present in the verb-visual materiality are also an object of this study. The theoretical foundation is the Dialogic Discourse Analysis (ADD, following the principles of Bakhtin (2010a, 2010b and his Circle and Brait’s (2013, as well as Brown and Levinson (1987 as a ground theory to support the issues of courtesy; and Kandinsky (2012 to assist in the reflections about the pictorial elements.

  18. Marking of verb tense in the English of preschool English-Mandarin bilingual children: evidence from language development profiles within subgroups on the Singapore English Action Picture Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brebner, Chris; McCormack, Paul; Liow, Susan Rickard

    2016-01-01

    The phonological and morphosyntactic structures of English and Mandarin contrast maximally and an increasing number of bilinguals speak these two languages. Speech and language therapists need to understand bilingual development for children speaking these languages in order reliably to assess and provide intervention for this population. To examine the marking of verb tense in the English of two groups of bilingual pre-schoolers learning these languages in a multilingual setting where the main educational language is English. The main research question addressed was: are there differences in the rate and pattern of acquisition of verb-tense marking for English-language 1 children compared with Mandarin-language 1 children? Spoken language samples in English from 481 English-Mandarin bilingual children were elicited using a 10-item action picture test and analysed for each child's use of verb tense markers: present progressive '-ing', regular past tense '-ed', third-person singular '-s', and irregular past tense and irregular past-participle forms. For 4-6 year olds the use of inflectional markers by the different language dominance groups was compared statistically using non-parametric tests. This study provides further evidence that bilingual language development is not the same as monolingual language development. The results show that there are very different rates and patterns of verb-tense marking in English for English-language 1 and Mandarin-language 1 children. Furthermore, they show that bilingual language development in English in Singapore is not the same as monolingual language development in English, and that there are differences in development depending on language dominance. Valid and reliable assessment of bilingual children's language skills needs to consider the characteristics of all languages spoken, obtaining accurate information on language use over time and accurately establishing language dominance is essential in order to make a

  19. Grammar as an “Art of Lettes” in Foreign Language Teaching (A Study of Teaching English Verb Tenses in Lower and Upper Secondary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harťanská Jana

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This paper focuses on the issue of teaching verb tenses in Slovak lower and upper secondary schools – in particular, on teaching three grammatical tenses (Present Simple, Present Continuous, and Simple Present Perfect and the learner’s ability to use them. It also identifies the mistakes made by the learners in the research sample, causes of their mistakes, and suggests ways of eliminating these errors.

  20. Selective impairment of verb processing associated with pathological changes in Brodmann areas 44 and 45 in the motor neurone disease-dementia-aphasia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, T H; O'Donovan, D G; Xuereb, J H; Boniface, S; Hodges, J R

    2001-01-01

    We report six patients with clinically diagnosed and electrophysiologically confirmed motor neurone disease (MND), in whom communication problems were an early and dominant feature. All patients developed a progressive non-fluent aphasia culminating in some cases in complete mutism. In five cases, formal testing revealed deficits in syntactic comprehension. Comprehension and production of verbs were consistently more affected those that of nouns and this effect remained stable upon subsequent testing, despite overall deterioration. The classical signs of MND, including wasting, fasciculations and severe bulbar symptoms, occurred over the following 6-12 months. The behavioural symptoms ranged from mild anosognosia to personality change implicating frontal-lobe dementia. In three cases, post-mortem examination has confirmed the clinical diagnosis of MND-dementia. In addition to the typical involvement of motor and premotor cortex, particularly pronounced pathological changes were observed in the Brodmann areas 44 (Broca's area) and 45. The finding of a selective impairment of verb/action processing in association with the dementia/aphasia syndrome of MND suggests that the neural substrate underlying verb representation is strongly connected to anterior cortical motor systems.

  1. The membrane paradigm for black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.H.; Thorne, K.S.

    1988-01-01

    It is now widely accepted that black holes exist and have an astrophysical role, in particular as the likely power source of quasars. To understand this role with ease, the authors and their colleagues have developed a new paradigm for black holes - a new way to picture, think about and describe them. As far as possible it treats black holes as ordinary astrophysical objects, made of real material. A black hole in this description is a spherical or oblate surface made of a thin, electrically conducting membrane. It was the author's quest to understand the Blandford-Znajek process intuitively that led them to create the membrane paradigm. Their strategy was to translate the general-relativistic mathematics of black holes into the same language of three-dimensional space that is used for magnetized plasmas and to create a new set of black-hole diagrams and pictures to go along with the language. 9 figs

  2. Changing the Dominant Paradigm in Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Lourdes Mollo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the discussion proposed by the World Academy of Art & Science (WAAS about the need to build a new paradigm to confront the challenges of the global society and to move across to a New Society discussing specific problems related to economic globalization and proposing changes. The ways in which economic orthodoxy and heterodoxy analyze the role of the State and the question of sustainability of development and the problems of environmental sustainability depend on their different views or theoretical arguments about the role of the market. The article contrasts the mainstream economics arguments to support the free market context of globalization with Post-Keynesian and Marxist’s skeptical or critical views. Finally, it proposes some strategies to face the critical aspects analyzed making suggestions to move to another dominant economic paradigm.

