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Sample records for proteus mirabilis pseudomonas

  1. Antibiotics profiling of Proteus mirabilis and Pseudomonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Constant tracking of the antibiotic susceptibilities of these organisms at different region within each country is of great epidemiological value to formulate well informed and scientific based preventive measures to curtail the spread of drug resistant pathogens through the food chain. We screened 19 Proteus mirabilis and 35 ...

  2. [Proteus mirabilis septic arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbiti, Mohammed; Bouhamidi, Bahia; Louzi, Lhoussaine

    2017-01-01

    Acute septic arthritis is rare. It is associated with poor prognosis in terms of mortality and morbidity. We report the case of a 61-year old patient with spontaneous Proteus mirabilis septic arthritis. He suffered from complicated diabetes associated with positive blood cultures and synovial fluid cultures. Patient's evolution was favorable thanks to early diagnosis and initiation of adequate antibiotic therapy. Proteus mirabilis septic arthritis is rare. On that basis we conducted a literature review of cases of Proteus mirabilis pyogenic arthritis to highlight the risk factors, pathogenesis, treatment and evolution of these diseases. Diagnosis is commonly based on microbiological analysis, early articular puncture biopsy is performed before the initiation of antibiotic treatment, direct examination, culture and antibiogram which are useful as guidance for antibiotic therapy. Septic arthritis is a diagnostic and therapeutic emergency; early management of this disease allows total healing without after-effects.

  3. Arthrite septique à Proteus mirabilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbiti, Mohammed; Bouhamidi, Bahia; Louzi, Lhoussaine

    2017-01-01

    L'arthrite septique aigue est une pathologie peu fréquente mais grevée d'un pronostic lourd en termes de mortalité et morbidité. Nous rapportons un cas d'arthrite septique à Proteus mirabilis survenue de façon spontanée chez un patient de 61 ansprésentant un diabète compliqué,associée à des hémoculturespositives et des cultures positives du liquide articulaire. L'évolution était favorable grâce au diagnostic précoce et à l'institution d'une antibiothérapie adéquate. L'arthrite septique à Proteus Mirabilis est rare, ce qui nous a incité à revoir dans la littérature des séries d'arthrites à pyogènes incluant Proteus mirabilis portant sur les facteurs de risque, la pathogénie, le traitement et l'évolution de ces pathologies. Le diagnostic est avant tout microbiologique, la ponction articulaire précoce est réalisée avant toute antibiothérapie, l'examen direct, la culture et l'antibiogramme qui va guider le choix d'une antibiothérapie. L'arthrite septique est une urgence diagnostique et thérapeutique, la prise en charge précoce de cette pathologie permet une guérison sans séquelles. PMID:28674590

  4. Pathogenesis of Proteus mirabilis Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbruster, Chelsie E.; Mobley, Harry L. T.; Pearson, Melanie M.

    2017-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis, a Gram-negative rod-shaped bacterium most noted for its swarming motility and urease activity, frequently causes catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) that are often polymicrobial. These infections may be accompanied by urolithiasis, development of bladder or kidney stones due to alkalinization of urine from urease-catalyzed urea hydrolysis. Adherence of the bacterium to epithelial and catheter surfaces is mediated by 17 different fimbriae, most notably MR/P fimbriae. Repressors of motility are often encoded by these fimbrial operons. Motility is mediated by flagella encoded on a single contiguous 54 kb chromosomal sequence. On agar plates, P. mirabilis undergoes a morphological conversion to a filamentous swarmer cell expressing hundreds of flagella. When swarms from different strains meet, a line of demarcation, a “Dienes line”, develops due to the killing action of each strain’s type VI secretion system. During infection, histological damage is caused by cytotoxins including hemolysin and a variety of proteases, some autotransported. The pathogenesis of infection, including assessment of individual genes or global screens for virulence or fitness factors has been assessed in murine models of ascending UTI or CAUTI using both single-species and polymicrobial models. Global gene expression studies carried out in culture and in the murine model have revealed the unique metabolism of this bacterium. Vaccines, using MR/P fimbria and its adhesin, MrpH, have been shown to be efficacious in the murine model. A comprehensive review of factors associated with urinary tract infection is presented, encompassing both historical perspectives and current advances. PMID:29424333

  5. Anti-biofilm activity of biogenic selenium nanoparticles and selenium dioxide against clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus mirabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakibaie, Mojtaba; Forootanfar, Hamid; Golkari, Yaser; Mohammadi-Khorsand, Tayebe; Shakibaie, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-biofilm activity of biologically synthesized selenium nanoparticles (Se NPs) against the biofilm produced by clinically isolated bacterial strains compared to that of selenium dioxide. Thirty strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus mirabilis were isolated from various specimens of the patients hospitalized in different hospitals (Kerman, Iran). Quantification of the biofilm using microtiter plate assay method introduced 30% of S. aureus, 13% of P. aeruginosa and 17% of P. mirabilis isolates as severely adherent strains. Transmission electron micrograph (TEM) of the purified Se NPs (produced by Bacillus sp. MSh-1) showed individual and spherical nano-structure in the size range of 80-220nm. Obtained results of the biofilm formation revealed that selenium nanoparticles inhibited the biofilm of S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, and P. mirabilis by 42%, 34.3%, and 53.4%, respectively, compared to that of the non-treated samples. Effect of temperature and pH on the biofilm formation in the presence of Se NPs and SeO2 was also evaluated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterization of Proteus mirabilis isolates from broilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Proteus mirabilis is ubiquitous in the environment and is regarded as a part of the normal flora in human gastrointestinal tract. However, this bacterium is also an opportunistic human pathogen that causes urinary tract infections. Recently, this microorganism has been isolated from m...

  7. Spinal osteomyelitis caused by Proteus mirabilis in a child

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deWeerd, W; Kimpen, JLL; Miedema, CJ

    Osteomyelitis due to Proteus mirabilis is rare. Spinal osteomyelitis caused by this organism has only been described in adults. This is the first paediatric case of P. mirabilis vertebral osteomyelitis.

  8. The effect of sub-inhibitory concentrations of rifaximin on urease production and on other virulence factors expressed by Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Annalisa; Coppo, Erika; Barbieri, Ramona; Debbia, Eugenio A; Marchese, Anna

    2017-04-01

    Rifaximin, a topical derivative of rifampin, inhibited urease production and other virulence factors at sub-MIC concentrations in strains involved in hepatic encephalopathy and the expression of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. In particular, urease production was affected in all Proteus mirabilis and Klebsiella pneumoniae strains as well as in all tested Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates. Other exotoxins, synthesized by P. aeruginosa, such as protease, gelatinase, lipase, lecithinase and DNAse were also not metabolized in the presence of rifaximin. This antibiotic inhibited pigment production in both P. aeruginosa and Chromobacterium violaceum, a biosensor control strain. Lastly, rifaximin affected haemolysin production in S. aureus and was able to restore cefoxitin susceptibility when the strain was cultured in the presence of sub-MICs of the drug. The present findings confirm and extend previous observations about the beneficial effects of rifaximin for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases, since in this anatomic site, it reaches a large array of concentrations which prevents enterobacteria from thriving and/or producing their major virulence factors.

  9. DNA repair in proteus mirabilis. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofemeister, J.; Boehme, H.; Fleischhacker, M.; Adler, B.; Eitner, G.; Steinborn, G.

    1979-01-01

    Inducible cell lysis in UV-irradiated cultures of Proteus mirabilis PG VI rec + derivatives is due to the induction of a defective prophage dP VI. This lytic response is found to account for the extraordinary high UV sensitivity of P. mirabilis rec + strains. Lysis of cells after UV or mitomycin C treatment is accompanied by the release of various defective phage particles including head-tail, tail and polysheath structures. Survival of P. mirabilis is shown to be strongly affected by the plating procedure. It is supposed that plating of UV-irradiated rec + cells after a distinct time of growth in liquid medium some how enhances the efficiency of repair activities rather than to prevent inducible cell lysis in P. mirabilis from occurring. The resident defective prophage interferes with the multiplication of infectious temperate phages (π1) as indicated by the efficiency of plating and plaque size. The extent of host-controlled reactivation of UV-irradiated phages, however, was not influenced by the lysogenic state of the host bacteria. The derepression of the resident prophage is thought to correlate with the appearence after UV exposure of a distinct and relatively stable low molecular weight DNA which is assumed to originate from enzymatic fragmentation rather than postmortal nicking of chromosomal DNA in P. mirabilis. Mutants are described which lost the inducible cell lysis response and, in case of PG 1300- also lost the immunity for bacteriolytic activities formed by PG VI strains after lysogenic induction. Whilst this derivative of P. mirabilis might either be cured for the defective prophage or rendered noninducible by mutation this substrain lost also both the extrasensitivity against UV and the chromosomal DNA fragmentation. The extent of the UV-induced DNA degradation response seems not to be markedly affected by these DNA fragmentations. (author)

  10. Proteus mirabilis and Urinary Tract Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Jessica N.; Pearson, Melanie M.

    2015-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis is a Gram-negative bacterium which is well-known for its ability to robustly swarm across surfaces in a striking bulls’-eye pattern. Clinically, this organism is most frequently a pathogen of the urinary tract, particularly in patients undergoing long-term catheterization. This review covers P. mirabilis with a focus on urinary tract infections (UTI), including disease models, vaccine development efforts, and clinical perspectives. Flagella-mediated motility, both swimming and swarming, is a central facet of this organism. The regulation of this complex process and its contribution to virulence is discussed, along with the type VI-secretion system-dependent intra-strain competition which occurs during swarming. P. mirabilis uses a diverse set of virulence factors to access and colonize the host urinary tract, including urease and stone formation, fimbriae and other adhesins, iron and zinc acquisition, proteases and toxins, biofilm formation, and regulation of pathogenesis. While significant advances in this field have been made, challenges remain to combatting complicated UTI and deciphering P. mirabilis pathogenesis. PMID:26542036

  11. Proteus mirabilis and Urinary Tract Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Jessica N; Pearson, Melanie M

    2015-10-01

    Proteus mirabilis is a Gram-negative bacterium and is well known for its ability to robustly swarm across surfaces in a striking bulls'-eye pattern. Clinically, this organism is most frequently a pathogen of the urinary tract, particularly in patients undergoing long-term catheterization. This review covers P. mirabilis with a focus on urinary tract infections (UTI), including disease models, vaccine development efforts, and clinical perspectives. Flagella-mediated motility, both swimming and swarming, is a central facet of this organism. The regulation of this complex process and its contribution to virulence is discussed, along with the type VI-secretion system-dependent intra-strain competition, which occurs during swarming. P. mirabilis uses a diverse set of virulence factors to access and colonize the host urinary tract, including urease and stone formation, fimbriae and other adhesins, iron and zinc acquisition, proteases and toxins, biofilm formation, and regulation of pathogenesis. While significant advances in this field have been made, challenges remain to combatting complicated UTI and deciphering P. mirabilis pathogenesis.

  12. Proteus mirabilis and its role in dacryocystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgman, Christopher J

    2014-09-01

    Dacryocystitis is a common inflammation of the lacrimal sac, usually from an underlying bacterial infection. Most cases can be attributed to common ocular flora such as Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus pneumoniae; however, uncommon bacterial causes such as Proteus mirabilis can still occur. P. mirabilis is a gram-negative bacillus that is found abundantly in people who have undergone long-term catheterization and is uncommonly found in or around the eyes except in people who have undergone long-term catheterization. Proteus species can cause conjunctivitis, canaliculitis, and dacryocystitis and have the ability to manifest into preseptal cellulitis; therefore, timely recognition and treatment are important to prevent potential further complications. An 84-year-old white man had several recurrences of acute dacryocystitis that had marginal improvement with empiric antibiotic treatment. Resultant culture of the ocular discharge revealed an uncommon bacterium, P. mirabilis. Successful dosing of oral antibiotics resolved the infection but ultimately the patient required an external dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) procedure to maintain patency of the nasolacrimal lacrimal system and prevent recurrence. At 3 months after external DCR, the patient was symptom free with no recurrences. Dacryocystitis has a distinctive clinical presentation and is usually easily treated when appropriate oral antibiotics are directed at the underlying pathogen. In nonresponsive cases, culturing of the ocular discharge should be performed to identify the underlying pathogen. Cases of dacryocystitis caused by Proteus species are usually responsive to several standard antibiotics used orally in eye care; however, culturing and susceptibility testing can streamline the diagnostic and management sequence considerably in unclear or unresponsive cases. Typically, patients with dacryocystitis return to normal after appropriate treatment, but chronic recurrences and epiphora are potential sequelae

  13. Collective motion in Proteus mirabilis swarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haoran, Xu

    Proteus mirabilisis a Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium. It is widely distributed in soil and water, and it is well known for exhibiting swarming motility on nutrient agar surfaces. In our study, we focused on the collective motility of P. mirabilis and uncovered a range of interesting phenomena. Here we will present our efforts to understand these phenomena through experiments and simulation. Mailing address: Room 306 Science Centre North Block, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T. Hong Kong SAR. Phone: +852-3943-6354. Fax: +852-2603-5204. E-mail:xhrphx@gmail.com.

  14. [Etiological and molecular characteristics of diarrhea caused Proteus mirabilis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaolu; Hu, Qinghua; Lin, Yiman; Qiu, Yaqun; Li, Yinghui; Jiang, Min; Chen, Qiongcheng

    2014-06-01

    To analyze the etiological characteristics, virulence genes and plasmids that carrying diarrhea-causing Proteus mirabilis and to assess their relationship with drug resistance and pathogenicity. Proteus mirabilis coming from six different sources (food poisoning, external environment and healthy people) were analyzed biochemically, on related susceptibility and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Virulence genes were detected by PCR. Plasmids were extracted and sequenced after gel electrophoresis purification. The biochemical characteristics of Proteus mirabilis from different sources seemed basically the same, and each of them showed having common virulence genes, as ureC, rsmA, hpmA and zapA. However, the PFGE patterns and susceptibility of these strains were different, so as the plasmids that they carried. Plasmid that presented in the sequenced strain showed that the 2 683 bp length plasmid encodes qnrD gene was associated with the quinolone resistance. Etiological characteristics and molecular characteristics of Proteus mirabilis gathered from different sources, were analyzed. Results indicated that traditional biochemical analysis and common virulence gene identification might be able to distinguish the strains with different sources. However, PFGE and plasmids analysis could distinguish the sources of strains and to identify those plasmids that commonly carried by the drug-resistant strains. These findings also provided theoretical basis for further study on the nature of resistance and pathogenicity in Proteus mirabilis.

  15. Nano Polyamidoamine-G7 (NPAMAM-G7 Dendrimer Synthesis and Assessment the Effect of its antibacterial on Escherichia Coli, Klebsiella Oxytoca, Pseudomonas Aeruginosa , Proteus Mirabilis and Staphylococcus Aureus from aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mitra Gholami

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nano scale dendrimers are macromolecules synthetic which frequently used in medical and health field. This study was aimed to examine synthesis and the antibacterial effect of NanoPolyamidoamine-G7 (NPAMAM-G7 dendrimer on Escherichia Coli, Klebsiella Oxytoca, Pseudomonas Aeruginosa , Proteus Mirabilis and Staphylococcus Aureus from aqueous solution. Material and methods: In this experimental study, initially dilution of 103 CFU/ml were prepared from each strain of bacteria. Then different concentrations of dendrimer (0.025, 0.25, 2.5 and 25 µg/ml in the laboratory temperature (23-25 °C was added to water. In order to determine the efficiency of dendrimers in removal of bacteria, samples were taken at different times (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 min and were cultured on nutrient agar medium. Samples were incubated for 24 hours at 37 °C and then number of colonies were counted. Results: Antibacterial properties of dendrimers in aqueous solution by increasing the dendrimer concentration and contact time is directly related. At a concentration of 25 μg/ml at 60 minutes all bacteria except Staphylococcus Aureus, and at 30 minutes, Escherichia Coli and Klebsiella Oxytoca bacteria for 100% excluded. The concentration of 2.5 μg/ml at 60 minutes of bacteria, Escherichia Coli, Klebsiella Oxytoca and Proteus Mirabilis are 100% excluded. All concentrations of dendrimers at different times were reduced bacteria in the PAMAM- G7 dendrimer effect on gram-negative bacteria, gram-positive bacteria was better. Conclusion: The NPAMAM-G7 dendrimer with end amine groups exhibited a positive impact on the removal of standard strains, gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Therefore, it is possible to use these nanodendrimers as antibacterial in the future.

  16. Mathematical Modeling the Geometric Regularity in Proteus Mirabilis Colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Jiang, Yi; Minsu Kim Collaboration

    Proteus Mirabilis colony exhibits striking spatiotemporal regularity, with concentric ring patterns with alternative high and low bacteria density in space, and periodicity for repetition process of growth and swarm in time. We present a simple mathematical model to explain the spatiotemporal regularity of P. Mirabilis colonies. We study a one-dimensional system. Using a reaction-diffusion model with thresholds in cell density and nutrient concentration, we recreated periodic growth and spread patterns, suggesting that the nutrient constraint and cell density regulation might be sufficient to explain the spatiotemporal periodicity in P. Mirabilis colonies. We further verify this result using a cell based model.

  17. The Dienes phenomenon: competition and territoriality in Swarming Proteus mirabilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budding, A. E.; Ingham, C. J.; Bitter, W.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C. M.; Schneeberger, P. M.

    2009-01-01

    When two different strains of swarming Proteus mirabilis encounter one another on an agar plate, swarming ceases and a visible line of demarcation forms. This boundary region is known as the Dienes line and is associated with the formation of rounded cells. While the Dienes line appears to be the

  18. Urinary Tract Infection Caused by a Capnophilic Proteus mirabilis Strain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trapman, M.; Ingen, J. van; Keijman, J.; Swanink, C.M.A.

    2015-01-01

    From a urine sample from a patient with a urinary tract infection, a carbon dioxide-dependent Proteus mirabilis strain was isolated. It is important to perform urine cultures in 5% carbon dioxide and an anaerobic atmosphere if bacteria prominent in Gram stains do not grow on routine media in ambient

  19. Proteus mirabilis interkingdom swarming signals attract blow flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flies transport specific bacteria with their larvae which provides a wider range of nutrients for those bacteria. Our hypothesis was that this symbiotic interaction may depend on interkingdom signaling. We obtained Proteus mirabilis from the salivary glands of the blow fly Lucilia sericat. This s...

  20. Proteus mirabilis RMS 203 as a new representative of the O13 Proteus serogroup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palusiak, Agata; Siwińska, Małgorzata; Zabłotni, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    The unique feature of some Proteus O-polysaccharides is occurrence of an amide of galacturonic acid with N(ε)-[(S/R)-1-Carboxyethyl]-L-lysine, GalA6(2S,8S/R-AlaLys). The results of the serological studies presented here, with reference to known O-antigens structures suggest that GalA6(2S,8S/R-AlaLys) or 2S,8R-AlaLys contribute to cross-reactions of O13 Proteus antisera, and Proteeae LPSs. It was also revealed that the Proteus mirabilis RMS 203 strain can be classified into the O13 serogroup, represented so far by two strains: Proteus mirabilis 26/57 and Proteus vulgaris 8344. The O13 LPS is a serologically important antigen with a fragment common to LPSs of different species in the Proteeae tribe.

  1. DNA repair in Proteus mirabilis. Pt. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmeister, J.; Koehler, H.; Filippov, V.D.

    1979-01-01

    After UV-exposure R46 adds functions to P. mirabilis comparable to those deficient in umuC and uvm mutants of E. coli P. mirabilis possesses functions homologous to those controlled in E. coli by the recA + and lexA + genes. The significance of plasmid-mediated rescue and mutagenic functions for bacteria which lack the misrepair branch of mutagenesis is discussed. (orig./AJ) 891 AJ/orig.- 892 AMO [de

  2. Neonatal Meningoventriculitis Due to Proteus Mirabilis – A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juyal, Deepak; Rathaur, Vyas Kumar; Sharma, Neelam

    2013-01-01

    A five day old full term born baby was admitted to our Neonatal Intensive Care Unit with seizures, opisthotonous posture and was icteric upto thigh. Baby had a three day history of poor feeding, lethargy and abnormal body movements. Mother was a 29 years old primigravida and had a normal vaginal delivery at home. Sepsis profile of the patient was requested, lumbar puncture and ventricular tap was performed. Patient was put on third generation cephalosporins, aminoglycosides and phenobarbitone. Culture and sensitivity report of blood, Cerebro spinal fluid and ventricular fluid showed Proteus mirabilis. Computerized Tomography scan showed a large parenchymal lesion in the right frontal lobe and diffuse ependymal enhancement along both the lateral ventricles suggestive of meningoventriculitis. We hereby present a fatal case of neonatal meningoventriculitis due to Proteus mirabilis. PMID:23543669

  3. Merging mythology and morphology: the multifaceted lifestyle of Proteus mirabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbruster, Chelsie E; Mobley, Harry L T

    2012-11-01

    Proteus mirabilis, named for the Greek god who changed shape to avoid capture, has fascinated microbiologists for more than a century with its unique swarming differentiation, Dienes line formation and potent urease activity. Transcriptome profiling during both host infection and swarming motility, coupled with the availability of the complete genome sequence for P. mirabilis, has revealed the occurrence of interbacterial competition and killing through a type VI secretion system, and the reciprocal regulation of adhesion and motility, as well as the intimate connections between metabolism, swarming and virulence. This Review addresses some of the unique and recently described aspects of P. mirabilis biology and pathogenesis, and emphasizes the potential role of this bacterium in single-species and polymicrobial urinary tract infections.

  4. Merging mythology and morphology: the multifaceted lifestyle of Proteus mirabilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbruster, Chelsie E.; Mobley, Harry L. T.

    2013-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis, named for the Greek god who changed shape to avoid capture, has fascinated microbiologists for more than a century with its unique swarming differentiation, Dienes line formation and potent urease activity. Transcriptome profiling during both host infection and swarming motility, coupled with the availability of the complete genome sequence for P. mirabilis, has revealed the occurrence of interbacterial competition and killing through a type VI secretion system, and the reciprocal regulation of adhesion and motility, as well as the intimate connections between metabolism, swarming and virulence. This Review addresses some of the unique and recently described aspects of P. mirabilis biology and pathogenesis, and emphasizes the potential role of this bacterium in single- species and polymicrobial urinary tract infections. PMID:23042564

  5. Comparative Screening of Digestion Tract Toxic Genes in Proteus mirabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaolu; Lin, Yiman; Qiu, Yaqun; Li, Yinghui; Jiang, Min; Chen, Qiongcheng; Jiang, Yixiang; Yuan, Jianhui; Cao, Hong; Hu, Qinghua; Huang, Shenghe

    2016-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis is a common urinary tract pathogen, and may induce various inflammation symptoms. Its notorious ability to resist multiple antibiotics and to form urinary tract stones makes its treatment a long and painful process, which is further challenged by the frequent horizontal gene transferring events in P. mirabilis genomes. Three strains of P. mirabilis C02011/C04010/C04013 were isolated from a local outbreak of a food poisoning event in Shenzhen, China. Our hypothesis is that new genes may have been acquired horizontally to exert the digestion tract infection and toxicity. The functional characterization of these three genomes shows that each of them independently acquired dozens of virulent genes horizontally from the other microbial genomes. The representative strain C02011 induces the symptoms of both vomit and diarrhea, and has recently acquired a complete type IV secretion system and digestion tract toxic genes from the other bacteria.

  6. DNA repair in proteus mirabilis. Pt. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofemeister, J.

    1977-01-01

    Post-irradiation DNA degradation in P. mirabilis rec + strains after UV irradiation is found to be more extensive in starvation buffer than in growth medium. In growth medium restriction of protein synthesis, but not DNA synthesis, largely prevents the expression of 'breakdown limitation'. By the addition of chloramphenicol during post-irradiation incubation in growth medium the expression of breakdown limitation was followed and found to occur 20 to 40 min after UV irradiation. Pre-irradiation by a low dose of UV leads after a corresponding time of post-irradiation incubation to breakdown limitation even in starvation buffer after a second UV exposure. Post-irradiation DNA degradation is presumed to be initiated at the sites of DNA lesions which arise at replication points damaged by UV. While pre-starvation restricts the efficiency of postirradiation DNA degradation by the reduction of the number of replication points active at the time of irradiation, caffeine as well as 2.4-dinitrophenol inhibit DNA degradation even in rec - cells probably by the interference with nicking or exonucleoltytic events initiated at those sites in the absence of breakdown limitation. Breakdown limitation is postulated to be due to inducible derepression of REC-functions which lead to the protection and, probably, repair of DNA lesions arising at the replication points following UV exposure. (orig.) [de

  7. Fimbriae have distinguishable roles in Proteus mirabilis biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scavone, Paola; Iribarnegaray, Victoria; Caetano, Ana Laura; Schlapp, Geraldine; Härtel, Steffen; Zunino, Pablo

    2016-07-01

    Proteus mirabilis is one of the most common etiological agents of complicated urinary tract infections, especially those associated with catheterization. This is related to the ability of P. mirabilis to form biofilms on different surfaces. This pathogen encodes 17 putative fimbrial operons, the highest number found in any sequenced bacterial species so far. The present study analyzed the role of four P. mirabilis fimbriae (MR/P, UCA, ATF and PMF) in biofilm formation using isogenic mutants. Experimental approaches included migration over catheter, swimming and swarming motility, the semiquantitative assay based on adhesion and crystal violet staining, and biofilm development by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. Different assays were performed using LB or artificial urine. Results indicated that the different fimbriae contribute to the formation of a stable and functional biofilm. Fimbriae revealed particular associated roles. First, all the mutants showed a significantly reduced ability to migrate across urinary catheter sections but neither swimming nor swarming motility were affected. However, some mutants formed smaller biofilms compared with the wild type (MRP and ATF) while others formed significantly larger biofilms (UCA and PMF) showing different bioarchitecture features. It can be concluded that P. mirabilis fimbriae have distinguishable roles in the generation of biofilms, particularly in association with catheters. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Detection of bla KPC-2 in Proteus mirabilis in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriane Borges Cabral

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Infections caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC-producing isolates pose a major worldwide public health problem today. METHODS : A carbapenem-resistant Proteus mirabilis clinical isolate was investigated for plasmid profiles and the occurrence of β-lactamase genes. RESULTS : The isolate exhibited resistance to ertapenem and imipenem and was susceptible to meropenem, polymyxin, and tigecycline. Five plasmids were identified in this isolate. DNA sequencing analysis revealed the presence of bla KPC-2 and bla TEM-1 genes. An additional PCR using plasmid DNA confirmed that bla KPC-2 was present in one of these plasmids. Conclusions: We report the detection of bla KPC-2 in P. mirabilis in Brazil for the first time. This finding highlights the continuous transfer of bla KPC between bacterial genera, which presents a serious challenge to the prevention of infection by multidrug-resistant bacteria.

  9. Morphological Diversity of the Colony Produced by Bacteria Proteus mirabilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Akio; Shimada, Yuji; Wakita, Jun-ichi; Matsushita, Mitsugu; Matsuyama, Tohey

    1996-08-01

    Morphological changes of colonies have been investigatedfor a bacterial strain of Proteus mirabilis, which is a famous speciesfor producing concentric-ring-like colonies. It was found that colony patterns can be classified into three types,i.e., cyclic spreading, diffusion-limited growth (DLA-like)and three-dimensional growth (inside the agar medium) patterns. Cyclic spreading patterns can further be classifiedinto three subgroups, i.e., concentric-ring, homogeneous and spatiotemporal patterns. These subgroups were classified by examining the development of colony structure after colonies spread all over petri-dishes. Comparison of the results with thoseof another bacterial species Bacillus subtilis is also discussed.

  10. New aspects of RpoE in uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming-Che; Kuo, Kuan-Ting; Chien, Hsiung-Fei; Tsai, Yi-Lin; Liaw, Shwu-Jen

    2015-03-01

    Proteus mirabilis is a common human pathogen causing recurrent or persistent urinary tract infections (UTIs). The underlying mechanisms for P. mirabilis to establish UTIs are not fully elucidated. In this study, we showed that loss of the sigma factor E (RpoE), mediating extracytoplasmic stress responses, decreased fimbria expression, survival in macrophages, cell invasion, and colonization in mice but increased the interleukin-8 (IL-8) expression of urothelial cells and swarming motility. This is the first study to demonstrate that RpoE modulated expression of MR/P fimbriae by regulating mrpI, a gene encoding a recombinase controlling the orientation of MR/P fimbria promoter. By real-time reverse transcription-PCR, we found that the IL-8 mRNA amount of urothelial cells was induced significantly by lipopolysaccharides extracted from rpoE mutant but not from the wild type. These RpoE-associated virulence factors should be coordinately expressed to enhance the fitness of P. mirabilis in the host, including the avoidance of immune attacks. Accordingly, rpoE mutant-infected mice displayed more immune cell infiltration in bladders and kidneys during early stages of infection, and the rpoE mutant had a dramatically impaired ability of colonization. Moreover, it is noteworthy that urea (the major component in urine) and polymyxin B (a cationic antimicrobial peptide) can induce expression of rpoE by the reporter assay, suggesting that RpoE might be activated in the urinary tract. Altogether, our results indicate that RpoE is important in sensing environmental cues of the urinary tract and subsequently triggering the expression of virulence factors, which are associated with the fitness of P. mirabilis, to build up a UTI. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. The Pathogenic Potential of Proteus mirabilis Is Enhanced by Other Uropathogens during Polymicrobial Urinary Tract Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbruster, Chelsie E; Smith, Sara N; Johnson, Alexandra O; DeOrnellas, Valerie; Eaton, Kathryn A; Yep, Alejandra; Mody, Lona; Wu, Weisheng; Mobley, Harry L T

    2017-02-01

    Urinary catheter use is prevalent in health care settings, and polymicrobial colonization by urease-positive organisms, such as Proteus mirabilis and Providencia stuartii, commonly occurs with long-term catheterization. We previously demonstrated that coinfection with P. mirabilis and P. stuartii increased overall urease activity in vitro and disease severity in a model of urinary tract infection (UTI). In this study, we expanded these findings to a murine model of catheter-associated UTI (CAUTI), delineated the contribution of enhanced urease activity to coinfection pathogenesis, and screened for enhanced urease activity with other common CAUTI pathogens. In the UTI model, mice coinfected with the two species exhibited higher urine pH values, urolithiasis, bacteremia, and more pronounced tissue damage and inflammation compared to the findings for mice infected with a single species, despite having a similar bacterial burden within the urinary tract. The presence of P. stuartii, regardless of urease production by this organism, was sufficient to enhance P. mirabilis urease activity and increase disease severity, and enhanced urease activity was the predominant factor driving tissue damage and the dissemination of both organisms to the bloodstream during coinfection. These findings were largely recapitulated in the CAUTI model. Other uropathogens also enhanced P. mirabilis urease activity in vitro, including recent clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa We therefore conclude that the underlying mechanism of enhanced urease activity may represent a widespread target for limiting the detrimental consequences of polymicrobial catheter colonization, particularly by P. mirabilis and other urease-positive bacteria. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  12. Pathological and therapeutic significance of cellular invasion by Proteus mirabilis in an enterocystoplasty infection stone model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.B. Mathoera (Rejiv); D.J. Kok (Dirk); C.M. Verduin (Cees); R.J.M. Nijman (Rien)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractProteus mirabilis infection often leads to stone formation. We evaluated how bacterium-mucin adhesion, invasion, and intracellular crystal formation are related to antibiotic sensitivity and may cause frequent stone formation in enterocystoplasties. Five intestinal

  13. Title: High-level cefotaxime-resistant Proteus mirabilis strain isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    oaca

    High-level cefotaxime-resistant Proteus mirabilis strain isolated from a Tunisian .... UV- visible) at 37°C. Specific activity is calculated on depending of. Ross and ..... Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing;. Seventeenth ...

  14. Proteus mirabilis viability after lithotripsy of struvite calculi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabakharan, Sabitha; Teichman, Joel M. H.; Spore, Scott S.; Sabanegh, Edmund; Glickman, Randolph D.; McLean, Robert J. C.

    2000-05-01

    Urinary calculi composed of struvite harbor urease-producing bacteria within the stone. The photothermal mechanism of holmium:YAG lithotripsy is uniquely different than other lithotripsy devices. We postulated that bacterial viability of struvite calculi would be less for calculi fragmented with holmium:YAG irradiation compared to other lithotripsy devices. Human calculi of known struvite composition (greater than 90% magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate) were incubated with Proteus mirabilis. Calculi were fragmented with no lithotripsy (controls), or shock wave, intracorporeal ultrasonic, electrohydraulic, pneumatic, holmium:YAG or pulsed dye laser lithotripsy. After lithotripsy, stone fragments were sonicated and specimens were serially plated for 48 hours at 38 C. Bacterial counts and the rate of bacterial sterilization were compared. Median bacterial counts (colony forming units per ml) were 8 X 106 in controls and 3 X 106 in shock wave, 3 X 107 in ultrasonic, 4 X 105 in electrohydraulic, 8 X 106 in pneumatic, 5 X 104 in holmium:YAG and 1 X 106 in pulsed dye laser lithotripsy, p less than 0.001. The rate of bacterial sterilization was 50% for holmium:YAG lithotripsy treated stones versus 0% for each of the other cohorts, p less than 0.01. P. mirabilis viability is less after holmium:YAG irradiation compared to other lithotripsy devices.

  15. Antimicrobial activity Study of triclosan-loaded WBPU on Proteus mirabilis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ye; Jian, Zhongyu; Wang, Jianzhong; He, Wei; Liu, Qinyu; Wang, Kunjie; Li, Hong; Tan, Hong

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the antimicrobial activity study of triclosan-loaded waterborne polyurethanes (WBPU) on Proteus mirabilis in vitro. Inhibition zone assays on petri plates with triclosan-loaded WBPU samples were used to test its antimicrobial activity on Proteus mirabilis. Models of the catheterized bladder supplied with artificial urine infected with Proteus mirabilis were employed to confirm the antimicrobial activity of triclosan-loaded WBPU. Bacteria colony counting, pH of the residual urine at each time point and catheter blockage time were recorded. Confocal laser scanning microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and encrustation deposits dry weighing were used for evaluating the biofilm formation. Inhibition zones formed in the triclosan-loaded WBPU groups in a dose-response manner (the radius for samples with 1, 0.1 and 0.01 mg triclosan were 9.93 ± 1.08, 6.07 ± 0.54 and 2.47 ± 0.25 mm, P Proteus mirabilis biofilm formation (33.9 ± 13.9 mg vs. 1.4 ± 1.5 mg, P = 0.016). Triclosan-loaded WBPU significantly inhibited Proteus mirabilis' growth and biofilm formation, indicating the promising antibacterial effects on Proteus mirabilis in vitro. Further efforts are under way that involves coating the material onto the urinary catheters and in vivo studies.

  16. Flagellum Density Regulates Proteus mirabilis Swarmer Cell Motility in Viscous Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Tuson, Hannah H.; Copeland, Matthew F.; Carey, Sonia; Sacotte, Ryan; Weibel, Douglas B.

    2013-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis is an opportunistic pathogen that is frequently associated with urinary tract infections. In the lab, P. mirabilis cells become long and multinucleate and increase their number of flagella as they colonize agar surfaces during swarming. Swarming has been implicated in pathogenesis; however, it is unclear how energetically costly changes in P. mirabilis cell morphology translate into an advantage for adapting to environmental changes. We investigated two morphological changes...

  17. Proteus vulgaris and Proteus mirabilis Decrease Candida albicans Biofilm Formation by Suppressing Morphological Transition to Its Hyphal Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyoung Ho; Park, Su Jung; Choi, Sun Ju; Park, Joo Young

    2017-11-01

    Candida albicans (C. albicans) and Proteus species are causative agents in a variety of opportunistic nosocomial infections, and their ability to form biofilms is known to be a virulence factor. In this study, the influence of co-cultivation with Proteus vulgaris (P. vulgaris) and Proteus mirabilis (P. mirabilis) on C. albicans biofilm formation and its underlying mechanisms were examined. XTT reduction assays were adopted to measure biofilm formation, and viable colony counts were performed to quantify yeast growth. Real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was used to evaluate the expression of yeast-specific genes (rhd1 and rbe1), filament formation inhibiting genes (tup1 and nrg1), and hyphae-related genes (als3, ece1, hwp1, and sap5). Candida biofilm formation was markedly inhibited by treatment with either living or heat-killed P. vulgaris and P. mirabilis. Proteus-cultured supernatant also inhibited Candida biofilm formation. Likewise, treatment with live P. vulgaris or P. mirabilis or with Proteus-cultured supernatant decreased expression of hyphae-related C. albicans genes, while the expression of yeast-specific genes and the filament formation inhibiting genes of C. albicans were increased. Heat-killed P. vulgaris and P. mirabilis treatment, however, did not affect the expression of C. albicans morphology-related genes. These results suggest that secretory products from P. vulgaris and P. mirabilis regulate the expression of genes related to morphologic changes in C. albicans such that transition from the yeast form to the hyphal form can be inhibited. © Copyright: Yonsei University College of Medicine 2017

  18. Theory of periodic swarming of bacteria: Application to Proteus mirabilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czirók, A.; Matsushita, M.; Vicsek, T.

    2001-03-01

    The periodic swarming of bacteria is one of the simplest examples for pattern formation produced by the self-organized collective behavior of a large number of organisms. In the spectacular colonies of Proteus mirabilis (the most common species exhibiting this type of growth), a series of concentric rings are developed as the bacteria multiply and swarm following a scenario that periodically repeats itself. We have developed a theoretical description for this process in order to obtain a deeper insight into some of the typical processes governing the phenomena in systems of many interacting living units. Our approach is based on simple assumptions directly related to the latest experimental observations on colony formation under various conditions. The corresponding one-dimensional model consists of two coupled differential equations investigated here both by numerical integrations and by analyzing the various expressions obtained from these equations using a few natural assumptions about the parameters of the model. We determine the phase diagram corresponding to systems exhibiting periodic swarming, and discuss in detail how the various stages of the colony development can be interpreted in our framework. We point out that all of our theoretical results are in excellent agreement with the complete set of available observations. Thus the present study represents one of the few examples where self-organized biological pattern formation is understood within a relatively simple theoretical approach, leading to results and predictions fully compatible with experiments.

  19. Effects of ceftazidime and ciprofloxacin on biofilm formation in Proteus mirabilis rods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiecińska-Piróg, Joanna; Bogiel, Tomasz; Gospodarek, Eugenia

    2013-10-01

    Proteus mirabilis rods are one of the most commonly isolated species of the Proteus genus from human infections, mainly those from the urinary tract and wounds. They are often related to biofilm structure formation. The bacterial cells of the biofilm are less susceptible to routinely used antimicrobials, making the treatment more difficult. The aim of this study was to evaluate quantitatively the influence of ceftazidime and ciprofloxacin on biofilm formation on the polyvinyl chloride surface by 42 P. mirabilis strains isolated from urine, purulence, wound swab and bedsore samples. It has been shown that ceftazidime and ciprofloxacin at concentrations equal to 1/4, 1/2 and 1 times their MIC values for particular Proteus spp. strains decrease their ability to form biofilms. Moreover, ciprofloxacin at concentrations equal to 1/4, 1/2 and 1 times their MIC values for particular P. mirabilis strains reduces biofilm formation more efficiently than ceftazidime at the corresponding concentration values.

  20. Analysis of pathogenic factors of Proteus mirabilis isolated from urinary tract infection

    OpenAIRE

    室谷,勝久

    1991-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis has several pathogenic factors such as adherent ability to urinary tract epitherial cells, urease, motility and resistance to urine. The pathogenic activities of clinically isolated P. mirabilis were analyzed. Higher pathogenic strains (No. 25 and No. 30) which had morphologically different pili but had a higher density of pili showed strong adherent activity to bladder epithelial cells of mouse and rat. These strains also showed a clear chemotaxis to urinary tract tissue ex...

  1. Greek rheumatoid arthritis patients have elevated levels of antibodies against antigens from Proteus mirabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopoulos, Georgios; Christopoulou, V; Routsias, J G; Babionitakis, A; Antoniadis, C; Vaiopoulos, G

    2017-03-01

    Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) from different ethnic groups present elevated levels of antibodies against Proteus mirabilis. This finding implicates P. mirabilis in the development of RA. The aim of this study was to investigate the importance of P. mirabilis in the etiopathogenesis of RA in Greek RA patients. In this study, 63 patients with RA and 38 healthy controls were included. Class-specific antibodies IgM, IgG, and IgA against three human cross-reactive and non-cross-reactive synthetic peptides from P. mirabilis-hemolysin (HpmB), urease C (UreC), and urease F (UreF)-were performed in all subjects, using the ELISA method. RA patients had elevated levels of IgM, IgG, and IgA antibodies against HpmB and UreC Proteus peptide which are significantly different compared to healthy controls: p = 0.005, p Proteus peptide-which are non-cross-reactive with human tissue antigens-were observed and their significant difference compared to healthy controls (p = 0.007, p mirabilis antigenic epitopes, such as in North European populations, albeit Greek RA patients presenting the cross-reaction antigen in a low percentage. These results indicate that P. mirabilis through the molecular mimicry mechanism leads to inflammation and damage of the joints in RA.

  2. An Unusual Cause of Infective Endocarditis: Proteus mirabilis Bacteremia from an Infected Pressure Ulcer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Hao Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Proteus species is a common cause of urinary tract and wound infections in humans. We herein present the case of a 71-year-old male who had fever, a new-onset heart murmur, bacteremia, and a vegetation over his native aortic valve in echocardiography. This rare case demonstrated that infective endocarditis could be caused by Proteus mirabilis from an infected pressure ulcer.

  3. Observation of multicellular spinning behavior of Proteus mirabilis by atomic force microscopy and multifunctional microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanxia; Deng, Yuanxin; Luo, Shuxiu; Deng, Yu; Guo, Linming; Xu, Weiwei; Liu, Lei; Liu, Junkang

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to observe the multicellular spinning behavior of Proteus mirabilis by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and multifunctional microscopy in order to understand the mechanism underlying this spinning movement and its biological significance. Multifunctional microscopy with charge-coupled device (CCD) and real-time AFM showed changes in cell structure and shape of P. mirabilis during multicellular spinning movement. Specifically, the morphological characteristics of P. mirabilis, multicellular spinning dynamics, and unique movement were observed. Our findings indicate that the multicellular spinning behavior of P. mirabilis may be used to collect nutrients, perform colonization, and squeeze out competitors. The movement characteristics of P. mirabilis are vital to the organism's biological adaptability to the surrounding environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A novel functional class 2 integron in clinical Proteus mirabilis isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Quhao; Hu, Qingfeng; Li, Shanshan; Lu, Huoyang; Chen, Guoqiang; Shen, Beiqiong; Zhang, Ping; Zhou, Yonglie

    2014-04-01

    To describe a novel functional class 2 integron that was found in clinical Proteus mirabilis isolates. Class 1 and 2 integrons were screened by PCR in 153 clinical Proteus isolates. The variable regions of class 1 and 2 integrons were determined by restriction analysis and sequencing. The mutations of internal stop codons in class 2 integrons and their common promoters were also determined by sequencing. Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR was used to analyse the phylogenetic relations of class 2 integron-positive P. mirabilis isolates. Class 1 integrons were detected in 96 (63%) of 153 Proteus isolates: eight different gene cassette arrays were detected, including dfrA32-ereA1-aadA2, which was detected for the first time in P. mirabilis. Class 2 integrons were detected in 101 (66%) of 153 Proteus isolates: four different gene cassette arrays were detected, including dfrA1-catB2-sat2-aadA1, which was detected for the first time in a class 2 integron. A novel functional class 2 integron was detected in 38 P. mirabilis isolates with a common promoter (-35 TTTAAT|16 bp|-10 TAAAGT). The variable region of this functional class 2 integron contained dfrA14 and three novel open reading frames with unknown functions. Very similar ERIC-PCR fingerprinting patterns were detected in these 38 P. mirabilis isolates and were different from other class 2 integron-positive isolates. A novel functional class 2 integron was found for the first time in P. mirabilis. These functional class 2 integron-harbouring P. mirabilis isolates were likely to be clonally spread in our hospital.

  5. The functional localization of cytochromes b in the respiratory chain of anaerobically grown Proteus mirabilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Wielink, J E; Reijnders, W N; Van Spanning, R J; Oltmann, L F; Stouthamer, A.H.

    1986-01-01

    The functional localization of the cytochromes b found in anaerobically grown Proteus mirabilis was investigated. From light absorption spectra, scanned during uninhibited and HQNO-inhibited electron transport to various electron acceptors, it was concluded that all cytochromes b function between

  6. Genome sequence of a Proteus mirabilis strain isolated from the salivary glands of larval Lucilia sericata

    Science.gov (United States)

    We announced a draft genome sequence of a Proteus mirabilis strain derived from Lucilia sericata salivary glands. This strain is demonstrated to attract and induce oviposition by L. sericata, a common blow fly important to medicine, agriculture, and forensics. The genome will help to dissect inter...

  7. Comparison of antibiotic resistance patterns in collections of Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis uropathogenic strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamus-Bialek, Wioletta; Zajac, Elzbieta; Parniewski, Pawel; Kaca, Wieslaw

    2013-04-01

    Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis are important urinary tract pathogens. The constant increase in the antibiotic resistance of clinical bacterial strains has become an important clinical problem. The aim of this study was to compare the antibiotic resistance of 141 clinical (Sweden and Poland) and 42 laboratory (Czech Republic) P. mirabilis strains and 129 clinical (Poland) uropathogenic E. coli strains. The proportion of unique versus diverse patterns in Swedish clinical and laboratory P. mirabilis strain collections was comparable. Notably, a similar proportion of unique versus diverse patterns was observed in Polish clinical P. mirabilis and E. coli strain collections. Mathematical models of the antibiotic resistance of E. coli and P. mirabilis strains based on Kohonen networks and association analysis are presented. In contrast to the three clinical strain collections, which revealed complex associations with the antibiotics tested, laboratory P. mirabilis strains provided simple antibiotic association diagrams. The monitoring of antibiotic resistance patterns of clinical E. coli and P. mirabilis strains plays an important role in the treatment procedures for urinary tract infections and is important in the context of the spreading drug resistance in uropathogenic strain populations. The adaptability and flexibility of the genomes of E. coli and P. mirabilis strains are discussed.

  8. In silico maturation of binding-specificity of DNA aptamers against Proteus mirabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savory, Nasa; Lednor, Danielle; Tsukakoshi, Kaori; Abe, Koichi; Yoshida, Wataru; Ferri, Stefano; Jones, Brian V; Ikebukuro, Kazunori

    2013-10-01

    Proteus mirabilis is a prominent cause of catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) among patients undergoing long-term bladder catheterization. There are currently no effective means of preventing P. mirabilis infections, and strategies for prophylaxis and rapid early diagnosis are urgently required. Aptamers offer significant potential for development of countermeasures against P. mirabilis CAUTI and are an ideal class of molecules for the development of diagnostics and therapeutics. Here we demonstrate the application of Cell-SELEX to identify DNA aptamers that show high affinity for P. mirabilis. While the aptamers identified displayed high affinity for P. mirabilis cells in dot blotting assays, they also bound to other uropathogenic bacteria. To improve aptamer specificity for P. mirabilis, an in silico maturation (ISM) approach was employed. Two cycles of ISM allowed the identification of an aptamer showing 36% higher specificity, evaluated as a ratio of binding signal for P. mirabilis to that for Escherichia coli (also a cause of CAUTI and the most common urinary tract pathogen). Aptamers that specifically recognize P. mirabilis would have diagnostic and therapeutic values and constitute useful tools for studying membrane-associated proteins in this organism. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Molecular Analysis, Biochemical Characterization, Antimicrobial Activity, and Immunological Analysis of Proteus mirabilis Isolated from Broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Hung-Yueh; Line, John E; Hinton, Arthur

    2018-03-01

    Proteus mirabilis, a Gram-negative bacterium, is ubiquitous in the environment and is considered as the normal microflora in the human gastrointestinal tract. However, this bacterium is an opportunistic pathogen in humans, often causing urinary tract infections. Moreover, Proteus has been frequently isolated from food animals, including poultry. Whether this bacterium contributes to the foodborne illness in humans is unclear. In this report, P. mirabilis isolates recovered from broilers during housing in the units were characterized, their antimicrobial activity was assayed, and broiler immune response to the soluble proteins was determined. Cecal contents and fecal droppings were treated according to the standard protocol for isolation. Speciation based on biochemical reactions and the antimicrobial activity of the isolates were carried out using commercial kits. Immunoblot was assayed to determine immune status of broilers against P. mirabilis. A total of 10 isolates of P. mirabilis were selected for further characterization. These isolates could grow in pH 6.0 and 1% NaCl conditions. They were resistant to sodium lactate, troleandomycin, rifamycin SV, vancomycin, but sensitive to nalidixic acid, cefotaxime and novobiocin. Moreover, the CTX, ACC, CMY-1, BIC, NDM, VEB, qnrB and qnrD genes were detected by PCR amplification in all isolates. Sera from broilers harboring this bacterium reacted to the P. mirabilis soluble proteins, but not from litter- and age-matched P. mirabilis negative and SPF chickens, indicating that this bacterium infected chickens that could have humoral immune response against P. mirabilis. This study provides a rationale for further monitoring P. mirabilis during poultry production to determine whether this bacterium poses potential threats to public health. Published 2018. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  10. Involvement of polyphosphate kinase in virulence and stress tolerance of uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Liang; Jiang, Qiao; Pan, Jia-Yun; Deng, Cong; Yu, Jing-Yi; Wu, Xiao-Man; Huang, Sheng-He; Deng, Xiao-Yan

    2016-04-01

    Proteus mirabilis (P. mirabilis), a gram-negative enteric bacterium, frequently causes urinary tract infections. Many virulence factors of uropathogenic P. mirabilis have been identified, including urease, flagella, hemolysin and fimbriae. However, the functions of polyphosphate kinase (PPK), which are related to the pathogenicity of many bacteria, remain entirely unknown in P. mirabilis. In this study, a ppk gene encoding the PPK insertional mutant in P. mirabilis strain HI4320 was constructed, and its biological functions were examined. The results of survival studies demonstrated that the ppk mutant was deficient in resistance to oxidative, hyperosmotic and heat stress. The swarming and biofilm formation abilities of P. mirabilis were also attenuated after the ppk interruption. In vitro and in vivo experiments suggested that ppk was required for P. mirabilis to invade the bladder. The negative phenotypes of the ppk mutant could be restored by ppk gene complementation. Furthermore, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to analyze the proteomes of the wild-type strain and the ppk mutant. Compared with the wild-type strain, seven proteins including TonB-dependent receptor, universal stress protein G, major mannose-resistant/Proteus-like fimbrial protein (MR/P fimbriae), heat shock protein, flagellar capping protein, putative membrane protein and multidrug efflux protein were down-regulated, and four proteins including exported peptidase, repressor protein for FtsI, FKBP-type peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase and phosphotransferase were up-regulated in the ppk mutant. As a whole, these results indicate that PPK is an important regulator and plays a crucial role in stress tolerance and virulence in uropathogenic P. mirabilis.

  11. Proteus mirabilis inhibits cancer growth and pulmonary metastasis in a mouse breast cancer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Diao, Hongxiu; Jia, Lixin; Yuan, Yujing; Thamm, Douglas H; Wang, Huanan; Jin, Yipeng; Pei, Shimin; Zhou, Bin; Yu, Fang; Zhao, Linna; Cheng, Nan; Du, Hongchao; Huang, Ying; Zhang, Di; Lin, Degui

    2017-01-01

    A variety of bacteria have been used as agents and vectors for antineoplastic therapy. A series of mechanisms, including native bacterial toxicity, sensitization of the immune system and competition for nutrients, may contribute to antitumor effects. However, the antitumor effects of Proteus species have been minimally studied, and it is not clear if bacteria can alter tumor hypoxia as a component of their antineoplastic effect. In the present study, Proteus mirabilis bacteria were evaluated for the ability to proliferate and accumulate in murine tumors after intravenous injection. To further investigate the efficacy and safety of bacterial injection, mice bearing 4T1 tumors were treated with an intravenous dose of 5×107 CFU Proteus mirabilis bacteria via the tail vein weekly for three treatments. Histopathology, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and western analysis were then performed on excised tumors. The results suggested Proteus mirabilis localized preferentially to tumor tissues and remarkably suppressed the growth of primary breast cancer and pulmonary metastasis in murine 4T1 models. Results showed that the expression of NKp46 and CD11c was significantly increased after bacteria treatment. Furthermore, tumor expression of carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) and hypoxia inducible factor-1a (HIF-1a), surrogates for hypoxia, was significantly lower in the treated group than the control group mice as assessed by IHC and western analysis. These findings demonstrated that Proteus mirabilis may a promising bacterial strain for used against primary tumor growth and pulmonary metastasis, and the immune system and reduction of tumor hypoxia may contribute to the antineoplastic and antimetastatic effects observed.

  12. Proteus mirabilis inhibits cancer growth and pulmonary metastasis in a mouse breast cancer model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhang

    Full Text Available A variety of bacteria have been used as agents and vectors for antineoplastic therapy. A series of mechanisms, including native bacterial toxicity, sensitization of the immune system and competition for nutrients, may contribute to antitumor effects. However, the antitumor effects of Proteus species have been minimally studied, and it is not clear if bacteria can alter tumor hypoxia as a component of their antineoplastic effect. In the present study, Proteus mirabilis bacteria were evaluated for the ability to proliferate and accumulate in murine tumors after intravenous injection. To further investigate the efficacy and safety of bacterial injection, mice bearing 4T1 tumors were treated with an intravenous dose of 5×107 CFU Proteus mirabilis bacteria via the tail vein weekly for three treatments. Histopathology, immunohistochemistry (IHC and western analysis were then performed on excised tumors. The results suggested Proteus mirabilis localized preferentially to tumor tissues and remarkably suppressed the growth of primary breast cancer and pulmonary metastasis in murine 4T1 models. Results showed that the expression of NKp46 and CD11c was significantly increased after bacteria treatment. Furthermore, tumor expression of carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX and hypoxia inducible factor-1a (HIF-1a, surrogates for hypoxia, was significantly lower in the treated group than the control group mice as assessed by IHC and western analysis. These findings demonstrated that Proteus mirabilis may a promising bacterial strain for used against primary tumor growth and pulmonary metastasis, and the immune system and reduction of tumor hypoxia may contribute to the antineoplastic and antimetastatic effects observed.

  13. Loss of FliL alters Proteus mirabilis surface sensing and temperature-dependent swarming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yi-Ying; Belas, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis is a dimorphic motile bacterium well known for its flagellum-dependent swarming motility over surfaces. In liquid, P. mirabilis cells are 1.5- to 2.0-μm swimmer cells with 4 to 6 flagella. When P. mirabilis encounters a solid surface, where flagellar rotation is limited, swimmer cells differentiate into elongated (10- to 80-μm), highly flagellated swarmer cells. In order for P. mirabilis to swarm, it first needs to detect a surface. The ubiquitous but functionally enigmatic flagellar basal body protein FliL is involved in P. mirabilis surface sensing. Previous studies have suggested that FliL is essential for swarming through its involvement in viscosity-dependent monitoring of flagellar rotation. In this study, we constructed and characterized ΔfliL mutants of P. mirabilis and Escherichia coli. Unexpectedly and unlike other fliL mutants, both P. mirabilis and E. coli ΔfliL cells swarm (Swr(+)). Further analysis revealed that P. mirabilis ΔfliL cells also exhibit an alteration in their ability to sense a surface: e.g., ΔfliL P. mirabilis cells swarm precociously over surfaces with low viscosity that normally impede wild-type swarming. Precocious swarming is due to an increase in the number of elongated swarmer cells in the population. Loss of fliL also results in an inhibition of swarming at <30°C. E. coli ΔfliL cells also exhibit temperature-sensitive swarming. These results suggest an involvement of FliL in the energetics and function of the flagellar motor. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy as a Tool in Analysis of Proteus mirabilis Endotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żarnowiec, Paulina; Czerwonka, Grzegorz; Kaca, Wiesław

    2017-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was used to scan whole bacterial cells as well as lipopolysaccharides (LPSs, endotoxins) isolated from them. Proteus mirabilis cells, with chemically defined LPSs, served as a model for the ATR FT-IR method. The paper focuses on three steps of infrared spectroscopy: (1) sample preparation, (2) IR scanning, and (3) multivariate analysis of IR data (principal component analysis, PCA).

  15. Case report 496: Intraosseous gas in Proteus mirabilis osteomyelitis complicating bone infarcts in sickle cell disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marx, A.C.; Hartshorne, M.F.; Stull, M.A.; Truwit, C.L.

    1988-01-01

    Plain film radiographs showed dramatic changes of this rare complication of sickle cell disease in an adult patient, eventually resulting in bilateral amputations of the lower extremities. Cross table radiographs of the knees showed the air-fluid levels without soft tissue swelling or periosteal reaction. The balance of the studies performed confirmed and refined the initial impression that infarction and infection had occurred within the medullary spaces of four long bones. The offending organism was Proteus mirabilis. (orig.)

  16. IMP-27, a Unique Metallo-β-Lactamase Identified in Geographically Distinct Isolates of Proteus mirabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Nyssa; Fowler, Randal C; Yoshizumi, A; Horiyama, Tsukasa; Ishii, Y; Harrison, Lucas; Geyer, Chelsie N; Moland, Ellen Smith; Thomson, Kenneth; Hanson, Nancy D

    2016-10-01

    A novel metallo-β-lactamase gene, blaIMP-27, was identified in unrelated Proteus mirabilis isolates from two geographically distinct locations in the United States. Both isolates harbor blaIMP-27 as part of the first gene cassette in a class 2 integron. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing indicated susceptibility to aztreonam, piperacillin-tazobactam, and ceftazidime but resistance to ertapenem. However, hydrolysis assays indicated that ceftazidime was a substrate for IMP-27. Copyright © 2016 Dixon et al.

  17. Case report 496: Intraosseous gas in Proteus mirabilis osteomyelitis complicating bone infarcts in sickle cell disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marx, A.C.; Hartshorne, M.F.; Stull, M.A.; Truwit, C.L.

    1988-10-01

    Plain film radiographs showed dramatic changes of this rare complication of sickle cell disease in an adult patient, eventually resulting in bilateral amputations of the lower extremities. Cross table radiographs of the knees showed the air-fluid levels without soft tissue swelling or periosteal reaction. The balance of the studies performed confirmed and refined the initial impression that infarction and infection had occurred within the medullary spaces of four long bones. The offending organism was Proteus mirabilis.

  18. From Catheter to Kidney Stone: The Uropathogenic Lifestyle of Proteus mirabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norsworthy, Allison N; Pearson, Melanie M

    2017-04-01

    Proteus mirabilis is a model organism for urease-producing uropathogens. These diverse bacteria cause infection stones in the urinary tract and form crystalline biofilms on indwelling urinary catheters, frequently leading to polymicrobial infection. Recent work has elucidated how P. mirabilis causes all of these disease states. Particularly exciting is the discovery that this bacterium forms large clusters in the bladder lumen that are sites for stone formation. These clusters, and other steps of infection, require two virulence factors in particular: urease and MR/P fimbriae. Highlighting the importance of MR/P fimbriae is the cotranscribed regulator, MrpJ, which globally controls virulence. Overall, P. mirabilis exhibits an extraordinary lifestyle, and further probing will answer exciting basic microbiological and clinically relevant questions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Necrotizing suppurative nephritis in a Japanese black feedlot steer due to Proteus mirabilis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Tadatsugu; Iizuka, Ayako; Kojima, Hirokazu; Kimura, Kumiko; Shibahara, Tomoyuki; Haritani, Makoto

    2017-04-05

    A Japanese black feedlot steer suddenly died after exhibiting astasia and cramping of the extremities. Necropsy of the animal revealed that the right kidney was enlarged and pale with severe nephrolithiasis. The urinary bladder displayed mucosal hemorrhage. Upon bacteriological investigation, Proteus mirabilis was isolated from the liver, spleen, right kidney, lungs and urine. Histopathological examination revealed necrotizing suppurative nephritis with the presence of numerous gram-negative bacilli and fibrinous suppurative cystitis with no bacilli. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the bacteria and cytoplasm of the macrophages stained positively with P. mirabilis antiserum. Electron microscopy revealed the presence of numerous bacteria in the renal tubules. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the histopathological aspects of nephritis caused by P. mirabilis in cattle.

  20. Development of a Phage Cocktail to Control Proteus mirabilis Catheter-associated Urinary Tract Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Luís D. R.; Veiga, Patrícia; Cerca, Nuno; Kropinski, Andrew M.; Almeida, Carina; Azeredo, Joana; Sillankorva, Sanna

    2016-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis is an enterobacterium that causes catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) due to its ability to colonize and form crystalline biofilms on the catheters surface. CAUTIs are very difficult to treat, since biofilm structures are highly tolerant to antibiotics. Phages have been used widely to control a diversity of bacterial species, however, a limited number of phages for P. mirabilis have been isolated and studied. Here we report the isolation of two novel virulent phages, the podovirus vB_PmiP_5460 and the myovirus vB_PmiM_5461, which are able to target, respectively, 16 of the 26 and all the Proteus strains tested in this study. Both phages have been characterized thoroughly and sequencing data revealed no traces of genes associated with lysogeny. To further evaluate the phages’ ability to prevent catheter’s colonization by Proteus, the phages adherence to silicone surfaces was assessed. Further tests in phage-coated catheters using a dynamic biofilm model simulating CAUTIs, have shown a significant reduction of P. mirabilis biofilm formation up to 168 h of catheterization. These results highlight the potential usefulness of the two isolated phages for the prevention of surface colonization by this bacterium. PMID:27446059

  1. Anaerobic choline metabolism in microcompartments promotes growth and swarming of Proteus mirabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameson, Eleanor; Fu, Tiantian; Brown, Ian R; Paszkiewicz, Konrad; Purdy, Kevin J; Frank, Stefanie; Chen, Yin

    2016-09-01

    Gammaproteobacteria are important gut microbes but only persist at low levels in the healthy gut. The ecology of Gammaproteobacteria in the gut environment is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that choline is an important growth substrate for representatives of Gammaproteobacteria. Using Proteus mirabilis as a model, we investigate the role of choline metabolism and demonstrate that the cutC gene, encoding a choline-trimethylamine lyase, is essential for choline degradation to trimethylamine by targeted mutagenesis of cutC and subsequent complementation experiments. Proteus mirabilis can rapidly utilize choline to enhance growth rate and cell yield in broth culture. Importantly, choline also enhances swarming-associated colony expansion of P. mirabilis under anaerobic conditions on a solid surface. Comparative transcriptomics demonstrated that choline not only induces choline-trimethylamine lyase but also genes encoding shell proteins for the formation of bacterial microcompartments. Subsequent analyses by transmission electron microscopy confirmed the presence of such novel microcompartments in cells cultivated in liquid broth and hyper-flagellated swarmer cells from solid medium. Together, our study reveals choline metabolism as an adaptation strategy for P. mirabilis and contributes to better understand the ecology of this bacterium in health and disease. © 2015 The Authors. Environmental Microbiology published by Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Molecular detection of HpmA and HlyA hemolysin of uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cestari, Silvia Emanoele; Ludovico, Marilucia Santos; Martins, Fernando Henrique; da Rocha, Sérgio Paulo Dejato; Elias, Waldir Pereira; Pelayo, Jacinta Sanchez

    2013-12-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the bacterial infections frequently documented in humans. Proteus mirabilis is associated with UTI mainly in individuals with urinary tract abnormality or related with vesicular catheterism and it can be difficult to treat because of the formation of stones in the bladder and kidneys. These stones are formed due to the presence of urease synthesized by the bacteria. Another important factor is that P. mirabilis produces hemolysin HpmA, used by the bacteria to damage the kidney tissues. Proteus spp. samples can also express HlyA hemolysin, similar to that found in Escherichia coli. A total of 211 uropathogenic P. mirabilis isolates were analyzed to detect the presence of the hpmA and hpmB genes by the techniques of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and dot blot and hlyA by PCR. The hpmA and hpmB genes were expressed by the RT-PCR technique and two P. mirabilis isolates were sequenced for the hpmA and hpmB genes. The presence of the hpmA and hpmB genes was confirmed by PCR in 205 (97.15 %) of the 211 isolates. The dot blot confirmed the presence of the hpmA and hpmB genes in the isolates that did not amplify in the PCR. None of the isolates studied presented the hlyA gene. The hpmA and hpmB genes that were sequenced presented 98 % identity with the same genes of the HI4320 P. mirabilis sample. This study showed that the PCR technique has good sensitivity for detecting the hpmA and hpmB genes of P. mirabilis.

  3. Role of DAF-21protein in Caenorhabditis elegans immunity against Proteus mirabilis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    JebaMercy, Gnanasekaran; Durai, Sellegounder; Prithika, Udayakumar; Marudhupandiyan, Shanmugam; Dasauni, Pushpanjali; Kundu, Suman; Balamurugan, Krishnaswamy

    2016-08-11

    Caenorhabditis elegans is emerging as one of the handy model for proteome related studies due to its simplest system biology. The present study, deals with changes in protein expression in C. elegans infected with Proteus mirabilis. Proteins were separated using two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and identified using MALDI-TOF. Twelve distinctly regulated proteins identified in the infected worms, included heat shock proteins involved stress pathway (HSP-1 and HSP-6), proteins involved in immune response pathway (DAF-21), enzymes involved in normal cellular process (Eukaryotic translation Elongation Factor, actin family member, S-adenosyl homocysteine hydrolase ortholog, glutamate dehydrogenase and Vacuolar H ATPase family member) and few least characterized proteins (H28O16.1 and H08J11.2). The regulation of selected players at the transcriptional level during Proteus mirabilis infection was analyzed using qPCR. Physiological experiments revealed the ability of P. mirabilis to kill daf-21 mutant C. elegans significantly compared with the wild type. This is the first report studying proteome changes in C. elegans and exploring the involvement of MAP Kinase pathway during P. mirabilis infection. This is the first report studying proteome changes in C. elegans during P. mirabilis infection. The present study explores the role and contribution of MAP Kinase pathway and its regulator protein DAF-21 involvement in the immunity against opportunistic pathogen P. mirabilis infection. Manipulation of this DAF-21 protein in host, may pave the way for new drug development or disease control strategy during opportunistic pathogen infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of phenotypic and virulence genes characteristics in human and chicken isolates of Proteus mirabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Elie K; Hajj, Zahi G; Hamadeh, Shadi; Shaib, Houssam A; Farran, Mohamad T; Araj, George; Faroon, Obaid; Barbour, Kamil E; Jirjis, Faris; Azhar, Esam; Kumosani, Taha; Harakeh, Steve

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this work is to compare the phenotypic and virulence genes characteristics in human and chicken isolates of Proteus mirabilis. The bacterial examination of 50 livers of individual broilers, marketed by four major outlets, revealed a high recovery of P. mirabilis (66%), and a low recovery frequency of Salmonella spp. (4%), Serratia odorifera (2%), Citrobacter brakii (2%), and Providencia stuartii (2%). The phenotypic biochemical characterization of the recovered 33 chicken isolates of P. mirabilis were compared to 30 human isolates (23 urinary and six respiratory isolates). The comparison revealed significant differences in the presence of gelatinase enzyme (100% presence in chicken isolates versus 91.3 and 83.3% presence in human urinary and respiratory isolates, respectively, P,0.05). The H(2)S production occurred in 100% of chicken isolates versus 95.6 and 66.7% presence in human urinary and respiratory isolates, respectively, P,0.05). The other 17 biochemical characteristics did not differ significantly among the three groups of isolates (P.0.05). Two virulence genes, the mrpA and FliL, were having a typical 100% presence in randomly selected isolates of P. mirabilis recovered from chicken livers (N510) versus isolates recovered from urinary (N55) and respiratory specimens of humans (N55) (P.0.05). The average percentage similarity of mrpA gene nucleotide sequence of poultry isolates to human urinary and respiratory isolates was 93.2 and 97.5-%, respectively. The high similarity in phenotypic characteristics, associated with typical frequency of presence of two virulence genes, and high similarity in sequences of mrpA gene among poultry versus human P. mirabilis isolates justifies future investigations targeting the evaluation of adaptable pathogenicity of avian Proteus mirabilis isolates to mammalian hosts.

