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Sample records for proteins cell survival

  1. Role for protein geranylgeranylation in adult T-cell leukemia cell survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonaka, Mizuho; Uota, Shin; Saitoh, Yasunori; Takahashi, Mayumi; Sugimoto, Haruyo; Amet, Tohti; Arai, Ayako; Miura, Osamu; Yamamoto, Naoki; Yamaoka, Shoji

    2009-01-01

    Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) is a fatal lymphoproliferative disease that develops in human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I)-infected individuals. Despite the accumulating knowledge of the molecular biology of HTLV-I-infected cells, effective therapeutic strategies remain to be established. Recent reports showed that the hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl (HMG)-CoA reductase inhibitor statins have anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects on certain tumor cells through inhibition of protein prenylation. Here, we report that statins hinder the survival of ATL cells and induce apoptotic cell death. Inhibition of protein geranylgeranylation is responsible for these effects, since simultaneous treatment with isoprenoid precursors, geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate or farnesyl pyrophosphate, but not a cholesterol precursor squalene, restored the viability of ATL cells. Simvastatin inhibited geranylgeranylation of small GTPases Rab5B and Rac1 in ATL cells, and a geranylgeranyl transferase inhibitor GGTI-298 reduced ATL cell viability more efficiently than a farnesyl transferase inhibitor FTI-277. These results not only unveil an important role for protein geranylgeranylation in ATL cell survival, but also implicate therapeutic potentials of statins in the treatment of ATL

  2. Protein kinase activity of phosphoinositide 3-kinase regulates cytokine-dependent cell survival.

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    Daniel Thomas

    Full Text Available The dual specificity protein/lipid kinase, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K, promotes growth factor-mediated cell survival and is frequently deregulated in cancer. However, in contrast to canonical lipid-kinase functions, the role of PI3K protein kinase activity in regulating cell survival is unknown. We have employed a novel approach to purify and pharmacologically profile protein kinases from primary human acute myeloid leukemia (AML cells that phosphorylate serine residues in the cytoplasmic portion of cytokine receptors to promote hemopoietic cell survival. We have isolated a kinase activity that is able to directly phosphorylate Ser585 in the cytoplasmic domain of the interleukin 3 (IL-3 and granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF receptors and shown it to be PI3K. Physiological concentrations of cytokine in the picomolar range were sufficient for activating the protein kinase activity of PI3K leading to Ser585 phosphorylation and hemopoietic cell survival but did not activate PI3K lipid kinase signaling or promote proliferation. Blockade of PI3K lipid signaling by expression of the pleckstrin homology of Akt1 had no significant impact on the ability of picomolar concentrations of cytokine to promote hemopoietic cell survival. Furthermore, inducible expression of a mutant form of PI3K that is defective in lipid kinase activity but retains protein kinase activity was able to promote Ser585 phosphorylation and hemopoietic cell survival in the absence of cytokine. Blockade of p110α by RNA interference or multiple independent PI3K inhibitors not only blocked Ser585 phosphorylation in cytokine-dependent cells and primary human AML blasts, but also resulted in a block in survival signaling and cell death. Our findings demonstrate a new role for the protein kinase activity of PI3K in phosphorylating the cytoplasmic tail of the GM-CSF and IL-3 receptors to selectively regulate cell survival highlighting the importance of targeting

  3. Effects of protein kinase C activators and staurosporine on protein kinase activity, cell survival, and proliferation in Tetrahymena thermophila

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straarup, EM; Schousboe, P; Hansen, HQ

    1997-01-01

    Autocrine factors prevent cell death in the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila, a unicellular eukaryote, in a chemically defined medium. At certain growth conditions these factors are released at a sufficient concentration by > 500 cells ml-1 to support cell survival and proliferation. The protein...

  4. The Ras GTPase-activating protein Rasal3 supports survival of naive T cells.

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    Ryunosuke Muro

    Full Text Available The Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathway is crucial for T cell receptor (TCR signaling in the development and function of T cells. The significance of various modulators of the Ras-MAPK pathway in T cells, however, remains to be fully understood. Ras-activating protein-like 3 (Rasal3 is an uncharacterized member of the SynGAP family that contains a conserved Ras GTPase-activating protein (GAP domain, and is predominantly expressed in the T cell lineage. In the current study, we investigated the function and physiological roles of Rasal3. Our results showed that Rasal3 possesses RasGAP activity, but not Rap1GAP activity, and represses TCR-stimulated ERK phosphorylation in a T cell line. In systemic Rasal3-deficient mice, T cell development in the thymus including positive selection, negative selection, and β-selection was unaffected. However, the number of naive, but not effector memory CD4 and CD8 T cell in the periphery was significantly reduced in Rasal3-deficient mice, and associated with a marked increase in apoptosis of these cells. Indeed, survival of Rasal3 deficient naive CD4 T cells in vivo by adoptive transfer was significantly impaired, whereas IL-7-dependent survival of naive CD4 T cells in vitro was unaltered. Collectively, Rasal3 is required for in vivo survival of peripheral naive T cells, contributing to the maintenance of optimal T cell numbers.

  5. Neonatal maternal separation up-regulates protein signalling for cell survival in rat hypothalamus.

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    Irles, Claudine; Nava-Kopp, Alicia T; Morán, Julio; Zhang, Limei

    2014-05-01

    We have previously reported that in response to early life stress, such as maternal hyperthyroidism and maternal separation (MS), the rat hypothalamic vasopressinergic system becomes up-regulated, showing enlarged nuclear volume and cell number, with stress hyperresponsivity and high anxiety during adulthood. The detailed signaling pathways involving cell death/survival, modified by adverse experiences in this developmental window remains unknown. Here, we report the effects of MS on cellular density and time-dependent fluctuations of the expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic factors during the development of the hypothalamus. Neonatal male rats were exposed to 3 h-daily MS from postnatal days 2 to 15 (PND 2-15). Cellular density was assessed in the hypothalamus at PND 21 using methylene blue staining, and neuronal nuclear specific protein and glial fibrillary acidic protein immunostaining at PND 36. Expression of factors related to apoptosis and cell survival in the hypothalamus was examined at PND 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 20 and 43 by Western blot. Rats subjected to MS exhibited greater cell-density and increased neuronal density in all hypothalamic regions assessed. The time course of protein expression in the postnatal brain showed: (1) decreased expression of active caspase 3; (2) increased Bcl-2/Bax ratio; (3) increased activation of ERK1/2, Akt and inactivation of Bad; PND 15 and PND 20 were the most prominent time-points. These data indicate that MS can induce hypothalamic structural reorganization by promoting survival, suppressing cell death pathways, increasing cellular density which may alter the contribution of these modified regions to homeostasis.

  6. Inhibition of Bcl-2 or IAP proteins does not provoke mutations in surviving cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shekhar, Tanmay M.; Green, Maja M.; Rayner, David M.; Miles, Mark A.; Cutts, Suzanne M.; Hawkins, Christine J.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Mutagenicities of anti-cancer drugs were tested using HPRT, γH2AX and comet assays. • TRAIL, doxorubicin and etoposide were more mutagenic than BH3- or Smac-mimetics. • Physiologically achievable levels of the BH3-mimetic ABT-737 were not mutagenic. • High concentrations of ABT-737 provoked mutations via an off-target mechanism. • Even very high concentrations of IAP antagonists were not mutagenic. - Abstract: Chemotherapy and radiotherapy can cause permanent damage to the genomes of surviving cells, provoking severe side effects such as second malignancies in some cancer survivors. Drugs that mimic the activity of death ligands, or antagonise pro-survival proteins of the Bcl-2 or IAP families have yielded encouraging results in animal experiments and early phase clinical trials. Because these agents directly engage apoptosis pathways, rather than damaging DNA to indirectly provoke tumour cell death, we reasoned that they may offer another important advantage over conventional therapies: minimisation or elimination of side effects such as second cancers that result from mutation of surviving normal cells. Disappointingly, however, we previously found that concentrations of death receptor agonists like TRAIL that would be present in vivo in clinical settings provoked DNA damage in surviving cells. In this study, we used cell line model systems to investigate the mutagenic capacity of drugs from two other classes of direct apoptosis-inducing agents: the BH3-mimetic ABT-737 and the IAP antagonists LCL161 and AT-406. Encouragingly, our data suggest that IAP antagonists possess negligible genotoxic activity. Doses of ABT-737 that were required to damage DNA stimulated Bax/Bak-independent signalling and exceeded concentrations detected in the plasma of animals treated with this drug. These findings provide hope that cancer patients treated by BH3-mimetics or IAP antagonists may avoid mutation-related illnesses that afflict

  7. Inhibition of Bcl-2 or IAP proteins does not provoke mutations in surviving cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shekhar, Tanmay M. [Department of Biochemistry, La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science, La Trobe University, Bundoora 3083 (Australia); Green, Maja M. [Department of Biochemistry, La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science, La Trobe University, Bundoora 3083 (Australia); Department of Anatomy & Neuroscience, The University of Melbourne, Parkville 3010 (Australia); Rayner, David M.; Miles, Mark A.; Cutts, Suzanne M. [Department of Biochemistry, La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science, La Trobe University, Bundoora 3083 (Australia); Hawkins, Christine J., E-mail: c.hawkins@latrobe.edu.au [Department of Biochemistry, La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science, La Trobe University, Bundoora 3083 (Australia)

    2015-07-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Mutagenicities of anti-cancer drugs were tested using HPRT, γH2AX and comet assays. • TRAIL, doxorubicin and etoposide were more mutagenic than BH3- or Smac-mimetics. • Physiologically achievable levels of the BH3-mimetic ABT-737 were not mutagenic. • High concentrations of ABT-737 provoked mutations via an off-target mechanism. • Even very high concentrations of IAP antagonists were not mutagenic. - Abstract: Chemotherapy and radiotherapy can cause permanent damage to the genomes of surviving cells, provoking severe side effects such as second malignancies in some cancer survivors. Drugs that mimic the activity of death ligands, or antagonise pro-survival proteins of the Bcl-2 or IAP families have yielded encouraging results in animal experiments and early phase clinical trials. Because these agents directly engage apoptosis pathways, rather than damaging DNA to indirectly provoke tumour cell death, we reasoned that they may offer another important advantage over conventional therapies: minimisation or elimination of side effects such as second cancers that result from mutation of surviving normal cells. Disappointingly, however, we previously found that concentrations of death receptor agonists like TRAIL that would be present in vivo in clinical settings provoked DNA damage in surviving cells. In this study, we used cell line model systems to investigate the mutagenic capacity of drugs from two other classes of direct apoptosis-inducing agents: the BH3-mimetic ABT-737 and the IAP antagonists LCL161 and AT-406. Encouragingly, our data suggest that IAP antagonists possess negligible genotoxic activity. Doses of ABT-737 that were required to damage DNA stimulated Bax/Bak-independent signalling and exceeded concentrations detected in the plasma of animals treated with this drug. These findings provide hope that cancer patients treated by BH3-mimetics or IAP antagonists may avoid mutation-related illnesses that afflict

  8. Targeting proapoptotic protein BAD inhibits survival and self-renewal of cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastry, K S R; Al-Muftah, M A; Li, Pu; Al-Kowari, M K; Wang, E; Ismail Chouchane, A; Kizhakayil, D; Kulik, G; Marincola, F M; Haoudi, A; Chouchane, L

    2014-12-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that the resistance of cancer stem cells (CSC) to many conventional therapies is one of the major limiting factors of cancer therapy efficacy. Identification of mechanisms responsible for survival and self-renewal of CSC will help design new therapeutic strategies that target and eliminate both differentiated cancer cells and CSC. Here we demonstrated the potential role of proapoptotic protein BAD in the biology of CSC in melanoma, prostate and breast cancers. We enriched CD44(+)/CD24(-) cells (CSC) by tumorosphere formation and purified this population by FACS. Both spheres and CSC exhibited increased potential for proliferation, migration, invasion, sphere formation, anchorage-independent growth, as well as upregulation of several stem cell-associated markers. We showed that the phosphorylation of BAD is essential for the survival of CSC. Conversely, ectopic expression of a phosphorylation-deficient mutant BAD induced apoptosis in CSC. This effect was enhanced by treatment with a BH3-mimetic, ABT-737. Both pharmacological agents that inhibit survival kinases and growth factors that are involved in drug resistance delivered their respective cytotoxic and protective effects by modulating the BAD phosphorylation in CSC. Furthermore, the frequency and self-renewal capacity of CSC was significantly reduced by knocking down the BAD expression. Consistent with our in vitro results, significant phosphorylation of BAD was found in CD44(+) CSC of 83% breast tumor specimens. In addition, we also identified a positive correlation between BAD expression and disease stage in prostate cancer, suggesting a role of BAD in tumor advancement. Our studies unveil the role of BAD in the survival and self-renewal of CSC and propose BAD not only as an attractive target for cancer therapy but also as a marker of tumor progression.

  9. Apoptotic intrinsic pathway proteins predict survival in canine cutaneous mast cell tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barra, C N; Macedo, B M; Cadrobbi, K G; Pulz, L H; Huete, G C; Kleeb, S R; Xavier, J G; Catão-Dias, J L; Nishiya, A T; Fukumasu, H; Strefezzi, R F

    2018-03-01

    Mast cell tumours (MCTs) are the most frequent canine round cell neoplasms and show variable biological behaviours with high metastatic and recurrence rates. The disease is treated surgically and wide margins are recommended. Adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy used in this disease cause DNA damage in neoplastic cells, which is aimed to induce apoptotic cell death. Resisting cell death is a hallmark of cancer, which contributes to the development and progression of tumours. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of the proteins involved in the apoptotic intrinsic pathway and to evaluate their potential use as prognostic markers for canine cutaneous MCTs. Immunohistochemistry for BAX, BCL2, APAF1, Caspase-9, and Caspase-3 was performed in 50 canine cases of MCTs. High BAX expression was associated with higher mortality rate and shorter survival. BCL2 and APAF1 expressions offered additional prognostic information to the histopathological grading systems. The present results indicate that variations in the expression of apoptotic proteins are related to malignancy of cutaneous MCTs in dogs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Identification of cytoskeleton-associated proteins essential for lysosomal stability and survival of human cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth-Pedersen, Line; Aits, Sonja; Corcelle-Termeau, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    Microtubule-disturbing drugs inhibit lysosomal trafficking and induce lysosomal membrane permeabilization followed by cathepsin-dependent cell death. To identify specific trafficking-related proteins that control cell survival and lysosomal stability, we screened a molecular motor siRNA library...... in human MCF7 breast cancer cells. SiRNAs targeting four kinesins (KIF11/Eg5, KIF20A, KIF21A, KIF25), myosin 1G (MYO1G), myosin heavy chain 1 (MYH1) and tropomyosin 2 (TPM2) were identified as effective inducers of non-apoptotic cell death. The cell death induced by KIF11, KIF21A, KIF25, MYH1 or TPM2 si......), increased dextran accumulation (KIF20A), or reduced autophagic flux (MYO1G, MYH1). Importantly, all seven siRNAs also killed human cervix cancer (HeLa) and osteosarcoma (U-2-OS) cells and sensitized cancer cells to other lysosome-destabilizing treatments, i.e. photo-oxidation, siramesine, etoposide...

  11. Protein synthesis and the recovery of both survival and cytoplasmic ''petite'' mutation in ultraviolet-treated yeast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heude, M.; Chanet, R.; Moustacchi, E.

    1975-01-01

    The contribution of nuclear-directed protein synthesis in the repair of lethal and mitochondrial genetic damage after UV-irradiation of exponential and stationary phase haploid yeast cells was examined. This was carried out using cycloheximide, a specific inhibitor of nuclear protein synthesis. It appears that nuclear protein synthesis is required for the increase in survival seen after the liquid-holding of cells at both stages, as well as for the ''petite'' recovery seen after the liquid-holding of exponential phase cells. The characteristic negative liquid-holding effect observed for the UV induction of ''petites'' in stationary phase cells (increase of the frequency of ''petites'' during storage) remained, following all the treatments which inhibited nuclear protein synthesis. However, the application of photoreactivating light following dark-holding with cycloheximide indicates that some steps of the repair of both nuclear and mitochondrial damage are performed in the absence of protein synthesis

  12. Unique protein expression signatures of survival time in kidney renal clear cell carcinoma through a pan-cancer screening.

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    Han, Guangchun; Zhao, Wei; Song, Xiaofeng; Kwok-Shing Ng, Patrick; Karam, Jose A; Jonasch, Eric; Mills, Gordon B; Zhao, Zhongming; Ding, Zhiyong; Jia, Peilin

    2017-10-03

    In 2016, it is estimated that there will be 62,700 new cases of kidney cancer in the United States, and 14,240 patients will die from the disease. Because the incidence of kidney renal clear cell carcinoma (KIRC), the most common type of kidney cancer, is expected to continue to increase in the US, there is an urgent need to find effective diagnostic biomarkers for KIRC that could help earlier detection of and customized treatment strategies for the disease. Accordingly, in this study we systematically investigated KIRC's prognostic biomarkers for survival using the reverse phase protein array (RPPA) data and the high throughput sequencing data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). With comprehensive data available in TCGA, we systematically screened protein expression based survival biomarkers in 10 major cancer types, among which KIRC presented many protein prognostic biomarkers of survival time. This is in agreement with a previous report that expression level changes (mRNAs, microRNA and protein) may have a better performance for prognosis of KIRC. In this study, we also identified 52 prognostic genes for KIRC, many of which are involved in cell-cycle and cancer signaling, as well as 15 tumor-stage-specific prognostic biomarkers. Notably, we found fewer prognostic biomarkers for early-stage than for late-stage KIRC. Four biomarkers (the RPPA protein IDs: FASN, ACC1, Cyclin_B1 and Rad51) were found to be prognostic for survival based on both protein and mRNA expression data. Through pan-cancer screening, we found that many protein biomarkers were prognostic for patients' survival in KIRC. Stage-specific survival biomarkers in KIRC were also identified. Our study indicated that these protein biomarkers might have potential clinical value in terms of predicting survival in KIRC patients and developing individualized treatment strategies. Importantly, we found many biomarkers in KIRC at both the mRNA expression level and the protein expression level. These

  13. Protein synthesis and the recovery of both survival and cytoplasmic ''petite'' mutation in ultraviolet-treated yeast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heude, M.; Chanet, R.

    1975-01-01

    The contribution of mitochondrial proteins in the repair of UV-induced lethal and cytoplasmic genetic damages was studied in dark liquid-held exponential and stationary phase yeast cells. This was performed by using the specific inhibitors, erythromycin and chloramphenicol. It was shown that mitochondrial proteins are involved in the recovery and survival of UV-treated exponential phase cells, but not in the recovery of stationary phase cells. Mitochondrial proteins are partly implicated in the mechanisms leading to the restoration of the e + genotype in UV-irradiated dark liquid-held exponential phase cells. Here again, in stationary phase cells, mitochondrial enzymes do not seem to participate in the negative liquid-holding process for the e - induction, as shown by inhibiting mitochondrial protein synthesis of both mitochondrial and nuclear protein synthesis. When cells are grown in glycerol, the response after dark liquid-holding of the UV-treated cells in the different growth stages are similar to that found for glucose-grown cells. In other words, the fate of cytoplasmic genetic damage in particular is not correlated with the repressed or derepressed state of the mitochondria

  14. Protein synthesis and the recovery of both survival and cytoplasmic "petite" mutation in ultraviolet-treated yeast cells. I. Nuclear-directed protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heude, M; Chanet, R; Moustacchi, E

    1975-04-01

    The contribution of nuclear-directed protein synthesis in the repair of lethal and mitochondrial genetic damage after UV-irradiation of exponential and stationary phage haploid yeast cells was examined. This was carried out using cycloheximide (CH), a specific inhibitor of nuclear protein synthesis. It appears that nuclear protein synthesis is required for the increase in survival seen after the liquid holding of cells at both stages, as well as for the "petite" recovery seen after the liquid holding of exponential phase cells. The characteristic negative liquid holding effect observed for the UV induction of "petites" in stationary phase cells (increase of the frequency of "petites" during storage) remained following all the treatments which inhibited nuclear protein synthesis. However, the application of photoreactivating light following dark holding with cycloheximide indicates that some steps of the repair of both nuclear and mitochondrial damage are performed in the absence of a synthesis of proteins.

  15. Errantum: Treatment of human astrocytoma U87 cells with silicon dioxide nanoparticles lowers their survival and alters their expression of mitochondrial and cell signaling proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai JCK

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Lai JCK, Ananthakrishnan G, Jandhyam S, et al. Treatment of human astrocytoma U87 cells with silicon dioxide nanoparticles lowers their survival and alters their expression of mitochondrial and cell signaling proteins. Int J Nanomedicine. 2010;5:715–723.The wrong image was used in Figure 5 on page 719.

  16. BIRC6 protein, an inhibitor of apoptosis: role in survival of human prostate cancer cells.

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    Christopher G Low

    Full Text Available BIRC6 is a member of the Inhibitors of Apoptosis Protein (IAP family which is thought to protect a variety of cancer cells from apoptosis. The main objective of the present study was to investigate whether BIRC6 plays a role in prostate cancer and could be useful as a novel therapeutic target.BIRC6 expression in cell lines was assessed using Western blot analysis and in clinical samples using immunohistochemistry of tissue microarrays. The biological significance of BIRC6 was determined by siRNA-induced reduction of BIRC6 expression in LNCaP cells followed by functional assays.Elevated BIRC6 protein expression was found in prostate cancer cell lines and clinical specimens as distinct from their benign counterparts. Increased BIRC6 expression was associated with Gleason 6-8 cancers and castration resistance. Reduction of BIRC6 expression in LNCaP cells led to a marked reduction in cell proliferation which was associated with an increase in apoptosis and a decrease in autophagosome formation. Doxorubicin-induced apoptosis was found to be coupled to a reduction in BIRC6 protein expression.The data suggest a role for BIRC6 in prostate cancer progression and treatment resistance, and indicate for the first time that the BIRC6 gene and its product are potentially valuable targets for treatment of prostate cancers.

  17. Zinc finger protein 598 inhibits cell survival by promoting UV-induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiaohong; Gupta, Romi

    2018-01-19

    UV is one of the major causes of DNA damage induced apoptosis. However, cancer cells adopt alternative mechanisms to evade UV-induced apoptosis. To identify factors that protect cancer cells from UV-induced apoptosis, we performed a genome wide short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) screen, which identified Zinc finger protein 598 (ZNF598) as a key regulator of UV-induced apoptosis. Here, we show that UV irradiation transcriptionally upregulates ZNF598 expression. Additionally, ZNF598 knockdown in cancer cells inhibited UV-induced apoptosis. In our study, we observe that ELK1 mRNA level as well as phosphorylated ELK1 levels was up regulated upon UV irradiation, which was necessary for UV irradiation induced upregulation of ZNF598. Cells expressing ELK1 shRNA were also resistant to UV-induced apoptosis, and phenocopy ZNF598 knockdown. Upon further investigation, we found that ZNF598 knockdown inhibits UV-induced apoptotic gene expression, which matches with decrease in percentage of annexin V positive cell. Similarly, ectopic expression of ZNF598 promoted apoptotic gene expression and also increased annexin V positive cells. Collectively, these results demonstrate that ZNF598 is a UV irradiation regulated gene and its loss results in resistance to UV-induced apoptosis.

  18. The scaffold protein MEK Partner 1 is required for the survival of estrogen receptor positive breast cancer cells

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    Marina Mihaela

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract MEK Partner 1 (MP1 or MAPKSP1 is a scaffold protein that has been reported to function in multiple signaling pathways, including the ERK, PAK and mTORC pathways. Several of these pathways influence the biology of breast cancer, but MP1’s functional significance in breast cancer cells has not been investigated. In this report, we demonstrate a requirement for MP1 expression in estrogen receptor (ER positive breast cancer cells. MP1 is widely expressed in both ER-positive and negative breast cancer cell lines, and in non-tumorigenic mammary epithelial cell lines. However, inhibition of its expression using siRNA duplexes resulted in detachment and apoptosis of several ER-positive breast cancer cell lines, but not ER-negative breast cancer cells or non-tumorigenic mammary epithelial cells. Inhibition of MP1 expression in ER-positive MCF-7 cells did not affect ERK activity, but resulted in reduced Akt1 activity and reduced ER expression and activity. Inhibition of ER expression did not result in cell death, suggesting that decreased ER expression is not the cause of cell death. In contrast, pharmacological inhibition of PI3K signaling did induce cell death in MCF-7 cells, and expression of a constitutively active form of Akt1 partially rescued the cell death observed when the MP1 gene was silenced in these cells. Together, these results suggest that MP1 is required for pro-survival signaling from the PI3K/Akt pathway in ER-positive breast cancer cells.

  19. Cooperation of decay-accelerating factor and membrane cofactor protein in regulating survival of human cervical cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Ling-Juan; Guo, Shu-Yu; Cai, You-Qun; Gu, Ping-Qing; Su, Ya-Juan; Gong, Hui; Liu, Yun; Chen, Chen

    2009-01-01

    Decay-accelerating factor (DAF) and membrane cofactor protein (MCP) are the key molecules involved in cell protection against autologus complement, which restricts the action of complement at critical stages of the cascade reaction. The cooperative effect of DAF and MCP on the survival of human cervical cancer cell (ME180) has not been demonstrated. In this study we applied, for the first time, short hairpin RNA (shRNA) to knock down the expression of the DAF and MCP with the aim of exploiting complement more effectively for tumor cell damage. Meanwhile, we investigated the cooperative effects of DAF and MCP on the viability and migration, moreover the proliferation of ME180 cell. The results showed that shRNA inhibition of DAF and MCP expression enhanced complement-dependent cytolysis (CDC) up to 39% for MCP and up to 36% for DAF, and the combined inhibition of both regulators yielded further additive effects in ME180 cells. Thus, the activities of DAF and MCP, when present together, are greater than the sum of the two protein individually. These data indicated that combined DAF and MCP shRNA described in this study may offer an additional alternative to improve the efficacy of antibody-and complement-based cancer immunotherapy

  20. Cell Survival Signaling in Neuroblastoma

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    Megison, Michael L.; Gillory, Lauren A.; Beierle, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumor of childhood and is responsible for over 15% of pediatric cancer deaths. Neuroblastoma tumorigenesis and malignant transformation is driven by overexpression and dominance of cell survival pathways and a lack of normal cellular senescence or apoptosis. Therefore, manipulation of cell survival pathways may decrease the malignant potential of these tumors and provide avenues for the development of novel therapeutics. This review focuses on several facets of cell survival pathways including protein kinases (PI3K, AKT, ALK, and FAK), transcription factors (NF-κB, MYCN and p53), and growth factors (IGF, EGF, PDGF, and VEGF). Modulation of each of these factors decreases the growth or otherwise hinders the malignant potential of neuroblastoma, and many therapeutics targeting these pathways are already in the clinical trial phase of development. Continued research and discovery of effective modulators of these pathways will revolutionize the treatment of neuroblastoma. PMID:22934706

  1. Protein kinase C-delta inactivation inhibits the proliferation and survival of cancer stem cells in culture and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zhihong; Forman, Lora W; Williams, Robert M; Faller, Douglas V

    2014-01-01

    A subpopulation of tumor cells with distinct stem-like properties (cancer stem-like cells, CSCs) may be responsible for tumor initiation, invasive growth, and possibly dissemination to distant organ sites. CSCs exhibit a spectrum of biological, biochemical, and molecular features that are consistent with a stem-like phenotype, including growth as non-adherent spheres (clonogenic potential), ability to form a new tumor in xenograft assays, unlimited self-renewal, and the capacity for multipotency and lineage-specific differentiation. PKCδ is a novel class serine/threonine kinase of the PKC family, and functions in a number of cellular activities including cell proliferation, survival or apoptosis. PKCδ has previously been validated as a synthetic lethal target in cancer cells of multiple types with aberrant activation of Ras signaling, using both genetic (shRNA and dominant-negative PKCδ mutants) and small molecule inhibitors. In contrast, PKCδ is not required for the proliferation or survival of normal cells, suggesting the potential tumor-specificity of a PKCδ-targeted approach. shRNA knockdown was used validate PKCδ as a target in primary cancer stem cell lines and stem-like cells derived from human tumor cell lines, including breast, pancreatic, prostate and melanoma tumor cells. Novel and potent small molecule PKCδ inhibitors were employed in assays monitoring apoptosis, proliferation and clonogenic capacity of these cancer stem-like populations. Significant differences among data sets were determined using two-tailed Student’s t tests or ANOVA. We demonstrate that CSC-like populations derived from multiple types of human primary tumors, from human cancer cell lines, and from transformed human cells, require PKCδ activity and are susceptible to agents which deplete PKCδ protein or activity. Inhibition of PKCδ by specific genetic strategies (shRNA) or by novel small molecule inhibitors is growth inhibitory and cytotoxic to multiple types of human

  2. Small molecule kaempferol modulates PDX-1 protein expression and subsequently promotes pancreatic β-cell survival and function via CREB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanling.; Zhen, Wei.; Maechler, Pierre; Liu, Dongmin

    2013-01-01

    Chronic hyperlipidemia causes β-cell apoptosis and dysfunction, thereby contributing to the pathogenesis of T2D. Thus, searching for agents to promote pancreatic β-cell survival and improve its function could be a promising strategy to prevent and treat T2D. We investigated the effects of kaempferol, a small molecule isolated from ginkgo biloba, on apoptosis and function of β-cells and further determined the mechanism underlying its actions. Kaempferol treatment promoted viability, inhibited apoptosis, and reduced caspase-3 activity in INS-1E cells and human islets chronically exposed to palmitate. In addition, kaempferol prevented the lipotoxicity-induced down-regulation of anti-apoptotic proteins Akt and Bcl-2. The cytoprotective effects of kaempferol were associated with improved insulin secretion, synthesis, and PDX-1 expression. Chronic hyperlipidemia significantly diminished cAMP production, PKA activation, and CREB phosphorylation and its regulated transcriptional activity in β-cells, all of which were restored by kaempferol treatment. Disruption of CREB expression by transfection of CREB siRNA in INS-1E cells or adenoviral transfer of dominant-negative forms of CREB in human islets ablated kaempferol protection of β-cell apoptosis and dysfunction caused by palmitate. Incubation of INS-1E cells or human islets with kaempferol for 48 h induced PDX-1 expression. This effect of kaempferol on PDX-1 expression was not shared by a host of structurally related flavonoid compounds. PDX-1 gene knockdown reduced kaempferol–stimulated cAMP generation and CREB activation in INS-1E cells. These findings demonstrate that kaempferol is a novel survivor factor for pancreatic β-cells via up-regulating the PDX-1/cAMP/PKA/CREB signaling cascade. PMID:22819546

  3. Radiobilogical cell survival models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zackrisson, B.

    1992-01-01

    A central issue in clinical radiobiological research is the prediction of responses to different radiation qualities. The choice of cell survival and dose-response model greatly influences the results. In this context the relationship between theory and model is emphasized. Generally, the interpretations of experimental data depend on the model. Cell survival models are systematized with respect to their relations to radiobiological theories of cell kill. The growing knowlegde of biological, physical, and chemical mechanisms is reflected in the formulation of new models. The present overview shows that recent modelling has been more oriented towards the stochastic fluctuations connected to radiation energy deposition. This implies that the traditional cell surivival models ought to be complemented by models of stochastic energy deposition processes and repair processes at the intracellular level. (orig.)

  4. Gestational Age-Dependent Increase of Survival Motor Neuron Protein in Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sota Iwatani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundSpinal muscular atrophy (SMA is the most common genetic neurological disease leading to infant death. It is caused by loss of survival motor neuron (SMN 1 gene and subsequent reduction of SMN protein in motor neurons. Because SMN is ubiquitously expressed and functionally linked to general RNA metabolism pathway, fibroblasts (FBs are most widely used for the assessment of SMN expression in SMA patients but usually isolated from skin biopsy samples after the onset of overt symptoms. Although recent translational studies of SMN-targeted therapies have revealed the very limited time window for effective SMA therapies during perinatal period, the exact time point when SMN shortage became evident is unknown in human samples. In this study, we analyzed SMN mRNA and protein expression during perinatal period by using umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs obtained from preterm and term infants.MethodsUC-MSCs were isolated from 16 control infants delivered at 22–40 weeks of gestation and SMA fetus aborted at 19 weeks of gestation (UC-MSC-Control and UC-MSC-SMA. FBs were isolated from control volunteer and SMA patient (FB-Control and FB-SMA. SMN mRNA and protein expression in UC-MSCs and FBs was determined by RT-qPCR and Western blot.ResultsUC-MSC-Control and UC-MSC-SMA expressed the comparable level of MSC markers on their cell surface and were able to differentiate into adipocytes, osteocytes, and chondrocytes. At steady state, SMN mRNA and protein expression was decreased in UC-MSC-SMA compared to UC-MSC-Control, as observed in FB-SMA and FB-Control. In response to histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid, SMN mRNA and protein expression in UC-MSC-SMA and FB-SMA was increased. During perinatal development from 22 to 40 weeks of gestation, SMN mRNA and protein expression in UC-MSC-Control was positively correlated with gestational age.ConclusionUC-MSCs isolated from 17 fetus/infant of 19–40 weeks of gestation

  5. Serine/Threonine Protein Phosphatase PstP of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Is Necessary for Accurate Cell Division and Survival of Pathogen*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Aditya K.; Arora, Divya; Singh, Lalit K.; Gangwal, Aakriti; Sajid, Andaleeb; Molle, Virginie; Singh, Yogendra; Nandicoori, Vinay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Protein phosphatases play vital roles in phosphorylation-mediated cellular signaling. Although there are 11 serine/threonine protein kinases in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, only one serine/threonine phosphatase, PstP, has been identified. Although PstP has been biochemically characterized and multiple in vitro substrates have been identified, its physiological role has not yet been elucidated. In this study, we have investigated the impact of PstP on cell growth and survival of the pathogen in the host. Overexpression of PstP led to elongated cells and partially compromised survival. We find that depletion of PstP is detrimental to cell survival, eventually leading to cell death. PstP depletion results in elongated multiseptate cells, suggesting a role for PstP in regulating cell division events. Complementation experiments performed with PstP deletion mutants revealed marginally compromised survival, suggesting that all of the domains, including the extracellular domain, are necessary for complete rescue. On the other hand, the catalytic activity of PstP is absolutely essential for the in vitro growth. Mice infection experiments establish a definitive role for PstP in pathogen survival within the host. Depletion of PstP from established infections causes pathogen clearance, indicating that the continued presence of PstP is necessary for pathogen survival. Taken together, our data suggest an important role for PstP in establishing and maintaining infection, possibly via the modulation of cell division events. PMID:27758870

  6. Transcript and protein analysis reveals better survival skills of monocyte-derived dendritic cells compared to monocytes during oxidative stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilse Van Brussel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dendritic cells (DCs, professional antigen-presenting cells with the unique ability to initiate primary T-cell responses, are present in atherosclerotic lesions where they are exposed to oxidative stress that generates cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS. A large body of evidence indicates that cell death is a major modulating factor of atherogenesis. We examined antioxidant defence systems of human monocyte-derived (moDCs and monocytes in response to oxidative stress. METHODS: Oxidative stress was induced by addition of tertiary-butylhydroperoxide (tert-BHP, 30 min. Cellular responses were evaluated using flow cytometry and confocal live cell imaging (both using 5-(and-6-chloromethyl-2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, CM-H(2DCFDA. Viability was assessed by the neutral red assay. Total RNA was extracted for a PCR profiler array. Five genes were selected for confirmation by Taqman gene expression assays, and by immunoblotting or immunohistochemistry for protein levels. RESULTS: Tert-BHP increased CM-H(2DCFDA fluorescence and caused cell death. Interestingly, all processes occurred more slowly in moDCs than in monocytes. The mRNA profiler array showed more than 2-fold differential expression of 32 oxidative stress-related genes in unstimulated moDCs, including peroxiredoxin-2 (PRDX2, an enzyme reducing hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxides. PRDX2 upregulation was confirmed by Taqman assays, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. Silencing PRDX2 in moDCs by means of siRNA significantly increased CM-DCF fluorescence and cell death upon tert-BHP-stimulation. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that moDCs exhibit higher intracellular antioxidant capacities, making them better equipped to resist oxidative stress than monocytes. Upregulation of PRDX2 is involved in the neutralization of ROS in moDCs. Taken together, this points to better survival skills of DCs in oxidative stress environments, such as atherosclerotic plaques.

  7. The influence of increased hepatic sequestration after splenectomy on the survival and osmotic fragility of red cells in rats, with reference to protein levels in diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hisaoka, Fumiko; Shiraki, Keizo; Sagawa, Sueko

    1977-01-01

    The sequestration of erythrocytes in rats was studied using an isologous 51-Cr labeled population of either normal or N-ethyl-maleimide treated red cells. Experiments were performed for observing the effects of the change in the hepatic sequestration of altered red cells on the osmotic fragility and the survival time of circulating red cells. The rate of sequestration in liver at different period after splenectomy was measured with respect to the survival time and osmotic fragility of red cells. The parameters of the proliferative response imposed on liver were also observed. The spleen sequestered selectively damaged red cells, while the liver compensated and overshot the sequestration for spleen after splenectomy. The sequestering response in liver increased gradually and reached the maximum level around 8 weeks after splenectomy, and then declined toward the control level. This compensatory response in liver was not observed in the rats fed with low protein diet. Therefore, the proliferative response imposed on liver by an extra work after splenectomy was not stimulated in the rats fed with low protein diet. Splenectomy prolonged erythrocyte survival and reduced the osmotic fragility of normal red cells, but the compensatory increase in the sequestration of damaged red cells in liver did not alter the survival and osmotic fragility of normal red cells. This fact indicates that the increased sequestration of reticuloendothelial cells in liver is basically reparative, and it is impossible to compensate for the absence of the spleen because of the inability to duplicate certain anatomic features peculiar to the spleen. (Iwakiri, K.)

  8. Dynamic O-linked N-acetylglucosamine modification of proteins affects stress responses and survival of mesothelial cells exposed to peritoneal dialysis fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Rebecca; Bender, Thorsten O; Vychytil, Andreas; Bialas, Katarzyna; Aufricht, Christoph; Kratochwill, Klaus

    2014-12-01

    The ability of cells to respond and survive stressful conditions is determined, in part, by the attachment of O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) to proteins (O-GlcNAcylation), a post-translational modification dependent on glucose and glutamine. This study investigates the role of dynamic O-GlcNAcylation of mesothelial cell proteins in cell survival during exposure to glucose-based peritoneal dialysis fluid (PDF). Immortalized human mesothelial cells and primary mesothelial cells, cultured from human omentum or clinical effluent of PD patients, were assessed for O-GlcNAcylation under normal conditions or after exposure to PDF. The dynamic status of O-GlcNAcylation and effects on cellular survival were investigated by chemical modulation with 6-diazo-5-oxo-L-norleucine (DON) to decrease or O-(2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucopyranosylidene)amino N-phenyl carbamate (PUGNAc) to increase O-GlcNAc levels. Viability was decreased by reducing O-GlcNAc levels by DON, which also led to suppressed expression of the cytoprotective heat shock protein 72. In contrast, increasing O-GlcNAc levels by PUGNAc or alanyl-glutamine led to significantly improved cell survival paralleled by higher heat shock protein 72 levels during PDF treatment. Addition of alanyl-glutamine increased O-GlcNAcylation and partly counteracted its inhibition by DON, also leading to improved cell survival. Immunofluorescent analysis of clinical samples showed that the O-GlcNAc signal primarily originates from mesothelial cells. In conclusion, this study identified O-GlcNAcylation in mesothelial cells as a potentially important molecular mechanism after exposure to PDF. Modulating O-GlcNAc levels by clinically feasible interventions might evolve as a novel therapeutic target for the preservation of peritoneal membrane integrity in PD. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  9. PERK Signal-Modulated Protein Translation Promotes the Survivability of Dengue 2 Virus-Infected Mosquito Cells and Extends Viral Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jiun-Nan; Chen, Tien-Huang; Chiang, Yi-Hsuan; Peng, Jing-Yun; Yang, Tsong-Han; Cheng, Chih-Chieh; Sofiyatun, Eny; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun; Chiang-Ni, Chuan; Chen, Wei-June

    2017-09-20

    Survival of mosquitoes from dengue virus (DENV) infection is a prerequisite of viral transmission to the host. This study aimed to see how mosquito cells can survive the infection during prosperous replication of the virus. In C6/36 cells, global protein translation was shut down after infection by DENV type 2 (DENV2). However, it returned to a normal level when infected cells were treated with an inhibitor of the protein kinase RNA (PKR)-like ER kinase (PERK) signaling pathway. Based on a 7-Methylguanosine 5'-triphosphate (m7GTP) pull-down assay, the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4F (eIF4F) complex was also identified in DENV2-infected cells. This suggests that most mosquito proteins are synthesized via canonical cap-dependent translation. When the PERK signal pathway was inhibited, both accumulation of reactive oxygen species and changes in the mitochondrial membrane potential increased. This suggested that ER stress response was alleviated through the PERK-mediated shutdown of global proteins in DENV2-infected C6/36 cells. In the meantime, the activities of caspases-9 and -3 and the apoptosis-related cell death rate increased in C6/36 cells with PERK inhibition. This reflected that the PERK-signaling pathway is involved in determining cell survival, presumably by reducing DENV2-induced ER stress. Looking at the PERK downstream target, α-subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2α), an increased phosphorylation status was only shown in infected C6/36 cells. This indicated that recruitment of ribosome binding to the mRNA 5'-cap structure could have been impaired in cap-dependent translation. It turned out that shutdown of cellular protein translation resulted in a pro-survival effect on mosquito cells in response to DENV2 infection. As synthesis of viral proteins was not affected by the PERK signal pathway, an alternate mode other than cap-dependent translation may be utilized. This finding provides insights into elucidating how the PERK signal

  10. Survival curves for irradiated cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, D.K.

    1975-01-01

    The subject of the lecture is the probability of survival of biological cells which have been subjected to ionising radiation. The basic mathematical theories of cell survival as a function of radiation dose are developed. A brief comparison with observed survival curves is made. (author)

  11. Gestational Age-Dependent Increase of Survival Motor Neuron Protein in Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Iwatani, Sota; Harahap, Nur Imma Fatimah; Nurputra, Dian Kesumapramudya; Tairaku, Shinya; Shono, Akemi; Kurokawa, Daisuke; Yamana, Keiji; Thwin, Khin Kyae Mon; Yoshida, Makiko; Mizobuchi, Masami; Koda, Tsubasa; Fujioka, Kazumichi; Taniguchi-Ikeda, Mariko; Yamada, Hideto; Morioka, Ichiro

    2017-01-01

    Background: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is the most common genetic neurological disease leading to infant death. It is caused by loss of survival motor neuron (SMN) 1 gene and subsequent reduction of SMN protein in motor neurons. Because SMN is ubiquitously expressed and functionally linked to general RNA metabolism pathway, fibroblasts (FBs) are most widely used for the assessment of SMN expression in SMA patients but usually isolated from skin biopsy samples after the onset of overt sympt...

  12. Cell survival, UV-reactivation and induction of prophage lambda in Escherichia coli K12 overproducing RecA protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quillardet, P.; Moreau, P.L.; Devoret, R.; Ginsburg, H.; Mount, D.W.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of the cellular level of RecA protein on the ability of E. coli K12 bacteria to (I) survive UV-irradiation (II) promote UV-reactivation of UV-damaged phage lambda (III) induce prophage lambda was determined in bacterial mutants with discrete increasing levels of RecA protein. The various levels of RecA protein were obtained by combining lexA and recA alleles. Except for the double mutant lexA3 recAo98, whose repair ability was 25% less than that observed in wild type bacteria, bacterial survival was proportional to the level of ReCA protein measured after 90 min of incubation. In lexA3 recAo98 bacteria, RecA protein, at a constitutive high basal level, failed to compensate totally for the lack of LexA repressor cleavage; UV-reactivation of UV-damaged phage lambda was not restored; yet, prophage lambda was induced with 35% efficiency. Efficient UV-induction of prophage lambda is linked to the induction of lexA-controlled host processes that repair the UV-damaged prophage. (orig.)

  13. Tax Protein-induced Expression of Antiapoptotic Bfl-1 Protein Contributes to Survival of Human T-cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1)-infected T-cells*♦

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaire, Héloïse; Riquet, Aurélien; Moncollin, Vincent; Biémont-Trescol, Marie-Claude; Duc Dodon, Madeleine; Hermine, Olivier; Debaud, Anne-Laure; Mahieux, Renaud; Mesnard, Jean-Michel; Pierre, Marlène; Gazzolo, Louis; Bonnefoy, Nathalie; Valentin, Hélène

    2012-01-01

    Human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiologic agent of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL). ATLL is a severe malignancy with no effective treatment. HTLV-1 regulatory proteins Tax and HTLV-1 basic leucine zipper factor (HBZ) play a major role in ATLL development, by interfering with cellular functions such as CD4+ T-cell survival. In this study, we observed that the expression of Bfl-1, an antiapoptotic protein of the Bcl-2 family, is restricted to HTLV-1-infected T-cell lines and to T-cells expressing both Tax and HBZ proteins. We showed that Tax-induced bfl-1 transcription through the canonical NF-κB pathway. Moreover, we demonstrated that Tax cooperated with c-Jun or JunD, but not JunB, transcription factors of the AP-1 family to stimulate bfl-1 gene activation. By contrast, HBZ inhibited c-Jun-induced bfl-1 gene activation, whereas it increased JunD-induced bfl-1 gene activation. We identified one NF-κB, targeted by RelA, c-Rel, RelB, p105/p50, and p100/p52, and two AP-1, targeted by both c-Jun and JunD, binding sites in the bfl-1 promoter of T-cells expressing both Tax and HBZ. Analyzing the potential role of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins in HTLV-1-infected T-cell survival, we demonstrated that these cells are differentially sensitive to silencing of Bfl-1, Bcl-xL, and Bcl-2. Indeed, both Bfl-1 and Bcl-xL knockdowns decreased the survival of HTLV-1-infected T-cell lines, although no cell death was observed after Bcl-2 knockdown. Furthermore, we demonstrated that Bfl-1 knockdown sensitizes HTLV-1-infected T-cells to ABT-737 or etoposide treatment. Our results directly implicate Bfl-1 and Bcl-xL in HTLV-1-infected T-cell survival and suggest that both Bfl-1 and Bcl-xL represent potential therapeutic targets for ATLL treatment. PMID:22553204

  14. Cancer Cell-derived Exosomes Induce Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase-dependent Monocyte Survival by Transport of Functional Receptor Tyrosine Kinases*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiao; Ding, Yanping; Liu, Gang; Yang, Xiao; Zhao, Ruifang; Zhang, Yinlong; Zhao, Xiao; Anderson, Gregory J.; Nie, Guangjun

    2016-01-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) play pivotal roles in cancer initiation and progression. Monocytes, the precursors of TAMs, normally undergo spontaneous apoptosis within 2 days, but can subsist in the inflammatory tumor microenvironment for continuous survival and generation of sufficient TAMs. The mechanisms underlying tumor-driving monocyte survival remain obscure. Here we report that cancer cell-derived exosomes were crucial mediators for monocyte survival in the inflammatory niche. Analysis of the survival-promoting molecules in monocytes revealed that cancer cell-derived exosomes activated Ras and extracellular signal-regulated kinases in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, resulting in the prevention of caspase cleavage. Phosphorylated receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), such as phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2), were abundantly expressed in cancer cell-derived exosomes. Knock-out of EGFR or/and HER-2, or alternatively, inhibitors against their phosphorylation significantly disturbed the exosome-mediated activation of the MAPK pathway, inhibition of caspase cleavage, and increase in survival rate in monocytes. Moreover, the deprived survival-stimulating activity of exosomes due to null expression of EGFR and HER-2 could be restored by activation of another RTK, insulin receptor. Overall, our study uncovered a mechanism of tumor-associated monocyte survival and demonstrated that cancer cell-derived exosomes can stimulate the MAPK pathway in monocytes through transport of functional RTKs, leading to inactivation of apoptosis-related caspases. This work provides insights into the long sought question on monocyte survival prior to formation of plentiful TAMs in the tumor microenvironment. PMID:26895960

  15. Cancer Cell-derived Exosomes Induce Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase-dependent Monocyte Survival by Transport of Functional Receptor Tyrosine Kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiao; Ding, Yanping; Liu, Gang; Yang, Xiao; Zhao, Ruifang; Zhang, Yinlong; Zhao, Xiao; Anderson, Gregory J; Nie, Guangjun

    2016-04-15

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) play pivotal roles in cancer initiation and progression. Monocytes, the precursors of TAMs, normally undergo spontaneous apoptosis within 2 days, but can subsist in the inflammatory tumor microenvironment for continuous survival and generation of sufficient TAMs. The mechanisms underlying tumor-driving monocyte survival remain obscure. Here we report that cancer cell-derived exosomes were crucial mediators for monocyte survival in the inflammatory niche. Analysis of the survival-promoting molecules in monocytes revealed that cancer cell-derived exosomes activated Ras and extracellular signal-regulated kinases in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, resulting in the prevention of caspase cleavage. Phosphorylated receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), such as phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2), were abundantly expressed in cancer cell-derived exosomes. Knock-out of EGFR or/and HER-2, or alternatively, inhibitors against their phosphorylation significantly disturbed the exosome-mediated activation of the MAPK pathway, inhibition of caspase cleavage, and increase in survival rate in monocytes. Moreover, the deprived survival-stimulating activity of exosomes due to null expression of EGFR and HER-2 could be restored by activation of another RTK, insulin receptor. Overall, our study uncovered a mechanism of tumor-associated monocyte survival and demonstrated that cancer cell-derived exosomes can stimulate the MAPK pathway in monocytes through transport of functional RTKs, leading to inactivation of apoptosis-related caspases. This work provides insights into the long sought question on monocyte survival prior to formation of plentiful TAMs in the tumor microenvironment. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Radionuclide blood cell survival studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, S.A.; Miller, D.T.

    1986-01-01

    Platelet and red cell survival studies are reviewed. The use of 51 Cr and di-isopropylfluoridate labelled with tritium or 32 P is discussed for red cell survival study and 51 Cr and 111 In-oxine are considered as platelet labels. (UK)

  17. Stimulated human fibroblast cell survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, B.P.; Gale, K.L.; Einspenner, M.; Greenstock, C.L.; Gentner, N.E.

    1992-01-01

    Techniques for cloning cultured mammalian cells have supported the most universally-accepted method for measuring the induction of lethality by geno-toxicants such as ionizing radiation: the 'survival of colony-forming ability (CFA)' assay. Since most cultured human cell lines exhibit plating efficiency (i.e. the percentage of cells that are capable of reproductively surviving and dividing to form visible colonies) well below 100%, such assays are in essence 'survival of plating efficiency' assays, since they are referred to the plating (or cloning) efficiency of control (i.e. unirradiated) cells. (author). 8 refs., 2 figs

  18. Proliferating fibroblasts and HeLa cells co-cultured in vitro reciprocally influence growth patterns, protein expression, chromatin features and cell survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delinasios, John G; Angeli, Flora; Koumakis, George; Kumar, Shant; Kang, Wen-Hui; Sica, Gigliola; Iacopino, Fortunata; Lama, Gina; Lamprecht, Sergio; Sigal-Batikoff, Ina; Tsangaris, George T; Farfarelos, Christos D; Farfarelos, Maria C; Vairaktaris, Eleftherios; Vassiliou, Stavros; Delinasios, George J

    2015-04-01

    if fibroblast proliferation is blocked by contact inhibition of growth at confluency, or by omitting replacement of the nutrient medium. The present observations show that: (a) interaction between proliferating fibroblasts and HeLa cells in vitro drastically influences each other's protein expression, growth pattern, chromatin features and survival; (b) these functions depend on the fibroblast/HeLa ratio, cell topology (cell-cell contact and the architectural pattern developed during co-culture) and frequent medium change, as prerequisites for fibroblast proliferation; (c) this co-culture model is useful in the study of the complex processes within the tumour microenvironment, as well as the in vitro reproduction and display of several phenomena conventionally seen in tumour cytological sections, such as desmoplasia, apoptosis, nuclear abnormalities; and (d) overgrown fibroblasts adhering to the boundaries of HeLa colonies produce and secrete lipid droplets. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  19. Protein synthesis and the recovery of both survival and cytoplasmic "petite" mutation in ultraviolet-treated yeast cells. II. Mitochondrial protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heude, M; Chanet, R

    1975-04-01

    The contribution of mitochondrial proteins in the repair of UV-induced lethal and cytoplasmic genetic damages was studied in dark liquid held exponential and stationary phase yeast cells. This was performed by using the specific inhibitors, erythromycin (ER) anc chloramphenicol (CAP). It was shown that mitochondrial proteins are involved in the recovery of stationary phase cells. Mitochondrial proteins are partly implicated in the mechanisms leading to the restoration of the (see article) genotype in UV-irradiated dark liquid held exponential phase cells. Here again, in stationary phase cells, mitochondrial enzymes do not seem to participate in the negative liquid holding (NLH) process for the (see article) induction, as shown by inhibiting mitochondrial protein synthesis or both mitochondrial and nuclear protein synthesis. When cells are grown in glycerol, the response after dark liquid holding of UV-treated cells in the different growth stages are similar to that found for glucose-grown cells. In other words, the fate of cytoplasmic genetic damage, in particular, is not correlated with the repressed or derepressed state of the mitochondria.

  20. Multidrug Resistance-associated Protein-1 (MRP-1)-dependent Glutathione Disulfide (GSSG) Efflux as a Critical Survival Factor for Oxidant-enriched Tumorigenic Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordillo, Gayle M; Biswas, Ayan; Khanna, Savita; Spieldenner, James M; Pan, Xueliang; Sen, Chandan K

    2016-05-06

    Endothelial cell tumors are the most common soft tissue tumors in infants. Tumor-forming endothelial (EOMA) cells are able to escape cell death fate despite excessive nuclear oxidant burden. Our previous work recognized perinuclear Nox-4 as a key contributor to EOMA growth. The objective of this work was to characterize the mechanisms by which EOMA cells evade oxidant toxicity and thrive. In EOMA cells, compared with in the cytosol, the nuclear GSSG/GSH ratio was 5-fold higher. Compared to the ratio observed in healthy murine aortic endothelial (MAE) cells, GSSG/GSH was over twice as high in EOMA cells. Multidrug resistance-associated protein-1 (MRP-1), an active GSSG efflux mechanism, showed 2-fold increased activity in EOMA compared with MAE cells. Hyperactive YB-1 and Ape/Ref-1 were responsible for high MRP-1 expression in EOMA. Proximity ligand assay demonstrated MRP-1 and YB-1 binding. Such binding enabled the nuclear targeting of MRP-1 in EOMA in a leptomycin-B-sensitive manner. MRP-1 inhibition as well as knockdown trapped nuclear GSSG, causing cell death of EOMA. Disulfide loading of cells by inhibition of GSSG reductase (bischoloronitrosourea) or thioredoxin reductase (auranofin) was effective in causing EOMA death as well. In sum, EOMA cells survive a heavy oxidant burden by rapid efflux of GSSG, which is lethal if trapped within the cell. A hyperactive MRP-1 system for GSSG efflux acts as a critical survival factor for these cells, making it a potential target for EOMA therapeutics. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Multidrug Resistance-associated Protein-1 (MRP-1)-dependent Glutathione Disulfide (GSSG) Efflux as a Critical Survival Factor for Oxidant-enriched Tumorigenic Endothelial Cells*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordillo, Gayle M.; Biswas, Ayan; Khanna, Savita; Spieldenner, James M.; Pan, Xueliang; Sen, Chandan K.

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial cell tumors are the most common soft tissue tumors in infants. Tumor-forming endothelial (EOMA) cells are able to escape cell death fate despite excessive nuclear oxidant burden. Our previous work recognized perinuclear Nox-4 as a key contributor to EOMA growth. The objective of this work was to characterize the mechanisms by which EOMA cells evade oxidant toxicity and thrive. In EOMA cells, compared with in the cytosol, the nuclear GSSG/GSH ratio was 5-fold higher. Compared to the ratio observed in healthy murine aortic endothelial (MAE) cells, GSSG/GSH was over twice as high in EOMA cells. Multidrug resistance-associated protein-1 (MRP-1), an active GSSG efflux mechanism, showed 2-fold increased activity in EOMA compared with MAE cells. Hyperactive YB-1 and Ape/Ref-1 were responsible for high MRP-1 expression in EOMA. Proximity ligand assay demonstrated MRP-1 and YB-1 binding. Such binding enabled the nuclear targeting of MRP-1 in EOMA in a leptomycin-B-sensitive manner. MRP-1 inhibition as well as knockdown trapped nuclear GSSG, causing cell death of EOMA. Disulfide loading of cells by inhibition of GSSG reductase (bischoloronitrosourea) or thioredoxin reductase (auranofin) was effective in causing EOMA death as well. In sum, EOMA cells survive a heavy oxidant burden by rapid efflux of GSSG, which is lethal if trapped within the cell. A hyperactive MRP-1 system for GSSG efflux acts as a critical survival factor for these cells, making it a potential target for EOMA therapeutics. PMID:26961872

  2. Non-SMC condensin I complex proteins control chromosome segregation and survival of proliferating cells in the zebrafish neural retina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris William A

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The condensation of chromosomes and correct sister chromatid segregation during cell division is an essential feature of all proliferative cells. Structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC and non-SMC proteins form the condensin I complex and regulate chromosome condensation and segregation during mitosis. However, due to the lack of appropriate mutants, the function of the condensin I complex during vertebrate development has not been described. Results Here, we report the positional cloning and detailed characterization of retinal phenotypes of a zebrafish mutation at the cap-g locus. High resolution live imaging reveals that the progression of mitosis between prometa- to telophase is delayed and that sister chromatid segregation is impaired upon loss of CAP-G. CAP-G associates with chromosomes between prometa- and telophase of the cell cycle. Loss of the interaction partners CAP-H and CAP-D2 causes cytoplasmic mislocalization of CAP-G throughout mitosis. DNA content analysis reveals increased genomic imbalances upon loss of non-SMC condensin I subunits. Within the retina, loss of condensin I function causes increased rates of apoptosis among cells within the proliferative ciliary marginal zone (CMZ whereas postmitotic retinal cells are viable. Inhibition of p53-mediated apoptosis partially rescues cell numbers in cap-g mutant retinae and allows normal layering of retinal cell types without alleviating their aberrant nuclear sizes. Conclusion Our findings indicate that the condensin I complex is particularly important within rapidly amplifying progenitor cell populations to ensure faithful chromosome segregation. In contrast, differentiation of postmitotic retinal cells is not impaired upon polyploidization.

  3. Phosphorylated 4E binding protein 1: a hallmark of cell signaling that correlates with survival in ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellvi, Josep; Garcia, Angel; Rojo, Federico; Ruiz-Marcellan, Carmen; Gil, Antonio; Baselga, Jose; Ramon y Cajal, Santiago

    2006-10-15

    Growth factor receptors and cell signaling factors play a crucial role in human carcinomas and have been studied in ovarian tumors with varying results. Cell signaling involves multiple pathways and a myriad of factors that can be mutated or amplified. Cell signaling is driven through the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) pathways and by some downstream molecules, such as 4E binding protein 1 (4EBP1), eukaryotic initiation factor 4E, and p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K). The objectives of this study were to analyze the real role that these pathways play in ovarian cancer, to correlate them with clinicopathologic characteristics, and to identify the factors that transmit individual proliferation signals and are associated with pathologic grade and prognosis, regardless specific oncogenic alterations upstream. One hundred twenty-nine ovarian epithelial tumors were studied, including 20 serous cystadenomas, 7 mucinous cystadenomas, 11 serous borderline tumors, 16 mucinous borderline tumors, 29 serous carcinomas, 16 endometrioid carcinomas, 15 clear cell carcinomas, and 15 mucinous carcinomas. Tissue microarrays were constructed, and immunohistochemistry for the receptors epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and c-erb-B2 was performed and with phosphorylated antibodies for protein kinase B (AKT), 4EBP1, p70S6K, S6, and ERK. Among 129 ovarian neoplasms, 17.8% were positive for c-erb-B2, 9.3% were positive for EGFR, 47.3% were positive for phosphorylated AKT (p-AKT), 58.9% were positive for p-ERK, 41.1% were positive for p-4EBP1, 26.4% were positive for p70S6K, and 15.5% were positive for p-S6. Although EGFR, p-AKT, and p-ERK expression did not differ between benign, borderline, or malignant tumors, c-erb-B2, p-4EBP1, p-p70S6K, and p-S6 were expressed significantly more often in malignant tumors. Only p-4EBP1 expression demonstrated prognostic significance (P = .005), and only surgical stage and p-4EBP1 expression

  4. Survival of metastatic melanoma patients after dendritic cell vaccination correlates with expression of leukocyte phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein 1/Raf kinase inhibitory protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buschow, Sonja I; Ramazzotti, Matteo; Reinieren-Beeren, Inge M J

    2017-01-01

    -based biomarkers are of particular interest because of their straightforward implementation in routine clinical care. We sought to identify markers for dendritic cell (DC) vaccine-based immunotherapy against metastatic melanoma through gene expression analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. A large....... Intriguingly, this was only the case for expression of PEBP1 after, but not prior to, DC vaccination. Moreover, the change in PEBP1 expression upon vaccination correlated well with survival. Further analyses revealed that PEBP1 expression positively correlated with genes involved in T cell responses...... but inversely correlated with genes associated with myeloid cells and aberrant inflammation including STAT3, NOTCH1, and MAPK1. Concordantly, PEBP1 inversely correlated with the myeloid/lymphoid-ratio and was suppressed in patients suffering from chronic inflammatory disease....

  5. Nrf1 CNC-bZIP protein promotes cell survival and nucleotide excision repair through maintaining glutathione homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Weinong; Ming, Mei; Zhao, Rui; Pi, Jingbo; Wu, Chunli; He, Yu-Ying

    2012-05-25

    Skin cancer is the most common cancer in the United States. Its major environmental risk factor is UVB radiation in sunlight. In response to UVB damage, epidermal keratinocytes activate a specific repair pathway, i.e. nucleotide excision repair, to remove UVB-induced DNA lesions. However, the regulation of UVB response is not fully understood. Here we show that the long isoform of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 1 (Nrf1, also called NFE2L1), a cytoprotective transcription factor critical for the expression of multiple antioxidant response element-dependent genes, plays an important role in the response of keratinocytes to UVB. Nrf1 loss sensitized keratinocytes to UVB-induced apoptosis by up-regulating the expression of the proapoptotic Bcl-2 family member Bik through reducing glutathione levels. Knocking down Bik reduced UVB-induced apoptosis in Nrf1-inhibited cells. In UVB-irradiated surviving cells, however, disruption of Nrf1 impaired nucleotide excision repair through suppressing the transcription of xeroderma pigmentosum C (XPC), a factor essential for initiating the global genome nucleotide excision repair by recognizing the DNA lesion and recruiting downstream factors. Nrf1 enhanced XPC expression by increasing glutathione availability but was independent of the transcription repressor of XPC. Adding XPC or glutathione restored the DNA repair capacity in Nrf1-inhibited cells. Finally, we demonstrate that Nrf1 levels are significantly reduced by UVB radiation in mouse skin and are lower in human skin tumors than in normal skin. These results indicate a novel role of Nrf1 in UVB-induced DNA damage repair and suggest Nrf1 as a tumor suppressor in the skin.

  6. The stress protein BAG3 stabilizes Mcl-1 protein and promotes survival of cancer cells and resistance to antagonist ABT-737.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiani, Mariana; Daniel, Cristina; Liu, Xueyuan; Hogarty, Michael D; Marnett, Lawrence J

    2013-03-08

    Members of the Bcl-2 family of proteins are important inhibitors of apoptosis in human cancer and are targets for novel anticancer agents such as the Bcl-2 antagonists, ABT-263 (Navitoclax), and its analog ABT-737. Unlike Bcl-2, Mcl-1 is not antagonized by ABT-263 or ABT-737 and is considered to be a major factor in resistance. Also, Mcl-1 exhibits differential regulation when compared with other Bcl-2 family members and is a target for anticancer drug discovery. Here, we demonstrate that BAG3, an Hsp70 co-chaperone, protects Mcl-1 from proteasomal degradation, thereby promoting its antiapoptotic activity. Using neuroblastoma cell lines, with a defined Bcl-2 family dependence, we found that BAG3 expression correlated with Mcl-1 dependence and ABT-737 resistance. RNA silencing of BAG3 led to a marked reduction in Mcl-1 protein levels and overcame ABT-737 resistance in Mcl-1-dependent cells. In ABT-737-resistant cells, Mcl-1 co-immunoprecipitated with BAG3, and loss of Mcl-1 after BAG3 silencing was prevented by proteasome inhibition. BAG3 and Mcl-1 were co-expressed in a panel of diverse cancer cell lines resistant to ABT-737. Silencing BAG3 reduced Mcl-1 protein levels and overcame ABT-737 resistance in several of the cell lines, including triple-negative breast cancer (MDA-MB231) and androgen receptor-negative prostate cancer (PC3) cells. These studies identify BAG3-mediated Mcl-1 stabilization as a potential target for cancer drug discovery.

  7. The Stress Protein BAG3 Stabilizes Mcl-1 Protein and Promotes Survival of Cancer Cells and Resistance to Antagonist ABT-737*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiani, Mariana; Daniel, Cristina; Liu, Xueyuan; Hogarty, Michael D.; Marnett, Lawrence J.

    2013-01-01

    Members of the Bcl-2 family of proteins are important inhibitors of apoptosis in human cancer and are targets for novel anticancer agents such as the Bcl-2 antagonists, ABT-263 (Navitoclax), and its analog ABT-737. Unlike Bcl-2, Mcl-1 is not antagonized by ABT-263 or ABT-737 and is considered to be a major factor in resistance. Also, Mcl-1 exhibits differential regulation when compared with other Bcl-2 family members and is a target for anticancer drug discovery. Here, we demonstrate that BAG3, an Hsp70 co-chaperone, protects Mcl-1 from proteasomal degradation, thereby promoting its antiapoptotic activity. Using neuroblastoma cell lines, with a defined Bcl-2 family dependence, we found that BAG3 expression correlated with Mcl-1 dependence and ABT-737 resistance. RNA silencing of BAG3 led to a marked reduction in Mcl-1 protein levels and overcame ABT-737 resistance in Mcl-1-dependent cells. In ABT-737-resistant cells, Mcl-1 co-immunoprecipitated with BAG3, and loss of Mcl-1 after BAG3 silencing was prevented by proteasome inhibition. BAG3 and Mcl-1 were co-expressed in a panel of diverse cancer cell lines resistant to ABT-737. Silencing BAG3 reduced Mcl-1 protein levels and overcame ABT-737 resistance in several of the cell lines, including triple-negative breast cancer (MDA-MB231) and androgen receptor-negative prostate cancer (PC3) cells. These studies identify BAG3-mediated Mcl-1 stabilization as a potential target for cancer drug discovery. PMID:23341456

  8. A role for complexes of survival of motor neurons (SMN) protein with gemins and profilin in neurite-like cytoplasmic extensions of cultured nerve cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Aarti; Lambrechts, Anja; Le thi Hao; Le, Thanh T.; Sewry, Caroline A.; Ampe, Christophe; Burghes, Arthur H.M.; Morris, Glenn E.

    2005-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is caused by reduced levels of SMN (survival of motor neurons protein) and consequent loss of motor neurons. SMN is involved in snRNP transport and nuclear RNA splicing, but axonal transport of SMN has also been shown to occur in motor neurons. SMN also binds to the small actin-binding protein, profilin. We now show that SMN and profilin II co-localise in the cytoplasm of differentiating rat PC12 cells and in neurite-like extensions, especially at their growth cones. Many components of known SMN complexes were also found in these extensions, including gemin2 (SIP-1), gemin6, gemin7 and unrip (unr-interacting protein). Coilin p80 and Sm core protein immunoreactivity, however, were seen only in the nucleus. SMN is known to associate with β-actin mRNA and specific hnRNPs in axons and in neurite extensions of cultured nerve cells, and SMN also stimulates neurite outgrowth in cultures. Our results are therefore consistent with SMN complexes, rather than SMN alone, being involved in the transport of actin mRNPs along the axon as in the transport of snRNPs into the nucleus by similar SMN complexes. Antisense knockdown of profilin I and II isoforms inhibited neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells and caused accumulation of SMN and its associated proteins in cytoplasmic aggregates. BIAcore studies demonstrated a high affinity interaction of SMN with profilin IIa, the isoform present in developing neurons. Pathogenic missense mutations in SMN, or deletion of exons 5 and 7, prevented this interaction. The interaction is functional in that SMN can modulate actin polymerisation in vitro by reducing the inhibitory effect of profilin IIa. This suggests that reduced SMN in SMA might cause axonal pathfinding defects by disturbing the normal regulation of microfilament growth by profilins

  9. Role of Cell Cycle Regulation and MLH1, A Key DNA Mismatch Repair Protein, In Adaptive Survival Responses. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Boothman

    1999-08-11

    Due to several interesting findings on both adaptive survival responses (ASRs) and DNA mismatch repair (MMR), this grant was separated into two discrete Specific Aim sets (each with their own discrete hypotheses). The described experiments were simultaneously performed.

  10. The intracellular redox stress caused by hexavalent chromium is selective for proteins that have key roles in cell survival and thiol redox control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, Judith M.; Antholine, William E.; Myers, Charles R.