  3. [Assistance to the climacteric woman: new paradigms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzi, Dino Roberto Soares De; Catan, Lenita Binelli; Moreira, Karen; Artico, Graziela Rech

    2009-01-01

    Population aging is a demographic reality for Brazil. Consequently, in the next years it is expected a progressive increase in seeking health care services in the country by women with complaints related to climacterium. Parallel to it, assistance at this part of woman's life has been going through a paradigm shift which has imposed to health professionals a change of attitude in relation to this stage of woman's life. Today it is acknowledged that the climacterium is influenced by biological, psychosocial and cultural factors, whose knowledge is fundamental for planning a more qualified and humanized care. This article proposes a reflection on the paradigm shifts in assistance at climacterium, highlighting important aspects as multidisciplinarity and interdisciplinarity, so as to serve better this portion of population, and provide it with more integrated and individualized care, bringing together knowledge and sensitivity, and always aiming at a better quality of life.

  4. Inhabiting compassion: A pastoral theological paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil C. Zylla

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by the vision of care in Vincent van Gogh’s depiction of the parable of the Good Samaritan, this article offers a paradigm for inhabiting compassion. Compassion is understood in this article as a moral emotion that is also a pathocentric virtue. This definition creates a dynamic view of compassion as a desire to alleviate the suffering of others, the capacity to act on behalf of others and a commitment to sustain engagement with the suffering other. To weave this vision of compassion as a habitus rather than a theoretical construct, the article develops three phases of compassion: seeing, companioning and sighing. This framework deepens and augments a pastoral theological paradigm of compassion with the aim of inculcating an inhabited compassion in caregivers and the communities in which they participate.

  5. BMS invariance and the membrane paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penna, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    The Bondi-van der Burg-Metzner-Sachs (BMS) group is the asymptotic symmetry group of asymptotically flat spacetime. It is infinite dimensional and entails an infinite number of conservation laws. According to the black hole membrane paradigm, null infinity (in asymptotically flat spacetime) and black hole event horizons behave like fluid membranes. The fluid dynamics of the membrane is governed by an infinite set of symmetries and conservation laws. Our main result is to point out that the infinite set of symmetries and conserved charges of the BMS group and the membrane paradigm are the same. This relationship has several consequences. First, it sheds light on the physical interpretation of BMS conservation laws. Second, it generalizes the BMS conservation laws to arbitrary subregions of arbitrary null surfaces. Third, it clarifies the identification of the superrotation subgroup of the BMS group. We briefly comment on the black hole information problem.

  6. Radiation a new paradigm... Societal impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutcliffe, Jill

    2010-01-01

    Latency is associated with the time lag it takes for the health effects resulting from exposure to ionising radiation to show up. However, the term latency can also be applied to the time it takes for a policy to be implemented. This length of time has been suggested as broadly 40-year process. Given that radioactivity was identified and named in 1896, three paradigms are identified and examined from 1896 to 2016 and the criteria for a 4th paradigm suggested for the period 2017-2056. The review examines the changes that have taken place in scientific understanding and in public trust, a few key developments and the associated establishment of the related organisational infrastructure designed to collate and assess the evidence.

  7. It’s not what it looks to be! : Déconnexion entre forme et sens dans les énoncés avec verbe de perception à emploi dit “copule”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christelle LACASSAIN-LAGOIN

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Cet article a pour objet l’analyse de la déconnexion entre forme et sens dans les énoncés où figurent les verbes de perception à emploi dit copule (look, sound, smell, taste et feel. L’origine de ces verbes est sujette à débat et il est avancé ici une hypothèse sur l’origine nominale de ces verbes, ainsi que sur leur comportement syntaxique et sémantique unique. Il apparaît que, dans ce type d’énoncés, le sujet grammatical n’est pas le sujet logique du verbe, qui a un emploi modalisant en ce qu’il exprime un jugement sur les apparences perceptuelles. Ce conflit apparent entre syntaxe et sémantique transparaît également au niveau de certains types d’attributs du sujet (les syntagmes nominaux, les syntagmes prépositionnels introduits par OF et les propositions en AS IF / AS THOUGH. L’étude montre que tous les attributs renvoient nécessairement à des propriétés gradables, ce qui n’est pas le cas avec le verbe copule be. Ainsi, ces énoncés copulatifs, où le verbe de perception a un emploi modalisant, présentent tous, à plusieurs titres et de diverses manières, un phénomène de compression syntaxique et sémantique motive par l’application d’un principe d’économie langagière.This paper aims at analysing the disconnection between form and meaning in sentences involving copular perception verbs (look, sound, smell, taste and feel. The origin of these verbs is a controversial issue, and in this article, it is argued that they have a nominal origin and that they have identical syntactic and semantic features. It appears that, in these copulative sentences, the grammatical subject does not coincide with the underlying subject of the verb, which has a modalising use as it expresses a judgment concerning sensory appearances. This surface conflict between syntax and semantics also shows in certain types of subject complements – nominal phrases, OF-prepositional phrases and AS IF/AS THOUGH-clauses. This

  8. Paradigms of modern radio-biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grodzins'kij, D.M.

    2005-01-01

    The basic paradigms of modern radio-biology are considered as models of pictures of essence of radio-biology problems and methods of their decision. It is marked on absolute heuristics of these ascending conceptual assertions and their assistance to subsequent development of experimental science. That has the concrete display in the decision of actual tasks of protection of people from action of ionizing radiation