  5. The assessment of Proteus mirabilis susceptibility to ceftazidime and ciprofloxacin and the impact of these antibiotics at subinhibitory concentrations on Proteus mirabilis biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiecińska-Piróg, Joanna; Skowron, Krzysztof; Zniszczol, Katarzyna; Gospodarek, Eugenia

    2013-01-01

    Rods of the Proteus genus are commonly isolated from patients, especially from the urinary tracts of the catheterised patients. The infections associated with biomaterials are crucial therapeutic obstacles, due to the bactericidal resistance of the biofilm. The aim of this study was to assess the susceptibility of P. mirabilis planktonic forms to ciprofloxacin and ceftazidime, the ability to form biofilm, and the impact of chosen sub-MIC concentrations of these antibiotics on biofilm at different stages of its formation. The research included 50 P. mirabilis strains isolated from wounds and the urinary tracts from patients of the University Hospital No. 1 in Bydgoszcz. The assessment of susceptibility to ciprofloxacin and ceftazidime was conducted using micromethods. The impact of sub-MIC concentrations of the chosen antibiotics on the biofilm was measured using the TTC method. The resistance to ciprofloxacin was confirmed for 20 strains (40.0%) while to ceftazidime for 32 (64.0%) of the tested P. mirabilis strains. All of the tested strains formed biofilm: 24.0% weakly, 26.0% moderately, and 50.0% strongly. It was determined that ciprofloxacin and ceftazidime caused eradication of the biofilm. Moreover, the connection between origin of the strains, biofilm maturity level, and resistance to antibiotics was proved.

  6. The Assessment of Proteus mirabilis Susceptibility to Ceftazidime and Ciprofloxacin and the Impact of These Antibiotics at Subinhibitory Concentrations on Proteus mirabilis Biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiecińska-Piróg, Joanna; Zniszczol, Katarzyna; Gospodarek, Eugenia

    2013-01-01

    Rods of the Proteus genus are commonly isolated from patients, especially from the urinary tracts of the catheterised patients. The infections associated with biomaterials are crucial therapeutic obstacles, due to the bactericidal resistance of the biofilm. The aim of this study was to assess the susceptibility of P. mirabilis planktonic forms to ciprofloxacin and ceftazidime, the ability to form biofilm, and the impact of chosen sub-MIC concentrations of these antibiotics on biofilm at different stages of its formation. The research included 50 P. mirabilis strains isolated from wounds and the urinary tracts from patients of the University Hospital No. 1 in Bydgoszcz. The assessment of susceptibility to ciprofloxacin and ceftazidime was conducted using micromethods. The impact of sub-MIC concentrations of the chosen antibiotics on the biofilm was measured using the TTC method. The resistance to ciprofloxacin was confirmed for 20 strains (40.0%) while to ceftazidime for 32 (64.0%) of the tested P. mirabilis strains. All of the tested strains formed biofilm: 24.0% weakly, 26.0% moderately, and 50.0% strongly. It was determined that ciprofloxacin and ceftazidime caused eradication of the biofilm. Moreover, the connection between origin of the strains, biofilm maturity level, and resistance to antibiotics was proved. PMID:24151628

  7. Environmental scanning electron microscopy analysis of Proteus mirabilis biofilms grown on chitin and stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Delgado, Milagro; Duque, Zoilabet; Rojas, Héctor; Suárez, Paula; Contreras, Monica; García-Amado, María A; Alciaturi, Carlos

    Proteus mirabilis is a human pathogen able to form biofilms on the surface of urinary catheters. Little is known about P. mirabilis biofilms on natural or industrial surfaces and the potential consequences for these settings. The main aim of this work was to assess and compare the adhesion and biofilm formation of P. mirabilis strains from different origins on chitin and stainless steel surfaces within 4 to 96 h. Using environmental scanning electron microscopy, the biofilms of a clinical strain grown on chitin at 4 h showed greater adhesion, aggregation, thickness, and extracellular matrix production than those grown on stainless steel, whereas biofilms of an environmental strain had less aggregation on both surfaces. Biofilms of both P. mirabilis strains developed different structures on chitin, such as pillars, mushrooms, channels, and crystalline-like precipitates between 24 and 96 h, in contrast with flat-layer biofilms produced on stainless steel. Significant differences ( p  biofilm formation. This represents the first study of P. mirabilis showing adhesion, biofilm formation, and development of different structures on surfaces found outside the human host.

  8. Proteus mirabilis biofilm - qualitative and quantitative colorimetric methods-based evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiecinska-Piróg, Joanna; Bogiel, Tomasz; Skowron, Krzysztof; Wieckowska, Ewa; Gospodarek, Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis strains ability to form biofilm is a current topic of a number of research worldwide. In this study the biofilm formation of P. mirabilis strains derived from urine of the catheterized and non-catheterized patients has been investigated. A total number of 39 P. mirabilis strains isolated from the urine samples of the patients of dr Antoni Jurasz University Hospital No. 1 in Bydgoszcz clinics between 2011 and 2012 was used. Biofilm formation was evaluated using two independent quantitative and qualitative methods with TTC (2,3,5-triphenyl-tetrazolium chloride) and CV (crystal violet) application. The obtained results confirmed biofilm formation by all the examined strains, except quantitative method with TTC, in which 7.7% of the strains did not have this ability. It was shown that P. mirabilis rods have the ability to form biofilm on the surfaces of both biomaterials applied, polystyrene and polyvinyl chloride (Nelaton catheters). The differences in ability to form biofilm observed between P. mirabilis strains derived from the urine of the catheterized and non-catheterized patients were not statistically significant.

  9. Allicin from garlic inhibits the biofilm formation and urease activity of Proteus mirabilis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar-Omid, Mahsa; Arzanlou, Mohsen; Amani, Mojtaba; Shokri Al-Hashem, Seyyedeh Khadijeh; Amir Mozafari, Nour; Peeri Doghaheh, Hadi

    2015-05-01

    Several virulence factors contribute to the pathogenesis of Proteus mirabilis. This study determined the inhibitory effects of allicin on urease, hemolysin and biofilm of P. mirabilis ATCC 12453 and its antimicrobial activity against 20 clinical isolates of P. mirabilis. Allicin did not inhibit hemolysin, whereas it did inhibit relative urease activity in both pre-lysed (half-maximum inhibitory concentration, IC50 = 4.15 μg) and intact cells (IC50 = 21 μg) in a concentration-dependent manner. Allicin at sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (2-32 μg mL(-1)) showed no significant effects on the growth of the bacteria (P > 0.05), but it reduced biofilm development in a concentration-dependent manner (P mirabilis isolates were determined to be 128 and 512 μg mL(-1), respectively. The results suggest that allicin could have clinical applications in controlling P. mirabilis infections. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Proteus mirabilis biofilm - Qualitative and quantitative colorimetric methods-based evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kwiecinska-Piróg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Proteus mirabilis strains ability to form biofilm is a current topic of a number of research worldwide. In this study the biofilm formation of P. mirabilis strains derived from urine of the catheterized and non-catheterized patients has been investigated. A total number of 39 P. mirabilis strains isolated from the urine samples of the patients of dr Antoni Jurasz University Hospital No. 1 in Bydgoszcz clinics between 2011 and 2012 was used. Biofilm formation was evaluated using two independent quantitative and qualitative methods with TTC (2,3,5-triphenyl-tetrazolium chloride and CV (crystal violet application. The obtained results confirmed biofilm formation by all the examined strains, except quantitative method with TTC, in which 7.7% of the strains did not have this ability. It was shown that P. mirabilis rods have the ability to form biofilm on the surfaces of both biomaterials applied, polystyrene and polyvinyl chloride (Nelaton catheters. The differences in ability to form biofilm observed between P. mirabilis strains derived from the urine of the catheterized and non-catheterized patients were not statistically significant.

  11. Flagellum density regulates Proteus mirabilis swarmer cell motility in viscous environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuson, Hannah H; Copeland, Matthew F; Carey, Sonia; Sacotte, Ryan; Weibel, Douglas B

    2013-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis is an opportunistic pathogen that is frequently associated with urinary tract infections. In the lab, P. mirabilis cells become long and multinucleate and increase their number of flagella as they colonize agar surfaces during swarming. Swarming has been implicated in pathogenesis; however, it is unclear how energetically costly changes in P. mirabilis cell morphology translate into an advantage for adapting to environmental changes. We investigated two morphological changes that occur during swarming--increases in cell length and flagellum density--and discovered that an increase in the surface density of flagella enabled cells to translate rapidly through fluids of increasing viscosity; in contrast, cell length had a small effect on motility. We found that swarm cells had a surface density of flagella that was ∼5 times larger than that of vegetative cells and were motile in fluids with a viscosity that inhibits vegetative cell motility. To test the relationship between flagellum density and velocity, we overexpressed FlhD(4)C(2), the master regulator of the flagellar operon, in vegetative cells of P. mirabilis and found that increased flagellum density produced an increase in cell velocity. Our results establish a relationship between P. mirabilis flagellum density and cell motility in viscous environments that may be relevant to its adaptation during the infection of mammalian urinary tracts and movement in contact with indwelling catheters.

  12. Regional outbreak of CTX-M-2 β-lactamase-producing Proteus mirabilis in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Ryuichi; Nakano, Akiyo; Abe, Michiko; Inoue, Matsuhisa; Okamoto, Ryoichi

    2012-12-01

    Proteus mirabilis is a common cause of urinary tract infection. Wild-type P. mirabilis strains are usually susceptible to penicillins and cephalosporins, but occurrences of P. mirabilis producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) have been recently reported. Here, we surveyed the prevalence of cefotaxime resistance among P. mirabilis strains at seven different hospitals in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan, and investigated their molecular epidemiology to explain the mechanism of their spread. The prevalence of cefotaxime resistance among P. mirabilis increased annually, from 10.1 % in 1998 to 23.1 % in 2003, and increased drastically in 2004, exceeding 40 %. We collected 105 consecutive and non-duplicate cefotaxime-resistant P. mirabilis isolates (MIC 16 to >256 µg ml(-1)) from these hospitals from June 2004 to May 2005 and characterized their profile. PCR and sequence analysis revealed that all resistant strains produced exclusively CTX-M-2 β-lactamase. PFGE analysis identified 47 banding patterns with 83 % or greater similarity. These results indicated that a regional outbreak of P. mirabilis producing CTX-M-2 β-lactamase has occurred in Japan and suggest that the epidemic spread occurred within and across hospitals and communities by extended clonal strains. Plasmid analysis revealed that 44.8 % of plasmids harboured by bla(CTX-M-2) isolates had common profiles, encoding ISEcp1, IS26 and Int1, and belonged to incompatibility group T. Spread of the resistant isolates in Japan resulted from dissemination of narrow-host-range plasmids of the IncT group encoding bla(CTX-M-2). These findings indicate the rapidly developing problem of treating the species to prevent dissemination of ESBL producers.

  13. Optimization of a pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for molecular typing of Proteus mirabilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Karagöz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: For the detection of outbreaks caused byProteus mirabilis, strains clonal relations are determinedmethods as “pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE”.The aim of this study was optimization of a pulsed-fieldgel electrophoresis for molecular typing of P. mirabilis.Methods: In this study, PFGE’ protocol is optimized foruse in molecular typing of P. mirabilis. Phylogenetic analyzesof strains were evaluated with Bionumerics softwaresystem (version 6.01; Applied Maths, Sint-Martens-Latem, Belgium.Results: This protocol compared with Gram-negativebacteria PFGE protocols, NotI enzyme is suitable for thisbacterium. Electrophoresis conditions should be revealedas; - block 1: initial pulse duration 1 sec, ending pulseduration 30 sec, striking angle 120°, the current 6 V/cm2,temperature 14°C, time 8 hours; - block 2: initial pulseduration 30 sec, ending pulse duration 70 sec, strikingangle 120°, the current 6 V/cm2, temperature 14°C, time16 hours; - TBE, pH=8.4.Conclusion: P. mirabilis strains were typed by PFGE andBionumerics analysis program were determined clonal relationships.The procedure was simple, reproducible andsuitable for these bacteria. Also it was evaluated, becauseof reducing time, the solution volumes and enzymes canbe economically. Outbreaks of nosocomial infections dueto bacteria studied assessment and the potential to provideuseful information about the degree of prevalence.This optimized protocol is allowed different centers’ PFGEresults to compare with other laboratories results. J ClinExp Invest 2013; 4 (3: 306-312Key words: Proteus mirabilis, molecular typing, pulsedfieldgel electrophoresis.

  14. Smooth and rough Proteus mirabilis lipopolysaccharides studied by total internal reflection ellipsometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleńska-Olender, J.; Dworecki, K.; Sęk, S.; Kwinkowski, M.; Kaca, W.

    2013-01-01

    Total internal reflection ellipsometry (TIRE), a label-free optical detection technique for studying interactions between biomolecules, was used to examine the adsorption of various forms of lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) isolated from Proteus mirabilis S1959, R110, and R45 strains on a gold surface. The thickness of the adsorbed layers was determined by TIRE, with the average values for S1959, R110, and R45 LPS layers being 78 ± 5, 39 ± 3, and 12 ± 2 nm, respectively. The thickness of LPS layers corresponds to the presence and length of O-specific parts in P. mirabilis LPS molecules. Atomic force microscopy was used as a complementary technique for visualizing lipopolysaccharides on the surface. Force measurements seem to confirm the data obtained from TIRE experiments. - Highlights: • Proteus mirabilis lipopolysaccharides were adsorbed on the gold surface. • Thickness of adsorbed layers was determined by total internal reflection ellipsometry. • Atomic force microscopy was used to visualize lipopolysaccharide build-up on gold surface. • Time is important in the evolution of biomolecular film thickness created on gold surface

  15. Smooth and rough Proteus mirabilis lipopolysaccharides studied by total internal reflection ellipsometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleńska-Olender, J., E-mail: joannaglenska@wp.pl [Institute of Biology, Jan Kochanowski University, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Świętokrzyski Biobank, Regional Science and Technology Center, 26-060 Chęciny (Poland); Dworecki, K. [Institute of Physics, Jan Kochanowski University, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Sęk, S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Warsaw, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Kwinkowski, M.; Kaca, W. [Institute of Biology, Jan Kochanowski University, 25-406 Kielce (Poland)

    2013-12-02

    Total internal reflection ellipsometry (TIRE), a label-free optical detection technique for studying interactions between biomolecules, was used to examine the adsorption of various forms of lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) isolated from Proteus mirabilis S1959, R110, and R45 strains on a gold surface. The thickness of the adsorbed layers was determined by TIRE, with the average values for S1959, R110, and R45 LPS layers being 78 ± 5, 39 ± 3, and 12 ± 2 nm, respectively. The thickness of LPS layers corresponds to the presence and length of O-specific parts in P. mirabilis LPS molecules. Atomic force microscopy was used as a complementary technique for visualizing lipopolysaccharides on the surface. Force measurements seem to confirm the data obtained from TIRE experiments. - Highlights: • Proteus mirabilis lipopolysaccharides were adsorbed on the gold surface. • Thickness of adsorbed layers was determined by total internal reflection ellipsometry. • Atomic force microscopy was used to visualize lipopolysaccharide build-up on gold surface. • Time is important in the evolution of biomolecular film thickness created on gold surface.

  16. Detection of KPC-2 in a Clinical Isolate of Proteus mirabilis and First Reported Description of Carbapenemase Resistance Caused by a KPC Beta-Lactamase in P. mirabilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    An isolate of Proteus mirabilis recovered from bacterial cultures was shown to be resistant to imipenem, meropenem, and ertapenem by disk diffusion susceptibility testing. Amplification of whole cell and/or plasmid DNA recovered from the isolate using primers specific for the blaKPC carbapenemase g...

  17. Characterization of 17 chaperone-usher fimbriae encoded by Proteus mirabilis reveals strong conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Lisa; Schaffer, Jessica N.; Zouzias, Christos D.

    2014-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis is a Gram-negative enteric bacterium that causes complicated urinary tract infections, particularly in patients with indwelling catheters. Sequencing of clinical isolate P. mirabilis HI4320 revealed the presence of 17 predicted chaperone-usher fimbrial operons. We classified these fimbriae into three groups by their genetic relationship to other chaperone-usher fimbriae. Sixteen of these fimbriae are encoded by all seven currently sequenced P. mirabilis genomes. The predicted protein sequence of the major structural subunit for 14 of these fimbriae was highly conserved (≥95 % identity), whereas three other structural subunits (Fim3A, UcaA and Fim6A) were variable. Further examination of 58 clinical isolates showed that 14 of the 17 predicted major structural subunit genes of the fimbriae were present in most strains (>85 %). Transcription of the predicted major structural subunit genes for all 17 fimbriae was measured under different culture conditions designed to mimic conditions in the urinary tract. The majority of the fimbrial genes were induced during stationary phase, static culture or colony growth when compared to exponential-phase aerated culture. Major structural subunit proteins for six of these fimbriae were detected using MS of proteins sheared from the surface of broth-cultured P. mirabilis, demonstrating that this organism may produce multiple fimbriae within a single culture. The high degree of conservation of P. mirabilis fimbriae stands in contrast to uropathogenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica, which exhibit greater variability in their fimbrial repertoires. These findings suggest there may be evolutionary pressure for P. mirabilis to maintain a large fimbrial arsenal. PMID:24809384

  18. Biofilm Formation and Immunomodulatory Activity of Proteus mirabilis Clinically Isolated Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Fusco

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTIs and catheter-associated UTIs (CAUTIs are the principal hospital-acquired infections. Proteus mirabilis is characterized by several virulence factors able to promote adhesion and biofilm formation and ameliorate the colonization of urinary tract and the formation of crystalline biofilms on the abiotic surface of the urinary catheters. Since, to date, the role of P. mirabilis in the etiopathogenesis of different types of urinary tract infections is not well established, in this study we sought to characterize two different clinically isolated strains of P. mirabilis (PM1 and PM2 with distinctive phenotypes and analyzed various virulence factors possibly implicated in the ability to induce UTIs and CAUTIs. In particular, we analyzed motility, biofilm formation both on abiotic and biotic surfaces of PM1 and PM2 and paralleled these parameters with the ability to induce an inflammatory response in an epithelial cell model. Results showed that PM1 displayed major motility and a capacity to form biofilm and was associated with an anti-inflammatory response of host cells. Conversely, PM2 exhibited lack motility and a had slower organization in biofilm but promoted an increase of proinflammatory cytokine expression in infected epithelial cells. Our study provides data useful to start uncovering the pathologic basis of P. mirabilis-associated urinary infections. The evidence of different virulence factors expressed by PM1 and PM2 highlights the possibility to use precise and personalized therapies targeting specific virulence pathways.

  19. Biofilm Formation and Immunomodulatory Activity of Proteus mirabilis Clinically Isolated Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Alessandra; Coretti, Lorena; Savio, Vittoria; Buommino, Elisabetta; Lembo, Francesca; Donnarumma, Giovanna

    2017-02-15

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) and catheter-associated UTIs (CAUTIs) are the principal hospital-acquired infections. Proteus mirabilis is characterized by several virulence factors able to promote adhesion and biofilm formation and ameliorate the colonization of urinary tract and the formation of crystalline biofilms on the abiotic surface of the urinary catheters. Since, to date, the role of P. mirabilis in the etiopathogenesis of different types of urinary tract infections is not well established, in this study we sought to characterize two different clinically isolated strains of P. mirabilis (PM1 and PM2) with distinctive phenotypes and analyzed various virulence factors possibly implicated in the ability to induce UTIs and CAUTIs. In particular, we analyzed motility, biofilm formation both on abiotic and biotic surfaces of PM1 and PM2 and paralleled these parameters with the ability to induce an inflammatory response in an epithelial cell model. Results showed that PM1 displayed major motility and a capacity to form biofilm and was associated with an anti-inflammatory response of host cells. Conversely, PM2 exhibited lack motility and a had slower organization in biofilm but promoted an increase of proinflammatory cytokine expression in infected epithelial cells. Our study provides data useful to start uncovering the pathologic basis of P. mirabilis -associated urinary infections. The evidence of different virulence factors expressed by PM1 and PM2 highlights the possibility to use precise and personalized therapies targeting specific virulence pathways.

  20. Cloning of a recA-like gene of Proteus mirabilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eitner, G.; Solonin, A.S.; Tanyashin, V.I.

    1981-01-01

    A gene of Proteus mirabilis that can substitute for functions of the recA gene of Escherichia coli has been cloned into the plasmid pBR322, using shotgun experiments. The recA-like gene (recAsub(P.m.)) has been localized by restriction mapping within a 1.5-Md PstI fragment that is a part of two cloned Hind III fragments of the chromosome of P. mirabilis. The restriction map of the recAsub(P.m.) gene differs from that of the recA gene of E. coli. Funtionally, the recombinant plasmids containing the recAsub(P.m.) gene restore a nearly wild-type level of UV-resistance to several point and deletion mutants in the recA gene of E. coli. (Auth.)

  1. Mimicking a New 2-Phenylethanol Production Pathway from Proteus mirabilis JN458 in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinbin; Jiang, Jing; Bai, Yajun; Fan, Tai-Ping; Zhao, Ye; Zheng, Xiaohui; Cai, Yujie

    2018-04-04

    Bacteria rarely produce natural 2-phenylethanol. We verified a new pathway from Proteus mirabilis JN458 to produce 2-phenylethanol using Escherichia coli to coexpress l-amino acid deaminase, α-keto acid decarboxylase, and alcohol dehydrogenase from P. mirabilis. Based on this pathway, a glucose dehydrogenase coenzyme regeneration system was constructed. The optimal conditions of biotransformation by the recombinant strain E-pAEAKaG were at 40 °C and pH 7.0. Finally, the recombinant strain E-pAEAKaG produced 3.21 ± 0.10 g/L 2-phenylethanol in M9 medium containing 10 g/L l-phenylalanine after a 16 h transformation. Furthermore, when the concentration of l-phenylalanine was 4 g/L (24 mM), the production of 2-phenylethanol reached 2.88 ± 0.18 g/L and displayed a higher conversion rate of 97.38 mol %.

  2. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of antimicrobial resistance in Proteus mirabilis isolates from dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kazuki; Niina, Ayaka; Shimizu, Takae; Mukai, Yujiro; Kuwajima, Ken; Miyamoto, Tadashi; Kataoka, Yasushi

    2014-11-01

    Large-scale monitoring of resistance to 14 antimicrobial agents was performed using 103 Proteus mirabilis strains isolated from dogs in Japan. Resistant strains were analysed to identify their resistance mechanisms. Rates of resistance to chloramphenicol, streptomycin, enrofloxacin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, kanamycin, ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, cephalothin, gentamicin, cefoxitin and cefotaxime were 20.4, 15.5, 12.6, 10.7, 9.7, 8.7, 5.8, 2.9, 2.9, 1.9 and 1.9%, respectively. No resistance to ceftazidime, aztreonam or imipenem was found. Class 1 and 2 integrases were detected in 2.9 and 11.7% of isolates, respectively. Class 1 integrons contained aadB or aadB-catB-like-blaOXA10-aadA1, whereas those of class 2 contained sat-aadA1, dhfr1-sat-aadA1 or none of the anticipated resistance genes. Of five distinct plasmid-mediated quinolone-resistance (PMQR) genes, only qnrD gene was detected in 1.9% of isolates. Quinolone-resistance determining regions (QRDRs) of gyrA and parC from 13 enrofloxacin-intermediate and -resistant isolates were sequenced. Seven strains had double mutations and three had single mutations. Three of nine ampicillin-resistant isolates harboured AmpC-type β-lactamases (i.e. blaCMY-2, blaCMY-4 and blaDHA-1). These results suggest that canine Proteus mirabilis deserves continued surveillance as an important reservoir of antimicrobial resistance determinants. This is the first report, to our knowledge, describing integrons, PMQRs and QRDR mutations in Proteus mirabilis isolates from companion animals. © 2014 The Authors.

  3. Chromosomal Amplification of the blaOXA-58 Carbapenemase Gene in a Proteus mirabilis Clinical Isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girlich, Delphine; Bonnin, Rémy A; Bogaerts, Pierre; De Laveleye, Morgane; Huang, Daniel T; Dortet, Laurent; Glaser, Philippe; Glupczynski, Youri; Naas, Thierry

    2017-02-01

    Horizontal gene transfer may occur between distantly related bacteria, thus leading to genetic plasticity and in some cases to acquisition of novel resistance traits. Proteus mirabilis is an enterobacterial species responsible for human infections that may express various acquired β-lactam resistance genes, including different classes of carbapenemase genes. Here we report a Proteus mirabilis clinical isolate (strain 1091) displaying resistance to penicillin, including temocillin, together with reduced susceptibility to carbapenems and susceptibility to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins. Using biochemical tests, significant carbapenem hydrolysis was detected in P. mirabilis 1091. Since PCR failed to detect acquired carbapenemase genes commonly found in Enterobacteriaceae, we used a whole-genome sequencing approach that revealed the presence of bla OXA-58 class D carbapenemase gene, so far identified only in Acinetobacter species. This gene was located on a 3.1-kb element coharboring a bla AmpC -like gene. Remarkably, these two genes were bracketed by putative XerC-XerD binding sites and inserted at a XerC-XerD site located between the terminase-like small- and large-subunit genes of a bacteriophage. Increased expression of the two bla genes resulted from a 6-time tandem amplification of the element as revealed by Southern blotting. This is the first isolation of a clinical P. mirabilis strain producing OXA-58, a class D carbapenemase, and the first description of a XerC-XerD-dependent insertion of antibiotic resistance genes within a bacteriophage. This study revealed a new role for the XerC-XerD recombinase in bacteriophage biology. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  4. Elimination of Proteus mirabilis /sup 51/Cr endotoxin from the liver in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipinska-Piotrowska, I [Akademia Medyczna, Lodz (Poland)

    1977-01-01

    Using isotope methods, elimination of the endotoxin of Proteus mirabilis labelled with chromium (CrEPm) from the liver of rats was studied. The following studies were carried out: intravital exploration of the liver with a scintillation probe, measurements of radioactivity of organs and excreted urine and stools, scintigraphy of the liver, binding of CrEPm by subcellular fractions of hepatocytes, and the influence of selected drugs (polymyxin and hydrocortisone) on elimination of CrEPm from the liver and organelles of hepatocytes.

  5. Computational study concerning the effect of some pesticides on the Proteus Mirabilis catalase activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isvoran, Adriana

    2016-03-01

    Assessment of the effects of the herbicides nicosulfuron and chlorsulfuron and the fungicides difenoconazole and drazoxlone upon catalase produced by soil microorganism Proteus mirabilis is performed using the molecular docking technique. The interactions of pesticides with the enzymes are predicted using SwissDock and PatchDock docking tools. There are correlations for predicted binding energy values for enzyme-pesticide complexes obtained using the two docking tools, all the considered pesticides revealing favorable binding to the enzyme, but only the herbicides bind to the catalytic site. These results suggest the inhibitory potential of chlorsulfuron and nicosulfuron on the catalase activity in soil.

  6. Molecular characteristics of Salmonella genomic island 1 in Proteus mirabilis isolates from poultry farms in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Chang-Wei; Zhang, An-Yun; Liu, Bi-Hui; Wang, Hong-Ning; Guan, Zhong-Bin; Xu, Chang-Wen; Xia, Qing-Qing; Cheng, Han; Zhang, Dong-Dong

    2014-12-01

    Six out of the 64 studied Proteus mirabilis isolates from 11 poultry farms in China contained Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1). PCR mapping showed that the complete nucleotide sequences of SGI1s ranged from 33.2 to 42.5 kb. Three novel variants, SGI1-W, SGI1-X, and SGI1-Y, have been characterized. Resistance genes lnuF, dfrA25, and qnrB2 were identified in SGI1 for the first time. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Elimination of Proteus mirabilis 51Cr endotoxin from the liver in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipinska-Piotrowska, I.

    1977-01-01

    Using isotope methods, elimination of the endotoxin of Proteus mirabilis labelled with chromium (CrEPm) from the liver of rats was studied. The following studies were carried out: intravital exploration of the liver with a scintillation probe, measurements of radioactivity of organs and excreted urine and stools, scintigraphy of the liver, binding of CrEPm by subcellular fractions of hepatocytes, and the influence of selected drugs (polymyxin and hydrocortisone) on elimination of CrEPm from the liver and organelles of hepatocytes. (author)

  8. Proteus genomic island 1 (PGI1), a new resistance genomic island from two Proteus mirabilis French clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebor, Eliane; Neuwirth, Catherine

    2014-12-01

    To analyse the genetic environment of the antibiotic resistance genes in two clinical Proteus mirabilis isolates resistant to multiple antibiotics. PCR, gene walking and whole-genome sequencing were used to determine the sequence of the resistance regions, the surrounding genetic structure and the flanking chromosomal regions. A genomic island of 81.1 kb named Proteus genomic island 1 (PGI1) located at the 3'-end of trmE (formerly known as thdF) was characterized. The large MDR region of PGI1 (55.4 kb) included a class 1 integron (aadB and aadA2) and regions deriving from several transposons: Tn2 (blaTEM-135), Tn21, Tn6020-like transposon (aphA1b), a hybrid Tn502/Tn5053 transposon, Tn501, a hybrid Tn1696/Tn1721 transposon [tetA(A)] carrying a class 1 integron (aadA1) and Tn5393 (strA and strB). Several ISs were also present (IS4321, IS1R and IS26). The PGI1 backbone (25.7 kb) was identical to that identified in Salmonella Heidelberg SL476 and shared some identity with the Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1) backbone. An IS26-mediated recombination event caused the division of the MDR region into two parts separated by a large chromosomal DNA fragment of 197 kb, the right end of PGI1 and this chromosomal sequence being in inverse orientation. PGI1 is a new resistance genomic island from P. mirabilis belonging to the same island family as SGI1. The role of PGI1 in the spread of antimicrobial resistance genes among Enterobacteriaceae of medical importance needs to be evaluated. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Emergence of Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1) among Proteus mirabilis clinical isolates in Dijon, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebor, Eliane; Neuwirth, Catherine

    2013-08-01

    Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1) is often encountered in antibiotic-resistant Salmonella enterica and exceptionally in Proteus mirabilis. We investigated the prevalence of SGI1-producing clinical isolates of P. mirabilis in our hospital (Dijon, France). A total of 57 strains of P. mirabilis resistant to amoxicillin and/or gentamicin and/or trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole isolated from August 2011 to February 2012 as well as 9 extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing P. mirabilis from our collection were tested for the presence of SGI1 by PCR. The complete SGI1 structure from positive isolates [backbone and multidrug resistance (MDR) region] was sequenced. SGI1 was detected in 7 isolates; 5 out of the 57 isolates collected during the study period (9%) and 2 out of the 9 ESBL-producing strains of our collection. The structures of the seven SGI1s were distinct. Three different backbones were identified: one identical to the SGI1 backbone from the epidemic Salmonella Typhimurium DT104, one with variations already described in SGI1-K from Salmonella Kentucky (deletion and insertion of IS1359 in the region spanning from S005 to S009) and one with a variation never detected before (deletion from S005 to S009). Six different MDR regions were identified: four simple variants containing resistance genes already described and two variants harbouring a very complex structure including regions derived from several transposons and IS26 elements with aphA1a never reported to date in SGI1. SGI1 variants are widely distributed among P. mirabilis clinical strains and might spread to other commensal Enterobacteriaceae. This would become a serious public health problem.

  10. Dissemination of blaOXA-58 in Proteus mirabilis isolates from Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Felix; Pfennigwerth, Niels; Gerigk, Sonja; Gohlke, Frank; Oberdorfer, Klaus; Purr, Ingvill; Wohanka, Nikolaus; Roggenkamp, Andreas; Gatermann, Sören G; Kaase, Martin

    2017-05-01

    Characterization of Proteus mirabilis isolates harbouring bla OXA-58 with emphasis on the genetic environment of this resistance determinant. Strains of P. mirabilis ( n  =   37) isolated from different patients were tested for the presence of bla OXA-58 . The genetic context of bla OXA-58 was determined by WGS of two strains and Sanger sequencing. Clonality of the strains was assessed by PFGE. Susceptibility testing was performed by microdilution according to EUCAST. Four strains isolated in different geographical regions of Germany were positive for bla OXA-58 , and WGS showed that this resistance gene was harboured on a plasmid. Sanger sequencing confirmed the presence of two nearly identical plasmids, 6219 and 6208 bp in size, in all four strains. Upstream of bla OXA-58 an IS Aba 3-like transposase gene was located. The P. mirabilis strains were not clonally related according to PFGE. MICs of meropenem for three of the strains were only just above the EUCAST breakpoint and the Carba NP test was positive for only two of the strains. To our knowledge, this is the first description of bla OXA-58 in the species P. mirabilis . The resistance gene is harboured by almost identical plasmids in strains not clonally related and from different geographical regions. Apart from an IS Aba 3-like transposase gene upstream of bla OXA-58 the genetic context is different from bla OXA-58 harboured on plasmids in the genus Acinetobacter . With MICs of meropenem well below the EUCAST breakpoint or only just above it and equivocal or false negative results from the Carba NP test, bla OXA-58 can be easily overlooked in P. mirabilis . © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Biomineralization of struvite crystals by Proteus mirabilis from artificial urine and their mesoscopic structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prywer, J. [Institute of Physics, Technical University of Lodz, ul. Wolczanska 219, 93-005 Lodz (Poland); Torzewska, A. [Department of Immunobiology of Bacteria, Institute of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Immunology, University of Lodz, ul. Banacha 12/16, 90-237 Lodz (Poland)

    2010-12-15

    In order to investigate the mineralization of struvite we performed the experiment of struvite growth process from artificial urine. The crystallization process was induced by Proteus mirabilis, as these bacteria are mainly isolated from infectious stones. The crystallization process occurred at conditions mimicking the real urinary tract infection. Our results show that struvite exhibits polar properties. This feature of struvite crystals is potentially very important in the case of binding additives which may either enhance or inhibit crystallization process. It seems also that the differences in the polarity of opposite faces of c-axis play important role in directing the struvite mesoscopic arrangement. We also described recent developments concerning curcumin - pigment extracted from the roots of turmeric commonly known as a spice added to various food preparations. Curcumin exhibited the effect against Proteus mirabilis inhibiting the activity of urease and consequently decreasing the efficiency of struvite growth. Therefore, curcumin belongs to phytoterapheutic components, which may be the alternative with relation to the antibiotic therapy. The paper concludes with a future outlook and goals in this field of research. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. The Ciprofloxacin Impact on Biofilm Formation by Proteus Mirabilis and P. Vulgaris Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiecinska-Pirog, Joanna; Skowron, Krzysztof; Bartczak, Wojciech; Gospodarek-Komkowska, Eugenia

    2016-01-01

    Background Proteus spp. bacilli belong to opportunistic human pathogens, which are primarily responsible for urinary tract and wound infections. An important virulence factor is their ability to form biofilms that greatly reduce the effectiveness of antibiotics in the site of infection. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the value of the minimum concentration of ciprofloxacin that eradicates a biofilm of Proteus spp. strains. Materials and Methods A biofilm formation of 20 strains of P. mirabilis and 20 strains of P. vulgaris were evaluated by a spectrophotometric method using 0.1% 2, 3, 5-Triphenyl-tetrazolium chloride solution (TTC, AVANTORTM). On the basis of the results of the absorbance of the formazan, a degree of reduction of biofilm and minimum biofilm eradication (MBE) values of MBE50 and MBE90 were determined. Results All tested strains formed a biofilm. A value of 1.0 μg/mL ciprofloxacin is MBE50 for the strains of both tested species. An MBE90 value of ciprofloxacin for isolates of P. vulgaris was 2 μg/mL and for P. mirabilis was 512 μg/mL. Conclusions Minimum biofilm eradication values of ciprofloxacin obtained in the study are close to the values of the minimal inhibition concentration (MIC). PMID:27303616

  13. Putrescine importer PlaP contributes to swarming motility and urothelial cell invasion in Proteus mirabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, Shin; Sakai, Yumi; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Muth, Aaron; Phanstiel, Otto; Rather, Philip N

    2013-05-31

    Previously, we reported that the speA gene, encoding arginine decarboxylase, is required for swarming in the urinary tract pathogen Proteus mirabilis. In addition, this previous study suggested that putrescine may act as a cell-to-cell signaling molecule (Sturgill, G., and Rather, P. N. (2004) Mol. Microbiol. 51, 437-446). In this new study, PlaP, a putative putrescine importer, was characterized in P. mirabilis. In a wild-type background, a plaP null mutation resulted in a modest swarming defect and slightly decreased levels of intracellular putrescine. In a P. mirabilis speA mutant with greatly reduced levels of intracellular putrescine, plaP was required for the putrescine-dependent rescue of swarming motility. When a speA/plaP double mutant was grown in the presence of extracellular putrescine, the intracellular levels of putrescine were greatly reduced compared with the speA mutant alone, indicating that PlaP functioned as the primary putrescine importer. In urothelial cell invasion assays, a speA mutant exhibited a 50% reduction in invasion when compared with wild type, and this defect could be restored by putrescine in a PlaP-dependent manner. The putrescine analog Triamide-44 partially inhibited the uptake of putrescine by PlaP and decreased both putrescine stimulated swarming and urothelial cell invasion in a speA mutant.

  14. Characteristics of bacteremia caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Proteus mirabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, Yoko; Hitomi, Shigemi; Oishi, Tsuyoshi; Kondo, Tsukasa; Ebihara, Tsugio; Funayama, Yasunori; Kawakami, Yasushi

    2013-10-01

    Although Proteus mirabilis is a common human pathogen, bacteremia caused by the organism, especially strains producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL), has rarely been investigated. We examined 64 cases of P. mirabilis bacteremia identified in the Minami Ibaraki Area, Japan, between 2001 and 2010 and compared the characteristics of cases with ESBL-producing and ESBL-non-producing strains (13 and 51 cases, respectively). All ESBL-producing strains with the gene encoding the CTX-M-2-group were genetically nonidentical. Isolation of ESBL-producing strains was significantly associated with onset in a hospital (p = 0.030), receiving hemodialysis (p = 0.0050), and previous antibiotic use within 1 month (p = 0.036; especially penicillin and/or cephalosporin (p = 0.010) and fluoroquinolone (p = 0.0069)). Isolation was also associated with inappropriate antibiotic therapy on the 1st and 4th days (p = 0.011 and 0.032, respectively) but not with mortality on the 30th day. These findings indicate that, for P. mirabilis bacteremia, isolation of ESBL-producing strains causes delay of initiating appropriate antimicrobial therapy but may not be associated with mortality.

  15. Inhibitory effects of secondary metabolites from the red alga Delisea pulchra on swarming motility of Proteus mirabilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Lone; de Nys, R.; Maximilien, R.

    1996-01-01

    Abnormal, uncoordinated swarming motility of the opportunistic human pathogen Proteus mirabilis was seen when a crude extract of the Australian red alga Delisea pulchra was added to the medium, This occurred at concentrations at which growth rate, swimming motility, cell elongation, polynucleation...

  16. The RNA Chaperone Hfq Is Involved in Stress Tolerance and Virulence in Uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min-Cheng; Liaw, Shwu-Jen

    2014-01-01

    Hfq is a bacterial RNA chaperone involved in the riboregulation of diverse genes via small noncoding RNAs. Here, we show that Hfq is critical for the uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis to effectively colonize the bladder and kidneys in a murine urinary tract infection (UTI) model and to establish burned wound infection of the rats. In this regard, we found the hfq mutant induced higher IL-8 and MIF levels of uroepithelial cells and displayed reduced intra-macrophage survival. The loss of hfq affected bacterial abilities to handle H2O2 and osmotic pressures and to grow at 50°C. Relative to wild-type, the hfq mutant had reduced motility, fewer flagella and less hemolysin expression and was less prone to form biofilm and to adhere to and invade uroepithelial cells. The MR/P fimbrial operon was almost switched to the off phase in the hfq mutant. In addition, we found the hfq mutant exhibited an altered outer membrane profile and had higher RpoE expression, which indicates the hfq mutant may encounter increased envelope stress. With the notion of envelope disturbance in the hfq mutant, we found increased membrane permeability and antibiotic susceptibilities in the hfq mutant. Finally, we showed that Hfq positively regulated the RpoS level and tolerance to H2O2 in the stationary phase seemed largely mediated through the Hfq-dependent RpoS expression. Together, our data indicate that Hfq plays a critical role in P. mirabilis to establish UTIs by modulating stress responses, surface structures and virulence factors. This study suggests Hfq may serve as a scaffold molecule for development of novel anti-P. mirabilis drugs and P. mirabilis hfq mutant is a vaccine candidate for preventing UTIs. PMID:24454905

  17. Novel Insights into the Proteus mirabilis Crystalline Biofilm Using Real-Time Imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra A Wilks

    Full Text Available The long-term use of indwelling catheters results in a high risk from urinary tract infections (UTI and blockage. Blockages often occur from crystalline deposits, formed as the pH rises due to the action of urease-producing bacteria; the most commonly found species being Proteus mirabilis. These crystalline biofilms have been found to develop on all catheter materials with P. mirabilis attaching to all surfaces and forming encrustations. Previous studies have mainly relied on electron microscopy to describe this process but there remains a lack of understanding into the stages of biofilm formation. Using an advanced light microscopy technique, episcopic differential interference contrast (EDIC microscopy combined with epifluorescence (EF, we describe a non-destructive, non-contact, real-time imaging method used to track all stages of biofilm development from initial single cell attachment to complex crystalline biofilm formation. Using a simple six-well plate system, attachment of P. mirabilis (in artificial urine to sections of silicone and hydrogel latex catheters was tracked over time (up to 24 days. Using EDIC and EF we show how initial attachment occurred in less than 1 h following exposure to P. mirabilis. This was rapidly followed by an accumulation of an additional material (indicated to be carbohydrate based using lectin staining and the presence of highly elongated, motile cells. After 24 h exposure, a layer developed above this conditioning film and within 4 days the entire surface (of both catheter materials was covered with diffuse crystalline deposits with defined crystals embedded. Using three-dimensional image reconstruction software, cells of P. mirabilis were seen covering the crystal surfaces. EDIC microscopy could resolve these four components of the complex crystalline biofilm and the close relationship between P. mirabilis and the crystals. This real-time imaging technique permits study of this complex biofilm development

  18. Novel Insights into the Proteus mirabilis Crystalline Biofilm Using Real-Time Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Sandra A; Fader, Mandy J; Keevil, C William

    2015-01-01

    The long-term use of indwelling catheters results in a high risk from urinary tract infections (UTI) and blockage. Blockages often occur from crystalline deposits, formed as the pH rises due to the action of urease-producing bacteria; the most commonly found species being Proteus mirabilis. These crystalline biofilms have been found to develop on all catheter materials with P. mirabilis attaching to all surfaces and forming encrustations. Previous studies have mainly relied on electron microscopy to describe this process but there remains a lack of understanding into the stages of biofilm formation. Using an advanced light microscopy technique, episcopic differential interference contrast (EDIC) microscopy combined with epifluorescence (EF), we describe a non-destructive, non-contact, real-time imaging method used to track all stages of biofilm development from initial single cell attachment to complex crystalline biofilm formation. Using a simple six-well plate system, attachment of P. mirabilis (in artificial urine) to sections of silicone and hydrogel latex catheters was tracked over time (up to 24 days). Using EDIC and EF we show how initial attachment occurred in less than 1 h following exposure to P. mirabilis. This was rapidly followed by an accumulation of an additional material (indicated to be carbohydrate based using lectin staining) and the presence of highly elongated, motile cells. After 24 h exposure, a layer developed above this conditioning film and within 4 days the entire surface (of both catheter materials) was covered with diffuse crystalline deposits with defined crystals embedded. Using three-dimensional image reconstruction software, cells of P. mirabilis were seen covering the crystal surfaces. EDIC microscopy could resolve these four components of the complex crystalline biofilm and the close relationship between P. mirabilis and the crystals. This real-time imaging technique permits study of this complex biofilm development with no risk

  19. qnrA6 genetic environment and quinolone resistance conferred on Proteus mirabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayol, Aurélie; Janvier, Frédéric; Guillard, Thomas; Chau, Françoise; Mérens, Audrey; Robert, Jérôme; Fantin, Bruno; Berçot, Béatrice; Cambau, Emmanuelle

    2016-04-01

    To determine the genetic location and environment of the qnrA6 gene in Proteus mirabilis PS16 where it was first described and to characterize the quinolone resistance qnrA6 confers. Transformation experiments and Southern blotting were performed for plasmid and genomic DNA of P. mirabilis PS16 to determine the qnrA6 location. Combinatorial PCRs with primers in qnrA6 and genes usually surrounding qnrA genes were used to determine the genetic environment. The qnrA6 coding region, including or not the promoter region, was cloned into vectors pTOPO and pBR322 and the MICs of six quinolones were measured for transformants of Escherichia coli TOP10 and P. mirabilis ATCC 29906 Rif(R). qnrA6 was shown to be chromosomally encoded in P. mirabilis PS16 and its genetic environment was 81%-87% similar to that of qnrA2 in the Shewanella algae chromosome. The 5138 bp region up- and downstream of qnrA6 contained an IS10 sequence surrounded by two ISCR1. This resulted in qnrA6 being displaced 1.9 kb from its native promoter but supplied a promoter present in ISCR1. qnrA6 cloned into pTOPO and pBR322 conferred a 4-32-fold increase in fluoroquinolone MICs when expressed in E. coli but only 2-3-fold in P. mirabilis. When including the promoter region, a further increase in resistance was observed in both species, reaching MIC values above clinical breakpoints for only P. mirabilis. qnrA6 is the first chromosomally located qnrA gene described in Enterobacteriaceae. The quinolone resistance conferred by qnrA6 depends on the proximity of an efficient promoter and the host strain where it is expressed. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Mini-Mu insertions in the tetracycline resistance determinant from Proteus mirabilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magalhães V.D.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The inducible tetracycline resistance determinant isolated from Proteus mirabilis cloned into the plasmid pACYC177 was mutagenized by insertion of a mini-Mu-lac phage in order to define the regions in the cloned sequences encoding the structural and regulatory proteins. Three different types of mutants were obtained: one lost the resistance phenotype and became Lac+; another expressed the resistance at lower levels and constitutively; the third was still dependent on induction but showed a lower minimal inhibitory concentration. The mutant phenotypes and the locations of the insertions indicate that the determinant is composed of a repressor gene and a structural gene which are not transcribed divergently as are other known tetracycline determinants isolated from Gram-negative bacteria

  1. Examination of Quaternary Ammonium Compound Resistance in Proteus mirabilis Isolated from Cooked Meat Products in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobing Jiang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the presence of genes responsible for resistance to quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs and the association of qac genes with class 1 integrons in Proteus mirabilis isolated from cooked meat products. A total of 52 P. mirabilis isolates (29.2% were detected from 178 samples, and their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of benzalkonium chloride (BC ranged from 4 to >32 μg/mL. The isolates with BC MICs of 24 μg/mL were observed most frequently. PCR assays indicated that mdfA, ydgE/ydgF, qacE, qacEΔ1, emrE, sugE(c, and sugE(p were commonly present (32.7%–100% in these isolates, but qacH was less prevalent (3.8%. Five groups of resistance gene cassettes were identified in 10 intI1-positive isolates. An unusual gene cassette array dfrA32-ereA-aadA2 was found in one foodborne isolate of P. mirabilis. Two isolates harbored qacH- and sul3- associated non-classic integrons: aadA2-cmlA1-aadA1-qacH-IS440-sul3 and a new arrangement dfrA32-ereA1-aadA2-cmlA1-aadA1-qacH-IS440-sul3, which is first reported in P. mirabilis. Non-classic class 1 integrons were located on conjugative plasmids of 100 kb in two tested isolates. Our data showed that the QAC resistance genes were commonly present among P. mirabilis isolates from cooked meats and qacH was associated with non-classic class 1 integrons. The creation of transconjugants demonstrated that qacH-associated non-classic class 1 integrons were located on conjugative plasmids and therefore could facilitate the co-dissemination of disinfectant and antimicrobial resistance genes among bacteria, an increasing area of concern.

  2. Protective immunity induced by the vaccination of recombinant Proteus mirabilis OmpA expressed in Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongbing; Yang, Shifa; Dai, Xiumei; Liu, Liping; Jiang, Xiaodong; Shao, Mingxu; Chi, Shanshan; Wang, Chuanwen; Yu, Cuilian; Wei, Kai; Zhu, Ruiliang

    2015-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis (P. mirabilis) is a zoonotic pathogen that has recently presented a rising infection rate in the poultry industry. To develop an effective vaccine to protect chickens against P. mirabilis infection, OmpA, one of the major outer membrane proteins of P. mirabilis, was expressed in Pichia pastoris. The concentration of the expressed recombinant OmpA protein reached 8.0μg/mL after induction for 96h with 1.0% methanol in the culture. In addition, OmpA protein was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis using the antibody against Escherichia coli-expressed OmpA protein. Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen polysaccharide, a known plant-derived adjuvant, was mixed into the recombinant OmpA protein to prepare the OmpA subunit vaccine. We then subcutaneously inoculated this vaccine into chickens to examine the immunoprotective effects. ELISA analysis indicated that an excellent antibody response against OmpA was elicited in the vaccinated chickens. Moreover, a high protection rate of 80.0% was observed in the vaccinated group, which was subsequently challenged with P. mirabilis. The results suggest that the eukaryotic P. mirabilis OmpA was an ideal candidate protein for developing an effective subunit vaccine against P. mirabilis infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Proteus mirabilis alleviates zinc toxicity by preventing oxidative stress in maize (Zea mays) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Faisal; Yasmeen, Tahira; Riaz, Muhammad; Arif, Muhammad Saleem; Ali, Shafaqat; Raza, Syed Hammad

    2014-12-01

    Plant-associated bacteria can have beneficial effects on the growth and health of their host. However, the role of plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPR), under metal stress, has not been widely investigated. The present study investigated the possible mandatory role of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in protecting plants from zinc (Zn) toxicity. The exposure of maize plants to 50µM zinc inhibited biomass production, decreased chlorophyll, total soluble protein and strongly increased accumulation of Zn in both root and shoot. Similarly, Zn enhanced hydrogen peroxide, electrolyte leakage and lipid peroxidation as indicated by malondaldehyde accumulation. Pre-soaking with novel Zn tolerant bacterial strain Proteus mirabilis (ZK1) isolated zinc (Zn) contaminated soil, alleviated the negative effect of Zn on growth and led to a decrease in oxidative injuries caused by Zn. Furthermore, strain ZK1 significantly enhanced the activities of catalase, guaiacol peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and ascorbic acid but lowered the Proline accumulation in Zn stressed plants. The results suggested that the inoculation of Zea mays plants with P. mirabilis during an earlier growth period could be related to its plant growth promoting activities and avoidance of cumulative damage upon exposure to Zn, thus reducing the negative consequences of oxidative stress caused by heavy metal toxicity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Rcs regulon in Proteus mirabilis: implications for motility, biofilm formation, and virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howery, Kristen E; Clemmer, Katy M; Rather, Philip N

    2016-11-01

    The overall role of the Rcs phosphorelay in Proteus mirabilis is largely unknown. Previous work had demonstrated that the Rcs phosphorelay represses the flhDC operon and activates the minCDE cell division inhibition system. To identify additional cellular functions regulated by the Rcs phosphorelay, an analysis of RNA-seq data was undertaken. In this report, the results of the RNA-sequencing are discussed with an emphasis on the predicted roles of the Rcs phosphorelay in swarmer cell differentiation, motility, biofilm formation, and virulence. RcsB is shown to activate genes important for differentiation and fimbriae formation, while repressing the expression of genes important for motility and virulence. Additionally, to follow up on the RNA-Seq data, we demonstrate that an rcsB mutant is deficient in its ability to form biofilm and exhibits enhanced virulence in a Galleria mellonella waxworm model. Overall, these results indicate the Rcs regulon in P. mirabilis extends beyond flagellar genes to include those involved in biofilm formation and virulence. Furthermore, the information presented in this study may provide clues to additional roles of the Rcs phosphorelay in other members of the Enterobacteriaceae.

  5. The role of Proteus mirabilis cell wall features in biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwonka, Grzegorz; Guzy, Anna; Kałuża, Klaudia; Grosicka, Michalina; Dańczuk, Magdalena; Lechowicz, Łukasz; Gmiter, Dawid; Kowalczyk, Paweł; Kaca, Wiesław

    2016-11-01

    Biofilms formed by Proteus mirabilis strains are a serious medical problem, especially in the case of urinary tract infections. Early stages of biofilm formation, such as reversible and irreversible adhesion, are essential for bacteria to form biofilm and avoid eradication by antibiotic therapy. Adhesion to solid surfaces is a complex process where numerous factors play a role, where hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions with solid surface seem to be substantial. Cell surface hydrophobicity and electrokinetic potential of bacterial cells depend on their surface composition and structure, where lipopolysaccharide, in Gram-negative bacteria, is prevailing. Our studies focused on clinical and laboratory P. mirabilis strains, where laboratory strains have determined LPS structures. Adherence and biofilm formation tests revealed significant differences between strains adhered in early stages of biofilm formation. Amounts of formed biofilm were expressed by the absorption of crystal violet. Higher biofilm amounts were formed by the strains with more negative values of zeta potential. In contrast, high cell surface hydrophobicity correlated with low biofilm amount.

  6. Transcriptome of Proteus mirabilis in the Murine Urinary Tract: Virulence and Nitrogen Assimilation Gene Expression▿†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Melanie M.; Yep, Alejandra; Smith, Sara N.; Mobley, Harry L. T.

    2011-01-01

    The enteric bacterium Proteus mirabilis is a common cause of complicated urinary tract infections. In this study, microarrays were used to analyze P. mirabilis gene expression in vivo from experimentally infected mice. Urine was collected at 1, 3, and 7 days postinfection, and RNA was isolated from bacteria in the urine for transcriptional analysis. Across nine microarrays, 471 genes were upregulated and 82 were downregulated in vivo compared to in vitro broth culture. Genes upregulated in vivo encoded mannose-resistant Proteus-like (MR/P) fimbriae, urease, iron uptake systems, amino acid and peptide transporters, pyruvate metabolism enzymes, and a portion of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle enzymes. Flagella were downregulated. Ammonia assimilation gene glnA (glutamine synthetase) was repressed in vivo, while gdhA (glutamate dehydrogenase) was upregulated in vivo. Contrary to our expectations, ammonia availability due to urease activity in P. mirabilis did not drive this gene expression. A gdhA mutant was growth deficient in minimal medium with citrate as the sole carbon source, and loss of gdhA resulted in a significant fitness defect in the mouse model of urinary tract infection. Unlike Escherichia coli, which represses gdhA and upregulates glnA in vivo and cannot utilize citrate, the data suggest that P. mirabilis uses glutamate dehydrogenase to monitor carbon-nitrogen balance, and this ability contributes to the pathogenic potential of P. mirabilis in the urinary tract. PMID:21505083

  7. TEM-187, a new extended-spectrum β-lactamase with weak activity in a Proteus mirabilis clinical strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvec, Stéphane; Beyrouthy, Racha; Crémet, Lise; Aubin, Guillaume Ghislain; Robin, Frédéric; Bonnet, Richard; Reynaud, Alain

    2013-05-01

    A Proteus mirabilis clinical strain (7001324) was isolated from urine sample of a patient hospitalized in a long-term-care facility. PCR and cloning experiments performed with this strain identified a novel TEM-type β-lactamase (TEM-187) differing by four amino acid substitutions (Leu21Phe, Arg164His, Ala184Val, and Thr265Met) from TEM-1. This characterization provides further evidence for the diversity of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) produced by P. mirabilis and for their potential spread to other Enterobacteriaceae due to a lack of sensitive detection methods used in daily practice.

  8. Overexpression of an Outer Membrane Protein Associated with Decreased Susceptibility to Carbapenems in Proteus mirabilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yi-Lin; Wang, Min-Cheng; Hsueh, Po-Ren; Liu, Ming-Che; Hu, Rouh-Mei; Wu, Yue-Jin; Liaw, Shwu-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis isolates commonly have decreased susceptibility to imipenem. Previously, we found P. mirabilis hfq mutant was more resistant to imipenem and an outer membrane protein (OMP) could be involved. Therefore, we investigated the role of this OMP in carbapenem susceptibility. By SDS-PAGE we found this OMP (named ImpR) was increased in hfq mutant and LC-MS/MS revealed it to be the homologue of Salmonella YbfM, which is a porin for chitobiose and subject to MicM (a small RNA) regulation. We demonstrated that ImpR overexpression resulted in increased carbapenem MICs in the laboratory strain and clinical isolates. Chitobiose induced expression of chb (a chitobiose utilization operon). Real-time RT-PCR and SDS-PAGE were performed to elucidate the relationship of hfq, impR, chb and MicM in P. mirabilis. We found MicM RNA was decreased in hfq mutant and chbBC-intergenic region (chbBC-IGR) overexpression strain (chbIGRov), while impR mRNA was increased in hfq mutant, micM mutant and chbIGRov strain. In addition, mutation of hfq or micM and overexpression of chbBC-IGR increased ImpR protein level. Accordingly, chitobiose made wild-type have higher levels of ImpR protein and are more resistant to carbapenems. Hfq- and MicM-complemented strains restored wild-type MICs. Mutation of both impR and hfq eliminated the increase in carbapenem MICs observed in hfq mutant and ImpR-complementation of hfq/impR double mutant resulted in MICs as hfq mutant, indicating that the ImpR-dependent decreased carbapenem susceptibility of hfq mutant. These indicate MicM was antisense to impR mRNA and was negatively-regulated by chbBC-IGR. Together, overexpression of ImpR contributed to the decreased carbapenem susceptibility in P. mirabilis. PMID:25756370

  9. Regulation of the Min Cell Division Inhibition Complex by the Rcs Phosphorelay in Proteus mirabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howery, Kristen E; Clemmer, Katy M; Şimşek, Emrah; Kim, Minsu; Rather, Philip N

    2015-08-01

    A key regulator of swarming in Proteus mirabilis is the Rcs phosphorelay, which represses flhDC, encoding the master flagellar regulator FlhD4C2. Mutants in rcsB, the response regulator in the Rcs phosphorelay, hyperswarm on solid agar and differentiate into swarmer cells in liquid, demonstrating that this system also influences the expression of genes central to differentiation. To gain a further understanding of RcsB-regulated genes involved in swarmer cell differentiation, transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) was used to examine the RcsB regulon. Among the 133 genes identified, minC and minD, encoding cell division inhibitors, were identified as RcsB-activated genes. A third gene, minE, was shown to be part of an operon with minCD. To examine minCDE regulation, the min promoter was identified by 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (5'-RACE), and both transcriptional lacZ fusions and quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase (qRT) PCR were used to confirm that the minCDE operon was RcsB activated. Purified RcsB was capable of directly binding the minC promoter region. To determine the role of RcsB-mediated activation of minCDE in swarmer cell differentiation, a polar minC mutation was constructed. This mutant formed minicells during growth in liquid, produced shortened swarmer cells during differentiation, and exhibited decreased swarming motility. This work describes the regulation and role of the MinCDE cell division system in P. mirabilis swarming and swarmer cell elongation. Prior to this study, the mechanisms that inhibit cell division and allow swarmer cell elongation were unknown. In addition, this work outlines for the first time the RcsB regulon in P. mirabilis. Taken together, the data presented in this study begin to address how P. mirabilis elongates upon contact with a solid surface. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Proteus mirabilis uroepithelial cell adhesin (UCA) fimbria plays a role in the colonization of the urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, Rafael; Scavone, Paola; Umpiérrez, Ana; Maskell, Duncan J; Zunino, Pablo

    2013-03-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections in humans. Proteus mirabilis is an opportunistic pathogen, capable of causing severe UTIs, with serious kidney damage that may even lead to death. Several virulence factors are involved in the pathogenicity of this bacterium. Among these, adherence to the uroepithelium mediated by fimbriae appears to be a significant bacterial attribute related to urovirulence. Proteus mirabilis expresses several types of fimbriae that could be involved in the pathogenesis of UTI, including uroepithelial cell adhesin (UCA). In this report, we used an uropathogenic P. mirabilis wild-type strain and an isogenic ucaA mutant unable to express UCA to study the pathogenic role of this fimbria in UTI. Ability of the mutant to adhere to desquamated uroepithelial cells and to infect mice using different experimental UTI models was significantly impaired. These results allow us to conclude that P. mirabilis UCA plays an important role in the colonization of the urinary tract. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Activity of Proteus mirabilis FliL is viscosity dependent and requires extragenic DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yi-Ying; Patellis, Julius; Belas, Robert

    2013-02-01

    Proteus mirabilis is a urinary tract pathogen and well known for its ability to move over agar surfaces by flagellum-dependent swarming motility. When P. mirabilis encounters a highly viscous environment, e.g., an agar surface, it differentiates from short rods with few flagella to elongated, highly flagellated cells that lack septa and contain multiple nucleoids. The bacteria detect a surface by monitoring the rotation of their flagellar motors. This process involves an enigmatic flagellar protein called FliL, the first gene in an operon (fliLMNOPQR) that encodes proteins of the flagellar rotor switch complex and flagellar export apparatus. We used a fliL knockout mutant to gain further insight into the function of FliL. Loss of FliL results in cells that cannot swarm (Swr(-)) but do swim (Swm(+)) and produces cells that look like wild-type swarmer cells, termed "pseudoswarmer cells," that are elongated, contain multiple nucleoids, and lack septa. Unlike swarmer cells, pseudoswarmer cells are not hyperflagellated due to reduced expression of flaA (the gene encoding flagellin), despite an increased transcription of both flhD and fliA, two positive regulators of flagellar gene expression. We found that defects in fliL prevent viscosity-dependent sensing of a surface and viscosity-dependent induction of flaA transcription. Studies with fliL cells unexpectedly revealed that the fliL promoter, fliL coding region, and a portion of fliM DNA are needed to complement the Swr(-) phenotype. The data support a dual role for FliL as a critical link in sensing a surface and in the maintenance of flagellar rod integrity.

  12. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Proteus mirabilis: a longitudinal nationwide study from the Taiwan surveillance of antimicrobial resistance (TSAR) program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jann-Tay; Chen, Pei-Chen; Chang, Shan-Chwen; Shiau, Yih-Ru; Wang, Hui-Ying; Lai, Jui-Fen; Huang, I-Wen; Tan, Mei-Chen; Lauderdale, Tsai-Ling Yang

    2014-09-05

    Longitudinal nationwide data on antimicrobial susceptibility in Proteus mirabilis from different sources are rare. The effects of the revised Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) β-lactam breakpoints on susceptibility rates and on detecting extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and AmpC β-lactamase-producers in this species are also seldom evaluated. The present study analyzed data from the Taiwan Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance program to address these issues. Isolates were collected biennially between 2002 and 2012 from 25 to 28 hospitals in Taiwan. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined by reference broth microdilution method. All isolates with aztreonam, ceftazidime, or cefotaxime MIC ≥ 2 mg/L were checked for the presence of ESBL by CLSI confirmatory test and subjected to ESBL and AmpC β-lactamases gene detection by PCR. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Between 2002 and 2012, a total of 1157 P. mirabilis were studied. Susceptibility to cefotaxime, ceftazidime, and ciprofloxacin decreased significantly during the past decade, from 92.6% to 81.7%, 100% to 95.2%, and 80.1% to 53.8%, respectively (P mirabilis from Taiwan in the past decade. The prevalence of ESBL remained stable but AmpC β-lactamase-producing P. mirabilis increased significantly. Cefotaxime was a better surrogate than ceftazidime for predicting the presence of these β-lactamases. Continuous surveillance on antimicrobial resistance and associated resistance mechanisms in P. mirabilis is warranted.

  13. First Isolation of carbon dioxide-dependent Proteus mirabilis from an uncomplicated cystitis patient with Sjögren's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oana, Kozue; Yamaguchi, Michiko; Nagata, Mika; Washino, Kei-Ichi; Akahane, Takayuki; Takamatsu, Yu-Uki; Tsutsui, Chie; Matsumoto, Takehisa; Kawakami, Yoshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    An uncomplicated cystitis caused by CO2-dependent Proteus mirabilis was observed in a 64-year-old Japanese female patient with Sjögren's syndrome in the Aomori Kyoritsu Hospital, Aomori, Japan. The initial P. mirabilis isolate came from a midstream urine specimen containing large numbers of Gram-negative, rod-shaped organisms that failed to grow on both Drigalski agar and sheep blood agar incubated in ambient air. The organism did grow when the urine was cultured overnight on blood agar under anaerobic conditions. Hence, we believed that the organism was an anaerobe. Further investigation revealed that the isolate grew on sheep blood agar along with swarming when the atmospheric CO2 concentrations were increased to 5%. Initially, we failed to characterize or identify the P. mirabilis isolate or determine its antimicrobial susceptibilities using the MicroScan WalkAway-40 System because the isolate did not grow in the system. However, the isolate was subsequently identified as P. mirabilis based on its morphological, cultural, and biochemical properties by using the commercially available kit systems, Quick ID-GN and ID-Test EB-20. This identification of the isolate was confirmed by sequencing the 16S rRNA gene of the organism. To our knowledge, this is the first clinical isolation of capnophilic P. mirabilis.

  14. Complicated catheter-associated urinary tract infections due to Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, S M; Stickler, D J; Mobley, H L T; Shirtliff, M E

    2008-01-01

    Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) represent the most common type of nosocomial infection and are a major health concern due to the complications and frequent recurrence. These infections are often caused by Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis. Gram-negative bacterial species that cause CAUTIs express a number of virulence factors associated with adhesion, motility, biofilm formation, immunoavoidance, and nutrient acquisition as well as factors that cause damage to the host. These infections can be reduced by limiting catheter usage and ensuring that health care professionals correctly use closed-system Foley catheters. A number of novel approaches such as condom and suprapubic catheters, intermittent catheterization, new surfaces, catheters with antimicrobial agents, and probiotics have thus far met with limited success. While the diagnosis of symptomatic versus asymptomatic CAUTIs may be a contentious issue, it is generally agreed that once a catheterized patient is believed to have a symptomatic urinary tract infection, the catheter is removed if possible due to the high rate of relapse. Research focusing on the pathogenesis of CAUTIs will lead to a better understanding of the disease process and will subsequently lead to the development of new diagnosis, prevention, and treatment options.

