WorldWideScience

Sample records for protein-functionalized polylactic acid

  1. Properties of poly(lactic acid)/hydroxyapatite composite through the use of epoxy functional compatibilizers for biomedical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monmaturapoj, Naruporn; Srion, Autcharaporn; Chalermkarnon, Prasert; Buchatip, Suthawan; Petchsuk, Atitsa; Noppakunmongkolchai, Warobon; Mai-Ngam, Katanchalee

    2017-08-01

    A composite of 70/30 poly(lactic acid)/hydroxyapatite was systematically prepared using various amounts of glycidyl methacrylate as reactive compatibilizer or Joncryl ADR®-4368 containing nine glycidyl methacrylate functions as a chain extension/branching agent to improve the mechanical and biological properties for suitable usage as internal bone fixation devices. The effect of glycidyl methacrylate/Joncryl on mechanical properties of poly(lactic acid)/hydroxyapatite was investigated through flexural strength. Cell proliferation and differentiation of osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on the composite samples were determined by Alamar Blue assay and alkaline phosphatase expression, respectively. Result shows that flexural strength tends to decrease, as glycidyl methacrylate content increases except for 1 wt.% glycidyl methacrylate. With an addition of dicumyl peroxide, the flexural strength shows an improvement than that of without dicumyl peroxide probably due to the chemical bonding of the hydroxyapatite and poly(lactic acid) as revealed by FTIR and NMR, whereas the composite with 5 wt.% Joncryl shows the best result, as the flexural strength increases getting close to pure poly(lactic acid). The significant morphology change could be seen in composite with Joncryl where the uniform agglomeration of hydroxyapatite particles oriented in poly(lactic acid) matrix. Addition of the epoxy functional compatibilizers at suitable percentages could also have benefits to cellular attachment, proliferation, differentiation and mineralization. So that, this poly(lactic acid)/hydroxyapatite composite could be a promising material to be used as internal bone fixation devices such as screws, pins and plates.

  2. [Progress on biodegradation of polylactic acid--a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fan; Wang, Sha; Liu, Weifeng; Chen, Guanjun

    2008-02-01

    Polylactic acid is a high molecular-weight polyester made from renewable resources such as corn or starch. It is a promising biodegradable plastic due to its mechanical properties, biocompatibility and biodegradability. To achieve natural recycling of polylactic acid, relative microorganisms and the underlying mechanisms in the biodegradation has become an important issue in biodegradable materials. Up to date, most isolated microbes capable of degrading polylactic acid belong to actinomycetes. Proteases secreted by these microorganisms are responsible for the degradation. However, subtle differences exist between these polylactic acid degrading enzymes and typical proteases with respect to substrate binding and catalysis. Amino acids relative to catalysis are postulated to be highly plastic allowing their catalytic hydrolysis of polylactic acid. In this paper we reviewed current studies on biodegradation of polylactic acid concerning its microbial, enzymatic reactions and the possible mechanisms. We also discussed the probability of biologically recycling PLA by applying highly efficient strains and enzymes.

  3. Polylactic Acid?Lemongrass Essential Oil Nanocapsules with Antimicrobial Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Liakos, Ioannis L.; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Holban, Alina Maria; Florin, Iordache; D?Autilia, Francesca; Carzino, Riccardo; Bianchini, Paolo; Athanassiou, Athanassia

    2016-01-01

    Polylactic acid was combined with lemongrass essential oil (EO) to produce functional nanocapsules (NCs). The obtained polylactic acid nanoparticles showed antimicrobial activity both with and without the presence of lemongrass oil; however, the presence of EO improved the activity of the NCs. The presence of lemongrass assisted the formation of well-separated NCs and also provided enhanced antimicrobial properties, since lemongrass is known for its antimicrobial character. Fluorescence micro...

  4. Studies on Synthesis of Electrochemically Exfoliated Functionalized Graphene and Polylactic Acid/Ferric Phytate Functionalized Graphene Nanocomposites as New Fire Hazard Suppression Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaming; Wang, Xin; Cai, Wei; Qiu, Shuilai; Hu, Yuan; Liew, Kim Meow

    2016-09-28

    Practical application of functionalized graphene in polymeric nanocomposites is hampered by the lack of cost-effective and eco-friendly methods for its production. Here, we reported a facile and green electrochemical approach for preparing ferric phytate functionalized graphene (f-GNS) by simultaneously utilizing biobased phytic acid as electrolyte and modifier for the first time. Due to the presence of phytic acid, electrochemical exfoliation leads to low oxidized graphene sheets (a C/O ratio of 14.8) that are tens of micrometers large. Successful functionalization of graphene was confirmed by the appearance of phosphorus and iron peaks in the X-ray photoelectron spectrum. Further, high-performance polylactic acid/f-GNS nanocomposites are readily fabricated by a convenient masterbatch strategy. Notably, inclusion of well-dispersed f-GNS resulted in dramatic suppression on fire hazards of polylactic acid in terms of reduced peak heat-release rate (decreased by 40%), low CO yield, and formation of a high graphitized protective char layer. Moreover, obviously improvements in crystallization rate and thermal conductivities of polylactic acid nanocomposites were observed, highlighting its promising potential in practical application. This novel strategy toward the simultaneous exfoliation and functionalization for graphene demonstrates a simple yet very effective approach for fabricating graphene-based flame retardants.

  5. Adhesion dynamics of porcine esophageal fibroblasts on extracellular matrix protein-functionalized poly(lactic acid)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Ning; Gong Yingxue; Chan, Vincent; Liao Kin; Chian, Kerm Sin

    2008-01-01

    Effective attachment of esophageal cells on biomaterials is one important requirement in designing engineered esophagus substitute for esophageal cancer treatment. In this study, poly(lactic acid) (PLA) was subjected to surface modification by coupling extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins on its surface to promote cell adhesion. Two typical ECM proteins, collagen type I (COL) and fibronectin (FN), were immobilized on the PLA surface with the aid of glutaraldehyde as a cross linker between aminolyzed PLA and ECM proteins. By using confocal reflectance interference contrast microscopy (C-RICM) integrating with phase contrast microscopy, the long-term adhesion dynamics of porcine esophageal fibroblasts (PEFs) on four types of surfaces (unmodified PLA, PLA-COOH, PLA-COL and PLA-FN) was investigated during 24 h of culture. It is demonstrated by C-RICM results that PEFs form strong adhesion contact on all four types of surfaces at different stages of cell seeding. Among the four surfaces, PEFs on the PLA-FN surface reach the maximum adhesion energy (9.5 x 10 -7 J m -2 ) in the shortest time (20 min) during the initial stage of cell seeding. After adhesion energy reaches the maximum value, PEFs maintain their highly deformed geometries till they reached a steady state after 20 h of culture. F-actin immunostaining results show that the evolvement of spatial organization of F-actin is tightly correlated with the formation of adhesion contact and cell spreading. Furthermore, the cell attachment ratio of PEFs on PLA in 2 h is only 26% compared with 88% on PLA-FN, 73% on PLA-COL and 36% on PLA-COOH. All the results demonstrate the effect of surface functionalization on the biophysical responses of PEFs in cell adhesion. Fibronectin-immobilized PLA demonstrates promising potential for application as an engineered esophagus substitute

  6. Polylactic Acid-Lemongrass Essential Oil Nanocapsules with Antimicrobial Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liakos, Ioannis L; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Holban, Alina Maria; Florin, Iordache; D'Autilia, Francesca; Carzino, Riccardo; Bianchini, Paolo; Athanassiou, Athanassia

    2016-07-07

    Polylactic acid was combined with lemongrass essential oil (EO) to produce functional nanocapsules (NCs). The obtained polylactic acid nanoparticles showed antimicrobial activity both with and without the presence of lemongrass oil; however, the presence of EO improved the activity of the NCs. The presence of lemongrass assisted the formation of well-separated NCs and also provided enhanced antimicrobial properties, since lemongrass is known for its antimicrobial character. Fluorescence microscopy was used to optically observe the nanoparticles and NCs and revealed the attachment of lemongrass oil with the polylactic acid NCs. Dynamic light scattering was used to determine their size. UV absorption was used to determine the exact amount of lemongrass oil found in the polylactic acid-lemongrass oil NCs, which was important for understanding the minimum inhibitory concentration for the antimicrobial experiments. A series of clinically important microbial species were used in the study and the obtained NCs proved to have very good antimicrobial properties against all tested strains. Such NCs can be used for the design of ecological strategies, based on natural alternatives, which may be efficient against severe infections, including those that involve resistant pathogens and biofilms or those with difficult to reach localization.

  7. Functionalized graphene with polymer toughener as novel interface modifier for property-tailored poly(lactic acid)/graphene nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this work, an effective strategy for engineering the interfacial compatibility between graphene and polylactic acid (PLA) was developed by manipulating the functionalization of graphene and introducing an epoxy-containing elastomer modifier. Curing between the functional groups of the modified gr...

  8. Biodegradable poly(lactic acid)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The fabrication of biodegradable poly(lactic acid) (PLA) microspheres containing total alkaloids of Caulis sinomenii was investigated. The formation, diameter, morphology and properties of the microspheres were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT–IR), laser particle size analyser and scanning ...

  9. Lignin poly(lactic acid) copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, Johan Vilhelm; Chung, Yi-Lin; Li, Russell Jingxian; Waymouth, Robert; Sattely, Elizabeth; Billington, Sarah; Frank, Curtis W.

    2017-02-14

    Provided herein are graft co-polymers of lignin and poly(lactic acid) (lignin-g-PLA copolymer), thermoset and thermoplastic polymers including them, methods of preparing these polymers, and articles of manufacture including such polymers.

  10. [Bond strengths of absorbable polylactic acid root canal post with three different adhesives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hui; Cheng, Can; Hu, Jia; Liu, He; Sun, Zhi-hui

    2015-12-18

    To find absorbable adhesives with suitable bonding properties for the absorbable polylactic acid root canal post. To test and compare the bond strengths of absorbable polylactic acid root canal post with three different adhesives. The absorbable polylactic acid root canal posts were used to restore the extracted teeth, using 3 different adhesives: cyanoacrylates, fibrin sealant and glass ionomer cement. The teeth were prepared into slices for micro-push-out test. The bond strength was statistically analyzed using ANOVA. The specimens were examined using microscope and the failure mode was divided into four categories: cohesive failure between absorbable polylactic acid root canal posts and adhesives, cohesive failure between dentin and adhesives, failure within the adhesives and failure within the absorbable polylactic acid root canal posts. The bond strength of cyanoacrylates [(16.83 ± 6.97) MPa] and glass ionomer cement [(12.10 ± 5.09) MPa] were significantly higher than fibrin sealant [(1.17 ± 0.50) MPa], Padhesives was 25.0%, the cohesive failure between the dentin and the adhesives was 16.7%, the failure within the adhesives was 33.3%, and the failure within the absorbable polylactic acid root canal posts was 25.0%. In the group of fibrin sealant, the cohesive failure between the absorbable polylactic acid root canal posts and the adhesives was 66.7%, the cohesive failure between the dentin and the adhesives was 22.2%, the failure within the adhesives was 11.1%. In the group of glass ionomer cement, the cohesive failure between the absorbable polylactic acid root canal posts and the adhesives was 87.5%, the failure within the adhesives was 12.5%. The major failure mode in fibrin sealant and glass ionomer cement was the cohesive failure between the absorbable polylactic acid root canal posts and the adhesives. No major failure modes were found in the group of cyanoacrylates. The bond strength of fibrin sealant is low, which cannot meet the requirement of

  11. Functional Properties of Plasticized Bio-Based Poly(Lactic Acid)_Poly(Hydroxybutyrate) (PLA_PHB) Films for Active Food Packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Burgos, Nuria; Armentano, Ilaria; Fortunati, Elena; Dominici, Franco; Luzi, Francesca; Fiori, Stefano; Cristofaro, Francesco; Visai, Livia; Jiménez, Alfonso; Kenny, José María

    2017-01-01

    Fully bio-based and biodegradable active films based on poly(lactic acid) (PLA) blended with poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) and incorporating lactic acid oligomers (OLA) as plasticizers and carvacrol as active agent were extruded and fully characterized in their functional properties for antimicrobial active packaging. PLA_PHB films showed good barrier to water vapor, while the resistance to oxygen diffusion decreased with the addition of OLA and carvacrol. Their overall migration in aqueous f...

  12. Antifungal Poly(lactic acid) Films Containing Thymol and Carvone

    OpenAIRE

    Boonruang Kanchana; Chinsirikul Wannee; Hararak Bongkot; Kerddonfag Noppadon; Chonhenchob Vanee

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to develop antifungal poly(lactic acid) films for food packaging applications. The antifungal compounds, thymol and R-(-)-carvone were incorporated into poly(lactic acid) (PLA)-based polymer at 10, 15 and 20% by weight. Film converting process consists of three steps including melt blending, sheet extrusion and biaxial stretching. The incorporation of antifungal compounds into the polymer matrix resulted in decreased Tg and Tm, increased gas permeabilility, reduced ...

  13. Antifungal Poly(lactic acid Films Containing Thymol and Carvone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boonruang Kanchana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to develop antifungal poly(lactic acid films for food packaging applications. The antifungal compounds, thymol and R-(--carvone were incorporated into poly(lactic acid (PLA-based polymer at 10, 15 and 20% by weight. Film converting process consists of three steps including melt blending, sheet extrusion and biaxial stretching. The incorporation of antifungal compounds into the polymer matrix resulted in decreased Tg and Tm, increased gas permeabilility, reduced tensile strength and increased elongation at break of the antifungal PLA films.

  14. Influence of Heavy Metal Powders on Rheological Properties of Poly(Lactic Acid)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, S. M.; Gefle, O. S.; Amitov, E. T.; Berchuk, D. Yu.; Zhuravlev, D. V.

    2017-08-01

    Main properties of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and composite materials on its basis filled with tungsten and lead powders are investigated. An anomalous decrease of the viscosity of melts of poly(lactic acid)/tungsten and poly(lactic acid)/lead composites is detected. The methods of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and IR spectroscopy are used for investigation. It is shown that the temperature at which the composites filled with tungsten and lead begin to melt decreases by more than 8 and 3°C in comparison with neat PLA. Our investigations show impossibility of preparing radiation resistant polymer composites based on PLA filled with tungsten and lead powders.

  15. Additive Manufacturing and Characterization of Polylactic Acid (PLA) Composites Containing Metal Reinforcements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuentz, Lily; Salem, Anton; Singh, M.; Halbig, M. C.; Salem, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing of polymeric systems using 3D printing has become quite popular recently due to rapid growth and availability of low cost and open source 3D printers. Two widely used 3D printing filaments are based on polylactic acid (PLA) and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) systems. PLA is much more environmentally friendly in comparison to ABS since it is made from renewable resources such as corn, sugarcane, and other starches as precursors. Recently, polylactic acid-based metal powder containing composite filaments have emerged which could be utilized for multifunctional applications. The composite filaments have higher density than pure PLA, and the majority of the materials volume is made up of polylactic acid. In order to utilize functionalities of composite filaments, printing behavior and properties of 3-D printed composites need to be characterized and compared with the pure PLA materials. In this study, pure PLA and composite specimens with different metallic reinforcements (Copper, Bronze, Tungsten, Iron, etc) were 3D printed at various layer heights and resulting microstructures and properties were characterized. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) behavior of filaments with different reinforcements were studied. The microscopy results show an increase in porosity between 3-D printed regular PLA and the metal composite PLA samples, which could produce weaker mechanical properties in the metal composite materials. Tensile strength and fracture toughness behavior of specimens as a function of print layer height will be presented.