  9. The Knowledge Society: A Sustainability Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naim Hamdija Afgan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper defines the knowledge society as a human structured organisation based on contemporary developed knowledge and representing new quality of life support systems. It implies the need for a full understanding of distribution of knowledge, access to information and the capability to transfer information into a knowledge. The understanding of knowledge is the central challenge when defining a knowledge society. From our present perception of knowledge society, it is of interest to emphasize the role of the knowledge society in future development of human society. The life support systems are essential pillars of human society development. In this respect knowledge society represents a new paradigm for future development and it is strongly correlated to sustainable development. For this reason the sustainability paradigm of knowledge society is a potential frame for human society development leading to social cohesion, economic competitiveness and stability, use of resources and economic development, safeguarding biodiversity and the ecosystem.In order to verify the mutual relation between knowledge society and sustainability, we have to introduce the difference between these two terms. The knowledge society is based on the agglomeration of eco-knowledge, env-knowledge and soc-knowledge, it may be evaluated as the complex knowledge of quality of life support systems. We have to introduce metrics which will allow us to present knowledge as the paradigm of the number of indicators for verifying progress made.Sustainability metrics are designed to consolidate measures of economic, environmental and social performance of any system. It can be understood as a pattern for evaluation of the available knowledge about systems and their performance. In particular the decision-making process for the selection of the system under consideration must be based on the available knowledge. The link between knowledge and sustainability makes it possible for

  10. Agricultural Economics and Qualitative Research: Incompatible Paradigms?

    OpenAIRE

    Vera Bitsch

    2000-01-01

    The disciplinary paradigm of agricultural economics emphasizes rational behavior in a world constrained by scarce resources. The research practice focuses on the quantitative modeling of optimization behavior. These models, though, only offer limited support to practitioners in solving real-world problems. Qualitative research approaches contribute to this task, particularly with research in developing countries. Participatory action research was introduced in the seventies; case studies have...

  11. Doing smooth pursuit paradigms in Windows 7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilms, Inge Linda

    predict strengths or deficits in perception and attention. However, smooth pursuit movements have been difficult to study and very little normative data is available for smooth pursuit performance in children and adults. This poster describes the challenges in setting up a smooth pursuit paradigm...... in Windows 7 with live capturing of eye movements using a Tobii TX300 eye tracker. In particular, the poster describes the challenges and limitations created by the hardware and the software...

  12. The Quantitative Grammar and Poetics of Finite Verb Forms in the Guslʹ Dobroglasnaia by Simeon Polotsky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedor N. Dviniatin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper offers data on the quantity and structure of finite verbal forms in Simeon Polotsky’s collection Guslʹ Dobroglasnaia. The results are compared to data from twenty epinician odes by Mikhail Lomonosov and ten odes by Gavriil Derzhavin. We find 851 personal forms in Simeon’s collection, of which 214 belong to past tenses (73 to imperfect, 92 to aorist, 49 to past tense with l morpheme; 363 belong to present tense; 99 to future tense; 51 to imperative mood; 6 to conjunctive mood; and 118 to the forms with the da particle. The total percentage of past tenses in Simeon’s texts (25.1% is close to the parameters appearing in Lomonosov’s and Derzhavin’s texts (21.4% and 23.5%, respectively, and the same is true for the percentages of non-indicative moods (20.5% vs. 19.1% and 20.5%. Simeon Polotsky’s texts contain fewer present tense forms than those written by the 18th-century poets (42.8% vs. 50.6% and 49.5%, but they contain more future tense forms (11.6% vs. 8.9% and 6.5%. Past tense forms in Simeon’s texts with l suffix include 29 forms of the third person with the auxiliary iestʹ verb, usually given in a rhyme position. In the aorist, the proportion of imperfective and perfective forms to the forms of the byti verb is 9:72:11; in imperfect, this proportion is 52:6:15; and in past tenses with l suffix, it is 8:38:3. We find 99 forms of the future tense, broken down as follows: 69 are forms of simple future; 12 are accompanied by imatʹ and similar forms; and 18 are accompanied by budet and similar forms (there is no semantic difference between these two last cases. Of the forms containing the da particle, 65 belong to present tense, 37 belong to future tense, and 16 are accompanied by byti forms.

  13. What Do Ecological Paradigms Offer to Conservation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ale, S.B.; Howe, H.F.; Ale, S.B.; Howe, H.F.

    2010-01-01

    Ecological theory provides applications to biodiversity management but often falls short of expectations. One possibility is that heuristic theories of a young science are too immature. Logistic growth predicts a carrying capacity, but fisheries managed with the Lotka-Volterra paradigm continue to collapse. A second issue is that general predictions may not be useful. The theory of island biogeography predicts species richness but does not predict community composition. A third possibility is that the theory itself may not have much to do with nature, or that empirical parameterization is too difficult to know. The meta population paradigm is relevant to conservation, but meta populations might not be common in nature. For instance, empirical parameterization within the meta population paradigm is usually infeasible. A challenge is to determine why ecology fails to match needs of managers sometimes but helps at other. Managers may expect too much of paradigmatic blueprints, while ecologists believe them too much. Those who implement biodiversity conservation plans need simple, pragmatic guidelines based on science. Is this possible. What is possible An eclectic review of theory and practice demonstrate the power and weaknesses of the ideas that guide conservation and attempt to identify reasons for prevailing disappointment.