  15. A novel biosorbent for dye removal: Extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) of Proteus mirabilis TJ-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Zhiqiang [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Water Environment of Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Laboratoire de Sciences Analytiques (UMR CNRS 5180), Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Universite de Lyon, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Xia Siqing [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Water Environment of Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)], E-mail: siqingxia@mail.tongji.edu.cn; Wang Xuejiang; Yang Aming; Xu Bin; Chen Ling; Zhu Zhiliang; Zhao Jianfu [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Water Environment of Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole; Leonard, Didier [Laboratoire de Sciences Analytiques (UMR CNRS 5180), Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Universite de Lyon, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

    2009-04-15

    This paper deals with the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) of Proteus mirabilis TJ-1 used as a novel biosorbent to remove dye from aqueous solution in batch systems. As a widely used and hazardous dye, basic blue 54 (BB54) was chosen as the model dye to examine the adsorption performance of the EPS. The effects of pH, initial dye concentration, contact time and temperature on the sorption of BB54 to the EPS were examined. At various initial dye concentrations (50-400 mg/L), the batch sorption equilibrium can be obtained in only 5 min. Kinetic studies suggested that the sorption followed the internal transport mechanism. According to the Langmuir model, the maximum BB54 uptake of 2.005 g/g was obtained. Chemical analysis of the EPS indicated the presence of protein (30.9%, w/w) and acid polysaccharide (63.1%, w/w). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that the EPS with a crystal-linear structure was whole enwrapped by adsorbed dye molecules. FTIR spectrum result revealed the presence of adsorbing groups such as carboxyl, hydroxyl and amino groups in the EPS. High-molecular weight of the EPS with more binding-sites and stronger van der Waals forces together with its specific construct leads to the excellent performance of dye adsorption. The EPS shows potential board application as a biosorbent for both environmental protection and dye recovery.

  16. A novel biosorbent for dye removal: Extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) of Proteus mirabilis TJ-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhiqiang; Xia Siqing; Wang Xuejiang; Yang Aming; Xu Bin; Chen Ling; Zhu Zhiliang; Zhao Jianfu; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole; Leonard, Didier

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) of Proteus mirabilis TJ-1 used as a novel biosorbent to remove dye from aqueous solution in batch systems. As a widely used and hazardous dye, basic blue 54 (BB54) was chosen as the model dye to examine the adsorption performance of the EPS. The effects of pH, initial dye concentration, contact time and temperature on the sorption of BB54 to the EPS were examined. At various initial dye concentrations (50-400 mg/L), the batch sorption equilibrium can be obtained in only 5 min. Kinetic studies suggested that the sorption followed the internal transport mechanism. According to the Langmuir model, the maximum BB54 uptake of 2.005 g/g was obtained. Chemical analysis of the EPS indicated the presence of protein (30.9%, w/w) and acid polysaccharide (63.1%, w/w). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that the EPS with a crystal-linear structure was whole enwrapped by adsorbed dye molecules. FTIR spectrum result revealed the presence of adsorbing groups such as carboxyl, hydroxyl and amino groups in the EPS. High-molecular weight of the EPS with more binding-sites and stronger van der Waals forces together with its specific construct leads to the excellent performance of dye adsorption. The EPS shows potential board application as a biosorbent for both environmental protection and dye recovery

  17. Isolation and Purification of Complex II from Proteus Mirabilis Strain ATCC 29245

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabbiri, Khadija; Ahmad, Waqar; Syed, Quratulain; Adnan, Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    A respiratory complex was isolated from plasma membrane of pathogenic Proteus mirabilis strain ATCC 29245. It was identified as complex II consisting of succinate:quinone oxidoreductase (EC 1.3.5.1) containing single heme b. The complex II was purified by ion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration. The molecular weight of purified complex was 116.5 kDa and it was composed of three subunits with molecular weights of 19 kDa, 29 kDa and 68.5 kDa. The complex II contained 9.5 nmoles of cytochrome b per mg protein. Heme staining indicated that the 19 kDa subunit was cytochrome b. Its reduced form showed absorptions peaks at 557.0, 524.8 and 424.4 nm. The α-band was shifted from 557.0 nm to 556.8 nm in pyridine ferrohemochrome spectrum. The succinate: quinone oxidoreductase activity was found to be high in this microorganism. PMID:24031557

  18. Production of a High Efficiency Microbial Flocculant by Proteus mirabilis TJ-1 Using Compound Organic Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiqiang; Xia, Siqing; Zhang, Jiao

    2010-11-01

    The production of a high efficiency microbial flocculant (MBF) by Proteus mirabilis TJ-1 using compound organic wastewater was investigated. To cut down the cost of the MBF production, several nutritive organic wastewaters were selected to replace glucose and peptone as the carbon source and the nitrogen source in the optimized medium of strain TJ-1, respectively. The compound wastewater of the milk candy and the soybean milk was found to be good carbon source and nitrogen source for this strain to produce MBF. The cost-effective culture medium consists of (per liter): 800 mL wastewater of milk candy, 200 mL wastewater of soybean milk, 0.3 g MgSO4ṡ7 H2O, 5 g K2HPO4, 2 g and KH2PO4, pH 7.0. The economic cost for the MBF production can be cut down over a half by using the developed culture medium. Furthermore, the utilization of the two wastewaters in the preparation of culture medium of strain TJ-1 can not only save their big treatment cost, but also realize their resource reuse.

  19. Dynamical Properties of Transient Spatio-Temporal Patterns in Bacterial Colony of Proteus mirabilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kazuhiko; Wakita, Jun-ichi; Itoh, Hiroto; Shimada, Hirotoshi; Kurosu, Sayuri; Ikeda, Takemasa; Yamazaki, Yoshihiro; Matsuyama, Tohey; Matsushita, Mitsugu

    2002-02-01

    Spatio-temporal patterns emerged inside a colony of bacterial species Proteus mirabilis on the surface of nutrient-rich semisolid agar medium have been investigated. We observed various patterns composed of the following basic types: propagating stripe, propagating stripe with fixed dislocation, expanding and shrinking target, and rotating spiral. The remarkable point is that the pattern changes immediately when we alter the position for observation, but it returns to the original if we restore the observing position within a few minutes. We further investigated mesoscopic and microscopic properties of the spatio-temporal patterns. It turned out that whenever the spatio-temporal patterns are observed in a colony, the areas are composed of two superimposed monolayers of elongated bacterial cells. In each area they are aligned almost parallel with each other like a two-dimensional nematic liquid crystal, and move collectively and independently of another layer. It has been found that the observed spatio-temporal patterns are explained as the moiré effect.

  20. Immune enhancement of Taishan Robinia pseudoacacia polysaccharide on recombinant Proteus mirabilis OmpA in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongbing; Yang, Shifa; Zhao, Xue; Yang, Ya; Li, Bing; Zhu, Fujie; Zhu, Ruiliang

    2014-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Taishan Robinia pseudoacacia polysaccharide (TRPPS) on immune responses of chickens immunized with Proteus mirabilis outer membrane protein A (OmpA) recombinant protein vaccine. OmpA was expressed in Pichia pastoris and mixed with TRPPS. 360 chickens were randomly divided into six groups. Groups I to IV were treated with OmpA which contained TRPPS of three different dosages, Freund's adjuvant, respectively. Groups V and VI were treated with pure OmpA and physiological saline, respectively. The data showed that the antibody titers against OmpA, the concentration of IL-2, CD4 +, and CD8 +, T lymphocyte proliferation rate in Group II were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those in the other groups, little difference in SIgA content was observed among groups I to VI. These results indicated that TRPPS strengthened humoral and cellular immune responses against recombinant OmpA vaccine. Moreover, 200 mg/mL TRPPS showed significance (P < 0.05) compared with Freund's adjuvant. Therefore, TRPPS can be developed into an adjuvant for recombinant subunit vaccine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Cranberry derivatives enhance biofilm formation and transiently impair swarming motility of the uropathogen Proteus mirabilis HI4320.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'May, Che; Amzallag, Olivier; Bechir, Karim; Tufenkji, Nathalie

    2016-06-01

    Proteus mirabilis is a major cause of catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI), emphasizing that novel strategies for targeting this bacterium are needed. Potential targets are P. mirabilis surface-associated swarming motility and the propensity of these bacteria to form biofilms that may lead to catheter blockage. We previously showed that the addition of cranberry powder (CP) to lysogeny broth (LB) medium resulted in impaired P. mirabilis swarming motility over short time periods (up to 16 h). Herein, we significantly expanded on those findings by exploring (i) the effects of cranberry derivatives on biofilm formation of P. mirabilis, (ii) whether swarming inhibition occurred transiently or over longer periods more relevant to real infections (∼3 days), (iii) whether swarming was also blocked by commercially available cranberry juices, (iv) whether CP or cranberry juices exhibited effects under natural urine conditions, and (v) the effects of cranberry on medium pH, which is an indirect indicator of urease activity. At short time scales (24 h), CP and commercially available pure cranberry juice impaired swarming motility and repelled actively swarming bacteria in LB medium. Over longer time periods more representative of infections (∼3 days), the capacity of the cranberry material to impair swarming diminished and bacteria would start to migrate across the surface, albeit by exhibiting a different motility phenotype to the regular "bull's-eye" swarming phenotype of P. mirabilis. This bacterium did not swarm on urine agar or LB agar supplemented with urea, suggesting that any potential application of anti-swarming compounds may be better suited to settings external to the urine environment. Anti-swarming effects were confounded by the ability of cranberry products to enhance biofilm formation in both LB and urine conditions. These findings provide key insights into the long-term strategy of targeting P. mirabilis CAUTIs.

  2. Integration of the blaNDM-1 carbapenemase gene into Proteus genomic island 1 (PGI1-PmPEL) in a Proteus mirabilis clinical isolate.

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    Girlich, Delphine; Dortet, Laurent; Poirel, Laurent; Nordmann, Patrice

    2015-01-01

    To decipher the mechanisms and their associated genetic determinants responsible for β-lactam resistance in a Proteus mirabilis clinical isolate. The entire genetic structure surrounding the β-lactam resistance genes was characterized by PCR, gene walking and DNA sequencing. Genes encoding the carbapenemase NDM-1 and the ESBL VEB-6 were located in a 38.5 kb MDR structure, which itself was inserted into a new variant of the Proteus genomic island 1 (PGI1). This new PGI1-PmPEL variant of 64.4 kb was chromosomally located, as an external circular form in the P. mirabilis isolate, suggesting potential mobility. This is the first known description of the bla(NDM-1) gene in a genomic island structure, which might further enhance the spread of the bla(NDM-1) carbapenemase gene among enteric pathogens. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Increased Incidence of Urolithiasis and Bacteremia During Proteus mirabilis and Providencia stuartii Coinfection Due to Synergistic Induction of Urease Activity

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    Armbruster, Chelsie E.; Smith, Sara N.; Yep, Alejandra; Mobley, Harry L. T.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CaUTIs) are the most common hospital-acquired infections worldwide and are frequently polymicrobial. The urease-positive species Proteus mirabilis and Providencia stuartii are two of the leading causes of CaUTIs and commonly co-colonize catheters. These species can also cause urolithiasis and bacteremia. However, the impact of coinfection on these complications has never been addressed experimentally. Methods. A mouse model of ascending UTI was utilized to determine the impact of coinfection on colonization, urolithiasis, and bacteremia. Mice were infected with P. mirabilis or a urease mutant, P. stuartii, or a combination of these organisms. In vitro experiments were conducted to assess growth dynamics and impact of co-culture on urease activity. Results. Coinfection resulted in a bacterial load similar to monospecies infection but with increased incidence of urolithiasis and bacteremia. These complications were urease-dependent as they were not observed during coinfection with a P. mirabilis urease mutant. Furthermore, total urease activity was increased during co-culture. Conclusions. We conclude that P. mirabilis and P. stuartii coinfection promotes urolithiasis and bacteremia in a urease-dependent manner, at least in part through synergistic induction of urease activity. These data provide a possible explanation for the high incidence of bacteremia resulting from polymicrobial CaUTI. PMID:24280366

  4. Increased incidence of urolithiasis and bacteremia during Proteus mirabilis and Providencia stuartii coinfection due to synergistic induction of urease activity.

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    Armbruster, Chelsie E; Smith, Sara N; Yep, Alejandra; Mobley, Harry L T

    2014-05-15

    Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CaUTIs) are the most common hospital-acquired infections worldwide and are frequently polymicrobial. The urease-positive species Proteus mirabilis and Providencia stuartii are two of the leading causes of CaUTIs and commonly co-colonize catheters. These species can also cause urolithiasis and bacteremia. However, the impact of coinfection on these complications has never been addressed experimentally. A mouse model of ascending UTI was utilized to determine the impact of coinfection on colonization, urolithiasis, and bacteremia. Mice were infected with P. mirabilis or a urease mutant, P. stuartii, or a combination of these organisms. In vitro experiments were conducted to assess growth dynamics and impact of co-culture on urease activity. Coinfection resulted in a bacterial load similar to monospecies infection but with increased incidence of urolithiasis and bacteremia. These complications were urease-dependent as they were not observed during coinfection with a P. mirabilis urease mutant. Furthermore, total urease activity was increased during co-culture. We conclude that P. mirabilis and P. stuartii coinfection promotes urolithiasis and bacteremia in a urease-dependent manner, at least in part through synergistic induction of urease activity. These data provide a possible explanation for the high incidence of bacteremia resulting from polymicrobial CaUTI.

  5. Modulation of pulmonary defense mechanisms by acute exposures to nitrogen dioxide. [Staphylococcus aureus; Proteus mirabilis; Pasteurella pneumotropica

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    Jakab, G.J.

    1987-02-01

    The effect of acute exposures to NO/sub 2/ on the antibacterial defenses of the murine lung was assessed following inhalation challenges with Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, and Pasteurella pneumotropica. With S. aureus pulmonary antibacterial defenses were suppressed at NO/sub 2/ levels of 4.0 ppm and greater. Exposure to 10.0 ppm enhanced the intrapulmonary killing of P. mirabilis which correlated with an increase in the phagocytic cell populations lavaged from the lungs; at 20.0 ppm bactericidal activity against P. mirabilis was impaired. Pulmonary antibacterial defenses against P. pneumotropica were impaired at 10.0 ppm which correlated with a decrease in the retrieved phagocytic lung cell population. Reversing the order of treatment (ie., NO/sub 2/ exposure prior to bacterial challenge) raised the threshold concentration for NO/sub 2/-induced impairment of intrapulmonary bacterial killing. With S. aureus the effect was not observed at 5.0 ppm but at 10.0 ppm and with P. mirabilis not at 20.0 ppm but at 30.0 ppm intrapulmonary killing was enhanced. Exposures up to 20.0 ppm of NO/sub 2/ did not effect the physical translocation mechanisms of the lung as quantitated by declines in pulmonary radiotracer activity following aerogenic challenge with /sup 32/P-labeled staphylococci.

  6. Inhibition of crystallization caused by Proteus mirabilis during the development of infectious urolithiasis by various phenolic substances.

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    Torzewska, Agnieszka; Rozalski, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Infectious urolithiasis is a consequence of persistent urinary tract infections caused by urease producing bacteria e.g. Proteus mirabilis. These stones are composed of struvite and carbonate apatite. Their rapid growth and high recurrence indicate that so far appropriate methods of treatment have not been found. In the present study, the inhibitory effect of phenolic compounds was investigated in vitro against formation of struvite/apatite crystals. The impact of these substances with different chemical structures on crystallization caused by clinical isolates of P. mirabilis was tested spectrophotometrically using a microdilution method. Among the 11 tested compounds resveratrol, epigallocatechin gallate, peralgonidin, vanillic and coffee acids at the concentrations 250-1000 μg/ml inhibited P. mirabilis urease activity and crystallization. However, only vanillic acid had such an effect on all tested strains of P. mirabilis. Therefore, using an in vitro model, bacterial growth, crystallization, urease activity and pH were examined for 24h in synthetic urine with vanillic acid. Effect of vanillic acid was compared with that of other known struvite/apatite crystallization inhibitors (acetohydroxamic acid, pyrophosphate) and it was shown that vanillic acid strongly inhibited bacterial growth and the formation of crystals. It can be assumed that this compound, after further studies, can be used in the treatment or prophylaxis of infectious urolithiasis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Anaerobic Respiration Using a Complete Oxidative TCA Cycle Drives Multicellular Swarming in Proteus mirabilis

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    Alteri, Christopher J.; Himpsl, Stephanie D.; Engstrom, Michael D.; Mobley, Harry L. T.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Proteus mirabilis rapidly migrates across surfaces using a periodic developmental process of differentiation alternating between short swimmer cells and elongated hyperflagellated swarmer cells. To undergo this vigorous flagellum-mediated motility, bacteria must generate a substantial proton gradient across their cytoplasmic membranes by using available energy pathways. We sought to identify the link between energy pathways and swarming differentiation by examining the behavior of defined central metabolism mutants. Mutations in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle (fumC and sdhB mutants) caused altered patterns of swarming periodicity, suggesting an aerobic pathway. Surprisingly, the wild-type strain swarmed on agar containing sodium azide, which poisons aerobic respiration; the fumC TCA cycle mutant, however, was unable to swarm on azide. To identify other contributing energy pathways, we screened transposon mutants for loss of swarming on sodium azide and found insertions in the following genes that involved fumarate metabolism or respiration: hybB, encoding hydrogenase; fumC, encoding fumarase; argH, encoding argininosuccinate lyase (generates fumarate); and a quinone hydroxylase gene. These findings validated the screen and suggested involvement of anaerobic electron transport chain components. Abnormal swarming periodicity of fumC and sdhB mutants was associated with the excretion of reduced acidic fermentation end products. Bacteria lacking SdhB were rescued to wild-type pH and periodicity by providing fumarate, independent of carbon source but dependent on oxygen, while fumC mutants were rescued by glycerol, independent of fumarate only under anaerobic conditions. These findings link multicellular swarming patterns with fumarate metabolism and membrane electron transport using a previously unappreciated configuration of both aerobic and anaerobic respiratory chain components. PMID:23111869

  8. Epidemiology of extended-spectrum β-lactamase, AmpC, and carbapenemase production in Proteus mirabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Priya; Gupta, Varsha; Arora, Shilpa; Garg, Shivani; Chander, Jagdish

    2014-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis strains that produce extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL), AmpC β-lactamase, and carbapenemase pose potential threats to patient care because most clinical diagnostic laboratories may not attempt to detect these three major groups of enzymes. Therefore, the objective of this study was to ascertain if P. mirabilis isolates collected from our heathcare facility possess various mechanisms of resistance to β-lactams (i.e., ESBL, AmpC, and carbapenemases) and to additionally arrive at conclusions regarding concurrent testing for these three mechanism of drug resistance in order to reduce cost and time in routine diagnostic testing. Between January 2011 and June 2011, 60 consecutive non-repeated strains of P. mirabilis were evaluated for production of ESBLs, AmpC β-lactamases, and carbapenemases. Of these, 36 isolates were found to be ESBL producers, and 7 (12%) were positive for production of AmpC β-lactamases and ESBLs. Therefore, 19.4% of ESBL-producing Proteus strains coproduced AmpC enzymes. The modified Hodge test confirmed carbapenemase production in only 1 isolate (1.7%), which was also ESBL- and AmpC-positive. The clinical impact of additional AmpC expression in ESBL-producing P. mirabilis results in a newly acquired resistance to β-lactamase inhibitors. In addition, to save time and costs, we recommend the use of cefepime/cefepime-clavulanate or boronic acid for the ESBL detection but in only those strains that were positive for ESBL by screening and negative by confirmatory tests.

  9. Proteus Mirabilis Bacteria Biosensor Development Based on Modified Gold Electrode with 4-Carboxyphenyl Diazonium Salts for Heavy Metals Toxicity Detection

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    Yosra BRAHAM

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work we describe a new biosensor for heavy metals detection, based on the immobilization of bacteria, Proteus mirabilis on gold electrode modified with aryl electrografting film. To enhance the stability of the biosystem, additional materials were used such as functionalized Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs, cationic (PAH, anionic (PSS polyelectrolytes, Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA and glutaraldehyde as a cross-linking agent. Before the immobilization step, the activity of Proteus mirabilis bacteria in the presence of heavy metals ions was attempted using the ion ammonium selective electrodes (ISEs. The modication of the gold electrodes with the electrochemical reduction of 4- carboxyphenyl diazonium salts to form stable layers for sensing applications was characterized by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry measurements. The adhesion of the bacteria cell on gold electrode was evaluated using contact angle measurements. The immobilized bacteria-metal interaction was evaluated using the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS measurements. A notable effect of metal on the bacteria activity is observed in the concentration range from 10-3 to 1 µM and from 1µM to 1nM for Co2+, Cd2+, Cu2+ and Hg2+, respectively.

  10. Distinct Residues Contribute to Motility Repression and Autoregulation in the Proteus mirabilis Fimbria-Associated Transcriptional Regulator AtfJ.

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    Bode, Nadine J; Chan, Kun-Wei; Kong, Xiang-Peng; Pearson, Melanie M

    2016-08-01

    Proteus mirabilis contributes to a significant number of catheter-associated urinary tract infections, where coordinated regulation of adherence and motility is critical for ascending disease progression. Previously, the mannose-resistant Proteus-like (MR/P) fimbria-associated transcriptional regulator MrpJ has been shown to both repress motility and directly induce the transcription of its own operon; in addition, it affects the expression of a wide range of cellular processes. Interestingly, 14 additional mrpJ paralogs are included in the P. mirabilis genome. Looking at a selection of MrpJ paralogs, we discovered that these proteins, which consistently repress motility, also have nonidentical functions that include cross-regulation of fimbrial operons. A subset of paralogs, including AtfJ (encoded by the ambient temperature fimbrial operon), Fim8J, and MrpJ, are capable of autoinduction. We identified an element of the atf promoter extending from 487 to 655 nucleotides upstream of the transcriptional start site that is responsive to AtfJ, and we found that AtfJ directly binds this fragment. Mutational analysis of AtfJ revealed that its two identified functions, autoregulation and motility repression, are not invariably linked. Residues within the DNA-binding helix-turn-helix domain are required for motility repression but not necessarily autoregulation. Likewise, the C-terminal domain is dispensable for motility repression but is essential for autoregulation. Supported by a three-dimensional (3D) structural model, we hypothesize that the C-terminal domain confers unique regulatory capacities on the AtfJ family of regulators. Balancing adherence with motility is essential for uropathogens to successfully establish a foothold in their host. Proteus mirabilis uses a fimbria-associated transcriptional regulator to switch between these antagonistic processes by increasing fimbrial adherence while simultaneously downregulating flagella. The discovery of multiple

  11. Evaluation of environmental scanning electron microscopy for analysis of Proteus mirabilis crystalline biofilms in situ on urinary catheters.

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    Holling, Nina; Dedi, Cinzia; Jones, Caroline E; Hawthorne, Joseph A; Hanlon, Geoffrey W; Salvage, Jonathan P; Patel, Bhavik A; Barnes, Lara M; Jones, Brian V

    2014-06-01

    Proteus mirabilis is a common cause of catheter-associated urinary tract infections and frequently leads to blockage of catheters due to crystalline biofilm formation. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has proven to be a valuable tool in the study of these unusual biofilms, but entails laborious sample preparation that can introduce artefacts, undermining the investigation of biofilm development. In contrast, environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) permits imaging of unprocessed, fully hydrated samples, which may provide much insight into the development of P. mirabilis biofilms. Here, we evaluate the utility of ESEM for the study of P. mirabilis crystalline biofilms in situ, on urinary catheters. In doing so, we compare this to commonly used conventional SEM approaches for sample preparation and imaging. Overall, ESEM provided excellent resolution of biofilms formed on urinary catheters and revealed structures not observed in standard SEM imaging or previously described in other studies of these biofilms. In addition, we show that energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) may be employed in conjunction with ESEM to provide information regarding the elemental composition of crystalline structures and demonstrate the potential for ESEM in combination with EDS to constitute a useful tool in exploring the mechanisms underpinning crystalline biofilm formation. © 2014 The Authors. FEMS Microbiology Letters published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Federation of European Microbiological Societies.

  12. Regional Spread of CTX-M-2-Producing Proteus mirabilis with the Identical Genetic Structure in Japan.

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    Kato, Karin; Matsumura, Yasufumi; Yamamoto, Masaki; Nagao, Miki; Takakura, Shunji; Ichiyama, Satoshi

    2017-07-01

    In this study, we analyzed the molecular epidemiology of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Proteus mirabilis isolates collected from the central region of Japan. Between 2005 and 2012, 820 clinical P. mirabilis isolates were obtained from ten acute care hospitals in Japan. We characterized ESBL confirmatory test-positive isolates by sequencing the ESBL genes and their flanking regions, detecting plasmid replicons, and performing pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Ninety-six isolates (12%) were positive according to the ESBL confirmatory test; all these isolates possessed bla CTX-M-2 with the same flanking structure of upstream ΔISEcp1 and a downstream region identical to downstream bla KLUA-1 . IncT was the prevalent, and only, replicon found in 63 isolates. PFGE analysis detected eight clusters with more than one isolate, among which three included 56 isolates and six included isolates from multiple hospitals. CTX-M-2-producing P. mirabilis with an identical genetic structure flanking bla CTX-M-2 is dominant in this Japanese region, and there is evidence for the clonal spread of isolates.

  13. Distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Proteus mirabilis strains recently isolated in Japan.

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    Kanayama, Akiko; Kobayashi, Intetsu; Shibuya, Kazutoshi

    2015-02-01

    Here we report on the prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Proteus mirabilis from a nationwide antimicrobial resistance survey in different geographical regions of Japan. A total of 799 P. mirabilis isolates recovered between July 2009 and June 2010 from 314 healthcare facilities were characterised according to ESBL production, source, location and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern. ESBL production was found in 364 (45.6%) of the isolates, among which 354 (97.3%) produced CTX-M-2 group β-lactamases. Of the 349 ESBL-producing isolates in which the inpatient or outpatient status of the source was known, 324 (92.8%) were from inpatients and 25 (7.2%) were from outpatients (Pmirabilis compared with 159/405 (39.3%), 119/209 (56.9%), 42/77 (54.5%) and 20/49 (40.8%), respectively, for isolates from urine, sputum, decubitus ulcer and wound specimens. Among the ESBL-producers, non-susceptibility to ciprofloxacin was found in 74.2% of the ESBL-producing isolates compared with 17.7% of the ESBL-non-producing isolates. These results show that approximately one-half of the P. mirabilis isolates from clinical specimens in Japan are ESBL-producers and that the potential for concomitant fluoroquinolone resistance must also be considered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  14. Zinc uptake contributes to motility and provides a competitive advantage to Proteus mirabilis during experimental urinary tract infection.

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    Nielubowicz, Greta R; Smith, Sara N; Mobley, Harry L T

    2010-06-01

    Proteus mirabilis, a Gram-negative bacterium, represents a common cause of complicated urinary tract infections in catheterized patients or those with functional or anatomical abnormalities of the urinary tract. ZnuB, the membrane component of the high-affinity zinc (Zn(2+)) transport system ZnuACB, was previously shown to be recognized by sera from infected mice. Since this system has been shown to contribute to virulence in other pathogens, its role in Proteus mirabilis was investigated by constructing a strain with an insertionally interrupted copy of znuC. The znuC::Kan mutant was more sensitive to zinc limitation than the wild type, was outcompeted by the wild type in minimal medium, displayed reduced swimming and swarming motility, and produced less flaA transcript and flagellin protein. The production of flagellin and swarming motility were restored by complementation with znuCB in trans. Swarming motility was also restored by the addition of Zn(2+) to the agar prior to inoculation; the addition of Fe(2+) to the agar also partially restored the swarming motility of the znuC::Kan strain, but the addition of Co(2+), Cu(2+), or Ni(2+) did not. ZnuC contributes to but is not required for virulence in the urinary tract; the znuC::Kan strain was outcompeted by the wild type during a cochallenge experiment but was able to colonize mice to levels similar to the wild-type level during independent challenge. Since we demonstrated a role for ZnuC in zinc transport, we hypothesize that there is limited zinc present in the urinary tract and P. mirabilis must scavenge this ion to colonize and persist in the host.

  15. Cefepime shows good efficacy and no antibiotic resistance in pneumonia caused by Serratia marcescens and Proteus mirabilis - an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yayan, Josef; Ghebremedhin, Beniam; Rasche, Kurt

    2016-03-23

    Many antibiotics have no effect on Gram-positive and Gram-negative microbes, which necessitates the prescription of broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents that can lead to increased risk of antibiotic resistance. These pathogens constitute a further threat because they are also resistant to numerous beta-lactam antibiotics, as well as other antibiotic groups. This study retrospectively investigates antimicrobial resistance in hospitalized patients suffering from pneumonia triggered by Gram-negative Serratia marcescens or Proteus mirabilis. The demographic and clinical data analyzed in this study were obtained from the clinical databank of the HELIOS Clinic, Witten/Herdecke University, Wuppertal, Germany, for inpatients presenting with pneumonia triggered by S. marcescens or P. mirabilis from 2004 to 2014. An antibiogram was conducted for the antibiotics utilized as part of the management of patients with pneumonia triggered by these two pathogens. Pneumonia was caused by Gram-negative bacteria in 115 patients during the study period from January 1, 2004, to August 12, 2014. Of these, 43 (37.4 %) hospitalized patients [26 males (60.5 %, 95 % CI 45.9 %-75.1 %) and 17 females (39.5 %, 95 % CI 24.9 %-54.1 %)] with mean age of 66.2 ± 13.4 years had pneumonia triggered by S. marcescens, while 20 (17.4 %) patients [14 males (70 %, 95 % CI 49.9 %-90.1 %) and 6 females (30 %, 95 % CI 9.9 %-50.1 %)] with a mean age of 64.6 ± 12.8 years had pneumonia caused by P. mirabilis. S. marcescens showed an increased antibiotic resistance to ampicillin (100 %), ampicillin-sulbactam (100 %), and cefuroxime (100 %). P. mirabilis had a high resistance to tetracycline (100 %) and ampicillin (55 %). S. marcescens (P < 0.0001) and P. mirabilis (P = 0.0003) demonstrated no resistance to cefepime in these patients with pneumonia. S. marcescens and P. mirabilis were resistant to several commonly used antimicrobial agents, but showed no resistance to

  16. Survey of multidrug resistance integrative mobilizable elements SGI1 and PGI1 in Proteus mirabilis in humans and dogs in France, 2010-13.

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    Schultz, Eliette; Haenni, Marisa; Mereghetti, Laurent; Siebor, Eliane; Neuwirth, Catherine; Madec, Jean-Yves; Cloeckaert, Axel; Doublet, Benoît

    2015-09-01

    To characterize MDR genomic islands related to Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1) and Proteus genomic island 1 (PGI1) in Proteus mirabilis from human and animal sources in France in light of the previously reported cases. A total of 52 and 46 P. mirabilis clinical strains from human and animal sources, respectively, were studied for the period 2010-13. MDR was assessed by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, PCR detection of SGI1 and PGI1 and PCR mapping of the MDR regions. The diversity of the SGI1/PGI1-positive P. mirabilis strains was assessed by PFGE. Twelve P. mirabilis strains (5 humans and 7 dogs) were found to harbour an MDR island related to SGI1 or PGI1. Among them, several SGI1 variants were identified in diverse P. mirabilis genetic backgrounds. The variant SGI1-V, which harbours the ESBL bla VEB-6 gene, was found in closely genetically related human and dog P. mirabilis strains. The recently described PGI1 element was also identified in human and dog strains. Finally, one strain harboured a novel SGI genomic island closely related to SGI1 and SGI2 without an insertion of the MDR region. This study reports for the first time, to our knowledge, SGI1-positive and PGI1-positive P. mirabilis strains from dogs in France. The genetic diversity of the strains suggests several independent horizontal acquisitions of these MDR elements. The potential transmission of SGI1/PGI1-positive P. mirabilis strains between animals and humans is of public health concern, notably with regard to the spread of ESBL and carbapenemase genes, i.e. bla VEB-6 and bla NDM-1. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Design, synthesis, molecular docking, anti-Proteus mirabilis and urease inhibition of new fluoroquinolone carboxylic acid derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Mohammed A A; Abuo-Rahma, Gamal El-Din A A; Abdelhafez, El-Shimaa M N; Hassan, Heba A; Abd El-Baky, Rehab M

    2017-02-01

    New hydroxamic acid, hydrazide and amide derivatives of ciprofloxacin in addition to their analogues of levofloxacin were prepared and identified by different spectroscopic techniques. Some of the prepared compounds revealed good activity against the urease splitting bacteria, Proteus mirabilis. The urease inhibitory activity was investigated using indophenol method. Most of the tested compounds showed better activity than the reference acetohydroxamic acid (AHA). The ciprofloxacin hydrazide derivative 3a and levofloxacin hydroxamic acid 7 experienced the highest activity (IC 50 =1.22μM and 2.20μM, respectively). Molecular docking study revealed high spontaneous binding ability of the tested compounds to the active site of urease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Secondary metabolites produced by marine streptomyces as antibiofilm and quorum-sensing inhibitor of uropathogen Proteus mirabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younis, Khansa Mohammed; Usup, Gires; Ahmad, Asmat

    2016-03-01

    Quorum-sensing regulates bacterial biofilm formation and virulence factors, thereby making it an interesting target for attenuating pathogens. In this study, we investigated anti-biofilm and anti-quorum-sensing compounds from secondary metabolites of halophiles marine streptomyces against urinary catheter biofilm forming Proteus mirabilis without effect on growth viability. A total of 40 actinomycetes were isolated from samples collected from different places in Iraq including marine sediments and soil samples. Fifteen isolates identified as streptomyces and their supernatant screened as anti-quorum-sensing by inhibiting quorum-sensing regulated prodigiosin biosynthesis of Serratia marcescens strain Smj-11 as a reporter strain. Isolate Sediment Lake Iraq (sdLi) showed potential anti-quorum-sensing activity. Out of 35 clinical isolates obtained from Urinary catheter used by patient at the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center, 22 isolates were characterized and identified as Proteus mirabilis. Isolate Urinary Catheter B4 (UCB4) showed the highest biofilm formation with highest resistance to used antibiotic and was chosen for further studies. Ethyl acetate secondary metabolites extract was produced from sdLi isolate. First, we determined the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of sdLi crude extract against UCB4 isolate, and all further experiments used concentrations below the MIC. Tests of subinhibitory concentrations of sdLi crude extract showed good inhibition against UCB4 isolate biofilm formation on urinary catheter and cover glass using Scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy respectively. The influence of sub-MIC of sdLi crude extract was also found to attenuate the quorum sensing (QS)-dependent factors such as hemolysin activity, urease activity, pH value, and motility of UCB4 isolate. Evidence is presented that these nontoxic secondary metabolites may act as antagonists of bacterial quorum sensing by competing with quorum-sensing signals

  19. Detection of human antibodies binding with smooth and rough LPSs from Proteus mirabilis O3 strains S1959, R110, R45.

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    Gleńska-Olender, J; Durlik, K; Konieczna, I; Kowalska, P; Gawęda, J; Kaca, W

    2017-11-01

    Bacteria of the genus Proteus of the family Enterobacteriaceae are facultative human pathogens responsible mainly for urinary tract and wound infections, bacteremia and the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We have analyzed and compared by ELISA the titer of antibodies in plasmas of healthy individuals and in sera of rheumatoid arthritis patients recognizing a potential host cross-reactive epitope (lysine-galacturonic acid epitopes) present in Proteus lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In our experiments LPSs isolated from two mutants of smooth Proteus mirabilis 1959 (O3), i.e. strains R110 and R45, were used. R110 (Ra type mutant) is lacking the O-specific polysaccharide, but possesses a complete core oligosaccharide, while R45 (Re type) has a reduced core oligosaccharide and contains two 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid residues and one of 4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinopyranose residues. Titer of P. mirabilis S1959 LPS-specific-antibodies increased with the age of blood donors. RA and blood donors' sera contained antibodies against S and Ra and Re type of P. mirabilis O3 LPSs. Antibodies recognizing lysine-galacturonic acid epitopes of O3 LPS were detected by ELISA in some plasmas of healthy individuals and sera of rheumatoid arthritis patients. RA patients antibodies reacting with P. mirabilis S1959 S and R LPSs may indicate a potential role of anti-LPS antibodies in molecular mimicry in RA diseases.

  20. Native flagellin does not protect mice against an experimental Proteus mirabilis ascending urinary tract infection and neutralizes the protective effect of MrpA fimbrial protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scavone, Paola; Umpiérrez, Ana; Rial, Analía; Chabalgoity, José A; Zunino, Pablo

    2014-06-01

    Proteus mirabilis expresses several virulence factors including MR/P fimbriae and flagella. Bacterial flagellin has frequently shown interesting adjuvant and protective properties in vaccine formulations. However, native P. mirabilis flagellin has not been analyzed so far. Native P. mirabilis flagellin was evaluated as a protective antigen and as an adjuvant in co-immunizations with MrpA (structural subunit of MR/P fimbriae) using an ascending UTI model in the mouse. Four groups of mice were intranasally treated with either MrpA, native flagellin, both proteins and PBS. Urine and blood samples were collected before and after immunization for specific antibodies determination. Cytokine production was assessed in immunized mice splenocytes cultures. Mice were challenged with P. mirabilis, and bacteria quantified in kidneys and bladders. MrpA immunization induced serum and urine specific anti-MrpA antibodies while MrpA coadministered with native flagellin did not. None of the animals developed significant anti-flagellin antibodies. Only MrpA-immunized mice showed a significant decrease of P. mirabilis in bladders and kidneys. Instead, infection levels in MrpA-flagellin or flagellin-treated mice showed no significant differences with the control group. IL-10 was significantly induced in splenocytes of mice that received native flagellin or MrpA-flagellin. Native P. mirabilis flagellin did not protect mice against an ascending UTI. Moreover, it showed an immunomodulatory effect, neutralizing the protective role of MrpA. P. mirabilis flagellin exhibits particular immunological properties compared to other bacterial flagellins.

  1. Arginine promotes Proteus mirabilis motility and fitness by contributing to conservation of the proton gradient and proton motive force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbruster, Chelsie E; Hodges, Steven A; Smith, Sara N; Alteri, Christopher J; Mobley, Harry L T

    2014-10-01

    Swarming contributes to Proteus mirabilis pathogenicity by facilitating access to the catheterized urinary tract. We previously demonstrated that 0.1-20 mmol/L arginine promotes swarming on normally nonpermissive media and that putrescine biosynthesis is required for arginine-induced swarming. We also previously determined that arginine-induced swarming is pH dependent, indicating that the external proton concentration is critical for arginine-dependent effects on swarming. In this study, we utilized survival at pH 5 and motility as surrogates for measuring changes in the proton gradient (ΔpH) and proton motive force (μH(+) ) in response to arginine. We determined that arginine primarily contributes to ΔpH (and therefore μH(+) ) through the action of arginine decarboxylase (speA), independent of the role of this enzyme in putrescine biosynthesis. In addition to being required for motility, speA also contributed to fitness during infection. In conclusion, consumption of intracellular protons via arginine decarboxylase is one mechanism used by P. mirabilis to conserve ΔpH and μH(+) for motility. © 2014 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Dissemination of a Multidrug-Resistant VIM-1- and CMY-99-Producing Proteus mirabilis Clone in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovska, Rumyana; Schneider, Ines; Keuleyan, Emma; Ivanova, Dobrinka; Lesseva, Magdalena; Stoeva, Temenuga; Sredkova, Mariya; Bauernfeind, Adolf; Mitov, Ivan

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the beta-lactamases and the molecular epidemiology of 19 clinically significant isolates of Proteus mirabilis with decreased susceptibility to imipenem, which have been collected from seven hospitals, located in different Bulgarian towns (Sofia, Varna, and Pleven). The isolates were obtained from blood, urine, tracheal and wound specimens. One additional isolate from hospital environment was included. Susceptibility testing, conjugation experiments, and plasmid replicon typing were carried out. Beta-lactamases were characterized by isoelectric focusing, PCR, and sequencing. Clonal relatedness was investigated by RAPD and PFGE. Integron mapping was performed by PCR and sequencing. All isolates showed a multidrug-resistance profile, but remained susceptible to piperacillin/tazobactam, cefepime, meropenem, and fosfomycin. They produced identical beta-lactamases, namely: TEM-1, VIM-1, and CMY-99. PCR mapping revealed that the bla VIM-1 gene was part of a class 1 integron that additionally included the aac(6')-I, dhfrA1, and ant(3″)-Ia genes. In addition, 17 of the isolates carried the armA gene. Conjugation experiments and plasmid replicon typing were unsuccessful. The isolates were clonally related according to RAPD and PFGE typing. This study reveals the nationwide distribution of a multidrug-resistant P. mirabilis clone producing VIM-1 and CMY-99 along with the presence of different aminoglycoside resistance mechanisms.

  3. Emergence of multidrug-resistant Proteus mirabilis in a long-term care facility in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedenić, Branka; Firis, Nataša; Elveđi-Gašparović, Vesna; Krilanović, Marija; Matanović, Krešimir; Štimac, Iva; Luxner, Josefa; Vraneš, Jasmina; Meštrović, Tomislav; Zarfel, Gernot; Grisold, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    An increased frequency of Proteus mirabilis isolates resistant to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins was observed recently in a long-term care facility in Zagreb (Godan). The aim of this study was the molecular characterization of resistance mechanisms to new cephalosporins in P. mirabilis isolates from this nursing home. Thirty-eight isolates collected from 2013-2015 showing reduced susceptibility to ceftazidime were investigated. Antibiotic susceptibilities were determined by broth microdilution method. Inhibitor-based tests were performed to detect extended-spectrum (ESBLs) and AmpC β-lactamases. AmpC β-lactamases were characterized by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by sequencing of bla ampC genes. Quinolone resistance determinants (qnr genes) were characterized by PCR. Genotyping of the isolates was performed by repetitive element sequence (rep)-PCR and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Presence of an AmpC β-lactamase was confirmed in all isolates by combined-disk test with phenylboronic acid. All isolates were resistant to amoxicillin alone and combined with clavulanate, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, cefoxitin, and ciprofloxacin; but susceptible to cefepime, imipenem, and meropenem. PCR followed by sequencing using primers targeting bla ampc genes revealed CMY-16 β-lactamase in all but one strain. Bla cmy-16 was carried by a non-conjugative plasmid which did not belong to any known plasmid-based replicon typing (PBRT) group. Rep-PCR identified one large clone consisting of 15 isolates, three pairs or related isolates, one triplet, and four singletons. PFGE confirmed the clonality of the isolates. This is the first report of multidrug resistant P. mirabilis in a nursing home in Croatia. Cephalosporin resistance was due to plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamase CMY-16.

  4. The Self-Identity Protein IdsD Is Communicated between Cells in Swarming Proteus mirabilis Colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saak, Christina C; Gibbs, Karine A

    2016-12-15

    Proteus mirabilis is a social bacterium that is capable of self (kin) versus nonself recognition. Swarming colonies of this bacterium expand outward on surfaces to centimeter-scale distances due to the collective motility of individual cells. Colonies of genetically distinct populations remain separate, while those of identical populations merge. Ids proteins are essential for this recognition behavior. Two of these proteins, IdsD and IdsE, encode identity information for each strain. These two proteins bind in vitro in an allele-restrictive manner. IdsD-IdsE binding is correlated with the merging of populations, whereas a lack of binding is correlated with the separation of populations. Key questions remained about the in vivo interactions of IdsD and IdsE, specifically, whether IdsD and IdsE bind within single cells or whether IdsD-IdsE interactions occur across neighboring cells and, if so, which of the two proteins is exchanged. Here we demonstrate that IdsD must originate from another cell to communicate identity and that this nonresident IdsD interacts with IdsE resident in the recipient cell. Furthermore, we show that unbound IdsD in recipient cells does not cause cell death and instead appears to contribute to a restriction in the expansion radius of the swarming colony. We conclude that P. mirabilis communicates IdsD between neighboring cells for nonlethal kin recognition, which suggests that the Ids proteins constitute a type of cell-cell communication. We demonstrate that self (kin) versus nonself recognition in P. mirabilis entails the cell-cell communication of an identity-encoding protein that is exported from one cell and received by another. We further show that this intercellular exchange affects swarm colony expansion in a nonlethal manner, which adds social communication to the list of potential swarm-related regulatory factors. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Occurrence of Proteus mirabilis associated with two species of venezuelan oysters Ocorrência de Proteus mirabilis associado a duas espécies de ostras venezuelanas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milagro Fernández-Delgado

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The fecal contamination of raw seafood by indicators and opportunistic pathogenic microorganisms represents a public health concern. The objective of this study was to investigate the presence of enteric bacteria colonizing oysters collected from a Venezuelan touristic area. Oyster samples were collected at the northwestern coast of Venezuela and local salinity, pH, temperature, and dissolved oxygen of seawater were recorded. Total and fecal coliforms were measured for the assessment of the microbiological quality of water and oysters, using the Multiple Tube Fermentation technique. Analyses were made using cultures and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Diverse enrichment and selective culture methods were used to isolate enteric bacteria. We obtained pure cultures of Gram-negative straight rods with fimbriae from Isognomon alatus and Crassostrea rhizophorae. Our results show that P. mirabilis was predominant under our culture conditions. We confirmed the identity of the cultures by biochemical tests, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and data analysis. Other enterobacteria such as Escherichia coli, Morganella morganii and Klebsiella pneumoniae were also isolated from seawater and oysters. The presence of pathogenic bacteria in oysters could have serious epidemiological implications and a potential human health risk associated with consumption of raw seafood.A contaminação fecal de frutos do mar crus por microrganismos oportunistas patogênicos representa problema de saúde pública. O objetivo deste estudo é investigar a presença de bactérias entéricas que colonizam ostras coletadas em área turística da Venezuela. Amostras de ostras foram coletadas na costa noroeste da Venezuela e foram registrados a salinidade local, pH, temperatura e o oxigênio dissolvido na água do mar. O total de coliformes fecais foi medido para a avaliação da qualidade microbiológica da água e das ostras, usando a técnica de fermentação em tubos múltiplos. An

  6. Behaviour of UV-sensitive mutants of Proteus mirabilis to repair incision breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoerl, K.; Mund, C.

    1977-01-01

    In U.V.-sensitive mutants of P. mirabilis with the phenotype HCR, REC and EXR single-strand breaks appeared immediately after UV-irradiation. The behaviour of REC- and EXR-mutants was similar to the wildtype. The number of incision breaks observed by sedimentation analysis in these strains was very low. They could be joined during the excision repair process. From the ability of REC- and EXR-strains to rejoin most of the induced single-strand breaks it can be concluded that these strains have approximately the same capacity for excision repair as the wildtype. HCR-mutants of P. mirabilis produced single-strand breaks after UV-irradiation in contrast to HCR-mutants of E. coli. Therefore we suggest that HCR-mutants of P. mirabilis are not completely inhibited in the incision step. The single-strand breaks introduced in the DNA at the beginning of the repair process were not rejoined during further incubation. Experiments with toluenized cells led to the same results. The newly synthesized daughter DNA-strands of UV-irradiated HCR-mutants were of low molecular weight in comparison with those from unirradiated control cells during the repair period. This result is in agreement with the incapability of HCR-mutants to remove the pyrimidine dimers from the parental template strand. (author)

  7. Genome-wide transposon mutagenesis of Proteus mirabilis: Essential genes, fitness factors for catheter-associated urinary tract infection, and the impact of polymicrobial infection on fitness requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sara N.; Zhao, Lili; Wu, Weisheng

    2017-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Proteus mirabilis is a leading cause of catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs), which are often polymicrobial. Numerous prior studies have uncovered virulence factors for P. mirabilis pathogenicity in a murine model of ascending UTI, but little is known concerning pathogenesis during CAUTI or polymicrobial infection. In this study, we utilized five pools of 10,000 transposon mutants each and transposon insertion-site sequencing (Tn-Seq) to identify the full arsenal of P. mirabilis HI4320 fitness factors for single-species versus polymicrobial CAUTI with Providencia stuartii BE2467. 436 genes in the input pools lacked transposon insertions and were therefore concluded to be essential for P. mirabilis growth in rich medium. 629 genes were identified as P. mirabilis fitness factors during single-species CAUTI. Tn-Seq from coinfection with P. stuartii revealed 217/629 (35%) of the same genes as identified by single-species Tn-Seq, and 1353 additional factors that specifically contribute to colonization during coinfection. Mutants were constructed in eight genes of interest to validate the initial screen: 7/8 (88%) mutants exhibited the expected phenotypes for single-species CAUTI, and 3/3 (100%) validated the expected phenotypes for polymicrobial CAUTI. This approach provided validation of numerous previously described P. mirabilis fitness determinants from an ascending model of UTI, the discovery of novel fitness determinants specifically for CAUTI, and a stringent assessment of how polymicrobial infection influences fitness requirements. For instance, we describe a requirement for branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis by P. mirabilis during coinfection due to high-affinity import of leucine by P. stuartii. Further investigation of genes and pathways that provide a competitive advantage during both single-species and polymicrobial CAUTI will likely provide robust targets for therapeutic intervention to reduce P. mirabilis

  8. The impact of production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases on the 28-day mortality rate of patients with Proteus mirabilis bacteremia in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jin Young; Ann, Hea Won; Jeon, Yongduk; Ahn, Mi Young; Oh, Dong Hyun; Kim, Yong Chan; Kim, Eun Jin; Song, Je Eun; Jung, In Young; Kim, Moo Hyun; Jeong, Wooyoung; Ku, Nam Su; Jeong, Su Jin; Choi, Jun Yong; Yong, Dongeun; Song, Young Goo; Kim, June Myung

    2017-05-03

    The incidence of Proteus mirabilis antimicrobial resistance, especially that mediated by extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), has increased. We investigated the impact of ESBL production on the mortality of patients with P. mirabilis bacteremia in Korea. Patients diagnosed with P. mirabilis bacteremia between November 2005 and December 2013 at a 2000-bed tertiary care center in South Korea were included in this study. Phenotypic and molecular analyses were performed to assess ESBL expression. Characteristics and treatment outcomes were investigated among ESBL-producing and non-ESBL-producing P. mirabilis bacteremia groups. A multivariate analysis of 28-day mortality rates was performed to evaluate the independent impact of ESBLs. Among 62 P. mirabilis isolates from 62 patients, 14 expressed ESBLs (CTX-M, 2; TEM, 5; both, 6; other, 1), and the 28-day mortality rate of the 62 patients was 17.74%. No clinical factor was significantly associated with ESBL production. The 28-day mortality rate in the ESBL-producing group was significantly higher than that in the non-ESBL-producing group (50% vs. 8.3%, p = 0.001). A multivariate analysis showed that ESBL production (odds ratio [OR], 11.53, 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.11-63.05, p = 0.005) was independently associated with the 28-day mortality rate in patients with P. mirabilis bacteremia. ESBL production is significantly associated with mortality in patients with bacteremia caused by P. mirabilis. Rapid detection of ESBL expression and prompt appropriate antimicrobial therapy are required to reduce mortality caused by P. mirabilis bacteremia.

  9. Genome-wide transposon mutagenesis of Proteus mirabilis: Essential genes, fitness factors for catheter-associated urinary tract infection, and the impact of polymicrobial infection on fitness requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbruster, Chelsie E; Forsyth-DeOrnellas, Valerie; Johnson, Alexandra O; Smith, Sara N; Zhao, Lili; Wu, Weisheng; Mobley, Harry L T

    2017-06-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Proteus mirabilis is a leading cause of catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs), which are often polymicrobial. Numerous prior studies have uncovered virulence factors for P. mirabilis pathogenicity in a murine model of ascending UTI, but little is known concerning pathogenesis during CAUTI or polymicrobial infection. In this study, we utilized five pools of 10,000 transposon mutants each and transposon insertion-site sequencing (Tn-Seq) to identify the full arsenal of P. mirabilis HI4320 fitness factors for single-species versus polymicrobial CAUTI with Providencia stuartii BE2467. 436 genes in the input pools lacked transposon insertions and were therefore concluded to be essential for P. mirabilis growth in rich medium. 629 genes were identified as P. mirabilis fitness factors during single-species CAUTI. Tn-Seq from coinfection with P. stuartii revealed 217/629 (35%) of the same genes as identified by single-species Tn-Seq, and 1353 additional factors that specifically contribute to colonization during coinfection. Mutants were constructed in eight genes of interest to validate the initial screen: 7/8 (88%) mutants exhibited the expected phenotypes for single-species CAUTI, and 3/3 (100%) validated the expected phenotypes for polymicrobial CAUTI. This approach provided validation of numerous previously described P. mirabilis fitness determinants from an ascending model of UTI, the discovery of novel fitness determinants specifically for CAUTI, and a stringent assessment of how polymicrobial infection influences fitness requirements. For instance, we describe a requirement for branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis by P. mirabilis during coinfection due to high-affinity import of leucine by P. stuartii. Further investigation of genes and pathways that provide a competitive advantage during both single-species and polymicrobial CAUTI will likely provide robust targets for therapeutic intervention to reduce P. mirabilis

  10. Excision repair in MUT-mutants of Proteus mirabilis after UV-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoerl, K.; Mund, C.

    1977-01-01

    The behaviour of MUT-mutants of P.mirabilis to perform certain steps of excision repair after U.V.-irradiation is described. MUT-mutants introduce single-strand breaks in the DNA immediately after U.V.-irradiation, but their ability to excise pyrimidine dimers from the DNA is very diminished. Moreover, they are not able to accomplish the excision repair by rejoining of the single-strand breaks. The connection between the incomplete excision repair and the mutator phenotype of these mutants is discussed. (author)

  11. Intranasal immunization with fusion protein MrpH·FimH and MPL adjuvant confers protection against urinary tract infections caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Mehri; Asadi Karam, Mohammad Reza; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Oloomi, Mana; Jafari, Anis; Bouzari, Saeid

    2015-04-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) and Proteus mirabilis are among the most common infections in the world. Currently there are no vaccines available to confer protection against UTI in humans. In this study, the immune responses and protection of FimH of UPEC with MrpH antigen of P. mirabilis in different vaccine formulations with and without MPL adjuvant were assessed. Mice intranasally immunized with the novel fusion protein MrpH·FimH induced a significant increase in IgG and IgA in serum, nasal wash, vaginal wash, and urine samples. Mice immunized with fusion MrpH·FimH also showed a significant boost in cellular immunity. Addition of MPL as the adjuvant enhanced FimH and MrpH specific humoral and cellular responses in both systemic and mucosal samples. Vaccination with MrpH·FimH alone or in combination with MPL showed the highest efficiency in clearing bladder and kidney infections in mice challenged with UPEC and P. mirabilis. These findings may indicate that the protection observed correlates with the systemic, mucosal and cellular immune responses induced by vaccination with these preparations. Our data suggest MrpH·FimH fusion protein with or without MPL as adjuvant could be potential vaccine candidates for elimination of UPEC and P. mirabilis. These data altogether are promising and these formulations are good candidates for elimination of UPEC and P. mirabilis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Role of Proteus mirabilis MR/P fimbriae and flagella in adhesion, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity induction in T24 and Vero cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scavone, Paola; Villar, Silvia; Umpiérrez, Ana; Zunino, Pablo

    2015-06-01

    Proteus mirabilis is frequently associated with complicated urinary tract infections (UTI). It is proposed that several virulence factors are associated with P. mirabilis uropathogenicity. The aim of this work was to elucidate genotoxic and cytotoxic effects mediated by MR/P fimbriae and flagella in eukaryotic cells in vitro. Two cell lines (kidney- and bladder-derived) were infected with a clinical wild-type P. mirabilis strain and an MR/P and a flagellar mutant. We evaluated adhesion, genotoxicity and cytotoxicity by microscopy, comet assay and triple staining technique, respectively. Mutant strains displayed lower adhesion rates than the P. mirabilis wild-type strain and were significantly less effective to induce genotoxic and cytotoxic effects compared to the wild type. We report for the first time that P. mirabilis MR/P fimbriae and flagella mediate genotoxic and cytotoxic effects on eukaryotic cells, at least in in vitro conditions. These results could contribute to design new strategies for the control of UTI. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Development of an operational substrate for ZapA, a metalloprotease secreted by the bacterium Proteus mirabilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.L. Fernandes

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available The protease ZapA, secreted by Proteus mirabilis, has been considered to be a virulence factor of this opportunistic bacterium. The control of its expression requires the use of an appropriate methodology, which until now has not been developed. The present study focused on the replacement of azocasein with fluorogenic substrates, and on the definition of enzyme specificity. Eight fluorogenic substrates were tested, and the peptide Abz-Ala-Phe-Arg-Ser-Ala-Ala-Gln-EDDnp was found to be the most convenient for use as an operational substrate for ZapA. A single peptide bond (Arg-Ser was cleaved with a Km of 4.6 µM, a k cat of 1.73 s-1, and a catalytic efficiency of 376 (mM s-1. Another good substrate for ZapA was peptide 6 (Abz-Arg-Pro-Pro-Gly-Phe-Ser-Pro-Phe-Arg-Gln-EDDnp which was cleaved at a single bond (Phe-Ser with a Km of 13.6 µM, a k cat of 3.96 s-1 and a catalytic efficiency of 291 (mM s-1. The properties of the amino acids flanking the scissile bonds were also evaluated, and no clear requirement for the amino acid residue at P1 was found, although the enzyme seems to have a preference for a hydrophobic residue at P2.

  14. Characterisation of a thiamine diphosphate-dependent alpha-keto acid decarboxylase from Proteus mirabilis JN458.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Biying; Bai, Yajun; Fan, Taiping; Zheng, Xiaohui; Cai, Yujie

    2017-10-01

    Alpha-keto acid decarboxylases can convert keto acids to their corresponding aldehydes, which are often volatile aroma compounds. The gene encoding α-keto acid decarboxylase in Proteus mirabilis JN458 was cloned, and the enzyme overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), purified in high yield, and characterised. The molecular weight is 62.291kDa by MALDI-TOF MS, and optimum activity at pH 6.0 and 40-50°C. The enzyme is a typical decarboxylase, dependent on thiamine diphosphate and Mg 2+ as cofactors. For the decarboxylation reaction, the enzyme displayed a broad substrate range. Kinetic parameters were determined using 4-methyl-2-oxopentanoic acid, phenyl pyruvate and 3-methyl-2-oxopentanoic acid as substrates. K m and k cat values for phenyl pyruvate were 0.62mM and 77.38s -1 , respectively, and the k cat /K m value was 124.81mM -1 s -1 . The enzyme properties suggest it may act effectively under cheese ripening conditions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Cooccurrence of Multiple AmpC β-Lactamases in Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chérif, Thouraya; Saidani, Mabrouka; Decré, Dominique; Boutiba-Ben Boubaker, Ilhem; Arlet, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    Over a period of 40 months, plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamases were detected in Tunis, Tunisia, in 78 isolates (0.59%) of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis. In 67 isolates, only one ampC gene was detected, i.e., blaCMY-2-type (n = 33), blaACC (n = 23), blaDHA (n = 6) or blaEBC (n = 5). Multiple ampC genes were detected in 11 isolates, with the following distribution: blaMOX-2, blaFOX-3, and blaCMY-4/16 (n = 6), blaFOX-3 and blaMOX-2 (n = 3), and blaCMY-4 and blaMOX-2 (n = 2). A great variety of plasmids carrying these genes was found, independently of the species and the bla gene. If the genetic context of blaCMY-2-type is variable, that of blaMOX-2, reported in part previously, is unique and that of blaFOX-3 is unique and new. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Occurrence of Proteus mirabilis associated with two species of venezuelan oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Delgado, Milagro; Contreras, Monica; García-Amado, María Alexandra; Gueneau, Pulchérie; Suárez, Paula

    2007-01-01

    The fecal contamination of raw seafood by indicators and opportunistic pathogenic microorganisms represents a public health concern. The objective of this study was to investigate the presence of enteric bacteria colonizing oysters collected from a Venezuelan touristic area. Oyster samples were collected at the northwestern coast of Venezuela and local salinity, pH, temperature, and dissolved oxygen of seawater were recorded. Total and fecal coliforms were measured for the assessment of the microbiological quality of water and oysters, using the Multiple Tube Fermentation technique. Analyses were made using cultures and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Diverse enrichment and selective culture methods were used to isolate enteric bacteria. We obtained pure cultures of Gram-negative straight rods with fimbriae from Isognomon alatus and Crassostrea rhizophorae. Our results show that P. mirabilis was predominant under our culture conditions. We confirmed the identity of the cultures by biochemical tests, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and data analysis. Other enterobacteria such as Escherichia coli, Morganella morganii and Klebsiella pneumoniae were also isolated from seawater and oysters. The presence of pathogenic bacteria in oysters could have serious epidemiological implications and a potential human health risk associated with consumption of raw seafood.

  17. Preventive and therapeutic administration of an indigenous Lactobacillus sp. strain against Proteus mirabilis ascending urinary tract infection in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Martín; Scavone, Paola; Zunino, Pablo

    2005-07-01

    Probiotics are increasingly being considered as non-pharmaceutical and safe potential alternatives for the treatment and prevention of a variety of pathologies including urinary tract infections. These are the most common infections in medical practice and are frequently treated with antibiotics, which have generated an intense selective pressure over bacterial populations. Proteus mirabilis is a common cause of urinary tract infections in catheterised patients and people with abnormalities of the urinary tract. In this work we isolated, identified and characterised an indigenous Lactobacillus murinus strain (LbO2) from the vaginal tract of a female mouse. In vitro characterisation of LbO2 included acid and bile salts tolerance, growth in urine, adherence to uroepithelial cells and in vitro antimicrobial activity. The selected strain showed interesting properties, suitable for its use as a probiotic. The ability of LbO2 to prevent and even treat ascending P. mirabilis urinary tract infection was assessed using an experimental model in the mouse. Kidney and bladder P. mirabilis counts were significantly lower in mice preventively treated with the probiotic than in non-treated mice. When LbO2 was used for therapeutic treatment, bladder counts of treated mice were significantly lower although no significant differences were detected in P. mirabilis kidney colonisation of treated and non-treated animals. These results are encouraging and prompt further research related to probiotic strains and the basis of their effects for their use in human and animal health.

  18. Determination of a novel integron-located variant (blaOXA -320 ) of Class D β-lactamase in Proteus mirabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicek, Aysegul Copur; Duzgun, Azer Ozad; Saral, Aysegul; Sandalli, Cemal

    2014-10-01

    Proteus mirabilis (P. mirabilis) is one of Gram-negative pathogens encountered in clinical specimens. A clinical isolate (TRP41) of P. mirabilis was isolated from a Turkish patient in Turkey. The isolate was identified using the API 32GN system and 16S rRNA gene sequencing and it was found resistant to ampicillin/sulbactam, piperacillin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. This isolate was harboring a Class 1 integron gene cassette and its DNA sequence analysis revealed a novel blaOXA variant exhibiting one amino acid substitution (Asn266Ile) from blaOXA-1 . This new variant of OXA was located on Class 1 integron together with aadA1 gene encoding aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes. According to sequence records, the new variant was named as blaOXA-320 . Cassette array and size of integron were found as blaOXA-320 -aadA1 and 2086 bp, respectively. The blaOXA-320 gene is not transferable according to conjugation experiment. In this study, we report the first identification of blaOXA-320 -aadA1 gene cassette, a novel variant of Class D β-lactamase, in P. mirabilis from Turkey. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Studying the Polypropylenimine-G2 (PPI-G2 Dendrimer Performance in Removal of Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus from Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Izanloo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Dendrimers are a subset of branched structures that have certain structural order. The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of Polypropylenimine-G2 (PPI-G2 dendrimers in removal of Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus from aqueous solution. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, initially dilution of 103 CFU/ml was prepared from each strain of bacteria. Then, different concentrations of dendrimers (0.5, 5, 50 and 500 µg/ml was added to water. In order to determine the efficiency of dendrimers in removal of bacteria, samples were taken at different times (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 min and were cultured on nutrient agar medium. Samples were incubated for 24 hours at 37 ° C and then the number of colonies was counted. Results: By the increasment of dendrimer concentration and contact time, the number of bacteria in aqueous solution decreased. In times of 40, 50 and 60 minutes, and the concentrations of 50 and 500 µg/ml, all kinds of bacteria in aqueous solution were removed. 0.5 µg/ml of dendrimer concentration had not effect in reducing the number of Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis. The effect of dendrimer on gram-negative bacteria was weaker than gram-positive bacteria. Conclusion: Results of this study indicated that PPI-G2 dendrimer is able to remove Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis in aqueous solution. However, using dendrimers can be considered as a new approach for drinking water disinfection but it requires further wide range studies.

  20. Persistence of antibiotic-resistant and -sensitive Proteus mirabilis strains in the digestive tract of the housefly (Musca domestica) and green bottle flies (Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ting; Miyanaga, Kazuhiko; Tanji, Yasunori

    2014-10-01

    Synanthropic flies have been implicated in the rapid dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and resistance determinants in the biosphere. These flies stably harbor a considerable number of bacteria that exhibit resistance to various antibiotics, but the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the persistence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the digestive tract of houseflies and green bottle flies, using Proteus mirabilis as a model microorganism. One resistant strain carried the blaTEM and aphA1 genes, and another carried a plasmid containing qnrD gene. Quantitative PCR and 454 pyrosequencing were used to monitor the relative abundance of the Proteus strains, as well as potential changes in the overall structure of the whole bacterial community incurred by the artificial induction of Proteus cultures. Both antibiotic-resistant and -sensitive P. mirabilis strains persisted in the fly digestive tract for at least 3 days, and there was no significant difference in the relative abundance of resistant and sensitive strains despite the lower growth rate of resistant strains when cultured in vitro. Therefore, conditions in the fly digestive tract may allow resistant strains to survive the competition with sensitive strains in the absence of antibiotic selective pressure. The composition of the fly-associated bacterial community changed over time, but the contribution of the artificially introduced P. mirabilis strains to these changes was not clear. In order to explain these changes, it will be necessary to obtain more information about bacterial interspecies antagonism in the fly digestive tract.

  1. Bloodstream infections caused by multi-drug resistant Proteus mirabilis: Epidemiology, risk factors and impact of multi-drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korytny, Alexander; Riesenberg, Klaris; Saidel-Odes, Lisa; Schlaeffer, Fransisc; Borer, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of antimicrobial co-resistance among ESBL-producing Enterobactereaceae is extremely high in Israel. Multidrug-resistant Proteus mirabilis strains (MDR-PM), resistant to almost all antibiotic classes have been described. The aim was to determine the risk factors for bloodstream infections caused by MDR-PM and clinical outcomes. A retrospective case-control study. Adult patients with PM bacteremia during 7 years were identified retrospectively and their files reviewed for demographics, underlying diseases, Charlson Comorbidity Index, treatment and outcome. One hundred and eighty patients with PM-bloodstream infection (BSI) were included; 90 cases with MDR-PM and 90 controls with sensitive PM (S-PM). Compared to controls, cases more frequently were from nursing homes, had recurrent hospital admissions in the past year and received antibiotic therapy in the previous 3 months, were bedridden and suffered from peripheral vascular disease and peptic ulcer disease (p < 0.001). Two-thirds of the MDR-PM isolates were ESBL-producers vs 4.4% of S-PM isolates (p < 0.001, OR = 47.6, 95% CI = 15.9-142.6). In-hospital crude mortality rate of patients with MDR-PM BSI was 37.7% vs 23.3% in those with S-PM BSI (p = 0.0359, OR = 2, 95% CI = 1.4-3.81). PM bacteremia in elderly and functionally-dependent patients is likely to be caused by nearly pan-resistant PM strains in the institution; 51.8% of the patients received inappropriate empiric antibiotic treatment. The crude mortality rate of patients with MDR-PM BSI was significantly higher than that of patients with S-PM BSI.