  16. Polylactic acid organogel as versatile scaffolding technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Punet, Xavier; Levato, Riccardo; Bataille, Isabelle; Letourneur, Didier; Engel, Elisabeth; Mateos-Timoneda, Miguel A

    2017-01-01

    Tissue engineering requires scaffolding techniques based on non-toxic processes that permits the fabrication of constructs with tailored properties. Here, a two-step methodology based on the gelation and precipitation of the poly(lactic) acid/ethyl lactate organogel system is presented. With this

  17. Hyperbranched polyester polyol modified with polylactic acid as a compatibilizer for plasticized tapioca starch/polylactic acid blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Mesias

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A hyperbranched polyester polyol of the second generation (HBP2 was modified with polylactic acid (HBP2-g-PLA and employed as a compatibilizer for plasticized tapioca starch (TPS/polylactic acid (PLA blends. The effect of the compatibilizer HBP2- g-PLA was evaluated in comparison to the control sample (TPS/PLA blend without HBP2-g-PLA. The torque value of the TPS/PLA blends with HBP2- g-PLA was lower than that of the control sample, while thermal stability and crystallinity followed opposite behavior. The glass transition temperature (Tg and degree of crystallinity of the TPS/PLA blends with HBP2-g-PLA decreased with increasing mass fraction of HBP2-g-PLA. By scanning electron microscopy (SEM, it was observed that the morphology of the TPS/PLA blends with HBP2-g -PLA was more homogeneous than that of the control sample, confirming that HBP2- g-PLA acted as a compatibilizer and plasticizing agent to the TPS/PLA blends. Rheological analysis of the compatibilized TPS/PLA blends indicated the presence of microstructure.

  18. Poly(Lactic Acid) Based Flexible Films

    OpenAIRE

    Fathilah binti Ali; Jamarosliza Jamaluddin; Arun Kumar Upadhyay

    2014-01-01

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) is a biodegradable polymer which has good mechanical properties, however, its brittleness limits its usage especially in packaging materials. Therefore, in this work, PLA based polyurethane films were prepared by synthesizing with different types of isocyanates; methylene diisocyanate (MDI) and hexamethylene diisocyanates (HDI). For this purpose, PLA based polyurethane must have good strength and flexibility. Therefore, polycaprolactone which has b...

  19. Deposition of LDH on plasma treated polylactic acid to reduce water permeability

    KAUST Repository

    Bugatti, Valeria

    2013-04-01

    A simple and scalable deposition process was developed to prepare polylactic acid (PLA) coatings with enhanced water barrier properties for food packaging applications. This method based on electrostatic interactions between the positively charged layers of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) modified with ionic liquids (ILs) and the negatively charged plasma treated polylactic acid leads to homogeneous, stable, and highly durable coatings. Deposition of the LDH coatings increases the surface hydrophobicity of the neat PLA, which results to a decrease in water permeability by about 35%. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  20. GAS PERMEATION PROPERTIES OF POLY(LACTIC ACID). (R826733)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractThe need for the development of polymeric materials based on renewable resources has led to the development of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) which is being produced from a feedstock of corn rather than petroleum. The present study examines the permeation of nitrogen...

  1. Polylactic Acid Maybe Hope for Solving White Pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Dan

    2007-01-01

    @@ As the pollution problem has aroused more and more attention, greater efforts have been made in developing degradable biological materials without environmental pollution to replace oil-based traditional plastics being used in great quantities today. Among numerous kinds of degradable polymers, polylactic acid has become the 'green' environmental friendly material with the brightest development prospect.

  2. Effect of l-lysine-assisted surface grafting for nano-hydroxyapatite on mechanical properties and in vitro bioactivity of poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liuyun, Jiang; Lixin, Jiang; Chengdong, Xiong; Lijuan, Xu; Ye, Li

    2016-01-01

    It is promising and challenging to study surface modification for nano-hydroxyapatite to improve the dispersion and enhance the mechanical properties and bioactivity of poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid). In this paper, we designed an effective new surface grafting with the assist of l-lysine for nano-hydroxyapatite, and the nano-hydroxyapatite surface grafted with the assist of l-lysine (g-nano-hydroxyapatite) was incorporated into poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) to develop a series of g-nano-hydroxyapatite/poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) nano-composites. The surface modification reaction for nano-hydroxyapatite, the mechanical properties, and in vitro human osteoblast-like cell (MG-63) response were characterized and investigated by Fourier transformation infrared, thermal gravimetric analysis, dispersion test, electromechanical universal tester, differential scanning calorimeter measurements, and in vitro cells culture experiment. The results showed that the grafting amount on the surface of nano-hydroxyapatite was enhanced with the increase of l-lysine, and the dispersion of nano-hydroxyapatite was improved more, so that it brought about better promotion crystallization and more excellent mechanical enhancement effect for poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid), comparing with the unmodified nano-hydroxyapatite. Moreover, the cells' attachment and proliferation results confirmed that the incorporation of the g-nano-hydroxyapatite into poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) exhibited better biocompatibility than poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid). The above results indicated that the new surface grafting with the assist of l-lysine for nano-hydroxyapatite was an ideal novel surface modification method, which brought about better mechanical enhancement effect and in vitro bioactivity for poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) with adding higher g-nano-hydroxyapatite content, suggesting it had a great potential to be used as bone fracture internal fixation materials

  3. MWCNTs-Reinforced Epoxidized Linseed Oil Plasticized Polylactic Acid Nanocomposite and Its Electroactive Shape Memory Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Alam, Javed; Alam, Manawwer; Raja, Mohan; Abduljaleel, Zainularifeen; Dass, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    A novel electroactive shape memory polymer nanocomposite of epoxidized linseed oil plasticized polylactic acid and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) was prepared by a combination of solution blending, solvent cast technique, and hydraulic hot press moulding. In this study, polylactic acid (PLA) was first plasticized by epoxidized linseed oil (ELO) in order to overcome the major limitations of PLA, such as high brittleness, low toughness, and low tensile elongation. Then, MWCNTs were inc...

  4. Bark polyflavonoids from Pinus radiata as functional building-blocks for polylactic acid (PLA-based green composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Garcia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Polylactic acid (PLA was melt-blended with Pinus radiata unmodified and modified (hydroxypropyled bark polyflavonoids in order to use such polyphenolic building-blocks as functional additives for envisaged applications. Rheological, morphological, molecular, thermal, and flexural properties were studied. Polyflavonoids improved blend processability in terms of short-time mixing. Furthermore, hydroxypropylated polyflavonoids improve miscibility in binary and ternary blends. Blend-composition affects crystallization-, melting-, and glass transition-temperature of PLA, as well as thermal resistance, and flexural properties of the blends. Polyflavonoids induced PLA-crystallization, and polymer-chain decomposition. Modified and unmodified bark polyflavonoids from radiata pine can be used successfully in PLA-based green composites beyond the food-packaging applications. The high compatibility between PLA and hydroxypropyled polyflavonoids highlights the potential of such phenolic derivatives for PLA-based material design.

  5. Sandwich-Architectured Poly(lactic acid)-Graphene Composite Food Packaging Films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goh, Kunli; Heising, Jenneke K.; Yuan, Yang; Karahan, Huseyin E.; Wei, Li; Zhai, Shengli; Koh, Jia Xuan; Htin, Nanda M.; Zhang, Feimo; Wang, Rong; Fane, Anthony G.; Dekker, Matthijs; Dehghani, Fariba; Chen, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Biodegradable food packaging promises a more sustainable future. Among the many different biopolymers used, poly(lactic acid) (PLA) possesses the good mechanical property and cost-effectiveness necessary of a biodegradable food packaging. However, PLA food packaging suffers from poor water vapor

  6. Catalytic Cracking of Lactide and Poly(Lactic Acid) to Acrylic Acid at Low Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrade, Frédéric G; van Krieken, Jan; Verkuijl, Bastiaan J V; Bouwman, Elisabeth

    2017-05-09

    Despite being a simple dehydration reaction, the industrially relevant conversion of lactic acid to acrylic acid is particularly challenging. For the first time, the catalytic cracking of lactide and poly(lactic acid) to acrylic acid under mild conditions is reported with up to 58 % yield. This transformation is catalyzed by strong acids in the presence of bromide or chloride salts and proceeds through simple S N 2 and elimination reactions. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  7. Processing and Characterization of Cellulose Nanocrystals/Polylactic Acid Nanocomposite Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin M. Sullivan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this study is to examine the effect of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC on the properties of polylactic acid (PLA films. The films are fabricated via melt compounding and melt fiber spinning followed by compression molding. Film fracture morphology, thermal properties, crystallization behavior, thermo-mechanical behavior, and mechanical behavior were determined as a function of CNC content using scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, dynamic mechanical analysis, and tensile testing. Film crystallinity increases with increasing CNC content indicating CNC act as nucleating agents, promoting crystallization. Furthermore, the addition of CNC increased the film storage modulus and slightly broadened the glass transition region.

  8. Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) based nanocomposites-a novel way of drug-releasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Chen; Lv Gang; Pan Chao; Song Min; Wu Chunhui; Guo Dadong; Wang Xuemei; Chen Baoan; Gu Zhongze

    2007-01-01

    In this communication, poly(lactic acid) nanofibers have been fabricated by electrospinning and then poly(lactic acid) (PLA) based nanocomposites have been prepared by accumulating anticancer drug daunorubicin on PLA nanofibers combined with TiO 2 nanoparticles. Our atomic force microscopy (AFM) and laser-scanning confocal microscope (LSCM) studies demonstrate that the respective drug molecules could be readily self-assembled on the surface of the blends of nano-TiO 2 with PLA polymer nanocomposites, which could further efficiently facilitate the drug permeation and accumulation on the target leukemia K562 cells. Besides, the respective new nanocomposites have good biocompatibility, ease of surface chemistry modification and very high surface area, which may afford the possibility for their promising application in pharmacology and biomedical engineering areas. (communication)

  9. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of polylactic acid-based composite with tricalcium phosphate microsphere for enhanced biodegradability and osseointegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Da Yong; Kang, Min-Ho; Kang, In-Gu; Kim, Hyoun-Ee; Jeong, Seol-Ha

    2018-05-01

    A biodegradable polylactic acid composite containing tricalcium phosphate microsphere was fabricated. The composite exhibited enhanced biocompatibility and a well-interconnected porous structure that enabled tissue ingrowth after degradation. The tricalcium phosphate microspheres had an average size of 106 ± 43 μm and were incorporated into the polylactic acid matrix using a high-shear mixer. The resulting bioactivity and hydrophilicity were enhanced to levels comparable to those of a polylactic acid composite containing tricalcium phosphate powder, which is a well-known material used in the medical field. An accelerated 30-day degradation test in HCl revealed successful generation of an open porous structure with ∼98% interconnectivity in the polylactic acid-tricalcium phosphate microsphere composite, demonstrating the potential of this material to induce enhanced osseointegration in the later stage of bone regeneration. The early stage osseointegration was also evaluated by implanting the composite in vivo using a rabbit femoral defect model. After 16 weeks of implantation, the bone-to-implant contact ratio of the polylactic acid-tricalcium phosphate microsphere composite was enhanced owing to tissue ingrowth through the generated pores near the surface.

  10. New Polylactic Acid Composites Reinforced with Artichoke Fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Botta, Luigi; Fiore, Vincenzo; Scalici, Tommaso; Valenza, Antonino;  , Roberto

    2015-01-01

    In this work, artichoke fibers were used for the first time to prepare poly(lactic acid) (PLA)-based biocomposites. In particular, two PLA/artichoke composites with the same fiber loading (10% w/w) were prepared by the film-stacking method: the first one (UNID) reinforced with unidirectional long artichoke fibers, the second one (RANDOM) reinforced by randomly-oriented long artichoke fibers. Both composites were mechanically characterized in tensile mode by quasi-static and dynamic mechanica...

  11. Poly(Lactic Acid) Hemodialysis Membranes with Poly(Lactic Acid)-block-Poly(2-Hydroxyethyl Methacrylate) Copolymer As Additive: Preparation, Characterization, and Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lijing; Liu, Fu; Yu, Xuemin; Xue, Lixin

    2015-08-19

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) hemodialysis membranes with enhanced antifouling capability and hemocompatibility were developed using poly(lactic acid)-block-poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PLA-PHEMA) copolymers as the blending additive. PLA-PHEMA block copolymers were synthesized via reversible addition-fragmentation (RAFT) polymerization from aminolyzed PLA. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) were applied to characterize the synthesized products. By blending PLA with the amphiphilic block copolymer, PLA/PLA-PHEMA membranes were prepared by nonsolvent induced phase separation (NIPS) method. Their chemistry and structure were characterized with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results revealed that PLA/PLA-PHEMA membranes with high PLA-PHEMA contents exhibited enhanced hydrophilicity, water permeability, antifouling and hemocompatibility. Especially, when the PLA-PHEMA concentration was 15 wt %, the water flux of the modified membrane was about 236 L m(-2) h(-1). Its urea and creatinine clearance was more than 0.70 mL/min, lysozyme clearance was about 0.50 mL/min, BSA clearance was as less as 0.31 mL/min. All the results suggest that PLA-PHEMA copolymers had served as effective agents for optimizing the property of PLA-based membrane for hemodialysis applications.

  12. Polylactic Acid—Lemongrass Essential Oil Nanocapsules with Antimicrobial Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis L. Liakos

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Polylactic acid was combined with lemongrass essential oil (EO to produce functional nanocapsules (NCs. The obtained polylactic acid nanoparticles showed antimicrobial activity both with and without the presence of lemongrass oil; however, the presence of EO improved the activity of the NCs. The presence of lemongrass assisted the formation of well-separated NCs and also provided enhanced antimicrobial properties, since lemongrass is known for its antimicrobial character. Fluorescence microscopy was used to optically observe the nanoparticles and NCs and revealed the attachment of lemongrass oil with the polylactic acid NCs. Dynamic light scattering was used to determine their size. UV absorption was used to determine the exact amount of lemongrass oil found in the polylactic acid—lemongrass oil NCs, which was important for understanding the minimum inhibitory concentration for the antimicrobial experiments. A series of clinically important microbial species were used in the study and the obtained NCs proved to have very good antimicrobial properties against all tested strains. Such NCs can be used for the design of ecological strategies, based on natural alternatives, which may be efficient against severe infections, including those that involve resistant pathogens and biofilms or those with difficult to reach localization.

  13. Deposition of LDH on plasma treated polylactic acid to reduce water permeability

    KAUST Repository

    Bugatti, Valeria; Livi, Sebastien; Hayrapetyan, Suren; Wang, Yue; Estevez, Luis; Vittoria, Vittoria; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.

    2013-01-01

    A simple and scalable deposition process was developed to prepare polylactic acid (PLA) coatings with enhanced water barrier properties for food packaging applications. This method based on electrostatic interactions between the positively charged

  14. Composition dependence of the synergistic effect of nucleating agent and plasticizer in poly(lactic acid: A Mixture Design study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Fehri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Blends consisting of commercial poly(lactic acid (PLA, poly(lactic acid oligomer (OLA8 as plasticizer and a sulfonic salt of a phthalic ester and poly(D-lactic acid as nucleating agents were prepared by melt extrusion, following a Mixture Design approach, in order to systematically study mechanical and thermal properties as a function of composition. The full investigation was carried out by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA and tensile tests. The crystallization half-time was also studied at 105 °C as a function of the blends composition. A range of compositions in which the plasticizer and the nucleation agent minimized the crystallization half-time in a synergistic way was clearly identified thanks to the application of the Mixture Design approach. The results allowed also the identification of a composition range to maximize the crystallinity developed during the rapid cooling below glass transition temperature in injection moulding, thus allowing an easier processing of PLA based materials. Moreover the mechanical properties were discussed by correlating them to the chemical structural features and thermal behaviour of blends.