  14. Toward a Metatheoretical Integration of Developmental Paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark W. Antley

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows how a partial consilience might be achieved in the field of human development by means of principles from general systems theory. The author concurs with Sameroff (1989 that it is possible to interpret the mechanistic, organisimic, and contextualist paradigms/worldviews (Goldhaber, 2000; Pepper, 1970 in terms of general systems theory. The author selects a major developmentalist from each paradigm and interprets that scholar’s work in terms of systems principles. The following developmentalists were selected: Arnold Sameroff (contextualism, Erik Erickson (organicism, and Albert Bandura (mechanism. The systems principles employed are wholeness and order, self-stabilization, self-reorganization, hierarchical interaction, and dialectical contradiction (Sameroff, 1989. The author addresses the conflicting presuppositions of the major paradigms in order to provide for their theoretical subsuming under systems theory. Finally, the author notes areas of inconsistency that will need to be resolved in the future and calls for further scholarship to translate developmental theory in terms of general systems theory for the benefit of students, scholars, consultants and other practitioners familiar with systems theory.

  15. Marketing communications: Qualitative and quantitative paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzelac Nikola

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on key issues in relation to the choice of basic language of communication of marketing as a practical and academic field. Principally, marketing managers prefer descriptive way of expression, but they should use the advantages of language of numbers much more. By doing so, they will advance decision-making process - and the communication with finance and top management. In this regard, models offered by academic community could be helpful. This especially pertains to those positive or normative verbal approaches and models in which mathematics and statistical solutions have been embedded, as well as to those which emphasize financial criteria in decision-making. Concerning the process of creation and verification of scientific knowledge, the choice between languages of words and numbers is the part of much wider dimension, because it is inseparable from the decision on basic research orientation. Quantitative paradigm is more appropriate for hypotheses testing, while qualitative paradigm gives greater contribution in their generation. Competition factor could become the key driver of changes by which existing "parallel worlds" of main paradigms would be integrating, for the sake of disciplinary knowledge advancement.

  16. Paradigm Adherence and Personality Correlates across Mental Health Professions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Laura Anne

    2012-01-01

    Paradigm adherence has been developed as a meta-theoretical approach to organize and to classify the multitude of different theories of counseling and psychotherapy. Four paradigms have been identified in the literature: The Organic-Medical, The Psychological, The Systemic-Relational, and the Social Constructivist paradigms. Only one other study…

  17. Linking aims, paradigm and method in nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Catherine; Hunter, Andrew; Meskell, Pauline

    2012-01-01

    To explore the use of paradigms as ontological and philosophical guides for conducting PhD research. A paradigm can help to bridge the aims of a study and the methods to achieve them. However, choosing a paradigm can be challenging for doctoral researchers: there can be ambiguity about which paradigm is suitable for a particular research question and there is a lack of guidance on how to shape the research process for a chosen paradigm. The authors discuss three paradigms used in PhD nursing research: post-positivism, interpretivism and pragmatism. They compare each paradigm in relation to its ontology, epistemology and methodology, and present three examples of PhD nursing research studies to illustrate how research can be conducted using these paradigms in the context of the research aims and methods. The commonalities and differences between the paradigms and their uses are highlighted. Creativity and flexibility are important when deciding on a paradigm. However, consistency and transparency are also needed to ensure the quality and rigour necessary for conducting nursing research. When choosing a suitable paradigm, the researcher should ensure that the ontology, epistemology and methodology of the paradigm are manifest in the methods and research strategies employed.

  18. The influence of linguistic and cognitive factors on the time course of verb-based implicit causality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koornneef, Arnout; Dotlačil, Jakub; van den Broek, Paul; Sanders, Ted

    2016-01-01

    In three eye-tracking experiments the influence of the Dutch causal connective "want" (because) and the working memory capacity of readers on the usage of verb-based implicit causality was examined. Experiments 1 and 2 showed that although a causal connective is not required to activate implicit causality information during reading, effects of implicit causality surfaced more rapidly and were more pronounced when a connective was present in the discourse than when it was absent. In addition, Experiment 3 revealed that-in contrast to previous claims-the activation of implicit causality is not a resource-consuming mental operation. Moreover, readers with higher and lower working memory capacities behaved differently in a dual-task situation. Higher span readers were more likely to use implicit causality when they had all their working memory resources at their disposal. Lower span readers showed the opposite pattern as they were more likely to use the implicit causality cue in the case of an additional working memory load. The results emphasize that both linguistic and cognitive factors mediate the impact of implicit causality on text comprehension. The implications of these results are discussed in terms of the ongoing controversies in the literature-that is, the focusing-integration debate and the debates on the source of implicit causality.

  19. Language for Winning Hearts and Minds: Verb Aspect in U.S. Presidential Campaign Speeches for Engaging Emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havas, David A; Chapp, Christopher B

    2016-01-01

    How does language influence the emotions and actions of large audiences? Functionally, emotions help address environmental uncertainty by constraining the body to support adaptive responses and social coordination. We propose emotions provide a similar function in language processing by constraining the mental simulation of language content to facilitate comprehension, and to foster alignment of mental states in message recipients. Consequently, we predicted that emotion-inducing language should be found in speeches specifically designed to create audience alignment - stump speeches of United States presidential candidates. We focused on phrases in the past imperfective verb aspect ("a bad economy was burdening us") that leave a mental simulation of the language content open-ended, and thus unconstrained, relative to past perfective sentences ("we were burdened by a bad economy"). As predicted, imperfective phrases appeared more frequently in stump versus comparison speeches, relative to perfective phrases. In a subsequent experiment, participants rated phrases from presidential speeches as more emotionally intense when written in the imperfective aspect compared to the same phrases written in the perfective aspect, particularly for sentences perceived as negative in valence. These findings are consistent with the notion that emotions have a role in constraining the comprehension of language, a role that may be used in communication with large audiences.