  2. Immunochemical characterization of the O antigens of two Proteus strains, O8-related antigen of Proteus mirabilis 12 B-r and O2-related antigen of Proteus genomospecies 5/6 12 B-k, infecting a hospitalized patient in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drzewiecka, Dominika; Shashkov, Alexander S; Arbatsky, Nikolay P; Knirel, Yuriy A

    2016-05-01

    A hospitalized 73-year-old woman was infected with a Proteus mirabilis strain, 12 B-r, isolated from the place of injection of a blood catheter. Another strain, 12 B-k, recognized as Proteus genomospecies 5 or 6, was isolated from the patient's faeces, which was an example of a nosocomial infection rather than an auto-infection. Serological investigation using ELISA and Western blotting showed that strain 12 B-k from faeces belonged to the Proteus O2 serogroup. Strain 12 B-r from the wound displayed cross-reactions with several Proteus O serogroups due to common epitopes on the core or O-specific parts of the lipopolysaccharide. Studies of the isolated 12 B-r O-specific polysaccharide by NMR spectroscopy revealed its close structural similarity to that of Proteus O8. The only difference in 12 B-r was the presence of an additional GlcNAc-linked phosphoethanolamine residue, which creates a putative epitope responsible for the cross-reactivity with Pt. mirabilis O16. The new O-antigen form could appear as a result of adaptation of the bacterium to a changing environment. On the basis of the data obtained, we suggest division of the O8 serogroup into two subgroups: O8a for strains of various Proteus species that have been previously classified into the O8 serogroup, and O8a,b for Pt. mirabilis 12 B-r, where 'a' is a common epitope and 'b' is a phosphoethanolamine-associated epitope. These findings further confirm serological and structural heterogeneity of O antigens of Proteus strains isolated lately from patients in Poland.

  3. Comparative in vitro studies on disodium EDTA effect with and without Proteus mirabilis on the crystallization of carbonate apatite and struvite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prywer, Jolanta; Olszynski, Marcin; Torzewska, Agnieszka; Mielniczek-Brzóska, Ewa

    2014-06-01

    Effect of disodium EDTA (salt of ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid) on the crystallization of struvite and carbonate apatite was studied. To evaluate such an effect we performed an experiment of struvite and carbonate apatite growth from artificial urine. The crystallization process was induced by Proteus mirabilis to mimic the real urinary tract infection, which usually leads to urinary stone formation. The results demonstrate that disodium EDTA exhibits the effect against P. mirabilis retarding the activity of urease - an enzyme produced by these microorganisms. The spectrophotometric results demonstrate that, with and without P. mirabilis, the addition of disodium EDTA increases the induction time and decreases the growth efficiency compared to the baseline (without disodium EDTA). These results are discussed from the standpoint of speciation of complexes formed in the solution of artificial urine in the presence of disodium EDTA. The size of struvite crystals was found to decrease in the presence of disodium EDTA. However, struvite crystals are larger in the presence of bacteria while the crystal morphology and habit remain unchanged.

  4. Inhibition of Urease Enzyme Production and some Other Virulence Factors Expression in Proteus mirabilis by N-Acetyl Cysteine and Dipropyl Disulphide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Baky, Rehab Mahmoud; Ali, Mohamed Abdullah; Abuo-Rahma, Gamal El-Din Ali A; AbdelAziz, Neveen

    2017-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis is one of the important pathogens that colonize the urinary tract and catheters resulting in various complications, such as blockage of the catheters and the formation of infective stones. In this study we evaluated the effect of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and dipropyl disulphide on some virulence factors expressed by a Proteus mirabilis strain isolated from a catheterized patient. Antibacterial activity of both compounds was determined by broth microdilution method. Their effect on different types of motility was determined by LB medium with variable agar content and sub-MIC of each drug. Their effect on adherence and mature biofilms was tested by tissue culture plate assay. Inhibitory effect on urease production was determined and supported by molecular docking studies. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of NAC and dipropyl disulphide was 25 mM and 100 mM, respectively. Both compounds decreased the swarming ability and biofilm formation of the tested isolate in a dose-dependent manner. NAC had higher urease inhibitory activity (IC50 249 ±0.05 mM) than that shown by dipropyl disulphide (IC 50 10±0.2 mM). Results were supported by molecular docking studies which showed that NAC and dipropyl disulphide interacted with urease enzyme with binding free energy of -4.8 and -8.528 kcal/mol, respectively. Docking studies showed that both compounds interacted with Ni ion and several amino acids (His-138, Gly-279, Cysteine-321, Met-366 and His-322) which are essential for the enzyme activity. NAC and dipropyl disulphide could be used in the control of P. mirabilis urinary tract infections.

  5. Otojenik Kaynaklı Proteus Mirabilis İnfeksiyonu Sonucu Gelişen Serebellar Apse ile İlişkili Travmatik Olmayan Pnömosefalus Olgusu

    OpenAIRE

    CİHANGİROĞLU, Mustafa; ÇELİK, İlhami; AKDEMİR, İsmail; ARTAŞ, Hakan; AKBULUT, Ayhan

    2008-01-01

    In this case, it was presented a rare cerebellar abscess case due to Proteus mirabilis has an intraparenchymal gas formation at the early stage of cerebritis where gas formation disappeared at the late cerebritis phase of the abscess formation.©2008, Fırat Üniversitesi, Tıp Fakültesi

  6. Antimicrobial multiple resistance index, minimum inhibitory concentrations, and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producers of Proteus mirabilis and Proteus vulgaris strains isolated from domestic animals with various clinical manifestations of infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Zappa

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Proteus spp. are opportunistic multidrug resistant enterobacteria associated with diverse clinical diseases in domestic animals. However, Proteus infections in domestic animals are often misdiagnosed or considered contaminants in microbiological cultures rather than a primary agent of disease. Descriptions of Proteus infections in domestic animals are typically restricted to case reports, retrospective studies, or surveillance of other microorganisms. The present study investigated multiple antibiotic resistance indices, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs, and ESBL production in 73 strains of Proteus mirabilis (n = 69 and Proteus vulgaris (n = 4 isolated from domestic animals with various clinical manifestations. In dogs, the pathogen was most commonly associated with cystitis (48.21, enteritis (21.42%, otitis (14.29%, and conjunctivitis (3.57%. In bovines, the microorganism was predominant in cases of enteritis (22.22%, abscess (11.11%, otitis (11.11%, omphalitis (11.11%, and peritonitis (11.11%, and in organ fragments (11.11%. In equines (50.0% and cats (100.0%, diarrhea was the main clinical sign. In vitro standard disk diffusion assay showed that the most effective antimicrobials against the isolates were imipenem (98.63, norfloxacin (95.89, amikacin (95.89, levofloxacin (90.41, ceftriaxone (87.64, and florfenicol (87.67. In contrast, the isolates commonly showed resistance to novobiocin (95.89, azithromycin (57.53, and trimethropim/sulfamethoxazole (39.73. Among the 73 isolates, the efficacy of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, gentamicin, ceftriaxone, and ciprofloxacin according to MICs was 87.67%, 86.30%, 84.93%, and 82.19%, respectively. The MIC50 values of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, and gentamicin were, respectively, 1.0, 0.004, 0.03, and 1.0 µg/mL. Thirty-three strains (45.21% showed a antimicrobial multiple resistance index of ? 0.3. Multidrug resistance profiles of isolates were observed most frequently

  7. Initiation of Swarming Motility by Proteus mirabilis Occurs in Response to Specific Cues Present in Urine and Requires Excess l-Glutamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbruster, Chelsie E.; Hodges, Steven A.

    2013-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis, a leading cause of catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CaUTI), differentiates into swarm cells that migrate across catheter surfaces and medium solidified with 1.5% agar. While many genes and nutrient requirements involved in the swarming process have been identified, few studies have addressed the signals that promote initiation of swarming following initial contact with a surface. In this study, we show that P. mirabilis CaUTI isolates initiate swarming in response to specific nutrients and environmental cues. Thirty-three compounds, including amino acids, polyamines, fatty acids, and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates, were tested for the ability to promote swarming when added to normally nonpermissive media. l-Arginine, l-glutamine, dl-histidine, malate, and dl-ornithine promoted swarming on several types of media without enhancing swimming motility or growth rate. Testing of isogenic mutants revealed that swarming in response to the cues required putrescine biosynthesis and pathways involved in amino acid metabolism. Furthermore, excess glutamine was found to be a strict requirement for swarming on normal swarm agar in addition to being a swarming cue under normally nonpermissive conditions. We thus conclude that initiation of swarming occurs in response to specific cues and that manipulating concentrations of key nutrient cues can signal whether or not a particular environment is permissive for swarming. PMID:23316040

  8. Identification and characterization of new members of the SXT/R391 family of integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) in Proteus mirabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bie, Luyao; Wu, Hao; Wang, Xin-Hua; Wang, Mingyu; Xu, Hai

    2017-08-01

    Integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) are self-transmissible chromosomal mobile elements that play significant roles in the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance genes. Identification of the structures and functions of ICEs, particularly those in pathogens, improves understanding of the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance. This study identified new members of the sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SXT)/R391 family of ICEs that could confer multi-drug resistance in the opportunistic pathogen Proteus mirabilis, characterized their genetic structures, and explored their evolutionary connection with other members of this family of ICEs. Three new members of the SXT/R391 family of ICEs were detected in six of 77 P. mirabilis strains isolated in China: ICEPmiChn2 (one strain), ICEPmiChn3 (one strain) and ICEPmiChn4 (three strains). All three new ICEs harbour antimicrobial resistance genes from diverse origins, suggesting their capability in acquiring foreign genes and serving as important carriers for antimicrobial resistance genes. Structural analysis showed that ICEPmiChn3 is a particularly interesting and unique ICE that has lost core genes involved in conjugation, and could not transfer to other cells via conjugation. This finding confirmed the key roles of these missing genes in conjugation. Further phylogenetic analysis suggested that ICEs in geographically close strains are also connected evolutionarily, and ICEPmiChn3 lost its conjugation cassette from a former mobile ICE. The identification and characterization of the three new members of the SXT/R391 family of ICEs in this work leads to suggestions of core ICE genes essential for conjugation, and extends understanding on the structures of ICEs, evolutionary relationships between ICEs, and the antimicrobial resistance mechanisms of P. mirabilis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  9. Transurethral instillation with fusion protein MrpH.FimH induces protective innate immune responses against uropathogenic Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Mehri; Asadi Karam, Mohammad Reza; Bouzari, Saeid

    2016-06-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common infections in human. Innate immunity recognizes pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) to activate responses against pathogens. Recently, we demonstrated that MrpH.FimH fusion protein consisting of MrpH from Proteus mirabilis and FimH from Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) results in the higher immunogenicity and protection, as compared with FimH and MrpH alone. In this study, we evaluated the innate immunity and adjuvant properties induced by fusion MrpH.FimH through in vitro and in vivo methods. FimH and MrpH.FimH were able to induce significantly higher IL-8 and IL-6 responses than untreated or MrpH alone in cell lines tested. The neutrophil count was significantly higher in the fusion group than other groups. After 6 h, IL-8 and IL-6 production reached a peak, with a significant decline at 24 h post-instillation in both bladder and kidney tissues. Mice instilled with the fusion and challenged with UPEC or P. mirabilis showed a significant decrease in the number of bacteria in bladder and kidney compared to control mice. The results of these studies demonstrate that the use of recombinant fusion protein encoding TLR-4 ligand represents an effective vaccination strategy that does not require the use of a commercial adjuvant. Furthermore, MrpH.FimH was presented as a promising vaccine candidate against UTIs caused by UPEC and P. mirabilis. © 2016 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Carbapenems and piperacillin/tazobactam for the treatment of bacteremia caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Proteus mirabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hsih-Yeh; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Tang, Hung-Jen; Huang, Chi-Chang; Liao, Chun-Hsing; Chu, Fang-Yeh; Chuang, Yin-Ching; Sheng, Wang-Huei; Ko, Wen-Chien; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2014-11-01

    This study was intended to delineate the role of carbapenems and piperacillin/tazobactam in treating bacteremia caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Proteus mirabilis. We performed a multicenter and retrospective study of the patients with ESBL-producing P. mirabilis bacteremia. The outcomes of the patients treated by piperacillin/tazobactam or a carbapenem for at least 48 hours and the MICs of the prescribed drugs for these isolates were analyzed. Forty-seven patients with available clinical data were included. The overall 30-day mortality rate was 29.8%. All available isolates (n = 44) were susceptible to ertapenem, meropenem, and doripenem, and 95.6% were susceptible to piperacillin/tazobactam; however, only 11.4% of the isolates were susceptible to imipenem. Among the 3 patients infected with isolates exhibiting non-susceptibility to imipenem (MIC ≥2 mg/L) who were treated with imipenem, none died within 28 days. The 30-day (14.3% versus 23.1%, P = 0.65) or in-hospital (19.1% versus 30.8%, P = 0.68) mortality rate of 21 patients treated by a carbapenem was lower than that of 13 treated by piperacillin/tazobactam. However, among those treated by piperacillin/tazobactam, the mortality rate of those infected by the isolates with lower piperacillin/tazobactam MICs (≤0.5/4 mg/L) was lower than that of the isolates with MICs of ≥1/4 mg/L (0%, 0/7 versus 60%, 3/5; P = 0.045). ESBL-producing P. mirabilis bacteremia is associated with significant mortality, and carbapenem therapy could be regarded as the drugs of choice. The role of piperacillin/tazobactam, especially for the infections due to the isolates with an MIC ≤0.5/4 mg/L, warrants more clinical studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Chemometric analysis of attenuated total reflectance infrared spectra of Proteus mirabilis strains with defined structures of LPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarnowiec, Paulina; Mizera, Andrzej; Chrapek, Magdalena; Urbaniak, Mariusz; Kaca, Wieslaw

    2016-07-01

    Proteus spp. strains are some of the most important pathogens associated with complicated urinary tract infections and bacteremia affecting patients with immunodeficiency and long-term urinary catheterization. For epidemiological purposes, various molecular typing methods have been developed for this pathogen. However, these methods are labor intensive and time consuming. We evaluated a new method of differentiation between strains. A collection of Proteus spp. strains was analyzed by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy in the mid-infrared region. ATR FT-IR spectroscopy used in conjunction with a diamond ATR accessory directly produced the biochemical profile of the surface chemistry of bacteria. We conclude that a combination of ATR FT-IR spectroscopy and mathematical modeling provides a fast and reliable alternative for discrimination between Proteus isolates, contributing to epidemiological research. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Proteus mirabilis fimbriae- and urease-dependent clusters assemble in an extracellular niche to initiate bladder stone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Jessica N; Norsworthy, Allison N; Sun, Tung-Tien; Pearson, Melanie M

    2016-04-19

    The catheter-associated uropathogenProteus mirabilisfrequently causes urinary stones, but little has been known about the initial stages of bladder colonization and stone formation. We found thatP. mirabilisrapidly invades the bladder urothelium, but generally fails to establish an intracellular niche. Instead, it forms extracellular clusters in the bladder lumen, which form foci of mineral deposition consistent with development of urinary stones. These clusters elicit a robust neutrophil response, and we present evidence of neutrophil extracellular trap generation during experimental urinary tract infection. We identified two virulence factors required for cluster development: urease, which is required for urolithiasis, and mannose-resistantProteus-like fimbriae. The extracellular cluster formation byP. mirabilisstands in direct contrast to uropathogenicEscherichia coli, which readily formed intracellular bacterial communities but not luminal clusters or urinary stones. We propose that extracellular clusters are a key mechanism ofP. mirabilissurvival and virulence in the bladder.

  13. Construction and evaluation of the immune protection of a recombinant divalent protein composed of the MrpA from MR/P fimbriae and flagellin of Proteus mirabilis strain against urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Mehri; Asadi Karam, Mohammad Reza; Bouzari, Saeid

    2018-04-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) caused by Proteus mirabilis are prevalent among the catheterized patients. There is no effective vaccine to reduce the frequency of UTIs caused by P. mirabilis. In the present study, the immune responses and effectiveness of different combinations of MrpA and flagellin (FliC) of P. mirabilis were assessed intranasally in the mice model. The addition of FliC as adjuvant to MrpA in fusion form significantly raised the mucosal IgA and cellular (IFN-γ and IL-17) responses and maintained the serum IgG responses for 180 days after the first vaccination. Furthermore, MrpA in fusion form with FliC significantly increased the systemic, mucosal and IFN-γ responses of the FliC alone. In a bladder challenge assay with P. mirabilis, the fusion MrpA.FliC and the mixture of MrpA and FliC significantly decreased the colony count of the bacteria in the bladder and kidneys of mice in comparison to the control mice. It suggests a complex of the systemic, mucosal and cellular responses are needed for protection of the bladder and kidneys against P. mirabilis UTI. In our knowledge, the adjuvant property of the recombinant P. mirabilis flagellin was evaluated for the first time in a vaccine combination administered by an intranasal route. Our results suggest the recombinant flagellin of P. mirabilis could be used as an intranasal adjuvant in combination with other potential antigens against UTIs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Repair of single-strand breaks induced in the DNA of Proteus mirabilis by excision repair after UV-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoerl, K.; Mund, C.

    1977-01-01

    Single-strand breaks have been produced in the DNA of P. mirabilis after UV-irradiation in dependence on the incident UV-doses. It has been found that there exists a discrepancy between the single-strand breaks estimated from sedimentation in alkaline sucrose gradients and the expected single-strand breaks approximated from measurements of dimer excision. The low number in incision breaks observed by sedimentation experiments is an indication that the cells are able to repair the excision-induced breaks as fast as they are formed. Toluenized cells have been used for investigation of the incision step independently of subsequent repair processes. In presence of NMN the appearance of more single-strand breaks in the DNA has been observed. Furthermore, the number of incision breaks in toluenized cells increased in presence of exogenous ATP. The completion of the excision repair process has been investigated by observing the rejoining of incision breaks. After irradiation with UV-doses higher than approximately 240 erg/mm 2 the number of single-strand breaks remaining unrepaired in the DNA increased. Studies of the influence of nutrition conditions on the repair process have shown approximately the same capacity for repair of single-strand breaks in growth medium as well as in buffer. Progress in the excision repair was also followed by investigation of the DNA synthesized at the template-DNA containing the pyrimidine dimers. In comparison with E. coli, P. mirabilis showed a somewhat lower efficiency for the repair of single-strand breaks during the excision repair. (author)

  15. In vitro activity of flomoxef and comparators against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiwen; Zhang, Hui; Cheng, Jingwei; Xu, Zhipeng; Xu, Yingchun; Cao, Bin; Kong, Haishen; Ni, Yuxing; Yu, Yunsong; Sun, Ziyong; Hu, Bijie; Huang, Wenxiang; Wang, Yong; Wu, Anhua; Feng, Xianju; Liao, Kang; Shen, Dingxia; Hu, Zhidong; Chu, Yunzhuo; Lu, Juan; Su, Jianrong; Gui, Bingdong; Duan, Qiong; Zhang, Shufang; Shao, Haifeng

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to better understand the in vitro activity of flomoxef against clinical extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae. A total of 401 ESBL-producing isolates, including 196 Escherichia coli, 124 Klebsiella pneumoniae and 81 Proteus mirabilis, were collected consecutively from 21 hospitals in China in 2013. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by broth microdilution methods. Phenotypic identification of ESBL production was detected as recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). ESBL genes were detected by PCR and sequencing. Flomoxef, doripenem, meropenem, ertapenem, cefmetazole and piperacillin/tazobactam exhibited good activity against ESBL-producing isolates, with susceptibility rates >90%. Tigecycline showed good activity against E. coli and K. pneumoniae (100% and 97.6%, respectively). Cefotaxime and cefepime showed very low activities against ESBL-producing isolates, with susceptibility rates of 0-0.8% and 1.0-13.6%, respectively. blaCTX-M were the major ESBL genes, with occurrence in 99.5% of E. coli, 91.1% of K. pneumoniae and 97.5% of P. mirabilis. blaCTX-M-14 was the predominant ESBL gene, detected in 46.9% (188/401) of the isolates, followed by blaCTX-M-15 (21.4%), blaCTX-M-55 (17.2%), blaCTX-M-65 (12.7%) and blaCTX-M-3 (6.7%). Flomoxef exhibited excellent activity against the different CTX-M-type ESBL-producing isolates, with MIC50 and MIC90 values of 0.064-0.125μg/mL and 0.25-0.5μg/mL, respectively. Against the isolates solely producing CTX-M-14, -15, -55, -3 or -65, flomoxef showed susceptibility rates of 98.6%, 98.0%, 98.1%, 100.0% and 97.4%, respectively. In conclusion, flomoxef showed good activity against ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae and may be a choice to treat infections caused by these isolates in China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  16. First report in Africa of two clinical isolates of Proteus mirabilis carrying Salmonella genomic island (SGI1) variants, SGI1-PmABB and SGI1-W.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Ahmed M; Ahmed, Ashraf M; Shimamoto, Toshi; El-Domany, Ramadan A; Nariya, Hirofumi; Shimamoto, Tadashi

    2017-07-01

    Two Proteus mirabilis strains, designated PmTAN59 and PmKAF126, were isolated from two different Egyptian cities in 2014 and 2015, respectively. PmTAN59 was isolated from a sputum swab from a pneumonia patient in Tanta University Teaching Hospital. PmKAF126 was isolated from a patient with a diabetic foot infection in a hospital in the city of Kafr El-Sheikh. The two isolates were identified with bacterial small ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene amplification and sequencing and tested for antimicrobial sensitivity with a Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion assay. The two strains were resistant to amoxicillin/clavulante, ampicillin, cefotaxime, cefoxitin, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, colistin, gentamicin, kanamycin, nalidixic acid, spectinomycin, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprime, and tetracycline, but sensitive to aztreonam, imipenem, and meropenem. Molecular characterization was used to map the entire backbone, including the multiple antibiotic resistance (MDR) region, of Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1). Both isolates carried a structure similar to SGI1, with two different MDR regions corresponding to SGI1-PmABB in PmTAN59 and SGI1-W in PmKAF126. SGI1-PmABB carried an integron of ~1.5kb with a two-gene cassette, aacCA5-aadA7, which confers resistance to gentamicin, streptomycin, and spectinomycin, whereas SGI1-W carried an integron of ~1.9kb containing aadA2-lnuF, which confers resistance to spectinomycin, streptomycin, and lincosamides. PmKAF126 carried the entire SGI1 sequence, however PmTAN59 carried a SGI1 structure with a deletion in the region from ORF S005 to ORF S009 and accompanied by insertion of IS1359 (1258bp). Furthermore, PmTAN59 carried class 2 integron of ~2.2kb containing dfrA1-sat2-aadA1. An ERIC-PCR analysis detected no clonal relationship between the two strains. Molecular screening for other antimicrobial resistance genes and a plasmid analysis indicated that PmTAN59 carried an IncFIB plasmid type. This strain also carried bla

  17. Evaluation of the effect of MPL and delivery route on immunogenicity and protectivity of different formulations of FimH and MrpH from uropathogenic Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis in a UTI mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Mehri; Asadi Karam, Mohammad Reza; Bouzari, Saeid

    2015-09-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis are an important cause of morbidity and with the high rate of relapse and spread of multi-drug resistant pathogens, pose a significant public health challenge worldwide. Lack of an efficacious commercial vaccine targeting both uropathogens makes development of a combined vaccine highly desirable. In this study the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of different formulations of FimH of UPEC, MrpH of P. mirabilis and their fusion protein (MrpH.FimH) subcutaneously administered with and without Monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) adjuvant were evaluated. Our data showed that the subcutaneously administered proteins induced both serum and mucosal IgG, which MPL significantly improved developing a mixed Th1 and Th2 immune response. However, the preparations induced a higher systemic and mucosal IgG and IL-2 levels by this route compared to the intranasal. Immunization of mice with MrpH.FimH fusion with MPL or a mixture of FimH, MrpH and MPL conferred the highest protection of the bladder and kidneys when challenged with UPEC and P. mirabilis in a UTI mouse model. Therefore considering these results MrpH.FimH fusion with MPL administered subcutaneously or intranasally could be a promising vaccine candidate for elimination of UTIs caused by UPEC and P. mirabilis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Isolation and Characterization of a Lytic Bacteriophage (vB_PmiS-TH) and Its Application in Combination with Ampicillin against Planktonic and Biofilm Forms of Proteus mirabilis Isolated from Urinary Tract Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdi, Mahsa; Bouzari, Majid; Ghaemi, Ezzat Allah

    2018-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis is one of the most common causes of urinary tract infection (UTI), particularly in patients undergoing long-term catheterization. Phage vB_PmiS-TH was isolated from wastewater with high lytic activity against P. mirabilis (TH) isolated from UTI. The phage had rapid adsorption, a large burst size (∼260 PFU per infected cell), and high stability at a wide range of temperatures and pH values. As analyzed by transmission electron microscopy, phage vB_PmiS-TH had an icosahedral head of ∼87 × 62 nm with a noncontractile tail about 137 nm in length and 11 nm in width. It belongs to the family Siphoviridae. Combination of the phage vB_PmiS-TH with ampicillin had a higher removal activity against planktonic cells of P. mirabilis (TH) than the phage or the antibiotic alone. Combination of the phage at a multiplicity of infection of 100 with a high dose of ampicillin (246 µg/mL) showed the highest biofilm removal activity after 24 h. This study demonstrates that using a combination of phage and antibiotic could be significantly more effective against planktonic and biofilm forms of P. mirabilis (TH). © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. A mutational analysis and molecular dynamics simulation of quinolone resistance proteins QnrA1 and QnrC from Proteus mirabilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Xinyu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The first report on the transferable, plasmid-mediated quinolone-resistance determinant qnrA1 was in 1998. Since then, qnr alleles have been discovered worldwide in clinical strains of Gram-negative bacilli. Qnr proteins confer quinolone resistance, and belong to the pentapeptide repeat protein (PRP family. Several PRP crystal structures have been solved, but little is known about the functional significance of their structural arrangement. Results We conducted random and site-directed mutagenesis on qnrA1 and on qnrC, a newly identified quinolone-resistance gene from Proteus mirabilis. Many of the Qnr mutants lost their quinolone resistance function. The highly conserved hydrophobic Leu or Phe residues at the center of the pentapeptide repeats are known as i sites, and loss-of-function mutations included replacement of the i site hydrophobic residues with charged residues, replacing the i-2 site, N-terminal to the i residues, with bulky side-chain residues, introducing Pro into the β-helix coil, deletion of the N- and C-termini, and excision of a central coil. Molecular dynamics simulations and homology modeling demonstrated that QnrC overall adopts a stable β-helix fold and shares more similarities with MfpA than with other PRP structures. Based on homology modeling and molecular dynamics simulation, the dysfunctional point mutations introduced structural deformations into the quadrilateral β-helix structure of PRPs. Of the pentapeptides of QnrC, two-thirds adopted a type II β-turn, while the rest adopted type IV turns. A gap exists between coil 2 and coil 3 in the QnrC model structure, introducing a structural flexibility that is similar to that seen in MfpA. Conclusion The hydrophobic core and the β-helix backbone conformation are important for maintaining the quinolone resistance property of Qnr proteins. QnrC may share structural similarity with MfpA.

  20. Crystal Structure of the Dithiol Oxidase DsbA Enzyme from Proteus Mirabilis Bound Non-covalently to an Active Site Peptide Ligand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, Fabian; Duprez, Wilko; Premkumar, Lakshmanane; Schembri, Mark A.; Fairlie, David P.; Martin, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    The disulfide bond forming DsbA enzymes and their DsbB interaction partners are attractive targets for development of antivirulence drugs because both are essential for virulence factor assembly in Gram-negative pathogens. Here we characterize PmDsbA from Proteus mirabilis, a bacterial pathogen increasingly associated with multidrug resistance. PmDsbA exhibits the characteristic properties of a DsbA, including an oxidizing potential, destabilizing disulfide, acidic active site cysteine, and dithiol oxidase catalytic activity. We evaluated a peptide, PWATCDS, derived from the partner protein DsbB and showed by thermal shift and isothermal titration calorimetry that it binds to PmDsbA. The crystal structures of PmDsbA, and the active site variant PmDsbAC30S were determined to high resolution. Analysis of these structures allows categorization of PmDsbA into the DsbA class exemplified by the archetypal Escherichia coli DsbA enzyme. We also present a crystal structure of PmDsbAC30S in complex with the peptide PWATCDS. The structure shows that the peptide binds non-covalently to the active site CXXC motif, the cis-Pro loop, and the hydrophobic groove adjacent to the active site of the enzyme. This high-resolution structural data provides a critical advance for future structure-based design of non-covalent peptidomimetic inhibitors. Such inhibitors would represent an entirely new antibacterial class that work by switching off the DSB virulence assembly machinery. PMID:24831013

  1. Clinical benefits of antimicrobial de-escalation in adults with community-onset monomicrobial Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species and Proteus mirabilis bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ching-Chi; Wang, Jiun-Ling; Lee, Chung-Hsun; Hung, Yuan-Pin; Hong, Ming-Yuan; Tang, Hung-Jen; Ko, Wen-Chien

    2017-09-01

    The clinical benefits of an antimicrobial de-escalation strategy were compared with those of a no-switch strategy in bacteremic patients. Adults with community-onset monomicrobial Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species and Proteus mirabilis bacteremia treated empirically using broad-spectrum beta-lactams, including third-generation cephalosporins (GCs), fourth-GC or carbapenems, were treated definitively with first- or second-GCs (de-escalation group), the same regimens as empirical antibiotics (no-switch group), or antibiotics with a broader-spectrum than empirical antibiotics (escalation group). The eligible 454 adults were categorized as the de-escalation (231 patients, 50.9%), no-switch (177, 39.0%), and escalation (46, 10.1%) groups. Patients with de-escalation therapy were more often female, had less critical illness and fatal comorbidity, and had a higher survival rate than patients in the other two groups. After propensity score matching in the de-escalation and no-switch groups, critical illness at onset (Pitt bacteremia score ≥ 4; 16.5% vs. 12.7%; P = 0.34) or day 3 (2.5% vs. 2.5%; P = 1.00), fatal comorbidity (16.5% vs. 21.5%; P = 0.25), time to defervescence (4.6 vs. 4.7 days; P = 0.89), hospital stays (11.5 vs. 10.3 days; P = 0.13) and 4-week crude mortality rate (4.4% vs. 4.4%; P = 1.00) were similar. However, lower antibiotic cost (mean: 212.1 vs. 395.6 US$, P <0.001) and fewer complications of bloodstream infections due to resistant pathogens (0% vs. 5.1%, P = 0.004) were observed in the de-escalation group. De-escalation to narrower-spectrum cephalosporins is safe and cost-effective for adults with community-onset EKP bacteremia stabilized by empirical broad-spectrum beta-lactams. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  2. Production of phenylpyruvic acid from L-phenylalanine using an L-amino acid deaminase from Proteus mirabilis: comparison of enzymatic and whole-cell biotransformation approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Ying; Hossain, Gazi Sakir; Li, Jianghua; Shin, Hyun-Dong; Liu, Long; Du, Guocheng

    2015-10-01

    Phenylpyruvic acid (PPA) is an important organic acid that has a wide range of applications. In this study, the membrane-bound L-amino acid deaminase (L-AAD) gene from Proteus mirabilis KCTC 2566 was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) and then the L-AAD was purified. After that, we used the purified enzyme and the recombinant E. coli whole-cell biocatalyst to produce PPA via a one-step biotransformation from L-phenylalanine. L-AAD was solubilized from the membrane and purified 52-fold with an overall yield of 13 %, which corresponded to a specific activity of 0.94 ± 0.01 μmol PPA min(-1)·mg(-1). Then, the biotransformation conditions for the pure enzyme and the whole-cell biocatalyst were optimized. The maximal production was 2.6 ± 0.1 g·L(-1) (specific activity of 1.02 ± 0.02 μmol PPA min(-1)·mg(-1) protein, 86.7 ± 5 % mass conversion rate, and 1.04 g·L(-1)·h(-1) productivity) and 3.3 ± 0.2 g L(-1) (specific activity of 0.013 ± 0.003 μmol PPA min(-1)·mg(-1) protein, 82.5 ± 4 % mass conversion rate, and 0.55 g·L(-1)·h(-1) productivity) for the pure enzyme and whole-cell biocatalyst, respectively. Comparative studies of the enzymatic and whole-cell biotransformation were performed in terms of specific activity, production, conversion, productivity, stability, need of external cofactors, and recycling. We have developed two eco-friendly and efficient approaches for PPA production. The strategy described herein may aid the biotransformational synthesis of other α-keto acids from their corresponding amino acids.

  3. 10′(Z),13′(E)-Heptadecadienylhydroquinone Inhibits Swarming and Virulence Factors and Increases Polymyxin B Susceptibility in Proteus mirabilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Won-Bo; Yuan, Yu-Han; Hsueh, Po-Ren; Liaw, Shwu-Jen

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrated that 10′(Z), 13′(E)-heptadecadienylhydroquinone (HQ17-2), isolated from the lacquer tree, could decrease swarming motility and hemolysin activity but increase polymyxin B (PB) susceptibilityof Proteus mirabilis which is intrinsically highly-resistant to PB. The increased PB susceptibility induced by HQ17-2 was also observed in clinical isolates and biofilm-grown cells. HQ17-2 could inhibit swarming in the wild-type and rppA mutant but not in the rcsB mutant, indicating that HQ17-2 inhibits swarming through the RcsB-dependent pathway, a two-component signaling pathway negatively regulating swarming and virulence factor expression. The inhibition of hemolysin activity by HQ17-2 is also mediated through the RcsB-dependent pathway, because HQ17-2 could not inhibit hemolysin activity in the rcsB mutant. Moreover, the finding that HQ17-2 inhibits the expression of flhDC gene in the wild-type and rcsB-complemented strain but not in the rcsB mutant supports the notion. By contrast, HQ17-2 could increase PB susceptibility in the wild-type and rcsB mutant but not in the rppA mutant, indicating that HQ17-2 increases PB susceptibility through the RppA-dependent pathway, a signaling pathway positively regulating PB resistance. In addition, HQ17-2 could inhibit the promoter activities of rppA and pmrI, a gene positively regulated by RppA and involved in PB resistance, in the wild-type but not in the rppA mutant. The inhibition of rppA and pmrI expression caused lipopolysaccharide purified from HQ17-2-treated cells to have higher affinity for PB. Altogether, this study uncovers new biological effects of HQ17-2 and provides evidence for the potential of HQ17-2 in clinical applications. PMID:23029100

  4. Post-irradiation replication and repair in UV-irradiated cells of Proteus mirabilis depends on protein synthesis and a functioning rec+ gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofemeister, J.

    1977-01-01

    The amount of and the molecular weight of newly synthesized DNA (piDNA) as well as its repair after UV irradiation in excision-proficient strains of P.mirabilis and E.coli K12 have been compared. A fraction of post-replication repair (PRR) in P.mirabilis is found to be dependent on de novo protein synthesis after UV irradiation. Pre-irradiation by UV and pre-treatment with nalidixic acid increase the efficiency of post-irradiation replication and PRR even in the presence of chloramphenicol. An inducible repair function in P.mirabilis is supposed to stimulate post-irradiation replication and repair. (author)

  5. Post-irradiation replication and repair in uv-irradiated cells of Proteus mirabilis depends on protein synthesis and a functioning rec/sup +/ gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofemeister, J [Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Gatersleben. Zentralinstitut fuer Genetik und Kulturpflanzenforschung

    1977-02-28

    The amount of and the molecular weight of newly synthesized DNA (piDNA) as well as its repair after uv irradiation in excision-proficient strains of P.mirabilis and E.coli K12 have been compared. A fraction of post-replication repair (PRR) in P.mirabilis is found to be dependent on de novo protein synthesis after uv irradiation. Pre-irradiation by uv and pre-treatment with nalidixic acid increase the efficiency of post-irradiation replication and PRR even in the presence of chloramphenicol. An inducible repair function in P.mirabilis is supposed to stimulate post-irradiation replication and repair.

  6. Evaluation of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute phenotypic confirmatory test to detect the presence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases from 4005 Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Ian; Bouchillon, Samuel K; Hackel, Meredith; Biedenbach, Douglas J; Hawser, Stephen; Hoban, Daryl; Badal, Robert E

    2014-04-01

    A subset of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis isolates collected for the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends that were positive for the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) phenotypic confirmatory test (n = 3245) or had an ertapenem MIC of ≥0.5 µg ml(-1) (n = 293), or both (n = 467), were analysed for ESBL genes. Most ESBL phenotype E. coli or K. pneumoniae possessed an ESBL gene (95.8 and 88.4 %, respectively), and this was 93.1 % if carbapenem-non-susceptible K. pneumoniae were removed. This rate was lower for P. mirabilis (73.4 %) and K. oxytoca (62.5 %). Virtually all ESBL-positive isolates (99.5 %) were cefotaxime non-susceptible [CLSI or European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) breakpoints)]. Fewer isolates (82 %) were ceftazidime non-susceptible (CLSI breakpoints). In addition, 21.1 % of E. coli, 25 % of K. oxytoca and 78.7 % of P. mirabilis isolates were ceftazidime susceptible but ESBL positive. This suggests that CLSI breakpoints for ceftazidime are too high to detect ESBLs. The lower EUCAST breakpoints detected ESBLs in E. coli and K. oxytoca better, but 59.6 % of ESBL-positive isolates of P. mirabilis were ceftazidime susceptible. For isolates with ertapenem MICs ≥0.5 µg ml(-1), more accurate ESBL phenotype analysis was observed for E. coli and K. pneumoniae (sensitivity >95 % for both, specificity 94.4 and 54.1 %, respectively). If carbapenemase-positive K. pneumoniae were excluded, the specificity increased to 78 %. The positive predictive values for the ESBL phenotypic test with E. coli and K. pneumoniae were 97.6 and 81.8 %, respectively, and negative predictive values were 75.9 and 95.2 %, respectively. We therefore suggest that it would be prudent to confirm phenotypic ESBL-positive P. mirabilis, K. pneumoniae and K. oxytoca with molecular analysis.

  7. Prevalence of quinolone resistance determinant qnrA6 among broad- and extended-spectrum beta-lactam-resistant Proteus mirabilis and Morganella morganii clinical isolates with sul1-type class 1 integron association in a Tunisian Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahrouki, Sihem; Perilli, Mariagrazia; Bourouis, Amel; Chihi, Hela; Ferjani, Mustapha; Ben Moussa, Mohamed; Amicosante, Gianfranco; Belhadj, Omrane

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and the emergence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance among broad-spectrum beta-lactam-resistant Proteus mirabilis and Morganella morganii clinical isolates recovered in the Military Hospital in Tunisia. Of 200 strains examined, 50 exhibited resistance to quinolones. Quinolone resistance determinants (qnr and aac(6')-Ib-cr) were characterized by multiplex PCR and sequencing. Chromosomal quinolone resistance mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) and class 1 integron characterization were analysed by PCR and sequencing. The clonal relationship between the isolates was studied by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Fourteen isolates harboured qnrA6 and among them 8 (57%) were extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producers, whilst 12 (85%) isolates harboured blaDHA-1. Mutations in the QRDR were detected in gyrA (Ser83Ile, Glu87Lys), gyrB (Ser464Phe), and parC (Ser80Ile). qnrA6 and blaDHA-1 genes were found embedded in complex sul1-type class 1 integrons. A gene cassette carrying aac(6')-Ib-cr was found located in the class 1 integron upstream of the qacEΔ1 gene. According to the PFGE analysis, the isolates were clonally unrelated. This is the first description in North Africa of class 1 integrons carrying blaDHA-1, qnrA6 gene, and aac(6')-Ib-cr determinants in clinical strains of Proteus mirabilis and Morganella morganii.

  8. Transcriptional Analysis of the MrpJ Network: Modulation of Diverse Virulence-Associated Genes and Direct Regulation of mrp Fimbrial and flhDC Flagellar Operons in Proteus mirabilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Nadine J.; Debnath, Irina; Kuan, Lisa; Schulfer, Anjelique; Ty, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    The enteric bacterium Proteus mirabilis is associated with a significant number of catheter-associated urinary tract infections (UTIs). Strict regulation of the antagonistic processes of adhesion and motility, mediated by fimbriae and flagella, respectively, is essential for disease progression. Previously, the transcriptional regulator MrpJ, which is encoded by the mrp fimbrial operon, has been shown to repress both swimming and swarming motility. Here we show that MrpJ affects an array of cellular processes beyond adherence and motility. Microarray analysis found that expression of mrpJ mimicking levels observed during UTIs leads to differential expression of 217 genes related to, among other functions, bacterial virulence, type VI secretion, and metabolism. We probed the molecular mechanism of transcriptional regulation by MrpJ using transcriptional reporters and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). Binding of MrpJ to two virulence-associated target gene promoters, the promoters of the flagellar master regulator flhDC and mrp itself, appears to be affected by the condensation state of the native chromosome, although both targets share a direct MrpJ binding site proximal to the transcriptional start. Furthermore, an mrpJ deletion mutant colonized the bladders of mice at significantly lower levels in a transurethral model of infection. Additionally, we observed that mrpJ is widely conserved in a collection of recent clinical isolates. Altogether, these findings support a role of MrpJ as a global regulator of P. mirabilis virulence. PMID:25847961

  9. The spread of bla OXA-48 and bla OXA-244 carbapenemase genes among Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis and Enterobacter spp. isolated in Moscow, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fursova, Nadezhda K; Astashkin, Eugeny I; Knyazeva, Anastasia I; Kartsev, Nikolay N; Leonova, Ekaterina S; Ershova, Olga N; Alexandrova, Irina A; Kurdyumova, Natalia V; Sazikina, Svetlana Yu; Volozhantsev, Nikolay V; Svetoch, Edward A; Dyatlov, Ivan A

    2015-11-02

    The spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) is a great problem of healthcare worldwide. Study of the spread for bla OXA-48-like genes coding epidemically significant carbapenemases among hospital pathogens is important for the regional and global epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance. Antibacterial resistant isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 95) from 54 patients, P. mirabilis (n = 32) from 20 patients, Enterobacter aerogenes (n = 6) from four patients, and Enterobacter cloacae (n = 4) from four patients were collected from January, 2013 to October, 2014 in neurosurgical intensive care unit (ICU) of the Burdenko Neurosurgery Institute, Moscow. Characteristics of the isolates were done using susceptibility tests, PCR detection of the resistance genes, genotyping, conjugation, DNA sequencing, and bioinformatic analysis. Major strains under study were multi drug resistant (MDR), resistant to three or more functional classes of drugs simultaneously-98.9 % K. pneumoniae, 100 % P. mirabilis, one E. aerogenes isolate, and one E. cloacae isolate. Molecular-genetic mechanism of MDR in K. pneumoniae and P. mirabilis isolates were based on carrying of epidemic extended-spectrum beta-lactamase bla CTX-M-15 gene (87.2 and 90.6 % accordingly), carbapenemase bla OXA-48-like gene (55.3 and 23.3 % accordingly), and class 1 (54.8 and 31.3 % accordingly) and class 2 (90.6 % P. mirabilis) integrons. The bla OXA-48-like-positive K. pneumoniae were collected during whole two-year surveillance period, while P. mirabilis and Enterobacter spp. carrying bla OXA-48-like genes were detected only after four and 18 months after the research start, respectively. The bla OXA-48-like gene acquisition was shown for P. mirabilis isolates collected from five patients and for E. cloacae isolate collected from one patient during their stay in the ICU, presumably from bla OXA-48-like-positive K. pneumoniae. The source of the bla OXA-244 gene acquired by E

  10. Transcriptional analysis of the MrpJ network: modulation of diverse virulence-associated genes and direct regulation of mrp fimbrial and flhDC flagellar operons in Proteus mirabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Nadine J; Debnath, Irina; Kuan, Lisa; Schulfer, Anjelique; Ty, Maureen; Pearson, Melanie M

    2015-06-01

    The enteric bacterium Proteus mirabilis is associated with a significant number of catheter-associated urinary tract infections (UTIs). Strict regulation of the antagonistic processes of adhesion and motility, mediated by fimbriae and flagella, respectively, is essential for disease progression. Previously, the transcriptional regulator MrpJ, which is encoded by the mrp fimbrial operon, has been shown to repress both swimming and swarming motility. Here we show that MrpJ affects an array of cellular processes beyond adherence and motility. Microarray analysis found that expression of mrpJ mimicking levels observed during UTIs leads to differential expression of 217 genes related to, among other functions, bacterial virulence, type VI secretion, and metabolism. We probed the molecular mechanism of transcriptional regulation by MrpJ using transcriptional reporters and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). Binding of MrpJ to two virulence-associated target gene promoters, the promoters of the flagellar master regulator flhDC and mrp itself, appears to be affected by the condensation state of the native chromosome, although both targets share a direct MrpJ binding site proximal to the transcriptional start. Furthermore, an mrpJ deletion mutant colonized the bladders of mice at significantly lower levels in a transurethral model of infection. Additionally, we observed that mrpJ is widely conserved in a collection of recent clinical isolates. Altogether, these findings support a role of MrpJ as a global regulator of P. mirabilis virulence. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Characterization of CTX-M-140, a Variant of CTX-M-14 Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase with Decreased Cephalosporin Hydrolytic Activity, from Cephalosporin-Resistant Proteus mirabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Guo-Bao; Jiang, Yi-Qi; Huang, Ying-Min; Qin, Yun; Feng, Lian-Qiang; Zhang, Xue-Fei; Li, Hong-Yu; Zhong, Lan-Lan; Zeng, Kun-Jiao; Patil, Sandip; Xing, Yong; Huang, Xi

    2016-10-01

    CTX-M-140, a novel CTX-M-type extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL), was identified in cephalosporin-resistant clinical isolates of Proteus mirabilis CTX-M-140 contained an alanine-to-threonine substitution at position 109 compared to its putative progenitor, CTX-M-14. When it was expressed in an Escherichia coli isogenic background, CTX-M-140 conferred 4- to 32-fold lower MICs of cephalosporins than those with CTX-M-14, indicating that the phenotype was attributable to this single substitution. For four mutants of CTX-M-14 that were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis (A109E, A109D, A109K, and A109R mutants), MICs of cephalosporins were similar to those for the E. coli host strain, which suggested that the alanine at position 109 was essential for cephalosporin hydrolysis. The kinetic properties of native CTX-M-14 and CTX-M-140 were consistent with the MICs for the E. coli clones. Compared with that of CTX-M-14, a lower hydrolytic activity against cephalosporins was observed for CTX-M-140. blaCTX-M-140 is located on the chromosome as determined by I-CeuI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (I-CeuI-PFGE) and Southern hybridization. The genetic environment surrounding blaCTX-M-140 is identical to the sequence found in different plasmids with blaCTX-M-9-group genes among the Enterobacteriaceae Genome sequencing and analysis showed that P. mirabilis strains with blaCTX-M-140 have a genome size of ∼4 Mbp, with a GC content of 38.7% and 23 putative antibiotic resistance genes. Our results indicate that alanine at position 109 is critical for the hydrolytic activity of CTX-M-14 against oxyimino-cephalosporins. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Molecular screening of antibiotic-resistant determinants among multidrug-resistant clinical isolates of Proteus mirabilis from SouthWest Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabi, Olumuyiwa Samuel; Mendonça, Nuno; Adeleke, Olufemi Ezekiel; da Silva, Gabriela Jorge

    2017-06-01

    Globally, and particularly in developing countries, the menace of anti-microbial resistance is an accelerating problem. In Nigeria, increase in bacterial resistance has been phenotypically established but due to high cost, few molecular studies have been reported. This study screened for presence of transferable resistance genes and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) such as integron among multi-drug resistant (MDR) P. mirabilis . A total of 108 P. mirabilis strains collected from five tertiary hospitals in SouthWest Nigeria were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility study using disc-diffusion method. Transferable resistance genes and MGEs were amplified using Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis and amplicons sequenced. Varied resistance was observed against all the antibiotics tested. About 56% of the isolates were MDR including those from 0-12 years old children. PCR analysis revealed the presence of aac(6')-Ib (33.3%), plasmid mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes [qnrA (36.7%), acc(6')-Ib-cr (5%)], TEM (48.3%), CTX-M (6.7%) and integrons class 1 (58.3%) and class 2 (26.7%). Sequencing analysis revealed bla TEM-1 , bla CTX-M-15 associated with IS Ecp1 and eight different arrays of gene cassettes: aadA1, aadA1-qacH, aadB-aadA2, aadA5, dfrA7, dfrA15, dfrA17, dfrA17-aadA5 . Transferable resistance genes in association with MGEs are present in Nigerian P. mirabilis thus their potential in disseminating resistance.

  13. Propensity score-matched analysis comparing the therapeutic efficacies of cefazolin and extended-spectrum cephalosporins as appropriate empirical therapy in adults with community-onset Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp. and Proteus mirabilis bacteraemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Chih-Chia; Lee, Chung-Hsun; Hong, Ming-Yuan; Hung, Yuan-Pin; Lee, Nan-Yao; Ko, Wen-Chien; Lee, Ching-Chi

    2016-12-01

    In this study, the therapeutic efficacy of cefazolin was compared with that of extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs) (cefotaxime, ceftriaxone and ceftazidime) as appropriate empirical therapy in adults with community-onset monomicrobial bacteraemia caused by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp. or Proteus mirabilis (EKP). Compared with cefazolin-treated patients (n = 135), significantly higher proportions of patients in the ESC treatment group (n = 456) had critical illness at bacteraemia onset (Pitt bacteraemia score ≥4) and fatal co-morbidities (McCabe classification). Of the 591 patients, 121 from each group were matched using propensity score matching (PSM) based on the following independent predictors of 28-day mortality: fatal co-morbidities (McCabe classification); Pitt bacteraemia score ≥4 at bacteraemia onset; initial syndrome of septic shock; and bacteraemia due to pneumonia. After appropriate PSM, no significant differences were observed in the early clinical failure rate (10.7% vs. 7.4%; P = 0.37), the proportion of critical illness (Pitt bacteraemia score ≥4) (0% vs. 0%; P = 1.00) and defervescence (52.6% vs. 42.6%; P = 0.13) on Day 3 between the cefazolin and ESC treatment groups. Similarly, no significant differences were observed in the mean of time to defervescence (4.1 days vs. 4.9 days; P = 0.15), late clinical failure rate (18.2% vs. 10.7%; P = 0.10) and 28-day crude mortality rate (0.8% vs. 3.3%; P = 0.37) between the two groups. These data suggest that the efficacy of cefazolin is similar to that of ESCs when used as appropriate empirical antimicrobial treatment for community-onset EKP bacteraemia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  14. Bioconversion of l-glutamic acid to α-ketoglutaric acid by an immobilized whole-cell biocatalyst expressing l-amino acid deaminase from Proteus mirabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Gazi Sakir; Li, Jianghua; Shin, Hyun-dong; Chen, Rachel R; Du, Guocheng; Liu, Long; Chen, Jian

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this work was to develop an immobilized whole-cell biocatalytic process for the environment-friendly synthesis of α-ketoglutaric acid (α-KG) from l-glutamic acid. We compared the suitability of Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis strains overexpressing Proteus mirabilisl-amino acid deaminase (l-AAD) as potential biocatalysts. Although both recombinant strains were biocatalytically active, the performance of B. subtilis was superior to that of E. coli. With l-glutamic acid as the substrate, α-KG production levels by membranes isolated from B. subtilis and E. coli were 55.3±1.73 and 21.7±0.39μg/mg protein/min, respectively. The maximal conversion ratio of l-glutamic acid to α-KG was 31% (w/w) under the following optimal conditions: 15g/L l-glutamic acid, 20g/L whole-cell biocatalyst, 5mM MgCl2, 40°C, pH 8.0, and 24-h incubation. Immobilization of whole cells with alginate increased the recyclability by an average of 23.33% per cycle. This work established an efficient one-step biotransformation process for the production of α-KG using immobilized whole B. subtilis overexpressing P. mirabilisl-AAD. Compared with traditional multistep chemical synthesis, the biocatalytic process described here has the advantage of reducing environmental pollution and thus has great potential for the large-scale production of α-KG. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Chromosomal location of the fosA3 and blaCTX-M genes in Proteus mirabilis and clonal spread of Escherichia coli ST117 carrying fosA3-positive IncHI2/ST3 or F2:A-:B- plasmids in a chicken farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dandan; Liu, Lanping; Guo, Baowei; Wu, Shengjun; Chen, Xiaojie; Wang, Jing; Zeng, Zhenling; Liu, Jian-Hua

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the spread and location of the fosA3 gene among Enterobacteriaceae from diseased broiler chickens. Twenty-nine Escherichia coli and seven Proteus mirabilis isolates recovered from one chicken farm were screened for the presence of plasmid-mediated fosfomycin resistance genes by PCR. The clonal relatedness of fosA3-positive isolates, the transferability and location of fosA3, and the genetic context of the fosA3 gene were determined. Seven P. mirabilis isolates with three different pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns and five E. coli isolates belonging to sequence type 117 (ST117) and phylogenetic group D were positive for fosA3 and all carried the bla CTX-M gene. In E. coli, the genetic structures IS26-ISEcp1-bla CTX-M-65 -IS26-fosA3-1758 bp-IS26 and IS26-ISEcp1-bla CTX-M-3 -bla TEM-1 -IS26-fosA3-1758 bp-IS26 were present on transferable IncHI2/ST3 and F2:A-:B- plasmids, respectively. However, fosA3 was located on the chromosome of the seven P. mirabilis isolates. IS26-ISEcp1-bla CTX-M-65 -IS26-fosA3-1758 bp-IS26 and IS26-bla CTX-M-14 -611 bp-fosA3-1222 bp-IS26 were detected in three and four P. mirabilis isolates, respectively. Minicircles that contained both fosA3 and bla CTX-M-65 were shared between E. coli and P. mirabilis. This is the first report of the fosA3 gene integrated into the chromosome of P. mirabilis isolates with the bla CTX-M gene. The emergence and clonal spread of avian pathogenic E. coli ST117 with the feature of multidrug resistance and high virulence are a serious problem. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  16. Índice de resistência múltipla aos antimicrobianos, concentração inibitória e beta-lactamases de espectro estendido em linhagens de Proteus mirabilis e Proteus vulgaris isoladas de diferentes afecções em animais domésticos

    OpenAIRE

    Zappa, Vanessa [UNESP

    2015-01-01

    In the last decades have been highlighted the increase number of infections in domestic animals and humans caused by opportunistic multidrug resistant enterobacteria, commonly associated to improper use of antimicrobials, including by Proteus species. However, Proteus infections in domestic animals have been misdiagnosed or the microorganism is considered a contaminant of microbiological cultures, besides to be a primary agent of diseases. Descriptions of Proteus infections in domestic animal...

  17. Treatment Outcomes in Infections Caused by "SPICE" (Serratia, Pseudomonas, Indole-positive Proteus, Citrobacter, and Enterobacter) Organisms: Carbapenem versus Noncarbapenem Regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, Stanley; Sharma, Roopali

    2017-01-01

    Techniques used to identify AmpC β-lactamases in SPICE (Serratia, Pseudomonas, indole-positive Proteus, Citrobacter, and Enterobacter) organisms are not yet optimized for the clinical laboratory and are not routinely used. Clinicians are often left with an uncertainty on the choice of antibiotic when a SPICE organism is isolated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of carbapenem versus noncarbapenem regimens in treating bacteremia or urinary tract infection from a SPICE organism in clinical practice. This single-center, retrospective, cohort study analyzed data from adult patients who had clinical infection with a SPICE organism isolated from blood or urine cultures. Patients were assigned to a carbapenem- or noncarbapenem-treated group. The primary end point was clinical response, defined as a resolution of signs and symptoms of infection at the end of therapy. A total of 332 patients were assessed, and 145 patients met the inclusion criteria for the study. There were 20 patients who received a carbapenem, while 125 received a noncarbapenem regimen. The percentage of patients who were bacteremic was 46.2%. Clinical response overall was achieved in 80% of patients on a carbapenem versus 90.3% of patients on a noncarbapenem regimen (P = 0.24). The rate of microbiologic cure was 90% in patients on a carbapenem versus 91.2% in patients on a noncarbapenem regimen (P = 1). In this study in patients treated for infection with a SPICE organism in clinical practice, the rates of clinical response did not differ significantly between the carbapenem and noncarbapenem groups. Current CLSI breakpoints set for SPICE organisms may still be reliable and may not require additional testing for AmpC β-lactamases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Proteus syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debi Basanti

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteus syndrome is a variable and complex disorder characterized by multifocal overgrowths affecting any tissue or structure of the body. We present a girl aged 3 years and 8 months with an epidermal nevus, port-wine stain, macrodactyly with gigantism of the feet, lymphohemagiomas and multiple lipomas.

  19. Rheumatoid arthritis, Proteus, anti-CCP antibodies and Karl Popper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebringer, Alan; Rashid, Taha; Wilson, Clyde

    2010-02-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a crippling joint disease affecting over 20 million people worldwide. The cause of RA is most probably linked to the triad of microbial trigger, genetic association and autoimmunity and can be explained using the philosophical method of Karl Popper or Popperian sequences. Ten "Popper sequences" have been identified which point to the urinary microbe Proteus mirabilis as the cause of RA: Popper sequence 1 establishes that HLA-DR4 lymphocytes injected into a rabbit evoke specific antibodies against Proteus bacteria. Popper sequence 2 establishes that antibodies to Proteus bacteria are present in RA patients from 14 different countries. Popper sequence 3 establishes that antibodies to Proteus bacteria in RA patients are disease specific since no such antibodies are found in other conditions. Popper sequence 4 establishes that when RA patients have high titres of antibodies to Proteus such bacteria are found in urinary cultures. Popper sequence 5 establishes that only Proteus bacteria and no other microbes evoke significantly elevated antibodies in RA patients. Popper sequence 6 establishes that the "shared epitope" EQR(K)RAA shows "molecular mimicry" with the sequence ESRRAL found in Proteus haemolysin. Popper sequence 7 establishes that Proteus urease contains a sequence IRRET which has "molecular mimicry" with LRREI found in collagen XI of hyaline cartilage. Popper sequence 8 establishes that sera obtained from RA patients have cytopathic properties against sheep red cells coated with the cross-reacting EQR(K)RAA and LRREI self-antigen peptides. Popper sequence 9 establishes that Proteus sequences in haemolysin and urease as well as the self antigens, HLA-DR1/4 and collagen XI, each contain an arginine doublet, thereby providing a substrate for peptidyl arginine deiminase (PAD) to give rise to citrulline, which is the main antigenic component of CCP, antibodies to which are found in early cases of RA. Popper sequence 10 establishes that

  20. PROTEUS MIRABILIS VIABILITY AFTER LITHOTRIPSY OF STRUVITE CALCULI. (R825503)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  1. PROTEUS Experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perret, G.

    2013-01-01

    This presentation gives an overview of the PROTEUS experimental programme performed at PSI over more than 30 years. In the 1970's the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR) experiments were essentially designed to improve the nuclear data in the fast energy range. The light water reactor experiments performed in the 1980's (HCLWR) and until 2006 (LWR-PROTEUS, Phases I, II and III) allowed to study various configurations for PWR and BWR. More information is available on the PROTEUS web site at http://proteus.web.psi.ch

  2. Proteus syndrome in adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, E; Lichtendahl, DHE; Hofer, SOP

    Proteus syndrome is a very rare congenital condition comprising malformations and overgrowth of multiple sorts of tissue. It was described for the first time in 1979 and was termed Proteus syndrome in 1983. The authors describe a 37-year-old patient who was diagnosed initially as having

  3. Inhibition of food-related bacteria by antibacterial substances produced by Pseudomonas sp. strains isolated from pasteurized milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Beatriz Ferreira Rangel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the production of antimicrobial substances by strains of Pseudomonas sp. isolated from pasteurized milk and their potential action against food-related bacteria were investigated. Samples of pasteurized milk were purchased from arbitrarily chosen commercial establishments in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Of the four samples analyzed, three presented several typical colonies of Pseudomonas. About 100 colonies were chosen and subjected to biochemical tests for confirmation of their identity. Eighteen strains of the Pseudomonas genus were identified and submitted to tests for the production of antimicrobial substances. Twelve strains (66.7% were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens, four (22.2% as P. aeruginosa, one (5.5% as P. mendocina and one (5.5% as P. pseudoalcaligenes. Only two P. fluorescens strains were unable to produce any antimicrobial substance against any of the indicator strains tested. Most of the strains presented a broad spectrum of action, inhibiting reference and food-related strains such as Proteus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis, Hafnia alvei, Yersinia enterocolitica, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi. Five antimicrobial substance-producing strains, which presented the broadest spectrum of action, were also tested against Staphylococcus aureus reference strains and 26 Staphylococcus sp. strains isolated from foods, some of which were resistant to antibiotics. The producer strains 8.1 and 8.3, both P. aeruginosa, were able to inhibit all the staphylococcal strains tested. The antimicrobial substances produced by strains 8.1 and 8.3 did not seem to be typical bacteriocins, since they were resistant to the three proteolytic enzymes tested. Experiments involving the characterization of these substances are being carried out in order to evaluate their biotechnological application.

  4. The Proteus syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alavi S

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available A race case of Proteus syndrome is presented. The main features of this hamartomatous condition are partial gigantism of hands and feet, hemihypertrophy, subcutaneous masses, epidermal nevi and bony abnormalities. The condition is extremely rare. Though the child had severe cosmetic disability, motor intellectual and language development was found to be normal.

  5. Effect of ratio variation of crop wastes on the production of poultry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proteus mirabilis, Proteus morganii, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, Acetobacter orleanensis, Clostridium butyricum, Micrococcus roseus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Clostridium spheroides, and Methanobacillus species. Seven fungal ...

  6. Antimicrobial and Anti-Swarming Effects of Bacteriocins and Biosurfactants from Probiotic Bacterial Strains against Proteus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila Goudarzi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background:   Proteus spp. belongs to the family of Enterobacteriaceae. These bacteria are Gram-negative and motile microorganisms and known as the third most common causes of urinary tract infections. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of some secondary metabolites from probiotic strains of Lactobacillus spp. on swarming and growth of Proteus mirabilis and P. vulgaris. Methods:   After determination of optimal conditions for the growth and production of antimicrobials, bacteriocins and biosurfactants were partially purified from Lactobacillus culture supernatants. Then, effects of the purified compounds on growth and swarming migration of Proteus spp. were examined in the presence of various concentrations of semi-purified compounds. Results:  Results showed that the partially purified bacteriocins inhibited Proteus spp. swarming distance and had a significant reduction on the bacterial growth curves. Biosurfactants in a solvent form did not have any considerable effects on factors produced by Proteus spp. Conclusion:  According to the results, the secondary metabolites, especially bacteriocins or bacteriocin-like substances derived from Lactobacillus strains, can inhibit or reduce growth and swarming migration of Proteus spp. which are considered as the bacteria major virulence factors.

  7. Proteus: Mythology to modern times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellaturay, Senthy V; Nair, Raj; Dickinson, Ian K; Sriprasad, Seshadri

    2012-10-01

    It is common knowledge that proteus bacteria are associated with urinary tract infections and urinary stones. Far more interesting however, is the derivation of the word proteus. This study examines the origin of the word proteus, its mythological, historical and literary connections and evolution to present-day usage. A detailed search for primary and secondary sources was undertaken using the library and internet. Greek mythology describes Proteus as an early sea-god, noted for being versatile and capable of assuming many different forms. In the 8(th) century BC, the ancient Greek poet, Homer, famous for his epic poems the Iliad and Odyssey, describes Proteus as a prophetic old sea-god, and herdsman of the seals of Poseidon, God of the Sea. Shakespeare re-introduced Proteus into English literature, in the 15(th) century AD, in the comedy The Two Gentleman of Verona, as one of his main characters who is inconstant with his affections. The 'elephant man' was afflicted by a severely disfiguring disease, described as 'Proteus syndrome'. It is particularly difficult to distinguish from neurofibromatosis, due to its various forms in different individuals. The Oxford English Dictionary defines the word 'protean' as to mean changeable, variable, and existing in multiple forms. Proteus bacteria directly derive their name from the Sea God, due to their rapid swarming growth and motility on agar plates. They demonstrate versatility by secreting enzymes, which allow them to evade the host's defense systems. Thus proteus, true to its name, has had a myriad of connotations over the centuries.

  8. Proteus: Mythology to modern times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellaturay, Senthy V.; Nair, Raj; Dickinson, Ian K.; Sriprasad, Seshadri

    2012-01-01

    Aims: It is common knowledge that proteus bacteria are associated with urinary tract infections and urinary stones. Far more interesting however, is the derivation of the word proteus. This study examines the origin of the word proteus, its mythological, historical and literary connections and evolution to present-day usage. Materials and Methods: A detailed search for primary and secondary sources was undertaken using the library and internet. Results: Greek mythology describes Proteus as an early sea-god, noted for being versatile and capable of assuming many different forms. In the 8th century BC, the ancient Greek poet, Homer, famous for his epic poems the Iliad and Odyssey, describes Proteus as a prophetic old sea-god, and herdsman of the seals of Poseidon, God of the Sea. Shakespeare re-introduced Proteus into English literature, in the 15th century AD, in the comedy The Two Gentleman of Verona, as one of his main characters who is inconstant with his affections. The ‘elephant man’ was afflicted by a severely disfiguring disease, described as ‘Proteus syndrome’. It is particularly difficult to distinguish from neurofibromatosis, due to its various forms in different individuals. The Oxford English Dictionary defines the word ‘protean’ as to mean changeable, variable, and existing in multiple forms. Proteus bacteria directly derive their name from the Sea God, due to their rapid swarming growth and motility on agar plates. They demonstrate versatility by secreting enzymes, which allow them to evade the host's defense systems. Conclusions: Thus proteus, true to its name, has had a myriad of connotations over the centuries. PMID:23450503

  9. Proteus: Mythology to modern times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthy V Sellaturay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: It is common knowledge that proteus bacteria are associated with urinary tract infections and urinary stones. Far more interesting however, is the derivation of the word proteus. This study examines the origin of the word proteus, its mythological, historical and literary connections and evolution to present-day usage. Materials and Methods: A detailed search for primary and secondary sources was undertaken using the library and internet. Results: Greek mythology describes Proteus as an early sea-god, noted for being versatile and capable of assuming many different forms. In the 8 th century BC, the ancient Greek poet, Homer, famous for his epic poems the Iliad and Odyssey, describes Proteus as a prophetic old sea-god, and herdsman of the seals of Poseidon, God of the Sea. Shakespeare re-introduced Proteus into English literature, in the 15 th century AD, in the comedy The Two Gentleman of Verona, as one of his main characters who is inconstant with his affections. The ′elephant man′ was afflicted by a severely disfiguring disease, described as ′Proteus syndrome′. It is particularly difficult to distinguish from neurofibromatosis, due to its various forms in different individuals. The Oxford English Dictionary defines the word ′protean′ as to mean changeable, variable, and existing in multiple forms. Proteus bacteria directly derive their name from the Sea God, due to their rapid swarming growth and motility on agar plates. They demonstrate versatility by secreting enzymes, which allow them to evade the host′s defense systems. Conclusions: Thus proteus, true to its name, has had a myriad of connotations over the centuries.

  10. Case report 509: Proteus syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnstein, M.I.; Kottamasu, S.R.; Katz, M.E.; Weiss, L.