  15. Osteogenesis of human adipose-derived stem cells on poly(dopamine)-coated electrospun poly(lactic acid) fiber mats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chi-Chang, E-mail: chichang31@thu.edu.tw; Fu, Shu-Juan

    2016-01-01

    Electrospinning is a versatile technique to generate large quantities of micro- or nano-fibers from a wide variety of shapes and sizes of polymer. The aim of this study is to develop functionalized electrospun nano-fibers and use a mussel-inspired surface coating to regulate adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs). We prepared poly(lactic acid) (PLA) fibers coated with polydopamine (PDA). The morphology, chemical composition, and surface properties of PDA/PLA were characterized by SEM and XPS. PDA/PLA modulated hADSCs' responses in several ways. Firstly, adhesion and proliferation of hADSCs cultured on PDA/PLA were significantly enhanced relative to those on PLA. Increased focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and collagen I levels and enhanced cell attachment and cell cycle progression were observed upon an increase in PDA content. In addition, the ALP activity and osteocalcin of hADSCs cultured on PDA/PLA were significantly higher than seen in those cultured on a pure PLA mat. Moreover, hADSCs cultured on PDA/PLA showed up-regulation of the ang-1 and vWF proteins associated with angiogenesis differentiation. Our results demonstrate that the bio-inspired coating synthetic degradable PLA polymer can be used as a simple technique to render the surfaces of synthetic biodegradable fibers, thus enabling them to direct the specific responses of hADSCs. - Highlights: • A simple method of preparing electrospun poly(lactic acid) nanofibers coated with polydopamine • Enhanced adhesion and proliferation of hADSCs on a PDA/PLA mat • Increased focal adhesion kinase (FAK), collagen I levels, cell attachment and cell cycle progression with a high PDA content • Up-regulation of the Ang-1 and vWF proteins associated with angiogenesis differentiation of hADSCs is observed. • A promising method for bio-inspired surface modification on organic fiber substrates using PDA.

  16. Osteogenesis of human adipose-derived stem cells on poly(dopamine)-coated electrospun poly(lactic acid) fiber mats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Chi-Chang; Fu, Shu-Juan

    2016-01-01

    Electrospinning is a versatile technique to generate large quantities of micro- or nano-fibers from a wide variety of shapes and sizes of polymer. The aim of this study is to develop functionalized electrospun nano-fibers and use a mussel-inspired surface coating to regulate adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs). We prepared poly(lactic acid) (PLA) fibers coated with polydopamine (PDA). The morphology, chemical composition, and surface properties of PDA/PLA were characterized by SEM and XPS. PDA/PLA modulated hADSCs' responses in several ways. Firstly, adhesion and proliferation of hADSCs cultured on PDA/PLA were significantly enhanced relative to those on PLA. Increased focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and collagen I levels and enhanced cell attachment and cell cycle progression were observed upon an increase in PDA content. In addition, the ALP activity and osteocalcin of hADSCs cultured on PDA/PLA were significantly higher than seen in those cultured on a pure PLA mat. Moreover, hADSCs cultured on PDA/PLA showed up-regulation of the ang-1 and vWF proteins associated with angiogenesis differentiation. Our results demonstrate that the bio-inspired coating synthetic degradable PLA polymer can be used as a simple technique to render the surfaces of synthetic biodegradable fibers, thus enabling them to direct the specific responses of hADSCs. - Highlights: • A simple method of preparing electrospun poly(lactic acid) nanofibers coated with polydopamine • Enhanced adhesion and proliferation of hADSCs on a PDA/PLA mat • Increased focal adhesion kinase (FAK), collagen I levels, cell attachment and cell cycle progression with a high PDA content • Up-regulation of the Ang-1 and vWF proteins associated with angiogenesis differentiation of hADSCs is observed. • A promising method for bio-inspired surface modification on organic fiber substrates using PDA

  17. Characterization and ageing study of poly(lactic acid) films plasticized with oligomeric lactic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Burgos, Nuria; Martino, Verónica P.; Jiménez, Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) was melt-blended with a bio-based oligomeric lactic acid (OLA) plasticizer at different concentrations between 15 wt% and 25 wt% in order to enhance PLA ductility and to get a fully biodegradable material with potential application in films manufacturing. OLA was an efficient plasticizer for PLA, as it caused a significant decrease on glass transition temperature (Tg) while improving considerably ductile properties. Only one Tg value was observed in all cases and no ap...

  18. Solution blow spun Poly(lactic acid)/Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose nanofibers with antimicrobial properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) nanofibers containing hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and tetracycline hydrochloride (THC) were solution blow spun from two different solvents, chloroform/acetone (CA, 80:20 v/v) and 2,2,2-triflouroethanol (TFE). The diameter distribution, chemical, thermal, thermal stab...

  19. Poly(dopamine) coating of 3D printed poly(lactic acid) scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, Chia-Tze; Lin, Chi-Chang; Chen, Yi-Wen; Yeh, Chia-Hung; Fang, Hsin-Yuan; Shie, Ming-You

    2015-01-01

    3D printing is a versatile technique to generate large quantities of a wide variety of shapes and sizes of polymer. The aim of this study is to develop functionalized 3D printed poly(lactic acid) (PLA) scaffolds and use a mussel-inspired surface coating to regulate cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs). We prepared PLA 3D scaffolds coated with polydopamine (PDA). The chemical composition and surface properties of PDA/PLA were characterized by XPS. PDA/PLA modulated hADSCs' responses in several ways. Firstly, adhesion and proliferation, and cell cycle of hADSCs cultured on PDA/PLA were significantly enhanced relative to those on PLA. In addition, the collagen I secreted from cells was increased and promoted cell attachment and cell cycle progression were depended on the PDA content. In osteogenesis assay, the ALP activity and osteocalcin of hADSCs cultured on PDA/PLA were significantly higher than seen in those cultured on pure PLA scaffolds. Moreover, hADSCs cultured on PDA/PLA showed up-regulation of the ang-1 and vWF proteins associated with angiogenic differentiation. Our results demonstrate that the bio-inspired coating synthetic PLA polymer can be used as a simple technique to render the surfaces of synthetic scaffolds active, thus enabling them to direct the specific responses of hADSCs. - Highlights: • A simple method of 3D printed poly(lactic acid) scaffold coated with PDA • Promoted proliferation of hADSCs on PDA/PLA scaffolds • Increased collagen I, cell cycle, and cell adhesion with a high PDA content • Up-regulation of angiogenic and osteogenic of hADSCs • A promising method for bioinspired surface modification on PLA using PDA

  20. Poly(dopamine) coating of 3D printed poly(lactic acid) scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao, Chia-Tze [School of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung City, Taiwan (China); Department of Stomatology, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung City, Taiwan (China); Lin, Chi-Chang [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Tunghai University, Taichung City, Taiwan (China); Chen, Yi-Wen; Yeh, Chia-Hung [3D Printing Medical Research Center, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung City, Taiwan (China); Fang, Hsin-Yuan [3D Printing Medical Research Center, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung City, Taiwan (China); Department of Thoracic Surgery, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung City, Taiwan (China); School of Medicine, College of Medicine, College of Public Health, Taichung City, Taiwan (China); Shie, Ming-You, E-mail: eviltacasi@gmail.com [3D Printing Medical Research Center, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung City, Taiwan (China)

    2015-11-01

    3D printing is a versatile technique to generate large quantities of a wide variety of shapes and sizes of polymer. The aim of this study is to develop functionalized 3D printed poly(lactic acid) (PLA) scaffolds and use a mussel-inspired surface coating to regulate cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs). We prepared PLA 3D scaffolds coated with polydopamine (PDA). The chemical composition and surface properties of PDA/PLA were characterized by XPS. PDA/PLA modulated hADSCs' responses in several ways. Firstly, adhesion and proliferation, and cell cycle of hADSCs cultured on PDA/PLA were significantly enhanced relative to those on PLA. In addition, the collagen I secreted from cells was increased and promoted cell attachment and cell cycle progression were depended on the PDA content. In osteogenesis assay, the ALP activity and osteocalcin of hADSCs cultured on PDA/PLA were significantly higher than seen in those cultured on pure PLA scaffolds. Moreover, hADSCs cultured on PDA/PLA showed up-regulation of the ang-1 and vWF proteins associated with angiogenic differentiation. Our results demonstrate that the bio-inspired coating synthetic PLA polymer can be used as a simple technique to render the surfaces of synthetic scaffolds active, thus enabling them to direct the specific responses of hADSCs. - Highlights: • A simple method of 3D printed poly(lactic acid) scaffold coated with PDA • Promoted proliferation of hADSCs on PDA/PLA scaffolds • Increased collagen I, cell cycle, and cell adhesion with a high PDA content • Up-regulation of angiogenic and osteogenic of hADSCs • A promising method for bioinspired surface modification on PLA using PDA.

  1. Biodegradability of injection molded bioplastics containing polylactic acid and poultry feather fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodegradability of three types of bioplastic pots was evaluated by measuring carbon dioxide (CO2) produced from lab-scale compost reactors containing mixtures of pot fragments and compost inoculum held at 58 C for 60 days. Biodegradability of pot type A (composed of 100% polylactic acid (PLA)) was...

  2. Characterization of Extruded Poly(lactic acid/Pecan Nutshell Biocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Álvarez-Chávez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pecan nutshells are a solid form of waste obtained from the pecan nut production and they have been explored as an inexpensive filler for incorporation by melt blending into the poly(lactic acid (PLA matrix. The pecan nutshells contain polyphenols, proteins, tannins, sugars, and lipids; some of these components must be released in order to improve adhesion with a polymeric matrix. The physicochemical characterization of the extruded biocomposites of pecan nutshell powder (PNSP at 0, 5, and 7.5% wt. with two treatments (untreated and defatted into PLA is presented in this work. The incorporation of PNSP into the PLA matrix caused a variation in color and density and increased the water absorption. However, some mechanical and thermal parameters of the biocomposites showed a significant decrease. The morphological analysis showed good dispersion and adhesion of the PNSP to the PLA matrix. Based on the results of the characterization, biocomposites formulated with defatted PNSP have a potential to be used as sustainable fillers in PLA biocomposites. These biocomposites have a potential application as food containers, packaging trays, or disposable items.

  3. Biocompatibility of poly(lactic acid) with incorporated graphene-based materials

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Artur Moreira; Moreira, Susana Margarida Gomes; Gonçalves, Inês; Gama, F. M.; Mendes, Adélio; Magalhães, Fernão D.

    2013-01-01

    The incorporation of graphene-based materials has been shown to improve mechanical properties of poly(lactic acid) (PLA). In this work, PLA films and composite PLA films incorporating two graphene-based materials – graphene oxide (GO) and graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) – were prepared and characterized regarding not only biocompatibility, but also surface topography, chemistry and wettability. The presence of both fillers changed the films surface topography, increasing the roughness, and modif...

  4. Preparation and Quality Control of 166Ho Labelled Polylactic Acid Microspheres for radiotherapy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kropáček, Martin; Melichar, František; Klejzarová, Michaela; Ventruba, Jiří; Tomeš, Marek; Mirzajevová, Marcela

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 332 (2007), s. 34-34 ISSN 1619-7070 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS100480501 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : polylactic acid microspheres * 166Ho * liver tumour therapy Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry

  5. Melt-spun polylactic acid fibers: effect of cellulose nanowhiskers on processing and properties

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    John, MJ

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Bio-based continuous fibers were processed from polylactic acid (PLA) and cellulose nanowhiskers (CNWs) by melt spinning. Melt compounding of master batches of PLA with 10 wt % CNWs and pure PLA was carried out using a twin-screw extruder in which...

  6. Effects of a tetracycline blended polylactic and polyglycolic acid membrane on the healing of one-wall intrabony defects in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Il-Young; Jung, Ui-Won; Kim, Chang-Sung; Lee, Yong-Keun; Cho, Kyoo-Sung; Chai, Jung-Kiu; Kim, Chong-Kwan; Choi, Seong-Ho

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the regenerative effects of a tetracycline blended polylactic and polyglycolic acid (TC-PLGA) and non-blended polylactic and polyglycolic acid (PLGA) barrier membrane on one-wall intrabony defects in beagle dogs. It can be concluded that when used for guided tissue regeneration TC-PLGA membranes show a beneficial effect on one-wall intrabony defects in beagle dogs

  7. Lignin-coated cellulose nanocrystals as promising nucleating agent for poly(lactic acid)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anju Gupta; William Simmons; Gregory T. Schueneman; Eric A. Mintz

    2016-01-01

    We report the effect of lignin-coated cellulose nanocrystals (L-CNCs) on the crystallization behavior of poly(lactic acid) (PLA). PLA/L-CNC nanocomposites were prepared by melt mixing, and the crystallization behavior of PLA was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry. Isothermal crystallization data were analyzed using Avrami and Lauritzen–Hoffman...

  8. Purposeful exposure of a polylactic acid barrier to achieve socket preservation for placement of dental implants: case series report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Paul S; Rosen, Adam D

    2013-01-01

    This retrospective case series reports on the use of a polylactic acid barrier that was left exposed in the process of socket preparation for the placement of dental implants. A retrospective chart review found 43 patients with 48 extraction sockets that were treated in this manner. Teeth were removed and the sockets were thoroughly debrided, with 40 of them receiving a bone replacement graft covered by the polylactic acid barrier and the additional 8 receiving the membrane alone. Suturing left the barrier exposed, and the sites were re-entered on average at 23 weeks for the placement of a dental implant. All sites were able to receive a dental implant, demonstrating the ability to leave a polylactic acid barrier exposed and achieve successful guided bone regeneration (GBR) results. This ultimately helped avoid some of the negative sequelae of trying to achieve primary closure of the flaps at the time of tooth extraction.

  9. Morphology and thermal degradation study of poly(lactic acid)/synthetic mica composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, D.H.S.; Dias, M.L.

    2010-01-01

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA)/synthetic mica composites has been little studied in the literature. In this work, an organophilic synthetic mica was used to prepare PLA nanocomposites. The composites were obtained at an internal mixer containing 3, 5, 7 and 10 wt% of mica. The materials were analyzed by x-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and gel permeation chromatography. (author)

  10. From honeycomb- to microsphere-patterned surfaces of poly(lactic acid) and a starch-poly(lactic acid) blend via the breath figure method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Ana Rita C; Maniglio, Devid; Sousa, Nuno; Mano, João F; Reis, Rui L; Migliaresi, Claudio

    2017-01-26

    This study investigated the preparation of ordered patterned surfaces and/or microspheres from a natural-based polymer, using the breath figure and reverse breath figure methods. Poly(D,L-lactic acid) and starch poly(lactic acid) solutions were precipitated in different conditions - namely, polymer concentration, vapor atmosphere temperature and substrate - to evaluate the effect of these conditions on the morphology of the precipitates obtained. The possibility of fine-tuning the properties of the final patterns simply by changing the vapor atmosphere was also demonstrated here using a range of compositions of the vapor phase. Porous films or discrete particles are formed when the differences in surface tension determine the ability of polymer solution to surround water droplets or methanol to surround polymer droplets, respectively. In vitro cytotoxicity was assessed applying a simple standard protocol to evaluate the possibility to use these materials in biomedical applications. Moreover, fluorescent microscopy images showed a good interaction of cells with the material, which were able to adhere on the patterned surfaces after 24 hours in culture. The development of patterned surfaces using the breath figure method was tested in this work for the preparation of both poly(lactic acid) and a blend containing starch and poly(lactic acid). The potential of these films to be used in the biomedical area was confirmed by a preliminary cytotoxicity test and by morphological observation of cell adhesion.