  20. Paradigm Shift in Language Teaching and Language Teacher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Ferreira do Vale Borges

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I intend to conduct a short literature review and discussion about paradigm shift in language teaching and language teacher education from Cartesian to the complexity paradigm. For that, I use the Kuhnian notion of scientific revolution to present a short compilation of works related to paradigm shift in different sciences, including psychology, linguistics and, more emphatically, applied linguistics. The main proposal is to show the evolutions of paradigm shift in language and social sciences and its impact on the emergence of the complexity paradigm in language teaching and language teacher education fields.

  1. SCHOOL ECONOMY IN THE INVENTING EDUCATION PARADIGM

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    Anatoliy Alexandrovich Lepeshev

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Requirements applied to specialists for working in the sixth wave of innovation, i.e. Industry 4.0, determines the necessity of education system improvement concerning training solution and, as a result, creation of inventive ideas. Today in our country this process is stimulated by various competitions, including financing for the implementation of results. In training programs knowledge approach still prevails. The corresponding methods, along with stimulation, are included into educational programs in leading foreign educational institutions, mostly at universities. If in previous decades mostly divergent methods were studied (morphological analysis, the focal objects method, synectics, etc., then now the leading place is taken by theory of inventive problem solving – TRIZ created in the former USSR by G.S. Altshuller in connection with the increasing leading corporations requirement for specialists in TRIZ. This fact gives Russia essential competitive advantages in the innovative way of development. For effective use of this advantage it is important to form the TRIZ-based innovative thinking beginning from school days. For this purpose authors developed new methods in TRIZ-pedagogics, uniting metasubject results (in higher education institutions – competences into the system of innovative thinking. As a result, both educational and economic effects are achieved: the intellectual property created in educational process. For schools it is the possibility of significant improvement of financing causing importance of new mechanisms of intellectual property fixation, protection and implementation. Recommendations about creation of such system are provided in the article. Purpose Defining the opportunities and ways of improving economic effectiveness of educational activities in the paradigm of inventive education. Tasks: – analysis of school education institutions experience in implementation of approaches preceding the inventing education

  2. Urgency of changing paradigms in radiation hygiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudritskij, Yu.K.; Karpov, V.I.; Georgievskij, A.B.

    1991-01-01

    A problem has been raised on the necessity to substitute the linear-nonthreshold hypothesis as a paradigm of radiation hygiene for the hypothesis of the biological effectiveness of ionizing irradiations. A comparison of the methodological substantiation for both hypotheses and a conception of 'acceptable risk' has been carried out. It is suggested that the possibility of theoretical substantiation of safety standards for the radiational factor on the basis of adatational hypothesis be acknowledged instead of the linear - nonthreshold conception which has lost its historic significance

  3. Causal hydrodynamics and the membrane paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natsuume, Makoto

    2008-01-01

    We obtain the relaxation time for the shear viscous stress for various geometries using the 'membrane paradigm' formula proposed recently. We consider the generic Schwarzschild-anti-de Sitter black holes (SAdS), the generic Dp-brane, the Klebanov-Tseytlin (KT) geometry, and the N=2* theory. The formula is the 'shear mode' result and is not fully trustable, but it may be helpful to learn some generic behaviors about the relaxation time. For example, a simple formula summarizes all known results for SAdS, and a single expression summarizes the results for the Dp-brane and the KT geometry.

  4. In search of a new paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars K.

    2005-01-01

    In this review of research priorities, presented for the European Commission, food allergy is established as a disease with a considerable impact on modern society. Research paradigms have changed from establishing basic symptomatology and diagnostic methods over allergen characterization to a risk...... mechanisms in the cross-field between immunology and gastroenterology. Research priorities should include the molecular basis of cross-reactivity, the digestion and maintenance of antigenicity, the genetics of food allergy, and the immune response to food antigens and effects on the gastrointestinal immune...

  5. Three paradigms for the analysis of corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Vannucci

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades a growing awareness emerged of the relevance of corruption as an hidden factor which may negatively affect political and economic decision-making processes. In spite of a lively scientific debate there is no general consensus on a commonly accepted definition of what corruption is.The A. distinguishes three main paradigms, focusing on different (though not irreconcilable variables.The first is the economic paradigm, which usually takes the principal-agent model of corruption as its founding pillar. In this paradigm corruption is considered the outcome of rational individual choices, and its spread within a certain organization is influenced by the factors defining the structure of expected costs and rewards.A second approach – the cultural paradigm – looks at the differences in cultural traditions, social norms and interiorized values which shape individuals’ moral preferences and consideration of his social and institutional role. These are a leading forces that can push a corrupt public or private agent (not to violate legal norms.A third neo-institutional approach considers also mechanisms which allow the internal regulation of social interactions within corrupt networks, and their effects on individuals’ beliefs and preferences. Though the corrupt agreements cannot be enforced with legal sanctions, several informal, non-written rules, contractual provisos and conventions may regulate the corrupt exchange between agent and corruptor.The A. underlines that corruption is the outcome of a multitude of individual and collective choices which change public opinion towards corruption and its diffusion throughout the state, markets and civil society. There is no univocal recipe to deal with anti-bribery measures, since corruption is a complex and multifaceted phenomenon.Reforms aimed at dismantling systemic corruption have to be finely tuned against its hidden governance structures, i.e. its internal regulation of