    1988-10-01

    Radiographic features of Proteus syndrome include asymmetry of limbs, partial gigantism of the hands or feet, and hemihypertrophy. The patient described (a 16-year-old male) manifested features of Proteus syndrome which is another entity in the gamut of conditions associated with localized gigantism. This entity should be suggested particularly when localized gigantism is associated with diffuse intra-abdominal lipomatosis and extensive lipomas involving the chest wall and back.

  11. Case report 509: Proteus syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnstein, M.I.; Kottamasu, S.R.; Katz, M.E.; Weiss, L.

    1988-01-01

    Radiographic features of Proteus syndrome include asymmetry of limbs, partial gigantism of the hands or feet, and hemihypertrophy. The patient described (a 16-year-old male) manifested features of Proteus syndrome which is another entity in the gamut of conditions associated with localized gigantism. This entity should be suggested particularly when localized gigantism is associated with diffuse intra-abdominal lipomatosis and extensive lipomas involving the chest wall and back. (orig.)

  12. PROTEUS-SN User Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shemon, Emily R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Smith, Micheal A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Lee, Changho [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-02-16

    PROTEUS-SN is a three-dimensional, highly scalable, high-fidelity neutron transport code developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The code is applicable to all spectrum reactor transport calculations, particularly those in which a high degree of fidelity is needed either to represent spatial detail or to resolve solution gradients. PROTEUS-SN solves the second order formulation of the transport equation using the continuous Galerkin finite element method in space, the discrete ordinates approximation in angle, and the multigroup approximation in energy. PROTEUS-SN’s parallel methodology permits the efficient decomposition of the problem by both space and angle, permitting large problems to run efficiently on hundreds of thousands of cores. PROTEUS-SN can also be used in serial or on smaller compute clusters (10’s to 100’s of cores) for smaller homogenized problems, although it is generally more computationally expensive than traditional homogenized methodology codes. PROTEUS-SN has been used to model partially homogenized systems, where regions of interest are represented explicitly and other regions are homogenized to reduce the problem size and required computational resources. PROTEUS-SN solves forward and adjoint eigenvalue problems and permits both neutron upscattering and downscattering. An adiabatic kinetics option has recently been included for performing simple time-dependent calculations in addition to standard steady state calculations. PROTEUS-SN handles void and reflective boundary conditions. Multigroup cross sections can be generated externally using the MC2-3 fast reactor multigroup cross section generation code or internally using the cross section application programming interface (API) which can treat the subgroup or resonance table libraries. PROTEUS-SN is written in Fortran 90 and also includes C preprocessor definitions. The code links against the PETSc, METIS, HDF5, and MPICH libraries. It optionally links against the MOAB library and

  13. Comparación de diferentes métodos para identificar las especies del género Proteus Comparison of different methods in order to identify Proteus spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. T. Castro

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron: a identificar a nivel de especie aislamientos de Proteus siguiendo la combinación de los esquemas de Farmer y O'Hara; b determinar la utilidad del sistema comercial API 20E y de un esquema reducido de pruebas (agar TSI y agar MIO: movilidad, indol y ornitina, comparar estos procedimientos con la metodología convencional y evaluar su sensibilidad y especificidad, y c evaluar la utilidad del perfil proteico en la identificación de las distintas especies. Se estudiaron 205 aislamientos de Proteus spp. aislados en el período comprendido entre enero de 1998 y setiembre de 2004, recuperados de distintos materiales clínicos correspondientes a pacientes hospitalizados y ambulatorios atendidos en el Hospital de Clínicas. Los organismos fueron identificados mediante la metodología convencional, por el sistema API 20E y con un esquema reducido de pruebas; 48 de ellos fueron sometidos a un SDS-PAGE. API 20E identificó 79 de 87 aislamientos de P. mirabilis (90,8%, 103/103 del complejo P. vulgaris y 15/15 de P. penneri. Ocho aislamientos identificados como Proteus spp. resultaron ser P. mirabilis, al incluir una prueba adicional (maltosa. En la identificación, el esquema reducido coincidió en un 100% con la metodología convencional. A diferencia del sistema API 20E, el esquema reducido alcanza la correcta identificación de todas las especies en laboratorios de baja complejidad, sin la necesidad de pruebas adicionales. El perfil proteico permitió la correcta diferenciación de las tres especies, independientemente de las diferentes atipias de P. mirabilis.The objectives were: a to identify Proteus strains to species level, following Farmer's and O'Hara's conventional biochemical reactions; b to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of both the API 20E method and a schema of reduced reactions (TSI and MIO agar: motility, indole and ornithine comparing them with conventional methodology, and c to evaluate the

  14. Isolation and identification of biosurfactant-producing strains from the genus Pseudomonas aeruginosa and antibacterial effects of biosurfactant production in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Ahmady-Asbchin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Biosurfactants are amphiphilic biological compounds produced extracellularly or as part of the cell membranes by a variety of microorganisms. Because of their use in various industries, they are of a particular importance. The aim of this study was to identify a strain of bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas aeruginosa biosurfactant producers. Materials and methods: In this study, different samples of oil, water and soil contaminated with oil were prepared. Hemolytic activity, emulsification activity and measurement of surface tension were used and selected strains were identified by biochemical tests. The nature and effect of antibacterial biosurfactant was evaluated for strain selection.Results: In this study, eighty eight bacterial strains were isolated. Twenty four strains were isolated from the isolated strains with hemolytic activity. Among which, 14 strains have emulsification activity more than 70% and at last four strains reached surface tension to be less than 40 mN/m. Selected strain based on biochemical tests was recognized as a Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The nature of biosurfactant was determined by TLC, and proved to be of glycolipid kind. Therefore, the produced biosurfactant of the selected strain had antibacterial activity against six bacterial infectious. Sensitive bacteria to the effects of biosurfactant extract of Pseudomonas aeruginosa83, was Staphylococcus aureus and the most resistant bacteria to these extract, was the Proteus mirabilis. The results of MIC, MBC showed that MIC of the extract in concentration of 63 and 125 mg/ml on Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus respectively. Also, the MBC were extract in concentration of 63 and 125mg/ml on Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus respectively.Discussion and conclusion: Pseudomonas aeruginosa had high potential in reducing the surface tension and biosurfactant extracted had high antibacterial effects. Therefore, it

  15. Herodotus' Proteus: myth, history, enquiry, and storytelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bakker, M.; Baragwanath, E.; de Bakker, M.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter examines Herodotus' reshaping of Proteus to fit his historiographical narrative. By staging Proteus as king of Egypt in the Histories Herodotus breaks with the mythological tradition of Proteus as an immortal seer and sea-god. Whereas scholars tend to explain this reshaping as the

  16. Proteus syndrome: association with gingival hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendorf, T M; Hanslo, B

    1995-09-01

    A 9-year old Black boy with gigantism of the hands and feet, and recurrent gingival hyperplasia, diagnosed as Proteus syndrome is presented. The oral manifestations of this syndrome are described. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of gingival hyperplasia associated with Proteus syndrome.

  17. 21 CFR 524.1044h - Gentamicin sulfate, mometasone furoate, clotrimazole otic suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (Pseudomonas spp. [including P. aeruginosa], coagulase-positive staphylococci, Enterococcus faecalis, Proteus mirabilis, and beta-hemolytic streptococci). [66 FR 712, Jan. 4, 2001, as amended at 68 FR 15370, Mar. 31...

  18. Antimicrobial Activity of Lannea welwitschii Stem Bark Against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The plant extracts inhibited Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and some Escherichia coli that are resistant to more than four antibiotics including pefloxacin. The inhibitory activity was more against S. aureus compared with other bacteria.

  19. A survey of the microflora of Hibiscus sabdariffa (Roselle) and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Rhizopus oligosporus, Penicillium citrinum, Mucor spp., Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Candida krusei, while Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Serratia spp., Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus fermentum represented the bacterial ...

  20. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, Vibrio cholerae. CDC V 12 El Tor, Vibrio cholerae INDRE 206, Vibrio cholerae (clinical case), Enterobacter aerogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica, Escherichia coli ATCC 53218, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Proteus mirabilis, Enterobacter aerogenes and Enterobacter cloacae.

  1. streptococcus pneumoniae , klebsiella pneumoniae proteus vulgaris

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2-20mm) on Streptococcus pneumoniae and Proteus vulgaris when compared to the ... The result from this preliminary study suggests that the plant contains active compounds that .... Veterinary and Medical Laboratory Technology, Vom,. Jos.

  2. Proteus, New Insights for a New Age

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Waddell, William; Kim, Joanne; Smith, Jack

    2004-01-01

    .... The Proteus concept offers a range of new insights that, when used in the planning process, will assist military, intelligence, and industry leaders in their efforts to prepare for future success...

  3. Efektivitas SNEDDS Ekstrak Kulit Manggis Terhadap Bakteri P. mirabilis dan S. epidermidis yang Terdapat pada Ulkus Diabetik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafika Sari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mangosteen rind has the ability to conduct antibacterial activity. Under the development relating to drug delivery system, SNEDDS were known to boost the penetration of active compound. The aim of this research was to compare the effectiveness of the antibacterial activity at both SNEDDS preparation and the ethanol extract of mangosteen rind as the antibacteria against the bacteria that cause diabetic ulcers with the most prevalence whether it was Gram positive or Gram negative bacteria like Proteus mirabilis and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The research started by maceration process with the crude extract as the result continued with the phytochemical screening which subsequently prepared as SNEDDS preparations. The SNEDDS preparation prepared earlier then analyzed to see the content of the active compound using spectrophotometer UV-Vis and the measuring of antibacteria activity with bacteria growth inhibitory parameter at ethanol extract SNEDDS preparations of mangosteen rind then compared to ciprofloxacin and were analyzed the data afterwards using ANOVA. The results shows that SNEDDS preparation of mangosteen extract have an activity against both typed of bacteria that cause diabetic ulcers shows by significant differences between both group which is P. mirabilis bacteria group and S. epidermidis bacteria group in ANOVA test with significant number of 0,000 and shows significant differences between both group.

  4. Occurrence of pseudomonas aeruginosa in post-operative wound infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguntibeju, O.O.; Nwobu, R.A.U.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in post-operative wound infection. Results: Out of the 60 bacterial isolates found in post-operative wound infection, 20 (33.3%) were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, followed by Staphylococcus aureus 13(21.7%), Klebsiella species 10(16.7%), Escherichia coli 7(11.7%), Atypical coliform 4(6.7%), Proteus species 4(6.7%), Streptococcus pyogenes 1(1.7%) and Enterococcus faecalis 1(1.7%) in the order. Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections was higher in female than male, ratio 3:2 and was found more among young and elderly debilitated patients. The in vitro sensitivity pattern of 20 isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed colistin (100%), gentamicin (75%), streptomycin (30%), and tetracycline (10%). Conclusion: The role of Pseudomonas aeruginosa as an agent of nosocomial infection is re-emphasised. (author)

  5. User Manual for the PROTEUS Mesh Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Micheal A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Shemon, Emily R [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-09-19

    PROTEUS is built around a finite element representation of the geometry for visualization. In addition, the PROTEUS-SN solver was built to solve the even-parity transport equation on a finite element mesh provided as input. Similarly, PROTEUS-MOC and PROTEUS-NEMO were built to apply the method of characteristics on unstructured finite element meshes. Given the complexity of real world problems, experience has shown that using commercial mesh generator to create rather simple input geometries is overly complex and slow. As a consequence, significant effort has been put into place to create multiple codes that help assist in the mesh generation and manipulation. There are three input means to create a mesh in PROTEUS: UFMESH, GRID, and NEMESH. At present, the UFMESH is a simple way to generate two-dimensional Cartesian and hexagonal fuel assembly geometries. The UFmesh input allows for simple assembly mesh generation while the GRID input allows the generation of Cartesian, hexagonal, and regular triangular structured grid geometry options. The NEMESH is a way for the user to create their own mesh or convert another mesh file format into a PROTEUS input format. Given that one has an input mesh format acceptable for PROTEUS, we have constructed several tools which allow further mesh and geometry construction (i.e. mesh extrusion and merging). This report describes the various mesh tools that are provided with the PROTEUS code giving both descriptions of the input and output. In many cases the examples are provided with a regression test of the mesh tools. The most important mesh tools for any user to consider using are the MT_MeshToMesh.x and the MT_RadialLattice.x codes. The former allows the conversion between most mesh types handled by PROTEUS while the second allows the merging of multiple (assembly) meshes into a radial structured grid. Note that the mesh generation process is recursive in nature and that each input specific for a given mesh tool (such as .axial

  6. 1932: ''annus mirabilis'' for nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, J.

    1998-01-01

    1932 was an extraordinary year for nuclear physics: J. Chadwick discovered the neutron, C.D.Anderson identified the positron and the first artificial disintegration was realised with a particle accelerator by J.Cockcroft and E.Walton. These 3 discoveries transformed nuclear physics by providing basis on which any new research could be led. The neutron allowed the discovery of artificial radioactivity by Joliot-Curie in 1934 and later the discovery of nuclear fission by O. Hahn, F. Strassman and L. Meitner. The positron brought new concepts about cosmic radiation and drew the way to the discovery of new particles. Artificial disintegration paved the way to the ever-bigger machines. It was the beginning of the era of breaking nuclei. 1932 deserves its title of ''annus mirabilis'' of physics. This article presents the quick evolution of ideas, concepts in nuclear physics in the thirties. (A.C.)

  7. Proteus syndrome: craniofacial and cerebral MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLone, D.R.; Brown, W.D.; Gentry, L.R.

    1999-01-01

    The Proteus syndrome is a rare hamartoneoplastic syndrome that may affect the brain, skull, and extracranial head and neck. We present a case with severe, characteristic findings. Brain abnormalities are not common in Proteus syndrome; when present, hemimegalencephaly and migrational disorders are typically seen, commonly with an associated seizure disorder. Maxillary and mandibular dysmorphism may occur, including unilateral condylar hyperplasia. Subcutaneous fatty, fibrous, lymphangiomatous masses commonly seen in this syndrome may involve the neck and face, leading to disfigurement and potential airway compromise. (orig.)

  8. Pseudomonas - Fact Sheet

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2012-01-01

    Fact sheet on Pseudomonas, including:What is Pseudomonas?What infections does it cause?Who is susceptible to pseudomonas infection?How will I know if I have pseudomonas infection?How can Pseudomonas be prevented from spreading?How can I protect myself from Pseudomonas?How is Pseudomonas infection treated?

  9. Isolated macrodactyly or extremely localized Proteus syndrome?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bever, Y.; Hennekam, R. C.

    1994-01-01

    We report on a woman with unilateral macrosyndactyly of the second and third toes, a local plantar soft tissue lump, and radiographically an abnormal shape of the phalanges of the affected toes. This finding may represent either an isolated macrosyndactyly or an extremely localised form of Proteus

  10. User Manual for the PROTEUS Mesh Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Micheal A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Shemon, Emily R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This report describes the various mesh tools that are provided with the PROTEUS code giving both descriptions of the input and output. In many cases the examples are provided with a regression test of the mesh tools. The most important mesh tools for any user to consider using are the MT_MeshToMesh.x and the MT_RadialLattice.x codes. The former allows the conversion between most mesh types handled by PROTEUS while the second allows the merging of multiple (assembly) meshes into a radial structured grid. Note that the mesh generation process is recursive in nature and that each input specific for a given mesh tool (such as .axial or .merge) can be used as “mesh” input for any of the mesh tools discussed in this manual.

  11. User Manual for the PROTEUS Mesh Tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Micheal A.; Shemon, Emily R.

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the various mesh tools that are provided with the PROTEUS code giving both descriptions of the input and output. In many cases the examples are provided with a regression test of the mesh tools. The most important mesh tools for any user to consider using are the MT M eshToMesh.x and the MT R adialLattice.x codes. The former allows the conversion between most mesh types handled by PROTEUS while the second allows the merging of multiple (assembly) meshes into a radial structured grid. Note that the mesh generation process is recursive in nature and that each input specific for a given mesh tool (such as .axial or .merge) can be used as ''mesh'' input for any of the mesh tools discussed in this manual.

  12. Proteus Syndrome With a Cranial Intraosseous Lipoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfswinkel, Erik M; Imahiyerobo, Thomas A; McComb, J Gordon; Sanchez-Lara, Pedro A; Urata, Mark M

    2017-11-01

    Intraosseous lipomas are almost exclusively seen in the long bones. Presence in the craniofacial skeleton is extremely rare. A 7-year-old male is presented with a marked craniofacial deformation from a bony tumor containing an intraosseous lipoma. This finding established a clinical diagnosis of Proteus syndrome. Given the size of the tumor, producing an extensive deformity, three-dimensional modeling was used to generate a three-dimensional printed implant. The process to achieve a successful outcome is herein described.

  13. A mild form of Proteus syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauer, M.P.; Allmann, K.H.; Langer, M. [Abteilung Roentgendiagnostik, Radiologische Universitaetsklinik, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet Freiburg (Germany); Uhl, M. [Sektion Kinderradiologie, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet (Germany); Darge, K. [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik, Abteilung Kinderradiologie, Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany)

    1998-05-01

    Proteus syndrome is a rare congenital hamartomatous syndrome. We report on the clinical and radiological appearances of a boy in order to illustrate the typical signs which include subcutaneous masses, in mild forms partial gigantism of hands and feet, hemihypertrophy, and bony abnormalities. We discuss how to make the definitive diagnosis on the basis of using a known rating scale, important aspects of differential diagnosis and clinical features, and diagnostic management. (orig.) With 3 figs., 1 tab., 14 refs.

  14. Beet western yellows virus infects the carnivorous plant Nepenthes mirabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Sissi; Biteau, Flore; Mignard, Benoit; Marais, Armelle; Candresse, Thierry; Theil, Sébastien; Bourgaud, Frédéric; Hehn, Alain

    2016-08-01

    Although poleroviruses are known to infect a broad range of higher plants, carnivorous plants have not yet been reported as hosts. Here, we describe the first polerovirus naturally infecting the pitcher plant Nepenthes mirabilis. The virus was identified through bioinformatic analysis of NGS transcriptome data. The complete viral genome sequence was assembled from overlapping PCR fragments and shown to share 91.1 % nucleotide sequence identity with the US isolate of beet western yellows virus (BWYV). Further analysis of other N. mirabilis plants revealed the presence of additional BWYV isolates differing by several insertion/deletion mutations in ORF5.

  15. Antibacterial activity of Eucalpytus citriodora Hk. oil on few clinically ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-01-04

    Jan 4, 2008 ... The antibacterial activity of Eucalyptus citriodora oil was evaluated. The volatile oil was extracted by steam distillation method. The tested bacterial strains were Escherichia coli ATCC 25922,. Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis NCIM2241, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC27853, Proteus vulgaris ...

  16. Screening of Methanol and Acetone Extracts of Fourteen Indian Medicinal Plants for Antimicrobial Activity

    OpenAIRE

    VAGHASIYA, Yogeshkumar; CHANDA, Sumitra V.

    2014-01-01

    The methanol and acetone extracts of 14 plants belonging to different families were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against five Gram-positive bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus flavus; seven Gram-negative bacteria: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, Salmonella typhimurium, Citrobacter freundii; and three fungi: Candida tropicalis, Cryptococcus lut...

  17. A five year study on the susceptibility of isolates from various parts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tests. The various isolates for the five-year period were Staphylococcus aureus 1000, Klebsiella pneumoniae 340, Proteus mirabilis 38 Escherichia coli 295, Pseudomonas aeroginosa 240, Alcaligenes faecalis 200, Enterobacter aerogenes 175, Acinetobacter baumannii 150, Proteus vulgaris 110, Providencia stuartii 101, ...

  18. Virulence factors in Proteus bacteria from biofilm communities of catheter-associated urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hola, Veronika; Peroutkova, Tereza; Ruzicka, Filip

    2012-07-01

    More than 40% of nosocomial infections are those of the urinary tract, most of these occurring in catheterized patients. Bacterial colonization of the urinary tract and catheters results not only in infection, but also various complications, such as blockage of catheters with crystalline deposits of bacterial origin, generation of gravels and pyelonephritis. The diversity of the biofilm microbial community increases with duration of catheter emplacement. One of the most important pathogens in this regard is Proteus mirabilis. The aims of this study were to identify and assess particular virulence factors present in catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) isolates, their correlation and linkages: three types of motility (swarming, swimming and twitching), the ability to swarm over urinary catheters, biofilm production in two types of media, urease production and adherence of bacterial cells to various types of urinary tract catheters. We examined 102 CAUTI isolates and 50 isolates taken from stool samples of healthy people. Among the microorganisms isolated from urinary catheters, significant differences were found in biofilm-forming ability and the swarming motility. In comparison with the control group, the microorganisms isolated from urinary catheters showed a wider spectrum of virulence factors. The virulence factors (twitching motility, swimming motility, swarming over various types of catheters and biofilm formation) were also more intensively expressed. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Antibiotics sensitivity profile of proteus species associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibiotics sensitivity profile of proteus species associated with specific infections at University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin. ... Results of the antimicrobial sensitivity testing showed that Imipenem and Piperacillin antibiotics were the most effective against Proteus sppwith each having 100%, followed by Ceftazidime ...

  20. The Proteus effect: stem cells and their promise for medicine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Parson, Ann B

    .... Their story is at once compelling, controversial, and remarkable. Part detective story, part medical history, The Proteus Effect recounts the events leading up to the discovery of stem cells and their incredible potential for the future of medicine...

  1. Proteus, New Insights for a New Age (Briefing Charts)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Waddell, William O; Kim, Joanne; Smith, Jack

    2004-01-01

    .... The Proteus concept offers a range of new insights that, when used in the planning process, will assist military, intelligence, and industry leaders in their efforts to prepare for future success...

  2. Effects of subtherapeutic concentrations of antimicrobials on gene acquisition events in Yersinia, Proteus, Shigella, and Salmonella recipient organisms in isolated ligated intestinal loops of swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Matt T; Xiong, Nalee; Anderson, Kristi L; Carlson, Steve A

    2013-08-01

    To assess antimicrobial resistance and transfer of virulence genes facilitated by subtherapeutic concentrations of antimicrobials in swine intestines. 20 anesthetized pigs experimentally inoculated with donor and recipient bacteria. 4 recipient pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium, Yersinia enterocolitica, Shigella flexneri, or Proteus mirabilis) were incubated with donor bacteria in the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of 1 of 16 antimicrobials in isolated ligated intestinal loops in swine. Donor Escherichia coli contained transferrable antimicrobial resistance or virulence genes. After coincubations, intestinal contents were removed and assessed for pathogens that acquired new antimicrobial resistance or virulence genes following exposure to the subtherapeutic concentrations of antimicrobials. 3 antimicrobials (apramycin, lincomycin, and neomycin) enhanced transfer of an antimicrobial resistance plasmid from commensal E coli organisms to Yersinia and Proteus organisms, whereas 7 antimicrobials (florfenicol, hygromycin, penicillin G, roxarsone, sulfamethazine, tetracycline, and tylosin) exacerbated transfer of an integron (Salmonella genomic island 1) from Salmonella organisms to Yersinia organisms. Sulfamethazine induced the transfer of Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 from pathogenic to nonpathogenic Salmonella organisms. Six antimicrobials (bacitracin, carbadox, erythromycin, sulfathiazole, tiamulin, and virginiamycin) did not mediate any transfer events. Sulfamethazine was the only antimicrobial implicated in 2 types of transfer events. 10 of 16 antimicrobials at subinhibitory or subtherapeutic concentrations augmented specific antimicrobial resistance or transfer of virulence genes into pathogenic bacteria in isolated intestinal loops in swine. Use of subtherapeutic antimicrobials in animal feed may be associated with unwanted collateral effects.

  3. Pharmacological and biological activities of Mirabilis jalapa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozina Rozina

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPlants have been used for health care and medical purposes for several thousands of years. The number of higher plant species on earth is about 250000. It is estimated that 35000 to 70000 species have, at one time or another, been used in some cultures for medicinal purposes. One of these is Mirabilis jalapa L. which is traditionally used as Purgative and emetic, for treatment of many gastrointestinal disorders, including dysentery, diarrhea, muscle pain and abdominal colic. Besides this it also exhibits certain useful activities like Antiviral activity, Antimicrobial activity, Antimalarial activity, Anthelmintic activity, Antioxidant activity, Aytotoxic activity Anti-tubercular drugs induced hepatotoxicity, Antinociceptive activity, Antifungal activity, Anti-corrosion activity, Antispasmodic activity, Anti-inflammatory activity and many others. Pharmacologically active compounds include active alcoholic extract, ether compound-3,3’-Methylenebis (4- hydroxycoumarin N-D-alpha-Phenylyglycinelaminaribiitol-3-(4-(dimethylamino cinnamoyl 4hydroxycoumarin. The purpose of my review is to find out the areas of scope and to give the detail of the work done on Mirabilis Jalapa L. for future research work.

  4. The Location GNSS Modules for the Components of Proteus System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzostowski, K.; Darakchiev, R.; Foks-Ryznar, A.; Sitek, P.

    2012-01-01

    The Proteus system - the Integrated Mobile System for Counterterrorism and Rescue Operations is a complex innovative project. To assure the best possible localization of mobile components of the system, many different Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) modules were taken into account. In order to chose the best solution many types of tests were done. Full results and conclusions are presented in this paper. The idea of measurements was to test modules in GPS Standard Positioning Service (SPS) with EGNOS system specification according to certain algorithms. The tests had to answer the question: what type of GNSS modules should be used on different components with respect to specific usage of Proteus system. The second goal of tests was to check the solution quality of integrated GNSS/INS (Inertial Navigation System) and its possible usage in some Proteus system components.

  5. Warthog: Progress on Coupling BISON and PROTEUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, Shane W.D.

    2016-01-01

    The Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program from the Office of Nuclear Energy at the Department of Energy (DOE) provides a robust toolkit for modeling and simulation of current and future advanced nuclear reactor designs. This toolkit provides these technologies organized across product lines, with two divisions targeted at fuels and end-to-end reactor modeling, and a third for integration, coupling, and high-level workflow management. The Fuels Product Line (FPL) and the Reactor Product Line (RPL) provide advanced computational technologies that serve each respective field effectively. There is currently a lack of integration between the product lines, impeding future improvements of simulation solution fidelity. In order to mix and match tools across the product lines, a new application called Warthog was produced. Warthog is built on the Multi-physics Object-Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) framework developed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). This report details the continuing efforts to provide the Integration Product Line (IPL) with interoperability using the Warthog code. Currently, this application strives to couple the BISON fuel performance application from the FPL using the PROTEUS Core Neutronics application from the RPL. Warthog leverages as much prior work from the NEAMS program as possible, enabling interoperability between the independently developed MOOSE and SHARP frameworks, and the libMesh and MOAB mesh data formats. Previous work performed on Warthog allowed it to couple a pin cell between the two codes. However, as the temperature changed due to the BISON calculation, the cross sections were not recalculated, leading to errors as the temperature got further away from the initial conditions. XSProc from the SCALE code suite was used to calculate the cross sections as needed. The remainder of this report discusses the changes to Warthog to allow for the implementation of XSProc as an external code. It also

  6. Subcutaneous infection by Ochroconis mirabilis in an immunocompetent patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmei Shi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the taxonomy of Ochroconis (Ascomycota, Pezizomycotina, Venturiales, Sympoventuriaceae has been revised with the recognition of an additional genus, Verruconis. Ochroconis comprises mesophilic saprobes that occasionally infect vertebrates which mostly are cold-blooded, while Verruconis contains thermophilic species which is a neurotrope in humans and birds. On the basis of molecular data it is noted that only a single Ochroconis species regularly infects immunocompetent human hosts. Here we report a subcutaneous infection due to Ochroconis mirabilis in a 50-year-old immunocompetent female patient. In vitro antifungal susceptibility tests revealed that terbinafine was the most effective drug. The patient was successfully cured with oral administration of terbinafine 250 mg daily in combination with 3 times of topical ALA-photodynamic therapy for 9 months.

  7. Swarming modulatory effects of some amino acids on Proteus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Swarming motility, a multicellular behaviour characterized by periodic concentric growth on solid media has severally been reported as a constraint in the clinical investigation of mixed-culture infections involving Proteus and as a requirement for virulence. While media are being formulated to restrain swarming in this ...

  8. Association of germline mutation in the PTEN tumour suppressor gene and Proteus and Proteus-like syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, X.; Hampel, H.; Thiele, H.; Gorlin, R. J.; Hennekam, R. C.; Parisi, M.; Winter, R. M.; Eng, C.

    2001-01-01

    The molecular aetiology of Proteus syndrome (PS) remains elusive. Germline mutations in PTEN cause Cowden syndrome and Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome, which are hereditary hamartoma syndromes. Some features-eg, macrocephaly, lipomatosis, and vascular malformations-can be seen in all three

  9. First Earth-based observations of Neptune's satellite Proteus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colas, F.; Buil, C.

    1992-08-01

    Proteus (Neptune III) was discovered from Voyager Spacecraft images in 1989 (Smith, 1989). It was never observed from ground-based observatories because of its magnitude (m = 20.3) and closeness to Neptune (maximum elongation = 6 arcsec). In October 1991, we used the 2.2 m telescope at the European Southern Observatory (La Silla, Chile) to look for it. The observation success is mainly due to the use of an anti blooming CCD and to good seeing conditions (less than 1 arcsec). We give the differential positions of Proteus referred to Neptune and we compare with theoretical positions issued from Voyager's data (Owen et al., 1991). We found that the rms orbital residual was about 0.1 arcsec.

  10. Status Report on NEAMS PROTEUS/ORIGEN Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieselquist, William A [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-02-18

    The US Department of Energy’s Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Program has contributed significantly to the development of the PROTEUS neutron transport code at Argonne National Laboratory and to the Oak Ridge Isotope Generation and Depletion Code (ORIGEN) depletion/decay code at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. PROTEUS’s key capability is the efficient and scalable (up to hundreds of thousands of cores) neutron transport solver on general, unstructured, three-dimensional finite-element-type meshes. The scalability and mesh generality enable the transfer of neutron and power distributions to other codes in the NEAMS toolkit for advanced multiphysics analysis. Recently, ORIGEN has received considerable modernization to provide the high-performance depletion/decay capability within the NEAMS toolkit. This work presents a description of the initial integration of ORIGEN in PROTEUS, mainly performed during FY 2015, with minor updates in FY 2016.

  11. Phytochemical characteristics and in vitro antibacterial activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aqueous and ethanol stem bark-extracts of Caesalpinia pulcherrima (Pride of Barbados) were screened for phyto-constituents and in vitro antimicrobial activity on clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella typhi and Klebsiella pneumoniae using ...

  12. NDM 1 Gene Carrying Gram negative Bacteria Isolated from Rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, we screened 56 Gram negative bacteria comprising: 3 isolates of Enterobacter ludwigii, 30 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 22 Proteus mirabilis, and 1 Aeromonas caviae isolated from oral cavity and rectum of rats captured from commercial poultry houses in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria that were resistant to at least ...

  13. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    In this study, we screened 56 Gram negative bacteria comprising: 3 isolates of Enterobacter ludwigii, 30 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 22. Proteus mirabilis, and 1 Aeromonas caviae isolated from oral cavity and rectum of rats captured from commercial poultry houses in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria that were resistant to at least ...

  14. Scalable DNA-Based Magnetic Nanoparticle Agglutination Assay for Bacterial Detection in Patient Samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mezger, Anja; Fock, Jeppe; Antunes, Paula Soares Martins

    2015-01-01

    and on the introduction of a magnetic incubation scheme. This enables multiplex detection of Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at clinically relevant concentrations, demonstrating a factor of 30 improvement in sensitivity compared to previous MNP-based detection schemes. Thanks...

  15. Microbial burden of some herbal antimalarials marketed at Elele ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The palm wine preparation harboured Bacillus sp, yeasts and Mucor spp while the water base preparations had several isolates such as Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli 0157H7, Proteus mirabilis, Enterococcus feacalis, Serratia marcensces, Staph. aureus, Bacillus spp and Mucor ...

  16. Keanekaragaman Mirabilis jalapa L. Berdasarkan Pola Pita Isozim Peroksidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHMAD DWI SETYAWAN

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Mirabilis jalapa L. is a gardening plant which growth easily planted because their beautiful color and flower’s ornaments. The aims of the research were to find out the variation of isozyme band of peroxidase (PER and their close relationship of M. jalapa cultivated based on their different flower’s color. The method used in this study was polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis. The collecting data were analyzed using calculation of association coefficient (Gower’s coefficient with cluster analysis used for similarities of their arithmetic. The results showed that in M. jalapa were found 21 variation of isozyme bands of peroxidase (PER from 8 Rf of 0.04; 0.08; 0.20; 0.28; 0.36; 0.48; 0,60; and 0.64. M. jalapa with white and red nodes flower’s (BIN and white and red line flower’s (GAR have the nearest genetic relationship with similarity index of 0.76. M. jalapa with white and red nodes flower’s (BIN and white and red line flower’s (GAR joined with red flower’s (MER on 0.73 of similarity index then joined with white flower’s (PUT on 0.64 of similarity index and yellow flower’s (KUN on0.49 of similarity index. At least, M. jalapa with orange flower’s (ORA joined with M. jalapa cultivars on 0.41 of similarity index.

  17. Characterization of thrombosis in patients with Proteus syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keppler-Noreuil, Kim M; Lozier, Jay N; Sapp, Julie C; Biesecker, Leslie G

    2017-09-01

    Patients with overgrowth and complex vascular malformation syndromes, including Proteus syndrome have an increased risk of thromboembolism. Proteus syndrome is a mosaic, progressive overgrowth disorder involving vasculature, skin, and skeleton, and caused by a somatic activating mutation in AKT1. We conducted a comprehensive review of the medical histories and hematologic evaluations of 57 patients with Proteus syndrome to identify potential risk factors for thrombosis. We found that six of ten patients, who were deceased, died secondary to deep venous thrombosis and/or pulmonary embolism. Of the remaining 47 living patients, six had thromboembolic events that all occurred postoperatively and in an affected limb. Eleven of 21 patients had an abnormal hypercoagulable panel including Factor V Leiden heterozygotes, antithrombin III deficiency, positive lupus anticoagulant, or Protein C or S deficiencies. We observed that eight of 17 patients had an abnormal D-dimer level >0.5 mcg/dl, but deep venous thromboses occurred in only four of those with D-dimer >1.0 mcg/dl. We conclude that the predisposition to thrombosis is likely to be multifaceted with risk factors including vascular malformations, immobility, surgery, additional prothrombotic factors, and possible pathophysiologic effects of the somatic AKT1 mutation on platelet function or the vascular endothelium. The D-dimer test is useful as a screen for thromboembolism, although the screening threshold may need to be adjusted for patients with this disorder. We propose developing a registry to collect D-dimer and outcome data to facilitate adjustment of the D-dimer threshold for Proteus syndrome and related disorders, including PIK3CA-Related Overgrowth Spectrum. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Genome sequencing and annotation of Proteus sp. SAS71

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samy Selim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We report draft genome sequence of Proteus sp. strain SAS71, isolated from water spring in Aljouf region, Saudi Arabia. The draft genome size is 3,037,704 bp with a G + C content of 39.3% and contains 6 rRNA sequence (single copies of 5S, 16S & 23S rRNA. The genome sequence can be accessed at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession no. LDIU00000000.

  19. Solid Phases Precipitating in Artificial Urine in the Absence and Presence of Bacteria Proteus mirabilis—A Contribution to the Understanding of Infectious Urinary Stone Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Prywer

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate, called struvite, is the dominant component of infectious urinary stones. In addition to struvite, infectious urinary stones include solid phases with poor crystallinity as well as amorphous matter. This article is devoted to the analysis of these solid phases, because they have not been characterized well until now. The solid phases tested were obtained from artificial urine in the absence and presence of Proteus mirabilis. The solid phases were characterized by different techniques (X-ray Diffraction, Energy Dispersive X-ray, Scanning Electron Microscopy, as well as Raman and Infrared Spectroscopies. According to the results these phases are carbonate apatite (CA, hydroxylapatite (HAP, amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC, amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP and/or amorphous carbonated calcium phosphate (ACCP. Carbonate apatite and hydroxylapatite may occur in non-stoichiometric forms, i.e., various anions can be substituted for CO32−, OH−, and PO43− groups in them. The non-stoichiometry of carbonate apatite and hydroxylapatite also implies a deficiency of calcium ions, i.e., calcium ions may be partially replaced by other cations. Experimental techniques and chemical speciation analysis demonstrate that the presence of magnesium influences the formation of CA and HAP.

  20. Pseudomonas Lipopeptide Biosurfactants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnichsen, Lise

    Pseudomonas lipopetide biosurfactants are amphiphilic molecules with a broad range of natural functions. Due to their surface active properties, it has been suggested that Pseudomonas lipopetides potentially play a role in biodegradation of hydrophobic compounds and have essential functions...... lipopetide biosurfactants in pollutant biodegradation and natural roles in biofilm formation. The work presented is a combination of environmental microbiology and exploiting genetic manipulation of pure cultures to achieve insightinto the effects and mechanisms of lipopeptides on microbial processes...

  1. 40 CFR 180.1114 - Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas syringae 742RS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas syringae 742RS; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance... Tolerances § 180.1114 Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas syringae...

  2. A two-point kinetic model for the PROTEUS reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dam, H. van.

    1995-03-01

    A two-point reactor kinetic model for the PROTEUS-reactor is developed and the results are described in terms of frequency dependent reactivity transfer functions for the core and the reflector. It is shown that at higher frequencies space-dependent effects occur which imply failure of the one-point kinetic model. In the modulus of the transfer functions these effects become apparent above a radian frequency of about 100 s -1 , whereas for the phase behaviour the deviation from a point model already starts at a radian frequency of 10 s -1 . (orig.)

  3. Proteus syndrome: A rare cause of gigantic limb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandini Chakrabarti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A congenital disorder with variable manifestations, including partial gigantism of the hands and feet with hypertrophy of soles, nevi, hemihypertrophy, gynecomastia, macrocephaly and other skull abnormalities, and abdominal lipomatosis. The cause is unknown, although a genetic origin, generally of autosomal-dominant transmission, has been conjectured. Symptoms can be treated, but there is no known cure. We present the case of a young male with grotesque overgrowth of the right lower limb, splenomegaly and multiple nevi. Angiography revealed venous malformation within the limb. The findings are in conformity to the criteria for the Proteus syndrome.

  4. Proteus syndrome: A rare cause of gigantic limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Nandini; Chattopadhyay, Chandan; Bhuban, Majhi; Pal, Salil Kumar

    2014-04-01

    A congenital disorder with variable manifestations, including partial gigantism of the hands and feet with hypertrophy of soles, nevi, hemihypertrophy, gynecomastia, macrocephaly and other skull abnormalities, and abdominal lipomatosis. The cause is unknown, although a genetic origin, generally of autosomal-dominant transmission, has been conjectured. Symptoms can be treated, but there is no known cure. We present the case of a young male with grotesque overgrowth of the right lower limb, splenomegaly and multiple nevi. Angiography revealed venous malformation within the limb. The findings are in conformity to the criteria for the Proteus syndrome.

  5. Maritime Branch Analysis: A workbook in the PROTEUS series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mougaard, Krestine; Neugebauer, Line Maria; Garcia i Mateu, Adrià

    The vast majority of countries in the developed world are now dependent on their service sectors for between 70-80% of their gross domestic product. Even companies with decades of expertise in producing manufactured products are experiencing an increased need to understand before-, during- and af...... industry sector’s readiness and first steps towards servitisation. Although this book is written primarily for our partners on the PROTEUS project, we are sure it can be a source of inspiration to a broad range of practitioners, policy makers, academics and students...

  6. Thanatosis as an adaptive male mating strategy in the nuptial gift-giving spider Pisaura mirabilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Line S.; Gonzalez, Sofía F.; Toft, Søren

    2008-01-01

    Males and females often experience different optima in mating rate, which may cause evolution of female resistance to matings and male counter adaptations to increase mating rate. Males of the spider Pisaura mirabilis display a spectacular mating behavior involving a nuptial gift and thanatosis...

  7. A Rare Case of Cranial Osteomyelitis Caused by Proteus Vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Uslu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Osteomyelitis of the calvarial bones can cause serious complications such as brain abscess, due to the close proximity to adjacent brain structures. Development of the purulent secretion in surgery and traumatic scalp injuries must be considered as a possibility of osteomyelitis possibility. Generally gram positive, rarely gram negative bacteria and mix agents, can be isolated in infection. Especially chronic pyogenic osteomyelitis agents can be isolated from chronic infections such as tuberculosis. In cranial osteomyelitis diagnosis, radiological diagnosis has a very important place together with the clinical diagnosis. However, infection can usually show late findings radiologically. In treatment, antibiotic treatment is absolutely essential as well as removal of the infected part of the bone. Due to antibiotic treatment lasting between 6-12 weeks, organizing the antibiotic protocols according to the results of culture-antibiograms, which were provided from purulent secretions, has the most important role in the success of surgical treatment. In Proteus sp. infections, for choice of suitable treatment, determination of the type of bacteria is important. For exact diagnosis, histopathological examination of the bone tissue must be carried out. In this report, a case with cranial osteomyelitis caused by Proteus vulgaris which is a gram negative bacteria causing anaerobic infections and classified in the Enterobacteriaceae family is presented. The patient was treated with surgery and appropriate antibiotics. Early recognition of this condition, planning the best treatment strategy and taking precautions to prevent complications, is mandatory for a better outcome.

  8. Gentamicin in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    infections by Ps. aeruginosa is contra-indicated. In our study only 2,3 % of the Ps. aeruginosa strains were resistant to gentamicin (MIC 25 Ilg/ml). In view of the synergy reported for combined gentamicin and carbeni- cillin therapy," a combination of these two drugs may be recommended in the treatment of all Pseudomonas.

  9. DE-NE0008277_PROTEUS final technical report 2018

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enqvist, Andreas [University of Florida

    2018-04-10

    This project details re-evaluations of experiments of gas-cooled fast reactor (GCFR) core designs performed in the 1970s at the PROTEUS reactor and create a series of International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) benchmarks. Currently there are no gas-cooled fast reactor (GCFR) experiments available in the International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments (IRPhEP Handbook). These experiments are excellent candidates for reanalysis and development of multiple benchmarks because these experiments provide high-quality integral nuclear data relevant to the validation and refinement of thorium, neptunium, uranium, plutonium, iron, and graphite cross sections. It would be cost prohibitive to reproduce such a comprehensive suite of experimental data to support any future GCFR endeavors.

  10. Professor Krystyna Kotełko and her contribution to the study of Proteus endotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Różalski, Antoni W

    2018-04-01

    Professor Krystyna Kotełko was working as a microbiologist at the University of Łódź (Poland). Her main object of study was the LPS (endotoxin) of opportunistic urinary pathogens from the genus Proteus. She demonstrated, for the first time, the presence of uronic acids and amino acids, as well as two heptoses (L- glycero-D- manno-heptose and D- glycero-D- manno-heptose) and hexosamines in Proteus LPS, and developed a classification scheme of the Proteus LPS into chemotypes. Prof Kotełko also initiated studies on the chemical structure of Proteus O-specific polysaccharide and investigations on the serological specificity of this part of LPS, as well its core region. She also analysed the virulence factors of these bacteria, such as haemolysin and invasiveness.

  11. Kinetic studies on the inhibition of Proteus vulgaris beta-lactamase by imipenem.

    OpenAIRE

    Hashizume, T; Yamaguchi, A; Hirata, T; Sawai, T

    1984-01-01

    Imipenem was found to inhibit Proteus vulgaris beta-lactamase in a progressive manner. Kinetic experiments confirmed that the inactivated enzyme was not completely recovered after intact imipenem had been exhausted.

  12. Proteus syndrome: a rare cause of hemihypertrophy and macrodactyly on bone scanning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joshi, U.; van der Sluijs, J.A.; Teule, G.J.; Pijpers, R.

    2005-01-01

    Proteus syndrome is a rare, sporadic genetic disorder characterized by overgrowth of multiple different tissues in a mosaic pattern. It is associated with connective tissue nevi, epidermal nevi, disproportionate overgrowth of multiple tissues, vascular malformations, characteristic tumors, and

  13. Unilateral hypertrophic skin lesions, hemimegalencephaly, and meningioma: The many faces of Proteus syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niharika R Lal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteus syndrome is a rare condition with a wide spectrum of abnormalities. It is characterized by hamartomatous malformations involving multiple organs. Serious complications may ensue, such as pulmonary embolism, cystic lung disease, and various neoplasms such as parotid adenomas, ovarian cystadenomas, and meningiomas. We report here a case of Proteus syndrome in a 21-year-old woman who had facial hemihypertrophy, cerebriform plantar hyperplasia, hemimegalencephaly, and meningioma for the rarity of the entity.

  14. Isolation and purification of membrane-bound cytochrome c from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2007-05-02

    ferrochrome and redox spectra showed the presence of heme-c. Key words: Cytochrome c, respiratory chain and Proteus mirabilis. INTRODUCTION. Proteus mirabilis is facultative anaerobic, rod-shaped, gram negative bacterium.

  15. Skull shape differentiation of black and white olms (Proteus anguinus anguinus and Proteus a. parkelj): an exploratory analysis with micro-CT scanning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanović, A.; Aljančič, G.; Artzen, J.W.

    2013-01-01

    We performed an exploratory analysis of the morphology of the cranium in the white olm (Proteus anguinus anguinus) and the black olm (P. a. parkelj) with micro-CT scanning and geometric morphometrics. The mudpuppy (Necturus maculosus) was used as an outgroup. The black olm falls outside the white

  16. Benchmark Evaluation of HTR-PROTEUS Pebble Bed Experimental Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bess, John D.; Montierth, Leland; Köberl, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Benchmark models were developed to evaluate 11 critical core configurations of the HTR-PROTEUS pebble bed experimental program. Various additional reactor physics measurements were performed as part of this program; currently only a total of 37 absorber rod worth measurements have been evaluated as acceptable benchmark experiments for Cores 4, 9, and 10. Dominant uncertainties in the experimental keff for all core configurations come from uncertainties in the 235 U enrichment of the fuel, impurities in the moderator pebbles, and the density and impurity content of the radial reflector. Calculations of k eff with MCNP5 and ENDF/B-VII.0 neutron nuclear data are greater than the benchmark values but within 1% and also within the 3σ uncertainty, except for Core 4, which is the only randomly packed pebble configuration. Repeated calculations of k eff with MCNP6.1 and ENDF/B-VII.1 are lower than the benchmark values and within 1% (~3σ) except for Cores 5 and 9, which calculate lower than the benchmark eigenvalues within 4σ. The primary difference between the two nuclear data libraries is the adjustment of the absorption cross section of graphite. Simulations of the absorber rod worth measurements are within 3σ of the benchmark experiment values. The complete benchmark evaluation details are available in the 2014 edition of the International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments

  17. Validation of KENOREST with LWR-PROTEUS phase II samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, M.; Kilger, R.; Pautz, A.; Zwermann, W. [GRS, Garching (Germany); Grimm, P.; Vasiliev, A.; Ferroukhi, H. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen (Switzerland)

    2012-11-01

    In order to broaden the validation basis of the reactivity and nuclide inventory code KENOREST two samples of the LWR-PROTEUS phase II program have been calculated and compared to the experimental results. In general most nuclides are reproduced very well and agree within about ten percent with the experiment. Some already known problems, the overprediction of metallic fission products and the underprediction of the higher curium isotopes, have been confirmed. One of the largest uncertainties in the calculation was the burnup of the samples due to differences between a core simulation of the fuel vendor and the burnup determined from the measured values of the burnup indicator Nd-148. Two different models taking into account the environment for a peripheral fuel rod have been studied. The more detailed model included the three direct neighbor fuel assemblies depleted along with the fuel rod of interest. The influence on the results has been found to be very small. Compared to the uncertainties from the burnup, this effect can be considered negligible. The reason for the low influence was basically that the spectrum did not get considerably harder with increasing burnup beyond about 20GWd/tHM. Since the sample reached burnups far beyond that value, an effect could not be seen. In the near future an update of the used libraries is planned and it will be very interesting to study the effect on the results, especially for Curium. (orig.)

  18. Environmental DNA in subterranean biology: range extension and taxonomic implications for Proteus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorički, Špela; Stanković, David; Snoj, Aleš; Kuntner, Matjaž; Jeffery, William R.; Trontelj, Peter; Pavićević, Miloš; Grizelj, Zlatko; Năpăruş-Aljančič, Magdalena; Aljančič, Gregor

    2017-03-01

    Europe’s obligate cave-dwelling amphibian Proteus anguinus inhabits subterranean waters of the north-western Balkan Peninsula. Because only fragments of its habitat are accessible to humans, this endangered salamander’s exact distribution has been difficult to establish. Here we introduce a quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction-based environmental DNA (eDNA) approach to detect the presence of Proteus using water samples collected from karst springs, wells or caves. In a survey conducted along the southern limit of its known range, we established a likely presence of Proteus at seven new sites, extending its range to Montenegro. Next, using specific molecular probes to discriminate the rare black morph of Proteus from the closely related white morph, we detected its eDNA at five new sites, thus more than doubling the known number of sites. In one of these we found both black and white Proteus eDNA together. This finding suggests that the two morphs may live in contact with each other in the same body of groundwater and that they may be reproductively isolated species. Our results show that the eDNA approach is suitable and efficient in addressing questions in biogeography, evolution, taxonomy and conservation of the cryptic subterranean fauna.

  19. In vitro anti-inflammatory components isolated from the carnivorous plant Nepenthes mirabilis (Lour.) Rafarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thao, Nguyen Phuong; Luyen, Bui Thi Thuy; Koo, Jung Eun; Kim, Sohyun; Koh, Young Sang; Thanh, Nguyen Van; Cuong, Nguyen Xuan; Kiem, Phan Van; Minh, Chau Van; Kim, Young Ho

    2016-01-01

    Nepenthes mirabilis (Lour.) Rafarin (Nepenthaceae) is a carnivorous plant used as a folk medicine in the treatment of jaundice, hepatitis, gastric ulcers, ureteral stones, diarrhea, diabetes, and high blood pressure. Neither the phytochemical content nor biological activities of N. mirabilis have been reported. The anti-inflammatory activity from the N. mirabilis methanolic extract led to the isolation of compounds (1-26). Chromatographic methods were used to isolate compounds from the methanol extract of N. mirabilis branches and leaves. The anti-inflammatory activity of these isolated compounds was investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) using ELISA. Primary BMDCs were used to examine the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-12 p40, IL-6, and TNF-α, at concentrations of 0.1, 0.2, and 1.0 μM) as compared with a positive control, SB203580 (1.0 μM). MTT assays showed that isolated compounds (1-26) did not exhibit significant cytotoxicity at concentrations up to 20.0 μM. Compound 9 showed potent inhibition of IL-12 p40, IL-6, and TNF-α production (IC50 = 0.17 ± 0.02, 0.46 ± 0.01, and 8.28 ± 0.21 μM, respectively). Compound 4 showed potent inhibition of IL-12 p40 and IL-6 production (IC50 = 1.17 ± 0.01 and 2.15 ± 0.04 μM). In addition, IL-12 p40 inhibition by naphthalene derivatives (1-7, 9, and 10), phenolic compounds (11-15), lupeone (18), and flavonoids (22, 25, and 26) was more potent than with the positive control. The isolated compounds exhibited little and/or no inhibitory effects on TNF-α production in LPS-stimulated BMDCs. Taken together, these data suggest that the isolated components have significant inhibitory effects on pro-inflammatory cytokine production and warrant further study concerning their potential medicinal use.

  20. Assessment of Cadmium and Chromium Stress on Growth, Physiology and Metal Uptake Using Mirabilis Jalapa

    OpenAIRE

    S. A. Shahanaz Begum; Tharakeswar Yadamari; Kalyan Yakkala; Sreevani Parvathareddy; Ramakrishna Naidu Gurijala

    2015-01-01

    Phytoextraction potential of Mirabilis jalapa, with tuberous root having high ecological adoptability was studied in the present work . Different levels of cadmium and chromium stress on growth, physiology and metal uptake were studied using pot experiments. The experiment comprised of 5 dosages of cadmium and chromium with different test concentrations (TC) viz, TC1(0), TC2(25), TC3(50), TC4(75) and TC5(100) ppm, for the period of 45 days. Growth, physiological parameters and metal accumulat...

  1. ISTRAŽIVANJE ZAGAĐENOSTI MESA, RADNIH POVRŠINA I PRIBORA BAKTERIJAMA RODA PROTEUS

    OpenAIRE

    Hadžiosmanović, Mirza; Živković, Josip; Trešćec, Aida

    1992-01-01

    Istraživan je stupanj zagađenja sirovina i radnih površina tijekom proizvodnje mesnih prerađevina bakterijama roda Proteus. Rezultati su pokazali da je meso peradi zagađeno vrstama roda Proteus u količini od 8,8%, svježe goveđe meso 7,8 % a polutrajne i obarene kobasice neposredno nakon proizvoodnje u količini od 2,8 %. Rezultati pretraga brisova s proizvodnih linija pokazuju da je pripadnika roda Proteus najviše u kobasičarnici (14,6 %), na liniji prerade svinja (11,8 %), goveda (10,9 %), a ...

  2. Efficacy of some colloidal silver preparations and silver salts against Proteus bacteria, one possible cause of rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disaanayake, D M B T; Faoagali, Joan; Laroo, Hans; Hancock, Gerald; Whitehouse, Michael

    2014-04-01

    There has been increased interest in the role of anti-Proteus antibodies in the aetiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and whether chemotherapeutic agents active against Proteus species might reduce the risk and/or exacerbations of RA. We examined the in vitro antibacterial effects of ten different silver preparations which were either ionic silver [Ag(I)] solutions or nanoparticulate silver (NPS) (Ag(0)) suspensions against ATCC and two wild (clinical) strains of Proteus. The data establish the low minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of all the silver formulations tested against these four Proteus strains. In a pilot study, a potent NPS preparation ex vivo showed long-lasting anti-Proteus activity in a normal human volunteer.

  3. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolker-Nielsen, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria in natural, industrial and clinical settings predominantly live in biofilms, i.e., sessile structured microbial communities encased in self-produced extracellular matrix material. One of the most important characteristics of microbial biofilms is that the resident bacteria display...... a remarkable increased tolerance toward antimicrobial attack. Biofilms formed by opportunistic pathogenic bacteria are involved in devastating persistent medical device-associated infections, and chronic infections in individuals who are immune-compromised or otherwise impaired in the host defense. Because...... the use of conventional antimicrobial compounds in many cases cannot eradicate biofilms, there is an urgent need to develop alternative measures to combat biofilm infections. The present review is focussed on the important opportunistic pathogen and biofilm model organism Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Initially...

  4. Secondary metabolites of Mirabilis jalapa structurally inhibit Lactate Dehydrogenase A in silico: a potential cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumawati, R.; Nasrullah, A. H.; Pesik, R. N.; Muthmainah; Indarto, D.

    2018-03-01

    Altered energy metabolism from phosphorylated oxidation to aerobic glycolysis is one of the cancer hallmarks. Lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) is a major enzyme that catalyses pyruvate to lactate in such condition. The aim of this study was to explore LDHA inhibitors derived from Indonesian herbal plants. In this study, LDHA and oxamate molecular structures were obtained from protein data bank. As a standard ligand inhibitor, oxamate was molecularly re-validated using Autodock Vina 1.1.2 software and showed binding energy -4.26 ± 0.006 kcal/mol and interacted with LDHA at Gln99, Arg105, Asn137, Arg168, His192, and Thr247 residues. Molecular docking was used to visualize interaction between Indonesian phytochemicals and LDHA. Indonesian phytochemicals with the lowest binding energy and similar residues with standard ligand was Miraxanthin-III (-8.53 ± 0.006 kcal/mol), Vulgaxanthin-I (-8.46 ± 0.006 kcal/mol), Miraxanthin-II (-7.9 ± 0.2 kcal/mol) and Miraxanthin-V (-7.96 ± kcal/mol). Lower energy binding to LDHA and binding site at these residues was predicted to inhibit LDHA activity better than standard ligand. All phytochemicals were found in Mirabilis jalapa plant. Secondary metabolites in Mirabilis jalapa have LDHA inhibitor property in silico. Further in vitro study should be performed to confirm this result.

  5. ANTAGONISTIC POTENTIAL OF FLUORESCENT Pseudomonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    GROWTH OF TOMATO CHALLENGED WITH PHTOPATHOGENS ... This study focused on the antagonistic potential of fluorescent Pseudomonas in vitro, and its inoculation effect on growth .... the 5 days old culture in starch agar with Lugol's.

  6. Certification of the decommissioning project for the PROTEUS research reactor at the Paul Scherrer Institute; Gutachten zum Stilllegungsprojekt der Kernanlage PROTEUS am Paul Scherrer Institut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-12-15

    The Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) revised the documents concerning the decommissioning of the PROTEUS research reactor. This report presents the results of the evaluation by the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI). PSI considered all relevant stipulations of nuclear energy legislation, the law on radiation protection, as well as ENSI directives. Moreover, ENSI made sure that the PROTEUS decommissioning project corresponds to the IAEA, WENRA and OECD/NEA international requirements, and corresponds to current state of science and technology. ENSI ascertained some facts that have to be looked at more deeply. Before beginning with the decommissioning work, all the fuel must be taken out of the PROTEUS facility. For each step an authorization has to be requested from ENSI with a detailed description of the work foreseen. Personal dosimetry has to be performed with calibrated dosimeters. By the use of mechanical, thermal or chemical methods to partition radioactive components, the air on the working place has to be continuously checked for radioactive aerosols. The dose limit of 0.3 mSv per year must be respected. The surveillance of the release of radioactive materials has to be done according to the PSI release regulations. By large material quantities like barite concrete blocks, graphite reflector and steel components, PSI has to describe the process used to declare the materials as inactive. For the radioactive materials expected, the containers specified have to be approved by ENSI. Before the first dismantling phase, the organization plan for all participating persons and their responsibilities have to be presented to ENSI. In its request for the decommissioning of the PROTEUS research reactor, PSI consistently demonstrates that the protection of persons and environment against radioactive radiation can be guaranteed during the dismantling of the facility and that the wastes produced can be safely managed. In consequence, all required conditions for

  7. Why do males of the spider Pisaura mirabilis wrap their nuptial gifts in silk: Female preference or male control?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tina; Bollerup, Kristine; Toft, Søren

    2008-01-01

    Males of the spider Pisaura mirabilis present a nuptial prey gift to the female during courtship as a mating effort. The gift is usually round and wrapped in white silk. It was suggested that the wrapped gift functions as a sensory trap by mimicking the female's eggsac implying that males exploit...

  8. No preference for novel mating partners in the polyandrous nuptial-feeding spider Pisaura mirabilis (Araneae: Pisauridae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuni, Cristina; Bilde, T.

    2010-01-01

    for novel partners is also expected to maximize male lifetime reproductive success by allowing males to increase the number of mates. We investigated male and female preference for novel or former mating partners in the spider Pisaura mirabilis by offering females novel males (polyandry) or the same male...

  9. Analisis Vegetasi dalam Komunitas Nepenthes mirabilis di Hutan Kampus Institut Agama Islam Negeri Sultan Thaha Saifuddin Jambi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Try Susanti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak. Nepenthes merupakan tumbuhan unik yaitu mempunyai kemampuan untuk mencerna serangga yang terperangkap dalam organ berbentuk kantong pada ujung daun untuk memenuhi kebutuhan proteinnya. Nephentes dapat dijadikan sebagai tanaman hias yang memiliki nilai komersial tinggi dan juga sebagai obat-obatan. Sumatera merupakan wilayah terbesar kedua dari penyebaran Nepenthes setelah Kalimantan. Habitat alami dari jenis Nepenthes di Sumatera setiap tahunnya semakin terancam, baik oleh pembalakan liar, kebakaran hutan maupun konversi lahan hutan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis jenis vegetasi dalam komunitas Nepenthes mirabilis di hutan kampus Institut Agama Islam Negeri Sulthan Thaha Saifuddin Jambi. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian kualitatif. Metode yang digunakan adalah metode transek. Berdasarkan hasil pengamatan tumbuhan yang ditemukan di sekitar komunitas Nepenthes mirabilis pada plot pengamatan adalah sebanyak 17 famili, yang terdiri dari 26 jenis dan 3547 individu. Jenis tumbuhan yang paling banyak ditemukan di sekitar komunitas Nepenthes mirabilis adalah dari famili Poaceae yaitu Axonopus compressus sebanyak 1336 individu, pada famili Gleicheniaceae yaitu Dicranopteris linearis sebanyak 470 individu dan pada famili Leguminoceae yaitu Mimosa pudica sebanyak 419 individu. Sedangkan jenis tumbuhan yang paling sedikit ditemukan pada famili Polygalaceae dengan jenis Polygala paniculata terdapat 6 individu.   Kata Kunci: Vegetasi, Komunitas, Nepenthes mirabilis.

  10. Interaction of laser and ionized radiation with bio organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamula-Tartalja, D.; Sreckovic, M.; Nikolic, D.

    1997-01-01

    Five kinds of bacteria: Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus, Staphylococcus aureus are exposed under defined conditions to the laser and electron beams. The given results are analysed according to our previous investigations and literature. The energy and power density of the laser beam in bio stimulation's order and the different nature of therapeutic order are discussed. Some of the known facts are critically examined. (author)

  11. Antibacterial activity of methanol extract of Ruta chalapensis (L), Quercus infectoria (Oliver) and Canthium parviflorum (Lam)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, P. Sathiya; Sasikumar, J.M.; Gowsigan, G.

    2009-01-01

    The present study aimed at evaluating the antibacterial activity of methanol extract of Ruta chalapensis, L., (Rutaceae), Quercus infectoria Oliver., (Fagaceae) and Canthium parviflorum Lam., (Rubiaceae) against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella oxytocoa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis. The experiment was carried out using disc diffusion method. The results revealed that the methanol extract of aerial parts of Ruta chalepensis (L) presented the highest zone of inhibition against tested pathogens. Other plants showed significant zone of inhibition. PMID:22557348

  12. An Update on Improvements to NiCE Support for PROTEUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Andrew [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); McCaskey, Alexander J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Billings, Jay Jay [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy's Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program has supported the development of the NEAMS Integrated Computational Environment (NiCE), a modeling and simulation workflow environment that provides services and plugins to facilitate tasks such as code execution, model input construction, visualization, and data analysis. This report details the development of workflows for the reactor core neutronics application, PROTEUS. This advanced neutronics application (primarily developed at Argonne National Laboratory) aims to improve nuclear reactor design and analysis by providing an extensible and massively parallel, finite-element solver for current and advanced reactor fuel neutronics modeling. The integration of PROTEUS-specific tools into NiCE is intended to make the advanced capabilities that PROTEUS provides more accessible to the nuclear energy research and development community. This report will detail the work done to improve existing PROTEUS workflow support in NiCE. We will demonstrate and discuss these improvements, including the development of flexible IO services, an improved interface for input generation, and the addition of advanced Fortran development tools natively in the platform.

  13. Reactivity Measurements On Burnt And Reference Fuel Samples In LWR-PROTEUS Phase II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, M.; Jatuff, F.; Grimm, P.; Seiler, R.; Luethi, A.; Van Geemert, R.; Brogli, R.; Chawla, R.; Meier, G.; Berger, H.-D.

    2003-01-01

    During the year 2002, the PROTEUS research reactor was used to make a series of reactivity measurements on Pressurised Water Reactor (PWR) burnt fuel samples, and on a series of specially prepared standards. These investigations have been made in two different neutron spectra. In addition, the intrinsic neutron emissions of the burnt fuel samples have been determined. (author)

  14. Rheumatoid arthritis is caused by Proteus: the molecular mimicry theory and Karl Popper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebringer, Alan; Rashid, Tasha

    2009-06-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a crippling and disabling joint disease affecting over 20 million people. It occurs predominantly in women and smokers, and affects the HLA-DR1/4 individuals who carry the "shared epitope" of amino acids EQRRAA. The cause of this disease was investigated by the methods of the philosopher of science Karl Popper who suggested that scientific research should be based on bold conjectures and critical refutations. The "Popper sequences" generate new facts which then change or alter the original problem. The new facts must then be explained by any new theory. Using the "molecular mimicry" model, it was found that Proteus bacteria possess an amino acid sequence ESRRAL in haemolysin which resembles the, shared epitope, and another sequence in urease which resembles type XI collagen. Antibodies to Proteus bacteria have been found in 14 different countries. It would appear that rheumatoid arthritis is caused by an upper urinary tract infection by Proteus bacteria. Anti-Proteus therapy should be assessed in the management of this disease separately or in conjunction with existing modalities of therapy.

  15. A Mosaic Activating Mutation in AKT1 Associated with the Proteus Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindhurst, Marjorie J.; Sapp, Julie C.; Teer, Jamie K.; Johnston, Jennifer J.; Finn, Erin M.; Peters, Kathryn; Turner, Joyce; Cannons, Jennifer L.; Bick, David; Blakemore, Laurel; Blumhorst, Catherine; Brockmann, Knut; Calder, Peter; Cherman, Natasha; Deardorff, Matthew A.; Everman, David B.; Golas, Gretchen; Greenstein, Robert M.; Kato, B. Maya; Keppler-Noreuil, Kim M.; Kuznetsov, Sergei A.; Miyamoto, Richard T.; Newman, Kurt; Ng, David; O'Brien, Kevin; Rothenberg, Steven; Schwartzentruber, Douglas J.; Singhal, Virender; Tirabosco, Roberto; Upton, Joseph; Wientroub, Shlomo; Zackai, Elaine H.; Hoag, Kimberly; Whitewood-Neal, Tracey; Robey, Pamela G.; Schwartzberg, Pamela L.; Darling, Thomas N.; Tosi, Laura L.; Mullikin, James C.; Biesecker, Leslie G.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND The Proteus syndrome is characterized by the overgrowth of skin, connective tissue, brain, and other tissues. It has been hypothesized that the syndrome is caused by somatic mosaicism for a mutation that is lethal in the nonmosaic state. METHODS We performed exome sequencing of DNA from

  16. Proteus - A Free and Open Source Sensor Observation Service (SOS) Client

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksson, J.; Satapathy, G.; Bermudez, L. E.

    2013-12-01

    The Earth's 'electronic skin' is becoming ever more sophisticated with a growing number of sensors measuring everything from seawater salinity levels to atmospheric pressure. To further the scientific application of this data collection effort, it is important to make the data easily available to anyone who wants to use it. Making Earth Science data readily available will allow the data to be used in new and potentially groundbreaking ways. The US National Science and Technology Council made this clear in its most recent National Strategy for Civil Earth Observations report, when it remarked that Earth observations 'are often found to be useful for additional purposes not foreseen during the development of the observation system'. On the road to this goal the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) is defining uniform data formats and service interfaces to facilitate the discovery and access of sensor data. This is being done through the Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) stack of standards, which include the Sensor Observation Service (SOS), Sensor Model Language (SensorML), Observations & Measurements (O&M) and Catalog Service for the Web (CSW). End-users do not have to use these standards directly, but can use smart tools that leverage and implement them. We have developed such a tool named Proteus. Proteus is an open-source sensor data discovery client. The goal of Proteus is to be a general-purpose client that can be used by anyone for discovering and accessing sensor data via OGC-based services. Proteus is a desktop client and supports a straightforward workflow for finding sensor data. The workflow takes the user through the process of selecting appropriate services, bounding boxes, observed properties, time periods and other search facets. NASA World Wind is used to display the matching sensor offerings on a map. Data from any sensor offering can be previewed in a time series. The user can download data from a single sensor offering, or download data in bulk from all

  17. Mathemimetics II. Demonstratio Mirabilis of FLT by infinitely ascending cubical crystal growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trell, Erik

    2012-09-01

    Emulating Nature by observation and ground-up application of its patterns, structures and processes is a classical scientific practice which under the designation of Biomimetics has now been brought to the Nanotechnology scale where even highly complex systems can be realized by continuous or cyclically reiterated assembly of the respective self-similar eigen-elements, modules and algorithms right from their infinitesimal origin. This is actually quite akin to the genuine mathematical art and can find valuable renewed use as here exemplified by the tentatively original Demonstratio Mirabilis of FLT (Fermat's Last Theorem, or, in that case, Triumph) by infinitely ascending sheet-wise cubical crystal growth leading to the binomial `magic triangle' of his close fellow Blaise Pascal.