  11. Chemical and Sensory Evaluation of Silicone and Polylactic Acid-Based Remedial Treatments for Elevated Methoxypyrazine Levels in Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Botezatu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Alkylmethoxypyrazines (MPs are a class of compounds that can elicit undesirable aroma and flavor characteristics in wine, and resist remediation using traditional wine making approaches. MPs are grape-derived constituents as well as contaminants from Coccinellidae beetles present during wine processing; the latter eliciting an off-flavor referred to as ‘ladybug taint’. In this study we investigated the capacity of two plastic polymers—one silicone-based, the other polylactic acid-based—applied with varying surface areas to reduce concentrations of isopropylmethoxypyrazine (IPMP, sec-butylmethoxypyrazine (SBMP and isobutylmethoxypyrazine (IBMP in a Merlot wine using multi-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and headspace solid phase microextraction (SPME-MDGCMS. The impact of treatments on the sensory characteristics of the wine (descriptive analysis and volatile aroma compounds (VOCs (SPME-MDGCMS was also investigated. Results showed substantial reductions for all of the target odorants: up to 38%, 44% and 39% for IPMP, SBMP and IBMP, respectively, for the silicone polymer, and up to 75%, 78% and 77% for IPMP, SBMP and IBMP, respectively, for the polylactic acid polymer. These polymers had no or minimal effect on VOCs at applications of 200 cm2/L for silicone or for all polylactic acid treatments. Sensory impacts were less clear, but generally showed minimal effect from the treatments. Taken overall, the data confirm the utility of both polylactic acid and silicone polymers in reducing elevated levels of grape-derived MPs, as well as potentially improving wine contaminated by ladybug taint.

  12. Dielectric Properties of 3D Printed Polylactic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudius Dichtl

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available 3D printers constitute a fast-growing worldwide market. These printers are often employed in research and development fields related to engineering or architecture, especially for structural components or rapid prototyping. Recently, there is enormous progress in available materials for enhanced printing systems that allow additive manufacturing of complex functional products, like batteries or electronics. The polymer polylactic acid (PLA plays an important role in fused filament fabrication, a technique used for commercially available low-budget 3D printers. This printing technology is an economical tool for the development of functional components or cases for electronics, for example, for lab purposes. Here we investigate if the material properties of “as-printed” PLA, which was fabricated by a commercially available 3D printer, are suitable to be used in electrical measurement setups or even as a functional material itself in electronic devices. For this reason, we conduct differential scanning calorimetry measurements and a thorough temperature and frequency-dependent analysis of its dielectric properties. These results are compared to partially crystalline and completely amorphous PLA, indicating that the dielectric properties of “as-printed” PLA are similar to the latter. Finally, we demonstrate that the conductivity of PLA can be enhanced by mixing it with the ionic liquid “trihexyl tetradecyl phosphonium decanoate.” This provides a route to tailor PLA for complex functional products produced by an economical fused filament fabrication.

  13. Fracture behavior of highly toughened poly(lactic acid)/ethylene-co-vinyl acetate blends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeng, Q.; Feng, Y.; Wang, R.; Ma, P.

    2018-01-01

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) is brittle which restricts the range of its applications. The toughness of PLA was effectively improved in this work by incorporation of rubber grade ethylene-co-vinyl acetate (EVM). For example, the elongation at break of PLA increased by about 50 times after the addition of

  14. Combination of Poly(lactic) Acid and Starch for Biodegradable Food Packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Muller, Justine; Gonz?lez-Mart?nez, Chelo; Chiralt, Amparo

    2017-01-01

    The massive use of synthetic plastics, in particular in the food packaging area, has a great environmental impact, and alternative more ecologic materials are being required. Poly(lactic) acid (PLA) and starch have been extensively studied as potential replacements for non-degradable petrochemical polymers on the basis of their availability, adequate food contact properties and competitive cost. Nevertheless, both polymers exhibit some drawbacks for packaging uses and need to be adapted to th...

  15. Poly(Lactic Acid) Filled with Cassava Starch-g-Soybean Oil Maleate

    OpenAIRE

    Kiangkitiwan, Nopparut; Srikulkit, Kawee

    2013-01-01

    Poly(lactic acid), PLA, is a biodegradable polymer, but its applications are limited by its high cost and relatively poorer properties when compared to petroleum-based plastics. The addition of starch powder into PLA is one of the most promising efforts because starch is an abundant and cheap biopolymer. However, the challenge is the major problem associated with poor interfacial adhesion between the hydrophilic starch granules and the hydrophobic PLA, leading to poorer mechanical properties....

  16. Advanced composite materials based on polyhydroxybutyrate and polylactic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubaeva, P. M.; Olkhov, A. A.; Podzorova, M. V.; Popov, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we consider the main characteristics of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and polylactic acid (PLA) as well as the prospects and possibility of the medical use of PHB-PLA compositions as these polymers are most relevant to such application. The study establishes the main thermophysical parameters of PHB and PLA. It is found that PHB and PLA are hydrophobic enough. The study by the electron paramagnetic resonance method reveals a small amount of the radical infiltrated in PLA and PHB, which indicates the chain rigidity of both polymeric structures. Mechanical properties of PLA and PHB are characterized by high strength and low elasticity.

  17. Heat capacity of poly(lactic acid)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyda, M.; Bopp, R.C.; Wunderlich, B.

    2004-01-01

    The heat capacity of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) is reported from T=(5 to 600) K as obtained by differential scanning calorimetry (d.s.c.) and adiabatic calorimetry. The heat capacity of solid PLA is linked to its group vibrational spectrum and the skeletal vibrations, the latter being described by a Tarasov equation with Θ 1 =574 K, Θ 2 =Θ 3 =52 K, and nine skeletal vibrations. The calculated and experimental heat capacities agree to ±3% between T=(5 and 300) K. The experimental heat capacity of liquid PLA can be expressed by C p (liquid)=(120.17+0.076T) J · K -1 · mol -1 and has been compared to the ATHAS Data Bank, using contributions of other polymers with the same constituent groups. The glass transition temperature of amorphous PLA occurs at T=332.5 K with a change in heat capacity of 43.8 J · K -1 · mol -1 . Depending on thermal history, semi-crystalline PLA has a melting endotherm between T=(418 and 432) K with variable heats of fusion. For 100% crystalline PLA, the heat of fusion is estimated to be (6.55 ± 0.02) kJ · mol -1 at T=480 K. With these results, the enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs function of crystalline and amorphous PLA were obtained. For semi-crystalline samples, one can check changes of crystallinity with temperature and judge the presence of rigid-amorphous fractions

  18. Technological and economic potential of poly(lactic acid) and lactic acid derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datta, R.; Tsai, S.P.; Bonsignore, P.; Moon, S.H.; Frank, J.R.

    1993-10-01

    Lactic acid has been an intermediate-volume specialty chemical (world production {approximately}40,000 tons/yr) used in a wide range of food processing and industrial applications. lactic acid h,as the potential of becoming a very large volume, commodity-chemical intermediate produced from renewable carbohydrates for use as feedstocks for biodegradable polymers, oxygenated chemicals, plant growth regulators, environmentally friendly ``green`` solvents, and specially chemical intermediates. In the past, efficient and economical technologies for the recovery and purification of lactic acid from crude fermentation broths and the conversion of tactic acid to the chemical or polymer intermediates had been the key technology impediments and main process cost centers. The development and deployment of novel separations technologies, such as electrodialysis (ED) with bipolar membranes, extractive distillations integrated with fermentation, and chemical conversion, can enable low-cost production with continuous processes in large-scale operations. The use of bipolar ED can virtually eliminate the salt or gypsum waste produced in the current lactic acid processes. In this paper, the recent technical advances in tactic and polylactic acid processes are discussed. The economic potential and manufacturing cost estimates of several products and process options are presented. The technical accomplishments at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and the future directions of this program at ANL are discussed.

  19. Separation and purification of lactic acid. Thermal catalytic depolymerization of poly-lactic acid into lactide; Hakkoho nyusan no bunri seisei ni kansuru kenkyu. Pori nyusan no rakuchido eno sesshokuteki netsukai jugo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, M.; Hirama, Y.; Liew, M. [Hokkaido National Industrial Research Institute, Sapporo (Japan)

    1996-05-10

    A new separation and purification method for lactic acid from fermentation broth is proposed by which poly-lactic acid produced from unpurified lactic acid is catalytically depolymerized into lactide fractions then further purified into lactide. In the present study, thermal depolymerization catalysts were investigated for commercial use. Iron catalysts, especially metallic iron, and ferrous oxide and lactate, were found to provide almost the same catalytic activity and lactide composition in depolymerization products and those in tin octoate and antimony oxide catalysts. Ferrous oxide was also applied to depolymerize poly-lactic acid derived form unpurified lactic acid to compare catalytic activity and lactide composition and was confirmed to show results similar to those of pure polymer. Based on these findings, it is concluded that iron catalysts can be used commercially. Furthermore, catalytic depolymerization of poly-lactic acids with different molecular weights were studied. Polymers with Mw 5,000-10,000 were found to be better for production of lactide, based on the behavior of depolymerization and lactide content in the product. 5 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  20. The effect of different clays on the structure, morphology and degradation behavior of poly(lactic acid)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Neppalli, R

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, polylactic acid (PLA)-based nanocomposites filled with different kinds of clay were prepared and their structure, morphology and degradation behavior were compared. A similar degree of dispersion was achieved in the case of cationic...

  1. Effect of surface modification of poly(lactic acid) by low-pressure ammonia plasma on adsorption of human serum albumin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarapirom, S. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Yu, L.D., E-mail: yuld@thep-center.org [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayuthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Boonyawan, D. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayuthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Chaiwong, C., E-mail: cchwng@gmail.com [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayuthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) films were treated by low-pressure ammonia plasma. • Human serum albumin (HSA) attachment on the treated PLA was reduced. • The treated PLA films were characterized. • Hydrophilicity enhancement due to polar groups introduced was the reason. • Reduced HSA adhesion could promote cell attachment on PLA for biomedicine. - Abstract: The final goal of the study was to promote understanding of mechanisms involved in cell attachment on biomedical polymer poly(lactic acid) (PLA). As the cell attachment on the material surface was preceded by blood protein adsorption which would critically affect subsequent cell adhesion, for the clinic application purpose, human serum albumin (HSA) was used in the investigation on its adsorption on PLA, which was however treated by low-pressure ammonia (NH{sub 3}) plasma. The NH{sub 3}-plasma-treated PLA was found to adsorb less HSA than the untreated PLA. The PLA was characterized using various techniques such as atomic force microscopy, contact angle and surface energy analysis and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. All of the characterization results indicated that due to NH{sub 3}-plasma-induced polar groups the PLA enhanced its hydrophilicity which in turn inhibited the HSA adsorption. The decreased HSA adsorption would consequently increase the cell attachment because of the cell adhesion barrier reduced.

  2. Dietary fatty acids and membrane protein function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, M G

    1990-02-01

    In recent years, there has been growing public awareness of the potential health benefits of dietary fatty acids, and of the distinction between the effects of the omega6 and omega3 polyunsaturated fatty acids that are concentrated in vegetable and fish oils, respectively. A part of the biologic effectiveness of the two families of polyunsaturated fatty acids resides in their relative roles as precursors of the eicosanoids. However, we are also beginning to appreciate that as the major components of the hydrophobic core of the membrane bilayer, they can interact with and directly influence the functioning of select integral membrane proteins. Among the most important of these are the enzymes, receptors, and ion channels that are situated in the plasma membrane of the cell, since they carry out the communication and homeostatic processes that are necessary for normal cell function. This review examines current information regarding the effects of diet-induced changes in plasma membrane fatty acid composition on several specific enzymes (adenylate cyclase, 5'-nucleotidase, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase) and cell-surface receptors (opiate, adrenergic, insulin). Dietary manipulation studies have demonstrated a sensitivity of each to a fatty acid environment that is variably dependent on the nature of the fatty acid(s) and/or source of the membrane. The molecular mechanisms appear to involve fatty acid-dependent effects on protein conformation, on the "fluidity" and/or thickness of the membrane, or on protein synthesis. Together, the results of these studies reinforce the concept that dietary fats have the potential to regulate physiologic function and to further our understanding of how this occurs at a membrane level.

  3. New Poly(lactic acid) Active Packaging Composite Films Incorporated with Fungal Melanin

    OpenAIRE

    Łukasz Łopusiewicz; Filip Jędra; Małgorzata Mizielińska

    2018-01-01

    In this work, fungal melanin was used for the first time to prepare poly(lactic acid)-based composites. The films of various melanin concentrations (0.025%, 0.05% and 0.2% w/w) were prepared using an extrusion method. The mechanical, antioxidant, antimicrobial, water vapor and UV-Vis barrier properties, as well as available polyphenolics on the surface, were studied. FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy studies were carried out to analyze the chemical composition of the resulting films. The hydrophob...

  4. Functionalization of 3D scaffolds with protein-releasing biomaterials for intracellular delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seras-Franzoso, Joaquin; Steurer, Christoph; Roldán, Mònica; Vendrell, Meritxell; Vidaurre-Agut, Carla; Tarruella, Anna; Saldaña, Laura; Vilaboa, Nuria; Parera, Marc; Elizondo, Elisa; Ratera, Imma; Ventosa, Nora; Veciana, Jaume; Campillo-Fernández, Alberto J; García-Fruitós, Elena; Vázquez, Esther; Villaverde, Antonio

    2013-10-10

    Appropriate combinations of mechanical and biological stimuli are required to promote proper colonization of substrate materials in regenerative medicine. In this context, 3D scaffolds formed by compatible and biodegradable materials are under continuous development in an attempt to mimic the extracellular environment of mammalian cells. We have here explored how novel 3D porous scaffolds constructed by polylactic acid, polycaprolactone or chitosan can be decorated with bacterial inclusion bodies, submicron protein particles formed by releasable functional proteins. A simple dipping-based decoration method tested here specifically favors the penetration of the functional particles deeper than 300μm from the materials' surface. The functionalized surfaces support the intracellular delivery of biologically active proteins to up to more than 80% of the colonizing cells, a process that is slightly influenced by the chemical nature of the scaffold. The combination of 3D soft scaffolds and protein-based sustained release systems (Bioscaffolds) offers promise in the fabrication of bio-inspired hybrid matrices for multifactorial control of cell proliferation in tissue engineering under complex architectonic setting-ups. © 2013.

  5. Plasticized Biodegradable Poly(lactic acid) Based Composites Containing Cellulose in Micro- and Nanosize

    OpenAIRE

    Halász, Katalin; Csóka, Levente

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the characteristics of thermal processed poly(lactic acid) composites. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG400), microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), and ultrasound-treated microcrystalline cellulose (USMCC) were used in 1, 3, and 5 weight percents to modify the attributes of PLA matrix. The composite films were produced by twin screw extrusion followed by film extrusion. The manufactured PLA-based films were characterized by tensile testing, differential scanning calorim...

  6. Longitudinal acoustic properties of poly(lactic acid) and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, N G; Povey, M J W; Mather, M L; Morgan, S P

    2010-01-01

    Acoustics offers rich possibilities for characterizing and monitoring the biopolymer structures being employed in the field of biomedical engineering. Here we explore the rudimentary acoustic properties of two common biodegradable polymers: poly(lactic acid) and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid). A pulse-echo technique is developed to reveal the bulk speed of sound, acoustic impedance and acoustic attenuation of small samples of the polymer across a pertinent temperature range of 0-70 0 C. The glass transition appears markedly as both a discontinuity in the first derivative of the speed of sound and a sharp increase in the acoustic attenuation. We further extend our analysis to consider the role of ethanol, whose presence is observed to dramatically modify the acoustic properties and reduce the glass transition temperature of the polymers. Our results highlight the sensitivity of acoustic properties to a range of bulk properties, including visco-elasticity, molecular weight, co-polymer ratio, crystallinity and the presence of plasticizers.