    2011-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] compounds (e.g. chromates) are strong oxidants that readily enter cells where they are reduced to reactive Cr intermediates that can directly oxidize some cell components and can promote the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Inhalation is a major route of exposure which directly exposes the bronchial epithelium. Previous studies with non-cancerous human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) demonstrated that Cr(VI) treatment results in the irreversible inhibition of thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) and the oxidation of thioredoxins (Trx) and peroxiredoxins (Prx). The mitochondrial Trx/Prx system is somewhat more sensitive to Cr(VI) than the cytosolic Trx/Prx system, and other redox-sensitive mitochondrial functions are subsequently affected including electron transport complexes I and II. Studies reported here show that Cr(VI) does not cause indiscriminant thiol oxidation, and that the Trx/Prx system is among the most sensitive of cellular protein thiols. Trx/Prx oxidation is not unique to BEAS-2B cells, as it was also observed in primary human bronchial epithelial cells. Increasing the intracellular levels of ascorbate, an endogenous Cr(VI) reductant, did not alter the effects on TrxR, Trx, or Prx. The peroxynitrite scavenger MnTBAP did not protect TrxR, Trx, Prx, or the electron transport chain from the effects of Cr(VI), implying that peroxynitrite is not required for these effects. Nitration of tyrosine residues of TrxR was not observed following Cr(VI) treatment, further ruling out peroxynitrite as a significant contributor to the irreversible inhibition of TrxR. Cr(VI) treatments that disrupt the TrxR/Trx/Prx system did not cause detectable mitochondrial DNA damage. Overall, the redox stress that results from Cr(VI) exposure shows selectivity for key proteins which are known to be important for redox signaling, antioxidant defense, and cell survival.

  11. DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit functions in metastasis and influences survival in advanced-stage laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Sha-Sha; Chen, Yong; Shen, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Hong-Zhi; Sun, Peng; Dong, Jun; Guo, Gui-Fang; Chen, Ju-Gao; Xia, Liang-Ping; Hu, Pei-Li; Qiu, Hui-Juan; Liu, Shou-Sheng; Zhou, Yi-Xin; Wang, Wei; Hu, Wei-Han; Cai, Xiu-Yu

    2017-01-01

    Background: DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) is known to function in several types of cancer. In this study, we investigated the expression and clinicopathologic significance of DNA-PKcs in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC). Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of 208 patients with advanced-stage LSCC treated at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, China. We assessed DNA-PKcs and p16INK4a (p16) status using immunohistochemistry. We examined the association between DNA-PKcs expression and clinicopathologic features and survival outcomes. To evaluate the independent prognostic relevance of DNA-PKcs, we used univariate and multivariate Cox regression models. We estimated overall survival (OS) and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that 163/208 (78.4%) of the LSCC tissue samples exhibited high DNA-PKcs expression. High DNA-PKcs expression was significantly associated with survival outcomes ( P = 0.016) and distant metastasis ( P = 0.02; chi-squared test). High DNA-PKcs expression was associated with a significantly shorter OS and DMFS than low DNA-PKcs expression ( P = 0.029 and 0.033, respectively; log-rank test), and was associated with poor OS in the p16-positive subgroup ( P = 0.047). Multivariate analysis identified DNA-PKcs as an independent prognostic indicator of OS and DMFS in all patients ( P = 0.039 and 0.037, respectively). Conclusions : Our results suggest that patients with LSCC in whom DNA-PKcs expression is elevated have a higher incidence of distant metastasis and a poorer prognosis. DNA-PKcs may represent a marker of tumor progression in patients with p16-positive LSCC.

  12. Inhibition of hypoxia inducible factor-1α downregulates the expression of epithelial to mesenchymal transition early marker proteins without undermining cell survival in hypoxic lens epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammarata, Patrick R; Neelam, Sudha; Brooks, Morgan M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify potential therapeutic strategies to slow down or prevent the expression of early-onset epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) marker proteins (fibronectin and alpha smooth muscle actin, α-SMA) without sacrificing the synthesis and accumulation of the prosurvival protein vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in cultured virally transformed human lens epithelial (HLE) cells. HLE-B3 cells, maintained in a continuous hypoxic environment (1% oxygen), were treated with SB216763, a specific inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) catalytic activity. Western blot analysis was employed to detect the cytoplasmic and nuclear levels of β-catenin, as well as the total lysate content of fibronectin and α-SMA. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure the levels of VEGF in cell culture medium. A hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) translation inhibitor and an HIF-2α translation inhibitor were independently employed to evaluate the effect of hypoxia inducible factor inhibition on EMT marker protein and VEGF expression. XAV932 was used to assess the suppression of nuclear β-catenin and its downstream effect on EMT marker proteins and VEGF expression. SB216763-treated HLE-B3 cells caused marked inhibition of GSK-3β activity prompting a significant increase in the translocation of cytoplasmic β-catenin to the nucleus. The enhancement of nuclear β-catenin looked as if it positively correlated with a significant increase in the basal expression of VEGF as well as increased expression of fibronectin and α-SMA. In conjunction with SB216763, coadministration of an HIF-1α translation inhibitor, but not an HIF-2α translation inhibitor, markedly suppressed the expression of fibronectin and α-SMA without affecting VEGF levels. Treatment with XAV932 significantly reduced the level of nuclear β-catenin, but the levels of neither the EMT marker proteins nor VEGF were changed. Recently, we reported

  13. Fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) in prostate, bladder and kidney cancer cell lines and the use of IL-FABP as survival predictor in patients with renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tölle, Angelika; Suhail, Saba; Jung, Monika; Jung, Klaus; Stephan, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    Fatty acid binding proteins (FABP) play an important role in carcinogenesis. Modified FABP expression patterns were described for prostate, bladder and for renal cell carcinoma. Studies on metabolic relationships and interactions in permanent cell lines allow a deeper insight into molecular processes. The aim of this study is therefore a systematic overview on mRNA and protein expressions of seven FABPs in frequently used urological cell lines. Nine cell lines of renal carcinomas, seven of urinary bladder carcinomas, and five of prostate carcinomas were investigated. Quantitative RT-qPCR and western blotting were used to determine different FABPs. In addition, 46 paired cancerous and noncancerous tissue samples from nephrectomy specimen with renal cell carcinomas were investigated regarding the ileum FABP mRNA expression level and associated with survival outcome. General characteristics of all urological carcinoma cell lines were the expression of E-and IL-FABP on mRNA and protein level, while the expressions differed between the cell lines. The protein expression was not always congruent with the mRNA expression. Renal cell carcinoma cell lines showed expressions of L-, H- and B-FABP mRNA in addition to the general FABP expression in five out of the eight investigated cell lines. In bladder cancer cell lines, we additionally found the expression of A-FABP mRNA in six cell lines, while H-FABP was present only in three cell lines. In prostate cancer cell lines, a strong reduction of A- and E- FABP mRNA was observed. The expression of B-FABP mRNA and protein was observed only in the 22 RV-1 cells. IL-FABP mRNA was over-expressed in renal tumour tissue. The IL-FABP ratio was identified as an independent indicator of survival outcome. Distinctly different FABP expression patterns were observed not only between the cell lines derived from the three cancer types, but also between the cell lines from the same cancer. The FABP patterns in the cell lines do not always

  14. Elevated ZNF703 Protein Expression Is an Independent Unfavorable Prognostic Factor for Survival of the Patients with Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA show that the ZNF703 gene amplifies and overexpresses in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC. However, the clinical relevance of this observation in HNSCC is unclear. The purpose of this study was to clarify the expression of ZNF703 protein and its prognostic effect on HNSCC. Methods. Two hundred ten HNSCC patients from Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center with complete survival follow-up were included in this study. Tumor samples from primary sites were collected. The expression of the ZNF703 protein was tested by immunohistochemistry (IHC. Results. The high expression of ZNF703 in HNSCC tumor tissues was significantly higher than that of the matched noncancerous tissues (48.6% versus 11.6%, P<0.001. ZNF703 overexpression was correlated with tumor position (laryngeal carcinoma and recurrence (all P<0.05. Multivariate analysis revealed that ZNF703 protein overexpression was an independent prognostic factor (P=0.022, hazard ratio = 1.635, 95% CI 1.073–2.493 in HNSCC patients. Conclusion. ZNF703 overexpression is associated with adverse prognosis in HNSCC, which might be a novel biomarker of HNSCC.

  15. DNA mismatch repair protein MSH2 dictates cellular survival in response to low dose radiation in endometrial carcinoma cells.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Martin, Lynn M

    2013-07-10

    DNA repair and G2-phase cell cycle checkpoint responses are involved in the manifestation of hyper-radiosensitivity (HRS). The low-dose radioresponse of MSH2 isogenic endometrial carcinoma cell lines was examined. Defects in cell cycle checkpoint activation and the DNA damage response in irradiated cells (0.2 Gy) were evaluated. HRS was expressed solely in MSH2+ cells and was associated with efficient activation of the early G2-phase cell cycle checkpoint. Maintenance of the arrest was associated with persistent MRE11, γH2AX, RAD51 foci at 2 h after irradiation. Persistent MRE11 and RAD51 foci were also evident 24 h after 0.2 Gy. MSH2 significantly enhances cell radiosensitivity to low dose IR.

  16. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha-induced protein 8 (TNFAIP8) expression associated with cell survival and death in cancer cell lines infected with canine distemper virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, J A; Ferreira, H L; Vieira, F V; Gameiro, R; Andrade, A L; Eugênio, F R; Flores, E F; Cardoso, T C

    2017-06-01

    Oncolytic virotherapy is a novel strategy for treatment of cancer in humans and companion animals as well. Canine distemper virus (CDV), a paramyxovirus, has proven to be oncolytic through induction of apoptosis in canine-derived tumour cells, yet the mechanism behind this inhibitory action is poorly understood. In this study, three human mammary tumour cell lines and one canine-derived adenofibrosarcoma cell line were tested regarding to their susceptibility to CDV infection, cell proliferation, apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential and expression of tumour necrosis factor-alpha-induced protein 8 (TNFAIP8). CDV replication-induced cytopathic effect, decrease of cell proliferation rates, and >45% of infected cells were considered death and/or under late apoptosis/necrosis. TNFAIP8 and CDVM gene expression were positively correlated in all cell lines. In addition, mitochondrial membrane depolarization was associated with increase in virus titres (p < 0.005). Thus, these results strongly suggest that both human and canine mammary tumour cells are potential candidates for studies concerning CDV-induced cancer therapy. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. X-box binding protein 1 is essential for the anti-oxidant defense and cell survival in the retinal pigment epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yimin Zhong

    Full Text Available Damage to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE is an early event in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD. X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1 is a key transcription factor that regulates endoplasmic reticulum (ER homeostasis and cell survival. This study aimed to delineate the role of endogenous XBP1 in the RPE. Our results show that in a rat model of light-induced retinal degeneration, XBP1 activation was suppressed in the RPE/choroid complex, accompanied by decreased anti-oxidant genes and increased oxidative stress. Knockdown of XBP1 by siRNA resulted in reduced expression of SOD1, SOD2, catalase, and glutathione synthase and sensitized RPE cells to oxidative damage. Using Cre/LoxP system, we generated a mouse line that lacks XBP1 only in RPE cells. Compared to wildtype littermates, RPE-XBP1 KO mice expressed less SOD1, SOD2, and catalase in the RPE, and had increased oxidative stress. At age 3 months and older, these mice exhibited apoptosis of RPE cells, decreased number of cone photoreceptors, shortened photoreceptor outer segment, reduced ONL thickness, and deficit in retinal function. Electron microscopy showed abnormal ultrastructure, Bruch's membrane thickening, and disrupted basal membrane infolding in XBP1-deficient RPE. These results indicate that XBP1 is an important gene involved in regulation of the anti-oxidant defense in the RPE, and that impaired activation of XBP1 may contribute to RPE dysfunction and cell death during retinal degeneration and AMD.

  18. Tula hantavirus isolate with the full-length ORF for nonstructural protein NSs survives for more consequent passages in interferon-competent cells than the isolate having truncated NSs ORF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jääskeläinen, Kirsi M; Plyusnina, Angelina; Lundkvist, Ake; Vaheri, Antti; Plyusnin, Alexander

    2008-01-11

    The competitiveness of two Tula hantavirus (TULV) isolates, TULV/Lodz and TULV/Moravia, was evaluated in interferon (IFN) -competent and IFN-deficient cells. The two isolates differ in the length of the open reading frame (ORF) encoding the nonstructural protein NSs, which has previously been shown to inhibit IFN response in infected cells. In IFN-deficient Vero E6 cells both TULV isolates survived equally well. In contrast, in IFN-competent MRC5 cells TULV/Lodz isolate, that possesses the NSs ORF for the full-length protein of 90 aa, survived for more consequent passages than TULV/Moravia isolate, which contains the ORF for truncated NSs protein (66-67 aa). Our data show that expression of a full-length NSs protein is beneficial for the virus survival and competitiveness in IFN-competent cells and not essential in IFN-deficient cells. These results suggest that the N-terminal aa residues are important for the full activity of the NSs protein.

  19. Triiodothyronine regulates cell growth and survival in renal cell cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecka, Anna M; Matak, Damian; Szymanski, Lukasz; Czarnecka, Karolina H; Lewicki, Slawomir; Zdanowski, Robert; Brzezianska-Lasota, Ewa; Szczylik, Cezary

    2016-10-01

    Triiodothyronine plays an important role in the regulation of kidney cell growth, differentiation and metabolism. Patients with renal cell cancer who develop hypothyreosis during tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment have statistically longer survival. In this study, we developed cell based model of triiodothyronine (T3) analysis in RCC and we show the different effects of T3 on renal cell cancer (RCC) cell growth response and expression of the thyroid hormone receptor in human renal cell cancer cell lines from primary and metastatic tumors along with human kidney cancer stem cells. Wild-type thyroid hormone receptor is ubiquitously expressed in human renal cancer cell lines, but normalized against healthy renal proximal tube cell expression its level is upregulated in Caki-2, RCC6, SKRC-42, SKRC-45 cell lines. On the contrary the mRNA level in the 769-P, ACHN, HKCSC, and HEK293 cells is significantly decreased. The TRβ protein was abundant in the cytoplasm of the 786-O, Caki-2, RCC6, and SKRC-45 cells and in the nucleus of SKRC-42, ACHN, 769-P and cancer stem cells. T3 has promoting effect on the cell proliferation of HKCSC, Caki-2, ASE, ACHN, SK-RC-42, SMKT-R2, Caki-1, 786-0, and SK-RC-45 cells. Tyrosine kinase inhibitor, sunitinib, directly inhibits proliferation of RCC cells, while thyroid hormone receptor antagonist 1-850 (CAS 251310‑57-3) has less significant inhibitory impact. T3 stimulation does not abrogate inhibitory effect of sunitinib. Renal cancer tumor cells hypostimulated with T3 may be more responsive to tyrosine kinase inhibition. Moreover, some tumors may be considered as T3-independent and present aggressive phenotype with thyroid hormone receptor activated independently from the ligand. On the contrary proliferation induced by deregulated VHL and or c-Met pathways may transgress normal T3 mediated regulation of the cell cycle.

  20. Enhanced B-Raf-mediated NRF2 gene transcription and HATs-mediated NRF2 protein acetylation contributes to ABCC1-mediated chemoresistance and glutathione-mediated survival in acquired topoisomerase II poison-resistant cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huang-Hui; Chang, Hsin-Huei; Chang, Jang-Yang; Tang, Ya-Chu; Cheng, Yung-Chi; Lin, Li-Mei; Cheng, Shu-Ying; Huang, Chih-Hsiang; Sun, Man-Wu; Chen, Chiung-Tong; Kuo, Ching-Chuan

    2017-12-01

    Nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (NRF2) mainly regulates transcriptional activation through antioxidant-responsive elements (AREs) present in the promoters of NRF2 target genes. Recently, we found that NRF2 was overexpressed in a KB-derived drug-resistant cancer cell panel. In this panel, KB-7D cells, which show acquired resistance to topoisomerase II (Top II) poisons, exhibited the highest NRF2 activation. To investigate whether NRF2 directly contributed to acquired resistance against Top II poisons, we manipulated NRF2 by genetic and pharmacological approaches. The result demonstrated that silencing of NRF2 by RNA interference increased the sensitivity and treatment with NRF2 activator decreased the sensitivity of KB and KB-7D cells toward Top II poisons. Further, increased B-Raf-mediated NRF2 gene transcription and HATs-mediated NRF2 protein acetylation activated NRF2 signaling in KB-7D cells. Moreover, increased binding of NRF2 to an ARE in the promoter of ATP-binding cassette subfamily C member 1 (ABCC1) directly contributed to Top II poison resistance. In addition, activation of NRF2 increased glutathione level and antioxidant capacity in KB-7D cells compared with that in KB cells; moreover, high glutathione level provided survival advantage to KB-7D cells. Our study is the first to show that aberrant NRF2 activation is via increased B-Raf-mediated NRF2 gene transcription and HATs-mediated NRF2 protein acetylation, which increases the acquired resistance and promote the survival of Top II poison-resistant cancer cells. Importantly, NRF2 downstream effectors ABCC1 and glutathione directly contribute to acquired resistance and survival, respectively. These results suggest that blockade of NRF2 signaling may enhance therapeutic efficacy and reduce the survival of Top II poison-refractory tumors in clinical. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Deletion of AU-rich elements within the Bcl2 3'UTR reduces protein expression and B cell survival in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel D Díaz-Muñoz

    Full Text Available Post-transcriptional mRNA regulation by RNA binding proteins (RBPs associated with AU-rich elements (AREs present in the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR of specific mRNAs modulates transcript stability and translation in eukaryotic cells. Here we have functionally characterised the importance of the AREs present within the Bcl2 3'UTR in order to maintain Bcl2 expression. Gene targeting deletion of 300 nucleotides of the Bcl2 3'UTR rich in AREs diminishes Bcl2 mRNA stability and protein levels in primary B cells, decreasing cell lifespan. Generation of chimeric mice indicates that Bcl2-ARE∆/∆ B cells have an intrinsic competitive disadvantage compared to wild type cells. Biochemical assays and predictions using a bioinformatics approach show that several RBPs bind to the Bcl2 AREs, including AUF1 and HuR proteins. Altogether, association of RBPs to Bcl2 AREs contributes to Bcl2 protein expression by stabilizing Bcl2 mRNA and promotes B cell maintenance.

  2. Tracking plasma cell differentiation and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Katrin; Oehme, Laura; Zehentmeier, Sandra; Zhang, Yang; Niesner, Raluca; Hauser, Anja E

    2014-01-01

    Plasma cells play a crucial role for the humoral immune response as they represent the body's factories for antibody production. The differentiation from a B cell into a plasma cell is controlled by a complex transcriptional network and happens within secondary lymphoid organs. Based on their lifetime, two types of antibody secreting cells can be distinguished: Short-lived plasma cells are located in extrafollicular sites of secondary lymphoid organs such as lymph node medullary cords and the splenic red pulp. A fraction of plasmablasts migrate from secondary lymphoid organs to the bone marrow where they can become long-lived plasma cells. Bone marrow plasma cells reside in special microanatomical environments termed survival niches, which provide factors promoting their longevity. Reticular stromal cells producing the chemokine CXCL12, which is known to attract plasmablasts to the bone marrow but also to promote plasma cell survival, play a crucial role in the maintenance of these niches. In addition, hematopoietic cells are contributing to the niches by providing other soluble survival factors. Here, we review the current knowledge on the factors involved in plasma cell differentiation, their localization and migration. We also give an overview on what is known regarding the maintenance of long lived plasma cells in survival niches of the bone marrow. © 2013 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  3. The statistical treatment of cell survival data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boag, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    The paper considers the sources of experimental error in cell survival experiments and discusses in simple terms how these combine to influence the accuracy of single points and the parameters of complete survival curves. Cell sampling and medium-dilution errors are discussed at length and one way of minimizing the former is examined. The Monte-Carlo method of estimating the distribution of derived parameters in small samples is recommended and illustrated. (author)

  4. Mcl-1 is essential for the survival of plasma cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peperzak, Victor; Vikström, Ingela; Walker, Jennifer; Glaser, Stefan P.; LePage, Melanie; Coquery, Christine M.; Erickson, Loren D.; Fairfax, Kirsten; Mackay, Fabienne; Strasser, Andreas; Nutt, Stephen L.; Tarlinton, David M.

    2013-01-01

    The long-term survival of plasma cells is entirely dependent on signals derived from their environment. These extrinsic factors presumably induce and sustain the expression of antiapoptotic proteins of the Bcl-2 family. It is uncertain whether there is specificity among Bcl-2 family members in the

  5. BCR-crosslinking induces a transcription of protein phosphatase component G5PR that is required for mature B-cell survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huq Ronny, Faisal Mahmudul; Igarashi, Hideya; Sakaguchi, Nobuo

    2006-01-01

    BCR-crosslinking triggers activation-induced cell death (AICD) selectively in the restricted stage of B-cell differentiation. We examined the transcription of a protein phosphatase subunit G5PR in immature and mature B-cells, because absence of this factor augmented cell sensitivity to AICD, associated with increased activation of JNK and Bim. BCR-crosslinking-induced G5pr transcription in AICD-resistant mature splenic IgM lo IgD hi B-cells but not in AICD susceptible immature IgM hi IgD lo B-cells. Thus, G5pr induction correlated with the prevention of AICD; High in mature splenic CD23 hi B-cells but low in immature B-cells of neonatal mice, sub-lethally irradiated mice, or xid mice. Lack of G5pr upregulation was associated with the prolonged activation of JNK. The G5pr cDNA transfection protected an immature B-cell line WEHI-231 from BCR-mediated AICD. The differential expression of G5PR might be responsible for the antigen-dependent selection of B-cells

  6. Dinosaur peptides suggest mechanisms of protein survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Antonio, James D; Schweitzer, Mary H; Jensen, Shane T; Kalluri, Raghu; Buckley, Michael; Orgel, Joseph P R O

    2011-01-01

    Eleven collagen peptide sequences recovered from chemical extracts of dinosaur bones were mapped onto molecular models of the vertebrate collagen fibril derived from extant taxa. The dinosaur peptides localized to fibril regions protected by the close packing of collagen molecules, and contained few acidic amino acids. Four peptides mapped to collagen regions crucial for cell-collagen interactions and tissue development. Dinosaur peptides were not represented in more exposed parts of the collagen fibril or regions mediating intermolecular cross-linking. Thus functionally significant regions of collagen fibrils that are physically shielded within the fibril may be preferentially preserved in fossils. These results show empirically that structure-function relationships at the molecular level could contribute to selective preservation in fossilized vertebrate remains across geological time, suggest a 'preservation motif', and bolster current concepts linking collagen structure to biological function. This non-random distribution supports the hypothesis that the peptides are produced by the extinct organisms and suggests a chemical mechanism for survival.

  7. Dinosaur Peptides Suggest Mechanisms of Protein Survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Antonio, James D.; Schweitzer, Mary H.; Jensen, Shane T.; Kalluri, Raghu; Buckley, Michael; Orgel, Joseph P.R.O. (Harvard-Med); (IIT); (NCSU); (UPENN); (Manchester); (Orthovita)

    2011-09-16

    Eleven collagen peptide sequences recovered from chemical extracts of dinosaur bones were mapped onto molecular models of the vertebrate collagen fibril derived from extant taxa. The dinosaur peptides localized to fibril regions protected by the close packing of collagen molecules, and contained few acidic amino acids. Four peptides mapped to collagen regions crucial for cell-collagen interactions and tissue development. Dinosaur peptides were not represented in more exposed parts of the collagen fibril or regions mediating intermolecular cross-linking. Thus functionally significant regions of collagen fibrils that are physically shielded within the fibril may be preferentially preserved in fossils. These results show empirically that structure-function relationships at the molecular level could contribute to selective preservation in fossilized vertebrate remains across geological time, suggest a 'preservation motif', and bolster current concepts linking collagen structure to biological function. This non-random distribution supports the hypothesis that the peptides are produced by the extinct organisms and suggests a chemical mechanism for survival.

  8. Mcl-1 Ubiquitination: Unique Regulation of an Essential Survival Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Mojsa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mcl-1 is an anti-apoptotic protein of the Bcl-2 family that is essential for the survival of multiple cell lineages and that is highly amplified in human cancer. Under physiological conditions, Mcl-1 expression is tightly regulated at multiple levels, involving transcriptional, post-transcriptional and post-translational processes. Ubiquitination of Mcl-1, that targets it for proteasomal degradation, allows for rapid elimination of the protein and triggering of cell death, in response to various cellular events. In the last decade, a number of studies have elucidated different pathways controlling Mcl-1 ubiquitination and degradation. Four different E3 ubiquitin-ligases (e.g., Mule, SCFβ-TrCP, SCFFbw7 and Trim17 and one deubiquitinase (e.g., USP9X, that respectively mediate and oppose Mcl-1 ubiquitination, have been formerly identified. The interaction between Mule and Mcl-1 can be modulated by other Bcl-2 family proteins, while recognition of Mcl-1 by the other E3 ubiquitin-ligases and deubiquitinase is influenced by phosphorylation of specific residues in Mcl-1. The protein kinases and E3 ubiquitin-ligases that are involved in the regulation of Mcl-1 stability vary depending on the cellular context, highlighting the complexity and pivotal role of Mcl-1 regulation. In this review, we attempt to recapitulate progress in understanding Mcl-1 regulation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system.

  9. Toxoplasma gondii-derived synthetic peptides containing B- and T-cell epitopes from GRA2 protein are able to enhance mice survival in a model of experimental toxoplasmosis

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    Luciana Machado Bastos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is a zoonosis distributed all over the world, which the etiologic agent is an intracellular protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. This disease may cause abortions and severe diseases in many warm-blood hosts, including humans, particularly the immunocompromised patients. The parasite specialized secretory organelles, as micronemes, rhoptries and dense granules, are critical for the successful parasitism. The dense granule protein 2 (GRA2 is a parasite immunogenic protein secreted during infections and previous studies have been shown that this parasite component is crucial for the formation of intravacuolar membranous nanotubular network (MNN, as well as for secretion into the vacuole and spatial organization of the parasites within the vacuole. In the present study, we produced a monoclonal antibody to GRA2 (C3C5 mAb, isotype IgG2b, mapped the immunodominant epitope of the protein by phage display and built GRA2 synthetic epitopes to evaluate their ability to protect mice in a model of experimental infection. Our results showed that synthetic peptides for B- and T-cell epitopes are able to improve survival of immunized animals. In contrast with non-immunized animals, the immunized mice with both B- and T-cell epitopes had a better balance of cytokines and demonstrated higher levels of IL-10, IL-4 and IL-17 production, though similar levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6 were observed. The immunization with both B- and T-cell epitopes resulted in survival rate higher than 85% of the challenged mice. Overall, these results demonstrate that immunization with synthetic epitopes for both B- and T-cells from GRA2 protein can be more effective to protect against infection by T. gondii.

  10. Murine Th9 cells promote the survival of myeloid dendritic cells in cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jungsun; Li, Haiyan; Zhang, Mingjun; Lu, Yong; Hong, Bangxing; Zheng, Yuhuan; He, Jin; Yang, Jing; Qian, Jianfei; Yi, Qing

    2014-08-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells to initiate immune responses, and DC survival time is important for affecting the strength of T-cell responses. Interleukin (IL)-9-producing T-helper (Th)-9 cells play an important role in anti-tumor immunity. However, it is unclear how Th9 cells communicate with DCs. In this study, we investigated whether murine Th9 cells affected the survival of myeloid DCs. DCs derived from bone marrow of C57BL/6 mice were cocultured with Th9 cells from OT-II mice using transwell, and the survival of DCs was examined. DCs cocultured with Th9 cells had longer survival and fewer apoptotic cells than DCs cultured alone in vitro. In melanoma B16-OVA tumor-bearing mice, DCs conditioned by Th9 cells lived longer and induced stronger anti-tumor response than control DCs did in vivo. Mechanistic studies revealed that IL-3 but not IL-9 secreted by Th9 cells was responsible for the prolonged survival of DCs. IL-3 upregulated the expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL and activated p38, ERK and STAT5 signaling pathways in DCs. Taken together, our data provide the first evidence that Th9 cells can promote the survival of DCs through IL-3, and will be helpful for designing Th9 cell immunotherapy and more effective DC vaccine for human cancers.

  11. Tumor cell surface proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennel, S.J.; Braslawsky, G.R.; Flynn, K.; Foote, L.J.; Friedman, E.; Hotchkiss, J.A.; Huang, A.H.L.; Lankford, P.K.

    1982-01-01

    Cell surface proteins mediate interaction between cells and their environment. Unique tumor cell surface proteins are being identified and quantified in several tumor systems to address the following questions: (i) how do tumor-specific proteins arise during cell transformation; (ii) can these proteins be used as markers of tumor cell distribution in vivo; (iii) can cytotoxic drugs be targeted specifically to tumor cells using antibody; and (iv) can solid state radioimmunoassay of these proteins provide a means to quantify transformation frequencies. A tumor surface protein of 180,000 M/sub r/ (TSP-180) has been identified on cells of several lung carcinomas of BALB/c mice. TSP-180 was not detected on normal lung tissue, embryonic tissue, or other epithelial or sarcoma tumors, but it was found on lung carcinomas of other strains of mice. Considerable amino acid sequence homology exists among TSP-180's from several cell sources, indicating that TSP-180 synthesis is directed by normal cellular genes although it is not expressed in normal cells. The regulation of synthesis of TSP-180 and its relationship to normal cell surface proteins are being studied. Monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) to TSP-180 have been developed. The antibodies have been used in immunoaffinity chromatography to isolate TSP-180 from tumor cell sources. This purified tumor antigen was used to immunize rats. Antibody produced by these animals reacted at different sites (epitopes) on the TSP-180 molecule than did the original MoAb. These sera and MoAb from these animals are being used to identify normal cell components related to the TSP-180 molecule

  12. Lysosomal cysteine peptidases - Molecules signaling tumor cell death and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pišlar, Anja; Perišić Nanut, Milica; Kos, Janko

    2015-12-01

    Lysosomal cysteine peptidases - cysteine cathepsins - are general intracellular protein-degrading enzymes that control also a variety of specific physiological processes. They can trigger irreversible events leading to signal transduction and activation of signaling pathways, resulting in cell survival and proliferation or cell death. In cancer cells, lysosomal cysteine peptidases are involved in multiple processes during malignant progression. Their translocation from the endosomal/lysosomal pathway to nucleus, cytoplasm, plasma membrane and extracellular space enables the activation and remodeling of a variety of tumor promoting proteins. Thus, lysosomal cysteine peptidases interfere with cytokine/chemokine signaling, regulate cell adhesion and migration and endocytosis, are involved in the antitumor immune response and apoptosis, and promote cell invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis. Further, lysosomal cysteine peptidases modify growth factors and receptors involved in tyrosine kinase dependent pathways such as MAPK, Akt and JNK, thus representing key signaling tools for the activation of tumor cell growth and proliferation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cell survival studies using ultrasoft x rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schillaci, M.E.; Raju, M.R.; Carpenter, S.; Cornforth, M.; Wilder, M.

    1987-01-01

    Cell survival was studied for V79 hamster, 10T1/2 mouse, and human skin fibroblast cell lines, using carbon K (0.28 keV), copper K (8.0 keV), and 250 kVp x rays. Because of the rapid attenuation of the carbon x rays, cellular dimensions at the time of exposure were measured using optical and electron microscopy, and frequency distributions of mean dose absorbed by the cell nucleus were obtained. The results indicate that the differences in cell killing between ultra-soft and hard x rays may depend on the nuclear thickness of the cells. Studies of the effects of hypoxia on V79 and 10T1/2 cells using carbon K, aluminum K (1.5 keV), and copper K x rays show decreasing OER values with decreasing x-ray energy and no difference between the two cell lines. Age response studies with V79 cells show similar cell-cycle variation of survival for carbon K and aluminum K x rays as for hard x rays

  14. Decreased function of survival motor neuron protein impairs endocytic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriadi, Maria; Derdowski, Aaron; Kalloo, Geetika; Maginnis, Melissa S; O'Hern, Patrick; Bliska, Bryn; Sorkaç, Altar; Nguyen, Ken C Q; Cook, Steven J; Poulogiannis, George; Atwood, Walter J; Hall, David H; Hart, Anne C

    2016-07-26

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is caused by depletion of the ubiquitously expressed survival motor neuron (SMN) protein, with 1 in 40 Caucasians being heterozygous for a disease allele. SMN is critical for the assembly of numerous ribonucleoprotein complexes, yet it is still unclear how reduced SMN levels affect motor neuron function. Here, we examined the impact of SMN depletion in Caenorhabditis elegans and found that decreased function of the SMN ortholog SMN-1 perturbed endocytic pathways at motor neuron synapses and in other tissues. Diminished SMN-1 levels caused defects in C. elegans neuromuscular function, and smn-1 genetic interactions were consistent with an endocytic defect. Changes were observed in synaptic endocytic proteins when SMN-1 levels decreased. At the ultrastructural level, defects were observed in endosomal compartments, including significantly fewer docked synaptic vesicles. Finally, endocytosis-dependent infection by JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) was reduced in human cells with decreased SMN levels. Collectively, these results demonstrate for the first time, to our knowledge, that SMN depletion causes defects in endosomal trafficking that impair synaptic function, even in the absence of motor neuron cell death.

  15. [Survival of patients with primary central nervous system diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: impact of gene aberrations and protein overexpression of bcl-2 and C-MYC, and selection of chemotherapy regimens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, W J; Zhu, X; Yang, H Y; Sun, W Y; Wu, M J

    2018-01-08

    Objective: To investigate the impact of clinicopathological features, gene rearrangements and protein expression of bcl-6, bcl-2, C-MYC and chemotherapy regime on the prognosis of patients with primary central nervous system diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (PCNS-DLBCL). Methods: Thirty-three cases of PCNS-DLBCL diagnosed from January 2006 to December 2016 at Zhejiang Cancer Hospital were collected. The expression of CD10, bcl-6, bcl-2, MUM1 and MYC were detected by immunohistochemical staining (IHC). The presence of EB virus was detected by in situ hybridization(EBER). Copy number variation (ICN) and translocation status of bcl-6, bcl-2 and C-MYC genes were detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The relationship between the above indexes and the prognosis was analyzed by univariate, bivariate survival analysis and multiple Cox hazard regression analysis. Results: The study included 33 patients of PCNS-DLBCL, without evidence of primary or secondary immunodeficient disease. Male to female ratio was 1.36∶1.00, and the average age was 56 years. Twenty cases had single lesion while 13 had multiple lesions. Deep brain involvement was seen in 12 cases. All patients underwent partial or total tumor resection. Five patients received whole brain post-surgery radiotherapy, nine patients received high-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX) based chemotherapy, and 12 patients received whole-brain radiotherapy combined with HD-MTX based chemotherapy. Severn patients received no further treatment and rituximab was used in 8 patients. According to the Hans model, 27 cases were classified as non-GCB subtypes (81.8%). Bcl-2 was positive in 25 cases (75.8%, 25/33) and highly expressed in 8 (24.2%). MYC was positive in 12 cases (36.4%) and double expression of bcl-2 and MYC was seen in 6 cases. EBER positive rate was 10.0%(3/30), all of which had multiple lesions. Two bcl-6 gene translocations and 3 amplifications were found in 28 patients. Two translocations, 3 ICN or with both

  16. The Cooperative Effect of Genistein and Protein Hydrolysates on the Proliferation and Survival of Osteoblastic Cells (hFOB 1.19

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    Shuo Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Chum salmon skin gelatin, de-isoflavoned soy protein, and casein were hydrolyzed at two degrees of hydrolysis. Genistein, the prepared hydrolysates, and genistein-hydrolysate combinations were assessed for their proliferative and anti-apoptotic effects on human osteoblasts (hFOB 1.19 to clarify potential cooperative effects between genistein and these hydrolysates in these two activities. Genistein at 2.5 μg/L demonstrated the highest proliferative activity, while the higher dose of genistein inhibited cell growth. All hydrolysates promoted osteoblast proliferation by increasing cell viability to 102.9%–131.1%. Regarding etoposide- or NaF-induced osteoblast apoptosis, these hydrolysates at 0.05 g/L showed both preventive and therapeutic effects against apoptosis. In the mode of apoptotic prevention, the hydrolysates decreased apoptotic cells from 32.9% to 15.2%–23.7% (etoposide treatment or from 23.6% to 14.3%–19.6% (NaF treatment. In the mode of apoptotic rescue, the hydrolysates lessened the extent of apoptotic cells from 15.9% to 13.0%–15.3% (etoposide treatment or from 13.3% to 10.9%–12.7% (NaF treatment. Gelatin hydrolysates showed the highest activities among all hydrolysates in all cases. All investigated combinations (especially the genistein-gelatin hydrolysate combination had stronger proliferation, apoptotic prevention, and rescue than genistein itself or their counterpart hydrolysates alone, suggesting that genistein cooperated with these hydrolysates, rendering greater activities in osteoblast proliferation and anti-apoptosis.

  17. Imaging characteristics of stage I non-small cell lung cancer on CT and FDG-PER; Relationship with epidermal growth factor receptor protein expression status and survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youkyung; Lee, Hyun Ju; Kim, Young Tae; Kang, Chang Hyun; Goo, Jin Mo; Park, Chang Min; Paeng, Jin Chul; Chung, Doo Hyun; Jeon, Yoon Kyung

    2013-01-01

    To identify CT and FDG-PET features associated with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) protein overexpression, and to evaluate whether imaging features and EGFR-overexpression can help predict clinical outcome. In 214 patients (M : F = 129 : 85; mean age, 63.2) who underwent curative resection of stage I non-small cell lung cancer, EGFR protein expression status was determined through immunohistochemical analysis. Imaging characteristics on CT and FDG-PET was assessed in relation to EGFR-overexpression. Imaging features and EGFR-overexpression were also evaluated for clinical outcome by using the Cox proportional hazards model. EGFR-overexpression was found in 51 patients (23.8%). It was significantly more frequent in tumors with an SUVmax > 5.0 (p 2.43 cm (p 5.0 (OR, 3.113; 95% CI, 1.375-7.049; p = 0.006) and diameter > 2.43 cm (OR, 2.799; 95% CI, 1.285-6.095; p = 0.010) were independent predictors of EGFR overexpression. Multivariate analysis showed that SUVmax > 4.0 (hazard ratio, 10.660; 95% CI, 1.370-82.966; p = 0.024), and the presence of cavitation within a tumor (hazard ratio, 3.122; 95% CI, 1.143-8.532; p = 0.026) were factors associated with poor prognosis. EGFR-overexpression is associated with high SUVmax, large tumor diameter, and small GGO proportion. CT and FDG-PET findings, which are closely related to EGFR overexpression, can be valuable in the prediction of clinical outcome.

  18. p63 promotes cell survival through fatty acid synthase.

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    Venkata Sabbisetti

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that p63, and specifically DeltaNp63, plays a central role in both development and tumorigenesis by promoting epithelial cell survival. However, few studies have addressed the molecular mechanisms through which such important function is exerted. Fatty acid synthase (FASN, a key enzyme that synthesizes long-chain fatty acids and is involved in both embryogenesis and cancer, has been recently proposed as a direct target of p53 family members, including p63 and p73. Here we show that knockdown of either total or DeltaN-specific p63 isoforms in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC9 or immortalized prostate epithelial (iPrEC cells caused a decrease in cell viability by inducing apoptosis without affecting the cell cycle. p63 silencing significantly reduced both the expression and the activity of FASN. Importantly, stable overexpression of either FASN or myristoylated AKT (myr-AKT was able to partially rescue cells from cell death induced by p63 silencing. FASN induced AKT phosphorylation and a significant reduction in cell viability was observed when FASN-overexpressing SCC9 cells were treated with an AKT inhibitor after p63 knockdown, indicating that AKT plays a major role in FASN-mediated survival. Activated AKT did not cause any alteration in the FASN protein levels but induced its activity, suggesting that the rescue from apoptosis documented in the p63-silenced cells expressing myr-AKT cells may be partially mediated by FASN. Finally, we demonstrated that p63 and FASN expression are positively associated in clinical squamous cell carcinoma samples as well as in the developing prostate. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that FASN is a functionally relevant target of p63 and is required for mediating its pro-survival effects.

  19. Role of Cell Cycle Regulation and MLH1, A Key DNA Mismatch Repair Protein, In Adaptive Survival Responses. Final Report; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David A. Boothman

    1999-01-01

    Due to several interesting findings on both adaptive survival responses (ASRs) and DNA mismatch repair (MMR), this grant was separated into two discrete Specific Aim sets (each with their own discrete hypotheses). The described experiments were simultaneously performed

  20. Upregulation of LYAR induces neuroblastoma cell proliferation and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuting; Atmadibrata, Bernard; Yu, Denise; Wong, Matthew; Liu, Bing; Ho, Nicholas; Ling, Dora; Tee, Andrew E; Wang, Jenny; Mungrue, Imran N; Liu, Pei Y; Liu, Tao

    2017-09-01

    The N-Myc oncoprotein induces neuroblastoma by regulating gene transcription and consequently causing cell proliferation. Paradoxically, N-Myc is well known to induce apoptosis by upregulating pro-apoptosis genes, and it is not clear how N-Myc overexpressing neuroblastoma cells escape N-Myc-mediated apoptosis. The nuclear zinc finger protein LYAR has recently been shown to modulate gene expression by forming a protein complex with the protein arginine methyltransferase PRMT5. Here we showed that N-Myc upregulated LYAR gene expression by binding to its gene promoter. Genome-wide differential gene expression studies revealed that knocking down LYAR considerably upregulated the expression of oxidative stress genes including CHAC1, which depletes intracellular glutathione and induces oxidative stress. Although knocking down LYAR expression with siRNAs induced oxidative stress, neuroblastoma cell growth inhibition and apoptosis, co-treatment with the glutathione supplement N-acetyl-l-cysteine or co-transfection with CHAC1 siRNAs blocked the effect of LYAR siRNAs. Importantly, high levels of LYAR gene expression in human neuroblastoma tissues predicted poor event-free and overall survival in neuroblastoma patients, independent of the best current markers for poor prognosis. Taken together, our data suggest that LYAR induces proliferation and promotes survival of neuroblastoma cells by repressing the expression of oxidative stress genes such as CHAC1 and suppressing oxidative stress, and identify LYAR as a novel co-factor in N-Myc oncogenesis.

  1. Lung cells support osteosarcoma cell migration and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shibing; Fourman, Mitchell Stephen; Mahjoub, Adel; Mandell, Jonathan Brendan; Crasto, Jared Anthony; Greco, Nicholas Giuseppe; Weiss, Kurt Richard

    2017-01-25

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary bone tumor, with a propensity to metastasize to the lungs. Five-year survival for metastatic OS is below 30%, and has not improved for several decades despite the introduction of multi-agent chemotherapy. Understanding OS cell migration to the lungs requires an evaluation of the lung microenvironment. Here we utilized an in vitro lung cell and OS cell co-culture model to explore the interactions between OS and lung cells, hypothesizing that lung cells would promote OS cell migration and survival. The impact of a novel anti-OS chemotherapy on OS migration and survival in the lung microenvironment was also examined. Three human OS cell lines (SJSA-1, Saos-2, U-2) and two human lung cell lines (HULEC-5a, MRC-5) were cultured according to American Type Culture Collection recommendations. Human lung cell lines were cultured in growth medium for 72 h to create conditioned media. OS proliferation was evaluated in lung co-culture and conditioned media microenvironment, with a murine fibroblast cell line (NIH-3 T3) in fresh growth medium as controls. Migration and invasion were measured using a real-time cell analysis system. Real-time PCR was utilized to probe for Aldehyde Dehydrogenase (ALDH1) expression. Osteosarcoma cells were also transduced with a lentivirus encoding for GFP to permit morphologic analysis with fluorescence microscopy. The anti-OS efficacy of Disulfiram, an ALDH-inhibitor previously shown to inhibit OS cell proliferation and metastasis in vitro, was evaluated in each microenvironment. Lung-cell conditioned medium promoted osteosarcoma cell migration, with a significantly higher attractive effect on all three osteosarcoma cell lines compared to basic growth medium, 10% serum containing medium, and NIH-3 T3 conditioned medium (p cell conditioned medium induced cell morphologic changes, as demonstrated with GFP-labeled cells. OS cells cultured in lung cell conditioned medium had increased alkaline

  2. Stomatin-like protein 2 is overexpressed in epithelial ovarian cancer and predicts poor patient survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Fei; Ding, Wen; He, Jie-Hua; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Ma, Ze-Biao; Li, Yan-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Stomatin-like protein 2 (SLP-2, also known as STOML2) is a stomatin homologue of uncertain function. SLP-2 overexpression has been suggested to be associated with cancer progression, resulting in adverse clinical outcomes in patients. Our study aim to investigate SLP-2 expression in epithelial ovarian cancer cells and its correlation with patient survival. SLP-2 mRNA and protein expression levels were analysed in five epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines and normal ovarian epithelial cells using real-time PCR and western blotting analysis. SLP-2 expression was investigated in eight matched-pair samples of epithelial ovarian cancer and adjacent noncancerous tissues from the same patients. Using immunohistochemistry, we examined the protein expression of paraffin-embedded specimens from 140 patients with epithelial ovarian cancer, 20 cases with borderline ovarian tumours, 20 cases with benign ovarian tumours, and 20 cases with normal ovarian tissues. Statistical analyses were applied to evaluate the clinicopathological significance of SLP-2 expression. SLP-2 mRNA and protein expression levels were significantly up-regulated in epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines and cancer tissues compared with normal ovarian epithelial cells and adjacent noncancerous ovarian tissues. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that the relative overexpression of SLP-2 was detected in 73.6 % (103/140) of the epithelial ovarian cancer specimens, 45.0 % (9/20) of the borderline ovarian specimens, 30.0 % (6/20) of the benign ovarian specimens and none of the normal ovarian specimens. SLP-2 protein expression in epithelial ovarian cancer was significantly correlated with the tumour stage (P < 0.001). Epithelial ovarian cancer patients with higher SLP-2 protein expression levels had shorter progress free survival and overall survival times compared to patients with lower SLP-2 protein expression levels. Multivariate analyses showed that SLP-2 expression levels were an independent prognostic

  3. Romidepsin targets multiple survival signaling pathways in malignant T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdez, B C; Brammer, J E; Li, Y; Murray, D; Liu, Y; Hosing, C; Nieto, Y; Champlin, R E; Andersson, B S

    2015-01-01

    Romidepsin is a cyclic molecule that inhibits histone deacetylases. It is Food and Drug Administration-approved for treatment of cutaneous and peripheral T-cell lymphoma, but its precise mechanism of action against malignant T cells is unknown. To better understand the biological effects of romidepsin in these cells, we exposed PEER and SUPT1 T-cell lines, and a primary sample from T-cell lymphoma patient (Patient J) to romidepsin. We then examined the consequences in some key oncogenic signaling pathways. Romidepsin displayed IC 50 values of 10.8, 7.9 and 7.0 nm in PEER, SUPT1 and Patient J cells, respectively. Strong inhibition of histone deacetylases and demethylases, increased production of reactive oxygen species and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential were observed, which may contribute to the observed DNA-damage response and apoptosis. The stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling pathway and unfolded protein response in the endoplasmic reticulum were activated, whereas the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/AKT/mTOR) and β-catenin pro-survival pathways were inhibited. The decreased level of β-catenin correlated with the upregulation of its inhibitor SFRP1 through romidepsin-mediated hypomethylation of its gene promoter. Our results provide new insights into how romidepsin invokes malignant T-cell killing, show evidence of its associated DNA hypomethylating activity and offer a rationale for the development of romidepsin-containing combination therapies

  4. NM23 protein expression in colorectal carcinoma using TMA (tissue microarray: association with metastases and survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levindo Alves de Oliveira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: NM23, a metastasis suppressor gene, may be associated with prognosis in patients with colorectal carcinoma. OBJECTIVE: To analyze NM23 expression and its association with the presence of lymph node and liver metastases and survival in patients operated on for colorectal carcinoma. METHODS: One hundred thirty patients operated on for colorectal carcinoma were investigated. Tissue microarray blocks containing neoplastic tissue and tumor-adjacent non-neoplastic mucosa were obtained and analyzed by immunohistochemical staining using a monoclonal anti-NM23 antibody. Immunohistochemical expression was assessed using a semiquantitative scoring method, counting the percentage of stained cells. The results were compared regarding morphological and histological characteristics of the colorectal carcinoma, presence of lymph node and liver metastases, tumor staging, and patient survival. Statistical analysis was performed using the Mann-Whitney test, the Kruskal-Wallis test and Fisher's exact test. Survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method and the log-rank test. RESULTS: NM23 expression was higher in colorectal carcinoma tissue than in adjacent non-neoplastic mucosa (P<0.0001. NM23 protein expression did not correlate with degree of cell differentiation (P = 0.57, vascular invasion (P = 0.85, lymphatic invasion (P = 0.41, perineural infiltration (P = 0.46, staging (P = 0.19, lymph node metastases (P = 0.08, or liver metastases (P = 0.59. Disease-free survival showed significant association (P = 0.01 with the intensity of NM23 protein immunohistochemical expression in colorectal carcinoma tissue, whereas overall survival showed no association with NM23 protein expression (P = 0.13. CONCLUSIONS: NM23 protein expression was higher in neoplastic colorectal carcinoma tissue than in adjacent non-neoplastic mucosa, showing no correlation with morphological aspects, presence of lymph node or liver metastases, colorectal carcinoma

  5. Cell survival and radiation induced chromosome aberrations. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauchinger, M.; Schmid, E.; Braselmann, H.

    1986-01-01

    Human peripheral lymphocytes were irradiated in whole blood with 0.5-4.0 Gy of 220 kVp X-rays and the frequency of chromosome aberrations was determined in 1st or 2nd division metaphases discriminated by fluorescence plus giemsa staining. Using the empirical distributions of aberrations among cells, cell survival and transmission of aberrations were investigated. Considering both daughter cells, we found that 20% of fragments and 55% of dicentrics or ring chromosomes are lost during the 1st cell division; i.e. cell survival rate from 1st to 2nd generation is mainly influenced by anaphase bridging of these two-hit aberrations. Cell survival to 2nd mitosis was calculated considering this situation and compared with the survival derived from the fraction of M1 cells without unstable aberrations. The resulting shouldered survival curves showed significantly different slopes, indicating that cell reproductive death is overestimated in the latter approach. (orig.)

  6. Modification of bacterial cell survival by postirradiation hypoxia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vexler, F B; Eidus, L Kh

    1986-01-27

    It is shown that postirradiation hypoxia affects the survival of E.coli. Hypoxic conditions immediately after a single-dose irradiation diminish cell survival in nutrient medium. Increasing time intervals between irradiation and hypoxia decrease the efficiency of the latter, while 1 h after irradiation hypoxia does not modify the survival of irradiated cells. These findings reveal that the mechanisms of action of postirradiation hypoxia on eu- and prokaryotic cells are similar.

  7. Ras and Rheb Signaling in Survival and Cell Death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrkamp, Anja; Herrmann, Christian; Stoll, Raphael; Heumann, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    One of the most obvious hallmarks of cancer is uncontrolled proliferation of cells partly due to independence of growth factor supply. A major component of mitogenic signaling is Ras, a small GTPase. It was the first identified human protooncogene and is known since more than three decades to promote cellular proliferation and growth. Ras was shown to support growth factor-independent survival during development and to protect from chemical or mechanical lesion-induced neuronal degeneration in postmitotic neurons. In contrast, for specific patho-physiological cases and cellular systems it has been shown that Ras may also promote cell death. Proteins from the Ras association family (Rassf, especially Rassf1 and Rassf5) are tumor suppressors that are activated by Ras-GTP, triggering apoptosis via e.g., activation of mammalian sterile 20-like (MST1) kinase. In contrast to Ras, their expression is suppressed in many types of tumours, which makes Rassf proteins an exciting model for understanding the divergent effects of Ras activity. It seems likely that the outcome of Ras signaling depends on the balance between the activation of its various downstream effectors, thus determining cellular fate towards either proliferation or apoptosis. Ras homologue enriched in brain (Rheb) is a protein from the Ras superfamily that is also known to promote proliferation, growth, and regeneration through the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTor) pathway. However, recent evidences indicate that the Rheb-mTor pathway may switch its function from a pro-growth into a cell death pathway, depending on the cellular situation. In contrast to Ras signaling, for Rheb, the cellular context is likely to modulate the whole Rheb-mTor pathway towards cellular death or survival, respectively

  8. Ras and Rheb Signaling in Survival and Cell Death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrkamp, Anja [Molecular Neurobiochemistry, Ruhr University of Bochum, 44780 Bochum (Germany); Herrmann, Christian [Department of Physical Chemistry1, Protein Interaction, Ruhr University of Bochum, 44780 Bochum (Germany); Stoll, Raphael [Biomolecular NMR, Ruhr University of Bochum, 44780 Bochum (Germany); Heumann, Rolf, E-mail: rolf.heumann@rub.de [Molecular Neurobiochemistry, Ruhr University of Bochum, 44780 Bochum (Germany)

    2013-05-28

    One of the most obvious hallmarks of cancer is uncontrolled proliferation of cells partly due to independence of growth factor supply. A major component of mitogenic signaling is Ras, a small GTPase. It was the first identified human protooncogene and is known since more than three decades to promote cellular proliferation and growth. Ras was shown to support growth factor-independent survival during development and to protect from chemical or mechanical lesion-induced neuronal degeneration in postmitotic neurons. In contrast, for specific patho-physiological cases and cellular systems it has been shown that Ras may also promote cell death. Proteins from the Ras association family (Rassf, especially Rassf1 and Rassf5) are tumor suppressors that are activated by Ras-GTP, triggering apoptosis via e.g., activation of mammalian sterile 20-like (MST1) kinase. In contrast to Ras, their expression is suppressed in many types of tumours, which makes Rassf proteins an exciting model for understanding the divergent effects of Ras activity. It seems likely that the outcome of Ras signaling depends on the balance between the activation of its various downstream effectors, thus determining cellular fate towards either proliferation or apoptosis. Ras homologue enriched in brain (Rheb) is a protein from the Ras superfamily that is also known to promote proliferation, growth, and regeneration through the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTor) pathway. However, recent evidences indicate that the Rheb-mTor pathway may switch its function from a pro-growth into a cell death pathway, depending on the cellular situation. In contrast to Ras signaling, for Rheb, the cellular context is likely to modulate the whole Rheb-mTor pathway towards cellular death or survival, respectively.

  9. Neural regeneration protein is a novel chemoattractive and neuronal survival-promoting factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorba, Thorsten; Bradoo, Privahini; Antonic, Ana; Marvin, Keith; Liu, Dong-Xu; Lobie, Peter E.; Reymann, Klaus G.; Gluckman, Peter D.; Sieg, Frank

    2006-01-01

    Neurogenesis and neuronal migration are the prerequisites for the development of the central nervous system. We have identified a novel rodent gene encoding for a neural regeneration protein (NRP) with an activity spectrum similar to the chemokine stromal-derived factor (SDF)-1, but with much greater potency. The Nrp gene is encoded as a forward frameshift to the hypothetical alkylated DNA repair protein AlkB. The predicted protein sequence of NRP contains domains with homology to survival-promoting peptide (SPP) and the trefoil protein TFF-1. The Nrp gene is first expressed in neural stem cells and expression continues in glial lineages. Recombinant NRP and NRP-derived peptides possess biological activities including induction of neural migration and proliferation, promotion of neuronal survival, enhancement of neurite outgrowth and promotion of neuronal differentiation from neural stem cells. NRP exerts its effect on neuronal survival by phosphorylation of the ERK1/2 and Akt kinases, whereas NRP stimulation of neural migration depends solely on p44/42 MAP kinase activity. Taken together, the expression profile of Nrp, the existence in its predicted protein structure of domains with similarities to known neuroprotective and migration-inducing factors and the high potency of NRP-derived synthetic peptides acting in femtomolar concentrations suggest it to be a novel gene of relevance in cellular and developmental neurobiology

  10. Long-term survival in small-cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, U; Osterlind, K; Hansen, M

    1995-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe in patients with small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) the characteristics of those who survive for > or = 5 years, to identify long-term prognostic factors, to analyze survival data of 5-year survivors, and to study 10-year survival in patients entered before 1981. PATIENTS......, especially tobacco-related cancers and other tobacco-related diseases....

  11. Effects of sugar alcohol and proteins on the survival of Lactobacillus bulgaricus LB6 during freeze drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, He; Chen, Shiwei; Chen, Hongli; Wu, Yanyan; Shu, Guowei

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacillus bulgaricus LB6 is a bacterium which was selected in the commercial yoghurt with high angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity. Preparation of concentrated starter cultures via freeze drying is of practical importance to dairy and food industries. We optimized the optimal sugar alcohol and proteins for Lactobacillus bulgaricus LB6 during the process of freeze drying using a Plackett-Burman design. In our initial tests survival rate and the number of viable cells were associated with the type of lyoprotectant used and so our optimization protocol focused on increasing survival rate. Substances that had previously had a protective effect during freeze drying were investigated, for example: mannitol, sorbitol, xylitol, meso-erythritol, lactitol, whey protein isolate 90, bovine serum albumin, and whey protein concentrate 80 and soy protein isolate 70. We found that the optimum sugar alcohol and proteins for survival of Lactobacillus bulgaricus LB6 were whey protein concentrate (p = 0.0040 for survival rate), xylitol (p = 0.0067 for survival rate) and sorbitol (p = 0.0073 for survival rate), they showed positive effect (whey protein concentrate and sorbitol) or negative effect (xylitol). The effectiveness of three chosen sugar alcohols and protein implied that they could be used as lyoprotectant for Lactobacillus bulgaricus LB6 in the further research, the optimal composition of sugar alcohol and protein for the lyoprotectant use must be established.

  12. The pyrrolo-1,5-benzoxazepine, PBOX-15, enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis by upregulation of DR5 and downregulation of core cell survival proteins in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    NATHWANI, SEEMA-MARIA; GREENE, LISA M.; BUTINI, STEFANIA; CAMPIANI, GIUSEPPE; WILLIAMS, D. CLIVE; SAMALI, AFSHIN; SZEGEZDI, EVA; ZISTERER, DANIELA M.

    2016-01-01

    Apoptotic defects are frequently associated with poor outcome in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) hence there is an ongoing demand for novel strategies that counteract apoptotic resistance. The death ligand TRAIL (tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) and its selective tumour receptor system has attracted exceptional clinical interest. However, many malignancies including ALL are resistant to TRAIL monotherapy. Tumour resistance can be overcome by drug combination therapy. TRAIL and its agonist antibodies are currently undergoing phase II clinical trials with established chemotherapeutics. Herein, we present promising therapeutic benefits in combining TRAIL with the selective anti-leukaemic agents, the pyrrolo-1,5-benzoxazepines (PBOXs) for the treatment of ALL. PBOX-15 synergistically enhanced apoptosis induced by TRAIL and a DR5-selective TRAIL variant in ALL-derived cells. PBOX-15 enhanced TRAIL-induced apoptosis by dual activation of extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways. The specific caspase-8 inhibitor, Z-IETD-FMK, identified the extrinsic pathway as the principal mode of apoptosis. We demonstrate that PBOX-15 can enhance TRAIL-induced apoptosis by upregulation of DR5, reduction of cellular mitochondrial potential, activation of the caspase cascade and downregulation of PI3K/Akt, c-FLIP, Mcl-1 and IAP survival pathways. Of note, the PI3K pathway inhibitor LY-294002 significantly enhanced the apoptotic potential of TRAIL and PBOX-15 validating the importance of Akt downregulation in the TRAIL/PBOX-15 synergistic combination. Considering the lack of cytotoxicity to normal cells and ability to downregulate several survival pathways, PBOX-15 may represent an effective agent for use in combination with TRAIL for the treatment of ALL. PMID:27176505

  13. Impacts of maternal dietary protein intake on fetal survival, growth, and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Cassandra M; Bazer, Fuller W; Johnson, Gregory A; Wu, Guoyao

    2018-03-01

    Maternal nutrition during gestation, especially dietary protein intake, is a key determinant in embryonic survival, growth, and development. Low maternal dietary protein intake can cause embryonic losses, intra-uterine growth restriction, and reduced postnatal growth due to a deficiency in specific amino acids that are important for cell metabolism and function. Of note, high maternal dietary protein intake can also result in intra-uterine growth restriction and embryonic death, due to amino acid excesses, as well as the toxicity of ammonia, homocysteine, and H 2 S that are generated from amino acid catabolism. Maternal protein nutrition has a pronounced impact on fetal programming and alters the expression of genes in the fetal genome. As a precursor to the synthesis of molecules (e.g. nitric oxide, polyamines, and creatine) with cell signaling and metabolic functions, L-arginine (Arg) is essential during pregnancy for growth and development of the conceptus. With inadequate maternal dietary protein intake, Arg and other important amino acids are deficient in mother and fetus. Dietary supplementation of Arg during gestation has been effective in improving embryonic survival and development of the conceptus in many species, including humans, pigs, sheep, mice, and rats. Both the balance among amino acids and their quantity are critical for healthy pregnancies and offspring. Impact statement This review aims at: highlighting adverse effects of elevated levels of ammonia in mother or fetus on embryonic/fetal survival, growth, and development; helping nutritionists and practitioners to understand the mechanisms whereby elevated levels of ammonia in mother or fetus results in embryonic/fetal death, growth restriction, and developmental abnormalities; and bringing, into the attention of nutritionists and practitioners, the problems of excess or inadequate dietary intake of protein or amino acids on pregnancy outcomes in animals and humans. The article provides new

  14. Repair models of cell survival and corresponding computer program for survival curve fitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Xun; Hu Yiwei

    1992-01-01

    Some basic concepts and formulations of two repair models of survival, the incomplete repair (IR) model and the lethal-potentially lethal (LPL) model, are introduced. An IBM-PC computer program for survival curve fitting with these models was developed and applied to fit the survivals of human melanoma cells HX118 irradiated at different dose rates. Comparison was made between the repair models and two non-repair models, the multitar get-single hit model and the linear-quadratic model, in the fitting and analysis of the survival-dose curves. It was shown that either IR model or LPL model can fit a set of survival curves of different dose rates with same parameters and provide information on the repair capacity of cells. These two mathematical models could be very useful in quantitative study on the radiosensitivity and repair capacity of cells

  15. IL22/IL-22R pathway induces cell survival in human glioblastoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Akil

    Full Text Available Interleukin-22 (IL-22 is a member of the IL-10 cytokine family that binds to a heterodimeric receptor consisting of IL-22 receptor 1 (IL-22R1 and IL-10R2. IL-22R expression was initially characterized on epithelial cells, and plays an essential role in a number of inflammatory diseases. Recently, a functional receptor was detected on cancer cells such as hepatocarcinoma and lung carcinoma, but its presence was not reported in glioblastoma (GBM. Two GBM cell lines and 10 primary cell lines established from patients undergoing surgery for malignant GBM were used to investigate the expression of IL-22 and IL-22R by using quantitative RT-PCR, western blotting and confocal microscopy studies. The role of IL-22 in proliferation and survival of GBM cell lines was investigated in vitro by BrdU and ELISA cell death assays. We report herein that the two subunits of the IL-22R complex are expressed on human GBM cells. Their activation, depending on exogenous IL-22, induced antiapoptotic effect and cell proliferation. IL-22 treatment of GBM cells resulted in increased levels of phosphorylated Akt, STAT3 signaling protein and its downstream antiapoptotic protein Bcl-xL and decreased level of phosphorylated ERK1/2. In addition, IL-22R subunits were expressed in all the 10 tested primary cell lines established from GBM tumors. Our results showed that IL-22R is expressed on GBM established and primary cell lines. Depending on STAT3, ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt pathways, IL-22 induced GBM cell survival. These data are consistent with a potential role of IL-22R in tumorigenesis of GBM. Since endogenous IL-22 was not detected in all studied GBM cells, we hypothesize that IL-22R could be activated by immune microenvironmental IL-22 producing cells.

  16. Expression of LDL receptor-related proteins (LRPs in common solid malignancies correlates with patient survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven L Gonias

    Full Text Available LDL receptor-related proteins (LRPs are transmembrane receptors involved in endocytosis, cell-signaling, and trafficking of other cellular proteins. Considerable work has focused on LRPs in the fields of vascular biology and neurobiology. How these receptors affect cancer progression in humans remains largely unknown. Herein, we mined provisional databases in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA to compare expression of thirteen LRPs in ten common solid malignancies in patients. Our first goal was to determine the abundance of LRP mRNAs in each type of cancer. Our second goal was to determine whether expression of LRPs is associated with improved or worsened patient survival. In total, data from 4,629 patients were mined. In nine of ten cancers studied, the most abundantly expressed LRP was LRP1; however, a correlation between LRP1 mRNA expression and patient survival was observed only in bladder urothelial carcinoma. In this malignancy, high levels of LRP1 mRNA were associated with worsened patient survival. High levels of LDL receptor (LDLR mRNA were associated with decreased patient survival in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. High levels of LRP10 mRNA were associated with decreased patient survival in hepatocellular carcinoma, lung adenocarcinoma, and pancreatic adenocarcinoma. LRP2 was the only LRP for which high levels of mRNA expression correlated with improved patient survival. This correlation was observed in renal clear cell carcinoma. Insights into LRP gene expression in human cancers and their effects on patient survival should guide future research.

  17. p70S6 kinase signals cell survival as well as growth, inactivating the pro-apoptotic molecule BAD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harada, H; Andersen, Jens S.; Mann, M

    2001-01-01

    Cytokines often deliver simultaneous, yet distinct, cell growth and cell survival signals. The 70-kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K) is known to regulate cell growth by inducing protein synthesis components. We purified membrane-based p70S6K as a kinase responsible for site-specific phospho...

  18. Genetic modification of embryonic stem cells with VEGF enhances cell survival and improves cardiac function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiaoyan; Cao, Feng; Sheikh, Ahmad Y; Li, Zongjin; Connolly, Andrew J; Pei, Xuetao; Li, Ren-Ke; Robbins, Robert C; Wu, Joseph C

    2007-01-01

    Cardiac stem cell therapy remains hampered by acute donor cell death posttransplantation and the lack of reliable methods for tracking cell survival in vivo. We hypothesize that cells transfected with inducible vascular endothelial growth factor 165 (VEGF(165)) can improve their survival as monitored by novel molecular imaging techniques. Mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells were transfected with an inducible, bidirectional tetracycline (Bi-Tet) promoter driving VEGF(165) and renilla luciferase (Rluc). Addition of doxycycline induced Bi-Tet expression of VEGF(165) and Rluc significantly compared to baseline (p<0.05). Expression of VEGF(165) enhanced ES cell proliferation and inhibited apoptosis as determined by Annexin-V staining. For noninvasive imaging, ES cells were transduced with a double fusion (DF) reporter gene consisting of firefly luciferase and enhanced green fluorescence protein (Fluc-eGFP). There was a robust correlation between cell number and Fluc activity (R(2)=0.99). Analysis by immunostaining, histology, and RT-PCR confirmed that expression of Bi-Tet and DF systems did not affect ES cell self-renewal or pluripotency. ES cells were differentiated into beating embryoid bodies expressing cardiac markers such as troponin, Nkx2.5, and beta-MHC. Afterward, 5 x 10(5) cells obtained from these beating embryoid bodies or saline were injected into the myocardium of SV129 mice (n=36) following ligation of the left anterior descending (LAD) artery. Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) and echocardiography showed that VEGF(165) induction led to significant improvements in both transplanted cell survival and cardiac function (p<0.05). This is the first study to demonstrate imaging of embryonic stem cell-mediated gene therapy targeting cardiovascular disease. With further validation, this platform may have broad applications for current basic research and further clinical studies.

  19. Imaging Flow Cytometry Analysis to Identify Differences of Survival Motor Neuron Protein Expression in Patients With Spinal Muscular Atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Reiko; Arakawa, Masayuki; Kaneko, Kaori; Otsuki, Noriko; Aoki, Ryoko; Saito, Kayoko

    2016-08-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by the deficient expression of survival motor neuron protein in motor neurons. A major goal of disease-modifying therapy is to increase survival motor neuron expression. Changes in survival motor neuron protein expression can be monitored via peripheral blood cells in patients; therefore we tested the sensitivity and utility of imaging flow cytometry for this purpose. After the immortalization of peripheral blood lymphocytes from a human healthy control subject and two patients with spinal muscular atrophy type 1 with two and three copies of SMN2 gene, respectively, we used imaging flow cytometry analysis to identify significant differences in survival motor neuron expression. A bright detail intensity analysis was used to investigate differences in the cellular localization of survival motor neuron protein. Survival motor neuron expression was significantly decreased in cells derived from patients with spinal muscular atrophy relative to those derived from a healthy control subject. Moreover, survival motor neuron expression correlated with the clinical severity of spinal muscular atrophy according to SMN2 copy number. The cellular accumulation of survival motor neuron protein was also significantly decreased in cells derived from patients with spinal muscular atrophy relative to those derived from a healthy control subject. The benefits of imaging flow cytometry for peripheral blood analysis include its capacities for analyzing heterogeneous cell populations; visualizing cell morphology; and evaluating the accumulation, localization, and expression of a target protein. Imaging flow cytometry analysis should be implemented in future studies to optimize its application as a tool for spinal muscular atrophy clinical trials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A track-event theory of cell survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besserer, Juergen; Schneider, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    When fractionation schemes for hypofractionation and stereotactic body radiotherapy are considered, a reliable cell survival model at high dose is needed for calculating doses of similar biological effectiveness. In this work a simple model for cell survival which is valid also at high dose is developed from Poisson statistics. An event is defined by two double strand breaks (DSB) on the same or different chromosomes. An event is always lethal due to direct lethal damage or lethal binary misrepair by the formation of chromosome aberrations. Two different mechanisms can produce events: one-track events (OTE) or two-track-events (TTE). The target for an OTE is always a lethal event, the target for an TTE is one DSB. At least two TTEs on the same or different chromosomes are necessary to produce an event. Both, the OTE and the TTE are statistically independent. From the stochastic nature of cell kill which is described by the Poisson distribution the cell survival probability was derived. It was shown that a solution based on Poisson statistics exists for cell survival. It exhibits exponential cell survival at high dose and a finite gradient of cell survival at vanishing dose, which is in agreement with experimental cell studies. The model fits the experimental data nearly as well as the three-parameter formula of Hug-Kellerer and is only based on two free parameters. It is shown that the LQ formalism is an approximation of the model derived in this work. It could be also shown that the derived model predicts a fractionated cell survival experiment better than the LQ-model. It was shown that cell survival can be described with a simple analytical formula on the basis of Poisson statistics. This solution represents in the limit of large dose the typical exponential behavior and predicts cell survival after fractionated dose application better than the LQ-model.