  18. "Hot Tub Rash" and "Swimmer's Ear" (Pseudomonas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facts About “Hot Tub Rash” and “Swimmer’s Ear” (Pseudomonas) What is Pseudomonas and how can it affect me? Pseudomonas (sue-doh- ... a major cause of infections commonly known as “hot tub rash” and “swimmer’s ear.” This germ is ...

  19. The Pseudomonas Quinolone Signal (PQS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sams, Thomas; Baker, Ysobel; Hodgkinson, James

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistichuman pathogen that routinely appears near the top ofpublic health threat lists worldwide. P. aeruginosa causes in-fections by secreting a wealth of exceptionally active exo-products, leading to tissue damage. The synthesis of manyof these virulence factors...

  20. Experimental Learning of Digital Power Controller for Photovoltaic Module Using Proteus VSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit V. Padgavhankar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The electric power supplied by photovoltaic module depends on light intensity and temperature. It is necessary to control the operating point to draw the maximum power of photovoltaic module. This paper presents the design and implementation of digital power converters using Proteus software. Its aim is to enhance student’s learning for virtual system modeling and to simulate in software for PIC microcontroller along with the hardware design. The buck and boost converters are designed to interface with the renewable energy source that is PV module. PIC microcontroller is used as a digital controller, which senses the PV electric signal for maximum power using sensors and output voltage of the dc-dc converter and according to that switching pulse is generated for the switching of MOSFET. The implementation of proposed system is based on learning platform of Proteus virtual system modeling (VSM and the experimental results are presented.

  1. Empyema Necessitans Complicating Pleural Effusion Associated with Proteus Species Infection: A Diagnostic Dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Yauba

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Empyema necessitans, a rare complication of pleural effusion, could result in significant morbidity and mortality in children. It is characterized by the dissection of pus through the soft tissues and the skin of the chest wall. Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Actinomyces israelii are common causes but Gram negative bacilli could be a rare cause. However, there were challenges in differentiating between Mycobacterium tuberculosis and nontuberculous empyema in a resource poor setting like ours. We report a child with pleural effusion and empyema necessitans secondary to Proteus spp. infection. Methods. We describe a 12-year-old child with empyema necessitans complicating pleural effusion and highlight management challenges. Results. This case was treated with quinolones, antituberculous drugs, chest tube drainage, and nutritional rehabilitation. Conclusion. Empyema necessitatis is a rare condition that can be caused by Gram negative bacterial pathogens like Proteus species.

  2. Lack of Mutation-histopathology Correlation in a Patient with Proteus Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Doucet, Meggie E.; Bloomhardt, Hadley M.; Moroz, Krzysztof; Lindhurst, Marjorie J.; Biesecker, Leslie G.

    2016-01-01

    Proteus syndrome (PS) is characterized by progressive, disproportionate, segmental overgrowth and tumor susceptibility caused by a somatic mosaic AKT1 activating mutation. Each individual has unique manifestations making this disorder extremely heterogeneous. We correlated three variables in 38 tissue samples from a patient who died with PS: the gross affection status, the microscopic affection status, and the mutation level. The AKT1 mutation was measured using a PCR-based RFLP assay. Thirte...

  3. Identification of an Alternative to Proteus vulgaris as a Laboratory Standard for Hydrogen Sulfide Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nar'Asha Randall

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This project involved the evaluation of a biosafety level 1 alternative to Proteus vulgaris as a positive control for the production of hydrogen sulfide. We determined that Citrobacter freundii could serve as an excellent substitute for P. vulgaris, and that lead acetate strips used in conjunction with triple sugar iron media allows for consistent results following evaluation after up to one week.

  4. Experimental critical loadings and control rod worths in LWR-PROTEUS configurations compared with MCNPX results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plaschy, M.; Murphy, M.; Jatuff, F.; Seiler, R.; Chawla, R.

    2006-01-01

    The PROTEUS research reactor at the Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI) has been operating since the sixties and has already permitted, due to its high flexibility, investigation of a large range of very different nuclear systems. Currently, the ongoing experimental programme is called LWR-PROTEUS. This programme was started in 1997 and concerns large-scale investigations of advanced light water reactors (LWR) fuels. Until now, the different LWR-PROTEUS phases have permitted to study more than fifteen different configurations, each of them having to be demonstrated to be operationally safe, in particular, for the Swiss safety authorities. In this context, recent developments of the PSI computer capabilities have made possible the use of full-scale SD-heterogeneous MCNPX models to calculate accurately different safety related parameters (e.g. the critical driver loading and the shutdown rod worth). The current paper presents the MCNPX predictions of these operational characteristics for seven different LWR-PROTEUS configurations using a large number of nuclear data libraries. More specifically, this significant benchmarking exercise is based on the ENDF/B6v2, ENDF/B6v8, JEF2.2, JEFF3.0, JENDL3.2, and JENDL3.3 libraries. The results highlight certain library specific trends in the prediction of the multiplication factor k eff (e.g. the systematically larger reactivity calculated with JEF2.2 and the smaller reactivity associated with JEFF3.0). They also confirm the satisfactory determination of reactivity variations by all calculational schemes, for instance, due to the introduction of a safety rod pair, these calculations having been compared with experiments. (authors)

  5. Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Probiotic Lactobacillus Strains against Growth and Urease Activity of Proteus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Goudarzi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background:    Nowadays, the use of probiotic bacteria for the prevention and treatment of urinary tract infections is growing. Lactobacillus, as probiotic bacterial genus, is well known for its benefits for the human health.Methods:      The effects of partially purified antimicrobial compounds (bacteriocins and biosurfactants of Lactobacillus strains was assessed and their capacity to in vitro inhibit growth and urease production of various strains of Proteus spp, was studied. Inhibition of the urease production of Proteus spp. at sub-MIC levels was screened using spectrophotometry method.  Results:   Results revealed that semi-purified bacteriocins of L. acidophilus and L. plantarum showed a greater inhibitory activity on the bacterial urease, compared to biosurfactants of L. rhamnosus, L. casei and L. fermentum (P < 0.05.Conclusion:    It can be concluded that bacteriocins may affect Proteus pathogenesis by inhibition of the bacterial urease activity and therefore eliminate the stone formation by these bacteria.

  6. [CHROMATIN ORGANIZATION IN CELL CYCLE OF AMOEBA PROTEUS ACCORDING TO OPTICAL TOMOGRAPHY DATA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demin, S Yu; Berdieva, M A; Podlipaeva, Yu I; Yudin, A L; Goodkov, A V

    2015-01-01

    For the first time the nuclear cycle of large freshwater amoeba Amoeba proteus was studied by the method of optical tomography. The nuclei were fixed in situ in the cells of synchronized culture, stained by DAPI and examined by confocal laser scanning microscope. 3D-images of intranuclear chromatin were studied in details at different stages of nuclear cycle. The obtained data, together with literary ones allow represent the dynamics of structural organization of the nucleus in Amoeba proteus cell cycle in a new fashion. It was concluded that in this species the two-stage interphase takes place, as well as mitosis of peculiar type which does not correspond to any known type of mitosis according to classification existing now. It is presumed that in the course of nuclear cycle the chromosomes and/or their fragments are amplified, this presumption being in a good correspondence with the data about nuclear DNA hyperreplication in the cell cycle of A. proteus. As a result of chromosomes amplification their number may vary at different stages of cell cycle, and it allows to explain the contradictory data concerning the exact number of chromosomes in this species. The elimination of extra-DNA occurs mainly at the stage between prophase and prometaphase. We presume the majority of chromosomes, or may be even all of them to be referred to cholocentric type according to their behaviour during the mitosis.

  7. Chlorella mirabilis as a Potential Species for Biomass Production in Low-Temperature Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, S P; Kvíderová, J; Tříska, J; Elster, J

    2013-01-01

    Successful adaptation/acclimatization to low temperatures in micro-algae is usually connected with production of specific biotechnologically important compounds. In this study, we evaluated the growth characteristics in a micro-scale mass cultivation of the Antarctic soil green alga Chlorella mirabilis under different nitrogen and carbon sources followed by analyses of fatty acid contents. The micro-scale mass cultivation was performed in stable (in-door) and variable (out-door) conditions during winter and/or early spring in the Czech Republic. In the in-door cultivation, the treatments for nitrogen and carbon sources determination included pure Z medium (control, Z), Z medium + 5% glycerol (ZG), Z medium + 5% glycerol + 50 μM KNO3 (ZGN), Z medium + 5% glycerol + 200 μM NH4Cl (ZGA), Z medium + 5% glycerol + 1 mM Na2CO3 (ZNC), Z medium + 5% glycerol + 1 mM Na2CO3 + 200 μM NH4Cl (ZGCA) and Z medium + 5% glycerol + 1 mM Na2CO3 + 50 μM KNO3 (ZGCN) and were performed at 15°C with an irradiance of 75 μmol m(-2) s(-1). During the out-door experiments, the night-day temperature ranged from -6.6 to 17.5°C (daily average 3.1 ± 5.3°C) and irradiance ranged from 0 to 2,300 μmol m(-2) s(-1) (daily average 1,500 ± 1,090 μmol m(-2) s(-1)). Only the Z, ZG, ZGN, and ZGC treatments were used in the out-door cultivation. In the in-door mass cultivation, all nitrogen and carbon sources additions increased the growth rate with the exception of ZGA. When individual sources were considered, only the effect of 5% glycerol addition was significant. On the other hand, the growth rate decreased in the ZG and ZGN treatments in the out-door experiment, probably due to carbon limitation. Fatty acid composition showed increased production of linoleic acid in the glycerol treatments. The studied strain of C. mirabilis is proposed to be a promising source of linoleic acid in low

  8. Chlorella mirabilis as a potential species for biomass production in low temperature environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satya Prakash Shukla

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Successful adaptation/acclimatization to low temperatures in micro-algae is usually connected with production of specific biotechnologically important compounds. In this study, we evaluated the growth characteristics in a micro-scale mass cultivation of the Antarctic soil green alga Chlorella mirabilis under different nitrogen and carbon sources followed by analyses of fatty acid contents. The micro-scale mass cultivation was performed in stable (in-door and variable (out-door conditions during winter and/or early spring in the Czech Republic. In the in-door cultivation, the treatments for nitrogen and carbon sources determination included pure Z medium (control, Z, Z medium + 5% glycerol (ZG, Z medium + 5% glycerol + 50 µM KNO3 (ZGN, Z medium + 5% glycerol + 200µM NH4Cl (ZGA, Z medium + 5% glycerol + 1 mM Na2CO3 (ZNC, Z medium + 5% glycerol + 1 mM Na2CO3 + 200µM NH4Cl (ZGCA and Z medium + 5% glycerol + 1 mM Na2CO3 + 50 µM KNO3 (ZGCN and were performed at 15°C with an irradiance of 75 µmol m-2 s-1. During the out-door experiments, the night-day temperature ranged from -6.6°C to 17.5°C (daily average 3.1±5.3 °C and irradiance ranged from 0 to 2300 µmol m-2 s-1 (daily average 1500±1090 µmol m-2 s-1. Only the Z, ZG, ZGN and ZGC treatments were used in the out-door cultivation. In the in-door mass cultivation, all nitrogen and carbon sources additions increased the growth rate with the exception of ZGA. When individual sources were considered, only the effect of 5% glycerol addition was significant. On the other hand, the growth rate decreased in the ZG and ZGN treatments in the out-door experiment, probably due to carbon limitation. Fatty acid composition showed increased production of linoleic acid in the glycerol treatments. The studied strain of C. mirabilis is proposed to be a promising source of linoleic acid in low temperature mass cultivation biotechnology. This strain is a perspective model organism for biotechnology in low

  9. PEMODELAN TERAS UNTUK ANALISIS PERHITUNGAN KONSTANTA MULTIPLIKASI REAKTOR HTR-PROTEUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhair Zuhair

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available PTRKN sebagai salah satu unit kerja di BATAN dengan tugas pokok dan fungsi yang berkaitan erat dengan teknologi reaktor dan keselamatan nuklir, menaruh perhatian khusus pada konsep reaktor pebble bed. Dalam makalah ini pemodelan reaktor pebble bed HTR-PROTEUS dilakukan dengan program transport Monte Carlo MCNP5. Partikel bahan bakar berlapis TRISO dimodelkan secara detail dan eksak dimana distribusi acak partikel ini dalam bola bahan bakar didekati menggunakan array teratur kisi SC dengan fraksi packing 5,76% tanpa zona eksklusif. Model teras pebble bed didekati dengan memanfaatkan kisi teratur dari bola yang disusun sebagai kisi BCC berdasarkan sel berulang yang digenerasi dari sejumlah sel satuan. Hasil perhitungan MCNP5 memperlihatkan kesesuaian yang sangat baik dengan eksperimen, walaupun teras HTR-PROTEUS diprediksi lebih reaktif daripada pengukuran, khususnya di teras 4.2 dan 4.3. Pustaka ENDF/B-VI menunjukkan konsistensi dengan estimasi keff paling akurat dibandingkan pustaka ENDF/B-V, terutama ENDF/B-VI (66c. Deviasi estimasi keff yang dihitung dengan eksperimen dikaitkan sebagai konsekuensi dari komposisi reflektor grafit yang dispesifikasikan. Komparasi yang dibuat memperlihatkan bahwa MCNP5 menghasilkan keff teras HTR-PROTEUS lebih presisi daripada hasil dari MCNP4B dan MCNPBALL. Hasil ini menyimpulkan bahwa, sukses metodologi pemodelan ini menjustifikasi aplikasi MCNP5 untuk analisis reaktor pebble bed lainnya. Kata kunci: pemodelan teras HTR-PROTEUS, konstanta multiplikasi, MCNP5   PTRKN as a working unit in BATAN whose main duties and functions are related to reactor technology and nuclear safety, consern attention to pebble bed reactor concept. In this paper modeling of HTR-PROTEUS pebble bed reactor was done using Monte Carlo transport code MCNP5. The TRISO coated fuel particle is modeled in detailed and exact manner where random distributions of these particles in fuel pebble is approximated by using regular array of SC lattice

  10. Phytoremediation of petroleum contaminated soils by Mirabilis Jalapa L. in a greenhouse plot experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shengwei; Zhou, Qixing; Cai, Zhang; Zhang, Zhineng

    2009-09-15

    Phytoremediation of soils contaminated by organic chemicals is a challenging problem in environmental science and engineering. On the basis of identifying remediation plants from ornamentals, the remediation capability of Mirabilis Jalapa L. to treat petroleum contaminated soil from the Shengli Oil Field in Dongying City, Shandong Province, China was further investigated using a field plot experiment carried out in a greenhouse. The results showed that the average efficiency of removing total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) by M. jalapa over the 127-day culture period was high, up to 41.61-63.20%, when the removal rate by natural attenuation was only 19.75-37.92%. The maximum reduction occurred in the saturated hydrocarbon fraction compared with other components of petroleum contaminants. According to the qualitative and quantitative parameters including plant height, fresh weight, dry weight, root length, root weight and visual stress symptoms, it was indicated that M. jalapa had a peculiar tolerance to petroleum contamination and could effectively promote the degradation of TPHs when the concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil was equal to and lower than 10,000 mg/kg. The population of living microorganisms in the planted soil could be also adaptive to contaminated soil. On the whole, M. jalapa is a widely spread species that can be effectively applied to phytoremediation of contaminated soil.

  11. Antibacterial and anti-biofilm activity of ginger (Zingiber officinale (Roscoe ethanolic extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Miloš

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial and anti-biofilm activity of ethanolic extract from the rhizome of Zingiber officinale were evaluated. In vitro antibacterial activity was investigated by microdilution method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC have been determined. The values were in the range from 0.0024 to > 20 mg/ml. The most sensitive bacteria were Gram-positive bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. Anti-biofilm activity was tested by crystal violet assay. Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Proteus mirabilis and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 were used as the test organisms. Ethanolic extract showed the best result on Proteus mirabilis biofilm where biofilm inhibitory concentration (BIC50 was 19 mg/ml.

  12. Identification and characterization of REC66, a Ty1-copia-like retrotransposon in the genome of red flower of Mirabilis jalapa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunri Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mirabilis jalapa Lis the most commonly grown ornamental species of Mirabilis and is available in a range of brilliant colors. However, genetic research on Mirabilis jalapa Lis limited. Using fluorescent differential display (FDD screening, we report the identification of a novel Ty1-copia-like retrotransposon in the genome of the red flower of Mirabilis jalapa L, and we named it REC66based on its sequence homology to the GAG protein from Ty1-copiaretrotransposon. Using degenerate primers based on the DNA sequence of REC66, a total of fourteen different variants in reverse transcriptase (RT sequence were recovered from the genomic DNA. These RT sequences show a high degree of heterogeneity characterized mainly by deletion mutation; they can be divided into three subfamilies, of which the majority encode defective RT. This is the first report of a Ty1-copiaretrotransposon in Mirabilis jalapa L. The finding could be helpful for the development of new molecular markers for genetic studies, particularly on the origin and evolutionary relationships of M. jalapa L, and the study of Ty1-copiaretrotransposons and plant genome evolution in the genus Mirabilisor family Nyctaginaceae.

  13. 21 CFR 520.88b - Amoxicillin trihydrate for oral suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., Streptococcus spp., Escherichia coli, and Proteus mirabilis; genitourinary tract (cystitis) caused by S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, and P. mirabilis; gastrointestinal tract (bacterial gastroenteritis) caused by S.... mirabilis, and Corynebacterium spp.; gastrointestinal tract due to E. coli, Proteus spp., Staphylococcus spp...

  14. Cribado para evaluar actividad antibacteriana y antimicótica en plantas utilizadas en medicina popular de Argentina Screening to evaluate the antibacterial and antimycotic activity in plants used in Argentinean folk medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Claudia Luján

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un cribado de 31 extractos de plantas utilizadas en medicina popular de Argentina para evaluar su actividad antibacteriana y antimicótica, con el empleo de cepas de Micrococcus luteus, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus oxacilina sensible y Candida albicans. Se utilizaron distintas concentraciones de cefazolina, ampicilina y miconazol como antibióticos testigos. Se aplicó el método de difusión en pozos de agar nutritivo. Se evaluó la actividad de extractos acuosos de material vegetal. Las estructuras vegetativas y/o reproductivas de Conyza sumatrensis mostraron actividad contra todos los microorganismos tratados, mientras 7 taxones lo hicieron contra Proteus mirabilis y los extractos de la semilla de Bauhinia forficata subsp. pruinosa contra Staphylococcus aureus. Los resultados revestirían potencialidad farmacológica debido a la importancia clínica de los microorganismos estudiados.A screening of 31 extracts of plants used in Argentine folk medicine for antimicrobial activity was made. The activity of aqueous extracts from vegetal material was assayed. Micrococcus luteus, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, oxacillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans were used as microorganisms. Different concentrations of cefazolin, ampicilin and miconazole were used as standard antibiotics. The agar-well diffusion method was used. Vegetative or reproductive structures of Conyza sumatrensis showed activity against all the microorganisms studied, whereas 7 taxons did it against Proteus mirabilis and seed extracts from Bauhinia forticata subsp. pruinosa did it against Staphylococcus aureus. The results should have pharmacological potentiality due to the clinical importance of the studied microorganisms.

  15. Preliminary Analysis of the Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT) with PROTEUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connaway, H. M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Lee, C. H. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-11-30

    The neutron transport code PROTEUS has been used to perform preliminary simulations of the Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT). TREAT is an experimental reactor designed for the testing of nuclear fuels and other materials under transient conditions. It operated from 1959 to 1994, when it was placed on non-operational standby. The restart of TREAT to support the U.S. Department of Energy’s resumption of transient testing is currently underway. Both single assembly and assembly-homogenized full core models have been evaluated. Simulations were performed using a historic set of WIMS-ANL-generated cross-sections as well as a new set of Serpent-generated cross-sections. To support this work, further analyses were also performed using additional codes in order to investigate particular aspects of TREAT modeling. DIF3D and the Monte-Carlo codes MCNP and Serpent were utilized in these studies. MCNP and Serpent were used to evaluate the effect of geometry homogenization on the simulation results and to support code-to-code comparisons. New meshes for the PROTEUS simulations were created using the CUBIT toolkit, with additional meshes generated via conversion of selected DIF3D models to support code-to-code verifications. All current analyses have focused on code-to-code verifications, with additional verification and validation studies planned. The analysis of TREAT with PROTEUS-SN is an ongoing project. This report documents the studies that have been performed thus far, and highlights key challenges to address in future work.

  16. Proteus: a direct forcing method in the simulations of particulate flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhi-Gang; Michaelides, Efstathios E.

    2005-01-01

    A new and efficient direct numerical method for the simulation of particulate flows is introduced. The method combines desired elements of the immersed boundary method, the direct forcing method and the lattice Boltzmann method. Adding a forcing term in the momentum equation enforces the no-slip condition on the boundary of a moving particle. By applying the direct forcing scheme, Proteus eliminates the need for the determination of free parameters, such as the stiffness coefficient in the penalty scheme or the two relaxation parameters in the adaptive-forcing scheme. The method presents a significant improvement over the previously introduced immersed-boundary-lattice-Boltzmann method (IB-LBM) where the forcing term was computed using a penalty method and a user-defined parameter. The method allows the enforcement of the rigid body motion of a particle in a more efficient way. Compared to the "bounce-back" scheme used in the conventional LBM, the direct-forcing method provides a smoother computational boundary for particles and is capable of achieving results at higher Reynolds number flows. By using a set of Lagrangian points to track the boundary of a particle, Proteus eliminates any need for the determination of the boundary nodes that are prescribed by the "bounce-back" scheme at every time step. It also makes computations for particles of irregular shapes simpler and more efficient. Proteus has been developed in two- as well as three-dimensions. This new method has been validated by comparing its results with those from experimental measurements for a single sphere settling in an enclosure under gravity. As a demonstration of the efficiency and capabilities of the present method, the settling of a large number (1232) of spherical particles is simulated in a narrow box under two different boundary conditions. It is found that when the no-slip boundary condition is imposed at the front and rear sides of the box the particles motion is significantly hindered

  17. Warthog: A MOOSE-Based Application for the Direct Code Coupling of BISON and PROTEUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCaskey, Alexander J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Slattery, Stuart [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Billings, Jay Jay [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program from the Department of Energy's Office of Nuclear Energy provides a robust toolkit for the modeling and simulation of current and future advanced nuclear reactor designs. This toolkit provides these technologies organized across product lines: two divisions targeted at fuels and end-to-end reactor modeling, and a third for integration, coupling, and high-level workflow management. The Fuels Product Line and the Reactor Product line provide advanced computational technologies that serve each respective field well, however, their current lack of integration presents a major impediment to future improvements of simulation solution fidelity. There is a desire for the capability to mix and match tools across Product Lines in an effort to utilize the best from both to improve NEAMS modeling and simulation technologies. This report details a new effort to provide this Product Line interoperability through the development of a new application called Warthog. This application couples the BISON Fuel Performance application from the Fuels Product Line and the PROTEUS Core Neutronics application from the Reactors Product Line in an effort to utilize the best from all parts of the NEAMS toolkit and improve overall solution fidelity of nuclear fuel simulations. To achieve this, Warthog leverages as much prior work from the NEAMS program as possible, and in doing so, enables interoperability between the disparate MOOSE and SHARP frameworks, and the libMesh and MOAB mesh data formats. This report describes this work in full. We begin with a detailed look at the individual NEAMS framework technologies used and developed in the various Product Lines, and the current status of their interoperability. We then introduce the Warthog application: its overall architecture and the ways it leverages the best existing tools from across the NEAMS toolkit to enable BISON-PROTEUS integration. Furthermore, we show how

  18. Proteus-MOC: A 3D deterministic solver incorporating 2D method of characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin-Lafleche, A.; Smith, M. A.; Lee, C.

    2013-01-01

    A new transport solution methodology was developed by combining the two-dimensional method of characteristics with the discontinuous Galerkin method for the treatment of the axial variable. The method, which can be applied to arbitrary extruded geometries, was implemented in PROTEUS-MOC and includes parallelization in group, angle, plane, and space using a top level GMRES linear algebra solver. Verification tests were performed to show accuracy and stability of the method with the increased number of angular directions and mesh elements. Good scalability with parallelism in angle and axial planes is displayed. (authors)

  19. MCNP qualification on the HTR critical configurations: HTTR, HTR10 and PROTEUS results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TRAKAS, Christos; STOVEN, Gilles [AREVA NP, Tour Areva, 92084 Paris La Defence Cedex (France)

    2008-07-01

    Recent critical experiments, including PROTEUS, HTTR and HTR-10 provide a reliable qualification base for HTR criticality predictions. The fuel tested in these experiments, be it hexagonal block or pebble type, is irradiated in a spectrum comparable to that of the HTR planned by AREVA NP. The neutron spectrum is comparable in all three cases; the mean C/M value for all critical cases is less than +350 pcm (JEF2.2), +250 pcm (JEFF3.1) and +60 pcm (ENDF BVI). The C/M obtained for the rods worth, the reaction rates and the isothermal coefficient are very satisfactory. (authors)

  20. Proteus-MOC: A 3D deterministic solver incorporating 2D method of characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin-Lafleche, A.; Smith, M. A.; Lee, C. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    A new transport solution methodology was developed by combining the two-dimensional method of characteristics with the discontinuous Galerkin method for the treatment of the axial variable. The method, which can be applied to arbitrary extruded geometries, was implemented in PROTEUS-MOC and includes parallelization in group, angle, plane, and space using a top level GMRES linear algebra solver. Verification tests were performed to show accuracy and stability of the method with the increased number of angular directions and mesh elements. Good scalability with parallelism in angle and axial planes is displayed. (authors)

  1. Growth responses and cadmium accumulation of Mirabilis jalapa L. under interaction between cadmium and phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Zhiguo; Zhou Qixing

    2009-01-01

    Based on the identification of Mirabilis jalapa L. as a new Cd-hyperaccumulating ornamental, the growth response of the plant to interaction between cadmium (Cd) and phosphorus (P), its effect on the Cd accumulation in the species and relevant mechanisms were further investigated by the pot-culture experiment with chemical analyses and the X-ray absorption near edge structure spectra (XANES). It showed that the leaf, shoot and root biomass (as dry matter) increased with an increase in P supplies from 20 to 100 mg kg -1 at various tested Cd levels except 10 mg kg -1 . The Cd accumulation in the leaves and shoots significantly decreased with increasing P concentrations from 20 to 500 mg kg -1 at the Cd concentrations from 10 to 50 mg kg -1 , except the Cd level at 100 mg kg -1 . It was also found that the translocation factor of Cd in M. jalapa L. reached the maximum at different tested Cd levels when the concentration of added P was 100 mg kg -1 , but the bioaccumulation factor of Cd decreased with increasing P. This changing law may be responsible for the mechanism of P immobilizing Cd. The investigation using the P-K edge XANES showed the spectra of adsorbed phosphate in the shoots exhibited a stronger white-line peak than that in the leaves and roots, and the oscillation near 2165 eV was more intense. Besides, the P-K edge XANES spectra for M. jalapa L. indicated P may exist as Cd-phosphate. Thus, it can be inferred that the addition of P at appropriate contents may be a useful approach to enhance the plant growth and to immobilize Cd in the Cd-contaminated soil. Furthermore, P and Cd may form a deposit in plants to tolerate Cd toxicity for reducing the degree of the structural damage of the plant.

  2. Pseudomonas-follikulitis efter badning i spabad

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldall Pallesen, Kristine Appel; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Mørtz, Charlotte Gotthard

    2012-01-01

    . We describe a 23-year-old healthy woman who developed a pustular rash and general malaise after using a spa bath contaminated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Bacterial culture from a pustule confirmed Pseudomonas folliculitis and the patient was treated with ciprofloxacin with rapid good effect....

  3. Pseudomonas Septic Arthritis | Thanni | Nigerian Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Septic arthritis due to pseudomonas species is unusual and when it occurs, there is often an underlying cause like immune depression, intravenous drug abuse or a penetrating injury. PATIENT AND METHOD: We report a case of pseudomonas septic arthritis complicating cannulation of a leg vein following ...

  4. St. Catherine of Siena (1347-1380 AD): one of the earliest historic cases of altered gustatory perception in anorexia mirabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galassi, Francesco M; Bender, Nicole; Habicht, Michael E; Armocida, Emanuele; Toscano, Fabrizio; Menassa, David A; Cerri, Matteo

    2018-05-01

    St. Catherine of Siena suffered from an extreme form of holy fasting, a condition classified as anorexia mirabilis (also known as inedia prodigiosa). Historical and medical scholarships alike have drawn a comparison between this primaeval type of anorexia with a relatively common form of eating disorder among young women in the modern world, anorexia nervosa. St. Catherine's condition was characterised by a disgust for sweet taste, a condition also described in anorexia nervosa, and characterised by specific neurophysiological changes in the brain. St. Catherine's case may be considered one of the oldest veritable descriptions of altered gustation (dysgeusia). Moreover, a more compelling neurophysiological similarity between anorexia mirabilis and anorexia nervosa may be proposed.

  5. LEU-HTR critical experiment program for the PROTEUS facility in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brogli, R.; Bucher, K.H.; Chawla, R.; Foskolos, K.; Luchsinger, H.; Mathews, D.; Sarlos, G.; Seiler, R.

    1990-01-01

    New critical experiments in the framework of an IAEA Coordinated Research Program on 'Validation of Safety Related Reactor Physics Calculations for Low Enriched HTRs' are planned at the PSI PROTEUS facility. The experiments are designed to supplement the experimental data base and reduce the design and licensing uncertainties for small- and medium-sized helium-cooled reactors using low-enriched uranium (LEU) and graphite high temperature fuel. The main objectives of the new experiments are to provide first-of-a-kind high quality experimental data on: 1) The criticality of simple, easy to interpret, single core region LEU HTR systems for several moderator-to-fuel ratios and several lattice geometries; 2) the changes in reactivity, neutron balance components and control rod effectiveness caused by water ingress into this type of reactor, and 3) the effects of the boron and/or hafnium absorbers that are used to modify the reactivity and the power distributions in typical HTR systems. Work on the design and licensing of the modified PROTEUS critical facility is now in progress with the HTR experiments scheduled to begin early in 1991. Several international partners will be involved in the planning, execution and analysis of these experiments in order to insure that they are relevant and cost effective with respect to the various gas cooled reactor national programs. (author)

  6. LEU-HTR critical experiment program for the PROTEUS facility in Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brogli, R; Bucher, K H; Chawla, R; Foskolos, K; Luchsinger, H; Mathews, D; Sarlos, G; Seiler, R [Paul Scherrer Institute, Laboratory for Reactor Physics and System Technology Wuerenlingen and Villigen, Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    1990-07-01

    New critical experiments in the framework of an IAEA Coordinated Research Program on 'Validation of Safety Related Reactor Physics Calculations for Low Enriched HTRs' are planned at the PSI PROTEUS facility. The experiments are designed to supplement the experimental data base and reduce the design and licensing uncertainties for small- and medium-sized helium-cooled reactors using low-enriched uranium (LEU) and graphite high temperature fuel. The main objectives of the new experiments are to provide first-of-a-kind high quality experimental data on: 1) The criticality of simple, easy to interpret, single core region LEU HTR systems for several moderator-to-fuel ratios and several lattice geometries; 2) the changes in reactivity, neutron balance components and control rod effectiveness caused by water ingress into this type of reactor, and 3) the effects of the boron and/or hafnium absorbers that are used to modify the reactivity and the power distributions in typical HTR systems. Work on the design and licensing of the modified PROTEUS critical facility is now in progress with the HTR experiments scheduled to begin early in 1991. Several international partners will be involved in the planning, execution and analysis of these experiments in order to insure that they are relevant and cost effective with respect to the various gas cooled reactor national programs. (author)

  7. Incomplete excision repair process after UV-irradiation in MUT-mutants of Proteus mirabillis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoerl, K.

    1977-01-01

    MUT-mutants of P. mirabilis seem to be able to perform the incision step in the course of excision repair. In contrast to the corresponding wildtype strains with MUT-mutants the number of single-strand breaks formed after UV-irradiation is independent of the UV-dose up to about 720 erg/mm 2 . Incubation in minimal medium over a longer time does not result in completion of excision repair; about 3-6 single-strand breaks in the DNA of these mutants remain open. Likewise, the low molecular weight of the newly synthesized daughter DNA confirms an incompletely proceeding or delayed repair process. As a possible reason for the mutator phenotype an alteration of the DNA-polymerase playing a role in excision and resynthesis steps of excision repair is discussed. (author)

  8. The diet of the black widow spider Latrodectus mirabilis (Theridiidae in two cereal crops of central Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Pompozzi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The spider Latrodectus mirabilis (Holmberg, 1876 is commonly found in cereals crops of central Argentina. We studied its diet composition at the field and capture rate on leaf-cutting ants based on laboratory experiments. This study comprises the first approach that documents the diet of L. mirabilis in wheat and oat fields of central Argentina. We identified 1,004 prey items collected from its webs during the last phenological stages of both cereal crops. The prey composition was variable but the spiders prey mainly on ants (Formicidae, Hymenoptera, who represented more than 86% of the total. Meanwhile, in the capture rate experiences we registered a high proportion of ants captured by spiders at the beginning of experiences, capturing the half of the ants from total in the first four hours. Summarizing, we reported a polyphagous diet of this spider species in wheat and oat fields. Ants were the most important prey item of this spider, as found in other Latrodectus spiders around the world.

  9. Taxonomic characterisation of Proteus terrae sp. nov., a N2O-producing, nitrate-ammonifying soil bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrendt, Undine; Augustin, Jürgen; Spröer, Cathrin; Gelbrecht, Jörg; Schumann, Peter; Ulrich, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    In the context of studying the influence of N-fertilization on N2 and N2O flux rates in relation to the soil bacterial community composition in fen peat grassland, a group of bacterial strains was isolated that performed dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium and concomitantly produced N2O. The amount of nitrous oxide produced was influenced by the C/N ratio of the medium. The potential to generate nitrous oxide was increased by higher availability of nitrate-N. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA and the rpoB gene sequences demonstrated that the investigated isolates belong to the genus Proteus, showing high similarity with the respective type strains of Proteus vulgaris and Proteus penneri. DNA-DNA hybridization studies revealed differences at the species level. These differences were substantiated by MALDI-TOF MS analysis and several distinct physiological characteristics. On the basis of these results, it was concluded that the soil isolates represent a novel species for which the name Proteus terrae sp. nov. (type strain N5/687(T) =DSM 29910(T) =LMG 28659(T)) is proposed.

  10. A black, non-troglomorphic amphibian from the karst of Slovenia: Proteus anguinus parkelj n. ssp. (Urodela: Proteidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sket, B.; Arntzen, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    A morphologically distinct cavernicolous salamander Proteus anguinus from southeastern Slovenia (Bela Krajina) is described as P. a. parkelj ssp. n. It differs from P. a. anguinus in a dark pigmentation, fully developed eyes, a skull with broader and shorter bones and fewer teeth, a voluminous jaw

  11. Morphological, thermal and physicochemical characteristics of small granules starch from Mirabilis jalapa L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pumacahua-Ramos, Augusto [Department of Food Engineering, Universidad Peruana Unión, Juliaca (Peru); Paulista State University, IBILCE/UNESP, São Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil); State University of Ponta Grossa–UEPG, Av. Carlos Cavalcanti, 4748, ZIP 84030-900 Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Demiate, Ivo Mottin [State University of Ponta Grossa–UEPG, Av. Carlos Cavalcanti, 4748, ZIP 84030-900 Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Schnitzler, Egon, E-mail: egons@uepg.br [State University of Ponta Grossa–UEPG, Av. Carlos Cavalcanti, 4748, ZIP 84030-900 Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Bedin, Ana Cláudia [State University of Ponta Grossa–UEPG, Av. Carlos Cavalcanti, 4748, ZIP 84030-900 Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Telis-Romero, Javier; Lopes-Filho, José Francisco [Paulista State University, IBILCE/UNESP, São Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2015-02-20

    Highlights: • New source of small granules starch was studied. • DSC analysis allowed to determine the gelatinisation of starch from M. jalapa seeds. • Structural characteristics of granules were analysed by XRD and MEV techniques. • The rheological and thermal behaviour were analysed by RVA and TG–DTA. - Abstract: Some physicochemical and thermal properties of starch from Mirabilis jalapa L, seeds were evaluated. The starch was extracted after hulling and grinding the seeds and the flour obtained was suspended in 0.1% (m/v) NaOH solution for 12 h at 30 °C; it was then centrifuged, re-suspended, washed with deionised water and dried in an oven with circulating air at 40 °C for 12 h. The micro-images of starch granules were performed by using scanning electron (SEM) and non-contact atomic force microscopy (NC-AFM) techniques; X-ray diffraction and mid-infrared spectroscopy were both used to evaluate the relative crystallinity of the starch granules. Thermal analyses TG/DTG and DSC, were applied for the analysis of thermal behaviour of this starch and the cooking behaviour of its aqueous solution was studied by using a viscometer RVA. Thermogravimetry showed that once dehydrated, the starch was stable up to 292 °C after which two steps of decomposition occurred, which were attributed to decomposition and oxidation of organic matter, respectively. The gelatinisation temperature and enthalpy, as assessed by DSC analysis, were 82.1 °C and 5.67 J g{sup −1}, respectively. RVA analysis showed pasting temperature of 76.4 °C, with a low viscosity peak at 95 °C, low breakdown, and high tendency to retrograde during cooling. Microscopic results reveal that the starch granules had a spherical shape and 67.4% of them presented diameters smaller than 890 nm. The X-ray diffractogram showed a typical A-type pattern and a relative crystallinity of 34% with a FTIR of 1047/1022 cm{sup −1} and a ratio of 1.38.

  12. HTR-PROTEUS pebble bed experimental program cores 9 & 10: columnar hexagonal point-on-point packing with a 1:1 moderator-to-fuel pebble ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bess, John D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-03-01

    PROTEUS is a zero-power research reactor based on a cylindrical graphite annulus with a central cylindrical cavity. The graphite annulus remains basically the same for all experimental programs, but the contents of the central cavity are changed according to the type of reactor being investigated. Through most of its service history, PROTEUS has represented light-water reactors, but from 1992 to 1996 PROTEUS was configured as a pebble-bed reactor (PBR) critical facility and designated as HTR-PROTEUS. The nomenclature was used to indicate that this series consisted of High Temperature Reactor experiments performed in the PROTEUS assembly. During this period, seventeen critical configurations were assembled and various reactor physics experiments were conducted. These experiments included measurements of criticality, differential and integral control rod and safety rod worths, kinetics, reaction rates, water ingress effects, and small sample reactivity effects (Ref. 3). HTR-PROTEUS was constructed, and the experimental program was conducted, for the purpose of providing experimental benchmark data for assessment of reactor physics computer codes. Considerable effort was devoted to benchmark calculations as a part of the HTR-PROTEUS program. References 1 and 2 provide detailed data for use in constructing models for codes to be assessed. Reference 3 is a comprehensive summary of the HTR-PROTEUS experiments and the associated benchmark program. This document draws freely from these references. Only Cores 9 and 10 are evaluated in this benchmark report due to similarities in their construction. The other core configurations of the HTR-PROTEUS program are evaluated in their respective reports as outlined in Section 1.0. Cores 9 and 10 were evaluated and determined to be acceptable benchmark experiments.

  13. HTR-PROTEUS PEBBLE BED EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM CORES 9 & 10: COLUMNAR HEXAGONAL POINT-ON-POINT PACKING WITH A 1:1 MODERATOR-TO-FUEL PEBBLE RATIO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John D. Bess

    2013-03-01

    PROTEUS is a zero-power research reactor based on a cylindrical graphite annulus with a central cylindrical cavity. The graphite annulus remains basically the same for all experimental programs, but the contents of the central cavity are changed according to the type of reactor being investigated. Through most of its service history, PROTEUS has represented light-water reactors, but from 1992 to 1996 PROTEUS was configured as a pebble-bed reactor (PBR) critical facility and designated as HTR-PROTEUS. The nomenclature was used to indicate that this series consisted of High Temperature Reactor experiments performed in the PROTEUS assembly. During this period, seventeen critical configurations were assembled and various reactor physics experiments were conducted. These experiments included measurements of criticality, differential and integral control rod and safety rod worths, kinetics, reaction rates, water ingress effects, and small sample reactivity effects (Ref. 3). HTR-PROTEUS was constructed, and the experimental program was conducted, for the purpose of providing experimental benchmark data for assessment of reactor physics computer codes. Considerable effort was devoted to benchmark calculations as a part of the HTR-PROTEUS program. References 1 and 2 provide detailed data for use in constructing models for codes to be assessed. Reference 3 is a comprehensive summary of the HTR-PROTEUS experiments and the associated benchmark program. This document draws freely from these references. Only Cores 9 and 10 are evaluated in this benchmark report due to similarities in their construction. The other core configurations of the HTR-PROTEUS program are evaluated in their respective reports as outlined in Section 1.0. Cores 9 and 10 were evaluated and determined to be acceptable benchmark experiments.

  14. Silver against Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Kirketerp-Møller, K.; Kristiansen, S.

    2007-01-01

    bacteria in both the planktonic and biofilm modes of growth. The action of silver on mature in vitro biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a primary pathogen of chronic infected wounds, was investigated. The results show that silver is very effective against mature biofilms of P. aeruginosa......, but that the silver concentration is important. A concentration of 5-10 ig/mL silver sulfadiazine eradicated the biofilm whereas a lower concentration (1 ig/mL) had no effect. The bactericidal concentration of silver required to eradicate the bacterial biofilm was 10-100 times higher than that used to eradicate...... planktonic bacteria. These observations strongly indicate that the concentration of silver in currently available wound dressings is much too low for treatment of chronic biofilm wounds. It is suggested that clinicians and manufacturers of the said wound dressings consider whether they are treating wounds...

  15. Pseudomona pseudomallei community acquired pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severiche, Diego

    1998-01-01

    This is the first published case report en Colombia about pseudomona pseudomallei community acquired pneumonia. This uncommon pathogen is from the epidemiological standpoint a very important one and medical community should be aware to look after it in those patients where no other etiological pathogen is recovered. A brief summary about epidemiology is showed, emphasizing those regions where it can be found. Likewise, comments about the differential diagnosis are important since it should be considered in those patients where tuberculosis is suspected. This is particularly representative for countries with high tuberculosis rates. Furthermore, a microbiological review is shown, emphasizing on isolation techniques, descriptions about therapeutics and other regarding treatment issues according international standards. Finally; a description about the clinical picture, laboratory findings, treatment and evolution of the case reported are shown for discussion

  16. Glyphosate catabolism by Pseudomonas sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinabarger, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    The pathway for the degradation of glyphosate (N-phosphonomethylglycine) by Pseudomonas sp. PG2982 has been determined using metabolic radiolabeling experiments. Radiorespirometry experiments utilizing [3- 14 C] glyphosate revealed that approximately 50-59% of the C3 carbon was oxidized to CO 2 . Fractionation of stationary phase cells labeled with [3- 14 C]glyphosate revealed that from 45-47% of the assimilated C3 carbon is distributed to proteins and that amino acids methionine and serine are highly labeled. The nucleic acid bases adenine and guanine received 90% of the C3 label that was incorporated into nucleic acids, and the only pyrimidine base labeled was thymine. Pulse labeling of PG2982 cells with [3- 14 C]glyphosate revealed that [3- 14 C]sarcosine is an intermediate in glyphosate degradation. Examination of crude extracts prepared from PG2982 cells revealed the presence of an enzyme that oxidizes sarcosine to glycine and formaldehyde. These results indicate that the first step in glyphosate degradation by PG2982 is cleavage of the carbon-phosphorus bond, resulting in the release of sarcosine and a phosphate group. The phosphate group is utilized as a source of phosphorus, and the sarcosine is degraded to glycine and formaldehyde. Phosphonate utilization by Pseudomonas sp. PG2982 was investigated. Each of the ten phosphonates tested were utilized as a sole source of phosphorus by PG2982. Representative compounds tested included alkylphosphonates, 1-amino-substituted alkylphosphonates, amino-terminal phosphonates, and an arylphosphonate. PG2982 cultures degraded phenylphosphonate to benzene and produced methane from methylphosphonate. The data indicate that PG2982 is capable of cleaving the carbon-phosphorus bond of several structurally different phosphonates

  17. 21 CFR 520.90b - Ampicillin trihydrate tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., tonsillitis, and bronchitis due to Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Pasteurella spp., urinary tract infections (cystitis) due to Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., E., coli, P. mirabilis, and Enterococcus spp.; gastrointestinal infections due to...

  18. 21 CFR 522.90c - Ampicillin sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... (including S. equi), Escherichia coli, and Proteus mirabilis, and skin and soft tissue infections (abscesses and wounds) due to Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., E. coli, and P. mirabilis, when caused by...

  19. Production and characterization of biosurfactant from Pseudomonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Further characterization of biosurfactant using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) revealed it as a rhamnolipid. Keywords: Mangrove ecosystems, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, biosurfactant, critical micelle concentration (CMC), FT-IR fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). African Journal of Biotechnology, ...

  20. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Family Pseudomonadaceae) is an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Family Pseudomonadaceae) is an obligate aerobic, motile, gram negative bacillus.which is able to grow and survive in almost any environment and resistant to temperature extremes. It is involved in the etiology of several diseases i.

  1. Growth of Pseudomonas fluorescens on Cassava Starch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    ABSTRACT: The potential of local strains of microorganism (Pseudomonas fluorescens) in polyhydroxbutyrate production ... The demand for the use of biopolymers ... This work therefore investigates the production of polyhydroxybutyrate from.

  2. Antibiotics Susceptibility Pattern of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT: This work investigated the prevalence and antibiotics sensitivity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from ... skin triggers coagulation and an acute inflammatory response ... agents with anti-pseudomonal activity, life-threatening.

  3. Operative management of splenic injury in a patient with proteus syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umashankkar Kannan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 20-year-old female with Proteus syndrome sustained splenic injury after fall from a bike. She was initially managed non-operatively at a different hospital for three days and was then referred to our level I trauma center in view of increasing abdominal pain and distention. On admission in the Emergency Department (ED, her pulse rate was 120 per minute and blood pressure was 108/68 mm Hg. Clinical examination showed a distended abdomen with left hypochondrial pain. Ultrasonogram (USG and Computed Tomography (CT of the abdomen showed splenomegaly and grade III splenic injury with significant hemoperitoneum. Her hemoglobin was 2.9 g/dl with packed cell volume (PCV of 12%. In view of low hemoglobin and possibility of pathologic spleen, splenectomy was done. Microscopic examination of the spleen showed hemangiolymphangioma. The patient was discharged on the 5 th post-operative day and is doing well at 6 months of follow-up.

  4. Toward Reanalysis of the Tight-Pitch HCLWR-PROTEUS Phase II Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perret, Grégory; Vlassopoulos, Efstathios; Hursin, Mathieu; Pautz, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    The HCLWR-Proteus Phase II experiments were conducted from 1985 to 1990 in the zero-power reactor Proteus at PSI in Switzerland. The experimental program was dedicated to the physics of high conversion light water reactors and in particular to the measurement of reactor parameters such as reaction rate traverses, spectral indices, absorber reactivity worths and void coefficients. The HCLWR experiments are especially interesting because they generated knowledge in the epithermal range of the neutron flux spectrum, for which little integral experimental data is available. In an effort to assess the interest of this experimental data to validate modern nuclear data and improve their uncertainties, a preliminary re-analysis of selected configurations was conducted with Monte-Carlo codes (MCNP6/SERPENT2) and modern nuclear data libraries (ENDF/B-VII.0, JEFF-3.1.1 and JENDL-4.0). The spectral ndices, flux spectra and sensitivity coefficients on k∞ were calculated using cell models representative of the tight-pitch measurement configurations containing 11% PuO2-UO2 fuel rods in different moderation conditions (air, water and dowtherm). Spectral index predictions using the three nuclear data libraries agreed within two standard deviations with the measured values. The only exception is the Pu-242-capture-to-Pu-239-fission ratio, which was overestimated with all libraries by more than four standard deviations, i.e. 13%, in the non-moderated configuration. In this configuration, Pu-242 captures are few since the flux spectrum in the Pu-242 capture resonance region (between 1eV and 1keV) is small making this spectral index hard to measure. Sensitivity coefficient predictions with both MCNP6 and SERPENT2 were in good agreement.

  5. Microbiological Monitoring and Proteolytic Study of Clinical Samples From Burned and Burned Wounded Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toema, M.A.; El-Bazza, Z.E.; El-Hifnawi, H.N.; Abd-El-Hakim, E.E.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, clinical samples were collected from 100 patients admitted to Burn and Plastic Surgery Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Egypt, over a period of 12 months. The proteolytic activity of 110 clinical samples taken from surfaces swabs which taken from burned and burned wounded patients with different ages and gender was examined. Screening for the proteolytic activity produced by pathogenic bacteria isolated from burned and burned wounded patients was evaluated as gram positive Bacilli and gram negative bacilli showed high proteolytic activity (46.4%) while 17.9% showed no activity. The isolated bacteria proved to have proteolytic activity were classified into high, moderate and weak. The pathogenic bacteria isolated from burned and burned wounded patients and showing proteolytic activity were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella ozaeanae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas fluoresces.

  6. OXIDATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS BY PSEUDOMONAS SP. STRAIN LB400 AND PSEUDOMONAS PSEUDOALCALIGENES KF707

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biphenyl-grown cells and cell extracts prepared from biphenyl-grown cells of Pseudomonas sp. strain LB400 oxidize a much wider range of chlorinated biphenyls than do analogous preparations from Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes KF707. These results are attributed to differences in th...

  7. Antibacterial activity of mangrove leaf extracts against human pathogens

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sahoo, G.; Mulla, N.S.S.; Ansari, Z.A.; Mohandass, C.

    ., Salmonella typhi, Proteus vulgaris and Proteus mirabilis. As compared to aqueous, ethanol extract showed broad-spectrum activity. The multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria Salmonella typhi was inhibited by the ethanol extract of S. alba leaf whereas the other...

  8. Capsule production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynn, A.R.

    1984-01-01

    Mucoid strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, associated almost exclusively with chronic respiratory infections in patients with cystic fibrosis, possess a capsule composed of alginic acid similar to one produced by Azotobacter vinelandii. Recent reports have provided evidence that the biosynthetic pathway for alginate in P. aeruginosa may differ from the pathway proposed for A. vinelandii in that synthesis in P. aeruginosa may occur by way of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway. Incorporation of isotope from (6-/sup 14/C)glucose into alginate by both P. aueroginosa and A. vinelandii was 10-fold greater than that from either (1-/sup 14/C)/sup -/ or (2-/sup 14/C)glucose, indicating preferential utilization of the bottom half of the glucose molecule for alginate biosynthesis. These data strongly suggest that the Entner-Doudoroff pathway plays a major role in alginate synthesis in both P. aeruginosa and A. vinelandii. The enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in mucoid strains of P. aeruginosa appear to be unchanged whether alignate is actively produced or not and activities do not differ significantly from nonmucoid strain PAO.

  9. Program ispitivanja i metodologija analize spektra vibracija brodske gasne turbine Proteus 52M/558 / The test programme and the methodology of analyzing the vibrations spectrum of a Proteus 52M/558 ship gas turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag S. Dobratić

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a programme for testing vibrations on a ship gas turbine, based on an analogy of testing and analysis of vibrations on aircraft and/or helicopter gas turbines. A particular attention is given to a choice of vibration parameters and to the analysis of the vibration spectrum as well as to the methods of estimation of criteria of vibration acceptability. The results of the measurement of the vibrations on a Proteus 52M/558 gas turbine installed on a RTOP-405 ship are shown. / U radu je prikazan program ispitivanja vibracija brodske gasne turbine, zasnovan na analogiji ispitivanja i analizi vibracija na avionskim i/ili helikopterskim gasnim turbinama. Posebna pažnja posvećena je izboru parametara vibracija, analizi spektra vibracija, kao i metodama procene kriterijuma prihvatljivosti vibracija. Na kraju rada prikazani su rezultati merenja vibracija na gasnoj turbini Proteus 52M/558 ugrađenoj na brodu RTOP-405.

  10. [Influence of Mirabilis jalapa Linn. Growth on the Microbial Community and Petroleum Hydrocarbon Degradation in Petroleum Contaminated Saline-alkali Soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Hai-hua; Cui, Bing-jian; Wu, Shang-hua; Bai, Zhi-hui; Huang, Zhan-bin

    2015-09-01

    In order to explore the effect of Mirabilis jalapa Linn. growth on the structure characteristics of the microbial community and the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) in the petroleum-contaminated saline-alkali soil, Microbial biomass and species in the rhizosphere soils of Mirabilis jalapa Linn. in the contaminated saline soil were studied with the technology of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) analysis. The results showed that comparing to CK soils without Mirabilis jalapa Linn., the ratio of PLFAs species varied were 71. 4%, 69. 2% and 33. 3% in the spring, summer and autumn season, respectively. In addition, there was distinct difference of the biomasses of the microbial community between the CK and rhizosphere soils and among the difference seasons of growth of Mirabilis jalapa Linn.. Compare to CK soil, the degradation rates of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) was increased by 47. 6%, 28. 3%, and 18. 9% in spring, summer, and autumn rhizosphere soils, respectively. Correlation analysis was used to determine the correlation between TPH degradation and the soil microbial community. 77. 8% of the total soil microbial PLFAs species showed positive correlation to the TPH degradation (the correlation coefficient r > 0), among which, 55. 6% of PLFAs species showed high positive correlation(the correlation coefficient was r≥0. 8). In addition, the relative content of SAT and MONO had high correlation with TPH degradation in the CK sample soils, the corelation coefficient were 0. 92 and 0. 60 respectively; However, the percent of positive correlation was 42. 1% in the rhizosphere soils with 21. 1% of them had high positive correlation. The relative content of TBSAT, MONO and CYCLO had moderate or low correlation in rhizosphere soils, and the correlation coefficient were 0. 56, 0. 50, and 0. 07 respectively. Our study showed that the growth of mirabilis Mirabilis jalapa Linn. had a higher influence on the species and biomass of microbial community in the

  11. IMPLEMENTATION OF PID ON PIC24F SERIES MICROCONTROLLER FOR SPEED CONTROL OF A DC MOTOR USING MPLAB AND PROTEUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohaib Aslam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Speed control of DC motor is very critical in most of the industrial systems where accuracy and protection are of essence. This paper presents the simulations of Proportional Integral Derivative Controller (PID on a 16-bit PIC 24F series microcontroller for speed control of a DC motor in the presence of load torque. The PID gains have been tuned by Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR technique and then it is implemented on microcontroller using MPLAB and finally simulated for speed control of DC motor in Proteus Virtual System Modeling (VSM software.Proteus has built in feature to add load torque to DC motor so simulation results have been presented in three cases speed of DC motor is controlled without load torque, with 25% load torque and with 50% load torque. In all three cases PID effectively controls the speed of DC motor with minimum steady state error.

  12. Proteus syndrome in a child aged 14 years and 11 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Elizarova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteus syndrome is an extremely rare genetic disorder with problematic genetic identification. It has been hypothesized that it is related to a lethal dominant somatic mutation occurring at a post-zygotic stage of embryonic development. Clinical presentation of the disease has much in common with a  number of hereditary disorders and is frequently associated with malignancies. We present a clinical case of Proteus syndrome in a child aged 14 years and 11 months, in whom late diagnosis and late administration of specific treatment resulted in disease progression with the development of the end stage chronic renal disease. Only correct and early diagnosis allows for timely referral of a  patient to a specialized hospital for adequate care.

  13. MCNP analysis of generic configurations in the context of the LIFE'at'PROTEUS experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joneja, Om Parkash; Chawla, Rakesh [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 (Switzerland); Perret, Gregory; Grimm, Peter; Jatuff, Fabian [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2008-07-01

    Investigations are carried out in the context of a new experimental program currently being envisaged at the PROTEUS critical facility of the Paul Scherrer Institute. Detailed studies concerning core heterogeneities related to combinations of fresh and highly burnt fuel form the salient feature of the proposed experiments. These aim at qualifying the predictability of such fuel configurations using advanced computational methods, as also to improve physics understanding and establish the reliability of current-day industrial codes and models for ensuring safe reactor operation. The current paper considers the Monte Carlo modelling of the PROTEUS reactor with four generic test-zone combinations of fresh fuel (UO{sub 2} of approx5 wt% enrichment) and PWR spent fuel (with a burnup of either 30 GWd/t or 60 GWd/t). The results principally analysed are the spatial variations of different spectral indices. (authors)

  14. Genotypische diversiteit en rhizosfeerkolonisatie van DAPG-producerende Pseudomonas spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergsma-Vlami, M.

    2009-01-01

    Het antibioticum 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG) speelt een belangrijke rol in biologische bestrijding van verschillende plantenpathogenen door fluorescerende Pseudomonas-soorten. DAPG-producerende Pseudomonas-stammen zijn effectief in biologische bestrijding, maar hun saprofytisch vermogen is

  15. Fecal Carriage of ESbL types TEM, SHV, CTX Producing Genera Proteus, Morganella, Providencia in Patients of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Akhi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Diseases like urinary tract infection, wound infections, bacteremia and other infections are mainly caused by the members of the genus Proteus, Morganella and Providencia which are mainly either found freely in the environment or in the gastrointestinal tract of humans. We studied Fecal carriage of ESbL producing species in carrier patients.Stool samples obtained from outpatients and inpatients not suffering from diarrhea and were cultured in CTX-MC-Conkey agar. Lactose negative and cefotaxime resistant bacteria were identified by biochemical tests and ESbL-producing isolates were detected using Combined Test. TEM, SHV and CTX genes were investigated by PCR.Total 15 (7.35% isolates of 204 stool samples were identified as ESBL producing Proteus spp. (n=4, 1.96%, Morganella spp. (n=5, 2.45% and Providencia spp. (n=6, 2.94%. Further, amongst or of the 15 ESbL producing strains, blaTEM was the commonest genotype (86.66%, followed by blaSHV (26.66% and blaCTX-M (20%. All isolates were resistant to ampicillin, and cefotaxime whereas all Providencia and Morganella spp. were found to resist ceftazidime. Although the number of ESbL-producing Proteus, Morganella and Providencia isolates from fecal carriers were low, but still, they can be considered as a reservoir of TEM, SHV and CTX genes and capable to transfer these resistant bacteria to hospitals.

  16. Vaccines for preventing infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Helle Krogh; Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2013-01-01

    Chronic pulmonary infection in cystic fibrosis results in progressive lung damage. Once colonisation of the lungs with Pseudomonas aeruginosa occurs, it is almost impossible to eradicate. Vaccines, aimed at reducing infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, have been developed.......Chronic pulmonary infection in cystic fibrosis results in progressive lung damage. Once colonisation of the lungs with Pseudomonas aeruginosa occurs, it is almost impossible to eradicate. Vaccines, aimed at reducing infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, have been developed....

  17. Dynamics of development and dispersal in sessile microbial communities: examples from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas putida model biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, M.; Gjermansen, Morten; Kreft, J.-U.

    2006-01-01

    Surface-associated microbial communities in many cases display dynamic developmental patterns. Model biofilms formed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas putida in laboratory flow-chamber setups represent examples of such behaviour. Dependent on the experimental conditions the bacteria...

  18. 21 CFR 866.3415 - Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents. 866.3415... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3415 Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents are devices that...

  19. Metabolic rates, enzyme activities and chemical compositions of some deep-sea pelagic worms, particularly Nectonemertes mirabilis (Nemertea; Hoplonemertinea) and Poeobius meseres (Annelida; Polychaeta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuesen, Erik V.; Childress, James J.

    1993-05-01

    Investigations of metabolic rate, enzyme activity and chemical composition were undertaken on two abundant deep-sea pelagic worms: Nectonemertes mirabilis (Nemertea; Hoplonemertinea) and Poeobius meseres (Annelida; Polychaeta). Six other species of worms ( Pelagonemertes brinkmanni (Nemertea) and the following polychaetes: Pelagobia species A, Tomopteris nisseni, Tomopteris pacifica, Tomopteris species A, and Traviopsis lobifera) were captured in smaller numbers and used for comparison in the physiological and biochemical measurements. Polychaete worms had the highest oxygen consumption rates and, along with N. mirabilis, displayed significant size effects on metabolic rate. Poeobius meseres had the lowest rates of oxygen consumption and displayed no significant relationship of oxygen consumption rate to wet weight. No significant effect of size on the activities of citrate synthase, lactate dehydrogenase or pyruvate kinase was observed in P. meseres or N. mirabilis. Lipid content was higher than protein content for all the worms in this study. Carbohydrate was of little significance in these worms and was usually metabolic rates. It appears that polychaete worms as a group have higher metabolic rates than bathypelagic shrimps, copepods and fishes, and may be the animals with the highest metabolic rates in the bathypelagic regions of the world's oceans.

  20. DNA barcoding, ecology and geography of the cryptic species of Aneura pinguis and their relationships with Aneura maxima and Aneura mirabilis (Metzgeriales, Marchantiophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bączkiewicz, Alina; Szczecińska, Monika; Sawicki, Jakub; Stebel, Adam; Buczkowska, Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    Aneura pinguis is a thalloid liverwort species with broad geographical distribution. It is composed of cryptic species, however, the number of cryptic species within A. pinguis is not known. Five cpDNA regions (matK, rbcL, rpoC1, trnH-psbA and trnL-trnF) and the entire nuclear ITS region were studied in 130 samples of A. pinguis from different geographical regions. The relationships between the cryptic species of A. pinguis, A. maxima and A. mirabilis were analyzed. All of the examined samples were clustered into 10 clades corresponding to 10 cryptic species of A. pinguis (marked A to J). Aneura mirabilis and A. maxima were nested among different cryptic species of A. pinguis, which indicates that A. pinguis is a paraphyletic taxon. Subgroups were found in cryptic species A, B, C and E. As single barcodes, all tested DNA regions had 100% discriminant power and fulfilled DNA barcode criteria for species identification; however, the only combination detected in all subgroups was trnL-trnF with trnH-psbA or ITS2. The distances between cryptic species were 11- to 35-fold higher than intraspecific distances. In all analyzed DNA regions, the distances between most pairs of cryptic A. pinguis species were higher than between A. maxima and A. mirabilis. All cryptic species of A. pinguis clearly differed in their habitat preferences, which suggests that habitat adaptation could be the main driving force behind cryptic speciation within this taxon.

  1. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Population Structure Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirnay, Jean-Paul; Bilocq, Florence; Pot, Bruno; Cornelis, Pierre; Zizi, Martin; Van Eldere, Johan; Deschaght, Pieter; Vaneechoutte, Mario; Jennes, Serge; Pitt, Tyrone; De Vos, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    At present there are strong indications that Pseudomonas aeruginosa exhibits an epidemic population structure; clinical isolates are indistinguishable from environmental isolates, and they do not exhibit a specific (disease) habitat selection. However, some important issues, such as the worldwide emergence of highly transmissible P. aeruginosa clones among cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and the spread and persistence of multidrug resistant (MDR) strains in hospital wards with high antibiotic pressure, remain contentious. To further investigate the population structure of P. aeruginosa, eight parameters were analyzed and combined for 328 unrelated isolates, collected over the last 125 years from 69 localities in 30 countries on five continents, from diverse clinical (human and animal) and environmental habitats. The analysed parameters were: i) O serotype, ii) Fluorescent Amplified-Fragment Length Polymorphism (FALFP) pattern, nucleotide sequences of outer membrane protein genes, iii) oprI, iv) oprL, v) oprD, vi) pyoverdine receptor gene profile (fpvA type and fpvB prevalence), and prevalence of vii) exoenzyme genes exoS and exoU and viii) group I pilin glycosyltransferase gene tfpO. These traits were combined and analysed using biological data analysis software and visualized in the form of a minimum spanning tree (MST). We revealed a network of relationships between all analyzed parameters and non-congruence between experiments. At the same time we observed several conserved clones, characterized by an almost identical data set. These observations confirm the nonclonal epidemic population structure of P. aeruginosa, a superficially clonal structure with frequent recombinations, in which occasionally highly successful epidemic clones arise. One of these clones is the renown and widespread MDR serotype O12 clone. On the other hand, we found no evidence for a widespread CF transmissible clone. All but one of the 43 analysed CF strains belonged to a ubiquitous P

  2. Parenting children with Proteus syndrome: experiences with, and adaptation to, courtesy stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Joyce; Biesecker, Barbara; Leib, Jennifer; Biesecker, Leslie; Peters, Kathryn F

    2007-09-15

    Courtesy stigma refers to the stigmatization an unaffected person experiences due to his or her relationship with a person who bears a stigma. Parents of children with genetic conditions are particularly vulnerable to courtesy stigma, but little research has been done to explore this phenomenon. The purpose of this study was to investigate the courtesy stigma experiences of parents of children with Proteus syndrome (PS) and related overgrowth conditions. Thematic analysis of transcripts from 31 parents identified three distinct themes: stigma experiences, social-emotional reactions to stigmatizing encounters, and coping responses. Four types of stigmatizing experiences were identified: intrusive inquires, staring and pointing, devaluing remarks, and social withdrawal. Additionally, we uncovered eight strategies parents used to cope with courtesy stigma: attributing cause, assigning meaning to social exchanges, concealing, withdrawing socially, taking the offensive, employing indifference, instructing and learning from family, and educating others. Parents' choices of strategy type were found to be context dependent and evolved over time. This is the first study to document the adaptive evolution of coping strategies to offset courtesy stigma by parents of children with genetic conditions. These results provide groundwork for genetic counseling interventions aimed at addressing issues of courtesy stigma and further investigation of the phenomenon itself. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. HTR-PROTEUS benchmark calculations. Pt. 1. Unit cell results LEUPRO-1 and LEUPRO-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogenbirk, A.; Stad, R.C.L. van der; Janssen, A.J.; Klippel, H.T.; Kuijper, J.C.

    1995-09-01

    In the framework of the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on 'Validation of Safety Related Physics Calculations for Low-Enriched (LEU) HTGRs' calculational benchmarks are performed on the basis of LEU-HTR pebble-bed critical experiments carried out in the PROTEUS facility at PSI, Switzerland. Of special interest is the treatment of the double heterogeneity of the fuel and the spherical fuel elements of these pebble bed core configurations. Also of interest is the proper calculation of the safety related physics parameters like the effect of water ingress and control rod worth. This document describes the ECN results of the LEUPRO-1 and LEUPRO-2 unitcell calculations performed with the codes WIMS-E, SCALE-4 and MCNP4A. Results of the LEUPRO-1 unit cell with 20% water ingress in the void is also reported for both the single and the double heterogeneous case. Emphasis is put on the intercomparison of the results obtained by the deterministic codes WIMS-E and SCALE-4, and the Monte Carlo code MCNP4A. The LEUPRO whole core calculations will be reported later. (orig.)