  7. Characterisation of poly(lactic acid): poly(ethyleneoxide) (PLA:PEG) nanoparticles using the self-consistent theory modelling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heald, C.R.; Stolnik, S.; Matteis, De C.; Garnett, M.C.; Illum, L.; Davis, S.S.; Leermakers, F.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    Self-consistent field (SCF) modelling studies can be used to predict the properties of poly(lactic acid):poly(ethyleneoxide) (PLA:PEG) nanoparticles using the theory developed by Scheutjens and Fleer. Good agreement in the results between experimental and modelled data has been observed previously

  8. Optimization of Preparation Techniques for Poly(Lactic Acid-Co-Glycolic Acid) Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birnbaum, Duane T.; Kosmala, Jacqueline D.; Brannon-Peppas, Lisa [Biogel Technology, Inc. (United States)], E-mail: lisabp@biogeltech.com

    2000-06-15

    Microparticles and nanoparticles of poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLAGA) are excellent candidates for the controlled release of many pharmaceutical compounds because of their biodegradable nature. The preparation of submicron PLAGA particles poses serious challenges that are not necessarily present when preparing microparticles. We have evaluated several combinations of organic solvents and surfactants used in the formulation of PLAGA nanoparticles. Critical factors such as the ability to separate the nanoparticles from the surfactant, the ability to re-suspend the nanoparticles after freeze-drying, formulation yield and nanoparticle size were studied. The smallest particles were obtained using the surfactant/solvent combination of sodium dodecyl sulfate and ethyl acetate (65 nm) and the largest particles were obtained using poly(vinyl alcohol) and dichloromethane (466 nm). However, the optimal nanoparticles were produced using either acetone or ethyl acetate as the organic solvent and poly(vinyl alcohol) or human serum albumin as the surfactant. This is because the most critical measure of performance of these nanoparticles proved to be their ability to re-suspend after freeze-drying.

  9. Optimization of Preparation Techniques for Poly(Lactic Acid-Co-Glycolic Acid) Nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birnbaum, Duane T.; Kosmala, Jacqueline D.; Brannon-Peppas, Lisa

    2000-01-01

    Microparticles and nanoparticles of poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLAGA) are excellent candidates for the controlled release of many pharmaceutical compounds because of their biodegradable nature. The preparation of submicron PLAGA particles poses serious challenges that are not necessarily present when preparing microparticles. We have evaluated several combinations of organic solvents and surfactants used in the formulation of PLAGA nanoparticles. Critical factors such as the ability to separate the nanoparticles from the surfactant, the ability to re-suspend the nanoparticles after freeze-drying, formulation yield and nanoparticle size were studied. The smallest particles were obtained using the surfactant/solvent combination of sodium dodecyl sulfate and ethyl acetate (65 nm) and the largest particles were obtained using poly(vinyl alcohol) and dichloromethane (466 nm). However, the optimal nanoparticles were produced using either acetone or ethyl acetate as the organic solvent and poly(vinyl alcohol) or human serum albumin as the surfactant. This is because the most critical measure of performance of these nanoparticles proved to be their ability to re-suspend after freeze-drying

  10. Optimization of Preparation Techniques for Poly(Lactic Acid-Co-Glycolic Acid) Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbaum, Duane T.; Kosmala, Jacqueline D.; Brannon-Peppas, Lisa

    2000-06-01

    Microparticles and nanoparticles of poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLAGA) are excellent candidates for the controlled release of many pharmaceutical compounds because of their biodegradable nature. The preparation of submicron PLAGA particles poses serious challenges that are not necessarily present when preparing microparticles. We have evaluated several combinations of organic solvents and surfactants used in the formulation of PLAGA nanoparticles. Critical factors such as the ability to separate the nanoparticles from the surfactant, the ability to re-suspend the nanoparticles after freeze-drying, formulation yield and nanoparticle size were studied. The smallest particles were obtained using the surfactant/solvent combination of sodium dodecyl sulfate and ethyl acetate (65 nm) and the largest particles were obtained using poly(vinyl alcohol) and dichloromethane (466 nm). However, the optimal nanoparticles were produced using either acetone or ethyl acetate as the organic solvent and poly(vinyl alcohol) or human serum albumin as the surfactant. This is because the most critical measure of performance of these nanoparticles proved to be their ability to re-suspend after freeze-drying.

  11. Antibacterial poly(lactic acid) (PLA) films grafting electrospun PLA/Ally isothioscyanate (AITC) fibers for food packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) fibers of submicron sizes encapsulating allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) (PfA) were made and electrospun onto the surfaces of PLA films (PfA-g-film). SEM examination confirmed that the fibers were grafted to the PLA film after the (PfA-g-film) underwent air blowing and water washi...

  12. Temperature dependence of poly(lactic acid) mechanical properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Chengbo; Guo, Huilong; Li, Jingqing

    2016-01-01

    The mechanical properties of polymers are not only determined by their structures, but also related to the temperature field in which they are located. The yield behaviors, Young's modulus and structures of injection-molded poly(lactic acid) (PLA) samples after annealing at different temperatures....... The crystallinity increases with increasing annealing temperature and a' form crystal is formed when the annealing temperature is higher than 100 oC. The stretched samples with low crystallinity show the first yield at draw temperatures below the glass transition temperature (Tg) and the second yield above Tg....... For the samples annealed between 80 and 120 oC, a peculiar double yield appears when stretched within 50–60 oC and only the first or the second yield can be found at the lower and higher draw temperatures. The yield strain and yield stress together with Young's modulus were obtained and discussed in terms...

  13. Fundamentals of poly(lactic acid) microstructure, crystallization behavior, and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Shuhui

    Poly(lactic acid) is an environmentally-benign biodegradable and sustainable thermoplastic material, which has found broad applications as food packaging films and as non-woven fibers. The crystallization and deformation mechanisms of the polymer are largely determined by the distribution of conformation and configuration. Knowledge of these mechanisms is needed to understand the mechanical and thermal properties on which processing conditions mainly depend. In conjunction with laser light scattering, Raman spectroscopy and normal coordinate analysis are used in this thesis to elucidate these properties. Vibrational spectroscopic theory, Flory's rotational isomeric state (RIS) theory, Gaussian chain statistics and statistical mechanics are used to relate experimental data to molecular chain structure. A refined RIS model is proposed, chain rigidity recalculated and chain statistics discussed. A Raman spectroscopic characterization method for crystalline and amorphous phase orientation has been developed. A shrinkage model is also proposed to interpret the dimensional stability for fibers and uni- or biaxially stretched films. A study of stereocomplexation formed by poly(l-lactic acid) and poly(d-lactic acid) is also presented.

  14. Modification of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) for use in poly(lactic acid) (PLA)-CNC composite packaging products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liqing Wei; Nicole M. Stark; Ronald C. Sabo; Laurent Matuana

    2016-01-01

    There is growing interest in developing bio-based materials for packaging. Bio-derived materials such as cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) can be used to develop sustainable packaging applications. Incorporating CNCs into PLA can increase the crystallinity and barrier properties of PLA. The challenge lies in both increasing the flexibility of...

  15. Biopolymer blends based on polylactic acid and polyhydroxy butyrate-co-valerate: effect of clay on mechanical and thermal properties

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    John, MJ

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable polymer blends consisting of polylactic acid (PLA) and polyhydroxy butyrate-co-valerate (PHBV) have been prepared by melt mixing in a twin screw extruder and followed by injection molding technique. Cereplast PLA containing starch...

  16. Preparation of biodegradable magnetic microspheres with poly(lactic acid)-coated magnetite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Hong; Saatchi, Katayoun [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of British Columbia, 2146 East Mall, Vancouver, BC, 6T 1Z3 (Canada); Haefeli, Urs O. [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of British Columbia, 2146 East Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z3 (Canada)], E-mail: uhafeli@interchange.ubc.ca

    2009-05-15

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA)-coated magnetic nanoparticles were made using uncapped PLA with free carboxylate groups. The physical properties of these particles were compared to those of oleate-coated or oleate/sulphonate bilayer (W40) coated magnetic particles. Magnetic microspheres (MMS) with the matrix material poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) or PLA were then formed by the emulsion solvent extraction method with encapsulation efficiencies of 40%, 83% and 96% for oleate, PLA and oleate/sulfonate-coated magnetic particles, respectively. MMS made from PLA-coated magnetite were hemocompatible and produced no hemolysis, whereas the other MMS were hemolytic above 0.3 mg/mL of blood.

  17. Preparation of biodegradable magnetic microspheres with poly(lactic acid)-coated magnetite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Hong; Saatchi, Katayoun; Haefeli, Urs O.

    2009-01-01

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA)-coated magnetic nanoparticles were made using uncapped PLA with free carboxylate groups. The physical properties of these particles were compared to those of oleate-coated or oleate/sulphonate bilayer (W40) coated magnetic particles. Magnetic microspheres (MMS) with the matrix material poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) or PLA were then formed by the emulsion solvent extraction method with encapsulation efficiencies of 40%, 83% and 96% for oleate, PLA and oleate/sulfonate-coated magnetic particles, respectively. MMS made from PLA-coated magnetite were hemocompatible and produced no hemolysis, whereas the other MMS were hemolytic above 0.3 mg/mL of blood.

  18. Terahertz absorption in graphite nanoplatelets/polylactic acid composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bychanok, D.; Angelova, P.; Paddubskaya, A.; Meisak, D.; Shashkova, L.; Demidenko, M.; Plyushch, A.; Ivanov, E.; Krastev, R.; Kotsilkova, R.; Ogrin, F. Y.; Kuzhir, P.

    2018-04-01

    The electromagnetic properties of composite materials based on poly(lactic) acid (PLA) filled with graphite nanoplatelets (GNP) were investigated in the microwave (26–37 GHz) and terahertz (0.2–1 THz) frequency ranges. The maximum of the imaginary part of the dielectric permittivity was observed close to 0.6 THz for composites with 1.5 and 3 wt.% of GNP. The experimental data of complex dielectric permittivity of GNP/PLA composites was modelled using the Maxwell-Garnett theory. The effects of fine dispersion, agglomeration, and percolation in GNP-based composites on its electromagnetic constitutive parameters, presence, and position of THz absorption peak are discussed on the basis of the modeling results and experimental data. The unique combination of conductive and geometrical parameters of GNP embedded into the PLA matrix below the percolation threshold allow us to obtain the THz-absorptive material, which may be effectively used as a 3D-printing filament.

  19. New Poly(lactic acid Active Packaging Composite Films Incorporated with Fungal Melanin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Łopusiewicz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, fungal melanin was used for the first time to prepare poly(lactic acid-based composites. The films of various melanin concentrations (0.025%, 0.05% and 0.2% w/w were prepared using an extrusion method. The mechanical, antioxidant, antimicrobial, water vapor and UV-Vis barrier properties, as well as available polyphenolics on the surface, were studied. FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy studies were carried out to analyze the chemical composition of the resulting films. The hydrophobicity, color response, thermal, optical properties, and opacity values were also determined. The results of this study show that the addition of fungal melanin to poly(lactic acid (PLA as a modifier influenced mechanical and water vapor barrier properties depending on melanin concentration. In low concentration, melanin enhanced the mechanical and barrier properties of the modified films, but in larger amounts, the properties were decreased. The UV-Vis barrier properties of PLA/melanin composites were marginally improved. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC analysis indicated that crystallinity of PLA increased by the addition of melanin, but this did not affect the thermal stability of the films. Modified PLA/melanin films showed good antioxidant activity and were active against Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas putida. The addition of melanin caused changes in color values, decreasing lightness and increasing the redness and yellowness of films. Based on the results of this study, fungal melanin has good potential to be exploited as a value-added modifier that can improve the overall properties of PLA.

  20. Encapsulation of Antifouling Organic Biocides in Poly(lactic acid) Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamtsikakis, Aristotelis; Kavetsou, Eleni; Chronaki, Konstantina; Kiosidou, Evangelia; Pavlatou, Evangelia; Karana, Alexandra; Papaspyrides, Constantine; Detsi, Anastasia; Karantonis, Antonis; Vouyiouka, Stamatina

    2017-09-26

    The scope of the current research was to assess the feasibility of encapsulating three commercial antifouling compounds, Irgarol 1051, Econea and Zinc pyrithione, in biodegradable poly(lactic acid) (PLA) nanoparticles. The emulsification-solvent evaporation technique was herein utilized to manufacture nanoparticles with a biocide:polymer ratio of 40%. The loaded nanoparticles were analyzed for their size and size distribution, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency and thermal properties, while the relevant physicochemical characteristics were correlated to biocide-polymer system. In addition, the encapsulation process was scaled up and the prepared nanoparticles were dispersed in a water-based antifouling paint in order to examine the viability of incorporating nanoparticles in such coatings. Metallic specimens were coated with the nanoparticles-containing paint and examined regarding surface morphology.

  1. A novel nanofiber Cur-loaded polylactic acid constructed by electrospinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trang Mai, Thi Thu; Duong Le, Quang; Binh Nguyen, Hai; Hoa Phan, Thi Bich; Lam Tran, Dai; Nguyen, Xuan Phuc; Thuy Nguyen, Thi Thu; Seo Park, Jun; Ngoan Nguyen, Thi; Cham Ba, Thi

    2012-01-01

    Curcumin (Cur), extracted from the Curcuma longa L. plant, is well known for its anti-tumor, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial properties. Nanofiber mats of polylactic acid (PLA) loading Cur (5 wt%) were fabricated by electrospinning (e-spinning). Morphology and structure of the fibers were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, respectively. The diameters of the obtained fibers varied from 200 to 300 nm. The release capacity of curcumin from curcumin-loaded PLA fibers was investigated in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) containing ethanol. After 24 h, 50% of the curcumin was released from curcumin-loaded PLA fibers. These results of electrospun (e-spun) fibers exhibit the potential for biomedical application

  2. Encapsulation of Antifouling Organic Biocides in Poly(lactic acid) Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamtsikakis, Aristotelis; Kavetsou, Eleni; Chronaki, Konstantina; Kiosidou, Evangelia; Pavlatou, Evangelia; Karana, Alexandra; Papaspyrides, Constantine; Detsi, Anastasia; Karantonis, Antonis; Vouyiouka, Stamatina

    2017-01-01

    The scope of the current research was to assess the feasibility of encapsulating three commercial antifouling compounds, Irgarol 1051, Econea and Zinc pyrithione, in biodegradable poly(lactic acid) (PLA) nanoparticles. The emulsification–solvent evaporation technique was herein utilized to manufacture nanoparticles with a biocide:polymer ratio of 40%. The loaded nanoparticles were analyzed for their size and size distribution, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency and thermal properties, while the relevant physicochemical characteristics were correlated to biocide–polymer system. In addition, the encapsulation process was scaled up and the prepared nanoparticles were dispersed in a water-based antifouling paint in order to examine the viability of incorporating nanoparticles in such coatings. Metallic specimens were coated with the nanoparticles-containing paint and examined regarding surface morphology. PMID:28952560

  3. A novel nanofiber Cur-loaded polylactic acid constructed by electrospinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thu Trang Mai, Thi; Thu Thuy Nguyen, Thi; Duong Le, Quang; Ngoan Nguyen, Thi; Cham Ba, Thi; Binh Nguyen, Hai; Bich Hoa Phan, Thi; Tran, Dai Lam; Phuc Nguyen, Xuan; Park, Jun Seo

    2012-06-01

    Curcumin (Cur), extracted from the Curcuma longa L. plant, is well known for its anti-tumor, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial properties. Nanofiber mats of polylactic acid (PLA) loading Cur (5 wt%) were fabricated by electrospinning (e-spinning). Morphology and structure of the fibers were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, respectively. The diameters of the obtained fibers varied from 200 to 300 nm. The release capacity of curcumin from curcumin-loaded PLA fibers was investigated in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) containing ethanol. After 24 h, 50% of the curcumin was released from curcumin-loaded PLA fibers. These results of electrospun (e-spun) fibers exhibit the potential for biomedical application.