  1. A track-event theory of cell survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besserer, Juergen; Schneider, Uwe [Zuerich Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. of Physics; Radiotherapy Hirslanden, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2015-09-01

    When fractionation schemes for hypofractionation and stereotactic body radiotherapy are considered, a reliable cell survival model at high dose is needed for calculating doses of similar biological effectiveness. In this work a simple model for cell survival which is valid also at high dose is developed from Poisson statistics. An event is defined by two double strand breaks (DSB) on the same or different chromosomes. An event is always lethal due to direct lethal damage or lethal binary misrepair by the formation of chromosome aberrations. Two different mechanisms can produce events: one-track events (OTE) or two-track-events (TTE). The target for an OTE is always a lethal event, the target for an TTE is one DSB. At least two TTEs on the same or different chromosomes are necessary to produce an event. Both, the OTE and the TTE are statistically independent. From the stochastic nature of cell kill which is described by the Poisson distribution the cell survival probability was derived. It was shown that a solution based on Poisson statistics exists for cell survival. It exhibits exponential cell survival at high dose and a finite gradient of cell survival at vanishing dose, which is in agreement with experimental cell studies. The model fits the experimental data nearly as well as the three-parameter formula of Hug-Kellerer and is only based on two free parameters. It is shown that the LQ formalism is an approximation of the model derived in this work. It could be also shown that the derived model predicts a fractionated cell survival experiment better than the LQ-model. It was shown that cell survival can be described with a simple analytical formula on the basis of Poisson statistics. This solution represents in the limit of large dose the typical exponential behavior and predicts cell survival after fractionated dose application better than the LQ-model.

  2. Nerve Growth Factor in Cancer Cell Death and Survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molloy, Niamh H.; Read, Danielle E.; Gorman, Adrienne M., E-mail: adrienne.gorman@nuigalway.ie [Apoptosis Research Centre, School of Natural Sciences, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland)

    2011-02-01

    One of the major challenges for cancer therapeutics is the resistance of many tumor cells to induction of cell death due to pro-survival signaling in the cancer cells. Here we review the growing literature which shows that neurotrophins contribute to pro-survival signaling in many different types of cancer. In particular, nerve growth factor, the archetypal neurotrophin, has been shown to play a role in tumorigenesis over the past decade. Nerve growth factor mediates its effects through its two cognate receptors, TrkA, a receptor tyrosine kinase and p75{sup NTR}, a member of the death receptor superfamily. Depending on the tumor origin, pro-survival signaling can be mediated by TrkA receptors or by p75{sup NTR}. For example, in breast cancer the aberrant expression of nerve growth factor stimulates proliferative signaling through TrkA and pro-survival signaling through p75{sup NTR}. This latter signaling through p75{sup NTR} promotes increased resistance to the induction of cell death by chemotherapeutic treatments. In contrast, in prostate cells the p75{sup NTR} mediates cell death and prevents metastasis. In prostate cancer, expression of this receptor is lost, which contributes to tumor progression by allowing cells to survive, proliferate and metastasize. This review focuses on our current knowledge of neurotrophin signaling in cancer, with a particular emphasis on nerve growth factor regulation of cell death and survival in cancer.

  3. Nerve Growth Factor in Cancer Cell Death and Survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molloy, Niamh H.; Read, Danielle E.; Gorman, Adrienne M.

    2011-01-01

    One of the major challenges for cancer therapeutics is the resistance of many tumor cells to induction of cell death due to pro-survival signaling in the cancer cells. Here we review the growing literature which shows that neurotrophins contribute to pro-survival signaling in many different types of cancer. In particular, nerve growth factor, the archetypal neurotrophin, has been shown to play a role in tumorigenesis over the past decade. Nerve growth factor mediates its effects through its two cognate receptors, TrkA, a receptor tyrosine kinase and p75 NTR , a member of the death receptor superfamily. Depending on the tumor origin, pro-survival signaling can be mediated by TrkA receptors or by p75 NTR . For example, in breast cancer the aberrant expression of nerve growth factor stimulates proliferative signaling through TrkA and pro-survival signaling through p75 NTR . This latter signaling through p75 NTR promotes increased resistance to the induction of cell death by chemotherapeutic treatments. In contrast, in prostate cells the p75 NTR mediates cell death and prevents metastasis. In prostate cancer, expression of this receptor is lost, which contributes to tumor progression by allowing cells to survive, proliferate and metastasize. This review focuses on our current knowledge of neurotrophin signaling in cancer, with a particular emphasis on nerve growth factor regulation of cell death and survival in cancer

  4. Acceleration of astrocytic differentiation in neural stem cells surviving X-irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozeki, Ayumi; Suzuki, Keiji; Suzuki, Masatoshi; Ozawa, Hiroki; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2012-03-28

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) are highly susceptible to DNA double-strand breaks; however, little is known about the effects of radiation in cells surviving radiation. Although the nestin-positive NSCs predominantly became glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive in differentiation-permissive medium, little or no cells were GFAP positive in proliferation-permissive medium. We found that more than half of the cells surviving X-rays became GFAP positive in proliferation-permissive medium. Moreover, localized irradiation stimulated differentiation of cells outside the irradiated area. These results indicate for the first time that ionizing radiation is able to stimulate astrocyte-specific differentiation of surviving NSCs, whose process is mediated both by the direct activation of nuclear factor-κB and by the indirect bystander effect induced by X-irradiation.

  5. Cell survival in a simulated Mars environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Paul; Kurk, Michael Andy; Boland, Eugene; Thomas, David

    2016-07-01

    The most ancient life forms on earth date back comfortably to the time when liquid water was believed to be abundant on Mars. These ancient life forms include cyanobacteria, contemporary autotrophic earth organisms believed to have descended from ancestors present as long as 3.5 billion years ago. Contemporary cyanobacteria have adapted to the earth environment's harshest conditions (long-term drying, high and low temperature), and, being autotrophic, they are among the most likely life forms to withstand space travel and the Mars environment. However, it is unlikely that humans would unwittingly contaminate a planetary spacecraft with these microbes. One the other hand, heterotrophic microbes that co-habit with humans are more likely spacecraft contaminants, as history attests. Indeed, soil samples from the Atacama desert have yielded colony-forming organisms resembling enteric bacteria. There is a need to understand the survivability of cyanobacteria (likely survivors, unlikely contaminants) and heterotrophic eubacteria (unlikely survivors, likely contaminants) under simulated planetary conditions. A 35-day test was performed in a commercial planetary simulation system (Techshot, Inc., Greenville, IN) in which the minimum night-time temperature was -80 C, the maximum daytime temperature was +26 C, the simulated day-night light cycle in earth hours was 12-on and 12-off, and the total pressure of the pure CO _{2} atmosphere was maintained below 11 mbar. Any water present was allowed to equilibrate with the changing temperature and pressure. The gas phase was sampled into a CR1-A low-pressure hygrometer (Buck Technologies, Boulder, CO), and dew/frost point was measured once every hour and recorded on a data logger, along with the varying temperature in the chamber, from which the partial pressure of water was calculated. According to measurements there was no liquid water present throughout the test except during the initial pump-down period when aqueous specimens

  6. Techniques for measuring red cell, platelet, and WBC survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, K.; Freeman, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    Blood cell survival studies yield valuable information concerning production and destruction of cells circulating in the bloodstream. Methodologies for the measurement of red cell survival include nonisotopic methods such as differential agglutination and hemolysis. The isotopic label may be radioactive or, if not, will require availability of a mass spectrograph. These methods fall into two categories, one where red cells of all ages are labeled ( 51 Cr, DFP32, etc.) and those employing a cohort label of newly formed cells ( 14 C glycine, 75 Se methionine, etc.). Interpretation of results for methodology employed and mechanism of destruction, random or by senescence, are discussed. A similar approach is presented for platelet and leukocyte survival studies. The inherent difficulties and complications of sequestration, storage, and margination of these cells are emphasized and discussed. 38 references

  7. Stem cell death and survival in heart regeneration and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelwahid, Eltyeb; Kalvelyte, Audrone; Stulpinas, Aurimas; de Carvalho, Katherine Athayde Teixeira; Guarita-Souza, Luiz Cesar; Foldes, Gabor

    2016-03-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are major causes of mortality and morbidity. Cardiomyocyte apoptosis disrupts cardiac function and leads to cardiac decompensation and terminal heart failure. Delineating the regulatory signaling pathways that orchestrate cell survival in the heart has significant therapeutic implications. Cardiac tissue has limited capacity to regenerate and repair. Stem cell therapy is a successful approach for repairing and regenerating ischemic cardiac tissue; however, transplanted cells display very high death percentage, a problem that affects success of tissue regeneration. Stem cells display multipotency or pluripotency and undergo self-renewal, however these events are negatively influenced by upregulation of cell death machinery that induces the significant decrease in survival and differentiation signals upon cardiovascular injury. While efforts to identify cell types and molecular pathways that promote cardiac tissue regeneration have been productive, studies that focus on blocking the extensive cell death after transplantation are limited. The control of cell death includes multiple networks rather than one crucial pathway, which underlies the challenge of identifying the interaction between various cellular and biochemical components. This review is aimed at exploiting the molecular mechanisms by which stem cells resist death signals to develop into mature and healthy cardiac cells. Specifically, we focus on a number of factors that control death and survival of stem cells upon transplantation and ultimately affect cardiac regeneration. We also discuss potential survival enhancing strategies and how they could be meaningful in the design of targeted therapies that improve cardiac function.

  8. Collagen Promotes Higher Adhesion, Survival and Proliferation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinnapaka Somaiah

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC can differentiate into several cell types and are desirable candidates for cell therapy and tissue engineering. However, due to poor cell survival, proliferation and differentiation in the patient, the therapy outcomes have not been satisfactory. Although several studies have been done to understand the conditions that promote proliferation, differentiation and migration of MSC in vitro and in vivo, still there is no clear understanding on the effect of non-cellular bio molecules. Of the many factors that influence the cell behavior, the immediate cell microenvironment plays a major role. In this context, we studied the effect of extracellular matrix (ECM proteins in controlling cell survival, proliferation, migration and directed MSC differentiation. We found that collagen promoted cell proliferation, cell survival under stress and promoted high cell adhesion to the cell culture surface. Increased osteogenic differentiation accompanied by high active RHOA (Ras homology gene family member A levels was exhibited by MSC cultured on collagen. In conclusion, our study shows that collagen will be a suitable matrix for large scale production of MSC with high survival rate and to obtain high osteogenic differentiation for therapy.

  9. Par3L enhances colorectal cancer cell survival by inhibiting Lkb1/AMPK signaling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Taiyuan; Liu, Dongning; Lei, Xiong; Jiang, Qunguang

    2017-01-01

    Partitioning defective 3-like protein (Par3L) is a recently identified cell polarity protein that plays an important role in mammary stem cell maintenance. Previously, we showed that high expression of Par3L is associated with poor survival in malignant colorectal cancer (CRC), but the underlying mechanism remained unknown. To this end, we established a Par3L knockout colorectal cancer cell line using the CRISPR/Cas system. Interestingly, reduced proliferation, enhanced cell death and caspase-3 activation were observed in Par3L knockout (KO) cells as compared with wildtype (WT) cells. Consistent with previous studies, we showed that Par3L interacts with a tumor suppressor protein liver kinase B1 (Lkb1). Moreover, Par3L depletion resulted in abnormal activation of Lkb1/AMPK signaling cascade. Knockdown of Lkb1 in these cells could significantly reduce AMPK activity and partially rescue cell death caused by Par3L knockdown. Furthermore, we showed that Par3L KO cells were more sensitive to chemotherapies and irradiation. Together, these results suggest that Par3L is essential for colorectal cancer cell survival by inhibiting Lkb1/AMPK signaling pathway, and is a putative therapeutic target for CRC. - Highlights: • Par3L knockout using the CRISPR/Cas system induces apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells. • Par3L interacts with Lkb1 and regulates the activity of AMPK signaling cascade. • Par3L knockout cells are more sensitive to treatment of different chemotherapy drugs and irradiation.

  10. Stem cell aging: Survival of the laziest?

    OpenAIRE

    Muller-Sieburg, Christa; Sieburg, Hans B.

    2008-01-01

    The question whether stem cells age remains an enigma. Traditionally, aging was thought to change the properties of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). We discuss here a new model of stem cell aging that challenges this view. It is now well-established that the HSC compartment is heterogeneous, consisting of epigenetically fixed subpopulations of HSC that differ in self-renewal and differentiation capacity. New data show that the representation of these HSC subsets changes during aging. HSC that ...

  11. Cyclophilin B supports Myc and mutant p53-dependent survival of glioblastoma multiforme cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae Won; Schroeder, Mark A; Sarkaria, Jann N; Bram, Richard J

    2014-01-15

    Glioblastoma multiforme is an aggressive, treatment-refractory type of brain tumor for which effective therapeutic targets remain important to identify. Here, we report that cyclophilin B (CypB), a prolyl isomerase residing in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), provides an essential survival signal in glioblastoma multiforme cells. Analysis of gene expression databases revealed that CypB is upregulated in many cases of malignant glioma. We found that suppression of CypB reduced cell proliferation and survival in human glioblastoma multiforme cells in vitro and in vivo. We also found that treatment with small molecule inhibitors of cyclophilins, including the approved drug cyclosporine, greatly reduced the viability of glioblastoma multiforme cells. Mechanistically, depletion or pharmacologic inhibition of CypB caused hyperactivation of the oncogenic RAS-mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, induction of cellular senescence signals, and death resulting from loss of MYC, mutant p53, Chk1, and Janus-activated kinase/STAT3 signaling. Elevated reactive oxygen species, ER expansion, and abnormal unfolded protein responses in CypB-depleted glioblastoma multiforme cells indicated that CypB alleviates oxidative and ER stresses and coordinates stress adaptation responses. Enhanced cell survival and sustained expression of multiple oncogenic proteins downstream of CypB may thus contribute to the poor outcome of glioblastoma multiforme tumors. Our findings link chaperone-mediated protein folding in the ER to mechanisms underlying oncogenic transformation, and they make CypB an attractive and immediately targetable molecule for glioblastoma multiforme therapy.

  12. Activation of CHK1 in Supporting Cells Indirectly Promotes Hair Cell Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Jadali

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The sensory hair cells of the inner ear are exquisitely sensitive to ototoxic insults. Loss of hair cells after exposure to ototoxic agents causes hearing loss. Chemotherapeutic agents such as cisplatin causes hair cell loss. Cisplatin forms DNA mono-adducts as well as intra- and inter-strand DNA crosslinks. DNA cisplatin adducts are repaired through the DNA damage response. The decision between cell survival and cell death following DNA damage rests on factors that are involved in determining damage tolerance, cell survival and apoptosis. Cisplatin damage on hair cells has been the main focus of many ototoxic studies, yet the effect of cisplatin on supporting cells has been largely ignored. In this study, the effects of DNA damage response in cochlear supporting cells were interrogated. Supporting cells play a major role in the development, maintenance and oto-protection of hair cells. Loss of supporting cells may indirectly affect hair cell survival or maintenance. Activation of the Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase (PI3K signaling was previously shown to promote hair cell survival. To test whether activating PI3K signaling promotes supporting cell survival after cisplatin damage, cochlear explants from the neural subset (NS Cre Pten conditional knockout mice were employed. Deletion of Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog (PTEN activates PI3K signaling in multiple cell types within the cochlea. Supporting cells lacking PTEN showed increased cell survival after cisplatin damage. Supporting cells lacking PTEN also showed increased phosphorylation of Checkpoint Kinase 1 (CHK1 levels after cisplatin damage. Nearest neighbor analysis showed increased numbers of supporting cells with activated PI3K signaling in close proximity to surviving hair cells in cisplatin damaged cochleae. We propose that increased PI3K signaling promotes supporting cell survival through phosphorylation of CHK1 and increased survival of supporting cells indirectly increases hair cell

  13. An unexpected caffeine-enhanced survival in x-ray-sensitive variant cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utsumi, Hiroshi

    1985-01-01

    The sensitivity of normal Chinese hamster cell lines, V79 and CHO, mouse cell lines, L5178Y and L, and human HeLa cells to the killing effect of x-ray is enhanced with addition of caffeine following x-ray irradiation in a dose-dependent fashion. However, the survival rate of variant cell (V79-AL162/S-10) increased with addition of low concentration of caffeine (caffeine-enhanced survival phenomenon). Therefore, the effects of protein synthesis-inhibiting agents, such as cycloheximide and puromycin, on caffeine-enhanced survival phenomenon were examined. This phenomenon was completely abolished by the inhibitory agents, but not abolished by DNA synthesis-damaging agents, such as excess thymidine and aphidicolin. DNA-damaging physiochemical factors, such as neutrons, U.V., methyl methanesulfonate and mitomycin C, were examined in relation to variant cells' sensitivity and caffeine-enhanced survival phenomenon. V79-AL162/S-10 cells showed high sensitivity to the killing effect of mitomycin C, but their survival rate returned to the rate of normal V79-B310H cells with addition of caffeine. (Namekawa, K.)

  14. Mechanisms of ROS modulated cell survival during carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerkin, J S; Naughton, R; Quiney, C; Cotter, T G

    2008-07-18

    There is increasing evidence within the literature that the decreased susceptibility of tumour cells to stimuli that induce apoptosis can be linked to their inherently increased redox potential. The review primarily focuses on the PI3-kinase/Akt pathway, and the multiple points along this signalling pathway that may be redox regulated. The PI3-kinase/Akt pathway can influence a cells' sensitivity to death inducing signals, through direct manipulation of apoptosis regulating molecules or by regulating the activity of key transcription factors. Proteins involved in the control of apoptosis that are directly regulated by the PI3-kinase/Akt pathway include caspase-9, Bad and the transcription factor GSK-3beta. Lately, it is becoming increasingly obvious that phosphatases are a major counter balance to the PI3-kinase/Akt pathway. Phosphatases such as PP2A and PP1alpha can dephosphorylate signalling molecules within the PI3-kinase/Akt pathway, blocking their activity. It is the balance between the kinase activity and the phosphatase activity that determines the presence and strength of the PI3-kinase/Akt signal. This is why any protein modifications that hinder dephosphorylation can increase the tumours survival advantage. One such modification is the oxidation of the sulphydryl group in key cysteine residues present within the active site of the phosphatases. This highlights the link between the increased redox stress in tumours with the PI3-kinase/Akt pathway. This review will discuss the various sources of reactive oxygen species within a tumour and the effect of these radicals on the PI3-kinase/Akt pathway.

  15. Surviving the crash: T-cell homeostasis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TOSHIBA

    The formation of higher order apoptotic structures at the mitochondrion precedes cellular collapse dead. Tracking bax multimerization at mitochondria wildtype. Bax active -6A7. Nucleus – H33342. Apoptotic T-cells ...

  16. Radiation cell survival and growth delay studies in multicellular spheroids of small-cell lung carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchesne, G.M.; Peacock, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    The radiation sensitivity of two small-cell lung carcinoma cell lines growing as multicellular spheroids in static culture was determined using clonogenic cell survival and growth delay as endpoints. Growth delay determination suggested that clonogenic cell kill was less than was obtained by direct assay of cell survival. Recovery from potentially lethal damage was assayed in one line (HC12) but was not demonstrable, and clonogenic cell survival decreased with time in treated spheroids with diameters greater than 300 μm which contained a hypoxic cell population. Microscopic examination of the treated spheroids showed the emergence of an abnormal giant-cell population, and the progressive clonogenic cell loss that occurred after treatment was thought to be due to oxygen and nutrient deprivation of the remaining viable cells by this doomed cell population. Correction of the growth delay measurements for changes in cell size and clonogenic cell population allowed correlation of the growth delay and cell survival data. (author)

  17. IL-17-producing NKT cells depend exclusively on IL-7 for homeostasis and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, K E; Kim, H-O; Kyparissoudis, K; Corpuz, T M; Pinget, G V; Uldrich, A P; Brink, R; Belz, G T; Cho, J-H; Godfrey, D I; Sprent, J

    2014-09-01

    Natural killer T (NKT) cells are innate-like T cells that rapidly recognize pathogens and produce cytokines that shape the ensuing immune response. IL-17-producing NKT cells are enriched in barrier tissues, such as the lung, skin, and peripheral lymph nodes, and the factors that maintain this population in the periphery have not been elucidated. Here we show that NKT17 cells deviate from other NKT cells in their survival requirements. In contrast to conventional NKT cells that are maintained by IL-15, RORγt(+) NKT cells are IL-15 independent and instead rely completely on IL-7. IL-7 initiates a T-cell receptor-independent (TCR-independent) expansion of NKT17 cells, thus supporting their homeostasis. Without IL-7, survival is dramatically impaired, yet residual cells remain lineage committed with no downregulation of RORγt evident. Their preferential response to IL-7 does not reflect enhanced signaling through STAT proteins, but instead is modulated via the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. The ability to compete for IL-7 is dependent on high-density IL-7 receptor expression, which would promote uptake of low levels of IL-7 produced in the non-lymphoid sites of lung and skin. This dependence on IL-7 is also reported for RORγt(+) innate lymphoid cells and CD4(+) Th17 cells, and suggests common survival requirements for functionally similar cells.

  18. Neurogenesis and Increase in Differentiated Neural Cell Survival via Phosphorylation of Akt1 after Fluoxetine Treatment of Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Rahmani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluoxetine (FLX is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI. Its action is possibly through an increase in neural cell survival. The mechanism of improved survival rate of neurons by FLX may relate to the overexpression of some kinases such as Akt protein. Akt1 (a serine/threonine kinase plays a key role in the modulation of cell proliferation and survival. Our study evaluated the effects of FLX on mesenchymal stem cell (MSC fate and Akt1 phosphorylation levels in MSCs. Evaluation tests included reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, western blot, and immunocytochemistry assays. Nestin, MAP-2, and β-tubulin were detected after neurogenesis as neural markers. Ten μM of FLX upregulated phosphorylation of Akt1 protein in induced hEnSC significantly. Also FLX did increase viability of these MSCs. Continuous FLX treatment after neurogenesis elevated the survival rate of differentiated neural cells probably by enhanced induction of Akt1 phosphorylation. This study addresses a novel role of FLX in neurogenesis and differentiated neural cell survival that may contribute to explaining the therapeutic action of fluoxetine in regenerative pharmacology.

  19. MYC/BCL2 protein coexpression contributes to the inferior survival of activated B-cell subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and demonstrates high-risk gene expression signatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Shimin; Xu-Monette, Zijun Y; Tzankov, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is stratified into prognostically favorable germinal center B-cell (GCB)-like and unfavorable activated B-cell (ABC)-like subtypes based on gene expression signatures. In this study, we analyzed 893 de novo DLBCL patients treated with R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclo...

  20. Repair-misrepair model of cell survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobias, C.A.; Blakely, E.A.; Ngo, F.Q.H.

    1980-01-01

    During the last three years a new model, the repair-misrepair model (RMR) has been proposed, to interpret radiobiological experiments with heavy ions. In using the RMR model it became apparent that some of its features are suitable for handling the effects produced by a variety of environmental agents in addition to ionizing radiation. Two separate sequences of events are assumed to take place in an irradiated cell. The first sequence begins with an initial energy transfer consisting of ionizations and excitations, culminating via fast secondary physical and chemical processes in established macromolecular lesions in essential cell structures. The second sequence contains the responses of the cell to the lesions and consists of the processes of recognition and molecular repair. In normal cells there exists one repair process or at most a few enzymatic repair processes for each essential macromolecular lesion. The enzymatic repair processes may last for hours and minutes, and can be separated in time from the initial physicochemical and later genetic phases

  1. Reprogramming cells with synthetic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoxiao; Malik, Vikas; Jauch, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Conversion of one cell type into another cell type by forcibly expressing specific cocktails of transcription factors (TFs) has demonstrated that cell fates are not fixed and that cellular differentiation can be a two-way street with many intersections. These experiments also illustrated the sweeping potential of TFs to "read" genetically hardwired regulatory information even in cells where they are not normally expressed and to access and open up tightly packed chromatin to execute gene expression programs. Cellular reprogramming enables the modeling of diseases in a dish, to test the efficacy and toxicity of drugs in patient-derived cells and ultimately, could enable cell-based therapies to cure degenerative diseases. Yet, producing terminally differentiated cells that fully resemble their in vivocounterparts in sufficient quantities is still an unmet clinical need. While efforts are being made to reprogram cells nongenetically by using drug-like molecules, defined TF cocktails still dominate reprogramming protocols. Therefore, the optimization of TFs by protein engineering has emerged as a strategy to enhance reprogramming to produce functional, stable and safe cells for regenerative biomedicine. Engineering approaches focused on Oct4, MyoD, Sox17, Nanog and Mef2c and range from chimeric TFs with added transactivation domains, designer transcription activator-like effectors to activate endogenous TFs to reprogramming TFs with rationally engineered DNA recognition principles. Possibly, applying the complete toolkit of protein design to cellular reprogramming can help to remove the hurdles that, thus far, impeded the clinical use of cells derived from reprogramming technologies.

  2. Cyclophilin B Supports Myc and Mutant p53 Dependent Survival of Glioblastoma Multiforme Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae Won; Schroeder, Mark A.; Sarkaria, Jann N.; Bram, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an aggressive, treatment-refractory type of brain tumor for which effective therapeutic targets remain important to identify. Here we report that cyclophilin B (CypB), a prolyl isomerase residing in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), provides an essential survival signal in GBM cells. Analysis of gene expression databases revealed that CypB is upregulated in many cases of malignant glioma. We found that suppression of CypB reduced cell proliferation and survival in human GBM cells in vitro and in vivo. We also found that treatment with small molecule inhibitors of cyclophilins, including the approved drug cyclosporine, greatly reduced the viability of GBM cells. Mechanistically, depletion or pharmacologic inhibition of CypB caused hyperactivation of the oncogenic RAS-MAPK pathway, induction of cellular senescence signals, and death resulting from loss of MYC, mutant p53, Chk1 and JAK/STAT3 signaling. Elevated reactive oxygen species, ER expansion and abnormal unfolded protein responses in CypB-depleted GBM cells indicated that CypB alleviates oxidative and ER stresses and coordinates stress adaptation responses. Enhanced cell survival and sustained expression of multiple oncogenic proteins downstream of CypB may thus contribute to the poor outcome of GBM tumors. Our findings link chaperone-mediated protein folding in the ER to mechanisms underlying oncogenic transformation, and they make CypB an attractive and immediately targetable molecule for GBM therapy. PMID:24272483

  3. Long-term survival of transplanted allogeneic cells engineered to express a T cell chemorepellent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papeta, Natalia; Chen, Tao; Vianello, Fabrizio; Gererty, Lyle; Malik, Ashish; Mok, Ying-Ting; Tharp, William G; Bagley, Jessamyn; Zhao, Guiling; Stevceva, Liljana; Yoon, Victor; Sykes, Megan; Sachs, David; Iacomini, John; Poznansky, Mark C

    2007-01-27

    Alloantigen specific T cells have been shown to be required for allograft rejection. The chemokine, stromal cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1) at high concentration, has been shown to act as a T-cell chemorepellent and abrogate T-cell infiltration into a site of antigen challenge in vivo via a mechanism termed fugetaxis or chemorepulsion. We postulated that this mechanism could be exploited therapeutically and that allogeneic cells engineered to express a chemorepellent protein would not be rejected. Allogeneic murine insulinoma beta-TC3 cells and primary islets from BALB/C mice were engineered to constitutively secrete differential levels of SDF-1 and transplanted into allogeneic diabetic C57BL/6 mice. Rejection was defined as the permanent return of hyperglycemia and was correlated with the level of T-cell infiltration. The migratory response of T-cells to SDF-1 was also analyzed by transwell migration assay and time-lapse videomicroscopy. The cytotoxicity of cytotoxic T cell (CTLs) against beta-TC3 cells expressing high levels of SDF-1 was measured in standard and modified chromium-release assays in order to determine the effect of CTL migration on killing efficacy. Control animals rejected allogeneic cells and remained diabetic. In contrast, high level SDF-1 production by transplanted cells resulted in increased survival of the allograft and a significant reduction in blood glucose levels and T-cell infiltration into the transplanted tissue. This is the first demonstration of a novel approach that exploits T-cell chemorepulsion to induce site specific immune isolation and thereby overcomes allograft rejection without the use of systemic immunosuppression.

  4. VEGF improves survival of mesenchymal stem cells in infarcted hearts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pons, Jennifer; Huang Yu; Arakawa-Hoyt, Janice; Washko, Daniel; Takagawa, Junya; Ye, Jianqin; Grossman, William; Su Hua

    2008-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are a promising source for cell-based treatment of myocardial infarction (MI), but existing strategies are restricted by low cell survival and engraftment. We examined whether vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) improve MSC viability in infracted hearts. We found long-term culture increased MSC-cellular stress: expressing more cell cycle inhibitors, p16 INK , p21 and p19 ARF . VEGF treatment reduced cellular stress, increased pro-survival factors, phosphorylated-Akt and Bcl-xL expression and cell proliferation. Co-injection of MSCs with VEGF to MI hearts increased cell engraftment and resulted in better improvement of cardiac function than that injected with MSCs or VEGF alone. In conclusion, VEGF protects MSCs from culture-induce cellular stress and improves their viability in ischemic myocardium, which results in improvements of their therapeutic effect for the treatment of MI

  5. Osteocalcin protects pancreatic beta cell function and survival under high glucose conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kover, Karen, E-mail: kkover@cmh.edu [Division of Endocrine/Diabetes, Children' s Mercy Hospital & Clinics, Kansas City, MO 64108 (United States); University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City, MO 64108 (United States); Yan, Yun; Tong, Pei Ying; Watkins, Dara; Li, Xiaoyu [Division of Endocrine/Diabetes, Children' s Mercy Hospital & Clinics, Kansas City, MO 64108 (United States); University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City, MO 64108 (United States); Tasch, James; Hager, Melissa [Kansas City University Medical Biosciences, Kansas City, MO (United States); Clements, Mark; Moore, Wayne V. [Division of Endocrine/Diabetes, Children' s Mercy Hospital & Clinics, Kansas City, MO 64108 (United States); University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City, MO 64108 (United States)

    2015-06-19

    Diabetes is characterized by progressive beta cell dysfunction and loss due in part to oxidative stress that occurs from gluco/lipotoxicity. Treatments that directly protect beta cell function and survival in the diabetic milieu are of particular interest. A growing body of evidence suggests that osteocalcin, an abundant non-collagenous protein of bone, supports beta cell function and proliferation. Based on previous gene expression data by microarray, we hypothesized that osteocalcin protects beta cells from glucose-induced oxidative stress. To test our hypothesis we cultured isolated rat islets and INS-1E cells in the presence of normal, high, or high glucose ± osteocalcin for up to 72 h. Oxidative stress and viability/mitochondrial function were measured by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} assay and Alamar Blue assay, respectively. Caspase 3/7 activity was also measured as a marker of apoptosis. A functional test, glucose stimulated insulin release, was conducted and expression of genes/protein was measured by qRT-PCR/western blot/ELISA. Osteocalcin treatment significantly reduced high glucose-induced H{sub 2}O{sub 2} levels while maintaining viability/mitochondrial function. Osteocalcin also significantly improved glucose stimulated insulin secretion and insulin content in rat islets after 48 h of high glucose exposure compared to untreated islets. As expected sustained high glucose down-regulated gene/protein expression of INS1 and BCL2 while increasing TXNIP expression. Interestingly, osteocalcin treatment reversed the effects of high glucose on gene/protein expression. We conclude that osteocalcin can protect beta cells from the negative effects of glucose-induced oxidative stress, in part, by reducing TXNIP expression, thereby preserving beta cell function and survival. - Highlights: • Osteocalcin reduces glucose-induced oxidative stress in beta cells. • Osteocalcin preserves beta cell function and survival under stress conditions. • Osteocalcin reduces glucose

  6. Osteocalcin protects pancreatic beta cell function and survival under high glucose conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kover, Karen; Yan, Yun; Tong, Pei Ying; Watkins, Dara; Li, Xiaoyu; Tasch, James; Hager, Melissa; Clements, Mark; Moore, Wayne V.

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is characterized by progressive beta cell dysfunction and loss due in part to oxidative stress that occurs from gluco/lipotoxicity. Treatments that directly protect beta cell function and survival in the diabetic milieu are of particular interest. A growing body of evidence suggests that osteocalcin, an abundant non-collagenous protein of bone, supports beta cell function and proliferation. Based on previous gene expression data by microarray, we hypothesized that osteocalcin protects beta cells from glucose-induced oxidative stress. To test our hypothesis we cultured isolated rat islets and INS-1E cells in the presence of normal, high, or high glucose ± osteocalcin for up to 72 h. Oxidative stress and viability/mitochondrial function were measured by H 2 O 2 assay and Alamar Blue assay, respectively. Caspase 3/7 activity was also measured as a marker of apoptosis. A functional test, glucose stimulated insulin release, was conducted and expression of genes/protein was measured by qRT-PCR/western blot/ELISA. Osteocalcin treatment significantly reduced high glucose-induced H 2 O 2 levels while maintaining viability/mitochondrial function. Osteocalcin also significantly improved glucose stimulated insulin secretion and insulin content in rat islets after 48 h of high glucose exposure compared to untreated islets. As expected sustained high glucose down-regulated gene/protein expression of INS1 and BCL2 while increasing TXNIP expression. Interestingly, osteocalcin treatment reversed the effects of high glucose on gene/protein expression. We conclude that osteocalcin can protect beta cells from the negative effects of glucose-induced oxidative stress, in part, by reducing TXNIP expression, thereby preserving beta cell function and survival. - Highlights: • Osteocalcin reduces glucose-induced oxidative stress in beta cells. • Osteocalcin preserves beta cell function and survival under stress conditions. • Osteocalcin reduces glucose-induced TXNIP

  7. EEN regulates the proliferation and survival of multiple myeloma cells by potentiating IGF-1 secretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Er-Wen; Xue, Sheng-Jiang; Li, Xiao-Yan; Xu, Suo-Wen; Cheng, Jian-Ding; Zheng, Jin-Xiang; Shi, He; Lv, Guo-Li; Li, Zhi-Gang; Li, Yue; Liu, Chang-Hui; Chen, Xiao-Hui; Liu, Hong; Li, Jie; Liu, Chao

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Levels of EEN expression paralleled with the rate of cell proliferation. • EEN was involved in the proliferation and survival of multiple myeloma (MM) cells. • EEN regulated the activity of IGF-1-Akt/mTOR pathway. • EEN regulated proliferation and survival of MM cells by enhancing IGF-1 secretion. - Abstract: The molecular mechanisms of multiple myeloma are not well defined. EEN is an endocytosis-regulating molecule. Here we report that EEN regulates the proliferation and survival of multiple myeloma cells, by regulating IGF-1 secretion. In the present study, we observed that EEN expression paralleled with cell proliferation, EEN accelerated cell proliferation, facilitated cell cycle transition from G1 to S phase by regulating cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) pathway, and delayed cell apoptosis via Bcl2/Bax-mitochondrial pathway. Mechanistically, we found that EEN was indispensable for insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) secretion and the activation of protein kinase B-mammalian target of rapamycin (Akt-mTOR) pathway. Exogenous IGF-1 overcame the phenotype of EEN depletion, while IGF-1 neutralization overcame that of EEN over-expression. Collectively, these data suggest that EEN may play a pivotal role in excessive cell proliferation and insufficient cell apoptosis of bone marrow plasma cells in multiple myeloma. Therefore, EEN may represent a potential diagnostic marker or therapeutic target for multiple myeloma

  8. EEN regulates the proliferation and survival of multiple myeloma cells by potentiating IGF-1 secretion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Er-Wen [Guangzhou Institute of Forensic Science, Guangzhou (China); Department of Forensic Pathology, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Xue, Sheng-Jiang [Department of Forensic Pathology, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Li, Xiao-Yan [Department of Pharmacy, The Third Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Xu, Suo-Wen [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Cheng, Jian-Ding; Zheng, Jin-Xiang [Department of Forensic Pathology, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Shi, He; Lv, Guo-Li; Li, Zhi-Gang; Li, Yue; Liu, Chang-Hui; Chen, Xiao-Hui; Liu, Hong [Guangzhou Institute of Forensic Science, Guangzhou (China); Li, Jie, E-mail: mdlijie@sina.com [Department of Anaesthesiology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Liu, Chao, E-mail: liuchaogaj@21cn.com [Guangzhou Institute of Forensic Science, Guangzhou (China)

    2014-05-02

    Highlights: • Levels of EEN expression paralleled with the rate of cell proliferation. • EEN was involved in the proliferation and survival of multiple myeloma (MM) cells. • EEN regulated the activity of IGF-1-Akt/mTOR pathway. • EEN regulated proliferation and survival of MM cells by enhancing IGF-1 secretion. - Abstract: The molecular mechanisms of multiple myeloma are not well defined. EEN is an endocytosis-regulating molecule. Here we report that EEN regulates the proliferation and survival of multiple myeloma cells, by regulating IGF-1 secretion. In the present study, we observed that EEN expression paralleled with cell proliferation, EEN accelerated cell proliferation, facilitated cell cycle transition from G1 to S phase by regulating cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) pathway, and delayed cell apoptosis via Bcl2/Bax-mitochondrial pathway. Mechanistically, we found that EEN was indispensable for insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) secretion and the activation of protein kinase B-mammalian target of rapamycin (Akt-mTOR) pathway. Exogenous IGF-1 overcame the phenotype of EEN depletion, while IGF-1 neutralization overcame that of EEN over-expression. Collectively, these data suggest that EEN may play a pivotal role in excessive cell proliferation and insufficient cell apoptosis of bone marrow plasma cells in multiple myeloma. Therefore, EEN may represent a potential diagnostic marker or therapeutic target for multiple myeloma.

  9. Foxp3 overexpression in tumor cells predicts poor survival in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jing-Jing; Zhao, Si-Jia; Fang, Juan; Ma, Da; Liu, Xiang-Qi; Chen, Xiao-Bing; Wang, Yun; Cheng, Bin; Wang, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Forkhead Box P3 (Foxp3) is a regulatory T cells marker, and its expression correlates with prognosis in a number of malignancies. The aim of this study is to determine the relationship of Foxp3 expression with clinicopathological parameters and prognosis in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Foxp3 expression was examined using immunohistochemistry (IHC) in paraffin-embedded tissue samples from 273 OSCC patients. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the associations between Foxp3 expression, the clinicopathologic characteristics and prognostic factors in OSCC. Foxp3 protein expression was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis (P <0.01). Both univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that Foxp3 was an independent factor for both 5 years overall survival (OS) and relapse-free survival (RFS) (both P <0.01). Patients with Foxp3 overexpression had shorter OS and RFS. Our results determined that elevated Foxp3 protein expression was a predictive factor of outcome in OSCC and could act as a promising therapeutic target

  10. The bifunctional autophagic flux by 2-deoxyglucose to control survival or growth of prostate cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Jeong Yong; Kim, Seung Won; Park, Ki Cheong; Yun, Mijin

    2015-01-01

    Recent reports using metabolism regulating drugs showed that nutrient deprivation was an efficient tool to suppress cancer progression. In addition, autophagy control is emerging to prevent cancer cell survival. Autophagy breaks down the unnecessary cytoplasmic components into anabolic units and energy sources, which are the most important sources for making the ATP that maintains homeostasis in cancer cell growth and survival. Therefore, the glucose analog 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) has been used as an anticancer reagent due to its inhibition of glycolysis. Prostate cancer cells (PC3) were treated with 2DG for 6 h or 48 h to analyze the changing of cell cycle and autophagic flux. Rapamycin and LC3B overexpressing vectors were administered to PC3 cells for autophagy induction and chloroquine and shBeclin1 plasmid were used to inhibit autophagy in PC3 cells to analyze PC3 cells growth and survival. The samples for western blotting were prepared in each culture condition to confirm the expression level of autophagy related and regulating proteins. We demonstrated that 2DG inhibits PC3 cells growth and had discriminating effects on autophagy regulation based on the different time period of 2DG treatment to control cell survival. Short-term treatment of 2DG induced autophagic flux, which increased microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3B (LC3B) conversion rates and reduced p62 levels. However, 2DG induced autophagic flux is remarkably reduced over an extended time period of 2DG treatment for 48 h despite autophagy inducing internal signaling being maintained. The relationship between cell growth and autophagy was proved. Increased autophagic flux by rapamycin or LC3B overexpression powerfully reduced cell growth, while autophagy inhibition with shBeclin1 plasmid or chloroquine had no significant effect on regulating cell growth. Given these results, maintaining increased autophagic flux was more effective at inhibiting cancer cell progression than inhibition of

  11. Pancreatic β-cells activate a JunB/ATF3-dependent survival pathway during inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurzov, E N; Barthson, J; Marhfour, I

    2012-01-01

    Destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic β-cells by local autoimmune inflammation is a hallmark of type 1 diabetes. Histochemical analysis of pancreases from non-obese diabetic mice indicated activation of the transcription factor JunB/AP-1 (activator protein-1) after autoimmune infiltration......-cells and human islet cells against pro-inflammatory mediators. These results were confirmed in genetically modified islets derived from Ubi-JunB transgenic mice. Our findings identify ATF3 as a novel downstream target of JunB in the survival mechanism of β-cells under inflammatory stress....

  12. Veratridine increases the survival of retinal ganglion cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P.F. Pereira

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal cell death is an important phenomenon involving many biochemical pathways. This degenerative event has been studied to understand how the cells activate the mechanisms that lead to self-destruction. Target cells and afferent cells play a relevant role in the regulation of natural cell death. We studied the effect of veratridine (1.5, 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0 µM on the survival of neonatal rat retinal ganglion cells in vitro. Veratridine (3.0 µM, a well-known depolarizing agent that opens the Na+ channel, promoted a two-fold increase in the survival of retinal ganglion cells kept in culture for 48 h. This effect was dose-dependent and was blocked by 1.0 µM tetrodotoxin (a classical voltage-dependent Na+ channel blocker and 30.0 µM flunarizine (a Na+ and Ca2+ channel blocker. These results indicate that electrical activity is also important for the maintenance of retinal ganglion cell survival in vitro

  13. Notch controls the survival of memory CD4+ T cells by regulating glucose uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, Yoichi; Ishifune, Chieko; Tsukumo, Shin-ichi; Hozumi, Katsuto; Yagita, Hideo; Yasutomo, Koji

    2015-01-01

    CD4+ T cells differentiate into memory T cells that protect the host from subsequent infection. In contrast, autoreactive memory CD4+ T cells harm the body by persisting in the tissues. The underlying pathways controlling the maintenance of memory CD4+ T cells remain undefined. We show here that memory CD4+ T cell survival is impaired in the absence of the Notch signaling protein known as recombination signal binding protein for immunoglobulin κ J region (Rbpj). Treatment of mice with a Notch inhibitor reduced memory CD4+ T cell numbers and prevented the recurrent induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Rbpj-deficient CD4+ memory T cells exhibit reduced glucose uptake due to impaired AKT phosphorylation, resulting in low Glut1 expression. Treating mice with pyruvic acid, which bypasses glucose uptake and supplies the metabolite downstream of glucose uptake, inhibited the decrease of autoimmune memory CD4+ T cells in the absence of Notch signaling, suggesting memory CD4+ T cell survival relies on glucose metabolism. Together, these data define a central role for Notch signaling in maintaining memory CD4+ T cells through the regulation of glucose uptake.

  14. TRPM4 expression is associated with activated B cell subtype and poor survival in diffuse large B cell lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loo, Suet K; Ch'ng, Ewe S; Md Salleh, Md Salzihan

    2017-01-01

    to investigate TRPM4 protein expression pattern in non-malignant tissues and DLBCL cases, and its association with clinico-demographic parameters and survival in DLBCL. METHODS AND RESULTS: Analysis of publicly available DLBCL microarray data sets showed that TRPM4 transcripts were up-regulated in DLBCL compared...... to normal germinal centre B (GCB) cells, were expressed more highly in the activated B cell-like DLBCL (ABC-DLBCL) subtype and higher TRPM4 transcripts conferred worse overall survival (OS) in R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone)-treated DLBCL cases (P ... immunohistochemical analysis showed that TRPM4 was expressed in various human tissues but not in normal B cells within lymphoid tissues (reactive tonsil, lymph node and appendix). TRPM4 protein was present in 26% (n = 49 of 189) of our cohort of R-CHOP-treated DLBCL cases and this was associated significantly...

  15. Cell survival under nutrient stress is dependent on metabolic conditions regulated by Akt and not by autophagic vacuoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, P; Calastretti, A; Priulla, M; Asnaghi, L; Scarlatti, F; Nicolin, A; Canti, G

    2007-10-01

    Akt activation assists tumor cell survival and promotes resistance to chemotherapy. Here we show that constitutively active Akt (CA-Akt) cells are highly sensitized to cell death induced by nutrient and growth factor deprivation, whereas dominant-negative Akt (DN-Akt) cells have a high rate of survival. The content of autophagosomes in starved CA-Akt cells was high, while DN-Akt cells expressed autophagic vacuoles constitutively, independently of nutrition conditions. Thus Akt down-regulation and downstream events can induce autophagosomes which were not directly determinants of cell death. Biochemical analysis in Akt-mutated cells show that (i) Akt and mTOR proteins were degraded more rapidly than the housekeeping proteins, (ii) mTOR phosphorylation at position Thr(2446) was relatively high in DN-Akt and low in CA-Akt cells, induced by starvation in mock cells only, which suggests reduced autoregulation of these pathways in Akt-mutated cells, (iii) both protein synthesis and protein degradation were significantly higher in starved CA-Akt cells than in starved DN-Akt cells or mock cells. In conclusion, constitutively active Akt, unable to control synthesis and wasting of proteins, accelerates the death of starved cells.

  16. MAP17 and SGLT1 protein expression levels as prognostic markers for cervical tumor patient survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Perez

    Full Text Available MAP17 is a membrane-associated protein that is overexpressed in human tumors. Because the expression of MAP17 increases reactive oxygen species (ROS generation through SGLT1 in cancer cells, in the present work, we investigated whether MAP17 and/or SGLT1 might be markers for the activity of treatments involving oxidative stress, such as cisplatin or radiotherapy. First, we confirmed transcriptional alterations in genes involved in the oxidative stress induced by MAP17 expression in HeLa cervical tumor cells and found that Hela cells expressing MAP17 were more sensitive to therapies that induce ROS than were parental cells. Furthermore, MAP17 increased glucose uptake through SGLT receptors. We then analyzed MAP17 and SGLT1 expression levels in cervical tumors treated with cisplatin plus radiotherapy and correlated the expression levels with patient survival. MAP17 and SGLT1 were expressed in approximately 70% and 50% of cervical tumors of different types, respectively, but they were not expressed in adenoma tumors. Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between MAP17 and SGLT1 expression levels. High levels of either MAP17 or SGLT1 correlated with improved patient survival after treatment. However, the patients with high levels of both MAP17 and SGLT1 survived through the end of this study. Therefore, the combination of high MAP17 and SGLT1 levels is a marker for good prognosis in patients with cervical tumors after cisplatin plus radiotherapy treatment. These results also suggest that the use of MAP17 and SGLT1 markers may identify patients who are likely to exhibit a better response to treatments that boost oxidative stress in other cancer types.

  17. Pancreatic cancer circulating tumour cells express a cell motility gene signature that predicts survival after surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergeant, Gregory; Eijsden, Rudy van; Roskams, Tania; Van Duppen, Victor; Topal, Baki

    2012-01-01

    Most cancer deaths are caused by metastases, resulting from circulating tumor cells (CTC) that detach from the primary cancer and survive in distant organs. The aim of the present study was to develop a CTC gene signature and to assess its prognostic relevance after surgery for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Negative depletion fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) was developed and validated with spiking experiments using cancer cell lines in whole human blood samples. This FACS-based method was used to enrich for CTC from the blood of 10 patients who underwent surgery for PDAC. Total RNA was isolated from 4 subgroup samples, i.e. CTC, haematological cells (G), original tumour (T), and non-tumoural pancreatic control tissue (P). After RNA quality control, samples of 6 patients were eligible for further analysis. Whole genome microarray analysis was performed after double linear amplification of RNA. ‘Ingenuity Pathway Analysis’ software and AmiGO were used for functional data analyses. A CTC gene signature was developed and validated with the nCounter system on expression data of 78 primary PDAC using Cox regression analysis for disease-free (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Using stringent statistical analysis, we retained 8,152 genes to compare expression profiles of CTC vs. other subgroups, and found 1,059 genes to be differentially expressed. The pathway with the highest expression ratio in CTC was p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) signaling, known to be involved in cancer cell migration. In the p38 MAPK pathway, TGF-β1, cPLA2, and MAX were significantly upregulated. In addition, 9 other genes associated with both p38 MAPK signaling and cell motility were overexpressed in CTC. High co-expression of TGF-β1 and our cell motility panel (≥ 4 out of 9 genes for DFS and ≥ 6 out of 9 genes for OS) in primary PDAC was identified as an independent predictor of DFS (p=0.041, HR (95% CI) = 1.885 (1.025 – 3.559)) and OS (p=0.047, HR

  18. Reprogramming cells with synthetic proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxiao Yang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Conversion of one cell type into another cell type by forcibly expressing specific cocktails of transcription factors (TFs has demonstrated that cell fates are not fixed and that cellular differentiation can be a two-way street with many intersections. These experiments also illustrated the sweeping potential of TFs to "read" genetically hardwired regulatory information even in cells where they are not normally expressed and to access and open up tightly packed chromatin to execute gene expression programs. Cellular reprogramming enables the modeling of diseases in a dish, to test the efficacy and toxicity of drugs in patient-derived cells and ultimately, could enable cell-based therapies to cure degenerative diseases. Yet, producing terminally differentiated cells that fully resemble their in vivocounterparts in sufficient quantities is still an unmet clinical need. While efforts are being made to reprogram cells nongenetically by using drug-like molecules, defined TF cocktails still dominate reprogramming protocols. Therefore, the optimization of TFs by protein engineering has emerged as a strategy to enhance reprogramming to produce functional, stable and safe cells for regenerative biomedicine. Engineering approaches focused on Oct4, MyoD, Sox17, Nanog and Mef2c and range from chimeric TFs with added transactivation domains, designer transcription activator-like effectors to activate endogenous TFs to reprogramming TFs with rationally engineered DNA recognition principles. Possibly, applying the complete toolkit of protein design to cellular reprogramming can help to remove the hurdles that, thus far, impeded the clinical use of cells derived from reprogramming technologies.

  19. Reprogramming cells with synthetic proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoxiao; Malik, Vikas; Jauch, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Conversion of one cell type into another cell type by forcibly expressing specific cocktails of transcription factors (TFs) has demonstrated that cell fates are not fixed and that cellular differentiation can be a two-way street with many intersections. These experiments also illustrated the sweeping potential of TFs to “read” genetically hardwired regulatory information even in cells where they are not normally expressed and to access and open up tightly packed chromatin to execute gene expression programs. Cellular reprogramming enables the modeling of diseases in a dish, to test the efficacy and toxicity of drugs in patient-derived cells and ultimately, could enable cell-based therapies to cure degenerative diseases. Yet, producing terminally differentiated cells that fully resemble their in vivo counterparts in sufficient quantities is still an unmet clinical need. While efforts are being made to reprogram cells nongenetically by using drug-like molecules, defined TF cocktails still dominate reprogramming protocols. Therefore, the optimization of TFs by protein engineering has emerged as a strategy to enhance reprogramming to produce functional, stable and safe cells for regenerative biomedicine. Engineering approaches focused on Oct4, MyoD, Sox17, Nanog and Mef2c and range from chimeric TFs with added transactivation domains, designer transcription activator-like effectors to activate endogenous TFs to reprogramming TFs with rationally engineered DNA recognition principles. Possibly, applying the complete toolkit of protein design to cellular reprogramming can help to remove the hurdles that, thus far, impeded the clinical use of cells derived from reprogramming technologies. PMID:25652623

  20. Role of heat shock proteins in cell apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arleta Kaźmierczuk

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis is, apart from necrosis and autophagy, one of the possible cell death mechanisms eliminating needless, not normal or infected cells. This process ensures quantitative and qualitative cell control of organisms. Apoptosis is tightly regulated, it requires both activation of a large number of genes and energy input. Up-to-date two main apoptotic pathways have been recognized – external/receptor and internal, processed with the participation of mitochondria. Heat shock proteins HSPs, the molecules known from their chaperone activity and molecular conservatism, play essential functions in the course of apoptosis. Among that proteins family, i.e. HSP100, 90, 70, 60, 40 and small molecular (sHSP, there are agents mainly protective against programmed cell death. However, in some conditions some of these proteins may promote apoptosis. This review describes different key apoptotic proteins interacting with main members of HSP family and the consequence of these events for cell survival or apoptosis.

  1. Ten-year survival of patients with oesophageal squamous cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. The standard predictive factors of actuarial survival such as T and N stage become less important as patients live for more than 10 years after treatment of cancer. Reports of actual 10-year survivors of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are rare, and demographic and clinicopathological factors ...

  2. Microchromatographic study of hippocampal area CA3 proteins during prolonged post-tetanic potentiation in surviving slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pankova, T.M.; Mikichur, N.I.; Ratushayak, A.S.; Shtark, M.B.

    1985-01-01

    This paper studies the synthesis of proteins and, in particular, of brain-specific proteins in a homogeneous population of postsynaptic cells during the development of prolonged post-tetanic potentiation (PPTP). By using a system of synaptic connections incorporation of tritium-leucine into water-soluble protein of this zone has been investigated during the development of PPTP (in surviving slices after stimulation of mossy fibers). During statistical analysis of the results mean values of deviation of relative radioactivity compared with the control in each fraction was expressed as a percentage. The results were analyzed by Student's test, at the 95% level of significance

  3. Expressions of topoisomerase IIα and BCRP in metastatic cells are associated with overall survival in small cell lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijavec, Matija; Silar, Mira; Triller, Nadja; Kern, Izidor; Cegovnik, Urška; Košnik, Mitja; Korošec, Peter

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the mRNA expression levels of multidrug resistance-associated proteins in chemo-naïve metastatic lung cancer cells and to determine the correlation with response to chemotherapy and overall survival. Metastatic cells were obtained by transbronchial fine needle aspiration biopsy of enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes in 14 patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and 7 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). After cytological confirmation of lung cancer type, total RNA was extracted from biopsy samples and reverse transcribed to cDNA, and real-time PCR for the genes of interest [P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), lung resistance protein (LRP) and topoisomerase IIα (TOPIIα)], was performed. We observed significantly decreased expression of BCRP and significantly increased expression of TOPIIα in metastatic SCLC cells compared to NSCLC. Furthermore, in SCLC high topoisomerase IIα and low BCRP expression levels positively correlated with longer overall survival. Our results showed higher expression levels of BCRP as well as lower levels of topoisomerase IIα in chemo-naïve metastatic cells in NSCLC than in SCLC. These results correlate with previous observations that metastatic SCLC cells at the beginning of chemotherapy are potentially more sensitive to chemotherapeutic agents while in metastatic NSCLC cells resistance is usually inherent. We also showed that altered levels of topoisomerase IIα and BCRP in SCLC are important factors that contribute to resistance to chemotherapeutics that interfere with the enzyme and/or DNA and are highly associated with overall survival.

  4. Protein synthesis and sublethal damage repair in synchronized CHO cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yezzi, M.J.; Tobias, C.A.; Blakely, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    The authors have previously reported that the split dose survival response to x-rays of asynchronous CHO-TSH1 cells is reduced if the cells are held at 40 0 C,a temperature that inhibits protein synthesis, for 2 hours before the first dose and during a 2-hour interval between doses. In conjunction with the survival experiments on asynchronous cells, the authors also examined the DNA rejoining ability in split dose studies with and without inhibition of protein synthesis. The results of these experiments suggest that inhibition of protein synthesis affects a pool of proteins that are necessary for the correct expression of the DNA, although they do not appear to be involved in rejoining DNA breaks. They have extended this work to the study of cells synchronized in G1 phase (2 hour post-mitosis) and S phase (10 hour post-mitosis). Autoradiographic analyses, using 3H-TdR pulse labeling, demonstrated that a delay in the progression of each synchronized cell population occurs after inhibition of protein synthesis. Data are reported on the effects of inhibition of protein synthesis on the ability of G1 and S phase cells to repair sublethal damage

  5. Artichoke compound cynarin differentially affects the survival, growth and stress response of normal, immortalized and cancerous human cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gezer, Ceren; Yücecan, Sevinç; Rattan, Suresh Inder Singh

    2015-01-01

    of CYN on the proliferative potential, survival, morphology, and stress response (SR) markers haemoxygenase-1 (HO-1) and heat shock protein-70 (HSP70) in normal human skin fibroblasts (FSF-1), telomerase-immortalized mesenchymal stem cells (hTERT-MSC) and cervical cancer cells, HeLa. Effects of CYN...

  6. Id1 expression promotes peripheral CD4{sup +} T cell proliferation and survival upon TCR activation without co-stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chen; Jin, Rong [Department of Immunology, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing (China); Wang, Hong-Cheng [Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Tang, Hui; Liu, Yuan-Feng; Qian, Xiao-Ping; Sun, Xiu-Yuan; Ge, Qing [Department of Immunology, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing (China); Sun, Xiao-Hong, E-mail: sunx@omrf.org [Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Zhang, Yu, E-mail: zhangyu007@bjmu.edu.cn [Department of Immunology, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing (China)

    2013-06-21

    Highlights: •Id1 expression enables naïve T cell proliferation without anti-CD28 co-stimulation. •Id1 expression facilitates T cells survival when stimulated with anti-CD3. •Elevation of IL-2 production by Id1 contributes increased proliferation and survival. •Id1 potentiates NF-κB activation by anti-CD3 stimulation. -- Abstract: Although the role of E proteins in the thymocyte development is well documented, much less is known about their function in peripheral T cells. Here we demonstrated that CD4 promoter-driven transgenic expression of Id1, a naturally occurring dominant-negative inhibitor of E proteins, can substitute for the co-stimulatory signal delivered by CD28 to facilitate the proliferation and survival of naïve CD4{sup +} cells upon anti-CD3 stimulation. We next discovered that IL-2 production and NF-κB activity after anti-CD3 stimulation were significantly elevated in Id1-expressing cells, which may be, at least in part, responsible for the augmentation of their proliferation and survival. Taken together, results from this study suggest an important role of E and Id proteins in peripheral T cell activation. The ability of Id proteins to by-pass co-stimulatory signals to enable T cell activation has significant implications in regulating T cell immunity.

  7. Influence of diethyl maleate in irradiated mice survival and related to percentages of serum proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardes, E.; Mastro, N.L. del

    1990-01-01

    The use of radiomodifying drugs that alter the radiation effect, protecting or sensitizing cells and organisms, presents great interest in tumor radiotherapy. Glutathione (GSH) can be described as the major endogenous radioprotector. The diethyl maleate (DEM) is a drug able to block intracellular GSH. This work aims at the establishment of the radiomodifying competence of DEM administered in two different vehicles, peanut oil and aqueous ethanolic solution by the analysis of mouse survival curves as well as the relative percentages of serum proteins. Groups of animals were previously injected intraperitoneally with 0.3 ml of 418 e 150 μM DEM respectively in each one of the vehicles one hour before irradiated with an 60 Co acute dose of 9 Gy. The survival of mice was followed during 30 days and electrophoretic profiles of serum proteins 1,3 and 7 days after irradiation. The results showed that the action of DEM om mouse radiosensitivity depends on the vehicles used, considering that both media showed a radio modifier action. (author)

  8. An Engineered Survival-Selection Assay for Extracellular Protein Expression Uncovers Hypersecretory Phenotypes in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Aravind; Haitjema, Charles H; Lee, Robert; Boock, Jason T; DeLisa, Matthew P

    2017-05-19

    The extracellular expression of recombinant proteins using laboratory strains of Escherichia coli is now routinely achieved using naturally secreted substrates, such as YebF or the osmotically inducible protein Y (OsmY), as carrier molecules. However, secretion efficiency through these pathways needs to be improved for most synthetic biology and metabolic engineering applications. To address this challenge, we developed a generalizable survival-based selection strategy that effectively couples extracellular protein secretion to antibiotic resistance and enables facile isolation of rare mutants from very large populations (i.e., 10 10-12 clones) based simply on cell growth. Using this strategy in the context of the YebF pathway, a comprehensive library of E. coli single-gene knockout mutants was screened and several gain-of-function mutations were isolated that increased the efficiency of extracellular expression without compromising the integrity of the outer membrane. We anticipate that this user-friendly strategy could be leveraged to better understand the YebF pathway and other secretory mechanisms-enabling the exploration of protein secretion in pathogenesis as well as the creation of designer E. coli strains with greatly expanded secretomes-all without the need for expensive exogenous reagents, assay instruments, or robotic automation.

  9. Early Response of Protein Quality Control in Gills Is Associated with Survival of Hypertonic Shock in Mozambique tilapia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Cheng-Hao; Lee, Tsung-Han

    2013-01-01

    The protein quality control (PQC) mechanism is essential for cell function and viability. PQC with proper biological function depends on molecular chaperones and proteases. The hypertonicity-induced protein damage and responses of PQC mechanism in aquatic organisms, however, are poorly understood. In this study, we examine the short-term effects of different hypertonic shocks on the levels of heat shock proteins (HSPs, e.g., HSP70 and HSP90), ubiquitin-conjugated proteins and protein aggregation in gills of the Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). Following transfer from fresh water (FW) to 20‰ hypertonicity, all examined individuals survived to the end of experiment. Moreover, the levels of branchial HSPs and ubiquitin-conjugated proteins significantly increased at 3 and 24 h post-transfer, respectively. Up-regulation of HSPs and ubiquitin-conjugated proteins was sufficient to prevent the accumulation of aggregated proteins. However, the survival rate of tilapia dramatically declined at 5 h and all fish died within 7 h after direct transfer to 30‰ hypertonicity. We presumed that this result was due to the failed activation of gill PQC system, which resulted in elevating the levels of aggregated proteins at 3 and 4 h. Furthermore, in aggregated protein fractions, the amounts of gill Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) remained relatively low when fish were transferred to 20‰ hypertonicity, whereas abundant NKA was found at 4 h post-transfer to 30‰ hypertonicity. This study demonstrated that the response of PQC in gills is earlier than observable changes in localization of ion-secreting transport proteins upon hypertonic challenge. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the regulation of PQC mechanism in fish and characterize its important role in euryhaline teleost survival in response to hypertonic stress. PMID:23690986

  10. Chromosome aberrations and cell survival in irradiated mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tremp, J.

    1981-01-01

    A possible correlation between chromosome aberrations and reduced proliferation capacity or cell death was investigated. Synchronized Chinese hamster fibroblast cells were irradiated with 300 rad of x rays in early G 1 . Despite synchronization the cells reached the subsequent mitosis at different times. The frequency of chromosome aberrations was determined in the postirradiation division at 2-h intervals. The highest frequency occurred in cells with a first cell cycle of medium length. The colony-forming ability of mitotic cells was measured in parallel samples by following the progress of individual mitoses. The proportion of cells forming macrocolonies decreased with increasing cell cycle length, and the number of non-colony-forming cells increased. Irrespective of various first cell cycle lengths and different frequencies of chromosome aberrations, the number of cells forming microcolonies remained constant. A correlation was found between the absence of chromosome aberrations and the ability of cells to form macrocolonies. However, cells with a long first cell cycle formed fewer macrocolonies than expected

  11. Protein tyrosine nitration in the cell cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Min; Mateoiu, Claudia; Souchelnytskyi, Serhiy

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Enrichment of 3-nitrotyrosine containing proteins from cells synchronized in different phases of the cell cycle. → Identification of 76 tyrosine nitrated proteins that change expression during the cell cycle. → Nineteen identified proteins were previously described as regulators of cell proliferation. -- Abstract: Nitration of tyrosine residues in proteins is associated with cell response to oxidative/nitrosative stress. Tyrosine nitration is relatively low abundant post-translational modification that may affect protein functions. Little is known about the extent of protein tyrosine nitration in cells during progression through the cell cycle. Here we report identification of proteins enriched for tyrosine nitration in cells synchronized in G0/G1, S or G2/M phases of the cell cycle. We identified 27 proteins in cells synchronized in G0/G1 phase, 37 proteins in S phase synchronized cells, and 12 proteins related to G2/M phase. Nineteen of the identified proteins were previously described as regulators of cell proliferation. Thus, our data indicate which tyrosine nitrated proteins may affect regulation of the cell cycle.

  12. Survival motor neuron protein in motor neurons determines synaptic integrity in spinal muscular atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Tara L; Kong, Lingling; Wang, Xueyong; Osborne, Melissa A; Crowder, Melissa E; Van Meerbeke, James P; Xu, Xixi; Davis, Crystal; Wooley, Joe; Goldhamer, David J; Lutz, Cathleen M; Rich, Mark M; Sumner, Charlotte J

    2012-06-20

    The inherited motor neuron disease spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is caused by deficient expression of survival motor neuron (SMN) protein and results in severe muscle weakness. In SMA mice, synaptic dysfunction of both neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) and central sensorimotor synapses precedes motor neuron cell death. To address whether this synaptic dysfunction is due to SMN deficiency in motor neurons, muscle, or both, we generated three lines of conditional SMA mice with tissue-specific increases in SMN expression. All three lines of mice showed increased survival, weights, and improved motor behavior. While increased SMN expression in motor neurons prevented synaptic dysfunction at the NMJ and restored motor neuron somal synapses, increased SMN expression in muscle did not affect synaptic function although it did improve myofiber size. Together these data indicate that both peripheral and central synaptic integrity are dependent on motor neurons in SMA, but SMN may have variable roles in the maintenance of these different synapses. At the NMJ, it functions at the presynaptic terminal in a cell-autonomous fashion, but may be necessary for retrograde trophic signaling to presynaptic inputs onto motor neurons. Importantly, SMN also appears to function in muscle growth and/or maintenance independent of motor neurons. Our data suggest that SMN plays distinct roles in muscle, NMJs, and motor neuron somal synapses and that restored function of SMN at all three sites will be necessary for full recovery of muscle power.

  13. Protein nutrition and exercise survival kit for critically ill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijs, Peter J.M.

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Protein delivery as well as exercise of critically ill in clinical practice is still a highly debated issue. Here we discuss only the most recent updates in the literature concerning protein nutrition and exercise of the critically ill. RECENT FINDINGS: By lack of randomized

  14. Antifreeze proteins enable plants to survive in freezing conditions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-10-20

    Oct 20, 2014 ... Recent studies have shown that plant AFPs bind to both prism planes and basal ... Abbreviations used: AFP, antifreeze protein; ECP, extra-cellular protein; IAC, ice adsorption ...... This work was partially supported by a grant (BT/PR10799/ ... ity in Ammopiptanthus mongolicus (in Chinese with English.

  15. Bovine lactoferrin regulates cell survival, apoptosis and inflammation in intestinal epithelial cells and preterm pig intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Duc Ninh; Jiang, Pingping; Stensballe, Allan; Bendixen, Emøke; Sangild, Per T; Chatterton, Dereck E W

    2016-04-29

    Bovine lactoferrin (bLF) may modulate neonatal intestinal inflammation. Previous studies in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) indicated that moderate bLF doses enhance proliferation whereas high doses trigger inflammation. To further elucidate cellular mechanisms, we profiled the porcine IEC proteome after stimulation with bLF at 0, 0.1, 1 and 10g/L by LC-MS-based proteomics. Key pathways were analyzed in the intestine of formula-fed preterm pigs with and without supplementation of 10g/L bLF. Levels of 123 IEC proteins were altered by bLF. Low bLF doses (0.1-1g/L) up-regulated 11 proteins associated with glycolysis, energy metabolism and protein synthesis, indicating support of cell survival. In contrast, a high bLF dose (10g/L) up-regulated three apoptosis-inducing proteins, down-regulated five anti-apoptotic and proliferation-inducing proteins and 15 proteins related to energy and amino acid metabolism, and altered three proteins enhancing the hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) pathway. In the preterm pig intestine, bLF at 10g/L decreased villus height/crypt depth ratio and up-regulated the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and HIF-1α, indicating elevated intestinal apoptosis and inflammation. In conclusion, bLF dose-dependently affects IECs via metabolic, apoptotic and inflammatory pathways. It is important to select an appropriate dose when feeding neonates with bLF to avoid detrimental effects exerted by excessive doses. The present work elucidates dose-dependent effects of bLF on the proteomic changes of IECs in vitro supplemented with data from a preterm pig study confirming detrimental effects of enteral feeding with the highest dose of bLF (10g/L). The study contributes to further understanding on mechanisms that bLF, as an important milk protein, can regulate the homeostasis of the immature intestine. Results from this study urge neonatologists to carefully consider the dose of bLF to supplement into infant formula used for preterm neonates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B

  16. Expression of HSF2 decreases in mitosis to enable stress-inducible transcription and cell survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsing, Alexandra N.; Aspelin, Camilla; Björk, Johanna K.; Bergman, Heidi A.; Himanen, Samu V.; Kallio, Marko J.; Roos-Mattjus, Pia

    2014-01-01

    Unless mitigated, external and physiological stresses are detrimental for cells, especially in mitosis, resulting in chromosomal missegregation, aneuploidy, or apoptosis. Heat shock proteins (Hsps) maintain protein homeostasis and promote cell survival. Hsps are transcriptionally regulated by heat shock factors (HSFs). Of these, HSF1 is the master regulator and HSF2 modulates Hsp expression by interacting with HSF1. Due to global inhibition of transcription in mitosis, including HSF1-mediated expression of Hsps, mitotic cells are highly vulnerable to stress. Here, we show that cells can counteract transcriptional silencing and protect themselves against proteotoxicity in mitosis. We found that the condensed chromatin of HSF2-deficient cells is accessible for HSF1 and RNA polymerase II, allowing stress-inducible Hsp expression. Consequently, HSF2-deficient cells exposed to acute stress display diminished mitotic errors and have a survival advantage. We also show that HSF2 expression declines during mitosis in several but not all human cell lines, which corresponds to the Hsp70 induction and protection against stress-induced mitotic abnormalities and apoptosis. PMID:25202032

  17. Reassessment of the relationship between M-protein decrement and survival in multiple myeloma.

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, M.; Belch, A.; Hanson, J.; Brox, L.