  4. Analysis of PROTEUS-experiments performed in support of LWHCR design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehme, R.

    1992-01-01

    The Phase II series of tight lattice experiments carried out at the PROTEUS reactor facility in Switzerland was concentrated on physics aspects of a Light Water High Conversion Reactor (LWHCR). The dependence of reaction rate ratios and coolant void coefficients on lattice parameters was of main interest. In several cores additional experiments were carried out in support of reactor design. The reactivity worth of absorber materials proposed for reactor control were measured and the distribution of fission rates in the vicinity of core singularities, like water holes and absorber pins, was studied. These experimentals were now analysed with data and methods readily available at KfK. Main tool for these investigations was the two-dimensional transport code TWODANT. The input cross-sections were prepared from data files of the KARBUS system used at KfK for reactor design. The comparison of calculated reactivity changes with experimental data shows agreement of relative absorber worths within about 20 %. The power distribution in the vicinity of singularities can be estimated with ca. 4% accuracy. Studies have indicated that the remaining discrepancies may be partially caused by deficiencies of the transport code used for the analysis. (orig.)

  5. Pseudomonas helleri sp. nov. and Pseudomonas weihenstephanensis sp. nov., isolated from raw cow's milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Neubeck, M; Huptas, C; Glück, C; Krewinkel, M; Stoeckel, M; Stressler, T; Fischer, L; Hinrichs, J; Scherer, S; Wenning, M

    2016-03-01

    Analysis of the microbiota of raw cow's milk and semi-finished milk products yielded seven isolates assigned to the genus Pseudomonas that formed two individual groups in a phylogenetic analysis based on partial rpoD and 16S rRNA gene sequences. The two groups could be differentiated from each other and also from their closest relatives as well as from the type species Pseudomonas aeruginosa by phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characterization and average nucleotide identity (ANIb) values calculated from draft genome assemblies. ANIb values within the groups were higher than 97.3 %, whereas similarity values to the closest relatives were 85 % or less. The major cellular lipids of strains WS4917T and WS4993T were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol; the major quinone was Q-9 in both strains, with small amounts of Q-8 in strain WS4917T. The DNA G+C contents of strains WS4917T and WS4993T were 58.08 and 57.30 mol%, respectively. Based on these data, strains WS4917T, WS4995 ( = DSM 29141 = LMG 28434), WS4999, WS5001 and WS5002 should be considered as representatives of a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas helleri sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Pseudomonas helleri is strain WS4917T ( = DSM 29165T = LMG 28433T). Strains WS4993T and WS4994 ( = DSM 29140 = LMG 28438) should be recognized as representing a second novel species of the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas weihenstephanensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Pseudomonas weihenstephanensis is strain WS4993T ( = DSM 29166T = LMG 28437T).

  6. Inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase and Pseudomonas keratitis using a thiol-based peptide.

    OpenAIRE

    Burns, F R; Paterson, C A; Gray, R D; Wells, J T

    1990-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase is a zinc metalloproteinase which is released during P. aeruginosa infections. Pseudomonas keratitis, which occurs following contact lens-induced corneal trauma, can lead to rapid, liquefactive necrosis of the cornea. This destruction has been attributed to the release of both host-derived enzymes and the bacterial products P. aeruginosa elastase, alkaline protease, exotoxin A, and lipopolysaccharide endotoxin. A synthetic metalloproteinase inhibitor, HSCH2 (DL...

  7. Biodegradation of chlorpyrifos by bacterial genus Pseudomonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilani, Razia Alam; Rafique, Mazhar; Rehman, Abdul; Munis, Muhammad Farooq Hussain; Rehman, Shafiq Ur; Chaudhary, Hassan Javed

    2016-02-01

    Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphorus pesticide commonly used in agriculture. It is noxious to a variety of organisms that include living soil biota along with beneficial arthropods, fish, birds, humans, animals, and plants. Exposure to chlorpyrifos may cause detrimental effects as delayed seedling emergence, fruit deformities, and abnormal cell division. Contamination of chlorpyrifos has been found about 24 km from the site of its application. There are many physico-chemical and biological approaches to remove organophosphorus pesticides from the ecosystem, among them most promising is biodegradation. The 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) and diethylthiophosphate (DETP) as primary products are made when chlorpyrifos is degraded by soil microorganisms which further break into nontoxic metabolites as CO(2), H(2)O, and NH(3). Pseudomonas is a diversified genus possessing a series of catabolic pathways and enzymes involved in pesticide degradation. Pseudomonas putida MAS-1 is reported to be more efficient in chlorpyrifos degradation by a rate of 90% in 24 h among Pseudomonas genus. The current review analyzed the comparative potential of bacterial species in Pseudomonas genus for degradation of chlorpyrifos thus, expressing an ecofriendly approach for the treatment of environmental contaminants like pesticides. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Evaluation of gamma irradiation effect and Pseudomonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antagonistic effect of Pseudomonas fluorescens and influence of gamma irradiation on the development of Penicillium expansum, the causal agent of postharvest disease on apple fruit was studied. P. fluorescens was originally isolated from rhizosphere of the apple trees. Suspension of P. fluorescens and P. expansum ...

  9. Extracytoplasmic function sigma factors in Pseudomonas syringae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiil, Kristoffer; Oguiza, J.A.; Ussery, D.W.

    2005-01-01

    Genome analyses of the plant pathogens Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000, pv. syringae B728a and pv. phaseolicola 1448A reveal fewer extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factors than in related Pseudomonads with different lifestyles. We highlight the presence of a P. syringae-specific ECF...

  10. Optimization of alkaline protease production from Pseudomonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... protease production was 37°C at pH 9, with 2% inoculum in the medium for 24 h. .... Positive. Catalase test. Positive ... The enzyme activity gradually decreases from ... Effect of temperature on protease production by Pseudomonas fluorescens. 0 .... between RNA polymerase and upstream promotes DNA.

  11. Comparative evaluation of organic formulations of Pseudomonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted in the laboratory and farm of the Department of Biotechnology, Gauhati University, to explore the potentiality of various organic formulations of Pseudomonas fluorescens (Pf) and to manage bacterial wilt disease of brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) under local conditions. Different organic ...

  12. High pressure inactivation of Pseudomonas in black truffle - comparison with Pseudomonas fluorescens in tryptone soya broth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballestra, Patricia; Verret, Catherine; Cruz, Christian; Largeteau, Alain; Demazeau, Gerard; El Moueffak, Abdelhamid

    2010-03-01

    Pseudomonas is one of the most common genera in black Perigord truffle. Its inactivation by high pressure (100-500 MPa/10 min) applied on truffles at sub-zero or low temperatures was studied and compared with those of Pseudomonas fluorescens in tryptone soya broth. Pressurization of truffles at 300 MPa/4 °C reduced the bacterial count of Pseudomonas by 5.3 log cycles. Higher pressures of 400 or 500 MPa, at 4 °C or 20 °C, allowed us to slightly increase the level of destruction to the value of ca. 6.5 log cycles but did not permit us to completely inactivate Pseudomonas. The results showed a residual charge of about 10 CFU/g. Pressure-shift freezing of truffles, which consists in applying a pressure of 200 MPa/-18 °C for 10 min and then quickly releasing this pressure to induce freezing, reduced the population of Pseudomonas by 3.3 log cycles. The level of inactivation was higher than those obtained with conventional freezing. Endogenous Pseudomonas in truffle was shown to be more resistant to high pressure treatments than P. fluorescens used for inoculation of broths.

  13. Pseudomonas lactis sp. nov. and Pseudomonas paralactis sp. nov., isolated from bovine raw milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Neubeck, Mario; Huptas, Christopher; Glück, Claudia; Krewinkel, Manuel; Stoeckel, Marina; Stressler, Timo; Fischer, Lutz; Hinrichs, Jörg; Scherer, Siegfried; Wenning, Mareike

    2017-06-01

    Five strains, designated WS 4672T, WS 4998, WS 4992T, WS 4997 and WS 5000, isolated from bovine raw milk formed two individual groups in a phylogenetic analysis. The most similar species on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences were Pseudomonas azotoformans IAM 1603T, Pseudomonas gessardii CIP 105469T and Pseudomonas libanensis CIP 105460T showing 99.7-99.6 % similarity. Using rpoD gene sequences Pseudomonas veronii LMG 17761T (93.3 %) was most closely related to strain WS 4672T and Pseudomonas libanensis CIP 105460T to strain WS 4992T (93.3 %). The five strains could be differentiated from their closest relatives and from each other by phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characterization and ANIb values calculated from draft genome assemblies. ANIb values of strains WS 4992T and WS4671T to the closest relatives are lower than 90 %. The major cellular polar lipids of both strains are phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, a phospholipid and diphosphatidylglycerol, and their major quinone is Q-9. The DNA G+C content of strains WS 4992T and WS 4672T were 60.0  and 59.7  mol%, respectively. Based on these genotypic and phenotypic traits two novel species of the genus Pseudomonas are proposed: Pseudomonas lactis sp. nov. [with type strain WS 4992T (=DSM 29167T=LMG 28435T) and the additional strains WS 4997 and WS 5000], and Pseudomonasparalactis sp. nov. [with type strain WS 4672T (=DSM 29164T=LMG 28439T) and additional strain WS 4998].

  14. Multiple origins and incursions of the Atlantic barnacle Chthamalus proteus in the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zardus, John D; Hadfield, Michael G

    2005-10-01

    Chthamalus proteus, a barnacle native to the Caribbean and western Atlantic, was introduced to the Pacific within the last few decades. Using direct sequencing of mitochondrial DNA (COI), we characterized genetic variation in native and introduced populations and searched for genetic matches between regions to determine if there were multiple geographical sources and introduction points for this barnacle. In the native range, we found great genetic differences among populations (max. F(ST) = 0.613) encompassing four lineages: one endemic to Panama, one endemic to Brazil, and two occurring Caribbean-wide. All four lineages were represented in the Pacific, but not equally; the Brazilian lineage was most prevalent and the Panamanian least common. Twenty-one individuals spread among nearly every island from where the barnacle is known in the Pacific, exactly matched six haplotypes scattered among Curaçao, the Netherlands Antilles; St John, US Virgin Islands; Puerto Rico; and Brazil, confirming a multigeographical origin for the Pacific populations. Significant genetic differences were also found in introduced populations from the Hawaiian Islands (F(CT) = 0.043, P < 0.001), indicating introduction events have occurred at more than one locality. However, the sequence, timing and number of arrival events remains unknown. Possible reasons for limited transport of this barnacle through the Panama Canal are discussed. This and a preponderance of Brazilian-type individuals in the Pacific suggest an unexpected route of entry from around Cape Horn, South America. Unification in the Pacific of historically divergent lineages of this barnacle raises the possibility for selection of 'hybrids' with novel ecological adaptations in its new environment.

  15. SU-E-T-566: Neutron Dose Cloud Map for Compact ProteusONE Proton Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syh, J; Patel, B; Syh, J; Rosen, L; Wu, H [Willis-Knighton Medical Center, Shreveport, LA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To establish the base line of neutron cloud during patient treatment in our new compact Proteus One proton pencil beam scanning (PBS) system with various beam delivery gantry angles, with or without range shifter (RS) at different body sites. Pencil beam scanning is an emerging treatment technique, for the concerns of neutron exposure, this study is to evaluate the neutron dose equivalent per given delivered dose under various treatment conditions at our proton therapy center. Methods: A wide energy neutron dose equivalent detector (SWENDI-II, Thermo Scientific, MA) was used for neutron dose measurements. It was conducted in the proton therapy vault during beam was on. The measurement location was specifically marked in order to obtain the equivalent dose of neutron activities (H). The distances of 100, 150 and 200 cm at various locations are from the patient isocenter. The neutron dose was measured of proton energy layers, # of spots, maximal energy range, modulation width, field radius, gantry angle, snout position and delivered dose in CGE. The neutron dose cloud is reproducible and is useful for the future reference. Results: When distance increased the neutron equivalent dose (H) reading did not decrease rapidly with changes of proton energy range, modulation width or spot layers. For cranial cases, the average mSv/CGE was about 0.02 versus 0.032 for pelvis cases. RS will induce higher H to be 0.10 mSv/CGE in average. Conclusion: From this study, neutron per dose ratio (mSv/CGE) slightly depends upon various treatment parameters for pencil beams. For similar treatment conditions, our measurement demonstrates this value for pencil beam scanning beam has lowest than uniform scanning or passive scattering beam with a factor of 5. This factor will be monitored continuously for other upcoming treatment parameters in our facility.

  16. Quantifying selective reporting and the Proteus phenomenon for multiple datasets with similar bias.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Pfeiffer

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Meta-analyses play an important role in synthesizing evidence from diverse studies and datasets that address similar questions. A major obstacle for meta-analyses arises from biases in reporting. In particular, it is speculated that findings which do not achieve formal statistical significance are less likely reported than statistically significant findings. Moreover, the patterns of bias can be complex and may also depend on the timing of the research results and their relationship with previously published work. In this paper, we present an approach that is specifically designed to analyze large-scale datasets on published results. Such datasets are currently emerging in diverse research fields, particularly in molecular medicine. We use our approach to investigate a dataset on Alzheimer's disease (AD that covers 1167 results from case-control studies on 102 genetic markers. We observe that initial studies on a genetic marker tend to be substantially more biased than subsequent replications. The chances for initial, statistically non-significant results to be published are estimated to be about 44% (95% CI, 32% to 63% relative to statistically significant results, while statistically non-significant replications have almost the same chance to be published as statistically significant replications (84%; 95% CI, 66% to 107%. Early replications tend to be biased against initial findings, an observation previously termed Proteus phenomenon: The chances for non-significant studies going in the same direction as the initial result are estimated to be lower than the chances for non-significant studies opposing the initial result (73%; 95% CI, 55% to 96%. Such dynamic patterns in bias are difficult to capture by conventional methods, where typically simple publication bias is assumed to operate. Our approach captures and corrects for complex dynamic patterns of bias, and thereby helps generating conclusions from published results that are more robust

  17. Monitoring health and reproductive status of olms (Proteus anguinus) by ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtze, Susanne; Lukač, Maja; Cizelj, Ivan; Mutschmann, Frank; Szentiks, Claudia Anita; Jelić, Dušan; Hermes, Robert; Göritz, Frank; Braude, Stanton; Hildebrandt, Thomas Bernd

    2017-01-01

    The olm (Proteus anguinus) is a troglomorphic, neotenous amphibian with extraordinary life expectancy and unique adaptations that deserve further investigation. A low reproductive rate and habitat decline render it threatened by extinction. Establishing captive populations for maintenance and artificial breeding may one day become crucial to the species. Longitudinal, in-vivo assessment of inner organs is invaluable to our understanding of reproductive physiology, health, and behavior. Using ultrasound, we measured heart rate and assessed health and reproductive status of 13 captive olms at Zagreb Zoo. Heart rate averaged 42.9 ± 4.6 bpm (32-55 bpm), as determined via pulsed-wave Doppler at 4-12 MHz. By using frequencies of up to 70 MHz (ultrasound biomicroscopy), inner organs were visualized in detail. Assessment of the gastrointestinal tract provided insights into feeding status and digestive processes. Several subclinical pathologies were detected, including biliary sludge, subcutaneous edema, ascites, and skin lesions. Detection of skin lesions by ultrasound was more sensitive than visual adspection. Olms with ultrasonographically detected skin lesions tested positive for Saprolegnia and were treated. Three of the four affected individuals survived and subsequently tested negative for Saprolegnia. Sex was reliably determined; only one individual proved male. The reason for this extreme female-biased sex-ratio remains unknown. However, as most of the individuals were flushed from the caves by strong currents in spring, the sample may not be representative of natural populations. In female olms, different stages of ovarian follicular development were observed with diameters ranging between 0.1 and 1.1 mm. Results were confirmed by comparing ultrasound, necropsy, and histological findings of one dead specimen. In summary, ultrasound proved a valuable tool to support conservation and captive breeding programs by allowing non-invasive assessment of physiological

  18. Monitoring health and reproductive status of olms (Proteus anguinus by ultrasound.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Holtze

    Full Text Available The olm (Proteus anguinus is a troglomorphic, neotenous amphibian with extraordinary life expectancy and unique adaptations that deserve further investigation. A low reproductive rate and habitat decline render it threatened by extinction. Establishing captive populations for maintenance and artificial breeding may one day become crucial to the species. Longitudinal, in-vivo assessment of inner organs is invaluable to our understanding of reproductive physiology, health, and behavior. Using ultrasound, we measured heart rate and assessed health and reproductive status of 13 captive olms at Zagreb Zoo. Heart rate averaged 42.9 ± 4.6 bpm (32-55 bpm, as determined via pulsed-wave Doppler at 4-12 MHz. By using frequencies of up to 70 MHz (ultrasound biomicroscopy, inner organs were visualized in detail. Assessment of the gastrointestinal tract provided insights into feeding status and digestive processes. Several subclinical pathologies were detected, including biliary sludge, subcutaneous edema, ascites, and skin lesions. Detection of skin lesions by ultrasound was more sensitive than visual adspection. Olms with ultrasonographically detected skin lesions tested positive for Saprolegnia and were treated. Three of the four affected individuals survived and subsequently tested negative for Saprolegnia. Sex was reliably determined; only one individual proved male. The reason for this extreme female-biased sex-ratio remains unknown. However, as most of the individuals were flushed from the caves by strong currents in spring, the sample may not be representative of natural populations. In female olms, different stages of ovarian follicular development were observed with diameters ranging between 0.1 and 1.1 mm. Results were confirmed by comparing ultrasound, necropsy, and histological findings of one dead specimen. In summary, ultrasound proved a valuable tool to support conservation and captive breeding programs by allowing non-invasive assessment of

  19. The PROTEUS Experiment: Active Source Seismic Imaging of the Crustal Magma Plumbing Structure of the Santorini Arc Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooft, E. E. E.; Morgan, J. V.; Nomikou, P.; Toomey, D. R.; Papazachos, C. V.; Warner, M.; Heath, B.; Christopoulou, M. E.; Lampridou, D.; Kementzetzidou, D.

    2016-12-01

    The goal of the PROTEUS seismic experiment (Plumbing Reservoirs Of The Earth Under Santorini) is to examine the entire crustal magma plumbing system beneath a continental arc volcano and determine the magma geometry and connections throughout the crust. These physical parameters control magma migration, storage, and eruption and inform the question of how physical and chemical processing of magma at arc volcanoes forms the andesitic rock compositions that dominate the lower continental crust. These physical parameters are also important to understand volcanic-tectonic interactions and geohazards. Santorini is ideal for these goals because the continental crust has been thinned by extension and so the deep magmatic system is more accessible, also it is geologically well studied. Since the volcano is a semi-submerged, it was possible to collect a unique 3D marine-land active source seismic dataset. During the PROTEUS experiment in November-December of 2015, we recorded 14,300 marine sound sources from the US R/V Langseth on 89 OBSIP short period ocean bottom seismometers and 60 German and 5 Greek land seismometers. The experiment was designed for high-density spatial sampling of the seismic wavefield to allow us to apply two state-of-the-art 3D inversion methods: travel time tomography and full waveform inversion. A preliminary travel time tomography model of the upper crustal seismic velocity structure of the volcano and surrounding region is presented in an accompanying poster. We also made marine geophysical maps of the seafloor using multi-beam bathymetry and of the gravity and magnetic fields. The new seafloor map reveals the detailed structure of the major fault system between Santorini and Amorgos, of associated landslides, and of newly discovered volcanic features. The PROTEUS project will provide new insights into the structure of the whole crustal magmatic system of a continental arc volcano and its evolution within the surrounding tectonic setting.

  20. Innovation Online Teaching Module Plus Digital Engineering Kit with Proteus Software through Hybrid Learning Method to Improve Student Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholis, Nur; Syariffuddien Zuhrie, Muhamad; Rahmadian, Reza

    2018-04-01

    Demands the competence (competence) needs of the industry today is a competent workforce to the field of work. However, during this lecture material Digital Engineering (Especially Digital Electronics Basics and Digital Circuit Basics) is limited to the delivery of verbal form of lectures (classical method) is dominated by the Lecturer (Teacher Centered). Though the subject of Digital Engineering requires learning tools and is required understanding of electronic circuits, digital electronics and high logic circuits so that learners can apply in the world of work. One effort to make it happen is by creating an online teaching module and educational aids (Kit) with the help of Proteus software that can improve the skills of learners. This study aims to innovate online teaching modules plus kits in Proteus-assisted digital engineering courses through hybrid learning approaches to improve the skills of learners. The process of innovation is done by considering the skills and mastery of the technology of students (students) Department of Electrical Engineering - Faculty of Engineering – Universitas Negeri Surabaya to produce quality graduates Use of online module plus Proteus software assisted kit through hybrid learning approach. In general, aims to obtain adequate results with affordable cost of investment, user friendly, attractive and interactive (easily adapted to the development of Information and Communication Technology). With the right design, implementation and operation, both in the form of software both in the form of Online Teaching Module, offline teaching module, Kit (Educational Viewer), and e-learning learning content (both online and off line), the use of the three tools of the expenditure will be able to adjust the standard needs of Information and Communication Technology world, both nationally and internationally.

  1. In vitro synthesis of biogenic amines by Brochothrix thermosphacta isolates from meat and meat products and the influence of other microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Agnieszka; Czyzowska, Agata

    2011-07-01

    Twenty Brochothrix thermosphacta strains tested for biogenic amines (BAs) production, formed histamine (6.6-16.2 mg/kg) and tyramine (18.7-35.4 mg/kg) but neither putrescine nor cadaverine. Six of the twenty strains were also investigated in respect of their influence on the synthesis of BAs by Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas sp., Proteus mirabilis and Lactobacillus sakei. In pure culture Escherichia coli produced all of the studied amines (histamine, tyramine, putrescine and cadaverine) with a total concentration of 167.7 mg/kg, P. mirabilis produced a total of 56.7 mg/kg histamine, tyramine and cadaverine, while Lactobacillus sakei and Pseudomonas sp. produced histamine and tyramine, totaling 37.9 and 35.2 mg/kg respectively. All B. thermosphacta promoted cadaverine production by Escherichia coli which increased by 12-68%, and some of them contributed to the appearance of this amine among the metabolites of Pseudomonas. The presence of B. thermosphacta decreased the potential ability of P. mirabilis to produce BAs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Efficacy of some synthetic antibiotics on Streptococcus pneumoniae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of some synthetic antibiotics on Streptococcus pnemoniae and Proteus mirabilis isolated from cultured Clarias gariepinus, an important food fish raised in a concrete tank was carried out to ascertain their remedies on mortalities of the Clarias gariepinus adult fish. Streptococcus pnemoniae and Proteus mirabilis were ...

  3. Stone Formation in the Infected Pediatric Enterocystoplasty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.B. Mathoera (Rejiv)

    2003-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Proteus mirabilis is one of the most frequent bacterial agents that can induce infection stone formation by urease production. In recent years the influence of Proteus mirabilis on stone formation in enterocystoplasties has been primarily related to the presence of

  4. Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns of Bacterial Isolates from Pus Samples in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Punjab, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rugira Trojan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We determined the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibilities patterns of bacterial isolates from pus samples collected from patients in a tertiary care hospital of Punjab, India. E. coli was the most prevalent pathogen (51.2% followed by Staphylococcus aureus (21%, Klebsiella pneumoniae (11.6%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (5.8%, Citrobacter spp. (3.5%, Acinetobacter baumannii (2.3%, Proteus mirabilis (2.3%, and Streptococcus spp. (2.3%. E. coli, K. pneumoniae, A. baumannii, and Citrobacter isolates were resistant to multiple antibiotics including higher generation cephalosporins. S. aureus and Streptococcus isolates were sensitive to cloxacillin and vancomycin. However, P. aeruginosa, P. mirabilis, and Streptococcus isolates were found to be less resistant to the spectrum of antibiotics tested. Overall, our findings indicate the prevalence of resistance to different classes of antibiotics in bacterial isolates from pus infections and hence highlight the need for effective surveillance, regulator reporting, and antibiogram-guided antibiotic prescription.

  5. Enhanced annotations and features for comparing thousands of Pseudomonas genomes in the Pseudomonas genome database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsor, Geoffrey L; Griffiths, Emma J; Lo, Raymond; Dhillon, Bhavjinder K; Shay, Julie A; Brinkman, Fiona S L

    2016-01-04

    The Pseudomonas Genome Database (http://www.pseudomonas.com) is well known for the application of community-based annotation approaches for producing a high-quality Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 genome annotation, and facilitating whole-genome comparative analyses with other Pseudomonas strains. To aid analysis of potentially thousands of complete and draft genome assemblies, this database and analysis platform was upgraded to integrate curated genome annotations and isolate metadata with enhanced tools for larger scale comparative analysis and visualization. Manually curated gene annotations are supplemented with improved computational analyses that help identify putative drug targets and vaccine candidates or assist with evolutionary studies by identifying orthologs, pathogen-associated genes and genomic islands. The database schema has been updated to integrate isolate metadata that will facilitate more powerful analysis of genomes across datasets in the future. We continue to place an emphasis on providing high-quality updates to gene annotations through regular review of the scientific literature and using community-based approaches including a major new Pseudomonas community initiative for the assignment of high-quality gene ontology terms to genes. As we further expand from thousands of genomes, we plan to provide enhancements that will aid data visualization and analysis arising from whole-genome comparative studies including more pan-genome and population-based approaches. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  6. Growth of Pseudomonas spp. in cottage cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Nina Bjerre; Dalgaard, Paw

    Cottage cheese is a mixture of cheese curd with pH 4.5-4.8 and an uncultured or cultured cream dressing with a pH as high as 7.0. This results in a final product with microenvironments and a bulk pH of about 4.8 to 5.5. As for other lightly preserved foods microbial contamination and growth...... of spoilage microorganisms in cottage cheese can cause undesirable alterations in flavour, odour, appearance and texture. Contamination and growth of psychrotolerant pseudomonads including Pseudomonas fragi and Pseudomonas putida has been reported for cottage cheese but the influence of these bacteria...... on product spoilage and shelf-life remains poorly described. The present study used a quantitative microbial ecology approach to model and predict the effect of product characteristics and storage conditions on growth of psychrotolerant pseudomonads in cottage cheese. The effect of temperature (5-15˚C) and p...

  7. Biodegradation of resorcinol byPseudomonas sp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nader Hajizadeh; Najibeh Shirzad; Ali Farzi; Mojtaba Salouti; Azra Momeni

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective:To investigate the ability ofPseudomonas sp. isolated from East Azarbaijan, Iran in bioremediation of resorcinol. Methods: Resorcinol biodegradation was evaluated using spectrophotometry and confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Results:This isolate was able to remove up to 37.12% of resorcinol from contaminated water. Reusability experiments had confirmed the biodegradation process which produced seven intermediate compounds. These intermediates were characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy technique. The products of resorcinol biodegradation were apparently 1, 4-cyclohexadiene, nonadecene, 2-heptadecanone, 1-isopropyl-2-methoxy-4-methylbenzene, hexadecanoic acid, 9-octadecenoic acid, phenol and 5-methyl-2-(1-methylethyl). Conclusions: The findings revealed thatPseudomonas sp. is able to degrade resorcinol. Because of being an indigenous organism, this isolate is more compatible with the climate of the northwest region of Iran and possibly will be used for degradation of other similar aromatic compounds.

  8. Aspergillus triggers phenazine production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Britt Guillaume; Jelsbak, Lars; Søndergaard, Ib

    in the contact area of A. niger, A. flavus, A. oryzae, but not A. fumigatus. In addition, other metabolites with UV chromophores similar to the phenazines were only found in the contact zone between Aspergillus and Pseudomonas. No change in secondary metabolite profiles were seen for the Aspergilli, when......Objectives: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen, commonly infecting cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Aspergilli, especially Aspergillus fumigatus, are also frequently isolated from CF patients. Our aim was to examine the possible interaction between P. aeruginosa and different...... Aspergillus species. Methods: A suspension of fungal spores was streaked onto WATM agar plates. After 24 hours incubation at 37 °C, a P. aeruginosa overnight culture was streaked out perpendicular to the fungal streak. The plates were incubated at 37 °C for five days, examined and plugs were extracted...

  9. Nosocomial outbreak of Pseudomonas aeruginosa endophthalmitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos, I; Valencia, R; Torres, M J; Cantos, A; Conde, M; Aznar, J

    2006-11-01

    We describe an outbreak of nosocomial endophthalmitis due to a common source, which was determined to be trypan blue solution prepared in the hospital's pharmacy service. We assume that viable bacteria probably gained access to the trypan blue stock solution during cooling after autoclaving. The temporal cluster of Pseudomonas aeruginosa endophthalmitis was readily perceived on the basis of clinical and microbiological findings, and an exogenous source of contamination was unequivocally identified by means of DNA fingerprinting.

  10. Pseudomonas biofilms: possibilities of their control

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Masák, J.; Čejková, A.; Schreiberová, O.; Řezanka, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 2 (2014), s. 1-14 ISSN 0168-6496 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-23597S; GA ČR GA14-00227S Grant - others:Ministry of Industry and Trade(CZ) FR-TI1/456; Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports(CZ) LF11016 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : biofilm * pseudomonas * review Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.568, year: 2014

  11. Development of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa Agmatine Biosensor

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbertsen, Adam; Williams, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    Agmatine, decarboxylated arginine, is an important intermediary in polyamine production for many prokaryotes, but serves higher functions in eukaryotes such as nitric oxide inhibition and roles in neurotransmission. Pseudomonas aeruginosa relies on the arginine decarboxylase and agmatine deiminase pathways to convert arginine into putrescine. One of the two known agmatine deiminase operons, aguBA, contains an agmatine sensitive TetR promoter controlled by AguR. We have discovered that this pr...

  12. Trehalose 6-phosphate phosphatases of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Megan; Biberacher, Sonja; Park, Suk-Youl; Rajan, Siji; Korhonen, Pasi; Gasser, Robin B; Kim, Jeong-Sun; Coster, Mark J; Hofmann, Andreas

    2018-04-24

    The opportunistic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been recognized as an important pathogen of clinical relevance and is a leading cause of hospital-acquired infections. The presence of a glycolytic enzyme in Pseudomonas, which is known to be inhibited by trehalose 6-phosphate (T6P) in other organisms, suggests that these bacteria may be vulnerable to the detrimental effects of intracellular T6P accumulation. In the present study, we explored the structural and functional properties of trehalose 6-phosphate phosphatase (TPP) in P. aeruginosa in support of future target-based drug discovery. A survey of genomes revealed the existence of 2 TPP genes with either chromosomal or extrachromosomal location. Both TPPs were produced as recombinant proteins, and characterization of their enzymatic properties confirmed specific, magnesium-dependent catalytic hydrolysis of T6P. The 3-dimensional crystal structure of the chromosomal TPP revealed a protein dimer arising through β-sheet expansion of the individual monomers, which possess the overall fold of halo-acid dehydrogenases.-Cross, M., Biberacher, S., Park, S.-Y., Rajan, S., Korhonen, P., Gasser, R. B., Kim, J.-S., Coster, M. J., Hofmann, A. Trehalose 6-phosphate phosphatases of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  13. Pseudomonas biofilm matrix composition and niche biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Ethan E.; Wozniak, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Biofilms are a predominant form of growth for bacteria in the environment and in the clinic. Critical for biofilm development are adherence, proliferation, and dispersion phases. Each of these stages includes reinforcement by, or modulation of, the extracellular matrix. Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been a model organism for the study of biofilm formation. Additionally, other Pseudomonas species utilize biofilm formation during plant colonization and environmental persistence. Pseudomonads produce several biofilm matrix molecules, including polysaccharides, nucleic acids, and proteins. Accessory matrix components shown to aid biofilm formation and adaptability under varying conditions are also produced by pseudomonads. Adaptation facilitated by biofilm formation allows for selection of genetic variants with unique and distinguishable colony morphology. Examples include rugose small-colony variants and wrinkly spreaders (WS), which over produce Psl/Pel or cellulose, respectively, and mucoid bacteria that over produce alginate. The well-documented emergence of these variants suggests that pseudomonads take advantage of matrix-building subpopulations conferring specific benefits for the entire population. This review will focus on various polysaccharides as well as additional Pseudomonas biofilm matrix components. Discussions will center on structure–function relationships, regulation, and the role of individual matrix molecules in niche biology. PMID:22212072

  14. CXCR1 regulates pulmonary anti-Pseudomonas host defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carevic, M.; Öz, H.; Fuchs, K.; Laval, J.; Schroth, C.; Frey, N.; Hector, A.; Bilich, T.; Haug, M.; Schmidt, A.; Autenrieth, S. E.; Bucher, K.; Beer-Hammer, S.; Gaggar, A.; Kneilling, M.; Benarafa, C.; Gao, J.; Murphy, P.; Schwarz, S.; Moepps, B.; Hartl, D.

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a key opportunistic pathogen causing disease in cystic fibrosis (CF) and other lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the pulmonary host defense mechanisms regulating anti-Pseudomonas aeruginosa immunity remain incompletely understood. Here we demonstrate, by studying an airway Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection model, in vivo bioluminescence imaging, neutrophil effector responses and human airway samples, that the chemokine receptor CXCR1 regulates pulmonary host defense against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Mechanistically, CXCR1 regulated anti-Pseudomonas neutrophil responses through modulation of reactive oxygen species and interference with toll-like receptor 5 expression. These studies define CXCR1 as a novel non-canonical chemokine receptor that regulates pulmonary anti-Pseudomonas host defense with broad implications for CF, COPD and other infectious lung diseases. PMID:26950764

  15. Pseudomonas predators: understanding and exploiting phage-host interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smet, Jeroen; Hendrix, Hanne; Blasdel, Bob G; Danis-Wlodarczyk, Katarzyna; Lavigne, Rob

    2017-09-01

    Species in the genus Pseudomonas thrive in a diverse set of ecological niches and include crucial pathogens, such as the human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. The bacteriophages that infect Pseudomonas spp. mirror the widespread and diverse nature of their hosts. Therefore, Pseudomonas spp. and their phages are an ideal system to study the molecular mechanisms that govern virus-host interactions. Furthermore, phages are principal catalysts of host evolution and diversity, which directly affects the ecological roles of environmental and pathogenic Pseudomonas spp. Understanding these interactions not only provides novel insights into phage biology but also advances the development of phage therapy, phage-derived antimicrobial strategies and innovative biotechnological tools that may be derived from phage-bacteria interactions.

  16. Screening of Gibberellic Acid Production by Pseudomonas SPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khine Zar Wynn Myint; Khin Mya Lwin; Myo Myint

    2010-12-01

    The microbial gibberellic acid (GA3) production of Pseudomonas spp., was studied and qualitatively indentified by UV spectrophotometer. 20 strains of Pseudomonas spp., were isolated and screened the gibberellic acid productivily in King's B medium. Among them, only four strains can produce microbial gibberellic acid. The Rf values and colour appearance under UV were the same as authentic gibberellic acid. Moreover, the gibberellic acid producer strains were identified as Pseudomonas spp., by cultural, biochemical and drug sensitivity pattern.

  17. Reanalysis of the gas-cooled fast reactor experiments at the zero power facility proteus - Spectral indices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perret, G.; Pattupara, R. M. [Paul Scherrer Inst., 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Girardin, G. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Chawla, R. [Paul Scherrer Inst., 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2012-07-01

    The gas-cooled fast reactor (GCFR) concept was investigated experimentally in the PROTEUS zero power facility at the Paul Scherrer Inst. during the 1970's. The experimental program was aimed at neutronics studies specific to the GCFR and at the validation of nuclear data in fast spectra. A significant part of the program used thorium oxide and thorium metal fuel either distributed quasi-homogeneously in the reference PuO{sub 2}/UO{sub 2} lattice or introduced in the form of radial and axial blanket zones. Experimental results obtained at the time are still of high relevance in view of the current consideration of the Gas-cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) as a Generation-IV nuclear system, as also of the renewed interest in the thorium cycle. In this context, some of the experiments have been modeled with modern Monte Carlo codes to better account for the complex PROTEUS whole-reactor geometry and to allow validating recent continuous neutron cross-section libraries. As a first step, the MCNPX model was used to test the JEFF-3.1, JEFF-3.1.1, ENDF/B-VII.0 and JENDL-3.3 libraries against spectral indices, notably involving fission and capture of {sup 232}Th and {sup 237}Np, measured in GFR-like lattices. (authors)

  18. Analysis of reactivity worths of highly-burnt PWR fuel samples measured in LWR-PROTEUS Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimm, Peter; Murphy, Michael F.; Jatuff, Fabian; Seiler, Rudolf [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2008-07-01

    The reactivity loss of PWR fuel with burnup has been determined experimentally by inserting fresh and highly-burnt fuel samples in a PWR test lattice in the framework of the LWR-PROTEUS Phase II programme. Seven UO{sub 2} samples irradiated in a Swiss PWR plant with burnups ranging from approx40 to approx120 MWd/kg and four MOX samples with burnups up to approx70 MWd/kg were oscillated in a test region constituted of actual PWR UO{sub 2} fuel rods in the centre of the PROTEUS zero-power experimental facility. The measurements were analyzed using the CASMO-4E fuel assembly code and a cross section library based on the ENDF/B-VI evaluation. The results show close proximity between calculated and measured reactivity effects and no trend for a deterioration of the quality of the prediction at high burnup. The analysis thus demonstrates the high accuracy of the calculation of the reactivity of highly-burnt fuel. (authors)

  19. Advances of naphthalene degradation in Pseudomonas putida ND6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Fu; Shi, Yifei; Jia, Shiru; Tan, Zhilei; Zhao, Huabing

    2018-03-01

    Naphthalene is one of the most common and simple polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Degradation of naphthalene has been greatly concerned due to its economic, free-pollution and its fine effect in Pseudomonas putida ND6. This review summarizes the development history of naphthalene degradation, the research progress of naphthalene degrading gene and naphthalene degradation pathway of Pseudomonas putida ND6, and the researching path of this strain. Although the study of naphthalene degradation is not consummate in Pseudomonas putida ND6, there is a potential capability for Pseudomonas putida ND6 to degrade the naphthalene in the further research.

  20. 40 CFR 180.1107 - Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the requirement... killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens is exempt from the...

  1. Bacteriospermia and Sperm Quality in Infertile Male Patient at University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibadin, O. K.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Male Urogenital tract infection plays an important role in men infertility. Asymptomtic bacteriospermia has been regarded as of the contributing factor to male infertility. In this study, 87 semen samples of infertile men attending the Human Reproduction Research Programme and Invitrofertilization unit (HRRP/IVF of University Benin Teaching Hospital were evaluated Bacteriologically using standard Bacterial culture method. Standard semen analysis was performed according to WHO guidelines. Among the total cases, 36 (41.4% showed at least one pathogen. Staphylococcus aureus (16.1%, Staphylococcus Saprophyticus (9.1%, Escherichia Coli (6.9% Proteus mirabilis (3.4% Klebsiella spp (2.3% Pseudomonas aerouginosa (1.1% and Proteus vulgaris (2.3%. There was a significant relation between bacteriospermia and the rate of number of total motility and morphologically abnormal sperms (p 0.05. It seems that leukocytopermia is not a good maker to predict bacteriospermia.

  2. 21 CFR 520.88a - Amoxicillin trihydrate film-coated tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., Streptococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and bacterial dermatitis caused by S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., and P. mirabilis. (iii) Limitations. Administer for 5 to 7 days or 48 hours after all..., and P. mirabilis; gastrointestinal tract due to E. coli; and skin and soft tissue (abscesses...

  3. Structural characterization of pyoverdines produced by Pseudomonas putida KT2440 and Pseudomonas taiwanensis VLB120.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baune, Matthias; Qi, Yulin; Scholz, Karen; Volmer, Dietrich A; Hayen, Heiko

    2017-08-01

    The previously unknown sequences of several pyoverdines (PVD) produced by a biotechnologically-relevant bacterium, namely, Pseudomonas taiwanensis VLB120, were characterized by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). The same structural characterization scheme was checked before by analysis of Pseudomonas sp. putida KT2440 samples with known PVDs. A new sample preparation strategy based on solid-phase extraction was developed, requiring significantly reduced sample material as compared to existing methods. Chromatographic separation was performed using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography with gradient elution. Interestingly, no signals for apoPVDs were detected in these analyses, only the corresponding aluminum(III) and iron(III) complexes were seen. The chromatographic separation readily enabled separation of PVD complexes according to their individual structures. HPLC-HRMS and complementary fragmentation data from collision-induced dissociation and electron capture dissociation enabled the structural characterization of the investigated pyoverdines. In Pseudomonas sp. putida KT2240 samples, the known pyoverdines G4R and G4R A were readily confirmed. No PVDs have been previously described for Pseudomonas sp. taiwanensis VLB120. In our study, we identified three new PVDs, which only differed in their acyl side chains (succinic acid, succinic amide and malic acid). Peptide sequencing by MS/MS provided the sequence Orn-Asp-OHAsn-Thr-AcOHOrn-Ser-cOHOrn. Of particular interest is the presence of OHAsn, which has not been reported as PVD constituent before.

  4. HTR-Proteus Pebble Bed Experimental Program Cores 5,6,7,&8: Columnar Hexagonal Point-on-Point Packing with a 1:2 Moderator-to-Fuel Pebble Ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bess, John D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sterbentz, James W. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Snoj, Luka [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lengar, Igor [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Koberl, Oliver [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-01

    PROTEUS is a zero-power research reactor based on a cylindrical graphite annulus with a central cylindrical cavity. The graphite annulus remains basically the same for all experimental programs, but the contents of the central cavity are changed according to the type of reactor being investigated. Through most of its service history, PROTEUS has represented light-water reactors, but from 1992 to 1996 PROTEUS was configured as a pebble-bed reactor (PBR) critical facility and designated as HTR-PROTEUS. The nomenclature was used to indicate that this series consisted of High Temperature Reactor experiments performed in the PROTEUS assembly. During this period, seventeen critical configurations were assembled and various reactor physics experiments were conducted. These experiments included measurements of criticality, differential and integral control rod and safety rod worths, kinetics, reaction rates, water ingress effects, and small sample reactivity effects (Ref. 3). HTR-PROTEUS was constructed, and the experimental program was conducted, for the purpose of providing experimental benchmark data for assessment of reactor physics computer codes. Considerable effort was devoted to benchmark calculations as a part of the HTR-PROTEUS program. References 1 and 2 provide detailed data for use in constructing models for codes to be assessed. Reference 3 is a comprehensive summary of the HTR-PROTEUS experiments and the associated benchmark program. This document draws freely from these references. Only Cores 9 and 10 are evaluated in this benchmark report due to similarities in their construction. The other core configurations of the HTR-PROTEUS program are evaluated in their respective reports as outlined in Section 1.0. Cores 9 and 10 were evaluated and determined to be acceptable benchmark experiments.

  5. HTR-PROTEUS PEBBLE BED EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM CORES 5, 6, 7, & 8: COLUMNAR HEXAGONAL POINT-ON-POINT PACKING WITH A 1:2 MODERATOR-TO-FUEL PEBBLE RATIO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John D. Bess

    2013-03-01

    PROTEUS is a zero-power research reactor based on a cylindrical graphite annulus with a central cylindrical cavity. The graphite annulus remains basically the same for all experimental programs, but the contents of the central cavity are changed according to the type of reactor being investigated. Through most of its service history, PROTEUS has represented light-water reactors, but from 1992 to 1996 PROTEUS was configured as a pebble-bed reactor (PBR) critical facility and designated as HTR-PROTEUS. The nomenclature was used to indicate that this series consisted of High Temperature Reactor experiments performed in the PROTEUS assembly. During this period, seventeen critical configurations were assembled and various reactor physics experiments were conducted. These experiments included measurements of criticality, differential and integral control rod and safety rod worths, kinetics, reaction rates, water ingress effects, and small sample reactivity effects (Ref. 3). HTR-PROTEUS was constructed, and the experimental program was conducted, for the purpose of providing experimental benchmark data for assessment of reactor physics computer codes. Considerable effort was devoted to benchmark calculations as a part of the HTR-PROTEUS program. References 1 and 2 provide detailed data for use in constructing models for codes to be assessed. Reference 3 is a comprehensive summary of the HTR-PROTEUS experiments and the associated benchmark program. This document draws freely from these references. Only Cores 9 and 10 are evaluated in this benchmark report due to similarities in their construction. The other core configurations of the HTR-PROTEUS program are evaluated in their respective reports as outlined in Section 1.0. Cores 9 and 10 were evaluated and determined to be acceptable benchmark experiments.

  6. DEPENDENCE BETWEEN ACYLATION DEGREE AND SPECIFIC LYSIS ACTITIVY OF THE PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA М6 BACTERIOPHAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martynov A. V.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The purpose of this work is to study the influence of various degrees of protein’s acylation on lytic activity and other biological properties of Pseudomonas M6 bacteriophage. Materials and methods. The subject of the study were samples of the Pseudomonas O 12 bacteriophage, hereinafter named the M6 phage. Pure phage lines were obtained from individual standard-morphology phage plaques (plaque-forming units, or PFUs after ten passes over the indicator strain. In subsequent experiments, M6 phage samples were selected that had a sufficient level of purity (homogeneous in the morphology of virions that inactivated the homologic antiphage serum by no less than 99.0% and the heterologic antibacterial serum by no more than 1%, and a titer no lower than 10 PFU per ml (PFU/ml. Titration of the phages was conducted using the standard bilayer agar. The crude protein content in the phage suspensions was determined using the spectroscopic method (at 280 and 260 nm. Succinylation of the phage samples was conducted according to the method developed by T.J. Molenaar. The phage’s lytic activity spectrum was determined through spot tests on 224 strains of the Pseudomonas genus and 106 strains of other genera (correspondingly, of strains Enterobacter -40, Escherichia -10, Citrobacter -8, Hafnia -7, Serratia -6, Shigella -10, Salmonella -8, Proteus -7 through the use of a phage suspension containing 10 5 - 10 6 PFU/ml. (This concentration of infectious phage corpuscles corresponds with the critical distribution of the M6 phage. The results of the research were subjected to statistical processing using single-factor dispersion analysis. Results and discussion. One hundred percent phage protein acylation leads to a loss of adsorption ability on sensitive cells and is accompanied by a significant (more than 103 times decrease in the level of specific lytic activity in the phage preparations. The succinylation type being studied does not cause

  7. The effect of leaf biopesticide Mirabilis jalapa and fungi Metarhizium anisopliae to immune response and mortality of Spodoptera exigua instar IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryani, A. Irma; Anggraeni, Tjandra

    2014-03-01

    Spodoptera exigua is one of insect causing damage in agriculture sector. This insect can be controlled by a natural biopesticide by combining two agents of biological control, biopesticides Mirabilis jalapa and entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae, considered to be virulent toward a wide range of insects. The objective of research was to determine the effect of biopesticides M. jalapa and fungi M. anisopliae against immune system and mortality of S. exigua. This research used a complete randomized block design with five concentrations Mirabilis jalapa and optimum dose of M. anisopliae. A high dose of M. jalapa (0.8% w/v) is the most effective one to decrease total haemocytes especially granulocyt and plasmatocyt (cellular immune) and decrease the concentration of lectin (humoral immune) from S. exigua (p < 0.05). The combination of M. jalapa (0, 8% w/v) and lethal dose of M. anisopliae 2.59 × 107 spore/ml were significant to increase mortality of S. exigua within 48 hours (p < 0.05).

  8. Biosynthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Using Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Aziz, M.; Badr, Y.; Mahmoud, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa were used for extracellular biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs). Consequently, Au NPs were formed due to reduction of gold ion by bacterial cell supernatant of P. aeruginos ATCC 90271, P. aeruginos (2) and P. aeruginos (1). The UV-Vis. and fluorescence spectra of the bacterial as well as chemical prepared Au NPs were recorded. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) micrograph showed the formation of well-dispersed gold nanoparticles in the range of 15-30 nm. The process of reduction being extracellular and may lead to the development of an easy bioprocess for synthesis of Au NPs

  9. Targeting quorum sensing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Tim Holm; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Jensen, Peter Østrup

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial resistance to conventional antibiotics combined with an increasing acknowledgement of the role of biofilms in chronic infections has led to a growing interest in new antimicrobial strategies that target the biofilm mode of growth. In the aggregated biofilm mode, cell-to-cell communication...... alternative antibacterial strategies. Here, we review state of the art research of quorum sensing inhibitors against the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which is found in a number of biofilm-associated infections and identified as the predominant organism infecting the lungs of cystic...

  10. Extracellular toxins of pseudomonas aeruginosa. Pt. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obernesser, H.J.; Doering, G.

    1982-01-01

    A sensitive and specific solid phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) for detection of the elastase (Ela) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) was developed and the RIA was used to assay 10 PA strains of various origin and serotype. A great strain variability of Ela production was found which different from 94.1 to 0.1 μg per ml of culture supernatant fluid (CSF). The Ela and alkaline protease (AP) concentrations were converted to proteolytic activity and combined. The sum of the calculated enzymatic values of Ela and AP correlated well with the experimentally determined values of total proteolytic activity of the CSF. (orig.) [de

  11. Genetic Detection of Pseudomonas spp. in Commercial Amazonian Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardura, Alba; Linde, Ana R.; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Brazilian freshwater fish caught from large drainages like the River Amazon represent a million ton market in expansion, which is of enormous importance for export to other continents as exotic seafood. A guarantee of bacteriological safety is required for international exports that comprise a set of different bacteria but not any Pseudomonas. However, diarrhoea, infections and even septicaemia caused by some Pseudomonas species have been reported, especially in immune-depressed patients. In this work we have employed PCR-based methodology for identifying Pseudomonas species in commercial fish caught from two different areas within the Amazon basin. Most fish caught from the downstream tributary River Tapajòs were contaminated by five different Pseudomonas species. All fish samples obtained from the River Negro tributary (Manaus markets) contained Pseudomonas, but a less diverse community with only two species. The most dangerous Pseudomonas species for human health, P. aeruginosa, was not found and consumption of these fish (from their Pseudomonas content) can be considered safe for healthy consumers. As a precautionary approach we suggest considering Pseudomonas in routine bacteriological surveys of imported seafood. PMID:24065035

  12. Interactions between biosurfactant-producing Pseudomonas and Phytophthora species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, H.

    2007-01-01

    Fluorescent Pseudomonas bacteria produce a wide variety of antimicrobial metabolites, including soap-like compounds referred to as biosurfactants. The results of this thesis showed that biosurfactant-producing Pseudomonas bacteria are effective in controlling Phytophthora foot rot

  13. Verspreiding, diversiteit en activiteit van antibioticaproducerende Pseudomonas spp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souza, J.T.

    2003-01-01

    Pseudomonas bacteriën zijn potentiële antagonisten van diverse plantenpathogene schimmels en oömyceten. De productie van antibiotica speelt een belangrijke rol in de activiteit van diverse Pseudomonas isolaten tegen plantenpathogenen. Dit artikel is een samenvatting van het proefschrift getiteld

  14. Interleukin-18 impairs the pulmonary host response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schultz, Marc J.; Knapp, Sylvia; Florquin, Sandrine; Pater, Jennie; Takeda, Kiyoshi; Akira, Shizuo; van der Poll, Tom

    2003-01-01

    Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is a potent cytokine with many different proinflammatory activities. To study the role of IL-18 in the pathogenesis of Pseudomonas pneumonia, IL-18-deficient (IL-18(-/-)) and wild-type mice were intranasally inoculated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. IL-18 deficiency was

  15. Novel Targets for Treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alhede, Morten; Alhede, Maria; Bjarnsholt, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes infection in all parts of the human body. The bacterium is naturally resistant to a wide range of antibiotics. In addition to resistance mechanisms such as efflux pumps, the ability to form aggregates, known as biofilm, further reduces Pseudomonas aeruginosa...

  16. Isolation and characterization of a new Pseudomonas-related strain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    % with Pseudomonas putida ()AB680847). The phylogenetic tree formed by 16S rDNA sequences from both strain SKDP-1 and its most related bacteria also proved strain SKDP-1 to be one member of the genus Pseudomonas. Strain SKDP-1 ...

  17. Typing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains in Norwegian cystic fibrosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fluge, G; Ojeniyi, B; Høiby, N

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Typing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from Norwegian cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with chronic Pseudomonas lung infection in order to see whether cross-infection might have occurred. METHODS: Isolates from 60 patients were collected during the years 1994-98, and typed by pulsed...

  18. Biosynthesis and regulation of cyclic lipopeptides in Pseudomonas fluorescens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, de I.

    2009-01-01

    Cyclic lipopeptides (CLPs) are surfactant and antibiotic metabolites produced by a variety of bacterial
    genera. For the genus Pseudomonas, many structurally different CLPs have been identified. CLPs play an
    important role in surface motility of Pseudomonas strains, but also in virulence

  19. Distribution, diversity, and activity of antibiotic-producing Pseudomonas spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souza, de J.T.

    2002-01-01

    Bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas are potential biocontrol agents of plant diseases caused by various fungi and oomycetes. Antibiotic production is an important trait responsible for the activity of several Pseudomonas

  20. Pseudomonas Exotoxin A: optimized by evolution for effective killing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta eMichalska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas Exotoxin A (PE is the most toxic virulence factor of the pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This review describes current knowledge about the intoxication pathways of PE. Moreover, PE represents a remarkable example for pathoadaptive evolution, how bacterial molecules have been structurally and functionally optimized under evolutionary pressure to effectively impair and kill their host cells.

  1. Energetics of binary mixed culture of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioenergetic analysis of the growth of the binary mixed culture (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas fluorescence) on phenol chemostat culture was carried out. The data were checked for consistency using carbon and available electron balances. When more than the minimum number of variables are measured, ...

  2. Soil mixture composition alters Arabidopsis susceptibility to Pseudomonas syringae infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pseudomonas syringae is a Gram-negative bacterial pathogen that causes disease on more than 100 different plant species, including the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Dissection of the Arabidopsis thaliana-Pseudomonas syringae pathosystem has identified many factors that contribute to successful ...

  3. Facial Nerve Paralysis seen in Pseudomonas sepsis with ecthyma gangrenosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleyman Ozdemir

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Ecthyma gangrenosum is a skin lesion which is created by pseudomonas auriginosa. Peripheral facial paralysis and mastoiditis as a rare complication of otitis media induced by pseudomonas auriginosa.In this study, 4 months child who has ecthyma gangrenosum and facial nerve paralysis was reported. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(1.000: 126-130

  4. Quick change: post-transcriptional regulation in Pseudomonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenga, Lucia; Little, Richard H; Malone, Jacob G

    2017-08-01

    Pseudomonas species have evolved dynamic and intricate regulatory networks to fine-tune gene expression, with complex regulation occurring at every stage in the processing of genetic information. This approach enables Pseudomonas to generate precise individual responses to the environment in order to improve their fitness and resource economy. The weak correlations we observe between RNA and protein abundance highlight the significant regulatory contribution of a series of intersecting post-transcriptional pathways, influencing mRNA stability, translational activity and ribosome function, to Pseudomonas environmental responses. This review examines our current understanding of three major post-transcriptional regulatory systems in Pseudomonas spp.; Gac/Rsm, Hfq and RimK, and presents an overview of new research frontiers, emerging genome-wide methodologies, and their potential for the study of global regulatory responses in Pseudomonas. © FEMS 2017.

  5. Vaccines for preventing infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, H.K.; Gøtzsche, Peter C.; Johansen, Helle Krogh

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic pulmonary infection in cystic fibrosis results in progressive lung damage. Once colonisation of the lungs with Pseudomonas aeruginosa occurs, it is almost impossible to eradicate. Vaccines, aimed at reducing infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, have been developed. OBJECTIVES......: To assess the effectiveness of vaccination against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register using the terms vaccines AND pseudomonas (last search May 2008) and PubMed using the terms vaccin* AND cystic...... fibrosis (last search May 2008). SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised trials (published or unpublished) comparing Pseudomonas aeruginosa vaccines (oral, parenteral or intranasal) with control vaccines or no intervention in cystic fibrosis. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: The authors independently selected trials...

  6. Vaccines for preventing infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Helle Krogh; Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic pulmonary infection in cystic fibrosis results in progressive lung damage. Once colonisation of the lungs with Pseudomonas aeruginosa occurs, it is almost impossible to eradicate. Vaccines, aimed at reducing infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, have been developed....... This is an update of a previously published review. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of vaccination against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register using the terms vaccines AND pseudomonas (last search 30...... March 2015). We previously searched PubMed using the terms vaccin* AND cystic fibrosis (last search 30 May 2013). SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised trials (published or unpublished) comparing Pseudomonas aeruginosa vaccines (oral, parenteral or intranasal) with control vaccines or no intervention in cystic...

  7. Interaction of bacteria-feeding soil flagellates and Pseudomonas spp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Annette; Ekelund, Flemming; Johansen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Pseudomonas strains may be used as alternatives to fungicides as some of them produce secondary metabolites, which can inhibit growth of plant pathogenic fungi. Increased knowledge of non-target effects of the antagonistic bacteria on other soil organisms as well as of the survival and predation...... resistance of the antagonistic bacteria is necessary for risk assessment and increased performance of antagonistic bacteria as biological control agents. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the difference between Pseudomonas spp. with respect to their predation resistance to and effects...... on the three different and common soil flagellates Bodo caudatus, Cercomonas longicauda, and Neocercomonas jutlandica. Two antagonistic Pseudomonas: Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0 and P. fluorescens DR54 and two positive control strains: P. fluorescens DSM 50090T and Pseudomonas chlororaphis ATCC 43928 were...

  8. Osmotic and thermal effects on in situ ATPase activity in permeabilized gill epithelial cells of the fish Gillichthys mirabilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    KÜLtz; Somero

    1995-01-01

    Long-jawed mudsuckers (Gillichthys mirabilis) were acclimated to sea water (SW) at 7 °C, SW at 26 °C or dilute sea water (DSW) at 26 °C for 5 months. Gill cells were isolated and the proportion of mitochondria-rich (MR) cells was determined. The number of cells harvested amounted to 4.7x10(7)±0.6x10(7) to 10.6x10(7)±1.1x10(7) and the yield was between 7.1x10(8)±0.6x10(8) and 10.7x10(8)±1.4x10(8) cells g-1 gill epithelial mass. Cell viability was 96.8±0.4 to 97.8±0.6 %. The number, size and volume of MR cells decreased significantly during DSW acclimation, but did not change during thermal acclimation. The protein content was not influenced by osmotic or thermal acclimation and ranged between 20.0±1.6 and 22.1±1.5 pg cell-1. Using a new method, which is based on the formation of plasma membrane channels by alamethicin, we were able to permeabilize gill cells. For the first time, the Na+/K+-ATPase and H+-ATPase activities of fish gills were determined in intact cells in situ. The activity of both ATPases was dependent on alamethicin concentration (optimum 100 µg mg-1 protein) and on preincubation time (optimum 10 min). The in situ activity of both ATPases was influenced by osmotic, but not thermal, acclimation. A positive linear correlation was found between in situ Na+/K+-ATPase activity and total MR cell volume. However, we show, for the first time, that a negative linear correlation exists between H+-ATPase activity and total MR cell volume, suggesting a localization of H+-ATPase in pavement cells. In permeabilized cells, the activity of both ATPases was 2.6­3.9 times higher than that of crude homogenates and 1.6­2.1 times higher than that of permeabilized homogenate vesicles. We hypothesize that in crude homogenates three-quarters of Na+/K+-ATPase and two-thirds of H+-ATPase activity are not detectable both because of a mixture of inside-out and right-side-out vesicles and because of the disruption of membrane and enzyme integrity.

  9. An altered Pseudomonas diversity is recovered from soil by using nutrient-poor Pseudomonas-selective soil extract media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagot, N.; Nybroe, O.; Nielsen, P.

    2001-01-01

    We designed five Pseudomonas-selective soil extract NAA media containing the selective properties of trimethoprim and sodium lauroyl sarcosine and 0 to 100% of the amount of Casamino Acids used in the classical Pseudomonas-selective Gould's S1 medium. All of the isolates were confirmed to be Pseu......We designed five Pseudomonas-selective soil extract NAA media containing the selective properties of trimethoprim and sodium lauroyl sarcosine and 0 to 100% of the amount of Casamino Acids used in the classical Pseudomonas-selective Gould's S1 medium. All of the isolates were confirmed....... Several of these analyses showed that the amount of Casamino Acids significantly influenced the diversity of the recovered Pseudomonas isolates. Furthermore, the data suggested that specific Pseudomonas subpopulations were represented on the nutrient-poor media. The NAA 1:100 medium, containing ca. 15 mg...... of organic carbon per liter, consistently gave significantly higher Pseudomonas CFU counts than Gould's S1 when tested on four Danish soils. NAA 1:100 may, therefore, be a better medium than Gould's S1 for enumeration and isolation of Pseudomonas from the low-nutrient soil environment....

  10. PAMDB: a comprehensive Pseudomonas aeruginosa metabolome database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weiliang; Brewer, Luke K; Jones, Jace W; Nguyen, Angela T; Marcu, Ana; Wishart, David S; Oglesby-Sherrouse, Amanda G; Kane, Maureen A; Wilks, Angela

    2018-01-04

    The Pseudomonas aeruginosaMetabolome Database (PAMDB, http://pseudomonas.umaryland.edu) is a searchable, richly annotated metabolite database specific to P. aeruginosa. P. aeruginosa is a soil organism and significant opportunistic pathogen that adapts to its environment through a versatile energy metabolism network. Furthermore, P. aeruginosa is a model organism for the study of biofilm formation, quorum sensing, and bioremediation processes, each of which are dependent on unique pathways and metabolites. The PAMDB is modelled on the Escherichia coli (ECMDB), yeast (YMDB) and human (HMDB) metabolome databases and contains >4370 metabolites and 938 pathways with links to over 1260 genes and proteins. The database information was compiled from electronic databases, journal articles and mass spectrometry (MS) metabolomic data obtained in our laboratories. For each metabolite entered, we provide detailed compound descriptions, names and synonyms, structural and physiochemical information, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and MS spectra, enzymes and pathway information, as well as gene and protein sequences. The database allows extensive searching via chemical names, structure and molecular weight, together with gene, protein and pathway relationships. The PAMBD and its future iterations will provide a valuable resource to biologists, natural product chemists and clinicians in identifying active compounds, potential biomarkers and clinical diagnostics. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  11. Biotransformation of myrcene by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashemi Elham

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dihydrolinalool and terpineol are sources of fragrances that provide a unique volatile terpenoid alcohol of low toxicity and thus are widely used in the perfumery industry, in folk medicine, and in aromatherapy. They are important chemical constituents of the essential oil of many plants. Previous studies have concerned the biotransformation of limonene by Pseudomonas putida. The objective of this research was to study biotransformation of myrcene by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The culture preparation was done using such variables as different microbial methods and incubation periods to obtain maximum cells of P. aeruginosa for myrcene biotransformation. Results It was found that myrcene was converted to dihydrolinalool and 2,6-dimethyloctane in high percentages. The biotransformation products were identified by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, ultraviolet (UV analysis, gas chromatography (GC, and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS. Comparison of the different incubation times showed that 3 days was more effective, the major products being 2,6-dimethyloctane (90.0% and α-terpineol (7.7% and comprising 97.7%. In contrast, the main compounds derived for an incubation time of 1.5 days were dihydrolinalool (79.5% and 2,6-dimethyloctane (9.3%, with a total yield of 88.8%.

  12. Analysis of PROTEUS phase II experiments performed using the AARE modular system and JEF-based libraries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelloni, S.; Stepanek, J.; Vontobel, P.

    1989-01-01

    The capability of the advanced analysis of reactor engineering (AARE) modular code system and JEF-1-based nuclear data libraries to analyze light water high converter reactor (LWHCR) lattices is investigated by calculating the wet and dry cells of the PROTEUS-LWHCR phase II experiment. The results are compared to those obtained using several cell codes. Main features of the AARE code system, such as the self-shielding of resonance cross sections in the whole energy range, the generation of adequate fission source spectra, and the efficiency of the elastic removal correction,are investigated. In particular, it is shown that AARE results for the k ∞ void coefficient agree very well with the experiment, whereas other codes give larger deviations

  13. Validation of Monte Carlo predictions of LWR-PROTEUS safety parameters using an improved whole-reactor model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plaschy, M. [Laboratory for Reactor Physics and Systems Behaviour, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen, PSI (Switzerland)], E-mail: michael.plaschy@eos.ch; Murphy, M.; Jatuff, F.; Perret, G.; Seiler, R. [Laboratory for Reactor Physics and Systems Behaviour, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen, PSI (Switzerland); Chawla, R. [Laboratory for Reactor Physics and Systems Behaviour, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen, PSI (Switzerland); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne, EPFL (Switzerland)

    2009-10-15

    The recent experimental programme conducted in the PROTEUS research reactor at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) has concerned detailed investigations of advanced light water reactor (LWR) fuels. More than fifteen different configurations of the multi-zone critical facility have been studied, each of them requiring accurate estimation of operational safety parameters, in particular the critical driver loadings, shutdown rod worths and the effective delayed neutron fraction {beta}{sub eff}. The current paper presents a full-scale 3D Monte Carlo model for the facility, set up using the MCNPX code, which has been employed for calculation of the operational characteristics for seven different LWR-PROTEUS configurations. Thereby, a variety of nuclear data libraries (viz. ENDF/B6v2, ENDF/B6v8, JEF2.2, JEFF3.0, JEFF3.1, JENDL3.2, and JENDL3.3) have been used, and predictions of k{sub eff} and shutdown rod worths compared with experimental values. Even though certain library-specific trends have been observed, the k{sub eff} predictions are generally very satisfactory, viz. with discrepancies of <0.5% between calculation (C) and experiment (E). The results also confirm the consistent determination of reactivity variations, the C/E values for the shutdown (safety) rod worths being always within 5% of unity. In addition, the MCNP modelling of the multi-zone reactor has yielded interesting results for the delayed neutron fraction ({beta}{sub eff}) in the different configurations, a breakdown being made possible in each case in terms of delayed neutron group, fissioning nuclide, and reactor region.

  14. Design of a proteus lattice representative of a burnt and fresh fuel interface at power conditions in light water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hursin, M.; Perret, G. [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), 5232 Villigen (Switzerland)

    2012-07-01

    The research program LIFE (Large-scale Irradiated Fuel Experiment) between PSI and Swissnuclear has been started in 2006 to study the interaction between large sets of burnt and fresh fuel pins in conditions representative of power light water reactors. Reactor physics parameters such as flux ratios and reaction rate distributions ({sup 235}U and {sup 238}U fissions and {sup 238}U capture) are calculated to estimate an appropriate arrangement of burnt and fresh fuel pins within the central element of the test zone of the zero-power research reactor PROTEUS. The arrangement should minimize the number of burnt fuel pins to ease fuel handling and reduce costs, whilst guaranteeing that the neutron spectrum in both burnt and fresh fuel regions and at their interface is representative of a large uniform array of burnt and fresh pins in the same moderation conditions. First results are encouraging, showing that the burnt/fresh fuel interface is well represented with a 6 x 6 bundle of burnt pins. The second part of the project involves the use of TSUNAMI, CASMO-4E and DAKOTA to perform parametric and optimization studies on the PROTEUS lattice by varying its pitch (P) and fraction of D{sub 2}O in moderator (F{sub D2O}) to be as representative as possible of a power light water reactor core at hot full power conditions at beginning of cycle (BOC). The parameters P and F{sub D2O} that best represent a PWR at BOC are 1.36 cm and 5% respectively. (authors)

  15. Uranium and thorium uptake by live and dead cells of Pseudomonas Sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siva Prasath, C.S.; Manikandan, N.; Prakash, S.