  6. Chua's circuit a paradigm for chaos

    CERN Document Server

    1993-01-01

    For uninitiated researchers, engineers, and scientists interested in a quick entry into the subject of chaos, this book offers a timely collection of 55 carefully selected papers covering almost every aspect of this subject. Because Chua's circuit is endowed with virtually every bifurcation phenomena reported in the extensive literature on chaos, and because it is the only chaotic system which can be easily built by a novice, simulated in a personal computer, and tractable mathematically, it has become a paradigm for chaos, and a vehicle for illustrating this ubiquitous phenomenon. Its supreme

  7. RENEGOTIATION MINING CONTRACT: LEGAL PARADIGM RECONSTRUCTION EFFORTS

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    Marilang -

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Renegotiation contract mining is not a priori notion that was born but is driven by the fact that empirical Work Contract (KK and coal mining concessions of the Works Agreement (Cca that are valid for this resulted in profits which are not comparable between countries with investors (domestic and foreign. In addition, Law No. 4 of 2009 about Mineral and Coal Mining (minerba through article 169 have been injected that though the mining contracts during the validity of this, still respected until the end, however, if the implementation of these contracts give rise to distortions for the national interest, then the Government must encourage the investors to do Renegotiation against existing contracts to comply with legislation minerba forever within a period of one year since the enactment of the legislation this minerba. Renegotiation mining contracts that have been approved on the fact of the matter is simply an attempt to reconstruct the ruling paradigm, so with that paradigm shift, both parties can reach the intersection for the benefit of both parties, i.e. the parties proportionately Indonesia suffered no losses on the one hand, and the benefit of the domestic and foreign investors remain in reasonable limits on the other. 

  8. Consumers’ Empowerement for a New Marketing Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Danciu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The marketing practices of the companies show that not all of them are observing ethical and moral standards and they manipulate the consumers. This paper has as main goal to examine the most usual unethical techniques, the present status of consumers’ power and how more power could work for a new marketing paradigm. There are many unethical marketing techniques which could be found in deceptive product recipes, packaging, promotion, prices and in other areas. Most consumers have no appropriate powers and tools to counteract the manipulation techniques and feel they have fewer rights than the marketers. The current state of empowerment of the consumer show that the European consumers are not in the best position in the market as the Consumer Empowerment Index proves. This matter of facts emphasizes a strong need for a better empowerment of the consumers. The consumer which has more power and wisely use it could improve the balance of power in the market. But the consumers should have a proactive buying behavior in order to get such results. These revolutionary consumers attack the structural roots of the social, economic and political problems which produces a new market ideology as a part of the new tier of transnational institutional ideology. This consumer behavior may have a strong influence toward a new marketing paradigm.

  9. Osteoporosis: Modern Paradigms for Last Century's Bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Marlena C; Wolber, Frances M

    2016-06-17

    The skeleton is a metabolically active organ undergoing continuously remodelling. With ageing and menopause the balance shifts to increased resorption, leading to a reduction in bone mineral density and disruption of bone microarchitecture. Bone mass accretion and bone metabolism are influenced by systemic hormones as well as genetic and lifestyle factors. The classic paradigm has described osteoporosis as being a "brittle bone" disease that occurs in post-menopausal, thin, Caucasian women with low calcium intakes and/or vitamin D insufficiency. However, a study of black women in Africa demonstrated that higher proportions of body fat did not protect bone health. Isoflavone interventions in Asian postmenopausal women have produced inconsistent bone health benefits, due in part to population heterogeneity in enteric bacterial metabolism of daidzein. A comparison of women and men in several Asian countries identified significant differences between countries in the rate of bone health decline, and a high incidence rate of osteoporosis in both sexes. These studies have revealed significant differences in genetic phenotypes, debunking long-held beliefs and leading to new paradigms in study design. Current studies are now being specifically designed to assess genotype differences between Caucasian, Asian, African, and other phenotypes, and exploring alternative methodology to measure bone architecture.