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between percentage M-protein decrement and survival is assessed in 134 multiple myeloma patients. The correlation did not achieve statistical significance (P = 0.069). Multivariate analysis using the Cox proportional hazards model, including a number of previously recognised prognostic factors, showed only percentage M-protein decrement, creatinine and haemoglobin to be significantly correlated with survival. However, the R'-statistic for each of these variables was low, indi...

  18. PRAP1 is a novel executor of p53-dependent mechanisms in cell survival after DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, B H; Zhuo, J L; Leung, C H W; Lu, G D; Liu, J J; Yap, C T; Hooi, S C

    2012-12-13

    p53 has a crucial role in governing cellular mechanisms in response to a broad range of genotoxic stresses. During DNA damage, p53 can either promote cell survival by activating senescence or cell-cycle arrest and DNA repair to maintain genomic integrity for cell survival or direct cells to undergo apoptosis to eliminate extensively damaged cells. The ability of p53 to execute these two opposing cell fates depends on distinct signaling pathways downstream of p53. In this study, we showed that under DNA damage conditions induced by chemotherapeutic drugs, gamma irradiation and hydrogen peroxide, p53 upregulates a novel protein, proline-rich acidic protein 1 (PRAP1). We identified functional p53-response elements within intron 1 of PRAP1 gene and showed that these regions interact directly with p53 using ChIP assays, indicating that PRAP1 is a novel p53 target gene. The induction of PRAP1 expression by p53 may promote resistance of cancer cells to chemotherapeutic drugs such as 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), as knockdown of PRAP1 increases apoptosis in cancer cells after 5-FU treatment. PRAP1 appears to protect cells from apoptosis by inducing cell-cycle arrest, suggesting that the induction of PRAP1 expression by p53 in response to DNA-damaging agents contributes to cancer cell survival. Our findings provide a greater insight into the mechanisms underlying the pro-survival role of p53 in response to cytotoxic treatments.

  19. Neutron-energy-dependent cell survival and oncogenic transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R C; Marino, S A; Martin, S G; Komatsu, K; Geard, C R; Brenner, D J; Hall, E J

    1999-12-01

    Both cell lethality and neoplastic transformation were assessed for C3H10T1/2 cells exposed to neutrons with energies from 0.040 to 13.7 MeV. Monoenergetic neutrons with energies from 0.23 to 13.7 MeV and two neutron energy spectra with average energies of 0.040 and 0.070 MeV were produced with a Van de Graaff accelerator at the Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF) in the Center for Radiological Research of Columbia University. For determination of relative biological effectiveness (RBE), cells were exposed to 250 kVp X rays. With exposures to 250 kVp X rays, both cell survival and radiation-induced oncogenic transformation were curvilinear. Irradiation of cells with neutrons at all energies resulted in linear responses as a function of dose for both biological endpoints. Results indicate a complex relationship between RBEm and neutron energy. For both survival and transformation, RBEm was greatest for cells exposed to 0.35 MeV neutrons. RBEm was significantly less at energies above or below 0.35 MeV. These results are consistent with microdosimetric expectation. These results are also compatible with current assessments of neutron radiation weighting factors for radiation protection purposes. Based on calculations of dose-averaged LET, 0.35 MeV neutrons have the greatest LET and therefore would be expected to be more biologically effective than neutrons of greater or lesser energies.

  20. Role of X-ray-inducible genes and proteins in adaptive survival responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyers, M.; Schea, R.A.; Petrowski, A.E.; Seabury, H.; McLaughlin, P.W.; Lee, I.; Lee, S.W.; Boothman, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    Certain X-ray-inducible genes and their corresponding protein products, appearing following low priming doses of ionizing radiation may subsequently give rise to an adaptive survival response, ultimately leading to increased radioresistance. Further, this adaptive radioresistance may be due to increased DNA repair (or misrepair) processes. Ultimately, the function of low-dose-induced cDNA clones within the cell is hoped to elucidate to follow the effects of specific gene turn-off on adaptive responses. Future research must determine the various functions of adaptive response gene products so that the beneficial or deleterious consequences of adaptive responses, which increases resistance to ionizing radiation, can be determined. (author). 19 refs., 1 fig

  1. Lack of Outer Membrane Protein A Enhances the Release of Outer Membrane Vesicles and Survival of Vibrio cholerae and Suppresses Viability of Acanthamoeba castellanii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soni Priya Valeru

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the diarrhoeal disease cholera, survives in aquatic environments. The bacterium has developed a survival strategy to grow and survive inside Acanthamoeba castellanii. It has been shown that V. cholerae expresses outer membrane proteins as virulence factors playing a role in the adherence to interacted host cells. This study examined the role of outer membrane protein A (OmpA and outer membrane vesicles (OMVs in survival of V. cholerae alone and during its interaction with A. castellanii. The results showed that an OmpA mutant of V. cholerae survived longer than wild-type V. cholerae when cultivated alone. Cocultivation with A. castellanii enhanced the survival of both bacterial strains and OmpA protein exhibited no effect on attachment, engulfment, and survival inside the amoebae. However, cocultivation of the OmpA mutant of V. cholerae decreased the viability of A. castellanii and this bacterial strain released more OMVs than wild-type V. cholerae. Surprisingly, treatment of amoeba cells with OMVs isolated from the OmpA mutant significantly decreased viable counts of the amoeba cells. In conclusion, the results might highlight a regulating rule for OmpA in survival of V. cholerae and OMVs as a potent virulence factor for this bacterium towards eukaryotes in the environment.

  2. Discrete dynamic modeling of T cell survival signaling networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ranran

    2009-03-01

    Biochemistry-based frameworks are often not applicable for the modeling of heterogeneous regulatory systems that are sparsely documented in terms of quantitative information. As an alternative, qualitative models assuming a small set of discrete states are gaining acceptance. This talk will present a discrete dynamic model of the signaling network responsible for the survival and long-term competence of cytotoxic T cells in the blood cancer T-LGL leukemia. We integrated the signaling pathways involved in normal T cell activation and the known deregulations of survival signaling in leukemic T-LGL, and formulated the regulation of each network element as a Boolean (logic) rule. Our model suggests that the persistence of two signals is sufficient to reproduce all known deregulations in leukemic T-LGL. It also indicates the nodes whose inactivity is necessary and sufficient for the reversal of the T-LGL state. We have experimentally validated several model predictions, including: (i) Inhibiting PDGF signaling induces apoptosis in leukemic T-LGL. (ii) Sphingosine kinase 1 and NFκB are essential for the long-term survival of T cells in T-LGL leukemia. (iii) T box expressed in T cells (T-bet) is constitutively activated in the T-LGL state. The model has identified potential therapeutic targets for T-LGL leukemia and can be used for generating long-term competent CTL necessary for tumor and cancer vaccine development. The success of this model, and of other discrete dynamic models, suggests that the organization of signaling networks has an determining role in their dynamics. Reference: R. Zhang, M. V. Shah, J. Yang, S. B. Nyland, X. Liu, J. K. Yun, R. Albert, T. P. Loughran, Jr., Network Model of Survival Signaling in LGL Leukemia, PNAS 105, 16308-16313 (2008).

  3. Activated ovarian endothelial cells promote early follicular development and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedem, Alon; Aelion-Brauer, Anate; Guo, Peipei; Wen, Duancheng; Ding, Bi-Sen; Lis, Raphael; Cheng, Du; Sandler, Vladislav M; Rafii, Shahin; Rosenwaks, Zev

    2017-09-19

    New data suggests that endothelial cells (ECs) elaborate essential "angiocrine factors". The aim of this study is to investigate the role of activated ovarian endothelial cells in early in-vitro follicular development. Mouse ovarian ECs were isolated using magnetic cell sorting or by FACS and cultured in serum free media. After a constitutive activation of the Akt pathway was initiated, early follicles (50-150 um) were mechanically isolated from 8-day-old mice and co-cultured with these activated ovarian endothelial cells (AOEC) (n = 32), gel (n = 24) or within matrigel (n = 27) in serum free media for 14 days. Follicular growth, survival and function were assessed. After 6 passages, flow cytometry showed 93% of cells grown in serum-free culture were VE-cadherin positive, CD-31 positive and CD 45 negative, matching the known EC profile. Beginning on day 4 of culture, we observed significantly higher follicular and oocyte growth rates in follicles co-cultured with AOECs compared with follicles on gel or matrigel. After 14 days of culture, 73% of primary follicles and 83% of secondary follicles co-cultured with AOEC survived, whereas the majority of follicles cultured on gel or matrigel underwent atresia. This is the first report of successful isolation and culture of ovarian ECs. We suggest that co-culture with activated ovarian ECs promotes early follicular development and survival. This model is a novel platform for the in vitro maturation of early follicles and for the future exploration of endothelial-follicular communication. In vitro development of early follicles necessitates a complex interplay of growth factors and signals required for development. Endothelial cells (ECs) may elaborate essential "angiocrine factors" involved in organ regeneration. We demonstrate that co-culture with ovarian ECs enables culture of primary and early secondary mouse ovarian follicles.

  4. Nitrosothiol signaling and protein nitrosation in cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Anand Krishnan V; Rojanasakul, Yon; Azad, Neelam

    2014-11-15

    Nitric oxide, a reactive free radical, is an important signaling molecule that can lead to a plethora of cellular effects affecting homeostasis. A well-established mechanism by which NO manifests its effect on cellular functions is the post-translational chemical modification of cysteine thiols in substrate proteins by a process known as S-nitrosation. Studies that investigate regulation of cellular functions through NO have increasingly established S-nitrosation as the primary modulatory mechanism in their respective systems. There has been a substantial increase in the number of reports citing various candidate proteins undergoing S-nitrosation, which affects cell-death and -survival pathways in a number of tissues including heart, lung, brain and blood. With an exponentially growing list of proteins being identified as substrates for S-nitrosation, it is important to assimilate this information in different cell/tissue systems in order to gain an overall view of protein regulation of both individual proteins and a class of protein substrates. This will allow for broad mapping of proteins as a function of S-nitrosation, and help delineate their global effects on pathophysiological responses including cell death and survival. This information will not only provide a much better understanding of overall functional relevance of NO in the context of various disease states, it will also facilitate the generation of novel therapeutics to combat specific diseases that are driven by NO-mediated S-nitrosation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Investigation of New Morpholino Oligomers to Increase Survival Motor Neuron Protein Levels in Spinal Muscular Atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Agnese; Crisafulli, Sebastiano G; Rizzuti, Mafalda; Bresolin, Nereo; Comi, Giacomo P; Corti, Stefania; Nizzardo, Monica

    2018-01-06

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal-recessive childhood motor neuron disease and the main genetic cause of infant mortality. SMA is caused by deletions or mutations in the survival motor neuron 1 ( SMN1 ) gene, which results in SMN protein deficiency. Only one approved drug has recently become available and allows for the correction of aberrant splicing of the paralogous SMN2 gene by antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs), leading to production of full-length SMN protein. We have already demonstrated that a sequence of an ASO variant, Morpholino (MO), is particularly suitable because of its safety and efficacy profile and is both able to increase SMN levels and rescue the murine SMA phenotype. Here, we optimized this strategy by testing the efficacy of four new MO sequences targeting SMN2 . Two out of the four new MO sequences showed better efficacy in terms of SMN protein production both in SMA induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and SMAΔ7 mice. Further, the effect was enhanced when different MO sequences were administered in combination. Our data provide an important insight for MO-based treatment for SMA. Optimization of the target sequence and validation of a treatment based on a combination of different MO sequences could support further pre-clinical studies and the progression toward future clinical trials.

  6. Targeting eukaryotic Rab proteins: a smart strategy for chlamydial survival and replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiani, María Teresa; Gambarte Tudela, Julián; Capmany, Anahí

    2014-09-01

    Chlamydia, an obligate intracellular bacterium which passes its entire lifecycle within a membrane-bound vacuole called the inclusion, has evolved a variety of unique strategies to establish an advantageous intracellular niche for survival. This review highlights the mechanisms by which Chlamydia subverts vesicular transport in host cells, particularly by hijacking the master controllers of eukaryotic trafficking, the Rab proteins. A subset of Rabs and Rab interacting proteins that control the recycling pathway or the biosynthetic route are selectively recruited to the chlamydial inclusion membrane. By interfering with Rab-controlled transport steps, this intracellular pathogen not only prevents its own degradation in the phagocytic pathway, but also creates a favourable intracellular environment for growth and replication. Chlamydia, a highly adapted and successful intracellular pathogen, has several redundant strategies to re-direct vesicles emerging from biosynthetic compartments that carry host molecules essential for bacterial development. Although current knowledge is limited, the latest findings have shed light on the role of Rab proteins in the course of chlamydial infections and could open novel opportunities for anti-chlamydial therapy. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Androgen receptor signaling is required for androgen-sensitive human prostate cancer cell proliferation and survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Day Wanda V

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Androgens and androgen receptors (AR regulate normal prostate development and growth. They also are involved in pathological development of prostatic diseases, including benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH and prostate cancer (PCa. Antiandrogen therapy for PCa, in conjunction with chemical or surgical castration, offers initial positive responses and leads to massive prostate cell death. However, cancer cells later appear as androgen-independent PCa. To investigate the role of AR in prostate cell proliferation and survival, we introduced a vector-based small interfering RNA (siRNA. This siRNA targeted 5'-untranslated region of AR mRNA for extended suppression of AR expression in androgen-sensitive human prostate LNCaP cells. Results The siRNA design successfully suppressed endogenous AR expression, as revealed by western blotting and immunofluorescence staining in LNCaP cells. LNCaP cells did not proliferate in the absence of AR and underwent apoptosis, based on elevated phospho-Histone H2B expression and higher number of apoptotic body as compared to control cells. Conclusion We demonstrated that AR is vital for prostate cell proliferation and survival in this androgen-sensitive prostate cell line. These results further strengthen the hypothesis that AR can be a therapeutic target for treating androgen-sensitive stages of PCa. Unlike antiandorgens, however, siRNA targeting AR provides a direct inactivation of AR function through the suppression of AR protein expression.

  8. Association of Glioblastoma Multiforme Stem Cell Characteristics, Differentiation, and Microglia Marker Genes with Patient Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Bien-Möller

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM are at high risk to develop a relapse despite multimodal therapy. Assumedly, glioma stem cells (GSCs are responsible for treatment resistance of GBM. Identification of specific GSC markers may help to develop targeted therapies. Here, we performed expression analyses of stem cell (ABCG2, CD44, CD95, CD133, ELF4, Nanog, and Nestin as well as differentiation and microglia markers (GFAP, Iba1, and Sparc in GBM compared to nonmalignant brain. Furthermore, the role of these proteins for patient survival and their expression in LN18 stem-like neurospheres was analyzed. At mRNA level, ABCG2 and CD95 were reduced, GFAP was unchanged; all other investigated markers were increased in GBM. At protein level, CD44, ELF4, Nanog, Nestin, and Sparc were elevated in GBM, but only CD133 and Nestin were strongly associated with survival time. In addition, ABCG2 and GFAP expression was decreased in LN18 neurospheres whereas CD44, CD95, CD133, ELF4, Nanog, Nestin, and Sparc were upregulated. Altogether only CD133 and Nestin were associated with survival rates. This raises concerns regarding the suitability of the other target structures as prognostic markers, but makes both CD133 and Nestin candidates for GBM therapy. Nevertheless, a search for more specific marker proteins is urgently needed.

  9. Association of Glioblastoma Multiforme Stem Cell Characteristics, Differentiation, and Microglia Marker Genes with Patient Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balz, Ellen; Herzog, Susann; Plantera, Laura; Vogelgesang, Silke; Seifert, Carolin; Bialke, Angela; Venugopal, Chitra; Singh, Sheila K.; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Schroeder, Henry W. S.

    2018-01-01

    Patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) are at high risk to develop a relapse despite multimodal therapy. Assumedly, glioma stem cells (GSCs) are responsible for treatment resistance of GBM. Identification of specific GSC markers may help to develop targeted therapies. Here, we performed expression analyses of stem cell (ABCG2, CD44, CD95, CD133, ELF4, Nanog, and Nestin) as well as differentiation and microglia markers (GFAP, Iba1, and Sparc) in GBM compared to nonmalignant brain. Furthermore, the role of these proteins for patient survival and their expression in LN18 stem-like neurospheres was analyzed. At mRNA level, ABCG2 and CD95 were reduced, GFAP was unchanged; all other investigated markers were increased in GBM. At protein level, CD44, ELF4, Nanog, Nestin, and Sparc were elevated in GBM, but only CD133 and Nestin were strongly associated with survival time. In addition, ABCG2 and GFAP expression was decreased in LN18 neurospheres whereas CD44, CD95, CD133, ELF4, Nanog, Nestin, and Sparc were upregulated. Altogether only CD133 and Nestin were associated with survival rates. This raises concerns regarding the suitability of the other target structures as prognostic markers, but makes both CD133 and Nestin candidates for GBM therapy. Nevertheless, a search for more specific marker proteins is urgently needed. PMID:29535786

  10. A naringenin–tamoxifen combination impairs cell proliferation and survival of MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatkevich, Talia; Ramos, Joseph; Santos-Sanchez, Idalys; Patel, Yashomati M., E-mail: ympatel@uncg.edu

    2014-10-01

    Since over 60% of breast cancers are estrogen receptor positive (ER+), many therapies have targeted the ER. The ER is activated by both estrogen binding and phosphorylation. While anti-estrogen therapies, such as tamoxifen (Tam) have been successful they do not target the growth factor promoting phosphorylation of the ER. Other proliferation pathways such as the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase, (PI3K) and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways are activated in breast cancer cells and are associated with poor prognosis. Thus targeting multiple cellular proliferation and survival pathways at the onset of treatment is critical for the development of more effective therapies. The grapefruit flavanone naringenin (Nar) is an inhibitor of both the PI3K and MAPK pathways. Previous studies examining either Nar or Tam used charcoal-stripped serum which removed estrogen as well as other factors. We wanted to use serum containing medium in order to retain all the potential inducers of cell proliferation so as not to exclude any targets of Nar. Here we show that a Nar–Tam combination is more effective than either Tam alone or Nar alone in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. We demonstrate that a Nar–Tam combination impaired cellular proliferation and viability to a greater extent than either component alone in MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, the use of a Nar–Tam combination requires lower concentrations of both compounds to achieve the same effects on proliferation and viability. Nar may function by inhibiting both PI3K and MAPK pathways as well as localizing ERα to the cytoplasm in MCF-7 cells. Our results demonstrate that a Nar–Tam combination induces apoptosis and impairs proliferation signaling to a greater extent than either compound alone. These studies provide critical information for understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in cell proliferation and apoptosis in breast cancer cells. - Highlights: • Nar–Tam impairs cell viability more effectively than

  11. A naringenin–tamoxifen combination impairs cell proliferation and survival of MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatkevich, Talia; Ramos, Joseph; Santos-Sanchez, Idalys; Patel, Yashomati M.

    2014-01-01

    Since over 60% of breast cancers are estrogen receptor positive (ER+), many therapies have targeted the ER. The ER is activated by both estrogen binding and phosphorylation. While anti-estrogen therapies, such as tamoxifen (Tam) have been successful they do not target the growth factor promoting phosphorylation of the ER. Other proliferation pathways such as the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase, (PI3K) and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways are activated in breast cancer cells and are associated with poor prognosis. Thus targeting multiple cellular proliferation and survival pathways at the onset of treatment is critical for the development of more effective therapies. The grapefruit flavanone naringenin (Nar) is an inhibitor of both the PI3K and MAPK pathways. Previous studies examining either Nar or Tam used charcoal-stripped serum which removed estrogen as well as other factors. We wanted to use serum containing medium in order to retain all the potential inducers of cell proliferation so as not to exclude any targets of Nar. Here we show that a Nar–Tam combination is more effective than either Tam alone or Nar alone in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. We demonstrate that a Nar–Tam combination impaired cellular proliferation and viability to a greater extent than either component alone in MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, the use of a Nar–Tam combination requires lower concentrations of both compounds to achieve the same effects on proliferation and viability. Nar may function by inhibiting both PI3K and MAPK pathways as well as localizing ERα to the cytoplasm in MCF-7 cells. Our results demonstrate that a Nar–Tam combination induces apoptosis and impairs proliferation signaling to a greater extent than either compound alone. These studies provide critical information for understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in cell proliferation and apoptosis in breast cancer cells. - Highlights: • Nar–Tam impairs cell viability more effectively than

  12. Cell survival in spheroids irradiated with heavy-ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, A.; Alpen, E.L.

    1981-01-01

    Biological investigations with accelerated heavy ions have been carried out regularly at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Bevalac for the past four years. Most of the cellular investigations have been conducted on cell monolayer and suspension culture systems. The studies to date suggest that heavy charged particle beams may offer some radiotherapeutic advantages over conventional radiotherapy sources. The advantages are thought to lie primarily in an increased relative biological effectiveness (RBE), a decrease in the oxygen enhancement ratio (OER), and better tissue distribution dose. Experiments reported here were conducted with 400 MeV/amu carbon ions and 425 MeV/amu neon ions, using a rat brain gliosarcoma cell line grown as multicellular spheroids. Studies have been carried out with x-rays and high-energy carbon and neon ion beams. These studies evaluate high-LET (linear energy transfer) cell survival in terms of RBE and the possible contributions of intercellular communication. Comparisons were made of the post-irradiation survival characteristics for cells irradiated as multicellular spheroids (approximately 100 μm and 300 μm diameters) and for cells irradiated in suspension. These comparisons were made between 225-kVp x-rays, 400 MeV/amu carbon ions, and 425 MeV/amu neon ions

  13. Arraying proteins by cell-free synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mingyue; Wang, Ming-Wei

    2007-10-01

    Recent advances in life science have led to great motivation for the development of protein arrays to study functions of genome-encoded proteins. While traditional cell-based methods have been commonly used for generating protein arrays, they are usually a time-consuming process with a number of technical challenges. Cell-free protein synthesis offers an attractive system for making protein arrays, not only does it rapidly converts the genetic information into functional proteins without the need for DNA cloning, but also presents a flexible environment amenable to production of folded proteins or proteins with defined modifications. Recent advancements have made it possible to rapidly generate protein arrays from PCR DNA templates through parallel on-chip protein synthesis. This article reviews current cell-free protein array technologies and their proteomic applications.

  14. Matrin 3 as a key regulator of endothelial cell survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przygodzka, Patrycja; Boncela, Joanna; Cierniewski, Czeslaw S.

    2011-01-01

    Matrin 3 is an integral component of nuclear matrix architecture that has been implicated in interacting with other nuclear proteins and thus modulating the activity of proximal promoters. In this study, we evaluated the contribution of this protein to proliferation of endothelial cells. To selectively modulate matrin 3 expression, we used siRNA oligonucleotides and transfection of cells with a pEGFP-N1-Mtr3. Our data indicate that downregulation of matrin 3 is responsible for reduced proliferation and leads to necrosis of endothelial cells. This conclusion is supported by observations that reducing matrin 3 expression results in (a) producing signs of necrosis detected by PI staining, LDH release, and scatter parameters in flow cytometry, (b) affecting cell cycle progression. It does not cause (c) membrane asymmetry of cells as indicated by lack of Annexin V binding as well as (d) activation of caspase 3 and cleavage of PARP. We conclude that matrin 3 plays a significant role in controlling cell growth and proliferation, probably via formation of complexes with nuclear proteins that modulate pro- and antiapoptotic signaling pathways. Thus, degradation of matrin 3 may be a switching event that induces a shift from apoptotic to necrotic death of cells.

  15. Survival rate of eukaryotic cells following electrophoretic nanoinjection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonis, Matthias; Hübner, Wolfgang; Wilking, Alice; Huser, Thomas; Hennig, Simon

    2017-01-25

    Insertion of foreign molecules such as functionalized fluorescent probes, antibodies, or plasmid DNA to living cells requires overcoming the plasma membrane barrier without harming the cell during the staining process. Many techniques such as electroporation, lipofection or microinjection have been developed to overcome the cellular plasma membrane, but they all result in reduced cell viability. A novel approach is the injection of cells with a nanopipette and using electrophoretic forces for the delivery of molecules. The tip size of these pipettes is approximately ten times smaller than typical microinjection pipettes and rather than pressure pulses as delivery method, moderate DC electric fields are used to drive charged molecules out of the tip. Here, we show that this approach leads to a significantly higher survival rate of nanoinjected cells and that injection with nanopipettes has a significantly lower impact on the proliferation behavior of injected cells. Thus, we propose that injection with nanopipettes using electrophoretic delivery is an excellent alternative when working with valuable and rare living cells, such as primary cells or stem cells.

  16. Survival rate of eukaryotic cells following electrophoretic nanoinjection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonis, Matthias; Hübner, Wolfgang; Wilking, Alice; Huser, Thomas; Hennig, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Insertion of foreign molecules such as functionalized fluorescent probes, antibodies, or plasmid DNA to living cells requires overcoming the plasma membrane barrier without harming the cell during the staining process. Many techniques such as electroporation, lipofection or microinjection have been developed to overcome the cellular plasma membrane, but they all result in reduced cell viability. A novel approach is the injection of cells with a nanopipette and using electrophoretic forces for the delivery of molecules. The tip size of these pipettes is approximately ten times smaller than typical microinjection pipettes and rather than pressure pulses as delivery method, moderate DC electric fields are used to drive charged molecules out of the tip. Here, we show that this approach leads to a significantly higher survival rate of nanoinjected cells and that injection with nanopipettes has a significantly lower impact on the proliferation behavior of injected cells. Thus, we propose that injection with nanopipettes using electrophoretic delivery is an excellent alternative when working with valuable and rare living cells, such as primary cells or stem cells. PMID:28120926

  17. Red cell survival and sequestration in acute intermittent porphyria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawalkha, P.L.; Soni, S.G.; Agrawal, V.K.; Misra, S.N.

    1980-01-01

    Life span and sequestration of red cells have been studied in twenty one proved cases of acute intermittent porphyria of different age and sex group from Bikaner District, Rajasthan State (India). Chromium-51 labelled red cells were used in the study and the excess count method of Bughe Jones and Szur was used to calculate the index of sequestration. The mean apparent half survival time of erythrocytes in the control subjects was 25.9 +- 2.9 (S.D.) days and the same in the prophyria patients was 27.0 +- 3.8 days. This shows that the life span of red cells is normal in both the patient and the control. Excess destruction of red blood cells was found to take place in either spleen or liver in the disease and no excess accumulation of erythrocytes occurred over spleen as compared to liver. (M.G.B.)

  18. Bim and Mcl-1 exert key roles in regulating JAK2V617F cell survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubert, Joëlle; Qian, Zhiyan; Andraos, Rita; Guthy, Daniel A; Radimerski, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The JAK2 V617F mutation plays a major role in the pathogenesis of myeloproliferative neoplasms and is found in the vast majority of patients suffering from polycythemia vera and in roughly every second patient suffering from essential thrombocythemia or from primary myelofibrosis. The V617F mutation is thought to provide hematopoietic stem cells and myeloid progenitors with a survival and proliferation advantage. It has previously been shown that activated JAK2 promotes cell survival by upregulating the anti-apoptotic STAT5 target gene Bcl-xL. In this study, we have investigated the role of additional apoptotic players, the pro-apoptotic protein Bim as well as the anti-apoptotic protein Mcl-1. Pharmacological inhibition of JAK2/STAT5 signaling in JAK2 V617F mutant SET-2 and MB-02 cells was used to study effects on signaling, cell proliferation and apoptosis by Western blot analysis, WST-1 proliferation assays and flow cytometry. Cells were transfected with siRNA oligos to deplete candidate pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins. Co-immunoprecipitation assays were performed to assess the impact of JAK2 inhibition on complexes of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins. Treatment of JAK2 V617F mutant cell lines with a JAK2 inhibitor was found to trigger Bim activation. Furthermore, Bim depletion by RNAi suppressed JAK2 inhibitor-induced cell death. Bim activation following JAK2 inhibition led to enhanced sequestration of Mcl-1, besides Bcl-xL. Importantly, Mcl-1 depletion by RNAi was sufficient to compromise JAK2 V617F mutant cell viability and sensitized the cells to JAK2 inhibition. We conclude that Bim and Mcl-1 have key opposing roles in regulating JAK2 V617F cell survival and propose that inactivation of aberrant JAK2 signaling leads to changes in Bim complexes that trigger cell death. Thus, further preclinical evaluation of combinations of JAK2 inhibitors with Bcl-2 family antagonists that also tackle Mcl-1, besides Bcl-xL, is warranted to assess the therapeutic potential

  19. Interactions of the integrin subunit beta1A with protein kinase B/Akt, p130Cas and paxillin contribute to regulation of radiation survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidler, Julia; Durzok, Rita; Brakebusch, Cord

    2005-01-01

    25beta1B cells, which express mutant beta1B-integrins, were compared in terms of radiation survival and beta1-integrin signaling. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cells grown on fibronectin, collagen-III, laminin, vitronectin, anti-beta1-integrin-IgG (beta1-IgG) or poly-l-lysine were irradiated with 0-6Gy...... and phosphorylation were analyzed by Western blot technique. RESULTS: Adhesion of GD25beta1A cells to extracellular matrix proteins or beta1-IgG resulted in growth factor-independent radiation survival. In contrast, serum starved GD25beta1B cells showed a significant (Pradiation survival on all...... phosphorylation. Phosphorylated p130Cas and paxillin subsequently prevented activation of cell death-regulating JNK. CONCLUSIONS: The data show that beta1-integrin-mediated signaling through the cytoplasmic integrin domains is critical for efficient pro-survival regulation after irradiation. Profound knowledge...

  20. Identification of markers that functionally define a quiescent multiple myeloma cell sub-population surviving bortezomib treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adomako, Alfred; Calvo, Veronica; Biran, Noa; Osman, Keren; Chari, Ajai; Paton, James C; Paton, Adrienne W; Moore, Kateri; Schewe, Denis M; Aguirre-Ghiso, Julio A

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms allowing residual multiple myeloma (MM) cells to persist after bortezomib (Bz) treatment remain unclear. We hypothesized that studying the biology of bortezomib-surviving cells may reveal markers to identify these cells and survival signals to target and kill residual MM cells. We used H2B-GFP label retention, biochemical tools and in vitro and in vivo experiments to characterize growth arrest and the unfolded protein responses in quiescent Bz-surviving cells. We also tested the effect of a demethylating agent, 5-Azacytidine, on Bz-induced quiescence and whether inhibiting the chaperone GRP78/BiP (henceforth GRP78) with a specific toxin induced apoptosis in Bz-surviving cells. Finally, we used MM patient samples to test whether GRP78 levels might associate with disease progression. Statistical analysis employed t-test and Mann-Whitney tests at a 95% confidence. We report that Bz-surviving MM cells in vitro and in vivo enter quiescence characterized by p21 CIP1 upregulation. Bz-surviving MM cells also downregulated CDK6, Ki67 and P-Rb. H2B-GFP label retention showed that Bz-surviving MM cells are either slow-cycling or deeply quiescent. The Bz-induced quiescence was stabilized by low dose (500nM) of 5-azacytidine (Aza) pre-treatment, which also potentiated the initial Bz-induced apoptosis. We also found that expression of GRP78, an unfolded protein response (UPR) survival factor, persisted in MM quiescent cells. Importantly, GRP78 downregulation using a specific SubAB bacterial toxin killed Bz-surviving MM cells. Finally, quantification of Grp78 high /CD138+ MM cells from patients suggested that high levels correlated with progressive disease. We conclude that Bz-surviving MM cells display a GRP78 HIGH /p21 HIGH /CDK6 LOW /P-Rb LOW profile, and these markers may identify quiescent MM cells capable of fueling recurrences. We further conclude that Aza + Bz treatment of MM may represent a novel strategy to delay recurrences by enhancing Bz

  1. Control of neural stem cell survival by electroactive polymer substrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Lundin

    Full Text Available Stem cell function is regulated by intrinsic as well as microenvironmental factors, including chemical and mechanical signals. Conducting polymer-based cell culture substrates provide a powerful tool to control both chemical and physical stimuli sensed by stem cells. Here we show that polypyrrole (PPy, a commonly used conducting polymer, can be tailored to modulate survival and maintenance of rat fetal neural stem cells (NSCs. NSCs cultured on PPy substrates containing different counter ions, dodecylbenzenesulfonate (DBS, tosylate (TsO, perchlorate (ClO(4 and chloride (Cl, showed a distinct correlation between PPy counter ion and cell viability. Specifically, NSC viability was high on PPy(DBS but low on PPy containing TsO, ClO(4 and Cl. On PPy(DBS, NSC proliferation and differentiation was comparable to standard NSC culture on tissue culture polystyrene. Electrical reduction of PPy(DBS created a switch for neural stem cell viability, with widespread cell death upon polymer reduction. Coating the PPy(DBS films with a gel layer composed of a basement membrane matrix efficiently prevented loss of cell viability upon polymer reduction. Here we have defined conditions for the biocompatibility of PPy substrates with NSC culture, critical for the development of devices based on conducting polymers interfacing with NSCs.

  2. Imaging protein-protein interactions in living cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hink, M.A.; Bisseling, T.; Visser, A.J.W.G.

    2002-01-01

    The complex organization of plant cells makes it likely that the molecular behaviour of proteins in the test tube and the cell is different. For this reason, it is essential though a challenge to study proteins in their natural environment. Several innovative microspectroscopic approaches provide

  3. MANF Is Indispensable for the Proliferation and Survival of Pancreatic β Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lindahl

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available All forms of diabetes mellitus (DM are characterized by the loss of functional pancreatic β cell mass, leading to insufficient insulin secretion. Thus, identification of novel approaches to protect and restore β cells is essential for the development of DM therapies. Mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER-stress-inducible protein, but its physiological role in mammals has remained obscure. We generated MANF-deficient mice that strikingly develop severe diabetes due to progressive postnatal reduction of β cell mass, caused by decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis. Additionally, we show that lack of MANF in vivo in mouse leads to chronic unfolded protein response (UPR activation in pancreatic islets. Importantly, MANF protein enhanced β cell proliferation in vitro and overexpression of MANF in the pancreas of diabetic mice enhanced β cell regeneration. We demonstrate that MANF specifically promotes β cell proliferation and survival, thereby constituting a therapeutic candidate for β cell protection and regeneration.

  4. Immunohistochemical detection of cdc2 is useful in predicting survival in patients with mantle cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, David; Reiman, Tony; Hanson, John; Linford, Rick; Wong, Winson; Belch, Andrew; Lai, Raymond

    2005-09-01

    Recent cDNA microarray studies have reported the prognostic value of several genes in mantle cell lymphoma patients. We aimed to validate the prognostic significance of three of these genes: alpha-tubulin, cdc2, and CENP-F. The protein expression of alpha-tubulin, cdc2, and CENP-F was assessed using immunohistochemistry. Their immunoreactivity in 48 formalin-fixed/paraffin-embedded mantle cell lymphoma tumors was determined by estimating the percentage of positive cells. These results were correlated with the expression of proliferation marker Ki67 and survival. Of these 48 mantle cell lymphoma patients, 41 were men and seven were women. The median age at time of diagnosis was 64.5 years, and the overall median survival was 40 months. In benign lymph nodes, the expression of cdc2 and alpha-tubulin was restricted to the germinal centers; mantle zones were negative. Expression of CENP-F was more uniformly distributed. In mantle cell lymphoma, Ki67 significantly correlated with all three markers (P50%) and cdc2 (>25%) significantly correlated with shorter survival (Por=2 correlated with worse clinical outcome, and high clinical stage (ie 4 vs survival. The prognostic significance of cdc2 and Ki67 was independent of international prognostic index and clinical stage. We have validated the prognostic value of cdc2, and confirmed that of Ki67, in a cohort of mantle cell lymphoma patients. Immunohistochemical detection of cdc2 and Ki67 may be a useful and simple method in evaluating the prognosis of mantle cell lymphoma patients.

  5. 3D porous chitosan scaffolds suit survival and neural differentiation of dental pulp stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xingmei; Lu, Xiaohui; Huang, Dan; Xing, Jing; Feng, Guijuan; Jin, Guohua; Yi, Xin; Li, Liren; Lu, Yuanzhou; Nie, Dekang; Chen, Xiang; Zhang, Lei; Gu, Zhifeng; Zhang, Xinhua

    2014-08-01

    A key aspect of cell replacement therapy in brain injury treatment is construction of a suitable biomaterial scaffold that can effectively carry and transport the therapeutic cells to the target area. In the present study, we created small 3D porous chitosan scaffolds through freeze-drying, and showed that these can support and enhance the differentiation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) to nerve cells in vitro. The DPSCs were collected from the dental pulp of adult human third molars. At a swelling rate of ~84.33 ± 10.92 %, the scaffold displayed high porosity and interconnectivity of pores, as revealed by SEM. Cell counting kit-8 assay established the biocompatibility of the chitosan scaffold, supporting the growth and survival of DPSCs. The successful neural differentiation of DPSCs was assayed by RT-PCR, western blotting, and immunofluorescence. We found that the scaffold-attached DPSCs showed high expression of Nestin that decreased sharply following induction of differentiation. Exposure to the differentiation media also increased the expression of neural molecular markers Microtubule-associated protein 2, glial fibrillary acidic protein, and 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase. This study demonstrates that the granular 3D chitosan scaffolds are non-cytotoxic, biocompatible, and provide a conducive and favorable micro-environment for attachment, survival, and neural differentiation of DPSCs. These scaffolds have enormous potential to facilitate future advances in treatment of brain injury.

  6. Oral squamous cell carcinoma: survival, recurrence and death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Camilo Souza Cruz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper was based in data survey from macro and microscopic oral lesions characteristics, personal data and medical history of patients diagnosed with oral squamous cell carcinoma in the Lab of Pathological Anatomy from the Federal University of Alfenas from January 2000 to December 2010, establishing comparative parameters among clinical data, type of treatment, recurrence, survival and anatomic pathological characteristics of the lesions. Were analyzed the histopathological reports, dental and hospital records. The highest incidence was in white men, age between 50 and 60 years, married, with low education and socioeconomic levels. The beginning of treatment occurred in average 67 days after the histopathological diagnosis. The estimated survival of patients at five years was 42%. The consumption of alcohol and tobacco and the occurrence of metastasis were statistically significant for the increase of recurrence and lethality.

  7. Irradiation And Papillomavirus E2 Proteins On Hela Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abderrafi, B.

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to relatively high doses ionizing radiation activates cellular responses that impair cell survival. These responses, for which the p53 protein plays a central role, form the basis for cancer radiotherapy. However, the efficacy of radiation treatments on cell killing is often reduced as a consequence of the frequent inactivation of the p53 protein in cancer cells. Loss of p53 protein is associated with later stages of most human tumors and resistance to anticancer agents. Carcinomas are frequent malignant tumors in humans. The majority of cervical carcinomas are etiologically linked to the presence of HPV virus (Human Papillomavirus). In carcinoma tumor cells, as well as in their derived-cell lines such as HeLa cells, the p53 protein is generally not detected due to its degradation by the product of the HPV-associated oncogenic E6 gene. Another characteristic of HPV-positive cervical cancer cells is the loss of the regulatory viral E2 gene expression as a consequence of viral DNA integration into the cellular genome. Reintroduction of E2 expression in HeLa cells reactivates p53, due to a negative effect on the expression of E6 protein, with a concomitant arrest of cell proliferation at the phase G1 of the cell cycle and delay in cell division via the repression of E2F-target genes. To elucidate whether reactivation of p53 would improve the cell killing effect of ionizing radiation in cancer cells, we studied the combined effects of radiation and E2 expression on the cell cycle distribution in HeLa cells

  8. SOLITARY CHEMORECEPTOR CELL SURVIVAL IS INDEPENDENT OF INTACT TRIGEMINAL INNERVATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulbransen, Brian; Silver, Wayne; Finger, Tom

    2008-01-01

    Nasal solitary chemoreceptor cells (SCCs) are a population of specialized chemosensory epithelial cells presumed to broaden trigeminal chemoreceptivity in mammals (Finger et al., 2003). SCCs are innervated by peptidergic trigeminal nerve fibers (Finger et al., 2003) but it is currently unknown if intact innervation is necessary for SCC development or survival. We tested the dependence of SCCs on innervation by eliminating trigeminal nerve fibers during development with neurogenin-1 knockout mice, during early postnatal development with capsaicin desensitization, and during adulthood with trigeminal lesioning. Our results demonstrate that elimination of innervation at any of these times does not result in decreased SCC numbers. In conclusion, neither SCC development nor mature cell maintenance is dependent on intact trigeminal innervation. PMID:18300260

  9. Low GILT expression is associated with poor patient survival in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah ePhipps-Yonas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The MHC class II-restricted antigen processing pathway presents antigenic peptides acquired in the endocytic route for the activation of CD4+ T cells. Multiple cancers express MHC class II, which may influence the anti-tumor immune response and patient outcome. Low MHC class II expression is associated with poor survival in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL, the most common form of aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Therefore, we investigated whether gamma-interferon-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (GILT, an upstream component of the MHC class II-restricted antigen processing pathway that is not regulated by the transcription factor class II transactivator, may be important in DLBCL biology. GILT reduces protein disulfide bonds in the endocytic compartment, exposing additional epitopes for MHC class II binding and facilitating antigen presentation. In each of four independent gene expression profiling cohorts with a total of 585 DLBCL patients, low GILT expression was significantly associated with poor overall survival. In contrast, low expression of a classical MHC class II gene, HLA-DRA, was associated with poor survival in one of four cohorts. The association of low GILT expression with poor survival was independent of established clinical and molecular prognostic factors, the International Prognostic Index and the cell of origin classification, respectively. Immunohistochemical analysis of GILT expression in 96 DLBCL cases demonstrated variation in GILT protein expression within tumor cells which correlated strongly with GILT mRNA expression. These studies identify a novel association between GILT expression and clinical outcome in lymphoma. Our findings underscore the role of antigen processing in DLBCL and suggest that molecules targeting this pathway warrant investigation as potential therapeutics.

  10. Models for cell survival with low LET radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, M.G.; Garrett, W.R.

    1975-01-01

    A model for cell survival under low LET irradiation was developed in which the cell is considered to have N 0 -independent sensitive sites, each of which can exist in either an undamaged state (state A) or one of two damaged states. Radiation can change the sensitive sites from the undamaged state to either of two damaged states. The first damaged state (state B) can either be repaired or be promoted on the second damaged state (state C), which is irreparable. The promotion from the first damaged state to the second can occur due to any of the following: (1) further radiation damage, (2) an abortive attempt to repair the site, or (3) the arrival at a part of the cell cycle where the damage is ''fixed.'' Subject to the further assumptions that radiation damage can occur either indirectly (i.e., through radiation products) or due to direct interaction, and that repair of the first damaged state is a one-step process, expressions can be derived for P(N/sub A/, N/sub B/,t) = probability that after time t a cell will have N/sub A/ sites in state A and N/sub B/ in state B. The problem of determining P(N/sub A/, N/sub B/, t) is formulated for arbitrary time dependences of the radiation field and of all rate coefficients. A large family of cell-survival models can be described by interpreting the sensitive sites in different ways and by making different choices of rate coefficients and of the combinations of numbers of sites in different states that will lead to cell death. (U.S.)

  11. Argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region in MIB-1 positive cells in non-small cell lung cancer: clinicopathological significance and survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobyakov, Dmitriy Sergeevich; Avdalyan, Ashot Merudzhanovich; Lazarev, Aleksandr Fedorovich; Lushnikova, Elena Leonidovna; Nepomnyashchikh, Lev Moiseevich

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the relation between argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region (AgNOR)-associated proteins and clinicopathological parameters and survival in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A total of 207 surgical specimens diagnosed as NSCLC were included in this study. Double-staining procedures were performed using antigen Ki-67 (clone MIB-1) and silver nitrate by immunohistochemical and AgNOR-staining methods. The AgNOR area in MIB-1-positive cells of NSCLC is related to clinicopathological parameters under the TNM (tumor, node, and metastasis) system. The survival of patients with small AgNOR area in MIB-1-positive cells is better than that of patients with large AgNOR area. Molecular, biological (AgNOR area in MIB-1-positive cells), and clinicopathological (greatest tumor dimension, metastases to regional lymph nodes, histology, and differentiation) parameters are independent prognostic factors of NSCLC. The AgNOR area in MIB-1-positive cells is related to clinicopathological parameters and survival in NSCLC

  12. Mast cell chymase induces smooth muscle cell apoptosis by disrupting NF-κB-mediated survival signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leskinen, Markus J.; Heikkilae, Hanna M.; Speer, Mei Y.; Hakala, Jukka K.; Laine, Mika; Kovanen, Petri T.; Lindstedt, Ken A.

    2006-01-01

    Chymase released from activated mast cells induces apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in vitro by degrading the pericellular matrix component fibronectin, so causing disruption of focal adhesion complexes and Akt dephosphorylation, which are necessary for cell adhesion and survival. However, the molecular mechanisms of chymase-mediated apoptosis downstream of Akt have remained elusive. Here, we show by means of RT-PCR, Western blotting, EMSA, immunocytochemistry and confocal microscopy, that chymase induces SMC apoptosis by disrupting NF-κB-mediated survival signaling. Following chymase treatment, the translocation of active NF-κB/p65 to the nucleus was partly abolished and the amount of nuclear p65 was reduced. Pretreatment of SMCs with chymase also inhibited LPS- and IL-1β-induced nuclear translocation of p65. The chymase-induced degradation of p65 was mediated by active caspases. Loss of NF-κB-mediated transactivation resulted in downregulation of bcl-2 mRNA and protein expression, leading to mitochondrial swelling and release of cytochrome c. The apoptotic process involved activation of both caspase 9 and caspase 8. The results reveal that, by disrupting the NF-κB-mediated survival-signaling pathway, activated chymase-secreting mast cells can mediate apoptosis of cultured arterial SMCs. Since activated mast cells colocalize with apoptotic SMCs in vulnerable areas of human atherosclerotic plaques, they may participate in the weakening and rupture of atherosclerotic plaques

  13. Acrolein activates cell survival and apoptotic death responses involving the endoplasmic reticulum in A549 lung cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanel, André; Pallepati, Pragathi; Bettaieb, Ahmed; Morin, Patrick; Averill-Bates, Diana A

    2014-05-01

    Acrolein, a highly reactive α,β-unsaturated aldehyde, is a product of endogenous lipid peroxidation. It is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant that is generated mainly by smoke, overheated cooking oil and vehicle exhaust. Acrolein damages cellular proteins, which could lead to accumulation of aberrantly-folded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). This study determines the mechanisms involved in acrolein-induced apoptosis mediated by the ER and possible links with the ER stress response in human A549 lung cells. The exposure of cells to acrolein (15-50μM) for shorter times of 15 to 30min activated several ER stress markers. These included the ER chaperone protein BiP and the three ER sensors: (i) the survival/rescue molecules protein kinase RNA (PKR)-like ER kinase (PERK) and eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2α) were phosphorylated; (ii) cleavage of activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) occurred, and (iii) inositol-requiring protein-1 alpha (IRE1α) was phosphorylated. Acrolein (25-50μM) caused apoptotic cell death mediated by the ER after 2h, which was characterised by the induction of CHOP and activation of ER proteases calpain and caspase-4. Calpain and caspase-7 were the initiating factors for caspase-4 activation in acrolein-induced apoptosis. These results increase our knowledge about cellular responses to acrolein in lung cells, which have implications for human health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Phosphocarrier Protein HPr Contributes to Meningococcal Survival during Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Antunes

    Full Text Available Neisseria meningitidis is an exclusively human pathogen frequently carried asymptomatically in the nasopharynx but it can also provoke invasive infections such as meningitis and septicemia. N. meningitidis uses a limited range of carbon sources during infection, such as glucose, that is usually transported into bacteria via the phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS, in which the phosphocarrier protein HPr (encoded by the ptsH gene plays a central role. Although N. meningitidis possesses an incomplete PTS, HPr was found to be required for its virulence. We explored the role of HPr using bioluminescent wild-type and ΔptsH strains in experimental infection in transgenic mice expressing the human transferrin. The wild-type MC58 strain was recovered at higher levels from the peritoneal cavity and particularly from blood compared to the ΔptsH strain. The ΔptsH strain provoked lower levels of septicemia in mice and was more susceptible to complement-mediated killing than the wild-type strain. We tested whether meningococcal structures impacted complement resistance and observed that only the capsule level was decreased in the ΔptsH mutant. We therefore compared the transcriptomic profiles of wild-type and ΔptsH strains and identified 49 differentially expressed genes. The HPr regulon contains mainly hypothetical proteins (43% and several membrane-associated proteins that could play a role during host interaction. Some other genes of the HPr regulon are involved in stress response. Indeed, the ΔptsH strain showed increased susceptibility to environmental stress conditions. Our data suggest that HPr plays a pleiotropic role in host-bacteria interactions most likely through the innate immune response that may be responsible for the enhanced clearance of the ΔptsH strain from blood.

  15. Postirradiation DNA synthesis is inversely related to cell survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapiszewska, M.; Lange, C.S.

    1987-01-01

    Postirradiation (PI) events which might lead to cellular reproductive death or survival were studied in L5178Y-S (LY-S) cells. PI incubation at 25 0 C protects LY-S cells against the PLD fixation which takes place at 37 0 C. An optimal condition for the repair of PLD is 1h at 37 0 C followed by 4h holding at 25 0 C prior to the second half of a split dose, or 5L holding at 25 0 C without a 37 0 C incubation. Longer incubations at 37 0 C resulted in progressively decreased survivals. Postirradiation inhibition of DNA synthesis at 37 0 C was observed only during the first 30 min; thereafter, /sup 3/H-dThd incorporation was higher than in unirradiated controls. This excess synthesis effect was removed by shifting irradiated cells to 25 0 C holding. The inhibition observed at 25 0 C was reversed by shifting to 37 0 C. Thus the degree of postirradiation DNA synthesis is inversely related to PLD/SLD repair. DNA filter elution shows complete SSB repair by 3h at both temperatures (with faster kinetics at 37 0 C), and DSB repair plateaus at 80% (37 0 C) and 60% (25 0 C) after 90 min

  16. ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 enhances the survivability of dissociated buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryonic stem cell-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ruchi; George, Aman; Chauhan, Manmohan S; Singla, Suresh; Manik, Radhey S; Palta, Prabhat

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of supplementation of culture medium with 10 μM Y-27632, a specific inhibitor of Rho kinase activity, for 6 days on self-renewal of buffalo embryonic stem (ES) cell-like cells at Passage 50-80. Y-27632 increased mean colony area (P<0.05) although it did not improve their survival. It decreased OCT4 expression (P<0.05), increased NANOG expression (P<0.05), but had no effect on SOX2 expression. It also increased expression of anti-apoptotic gene BCL-2 (P<0.05) and decreased that of pro-apoptotic genes BAX and BID (P<0.05). It increased plating efficiency of single-cell suspensions of ES cells (P<0.05). Following vitrification, the presence of Y-27632 in the vitrification solution or thawing medium or both did not improve ES cell colony survival. However, following seeding of clumps of ES cells transfected with pAcGFP1N1 carrying green fluorescent protein (GFP), Y-27632 increased colony formation rate (P<0.01). ES cell colonies that formed in all Y-27632-supplemented groups were confirmed for expression of pluripotency markers alkaline phosphatase, SSEA-4 and TRA-1-60, and for their ability to generate embryoid bodies containing cells that expressed markers of ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm. In conclusion, Y-27632 improves survival of buffalo ES cells under unfavourable conditions such as enzymatic dissociation to single cells or antibiotic-assisted selection after transfection, without compromising their pluripotency.

  17. Gender-Dependent Survival of Allogeneic Trophoblast Stem Cells in Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epple-Farmer, Jessica; Debeb, Bisrat G.; Smithies, Oliver; Binas, Bert

    2012-01-01

    In view of the well-known phenomenon of trophoblast immune privilege, trophoblast stem cells (TSCs) might be expected to be immune privileged, which could be of interest for cell or gene therapies. Yet in the ectopic sites tested so far, TSC transplants fail to show noticeable immune privilege and seem to lack physiological support. However, we show here that after portal venous injection, green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled TSCs survive for several months in the livers of allogeneic female but not male mice. Gonadectomy experiments revealed that this survival does not require the presence of ovarian hormones but does require the absence of testicular factors. By contrast, GFP-labeled allogeneic embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are reliably rejected; however, these same ESCs survive when mixed with unlabeled TSCs. The protective effect does not require immunological compatibility between ESCs and TSCs. Tumors were not observed in animals with either successfully engrafted TSCs or coinjected ESCs. We conclude that in a suitable hormonal context and location, ectopic TSCs can exhibit and confer immune privilege. These findings suggest applications in cell and gene therapy as well as a new model for studying trophoblast immunology and physiology. PMID:19523327

  18. BAG3: a multifaceted protein that regulates major cell pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, A; Graziano, V; De Laurenzi, V; Pascale, M; Turco, M C

    2011-01-01

    Bcl2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) protein is a member of BAG family of co-chaperones that interacts with the ATPase domain of the heat shock protein (Hsp) 70 through BAG domain (110–124 amino acids). BAG3 is the only member of the family to be induced by stressful stimuli, mainly through the activity of heat shock factor 1 on bag3 gene promoter. In addition to the BAG domain, BAG3 contains also a WW domain and a proline-rich (PXXP) repeat, that mediate binding to partners different from Hsp70. These multifaceted interactions underlie BAG3 ability to modulate major biological processes, that is, apoptosis, development, cytoskeleton organization and autophagy, thereby mediating cell adaptive responses to stressful stimuli. In normal cells, BAG3 is constitutively present in a very few cell types, including cardiomyocytes and skeletal muscle cells, in which the protein appears to contribute to cell resistance to mechanical stress. A growing body of evidence indicate that BAG3 is instead expressed in several tumor types. In different tumor contexts, BAG3 protein was reported to sustain cell survival, resistance to therapy, and/or motility and metastatization. In some tumor types, down-modulation of BAG3 levels was shown, as a proof-of-principle, to inhibit neoplastic cell growth in animal models. This review attempts to outline the emerging mechanisms that can underlie some of the biological activities of the protein, focusing on implications in tumor progression. PMID:21472004

  19. Parameter resolution in two models for cell survival after radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Cera, E.; Andreasi Bassi, F.; Arcovito, G.

    1989-01-01

    The resolvability of model parameters for the linear-quadratic and the repair-misrepair models for cell survival after radiation has been studied by Monte Carlo simulations as a function of the number of experimental data points collected in a given dose range and the experimental error. Statistical analysis of the results reveals the range of experimental conditions under which the model parameters can be resolved with sufficient accuracy, and points out some differences in the operational aspects of the two models. (orig.)

  20. Hedgehog pathway regulators influence cervical cancer cell proliferation, survival and migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samarzija, Ivana [Ecole Polytechnique Federale Lausanne (EPFL), Department of Life Sciences, Swiss Institute for Experimental Cancer Research (ISREC), 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Beard, Peter, E-mail: peter.beard@epfl.ch [Ecole Polytechnique Federale Lausanne (EPFL), Department of Life Sciences, Swiss Institute for Experimental Cancer Research (ISREC), 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2012-08-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Unknown cellular mutations complement papillomavirus-induced carcinogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hedgehog pathway components are expressed by cervical cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hedgehog pathway activators and inhibitors regulate cervical cancer cell biology. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cell immortalization by papillomavirus and activation of Hedgehog are independent. -- Abstract: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is considered to be a primary hit that causes cervical cancer. However, infection with this agent, although needed, is not sufficient for a cancer to develop. Additional cellular changes are required to complement the action of HPV, but the precise nature of these changes is not clear. Here, we studied the function of the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway in cervical cancer. The Hh pathway can have a role in a number of cancers, including those of liver, lung and digestive tract. We found that components of the Hh pathway are expressed in several cervical cancer cell lines, indicating that there could exists an autocrine Hh signaling loop in these cells. Inhibition of Hh signaling reduces proliferation and survival of the cervical cancer cells and induces their apoptosis as seen by the up-regulation of the pro-apoptotic protein cleaved caspase 3. Our results indicate that Hh signaling is not induced directly by HPV-encoded proteins but rather that Hh-activating mutations are selected in cells initially immortalized by HPV. Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) ligand induces proliferation and promotes migration of the cervical cancer cells studied. Together, these results indicate pro-survival and protective roles of an activated Hh signaling pathway in cervical cancer-derived cells, and suggest that inhibition of this pathway may be a therapeutic option in fighting cervical cancer.

  1. Hedgehog pathway regulators influence cervical cancer cell proliferation, survival and migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samarzija, Ivana; Beard, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Unknown cellular mutations complement papillomavirus-induced carcinogenesis. ► Hedgehog pathway components are expressed by cervical cancer cells. ► Hedgehog pathway activators and inhibitors regulate cervical cancer cell biology. ► Cell immortalization by papillomavirus and activation of Hedgehog are independent. -- Abstract: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is considered to be a primary hit that causes cervical cancer. However, infection with this agent, although needed, is not sufficient for a cancer to develop. Additional cellular changes are required to complement the action of HPV, but the precise nature of these changes is not clear. Here, we studied the function of the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway in cervical cancer. The Hh pathway can have a role in a number of cancers, including those of liver, lung and digestive tract. We found that components of the Hh pathway are expressed in several cervical cancer cell lines, indicating that there could exists an autocrine Hh signaling loop in these cells. Inhibition of Hh signaling reduces proliferation and survival of the cervical cancer cells and induces their apoptosis as seen by the up-regulation of the pro-apoptotic protein cleaved caspase 3. Our results indicate that Hh signaling is not induced directly by HPV-encoded proteins but rather that Hh-activating mutations are selected in cells initially immortalized by HPV. Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) ligand induces proliferation and promotes migration of the cervical cancer cells studied. Together, these results indicate pro-survival and protective roles of an activated Hh signaling pathway in cervical cancer-derived cells, and suggest that inhibition of this pathway may be a therapeutic option in fighting cervical cancer.

  2. The anti-cell death FNK protein protects cells from death induced by freezing and thawing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudo, Kentaro; Asoh, Sadamitsu; Ohsawa, Ikuroh; Ozaki, Daiya; Yamagata, Kumi; Ito, Hiromoto; Ohta, Shigeo

    2005-01-01

    The FNK protein, constructed from anti-apoptotic Bcl-x L with enhanced activity, was fused with the protein transduction domain (PTD) of the HIV/Tat protein to mediate the delivery of FNK into cells. The fusion protein PTD-FNK was introduced into chondrocytes in isolated articular cartilage-bone sections, cultured neurons, and isolated bone marrow mononuclear cells to evaluate its ability to prevent cell death induced by freezing and thawing. PTD-FNK protected the cells from freeze-thaw damage in a concentration-dependent manner. Addition of PTD-FNK with conventional cryoprotectants (dimethyl sulfoxide and hydroxyethyl starch) increased surviving cell numbers around 2-fold compared with controls treated only with the cryoprotectants. Notably, PTD-FNK allowed CD34 + cells among bone marrow mononuclear cells to survive more efficiently (12-fold more than the control cells) from two successive freeze-thaw cycles. Thus, PTD-FNK prevented cell death induced by freezing and thawing, suggesting that it provides for the successful cryopreservation of biological materials

  3. Different Effects of BORIS/CTCFL on Stemness Gene Expression, Sphere Formation and Cell Survival in Epithelial Cancer Stem Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Alberti

    Full Text Available Cancer stem cells are cancer cells characterized by stem cell properties and represent a small population of tumor cells that drives tumor development, progression, metastasis and drug resistance. To date, the molecular mechanisms that generate and regulate cancer stem cells are not well defined. BORIS (Brother of Regulator of Imprinted Sites or CTCFL (CTCF-like is a DNA-binding protein that is expressed in normal tissues only in germ cells and is re-activated in tumors. Recent evidences have highlighted the correlation of BORIS/CTCFL expression with poor overall survival of different cancer patients. We have previously shown an association of BORIS-expressing cells with stemness gene expression in embryonic cancer cells. Here, we studied the role of BORIS in epithelial tumor cells. Using BORIS-molecular beacon that was already validated, we were able to show the presence of BORIS mRNA in cancer stem cell-enriched populations (side population and spheres of cervical, colon and breast tumor cells. BORIS silencing studies showed a decrease of sphere formation capacity in breast and colon tumor cells. Importantly, BORIS-silencing led to down-regulation of hTERT, stem cell (NANOG, OCT4, SOX2 and BMI1 and cancer stem cell markers (ABCG2, CD44 and ALDH1 genes. Conversely, BORIS-induction led to up-regulation of the same genes. These phenotypes were observed in cervical, colon and invasive breast tumor cells. However, a completely different behavior was observed in the non-invasive breast tumor cells (MCF7. Indeed, these cells acquired an epithelial mesenchymal transition phenotype after BORIS silencing. Our results demonstrate that BORIS is associated with cancer stem cell-enriched populations of several epithelial tumor cells and the different phenotypes depend on the origin of tumor cells.

  4. Knockout Serum Replacement Promotes Cell Survival by Preventing BIM from Inducing Mitochondrial Cytochrome C Release.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Ishii

    Full Text Available Knockout serum replacement (KOSR is a nutrient supplement commonly used to replace serum for culturing stem cells. We show here that KOSR has pro-survival activity in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML cells transformed by the BCR-ABL oncogene. Inhibitors of BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase kill CML cells by stimulating pro-apoptotic BIM and inhibiting anti-apoptotic BCL2, BCLxL and MCL1. We found that KOSR protects CML cells from killing by BCR-ABL inhibitors--imatinib, dasatinib and nilotinib. The protective effect of KOSR is reversible and not due to the selective outgrowth of drug-resistant clones. In KOSR-protected CML cells, imatinib still inhibited the BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase, reduced the phosphorylation of STAT, ERK and AKT, down-regulated BCL2, BCLxL, MCL1 and up-regulated BIM. However, these pro-apoptotic alterations failed to cause cytochrome c release from the mitochondria. With mitochondria isolated from KOSR-cultured CML cells, we showed that addition of recombinant BIM protein also failed to cause cytochrome c release. Besides the kinase inhibitors, KOSR could protect cells from menadione, an inducer of oxidative stress, but it did not protect cells from DNA damaging agents. Switching from serum to KOSR caused a transient increase in reactive oxygen species and AKT phosphorylation in CML cells that were protected by KOSR but not in those that were not protected by this nutrient supplement. Treatment of KOSR-cultured cells with the PH-domain inhibitor MK2206 blocked AKT phosphorylation, abrogated the formation of BIM-resistant mitochondria and stimulated cell death. These results show that KOSR has cell-context dependent pro-survival activity that is linked to AKT activation and the inhibition of BIM-induced cytochrome c release from the mitochondria.

  5. Reassessment of the relationship between M-protein decrement and survival in multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, M.; Belch, A.; Hanson, J.; Brox, L.

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between percentage M-protein decrement and survival is assessed in 134 multiple myeloma patients. The correlation did not achieve statistical significance (P = 0.069). Multivariate analysis using the Cox proportional hazards model, including a number of previously recognised prognostic factors, showed only percentage M-protein decrement, creatinine and haemoglobin to be significantly correlated with survival. However, the R'-statistic for each of these variables was low, indicating that their prognostic power is weak. We conclude that neither the percentage M-protein decrement nor the response derived from it can be used as an accurate means of assessing the efficacy of treatment in myeloma. Mature survival data alone should be used for this purpose. PMID:2757916

  6. Reassessment of the relationship between M-protein decrement and survival in multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, M; Belch, A; Hanson, J; Brox, L

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between percentage M-protein decrement and survival is assessed in 134 multiple myeloma patients. The correlation did not achieve statistical significance (P = 0.069). Multivariate analysis using the Cox proportional hazards model, including a number of previously recognised prognostic factors, showed only percentage M-protein decrement, creatinine and haemoglobin to be significantly correlated with survival. However, the R'-statistic for each of these variables was low, indicating that their prognostic power is weak. We conclude that neither the percentage M-protein decrement nor the response derived from it can be used as an accurate means of assessing the efficacy of treatment in myeloma. Mature survival data alone should be used for this purpose.

  7. Born to be Alive: A Role for the BCL-2 Family in Melanoma Tumor Cell Survival, Apoptosis, and Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anvekar, Rina A.; Asciolla, James J.; Missert, Derek J.; Chipuk, Jerry E., E-mail: jerry.chipuk@mssm.edu [Department of Oncological Sciences, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Department of Dermatology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); The Tisch Cancer Institute, Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2011-10-13

    The global incidence of melanoma has dramatically increased during the recent decades, yet the advancement of primary and adjuvant therapies has not kept a similar pace. The development of melanoma is often centered on cellular signaling that hyper-activates survival pathways, while inducing a concomitant blockade to cell death. Aberrations in cell death signaling not only promote tumor survival and enhanced metastatic potential, but also create resistance to anti-tumor strategies. Chemotherapeutic agents target melanoma tumor cells by inducing a form of cell death called apoptosis, which is governed by the BCL-2 family of proteins. The BCL-2 family is comprised of anti-apoptotic proteins (e.g., BCL-2, BCL-xL, and MCL-1) and pro-apoptotic proteins (e.g., BAK, BAX, and BIM), and their coordinated regulation and function are essential for optimal responses to chemotherapeutics. Here we will discuss what is currently known about the mechanisms of BCL-2 family function with a focus on the signaling pathways that maintain melanoma tumor cell survival. Importantly, we will critically evaluate the literature regarding how chemotherapeutic strategies directly impact on BCL-2 family function and offer several suggestions for future regimens to target melanoma and enhance patient survival.

  8. Influence of diethylmaleate on the survival of irradiated mice and on serum protein levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardes, E.

    1990-01-01

    Glutathione (GSH) is the major of the living plants or animal cell low molecular weight thiol compound which serves as a main endogenous cellular radioprotector. In order to improve radiotherapy, a possible approach should be to try to administrate hypoxic cell radiosensitizers altogether with glutathione intracellular depletors, for example, a binding GSH agent like diethylmaleate (DEM), in an attempt to overcome the neurotoxic side effects while maintaining their radiosensitizing properties. This study was performed to investigate whether the administration of DEM alone could modify the radioresistance of mice as measure by the 30-day-survival after irradiation and to establish whether this modification can be reflected in the murine serum protein profiles. Millimolar concentrations of DEM were dissolved alternatively in commercial peanut oil or absolute ethanol (final concentration 0.27%) and administered to male or female albino mice ip 1 h prior to 9 Gy sup(60) Cowhole-body irradiation with an average dose rate of 5.2 Gy/min. (author)

  9. Niclosamide, an anti-helminthic molecule, downregulates the retroviral oncoprotein Tax and pro-survival Bcl-2 proteins in HTLV-1-transformed T lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, Di [Penn State Hershey Cancer Institute, Penn State University College of Medicine, Hershey, PA 17033 (United States); Yuan, Yunsheng [Penn State Hershey Cancer Institute, Penn State University College of Medicine, Hershey, PA 17033 (United States); Engineering Research Center of Cell and Therapeutic Antibody, Ministry of Education, School of Pharmacy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Chen, Li [Pharmacy College, Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Fuzhou (China); Institute of Human Virology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Liu, Xin; Belani, Chandra [Penn State Hershey Cancer Institute, Penn State University College of Medicine, Hershey, PA 17033 (United States); Cheng, Hua, E-mail: hcheng@ihv.umaryland.edu [Institute of Human Virology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Marlene and Stewart Greenebaum Cancer Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Department Microbiology and Immunology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States)

    2015-08-14

    Adult T cell leukemia and lymphoma (ATL) is a highly aggressive form of hematological malignancy and is caused by chronic infection of human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1). The viral genome encodes an oncogenic protein, Tax, which plays a key role in transactivating viral gene transcription and in deregulating cellular oncogenic signaling to promote survival, proliferation and transformation of virally infected T cells. Hence, Tax is a desirable therapeutic target, particularly at early stage of HTLV-1-mediated oncogenesis. We here show that niclosamide, an anti-helminthic molecule, induced apoptosis of HTLV-1-transformed T cells. Niclosamide facilitated degradation of the Tax protein in proteasome. Consistent with niclosamide-mediated Tax degradation, this compound inhibited activities of MAPK/ERK1/2 and IκB kinases. In addition, niclosamide downregulated Stat3 and pro-survival Bcl-2 family members such as Mcl-1 and repressed the viral gene transcription of HTLV-1 through induction of Tax degradation. Since Tax, Stat3 and Mcl-1 are crucial molecules for promoting survival and growth of HTLV-1-transformed T cells, our findings demonstrate a novel mechanism of niclosamide in inducing Tax degradation and downregulating various cellular pro-survival molecules, thereby promoting apoptosis of HTLV-1-associated leukemia cells. - Highlights: • Niclosamide is a promising therapeutic candidate for adult T cell leukemia. • Niclosamide employs a novel mechanism through proteasomal degradation of Tax. • Niclosamide downregulates certain cellular pro-survival molecules.