    2010-01-01

    This study presents uptake of uranium (U) and thorium (Th) by live and dead cells of Pseudomonas Sp. Increasing concentration of U and Tb showed decrease in absorption by Pseudomonas Sp. Dead cells of Pseudomonas Sp. exhibited same or more uptake of U and Th than living cells. Increasing temperature promotes uptake of U and Th by Pseudomonas Sp. (author)

  16. A comparative study of nemertean complete mitochondrial genomes, including two new ones for Nectonemertes cf. mirabilis and Zygeupolia rubens, may elucidate the fundamental pattern for the phylum Nemertea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Hai-Xia

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mitochondrial genome is important for studying genome evolution as well as reconstructing the phylogeny of organisms. Complete mitochondrial genome sequences have been reported for more than 2200 metazoans, mainly vertebrates and arthropods. To date, from a total of about 1275 described nemertean species, only three complete and two partial mitochondrial DNA sequences from nemerteans have been published. Here, we report the entire mitochondrial genomes for two more nemertean species: Nectonemertes cf. mirabilis and Zygeupolia rubens. Results The sizes of the entire mitochondrial genomes are 15365 bp for N. cf. mirabilis and 15513 bp for Z. rubens. Each circular genome contains 37 genes and an AT-rich non-coding region, and overall nucleotide composition is AT-rich. In both species, there is significant strand asymmetry in the distribution of nucleotides, with the coding strand being richer in T than A and in G than C. The AT-rich non-coding regions of the two genomes have some repeat sequences and stem-loop structures, both of which may be associated with the initiation of replication or transcription. The 22 tRNAs show variable substitution patterns in nemerteans, with higher sequence conservation in genes located on the H strand. Gene arrangement of N. cf. mirabilis is identical to that of Paranemertes cf. peregrina, both of which are Hoplonemertea, while that of Z. rubens is the same as in Lineus viridis, both of which are Heteronemertea. Comparison of the gene arrangements and phylogenomic analysis based on concatenated nucleotide sequences of the 12 mitochondrial protein-coding genes revealed that species with closer relationships share more identical gene blocks. Conclusion The two new mitochondrial genomes share many features, including gene contents, with other known nemertean mitochondrial genomes. The tRNA families display a composite substitution pathway. Gene order comparison to the proposed ground pattern of

  17. Heterogeneity of heat-resistant proteases from milk Pseudomonas species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Sophie; Vandriesche, Gonzalez; Coorevits, An; Coudijzer, Katleen; De Jonghe, Valerie; Dewettinck, Koen; De Vos, Paul; Devreese, Bart; Heyndrickx, Marc; De Block, Jan

    2009-07-31

    Pseudomonas fragi, Pseudomonas lundensis and members of the Pseudomonas fluorescens group may spoil Ultra High Temperature (UHT) treated milk and dairy products, due to the production of heat-stable proteases in the cold chain of raw milk. Since the aprX gene codes for a heat-resistant protease in P. fluorescens, the presence of this gene has also been investigated in other members of the genus. For this purpose an aprX-screening PCR test has been developed. Twenty-nine representatives of important milk Pseudomonas species and thirty-five reference strains were screened. In 42 out of 55 investigated Pseudomonas strains, the aprX gene was detected, which proves the potential of the aprX-PCR test as a screening tool for potentially proteolytic Pseudomonas strains in milk samples. An extensive study of the obtained aprX-sequences on the DNA and the amino acid level, however, revealed a large heterogeneity within the investigated milk isolates. Although this heterogeneity sets limitations to a general detection method for all proteolytic Pseudomonas strains in milk, it offers a great potential for the development of a multiplex PCR screening test targeting individual aprX-genes. Furthermore, our data illustrated the potential use of the aprX gene as a taxonomic marker, which may help in resolving the current taxonomic deadlock in the P. fluorescens group.

  18. Management and treatment of contact lens-related Pseudomonas keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willcox MD

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Mark DP WillcoxSchool of Optometry and Vision Science, University of New South Wales, Sydney, AustraliaAbstract: Pubmed and Medline were searched for articles referring to Pseudomonas keratitis between the years 2007 and 2012 to obtain an overview of the current state of this disease. Keyword searches used the terms "Pseudomonas" + "Keratitis" limit to "2007–2012", and ["Ulcerative" or "Microbial"] + "Keratitis" + "Contact lenses" limit to "2007–2012". These articles were then reviewed for information on the percentage of microbial keratitis cases associated with contact lens wear, the frequency of Pseudomonas sp. as a causative agent of microbial keratitis around the world, the most common therapies to treat Pseudomonas keratitis, and the sensitivity of isolates of Pseudomonas to commonly prescribed antibiotics. The percentage of microbial keratitis associated with contact lens wear ranged from 0% in a study from Nepal to 54.5% from Japan. These differences may be due in part to different frequencies of contact lens wear. The frequency of Pseudomonas sp. as a causative agent of keratitis ranged from 1% in Japan to over 50% in studies from India, Malaysia, and Thailand. The most commonly reported agents used to treat Pseudomonas keratitis were either aminoglycoside (usually gentamicin fortified with a cephalosporin, or monotherapy with a fluoroquinolone (usually ciprofloxacin. In most geographical areas, most strains of Pseudomonas sp. (≥95% were sensitive to ciprofloxacin, but reports from India, Nigeria, and Thailand reported sensitivity to this antibiotic and similar fluoroquinolones of between 76% and 90%.Keywords: Pseudomonas, keratitis, contact lens

  19. Experimental Pseudomonas aeruginosa mediated rhino sinusitis in mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, S.; Hammer, A. S.; Høiby, N.

    2017-01-01

    The nasal and sinus cavities in children may serve as reservoirs for microorganisms that cause recurrent and chronic lung infections. This study evaluates whether the mink can be used as an animal model for studying Pseudomonas aeruginosa mediated rhino-sinusitis since there is no suitable...... in the infected mink shows features of carbohydrate expression comparable to what has been described in the respiratory system after Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in humans. It is suggested that the mink is suitable for studying Pseudomonas aeruginosa mediated rhino-sinusitis....

  20. Cemaran Staphylococcus aureus dan Pseudomonas aerogenosa Pada Stetoskop dirumah Sakit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    leka lutpiatina

    2017-10-01

    The result of the research was found contamination of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aerogenosa on steteskop. The site home condition of the research data was 66.7% cleaned daily, the storage method was placed on the table 70% and the duration of using the set home more than 1 year as much as 70%. The conclusion of stethoscope at Banjarbaru Hospital was contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus by 70% and Pseudomonas aerogenosa by 17%. The suggestion of research can be continued by knowing the existence of Staphylococcus aureus resistant antibiotic and Pseudomonas aerogenous antibiotic resistant at steteskop at Hospital.

  1. Cell death in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Webb, J.S.; Thompson, L.S.; James, S.

    2003-01-01

    Bacteria growing in biofilms often develop multicellular, three-dimensional structures known as microcolonies. Complex differentiation within biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa occurs, leading to the creation of voids inside microcolonies and to the dispersal of cells from within these voids....... However, key developmental processes regulating these events are poorly understood. A normal component of multicellular development is cell death. Here we report that a repeatable pattern of cell death and lysis occurs in biofilms of P. aeruginosa during the normal course of development. Cell death...... occurred with temporal and spatial organization within biofilms, inside microcolonies, when the biofilms were allowed to develop in continuous-culture flow cells. A subpopulation of viable cells was always observed in these regions. During the onset of biofilm killing and during biofilm development...

  2. Pseudomonas putida as a microbial cell factory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigneswaran, Vinoth

    for sustainable production of chemicals, which can be achieved by microbial cell factories. The work presented in this PhD thesis elucidates the application of Pseudomonas putida as a microbial cell factory for production of the biosurfactant rhamnolipid. The rhamnolipid production was achieved by heterologous...... phase. The genomic alterations were identified by genome sequencing and revealed parallel evolution. Glycerol was also shown to be able to support biofilm growth and as a result of this it can be used as an alternative substrate for producing biochemicals in conventional and biofilm reactors. The use...... of biofilm as a production platform and the usage of glycerol as a feedstock show the potential of using microbial cell factories in the transition toward sustainable production of chemicals. Particularly, the applicability of biofilm as a production platform can emerge as a promising alternative...

  3. Vesiculation from Pseudomonas aeruginosa under SOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maredia, Reshma; Devineni, Navya; Lentz, Peter; Dallo, Shatha F; Yu, Jiehjuen; Guentzel, Neal; Chambers, James; Arulanandam, Bernard; Haskins, William E; Weitao, Tao

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial infections can be aggravated by antibiotic treatment that induces SOS response and vesiculation. This leads to a hypothesis concerning association of SOS with vesiculation. To test it, we conducted multiple analyses of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) produced from the Pseudomonas aeruginosa wild type in which SOS is induced by ciprofloxacin and from the LexA noncleavable (lexAN) strain in which SOS is repressed. The levels of OMV proteins, lipids, and cytotoxicity increased for both the treated strains, demonstrating vesiculation stimulation by the antibiotic treatment. However, the further increase was suppressed in the lexAN strains, suggesting the SOS involvement. Obviously, the stimulated vesiculation is attributed by both SOS-related and unrelated factors. OMV subproteomic analysis was performed to examine these factors, which reflected the OMV-mediated cytotoxicity and the physiology of the vesiculating cells under treatment and SOS. Thus, SOS plays a role in the vesiculation stimulation that contributes to cytotoxicity.

  4. Small Rna Regulatory Networks In Pseudomonas Putida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojanovic, Klara; Long, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    chemicals and has a potential to be used as an efficient cell factory for various products. P. putida KT2240 is a genome-sequenced strain and a well characterized pseudomonad. Our major aim is to identify small RNA molecules (sRNAs) and their regulatory networks. A previous study has identified 37 sRNAs...... in this strain, while in other pseudomonads many more sRNAs have been found so far.P. putida KT2440 has been grown in different conditions which are likely to be encountered in industrial fermentations with the aim of using sRNAs for generation of improved cell factories. For that, cells have been grown in LB......Pseudomonas putida is a ubiquitous Gram-negative soil bacterium with a versatile metabolism and ability to degrade various toxic compounds. It has a high tolerance to different future biobased building blocks and various other stringent conditions. It is used in industry to produce some important...

  5. Pseudomonas aeruginosa ventilator-associated pneumonia management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Estrada, Sergio; Borgatta, Bárbara; Rello, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia is the most common infection in intensive care unit patients associated with high morbidity rates and elevated economic costs; Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most frequent bacteria linked with this entity, with a high attributable mortality despite adequate treatment that is increased in the presence of multiresistant strains, a situation that is becoming more common in intensive care units. In this manuscript, we review the current management of ventilator-associated pneumonia due to P. aeruginosa, the most recent antipseudomonal agents, and new adjunctive therapies that are shifting the way we treat these infections. We support early initiation of broad-spectrum antipseudomonal antibiotics in present, followed by culture-guided monotherapy de-escalation when susceptibilities are available. Future management should be directed at blocking virulence; the role of alternative strategies such as new antibiotics, nebulized treatments, and vaccines is promising. PMID:26855594

  6. Stratified growth in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, E.; Roe, F.; Bugnicourt, A.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, stratified patterns of protein synthesis and growth were demonstrated in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. Spatial patterns of protein synthetic activity inside biofilms were characterized by the use of two green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene constructs. One construct...... synthesis was restricted to a narrow band in the part of the biofilm adjacent to the source of oxygen. The zone of active GFP expression was approximately 60 Am wide in colony biofilms and 30 Am wide in flow cell biofilms. The region of the biofilm in which cells were capable of elongation was mapped...... by treating colony biofilms with carbenicillin, which blocks cell division, and then measuring individual cell lengths by transmission electron microscopy. Cell elongation was localized at the air interface of the biofilm. The heterogeneous anabolic patterns measured inside these biofilms were likely a result...

  7. Complement activation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E T; Kharazmi, A; Garred, P

    1993-01-01

    In chronic infections, such as the bronchopulmonary Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, bacteria persist despite an intact host immune defense and frequent antibiotic treatment. An important reason for the persistence of the bacteria is their capacity for the biofilm...... mode of growth. In this study we investigated the role of biofilms in activation of complement, a major contributor to the inflammatory process. Complement activation by P. aeruginosa was examined in a complement consumption assay, production of C3 and factor B conversion products assessed by crossed...... immuno-electrophoresis, C5a generation tested by a PMN chemotactic assay, and terminal complement complex formation measured by ELISA. Two of the four assays showed that P. aeruginosa grown in biofilm activated complement less than planktonic bacteria, and all assays showed that activation by intact...

  8. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms in cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høiby, Niels; Ciofu, Oana; Bjarnsholt, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The persistence of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients is due to biofilm-growing mucoid (alginate-producing) strains. A biofilm is a structured consortium of bacteria, embedded in a self-produced polymer matrix consisting of polysaccharide, protein...... and DNA. In CF lungs, the polysaccharide alginate is the major part of the P. aeruginosa biofilm matrix. Bacterial biofilms cause chronic infections because they show increased tolerance to antibiotics and resist phagocytosis, as well as other components of the innate and the adaptive immune system....... As a consequence, a pronounced antibody response develops, leading to immune complex-mediated chronic inflammation, dominated by polymorphonuclear leukocytes. The chronic inflammation is the major cause of the lung tissue damage in CF. Biofilm growth in CF lungs is associated with an increased frequency...

  9. Pseudomonas aeruginosa endophthalmitis masquerading as chronic uveitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpana Badami Nagaraj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 65-year-old male presented with decreased vision in the left eye of 15-day duration after having undergone an uneventful cataract surgery 10 months back. He had been previously treated with systemic steroids for recurrent uveitis postoperatively on three occasions in the same eye. B-scan ultrasonography showed multiple clumplike echoes suggestive of vitreous inflammation. Aqueous tap revealed Pseudomonas aeruginosa sensitive to ciprofloxacin. The patient was treated with intravitreal ciprofloxacin and vancomycin along with systemic ciprofloxacin with good clinical response. Even a virulent organism such as P.aeruginosa can present as a chronic uveitis, which, if missed, can lead to a delay in accurate diagnosis and appropriate management.

  10. Antimicrobial activity of silver and gold in toothpastes: A comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junevičius, Jonas; Žilinskas, Juozas; Česaitis, Kęstutis; Česaitienė, Gabrielė; Gleiznys, Darius; Maželienė, Žaneta

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we compared the antimicrobial activity of identical toothpastes differing only in silver or gold nanoparticles against the activity of one of the common toothpastes containing a chemical active ingredient. We also compared the active concentrations of the toothpastes. For this study, we selected "Royal Denta" toothpastes containing silver and gold particles, and the "Blend-A-Med Complete" toothpaste containing zinc citrate as the active ingredient. We used 8 standard microorganism cultures on the basis of their individual mechanisms of protection. The antimicrobial activity of each studied preparation was evaluated at 9 concentrations. Most effective against gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis) was the "Silver Technology" – MIC was 0.004-0.0015 g/mL. Neither "Silver Technology" nor "Orange and Gold Technology" had any effect on Escherichia coli or Proteus mirabilis. Antimicrobial activity against the motile bacterium Proteus mirabilis was observed in "Silver Technology", "Orange and Gold Technology", and "Blend-A-Med Complete" – the MIC was 0.015 g/mL or lower. No antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans fungus at the studied concentrations was observed in the "Orange and Gold Technology". The toothpaste "Blend-A-Med" demonstrated the most effective antimicrobial activity - the MIC of 0.0015 g/mL and 0.015 g/mL inhibited Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis, respectively, and the MIC of 0.15 g/mL inhibited the growth of the bacteria Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and fungus Candida albicans. Silver in toothpaste has a greater antimicrobial effect than gold, but its effect is still inferior to that of a chemical antimicrobial agent.

  11. 33 original article infections a pseudomonas aeruginosa dans un

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    COPYRIGHT 2014. AFR. J. CLN. EXPER. .... Effective management of P. aeruginosa infections requires good ... a guide for doctors managing patients with. Pseudomonas .... Principles and practice of infectious diseases.5th edition. Edited by ...

  12. Detection of Pseudomonas fluorescens from broth, water and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sonal

    2015-04-08

    Apr 8, 2015 ... Author(s) agree that this article remains permanently open access under the terms of ... grown in nutrient broth overnight, pond water, mucus and kidney ... a rapid test for detection of Pseudomonas strains in milk is required.

  13. New strategies for genetic engineering Pseudomonas syringae using recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here we report that DNA oligonucleotides (oligos) introduced directly into bacteria by electroporation can recombine with the bacterial chromosome. This phenomenon was identified in Pseudomonas syringae and we subsequently found that Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium and Shigella flexneri are...

  14. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Dose-Response and Bathing Water Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most commonly identified opportunistic pathogen associated with pool acquired bather disease. To better understand why this microorganism poses this protracted problem we recently appraised P. aeruginosa pool risk management. Much is known about the ...

  15. Functional bacterial amyloid increases Pseudomonas biofilm hydrophobicity and stiffness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Guanghong; Vad, Brian S; Dueholm, Morten S

    2015-01-01

    The success of Pseudomonas species as opportunistic pathogens derives in great part from their ability to form stable biofilms that offer protection against chemical and mechanical attack. The extracellular matrix of biofilms contains numerous biomolecules, and it has recently been discovered...... that in Pseudomonas one of the components includes β-sheet rich amyloid fibrils (functional amyloid) produced by the fap operon. However, the role of the functional amyloid within the biofilm has not yet been investigated in detail. Here we investigate how the fap-based amyloid produced by Pseudomonas affects biofilm...... hydrophobicity and mechanical properties. Using atomic force microscopy imaging and force spectroscopy, we show that the amyloid renders individual cells more resistant to drying and alters their interactions with hydrophobic probes. Importantly, amyloid makes Pseudomonas more hydrophobic and increases biofilm...

  16. Resistance patterns of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    negative bacilli in patients with impaired host defences emphasizes the need for information on the antibiotic susceptibility of the organisms that infects such patients. Pseudomonas aeruginosa are becoming increasingly resistant to ...

  17. Caenorhabditis elegans reveals novel Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Utari, Putri Dwi; Quax, Wim J.

    The susceptibility of Caenorhabditis elegans to different virulent phenotypes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa makes the worms an excellent model for studying host-pathogen interactions. Including the recently described liquid killing, five different killing assays are now available offering superb

  18. Accelerated storage testing of freeze-dried Pseudomonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accelerated storage testing of freeze-dried Pseudomonas fluorescens BTP1, ... of all P. fluorescens strains were not significantly different and thermal inactivation ... useful to the development of improved reference materials and samples held ...

  19. The Enzymes of the Ammonia Assimilation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Dick B.; Camp, Huub J.M. op den; Leenen, Pieter J.M.; Drift, Chris van der

    1980-01-01

    Glutamine synthetase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa is regulated by repression/derepression of enzyme synthesis and by adenylylation/deadenylylation control. High levels of deadenylylated biosynthetically active glutamine synthetase were observed in cultures growing with limiting amounts of nitrogen

  20. Sobre o lectótipo de Papilio bixae Linnaeus e a designação do lectótipo de Papilio proteus Linnaeus (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf H. H. Mielke

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available The lectotype of Papilo bixae Linnaeus, designated by Hemming (1964 based on the figure of Merian (1705, was found in the Wiesbaden Museum, and here with considered as such. It corresponds to Pyrrhopyge phidias bixae; Evans (1951. Two syntypes of Papilo proteus Linnaeus, 1758, were also found in the same Museum and one of them was selected as lectotype. These lectotypes are figured for the first time.

  1. Interactions between biosurfactant-producing Pseudomonas and Phytophthora species

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, H.

    2007-01-01

    Fluorescent Pseudomonas bacteria produce a wide variety of antimicrobial metabolites, including soap-like compounds referred to as biosurfactants. The results of this thesis showed that biosurfactant-producing Pseudomonas bacteria are effective in controlling Phytophthora foot rot disease of black pepper in Vietnam and promote root and shoot development of the ‘King of Spices’. Biosurfactant-producing P. fluorescens strain SS101 was also effective in controlling tomato late blight caused by P...

  2. Results of the Simulation of the HTR-Proteus Core 4.2 Using PEBBED-COMBINE: FY10 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hans Gougar

    2010-07-01

    ABSTRACT The Idaho National Laboratory’s deterministic neutronics analysis codes and methods were applied to the computation of the core multiplication factor of the HTR-Proteus pebble bed reactor critical facility. This report is a follow-on to INL/EXT-09-16620 in which the same calculation was performed but using earlier versions of the codes and less developed methods. In that report, results indicated that the cross sections generated using COMBINE-7.0 did not yield satisfactory estimates of keff. It was concluded in the report that the modeling of control rods was not satisfactory. In the past year, improvements to the homogenization capability in COMBINE have enabled the explicit modeling of TRIS particles, pebbles, and heterogeneous core zones including control rod regions using a new multi-scale version of COMBINE in which the 1-dimensional discrete ordinate transport code ANISN has been integrated. The new COMBINE is shown to yield benchmark quality results for pebble unit cell models, the first step in preparing few-group diffusion parameters for core simulations. In this report, the full critical core is modeled once again but with cross sections generated using the capabilities and physics of the improved COMBINE code. The new PEBBED-COMBINE model enables the exact modeling of the pebbles and control rod region along with better approximation to structures in the reflector. Initial results for the core multiplication factor indicate significant improvement in the INL’s tools for modeling the neutronic properties of a pebble bed reactor. Errors on the order of 1.6-2.5% in keff are obtained; a significant improvement over the 5-6% error observed in the earlier This is acceptable for a code system and model in the early stages of development but still too high for a production code. Analysis of a simpler core model indicates an over-prediction of the flux in the low end of the thermal spectrum. Causes of this discrepancy are under investigation. New

  3. Pseudomonas wadenswilerensis sp. nov. and Pseudomonas reidholzensis sp. nov., two novel species within the Pseudomonas putida group isolated from forest soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasson, David; Opoku, Michael; Picozzi, Tara; Torossi, Tanja; Balada, Stefanie; Smits, Theo H M; Hilber, Urs

    2017-08-01

    Within the frame of a biotechnological screening, we isolated two Pseudomonas strains from forest soil. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain CCOS 864T shared 99.8 % similarity with Pseudomonas donghuensis HYST, while strain CCOS 865T shared 99.0 % similarity with Pseudomonas putida DSM 291T and lower similarity with other P. putida group type strains. Based on multilocus sequence analysis, the two strains were genotypically distinct from each other, each forming a separate clade. Strains CCOS 864T and CCOS 865T were Gram-stain-negative, motile and rod-shaped, growing at a temperature range of 4-37 °C. Strain CCOS 864T could be phenotypically distinguished from P. putida group species by the combination of gelatinase-positive reaction and positive growth on N-acetyl-d-glucosamine, p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid and inosine but lack of fluorescein production on King's B medium, while strain CCOS 865T could be distinguished from P. putida group species by the combination of positive growth with saccharic acid and negative growth with p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid and l-pyroglutamic acid. The major polar lipid for both strains was phosphatidylethanolamine; the major quinone was ubiquinone Q-9. DNA-DNA hybridization and average nucleotide identities confirmed the novel species status for the two strains. The DNA G+C contents of CCOS 864T and CCOS 865T were 62.1 and 63.8 mol%, respectively. The phenotypic, phylogenetic and DNA-DNA relatedness data support the suggestion that CCOS 864T and CCOS 865T represent two novel Pseudomonas species. The names Pseudomonas wadenswilerensis sp. nov. (type strain CCOS 864T=LMG 29327T) and Pseudomonas reidholzensis sp. nov. (type strain CCOS 865T=LMG 29328T) are proposed.

  4. Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas fluorescens Species Group Recovery from Human Homes Varies Seasonally and by Environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna K Remold

    Full Text Available By shedding light on variation in time as well as in space, long-term biogeographic studies can help us define organisms' distribution patterns and understand their underlying drivers. Here we examine distributions of Pseudomonas in and around 15 human homes, focusing on the P. putida and P. fluorescens species groups. We describe recovery from 10,941 samples collected during up to 8 visits per home, occurring on average 2.6 times per year. We collected a mean of 141 samples per visit, from sites in most rooms of the house, from the surrounding yards, and from human and pet occupants. We recovered Pseudomonas in 9.7% of samples, with the majority of isolates being from the P. putida and P. fluorescens species groups (approximately 62% and 23% of Pseudomonas samples recovered respectively. Although representatives of both groups were recovered from every season, every house, and every type of environment sampled, recovery was highly variable across houses and samplings. Whereas recovery of P. putida group was higher in summer and fall than in winter and spring, P. fluorescens group isolates were most often recovered in spring. P. putida group recovery from soils was substantially higher than its recovery from all other environment types, while higher P. fluorescens group recovery from soils than from other sites was much less pronounced. Both species groups were recovered from skin and upper respiratory tract samples from healthy humans and pets, although this occurred infrequently. This study indicates that even species that are able to survive under a broad range of conditions can be rare and variable in their distributions in space and in time. For such groups, determining patterns and causes of stochastic and seasonal variability may be more important for understanding the processes driving their biogeography than the identity of the types of environments in which they can be found.

  5. Spoilage potential of Pseudomonas species isolated from goat milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scatamburlo, T M; Yamazi, A K; Cavicchioli, V Q; Pieri, F A; Nero, L A

    2015-02-01

    Pseudomonas spp. are usually associated with spoilage microflora of dairy products due to their proteolytic potential. This is of particular concern for protein-based products, such as goat milk cheeses and fermented milks. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to characterize the proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas spp. isolated from goat milk. Goat milk samples (n=61) were obtained directly from bulk tanks on dairy goat farms (n=12), and subjected to a modified International Organization for Standardization (ISO) protocol to determine the number and proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas spp. Isolates (n=82) were obtained, identified by PCR, and subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis with XbaI macro-restriction. Then, the isolates were subjected to PCR to detect the alkaline protease gene (apr), and phenotypic tests were performed to check proteolytic activity at 7°C, 25°C, and 35°C. Mean Pseudomonas spp. counts ranged from 2.9 to 4.8 log cfu/mL, and proteolytic Pseudomonas spp. counts ranged from 1.9 to 4.6 log cfu/mL. All isolates were confirmed to be Pseudomonas spp., and 41 were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens, which clustered into 5 groups sharing approximately 82% similarity. Thirty-six isolates (46.9%) were positive for the apr gene; and 57 (69.5%) isolates presented proteolytic activity at 7°C, 82 (100%) at 25°C, and 64 (78%) at 35°C. The isolates were distributed ubiquitously in the goat farms, and no relationship among isolates was observed when the goat farms, presence of apr, pulsotypes, and proteolytic activity were taken into account. We demonstrated proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas spp. present in goat milk by phenotypic and genotypic tests and indicated their spoilage potential at distinct temperatures. Based on these findings and the ubiquity of Pseudomonas spp. in goat farm environments, proper monitoring and control of Pseudomonas spp. during production are critical. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association

  6. Bioadsorption characteristics of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAOI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kőnig-Péter Anikó

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosorption of Cd(II and Pb(II ions from aqueous solution using lyophilized Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAOI cells were observed under various experimental conditions. The effect of pH, initial metal concentration, equilibration time and temperature on bioadsorption was investigated. The optimum pH value for Pb(II adsorption was found to be 5.0, and for Cd(II 5.0 − 6.0. The Pb(II and Cd(II bioadsorption equilibrium were analyzed by using Freundlich and Langmuir model using nonlinear least-squares estimation. The experimental maximum uptake capacity of Pb(II and Cd(II was estimated to be 164 mg g-1 and 113 mg g-1, respectively. For biosorption kinetic study the pseudo second-order kinetic model was applied at various temperatures. The temperature had no significant effect on Pb(II bioadsorption. In case of Cd(II bioadsorption the adsorbed amount decreased with increasing temperature.

  7. Pseudomonas aeruginosa ventilator-associated pneumonia management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramírez-Estrada S

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sergio Ramírez-Estrada,1 Bárbara Borgatta,1,2 Jordi Rello3,4 1Critical Care Department, Vall d'Hebron University Hospital, 2CRIPS, Vall d'Hebron Institute of Research (VHIR, 3Department of Medicine, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB, Barcelona, 4Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Enfermedad Respiratoria – CIBERES, Madrid, Spain Abstract: Ventilator-associated pneumonia is the most common infection in intensive care unit patients associated with high morbidity rates and elevated economic costs; Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most frequent bacteria linked with this entity, with a high attributable mortality despite adequate treatment that is increased in the presence of multiresistant strains, a situation that is becoming more common in intensive care units. In this manuscript, we review the current management of ventilator-associated pneumonia due to P. aeruginosa, the most recent antipseudomonal agents, and new adjunctive therapies that are shifting the way we treat these infections. We support early initiation of broad-spectrum antipseudomonal antibiotics in present, followed by culture-guided monotherapy de-escalation when susceptibilities are available. Future management should be directed at blocking virulence; the role of alternative strategies such as new antibiotics, nebulized treatments, and vaccines is promising. Keywords: multidrug-resistant, ICU, new-antibiotics, adjunctive-therapies, care-bundles

  8. Spaceflight promotes biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wooseong Kim

    Full Text Available Understanding the effects of spaceflight on microbial communities is crucial for the success of long-term, manned space missions. Surface-associated bacterial communities, known as biofilms, were abundant on the Mir space station and continue to be a challenge on the International Space Station. The health and safety hazards linked to the development of biofilms are of particular concern due to the suppression of immune function observed during spaceflight. While planktonic cultures of microbes have indicated that spaceflight can lead to increases in growth and virulence, the effects of spaceflight on biofilm development and physiology remain unclear. To address this issue, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was cultured during two Space Shuttle Atlantis missions: STS-132 and STS-135, and the biofilms formed during spaceflight were characterized. Spaceflight was observed to increase the number of viable cells, biofilm biomass, and thickness relative to normal gravity controls. Moreover, the biofilms formed during spaceflight exhibited a column-and-canopy structure that has not been observed on Earth. The increase in the amount of biofilms and the formation of the novel architecture during spaceflight were observed to be independent of carbon source and phosphate concentrations in the media. However, flagella-driven motility was shown to be essential for the formation of this biofilm architecture during spaceflight. These findings represent the first evidence that spaceflight affects community-level behaviors of bacteria and highlight the importance of understanding how both harmful and beneficial human-microbe interactions may be altered during spaceflight.

  9. Benzoate transport in Pseudomonas putida CSV86.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Alpa; Purohit, Hemant; Phale, Prashant S

    2017-07-03

    Pseudomonas putida strain CSV86 metabolizes variety of aromatic compounds as the sole carbon source. Genome analysis revealed the presence of genes encoding putative transporters for benzoate, p-hydroxybenzoate, phenylacetate, p-hydroxyphenylacetate and vanillate. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that benzoate transport and metabolism genes are clustered at the ben locus as benK-catA-benE-benF. Protein topology prediction suggests that BenK (aromatic acid-H+ symporter of major facilitator superfamily) has 12 transmembrane α-helices with the conserved motif LADRXGRKX in loop 2, while BenE (benzoate-H+ symporter protein) has 11 predicted transmembrane α-helices. benF and catA encode benzoate specific porin, OprD and catechol 1,2-dioxygenase, respectively. Biochemical studies suggest that benzoate was transported by an inducible and active process. Inhibition (90%-100%) in the presence of dinitrophenol suggests that the energy for the transport process is derived from the proton motive force. The maximum rate of benzoate transport was 484 pmole min-1 mg-1 cells with an affinity constant, Kmof 4.5 μM. Transcriptional analysis of the benzoate and glucose-grown cells showed inducible expression of benF, benK and benE, suggesting that besides outer membrane porin, both inner membrane transporters probably contribute for the benzoate transport in P. putida strain CSV86. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Antivirulence activity of azithromycin in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco eImperi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics represent our bulwark to combat bacterial infections, but the spread of antibiotic resistance compromises their clinical efficacy. Alternatives to conventional antibiotics are urgently needed in order to complement the existing antibacterial arsenal. The macrolide antibiotic azithromycin (AZM provides a paradigmatic example of an unconventional antibacterial drug. Besides its growth-inhibiting activity, AZM displays potent anti-inflammatory properties, as well as antivirulence activity on some intrinsically resistant bacteria, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In this bacterium, the antivirulence activity of AZM mainly relies on its ability to interact with the ribosome, resulting in direct and/or indirect repression of specific subsets of genes involved in virulence, quorum sensing, biofilm formation and intrinsic antibiotic resistance. Both clinical experience and clinical trials have shown the efficacy of AZM in the treatment of chronic pulmonary infections caused by P. aeruginosa. The aim of this review is to combine results from laboratory studies with evidence from clinical trials in order to unify the information on the in vivo mode of action of AZM in P. aeruginosa infection.

  11. Development of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa Agmatine Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Gilbertsen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Agmatine, decarboxylated arginine, is an important intermediary in polyamine production for many prokaryotes, but serves higher functions in eukaryotes such as nitric oxide inhibition and roles in neurotransmission. Pseudomonas aeruginosa relies on the arginine decarboxylase and agmatine deiminase pathways to convert arginine into putrescine. One of the two known agmatine deiminase operons, aguBA, contains an agmatine sensitive TetR promoter controlled by AguR. We have discovered that this promoter element can produce a titratable induction of its gene products in response to agmatine, and utilized this discovery to make a luminescent agmatine biosensor in P. aeruginosa. The genome of the P. aeruginosa lab strain UCBPP-PA14 was altered to remove both its ability to synthesize or destroy agmatine, and insertion of the luminescent reporter construct allows it to produce light in proportion to the amount of exogenous agmatine applied from ~100 nM to 1mM. Furthermore it does not respond to related compounds including arginine or putrescine. To demonstrate potential applications the biosensor was used to detect agmatine in spent supernatants, to monitor the development of arginine decarboxylase over time, and to detect agmatine in the spinal cords of live mice.

  12. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Trent and zinc homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Corey B; Harrison, Mark D; Huygens, Flavia

    2017-09-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative pathogen and the major cause of mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis. The mechanisms that P. aeruginosa strains use to regulate intracellular zinc have an effect on infection, antibiotic resistance and the propensity to form biofilms. However, zinc homeostasis in P. aeruginosa strains of variable infectivity has not been compared. In this study, zinc homeostasis in P. aeruginosa Trent, a highly infectious clinical strain, was compared to that of a laboratory P. aeruginosa strain, ATCC27853. Trent was able to tolerate higher concentrations of additional zinc in rich media than ATCC27853. Further, pre-adaptation to additional zinc enhanced the growth of Trent at non-inhibitory concentrations but the impact of pre-adaption on the growth of ATCC27853 under the same conditions was minimal. The results establish clear differences in zinc-induced responses in Trent and ATCC27853, and how zinc homeostasis can be a promising target for the development of novel antimicrobial strategies for P. aeruginosa infection in cystic fibrosis patients. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. 40 CFR 180.1108 - Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety San Diego encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... thuringiensis variety San Diego encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the requirement... into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety San Diego encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens is...

  14. Simultaneous utilization of different nuclear medical examinations in a patient with Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome - vs. proteus syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rink, T.; Baum, R.P.; Hoer, G.; Menzel, I.; Niemczyk, M.; Kaufmann, R.; Fuchs, S.; Heller, K.

    1997-01-01

    A three-year-old male patient presented already at his birth a disproportional macrosomia of the left foot and a large, nodular nevus flammeus, in the left hip region, which led to the tentative diagnosis of a Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome. In the following years, both changes showed a continuous progression, with distinct soft-tissue swelling as well as papillomatous and verruciform vegetations of the nevus. Additionally, large, plain subcutaneous masses developed under the right shoulder, and a macrodactyly of the first and second left toe could be observed. Although several examinations had been performed in the meantime, the tentative diagnosis could not be confirmed up to that time. On the occasion of a severe local infection in the hip region, which led to the consideration of a surgical therapy, a radionuclide lymphography, a blood pool scintigraphy including dynamic phlebography and ventriculography as well as a bone scintigraphy were performed. These examinations were done simultaneously at one day in order to avoid a longer period of immobilization. The findings led to the diagnosis of a large lymphangioma, which could be confirmed histologically after surgery. In consideration of all results, the basic disorder seems to be the rare proteus syndrome rather than a Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome. (orig.) [de

  15. Pseudomonas cepacia adherence to respiratory epithelial cells is enhanced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiman, L.; Cacalano, G.; Prince, A.

    1990-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas cepacia are both opportunistic pathogens of patients with cystic fibrosis. The binding characteristics of these two species were compared to determine if they use similar mechanisms to adhere to respiratory epithelial cells. P. cepacia 249 was shown to be piliated, but there was no detectable homology between P. aeruginosa pilin gene probes and P. cepacia genomic DNA. P. cepacia and P. aeruginosa did not appear to compete for epithelial receptors. In the presence of purified P. aeruginosa pili, the adherence of 35S-labeled strain 249 to respiratory epithelial monolayers was unaffected, while that of P. aeruginosa PAO1 was decreased by 55%. The binding of P. cepacia 249 and 715j was increased by 2.4-fold and 1.5-fold, respectively, in the presence of an equal inoculum of PAO1. Interbacterial agglutination contributed to the increased adherence of P. cepacia, as the binding of 249 was increased twofold in the presence of irradiated PAO1. PAO1 exoproducts had a marked effect in enhancing the ability of the P. cepacia strains to adhere to the epithelial monolayers. A PAO1 supernatant increased the binding of 249 by eightfold and that of 715j by fourfold. Thus, there appears to be a synergistic relationship between P. aeruginosa and P. cepacia in which PAO1 exoproducts modify the epithelial cell surface, exposing receptors and facilitating increased P. cepacia attachment

  16. Degradation of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons by two strains of Pseudomonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwinyi, Obinna C; Ajayi, Oluseyi O; Amund, Olukayode O

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this investigation was to isolate competent polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons degraders that can utilize polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons of former industrial sites at McDoel Switchyard in Bloomington, Indiana. Using conventional enrichment method based on soil slurry, we isolated, screened and purified two bacterial species strains PB1 and PB2. Applying the ribotyping technique using the 16S rRNA gene analysis, the strains were assigned to the genus Pseudomonas (Pseudomonas plecoglossicida strain PB1 and Pseudomonas sp. PB2). Both isolates showed promising metabolic capacity on pyrene sprayed MS agar plates during the preliminary investigations. Using time course studies in the liquid cultures at calculated concentrations 123, 64, 97 and 94ppm for naphthalene, chrysene, fluroanthene and pyrene, P. plecoglossicida strain PB1 and Pseudomonas sp. PB2 showed partial utilization of the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. Naphthalene was degraded between 26% and 40%, chrysene 14% and 16%, fluroanthene 5% and 7%; pyrene 8% and 13% by P. plecoglossicida strain PB1 and Pseudomonas sp. PB2 respectively. Based on their growth profile, we developed a model R(2)=1 to predict the degradation rate of slow polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon-degraders where all the necessary parameters are constant. From this investigation, we confirm that the former industrial site soil microbial communities may be explored for the biorestoration of the industrial site. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  17. Diversity of small RNAs expressed in Pseudomonas species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomez-Lozano, Mara; Marvig, Rasmus Lykke; Molina-Santiago, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) has revealed several hundreds of previously undetected small RNAs (sRNAs) in all bacterial species investigated, including strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas syringae. Nonetheless, only little is known about the extent of conservation...... of expressed sRNAs across strains and species. In this study, we have used RNA-seq to identify sRNAs in P.putidaDOT-T1E and Pseudomonas extremaustralis 14-3b. This is the first strain of P.extremaustralis and the second strain of P.putida to have their transcriptomes analysed for sRNAs, and we identify...... the presence of around 150 novel sRNAs in each strain. Furthermore, we provide a comparison based on sequence conservation of all the sRNAs detected by RNA-seq in the Pseudomonas species investigated so far. Our results show that the extent of sRNA conservation across different species is very limited...

  18. Engineering Pseudomonas stutzeri as a biogeochemical biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boynton, L.; Cheng, H. Y.; Del Valle, I.; Masiello, C. A.; Silberg, J. J.

    2016-12-01

    Biogeochemical cycles are being drastically altered as a result of anthropogenic activities, such as the burning of fossil fuels and the industrial production of ammonia. We know microbes play a major part in these cycles, but the extent of their biogeochemical roles remains largely uncharacterized due to inadequacies with culturing and measurement. While metagenomics and other -omics methods offer ways to reconstruct microbial communities, these approaches can only give an indication of the functional roles of microbes in a community. These -omics approaches are rapidly being expanded to the point of outpacing our knowledge of functional genes, which highlights an inherent need for analytical methods that non-invasively monitor Earth's processes in real time. Here we aim to exploit synthetic biology methods in order to engineer a ubiquitous denitrifying microbe, Pseudomonas stutzeri that can act as a biosensor in soil and marine environments. By using an easily cultivated microbe that is also common in many environments, we hope to develop a tool that allows us to zoom in on specific aspects of the nitrogen cycle. In order to monitor processes occurring at the genetic level in environments that cannot be resolved with fluorescence-based methods, such as soils, we have developed a system that instead relies on gas production by engineered microbial biosensors. P. stutzeri has been successfully engineered to release a gas, methyl bromide, which can continuously and non-invasively be measured by GC-MS. Similar to using Green Fluorescent Protein, GFP, in the biological sciences, the gene controlling gas production can be linked to those involved in denitrification, thereby creating a quantifiable gas signal that is correlated with microbial activity in the soil. Synthetically engineered microbial biosensors could reveal key aspects of metabolism in soil systems and offer a tool for characterizing the scope and degree of microbial impact on major biogeochemical cycles.

  19. Amikacin loaded PLGA nanoparticles against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaeifard, Parastoo; Abdi-Ali, Ahya; Soudi, Mohammad Reza; Gamazo, Carlos; Irache, Juan Manuel

    2016-10-10

    Amikacin is a very effective aminoglycoside antibiotic but according to its high toxicity, the use of this antibiotic has been limited. The aim of this study was to formulate and characterize amikacin loaded PLGA nanoparticles. Nanoparticles were synthetized using a solid-in-oil-in-water emulsion technique with different ratio of PLGA 50:50 (Resomer 502H) to drug (100:3.5, 80:3.5 and 60:3.5), two different concentrations of stabilizer (pluronic F68) (0.5% or 1%) and varied g forces to recover the final products. The most efficient formulation based on drug loading (26.0±1.3μg/mg nanoparticle) and encapsulation efficiency (76.8±3.8%) was the one obtained with 100:3.5 PLGA:drug and 0.5% luronic F68, recovered by 20,000×g for 20min. Drug release kinetic study indicated that about 50% of the encapsulated drug was released during the first hour of incubation in phospahte buffer, pH7.4, 37°C, 120rpm. Using different cell viability/cytotoxicity assays, the optimized formulation showed no toxicity against RAW macrophages after 2 and 24h of exposure. Furthermore, released drug was active and maintained its bactericidal activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in vitro. These results support the effective utilization of the PLGA nanoparticle formulation for amikacin in further in vivo studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Chromosomal organization and segregation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Vallet-Gely

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of chromosomal organization and segregation in a handful of bacteria has revealed surprising variety in the mechanisms mediating such fundamental processes. In this study, we further emphasized this diversity by revealing an original organization of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa chromosome. We analyzed the localization of 20 chromosomal markers and several components of the replication machinery in this important opportunistic γ-proteobacteria pathogen. This technique allowed us to show that the 6.3 Mb unique circular chromosome of P. aeruginosa is globally oriented from the old pole of the cell to the division plane/new pole along the oriC-dif axis. The replication machinery is positioned at mid-cell, and the chromosomal loci from oriC to dif are moved sequentially to mid-cell prior to replication. The two chromosomal copies are subsequently segregated at their final subcellular destination in the two halves of the cell. We identified two regions in which markers localize at similar positions, suggesting a bias in the distribution of chromosomal regions in the cell. The first region encompasses 1.4 Mb surrounding oriC, where loci are positioned around the 0.2/0.8 relative cell length upon segregation. The second region contains at least 800 kb surrounding dif, where loci show an extensive colocalization step following replication. We also showed that disrupting the ParABS system is very detrimental in P. aeruginosa. Possible mechanisms responsible for the coordinated chromosomal segregation process and for the presence of large distinctive regions are discussed.

  1. The Versatile Mutational Resistome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla López-Causapé

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the most striking features of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is its outstanding capacity for developing antimicrobial resistance to nearly all available antipseudomonal agents through the selection of chromosomal mutations, leading to the failure of the treatment of severe hospital-acquired or chronic infections. Recent whole-genome sequencing (WGS data obtained from in vitro assays on the evolution of antibiotic resistance, in vivo monitoring of antimicrobial resistance development, analysis of sequential cystic fibrosis isolates, and characterization of widespread epidemic high-risk clones have provided new insights into the evolutionary dynamics and mechanisms of P. aeruginosa antibiotic resistance, thus motivating this review. Indeed, the analysis of the WGS mutational resistome has proven to be useful for understanding the evolutionary dynamics of classical resistance pathways and to describe new mechanisms for the majority of antipseudomonal classes, including β-lactams, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, or polymixins. Beyond addressing a relevant scientific question, the analysis of the P. aeruginosa mutational resistome is expected to be useful, together with the analysis of the horizontally-acquired resistance determinants, for establishing the antibiotic resistance genotype, which should correlate with the antibiotic resistance phenotype and as such, it should be useful for the design of therapeutic strategies and for monitoring the efficacy of administered antibiotic treatments. However, further experimental research and new bioinformatics tools are still needed to overcome the interpretation limitations imposed by the complex interactions (including those leading to collateral resistance or susceptibility between the 100s of genes involved in the mutational resistome, as well as the frequent difficulties for differentiating relevant mutations from simple natural polymorphisms.

  2. The Versatile Mutational Resistome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Causapé, Carla; Cabot, Gabriel; Del Barrio-Tofiño, Ester; Oliver, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    One of the most striking features of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is its outstanding capacity for developing antimicrobial resistance to nearly all available antipseudomonal agents through the selection of chromosomal mutations, leading to the failure of the treatment of severe hospital-acquired or chronic infections. Recent whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data obtained from in vitro assays on the evolution of antibiotic resistance, in vivo monitoring of antimicrobial resistance development, analysis of sequential cystic fibrosis isolates, and characterization of widespread epidemic high-risk clones have provided new insights into the evolutionary dynamics and mechanisms of P. aeruginosa antibiotic resistance, thus motivating this review. Indeed, the analysis of the WGS mutational resistome has proven to be useful for understanding the evolutionary dynamics of classical resistance pathways and to describe new mechanisms for the majority of antipseudomonal classes, including β-lactams, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, or polymixins. Beyond addressing a relevant scientific question, the analysis of the P. aeruginosa mutational resistome is expected to be useful, together with the analysis of the horizontally-acquired resistance determinants, for establishing the antibiotic resistance genotype, which should correlate with the antibiotic resistance phenotype and as such, it should be useful for the design of therapeutic strategies and for monitoring the efficacy of administered antibiotic treatments. However, further experimental research and new bioinformatics tools are still needed to overcome the interpretation limitations imposed by the complex interactions (including those leading to collateral resistance or susceptibility) between the 100s of genes involved in the mutational resistome, as well as the frequent difficulties for differentiating relevant mutations from simple natural polymorphisms.

  3. Pseudomonas fluorescens' view of the periodic table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workentine, Matthew L; Harrison, Joe J; Stenroos, Pernilla U; Ceri, Howard; Turner, Raymond J

    2008-01-01

    Growth in a biofilm modulates microbial metal susceptibility, sometimes increasing the ability of microorganisms to withstand toxic metal species by several orders of magnitude. In this study, a high-throughput metal toxicity screen was initiated with the aim of correlating biological toxicity data in planktonic and biofilm cells to the physiochemical properties of metal ions. To this end, Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525 was grown in the Calgary Biofilm Device (CBD) and biofilms and planktonic cells of this microorganism were exposed to gradient arrays of different metal ions. These arrays included 44 different metals with representative compounds that spanned every group of the periodic table (except for the halogens and noble gases). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) values were obtained after exposing the biofilms to metal ions for 4 h. Using these values, metal ion toxicity was correlated to the following ion-specific physicochemical parameters: standard reduction-oxidation potential, electronegativity, the solubility product of the corresponding metal-sulfide complex, the Pearson softness index, electron density and the covalent index. When the ions were grouped according to outer shell electron structure, we found that heavy metal ions gave the strongest correlations to these parameters and were more toxic on average than the other classes of the ions. Correlations were different for biofilms than for planktonic cells, indicating that chemical mechanisms of metal ion toxicity differ between the two modes of growth. We suggest that biofilms can specifically counter the toxic effects of certain physicochemical parameters, which may contribute to the increased ability of biofilms to withstand metal toxicity.

  4. The antibiotic activity of some Brazilian medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria R. Ferreira de Lima

    Full Text Available The antibiotic activities of the ethanol extracts from 16 species of plants used in Brazilian folk medicine have been determined against Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus flavus, Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis, Salmonella enteretidis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Serratia marcescens, Mycobacterium phlei, M. smegmatis and M. fortuitum, and the yeasts Candida albicans and C. krusei. Among 32 extracts assayed, only those from Lafoensia pacari and Pterodon polygalaeflorus showed activity against the bacterial strains, and none were active against the yeasts. The ethanolic extract from the leaves of L. pacari showed minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values of 312.5 to 2500, 250, 625 and 1250 mg/mL, respectively, against eight different Gram-positive strains of Staphylococcus aureus, the Gram-negative Proteus mirabilis and the acid-fast bacilli Mycobacterium phlei, M. fortuitum and M. smegmatis. The ethanolic extract from the stem of L. pacari showed an MIC value of 625 mg/mL against S. aureus. Chemical analysis revealed that the crude extracts contained tannins, steroids, phenols, flavonoids, triterpenes and saponins: the activities were sufficiently high to present the possibility of future identification of the active components by bioassay-guided fractionation and purification.

  5. Antimicrobial, wound healing and antioxidant activity of Plagiochasma appendiculatum Lehm. et Lind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Meenakshi; Govindarajan, Raghavan; Nath, Virendra; Rawat, Ajay Kumar Singh; Mehrotra, Shanta

    2006-08-11

    Plagiochasma appendiculatum (Aytoniaceae) of the order Marchantiales is widely used in the form of paste ethnomedicinally by Gaddi tribe in Kangra valley for treating skin diseases. In this context, antimicrobical potential of Plagiochasma appendiculatum against a wide range of microorganisms was studied. To validate the ethnotherapeutic claims of the plant in skin diseases, wound healing activity was studied, besides antioxidant activity to understand the mechanism of wound healing activity. The plant (alchoholic and aqueous extract) showed significant antibacterial and antifungal activity against almost all the organisms: Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium, and eight fungi Candida albicans and Cryptococcus albidus-dimorphic fungi, Trichophyton rubrum-dermatophyte fungi, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus spinulosus, Aspergillus terreus and Aspergillus nidulans-systemic fungi, with especially good activity against the dermatophyte (Trichophyton rubrum) and some infectious bacteria (Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis and Salmonella typhimurium) with an MIC of 2.5 microg/disc. The results show that Plagiochasma appendiculatum extract has potent wound healing capacity as evident from the wound contraction and increased tensile strength. The results also indicated that Plagiochasma appendiculatum extract possesses potent antioxidant activity by inhibiting lipid peroxidation and increase in the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Catalase activity.

  6. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of some selected green seaweed extracts from Muttam coastal areas, Kanyakumari, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushparaj Arunachalam

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the antimicrobial activity of the selected marine green algae Ulva lactuca (U. lactuca, Cheatomorpha linoides and Helimeda macroloba against six strains of Gram-positive bacteria [Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus] and Gram-negative bacteria [Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis]. Methods: The selected green seaweed extracts were experimented with four different solvents (acetone, ethanol, methanol and chloroform against the selected pathogens by using agar disc diffusion method. Results: The maximum activity (7 mm was observed by the extract of U. lactuca against Proteus mirabilis by using methanol as a solvent and the lowest activity (2 mm was recorded by the extract of U. lactuca against L. acidophilus by using chloroform as a solvent and ethanol extract against P. aeruginosa. The lowest activity (2 mm was seen in the extract of Cheatomorpha linoides by using ethanol and methanol as a solvent against S. aureus. In Helimeda macroloba extract, the lowest activity was recorded against Escherichia coli by using chloroform as a solvent. The microbial strains S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis and L. acidophilus were resistant to the chloroform and methanol of all selected seaweeds. Conclusions: Further study should be needed to identify the prime compound which is responsible for the activity against the selected pathogens especially those causing the human diseases.

  7. Distribution of bacteria in frozen shrimps and their decontamination by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Adulyatham, P.; Ishigaki, Isao

    1987-11-01

    Six samples of frozen shrimps were obtained through importing company mainly from South-east Asian countries. Five samples of frozen shrimps contained 1.5 x 10/sup 5/ to 6.2 x 10/sup 6/ per gram of total aerobic bacteria, and 4 samples contained 1.4 x 10/sup 2/ to 2.2 x 10/sup 3/ per gram of coliforms, which are higher contamination than Japanese standard of hygenic level for frozen food products (total counts below 10/sup 5/ per gram and no coliforms). The dominant bacteria in total counts were consisted with psychrotrophic Moraxella, Arthrobacter, Micrococcus, Acinetobacter, Flavobacterium, Corynebacterium, Pseudomonas and etc, in all kinds of frozen shrimps. Salmonellae or enteric Vibrio were could not isolated by ordinary isolation methods, and there were isolated many strains of Proteus mirabilis instead of these bacteria. Necessary dose of gamma irradiation for decontamination of bacteria to hygenic level was decided as 3 approx. 5 kGy from the inactivation curves of total bacteria, coliforms, Proteus mirabilis and Salmonella typhymurium in frozen shrimps. Off-odor was suppressed by frozen condition of irradiation.

  8. Etiologic study of urinary tract infection in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Mery Kogika

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections were documented in 51 dogs. Several factors such as etiologic agents, localization of the infection, predisposing factors, sex, age, and breed were considered. The diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI was based on bacteriological investigation and it was considered positive when urine sample collected by catheterization contained more than 105 bacteria/ml. Mixed infection was found in 4 of the infected dogs, totallizing 55 isolates. Among them, Escherichia coli (35.3% was the most frequently isolated, followed by Staphylococcus sp. (23.5%, Proteus mirabilis (15.7%, Streptococcus sp. (13.7%, Klebsiella sp. (9.8%. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (3.9%, Enterobacter cloacae (2.0%, Citrobacter freundii (2.0% and Providencia rettgeri (2.0%. As to antimicrobial susceptibility, norfloxacin and gentamicin were successful for the treatment of gram-negative microorganisms, while the most effective drugs for gram-positive bacteria were cephalothin and nitrofurantoin. UTI was observed more frequently in Cocker Spaniel and German Shepherd; male dogs were more involved, and pyelonephritis was the predominant disease observed. Infection was seen in all ages, but the frequency was higher in middle aged dogs. Urolithiasis were observed as common predisposing or underlying factors to UTI being, cither Staphylococcus sp. or Proteus mirabilis isolated in those cases which alkaline urine pH was observed.

  9. Distribution of bacteria in frozen shrimps and their decontamination by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Adulyatham, P.; Ishigaki, Isao

    1987-01-01

    Six samples of frozen shrimps were obtained through importing company mainly from South-east Asian countries. Five samples of frozen shrimps contained 1.5 x 10 5 to 6.2 x 10 6 per gram of total aerobic bacteria, and 4 samples contained 1.4 x 10 2 to 2.2 x 10 3 per gram of coliforms, which are higher contamination than Japanese standard of hygenic level for frozen food products (total counts below 10 5 per gram and no coliforms). The dominant bacteria in total counts were consisted with psychrotrophic Moraxella, Arthrobacter, Micrococcus, Acinetobacter, Flavobacterium, Corynebacterium, Pseudomonas and etc, in all kinds of frozen shrimps. Salmonellae or enteric Vibrio were could not isolated by ordinary isolation methods, and there were isolated many strains of Proteus mirabilis instead of these bacteria. Necessary dose of gamma irradiation for decontamination of bacteria to hygenic level was decided as 3 ∼ 5 kGy from the inactivation curves of total bacteria, coliforms, Proteus mirabilis and Salmonella typhymurium in frozen shrimps. Off-odor was suppressed by frozen condition of irradiation. (author)

  10. Biotransformation of Tributyltin chloride by Pseudomonas stutzeri strain DN2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dnyanada S. Khanolkar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A bacterial isolate capable of utilizing tributyltin chloride (TBTCl as sole carbon source was isolated from estuarine sediments of west coast of India and identified as Pseudomonas stutzeri based on biochemical tests and Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME analysis. This isolate was designated as strain DN2. Although this bacterial isolate could resist up to 3 mM TBTCl level, it showed maximum growth at 2 mM TBTCl in mineral salt medium (MSM. Pseudomonas stutzeri DN2 exposed to 2 mM TBTCl revealed significant alteration in cell morphology as elongation and shrinkage in cell size along with roughness of cell surface. FTIR and NMR analysis of TBTCl degradation product extracted using chloroform and purified using column chromatography clearly revealed biotransformation of TBTCl into Dibutyltin dichloride (DBTCl2 through debutylation process. Therefore, Pseudomonas stutzeri strain DN2 may be used as a potential bacterial strain for bioremediation of TBTCl contaminated aquatic environmental sites.

  11. Biotransformation of Tributyltin chloride by Pseudomonas stutzeri strain DN2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanolkar, Dnyanada S.; Naik, Milind Mohan; Dubey, Santosh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    A bacterial isolate capable of utilizing tributyltin chloride (TBTCl) as sole carbon source was isolated from estuarine sediments of west coast of India and identified as Pseudomonas stutzeri based on biochemical tests and Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis. This isolate was designated as strain DN2. Although this bacterial isolate could resist up to 3 mM TBTCl level, it showed maximum growth at 2 mM TBTCl in mineral salt medium (MSM). Pseudomonas stutzeri DN2 exposed to 2 mM TBTCl revealed significant alteration in cell morphology as elongation and shrinkage in cell size along with roughness of cell surface. FTIR and NMR analysis of TBTCl degradation product extracted using chloroform and purified using column chromatography clearly revealed biotransformation of TBTCl into Dibutyltin dichloride (DBTCl2) through debutylation process. Therefore, Pseudomonas stutzeri strain DN2 may be used as a potential bacterial strain for bioremediation of TBTCl contaminated aquatic environmental sites. PMID:25763027

  12. [Risk factors for Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections, resistant to carbapenem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghibu, Laura; Miftode, Egidia; Teodor, Andra; Bejan, Codrina; Dorobăţ, Carmen Mihaela

    2010-01-01

    Since their introduction in clinical practice,carbapenems have been among the most powerful antibiotics for treating serious infections cased by Gram-negative nosocomial pathogens, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The emergence of betalactamases with carbapenem-hydrolyzing activity is of major clinical concern. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a leading cause of nosocomial infection. Risk factors for colonization with carbapenems-resistant Pseudomonas in hospital are: history of P. aeruginosa infection or colonization within the previous year, (length of hospital stay, being bedridden or in the ICU, mechanical ventilation, malignant disease, and history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have all been identified as independent risk factors for MDR P. aeruginosa infection. Long-term-care facilities are also reservoirs of resistant bacteria. Risk factors for colonization of LTCF residents with resistant bacteria included age > 86 years, antibiotic treatment in the previous 3 months, indwelling devices, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, physical disability, and the particular LTCF unit.

  13. Uji produksi biosurfaktan oleh Pseudomonas sp. pada substrat yang berbeda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimah Fatimah

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactant, microbial metabolite whose properties like surfactant, was suggested to replace chemically synthesized surfactant for take in hand environtmental pollution by petroleum hydrocarbon. This work was done to examine potency of Pseudomonas sp. isolated from Tanjung Perak Harbor to produce biosurfactant. Also, to know the effect of different substrates (glucose + yeast extract, lubricating oil and hexadecane toward biosurfactant production. Pseudomonas sp. grown in mineral synthetic water and biosurfactant production was measured on stationary phase. Biosurfactant production based on emulsification activity and surface tension reduction of supernatant (using Du Nouy tensiometer. Solar, lubricating oil, and hexadecane were used to examine emulsification activity. Results indicated that Pseudomonas sp. have a potency to produce biosurfactant. Surface tension of supernatant decreased up to 20 dyne/cm, when grown on hexadecane substrate. Hexadecane is the best growing substrate for biosurfactant production than others.

  14. Vaccines for preventing infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Helle Krogh; Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2015-08-23

    Chronic pulmonary infection in cystic fibrosis results in progressive lung damage. Once colonisation of the lungs with Pseudomonas aeruginosa occurs, it is almost impossible to eradicate. Vaccines, aimed at reducing infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, have been developed. This is an update of a previously published review. To assess the effectiveness of vaccination against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register using the terms vaccines AND pseudomonas (last search 30 March 2015). We previously searched PubMed using the terms vaccin* AND cystic fibrosis (last search 30 May 2013). Randomised trials (published or unpublished) comparing Pseudomonas aeruginosa vaccines (oral, parenteral or intranasal) with control vaccines or no intervention in cystic fibrosis. The authors independently selected trials, assessed them and extracted data. Six trials were identified. Two trials were excluded since they were not randomised and one old, small trial because it was not possible to assess whether is was randomised. The three included trials comprised 483, 476 and 37 patients, respectively. No data have been published from one of the large trials, but the company stated in a press release that the trial failed to confirm the results from an earlier study and that further clinical development was suspended. In the other large trial, relative risk for chronic infection was 0.91 (95% confidence interval 0.55 to 1.49), and in the small trial, the risk was also close to one. In the large trial, one patient was reported to have died in the observation period. In that trial, 227 adverse events (4 severe) were registered in the vaccine group and 91 (1 severe) in the control group. In this large trial of a vaccine developed against flagella antigens, antibody titres against the epitopes contained in the vaccine were higher in the vaccine group compared to the placebo group (P Vaccines against

  15. 40 CFR 180.1145 - Pseudomonas syringae; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pseudomonas syringae; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1145 Pseudomonas syringae; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Pseudomonas syringae is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance on all raw agricultural...

  16. Conservation of the response regulator gene gacA in Pseudomonas species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souza, J.T.; Mazzola, M.; Raaijmakers, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    The response regulator gene gacA influences the production of several secondary metabolites in both pathogenic and beneficial Pseudomonas spp. In this study, we developed primers and a probe for the gacA gene of Pseudomonas species and sequenced a 425 bp fragment of gacA from ten Pseudomonas strains

  17. Ultraviolet-B lethal damage on Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degiorgi, C.F.; Fernandez, R.O.; Pizarro, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa has shown an increased sensitivity compared with that of Escherichia coli and Enterobacter cloacae, when they were exposed to 0.4 kJ/m2 of ultraviolet-B radiation. The rapid decay in cell viability observed in Pseudomonas aeruginosa after the irradiation was influenced by factors such as culture media and the presence of pyocyanine during the irradiation. The radioinduced lethal damage could be prevented by photoreactivating treatment, indicating that pyrimidine dimer formation was the mechanism causing bacterial death. The results indicate that several environmental conditions may act as protective agents against ultraviolet-B-induced damage

  18. Bioleaching of copper oxide ore by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani, M. A.; Irannajad, M.; Azadmehr, A. R.; Meshkini, M.

    2013-12-01

    Bioleaching is an environmentally friendly method for extraction of metal from ores. In this study, bioleaching of copper oxide ore by Pseudomonas aeruginosa was investigated. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a heterotrophic bacterium that can produce various organic acids in an appropriate culture medium, and these acids can operate as leaching agents. The parameters, such as particle size, glucose percentage in the culture medium, bioleaching time, and solid/liquid ratio were optimized. Optimum bioleaching conditions were found as follows: particle size of 150-177 μm, glucose percentage of 6%, bioleaching time of 8 d, and solid/liquid ratio of 1:80. Under these conditions, 53% of copper was extracted.

  19. Analysis of Random-Loading HTR-PROTEUS Cores with Continuous Energy Monte Carlo Code Based on A Statistical Geometry Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Isao; Miyamaru, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    Spherical elements have remarkable features in various applications in the nuclear engineering field. In 1990's, by the project of HTR-PROTEUS at PSI various pebble bed reactor experiments were conducted including cores with a lot of spherical fuel elements loaded randomly. In this study, criticality experiments of the random-loading HTR-PROTEUS cores were analyzed by MCNP-BALL, which could deal with a random arrangement of spherical fuel elements exactly with a statistical geometry model. As a result of analysis, the calculated effective multiplication factors were in fairly good agreement with the measurements within about 0.5%Δk/k. In comparison with other numerical analysis, our effective multiplication factors were between the experimental values and the VSOP calculations. To investigate the discrepancy of the effective multiplication factors between the experiments and calculations, sensitivity analyses were performed. As the result, the sensitivity of impurity boron concentration was fairly large. The reason of the present slight overestimation was not made clear at present. However, the presently existing difference was thought to be related to the impurity boron concentration, not to the modelling of the reactor and the used nuclear data. From the present study, it was confirmed that MCNP-BALL would have an advantage to conventional transport codes by comparing with their numerical results and the experimental values. As for the criticality experiment of PROTEUS, we would conclude that the two cores of Core 4.2 and 4.3 could be regarded as an equivalent experiment of a reference critical core, which was packed in the packing fraction of RLP. (authors)

  20. HTR-PROTEUS Pebble Bed Experimental Program Cores 1, 1A, 2, and 3: Hexagonal Close Packing with a 1:2 Moderator-to-Fuel Pebble Ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John D. Bess; Barbara H. Dolphin; James W. Sterbentz; Luka Snoj; Igor Lengar; Oliver Köberl

    2013-03-01

    In its deployment as a pebble bed reactor (PBR) critical facility from 1992 to 1996, the PROTEUS facility was designated as HTR-PROTEUS. This experimental program was performed as part of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on the Validation of Safety Related Physics Calculations for Low Enriched HTGRs. Within this project, critical experiments were conducted for graphite moderated LEU systems to determine core reactivity, flux and power profiles, reaction-rate ratios, the worth of control rods, both in-core and reflector based, the worth of burnable poisons, kinetic parameters, and the effects of moisture ingress on these parameters. Four benchmark experiments were evaluated in this report: Cores 1, 1A, 2, and 3. These core configurations represent the hexagonal close packing (HCP) configurations of the HTR-PROTEUS experiment with a moderator-to-fuel pebble ratio of 1:2. Core 1 represents the only configuration utilizing ZEBRA control rods. Cores 1A, 2, and 3 use withdrawable, hollow, stainless steel control rods. Cores 1 and 1A are similar except for the use of different control rods; Core 1A also has one less layer of pebbles (21 layers instead of 22). Core 2 retains the first 16 layers of pebbles from Cores 1 and 1A and has 16 layers of moderator pebbles stacked above the fueled layers. Core 3 retains the first 17 layers of pebbles but has polyethylene rods inserted between pebbles to simulate water ingress. The additional partial pebble layer (layer 18) for Core 3 was not included as it was used for core operations and not the reported critical configuration. Cores 1, 1A, 2, and 3 were determined to be acceptable benchmark experiments.