  4. Preparation of magnetic polylactic acid microspheres and investigation of its releasing property for loading curcumin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Fengxia [Heilongjiang Key Laboratory of Molecular Design and Preparation of Flame Retarded Materials, College of Science, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China); Li Xiaoli, E-mail: lixiaoli0903@163.com [Heilongjiang Key Laboratory of Molecular Design and Preparation of Flame Retarded Materials, College of Science, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China); Li Bin, E-mail: libinzh62@163.com [Heilongjiang Key Laboratory of Molecular Design and Preparation of Flame Retarded Materials, College of Science, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China)

    2011-11-15

    In order to obtain a targeting drug carrier system, magnetic polylactic acid (PLA) microspheres loading curcumin were synthesized by the classical oil-in-water emulsion solvent-evaporation method. In the Fourier transform infrared spectra of microspheres, the present functional groups of PLA were all kept invariably. The morphology and size distribution of magnetic microspheres were observed with scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering, respectively. The results showed that the microspheres were regularly spherical and the surface was smooth with a diameter of 0.55-0.75 {mu}m. Magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} was loaded in PLA microspheres and the content of magnetic particles was 12 wt% through thermogravimetric analysis. The magnetic property of prepared microspheres was measured by vibrating sample magnetometer. The results showed that the magnetic microspheres exhibited typical superparamagnetic behavior and the saturated magnetization was 14.38 emu/g. Through analysis of differential scanning calorimetry, the curcumin was in an amorphous state in the magnetic microspheres. The drug loading, encapsulation efficiency and releasing properties of curcumin in vitro were also investigated by ultraviolet-visible spectrum analysis. The results showed that the drug loading and encapsulation efficiency were 8.0% and 24.2%, respectively. And curcumin was obviously slowly released because the cumulative release percentage of magnetic microspheres in the phosphate buffer (pH=7.4) solution was only 49.01% in 72 h, and the basic release of curcumin finished in 120 h. - Highlights: > We prepare magnetic polylactic acid microspheres loading curcumin. > The classical oil-in-water emulsion solvent-evaporation method is used. > The magnetic microspheres are regularly spherical with a diameter of 0.55-0.75 {mu}m. > They show a certain sustained release effect on in vitro drug releasing.

  5. Preparation of magnetic polylactic acid microspheres and investigation of its releasing property for loading curcumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Fengxia; Li Xiaoli; Li Bin

    2011-01-01

    In order to obtain a targeting drug carrier system, magnetic polylactic acid (PLA) microspheres loading curcumin were synthesized by the classical oil-in-water emulsion solvent-evaporation method. In the Fourier transform infrared spectra of microspheres, the present functional groups of PLA were all kept invariably. The morphology and size distribution of magnetic microspheres were observed with scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering, respectively. The results showed that the microspheres were regularly spherical and the surface was smooth with a diameter of 0.55-0.75 μm. Magnetic Fe 3 O 4 was loaded in PLA microspheres and the content of magnetic particles was 12 wt% through thermogravimetric analysis. The magnetic property of prepared microspheres was measured by vibrating sample magnetometer. The results showed that the magnetic microspheres exhibited typical superparamagnetic behavior and the saturated magnetization was 14.38 emu/g. Through analysis of differential scanning calorimetry, the curcumin was in an amorphous state in the magnetic microspheres. The drug loading, encapsulation efficiency and releasing properties of curcumin in vitro were also investigated by ultraviolet-visible spectrum analysis. The results showed that the drug loading and encapsulation efficiency were 8.0% and 24.2%, respectively. And curcumin was obviously slowly released because the cumulative release percentage of magnetic microspheres in the phosphate buffer (pH=7.4) solution was only 49.01% in 72 h, and the basic release of curcumin finished in 120 h. - Highlights: → We prepare magnetic polylactic acid microspheres loading curcumin. → The classical oil-in-water emulsion solvent-evaporation method is used. → The magnetic microspheres are regularly spherical with a diameter of 0.55-0.75 μm. → They show a certain sustained release effect on in vitro drug releasing.

  6. Impact of the Fused Deposition (FDM) Printing Process on Polylactic Acid (PLA) Chemistry and Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Arthur Cuiffo; Jeffrey Snyder; Alicia M. Elliott; Nicholas Romero; Sandhiya Kannan; Gary P. Halada

    2017-01-01

    Polylactic acid (PLA) is an organic polymer commonly used in fused deposition (FDM) printing and biomedical scaffolding that is biocompatible and immunologically inert. However, variations in source material quality and chemistry make it necessary to characterize the filament and determine potential changes in chemistry occurring as a result of the FDM process. We used several spectroscopic techniques, including laser confocal microscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and pho...

  7. Thermal degradation kinetics of polylactic acid/acid fabricated cellulose nanocrystal based bionanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monika; Dhar, Prodyut; Katiyar, Vimal

    2017-11-01

    Cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) are fabricated from filter paper (as cellulosic source) by acid hydrolysis using different acids such as sulphuric (H 2 SO 4 ), phosphoric (H 3 PO 4 ), hydrochloric (HCl) and nitric (HNO 3 ) acid. The resulting acid derived CNC are melt mixed with Polylactic acid (PLA) using extruder at 180°C. Thermogravimetric (TGA) result shows that increase in 10% and 50% weight loss (T 10 , T 50 ) temperature for PLA-CNC film fabricated with HNO 3 , H 3 PO 4 and HCl derived CNC have improved thermal stability in comparison to H 2 SO 4 -CNC. Nonisothermal kinetic studies are carried out with modified-Coats-Redfern (C-R), Ozawa-Flynn-Wall (OFW) and Kissinger method to predict the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters. Subsequently prediction of these parameter leads to the proposal of thermal induced degradation mechanism of nanocomposites using Criado method. The distribution of E a calculated from OFW model are (PLA-H 3 PO 4 -CNC: 125-139 kJmol -1 ), (PLA-HNO 3 -CNC: 126-145 kJmol -1 ), (PLA-H 2 SO 4 -CNC: 102-123 kJmol -1 ) and (PLA-HCl-CNC: 140-182 kJmol -1 ). This difference among E a for the decomposition of PLA-CNC bionanocomposite is probably due to various acids used in this study. The E a calculated by these two methods are found in consonance with that observed from Kissinger method. Further, hyphenated TG-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) result shows that gaseous products such as CO 2 , CO, lactide, aldehydes and other compounds are given off during the thermal degradation of PLA-CNC nanocomposite. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Characterisation of solution cast cellulose nanofibre – reinforced poly(lactic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose nanofibres, 20 nm in diameter and 300 nm long, were prepared by acid hydrolysis of flax yarns. Composite films containing 2.5 and 5.0 wt% flax cellulose (FC fibres were prepared by solution casting of mixtures of poly(lactic acid (PLA solution and cellulose nanofibre suspension in chloroform. The resulting composite films and solution cast pure PLA film, with thickness of around 160 m, showed good transparency. For composites with 2.5 and 5.0 wt% FC, the tensile strength increased by 25 and 59% and tensile modulus by 42 and 47%, respectively, compared to pure PLA film. The composite film with 2.5 wt% FC combined high strength and ductility with tensile strength of 24.3 MPa and 70% elongation at break. Flax cellulose appeared to facilitate nucleation and subsequent crystallisation of PLA more effectively in the amorphous composites than in the crystalline composites.

  9. Surface modification of polylactic acid films by atmospheric pressure plasma treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryavtseva, V. L.; Zhuravlev, M. V.; Tverdokhlebov, S. I.

    2017-09-01

    A new approach for the modification of polylactic acid (PLA) materials using atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) is described. PLA films plasma exposure time was 20, 60, 120 s. The surface morphology and wettability of the obtained PLA films were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and the sitting drop method. The atmospheric pressure plasma increased the roughness and surface energy of PLA film. The wettability of PLA has been improved with the application of an atmospheric plasma surface treatment. It was shown that it is possible to obtain PLA films with various surface relief and tunable wettability. Additionally, we demonstrated that the use of cold atmospheric pressure plasma for surface activation allows for the immobilization of bioactive compounds like hyaluronic acid (HA) on the surface of obtained films. It was shown that composite PLA-HA films have an increased long-term hydrophilicity of the films surface.

  10. Antibacterial polylactic acid/chitosan nanofibers decorated with bioactive glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goh, Yi-fan; Akram, Muhammad; Alshemary, Ammarz [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Hussain, Rafaqat, E-mail: rafaqat@comsats.edu.pk [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • PLA/Chitosan nanofibers were coated with functional bioglass. • Polymer/ceramic composite fibers exhibited good in-vitro bioactivity. • Nanofibers coated with Ag doped bioglass exhibited good antibacterial activity. - Abstract: In this study, we have presented the structural and in vitro characterization of electrospun polylactic acid (PLA)/Chitosan nanofibers coated with cerium, copper or silver doped bioactive glasses (CeBG/CuBG/AgBG). Bead-free, smooth surfaced nanofibers were successfully prepared by using electrospinning technique. The nanocomposite fibers were obtained using a facile dip-coating method, their antibacterial activities against E. coliE. coli (ATCC 25922 strains) were measured by the disk diffusion method after 24 h of incubation at 37 °C. CeBG and CuBG decorated PLA/Chitosan nanofibers did not develop an inhibition zone against the bacteria. On the other hand, nanofibers coated with AgBG developed an inhibition zone against the bacteria. The as-prepared nanocomposite fibers were immersed in SBF for 1, 3 and 7 days in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) for evaluation of in vitro bioactivity. All samples induced the formation of crystallites with roughly ruffled morphology and the pores of fibers were covered with the extensive growth of crystallites. Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) composition analysis showed that the crystallites possessed Ca/P ratio close to 1.67, confirming the good in-vitro bioactivity of the fibers.

  11. The effect of thyme oil low-density polyethylene impregnated pellets in polylactic acid sachets on storage quality of ready-to-eat avocado

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bill, M

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available -LDPE-P) in polylactic acid (PLA) sachets was investigated for the control of anthracnose and retention of dietary phytochemicals, fatty acid composition, D-mannoheptulose sugar and fruit quality in ready-to-eat avocado fruit. The 10% TO-LDPE-P significantly reduced...

  12. Graphene Oxide and Gadolinium-Chelate Functionalized Poly(lactic acid) Nanocapsules Encapsulating Perfluorooctylbromide for Ultrasound/Magnetic Resonance Bimodal Imaging Guided Photothermal Ablation of Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenglin; Ke, Hengte; Wang, Jinrui; Miao, Zhaohua; Yue, Xiuli

    2016-03-01

    This paper successfully fabricated a novel multifunctional theranostic agent (PFOB@PLA/GO/Gd-DTPA NCs) by loading perfluorooctylbromide (PFOB) into poly(lactic acid) (PLA) nanocapsules (NCs) followed by surface functionalization with graphene oxide (GO) and gadolinium-chelate (Gd-DTPA). It was found that the resulting nanoagent could serve as a contrast agent simultaneously to enhance ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Benefiting from the strong absorption in the near infrared (NIR) region, the nanocapsules could efficiently kill cancer cells under NIR laser irradiation. Thus, such a single theranostic agent with the combination of realtime US imaging and high-resolution MR imaging could achieve great therapeutic effectiveness without systemic damage to the body. In addition, the cytotoxicity assay on HUVEC cells revealed a good biocompatibility of PFOB@PLA/GO/Gd-DTPA NCs, showing that the versatile nanocapsule system may hold great potential as an effective nanoplatform for contrast enhanced imaging guided photothermal therapy.

  13. Polylactic acid coating on a biodegradable magnesium alloy: An in vitro degradation study by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alabbasi, Alyaa; Liyanaarachchi, S.; Kannan, M. Bobby, E-mail: bobby.mathan@jcu.edu.au

    2012-09-30

    Polylactic acid (PLA) was coated on a biodegradable magnesium alloy, AZ91, using spin coating technique for temporary implant applications. The degradation behaviour of the coated alloy samples was evaluated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) method in simulated body fluid (SBF). EIS results suggested that the PLA coating enhanced the degradation resistance of the alloy significantly. Increase in the PLA coating thickness was found to increase the degradation resistance, but resulted in poor adhesion. Long-term EIS experiments of the PLA coated samples suggested that their degradation resistance gradually decreased with increase in SBF exposure time. However, the degradation resistance of the PLA coated samples was significantly higher than that of the bare metal even after a 48 h exposure to SBF. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polylactic acid (PLA) was coated on a magnesium-based alloy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PLA coating enhanced the in vitro degradation resistance of the alloy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increase in the PLA coating thickness improved the alloy degradation resistance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thin film PLA coating exhibited both good degradation resistance and adhesion.

  14. Polylactic acid coating on a biodegradable magnesium alloy: An in vitro degradation study by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alabbasi, Alyaa; Liyanaarachchi, S.; Kannan, M. Bobby

    2012-01-01

    Polylactic acid (PLA) was coated on a biodegradable magnesium alloy, AZ91, using spin coating technique for temporary implant applications. The degradation behaviour of the coated alloy samples was evaluated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) method in simulated body fluid (SBF). EIS results suggested that the PLA coating enhanced the degradation resistance of the alloy significantly. Increase in the PLA coating thickness was found to increase the degradation resistance, but resulted in poor adhesion. Long-term EIS experiments of the PLA coated samples suggested that their degradation resistance gradually decreased with increase in SBF exposure time. However, the degradation resistance of the PLA coated samples was significantly higher than that of the bare metal even after a 48 h exposure to SBF. - Highlights: ► Polylactic acid (PLA) was coated on a magnesium-based alloy. ► PLA coating enhanced the in vitro degradation resistance of the alloy. ► Increase in the PLA coating thickness improved the alloy degradation resistance. ► Thin film PLA coating exhibited both good degradation resistance and adhesion.

  15. Physicochemical properties of poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid film modified via blending with poly(butyl acrylate-co-methyl methacrylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoquan Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid (PLGA/poly(butyl acrylate-co-methyl methacrylate (P(BA-co-MMA blend films with different P(BA-co-MMA mole contents were prepared by casting the polymer blend solution in chloroform. Surface morphologies of the PLGAP(BA-co-MMA blend films were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Thermal, mechanical, and chemical properties of PLGAP(BA-co-MMA blend films were investigated by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, tensile tests, and surface contact angle tests. The introduction of P(BA-co-MMA could modify the properties of PLGA films.

  16. Effects of Graphene Nanoplatelets and Reduced Graphene Oxide on Poly(lactic acid and Plasticized Poly(lactic acid: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buong Woei Chieng

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The superlative mechanical properties of graphene-based materials make them the ideal filler materials for polymer composites reinforcement. Two types of graphene-based materials, graphene nanoplatelets (xGnP and reduced graphene oxide (rGO, were used as nanofiller in poly(lactic acid (PLA polymer matrix, as well as plasticized PLA. The addition of rGO into PLA or plasticized PLA substantially enhanced the tensile strength without deteriorating elasticity, compared to xGnP nanocomposites. In addition, the investigation of the thermal properties has found that the presence of rGO in the system is very beneficial for improving thermal stability of the PLA or plasticized PLA. Scanning electron microscope (SEM images of the rGO nanocomposites display homogenous and good uniformity morphology. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM images revealed that the rGO remained intact as graphene sheet layers and were dispersed well into the polymer matrix, and it was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD results, which shows no graphitic peak in the XRD pattern.

  17. Plasticized Biodegradable Poly(lactic acid Based Composites Containing Cellulose in Micro- and Nanosize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Halász

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the characteristics of thermal processed poly(lactic acid composites. Poly(ethylene glycol (PEG400, microcrystalline cellulose (MCC, and ultrasound-treated microcrystalline cellulose (USMCC were used in 1, 3, and 5 weight percents to modify the attributes of PLA matrix. The composite films were produced by twin screw extrusion followed by film extrusion. The manufactured PLA-based films were characterized by tensile testing, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD, and degradation test.

  18. Thermal expansion coefficient determination of polylactic acid using digital image correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botean Adrian - Ioan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims determining the linear thermal expansion coefficient (CTE of polylactic acid (PLA using an optical method for measuring deformations called digital image correlation method (DIC. Because PLA is often used in making many pieces with 3D printing technology, it is opportune to know this coefficient to obtain a higher degree of precision in the construction of parts and to monitor deformations when these parts are subjected to a thermal gradient. Are used two PLA discs with 20 and 40% degree of filling. In parallel with this approach was determined the linear thermal expansion coefficient (CTE for the copper cylinder on the surface of which are placed the two discs of PLA.