  10. Ionizing radiation-induced MEK and Erk activation does not enhance survival of irradiated human squamous carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, James A.; Vroman, Benjamin T.; Christianson, Teresa J.H.; Karnitz, Larry M.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: Ionizing radiation (IR) triggers several intracellular signaling cascades that have commonly been regarded as mitogenic, including the Raf-MEK-Erk kinase cascade. In addition to promoting proliferation, activated MEK and Erk may also prevent cell death induced by cytotoxic stimuli. Because Raf, MEK, and Erk are activated by IR in some tumor cell lines, this suggests that IR-induced activation of the kinase cascade may enhance the survival of irradiated cells. Methods and Materials: IR-induced activation of MEK and Erk was assessed in irradiated UM-SCC-6 cells, a human squamous carcinoma cell line. Activation of MEK and Erk was blocked with the pharmacological inhibitor of MEK activation, PD098059. Clonogenic survival was assessed in irradiated UM-SCC-6 cells that were pretreated with nothing or with the MEK inhibitor. Results: In UM-SCC-6 cells, IR doses as low as 2 Gy rapidly activated MEK and Erk. Pretreatment of the cells with the pharmacological inhibitor of MEK activation, PD098059, effectively blocked IR-induced activation of MEK and Erk. However, inhibition of the kinase cascade did not affect the clonogenic survival of irradiated cells in either early or delayed-plating experiments. Conclusion: Taken together, these results suggest that although MEK and Erk are rapidly activated by IR treatment, these protein kinases do not affect the clonogenic survival of irradiated UM-SCC6 cells

  11. Mitochondrial peroxiredoxin 3 regulates sensory cell survival in the cochlea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Quan Chen

    Full Text Available This study delineates the role of peroxiredoxin 3 (Prx3 in hair cell death induced by several etiologies of acquired hearing loss (noise trauma, aminoglycoside treatment, age. In vivo, Prx3 transiently increased in mouse cochlear hair cells after traumatic noise exposure, kanamycin treatment, or with progressing age before any cell loss occurred; when Prx3 declined, hair cell loss began. Maintenance of high Prx3 levels via treatment with the radical scavenger 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate prevented kanamycin-induced hair cell death. Conversely, reducing Prx3 levels with Prx3 siRNA increased the severity of noise-induced trauma. In mouse organ of Corti explants, reactive oxygen species and levels of Prx3 mRNA and protein increased concomitantly at early times of drug challenge. When Prx3 levels declined after prolonged treatment, hair cells began to die. The radical scavenger p-phenylenediamine maintained Prx3 levels and attenuated gentamicin-induced hair cell death. Our results suggest that Prx3 is up-regulated in response to oxidative stress and that maintenance of Prx3 levels in hair cells is a critical factor in their susceptibility to acquired hearing loss.

  12. Bicaudal is a conserved substrate for Drosophila and mammalian caspases and is essential for cell survival.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Creagh, Emma M

    2009-01-01

    Members of the caspase family of cysteine proteases coordinate cell death through restricted proteolysis of diverse protein substrates and play a conserved role in apoptosis from nematodes to man. However, while numerous substrates for the mammalian cell death-associated caspases have now been described, few caspase substrates have been identified in other organisms. Here, we have utilized a proteomics-based approach to identify proteins that are cleaved by caspases during apoptosis in Drosophila D-Mel2 cells, a subline of the Schneider S2 cell line. This approach identified multiple novel substrates for the fly caspases and revealed that bicaudal\\/betaNAC is a conserved substrate for Drosophila and mammalian caspases. RNAi-mediated silencing of bicaudal expression in Drosophila D-Mel2 cells resulted in a block to proliferation, followed by spontaneous apoptosis. Similarly, silencing of expression of the mammalian bicaudal homologue, betaNAC, in HeLa, HEK293T, MCF-7 and MRC5 cells also resulted in spontaneous apoptosis. These data suggest that bicaudal\\/betaNAC is essential for cell survival and is a conserved target of caspases from flies to man.

  13. Telomere dysfunction and cell survival: Roles for distinct TIN2-containing complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sahn-ho; Davalos, Albert R.; Heo, Seok-Jin; Rodier, Francis; Zou, Ying; Beausejour, Christian; Kaminker, Patrick; Yannone, Steven M.; Campisi, Judith

    2007-10-02

    Telomeres are maintained by three DNA binding proteins (TRF1, TRF2 and POT1), and several associated factors. One factor, TIN2, binds TRF1 and TRF2 directly and POT1 indirectly. Along with two other proteins, TPP1 and hRap1, these form a soluble complex that may be the core telomere maintenance complex. It is not clear whether sub-complexes also exist in vivo. We provide evidence for two TIN2 sub-complexes with distinct functions in human cells. We isolated these two TIN2 sub-complexes from nuclear lysates of unperturbed cells and cells expressing TIN2 mutants TIN2-13, TIN2-15C, which cannot bind TRF2 or TRF1, respectively. In cells with wild-type p53 function, TIN2-15C was more potent than TIN2-13 in causing telomere uncapping and eventual growth arrest. In cells lacking p53 function, TIN2-15C was more potent than TIN2-13 in causing telomere dysfunction and cell death. Our findings suggest that distinct TIN2 complexes exist, and that TIN2-15C-sensitive subcomplexes are particularly important for cell survival in the absence of functional p53.

  14. Detecting protein-protein interactions in living cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottschalk, Marie; Bach, Anders; Hansen, Jakob Lerche

    2009-01-01

    to the endogenous C-terminal peptide of the NMDA receptor, as evaluated by a cell-free protein-protein interaction assay. However, it is important to address both membrane permeability and effect in living cells. Therefore a bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) assay was established, where the C......-terminal of the NMDA receptor and PDZ2 of PSD-95 were fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) and Renilla luciferase (Rluc) and expressed in COS7 cells. A robust and specific BRET signal was obtained by expression of the appropriate partner proteins and subsequently, the assay was used to evaluate a Tat......The PDZ domain mediated interaction between the NMDA receptor and its intracellular scaffolding protein, PSD-95, is a potential target for treatment of ischemic brain diseases. We have recently developed a number of peptide analogues with improved affinity for the PDZ domains of PSD-95 compared...

  15. Systemic treatment with CAR-engineered T cells against PSCA delays subcutaneous tumor growth and prolongs survival of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillerdal, Victoria; Ramachandran, Mohanraj; Leja, Justyna; Essand, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    Adoptive transfer of T cells genetically engineered with a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) has successfully been used to treat both chronic and acute lymphocytic leukemia as well as other hematological cancers. Experimental therapy with CAR-engineered T cells has also shown promising results on solid tumors. The prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) is a protein expressed on the surface of prostate epithelial cells as well as in primary and metastatic prostate cancer cells and therefore a promising target for immunotherapy of prostate cancer. We developed a third-generation CAR against PSCA including the CD28, OX-40 and CD3 ζ signaling domains. T cells were transduced with a lentivirus encoding the PSCA-CAR and evaluated for cytokine production (paired Student’s t-test), proliferation (paired Student’s t-test), CD107a expression (paired Student’s t-test) and target cell killing in vitro and tumor growth and survival in vivo (Log-rank test comparing Kaplan-Meier survival curves). PSCA-CAR T cells exhibit specific interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-2 secretion and specific proliferation in response to PSCA-expressing target cells. Furthermore, the PSCA-CAR-engineered T cells efficiently kill PSCA-expressing tumor cells in vitro and systemic treatment with PSCA-CAR-engineered T cells significantly delays subcutaneous tumor growth and prolongs survival of mice. Our data confirms that PSCA-CAR T cells may be developed for treatment of prostate cancer

  16. Effect of inactive yeast cell wall on growth performance, survival rate and immune parameters in Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutchanee Chotikachinda

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Effects of dietary inactive yeast cell wall on growth performance, survival rate, and immune parameters in pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei was investigated. Three dosages of inactive yeast cell wall (0, 1, and 2 g kg-1 were tested in three replicate groups of juvenile shrimps with an average initial weight of 7.15±0.05 g for four weeks. There was no significant difference in final weight, survival rate, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio, feed intake, protein efficiency ratio, and apparent net protein utilization of each treatments. However, different levels of inactive yeast cell wall showed an effect on certain immune parameters (p<0.05. Total hemocyte counts, granular hemocyte count, and bacterial clearance were better in shrimp fed diets supplemented with 1 and 2 g kg-1 inactive yeast cell wall as compared with thecontrol group.

  17. Culture conditions affecting the survival response of Chinese hamster ovary cells treated by hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highfield, D.P.; Holahan, E.V.; Dewey, W.C.

    1982-01-01

    Using lethally irradiated feeder cells to control cell population densities, researchers investigated the survival of Chinese hamster ovary cells heated between 42.2 and 45.5 degrees C. Test cells were plated into T25 flasks with or without feeder cells, incubated 2 hours at 37 degrees C, and then given various heat treatments. Under all heating conditions, survival increased in those flasks containing feeder cells. Increased survival (by as much as a factor of 100 for cells heated at 42.4 degrees C for 6-10 hr) was most apparent when cells were heated to thermotolerance. By adjustment of test and feeder cell numbers, survival increased as density increased; however, maximum survival followed a transition period that occurred between the plating of 1 X 10(4) and 6 X 10(4) cells. Experimental artifacts due to improper control of cell density was demonstrated

  18. Cell survival, cell death and cell cycle pathways are interconnected: Implications for cancer therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maddika, S; Ande, SR; Panigrahi, S

    2007-01-01

    )), and the Cip1/Waf1/Kip1-2-family (p21(Cip1/Waf1), p27(Kip1), p57(Kip2)) are shown both in the context of proliferation regulators and as contributors to the apoptotic machinery. Bcl2-family members (i.e. Bcl2, Bcl-X(L) Mcl-1(L); Bax, Bok/Mtd, Bak, and Bcl-X(S); Bad, Bid, Bim(EL), Bmf, Mcl-1(S)) are highlighted...... approaches that would involve redirecting over-active survival and proliferation pathways towards induction of apoptosis in cancer cells....

  19. Runx-dependent expression of PKC is critical for cell survival in the sea urchin embryo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCarthy John J

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Runx transcription factors play critical roles in the developmental control of cell fate and contribute variously as oncoproteins and tumor suppressors to leukemia and other cancers. To discover fundamental Runx functions in the cell biology of animal development, we have employed morpholino antisense-mediated knockdown of the sea urchin Runx protein SpRunt-1. Previously we showed that embryos depleted of SpRunt-1 arrest development at early gastrula stage and underexpress the conventional protein kinase C SpPKC1. Results We report here that SpRunt-1 deficiency leads to ectopic cell proliferation and extensive apoptosis. Suppression of the apoptosis by pharmacological inhibition of caspase-3 prevents the ectopic proliferation and rescues gastrulation, indicating that many of the overt defects obtained by knockdown of SpRunt-1 are secondary to the apoptosis. Inhibition or knockdown of SpPKC1 also causes apoptosis, while cell survival is rescued in SpRunt-1 morphant embryos coinjected with SpPKC1 mRNA, suggesting that the apoptosis associated with SpRunt-1 deficiency is caused by the deficit in SpPKC1 expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation indicates that SpRunt-1 interacts physically with SpPKC1 in vivo, and cis-regulatory analysis shows that this interaction activates SpPKC1 transcription. Conclusions Our results show that Runx-dependent activation of SpPKC1 is essential for maintaining protein kinase C activity at levels conducive to cell survival during embryogenesis.

  20. Survival and kinetics of Chinese hamster ovary cell subpopulations induced by Adriamycin and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneiderman, M.H.

    1979-01-01

    Mitotic selection of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, at 10 min intervals after the initiation of Adriamycin and/or x-ray treatment was used to measure the kinetics and survival of cells which progressed without delay, the ''refractory'' cells, the cells that reached mitosis only after recovery from the treatment-induced delay, the ''recovered'' cells, and the survival of the cells remaining attached to the flask 5 h after treatment. The cell kinetics were determined from the rate at which cells entered mitosis, and the reproductive integrity from the survival of the selected refractory, recovered and remaining (unselected) cells

  1. Mitochondrial respiratory modifiers confer survival advantage by facilitating DNA repair in cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, Ankit; Khanna, Suchit; Singh, Saurabh; Rai, Yogesh; Soni, Ravi; Kalra, Namita; Dwarakanath, B.S.; Bhatt, Anant Narayan

    2014-01-01

    High rate of aerobic glycolysis (Warburg effect), one of the primary hallmarks of cancer cells, acquired during the multistep development of tumors is also responsible for therapeutic resistance. Underlying this hallmark is the compromised respiratory metabolism that contributes to the acquisition of the glycolytic phenotype for sustained ATP production and cell proliferation. Nevertheless, the exact mechanisms underlying the glycolysis-linked radio-resistance in cancer cells remain elusive. In this study, we transiently elevated glycolysis by treating human cell lines (HEK293, BMG-1 and OCT-1) with mitochondrial respiratory modifiers (MRMs) viz. 2,4-dinitrophenol, Photosan-3, and Methylene blue to examine if transient stimulation of glycolysis before irradiation using MRMs is sufficient to confer radioresistance. Treatment with MRMs led to a significant (two-fold) increase in glucose consumption and lactate production together with a robust increase in the protein levels of two key regulators of glucose metabolism, i.e. GLUT-1 and HK-II. MRMs also enhanced the clonogenic survival and facilitated DNA repair by activating both non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR) pathways of DNA double strand break repair leading to reduction in radiation-induced cytogenetic damage (micronuclei formation) in these cells. Inhibition of glucose uptake by inhibitors like 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG), 3-bromo pyruvate (3-BP) and fasentin under conditions of stimulated glycolysis not only reversed the effect but also sensitized the cells to radiation more profoundly. The inhibition of glycolysis using 2-DG also reduced the levels of Ku 70 (NHEJ) and Rad-51 (HR) proteins. Thus, our results suggest that enhanced glycolysis in cancer cells may confer radio-resistance and offers survival advantage partly by enhancing the repair of DNA damage. (author)

  2. PIAS3 expression in squamous cell lung cancer is low and predicts overall survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, Rime; McColl, Karen S; Kresak, Adam; Yang, Michael; Chen, Yanwen; Fu, Pingfu; Wildey, Gary; Dowlati, Afshin

    2015-01-01

    Unlike lung adenocarcinoma, little progress has been made in the treatment of squamous cell lung carcinoma (SCC). The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) has recently reported that receptor tyrosine kinase signaling pathways are altered in 26% of SCC tumors, validating the importance of downstream Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription 3 (STAT3) activity as a prime therapeutic target in this cancer. In the present report we examine the status of an endogenous inhibitor of STAT3, called Protein Inhibitor of Activated STAT3 (PIAS3), in SCC and its potential role in this disease. We examine PIAS3 expression in SCC tumors and cell lines by immunohistochemistry of a tissue microarray and western blotting. PIAS3 mRNA expression and survival data are analyzed in the TCGA data set. SCC cell lines are treated with curcumin to regulate PIAS3 expression and cell growth. PIAS3 protein expression is decreased in a majority of lung SCC tumors and cell lines. Analysis of PIAS3 mRNA transcript levels demonstrated that low PIAS3 levels predicted poor survival; Cox regression analysis revealed a hazard ratio of 0.57 (95% CI: 0.37–0.87), indicating a decrease in the risk of death by 43% for every unit elevation in PIAS3 gene expression. Curcumin treatment increased endogenous PIAS3 expression and decreased cell growth and viability in Calu-1 cells, a model of SCC. Our results implicate PIAS3 loss in the pathology of lung SCC and raise the therapeutic possibility of upregulating PIAS3 expression as a single target that can suppress signaling from the multiple receptor tyrosine kinase receptors found to be amplified in SCC

  3. Oxidative Stress, Redox Signaling, and Autophagy: Cell Death Versus Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Yepes, Juliana; Burns, Michaela; Anandhan, Annadurai; Khalimonchuk, Oleh; del Razo, Luz Maria; Quintanilla-Vega, Betzabet; Pappa, Aglaia; Panayiotidis, Mihalis I.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: The molecular machinery regulating autophagy has started becoming elucidated, and a number of studies have undertaken the task to determine the role of autophagy in cell fate determination within the context of human disease progression. Oxidative stress and redox signaling are also largely involved in the etiology of human diseases, where both survival and cell death signaling cascades have been reported to be modulated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). Recent Advances: To date, there is a good understanding of the signaling events regulating autophagy, as well as the signaling processes by which alterations in redox homeostasis are transduced to the activation/regulation of signaling cascades. However, very little is known about the molecular events linking them to the regulation of autophagy. This lack of information has hampered the understanding of the role of oxidative stress and autophagy in human disease progression. Critical Issues: In this review, we will focus on (i) the molecular mechanism by which ROS/RNS generation, redox signaling, and/or oxidative stress/damage alter autophagic flux rates; (ii) the role of autophagy as a cell death process or survival mechanism in response to oxidative stress; and (iii) alternative mechanisms by which autophagy-related signaling regulate mitochondrial function and antioxidant response. Future Directions: Our research efforts should now focus on understanding the molecular basis of events by which autophagy is fine tuned by oxidation/reduction events. This knowledge will enable us to understand the mechanisms by which oxidative stress and autophagy regulate human diseases such as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 66–85. PMID:24483238

  4. Glycogen synthesis is induced in hypoxia by the hypoxia-inducible factor and promotes cancer cell survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joffrey ePelletier

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1, in addition to genetic and epigenetic changes, is largely responsible for alterations in cell metabolism in hypoxic tumor cells. This transcription factor not only favors cell proliferation through the metabolic shift from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis and lactic acid production but also stimulates nutrient supply by mediating adaptive survival mechanisms. In this study we showed that glycogen synthesis is enhanced in non-cancer and cancer cells when exposed to hypoxia, resulting in a large increase in glycogen stores. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the mRNA and protein levels of the first enzyme of glycogenesis, phosphoglucomutase1 (PGM1, were increased in hypoxia. We showed that induction of glycogen storage as well as PGM1 expression were dependent on HIF-1 and HIF-2. We established that hypoxia-induced glycogen stores are rapidly mobilized in cells that are starved of glucose. Glycogenolysis allows these hypoxia-preconditioned cells to confront and survive glucose deprivation. In contrast normoxic control cells exhibit a high rate of cell death following glucose removal. These findings point to the important role of hypoxia and HIF in inducing mechanisms of rapid adaptation and survival in response to a decrease in oxygen tension. We propose that a decrease in pO2 acts as an alarm that prepares the cells to face subsequent nutrient depletion and to survive.

  5. Glycogen Synthesis is Induced in Hypoxia by the Hypoxia-Inducible Factor and Promotes Cancer Cell Survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelletier, Joffrey; Bellot, Grégory [Institute of Developmental Biology and Cancer Research, CNRS-UMR 6543, Centre Antoine Lacassagne, University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Nice (France); Gounon, Pierre; Lacas-Gervais, Sandra [Centre Commun de Microscopie Appliquée, University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Nice (France); Pouysségur, Jacques; Mazure, Nathalie M., E-mail: mazure@unice.fr [Institute of Developmental Biology and Cancer Research, CNRS-UMR 6543, Centre Antoine Lacassagne, University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Nice (France)

    2012-02-28

    The hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1), in addition to genetic and epigenetic changes, is largely responsible for alterations in cell metabolism in hypoxic tumor cells. This transcription factor not only favors cell proliferation through the metabolic shift from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis and lactic acid production but also stimulates nutrient supply by mediating adaptive survival mechanisms. In this study we showed that glycogen synthesis is enhanced in non-cancer and cancer cells when exposed to hypoxia, resulting in a large increase in glycogen stores. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the mRNA and protein levels of the first enzyme of glycogenesis, phosphoglucomutase1 (PGM1), were increased in hypoxia. We showed that induction of glycogen storage as well as PGM1 expression were dependent on HIF-1 and HIF-2. We established that hypoxia-induced glycogen stores are rapidly mobilized in cells that are starved of glucose. Glycogenolysis allows these “hypoxia-preconditioned” cells to confront and survive glucose deprivation. In contrast normoxic control cells exhibit a high rate of cell death following glucose removal. These findings point to the important role of hypoxia and HIF in inducing mechanisms of rapid adaptation and survival in response to a decrease in oxygen tension. We propose that a decrease in pO{sub 2} acts as an “alarm” that prepares the cells to face subsequent nutrient depletion and to survive.

  6. Glycogen Synthesis is Induced in Hypoxia by the Hypoxia-Inducible Factor and Promotes Cancer Cell Survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelletier, Joffrey; Bellot, Grégory; Gounon, Pierre; Lacas-Gervais, Sandra; Pouysségur, Jacques; Mazure, Nathalie M.

    2012-01-01

    The hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1), in addition to genetic and epigenetic changes, is largely responsible for alterations in cell metabolism in hypoxic tumor cells. This transcription factor not only favors cell proliferation through the metabolic shift from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis and lactic acid production but also stimulates nutrient supply by mediating adaptive survival mechanisms. In this study we showed that glycogen synthesis is enhanced in non-cancer and cancer cells when exposed to hypoxia, resulting in a large increase in glycogen stores. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the mRNA and protein levels of the first enzyme of glycogenesis, phosphoglucomutase1 (PGM1), were increased in hypoxia. We showed that induction of glycogen storage as well as PGM1 expression were dependent on HIF-1 and HIF-2. We established that hypoxia-induced glycogen stores are rapidly mobilized in cells that are starved of glucose. Glycogenolysis allows these “hypoxia-preconditioned” cells to confront and survive glucose deprivation. In contrast normoxic control cells exhibit a high rate of cell death following glucose removal. These findings point to the important role of hypoxia and HIF in inducing mechanisms of rapid adaptation and survival in response to a decrease in oxygen tension. We propose that a decrease in pO 2 acts as an “alarm” that prepares the cells to face subsequent nutrient depletion and to survive.

  7. Selective Mitochondrial Uptake of MKT-077 Can Suppress Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Cell Survival and

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmytro Starenki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMedullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC is a neuroendocrine tumor mainly caused by mutations in the rearranged during transfection (RET proto-oncogene. Not all patients with progressive MTC respond to current therapy inhibiting RET, demanding additional therapeutic strategies. We recently demonstrated that disrupting mitochondrial metabolism using a mitochondria-targeted agent or by depleting a mitochondrial chaperone effectively suppressed human MTC cells in culture and in mouse xenografts by inducing apoptosis and RET downregulation. These observations led us to hypothesize that mitochondria are potential therapeutic targets for MTC. This study further tests this hypothesis using1-ethyl-2-[[3-ethyl-5-(3-methylbenzothiazolin-2-yliden]-4-oxothiazolidin-2-ylidenemethyl] pyridinium chloride (MKT-077, a water-soluble rhodocyanine dye analogue, which can selectively accumulate in mitochondria.MethodsThe effects of MKT-077 on cell proliferation, survival, expression of RET and tumor protein 53 (TP53, and mitochondrial activity were determined in the human MTC lines in culture and in mouse xenografts.ResultsMKT-077 induced cell cycle arrest in TT and MZ-CRC-1. Intriguingly, MKT-077 also induced RET downregulation and strong cell death responses in TT cells, but not in MZ-CRC-1 cells. This discrepancy was mainly due to the difference between the capacities of these cell lines to retain MKT-077 in mitochondria. The cytotoxicity of MKT-077 in TT cells was mainly attributed to oxidative stress while being independent of TP53. MKT-077 also effectively suppressed tumor growth of TT xenografts.ConclusionMKT-077 can suppress cell survival of certain MTC subtypes by accumulating in mitochondria and interfering with mitochondrial activity although it can also suppress cell proliferation via other mechanisms. These results consistently support the hypothesis that mitochondrial targeting has therapeutic potential for MTC.

  8. Cell survival of human tumor cells compared with normal fibroblasts following 60Co gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, E.L.; Henning, C.B.; Reynolds, S.D.; Holmblad, G.L.; Trier, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    Three tumor cell lines, two of which were shown to be HeLa cells, were irradiated with 60 Co gamma irradiation, together with two cell cultures of normal human diploid fibroblasts. Cell survival was studied in three different experiments over a dose range of 2 to 14 gray. All the tumor cell lines showed a very wide shoulder in the dose response curves in contrast to the extremely narrow shoulder of the normal fibroblasts. In addition, the D/sub o/ values for the tumor cell lines were somewhat greater. These two characteristics of the dose response curves resulted in up to 2 orders of magnitude less sensitivity for cell inactivation of HeLa cells when compared with normal cells at high doses (10 gray). Because of these large differences, the extrapolation of results from the irradiation of HeLa cells concerning the mechanisms of normal cell killing should be interpreted with great caution

  9. STAT signaling in mammary gland differentiation, cell survival and tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haricharan, S; Li, Y

    2014-01-25

    The mammary gland is a unique organ that undergoes extensive and profound changes during puberty, menstruation, pregnancy, lactation and involution. The changes that take place during puberty involve large-scale proliferation and invasion of the fat-pad. During pregnancy and lactation, the mammary cells are exposed to signaling pathways that inhibit apoptosis, induce proliferation and invoke terminal differentiation. Finally, during involution the mammary gland is exposed to milk stasis, programmed cell death and stromal reorganization to clear the differentiated milk-producing cells. Not surprisingly, the signaling pathways responsible for bringing about these changes in breast cells are often subverted during the process of tumorigenesis. The STAT family of proteins is involved in every stage of mammary gland development, and is also frequently implicated in breast tumorigenesis. While the roles of STAT3 and STAT5 during mammary gland development and tumorigenesis are well studied, others members, e.g. STAT1 and STAT6, have only recently been observed to play a role in mammary gland biology. Continued investigation into the STAT protein network in the mammary gland will likely yield new biomarkers and risk factors for breast cancer, and may also lead to novel prophylactic or therapeutic strategies against breast cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Rac1 selective activation improves retina ganglion cell survival and regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Lorenzetto

    Full Text Available In adult mammals, after optic nerve injury, retinal ganglion cells (RGCs do not regenerate their axons and most of them die by apoptosis within a few days. Recently, several strategies that activate neuronal intracellular pathways were proposed to prevent such degenerative processes. The rho-related small GTPase Rac1 is part of a complex, still not fully understood, intracellular signaling network, mediating in neurons many effects, including axon growth and cell survival. However, its role in neuronal survival and regeneration in vivo has not yet been properly investigated. To address this point we intravitreally injected selective cell-penetrating Rac1 mutants after optic nerve crush and studied the effect on RGC survival and axonal regeneration. We injected two well-characterized L61 constitutively active Tat-Rac1 fusion protein mutants, in which a second F37A or Y40C mutation confers selectivity in downstream signaling pathways. Results showed that, 15 days after crush, both mutants were able to improve survival and to prevent dendrite degeneration, while the one harboring the F37A mutation also improved axonal regeneration. The treatment with F37A mutant for one month did not improve the axonal elongation respect to 15 days. Furthermore, we found an increase of Pak1 T212 phosphorylation and ERK1/2 expression in RGCs after F37A treatment, whereas ERK1/2 was more activated in glial cells after Y40C administration. Our data suggest that the selective activation of distinct Rac1-dependent pathways could represent a therapeutic strategy to counteract neuronal degenerative processes in the retina.

  11. Insect Cells as Hosts for Recombinat Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Murwani, Retno

    1997-01-01

    Since the development of recombinant baculovirus expression system, insect cell culture has rapidly gain popularity as the method of choice for production of a variety of biologically active proteins. Up to date tens of recombinant protein have been produced by this method commercially or non-commercially and have been widely used for research. This review describes the basic concept of baculovirus expression vector and the use of insect cells as host for recombinant proteins. Examples of the...

  12. HTLV-1 tax stabilizes MCL-1 via TRAF6-dependent K63-linked polyubiquitination to promote cell survival and transformation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Bong Choi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1 Tax protein hijacks the host ubiquitin machinery to activate IκB kinases (IKKs and NF-κB and promote cell survival; however, the key ubiquitinated factors downstream of Tax involved in cell transformation are unknown. Using mass spectrometry, we undertook an unbiased proteome-wide quantitative survey of cellular proteins modified by ubiquitin in the presence of Tax or a Tax mutant impaired in IKK activation. Tax induced the ubiquitination of 22 cellular proteins, including the anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family member MCL-1, in an IKK-dependent manner. Tax was found to promote the nondegradative lysine 63 (K63-linked polyubiquitination of MCL-1 that was dependent on the E3 ubiquitin ligase TRAF6 and the IKK complex. Tax interacted with and activated TRAF6, and triggered its mitochondrial localization, where it conjugated four carboxyl-terminal lysine residues of MCL-1 with K63-linked polyubiquitin chains, which stabilized and protected MCL-1 from genotoxic stress-induced degradation. TRAF6 and MCL-1 played essential roles in the survival of HTLV-1 transformed cells and the immortalization of primary T cells by HTLV-1. Therefore, K63-linked polyubiquitination represents a novel regulatory mechanism controlling MCL-1 stability that has been usurped by a viral oncogene to precipitate cell survival and transformation.

  13. HTLV-1 Tax Stabilizes MCL-1 via TRAF6-Dependent K63-Linked Polyubiquitination to Promote Cell Survival and Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young Bong; Harhaj, Edward William

    2014-01-01

    The human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) Tax protein hijacks the host ubiquitin machinery to activate IκB kinases (IKKs) and NF-κB and promote cell survival; however, the key ubiquitinated factors downstream of Tax involved in cell transformation are unknown. Using mass spectrometry, we undertook an unbiased proteome-wide quantitative survey of cellular proteins modified by ubiquitin in the presence of Tax or a Tax mutant impaired in IKK activation. Tax induced the ubiquitination of 22 cellular proteins, including the anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family member MCL-1, in an IKK-dependent manner. Tax was found to promote the nondegradative lysine 63 (K63)-linked polyubiquitination of MCL-1 that was dependent on the E3 ubiquitin ligase TRAF6 and the IKK complex. Tax interacted with and activated TRAF6, and triggered its mitochondrial localization, where it conjugated four carboxyl-terminal lysine residues of MCL-1 with K63-linked polyubiquitin chains, which stabilized and protected MCL-1 from genotoxic stress-induced degradation. TRAF6 and MCL-1 played essential roles in the survival of HTLV-1 transformed cells and the immortalization of primary T cells by HTLV-1. Therefore, K63-linked polyubiquitination represents a novel regulatory mechanism controlling MCL-1 stability that has been usurped by a viral oncogene to precipitate cell survival and transformation. PMID:25340740

  14. Emerging role of LRRK2 in human neural progenitor cell cycle progression, survival and differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Anne K

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite a comprehensive mapping of the Parkinson's disease (PD-related mRNA and protein leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2 in the mammalian brain, its physiological function in healthy individuals remains enigmatic. Based on its structural features and kinase properties, LRRK2 may interact with other proteins involved in signalling pathways. Here, we show a widespread LRRK2 mRNA and/or protein expression in expanded or differentiated human mesencephalic neural progenitor cells (hmNPCs and in post-mortem substantia nigra PD patients. Using small interfering RNA duplexes targeting LRRK2 in hmNPCs following their differentiation into glia and neurons, we observed a reduced number of dopaminergic neurons due to apoptosis in LRRK2 knockdown samples. LRRK2-deficient hmNPCs exhibited elevated cell cycle- and cell death-related markers. In conclusion, a reduction of LRRK2 expression in hmNPCs severely impaired dopaminergic differentiation and/or survival of dopaminergic neurons most likely via preserving or reactivating the cell cycle.

  15. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Neural Cells Survive and Mature in the Nonhuman Primate Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina E. Emborg

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs opens up the possibility for personalized cell therapy. Here, we show that transplanted autologous rhesus monkey iPSC-derived neural progenitors survive for up to 6 months and differentiate into neurons, astrocytes, and myelinating oligodendrocytes in the brains of MPTP-induced hemiparkinsonian rhesus monkeys with a minimal presence of inflammatory cells and reactive glia. This finding represents a significant step toward personalized regenerative therapies.

  16. Protein Kinase CK2 Expression Predicts Relapse Survival in ERα Dependent Breast Cancer, and Modulates ERα Expression in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon D. Williams

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The heterotetrameric protein kinase CK2 has been associated with oncogenic transformation, and our previous studies have shown that it may affect estrogenic signaling. Here, we investigate the role of the protein kinase CK2 in regulating ERα (estrogen receptor α signaling in breast cancer. We determined the correlation of CK2α expression with relapse free breast cancer patient survival utilizing Kaplan Meier Plotter (kmplot.com/analysis/ to mine breast cancer microarrays repositories. Patients were stratified according to ERα status, histological grade, and hormonal therapy. Luciferase reporter assays and flow cytometry were implemented to determine the impact of CK2 inhibition on ERE-mediated gene expression and expression of ERα protein. CK2α expression is associated with shorter relapse free survival among ERα (+ patients with grade 1 or 2 tumors, as well as among those patients receiving hormonal therapy. Biochemical inhibition of CK2 activity results in increased ER-transactivation as well as increased expression among ERα (+ and ERα (− breast cancer cell lines. These findings suggest that CK2 may contribute to estrogen-independent cell proliferation and breast tumor progression, and may potentially serve as a biomarker and pharmacological target in breast cancer.

  17. MiR-328 suppresses the survival of esophageal cancer cells by targeting PLCE1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Na; Zhao, Wenchao; Zhang, Zhongmian; Zheng, Pengyuan

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal cancer (EC) is the sixth leading cause of death worldwide. Recent studies have highlighted the vital role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in EC development and diagnosis. In our study, qPCR analysis showed that miRNA-328 was expressed at significantly low levels in EC109 and EC9706 cells. The results also showed that overexpression of miR-328 by lentivirus-mediated gene transfer markedly inhibited cell proliferation and invasion, and enhanced apoptosis; whereas, inhibition of miR-328 significantly promoted cell proliferation and invasion, and suppressed apoptosis in EC109 and EC9706 cells. Dual-luciferase reporter assay confirmed that miR-328 directly targeted phospholipase C epsilon 1 (PLCE1) by binding to target sequences in the 3′-UTR. qPCR and Western blot analysis showed that the PLCE1 was overexpressed in EC109 and EC9706 cells. Additionally, we found that miR-328 overexpression decreased PLCE1 mRNA and protein levels, while miR-328 inhibition enhanced the PLCE1 expression. Further analysis showed that PLCE1 overexpression rescued the inhibitory effect of miR-328 on cell proliferation and invasion, and repressed the promotive effect of miR-328 on cell apoptosis. In conclusion, our results suggest that miR-328 suppresses the survival of EC cells by regulating PLCE1 expression, which might be a potential therapeutic method for EC. - Highlights: • PLCE1 was a target gene of miR-328. • MiR-328 overexpression decreased PLCE1 expression. • PLCE1 overexpression rescued the inhibitory effect of miR-328 on the survival of EC cells.

  18. MiR-328 suppresses the survival of esophageal cancer cells by targeting PLCE1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Na [Department of Oncology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, 450014 (China); Zhao, Wenchao [Department of Physiology and Neurobiology, College of Basic Medical Sciences, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, 450001 (China); Zhang, Zhongmian [Department of Oncology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, 450014 (China); Zheng, Pengyuan, E-mail: pengyuanzhengcn@163.com [No.3, Kangfuqian Street, Department of Gastroenterology, The Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, 450052 (China); No.3, Kangfuqian Street, Medical Microecology and Clinical Nutrition Research Institute of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, 450052 (China)

    2016-01-29

    Esophageal cancer (EC) is the sixth leading cause of death worldwide. Recent studies have highlighted the vital role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in EC development and diagnosis. In our study, qPCR analysis showed that miRNA-328 was expressed at significantly low levels in EC109 and EC9706 cells. The results also showed that overexpression of miR-328 by lentivirus-mediated gene transfer markedly inhibited cell proliferation and invasion, and enhanced apoptosis; whereas, inhibition of miR-328 significantly promoted cell proliferation and invasion, and suppressed apoptosis in EC109 and EC9706 cells. Dual-luciferase reporter assay confirmed that miR-328 directly targeted phospholipase C epsilon 1 (PLCE1) by binding to target sequences in the 3′-UTR. qPCR and Western blot analysis showed that the PLCE1 was overexpressed in EC109 and EC9706 cells. Additionally, we found that miR-328 overexpression decreased PLCE1 mRNA and protein levels, while miR-328 inhibition enhanced the PLCE1 expression. Further analysis showed that PLCE1 overexpression rescued the inhibitory effect of miR-328 on cell proliferation and invasion, and repressed the promotive effect of miR-328 on cell apoptosis. In conclusion, our results suggest that miR-328 suppresses the survival of EC cells by regulating PLCE1 expression, which might be a potential therapeutic method for EC. - Highlights: • PLCE1 was a target gene of miR-328. • MiR-328 overexpression decreased PLCE1 expression. • PLCE1 overexpression rescued the inhibitory effect of miR-328 on the survival of EC cells.

  19. Survival curves and cell restoration of gamma irradiated chlorella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilet, Roland

    1970-01-01

    The characteristics of the living material used and the cultures developed are defined. The irradiation techniques and the dosimetry methods used are described. The clonal growth in a gelified nutrient solution was studied and the survival curves, which are very reproducible when anoxic conditions are eliminated, were established. It is shown that the radiosensitivity of Chlorella decreases with the age of the culture when the plateau of the growth curve is reached, and that for synchronous cells it varies slightly with the phase in the cycle at which the radiation is received. The restoration from sublethal damage occurs quickly and does not depend upon the continuation of the cell cycle when no multiplication occurs during the experiments and is not modified by anoxic conditions. The restoration rate is reduced at 0 deg. C. It explains the variations in the apparent radiosensitivity with the dose rate. In contrast with the results published for many cells, the restoration is incomplete. The problem of the elimination of sublethal damage during clonal development is posed. A model summarizing the experimental results and suggesting future work is given. (author) [fr

  20. Survival of salmonella transformed to express green fluorescent protein on Italian parsley as affected by processing and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, E A; Cisneros-Zevallos, L; Castillo, A; Pillai, S D; Ricke, S C; Acuff, G R

    2005-04-01

    To study the effect of processing and storage parameters on the survival of Salmonella on fresh Italian parsley, parsley bunches were dipped for 3 or 15 min in suspensions that were preequilibrated to 5, 25, or 35 degrees C and inoculated with Salmonella transformed to express enhanced green fluorescent protein. Loosely attached and/or associated, strongly attached and/or associated, and internalized and/or entrapped Salmonella cells were enumerated over 0, 1, and 7 days of storage at 25 degrees C and over 0, 1, 7, 14, and 30 days of storage at 4 degrees C using surface-plating procedures. Leaf sections obtained from samples after 0, 1, and 7 days of storage were examined using confocal scanning laser microscopy. Temperature of the dip suspension had little effect on the attachment and survival of Salmonella cells on parsley. Regardless of the temperature or duration of dip, Salmonella was internalized. Immersion for longer times resulted in higher numbers of attached and internalized cells. Microscopic observations supported these results and revealed Salmonella cells near the stomata and within cracks in the cuticle. Storage temperature had the greatest impact on the survival of Salmonella cells on parsley. When stored at 25 degrees C, parsley had a shelf life of 7 days, and Salmonella populations significantly increased over the 7 days of storage. For parsley stored at 4 degrees C, numbers of Salmonella cells decreased over days 0, 1, and 7. After 7 days of storage, there were no viable internalized Salmonella cells detected. Storage temperature represents an important control point for the safety of fresh parsley.

  1. The Adequate Corpus Luteum: miR-96 Promotes Luteal Cell Survival and Progesterone Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Bushra T; Sontakke, Sadanand D; Ioannidis, Jason; Duncan, W Colin; Donadeu, F Xavier

    2017-07-01

    Inadequate progesterone production from the corpus luteum is associated with pregnancy loss. Data available in model species suggest important roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in luteal development and maintenance. To comprehensively investigate the involvement of miRNAs during the ovarian follicle-luteal transition. The effects of specific miRNAs on survival and steroid production by human luteinized granulosa cells (hLGCs) were tested using specific miRNA inhibitors. Candidate miRNAs were identified through microarray analyses of follicular and luteal tissues in a bovine model. An academic institution in the United Kingdom associated with a teaching hospital. hLGCs were obtained by standard transvaginal follicular-fluid aspiration from 35 women undergoing assisted conception. Inhibition of candidate miRNAs in vitro. Levels of miRNAs, mRNAs, FOXO1 protein, apoptosis, and steroids were measured in tissues and/or cultured cells. Two specific miRNA clusters, miR-183-96-182 and miR-212-132, were dramatically increased in luteal relative to follicular tissues. miR-96 and miR-132 were the most upregulated miRNAs within each cluster. Database analyses identified FOXO1 as a putative target of both these miRNAs. In cultured hLGCs, inhibition of miR-96 increased apoptosis and FOXO1 protein levels, and decreased progesterone production. These effects were prevented by small interfering RNA-mediated downregulation of FOXO1. In bovine luteal cells, miR-96 inhibition also led to increases in apoptosis and FOXO1 protein levels. miR-96 targets FOXO1 to regulate luteal development through effects on cell survival and steroid production. The miR-183-96-182 cluster could provide a novel target for the manipulation of luteal function. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  2. Survival of red blood cells after transfusion: processes and consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giel eBosman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The currently available data suggest that efforts towards improving the quality of red blood cell (RBC blood bank products should concentrate on: (1 preventing the removal of a considerable fraction of the transfused RBCs that takes place within the first hours after transfusion; (2 minimizing the interaction of the transfused RBCs with the patient's immune system. These issues are important in reducing the number and extent of the damaging side effects of transfusions, such as generation of alloantibodies and autoantibodies and iron accumulation, especially in transfusion-dependent patients. Thus, it becomes important for blood bank research not only to assess the classical RBC parameters for quality control during storage, but even more so to identify the parameters that predict RBC survival, function and behaviour in the patient after transfusion. These parameters are likely to result from elucidation of the mechanisms that underly physiological RBC aging in vivo, and that lead to the generation of senescent cell antigens and the accumulation of damaged molecules in vesicles. Also, study of RBC pathology-related mechanisms, such as encountered in various hemoglobinopathies and membranopathies, may help to elucidate the mechanisms underlying a storage-associated increase in susceptibility to physiological stress conditions. Recent data indicate that a combination of new approaches in vitro to mimick RBC behaviour in vivo, the growing knowledge of the signaling networks that regulate RBC structure and function, and the rapidly expanding set of proteomic and metabolomic data, will be instrumental to identify the storage-associated processes that control RBC survival after transfusion.

  3. Cultivating Insect Cells To Produce Recombinant Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Glenn; Goodwin, Thomas; Prewett, Tacey; Andrews, Angela; Francis, Karen; O'Connor, Kim

    1996-01-01

    Method of producing recombinant proteins involves growth of insect cells in nutrient solution in cylindrical bioreactor rotating about cylindrical axis, oriented horizontally and infecting cells with viruses into which genes of selected type cloned. Genes in question those encoding production of desired proteins. Horizontal rotating bioreactor preferred for use in method, denoted by acronym "HARV", described in "High-Aspect-Ratio Rotating Cell-Culture Vessel" (MSC-21662).

  4. Metabolic behavior of cell surface biotinylated proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hare, J.F.; Lee, E.

    1989-01-01

    The turnover of proteins on the surface of cultured mammalian cells was measured by a new approach. Reactive free amino or sulfhydryl groups on surface-accessible proteins were derivatized with biotinyl reagents and the proteins solubilized from culture dishes with detergent. Solubilized, biotinylated proteins were then adsorbed onto streptavidin-agarose, released with sodium dodecyl sulfate and mercaptoethanol, and separated on polyacrylamide gels. Biotin-epsilon-aminocaproic acid N-hydroxysuccinimide ester (BNHS) or N-biotinoyl-N'-(maleimidohexanoyl)hydrazine (BM) were the derivatizing agents. Only 10-12 bands were adsorbed onto streptavidin-agarose from undervatized cells or from derivatized cells treated with free avidin at 4 degrees C. Two-dimensional isoelectric focusing-sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis resolved greater than 100 BNHS-derivatized proteins and greater than 40 BM-derivatized proteins. There appeared to be little overlap between the two groups of derivatized proteins. Short-term pulse-chase studies showed an accumulation of label into both groups of biotinylated proteins up until 1-2 h of chase and a rapid decrease over the next 1-5 h. Delayed appearance of labeled protein at the cell surface was attributed to transit time from site of synthesis. The unexpected and unexplained rapid disappearance of pulse-labeled proteins from the cell surface was invariant for all two-dimensionally resolved proteins and was sensitive to temperature reduction to 18 degrees C. Long-term pulse-chase experiments beginning 4-8 h after the initiation of chase showed the disappearance of derivatized proteins to be a simple first-order process having a half-life of 115 h in the case of BNHS-derivatized proteins and 30 h in the case of BM-derivatized proteins

  5. GGA3 mediates TrkA endocytic recycling to promote sustained Akt phosphorylation and cell survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuezhi; Lavigne, Pierre; Lavoie, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Although TrkA postendocytic sorting significantly influences neuronal cell survival and differentiation, the molecular mechanism underlying TrkA receptor sorting in the recycling or degradation pathways remains poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that Golgi-localized, γ adaptin-ear–containing ADP ribosylation factor-binding protein 3 (GGA3) interacts directly with the TrkA cytoplasmic tail through an internal DXXLL motif and mediates the functional recycling of TrkA to the plasma membrane. We find that GGA3 depletion by siRNA delays TrkA recycling, accelerates TrkA degradation, attenuates sustained NGF-induced Akt activation, and reduces cell survival. We also show that GGA3’s effect on TrkA recycling is dependent on the activation of Arf6. This work identifies GGA3 as a key player in a novel DXXLL-mediated endosomal sorting machinery that targets TrkA to the plasma membrane, where it prolongs the activation of Akt signaling and survival responses. PMID:26446845

  6. Snail regulates cell survival and inhibits cellular senescence in human metastatic prostate cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emadi Baygi, Modjtaba; Soheili, Zahra Soheila; Schmitz, Ingo; Sameie, Shahram; Schulz, Wolfgang A

    2010-12-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is regarded as an important step in cancer metastasis. Snail, a master regulator of EMT, has been recently proposed to act additionally as a cell survival factor and inducer of motility. We have investigated the function of Snail (SNAI1) in prostate cancer cells by downregulating its expression via short (21-mer) interfering RNA (siRNA) and measuring the consequences on EMT markers, cell viability, death, cell cycle, senescence, attachment, and invasivity. Of eight carcinoma cell lines, the prostate carcinoma cell lines LNCaP and PC-3 showed the highest and moderate expression of SNAI1 mRNA, respectively, as measured by quantitative RT-PCR. Long-term knockdown of Snail induced a severe decline in cell numbers in LNCaP and PC-3 and caspase activity was accordingly enhanced in both cell lines. In addition, suppression of Snail expression induced senescence in LNCaP cells. SNAI1-siRNA-treated cells did not tolerate detachment from the extracellular matrix, probably due to downregulation of integrin α6. Expression of E-cadherin, vimentin, and fibronectin was also affected. Invasiveness of PC-3 cells was not significantly diminished by Snail knockdown. Our data suggest that Snail acts primarily as a survival factor and inhibitor of cellular senescence in prostate cancer cell lines. We therefore propose that Snail can act as early driver of prostate cancer progression.

  7. Regulatory module involving FGF13, miR-504, and p53 regulates ribosomal biogenesis and supports cancer cell survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bublik, Débora R.; Bursać, Slađana; Sheffer, Michal; Oršolić, Ines; Shalit, Tali; Tarcic, Ohad; Kotler, Eran; Mouhadeb, Odelia; Hoffman, Yonit; Fuchs, Gilad; Levin, Yishai; Volarević, Siniša; Oren, Moshe

    2017-01-01

    The microRNA miR-504 targets TP53 mRNA encoding the p53 tumor suppressor. miR-504 resides within the fibroblast growth factor 13 (FGF13) gene, which is overexpressed in various cancers. We report that the FGF13 locus, comprising FGF13 and miR-504, is transcriptionally repressed by p53, defining an additional negative feedback loop in the p53 network. Furthermore, we show that FGF13 1A is a nucleolar protein that represses ribosomal RNA transcription and attenuates protein synthesis. Importantly, in cancer cells expressing high levels of FGF13, the depletion of FGF13 elicits increased proteostasis stress, associated with the accumulation of reactive oxygen species and apoptosis. Notably, stepwise neoplastic transformation is accompanied by a gradual increase in FGF13 expression and increased dependence on FGF13 for survival (“nononcogene addiction”). Moreover, FGF13 overexpression enables cells to cope more effectively with the stress elicited by oncogenic Ras protein. We propose that, in cells in which activated oncogenes drive excessive protein synthesis, FGF13 may favor survival by maintaining translation rates at a level compatible with the protein quality-control capacity of the cell. Thus, FGF13 may serve as an enabler, allowing cancer cells to evade proteostasis stress triggered by oncogene activation. PMID:27994142

  8. Notch1 is a 5-fluorouracil resistant and poor survival marker in human esophagus squamous cell carcinomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Liu

    Full Text Available Notch signaling involves the processes that govern cell proliferation, cell fate decision, cell differentiation and stem cell maintenance. Due to its fundamental role in stem cells, it has been speculated during the recent years that Notch family may have critical functions in cancer stem cells or cancer cells with a stem cell phenotype, therefore playing an important role in the process of oncogenesis. In this study, expression of Notch family in KYSE70, KYSE140 and KYSE450 squamous esophageal cancer cell lines and virus transformed squamous esophageal epithelial cell line Het-1A was examined by quantitative RT-PCR. Compared to the Het-1A cells, higher levels of Nocth1 and Notch3 expression in the cancer cell lines were identified. Due to the finding that NOTCH3 mainly mediates squamous cell differentiation, NOTCH1 expression was further studied in these cell lines. By Western blot analyses, the KYSE70 cell line which derived from a poorly differentiated tumor highly expressed Notch1, and the Notch1 expression in this cell line was hypoxia inducible, while the KYSE450 cell line which derived from a well differentiated tumor was always negative for Notch1, even in hypoxia. Additional studies demonstrated that the KYSE70 cell line was more 5-FU resistant than the KYSE450 cell line and such 5-FU resistance is correlated to Notch1 expression verified by Notch1 knockdown experiments. In clinical samples, Notch1 protein expression was detected in the basal cells of human esophagus epithelia, and its expression in squamous cell carcinomas was significantly associated with higher pathological grade and shorter overall survival. We conclude that Notch1 expression is associated with cell aggressiveness and 5-FU drug resistance in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell lines in vitro and is significantly associated with a poor survival in human esophageal squamous cell carcinomas.

  9. Thermodynamics of protein destabilization in live cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsson, Jens; Mu, Xin; Lang, Lisa; Wang, Huabing; Binolfi, Andres; Theillet, François-Xavier; Bekei, Beata; Logan, Derek T; Selenko, Philipp; Wennerström, Håkan; Oliveberg, Mikael

    2015-10-06

    Although protein folding and stability have been well explored under simplified conditions in vitro, it is yet unclear how these basic self-organization events are modulated by the crowded interior of live cells. To find out, we use here in-cell NMR to follow at atomic resolution the thermal unfolding of a β-barrel protein inside mammalian and bacterial cells. Challenging the view from in vitro crowding effects, we find that the cells destabilize the protein at 37 °C but with a conspicuous twist: While the melting temperature goes down the cold unfolding moves into the physiological regime, coupled to an augmented heat-capacity change. The effect seems induced by transient, sequence-specific, interactions with the cellular components, acting preferentially on the unfolded ensemble. This points to a model where the in vivo influence on protein behavior is case specific, determined by the individual protein's interplay with the functionally optimized "interaction landscape" of the cellular interior.

  10. SIRT1 regulates MAPK pathways in vitiligo skin: insight into the molecular pathways of cell survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becatti, Matteo; Fiorillo, Claudia; Barygina, Victoria; Cecchi, Cristina; Lotti, Torello; Prignano, Francesca; Silvestro, Agrippino; Nassi, Paolo; Taddei, Niccolò

    2014-01-01

    Vitiligo is an acquired and progressive hypomelanotic disease that manifests as circumscribed depigmented patches on the skin. The aetiology of vitiligo remains unclear, but recent experimental data underline the interactions between melanocytes and other typical skin cells, particularly keratinocytes. Our previous results indicate that keratinocytes from perilesional skin show the features of damaged cells. Sirtuins (silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog) 1, well-known modulators of lifespan in many species, have a role in gene repression, metabolic control, apoptosis and cell survival, DNA repair, development, inflammation, neuroprotection and healthy ageing. In the literature there is no evidence for SIRT1 signalling in vitiligo and its possible involvement in disease progression. Here, biopsies were taken from the perilesional skin of 16 patients suffering from non-segmental vitiligo and SIRT1 signalling was investigated in these cells. For the first time, a new SIRT1/Akt, also known as Protein Kinase B (PKB)/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling has been revealed in vitiligo. SIRT1 regulates MAPK pathway via Akt-apoptosis signal-regulating kinase-1 and down-regulates pro-apoptotic molecules, leading to decreased oxidative stress and apoptotic cell death in perilesional vitiligo keratinocytes. We therefore propose SIRT1 activation as a novel way of protecting perilesional vitiligo keratinocytes from damage. PMID:24410795

  11. Interaction of the effects of hyperthermia and ionizing radiation on cell survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loshek, D.D.

    1976-09-01

    The literature concerning the effects of hyperthermia and radiation on cellular reproductive integrity is reviewed. The cell line and the physical and biological aspects of the experiments are described. Preliminary experiments revealed that the experimental stability was adequate for inter-experiment comparisons, provided that sufficient control data were obtained. Further experiments provided a cursory examination of several aspects of the interaction between radiation and hyperthermia. A simple sensitization model that would account for the observed results for any single value of the perturbing radiation or hyperthermia dose was developed. Using the concept of the survival surface, this simple model was expanded to describe simultaneously survivals for any combination of the radiation and hyperthermia dose. The interaction component of this model is first order in both hyperthermia exposure and radiation dose. The mechanism by which radiation contributes to the interaction was investigated by altering the radiation quality. The results suggest that high LET events contribute to the interaction. The mechanism by which hyperthermia contributes to the interaction was investigated by altering the hyperthermia temperature. A thermodynamic analysis of the data reveals parallels with the effects of hyperthermia and radiation on protein, suggesting a possible involvement of protein denaturation in cell inactivation. (author)

  12. Functional dynamics of cell surface membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Noritaka; Osawa, Masanori; Takeuchi, Koh; Imai, Shunsuke; Stampoulis, Pavlos; Kofuku, Yutaka; Ueda, Takumi; Shimada, Ichio

    2014-04-01

    Cell surface receptors are integral membrane proteins that receive external stimuli, and transmit signals across plasma membranes. In the conventional view of receptor activation, ligand binding to the extracellular side of the receptor induces conformational changes, which convert the structure of the receptor into an active conformation. However, recent NMR studies of cell surface membrane proteins have revealed that their structures are more dynamic than previously envisioned, and they fluctuate between multiple conformations in an equilibrium on various timescales. In addition, NMR analyses, along with biochemical and cell biological experiments indicated that such dynamical properties are critical for the proper functions of the receptors. In this review, we will describe several NMR studies that revealed direct linkage between the structural dynamics and the functions of the cell surface membrane proteins, such as G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), ion channels, membrane transporters, and cell adhesion molecules. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Vaccination with Recombinant Non-transmembrane Domain of Protein Mannosyltransferase 4 Improves Survival during Murine Disseminated Candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Yan, Lan; Li, Xing Xing; Xu, Guo Tong; An, Mao Mao; Jiang, Yuan Ying

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans is the most common cause of invasive fungal infections in humans. The C. albicans cell wall proteins play an important role in crucial host-fungus interactions and might be ideal vaccine targets to induce protective immune response in host. Meanwhile, protein that is specific to C. albicans is also an ideal target of vaccine. In this study, 11 proteins involving cell wall biosynthesis, yeast-to-hypha formation, or specific to C. albicans were chosen and were successfully cloned, purified and verified. The immune protection of vaccination with each recombinant protein respectively in preventing systemic candidiasis in BALB/c mice was assessed. The injection of rPmt4p vaccination significantly increased survival rate, decreased fungal burdens in the heart, liver, brain, and kidneys, and increased serum levels of both immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM against rPmt4p in the immunized mice. Histopathological assessment demonstrated that rPmt4p vaccination protected the tissue structure, and decreased the infiltration of inflammatory cells. Passive transfer of the rPmt4p immunized serum increased survival rate against murine systemic candidiasis and significantly reduced organ fungal burden. The immune serum enhanced mouse neutrophil killing activity by directly neutralizing rPmt4p effects in vitro. Levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-17A and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in serum were higher in the immunized mice compared to those in the adjuvant control group. In conclusion, our results suggested that rPmt4p vaccination may be considered as a potential vaccine candidate against systemic candidiasis.

  14. SHMT2 drives glioma cell survival in ischaemia but imposes a dependence on glycine clearance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, D.; Fiske, B.P.; Birsoy, K.; Freinkman, E.; Kami, K.; Possemato, R.L.; Chudnovsky, Y.; Pacold, M.E.; Chen, W.W.; Cantor, J.R.; Shelton, L.M.; Gui, D.Y.; Kwon, M.; Ramkissoon, S.H.; Ligon, K.L.; Kang, S.W.; Snuderl, M.; der Heiden, M.G. Van; Sabatini, D.M.

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cells adapt their metabolic processes to support rapid proliferation, but less is known about how cancer cells alter metabolism to promote cell survival in a poorly vascularized tumour microenvironment. Here we identify a key role for serine and glycine metabolism in the survival of brain

  15. Nubp1 is required for lung branching morphogenesis and distal progenitor cell survival in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Schnatwinkel

    Full Text Available The lung is a complex system in biology and medicine alike. Whereas there is a good understanding of the anatomy and histology of the embryonic and adult lung, less is known about the molecular details and the cellular pathways that ultimately orchestrate lung formation and affect its health. From a forward genetic approach to identify novel genes involved in lung formation, we identified a mutated Nubp1 gene, which leads to syndactyly, eye cataract and lung hypoplasia. In the lung, Nubp1 is expressed in progenitor cells of the distal epithelium. Nubp1(m1Nisw mutants show increased apoptosis accompanied by a loss of the distal progenitor markers Sftpc, Sox9 and Foxp2. In addition, Nubp1 mutation disrupts localization of the polarity protein Par3 and the mitosis relevant protein Numb. Using knock-down studies in lung epithelial cells, we also demonstrate a function of Nubp1 in regulating centrosome dynamics and microtubule organization. Together, Nubp1 represents an essential protein for lung progenitor survival by coordinating vital cellular processes including cell polarity and centrosomal dynamics.

  16. Repurposing Lesogaberan to Promote Human Islet Cell Survival and β-Cell Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jide Tian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The activation of β-cell’s A- and B-type gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors (GABAA-Rs and GABAB-Rs can promote their survival and replication, and the activation of α-cell GABAA-Rs promotes their conversion into β-cells. However, GABA and the most clinically applicable GABA-R ligands may be suboptimal for the long-term treatment of diabetes due to their pharmacological properties or potential side-effects on the central nervous system (CNS. Lesogaberan (AZD3355 is a peripherally restricted high-affinity GABAB-R-specific agonist, originally developed for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD that appears to be safe for human use. This study tested the hypothesis that lesogaberan could be repurposed to promote human islet cell survival and β-cell replication. Treatment with lesogaberan significantly enhanced replication of human islet cells in vitro, which was abrogated by a GABAB-R antagonist. Immunohistochemical analysis of human islets that were grafted into immune-deficient mice revealed that oral treatment with lesogaberan promoted human β-cell replication and islet cell survival in vivo as effectively as GABA (which activates both GABAA-Rs and GABAB-Rs, perhaps because of its more favorable pharmacokinetics. Lesogaberan may be a promising drug candidate for clinical studies of diabetes intervention and islet transplantation.

  17. The pretective effects of heat shock protein 70 on radiation injury of V79 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Yongchun; Zhang Baoguo; Hong Chengjiao

    2008-01-01

    Westem blot was used to detect the expression of heat shock protein 70 in V79 cells after heat shock pretreatment; V79 cells were irradiated using γ-ray after heat shock pretreatment, survival rate was observed using Colony formation assay. Our study shows that 1) the overexpression of heat shock protein 70 was observed in cells recovering for 1 hour after heat shock pretreatment, with peak expression in cells recovering for 4 hours, and could last for 24 hours; 2) heat shock pretreatment was able to elevate survival rate of V79 cells after irradiation by 60 Co γ ray (when the irradiation dose was less than 6 Gy). The results indicate that heat shock protein 70 has protective effect on radiation induced cell death of V79 cells (when the irradiation dose was less than 6 Gy). (authors)

  18. B-cell lymphoma 6 protein stimulates oncogenicity of human breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Qiang; Kong, Xiang-jun; Xu, Xiao-chun; Lobie, Peter E; Zhu, Tao; Wu, Zheng-sheng; Liu, Xue; Yan, Hong; He, Yin-huan; Ye, Shan; Cheng, Xing-wang; Zhu, Gui-lu; Wu, Wen-yong; Wang, Xiao-nan

    2014-01-01

    B-cell lymphoma 6 (BCL6) protein, an evolutionarily conserved zinc finger transcription factor, showed to be highly expressed in various human cancers in addition to malignancies in the lymphoid system. This study investigated the role of BCL6 expression in breast cancer and its clinical significance in breast cancer patients. Expression of BCL6 protein was assessed using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry in 127 breast cancer patients and 50 patients with breast benign disease as well as in breast cell lines. Expression of BCL6 was restored or knocked down in two breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and T47D) using BCL6 cDNA and siRNA, respectively. The phenotypic change of these breast cancer cell lines was assessed using cell viability MTT, Transwell invasion, colony formation, and flow cytometry assays and in a xenograft mice model. Luciferase reporter gene, immunoblot, and qRT-PCR were used to investigate the molecular events after manipulated BCL6 expression in breast cancer cells. BCL6 protein was highly expressed in breast cancer cell lines and tissue specimens and expression of BCL6 protein was associated with disease progression and poor survival of breast cancer patients. In vitro, the forced expression of BCL6 results in increased proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, migration, invasion and survival of breast cancer cell lines, whereas knockdown of BCL6 expression reduced these oncogenic properties of breast cancer cells. Moreover, forced expression of BCL6 increased tumor growth and invasiveness in a nude mouse xenograft model. At the gene level, BCL6 was a target gene of miR-339-5p. Expression of BCL6 induced expression of CXCR4 and cyclinD1 proteins. The current study demonstrated the oncogenic property of BCL6 in breast cancer and further study could target BCL6 as a novel potential therapeutic strategy for breast cancer

  19. Inducible Hsp70 in the Regulation of Cancer Cell Survival: Analysis of Chaperone Induction, Expression and Activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zorzi, Elisa [OncoHematology Clinic of Pediatrics, University-Hospital of Padova, 35100 Padova (Italy); Bonvini, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.bonvini@unipd.it [OncoHematology Clinic of Pediatrics, University-Hospital of Padova, 35100 Padova (Italy); Fondazione Città della Speranza, 36030 Monte di Malo, Vicenza (Italy)

    2011-10-21

    Understanding the mechanisms that control stress is central to realize how cells respond to environmental and physiological insults. All the more important is to reveal how tumour cells withstand their harsher growth conditions and cope with drug-induced apoptosis, since resistance to chemotherapy is the foremost complication when curing cancer. Intensive research on tumour biology over the past number of years has provided significant insights into the molecular events that occur during oncogenesis, and resistance to anti-cancer drugs has been shown to often rely on stress response and expression of inducible heat shock proteins (HSPs). However, with respect to the mechanisms guarding cancer cells against proteotoxic stresses and the modulatory effects that allow their survival, much remains to be defined. Heat shock proteins are molecules responsible for folding newly synthesized polypeptides under physiological conditions and misfolded proteins under stress, but their role in maintaining the transformed phenotype often goes beyond their conventional chaperone activity. Expression of inducible HSPs is known to correlate with limited sensitivity to apoptosis induced by diverse cytotoxic agents and dismal prognosis of several tumour types, however whether cancer cells survive because of the constitutive expression of heat shock proteins or the ability to induce them when adapting to the hostile microenvironment remains to be elucidated. Clear is that tumours appear nowadays more “addicted” to heat shock proteins than previously envisaged, and targeting HSPs represents a powerful approach and a future challenge for sensitizing tumours to therapy. This review will focus on the anti-apoptotic role of heat shock 70kDa protein (Hsp70), and how regulatory factors that control inducible Hsp70 synthesis, expression and activity may be relevant for response to stress and survival of cancer cells.

  20. Inducible Hsp70 in the Regulation of Cancer Cell Survival: Analysis of Chaperone Induction, Expression and Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, Elisa; Bonvini, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms that control stress is central to realize how cells respond to environmental and physiological insults. All the more important is to reveal how tumour cells withstand their harsher growth conditions and cope with drug-induced apoptosis, since resistance to chemotherapy is the foremost complication when curing cancer. Intensive research on tumour biology over the past number of years has provided significant insights into the molecular events that occur during oncogenesis, and resistance to anti-cancer drugs has been shown to often rely on stress response and expression of inducible heat shock proteins (HSPs). However, with respect to the mechanisms guarding cancer cells against proteotoxic stresses and the modulatory effects that allow their survival, much remains to be defined. Heat shock proteins are molecules responsible for folding newly synthesized polypeptides under physiological conditions and misfolded proteins under stress, but their role in maintaining the transformed phenotype often goes beyond their conventional chaperone activity. Expression of inducible HSPs is known to correlate with limited sensitivity to apoptosis induced by diverse cytotoxic agents and dismal prognosis of several tumour types, however whether cancer cells survive because of the constitutive expression of heat shock proteins or the ability to induce them when adapting to the hostile microenvironment remains to be elucidated. Clear is that tumours appear nowadays more “addicted” to heat shock proteins than previously envisaged, and targeting HSPs represents a powerful approach and a future challenge for sensitizing tumours to therapy. This review will focus on the anti-apoptotic role of heat shock 70kDa protein (Hsp70), and how regulatory factors that control inducible Hsp70 synthesis, expression and activity may be relevant for response to stress and survival of cancer cells. PMID:24213118

  1. Autophagy/Xenophagy as a survival strategy of cancer cells. The role of Cathepsins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malorni, W.; Matarrese, P.; Ascione, B.; Ciarlo, L.; Zakeri, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Macroautophagy, often referred as to autophagy (self-cannibalism), designates the genetically determined process by which portions of the cytoplasm, organelles and long-lived proteins are engulfed in double-membraned vacuoles (autophagosomes) and sent for lysosomal degradation. Basal levels of autophagy contribute to the maintenance of intracellular homoeostasis by ensuring the turnover of supernumerary, aged and/or damaged components. Under conditions of starvation, the autophagic pathway operates to supply cells with metabolic substrates, and thus represents an important pro-survival mechanism. In cultured cells, the withdrawal of growth factors, known to represent an experimental condition triggering autophagy, can also enhance xeno-cannibalism (xenophagy; xeno is from ancient greek=foreign)

  2. Survival and SOS response induction in ultraviolet B irradiated Escherichia coli cells with defective repair mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prada Medina, Cesar Augusto; Aristizabal Tessmer, Elke Tatjana; Quintero Ruiz, Nathalia; Serment-Guerrero, Jorge; Fuentes, Jorge Luis

    2016-06-01

    Purpose In this paper, the contribution of different genes involved in DNA repair for both survival and SOS induction in Escherichia coli mutants exposed to ultraviolet B radiation (UVB, [wavelength range 280-315 nm]) was evaluated. Materials and methods E. coli strains defective in uvrA, oxyR, recO, recN, recJ, exoX, recB, recD or xonA genes were used to determine cell survival. All strains also had the genetic sulA::lacZ fusion, which allowed for the quantification of SOS induction through the SOS Chromotest. Results Five gene products were particularly important for survival, as follows: UvrA > RecB > RecO > RecJ > XonA. Strains defective in uvrA and recJ genes showed elevated SOS induction compared with the wild type, which remained stable for up to 240 min after UVB-irradiation. In addition, E. coli strains carrying the recO or recN mutation showed no SOS induction. Conclusions The nucleotide excision and DNA recombination pathways were equally used to repair UVB-induced DNA damage in E. coli cells. The sulA gene was not turned off in strains defective in UvrA and RecJ. RecO protein was essential for processing DNA damage prior to SOS induction. In this study, the roles of DNA repair proteins and their contributions to the mechanisms that induce SOS genes in E. coli are proposed.

  3. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress, Unfolded Protein Response, and Cancer Cell Fate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Corazzari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Perturbation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER homeostasis results in a stress condition termed “ER stress” determining the activation of a finely regulated program defined as unfolded protein response (UPR and whose primary aim is to restore this organelle’s physiological activity. Several physiological and pathological stimuli deregulate normal ER activity causing UPR activation, such as hypoxia, glucose shortage, genome instability, and cytotoxic compounds administration. Some of these stimuli are frequently observed during uncontrolled proliferation of transformed cells, resulting in tumor core formation and stage progression. Therefore, it is not surprising that ER stress is usually induced during solid tumor development and stage progression, becoming an hallmark of such malignancies. Several UPR components are in fact deregulated in different tumor types, and accumulating data indicate their active involvement in tumor development/progression. However, although the UPR program is primarily a pro-survival process, sustained and/or prolonged stress may result in cell death induction. Therefore, understanding the mechanism(s regulating the cell survival/death decision under ER stress condition may be crucial in order to specifically target tumor cells and possibly circumvent or overcome tumor resistance to therapies. In this review, we discuss the role played by the UPR program in tumor initiation, progression and resistance to therapy, highlighting the recent advances that have improved our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that regulate the survival/death switch.