  10. Imaging deductive reasoning and the new paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oaksford, Mike

    2015-01-01

    There has been a great expansion of research into human reasoning at all of Marr’s explanatory levels. There is a tendency for this work to progress within a level largely ignoring the others which can lead to slippage between levels (Chater et al., 2003). It is argued that recent brain imaging research on deductive reasoning—implementational level—has largely ignored the new paradigm in reasoning—computational level (Over, 2009). Consequently, recent imaging results are reviewed with the focus on how they relate to the new paradigm. The imaging results are drawn primarily from a recent meta-analysis by Prado et al. (2011) but further imaging results are also reviewed where relevant. Three main observations are made. First, the main function of the core brain region identified is most likely elaborative, defeasible reasoning not deductive reasoning. Second, the subtraction methodology and the meta-analytic approach may remove all traces of content specific System 1 processes thought to underpin much human reasoning. Third, interpreting the function of the brain regions activated by a task depends on theories of the function that a task engages. When there are multiple interpretations of that function, interpreting what an active brain region is doing is not clear cut. It is concluded that there is a need to more tightly connect brain activation to function, which could be achieved using formalized computational level models and a parametric variation approach. PMID:25774130

  11. The Institutional Paradigm of Human Capital Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolomiiets Viktoriia М.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The formation of the modern conception of human capital is connected with the development of post-industrial information society, knowledge economy and digital economy. The main role in analyzing of the content and role of human capital can play a new institutional economic theory. It is determined that the methodology of research of paradigm change in economic science remains the subject of discussion. The conception of institutional paradigm of human capital development can be attributed to the new economy, the development of which is carried out on the condition that the employee is not always alienated from the relationships of ownership: he himself becomes the owner of the «new» economic resources. The factors of education along with the factors of health care which are determining in the development of human capital are researched. Special attention is paid to education, as it acts as an intellectual capital of the new economy, where knowledge and skills become the «intellectual 5D printer», producing the modern human capital. The transition to a new, post-industrial economy is characterized by a major long-term tendency: the progress of knowledge and the increasing complexity of the socio-economic life; created by powerful factors of information and computer technologies and leading to expansion of global economic space.

  12. Passage of American shad: paradigms and realities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro, Alex; Castro-Santos, Theodore

    2012-01-01

    Despite more than 250 years of development, the passage of American shad Alosa sapidissima at dams and other barriers frequently remains problematic. Few improvements in design based on knowledge of the swimming, schooling, and migratory behaviors of American shad have been incorporated into passage structures. Large-scale technical fishways designed for the passage of adult salmonids on the Columbia River have been presumed to have good performance for American shad but have never been rigorously evaluated for this species. Similar but smaller fishway designs on the East Coast frequently have poor performance. Provision of effective downstream passage for both juvenile and postspawning adult American shad has been given little consideration in most passage projects. Ways to attract and guide American shad to both fishway entrances and downstream bypasses remain marginally understood. The historical development of passage structures for American shad has resulted in assumptions and paradigms about American shad behavior and passage that are frequently unsubstantiated by supporting data or appropriate experimentation. We propose that many of these assumptions and paradigms are either unfounded or invalid and that significant improvements to American shad upstream and downstream passage can be made via a sequential program of behavioral experimentation, application of experimental results to the physical and hydraulic design of new structures, and controlled tests of large-scale prototype structures in the laboratory and field.

  13. New paradigms of Game Theory from globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Esquivel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Games Theory constitutes a model by means every player tries to predict what they will make the other players in reply to his own actions, and to optimize the result of the above mentioned actions in his benefit knowing that the others are thinking to about the same form. The development of the theory supposed a boom after the World War II, which happened of analyzing exclusively competitive behaviors to considering situations with competitive and cooperative characteristics. Nevertheless, the advance of the humanity and the disappearance of both geopolitical blocks have eliminated the balance of power and have produced the emergence of a world the most based on the exclusive conquest of the power. This has originated the model change and dilemmas, happening from the most cooperative models (Prisoner’s Dilemma or from the models of the Cold War (Dilemma of the Gallina up to reaching the dilemmas of the Leader or of the Hero. This change of paradigm owes to the extension of the globalization, which originates an immeasurable loss of economic, social, political power, of human rights, which they have affected negatively to the poor people. In this paper is studied the change of paradigm caused by the consequences of the globalization and the geopolitical transformations in a monopolar world, analyzing the consequences on the basis of the Theory of Games.

  14. Tolerance of sexual harassment: a laboratory paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelone, David J; Mitchell, Damon; Carola, Kara

    2009-12-01

    The present study attempted to develop a laboratory analogue for the study of tolerance for sexual harassment by using an online speed-dating paradigm. In that context, the relation between participants' sexual harassment attitudes, perpetrator attractiveness, perpetrator status, and perceived dating potential of the perpetrator were examined as factors influencing participants' tolerance of sexually harassing behavior. Participants were 128 female college students from a small northeastern public university. Results indicated that attractiveness, high social status, and attitudinal beliefs about sexual harassment were all predictive of tolerance for sexual harassment, providing preliminary support for the validity of this paradigm. In addition, participants' self reported likelihood to date a bogus male dating candidate was also predictive of tolerance for sexual harassment, over and above the aforementioned variables, suggesting that dating potential can play a role in perceptions of sexual harassment. Further, this experiment demonstrated that perceptions of sexual harassment can be assessed using the in vivo measurement of behavior. In addition, using an online environment not only provides a contemporary spin and adds a greater degree of external validity compared to other sexual harassment analogues, it also reduces any risk of potential physical sexual contact for participants.