  19. Thermal expansion coefficient determination of polylactic acid using digital image correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botean, Adrian-Ioan

    2018-02-01

    This paper aims determining the linear thermal expansion coefficient (CTE) of polylactic acid (PLA) using an optical method for measuring deformations called digital image correlation method (DIC). Because PLA is often used in making many pieces with 3D printing technology, it is opportune to know this coefficient to obtain a higher degree of precision in the construction of parts and to monitor deformations when these parts are subjected to a thermal gradient. Are used two PLA discs with 20 and 40% degree of filling. In parallel with this approach was determined the linear thermal expansion coefficient (CTE) for the copper cylinder on the surface of which are placed the two discs of PLA.

  20. Tailoring the morphology and properties of poly(lactic acid)/poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate)/starch blends via reactive compatibilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, P.; Hristova - Bogaerds, D.G.; Schmit, P.; Goossens, J.G.P.; Lemstra, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Poly(lactic acid)/poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate)/starch (PLA/EVA/starch) ternary blends were prepared by multi-step melt processing (reactive extrusion) in the presence of maleic anhydride (MA), benzoyl peroxide and glycerol. The effects of MA and glycerol concentration on the morphology and

  1. NANOCOMPOSITES OF POLY(LACTIC ACID REINFORCED WITH CELLULOSE NANOFIBRILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Zhang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A chemo-mechanical method was used to prepare cellulose nanofibrils dispersed uniformly in an organic solvent. Poly(ethylene glycol (PEG 1000 was added to the matrix as a compatibilizer to improve the interfacial interaction between the hydrophobic poly(lactic acid (PLA and the hydrophilic cellulose nanofibrils. The composites obtained by solvent casting methods from N,N-Dimethylacetamide (DMAc were characterized by tensile testing machine, atomic force microscope (AFM, scanning electron microscope (SEM, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR. The tensile test results indicated that, by adding PEG to the PLA and the cellulose nanofibrils matrix, the tensile strength and the elongation rate increased by 56.7% and 60%, respectively, compared with the PLA/cellulose nanofibrils composites. The FT-IR analysis successfully showed that PEG improved the intermolecular interaction, which is based on the existence of inter-molecular hydrogen bonding among PLA, PEG, and cellulose nanofibrils.

  2. Soil Burial of Polylactic Acid/Paddy Straw Powder Biocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noorulnajwa Diyana Yaacob

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the biodegradability of polylactic acid (PLA/paddy straw powder (PSP biocomposites. Environmental degradation was evaluated by composting the biocomposite samples into the soil. Different techniques, including mechanical tests and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, were used to obtain a view of the degradation that occurred during the soil burial of the biocomposites. Results of the mechanical tests showed that an increasing content of PSP in the biocomposites decreased the tensile strength and elongation at break (EB, while it increased the modulus of elasticity after six months of exposure. Scanning electron microscopy on the surface after soil burial showed that the filler was poorly wetted by the matrix. This explains the reduction in tensile strength and the elongation at break after soil burial. Differential scanning calorimetry results indicated that the crystallinity of the biocomposites increased with longer composting periods.

  3. Influence of different factors on the destruction of films based on polylactic acid and oxidized polyethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podzorova, M. V.; Tertyshnaya, Yu. V.; Pantyukhov, P. V.; Shibryaeva, L. S.; Popov, A. A.; Nikolaeva, S.

    2016-11-01

    Influence of different environmental factors on the degradation of film samples based on polylactic acid and low density polyethylene with the addition of oxidized polyethylene was studied in this work. Different methods were used to find the relationship between degradation and ultraviolet, moisture, oxygen. It was found that the addition of oxidized polyethylene, used as a model of recycled polyethylene, promotes the degradation of blends.

  4. Poly(lactic acid Composites Containing Carbon-Based Nanomaterials: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Gonçalves

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Poly(lactic acid (PLA is a green alternative to petrochemical commodity plastics, used in packaging, agricultural products, disposable materials, textiles, and automotive composites. It is also approved by regulatory authorities for several biomedical applications. However, for some uses it is required that some of its properties be improved, namely in terms of thermo-mechanical and electrical performance. The incorporation of nanofillers is a common approach to attain this goal. The outstanding properties of carbon-based nanomaterials (CBN have caused a surge in research works dealing with PLA/CBN composites. The available information is compiled and reviewed, focusing on PLA/CNT (carbon nanotubes and PLA/GBM (graphene-based materials composites. The production methods, and the effects of CBN loading on PLA properties, namely mechanical, thermal, electrical, and biological, are discussed.

  5. Optimizing scoring function of protein-nucleic acid interactions with both affinity and specificity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Yan

    Full Text Available Protein-nucleic acid (protein-DNA and protein-RNA recognition is fundamental to the regulation of gene expression. Determination of the structures of the protein-nucleic acid recognition and insight into their interactions at molecular level are vital to understanding the regulation function. Recently, quantitative computational approach has been becoming an alternative of experimental technique for predicting the structures and interactions of biomolecular recognition. However, the progress of protein-nucleic acid structure prediction, especially protein-RNA, is far behind that of the protein-ligand and protein-protein structure predictions due to the lack of reliable and accurate scoring function for quantifying the protein-nucleic acid interactions. In this work, we developed an accurate scoring function (named as SPA-PN, SPecificity and Affinity of the Protein-Nucleic acid interactions for protein-nucleic acid interactions by incorporating both the specificity and affinity into the optimization strategy. Specificity and affinity are two requirements of highly efficient and specific biomolecular recognition. Previous quantitative descriptions of the biomolecular interactions considered the affinity, but often ignored the specificity owing to the challenge of specificity quantification. We applied our concept of intrinsic specificity to connect the conventional specificity, which circumvents the challenge of specificity quantification. In addition to the affinity optimization, we incorporated the quantified intrinsic specificity into the optimization strategy of SPA-PN. The testing results and comparisons with other scoring functions validated that SPA-PN performs well on both the prediction of binding affinity and identification of native conformation. In terms of its performance, SPA-PN can be widely used to predict the protein-nucleic acid structures and quantify their interactions.

  6. The construction of an amino acid network for understanding protein structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wenying; Zhou, Jianhong; Sun, Maomin; Chen, Jiajia; Hu, Guang; Shen, Bairong

    2014-06-01

    Amino acid networks (AANs) are undirected networks consisting of amino acid residues and their interactions in three-dimensional protein structures. The analysis of AANs provides novel insight into protein science, and several common amino acid network properties have revealed diverse classes of proteins. In this review, we first summarize methods for the construction and characterization of AANs. We then compare software tools for the construction and analysis of AANs. Finally, we review the application of AANs for understanding protein structure and function, including the identification of functional residues, the prediction of protein folding, analyzing protein stability and protein-protein interactions, and for understanding communication within and between proteins.

  7. Effect of synthetic mica on the thermal properties of poly(lactic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Holanda Saboya Souza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly(lactic acid/Somasif fluoromica nanocomposites were prepared by melt blending and their thermal properties investigated by DSC, TGA and DMA. Three different types of synthetic mica (Somasif ME-100, Somasif MAE and Somasif MPE were used at different contents (2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 wt %. The melt blending of PLA and these micas is characterized by a considerable reduction in the matrix molecular weight, which decreases when the nanofiller content is increased. For all nanocomposites, the thermal stability increases when mica is added to the polymer, with the Somasif MPE, producing the highest increase of the degradation temperature and highest reduction of Tg.

  8. Treating cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma using 5-aminolevulinic acid polylactic-co-glycolic acid nanoparticle-mediated photodynamic therapy in a mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang X

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Xiaojie Wang,1,2,* Lei Shi,2,* Qingfeng Tu,2 Hongwei Wang,3 Haiyan Zhang,2 Peiru Wang,2 Linglin Zhang,2 Zheng Huang,4 Feng Zhao,5 Hansen Luan,5 Xiuli Wang2 1Shanghai Skin Diseases Clinical College of Anhui Medical University, 2Shanghai Skin Disease Hospital, 3Huadong Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, 4MOE Key Laboratory of OptoElectronic Science and Technology for Medicine, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou, 5National Pharmaceutical Engineering Research Center, China State Institute of Pharmaceutical Industry, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this study Background: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC is a common skin cancer, and its treatment is still difficult. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of nanoparticle (NP-assisted 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA delivery for topical photodynamic therapy (PDT of cutaneous SCC.Materials and methods: Ultraviolet-induced cutaneous SCCs were established in hairless mice. ALA-loaded polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA NPs were prepared and characterized. The kinetics of ALA PLGA NP-induced protoporphyrin IX fluorescence in SCCs, therapeutic efficacy of ALA NP-mediated PDT, and immune responses were examined.Results: PLGA NPs enhanced protoporphyrin IX production in SCC. ALA PLGA NP-mediated topical PDT was more effective than free ALA of the same concentration in treating cutaneous SCC.Conclusion: PLGA NPs provide a promising strategy for delivering ALA in topical PDT of cutaneous SCC. Keywords: 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA, polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA, nanoparticles (NPs, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC, photodynamic therapy (PDT, microneedling

  9. New Polylactic Acid Composites Reinforced with Artichoke Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Botta

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, artichoke fibers were used for the first time to prepare poly(lactic acid (PLA-based biocomposites. In particular, two PLA/artichoke composites with the same fiber loading (10% w/w were prepared by the film-stacking method: the first one (UNID reinforced with unidirectional long artichoke fibers, the second one (RANDOM reinforced by randomly-oriented long artichoke fibers. Both composites were mechanically characterized in tensile mode by quasi-static and dynamic mechanical tests. The morphology of the fracture surfaces was analyzed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Moreover, a theoretical model, i.e., Hill’s method, was used to fit the experimental Young’s modulus of the biocomposites. The quasi-static tensile tests revealed that the modulus of UNID composites is significantly higher than that of the neat PLA (i.e., ~40%. Moreover, the tensile strength is slightly higher than that of the neat matrix. The other way around, the stiffness of RANDOM composites is not significantly improved, and the tensile strength decreases in comparison to the neat PLA.

  10. Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) Based Tear Resistant and Biodegradable Flexible Films by Blown Film Extrusion

    OpenAIRE

    Norma Mallegni; Thanh Vu Phuong; Maria-Beatrice Coltelli; Patrizia Cinelli; Andrea Lazzeri

    2018-01-01

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) was melt mixed in a laboratory extruder with poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) and poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) in the presence of polypropylene glycol di glycidyl ether (EJ400) that acted as both plasticizer and compatibilizer. The process was then scaled up in a semi-industrial extruder preparing pellets having different content of a nucleating agent (LAK). All of the formulations could be processed by blowing extrusion and the obtained films showed me...

  11. Tensile and morphology properties of PLA/LNR blends modified with maleic anhydride grafted-polylactic acid and -natural rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruf, Mohd Farid Hakim Mohd; Ahmad, Sahrim; Chen, Ruey Shan; Shahdan, Dalila; Zailan, Farrah Diyana

    2018-04-01

    This research was carried out to investigate the addition of grafted copolymers of maleic anhydride grafted-polylactic acid(PLA-g-MA) and maleic anhydride grafted-natural rubber (NR-g-MA) on the tensile and morphology properties of polylactic acid/ liquid natural rubber (PLA/LNR) blends. Prior to blend preparation, the PLA-g-MA and NR-g-MA was first self-synthesized using maleic anhydride (MA) and dicumyl peroxide (DCP) as initiator together with the PLA and NR respectively. The PLA/LNR, PLA/LNR/PLA-g-MA and PLA/LNR/NR-g-MA blends were prepared via melt-blending method. The loading of PLA-g-MA and NR-g-MA was varied by 5, 10 and 15 wt% respectively. The addition of PLA-g-MA led to increment in tensile strength with 5 and 10 wt% while NR-g-MA gives lower than controlled sample (PLA/LNR blend). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed the interaction of the components in the blends. The PLA/LNR compatibilized with PLA-g-MA and NR-g-MA shows greater dispersion and adhesion.

  12. Poly(dopamine) coating of 3D printed poly(lactic acid) scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Chia-Tze; Lin, Chi-Chang; Chen, Yi-Wen; Yeh, Chia-Hung; Fang, Hsin-Yuan; Shie, Ming-You

    2015-11-01

    3D printing is a versatile technique to generate large quantities of a wide variety of shapes and sizes of polymer. The aim of this study is to develop functionalized 3D printed poly(lactic acid) (PLA) scaffolds and use a mussel-inspired surface coating to regulate cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs). We prepared PLA 3D scaffolds coated with polydopamine (PDA). The chemical composition and surface properties of PDA/PLA were characterized by XPS. PDA/PLA modulated hADSCs' responses in several ways. Firstly, adhesion and proliferation, and cell cycle of hADSCs cultured on PDA/PLA were significantly enhanced relative to those on PLA. In addition, the collagen I secreted from cells was increased and promoted cell attachment and cell cycle progression were depended on the PDA content. In osteogenesis assay, the ALP activity and osteocalcin of hADSCs cultured on PDA/PLA were significantly higher than seen in those cultured on pure PLA scaffolds. Moreover, hADSCs cultured on PDA/PLA showed up-regulation of the ang-1 and vWF proteins associated with angiogenic differentiation. Our results demonstrate that the bio-inspired coating synthetic PLA polymer can be used as a simple technique to render the surfaces of synthetic scaffolds active, thus enabling them to direct the specific responses of hADSCs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Distribution and Orientation of Carbon Fibers in Polylactic Acid Parts Produced by Fused Deposition Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofstätter, Thomas; W. Gutmann, Ingomar; Koch, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is the understanding of the fiber orientation by investigations in respect to the inner configuration of a polylactic acid matrix reinforced with short carbon fibers after a fused deposition modeling extrusion process. The final parts were analyzed by X-ray, tomography......, and magnetic resonance imaging allowing a resolved orientation of the fibers and distribution within the part. The research contributes to the understanding of the fiber orientation and fiber reinforcement of fused deposition modeling parts in additive manufacturing....

  14. A Study of the Crystallization, Melting, and Foaming Behaviors of Polylactic Acid in Compressed CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chul B. Park

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The crystallization and melting behaviors of linear polylactic acid (PLA treated by compressed CO2 was investigated. The isothermal crystallization test indicated that while PLA exhibited very low crystallization kinetics under atmospheric pressure, CO2 exposure significantly increased PLA’s crystallization rate; a high crystallinity of 16.5% was achieved after CO2 treatment for only 1 min at 100 °C and 6.89 MPa. One melting peak could be found in the DSC curve, and this exhibited a slight dependency on treatment times, temperatures, and pressures. PLA samples tended to foam during the gas release process, and a foaming window as a function of time and temperature was established. Based on the foaming window, crystallinity, and cell morphology, it was found that foaming clearly reduced the needed time for PLA’s crystallization equilibrium.

  15. Electrospun Poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) Scaffolds for Skin Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumbar, Sangamesh G.; Nukavarapu, Syam Prasad; James, Roshan; Nair, Lakshmi S.; Laurencin, Cato T.