  4. Cell penetrating peptides to dissect host-pathogen protein-protein interactions in Theileria -transformed leukocytes

    KAUST Repository

    Haidar, Malak; de Laté , Perle Latré ; Kennedy, Eileen J.; Langsley, Gordon

    2017-01-01

    One powerful application of cell penetrating peptides is the delivery into cells of molecules that function as specific competitors or inhibitors of protein-protein interactions. Ablating defined protein-protein interactions is a refined way

  5. Curcumin affects cell survival and cell volume regulation in human renal and intestinal cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kössler, Sonja; Nofziger, Charity; Jakab, Martin; Dossena, Silvia; Paulmichl, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Curcumin (1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1E,6E-heptadiene-3,5-dione or diferuloyl methane) is a polyphenol derived from the Curcuma longa plant, commonly known as turmeric. This substance has been used extensively in Ayurvedic medicine for centuries for its anti-oxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antiseptic activity. More recently curcumin has been found to possess anti-cancer properties linked to its pro-apoptotic and anti-proliferative actions. The underlying mechanisms of these diverse effects are complex, not fully elucidated and subject of intense scientific debate. Despite increasing evidence indicating that different cation channels can be a molecular target for curcumin, very little is known about the effect of curcumin on chloride channels. Since, (i) the molecular structure of curcumin indicates that the substance could potentially interact with chloride channels, (ii) chloride channels play a role during the apoptotic process and regulation of the cell volume, and (iii) apoptosis is a well known effect of curcumin, we set out to investigate whether or not curcumin could (i) exert a modulatory effect (direct or indirect) on the swelling activated chloride current IClswell in a human cell system, therefore (ii) affect cell volume regulation and (iii) ultimately modulate cell survival. The IClswell channels, which are essential for regulating the cell volume after swelling, are also known to be activated under isotonic conditions as an early event in the apoptotic process. Here we show that long-term exposure of a human kidney cell line to extracellular 0.1–10 μM curcumin modulates IClswell in a dose-dependent manner (0.1 μM curcumin is ineffective, 0.5–5.0 μM curcumin increase, while 10 μM curcumin decrease the current), and short-term exposure to micromolar concentrations of curcumin does not affect IClswell neither if applied from the extracellular nor from the intracellular side – therefore, a direct effect of curcumin on

  6. Curcumin affects cell survival and cell volume regulation in human renal and intestinal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kössler, Sonja; Nofziger, Charity; Jakab, Martin; Dossena, Silvia; Paulmichl, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Curcumin (1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1E,6E-heptadiene-3,5-dione or diferuloyl methane) is a polyphenol derived from the Curcuma longa plant, commonly known as turmeric. This substance has been used extensively in Ayurvedic medicine for centuries for its anti-oxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antiseptic activity. More recently curcumin has been found to possess anti-cancer properties linked to its pro-apoptotic and anti-proliferative actions. The underlying mechanisms of these diverse effects are complex, not fully elucidated and subject of intense scientific debate. Despite increasing evidence indicating that different cation channels can be a molecular target for curcumin, very little is known about the effect of curcumin on chloride channels. Since, (i) the molecular structure of curcumin indicates that the substance could potentially interact with chloride channels, (ii) chloride channels play a role during the apoptotic process and regulation of the cell volume, and (iii) apoptosis is a well known effect of curcumin, we set out to investigate whether or not curcumin could (i) exert a modulatory effect (direct or indirect) on the swelling activated chloride current ICl swell in a human cell system, therefore (ii) affect cell volume regulation and (iii) ultimately modulate cell survival. The ICl swell channels, which are essential for regulating the cell volume after swelling, are also known to be activated under isotonic conditions as an early event in the apoptotic process. Here we show that long-term exposure of a human kidney cell line to extracellular 0.1–10 μM curcumin modulates ICl swell in a dose-dependent manner (0.1 μM curcumin is ineffective, 0.5–5.0 μM curcumin increase, while 10 μM curcumin decrease the current), and short-term exposure to micromolar concentrations of curcumin does not affect ICl swell neither if applied from the extracellular nor from the intracellular side – therefore, a direct effect of curcumin on ICl

  7. ALS/FTLD-linked TDP-43 regulates neurite morphology and cell survival in differentiated neurons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jeong-Ho; Yu, Tae-Hoon; Ryu, Hyun-Hee; Jun, Mi-Hee; Ban, Byung-Kwan [Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Nanotechnology, Hannam University, Dajeon 305-811 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Deok-Jin [Department of Applied Biology, College of Ecology and Environment, Kyungpook National University, 386, Gajang-dong, Sangju-si, Kyungbuk 742-711 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jin-A, E-mail: leeja@hnu.kr [Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Nanotechnology, Hannam University, Dajeon 305-811 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-01

    Tar-DNA binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) has been characterized as a major component of protein aggregates in brains with neurodegenerative diseases such as frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, physiological roles of TDP-43 and early cellular pathogenic effects caused by disease associated mutations in differentiated neurons are still largely unknown. Here, we investigated the physiological roles of TDP-43 and the effects of missense mutations associated with diseases in differentiated cortical neurons. The reduction of TDP-43 by siRNA increased abnormal neurites and decreased cell viability. ALS/FTLD-associated missense mutant proteins (A315T, Q331K, and M337V) were partially mislocalized to the cytosol and neurites when compared to wild-type and showed abnormal neurites similar to those observed in cases of loss of TDP-43. Interestingly, cytosolic expression of wild-type TDP-43 with mutated nuclear localization signals also induced abnormal neurtie morphology and reduction of cell viability. However, there was no significant difference in the effects of cytosolic expression in neuronal morphology and cell toxicity between wild-type and missense mutant proteins. Thus, our results suggest that mislocalization of missense mutant TDP-43 may contribute to loss of TDP-43 function and affect neuronal morphology, probably via dominant negative action before severe neurodegeneration in differentiated cortical neurons. Highlights: • The function of nuclear TDP-43 in neurite morphology in mature neurons. • Partial mislocalization of TDP-43 missense mutants into cytosol from nucleus. • Abnormal neurite morphology caused by missense mutants of TDP-43. • The effect of cytosolic expression of TDP-43 in neurite morphology and in cell survival.

  8. ALS/FTLD-linked TDP-43 regulates neurite morphology and cell survival in differentiated neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Jeong-Ho; Yu, Tae-Hoon; Ryu, Hyun-Hee; Jun, Mi-Hee; Ban, Byung-Kwan; Jang, Deok-Jin; Lee, Jin-A

    2013-01-01

    Tar-DNA binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) has been characterized as a major component of protein aggregates in brains with neurodegenerative diseases such as frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, physiological roles of TDP-43 and early cellular pathogenic effects caused by disease associated mutations in differentiated neurons are still largely unknown. Here, we investigated the physiological roles of TDP-43 and the effects of missense mutations associated with diseases in differentiated cortical neurons. The reduction of TDP-43 by siRNA increased abnormal neurites and decreased cell viability. ALS/FTLD-associated missense mutant proteins (A315T, Q331K, and M337V) were partially mislocalized to the cytosol and neurites when compared to wild-type and showed abnormal neurites similar to those observed in cases of loss of TDP-43. Interestingly, cytosolic expression of wild-type TDP-43 with mutated nuclear localization signals also induced abnormal neurtie morphology and reduction of cell viability. However, there was no significant difference in the effects of cytosolic expression in neuronal morphology and cell toxicity between wild-type and missense mutant proteins. Thus, our results suggest that mislocalization of missense mutant TDP-43 may contribute to loss of TDP-43 function and affect neuronal morphology, probably via dominant negative action before severe neurodegeneration in differentiated cortical neurons. Highlights: • The function of nuclear TDP-43 in neurite morphology in mature neurons. • Partial mislocalization of TDP-43 missense mutants into cytosol from nucleus. • Abnormal neurite morphology caused by missense mutants of TDP-43. • The effect of cytosolic expression of TDP-43 in neurite morphology and in cell survival

  9. Mechanosensation Dynamically Coordinates Polar Growth and Cell Wall Assembly to Promote Cell Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davì, Valeria; Tanimoto, Hirokazu; Ershov, Dmitry; Haupt, Armin; De Belly, Henry; Le Borgne, Rémi; Couturier, Etienne; Boudaoud, Arezki; Minc, Nicolas

    2018-04-23

    How growing cells cope with size expansion while ensuring mechanical integrity is not known. In walled cells, such as those of microbes and plants, growth and viability are both supported by a thin and rigid encasing cell wall (CW). We deciphered the dynamic mechanisms controlling wall surface assembly during cell growth, using a sub-resolution microscopy approach to monitor CW thickness in live rod-shaped fission yeast cells. We found that polar cell growth yielded wall thinning and that thickness negatively influenced growth. Thickness at growing tips exhibited a fluctuating behavior with thickening phases followed by thinning phases, indicative of a delayed feedback promoting thickness homeostasis. This feedback was mediated by mechanosensing through the CW integrity pathway, which probes strain in the wall to adjust synthase localization and activity to surface growth. Mutants defective in thickness homeostasis lysed by rupturing the wall, demonstrating its pivotal role for walled cell survival. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. C-Reactive Protein Levels at Diagnosis of Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease Predict Steroid-Refractory Disease, Treatment-Related Mortality, and Overall Survival after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minculescu, Lia; Kornblit, Brian Thomas; Friis, Lone Smidstrups

    2018-01-01

    , and their prognosis is especially poor. There is experimental evidence that coexisting inflammation aggravates aGVHD. Because C-reactive protein (CRP) is a systemic inflammatory marker, we aimed to investigate whether plasma CRP concentrations at the diagnosis of aGVHD can predict the risk of failing first-line...... of aGVHD diagnosis. According to local protocol, patients with failed response to high-dose steroid therapy (2 mg/kg) were treated with the TNF-α inhibitor infliximab and categorized as having steroid-refractory disease. Of 148 patients with grade II-IV aGVHD, 28 (19%) developed steroid......-refractory disease. In these patients, plasma CRP concentration at diagnosis ranged between patients who developed steroid-refractory disease compared with those who responded to high-dose corticosteroid therapy (odds ratio, 1.50; 95% confidence interval, 1...

  11. Stem cell factor enhances the survival of murine intestinal stem cells after photon irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leigh, B.R.; Khan, W.; Hancock, S.L.

    1995-01-01

    Recombinant rat stem cell factor (SCF) has been shown to decrease lethality in mice exposed to total-body irradiation (TBI) in the lower range of lethality through radioprotection of hematopoietic stem cells and acceleration of bone marrow repopulation. This study evaluates the effect of SCF on the survival of the intestinal mucosal stem cell after TBI. This non-hematopoietic cell is clinically relevant. Gastrointestinal toxicity is common during and after abdominal and pelvic radiation therapy and limits the radiation dose in these regions. As observed with bone marrow, the administration of SCF to mice prior to TBI enhanced the survival of mouse duodenal crypt stem cells. The maximum enhancement of survival was seen when 100 μ/kg of SCF was given intraperitoneally 8 h before irradiation. This regimen increased the survival of duodenal crypt stem cells after 12.0 Gy TBI from 22.5 ± 0.7 per duodenal cross section for controls to 30.0 ± 1.7 after treatment with SCF (P=0.03). The TBI dose producing 50% mortality of 6 days (LD 50/6 ) was increased from 14.9 Gy for control mice to 19.0 Gy for mice treated with SCF (dose modification factor = 1.28). These findings demonstrate that SCF (dose modification factor = 1.28). These findings demonstrate that SCF has radioprotective effects on a non-hematopoietic stem cell population and suggest that SCF may be of clinical value in preventing radiation injury to the intestine. 29 refs., 4 figs

  12. Progranulin is expressed within motor neurons and promotes neuronal cell survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay Denis G

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Progranulin is a secreted high molecular weight growth factor bearing seven and one half copies of the cysteine-rich granulin-epithelin motif. While inappropriate over-expression of the progranulin gene has been associated with many cancers, haploinsufficiency leads to atrophy of the frontotemporal lobes and development of a form of dementia (frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin positive inclusions, FTLD-U associated with the formation of ubiquitinated inclusions. Recent reports indicate that progranulin has neurotrophic effects, which, if confirmed would make progranulin the only neuroprotective growth factor that has been associated genetically with a neurological disease in humans. Preliminary studies indicated high progranulin gene expression in spinal cord motor neurons. However, it is uncertain what the role of Progranulin is in normal or diseased motor neuron function. We have investigated progranulin gene expression and subcellular localization in cultured mouse embryonic motor neurons and examined the effect of progranulin over-expression and knockdown in the NSC-34 immortalized motor neuron cell line upon proliferation and survival. Results In situ hybridisation and immunohistochemical techniques revealed that the progranulin gene is highly expressed by motor neurons within the mouse spinal cord and in primary cultures of dissociated mouse embryonic spinal cord-dorsal root ganglia. Confocal microscopy coupled to immunocytochemistry together with the use of a progranulin-green fluorescent protein fusion construct revealed progranulin to be located within compartments of the secretory pathway including the Golgi apparatus. Stable transfection of the human progranulin gene into the NSC-34 motor neuron cell line stimulates the appearance of dendritic structures and provides sufficient trophic stimulus to survive serum deprivation for long periods (up to two months. This is mediated at least in part through

  13. AMPK promotes survival of c-Myc-positive melanoma cells by suppressing oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kfoury, Alain; Armaro, Marzia; Collodet, Caterina; Sordet-Dessimoz, Jessica; Giner, Maria Pilar; Christen, Stefan; Moco, Sofia; Leleu, Marion; de Leval, Laurence; Koch, Ute; Trumpp, Andreas; Sakamoto, Kei; Beermann, Friedrich; Radtke, Freddy

    2018-03-01

    Although c-Myc is essential for melanocyte development, its role in cutaneous melanoma, the most aggressive skin cancer, is only partly understood. Here we used the Nras Q61K INK4a -/- mouse melanoma model to show that c-Myc is essential for tumor initiation, maintenance, and metastasis. c-Myc-expressing melanoma cells were preferentially found at metastatic sites, correlated with increased tumor aggressiveness and high tumor initiation potential. Abrogation of c-Myc caused apoptosis in primary murine and human melanoma cells. Mechanistically, c-Myc-positive melanoma cells activated and became dependent on the metabolic energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a metabolic checkpoint kinase that plays an important role in energy and redox homeostasis under stress conditions. AMPK pathway inhibition caused apoptosis of c-Myc-expressing melanoma cells, while AMPK activation protected against cell death of c-Myc-depleted melanoma cells through suppression of oxidative stress. Furthermore, TCGA database analysis of early-stage human melanoma samples revealed an inverse correlation between C-MYC and patient survival, suggesting that C-MYC expression levels could serve as a prognostic marker for early-stage disease. © 2018 The Authors.

  14. Serum protein profile at remission can accurately assess therapeutic outcomes and survival for serous ovarian cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhua Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Biomarkers play critical roles in early detection, diagnosis and monitoring of therapeutic outcome and recurrence of cancer. Previous biomarker research on ovarian cancer (OC has mostly focused on the discovery and validation of diagnostic biomarkers. The primary purpose of this study is to identify serum biomarkers for prognosis and therapeutic outcomes of ovarian cancer. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Forty serum proteins were analyzed in 70 serum samples from healthy controls (HC and 101 serum samples from serous OC patients at three different disease phases: post diagnosis (PD, remission (RM and recurrence (RC. The utility of serum proteins as OC biomarkers was evaluated using a variety of statistical methods including survival analysis. RESULTS: Ten serum proteins (PDGF-AB/BB, PDGF-AA, CRP, sFas, CA125, SAA, sTNFRII, sIL-6R, IGFBP6 and MDC have individually good area-under-the-curve (AUC values (AUC = 0.69-0.86 and more than 10 three-marker combinations have excellent AUC values (0.91-0.93 in distinguishing active cancer samples (PD & RC from HC. The mean serum protein levels for RM samples are usually intermediate between HC and OC patients with active cancer (PD & RC. Most importantly, five proteins (sICAM1, RANTES, sgp130, sTNFR-II and sVCAM1 measured at remission can classify, individually and in combination, serous OC patients into two subsets with significantly different overall survival (best HR = 17, p<10(-3. CONCLUSION: We identified five serum proteins which, when measured at remission, can accurately predict the overall survival of serous OC patients, suggesting that they may be useful for monitoring the therapeutic outcomes for ovarian cancer.

  15. The Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen-6 protein co-localizes with EBNA-3 and survival of motor neurons protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauer, Kenia G.; Buck, Marion; Belzer, Deanna K.; Flanagan, James; Chojnowski, Grace M.; Sculley, Tom B.

    2004-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen (EBNA)-6 protein is essential for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-induced immortalization of primary human B-lymphocytes in vitro. In this study, fusion proteins of EBNA-6 with green fluorescent protein (GFP) have been used to characterize its nuclear localization and organization within the nucleus. EBNA-6 associates with nuclear structures and in immunofluorescence demonstrate a punctate staining pattern. Herein, we show that the association of EBNA-6 with these nuclear structures was maintained throughout the cell cycle and with the use of GFP-E6 deletion mutants, that the region amino acids 733-808 of EBNA-6 contains a domain that can influence the association of EBNA-6 with these nuclear structures. Co-immunofluorescence and confocal analyses demonstrated that EBNA-6 and EBNA-3 co-localize in the nucleus of cells. Expression of EBNA-6, but not EBNA-3, caused a redistribution of nuclear survival of motor neurons protein (SMN) to the EBNA-6 containing nuclear structures resulting in co-localization of SMN with EBNA-6

  16. Germ Cell Cancer and Multiple Relapses: Toxicity and Survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Jakob; Kier, Maria G.G.; Mortensen, Mette S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: A small number of patients with germ cell cancer (GCC) receive more than one line of treatment for disseminated disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate late toxicity and survival in an unselected cohort of patients who experienced relapse after receiving first-line treatment...... for disseminated disease. Methods: From the Danish Testicular Cancer database, we identified all patients who received more than one line of treatment for disseminated disease. Information about late toxicity and mortality was obtained by means of linkage to national registers. Prognostic factors for relapse......, compared with patients treated with only orchiectomy, had an increased risk for a second cancer (hazard ratio [HR], 3.2; 95% CI, 1.9 to 5.5), major cardiovascular disease (HR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.0 to 3.3), pulmonary disease (HR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.0 to 3.8), GI disease (HR, 7.3; 95% CI, 3.6 to 14.8), renal...

  17. Anaerobic survival of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by pyruvate fermentation requires an Usp-type stress protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schreiber, K; Boes, N; Escbach, M

    2006-01-01

    the induced synthesis of three enzymes involved in arginine fermentation, ArcA, ArcB, and ArcC, and the outer membrane protein OprL. Moreover, formation of two proteins of unknown function, PA3309 and PA4352, increased by factors of 72- and 22-fold, respectively. Both belong to the group of universal stress...... proteins (Usp). Long-term survival of a PA3309 knockout mutant by pyruvate fermentation was found drastically reduced. The oxygen-sensing regulator Anr controls expression of the PPA3309-lacZ reporter gene fusion after a shift to anaerobic conditions and further pyruvate fermentation. PA3309 expression...... was also found induced during the anaerobic and aerobic stationary phases. This aerobic stationary-phase induction is independent of the regulatory proteins Anr, RpoS, RelA, GacA, RhlR, and LasR, indicating a currently unknown mechanism of stationary-phase-dependent gene activation. PA3309 promoter...

  18. Prolonged sulforaphane treatment activates survival signaling in nontumorigenic NCM460 colon cells but apoptotic signaling in tumorigenic HCT116 colon cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huawei; Trujillo, Olivia N; Moyer, Mary P; Botnen, James H

    2011-01-01

    Sulforaphane (SFN) is a naturally occurring chemopreventive agent; the induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis is a key mechanism by which SFN exerts its colon cancer prevention. However, little is known about the differential effects of SFN on colon cancer and normal cells. In this study, we demonstrated that SFN (15 μmol/L) exposure (72 h) inhibited cell proliferation by up to 95% in colon cancer cells (HCT116) and by 52% in normal colon mucosa-derived (NCM460) cells. Our data also showed that SFN exposure (5 and 10 μmol/L) led to the reduction of G1 phase cell distribution and an induction of apoptosis in HCT116 cells, but to a much lesser extent in NCM460 cells. Furthermore, the examination of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling status revealed that SFN upregulated the phosphorylation of extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) in NCM460 cells but not in HCT116 cells. In contrast, SFN enhanced the phosphorylation of stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) and decreased cellular myelocytomatosis oncogene (c-Myc) expression in HCT116 cells but not NCM460 cells. Taken together, the activation of survival signaling in NCM460 cells and apoptotic signaling in HCT116 cells may play a critical role in SFN's stronger potential of inhibiting cell proliferation in colon cancer cells than in normal colon cells. Copyright © 2011, Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  19. ASIC PROTEINS REGULATE SMOOTH MUSCLE CELL MIGRATION

    OpenAIRE

    Grifoni, Samira C.; Jernigan, Nikki L.; Hamilton, Gina; Drummond, Heather A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate Acid Sensing Ion Channel (ASIC) protein expression and importance in cellular migration. We recently demonstrated Epithelial Na+ Channel (ENaC) proteins are required for vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration, however the role of the closely related ASIC proteins has not been addressed. We used RT-PCR and immunolabeling to determine expression of ASIC1, ASIC2, ASIC3 and ASIC4 in A10 cells. We used small interference RNA to silence indi...

  20. Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural cells survive and mature in the nonhuman primate brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emborg, Marina E; Liu, Yan; Xi, Jiajie; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Yin, Yingnan; Lu, Jianfeng; Joers, Valerie; Swanson, Christine; Holden, James E; Zhang, Su-Chun

    2013-03-28

    The generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) opens up the possibility for personalized cell therapy. Here, we show that transplanted autologous rhesus monkey iPSC-derived neural progenitors survive for up to 6 months and differentiate into neurons, astrocytes, and myelinating oligodendrocytes in the brains of MPTP-induced hemiparkinsonian rhesus monkeys with a minimal presence of inflammatory cells and reactive glia. This finding represents a significant step toward personalized regenerative therapies. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Control of mitochondrial pH by uncoupling protein 4 in astrocytes promotes neuronal survival

    KAUST Repository

    Lambert, Hélène Perreten

    2014-09-18

    Brain activity is energetically costly and requires a steady and highly regulated flow of energy equivalents between neural cells. It is believed that a substantial share of cerebral glucose, the major source of energy of the brain, will preferentially be metabolized in astrocytes via aerobic glycolysis. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether uncoupling proteins (UCPs), located in the inner membrane of mitochondria, play a role in setting up the metabolic response pattern of astrocytes. UCPs are believed to mediate the transmembrane transfer of protons, resulting in the uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation from ATP production. UCPs are therefore potentially important regulators of energy fluxes. The main UCP isoforms expressed in the brain are UCP2, UCP4, and UCP5. We examined in particular the role of UCP4 in neuron-astrocyte metabolic coupling and measured a range of functional metabolic parameters including mitochondrial electrical potential and pH, reactive oxygen species production, NAD/NADH ratio, ATP/ADP ratio, CO2 and lactate production, and oxygen consumption rate. In brief, we found that UCP4 regulates the intramitochondrial pH of astrocytes, which acidifies as a consequence of glutamate uptake, with the main consequence of reducing efficiency of mitochondrial ATP production. The diminished ATP production is effectively compensated by enhancement of glycolysis. This nonoxidative production of energy is not associated with deleterious H2O2 production. We show that astrocytes expressing more UCP4 produced more lactate, which is used as an energy source by neurons, and had the ability to enhance neuronal survival.

  2. Mycobacterium tuberculosis PPE18 Protein Reduces Inflammation and Increases Survival in Animal Model of Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Asma; Dolasia, Komal; Mukhopadhyay, Sangita

    2018-04-18

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis PPE18 is a member of the PPE family. Previous studies have shown that recombinant PPE18 (rPPE18) protein binds to TLR2 and triggers a signaling cascade which reduces levels of TNF-α and IL-12, and increases IL-10 in macrophages. Because TNF-α is a major mediator of the pathophysiology of sepsis and blocking inflammation is a possible line of therapy in such circumstances, we tested the efficacy of rPPE18 in reducing symptoms of sepsis in a mouse model of Escherichia coli- induced septic peritonitis. rPPE18 significantly decreased levels of serum TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-12 and reduced organ damage in mice injected i.p. with high doses of E. coli Peritoneal cells isolated from rPPE18-treated mice had characteristics of M2 macrophages which are protective in excessive inflammation. Additionally, rPPE18 inhibited disseminated intravascular coagulation, which can cause organ damage resulting in death. rPPE18 was able to reduce sepsis-induced mortality when given prophylactically or therapeutically. Additionally, in a mouse model of cecal ligation and puncture-induced sepsis, rPPE18 reduced TNF-α, alanine transaminase, and creatinine, attenuated organ damage, prevented depletion of monocytes and lymphocytes, and improved survival. Our studies show that rPPE18 has potent anti-inflammatory properties and can serve as a novel therapeutic to control sepsis. Copyright © 2018 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  3. Association of ultraviolet-induced retrovirus expression with anchorage-independent survival in rat embryo cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suk, W.A.

    1985-01-01

    The authors have shown in the AI assay that the nontransforming retrovirus increases the differential in enhanced survival response in infected cultures. To more fully understand this aspect of the system, they examined the effect of UV irradiation on infected and uninfected FRE cells. In this communication the authors report that UV irradiation induces AI survival in infected and uninfected cells;in uninfected cells there is a concomitant induction of endogenous retrovirus expression. The AI survival of both cell lines was determined using a previously described procedure. Anchorage-dependent media control and solvent control cells, when suspended in medium above an agar base layer, showed a rapid decline in cell survival;however, cells that had been treated with carcinogen did not undergo the destructive process that took place in control cells, indicating specificity

  4. Altering Cell Survival by Modulating Levels of Mitochondrial DNA Repair Enzymes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shokolenko, Inna

    2002-01-01

    .... Our previous results demonstrated that stable expression of E.coli Exonuclease III in mitochondria of breast cancer cells diminishes mtDNA repair capacity following oxidative stress, which leads to a decrease in long-term cell survival...

  5. No supra-additive effects of goserelin and radiotherapy on clonogenic survival of prostate carcinoma cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelen Paul

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oncological results of radiotherapy for locally advanced prostate cancer (PC are significantly improved by simultaneous application of LHRH analoga (e.g. goserelin. As 85% of PC express LHRH receptors, we investigated the interaction of goserelin incubation with radiotherapy under androgen-deprived conditions in vitro. Methods LNCaP and PC-3 cells were stained for LHRH receptors. Downstream the LHRH receptor, changes in protein expression of c-fos, phosphorylated p38 and phosphorylated ERK1/2 were analyzed by means of Western blotting after incubation with goserelin and irradiation with 4 Gy. Both cell lines were incubated with different concentrations of goserelin in hormone-free medium. 12 h later cells were irradiated (0 – 4 Gy and after 12 h goserelin was withdrawn. Endpoints were clonogenic survival and cell viability (12 h, 36 h and 60 h after irradiation. Results Both tested cell lines expressed LHRH-receptors. Changes in protein expression demonstrated the functional activity of goserelin in the tested cell lines. Neither in LNCaP nor in PC-3 any significant effects of additional goserelin incubation on clonogenic survival or cell viability for all tested concentrations in comparison to radiation alone were seen. Conclusion The clinically observed increase in tumor control after combination of goserelin with radiotherapy in PC cannot be attributed to an increase in radiosensitivity of PC cells by goserelin in vitro.

  6. Cell cycle arrest and cell survival induce reverse trends of cardiolipin remodeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jen Chao

    Full Text Available Cell survival from the arrested state can be a cause of the cancer recurrence. Transition from the arrest state to the growth state is highly regulated by mitochondrial activity, which is related to the lipid compositions of the mitochondrial membrane. Cardiolipin is a critical phospholipid for the mitochondrial integrity and functions. We examined the changes of cardiolipin species by LC-MS in the transition between cell cycle arrest and cell reviving in HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells. We have identified 41 cardiolipin species by MS/MS and semi-quantitated them to analyze the detailed changes of cardiolipin species. The mass spectra of cardiolipin with the same carbon number form an envelope, and the C64, C66, C68, C70 C72 and C74 envelopes in HT1080 cells show a normal distribution in the full scan mass spectrum. The cardiolipin quantity in a cell decreases while entering the cell cycle arrest, but maintains at a similar level through cell survival. While cells awakening from the arrested state and preparing itself for replication, the groups with short acyl chains, such as C64, C66 and C68 show a decrease of cardiolipin percentage, but the groups with long acyl chains, such as C70 and C72 display an increase of cardiolipin percentage. Interestingly, the trends of the cardiolipin species changes during the arresting state are completely opposite to cell growing state. Our results indicate that the cardiolipin species shift from the short chain to long chain cardiolipin during the transition from cell cycle arrest to cell progression.

  7. Survival of egg-laying controlling neuroendocrine cells during reproductive senescence of a mollusc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, C.

    2004-01-01

    During brain aging neuronal degradation occurs. In some neurons this may result in degeneration and cell death, still other neurons may survive and maintain their basic properties. The present study deals with survival of the egg-laying controlling neuroendocrine caudodorsal cells (CDCs) during

  8. Origins of Protein Functions in Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seelig, Burchard; Pohorille, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    In modern organisms proteins perform a majority of cellular functions, such as chemical catalysis, energy transduction and transport of material across cell walls. Although great strides have been made towards understanding protein evolution, a meaningful extrapolation from contemporary proteins to their earliest ancestors is virtually impossible. In an alternative approach, the origin of water-soluble proteins was probed through the synthesis and in vitro evolution of very large libraries of random amino acid sequences. In combination with computer modeling and simulations, these experiments allow us to address a number of fundamental questions about the origins of proteins. Can functionality emerge from random sequences of proteins? How did the initial repertoire of functional proteins diversify to facilitate new functions? Did this diversification proceed primarily through drawing novel functionalities from random sequences or through evolution of already existing proto-enzymes? Did protein evolution start from a pool of proteins defined by a frozen accident and other collections of proteins could start a different evolutionary pathway? Although we do not have definitive answers to these questions yet, important clues have been uncovered. In one example (Keefe and Szostak, 2001), novel ATP binding proteins were identified that appear to be unrelated in both sequence and structure to any known ATP binding proteins. One of these proteins was subsequently redesigned computationally to bind GTP through introducing several mutations that introduce targeted structural changes to the protein, improve its binding to guanine and prevent water from accessing the active center. This study facilitates further investigations of individual evolutionary steps that lead to a change of function in primordial proteins. In a second study (Seelig and Szostak, 2007), novel enzymes were generated that can join two pieces of RNA in a reaction for which no natural enzymes are known

  9. Increased cell survival by inhibition of BRCA1 using an antisense approach in an estrogen responsive ovarian carcinoma cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annab, Lois A; Hawkins, Rebecca E; Solomon, Greg; Barrett, J Carl; Afshari, Cynthia A

    2000-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that BRCA1 may play a role in the regulation of ovarian tumor cell death as well as the inhibition of ovarian cell proliferation. Introduction of BRCA1 antisense retroviral constructs into BG-1 estrogen-dependent ovarian adenocarcinoma cells resulted in reduced BRCA1 expression. BRCA1 antisense pooled populations and derived subclones were able to proliferate in monolayer culture without estrogen, whereas control cells began to die after 10 days of estrogen deprivation. In addition, both populations and subclones of BRCA1 antisense infected cells demonstrated a growth advantage in monolayer culture in the presence of estrogen and were able to proliferate in monolayer culture without estrogen, while control cells did not. Furthermore, clonal studies demonstrated that reduced levels of BRCA1 protein correlated with growth in soft agar and greater tumor formation in nude mice in the absence of estrogen. These data suggest that reduction of BRCA1 protein in BG-1 ovarian adenocarcinoma cells may have an effect on cell survival during estrogen deprivation both in vitro and in vivo. Germline mutations in the breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility gene BRCA1, which is located on chromosome 17q21, are associated with a predisposition to the development of cancer in these organs [1,2]. No mutations in the BRCA1 gene have been detected in sporadic breast cancer cases, but mutations have been detected in sporadic cases of ovarian cancer [3,4]. Although there is debate regarding the level of cancer risk associated with mutations in BRCA1 and the significance of the lack of mutations in sporadic tumors, it is possible that alterations in the function of BRCA1 may occur by mechanisms other than mutation, leading to an underestimation of risk when it is calculated solely on the basis of mutational analysis. Such alterations cannot be identified until the function and regulation of BRCA1 are better understood. The BRCA1 gene encodes a 220-kDa nuclear

  10. Intercellular contact: its influence on the Dsub(q) of mammalian cell survival curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, R.E.; Sutherland, R.M.

    1975-01-01

    Cell survival in tissues exposed to a given dose of ionizing radiation is usually greater than that of similar cells grown individually in vitro, despite the fact that the radiosensitivities (D 0 ) are virtually identical under the two conditions. An analogous increase in cell survival is observed when Chinese hamster V79-171 cells are grown in suspension culture and irradiated as multicell spheroids. Unfortunately, the information gained from the survival curves so obtained is limited by the inhomogeneity of the cell population with respect to both degree of contact and cell cycle position. The latter can be studied using synchronized small spheroids. The ratio of Dsub(q) of spheroid cells to Dsub(q) of single cells increased as the cells progressed through the cell cycle, from a minimum of 1.3 for G 1 phase cells to a maximum of 2.2 for late S-phase cells. The enhanced survival, or 'contact effect', developed slowly as the spheroids grew, after an initial latent period of about one generation cycle of the cells. A second effect of intercellular contact on mammalian cell survival has also been observed. When cells are assayed under conditions in which intercellular contact is maintained, the net cellular survival is increased further. This effect is different from the usual repair of potentially lethal damage, in that it occurs much more slowly and results in modification of the survival-curve shoulder. Not all cell types tested have shown enhanced survival when grown as spheroids. Several MNNG-induced mutants of the Chinese hamster V79-171 line have been isolated and sublines which do and do not show the contact effect are now available. These may permit study of the mechanism(s) of contact effects. (author)

  11. Targeted inhibition of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase impairs cell proliferation, survival, and invasion in colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fei; Gao, Jun-Yi; Chen, Hua; Du, Zhen-Hua; Zhang, Xue-Qun; Gao, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Colon cancer is the third most common cancer in the world, and its metastasis and drug resistance are challenging for its effective treatment. The PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of colon cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the targeting of PI3K in colon cancer cells HT-29 and HCT-116 in vitro. In HT-29 and HCT-116 cells, BEZ235, a dual inhibitor of PI3K/mTOR, and shRNAtarget to PI3KCA were used to inhibit PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. The inhibition efficiency of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway was detected by RT-PCR and Western blot. Cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and apoptosis were evaluated by Cell Counting Kit-8, Transwell, and flow cytometry assays. The expression of apoptosis-related proteins (cleavage caspase 3, Bcl-2, Bax, and Bim) were also detected. We found that in HT-29 and HCT-116 cells, the treatment of BEZ235 (1 μM) and PI3KCA knockdown inhibited the activation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway and significantly suppressed cell proliferation, migration, and invasion of HT-29 and HCT-116 cells. In addition, we confirmed that knockdown of BEZ235 and PI3KCA induced cell apoptosis through the upregulated levels of cleavage caspase 3 and Bax and downregulated expression of Bcl-2 and Bim. Our results indicated that targeted inhibition of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway impaired cell proliferation, survival, and invasion in human colon cancer.

  12. The suppression of manganese superoxide dismutase decreased the survival of human glioblastoma multiforme T98G cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novi S. Hardiany

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is a primary malignant brain tumor which has poor prognosis. High incidence of oxidative stress-based therapy resistance could be related to the high antioxidant status of GBM cells. Our previous study has reported that manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD antioxidant expression was significantly higher in high grade glioma than in low grade. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of MnSOD suppression toward GBM cell survival.Methods: This study is an experimental study using human glioblastoma multiforme T98G cell line. Suppression of MnSOD expression was performed using in vitro transfection MnSOD-siRNA. The MnSOD expression was analyzed by measuring the mRNA using real time RT-PCR, protein using ELISA technique, and specific activity of enzyme using inhibition of xantine oxidase. Concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS intracellular was determined by measuring superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide. Cell survival was analyzed by measuring viability, proliferation, and cell apoptosis.Results: In vitro transfection of MnSOD-siRNA suppressed the mRNA, protein, and specific activity of MnSOD. This treatment significantly increased the concentration of superoxide radical; however, it did not influence the concentration of hydrogen peroxide. Moreover, viability MnSOD-suppressing cell significantly decreased, accompanied by increase of cell apoptosis without affecting cell proliferation.Conclusion: The suppression of MnSOD expression leads to decrease glioblastoma multiforme cell survival, which was associated to the increase of cell apoptotic.

  13. Promotion of Survival and Engraftment of Transplanted Adipose Tissue-Derived Stromal and Vascular Cells by Overexpression of Manganese Superoxide Dismutase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Baldari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Short-term persistence of transplanted cells during early post-implant period limits clinical efficacy of cell therapy. Poor cell survival is mainly due to the harsh hypoxic microenvironment transplanted cells face at the site of implantation and to anoikis, driven by cell adhesion loss. We evaluated the hypothesis that viral-mediated expression of a gene conferring hypoxia resistance to cells before transplant could enhance survival of grafted cells in early stages after implant. We used adipose tissue as cell source because it consistently provides high yields of adipose-tissue-derived stromal and vascular cells (ASCs, suitable for regenerative purposes. Luciferase positive cells were transduced with lentiviral vectors expressing either green fluorescent protein as control or human manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2. Cells were then exposed in vitro to hypoxic conditions, mimicking cell transplantation into an ischemic site. Cells overexpressing SOD2 displayed survival rates significantly greater compared to mock transduced cells. Similar results were also obtained in vivo after implantation into syngeneic mice and assessment of cell engraftment by in vivo bioluminescent imaging. Taken together, these findings suggest that ex vivo gene transfer of SOD2 into ASCs before implantation confers a cytoprotective effect leading to improved survival and engraftment rates, therefore enhancing cell therapy regenerative potential.

  14. Epstein-Barr virus ensures B cell survival by uniquely modulating apoptosis at early and late times after infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Alexander M; Dai, Joanne; Bazot, Quentin; Patel, Luv; Nikitin, Pavel A; Djavadian, Reza; Winter, Peter S; Salinas, Cristina A; Barry, Ashley Perkins; Wood, Kris C; Johannsen, Eric C; Letai, Anthony; Allday, Martin J; Luftig, Micah A

    2017-04-20

    Latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is causally linked to several human cancers. EBV expresses viral oncogenes that promote cell growth and inhibit the apoptotic response to uncontrolled proliferation. The EBV oncoprotein LMP1 constitutively activates NFκB and is critical for survival of EBV-immortalized B cells. However, during early infection EBV induces rapid B cell proliferation with low levels of LMP1 and little apoptosis. Therefore, we sought to define the mechanism of survival in the absence of LMP1/NFκB early after infection. We used BH3 profiling to query mitochondrial regulation of apoptosis and defined a transition from uninfected B cells (BCL-2) to early-infected (MCL-1/BCL-2) and immortalized cells (BFL-1). This dynamic change in B cell survival mechanisms is unique to virus-infected cells and relies on regulation of MCL-1 mitochondrial localization and BFL-1 transcription by the viral EBNA3A protein. This study defines a new role for EBNA3A in the suppression of apoptosis with implications for EBV lymphomagenesis.

  15. The effect of S1P receptor signaling pathway on the survival and drug resistance in multiple myeloma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Di; Li, Yingchun; Li, Jia; Shi, Xiaoyan; Yang, Ronghui; Zhong, Yuan; Wang, Huihan; Liao, Aijun

    2017-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) remains incurable by conventional chemotherapy. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor-mediated signaling has been recently demonstrated to have critical roles in cell survival and drug resistance in a number of hematological malignancies. To dissect the roles of S1P receptor pathway in MM, we systematically examined cell viability and protein expression associated with cell survival and drug resistance in MM cell lines upon treatment with either pathway activator (S1P) or inhibitor (FTY720). Our results reveal that FTY720 inhibits cell proliferation by downregulating expression of target genes, while S1P has an opposite effect. Knocking down of S1P receptor S1P5R results in a reduction of cell survival-related gene expression; however, it does not have impacts on expression of drug resistance genes. These results suggest that S1P signaling plays a role in cell proliferation and drug resistance in MM, and targeting this pathway will provide a new therapeutic direction for MM management.

  16. Evaluation of serum biochemical marker concentrations and survival time in dogs with protein-losing enteropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Equilino, Mirjam; Théodoloz, Vincent; Gorgas, Daniela; Doherr, Marcus G; Heilmann, Romy M; Suchodolski, Jan S; Steiner, Jörg M; Burgener Dvm, Iwan A

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate serum concentrations of biochemical markers and survival time in dogs with protein-losing enteropathy (PLE). Prospective study. 29 dogs with PLE and 18 dogs with food-responsive diarrhea (FRD). Data regarding serum concentrations of various biochemical markers at the initial evaluation were available for 18 of the 29 dogs with PLE and compared with findings for dogs with FRD. Correlations between biochemical marker concentrations and survival time (interval between time of initial evaluation and death or euthanasia) for dogs with PLE were evaluated. Serum C-reactive protein concentration was high in 13 of 18 dogs with PLE and in 2 of 18 dogs with FRD. Serum concentration of canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity was high in 3 dogs with PLE but within the reference interval in all dogs with FRD. Serum α1-proteinase inhibitor concentration was less than the lower reference limit in 9 dogs with PLE and 1 dog with FRD. Compared with findings in dogs with FRD, values of those 3 variables in dogs with PLE were significantly different. Serum calprotectin (measured by radioimmunoassay and ELISA) and S100A12 concentrations were high but did not differ significantly between groups. Seventeen of the 29 dogs with PLE were euthanized owing to this disease; median survival time was 67 days (range, 2 to 2,551 days). Serum C-reactive protein, canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity, and α1-proteinase inhibitor concentrations differed significantly between dogs with PLE and FRD. Most initial biomarker concentrations were not predictive of survival time in dogs with PLE.

  17. Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1-infected cells secrete exosomes that contain Tax protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworski, Elizabeth; Narayanan, Aarthi; Van Duyne, Rachel; Shabbeer-Meyering, Shabana; Iordanskiy, Sergey; Saifuddin, Mohammed; Das, Ravi; Afonso, Philippe V; Sampey, Gavin C; Chung, Myung; Popratiloff, Anastas; Shrestha, Bindesh; Sehgal, Mohit; Jain, Pooja; Vertes, Akos; Mahieux, Renaud; Kashanchi, Fatah

    2014-08-08

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the causative agent of adult T-cell leukemia and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. The HTLV-1 transactivator protein Tax controls many critical cellular pathways, including host cell DNA damage response mechanisms, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis. Extracellular vesicles called exosomes play critical roles during pathogenic viral infections as delivery vehicles for host and viral components, including proteins, mRNA, and microRNA. We hypothesized that exosomes derived from HTLV-1-infected cells contain unique host and viral proteins that may contribute to HTLV-1-induced pathogenesis. We found exosomes derived from infected cells to contain Tax protein and proinflammatory mediators as well as viral mRNA transcripts, including Tax, HBZ, and Env. Furthermore, we observed that exosomes released from HTLV-1-infected Tax-expressing cells contributed to enhanced survival of exosome-recipient cells when treated with Fas antibody. This survival was cFLIP-dependent, with Tax showing induction of NF-κB in exosome-recipient cells. Finally, IL-2-dependent CTLL-2 cells that received Tax-containing exosomes were protected from apoptosis through activation of AKT. Similar experiments with primary cultures showed protection and survival of peripheral blood mononuclear cells even in the absence of phytohemagglutinin/IL-2. Surviving cells contained more phosphorylated Rb, consistent with the role of Tax in regulation of the cell cycle. Collectively, these results suggest that exosomes may play an important role in extracellular delivery of functional HTLV-1 proteins and mRNA to recipient cells. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Human T-lymphotropic Virus Type 1-infected Cells Secrete Exosomes That Contain Tax Protein*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworski, Elizabeth; Narayanan, Aarthi; Van Duyne, Rachel; Shabbeer-Meyering, Shabana; Iordanskiy, Sergey; Saifuddin, Mohammed; Das, Ravi; Afonso, Philippe V.; Sampey, Gavin C.; Chung, Myung; Popratiloff, Anastas; Shrestha, Bindesh; Sehgal, Mohit; Jain, Pooja; Vertes, Akos; Mahieux, Renaud; Kashanchi, Fatah

    2014-01-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the causative agent of adult T-cell leukemia and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. The HTLV-1 transactivator protein Tax controls many critical cellular pathways, including host cell DNA damage response mechanisms, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis. Extracellular vesicles called exosomes play critical roles during pathogenic viral infections as delivery vehicles for host and viral components, including proteins, mRNA, and microRNA. We hypothesized that exosomes derived from HTLV-1-infected cells contain unique host and viral proteins that may contribute to HTLV-1-induced pathogenesis. We found exosomes derived from infected cells to contain Tax protein and proinflammatory mediators as well as viral mRNA transcripts, including Tax, HBZ, and Env. Furthermore, we observed that exosomes released from HTLV-1-infected Tax-expressing cells contributed to enhanced survival of exosome-recipient cells when treated with Fas antibody. This survival was cFLIP-dependent, with Tax showing induction of NF-κB in exosome-recipient cells. Finally, IL-2-dependent CTLL-2 cells that received Tax-containing exosomes were protected from apoptosis through activation of AKT. Similar experiments with primary cultures showed protection and survival of peripheral blood mononuclear cells even in the absence of phytohemagglutinin/IL-2. Surviving cells contained more phosphorylated Rb, consistent with the role of Tax in regulation of the cell cycle. Collectively, these results suggest that exosomes may play an important role in extracellular delivery of functional HTLV-1 proteins and mRNA to recipient cells. PMID:24939845

  19. Differences in IGF-axis protein expression and survival among multiethnic breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, Brenda Y; Wilkens, Lynne R; Le Marchand, Loïc; Horio, David; Chong, Clayton D; Loo, Lenora W M

    2015-01-01

    There is limited knowledge about the biological basis of racial/ethnic disparities in breast cancer outcomes. Aberrations in IGF signaling induced by obesity and other factors may contribute to these disparities. This study examines the expression profiles of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-axis proteins and the association with breast cancer survival across a multiethnic population. We examined the expression profiles of the IGF1, IGF1R, IGFBP2 (IGF-binding proteins), and IGFBP3 proteins in breast tumor tissue and their relationships with all-cause and breast cancer-specific survival up to 17 years postdiagnosis in a multiethnic series of 358 patients in Hawaii, USA. Native Hawaiians, Caucasians, and Japanese were compared. Covariates included demographic and clinical factors and ER/PR/HER2 (estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor/human epidermal growth factor receptor-2) status. In Native Hawaiian patients, IGFBP2 and IGFBP3 expression were each independently associated with overall and breast cancer mortality (IGFB2: HR mort = 10.96, 95% CI: 2.18–55.19 and HR mort = 35.75, 95% CI: 3.64–350.95, respectively; IGFBP3: HR mort = 5.16, 95% CI: 1.27–20.94 and HR mort = 8.60, 95% CI: 1.84–40.15, respectively). IGF1R expression was also positively associated with all-cause mortality in Native Hawaiians. No association of IGF-axis protein expression and survival was observed in Japanese or Caucasian patients. The interaction of race/ethnicity and IGFBP3 expression on mortality risk was significant. IGF-axis proteins may have variable influence on breast cancer progression across different racial/ethnic groups. Expression of binding proteins and receptors in breast tumors may influence survival in breast cancer patients by inducing aberrations in IGF signaling and/or through IGF-independent mechanisms. Additional studies to evaluate the role of the IGF-axis in breast cancer are critical to improve targeted breast cancer treatment strategies

  20. Proteomic profiling of human keratinocytes undergoing UVB-induced alternative differentiation reveals TRIpartite Motif Protein 29 as a survival factor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Bertrand-Vallery

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Repeated exposures to UVB of human keratinocytes lacking functional p16(INK-4a and able to differentiate induce an alternative state of differentiation rather than stress-induced premature senescence. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A 2D-DIGE proteomic profiling of this alternative state of differentiation was performed herein at various times after the exposures to UVB. Sixty-nine differentially abundant protein species were identified by mass spectrometry, many of which are involved in keratinocyte differentiation and survival. Among these protein species was TRIpartite Motif Protein 29 (TRIM29. Increased abundance of TRIM29 following UVB exposures was validated by Western blot using specific antibody and was also further analysed by immunochemistry and by RT-PCR. TRIM29 was found very abundant in keratinocytes and reconstructed epidermis. Knocking down the expression of TRIM29 by short-hairpin RNA interference decreased the viability of keratinocytes after UVB exposure. The abundance of involucrin mRNA, a marker of late differentiation, increased concomitantly. In TRIM29-knocked down reconstructed epidermis, the presence of picnotic cells revealed cell injury. Increased abundance of TRIM29 was also observed upon exposure to DNA damaging agents and PKC activation. The UVB-induced increase of TRIM29 abundance was dependent on a PKC signaling pathway, likely PKCdelta. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that TRIM29 allows keratinocytes to enter a protective alternative differentiation process rather than die massively after stress.

  1. Conditional survival of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Michael Boe; Pedersen, Niels Tinggaard; Christensen, Bjarne E

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prognosis of lymphoma patients is usually estimated at the time of diagnosis and the estimates are guided by the International Prognostic Index (IPI). However, conditional survival estimates are more informative clinically, as they consider those patients only who have already survive...... survival probability provides more accurate prognostic information than the conventional survival rate estimated from the time of diagnosis.......BACKGROUND: Prognosis of lymphoma patients is usually estimated at the time of diagnosis and the estimates are guided by the International Prognostic Index (IPI). However, conditional survival estimates are more informative clinically, as they consider those patients only who have already survived...... a period of time after treatment. Conditional survival data have not been reported for lymphoma patients. METHODS: Conditional survival was estimated for 1209 patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) from the population-based LYFO registry of the Danish Lymphoma Group. The Kaplan-Meier method...

  2. Overexpression of FABP3 inhibits human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cell proliferation but enhances their survival in hypoxia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Suna; Zhou, Yifu; Andreyev, Oleg; Hoyt, Robert F.; Singh, Avneesh; Hunt, Timothy; Horvath, Keith A.

    2014-01-01

    Studying the proliferative ability of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells in hypoxic conditions can help us achieve the effective regeneration of ischemic injured myocardium. Cardiac-type fatty acid binding protein (FABP3) is a specific biomarker of muscle and heart tissue injury. This protein is purported to be involved in early myocardial development, adult myocardial tissue repair and responsible for the modulation of cell growth and proliferation. We have investigated the role of FABP3 in human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells under ischemic conditions. MSCs from 12 donors were cultured either in standard normoxic or modified hypoxic conditions, and the differential expression of FABP3 was tested by quantitative RT PCR and western blot. We also established stable FABP3 expression in MSCs and searched for variation in cellular proliferation and differentiation bioprocesses affected by hypoxic conditions. We identified: (1) the FABP3 differential expression pattern in the MSCs under hypoxic conditions; (2) over-expression of FABP3 inhibited the growth and proliferation of the MSCs; however, improved their survival in low oxygen environments; (3) the cell growth factors and positive cell cycle regulation genes, such as PCNA, APC, CCNB1, CCNB2 and CDC6 were all down-regulated; while the key negative cell cycle regulation genes TP53, BRCA1, CASP3 and CDKN1A were significantly up-regulated in the cells with FABP3 overexpression. Our data suggested that FABP3 was up-regulated under hypoxia; also negatively regulated the cell metabolic process and the mitotic cell cycle. Overexpression of FABP3 inhibited cell growth and proliferation via negative regulation of the cell cycle and down-regulation of cell growth factors, but enhances cell survival in hypoxic or ischemic conditions. - Highlights: • FABP3 expression pattern was studied in 12 human hypoxic-MSCs. • FABP3 mRNA and proteins are upregulated in the MSCs under hypoxic conditions.

  3. Survival of partially differentiated mouse embryonic stem cells in the scala media of the guinea pig cochlea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Michael S; Dahl, Hans-Henrik M; Hardman, Jennifer; Coleman, Bryony; Shepherd, Robert K; de Silva, Michelle G

    2005-12-01

    The low regenerative capacity of the hair cells of the mammalian inner ear is a major obstacle for functional recovery following sensorineural hearing loss. A potential treatment is to replace damaged tissue by transplantation of stem cells. To test this approach, undifferentiated and partially differentiated mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells were delivered into the scala media of the deafened guinea pig cochlea. Transplanted cells survived in the scala media for a postoperative period of at least nine weeks, evidenced by histochemical and direct fluorescent detection of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). Transplanted cells were discovered near the spiral ligament and stria vascularis in the endolymph fluid of the scala media. In some cases, cells were observed close to the damaged organ of Corti structure. There was no evidence of significant immunological rejection of the implanted ES cells despite the absence of immunosuppression. Our surgical approach allowed efficient delivery of ES cells to the scala media while preserving the delicate structures of the cochlea. This is the first report of the survival of partially differentiated ES cells in the scala media of the mammalian cochlea, and it provides support for the potential of cell-based therapies for sensorineural hearing impairment.

  4. Positive expression of p53, c-erbB2 and MRP proteins is correlated with survival rates of NSCLC patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yujin; Wang, Liancong; Zheng, Xiao; Liu, Guan; Wang, Yuezhen; Lai, Xiaojing; Li, Jianqiang

    2013-05-01

    The incidence of lung cancer is one of the leading causes of mortality. This study aimed to investigate the prognostic and predictive importance of p53, c-erbB2 and multidrug resistance proteins (MRP) expression and its correlation with clinicopathological characteristics of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Expression of p53, c-erbB2 and MRP proteins in 152 tumor samples from resected primary NSCLCs was detected by immunohistochemical staining. The correlation of proteins, survival and clinicopathological characteristics was investigated in 152 patients undergoing potentially curative surgery. The positive rates of p53, c-erbB2 and MRP expression were 53.9 (82/152), 44.1 (67/152) and 43.4% (66/152), respectively. Overall survival rates of patients were markedly correlated with the overexpression of p53, c-erbB2 and MRP proteins. One, 2- and 3-year survival rates of patients exhibiting a positive expression of these proteins were 72.6, 54.8 and 32.2%, respectively. These rates were lower compared with those of patients with a negative expression of these proteins (92.1, 78.5 and 63.4%) (P=0.02, 0.01 or 0.00, respectively). Results of Cox's regression analysis showed that c-erbB2 expression and cell differentiation were independent prognostic factors in patients with NSCLC. These findings suggest that the positive expression of p53, c-erbB2 and MRP proteins is correlated with the survival rates of NSCLC patients. Detection of positive p53, c-erbB2 and MRP expression may be a useful predictive indicator of prognosis. Positive c-erbB2 expression is an independent prognostic factor, with a potential to be used as a predictive indicator of chemotherapy efficacy in NSCLC patients.

  5. Overexpression of CD97 confers an invasive phenotype in glioblastoma cells and is associated with decreased survival of glioblastoma patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Safaee

    Full Text Available Mechanisms of invasion in glioblastoma (GBM relate to differential expression of proteins conferring increased motility and penetration of the extracellular matrix. CD97 is a member of the epidermal growth factor seven-span transmembrane family of adhesion G-protein coupled receptors. These proteins facilitate mobility of leukocytes into tissue. In this study we show that CD97 is expressed in glioma, has functional effects on invasion, and is associated with poor overall survival. Glioma cell lines and low passage primary cultures were analyzed. Functional significance was assessed by transient knockdown using siRNA targeting CD97 or a non-target control sequence. Invasion was assessed 48 hours after siRNA-mediated knockdown using a Matrigel-coated invasion chamber. Migration was quantified using a scratch assay over 12 hours. Proliferation was measured 24 and 48 hours after confirmed protein knockdown. GBM cell lines and primary cultures were found to express CD97. Knockdown of CD97 decreased invasion and migration in GBM cell lines, with no difference in proliferation. Gene-expression based Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed using The Cancer Genome Atlas, demonstrating an inverse relationship between CD97 expression and survival. GBMs expressing high levels of CD97 were associated with decreased survival compared to those with low CD97 (p = 0.007. CD97 promotes invasion and migration in GBM, but has no effect on tumor proliferation. This phenotype may explain the discrepancy in survival between high and low CD97-expressing tumors. This data provides impetus for further studies to determine its viability as a therapeutic target in the treatment of GBM.

  6. Radiobiological effects of tritiated water short-term exposure on V79 clonogenic cell survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siragusa, Mattia; Fredericia, Nina Pil Møntegaard; Jensen, Mikael

    2018-01-01

    We set out to improve the accuracy of absorbed dose calculations for in-vitro measurements of the Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE) of tritiated water (HTO) for the clonogenic cell survival assay, also considering the influence of the end-of-track Linear Energy Transfer (LET) of low-energy...... in suspension are usually comparable to those for adherent cells. RBEs calculated at the 10% survival fraction through the use of the average energy are almost similar to those obtained with the beta-spectrum. For adherent cells, an RBE of 1.6 was found when HTO cell survival curves were compared to acute γ...

  7. Remembrance of Dead Cells Past: Discovering That the Extracellular Matrix Is a Cell Survival Factor

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, Martin A.

    2010-01-01

    In 1992, Jere Meredith and I followed up on a serendipitous observation and showed that matrix deprivation can lead to apoptosis. Our article in Molecular Biology of the Cell, together with work form Steve Frisch's lab, helped establish the paradigm that integrin signals control cell survival in a variety of systems. It has been a pleasure to watch that work take on a life of its own as other investigators have explored its role in processes such as cavitation, regression of the mammary gland...

  8. Comparative analysis of the role of small G proteins in cell migration and cell death: Cytoprotective and promigratory effects of RalA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Hyejin; Zheng, Long Tai; Lee, Shinrye; Lee, Won-Ha; Park, Nammi; Park, Jae-Yong; Heo, Won Do; Lee, Myung-Shik; Suk, Kyoungho

    2011-01-01

    Small G protein superfamily consists of more than 150 members, and is classified into six families: the Ras, Rho, Rab, Arf, Ran, and RGK families. They regulate a wide variety of cell functions such as cell proliferation/differentiation, cytoskeletal reorganization, vesicle trafficking, nucleocytoplasmic transport and microtubule organization. The small G proteins have also been shown to regulate cell death/survival and cell shape. In this study, we compared the role of representative members of the six families of small G proteins in cell migration and cell death/survival, two cellular phenotypes that are associated with inflammation, tumorigenesis, and metastasis. Our results show that small G proteins of the six families differentially regulate cell death and cell cycle distribution. In particular, our results indicate that Rho family of small G proteins is antiapoptotic. Ras, Rho, and Ran families promoted cell migration. There was no significant correlation between the cell death- and cell migration-regulating activities of the small G proteins. Nevertheless, RalA was not only cytoprotective against multiple chemotherapeutic drugs, but also promigratory inducing stress fiber formation, which was accompanied by the activation of Akt and Erk pathways. Our study provides a framework for further systematic investigation of small G proteins in the perspectives of cell death/survival and motility in inflammation and cancer.

  9. Enhanced endogenous type I interferon cell-driven survival and inhibition of spontaneous apoptosis by Riluzole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achour, Ammar; M'Bika, Jean-Pierre; Biquard, Jean-Michel

    2009-01-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), although effective in improving the survival of HIV-1-infected individuals, has not been able to reconstitute the adaptive immune response. We have described the use of novel chemical agents to restore T-cell survival/proliferation by inducing cytokine production. Due to its cationic amphiphilic structure, these molecules appear to enhance immune restoration. In this study, we investigated the action of Riluzole (2-amino-6-trifuromethoxybenzothiazole) in HIV-1 infection. Riluzole is able to increase (effective dose from 1 to 1000 nM) the cell-survival of T cells from HIV-1-infected patients and inhibit spontaneous apoptosis. The immunomodulatory effect of riluzole-sensitized cells was ascribed to endogenous type I interferon (IFN) derived from monocytes. Riluzole might be used for restoring the cell survival of immunocompromised patients and eliminating latent infected cells upon HIV-1 reactivation

  10. G9a coordinates with the RPA complex to promote DNA damage repair and cell survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiaoyan; Zhu, Qian; Lu, Xiaopeng; Du, Yipeng; Cao, Linlin; Shen, Changchun; Hou, Tianyun; Li, Meiting; Li, Zhiming; Liu, Chaohua; Wu, Di; Xu, Xingzhi; Wang, Lina; Wang, Haiying; Zhao, Ying; Yang, Yang; Zhu, Wei-Guo

    2017-07-25

    Histone methyltransferase G9a has critical roles in promoting cancer-cell growth and gene suppression, but whether it is also associated with the DNA damage response is rarely studied. Here, we report that loss of G9a impairs DNA damage repair and enhances the sensitivity of cancer cells to radiation and chemotherapeutics. In response to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), G9a is phosphorylated at serine 211 by casein kinase 2 (CK2) and recruited to chromatin. The chromatin-enriched G9a can then directly interact with replication protein A (RPA) and promote loading of the RPA and Rad51 recombinase to DSBs. This mechanism facilitates homologous recombination (HR) and cell survival. We confirmed the interaction between RPA and G9a to be critical for RPA foci formation and HR upon DNA damage. Collectively, our findings demonstrate a regulatory pathway based on CK2-G9a-RPA that permits HR in cancer cells and provide further rationale for the use of G9a inhibitors as a cancer therapeutic.

  11. Rictor and integrin-linked kinase interact and regulate Akt phosphorylation and cancer cell survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Paul C; Oloumi, Arusha; Mills, Julia; Dobreva, Iveta; Maidan, Mykola; Gray, Virginia; Wederell, Elizabeth D; Bally, Marcel B; Foster, Leonard J; Dedhar, Shoukat

    2008-03-15

    An unbiased proteomic screen to identify integrin-linked kinase (ILK) interactors revealed rictor as an ILK-binding protein. This finding was interesting because rictor, originally identified as a regulator of cytoskeletal dynamics, is also a component of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2), a complex implicated in Akt phosphorylation. These functions overlap with known ILK functions. Coimmunoprecipitation analyses confirmed this interaction, and ILK and rictor colocalized in membrane ruffles and leading edges of cancer cells. Yeast two-hybrid assays showed a direct interaction between the NH(2)- and COOH-terminal domains of rictor and the ILK kinase domain. Depletion of ILK and rictor in breast and prostate cancer cell lines resulted in inhibition of Akt Ser(473) phosphorylation and induction of apoptosis, whereas, in several cell lines, depletion of mTOR increased Akt phosphorylation. Akt and Ser(473)P-Akt were detected in ILK immunoprecipitates and small interfering RNA-mediated depletion of rictor, but not mTOR, inhibited the amount of Ser(473)P-Akt in the ILK complex. Expression of the NH(2)-terminal (1-398 amino acids) rictor domain also resulted in the inhibition of ILK-associated Akt Ser(473) phosphorylation. These data show that rictor regulates the ability of ILK to promote Akt phosphorylation and cancer cell survival.

  12. Brief Reports: Nfix Promotes Survival of Immature Hematopoietic Cells via Regulation of c-Mpl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Trent; Walker, Megan; Ganuza, Miguel; Holmfeldt, Per; Bordas, Marie; Kang, Guolian; Bi, Wenjian; Palmer, Lance E; Finkelstein, David; McKinney-Freeman, Shannon

    2018-02-12

    Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) are necessary for life-long blood production and replenishment of the hematopoietic system during stress. We recently reported that nuclear factor I/X (Nfix) promotes HSPC survival post-transplant. Here, we report that ectopic expression of Nfix in primary mouse HSPCs extends their ex vivo culture from about 20 to 40 days. HSPCs overexpressing Nfix display hypersensitivity to supportive cytokines and reduced apoptosis when subjected to cytokine deprivation relative to controls. Ectopic Nfix resulted in elevated levels of c-Mpl transcripts and cell surface protein on primary murine HSPCs as well as increased phosphorylation of STAT5, which is known to be activated down-stream of c-MPL. Blocking c-MPL signaling by removal of thrombopoietin or addition of a c-MPL neutralizing antibody negated the antiapoptotic effect of Nfix overexpression on cultured HSPCs. Furthermore, NFIX was capable of binding to and transcriptionally activating a proximal c-Mpl promoter fragment. In sum, these data suggest that NFIX-mediated upregulation of c-Mpl transcription can protect primitive hematopoietic cells from stress ex vivo. Stem Cells 2018. © AlphaMed Press 2018.

  13. Plasma Rich in Growth Factors Induces Cell Proliferation, Migration, Differentiation, and Cell Survival of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellado-López, Maravillas; Griffeth, Richard J; Meseguer-Ripolles, Jose; Cugat, Ramón; García, Montserrat; Moreno-Manzano, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are a promising therapeutic alternative for tissue repair in various clinical applications. However, restrictive cell survival, differential tissue integration, and undirected cell differentiation after transplantation in a hostile microenvironment are complications that require refinement. Plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) from platelet-rich plasma favors human and canine ASC survival, proliferation, and delaying human ASC senescence and autophagocytosis in comparison with serum-containing cultures. In addition, canine and human-derived ASCs efficiently differentiate into osteocytes, adipocytes, or chondrocytes in the presence of PRGF. PRGF treatment induces phosphorylation of AKT preventing ASC death induced by lethal concentrations of hydrogen peroxide. Indeed, AKT inhibition abolished the PRGF apoptosis prevention in ASC exposed to 100  μ M of hydrogen peroxide. Here, we show that canine ASCs respond to PRGF stimulus similarly to the human cells regarding cell survival and differentiation postulating the use of dogs as a suitable translational model. Overall, PRGF would be employed as a serum substitute for mesenchymal stem cell amplification to improve cell differentiation and as a preconditioning agent to prevent oxidative cell death.

  14. Plasma Rich in Growth Factors Induces Cell Proliferation, Migration, Differentiation, and Cell Survival of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maravillas Mellado-López

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs are a promising therapeutic alternative for tissue repair in various clinical applications. However, restrictive cell survival, differential tissue integration, and undirected cell differentiation after transplantation in a hostile microenvironment are complications that require refinement. Plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF from platelet-rich plasma favors human and canine ASC survival, proliferation, and delaying human ASC senescence and autophagocytosis in comparison with serum-containing cultures. In addition, canine and human-derived ASCs efficiently differentiate into osteocytes, adipocytes, or chondrocytes in the presence of PRGF. PRGF treatment induces phosphorylation of AKT preventing ASC death induced by lethal concentrations of hydrogen peroxide. Indeed, AKT inhibition abolished the PRGF apoptosis prevention in ASC exposed to 100 μM of hydrogen peroxide. Here, we show that canine ASCs respond to PRGF stimulus similarly to the human cells regarding cell survival and differentiation postulating the use of dogs as a suitable translational model. Overall, PRGF would be employed as a serum substitute for mesenchymal stem cell amplification to improve cell differentiation and as a preconditioning agent to prevent oxidative cell death.

  15. Microparticles shed from multidrug resistant breast cancer cells provide a parallel survival pathway through immune evasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Ritu; Johnson, Michael S; Pokharel, Deep; Krishnan, S Rajeev; Bebawy, Mary

    2017-02-06

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women. Resident macrophages at distant sites provide a highly responsive and immunologically dynamic innate immune response against foreign infiltrates. Despite extensive characterization of the role of macrophages and other immune cells in malignant tissues, there is very little known about the mechanisms which facilitate metastatic breast cancer spread to distant sites of immunological integrity. The mechanisms by which a key healthy defense mechanism fails to protect distant sites from infiltration by metastatic cells in cancer patients remain undefined. Breast tumors, typical of many tumor types, shed membrane vesicles called microparticles (MPs), ranging in size from 0.1-1 μm in diameter. MPs serve as vectors in the intercellular transfer of functional proteins and nucleic acids and in drug sequestration. In addition, MPs are also emerging to be important players in the evasion of cancer cell immune surveillance. A comparative analysis of effects of MPs isolated from human breast cancer cells and non-malignant human brain endothelial cells were examined on THP-1 derived macrophages in vitro. MP-mediated effects on cell phenotype and functionality was assessed by cytokine analysis, cell chemotaxis and phagocytosis, immunolabelling, flow cytometry and confocal imaging. Student's t-test or a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for comparison and statistical analysis. In this paper we report on the discovery of a new cellular basis for immune evasion, which is mediated by breast cancer derived MPs. MPs shed from multidrug resistant (MDR) cells were shown to selectively polarize macrophage cells to a functionally incapacitated state and facilitate their engulfment by foreign cells. We propose this mechanism may serve to physically disrupt the inherent immune response prior to cancer cell colonization whilst releasing mediators required for the recruitment of distant immune cells. These findings

  16. Hepatoma-derived growth factor: A survival-related protein in prostate oncogenesis and a potential target for vitamin K2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Aditya; Dasari, Subramanyam; Banerjee, Souresh; Gheewala, Taher; Zheng, Guoxing; Chen, Aoshuang; Kajdacsy-Balla, Andre; Bosland, Maarten C; Munirathinam, Gnanasekar

    2016-11-01

    Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF) is a heparin-binding growth factor, which has previously been shown to be expressed in a variety of cancers. HDGF overexpression has also previously been correlated with a poor prognosis in several cancers. The significance of HDGF in prostate cancer, however, has not been investigated. Here, we show that HDGF is overexpressed in both androgen-sensitive LNCaP cells and androgen-insensitive DU145, 22RV1, and PC-3 cells. Forced overexpression enhanced cell viability of RWPE-1 cells, whereas HDGF knockdown reduced cell proliferation in human prostate cancer cells. We also show that HDGF may serve as a survival-related protein as ectopic overexpression of HDGF in RWPE cells up-regulated the expression of antiapoptosis proteins cyclin E and BCL-2, whereas simultaneously down-regulating proapoptotic protein BAX. Western blot analysis also showed that HDGF overexpression modulated the activity of phospho-AKT as well as NF-kB, and these results correlated with in vitro migration and invasion assays. We next assessed the therapeutic potential of HDGF inhibition with a HDGF monoclonal antibody and vitamin k 2 , showing reduced cell proliferation as well as inhibition of NF-kB expression in HDGF overexpressed RWPE cells treated with a HDGF monoclonal antibody and vitamin K 2 . Collectively, our results suggest that HDGF is a relevant protein in prostate oncogenesis and may serve as a potential therapeutic target in prostate cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Calcium-independent phospholipase A₂, group VIA, is critical for RPE cell survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolko, Miriam; Vohra, Rupali; Westlund, Barbro S.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the significance of calcium-independent phospholipase A₂, group VIA (iPLA2-VIA), in RPE cell survival following responses to sodium iodate (SI) in cell cultures. METHODS: The human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cell line (ARPE-19) cells and primary mouse-RPE cultures were...