  15. Colloidal paradigm in supercapattery electrode systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kunfeng; Xue, Dongfeng

    2018-01-01

    Among decades of development, electrochemical energy storage systems are now sorely in need of a new design paradigm at the nano size and ion level to satisfy the higher energy and power demands. In this review paper, we introduce a new colloidal electrode paradigm for supercapattery that integrates multiple-scale forms of matter, i.e. ion clusters, colloidal ions, and nanosized materials, into one colloid system, coupled with multiple interactions, i.e. electrostatic, van der Waals forces, and chemical bonding, thus leading to the formation of many redox reactive centers. This colloidal electrode not only keeps the original ionic nature in colloidal materials, but also creates a new attribute of high electroactivity. Colloidal supercapattery is a perfect application example of the novel colloidal electrode, leading to higher specific capacitance than traditional electrode materials. The high electroactivity of the colloidal electrode mainly comes from the contribution of exposed reactive centers, owing to the confinement effect of carbon and a binder matrix. Systematic and thorough research on the colloidal system will significantly promote the development of fundamental science and the progress of advanced energy storage technology.

  16. Understanding emerging treatment paradigms in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breedveld, Ferdinand C; Combe, Bernard

    2011-05-25

    Treatment strategies for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) will continue to evolve as new drugs are developed, as new data become available, and as our potential to achieve greater and more consistent outcomes becomes more routine. Many patients will find both symptom relief and modest control of their disease with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), yet this course of therapy is clearly not effective in all patients. In fact, despite strong evidence that intensive treatment in the early stages of RA can slow or stop disease progression and may prevent disability, many patients continue to be managed in a stepwise manner and are treated with an ongoing monotherapy regimen with DMARDs. There is now a large body of evidence demonstrating the success of treating RA patients with anti-TNF therapy, usually in combination with methotrexate. As a result of the increased use of anti-TNF therapy, treatment paradigms have changed - and our practice is beginning to reflect this change. In the present review, we summarize the salient points of several recently proposed and emerging treatment paradigms with an emphasis on how these strategies may impact future practice.

  17. A new guiding paradigm for waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suter, Peter

    2003-01-01

    New situations call for a revision of strategies in the waste recycling and recovery sector. The guiding paradigm is that the evaluation and optimization of strategies ought to be integral, i.e. it ought to incorporate all steps from cradle to grave, all cost components and also to take into account all environmental aspects, as well as resource depletion. Furthermore, all variants of a comparison must have the same output and the same boundaries in space and time. Total cost (comprising also environmental damage and resource depletion) is proposed here as the evaluation function; environmental damage can be made operational by the DALY concept (Hofstetter P. Perspectives in life cycle impact assessment. Boston: Kluwer Academic, 1998) ('disability adjusted loss of life years') accounting for the years of life lost due to premature death, to illness or annoyance. The search for optimal strategies in the waste sector evidently requires the solution of a system with an enormous number of parameters; the method of genetic algorithms may represent a suitable solution paradigm, leading to the result in a reasonable computing time

  18. Tourism development and the degrowth paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriotis Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to look at alternatives to the classic models of development by exploring the paradigm of degrowth in a tourism context. Degrowth touted as an alternative to mainstream paradigms of development, aims to ensure a high quality of life for people in a society where work, production and consumption are reduced. As a weapon to the problems accrued by capitalism, degrowth reorients the current unsustainable and inequitable path through the transition to a smaller economy with less production and consumption. By arguing that natural limits to growth of many destinations have already been surpassed and their carrying capacity levels have been reached, degrowth proposes the abandonment of growth which promotes nothing other than a quest for profits on part of the owners of capital and results in disastrous implications for the environment and the humanity. As a philosophical concept and movement, degrowth is revolutionary and anticapitalist directed to sustainable change which results from an interest in locality and place, small and medium-sized enterprises, employment generation and reduction in working hours, ecology and quality of life, decommodification of tourism activity, carbon reduction in transport, changed pattern of production and consumption, and high priority in the travel experience.

  19. Special Feature: Epistemological Paradigms in Evaluation: Implications for Practice. Section 3: "Paradigm Complementarity" Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamis-Gould, Edna; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Three studies are presented, which illustrate situations in which researchers and funders agreed on the primacy of either the experimental or pragmatic paradigms but acknowledged a role for the other. The studies involved evaluations of mental health care, information systems, and a curriculum for behavioral and academic dysfunction. (SLD)

  20. دراسة أفعال اللغة الإنجليزية في اتصال الخطابات السياسية والدينية A Study of English Verbs of Communication in the Political and Religious Speeches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lect. Lihadh Abdul Ameer Mubarak لحاظ عبدالامير مبارك

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Communication is the main core of language as language is widely defined as a means of communication. Verbs of communication can help achieving communication by their own. The current study focuses on the verbs of communication showing its semantic features and types. It tries to find out the role of the verbs of communication in achieving communication in two linguistic discourses namely the political and the religious speeches. It also tries to find the similarities and differences between these two types of speeches in regard to the use of verbs of communication finding out whether both types of speeches use such verbs. Finally, if verbs of communication are used, the study tries to find out which types of verbs of communication are used in both political and religious speeches. The aim of the study is to describe the verbs of communication in English as used in political and religious speeches. There by, it is possible to make a comparison between these two different discourses in regard to the use of verbs of communication and to contrast them so as to find out the syntactic and semantic differences and similarities between the two discourses. To achieve aims of the study, the following procedures are followed: 1. Presenting a theoretical background about the notion of communication in general concentrating on the role of verbs of communication. 2. Finding out the role of verbs of communication in achieving communication and showing the syntactic and semantic features of verbs of communication in English. 3. Analyzing samples of political and religious speeches to correlate the syntactic and semantic features of verbs of communication used in these two discourses.