  18. ASIC proteins regulate smooth muscle cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grifoni, Samira C; Jernigan, Nikki L; Hamilton, Gina; Drummond, Heather A

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate Acid Sensing Ion Channel (ASIC) protein expression and importance in cellular migration. We recently demonstrated that Epithelial Na(+)Channel (ENaC) proteins are required for vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration; however, the role of the closely related ASIC proteins has not been addressed. We used RT-PCR and immunolabeling to determine expression of ASIC1, ASIC2, ASIC3 and ASIC4 in A10 cells. We used small interference RNA to silence individual ASIC expression and determine the importance of ASIC proteins in wound healing and chemotaxis (PDGF-bb)-initiated migration. We found ASIC1, ASIC2, and ASIC3, but not ASIC4, expression in A10 cells. ASIC1, ASIC2, and ASIC3 siRNA molecules significantly suppressed expression of their respective proteins compared to non-targeting siRNA (RISC) transfected controls by 63%, 44%, and 55%, respectively. Wound healing was inhibited by 10, 20, and 26% compared to RISC controls following suppression of ASIC1, ASIC2, and ASIC3, respectively. Chemotactic migration was inhibited by 30% and 45%, respectively, following suppression of ASIC1 and ASIC3. ASIC2 suppression produced a small, but significant, increase in chemotactic migration (4%). Our data indicate that ASIC expression is required for normal migration and may suggest a novel role for ASIC proteins in cellular migration.

  19. Cell Survival and DNA Damage in Normal Prostate Cells Irradiated Out-of-Field.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shields, L

    2014-10-31

    Interest in out-of-field radiation dose has been increasing with the introduction of new techniques, such as volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). These new techniques offer superior conformity of high-dose regions to the target compared to conventional techniques, however more normal tissue is exposed to low-dose radiation with VMAT. There is a potential increase in radiobiological effectiveness associated with lower energy photons delivered during VMAT as normal cells are exposed to a temporal change in incident photon energy spectrum. During VMAT deliveries, normal cells can be exposed to the primary radiation beam, as well as to transmission and scatter radiation. The impact of low-dose radiation, radiation-induced bystander effect and change in energy spectrum on normal cells are not well understood. The current study examined cell survival and DNA damage in normal prostate cells after exposure to out-of-field radiation both with and without the transfer of bystander factors. The effect of a change in energy spectrum out-of-field compared to in-field was also investigated. Prostate cancer (LNCaP) and normal prostate (PNT1A) cells were placed in-field and out-of-field, respectively, with the PNT1A cells being located 1 cm from the field edge when in-field cells were being irradiated with 2 Gy. Clonogenic and γ-H2AX assays were performed postirradiation to examine cell survival and DNA damage. The assays were repeated when bystander factors from the LNCaP cells were transferred to the PNT1A cells and also when the PNT1A cells were irradiated in-field to a different energy spectrum. An average out-of-field dose of 10.8 ± 4.2 cGy produced a significant reduction in colony volume and increase in the number of γ-H2AX foci\\/cell in the PNT1A cells compared to the sham-irradiated control cells. An adaptive response was observed in the PNT1A cells having first received a low out-of-field dose and then the bystander factors. The PNT1A cells showed a significant

  20. EMMPRIN Expression in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas: Correlation with Tumor Proliferation and Patient Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Silva Monteiro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to explore the clinicopathological and prognostic significance of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN expression in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC, and its relation with the proliferative tumor status of OSCC. We examined EMMPRIN and Ki-67 proteins expression by immunohistochemistry in 74 cases with OSCC. Statistical analysis was conducted to examine their clinicopathological and prognostic significance in OSCC. EMMPRIN membrane expression was observed in all cases, with both membrane and cytoplasmic tumor expression in 61 cases (82.4%. EMMPRIN overexpression was observed in 56 cases (75.7%. Moderately or poorly differentiated tumors showed EMMPRIN overexpression more frequently than well-differentiated tumors (P=0.002. Overexpression of EMMPRIN was correlated with high Ki-67 expression (P=0.004. In the multivariate analysis, EMMPRIN overexpression reveals an adverse independent prognostic value for cancer-specific survival (CSS (P=0.034. Our results reveal that EMMPRIN protein is overexpressed in more than two-thirds of OSCC cases, especially in high proliferative and less differentiated tumors. The independent value of EMMPRIN overexpression in CSS suggests that this protein could be used as an important biological prognostic marker for patients with OSCC. Moreover, the high expression of EMMPRIN makes it a possible therapeutic target in OSCC patients.

  1. EMMPRIN expression in oral squamous cell carcinomas: correlation with tumor proliferation and patient survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Luís Silva; Delgado, Maria Leonor; Ricardo, Sara; Garcez, Fernanda; do Amaral, Barbas; Pacheco, José Júlio; Lopes, Carlos; Bousbaa, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study was to explore the clinicopathological and prognostic significance of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) expression in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC), and its relation with the proliferative tumor status of OSCC. We examined EMMPRIN and Ki-67 proteins expression by immunohistochemistry in 74 cases with OSCC. Statistical analysis was conducted to examine their clinicopathological and prognostic significance in OSCC. EMMPRIN membrane expression was observed in all cases, with both membrane and cytoplasmic tumor expression in 61 cases (82.4%). EMMPRIN overexpression was observed in 56 cases (75.7%). Moderately or poorly differentiated tumors showed EMMPRIN overexpression more frequently than well-differentiated tumors (P = 0.002). Overexpression of EMMPRIN was correlated with high Ki-67 expression (P = 0.004). In the multivariate analysis, EMMPRIN overexpression reveals an adverse independent prognostic value for cancer-specific survival (CSS) (P = 0.034). Our results reveal that EMMPRIN protein is overexpressed in more than two-thirds of OSCC cases, especially in high proliferative and less differentiated tumors. The independent value of EMMPRIN overexpression in CSS suggests that this protein could be used as an important biological prognostic marker for patients with OSCC. Moreover, the high expression of EMMPRIN makes it a possible therapeutic target in OSCC patients.

  2. The essential role of the Deinococcus radiodurans ssb gene in cell survival and radiation tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Scott Lockhart

    Full Text Available Recent evidence has implicated single-stranded DNA-binding protein (SSB expression level as an important factor in microbial radiation resistance. The genome of the extremely radiation resistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans contains genes for two SSB homologs: the homodimeric, canonical Ssb, encoded by the gene ssb, and a novel pentameric protein encoded by the gene ddrB. ddrB is highly induced upon exposure to radiation, and deletions result in decreased radiation-resistance, suggesting an integral role of the protein in the extreme resistance exhibited by this organism. Although expression of ssb is also induced after irradiation, Ssb is thought to be involved primarily in replication. In this study, we demonstrate that Ssb in D. radiodurans is essential for cell survival. The lethality of an ssb deletion cannot be complemented by providing ddrB in trans. In addition, the radiation-sensitive phenotype conferred by a ddrB deletion is not alleviated by providing ssb in trans. By altering expression of the ssb gene, we also show that lower levels of transcription are required for optimal growth than are necessary for high radiation resistance. When expression is reduced to that of E. coli, ionizing radiation resistance is similarly reduced. UV resistance is also decreased under low ssb transcript levels where growth is unimpaired. These results indicate that the expression of ssb is a key component of both normal cellular metabolism as well as pathways responsible for the high radiation tolerance of D. radiodurans.

  3. Survival of transfused red blood cells: In vivo compatibility testing with chromium-51

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dharkar, D.D.; Pineda, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    The /sup 51/Cr red cell survival test and specific test for measurement of the disappearance rate of labeled red cells. This procedure can be used for the assessment of red cell compatibility testing in vivo. The authors recommend that more routine transfusions as well as ''difficult'' transfusions be monitored by /sup 51/Cr in vivo compatibility testing before the actual transfusions, so that more consistent and reliable survival values are achieved

  4. Sub-chronic agmatine treatment modulates hippocampal neuroplasticity and cell survival signaling pathways in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Andiara E; Bettio, Luis E B; Neis, Vivian B; Moretti, Morgana; Ribeiro, Camille M; Lopes, Mark W; Leal, Rodrigo B; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S

    2014-11-01

    Agmatine is an endogenous neuromodulator which, based on animal and human studies, is a putative novel antidepressant drug. In this study, we investigated the ability of sub-chronic (21 days) p.o. agmatine administration to produce an antidepressant-like effect in the tail suspension test and examined the hippocampal cell signaling pathways implicated in such an effect. Agmatine at doses of 0.01 and 0.1 mg/kg (p.o.) produced a significant antidepressant-like effect in the tail suspension test and no effect in the open-field test. Additionally, agmatine (0.001-0.1 mg/kg, p.o.) increased the phosphorylation of protein kinase A substrates (237-258% of control), protein kinase B/Akt (Ser(473)) (116-127% of control), glycogen synthase kinase-3β (Ser(9)) (110-113% of control), extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (119-137% and 121-138% of control, respectively) and cAMP response elements (Ser(133)) (127-152% of control), and brain-derived-neurotrophic factor (137-175% of control) immunocontent in a dose-dependent manner in the hippocampus. Agmatine (0.001-0.1 mg/kg, p.o.) also reduced the c-jun N-terminal kinase 1/2 phosphorylation (77-71% and 65-51% of control, respectively). Neither protein kinase C nor p38(MAPK) phosphorylation was altered under any experimental conditions. Taken together, the present study extends the available data on the mechanisms that underlie the antidepressant action of agmatine by showing an antidepressant-like effect following sub-chronic administration. In addition, our results are the first to demonstrate the ability of agmatine to elicit the activation of cellular signaling pathways associated with neuroplasticity/cell survival and the inhibition of signaling pathways associated with cell death in the hippocampus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Reduced expression of granule proteins during extended survival of eosinophils in splenocyte culture with GM-CSF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Seul Hye; Na, Hye Young; Sohn, Moah; Han, Sun Murray; Choi, Wanho; In, Hyunju; Hong, Sookyung; Jeon, Hyejin; Seo, Jun-Young; Ahn, Jongcheol; Park, Chae Gyu

    2016-05-01

    Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a multifaceted hematopoietic cytokine and the culture of mouse bone marrow with GM-CSF produces a variety of myeloid cells including granulocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. In the present study, we cultured mouse splenocytes with GM-CSF and examined the changes in hematopoietic cell populations over a week. Most of the splenic hematopoietic cells disappeared significantly from culture within 6days with or without the presence of GM-CSF. Among the splenic granulocyte populations, only eosinophils fully survived throughout the culture with GM-CSF for more than a week. During 10days of culture with GM-CSF, splenic eosinophils maintained their morphology as well as most of their surface molecules at high levels, including CCR3 and Siglec F. Meanwhile, the expression of mRNAs encoding major basic protein-1 (MBP-1) and eosinophil peroxidase (EPO), two major eosinophil-derived granule proteins, was diminished significantly from the cultured eosinophils. EPO assays also revealed that eosinophils in culture for more than 5days retained 30% or less EPO activity compared to those in uncultured splenocytes. In contrast, culture of splenocytes with GM-CSF did not change the capacity of eosinophils to migrate in response to eotaxin-1. Our results indicate that mouse splenic eosinophils are effectively cultured for lengthy periods while their expression of eosinophil-derived granule proteins is specifically suppressed. The relevance of these findings to eosinophilic inflammatory response is discussed. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. NF-κB2 mutation targets survival, proliferation and differentiation pathways in the pathogenesis of plasma cell tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCarthy Brian A

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abnormal NF-κB2 activation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma, a cancer of plasma cells. However, a causal role for aberrant NF-κB2 signaling in the development of plasma cell tumors has not been established. Also unclear is the molecular mechanism that drives the tumorigenic process. We investigated these questions by using a transgenic mouse model with lymphocyte-targeted expression of p80HT, a lymphoma-associated NF-κB2 mutant, and human multiple myeloma cell lines. Methods We conducted a detailed histopathological characterization of lymphomas developed in p80HT transgenic mice and microarray gene expression profiling of p80HT B cells with the goal of identifying genes that drive plasma cell tumor development. We further verified the significance of our findings in human multiple myeloma cell lines. Results Approximately 40% of p80HT mice showed elevated levels of monoclonal immunoglobulin (M-protein in the serum and developed plasma cell tumors. Some of these mice displayed key features of human multiple myeloma with accumulation of plasma cells in the bone marrow, osteolytic bone lesions and/or diffuse osteoporosis. Gene expression profiling of B cells from M-protein-positive p80HT mice revealed aberrant expression of genes known to be important in the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma, including cyclin D1, cyclin D2, Blimp1, survivin, IL-10 and IL-15. In vitro assays demonstrated a critical role of Stat3, a key downstream component of IL-10 signaling, in the survival of human multiple myeloma cells. Conclusions These findings provide a mouse model for human multiple myeloma with aberrant NF-κB2 activation and suggest a molecular mechanism for NF-κB2 signaling in the pathogenesis of plasma cell tumors by coordinated regulation of plasma cell generation, proliferation and survival.

  7. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of stationary phase survival protein E (SurE) from Xylella fastidiosa in two crystal forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, Marcelo Augusto dos; Saraiva, Antonio Marcos; Santos, Marcelo Leite dos; Souza, Anete Pereira de; Aparicio, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    The crystallization and preliminary analysis of two crystal forms of survival protein E from X. fastidiosa are reported. The bacterium Xylella fastidiosa is a phytopathogenic organism that causes citrus variegated chlorosis, a disease which attacks economically important crops, mainly oranges. In this communication, the crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of XfSurE, a survival protein E from X. fastidiosa, are reported. Data were collected for two crystal forms, I and II, to 1.93 and 2.9 Å resolution, respectively. Crystal form I belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 172.36, b = 84.18, c = 87.24 Å, α = γ = 90, β = 96.59°, whereas crystal form II belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 88.05, b = 81.26, c = 72.84 Å, α = γ = 90, β = 94.76°

  8. Erythrokinetics, ferrokinetics and red cell survival in sickle cell anaemia under subtropical climatic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardenas, R.

    1975-01-01

    Ferrokinetic parameters were evaluated with 59 Fe and red-cell survival with 51 Cr by classical techniques in a total of 17 patients with sickle-cell disease. The mean plasma 59 Fe half-disappearance time in these patients was 29.5 min as compared with a normal value of 92 min, and the t1/2 51 Cr 8.0 days as compared with a normal value of 26.0 days. The mean red-cell iron turnover rate was elevated to 9 times normal. The increased destruction of red cells appeared to take place predominantly, though not entirely, in the spleen. Eight of the 17 patients studied were identified as having intercurrent complications, but these did not significantly affect the results of the investigations. A group of 5 boys in whom the red-cell iron turnover rate was elevated to a lesser degree than in the other patients were subjected to more detailed studies of plasma 59 Fe clearance with particular reference to ineffective erythropoiesis. In these patients, the plasma 59 Fe clearance curves showed precocious humps characteristic of ineffective erythropoiesis. Detailed analysis of the results indicated ineffective erythropoiesis corresponding to 3.6, 16.0, 22.6, 32.0 and 50.0 % of the iron initially taken up by the bone marrow. It is concluded that while the anaemia in most patients with sickle-cell disease is mainly due to shortened survival of the circulating red cells, with increased destruction of red cells in the spleen, ineffective erythropoiesis may none the less be an important factor determining the actual degree of this anaemia

  9. Extracellular sphingosine-1-phosphate: a novel actor in human glioblastoma stem cell survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Riccitelli

    Full Text Available Glioblastomas are the most frequent and aggressive intracranial neoplasms in humans, and despite advances and the introduction of the alkylating agent temozolomide in therapy have improved patient survival, resistance mechanisms limit benefits. Recent studies support that glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSCs, a cell subpopulation within the tumour, are involved in the aberrant expansion and therapy resistance properties of glioblastomas, through still unclear mechanisms. Emerging evidence suggests that sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P a potent onco-promoter able to act as extracellular signal, favours malignant and chemoresistance properties in GSCs. Notwithstanding, the origin of S1P in the GSC environment remains unknown. We investigated S1P metabolism, release, and role in cell survival properties of GSCs isolated from either U87-MG cell line or a primary culture of human glioblastoma. We show that both GSC models, grown as neurospheres and expressing GSC markers, are resistant to temozolomide, despite not expressing the DNA repair protein MGMT, a major contributor to temozolomide-resistance. Pulse experiments with labelled sphingosine revealed that both GSC types are able to rapidly phosphorylate the long-chain base, and that the newly produced S1P is efficiently degraded. Of relevance, we found that S1P was present in GSC extracellular medium, its level being significantly higher than in U87-MG cells, and that the extracellular/intracellular ratio of S1P was about ten-fold higher in GSCs. The activity of sphingosine kinases was undetectable in GSC media, suggesting that mechanisms of S1P transport to the extracellular environment are constitutive in GSCs. In addition we found that an inhibitor of S1P biosynthesis made GSCs sensitive to temozolomide (TMZ, and that exogenous S1P reverted this effect, thus involving extracellular S1P as a GSC survival signal in TMZ resistance. Altogether our data implicate for the first time GSCs as a pivotal source

  10. Out-of-Field Cell Survival Following Exposure to Intensity-Modulated Radiation Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butterworth, Karl T.; McGarry, Conor K.; Trainor, Colman; O'Sullivan, Joe M.; Hounsell, Alan R.; Prise, Kevin M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the in-field and out-of-field cell survival of cells irradiated with either primary field or scattered radiation in the presence and absence of intercellular communication. Methods and Materials: Cell survival was determined by clonogenic assay in human prostate cancer (DU145) and primary fibroblast (AGO1552) cells following exposure to different field configurations delivered using a 6-MV photon beam produced with a Varian linear accelerator. Results: Nonuniform dose distributions were delivered using a multileaf collimator (MLC) in which half of the cell population was shielded. Clonogenic survival in the shielded region was significantly lower than that predicted from the linear quadratic model. In both cell lines, the out-of-field responses appeared to saturate at 40%-50% survival at a scattered dose of 0.70 Gy in DU-145 cells and 0.24 Gy in AGO1522 cells. There was an approximately eightfold difference in the initial slopes of the out-of-field response compared with the α-component of the uniform field response. In contrast, cells in the exposed part of the field showed increased survival. These observations were abrogated by direct physical inhibition of cellular communication and by the addition of the inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor aminoguanidine known to inhibit intercellular bystander effects. Additional studies showed the proportion of cells irradiated and dose delivered to the shielded and exposed regions of the field to impact on response. Conclusions: These data demonstrate out-of-field effects as important determinants of cell survival following exposure to modulated irradiation fields with cellular communication between differentially irradiated cell populations playing an important role. Validation of these observations in additional cell models may facilitate the refinement of existing radiobiological models and the observations considered important determinants of cell survival.

  11. Pim1 kinase is upregulated in glioblastoma multiforme and mediates tumor cell survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Susann; Fink, Matthias Alexander; Weitmann, Kerstin; Friedel, Claudius; Hadlich, Stefan; Langner, Sönke; Kindermann, Katharina; Holm, Tobias; Böhm, Andreas; Eskilsson, Eskil; Miletic, Hrvoje; Hildner, Markus; Fritsch, Michael; Vogelgesang, Silke; Havemann, Christoph; Ritter, Christoph Alexander; Meyer zu Schwabedissen, Henriette Elisabeth; Rauch, Bernhard; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Kroemer, Heyo Klaus; Schroeder, Henry; Bien-Möller, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Background The current therapy for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most aggressive and common primary brain tumor of adults, involves surgery and a combined radiochemotherapy that controls tumor progression only for a limited time window. Therefore, the identification of new molecular targets is highly necessary. Inhibition of kinases has become a standard of clinical oncology, and thus the oncogenic kinase Pim1 might represent a promising target for improvement of GBM therapy. Methods Expression of Pim1 and associated signaling molecules was analyzed in human GBM samples, and the potential role of this kinase in patients' prognosis was evaluated. Furthermore, we analyzed the in vivo role of Pim1 in GBM cell growth in an orthotopic mouse model and examined the consequences of Pim1 inhibition in vitro to clarify underlying pathways. Results In comparison with normal brain, a strong upregulation of Pim1 was demonstrated in human GBM samples. Notably, patients with short overall survival showed a significantly higher Pim1 expression compared with GBM patients who lived longer than the median. In vitro experiments with GBM cells and analysis of patients' GBM samples suggest that Pim1 regulation is dependent on epidermal growth factor receptor. Furthermore, inhibition of Pim1 resulted in reduced cell viability accompanied by decreased cell numbers and increased apoptotic cells, as seen by elevated subG1 cell contents and caspase-3 and -9 activation, as well as modulation of several cell cycle or apoptosis regulatory proteins. Conclusions Altogether, Pim1 could be a novel therapeutic target, which should be further analyzed to improve the outcome of patients with aggressive GBM. PMID:25155357

  12. Transitional-2 B cells acquire regulatory function during tolerance induction and contribute to allograft survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Aurélie; Blair, Paul A; Chai, Jian-Guo; Ratnasothy, Kulachelvy; Stolarczyk, Emilie; Alhabbab, Rowa; Rackham, Chloe L; Jones, Peter M; Smyth, Lesley; Elgueta, Raul; Howard, Jane K; Lechler, Robert I; Lombardi, Giovanna

    2015-03-01

    In humans, tolerance to renal transplants has been associated with alterations in B-cell gene transcription and maintenance of the numbers of circulating transitional B cells. Here, we use a mouse model of transplantation tolerance to investigate the contribution of B cells to allograft survival. We demonstrate that transfer of B cells from mice rendered tolerant to MHC class I mismatched skin grafts can prolong graft survival in a dose-dependent and antigen-specific manner to a degree similar to that afforded by graft-specific regulatory T (Treg) cells. Tolerance in this model was associated with an increase in transitional-2 (T2) B cells. Only T2 B cells from tolerized mice, not naïve T2 nor alloantigen experienced T2, were capable of prolonging skin allograft survival, and suppressing T-cell activation. Tolerized T2 B cells expressed lower levels of CD86, increased TIM-1, and demonstrated a preferential survival in vivo. Furthermore, we demonstrate a synergistic effect between tolerized B cells and graft-specific Treg cells. IL-10 production by T2 B cells did not contribute to tolerance, as shown by transfer of B cells from IL-10(-/-) mice. These results suggest that T2 B cells in tolerant patients may include a population of regulatory B cells that directly inhibit graft rejection. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Choline kinase alpha and hexokinase-2 protein expression in hepatocellular carcinoma: association with survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandi A Kwee

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Hexokinase-2 (HK2 and more recently choline kinase alpha (CKA expression has been correlated with clinical outcomes in several major cancers. This study examines the protein expression of HK2 and CKA in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC in association with patient survival and other clinicopathologic parameters. METHODS: Immunohistochemical analysis for HK2 and CKA expression was performed on a tissue microarray of 157 HCC tumor samples. Results were analyzed in relation to clinicopathologic data from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End-Results Program registries. Mortality rates were assessed by Kaplan-Meier estimates and compared using log-rank tests. Predictors of overall survival were assessed using proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: Immunohistochemical expression of HK2 and CKA was detected in 71 (45% and 55 (35% tumor samples, respectively. Differences in tumor HK2 expression were associated with tumor grade (p = 0.008 and cancer stage (p = 0.001, while CKA expression differed significantly only across cancer stage (p = 0.048. Increased mortality was associated with tumor HK2 expression (p = 0.003 as well as CKA expression (p = 0.03 with hazard ratios of 1.86 (95% confidence interval (CI 1.23-2.83 and 1.59 (95% CI 1.04-2.41, respectively. Similar effects on overall survival were noted in a subset analysis of early stage (I and II HCC. Tumor HK2 expression, but not CKA expression, remained a significant predictor of survival in multivariable analyses. CONCLUSION: HK2 and CKA expression may have biologic and prognostic significance in HCC, with tumor HK2 expression being a potential independent predictor of survival.

  14. Differentially expressed and survival-related proteins of lung adenocarcinoma with bone metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mengdi; Sun, Yi; Sun, Jing; Wang, Zhiyu; Zhou, Yiyi; Yao, Guangyu; Gu, Yifeng; Zhang, Huizhen; Zhao, Hui

    2018-04-01

    Despite recent advances in targeted and immune-based therapies, the poor prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) with bone metastasis (BM) remains a challenge. First, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) was used to identify proteins that were differentially expressed in LUAD with BM, and then matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) was used to identify these proteins. Second, the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) was used to identify mutations in these differentially expressed proteins and Kaplan-Meier plotter (KM Plotter) was used to generate survival curves for the analyzed cases. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to check the expression of proteins in 28 patients with BM and nine patients with LUAD. Lastly, the results were analyzed with respect to clinical features and patient's follow-up. We identified a number of matched proteins from 2-DE. High expression of enolase 1 (ENO1) (HR = 1.67, logrank P = 1.9E-05), ribosomal protein lateral stalk subunit P2 (RPLP2) (HR = 1.77, logrank P = 2.9e-06), and NME/NM23 nucleoside diphosphate kinase 2 (NME1-NME2) (HR = 2.65, logrank P = 3.9E-15) was all significantly associated with poor survival (P < 0.05). Further, ENO1 was upregulated (P = 0.0004) and calcyphosine (CAPS1) was downregulated (P = 5.34E-07) in TCGA LUAD RNA-seq expression data. IHC revealed that prominent ENO1 staining (OR = 7.5, P = 0.034) and low levels of CAPS1 (OR = 0.01, P < 0.0001) staining were associated with BM incidence. Finally, we found that LUAD patients with high expression of ENO1 and RPLP2 had worse overall survival. This is the first instance where the genes ENO1, RPLP2, NME1-NME2 and CAPS1 were associated with disease severity and progression in LUAD patients with BM. Thus, with this study, we have identified potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for this disease. © 2018 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Intracellular contacts - effect of survival curve of mammal cells on the Dq value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, R.E.; Sutherland, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    Survival increase is observed in cells of the Chinese hamster of the V79-171 line which grow in the composition of multicell spheroids as compared with the survival after irradiation in a single state. The ratio of the Dsub(q) cell value in the composition of spheroids to Dsub(q) of separately growing cells increases as the mitotic cycle proceeds from the minimum value of 1.3 for cells in the Gi phase to the maximum value of 2.2 for cells in a late S-phase. The increase of survival during growth in the composition of spheroids is not characteristic for all cell types. Only a part of cultured MNNG-mutants of cells of the V79-171 Chinese hamster reveal radiomodifying effect of cell contact acting [ru

  16. Radiosensitizing effect of RHOB protein in melanoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notcovich, C.; Grissi, C.; Sánchez Crespo, R.; Delgado, D.C.; Molinari, B.; Ibañez, I.L.; Durán, H.

    2015-01-01

    Melanoma cells are highly resistant to chemo or radiotherapy. DNA damage agents such as ionizing radiation induce apoptosis involving RhoB protein. In a great variety of tumors the levels of this protein decrease along tumor progression. RhoB is considered a tumor suppressor gene due to its antiproliferative and proapoptotic effect. Considering the aforementioned, the aim of this study was to characterize the radiobiological response of different human melanoma cell lines, and to evaluate the possible correlation between RhoB expression and radiosensitivity. The human melanoma cell lines A375, MELJ and SB2 were gamma-irradiated ( 137 Cs). Survival curves were obtained by clonogenic assay and fitted to the Linear-Quadratic (LQ) model. Radiosensitivity was evaluated by surviving fraction at 2 Gy (SF2). Results showed that MELJ was significantly more radioresistant (SF2=0.71) than A375 and SB2 (0.29 and 0.21 respectively. Expression levels of RhoB, evaluated by western blot, increased in all lines vs. non-irradiated control. SB2, the most radiosensitive cells, showed a greater induction (p<0.05) of RhoB. Finally, to study whether RhoB has a radiosensitizing effect, these cell lines were stably transfected with a wild type RhoB construction, a constitutively active RhoB mutant V14, or with the empty plasmid as control. For all cell lines higher expression level of this protein was found in RhoB or V14 transfected cells (p<0.05). Sensitization was evaluated by SF2. Significant radiosensitization was demonstrated in clones derived from A375 and SB2 ((p<0.05), while for MELJ cells, radio-sensitization was only found in clones overexpressing V14. In conclusion, the increase of RhoB in melanoma cell lines, either by radiation or transfection has a radiosensitizing effect. Thus, we propose RhoB modulation as a potential therapeutic tool to improve the radiation response of radioresistant melanoma. (authors)

  17. Hydrogen sulfide mediates the anti-survival effect of sulforaphane on human prostate cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei, Yanxi [Department of Biology, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay (Canada); College of Life Science, Shanxi University, Taiyuan (China); Wu, Bo [Department of Biology, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay (Canada); Department of Pathophysiology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin (China); Cao, Qiuhui [Department of Biology, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay (Canada); Wu, Lingyun [Department of Pathophysiology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin (China); Department of Pharmacology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada); Yang, Guangdong, E-mail: gyang@lakeheadu.ca [The School of Kinesiology, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay (Canada)

    2011-12-15

    Hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) is a novel gasotransmitter that regulates cell proliferation and other cellular functions. Sulforaphane (SFN) is a sulfur-containing compound that exhibits anticancer properties, and young sprouts of broccoli are particularly rich in SFN. There is consistent epidemiological evidence that the consumption of sulfur-containing vegetables, such as garlic and cruciferous vegetables, may help reduce the occurrence of prostate cancer. Here we found that a large amount of H{sub 2}S is released when SFN is added into cell culture medium or mixed with mouse liver homogenates, respectively. Both SFN and NaHS (a H{sub 2}S donor) decreased the viability of PC-3 cells (a human prostate cancer cell line) in a dose-dependent manner, and supplement of methemoglobin or oxidized glutathione (two H{sub 2}S scavengers) reversed SFN-reduced cell viability. We further found both cystathionine gamma-lyase (CSE) and cystathionine beta-synthase are expressed in PC-3 cells and mouse prostate tissues. H{sub 2}S production in prostate tissues from CSE knockout mice was only 20% of that from wild-type mice, suggesting CSE is a major H{sub 2}S-producing enzyme in prostate. CSE overexpression enhanced H{sub 2}S production and inhibited cell viability in PC-3 cells. In addition, both SFN and NaHS activated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Pre-treatment of PC-3 cells with methemoglobin decreased SFN-stimulated MAPK activities. Suppression of both p38 MAPK and JNK reversed H{sub 2}S- or SFN-reduced viability of PC-3 cells. Our results demonstrated that H{sub 2}S mediates the inhibitory effect of SFN on the proliferation of PC-3 cells, which suggests that H{sub 2}S-releasing diet or drug might be beneficial in the treatment of prostate cancer. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A large amount of H{sub 2}S is released from sulforaphane. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H{sub 2}S mediates the anti-survival effect of

  18. Hydrogen sulfide mediates the anti-survival effect of sulforaphane on human prostate cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, Yanxi; Wu, Bo; Cao, Qiuhui; Wu, Lingyun; Yang, Guangdong

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) is a novel gasotransmitter that regulates cell proliferation and other cellular functions. Sulforaphane (SFN) is a sulfur-containing compound that exhibits anticancer properties, and young sprouts of broccoli are particularly rich in SFN. There is consistent epidemiological evidence that the consumption of sulfur-containing vegetables, such as garlic and cruciferous vegetables, may help reduce the occurrence of prostate cancer. Here we found that a large amount of H 2 S is released when SFN is added into cell culture medium or mixed with mouse liver homogenates, respectively. Both SFN and NaHS (a H 2 S donor) decreased the viability of PC-3 cells (a human prostate cancer cell line) in a dose-dependent manner, and supplement of methemoglobin or oxidized glutathione (two H 2 S scavengers) reversed SFN-reduced cell viability. We further found both cystathionine gamma-lyase (CSE) and cystathionine beta-synthase are expressed in PC-3 cells and mouse prostate tissues. H 2 S production in prostate tissues from CSE knockout mice was only 20% of that from wild-type mice, suggesting CSE is a major H 2 S-producing enzyme in prostate. CSE overexpression enhanced H 2 S production and inhibited cell viability in PC-3 cells. In addition, both SFN and NaHS activated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Pre-treatment of PC-3 cells with methemoglobin decreased SFN-stimulated MAPK activities. Suppression of both p38 MAPK and JNK reversed H 2 S- or SFN-reduced viability of PC-3 cells. Our results demonstrated that H 2 S mediates the inhibitory effect of SFN on the proliferation of PC-3 cells, which suggests that H 2 S-releasing diet or drug might be beneficial in the treatment of prostate cancer. Highlights: ► A large amount of H 2 S is released from sulforaphane. ► H 2 S mediates the anti-survival effect of sulforaphane on human prostate cancer cells. ► Cystathionine gamma-lyase is a major H 2 S

  19. Schisandrin B protects PC12 cells by decreasing the expression of amyloid precursor protein and vacuolar protein sorting 35★

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Mingmin; Mao, Shanping; Dong, Huimin; Liu, Baohui; Zhang, Qian; Pan, Gaofeng; Fu, Zhiping

    2012-01-01

    PC12 cell injury was induced using 20 μM amyloid β-protein 25–35 to establish a model of Alzheimer's disease. The cells were then treated with 5, 10, and 25 μM Schisandrin B. Methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assays and Hoechst 33342 staining results showed that with increasing Schisandrin B concentration, the survival rate of PC12 cells injured by amyloid β-protein 25–35 gradually increased and the rate of apoptosis gradually decreased. Reverse transcription-PCR, immunocytochemical staining and western blot results showed that with increasing Schisandrin B concentration, the mRNA and protein expression of vacuolar protein sorting 35 and amyloid precursor protein were gradually decreased. Vacuolar protein sorting 35 and amyloid precursor protein showed a consistent trend for change. These findings suggest that 5, 10, and 25 μM Schisandrin B antagonizes the cellular injury induced by amyloid β-protein 25–35 in a dose-dependent manner. This may be caused by decreasing the expression of vacuolar protein sorting 35 and amyloid precursor protein. PMID:25745458

  20. The formation of lipid droplets favors intracellular Mycobacterium leprae survival in SW-10, non-myelinating Schwann cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Song-Hyo; An, Sung-Kwan; Lee, Seong-Beom

    2017-06-01

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease that is caused by the obligate intracellular pathogen Mycobacterium leprae (M.leprae), which is the leading cause of all non-traumatic peripheral neuropathies worldwide. Although both myelinating and non-myelinating Schwann cells are infected by M.leprae in patients with lepromatous leprosy, M.leprae preferentially invades the non-myelinating Schwann cells. However, the effect of M.leprae infection on non-myelinating Schwann cells has not been elucidated. Lipid droplets (LDs) are found in M.leprae-infected Schwann cells in the nerve biopsies of lepromatous leprosy patients. M.leprae-induced LD formation favors intracellular M.leprae survival in primary Schwann cells and in a myelinating Schwann cell line referred to as ST88-14. In the current study, we initially characterized SW-10 cells and investigated the effects of LDs on M.leprae-infected SW-10 cells, which are non-myelinating Schwann cells. SW-10 cells express S100, a marker for cells from the neural crest, and NGFR p75, a marker for immature or non-myelinating Schwann cells. SW-10 cells, however, do not express myelin basic protein (MBP), a marker for myelinating Schwann cells, and myelin protein zero (MPZ), a marker for precursor, immature, or myelinating Schwann cells, all of which suggests that SW-10 cells are non-myelinating Schwann cells. In addition, SW-10 cells have phagocytic activity and can be infected with M. leprae. Infection with M. leprae induces the formation of LDs. Furthermore, inhibiting the formation of M. leprae-induced LD enhances the maturation of phagosomes containing live M.leprae and decreases the ATP content in the M. leprae found in SW-10 cells. These facts suggest that LD formation by M. leprae favors intracellular M. leprae survival in SW-10 cells, which leads to the logical conclusion that M.leprae-infected SW-10 cells can be a new model for investigating the interaction of M.leprae with non-myelinating Schwann cells.

  1. Early NK Cell Reconstitution Predicts Overall Survival in T-Cell Replete Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minculescu, Lia; Marquart, Hanne Vibeke; Friis, Lone Smidstrups

    2016-01-01

    Early immune reconstitution plays a critical role in clinical outcome after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Natural killer (NK) cells are the first lymphocytes to recover after transplantation and are considered powerful effector cells in HSCT. We aimed to evaluate...... the clinical impact of early NK cell recovery in T-cell replete transplant recipients. Immune reconstitution was studied in 298 adult patients undergoing HSCT for acute myeloid leukemia (AML), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) from 2005 to 2013. In multivariate analysis NK...... cell numbers day 30 (NK30) >150cells/µL were independently associated with superior overall survival (hazard ratio 0.79, 95% confidence interval 0.66-0.95, p=0.01). Cumulative incidence analyses showed that patients with NK30 >150cells/µL had significantly less transplant related mortality (TRM), p=0...

  2. Active Stat3 is required for survival of human squamous cell carcinoma cells in serum-free conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DiGiovanni John

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC of the skin is the most aggressive form of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC, and is the single most commonly diagnosed cancer in the U.S., with over one million new cases reported each year. Recent studies have revealed an oncogenic role of activated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3 in many human tumors, especially in those of epithelial origin, including skin SCC. Stat3 is a mediator of numerous growth factor and cytokine signaling pathways, all of which activate it through phosphorylation of tyrosine 705. Results To further address the role of Stat3 in skin SCC tumorigenesis, we have analyzed a panel of human skin-derived cell lines ranging from normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK, to non-tumorigenic transformed skin cells (HaCaT, to highly tumorigenic cells (SRB1-m7 and SRB12-p9 and observed a positive correlation between Stat3 phosphorylation and SCC malignancy. We next determined the role of Stat3 activity in cell proliferation and viability under serum-free culture conditions. This was accomplished by suppressing Stat3 activity in the SRB12-p9 cells through stable expression of a dominant negative acting form of Stat3β, which contains a tyrosine 705 to phenylalanine mutation (S3DN. The S3DN cells behaved similar to parental SRB12-p9 cells when cultured in optimal growth conditions, in the presence of 10% fetal calf serum. However, unlike the SRB12-p9 cells, S3DN cells underwent apoptotic cell death when cultured in serum-free medium (SFM. This was evidenced by multiple criteria, including accumulation of sub-G1 particles, induced PARP cleavage, and acquisition of the characteristic morphological changes associated with apoptosis. Conclusion This study provides direct evidence for a role for Stat3 in maintaining cell survival in the conditions of exogenous growth factor deprivation produced by culture in SFM. We also propose that delivery of the S3DN gene or

  3. Sustainability of keratinocyte gene transfer and cell survival in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choate, K A; Khavari, P A

    1997-05-20

    The epidermis is an attractive site for therapeutic gene delivery because it is accessible and capable of delivering polypeptides to the systemic circulation. A number of difficulties, however, have emerged in attempts at cutaneous gene delivery, and central among these is an inability to sustain therapeutic gene production. We have examined two major potential contributing factors, viral vector stamina and involvement of long-lived epidermal progenitor cells. Human keratinocytes were either untreated or transduced with a retroviral vector for beta-galactosidase (beta-Gal) at > 99% efficiency and then grafted onto immunodeficient mice to regenerate human epidermis. Human epidermis was monitored in vivo after grafting for clinical and histologic appearance as well as for gene expression. Although integrated vector sequences persisted unchanged in engineered epidermis at 10 weeks post-grafting, retroviral long terminal repeat (LTR)-driven beta-Gal expression ceased in vivo after approximately 4 weeks. Endogenous cellular promoters, however, maintained consistently normal gene expression levels without evidence of time-dependent decline, as determined by immunostaining with species-specific antibodies for human involucrin, filaggrin, keratinocyte transglutaminase, keratin 10, type VII collagen, and Laminin 5 proteins out to week 14 post-grafting. Transduced human keratinocytes generated multilayer epidermis sustained through multiple epidermal turnover cycles; this epidermis demonstrated retention of a spatially appropriate pattern of basal and suprabasal epidermal marker gene expression. These results confirm previous findings suggesting that viral promoter-driven gene expression is not durable and demonstrate that keratinocytes passaged in vitro can regenerate and sustain normal epidermis for prolonged periods.

  4. Optimal fractionation for the radiotherapy of tumour cells possessing wide-shouldered survival curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheldon, T.E.

    1979-01-01

    A recent publication (Zeitz, L., and McDonald, J.M., 1978, Br. J. Radiol., vol. 51, 637) has considered the use of in vitro survival curves in the evaluation of different treatment schedules. Several studies of oxygenated melanoma cell have demonstrated a wider than average shoulder width for the survival curves. It is possible that hypoxia reduces the width of this shoulder. Theoretical cell survival probabilities were calculated for each of the four treatment schedules considered by Zeitz and McDonald. The calculations were based on hypothetical survival curves for anoxic melanoma cells with the shoulder either fully retained or completely abolished. No allowance was made for either re-population or re-oxygenation. The advantage of small doses per fraction was demonstrated for both types of survival curve. Re-oxygenation during therapy could therefore mean that a non-uniform treatment schedule is the appropriate choice for this type of tumour. (U.K.)

  5. IR-induced autophagy plays a role in survival of HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Mi Young; Jang, Eun Yeong; Ryu, Tae Ho; Chung, Dong Min; Kim, Jin Hong; Kim, Jin Kyu

    2014-01-01

    Cells respond to stress with repair, or are diverted into irreversible cell cycle exit (senescence) or are eliminated through programmed cell death. There are two major morphologically distinctive forms of programmed cell death, apoptosis and autophagic cell death. Apoptosis contribute to cell death, whereas autophagy can play a dual role in mediating either cell survival or death in response to various stress stimuli. Here we analysed cellular responses induced by IR. The understanding of an appropriate cellular stress response is of crucial importance in foreseeing the cell fate. Apoptotic feagures were not detected in HeLa under our experimental irradiation condition. Autophagic cell death in HeLa may play an important role in cell protection and can result in cell survival

  6. Ten-year survival of patients with oesophageal squamous cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    patients with oesophageal SCC continues to be poor, with 5-year survival rates ranging from 26.2% to ... approach, and the cervico-thoraco-abdominal procedure. The .... abuse, a family history of any cancer, neo-adjuvant treatment, pathological ... Of the entire series, 72 patients (6.9%) underwent neo-adjuvant therapy, and.

  7. CEACAM1 induces B-cell survival and is essential for protective antiviral antibody production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairnar, Vishal; Duhan, Vikas; Maney, Sathish Kumar; Honke, Nadine; Shaabani, Namir; Pandyra, Aleksandra A.; Seifert, Marc; Pozdeev, Vitaly; Xu, Haifeng C.; Sharma, Piyush; Baldin, Fabian; Marquardsen, Florian; Merches, Katja; Lang, Elisabeth; Kirschning, Carsten; Westendorf, Astrid M.; Häussinger, Dieter; Lang, Florian; Dittmer, Ulf; Küppers, Ralf; Recher, Mike; Hardt, Cornelia; Scheffrahn, Inka; Beauchemin, Nicole; Göthert, Joachim R.; Singer, Bernhard B.; Lang, Philipp A.; Lang, Karl S.

    2015-01-01

    B cells are essential for antiviral immune defence because they produce neutralizing antibodies, present antigen and maintain the lymphoid architecture. Here we show that intrinsic signalling of CEACAM1 is essential for generating efficient B-cell responses. Although CEACAM1 exerts limited influence on the proliferation of B cells, expression of CEACAM1 induces survival of proliferating B cells via the BTK/Syk/NF-κB-axis. The absence of this signalling cascade in naive Ceacam1−/− mice limits the survival of B cells. During systemic infection with cytopathic vesicular stomatitis virus, Ceacam1−/− mice can barely induce neutralizing antibody responses and die early after infection. We find, therefore, that CEACAM1 is a crucial regulator of B-cell survival, influencing B-cell numbers and protective antiviral antibody responses. PMID:25692415

  8. Cell survival and chromosomal aberrations in CHO-K1 cells irradiated by carbon ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czub, J. [Institute of Physics, Swietokrzyska Academy, ul. Swietokrzyska 15, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Banas, D. [Institute of Physics, Swietokrzyska Academy, ul. Swietokrzyska 15, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Holycross Cancer Center, ul. Swietokrzyska 15, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Blaszczyk, A. [Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Informatics, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Grudziadzka 5, 87-100 Torun (Poland); Braziewicz, J. [Institute of Physics, Swietokrzyska Academy, ul. Swietokrzyska 15, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Holycross Cancer Center, ul. Swietokrzyska 15, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Buraczewska, I. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, ul. Dorodna 16, 03-195 Warsaw (Poland); Choinski, J. [Heavy Ion Laboratory, Warsaw University, ul. Pasteura 5A, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Gorak, U. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Warsaw University, ul. Hoza 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Jaskola, M.; Korman, A. [Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Lankoff, A.; Lisowska, H. [Institute of Biology, Swietokrzyska Academy, ul. Swietokrzyska 15, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Lukaszek, A. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Warsaw University, ul. Hoza 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Main School of Fire Service, ul. Slowackiego 52/54, 01-629 Warsaw (Poland); Szeflinski, Z. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Warsaw University, ul. Hoza 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland)], E-mail: szef@fuw.edu.pl; Wojcik, A. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, ul. Dorodna 16, 03-195 Warsaw (Poland); Institute of Biology, Swietokrzyska Academy, ul. Swietokrzyska 15, 25-406 Kielce (Poland)

    2009-03-15

    Chinese hamster ovary CHO-K1 cells were exposed to high LET {sup 12}C-beam (LET: 830 keV/{mu}m) in the dose range of 0-6 Gy and to {sup 60}Co irradiation and the RBE value was obtained. Effects of {sup 12}C-beam exposure on cell survival and chromosomal aberrations were calculated. The chromosomal aberration data were fitted with linear equation. The distribution of aberration in cells was examined with a standard u-test and used to evaluate the data according to Poisson probabilities. The variance to the mean ratio {sigma}{sup 2}/Y and the dispersion index (u) were determined. Overdispersion was significant (p<0.05) when the value of u exceeded 1.96.

  9. Plasmalogens rescue neuronal cell death through an activation of AKT and ERK survival signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Shamim Hossain

    Full Text Available Neuronal cells are susceptible to many stresses, which will cause the apoptosis and neurodegenerative diseases. The precise molecular mechanism behind the neuronal protection against these apoptotic stimuli is necessary for drug discovery. In the present study, we have found that plasmalogens (Pls, which are glycerophospholipids containing vinyl ether linkage at sn-1 position, can protect the neuronal cell death upon serum deprivation. Interestingly, caspse-9, but not caspase-8 and caspase-12, was cleaved upon the serum starvation in Neuro-2A cells. Pls treatments effectively reduced the activation of caspase-9. Furthermore, cellular signaling experiments showed that Pls enhanced phosphorylation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K-dependent serine/threonine-specific protein kinase AKT and extracellular-signal-regulated kinases ERK1/2. PI3K/AKT inhibitor LY294002 and MAPK/ERK kinase (MEK inhibitor U0126 treatments study clearly indicated that Pls-mediated cell survival was dependent on the activation of these kinases. In addition, Pls also inhibited primary mouse hippocampal neuronal cell death induced by nutrient deprivation, which was associated with the inhibition of caspase-9 and caspase-3 cleavages. It was reported that Pls content decreased in the brain of the Alzheimer's patients, which indicated that the reduction of Pls content could endanger neurons. The present findings, taken together, suggest that Pls have an anti-apoptotic action in the brain. Further studies on precise mechanisms of Pls-mediated protection against cell death may lead us to establish a novel therapeutic approach to cure neurodegenerative disorders.

  10. Mutant p53 - heat shock response oncogenic cooperation: a new mechanism of cancer cell survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evguenia eAlexandrova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The main tumor suppressor function of p53 as a ‘guardian of the genome’ is to respond to cellular stress by transcriptional activation of apoptosis, growth arrest or senescence in damaged cells. Not surprisingly, mutations in the p53 gene are the most frequent genetic alteration in human cancers. Importantly, mutant p53 (mutp53 proteins not only lose their wild-type tumor suppressor activity, but also can actively promote tumor development. Two main mechanisms accounting for mutp53 proto-oncogenic activity are inhibition of the wild-type p53 in a dominant-negative fashion and gain of additional oncogenic activities known as gain-of-function (GOF. Here we discuss a novel mechanism of mutp53 GOF, which relies on its oncogenic cooperation with the heat shock machinery. This coordinated adaptive mechanism renders cancer cells more resistant to proteotoxic stress and provides both, a strong survival advantage to cancer cells and a promising means for therapeutic intervention.

  11. Activation of transglutaminase 2 by nerve growth factor in differentiating neuroblastoma cells: A role in cell survival and neurite outgrowth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algarni, Alanood S; Hargreaves, Alan J; Dickenson, John M

    2018-02-05

    NGF (nerve growth factor) and tissue transglutaminase (TG2) play important roles in neurite outgrowth and modulation of neuronal cell survival. In this study, we investigated the regulation of TG2 transamidase activity by NGF in retinoic acid-induced differentiating mouse N2a and human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. TG2 transamidase activity was determined using an amine incorporation and a peptide cross linking assay. In situ TG2 activity was assessed by visualising the incorporation of biotin-X-cadaverine using confocal microscopy. The role of TG2 in NGF-induced cytoprotection and neurite outgrowth was investigated by monitoring hypoxia-induced cell death and appearance of axonal-like processes, respectively. The amine incorporation and protein crosslinking activity of TG2 increased in a time and concentration-dependent manner following stimulation with NGF in N2a and SH-SY5Y cells. NGF mediated increases in TG2 activity were abolished by the TG2 inhibitors Z-DON (Z-ZON-Val-Pro-Leu-OMe; Benzyloxycarbonyl-(6-Diazo-5-oxonorleucinyl)-l-valinyl-l-prolinyl-l-leucinmethylester) and R283 (1,3,dimethyl-2[2-oxo-propyl]thio)imidazole chloride) and by pharmacological inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), protein kinase B (PKB) and protein kinase C (PKC), and removal of extracellular Ca 2+ . Fluorescence microscopy demonstrated NGF induced in situ TG2 activity. TG2 inhibition blocked NGF-induced attenuation of hypoxia-induced cell death and neurite outgrowth in both cell lines. Together, these results demonstrate that NGF stimulates TG2 transamidase activity via a ERK1/2, PKB and PKC-dependent pathway in differentiating mouse N2a and human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Furthermore, NGF-induced cytoprotection and neurite outgrowth are dependent upon TG2. These results suggest a novel and important role of TG2 in the cellular functions of NGF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Hemidesmosomal linker proteins regulate cell motility, invasion and tumorigenicity in oral squamous cell carcinoma derived cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Pratik Rajeev; Charles, Silvania Emlit; D'Souza, Zinia Charlotte; Vaidya, Milind Murlidhar

    2017-11-15

    BPAG1e and Plectin are hemidesmosomal linker proteins which anchor intermediate filament proteins to the cell surface through β4 integrin. Recent reports indicate that these proteins play a role in various cellular processes apart from their known anchoring function. However, the available literature is inconsistent. Further, the previous study from our laboratory suggested that Keratin8/18 pair promotes cell motility and tumor progression by deregulating β4 integrin signaling in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) derived cells. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that linker proteins may have a role in neoplastic progression of OSCC. Downregulation of hemidesmosomal linker proteins in OSCC derived cells resulted in reduced cell migration accompanied by alterations in actin organization. Further, decreased MMP9 activity led to reduced cell invasion in linker proteins knockdown cells. Moreover, loss of these proteins resulted in reduced tumorigenic potential. SWATH analysis demonstrated upregulation of N-Myc downstream regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) in linker proteins downregulated cells as compared to vector control cells. Further, the defects in phenotype upon linker proteins ablation were rescued upon loss of NDRG1 in linker proteins knockdown background. These data together indicate that hemidesmosomal linker proteins regulate cell motility, invasion and tumorigenicity possibly through NDRG1 in OSCC derived cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of a long-term high-protein diet on survival, obesity development, and gut microbiota in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiilerich, Pia; Myrmel, Lene Secher; Fjære, Even; Hao, Qin; Hugenholtz, Floor; Sonne, Si Brask; Derrien, Muriel; Pedersen, Lone Møller; Petersen, Rasmus Koefoed; Mortensen, Alicja; Licht, Tine Rask; Rømer, Maria Unni; Vogel, Ulla Birgitte; Waagbø, Linn Jeanette; Giallourou, Natasa; Feng, Qiang; Xiao, Liang; Liu, Chuan; Liaset, Bjørn; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Wang, Jun; Madsen, Lise; Kristiansen, Karsten

    2016-06-01

    Female C57BL/6J mice were fed a regular low-fat diet or high-fat diets combined with either high or low protein-to-sucrose ratios during their entire lifespan to examine the long-term effects on obesity development, gut microbiota, and survival. Intake of a high-fat diet with a low protein/sucrose ratio precipitated obesity and reduced survival relative to mice fed a low-fat diet. By contrast, intake of a high-fat diet with a high protein/sucrose ratio attenuated lifelong weight gain and adipose tissue expansion, and survival was not significantly altered relative to low-fat-fed mice. Our findings support the notion that reduced survival in response to high-fat/high-sucrose feeding is linked to obesity development. Digital gene expression analyses, further validated by qPCR, demonstrated that the protein/sucrose ratio modulated global gene expression over time in liver and adipose tissue, affecting pathways related to metabolism and inflammation. Analysis of fecal bacterial DNA using the Mouse Intestinal Tract Chip revealed significant changes in the composition of the gut microbiota in relation to host age and dietary fat content, but not the protein/sucrose ratio. Accordingly, dietary fat rather than the protein/sucrose ratio or adiposity is a major driver shaping the gut microbiota, whereas the effect of a high-fat diet on survival is dependent on the protein/sucrose ratio. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Chaski, a novel Drosophila lactate/pyruvate transporter required in glia cells for survival under nutritional stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, María Graciela; Oliva, Carlos; López, Estefanía; Ibacache, Andrés; Galaz, Alex; Delgado, Ricardo; Barros, L Felipe; Sierralta, Jimena

    2018-01-19

    The intercellular transport of lactate is crucial for the astrocyte-to-neuron lactate shuttle (ANLS), a model of brain energetics according to which neurons are fueled by astrocytic lactate. In this study we show that the Drosophila chaski gene encodes a monocarboxylate transporter protein (MCT/SLC16A) which functions as a lactate/pyruvate transporter, as demonstrated by heterologous expression in mammalian cell culture using a genetically encoded FRET nanosensor. chaski expression is prominent in the Drosophila central nervous system and it is particularly enriched in glia over neurons. chaski mutants exhibit defects in a high energy demanding process such as synaptic transmission, as well as in locomotion and survival under nutritional stress. Remarkably, locomotion and survival under nutritional stress defects are restored by chaski expression in glia cells. Our findings are consistent with a major role for intercellular lactate shuttling in the brain metabolism of Drosophila.

  15. Blimp-1 controls plasma cell function through regulation of immunoglobulin secretion and the unfolded protein response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellier, Julie; Shi, Wei; Minnich, Martina; Liao, Yang; Crawford, Simon; Smyth, Gordon K; Kallies, Axel; Busslinger, Meinrad; Nutt, Stephen L

    2015-01-01

    Plasma cell differentiation requires silencing of B cell transcription, while establishing antibody-secretory function and long-term survival. The transcription factors Blimp-1 and IRF4 are essential for plasma cell generation, however their function in mature plasma cells has remained elusive. We have found that while IRF4 was essential for plasma cell survival, Blimp-1 was dispensable. Blimp-1-deficient plasma cells retained their transcriptional identity, but lost the ability to secrete antibody. Blimp-1 regulated many components of the unfolded protein response (UPR), including XBP-1 and ATF6. The overlap of Blimp-1 and XBP-1 function was restricted to the UPR, with Blimp-1 uniquely regulating mTOR activity and plasma cell size. Thus, Blimp-1 is required for the unique physiological capacity of plasma cells that enables the secretion of protective antibody. PMID:26779600

  16. Plasmid-based genetic modification of human bone marrow-derived stromal cells: analysis of cell survival and transgene expression after transplantation in rat spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronsyn, Mark W; Daans, Jasmijn; Spaepen, Gie; Chatterjee, Shyama; Vermeulen, Katrien; D'Haese, Patrick; Van Tendeloo, Viggo Fi; Van Marck, Eric; Ysebaert, Dirk; Berneman, Zwi N; Jorens, Philippe G; Ponsaerts, Peter

    2007-12-14

    Bone marrow-derived stromal cells (MSC) are attractive targets for ex vivo cell and gene therapy. In this context, we investigated the feasibility of a plasmid-based strategy for genetic modification of human (h)MSC with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and neurotrophin (NT)3. Three genetically modified hMSC lines (EGFP, NT3, NT3-EGFP) were established and used to study cell survival and transgene expression following transplantation in rat spinal cord. First, we demonstrate long-term survival of transplanted hMSC-EGFP cells in rat spinal cord under, but not without, appropriate immune suppression. Next, we examined the stability of EGFP or NT3 transgene expression following transplantation of hMSC-EGFP, hMSC-NT3 and hMSC-NT3-EGFP in rat spinal cord. While in vivo EGFP mRNA and protein expression by transplanted hMSC-EGFP cells was readily detectable at different time points post-transplantation, in vivo NT3 mRNA expression by hMSC-NT3 cells and in vivo EGFP protein expression by hMSC-NT3-EGFP cells was, respectively, undetectable or declined rapidly between day 1 and 7 post-transplantation. Further investigation revealed that the observed in vivo decline of EGFP protein expression by hMSC-NT3-EGFP cells: (i) was associated with a decrease in transgenic NT3-EGFP mRNA expression as suggested following laser capture micro-dissection analysis of hMSC-NT3-EGFP cell transplants at day 1 and day 7 post-transplantation, (ii) did not occur when hMSC-NT3-EGFP cells were transplanted subcutaneously, and (iii) was reversed upon re-establishment of hMSC-NT3-EGFP cell cultures at 2 weeks post-transplantation. Finally, because we observed a slowly progressing tumour growth following transplantation of all our hMSC cell transplants, we here demonstrate that omitting immune suppressive therapy is sufficient to prevent further tumour growth and to eradicate malignant xenogeneic cell transplants. In this study, we demonstrate that genetically modified hMSC lines can survive

  17. IL-15 expression on RA synovial fibroblasts promotes B cell survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Benito-Miguel

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to examine the role of RA Synovial Fibroblast (RASFib IL-15 expression on B cell survival. METHODS: Magnetically sorted peripheral blood memory B cells from 15 healthy subjects were cocultured with RASFib. RESULTS: RASFib constitutively expressed membrane IL-15. Survival of isolated B cells cultured for 6 days, below 5%, was extended in coculture with RASFib to 52+/-8% (p<0.001. IL-15 neutralizing agents but not isotype controls, reduced this rate to 31+/-6% (p<0.05. Interestingly, rhIL-15 had no effect on isolated B cells but significantly increased their survival in coculture with RASFib. In parallel, B cell IL-15R chains were upregulated in cocultures. BAFF and VCAM-1, that are expressed on RASFib, were tested as potential candidates involved in upregulating B cell IL-15R. Culture of B cells in the presence of rhBAFF or rhVCAM-1 resulted in significantly increased survival, together with upregulation of all three IL-15R chains; in parallel, rhIL-15 potentiated the anti-apoptotic effect of BAFF and VCAM-1. Both BAFF and VCAM-1 neutralizing agents downmodulated the effect of RASFib on B cell survival and IL-15R expression. In parallel, rhIL-15 had a lower effect on the survival of B cells cocultured with RASFib in the presence of BAFF or VCAM-1 neutralizing agents. Peripheral blood B cells from 15 early RA patients demonstrated an upregulated IL-15R and increased survival in cocultures. CONCLUSION: IL-15 expression on RASFib significantly contributes to the anti-apoptotic effect of RASFib on B cells. IL-15 action is facilitated by BAFF and VCAM-1 expressed on RASFib, through an upregulation of IL-15R chains.

  18. Inhibition of human lung cancer cell proliferation and survival by wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Compounds of plant origin and food components have attracted scientific attention for use as agents for cancer prevention and treatment. Wine contains polyphenols that were shown to have anti-cancer and other health benefits. The survival pathways of Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk), and the tumor suppressor p53 are key modulators of cancer cell growth and survival. In this study, we examined the effects of wine on proliferation and survival of human Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells and its effects on signaling events. Methods Human NSCLC adenocarcinoma A549 and H1299 cells were used. Cell proliferation was assessed by thymidine incorporation. Clonogenic assays were used to assess cell survival. Immunoblotting was used to examine total and phosphorylated levels of Akt, Erk and p53. Results In A549 cells red wine inhibited cell proliferation and reduced clonogenic survival at doses as low as 0.02%. Red wine significantly reduced basal and EGF-stimulated Akt and Erk phosphorylation while it increased the levels of total and phosphorylated p53 (Ser15). Control experiments indicated that the anti-proliferative effects of wine were not mediated by the associated contents of ethanol or the polyphenol resveratrol and were independent of glucose transport into cancer cells. White wine also inhibited clonogenic survival, albeit at a higher doses (0.5-2%), and reduced Akt phosphorylation. The effects of both red and white wine on Akt phosphorylation were also verified in H1299 cells. Conclusions Red wine inhibits proliferation of lung cancer cells and blocks clonogenic survival at low concentrations. This is associated with inhibition of basal and EGF-stimulated Akt and Erk signals and enhancement of total and phosphorylated levels of p53. White wine mediates similar effects albeit at higher concentrations. Our data suggest that wine may have considerable anti-tumour and chemoprevention properties in lung cancer and deserves further

  19. Cell cycle variation in x-ray survival for cells from spheroids measured by volume cell sorting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freyer, J.P.; Wilder, M.E.; Raju, M.R.

    1984-01-01

    Considerable work has been done studying the variation in cell survival as a function of cell cycle position for monolayers or single cells exposed to radiation. Little is known about the effects of multicellular growth on the relative radiation sensitivity of cells in different cell cycle stages. The authors have developed a new technique for measuring the response of cells, using volume cell sorting, which is rapid, non-toxic, and does not require cell synchronization. By combining this technique with selective spheroid dissociation,they have measured the age response of cells located at various depths in EMT6 and Colon 26 spheroids. Although cells in the inner region had mostly G1-phase DNA contents, 15-20% had S- and G2-phase DNA contents. Analysis of these cells using BrdU labeling and flow cytometric analysis with a monoclonal antibody to BrdU indicated that the inner region cells were not synthesizing DNA. Thus, the authors were able to measure the radiation response of cells arrested in G1, S and G2 cell cycle phases. Comparison of inner and outer spheroid regions, and monolayer cultures, indicates that it is improper to extrapolate age response data in standard culture conditions to the situation in spheroids

  20. Regularity of survival of the radiation cell progeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychkovskaya, I.B.

    1978-01-01

    Considered are lethal events, occurring in irradiated cell posterity. The mechanisms promoting increased dying off in irradiated cell posterity, are not clear. The mechanism of stable inherited increase of cellular mortality level is not connected with mutations absolutely

  1. Survival of the fittest?--survival of stored red blood cells after transfusion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luten, M.; Roerdinkholder-Stoelwinder, B.; Bost, H.J.; Bosman, G.J.C.G.M.

    2004-01-01

    During the last 90 years many developments have taken place in the world of blood transfusion. Several anticoagulants and storage solutions have been developed. Also the blood processing has undergone many changes. At the moment, in The Netherlands, red blood cell (RBC) concentrates (prepared from a

  2. Reducing macrophages to improve bone marrow stromal cell survival in the contused spinal cord.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritfeld, G.J.; Nandoe Tewarie, R.D.S.; Rahiem, S.T.; Hurtado, A.; Roos, R.A.; Grotenhuis, A.; Oudega, M.

    2010-01-01

    We tested whether reducing macrophage infiltration would improve the survival of allogeneic bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) transplanted in the contused adult rat thoracic spinal cord. Treatment with cyclosporine, minocycline, or methylprednisolone all resulted in a significant decrease in

  3. Survival rate of eukaryotic cells following electrophoretic nanoinjection

    OpenAIRE

    Simonis, Matthias; H?bner, Wolfgang; Wilking, Alice; Huser, Thomas; Hennig, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Insertion of foreign molecules such as functionalized fluorescent probes, antibodies, or plasmid DNA to living cells requires overcoming the plasma membrane barrier without harming the cell during the staining process. Many techniques such as electroporation, lipofection or microinjection have been developed to overcome the cellular plasma membrane, but they all result in reduced cell viability. A novel approach is the injection of cells with a nanopipette and using electrophoretic forces for...

  4. Cell-Permeable Parkin Proteins Suppress Parkinson Disease-Associated Phenotypes in Cultured Cells and Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Tam; Kim, Jaetaek; Ruley, H. Earl; Jo, Daewoong

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder of complex etiology characterized by the selective loss of dopaminergic neurons, particularly in the substantia nigra. Parkin, a tightly regulated E3 ubiquitin ligase, promotes the survival of dopaminergic neurons in both PD and Parkinsonian syndromes induced by acute exposures to neurotoxic agents. The present study assessed the potential of cell-permeable parkin (CP-Parkin) as a neuroprotective agent. Cellular uptake and tissue penetration of recombinant, enzymatically active parkin was markedly enhanced by the addition of a hydrophobic macromolecule transduction domain (MTD). The resulting CP-Parkin proteins (HPM13 and PM10) suppressed dopaminergic neuronal toxicity in cells and mice exposed to 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDH) and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). These included enhanced survival and dopamine expression in cultured CATH.a and SH-SY5Y neuronal cells; and protection against MPTP-induced damage in mice, notably preservation of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cells with enhanced dopamine expression in the striatum and midbrain, and preservation of gross motor function. These results demonstrate that CP-Parkin proteins can compensate for intrinsic limitations in the parkin response and provide a therapeutic strategy to augment parkin activity in vivo. PMID:25019626

  5. Cyclooxygenase-2: A Role in Cancer Stem Cell Survival and Repopulation of Cancer Cells during Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Y. Pang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 is an inducible form of the enzyme that catalyses the synthesis of prostanoids, including prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, a major mediator of inflammation and angiogenesis. COX-2 is overexpressed in cancer cells and is associated with progressive tumour growth, as well as resistance of cancer cells to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. These therapies are often delivered in multiple doses, which are spaced out to allow the recovery of normal tissues between treatments. However, surviving cancer cells also proliferate during treatment intervals, leading to repopulation of the tumour and limiting the effectiveness of the treatment. Tumour cell repopulation is a major cause of treatment failure. The central dogma is that conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy selects resistant cancer cells that are able to reinitiate tumour growth. However, there is compelling evidence of an active proliferative response, driven by increased COX-2 expression and downstream PGE2 release, which contribute to the repopulation of tumours and poor patient outcome. In this review, we will examine the evidence for a role of COX-2 in cancer stem cell biology and as a mediator of tumour repopulation that can be molecularly targeted to overcome resistance to therapy.

  6. Polyphosphate is a key factor for cell survival after DNA damage in eukaryotic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bru, Samuel; Samper-Martín, Bàrbara; Quandt, Eva; Hernández-Ortega, Sara; Martínez-Laínez, Joan M; Garí, Eloi; Rafel, Marta; Torres-Torronteras, Javier; Martí, Ramón; Ribeiro, Mariana P C; Jiménez, Javier; Clotet, Josep

    2017-09-01

    Cells require extra amounts of dNTPs to repair DNA after damage. Polyphosphate (polyP) is an evolutionary conserved linear polymer of up to several hundred inorganic phosphate (Pi) residues that is involved in many functions, including Pi storage. In the present article, we report on findings demonstrating that polyP functions as a source of Pi when required to sustain the dNTP increment essential for DNA repair after damage. We show that mutant yeast cells without polyP produce less dNTPs upon DNA damage and that their survival is compromised. In contrast, when polyP levels are ectopically increased, yeast cells become more resistant to DNA damage. More importantly, we show that when polyP is reduced in HEK293 mammalian cell line cells and in human dermal primary fibroblasts (HDFa), these cells become more sensitive to DNA damage, suggesting that the protective role of polyP against DNA damage is evolutionary conserved. In conclusion, we present polyP as a molecule involved in resistance to DNA damage and suggest that polyP may be a putative target for new approaches in cancer treatment or prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Decreased survival of prostate cancer cells in vitro by combined treatment of heat and an antioxidant inhibitor diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama-Gonda, Nobuko; Igawa, Mikio; Shiina, Hiroaki; Urakami, Shinji; Terashima, Masaharu

    2003-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine a modulation of thermotolerance by treatment with combination of heat and the antioxidant inhibitor diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) of the PC-3 prostate cancer cells. To determine thermotolerance, cells were heated once or twice. Two 1 h exposures at 43 degrees C, with a recovery period in between, revealed better survival/recovery of cells after the second exposure than after the first (fig. 1A + 1B). Additional experiments were performed, heating cells twice (fig. 1B + 1C). First, cells were heated at 43 degrees C for 1 h and, after various recovery times (intervals) at 37 degree C, subsequently reheated at 44 degrees C for 1 h. To ensure effective cell killing, efficiency of the combined treatments of 1 mM DDC and heating at 43 or 44 degrees C for 1 h was estimated by measuring cell survival, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and heat shock protein 70 (hsp 70) expression. To obtain a more effective method for subsequent heat exposure, cells were heated twice after a 24 h interval in the presence or absence of 1 mM DDC. ROS generation and SOD activity immediately increased correlating with duration of heating, but their levels gently decreased with time after discontinuation of heating. On the other hand, hsp 70 levels slowly increased, also correlating with duration of heating but continued to increase with time after discontinuation of heating for a certain period. DDC administration coupled with heating at 43 or 44 degrees C significantly decreased cell survival compared to heating alone (p DDC as compared to heat alone at 43 and 44 degrees C (p DDC could have potential benefits in the treatment of prostate cancer.

  8. Engineered mammalian cells for production of recombinant proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention relates to mammalian cells modified to provide for improved expression of a recombinant protein of interest. In particular, the invention relates to CHO cells and other host cells in which the expression of one or more endogenous secreted proteins has been disrupted, as well...... as to the preparation, identification and use of such cells in the production of recombinant proteins....

  9. Unconventional Protein Secretion in Animal Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Fanny; Tang, Bor Luen

    2016-01-01

    All eukaryotic cells secrete a range of proteins in a constitutive or regulated manner through the conventional or canonical exocytic/secretory pathway characterized by vesicular traffic from the endoplasmic reticulum, through the Golgi apparatus, and towards the plasma membrane. However, a number of proteins are secreted in an unconventional manner, which are insensitive to inhibitors of conventional exocytosis and use a route that bypasses the Golgi apparatus. These include cytosolic proteins such as fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and membrane proteins that are known to also traverse to the plasma membrane by a conventional process of exocytosis, such as α integrin and the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductor (CFTR). Mechanisms underlying unconventional protein secretion (UPS) are actively being analyzed and deciphered, and these range from an unusual form of plasma membrane translocation to vesicular processes involving the generation of exosomes and other extracellular microvesicles. In this chapter, we provide an overview on what is currently known about UPS in animal cells.

  10. Huntingtin-interacting protein 14 is a type 1 diabetes candidate protein regulating insulin secretion and β-cell apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berchtold, Lukas Adrian; Størling, Zenia Marian; Ortis, Fernanda

    2011-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a complex disease characterized by the loss of insulin-secreting β-cells. Although the disease has a strong genetic component, and several loci are known to increase T1D susceptibility risk, only few causal genes have currently been identified. To identify disease...... genes in T1D, including the INS gene. An unexpected top-scoring candidate gene was huntingtin-interacting protein (HIP)-14/ZDHHC17. Immunohistochemical analysis of pancreatic sections demonstrated that HIP14 is almost exclusively expressed in insulin-positive cells in islets of Langerhans. RNAi...... knockdown experiments established that HIP14 is an antiapoptotic protein required for β-cell survival and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and IFN-γ) that mediate β-cell dysfunction in T1D down-regulated HIP14 expression in insulin-secreting INS-1 cells and in isolated...

  11. Effect of a long-term high-protein diet on survival, obesity development, and gut microbiota in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiilerich, Pia; Myrmel, Lene Secher; Fjære, Even; Hao, Qin; Hugenholtz, Floor; Sonne, Si Brask; Derrien, Muriel; Pedersen, Lone Møller; Petersen, Rasmus Koefoed; Mortensen, Alicja; Licht, Tine Rask; Rømer, Maria Unni; Vogel, Ulla Birgitte; Waagbø, Linn Jeanette; Giallourou, Natasa; Feng, Qiang; Xiao, Liang; Liu, Chuan; Liaset, Bjørn; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Wang, Jun; Madsen, Lise; Kristiansen, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Female C57BL/6J mice were fed a regular low-fat diet or high-fat diets combined with either high or low protein-to-sucrose ratios during their entire lifespan to examine the long-term effects on obesity development, gut microbiota, and survival. Intake of a high-fat diet with a low protein/sucrose

  12. Flow cytometric determination of radiation-induced chromosome damage and its correlation with cell survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welleweerd, J.; Wilder, M.E.; Carpenter, S.G.; Raju, M.R.

    1984-01-01

    Chinese hamster M3-1 cells were irradiated with several doses of x rays or α particles from 238 Pu. Propidium iodide-stained chromosome suspensions were prepared at different times after irradiation; cells were also assayed for survival. The DNA histograms of these chromosomes showed increased background counts with increased doses of radiation. This increase in background was cell-cycle dependent and was correlated with cell survival. The correlation between radiation-induced chromosome damage and cell survival was the same for X rays and α particles. Data are presented which indicate that flow cytometric analysis of chromosomes of irradiated cell populations can be a useful adjunct to classical cytogenic analysis of irradiation-induced chromosomal damage by virtue of its ability to express and measure chromosomal damage not seen by classical cytogenic methods

  13. The Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) HBx Protein Activates AKT To Simultaneously Regulate HBV Replication and Hepatocyte Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Siddhartha

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a risk factor for developing liver diseases such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HBx is a multifunctional protein encoded by the HBV genome; HBx stimulates HBV replication and is thought to play an important role in the development of HBV-associated HCC. HBx can activate the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT signaling pathway in some cell lines; however, whether HBx regulates PI3K/AKT signaling in normal hepatocytes has not been evaluated. In studies described here, we assessed HBx activation of PI3K/AKT signaling in an ex vivo model of cultured primary hepatocytes and determined how this HBx activity affects HBV replication. We report that HBx activates AKT in primary hepatocytes and that the activation of AKT decreases HBV replication and HBV mRNA and core protein levels. We show that the transcription factor hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α) is a target of HBx-regulated AKT, and we link HNF4α to HBx-regulated AKT modulation of HBV transcription and replication. Although we and others have shown that HBx stimulates and is likely required for HBV replication, we now report that HBx also activates signals that can diminish the overall level of HBV replication. While this may seem counterintuitive, we show that an important effect of HBx activation of AKT is inhibition of apoptosis. Consequently, our studies suggest that HBx balances HBV replication and cell survival by stimulating signaling pathways that enhance hepatocyte survival at the expense of higher levels of HBV replication. IMPORTANCE Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a common cause of the development of liver cancer. Regulation of cell signaling pathways by the HBV HBx protein is thought to influence the development of HBV-associated liver cancer. HBx stimulates, and may be essential for, HBV replication. We show that HBx activates AKT in hepatocytes to reduce HBV replication. While this seems contradictory to an

  14. Apoptosis and BCL-2 expression as predictors of survival in radiation-treated non-small-cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Jun-Hwa; Lim, Sung-Chul; Kim, Young-Chul; Park, Kyung-Ok; Ahn, Sung-Ja; Chung, Woong-Ki

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: We assessed the role of apoptosis and the expression of bcl-2, p53, and c-myc oncoproteins in pretreatment histologic specimens as a predictor of response to radiation therapy and survival in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Methods: Pretreatment biopsy specimens of 68 patients with NSCLC (62 squamous cell carcinoma, 6 adenocarcinoma) were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. From 5 high-powered fields, the apoptotic index (AI) was calculated as the ratio of apoptotic tumor cells to the total number of tumor cells. Bcl-2, p53, and c-myc oncoprotein expression was detected by immunohistochemical staining. Results: Twenty-nine cases showed partial or complete remission, whereas 39 showed no response. AI ranged from 0.2 to 12.0% (mean ± SD; 4.3±2.6%, median 4.0%). There was no difference in AI between responders (4.0±2.3) and nonresponders (4.5±2.8, p>0.05). However, in the responders, AI was correlated with the degree of change in tumor volume (r=0.41, p<0.05). In an analysis of 53 subjects who survived more than 1 month after the completion of radiation therapy, the patients with a higher AI (n=27, MST=22.8 m) survived longer than those with a lower AI (n=26, MST=9.2, log-rank, p=0.03). Patients expressing bcl-2 had poorer survival (n=22, MST=6.0 m) than patients without bcl-2 (n=31, 22.8 m, p<0.003). According to multivariate analysis, three variables, bcl-2 expression, AI, and response to radiation, were independent prognostic factors for survival. Conclusion: A low level of spontaneous apoptosis and expression of apoptosis blocking bcl-2 protein in pretreatment histology predict a poor prognosis for radiation-treated NSCLC patients

  15. Passive acquisition of leukocyte proteins is associated with changes in phosphorylation of cellular proteins and cell-cell adhesion properties.

    OpenAIRE

    Tabibzadeh, S. S.; Kong, Q. F.; Kapur, S.

    1994-01-01

    In this report, we show that interaction of neoplastic epithelial cells with vesicles derived from leukocytes results in passive acquisition by tumor cells of a diverse group of leukocyte proteins. Vesicles shed from leukocytes were heterogeneous and exhibited the specific proteins expressed on leukocyte subsets. Accordingly, epithelial cells differentially acquired leukocyte proteins associated with vesicles. Ultrastructural localization demonstrated that acquired proteins were associated wi...

  16. Association of drug transporter expression with mortality and progression-free survival in stage IV head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Warta

    Full Text Available Drug transporters such as P-glycoprotein (ABCB1 have been associated with chemotherapy resistance and are considered unfavorable prognostic factors for survival of cancer patients. Analyzing mRNA expression levels of a subset of drug transporters by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR or protein expression by tissue microarray (TMA in tumor samples of therapy naïve stage IV head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC (qRT-PCR, n = 40; TMA, n = 61, this in situ study re-examined the significance of transporter expression for progression-free survival (PFS and overall survival (OS. Data from The Cancer Genome Atlas database was used to externally validate the respective findings (n = 317. In general, HNSCC tended to lower expression of drug transporters compared to normal epithelium. High ABCB1 mRNA tumor expression was associated with both favorable progression-free survival (PFS, p = 0.0357 and overall survival (OS, p = 0.0535. Similar results were obtained for the mRNA of ABCC1 (MRP1, multidrug resistance-associated protein 1; PFS, p = 0.0183; OS, p = 0.038. In contrast, protein expression of ATP7b (copper transporter ATP7b, mRNA expression of ABCG2 (BCRP, breast cancer resistance protein, ABCC2 (MRP2, and SLC31A1 (hCTR1, human copper transporter 1 did not correlate with survival. Cluster analysis however revealed that simultaneous high expression of SLC31A1, ABCC2, and ABCG2 indicates poor survival of HNSCC patients. In conclusion, this study militates against the intuitive dogma where high expression of drug efflux transporters indicates poor survival, but demonstrates that expression of single drug transporters might indicate even improved survival. Prospectively, combined analysis of the 'transportome' should rather be performed as it likely unravels meaningful data on the impact of drug transporters on survival of patients with HNSCC.

  17. Regulation of normal B-cell differentiation and malignant B-cell survival by OCT2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson, Daniel J; Shaffer, Arthur L; Xiao, Wenming; Wright, George W; Schmitz, Roland; Phelan, James D; Yang, Yandan; Webster, Daniel E; Rui, Lixin; Kohlhammer, Holger; Nakagawa, Masao; Waldmann, Thomas A; Staudt, Louis M

    2016-04-05

    The requirement for the B-cell transcription factor OCT2 (octamer-binding protein 2, encoded by Pou2f2) in germinal center B cells has proved controversial. Here, we report that germinal center B cells are formed normally after depletion of OCT2 in a conditional knockout mouse, but their proliferation is reduced and in vivo differentiation to antibody-secreting plasma cells is blocked. This finding led us to examine the role of OCT2 in germinal center-derived lymphomas. shRNA knockdown showed that almost all diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) cell lines are addicted to the expression of OCT2 and its coactivator OCA-B. Genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis and gene-expression profiling revealed the broad transcriptional program regulated by OCT2 that includes the expression of STAT3, IL-10, ELL2, XBP1, MYC, TERT, and ADA. Importantly, genetic alteration of OCT2 is not a requirement for cellular addiction in DLBCL. However, we detected amplifications of the POU2F2 locus in DLBCL tumor biopsies and a recurrent mutation of threonine 223 in the DNA-binding domain of OCT2. This neomorphic mutation subtly alters the DNA-binding preference of OCT2, leading to the transactivation of noncanonical target genes including HIF1a and FCRL3 Finally, by introducing mutations designed to disrupt the OCT2-OCA-B interface, we reveal a requirement for this protein-protein interface that ultimately might be exploited therapeutically. Our findings, combined with the predominantly B-cell-restricted expression of OCT2 and the absence of a systemic phenotype in our knockout mice, suggest that an OCT2-targeted therapeutic strategy would be efficacious in both major subtypes of DLBCL while avoiding systemic toxicity.

  18. Mathematical simulation of influence of irradiated cell reparative system saturation on cell survival. Communication 1. Simulation of survival curves in prokaryotes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knyigavko, V.G.; Meshcheryakova, O.P.; Radzyishevs'ka, Je.B.

    2004-01-01

    Mathematical models of the processes of forming survival curves for prokaryotes which are based on the idea about the possibility of saturation of radiation lesion reparation systems of DNA of the irradiated cells at the dose increase were worked out. For the simplest of the discussed models the authors discuss the question about the methods of evaluation of the model parameters

  19. MiR-371-5p facilitates pancreatic cancer cell proliferation and decreases patient survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De He

    Full Text Available microRNAs (miRNAs play a critical role in tumorigenesis, either as a tumor suppressor or as an oncogenic miRNA, depending on different tumor types. To date, scientists have obtained a substantial amount of knowledge with regard to miRNAs in pancreatic cancer. However, the expression and function of miR-371-5p in pancreatic cancer has not been clearly elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the roles of miR-371-5p in pancreatic cancer and its association with the survival of patients with pancreatic cancer.The expression of miR-371-5p was examined in pancreatic duct adenocarcinoma (PDAC and their adjacent normal pancreatic tissues (ANPT or in pancreatic cancer cell lines by qRT-PCR. The association of miR-371-5p expression with overall survival was determined. The proliferation and apoptosis of SW-1990 and Panc-1 cells, transfected with miR-371-5p mimics or inhibitor, were assessed using MTT assay and flow cytometry, respectively. The tumorigenicity was evaluated via mice xenograft experiments. miR-371-5p promoter interactions were analyzed by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays (ChIP. Protein expression was analyzed by Western blot.The expression level of miR-371-5p was dramatically upregulated in clinical PDAC tissues compared with ANPT. Patients with high miR-371-5p expression had a significantly shorter survival than those with low miR-371-5p expression. The in vitro and in vivo assays showed that overexpression of miR-371-5p resulted in cell proliferation and increased tumor growth, which was associated with inhibitor of growth 1 (ING1 downregulation. Interestingly, we also found that ING1, in turn, inhibited expression of miR-371-5p in the promoter region.our study demonstrates a novel ING1-miR-371-5p regulatory feedback loop, which may have a critical role in PDAC. Thus miR-371-5p can prove to be a novel prognostic factor and therapeutic target for pancreatic cancer treatment.

  20. Biological Evaluation of Single Cell Protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, I.A.; Mohamed, N.E.; El-Sayed, E.A.; Younis, N.A.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the nutritional value of single cell protein (SCP) was evaluated as a non conventional protein source produced by fermenting fungal local strains of Trichoderma longibrachiatum, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus and Penicillium funiculosum with alkali treated sugar cane bagasse. Amino acid analysis revealed that the produced SCP contains essential and non essential amino acids. Male mice were fed on normal (basal) diet which contains 18% conventional protein and served as control group. In the second (T1) and the third (T2) group, the animals were fed on a diet in which 15% and 30% of conventional protein source were replaced by SCP, respectively. At intervals of 15, 30, 45 and 60 days, mice were sacrificed and the blood samples were collected for the biochemical evaluation. The daily averages of body weight were significantly higher with group T2 than group T1. Where as, the kidney weights in groups (T1) and (T2) were significantly increased as compared with control. A non significant difference between the tested groups in the enzyme activities of AST, ALT and GSH content of liver tissue were recorded. While, cholesterol and triglycerides contents showed a significant decrease in both (T1) and (T2) groups as compared with control. The recorded values of the serum hormone (T4), ALP activities, albumin and A/G ratio did not changed by the previous treatments. Serum levels of total protein, urea, creatinine and uric acid were higher for groups (T1) and (T2) than the control group. In conclusion, partial substitution of soy bean protein in mice diet with single cell protein (15%) improved the mice growth without any adverse effects on some of the physiological functions tested

  1. Relation of intracellular cyclic AMP to the shape of mammalian cell survival curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, S.

    1975-01-01

    Results of experiments with V79 cells growing in tissue culture indicate that the reproductive survival of cells following irradiation is influenced by the level of intracellular 3', 5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP) at the time of irradiation. Cells containing high levels of cyclic AMP induced by treatments with drugs show a characteristic survival curve in which the extent of the shoulder is increased so that the survival after low doses is enhanced. The exponential slope or D 0 , however, is decreased so that at high doses the survival of cells containing high levels of cyclic AMP may be less than that of controls. Naturally occurring changes in radiosensitivity such as those observed as cells pass through the division cycle, may also be related to parallel changes in cyclic AMP concentration occurring during the cycle. Injection of mice with compounds producing elevated cyclic AMP prior to whole-body irradiation increases survival at seven days post-irradiation. The shape of the survival curve for intestinal stem cells in these mice differs from that of the control in having an increased extrapolation number; no change in D 0 is observed in this in vivo situation. (author)

  2. Progression-free survival, post-progression survival, and tumor response as surrogate markers for overall survival in patients with extensive small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisao Imai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The effects of first-line chemotherapy on overall survival (OS might be confounded by subsequent therapies in patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC. We examined whether progression-free survival (PFS, post-progression survival (PPS, and tumor response could be valid surrogate endpoints for OS after first-line chemotherapies for patients with extensive SCLC using individual-level data. Methods: Between September 2002 and November 2012, we analyzed 49 cases of patients with extensive SCLC who were treated with cisplatin and irinotecan as first-line chemotherapy. The relationships of PFS, PPS, and tumor response with OS were analyzed at the individual level. Results: Spearman rank correlation analysis and linear regression analysis showed that PPS was strongly correlated with OS (r = 0.97, p < 0.05, R 2 = 0.94, PFS was moderately correlated with OS (r = 0.58, p < 0.05, R 2 = 0.24, and tumor shrinkage was weakly correlated with OS (r = 0.37, p < 0.05, R 2 = 0.13. The best response to second-line treatment, and the number of regimens employed after progression beyond first-line chemotherapy were both significantly associated with PPS ( p ≤ 0.05. Conclusion: PPS is a potential surrogate for OS in patients with extensive SCLC. Our findings also suggest that subsequent treatment after disease progression following first-line chemotherapy may greatly influence OS.

  3. Inhibition of HSP27 alone or in combination with pAKT inhibition as therapeutic approaches to target SPARC-induced glioma cell survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schultz Chad R

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current treatment regimen for glioma patients is surgery, followed by radiation therapy plus temozolomide (TMZ, followed by 6 months of adjuvant TMZ. Despite this aggressive treatment regimen, the overall survival of all surgically treated GBM patients remains dismal, and additional or different therapies are required. Depending on the cancer type, SPARC has been proposed both as a therapeutic target and as a therapeutic agent. In glioma, SPARC promotes invasion via upregulation of the p38 MAPK/MAPKAPK2/HSP27 signaling pathway, and promotes tumor cell survival by upregulating pAKT. As HSP27 and AKT interact to regulate the activity of each other, we determined whether inhibition of HSP27 was better than targeting SPARC as a therapeutic approach to inhibit both SPARC-induced glioma cell invasion and survival. Results Our studies found the following. 1 SPARC increases the expression of tumor cell pro-survival and pro-death protein signaling in balance, and, as a net result, tumor cell survival remains unchanged. 2 Suppressing SPARC increases tumor cell survival, indicating it is not a good therapeutic target. 3 Suppressing HSP27 decreases tumor cell survival in all gliomas, but is more effective in SPARC-expressing tumor cells due to the removal of HSP27 inhibition of SPARC-induced pro-apoptotic signaling. 4 Suppressing total AKT1/2 paradoxically enhanced tumor cell survival, indicating that AKT1 or 2 are poor therapeutic targets. 5 However, inhibiting pAKT suppresses tumor cell survival. 6 Inhibiting both HSP27 and pAKT synergistically decreases tumor cell survival. 7 There appears to be a complex feedback system between SPARC, HSP27, and AKT. 8 This interaction is likely influenced by PTEN status. With respect to chemosensitization, we found the following. 1 SPARC enhances pro-apoptotic signaling in cells exposed to TMZ. 2 Despite this enhanced signaling, SPARC protects cells against TMZ. 3 This protection can be reduced

  4. SG2NA enhances cancer cell survival by stabilizing DJ-1 and thus activating Akt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanti, Goutam Kumar, E-mail: goutamjnu@hotmail.com; Pandey, Shweta; Goswami, Shyamal K.

    2015-08-07

    SG2NA in association with striatin and zinedin forms a striatin family of WD-40 repeat proteins. This family of proteins functions as scaffold in different signal transduction pathways. They also act as a regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 2A. We have shown that SG2NA which evolved first in the metazoan evolution among the striatin family members expresses different isoforms generated out of alternative splicing. We have also shown that SG2NA protects cells from oxidative stress by recruiting DJ-1 and Akt to mitochondria and membrane in the post-mitotic neuronal cells. DJ-1 is both cancer and Parkinson's disease related protein. In the present study we have shown that SG2NA protects DJ-1 from proteasomal degradation in cancer cells. Hence, downregulation of SG2NA reduces DJ-1/Akt colocalization in cancer cells resulting in the reduction of anchorage dependent and independent growth. Thus SG2NA enhances cancer cell survival. Reactive oxygen species enhances SG2NA, DJ-1 and Akt trimerization. Removal of the reactive oxygen species by N-acetyl-cysteine thus reduces cancer cell growth. - Highlights: • Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play potential role in cancer cell proliferation. • It enhances the association between DJ-1 and Akt mediated by SG2NA. • In cancer cells SG2NA stabilizes DJ-1 by inhibiting it from proteosomal degradation. • DJ-1 then activates Akt and cancer cells get their property of enhanced proliferation by sustained activation of Akt. • Further study on this field could lead to new target for cancer therapy.

  5. SG2NA enhances cancer cell survival by stabilizing DJ-1 and thus activating Akt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanti, Goutam Kumar; Pandey, Shweta; Goswami, Shyamal K.

    2015-01-01

    SG2NA in association with striatin and zinedin forms a striatin family of WD-40 repeat proteins. This family of proteins functions as scaffold in different signal transduction pathways. They also act as a regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 2A. We have shown that SG2NA which evolved first in the metazoan evolution among the striatin family members expresses different isoforms generated out of alternative splicing. We have also shown that SG2NA protects cells from oxidative stress by recruiting DJ-1 and Akt to mitochondria and membrane in the post-mitotic neuronal cells. DJ-1 is both cancer and Parkinson's disease related protein. In the present study we have shown that SG2NA protects DJ-1 from proteasomal degradation in cancer cells. Hence, downregulation of SG2NA reduces DJ-1/Akt colocalization in cancer cells resulting in the reduction of anchorage dependent and independent growth. Thus SG2NA enhances cancer cell survival. Reactive oxygen species enhances SG2NA, DJ-1 and Akt trimerization. Removal of the reactive oxygen species by N-acetyl-cysteine thus reduces cancer cell growth. - Highlights: • Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play potential role in cancer cell proliferation. • It enhances the association between DJ-1 and Akt mediated by SG2NA. • In cancer cells SG2NA stabilizes DJ-1 by inhibiting it from proteosomal degradation. • DJ-1 then activates Akt and cancer cells get their property of enhanced proliferation by sustained activation of Akt. • Further study on this field could lead to new target for cancer therapy

  6. Effect of oxygen on formation of micronuclei and binucleated cells and cell survival in γ-irradiated 3T3 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Peng; Zheng Xiulong

    1991-01-01

    Formation of micronuclei and binucleate cells and their relationships with cell survival were studied in the aerobically- and anaerobically-irradiated 3T3 cells. The results showed taht frequency of micronuclei, percentage of micronucleus cells and percentage of binucleate cells increased linearly with the radiation dose in certain range. Oxygen enhancement ratios (OER) of micronucleus frequency, percentage of micronucleus cells, percentage of binucleate cells and cell survival were 2.02, 1.96, 1.87 and 1.83 respectively. The percentage of micronucleus cells or the percentage of micronucleus cells plus binucleate cells correlated negatively well with cell survival. The mechanism of oxygen effect in the radiation response of 3T3 cells and the significance of formation of micronuclei and binucleate cells were discussed

  7. Ensemble of cell survival experiments after ion irradiation for validation of RBE models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, Thomas; Scholz, Uwe; Scholz, Michael [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Durante, Marco [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, TU Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    There is persistent interest in understanding the systematics of the relative biological effectiveness (RBE). Models such as the Local Effect Model (LEM) or the Microdosimetric Kinetic Model have the goal to predict the RBE. For the validation of these models a collection of many in-vitro cell survival experiments is most appropriate. The set-up of an ensemble of in-vitro cell survival data comprising about 850 survival experiments after both ion and photon irradiation is reported. The survival curves have been taken out from publications. The experiments encompass survival curves obtained in different labs, using different ion species from protons to uranium, varying irradiation modalities (shaped or monoenergetic beam), various energies and linear energy transfers, and a whole variety of cell types (human or rodent; normal, mutagenic or tumor; radioresistant or -sensitive). Each cell survival curve has been parameterized by the linear-quadratic model. The photon parameters have been added to the data base to allow to calculate the experimental RBE to any survival level. We report on experimental trends found within the data ensemble. The data will serve as a testing ground for RBE models such as the LEM. Finally, a roadmap for further validation and first model results using the data base in combination with the LEM are presented.

  8. Autocrine prostaglandin E2 signaling promotes promonocytic leukemia cell survival via COX-2 expression and MAPK pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaetae; Lee, Young Sup

    2015-01-01

    The COX-2/PGE2 pathway has been implicated in the occurrence and progression of cancer. The underlying mechanisms facilitating the production of COX-2 and its mediator, PGE2, in cancer survival remain unknown. Herein, we investigated PGE2-induced COX-2 expression and signaling in HL-60 cells following menadione treatment. Treatment with PGE2 activated anti-apoptotic proteins such as Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL while reducing pro-apoptotic proteins, thereby enhancing cell survival. PGE2 not only induced COX-2 expression, but also prevented casapse-3, PARP, and lamin B cleavage. Silencing and inhibition of COX-2 with siRNA transfection or treatment with indomethacin led to a pronounced reduction of the extracellular levels of PGE2, and restored the menadione-induced cell death. In addition, pretreatment of cells with the MEK inhibitor PD98059 and the PKA inhibitor H89 abrogated the PGE2-induced expression of COX-2, suggesting involvement of the MAPK and PKA pathways. These results demonstrate that PGE2 signaling acts in an autocrine manner, and specific inhibition of PGE2 will provide a novel approach for the treatment of leukemia. [BMB Reports 2015; 48(2): 109-114] PMID:24965577

  9. GSTP1 Loss results in accumulation of oxidative DNA base damage and promotes prostate cancer cell survival following exposure to protracted oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mian, Omar Y; Khattab, Mohamed H; Hedayati, Mohammad; Coulter, Jonathan; Abubaker-Sharif, Budri; Schwaninger, Julie M; Veeraswamy, Ravi K; Brooks, James D; Hopkins, Lisa; Shinohara, Debika Biswal; Cornblatt, Brian; Nelson, William G; Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan; DeWeese, Theodore L

    2016-02-01

    Epigenetic silencing of glutathione S-transferase π (GSTP1) is a hallmark of transformation from normal prostatic epithelium to adenocarcinoma of the prostate. The functional significance of this loss is incompletely understood. The present study explores the effects of restored GSTP1 expression on glutathione levels, accumulation of oxidative DNA damage, and prostate cancer cell survival following oxidative stress induced by protracted, low dose rate ionizing radiation (LDR). GSTP1 protein expression was stably restored in LNCaP prostate cancer cells. The effect of GSTP1 restoration on protracted LDR-induced oxidative DNA damage was measured by GC-MS quantitation of modified bases. Reduced and oxidized glutathione levels were measured in control and GSTP1 expressing populations. Clonogenic survival studies of GSTP1- transfected LNCaP cells after exposure to protracted LDR were performed. Global gene expression profiling and pathway analysis were performed. GSTP1 expressing cells accumulated less oxidized DNA base damage and exhibited decreased survival compared to control LNCaP-Neo cells following oxidative injury induced by protracted LDR. Restoration of GSTP1 expression resulted in changes in modified glutathione levels that correlated with GSTP1 protein levels in response to protracted LDR-induced oxidative stress. Survival differences were not attributable to depletion of cellular glutathione stores. Gene expression profiling and pathway analysis following GSTP1 restoration suggests this protein plays a key role in regulating prostate cancer cell survival. The ubiquitous epigenetic silencing of GSTP1 in prostate cancer results in enhanced survival and accumulation of potentially promutagenic DNA adducts following exposure of cells to protracted oxidative injury suggesting a protective, anti-neoplastic function of GSTP1. The present work provides mechanistic backing to the tumor suppressor function of GSTP1 and its role in prostate carcinogenesis. © 2015

  10. Oxidative stress: a key regulator of leiomyoma cell survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Nicole M; Abusamaan, Mohammed S; Memaj, Ira; Saed, Mohammed G; Al-Hendy, Ayman; Diamond, Michael P; Saed, Ghassan M

    2017-06-01

    To determine the effects of attenuating oxidative stress with the use of dichloroacetate (DCA) on the expression of key redox enzymes myeloperoxidase (MPO) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) as well as on apoptosis. Prospective experimental study. University medical center. Cells established from myometrium and uterine fibroid from the same patients. Cells were exposed to normal (20% O 2 ) or hypoxic (2% O 2 ) conditions for 24 hours with or without DCA (20 μg/mL), a metabolic modulator that shifts anaerobic to aerobic metabolism. Nitrate/nitrite (iNOS activity indicator), iNOS, Bcl-2/Bax ratio, MPO, and caspase-3 activities and levels were determined by means of Greiss assay, real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, and ELISA. Data were analyzed with the use of SPSS by means of one-way analysis of variance with Tukey post hoc analysis and independent t tests. MPO, iNOS, and nitrate/nitrite expression were higher in leiomyoma than in myometrial cells, and they were further enhanced by hypoxia in myometrial cells. Treatment with the use of DCA decreased MPO, iNOS, and nitrate/nitrite levels and negated the effect of hypoxia in both types of cells. Leiomyoma cells showed less apoptosis, as indicated by both caspase-3 activity and the Bcl-2/Bax ratio, than myometrial cells. Hypoxia further decreased apoptosis in myometrial cells with no further effect on leiomyoma cells. Treatment with DCA resulted in increased apoptosis in both types of cells, even in the presence of hypoxia. Shifting anaerobic to aerobic metabolism with the use of DCA resulted in an increase in apoptosis in leiomyoma cells and protected myometrial cells from the acquisition of the leiomyoma-like phenotype. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Inhibitor of apoptosis-stimulating protein of p53 (iASPP is required for neuronal survival after axonal injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel M Wilson

    Full Text Available The transcription factor p53 mediates the apoptosis of post-mitotic neurons exposed to a wide range of stress stimuli. The apoptotic activity of p53 is tightly regulated by the apoptosis-stimulating proteins of p53 (ASPP family members: ASPP1, ASPP2 and iASPP. We previously showed that the pro-apoptotic members ASPP1 and ASPP2 contribute to p53-dependent death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs. However, the role of the p53 inhibitor iASPP in the central nervous system (CNS remains to be elucidated. To address this, we asked whether iASPP contributes to the survival of RGCs in an in vivo model of acute optic nerve damage. We demonstrate that iASPP is expressed by injured RGCs and that iASPP phosphorylation at serine residues, which increase iASPP affinity towards p53, is significantly reduced following axotomy. We show that short interference RNA (siRNA-induced iASPP knockdown exacerbates RGC death, whereas adeno-associated virus (AAV-mediated iASPP expression promotes RGC survival. Importantly, our data also demonstrate that increasing iASPP expression in RGCs downregulates p53 activity and blocks the expression of pro-apoptotic targets PUMA and Fas/CD95. This study demonstrates a novel role for iASPP in the survival of RGCs, and provides further evidence of the importance of the ASPP family in the regulation of neuronal loss after axonal injury.

  12. Impact of CD133 positive stem cell proportion on survival in patients with glioblastoma multiforme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kase, Marju; Minajeva, Ave; Niinepuu, Kristi; Kase, Sandra; Vardja, Markus; Asser, Toomas; Jaal, Jana

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the impact of CD133-positive (CD133+) cancer stem cell proportions on treatment results of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients. Patients with GBM (n = 42) received postoperative radiotherapy (± chemotherapy). Surgically excised GBM tissue sections were immunohistochemically examined for CD133 expression. The proportions of CD133+ GBM cells were determined (%). The proportion of CD133+ GBM stem cells was established by 2 independent researchers whose results were in good accordance (R = 0.8, p < 0.01). Additionally, CD133 expression levels were correlated with patients overall survival. The proportion of CD133+ cells varied between patients, being from 0.5% to 82%. Mean and median proportions of CD133+ cells of the entire study group were 33% ± 24% (mean ± SD) and 28%, respectively. Clinical data do not support the association between higher proportion of stem cells and the aggressiveness of GBM. Median survival time of the study group was 10.0 months (95% CI 9.0–11.0). The survival time clearly depended on the proportion of CD133+ cells (log rank test, p = 0.02). Median survival times for patients with low (< median) and high (≥ median) proportion of CD133+ cells were 9.0 months (95% CI 7.6–10.5) and 12.0 months (95% CI 9.3–14.7), respectively. In multivariate analysis, the proportion of CD133+ cells emerged as a significant independent predictor for longer overall survival (HR 2.0, 95% CI 1.0–3.8, p = 0.04). In patients with higher stem cell proportion, significantly longer survival times after postoperative radiotherapy were achieved. Underlying reasons and possible higher sensitivity of GBM stem cells to fractionated radio-therapy should be clarified in further studies

  13. Targeted inhibition of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase impairs cell proliferation, survival, and invasion in colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang F

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fei Yang,1,* Jun-Yi Gao,2,* Hua Chen,1 Zhen-Hua Du,1 Xue-Qun Zhang,3 Wei Gao4 1Department of Pathology, Jinan Central Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan, 2Department of Clinical Medicine, Weifang Medical College, Weifang, 3Graduate School, Taishan Medical University, Xintai, 4Department of Oncology, Jinan Central Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Colon cancer is the third most common cancer in the world, and its metastasis and drug resistance are challenging for its effective treatment. The PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of colon cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the targeting of PI3K in colon cancer cells HT-29 and HCT-116 in vitro. Methods: In HT-29 and HCT-116 cells, BEZ235, a dual inhibitor of PI3K/mTOR, and shRNAtarget to PI3KCA were used to inhibit PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. The inhibition efficiency of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway was detected by RT-PCR and Western blot. Cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and apoptosis were evaluated by Cell Counting Kit-8, Transwell, and flow cytometry assays. The expression of apoptosis-related proteins (cleavage caspase 3, Bcl-2, Bax, and Bim were also detected. Results: We found that in HT-29 and HCT-116 cells, the treatment of BEZ235 (1 µM and PI3KCA knockdown inhibited the activation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway and significantly suppressed cell proliferation, migration, and invasion of HT-29 and HCT-116 cells. In addition, we confirmed that knockdown of BEZ235 and PI3KCA induced cell apoptosis through the upregulated levels of cleavage caspase 3 and Bax and downregulated expression of Bcl-2 and Bim. Conclusion: Our results indicated that targeted inhibition of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway impaired cell proliferation, survival, and invasion in human colon cancer. Keywords: human colon cancer, PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway, BEZ235, PI3KCA knockdown

  14. Transduction proteins of olfactory receptor cells: identification of guanine nucleotide binding proteins and protein kinase C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anholt, R.R.H.; Mumby, S.M.; Stoffers, D.A.; Girard, P.R.; Kuo, J.F.; Snyder, S.H.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have analyzed guanine nucleotide binding proteins (G-proteins) in the olfactory epithelium of Rana catesbeiana using subunit-specific antisera. The olfactory epithelium contained the α subunits of three G-proteins, migrating on polyacrylamide gels in SDS with apparent molecular weights of 45,000, 42,000, and 40,000, corresponding to G/sub s/, G/sub i/, and G/sub o/, respectively. A single β subunit with an apparent molecular weight of 36,000 was detected. An antiserum against the α subunit of retinal transducin failed to detect immunoreactive proteins in olfactory cilia detached from the epithelium. The olfactory cilia appeared to be enriched in immunoreactive G/sub sα/ relative to G/sub ichemical bond/ and G/sub ochemical bond/ when compared to membranes prepared from the olfactory epithelium after detachment of the cilia. Bound antibody was detected by autoradiography after incubation with [ 125 I]protein. Immunohistochemical studies using an antiserum against the β subunit of G-proteins revealed intense staining of the ciliary surface of the olfactory epithelium and of the axon bundles in the lamina propria. In contrast, an antiserum against a common sequence of the α subunits preferentially stained the cell membranes of the olfactory receptor cells and the acinar cells of Bowman's glands and the deep submucosal glands. In addition to G-proteins, they have identified protein kinase C in olfactory cilia via a protein kinase C specific antiserum and via phorbol ester binding. However, in contrast to the G-proteins, protein kinase C occurred also in cilia isolated from respiratory epithelium

  15. Host cell proteins in biotechnology-derived products: A risk assessment framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zafra, Christina L Zuch; Quarmby, Valerie; Francissen, Kathleen; Vanderlaan, Martin; Zhu-Shimoni, Judith

    2015-11-01

    To manufacture biotechnology products, mammalian or bacterial cells are engineered for the production of recombinant therapeutic human proteins including monoclonal antibodies. Host cells synthesize an entire repertoire of proteins which are essential for their own function and survival. Biotechnology manufacturing processes are designed to produce recombinant therapeutics with a very high degree of purity. While there is typically a low residual level of host cell protein in the final drug product, under some circumstances a host cell protein(s) may copurify with the therapeutic protein and, if it is not detected and removed, it may become an unintended component of the final product. The purpose of this article is to enumerate and discuss factors to be considered in an assessment of risk of residual host cell protein(s) detected and identified in the drug product. The consideration of these factors and their relative ranking will lead to an overall risk assessment that informs decision-making around how to control the levels of host cell proteins. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Does the band cell survive the 21st century?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, W. van der; Gelder, W. van; Keijzer, R. de; Willems, H.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The differentiation of white blood cells is a worldwide-accepted method to obtain medical information. The conventional microscopic differential, however, is a laborious and expensive test with a low statistical value. Especially for band cell identification there is a wide range of

  17. Impact of Heat Shock Protein A 12B Overexpression on Spinal Astrocyte Survival Against Oxygen-Glucose-Serum Deprivation/Restoration in Primary Cultured Astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xun; Ma, Yuan; Yang, Li-Bin; Cheng, Jing-Ming; Yang, Tao; Fan, Ke-Xia; Li, Yun-Ming; Liu, En-Yu; Cheng, Lin; Huang, Hai-Dong; Gu, Jian-Wen; Kuang, Yong-Qin

    2016-08-01

    Heat shock protein A 12B (HSPA12B) is a newly discovered member of the heat shock protein 70 family. Preclinical evidence indicates that HSPA12B helps protect the brain from ischemic injury, although its specific function remains unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate whether HSPA12B overexpression can protect astrocytes from oxygen-glucose-serum deprivation/restoration (OGD/R) injury. We analyzed the effects of HSPA12B overexpression on spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury and spinal astrocyte survival. After ischemia-reperfusion injury, we found that HSPA12B overexpression decreased spinal cord water content and infarct volume. MTT assay showed that HSPA12B overexpression increased astrocyte survival after OGD/R treatment. Flow cytometry results showed a marked inhibition of OGD/R-induced astrocyte apoptosis. Western blot assay showed that HSPA12B overexpression significantly increased regulatory protein B-cell lymphocyte 2 (Bcl-2) levels, whereas it decreased expression of the Bax protein, which forms a heterodimer with Bcl-2. Measurements of the level of activation of caspase-3 by Caspase-Glo®3/7 Assay kit showed that HSPA12B overexpression markedly inhibited caspase-3 activation. Notably, we demonstrated that the effects of HSPA12B on spinal astrocyte survival depended on activation of the PI3K/Akt signal pathway. These findings indicate that HSPA12B protects against spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury and may represent a potential treatment target.

  18. Autologous cytokine-induced killer cell immunotherapy may improve overall survival in advanced malignant melanoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Zhu, Yu'nan; Zhao, Erjiang; He, Xiaolei; Zhao, Lingdi; Wang, Zibing; Fu, Xiaomin; Qi, Yalong; Ma, Baozhen; Song, Yongping; Gao, Quanli

    2017-11-01

    Our study was conducted to explore the efficacy of autologous cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells in patients with advanced malignant melanoma. Materials & Methods: Here we reviewed 113 stage IV malignant melanoma patients among which 68 patients received CIK cell immunotherapy alone, while 45 patients accepted CIK cell therapy combined with chemotherapy. Results: We found that the median survival time in CIK cell group was longer than the combined therapy group (21 vs 15 months, p = 0.07). In addition, serum hemoglobin level as well as monocyte proportion and lymphocyte count were associated with patients' survival time. These indicated that CIK cell immunotherapy might extend survival time in advanced malignant melanoma patients. Furthermore, serum hemoglobin level, monocyte proportion and lymphocyte count could be prognostic indicators for melanoma.

  19. Estimation of transfused red cell survival using an enzyme-linked antiglobulin test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kickler, T.S.; Smith, B.; Bell, W.; Drew, H.; Baldwin, M.; Ness, P.M.

    1985-01-01

    An enzyme-linked antiglobulin test (ELAT) method was developed to estimate survival of transfused red cells. This procedure is based on a principle analogous to that of the Ashby technique were antigenically distinct red cells are transfused and their survival studied. The authors compared the ELAT survival to the 51 Chromium method ( 51 Cr) in four patients. Three patients with hypoproliferative anemias showed T 1/2 by ELAT of 17.5, 18, and 17 days versus 18.5, 20, and 19 days by the 51 Cr method. A fourth patient with traumatic cardiac hemolysis had two studies performed. In this case, the ELAT showed a T 1/2 of 10 and 8.1 days while 51 Cr T 1/2 values were 11 and 10.5 days. The ELAT method for measuring red cell survival yielded data which agreed closely with the results of the 51 Cr method. Although 51 Cr is the accepted method for red cell survival, the ELAT method can be used to estimate transfused red cell survival

  20. In vivo studies of the long-term 51Cr red cell survival of serologically incompatible red cell units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, M.L.; Ness, P.M.; Barrasso, C.; Kickler, T.S.; Drew, H.; Tsan, M.F.; Shirey, R.S.

    1985-01-01

    The long-term survival of serologically incompatible red cell units was measured in five patients with antibodies to high-frequency antigens. Initially, the survival of 1 ml of 51 Cr-labeled incompatible red cells was measured over 1 hour. After demonstrating that the 1-hour survival times were successful (greater than 70%), each patient then received 5 ml of the same 51 Cr-labeled red cells followed by the transfusion of the remainder of the red cell unit. The long-term T 1/2Cr survival for each case was patient 1 (anti-McCa), 15 days; patient 2 (anti-JMH), 12 days; patient 3 (anti-Kna), 31 days; patient 4 (anti-McCa), 12 days; and patient 5 (anti-Hya), 14 days. Each antibody tested in an in vitro homologous macrophage assay showed less than 5 percent phagocytosis. Anti-JMH was the only antibody to react with IgG subclass antisera and was determined to be IgG4. The macrophage assay, IgG subclass testing, and short-term (1 hour, 1 ml) 51 Cr survival studies all indicated that the short-term survival was good. However, only the measurement of long-term survival with transfused units of serologically incompatible red cells was able to determine the actual survival, and clinical significance of the alloantibodies. Determining the actual long-term survival by the method described here can be of importance for patients requiring chronic red cell transfusion

  1. Identification of BAG3 target proteins in anaplastic thyroid cancer cells by proteomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdiero, Francesca; Bello, Anna Maria; Spina, Anna; Capiluongo, Anna; Liuu, Sophie; De Marco, Margot; Rosati, Alessandra; Capunzo, Mario; Napolitano, Maria; Vuttariello, Emilia; Monaco, Mario; Califano, Daniela; Turco, Maria Caterina; Chiappetta, Gennaro; Vinh, Joëlle; Chiappetta, Giovanni

    2018-01-30

    BAG3 protein is an apoptosis inhibitor and is highly expressed in Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer. We investigated the entire set of proteins modulated by BAG3 silencing in the human anaplastic thyroid 8505C cancer cells by using the Stable-Isotope Labeling by Amino acids in Cell culture strategy combined with mass spectrometry analysis. By this approach we identified 37 up-regulated and 54 down-regulated proteins in BAG3-silenced cells. Many of these proteins are reportedly involved in tumor progression, invasiveness and resistance to therapies. We focused our attention on an oncogenic protein, CAV1, and a tumor suppressor protein, SERPINB2, that had not previously been reported to be modulated by BAG3. Their expression levels in BAG3-silenced cells were confirmed by qRT-PCR and western blot analyses, disclosing two novel targets of BAG3 pro-tumor activity. We also examined the dataset of proteins obtained by the quantitative proteomics analysis using two tools, Downstream Effect Analysis and Upstream Regulator Analysis of the Ingenuity Pathways Analysis software. Our analyses confirm the association of the proteome profile observed in BAG3-silenced cells with an increase in cell survival and a decrease in cell proliferation and invasion, and highlight the possible involvement of four tumor suppressor miRNAs and TP53/63 proteins in BAG3 activity.

  2. EDAG promotes the expansion and survival of human CD34+ cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Zhao

    Full Text Available EDAG is multifunctional transcriptional regulator primarily expressed in the linloc-kit+Sca-1+ hematopoietic stem cells (HSC and CD34+ progenitor cells. Previous studies indicate that EDAG is required for maintaining hematopoietic lineage commitment balance. Here using ex vivo culture and HSC transplantation models, we report that EDAG enhances the proliferative potential of human cord blood CD34+ cells, increases survival, prevents cell apoptosis and promotes their repopulating capacity. Moreover, EDAG overexpression induces rapid entry of CD34+ cells into the cell cycle. Gene expression profile analysis indicate that EDAG knockdown leads to down-regulation of various positive cell cycle regulators including cyclin A, B, D, and E. Together these data provides novel insights into EDAG in regulation of expansion and survival of human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells.

  3. Cell-free protein synthesis: applications in proteomics and biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mingyue

    2008-01-01

    Protein production is one of the key steps in biotechnology and functional proteomics. Expression of proteins in heterologous hosts (such as in E. coli) is generally lengthy and costly. Cell-free protein synthesis is thus emerging as an attractive alternative. In addition to the simplicity and speed for protein production, cell-free expression allows generation of functional proteins that are difficult to produce by in vivo systems. Recent exploitation of cell-free systems enables novel development of technologies for rapid discovery of proteins with desirable properties from very large libraries. This article reviews the recent development in cell-free systems and their application in the large scale protein analysis.

  4. Cell survival after UV radiation stress in the unicellular chlorophyte Dunaliella tertiolecta is mediated by DNA repair and MAPK phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gómez, Candela; Parages, María L; Jiménez, Carlos; Palma, Armando; Mata, M Teresa; Segovia, María

    2012-09-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) induces damage in a variety of organisms, and cells may adapt by developing repair or tolerance mechanisms to counteract such damage; otherwise, the cellular fate is cell death. Here, the effect of UVR-induced cell damage and the associated signalling and repair mechanisms by which cells are able to survive was studied in Dunaliella tertiolecta. UVR did not cause cell death, as shown by the absence of SYTOX Green-positive labelling cells. Ultrastructure analysis by transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that the cells were alive but were subjected to morphological changes such as starch accumulation, chromatin disaggregation, and chloroplast degradation. This behaviour paralleled a decrease in F(v)/F(m) and the formation of cyclobutane-pyrimidine dimers, showing a 10-fold increase at the end of the time course. There was a high accumulation of the repressor of transcriptional gene silencing (ROS1), as well as the cell proliferation nuclear antigen (PCNA) in UVR-treated cells, revealing activation of DNA repair mechanisms. The degree of phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38-like mitogen-activated protein kinases was higher in UVR-exposed cells; however, the opposite occurred with the phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). This confirmed that both JNK and p38 need to be phosphorylated to trigger the stress response, as well as the fact that cell division is arrested when an ERK is dephosphorylated. In parallel, both DEVDase and WEHDase caspase-like enzymatic activities were active even though the cells were not dead, suggesting that these proteases must be considered within a wider frame of stress proteins, rather than specifically being involved in cell death in these organisms.

  5. Metabolic profiling of hypoxic cells revealed a catabolic signature required for cell survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Frezza

    Full Text Available Hypoxia is one of the features of poorly vascularised areas of solid tumours but cancer cells can survive in these areas despite the low oxygen tension. The adaptation to hypoxia requires both biochemical and genetic responses that culminate in a metabolic rearrangement to counter-balance the decrease in energy supply from mitochondrial respiration. The understanding of metabolic adaptations under hypoxia could reveal novel pathways that, if targeted, would lead to specific death of hypoxic regions. In this study, we developed biochemical and metabolomic analyses to assess the effects of hypoxia on cellular metabolism of HCT116 cancer cell line. We utilized an oxygen fluorescent probe in anaerobic cuvettes to study oxygen consumption rates under hypoxic conditions without the need to re-oxygenate the cells and demonstrated that hypoxic cells can maintain active, though diminished, oxidative phosphorylation even at 1% oxygen. These results were further supported by in situ microscopy analysis of mitochondrial NADH oxidation under hypoxia. We then used metabolomic methodologies, utilizing liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS, to determine the metabolic profile of hypoxic cells. This approach revealed the importance of synchronized and regulated catabolism as a mechanism of adaptation to bioenergetic stress. We then confirmed the presence of autophagy under hypoxic conditions and demonstrated that the inhibition of this catabolic process dramatically reduced the ATP levels in hypoxic cells and stimulated hypoxia-induced cell death. These results suggest that under hypoxia, autophagy is required to support ATP production, in addition to glycolysis, and that the inhibition of autophagy might be used to selectively target hypoxic regions of tumours, the most notoriously resistant areas of solid tumours.

  6. Survival of Lymphatic Cells after X-Irradiation in Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vos, O. [Medical Biological Laboratory, National Defense Research Organization TNO, Ruswuk, Z.H. (Netherlands)

    1967-07-15

    Lymphatic tissues are generally classified among the most radiosensitive tissues of the body. The main reason for this is that histologically extensive destruction is found within a few hours after irradiation. We tried to estimate the degree of cellular degeneration by making cell suspensions from lymph nodes and thymus of mice at different times after X-irradiation with 800 R or at 24 h after radiation with different doses. The numbers of normal viable cells we obtained were expressed as percentages of the cells recovered from unirradiated control mice.

  7. Heat shock proteins and survival strategies in congeneric land snails (Sphincterochila) from different habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizrahi, Tal; Heller, Joseph; Goldenberg, Shoshana; Arad, Zeev

    2012-09-01

    Polmunate land snails are subject to stress conditions in their terrestrial habitat, and depend on a range of behavioural, physiological and biochemical adaptations for coping with problems of maintaining water, ionic and thermal balance. The involvement of the heat shock protein (HSP) machinery in land snails was demonstrated following short-term experimental aestivation and heat stress, suggesting that land snails use HSPs as part of their survival strategy. As climatic variation was found to be associated with HSP expression, we tested whether adaptation of land snails to different habitats affects HSP expression in two closely related Sphincterochila snail species, a desert species Sphincterochila zonata and a Mediterranean-type species Sphincterochila cariosa. Our study suggests that Sphincterochila species use HSPs as part of their survival strategy following desiccation and heat stress, and as part of the natural annual cycle of activity and aestivation. Our studies also indicate that adaptation to different habitats results in the development of distinct strategies of HSP expression in response to stress, namely the reduced expression of HSPs in the desert-inhabiting species. We suggest that these different strategies reflect the difference in heat and aridity encountered in the natural habitats, and that the desert species S. zonata relies on mechanisms and adaptations other than HSP induction thus avoiding the fitness consequences of continuous HSP upregulation.

  8. Outer surface protein B is critical for Borrelia burgdorferi adherence and survival within Ixodes ticks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish Neelakanta

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Survival of Borrelia burgdorferi in ticks and mammals is facilitated, at least in part, by the selective expression of lipoproteins. Outer surface protein (Osp A participates in spirochete adherence to the tick gut. As ospB is expressed on a bicistronic operon with ospA, we have now investigated the role of OspB by generating an OspB-deficient B. burgdorferi and examining its phenotype throughout the spirochete life cycle. Similar to wild-type isolates, the OspB-deficient B. burgdorferi were able to readily infect and persist in mice. OspB-deficient B. burgdorferi were capable of migrating to the feeding ticks but had an impaired ability to adhere to the tick gut and survive within the vector. Furthermore, the OspB-deficient B. burgdorferi bound poorly to tick gut extracts. The complementation of the OspB-deficient spirochete in trans, with a wild-type copy of ospB gene, restored its ability to bind tick gut. Taken together, these data suggest that OspB has an important role within Ixodes scapularis and that B. burgdorferi relies upon multiple genes to efficiently persist in ticks.

  9. microRNA-10b Is Overexpressed and Critical for Cell Survival and Proliferation in Medulloblastoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekha Pal

    Full Text Available This study demonstrates the effects of miRNA-10b on medulloblastoma proliferation through transcriptional induction of the anti-apoptotic protein BCL2. Using a cancer specific miRNA-array, high expression of miRNA-10b in medulloblastoma cell lines compared to a normal cerebellar control was shown, and this was confirmed with real time PCR (RT-PCR. Two medulloblastoma cell lines (DAOY and UW228 were transiently transfected with control miRNA, miRNA-10b inhibitor or miRNA-10b mimic and subjected to RT-PCR, MTT, apoptosis, clonogenic assay and western blot analysis. Transfection of miRNA-10b inhibitor induced a significant down-regulation of miRNA-10b expression, inhibited proliferation, and induced apoptosis, while miRNA-10b mimic exerted an opposite effect. Inhibition of miRNA-10b abrogated the colony-forming capability of medulloblastoma cells, and markedly down-regulated the expression of BCL2. Down-regulation of BCL2 by antisense oligonucleotides or siRNA also significantly down-regulated miRNA-10b, suggesting that BCL2 is a major mediator of the effects of miRNA-10b. ABT-737 and ABT-199, potent inhibitors of BCL2, downregulated the expression of miRNA-10b and increased apoptosis. Analysis of miRNA-10b levels in 13 primary medulloblastoma samples revealed that the 2 patients with the highest levels of miRNA-10b had multiple recurrences (4.5 and died within 8 years of diagnosis, compared with the 11 patients with low levels of miRNA-10b who had a mean of 1.2 recurrences and nearly 40% long-term survival. The data presented here indicate that miRNA-10b may act as an oncomir in medulloblastoma tumorigenesis, and reveal a previously unreported mechanism with Bcl-2 as a mediator of the effects of miRNA-10b upon medulloblastoma cell survival.

  10. Genetic and biochemical characterization of the cell wall hydrolase activity of the major secreted protein of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claes, I.J.; Schoofs, G.; Regulski, K.; Vos, de W.M.

    2012-01-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) produces two major secreted proteins, designated here Msp1 (LGG_00324 or p75) and Msp2 (LGG_00031 or p40), which have been reported to promote the survival and growth of intestinal epithelial cells. Intriguingly, although each of these proteins shares homology with

  11. Sox2 promotes survival of satellite glial cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, Taro; Wakabayashi, Taketoshi; Mori, Tetsuji; Hirahara, Yukie; Yamada, Hisao

    2015-01-01

    Sox2 is a transcriptional factor expressed in neural stem cells. It is known that Sox2 regulates cell differentiation, proliferation and survival of the neural stem cells. Our previous study showed that Sox2 is expressed in all satellite glial cells of the adult rat dorsal root ganglion. In this study, to examine the role of Sox2 in satellite glial cells, we establish a satellite glial cell-enriched culture system. Our culture method succeeded in harvesting satellite glial cells with the somata of neurons in the dorsal root ganglion. Using this culture system, Sox2 was downregulated by siRNA against Sox2. The knockdown of Sox2 downregulated ErbB2 and ErbB3 mRNA at 2 and 4 days after siRNA treatment. MAPK phosphorylation, downstream of ErbB, was also inhibited by Sox2 knockdown. Because ErbB2 and ErbB3 are receptors that support the survival of glial cells in the peripheral nervous system, apoptotic cells were also counted. TUNEL-positive cells increased at 5 days after siRNA treatment. These results suggest that Sox2 promotes satellite glial cell survival through the MAPK pathway via ErbB receptors. - Highlights: • We established satellite glial cell culture system. • Function of Sox2 in satellite glial cell was examined using siRNA. • Sox2 knockdown downregulated expression level of ErbB2 and ErbB3 mRNA. • Sox2 knockdown increased apoptotic satellite glial cell. • Sox2 promotes satellite glial cell survival through ErbB signaling

  12. Sox2 promotes survival of satellite glial cells in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koike, Taro, E-mail: koiket@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp; Wakabayashi, Taketoshi; Mori, Tetsuji; Hirahara, Yukie; Yamada, Hisao

    2015-08-14

    Sox2 is a transcriptional factor expressed in neural stem cells. It is known that Sox2 regulates cell differentiation, proliferation and survival of the neural stem cells. Our previous study showed that Sox2 is expressed in all satellite glial cells of the adult rat dorsal root ganglion. In this study, to examine the role of Sox2 in satellite glial cells, we establish a satellite glial cell-enriched culture system. Our culture method succeeded in harvesting satellite glial cells with the somata of neurons in the dorsal root ganglion. Using this culture system, Sox2 was downregulated by siRNA against Sox2. The knockdown of Sox2 downregulated ErbB2 and ErbB3 mRNA at 2 and 4 days after siRNA treatment. MAPK phosphorylation, downstream of ErbB, was also inhibited by Sox2 knockdown. Because ErbB2 and ErbB3 are receptors that support the survival of glial cells in the peripheral nervous system, apoptotic cells were also counted. TUNEL-positive cells increased at 5 days after siRNA treatment. These results suggest that Sox2 promotes satellite glial cell survival through the MAPK pathway via ErbB receptors. - Highlights: • We established satellite glial cell culture system. • Function of Sox2 in satellite glial cell was examined using siRNA. • Sox2 knockdown downregulated expression level of ErbB2 and ErbB3 mRNA. • Sox2 knockdown increased apoptotic satellite glial cell. • Sox2 promotes satellite glial cell survival through ErbB signaling.

  13. Lymphatic endothelial S1P promotes mitochondrial function and survival in naive T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Alejandra; Fang, Victoria; Chen, Cynthia; Serasinghe, Madhavika; Verma, Akanksha; Muller, James; Chaluvadi, V Sai; Dustin, Michael L; Hla, Timothy; Elemento, Olivier; Chipuk, Jerry E; Schwab, Susan R

    2017-06-01

    Effective adaptive immune responses require a large repertoire of naive T cells that migrate throughout the body, rapidly identifying almost any foreign peptide. Because the production of T cells declines with age, naive T cells must be long-lived. However, it remains unclear how naive T cells survive for years while constantly travelling. The chemoattractant sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) guides T cell circulation among secondary lymphoid organs, including spleen, lymph nodes and Peyer's patches, where T cells search for antigens. The concentration of S1P is higher in circulatory fluids than in lymphoid organs, and the S1P 1 receptor (S1P 1 R) directs the exit of T cells from the spleen into blood, and from lymph nodes and Peyer's patches into lymph. Here we show that S1P is essential not only for the circulation of naive T cells, but also for their survival. Using transgenic mouse models, we demonstrate that lymphatic endothelial cells support the survival of T cells by secreting S1P via the transporter SPNS2, that this S1P signals through S1P 1 R on T cells, and that the requirement for S1P 1 R is independent of the established role of the receptor in guiding exit from lymph nodes. S1P signalling maintains the mitochondrial content of naive T cells, providing cells with the energy to continue their constant migration. The S1P signalling pathway is being targeted therapeutically to inhibit autoreactive T cell trafficking, and these findings suggest that it may be possible simultaneously to target autoreactive or malignant cell survival.

  14. Repair-dependent cell radiation survival and transformation: an integrated theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, John C

    2014-01-01

    The repair-dependent model of cell radiation survival is extended to include radiation-induced transformations. The probability of transformation is presumed to scale with the number of potentially lethal damages that are repaired in a surviving cell or the interactions of such damages. The theory predicts that at doses corresponding to high survival, the transformation frequency is the sum of simple polynomial functions of dose; linear, quadratic, etc, essentially as described in widely used linear-quadratic expressions. At high doses, corresponding to low survival, the ratio of transformed to surviving cells asymptotically approaches an upper limit. The low dose fundamental- and high dose plateau domains are separated by a downwardly concave transition region. Published transformation data for mammalian cells show the high-dose plateaus predicted by the repair-dependent model for both ultraviolet and ionizing radiation. For the neoplastic transformation experiments that were analyzed, the data can be fit with only the repair-dependent quadratic function. At low doses, the transformation frequency is strictly quadratic, but becomes sigmodial over a wider range of doses. Inclusion of data from the transition region in a traditional linear-quadratic analysis of neoplastic transformation frequency data can exaggerate the magnitude of, or create the appearance of, a linear component. Quantitative analysis of survival and transformation data shows good agreement for ultraviolet radiation; the shapes of the transformation components can be predicted from survival data. For ionizing radiations, both neutrons and x-rays, survival data overestimate the transforming ability for low to moderate doses. The presumed cause of this difference is that, unlike UV photons, a single x-ray or neutron may generate more than one lethal damage in a cell, so the distribution of such damages in the population is not accurately described by Poisson statistics. However, the complete

  15. Survival outcomes following salvage surgery for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, S S; Ooi, E H

    2018-04-01

    Recurrent oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma causes great morbidity and mortality. This systematic review analyses survival outcomes following salvage surgery for recurrent oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. A comprehensive search of various electronic databases was conducted. Studies included patients with recurrent or residual oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma treated with salvage surgery. Primary outcomes were survival rates following salvage surgery. Secondary outcomes included time to recurrence, staging at time of recurrence, post-operative complications, and factors associated with mortality and recurrence. Methodological appraisal and data extraction were conducted as per Joanna Briggs Institute methodology. Eighteen articles were included. The two- and five-year survival rates of the patients were 52 per cent and 30 per cent respectively. Improvements in treatment modalities for recurrent oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma were associated with improvements in two-year overall survival rates, with minimal change to five-year overall survival rates. Various factors were identified as being associated with long-term overall survival, thus assisting clinicians in patient counselling and selection for salvage surgery.

  16. Parasitic infection improves survival from septic peritonitis by enhancing mast cell responses to bacteria in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E Sutherland

    Full Text Available Mammals are serially infected with a variety of microorganisms, including bacteria and parasites. Each infection reprograms the immune system's responses to re-exposure and potentially alters responses to first-time infection by different microorganisms. To examine whether infection with a metazoan parasite modulates host responses to subsequent bacterial infection, mice were infected with the hookworm-like intestinal nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, followed in 2-4 weeks by peritoneal injection of the pathogenic bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae. Survival from Klebsiella peritonitis two weeks after parasite infection was better in Nippostrongylus-infected animals than in unparasitized mice, with Nippostrongylus-infected mice having fewer peritoneal bacteria, more neutrophils, and higher levels of protective interleukin 6. The improved survival of Nippostrongylus-infected mice depends on IL-4 because the survival benefit is lost in mice lacking IL-4. Because mast cells protect mice from Klebsiella peritonitis, we examined responses in mast cell-deficient Kit(W-sh/Kit(W-sh mice, in which parasitosis failed to improve survival from Klebsiella peritonitis. However, adoptive transfer of cultured mast cells to Kit(W-sh/Kit(W-sh mice restored survival benefits of parasitosis. These results show that recent infection with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis protects mice from Klebsiella peritonitis by modulating mast cell contributions to host defense, and suggest more generally that parasitosis can yield survival advantages to a bacterially infected host.

  17. G Protein-Coupled Receptor 87 (GPR87 Promotes Cell Proliferation in Human Bladder Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Zhang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available G protein-coupled receptor 87 (GPR87 is a newly deorphanized member of the cell surface molecule G protein-coupled receptor family. GPR signaling was shown to play a role in promotion of cell growth and survival, metastasis, and drug resistance. The overexpression of GPR87 has also been reported in many malignant tumors including bladder cancer. The aim of the present study is to examine the effect of silencing GPR87 expression with a replication-deficient recombinant adenoviral vector expressing short hairpin RNA targeting GPR87 (Ad-shGPR87 and to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms in bladder cancer cells. Six GPR87-expressing human bladder cancer cells, HT1197, HT1376, J82, RT112, TCCSUP and UMUC3, were used. Infection with Ad-shGPR87 effectively downregulated the GPR87 expression, and significantly reduced the percentage of viable cells in 4 of 6 cell lines as detected by an MTT assay. Significant inhibition on cell proliferation with Ad-shGPR87 was observed in the wild-type p53 bladder cancer cell lines (HT1197, RT112, TCCSUP and UMUC3, but not in the mutant p53 cells (HT1376 and J82. As represented by a wild-type p53 RT112 cell, Ad-shGPR87 infection significantly enhanced p53 and p21 expression and caused caspase-dependent apoptosis. Furthermore, the treatment with Ad-shGPR87 exerted a significant antitumor effect against the GPR87-expressing RT112 xenografts. GPR87 appeared to be a promising target for gene therapy, and Ad-shGPR87 had strong antitumor effects, specifically anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects, against GPR87-expressing human bladder cancer cells.

  18. Clonogenic cell line survival of a human liver cancer cell line SMMC-7721 after carbon ion irradiation with different LET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Suwen; Su Xu; Wang Jifang; Li Wenjian

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the survival fraction of a human liver cancer cell line SMMC-7721 following irradiation with carbon ions with different LET. Methods: cells of the human liver cancer cell line SMMC-7721 were irradiated with carbon ions (LET=30 and 70 keV/μm). The survival fraction was determined with clonogenic assay after 9 days incubation in a 5% CO 2 incubator at 37 degree C. Results: When the survival fractions of 70 keV/μm were D s = 0.1 and D s=0.01 absorption dose were 2.94 and 5.88 Gy respectively, and those of 30 keV/μm were 4.00 and 8.00 Gy respectively. Conclusion: For the SMMC-7721 cell line, 70 keV/μm is more effective for cell killing than 30 keV/μm

  19. Survival of human osteosarcoma cells and normal human fibroblasts following alpha particle irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, E.L.; Gemmell, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    Cell survival of human osteosarcoma cells in culture following alpha particle irradiation is reported here for the first time. The osteosarcoma cell line (TE-85) is found to be less sensitive to inactivation by 5.6 MeV alpha particles (LET 86 keV/μm) than normal diploid human fibroblasts (NFS). Values for the mean lethal doses were estimated to be 103 rads for the TE-85 cells compared with 68 rads for the NFS cultures irradiated under identical conditions. It is postulated that the aneuploidy of the tumor cells with increased DNA chromosomal material may confer a selective advantage for the survival of tumor cells relative to normal cells with diploid chromosomes

  20. Mechanisms of redox metabolism and cancer cell survival during extracellular matrix detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, Mark A; Schafer, Zachary T

    2018-01-16

    Non-transformed cells that become detached from the extracellular matrix (ECM) undergo dysregulation of redox homeostasis and cell death. In contrast, cancer cells often acquire the ability to mitigate programmed cell death pathways and recalibrate the redox balance to survive after ECM detachment, facilitating metastatic dissemination. Accordingly, recent studies of the mechanisms by which cancer cells overcome ECM detachment-induced metabolic alterations have focused on mechanisms in redox homeostasis. The insights into these mechanisms may inform the development of therapeutics that manipulate redox homeostasis to eliminate ECM-detached cancer cells. Here, we review how ECM-detached cancer cells balance redox metabolism for survival. Published under license by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. The regulation of function, growth and survival of GLP-1-producing L-cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhre, Rune Ehrenreich; Holst, Jens Juul; Kappe, Camilla

    2016-01-01

    that regulate the growth, survival and function of these cells are largely unknown. We recently showed that prolonged exposure to high concentrations of the fatty acid palmitate induced lipotoxic effects, similar to those operative in insulin-producing cells, in an in vitro model of GLP-1-producing cells...... absorption and disposal, as well as cell proliferation and survival. In Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) reduced plasma levels of GLP-1 have been observed, and plasma levels of GLP-1, as well as reduced numbers of GLP-1 producing cells, have been correlated to obesity and insulin resistance. Increasing endogenous...... secretion of GLP-1 by selective targeting of the molecular mechanisms regulating secretion from the L-cell has been the focus of much recent research. An additional and promising strategy for enhancing endogenous secretion may be to increase the L-cell mass in the intestinal epithelium, but the mechanisms...

  2. N-methyl-D-aspartate promotes the survival of cerebellar granule cells in culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balázs, R; Jørgensen, Ole Steen; Hack, N

    1988-01-01

    Our previous studies on the survival-promoting influence of elevated concentrations of extracellular K+ ([K+]e) on cultured cerebellar granule cells led to the proposal that depolarization in vitro mimics the effect of the earliest afferent inputs received by the granule cells in vivo. This, in t...

  3. Disturbance of DKK1 level is partly involved in survival of lung cancer cells via regulation of ROMO1 and γ-radiation sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In Gyu, E-mail: igkim@kaeri.re.kr [Department of Radiation Biology, Environmental Radiation Research Group, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, P.O. Box 105, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Biotechnology and Applied Radioisotope, University of Science and Technology (UST), 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seo Yoen [Department of Radiation Biology, Environmental Radiation Research Group, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, P.O. Box 105, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Biomedical Translational Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, 125 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyun A; Kim, Jeong Yul [Department of Radiation Biology, Environmental Radiation Research Group, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, P.O. Box 105, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Ha; Choi, Soo Im [Department of Radiation Biology, Environmental Radiation Research Group, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, P.O. Box 105, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Biotechnology and Applied Radioisotope, University of Science and Technology (UST), 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Jeong Ran; Kim, Kug Chan [Department of Radiation Biology, Environmental Radiation Research Group, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, P.O. Box 105, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Eun Wie [Biomedical Translational Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, 125 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: •DKK1 was expressed differently among non-small-cell lung cancer cell lines. •DKK1 negatively regulated ROMO1 gene expression. •Disturbance of DKK1 level induced the imbalance of cellular ROS. •DKK1/ROMO1-induced ROS imbalance is involved in cell survival in NSCLC. -- Abstract: Dickkopf1 (DKK1), a secreted protein involved in embryonic development, is a potent inhibitor of the Wnt signaling pathway and has been postulated to be a tumor suppressor or tumor promoter depending on the tumor type. In this study, we showed that DKK1 was expressed differently among non-small-cell lung cancer cell lines. The DKK1 expression level was much higher in A549 cells than in H460 cells. We revealed that blockage of DKK1 expression by silencing RNA in A549 cells caused up-regulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) modulator (ROMO1) protein, followed by partial cell death, cell growth inhibition, and loss of epithelial–mesenchymal transition property caused by ROS, and it also increased γ-radiation sensitivity. DKK1 overexpres