    2008-01-01

    Electrospun fiber matrices composed of scaffolds of varying fiber diameters were investigated for potential application of severe skin loss. Few systematic studies have been performed to examine the effect of varying fiber diameter electrospun fiber matrices for skin regeneration. The present study reports the fabrication of poly[lactic acid-co-glycolic acid] (PLAGA) matrices with fiber diameters of 150–225, 200–300, 250–467, 500–900, 600–1200, 2500–3000 and 3250–6000 nm via electrospinning. All fiber matrices found to have a tensile modulus from 39.23 ± 8.15 to 79.21 ± 13.71 MPa which falls in the range for normal human skin. Further, the porous fiber matrices have porosity between 38–60 % and average pore diameters between 10–14µm. We evaluated the efficacy of these biodegradable fiber matrices as skin substitutes by seeding them with human skin fibroblasts (hSF). Human skin fibroblasts acquired a well spread morphology and showed significant progressive growth on fiber matrices in the 350–1100 nm diameter range. Collagen type III gene expression was significantly up-regulated in hSF seeded on matrices with fiber diameters in the range of 350–1100 nm. Based on the need, the proposed fiber skin substitutes can be successfully fabricated and optimized for skin fibroblast attachment and growth. PMID:18639927

  16. Controlled release of linalool using nanofibrous membranes of poly(lactic acid) obtained by electrospinning and solution blow spinning: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The controlled-release of natural plant oils such as linalool is of interest in therapeutics, cosmetics, and antimicrobial and larvicidal products. The present study reports the release characteristics of linalool encapsulated at three concentrations (10, 15 and 20 wt.%) in poly(lactic acid) nanofib...

  17. Effects of electron beam irradiation on the structural properties of polylactic acid/polyethylene blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bee, Soo-Tueen, E-mail: direct.beest@gmail.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Jalan Genting Kelang, 53300 Setapak, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Ratnam, C.T. [Radiation Processing Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Sin, Lee Tin, E-mail: direct.tinsin@gmail.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Jalan Genting Kelang, 53300 Setapak, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Tee, Tiam-Ting; Wong, Wai-Kien; Lee, Jiuun-Xiang [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Jalan Genting Kelang, 53300 Setapak, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Rahmat, A.R. [Department of Polymer Engineering, Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor (Malaysia)

    2014-09-01

    Highlights: •Electron beam irradiation on polyethylene (LDPE) and polylactic acid (PLA) blends. •Irradiated PLA/LDPE blends exhibit structural rearrangement to highly ordered structure. •Irradiated PLA/LDPE matrix extends continuity of polymer matrix with larger fibrils diameter. -- Abstract: The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of electron beam irradiation on the properties of polylactic acid (PLA) and low density polyethylene (LDPE) blends. The PLA were compounded with 20–80% LDPE and were exposed to electron beam irradiation dosages of 20–120 kGy. The results from gel content and X-ray diffraction analyses showed that the addition of LDPE to PLA effectively increased the gel content and crystallinity. However, an increasing percentage of LDPE reduced the tensile strength and Young’s modulus of the PLA/LDPE samples due to the lower intermolecular bonding of LDPE than of PLA. Moreover, an increase in irradiation dosages gradually decreased the mechanical properties of low-LDPE PLA/LDPE. In contrast, the increasing irradiation dosage enhanced the mechanical properties of higher-LDPE PLA/LDPE. These results indicate that higher amounts of LDPE effectively react with the release of free radicals within the amorphous phase if the blends are subjected to irradiation. The higher amounts of free radicals induce the formation of three-dimensional cross-linked networks in the polymer matrix and thus increase the gel content. The irradiation-induced cross-linking in PLA/LDPE samples improves the mechanical properties and crystallinity by promoting a structural rearrangement of the polymer matrix into a highly ordered structure.

  18. Effects of electron beam irradiation on the structural properties of polylactic acid/polyethylene blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bee, Soo-Tueen; Ratnam, C.T.; Sin, Lee Tin; Tee, Tiam-Ting; Wong, Wai-Kien; Lee, Jiuun-Xiang; Rahmat, A.R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •Electron beam irradiation on polyethylene (LDPE) and polylactic acid (PLA) blends. •Irradiated PLA/LDPE blends exhibit structural rearrangement to highly ordered structure. •Irradiated PLA/LDPE matrix extends continuity of polymer matrix with larger fibrils diameter. -- Abstract: The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of electron beam irradiation on the properties of polylactic acid (PLA) and low density polyethylene (LDPE) blends. The PLA were compounded with 20–80% LDPE and were exposed to electron beam irradiation dosages of 20–120 kGy. The results from gel content and X-ray diffraction analyses showed that the addition of LDPE to PLA effectively increased the gel content and crystallinity. However, an increasing percentage of LDPE reduced the tensile strength and Young’s modulus of the PLA/LDPE samples due to the lower intermolecular bonding of LDPE than of PLA. Moreover, an increase in irradiation dosages gradually decreased the mechanical properties of low-LDPE PLA/LDPE. In contrast, the increasing irradiation dosage enhanced the mechanical properties of higher-LDPE PLA/LDPE. These results indicate that higher amounts of LDPE effectively react with the release of free radicals within the amorphous phase if the blends are subjected to irradiation. The higher amounts of free radicals induce the formation of three-dimensional cross-linked networks in the polymer matrix and thus increase the gel content. The irradiation-induced cross-linking in PLA/LDPE samples improves the mechanical properties and crystallinity by promoting a structural rearrangement of the polymer matrix into a highly ordered structure

  19. MWCNTs-reinforced epoxidized linseed oil plasticized polylactic acid nanocomposite and its electroactive shape memory behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Javed; Alam, Manawwer; Raja, Mohan; Abduljaleel, Zainularifeen; Dass, Lawrence Arockiasamy

    2014-10-31

    A novel electroactive shape memory polymer nanocomposite of epoxidized linseed oil plasticized polylactic acid and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) was prepared by a combination of solution blending, solvent cast technique, and hydraulic hot press moulding. In this study, polylactic acid (PLA) was first plasticized by epoxidized linseed oil (ELO) in order to overcome the major limitations of PLA, such as high brittleness, low toughness, and low tensile elongation. Then, MWCNTs were incorporated into the ELO plasticized PLA matrix at three different loadings (2, 3 and 5 wt. %), with the aim of making the resulting nanocomposites electrically conductive. The addition of ELO decreased glass transition temperature, and increased the elongation and thermal degradability of PLA, as shown in the results of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), tensile test, and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to observe surface morphology, topography, and the dispersion of MWCNTs in the nanocomposite. Finally, the electroactive-shape memory effect (electroactive-SME) in the resulting nanocomposite was investigated by a fold-deploy "U"-shape bending test. As per the results, the addition of both ELO and MWCNTs to PLA matrix seemed to enhance its overall properties with a great deal of potential in improved shape memory. The 3 wt. % MWCNTs-reinforced nanocomposite system, which showed 95% shape recovery within 45 s at 40 DC voltage, is expected to be used as a preferential polymeric nanocomposite material in various actuators, sensors and deployable devices.

  20. Characterization of Active Packaging Films Made from Poly(Lactic Acid)/Poly(Trimethylene Carbonate) Incorporated with Oregano Essential Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Dong Liu; Hongli Li; Lin Jiang; Yongming Chuan; Minglong Yuan; Haiyun Chen

    2016-01-01

    Antimicromial and antioxidant bioactive films based on poly(lactic acid)/poly(trimenthylene carbonate) films incorporated with different concentrations of oregano essential oil (OEO) were prepared by solvent casting. The antimicrobial, antioxidant, physical, thermal, microstructural, and mechanical properties of the resulting films were examined. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed that the cross-section of films became rougher when OEO was incorporated into PLA/PTMC blends. Differ...

  1. [An experimental study on a slow-release complex with rifampicin-polylactic-co-glycolic acid-calcium 
phosphate cement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianhuang; Ding, Zhou; Lei, Qing; Li, Miao; Liang, Yan; Lu, Tao

    2016-09-28

    To prepare the slow-release complex with rifampicin (RFP)-polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA)-calcium phosphate cement (CPC) (RFP-PLGA-CPC complex), and to study its physical and chemical properties and drug release properties in vitro.
 The emulsification-solvent evaporation method was adopted to prepare rifampicin polylactic acid-glycolic acid (RFP-PLGA) slow-release microspheres, which were divided into 3 groups: a calcium phosphate bone cement group (CPC group), a CPC embedded with RFP group (RFP-CPC group), and a PLGA slow-release microspheres carrying RFP and the self-curing CPC group (RFP- PLGA-CPC complex group). The solidification time and porosity of materials were determined. The drug release experiments in vitro were carried out to observe the compressive strength, the change of section morphology before and after drug release. 
 The CPC group showed the shortest solidification time, while the RFP-PLGA-CPC complex group had the longest one. There was statistical difference in the porosity between the CPC group and the RFP-CPC group (Pbehavior of the complex, which was in accordance with zero order kinetics equation F=0.168×t.
 The porosity of RFP-PLGA-CPC complex is significantly higher than that of CPC, and it can keep slow release of the effective anti-tuberculosis drugs and maintain a certain mechanical strength for a long time.

  2. Thermal and Electrical Investigation of Conductive Polylactic Acid Based Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobre, R. A.; Marcu, A. E.; Drumea, A.; Vlădescu, M.

    2018-06-01

    Printed electronics gain momentum as the involved technologies become affordable. The ability to shape electrostatic dissipative materials in almost any form is useful. The idea to use a general-purpose 3D printer to manufacture the electrical interconnections for a circuit is very attractive. The advantage of using a 3D printed structure over other technologies are mainly the lower price, less requirements concerning storage and use conditions, and the capability to build thicker traces while maintaining flexibility. The main element allowing this to happen is a printing filament with conductive properties. The paper shows the experiments that were performed to determine the thermal and electrical properties of polylactic acid (PLA) based ESD dissipative filament. Quantitative results regarding the thermal behavior of the DC resistance and the variation of the equivalent parallel impedance model parameters (losses resistance, capacitance, impedance magnitude and phase angle) with frequency are shown.. Using these results, new applications like printed temperature sensors can be imagined.

  3. [Polylactic acid injections: usefullness for the treatment of facial lipoatrophy in HIV+ patients under tritherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piquet, M; Brignol, L; Chatelain, B; Rey, D; Ricbourg, B; Meyer, C

    2007-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the mean-term efficacy and tolerance of the polylactic acid injections (New-Fill) for the correction of facial lipoatrophy occurring in HIV-positive patients under tri-therapy. The patients were managed at the University Hospitals of Besançon and Strasbourg (France) from January 2002 to December 2005 for a prospective study. The patients were consecutively included in this study once their consent was obtained. Patients not stabilized by their antiretroviral treatment were excluded. Facial lipoatrophy was classified in four clinical stages (stage I: mild, stage II: moderate, stage III: important, stage IV: severe) after a clinical examination. The polylactic acid solution was prepared according to the manufacturer's recommendations, and injected in a retrotracing manner in the hypoderm at the rate of one 5 ml flask per side, with an interval of one month. The number of sessions varied according to the severity of the stage. Treatment efficacy, assessed after a minimal follow-up of one year, was established clinically by comparing the initial and final photographs (changes in the clinical stage) and by the patient's and surgeon's satisfaction rate (from zero to ten). Treatment tolerance was established on the painfulness of injections and on socioprofessional constraints reported by the patients and made on a visual analogical scale. The occurrence of adverse-effects was checked. Finally, we compared the cost of the treatment with that of lipostructure. Twenty-five patients were included (mean age: 44, sex-ratio: 23 male/2 female patients). The mean body mass index was 21. The mean CD4 cell count was 600/mm(3). The mean HIV-1 RNA was 276 copies/ml. The severity of the lipoatrophy was stage one in two patients (8%), stage two in 12 patients (48%), stage three in nine patients (36%), and stage four in two patients (8%). The mean number of sessions was 5.2. The mean follow-up time was 26 months. In 76% of the cases we observed a

  4. Using analyses of amino Acid coevolution to understand protein structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashenberg, Orr; Laub, Michael T

    2013-01-01

    Determining which residues of a protein contribute to a specific function is a difficult problem. Analyses of amino acid covariation within a protein family can serve as a useful guide by identifying residues that are functionally coupled. Covariation analyses have been successfully used on several different protein families to identify residues that work together to promote folding, enable protein-protein interactions, or contribute to an enzymatic activity. Covariation is a statistical signal that can be measured in a multiple sequence alignment of homologous proteins. As sequence databases have expanded dramatically, covariation analyses have become easier and more powerful. In this chapter, we describe how functional covariation arises during the evolution of proteins and how this signal can be distinguished from various background signals. We discuss the basic methodology for performing amino acid covariation analysis, using bacterial two-component signal transduction proteins as an example. We provide practical suggestions for each step of the process including assembly of protein sequences, construction of a multiple sequence alignment, measurement of covariation, and analysis of results. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Amino acids and proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Vlaardingerbroek, Hester; van den Akker, Chris H.; de Groof, Femke; van der Schoor, Sophie R. D.

    2014-01-01

    Amino acids and protein are key factors for growth. The neonatal period requires the highest intake in life to meet the demands. Those demands include amino acids for growth, but proteins and amino acids also function as signalling molecules and function as neurotransmitters. Often the nutritional

  6. Hybrid poly(lactic acid)/nanocellulose/nanoclay composites with synergistically enhanced barrier properties and improved thermomechanical resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trifol Guzman, Jon; Plackett, David; Sillard, Cecile

    2016-01-01

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA)‐based hybrid nanocomposites (PLA, nanoclay and nanocellulose) were prepared by reinforcing neat PLA with commercially available nanoclay (Cloisite C30B) and nanocellulose, in the form of either partially acetylated cellulose nanofibres (CNFs) or nanocrystalline cellulose......) through a reduction of up to 90% in OTR and a further reduction in the water vapour transmission rate of up to 76%. In addition, the nanocomposite films showed improved thermomechanical resistance and improved crystallisation kinetics while maintaining high film transparency. This makes the hybrid PLA...

  7. Three-dimensional wet-electrospun poly(lactic acid)/multi-wall carbon nanotubes scaffold induces differentiation of human menstrual blood-derived stem cells into germ-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyni, Hossein; Ghorbani, Sadegh; Shirazi, Reza; Salari Asl, Leila; P Beiranvand, Shahram; Soleimani, Masoud

    2017-09-01

    Infertility caused by the disruption or absence of germ cells is a major and largely incurable medical problem. Germ cells (i.e., sperm or egg) play a key role in the transmission of genetic and epigenetic information across generations. Generation of gametes derived in vitro from stem cells hold promising prospects which could potentially help infertile men and women. Menstrual blood-derived stem cells are a unique stem cell source. Evidence suggests that menstrual blood-derived stem cells exhibit a multi-lineage potential and have attracted extensive attention in regenerative medicine. To maintain the three-dimensional structure of natural extra cellular matrices in vitro, scaffolds can do this favor and mimic a microenvironment for cell proliferation and differentiation. According to previous studies, poly(lactic acid) and multi-wall carbon nanotubes have been introduced as novel and promising biomaterials for the proliferation and differentiation of stem cells. Some cell types have been successfully grown on a matrix containing carbon nanotubes in tissue engineering but there is no report for this material to support stem cells differentiation into germ cells lineage. This study designed a 3D wet-electrospun poly(lactic acid) and poly(lactic acid)/multi-wall carbon nanotubes composite scaffold to compare infiltration, proliferation, and differentiation potential of menstrual blood-derived stem cells toward germ cell lineage with 2D culture. Our primary data revealed that the fabricated scaffold has mechanical and biological suitable qualities for supporting and attachments of stem cells. The differentiated menstrual blood-derived stem cells tracking in scaffolds using scanning electron microscopy confirmed cell attachment, aggregation, and distribution on the porous scaffold. Based on the differentiation assay by RT-PCR analysis, stem cells and germ-like cells markers were expressed in 3D groups as well as 2D one. It seems that poly(lactic acid

  8. MWCNTs-Reinforced Epoxidized Linseed Oil Plasticized Polylactic Acid Nanocomposite and Its Electroactive Shape Memory Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed Alam

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A novel electroactive shape memory polymer nanocomposite of epoxidized linseed oil plasticized polylactic acid and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs was prepared by a combination of solution blending, solvent cast technique, and hydraulic hot press moulding. In this study, polylactic acid (PLA was first plasticized by epoxidized linseed oil (ELO in order to overcome the major limitations of PLA, such as high brittleness, low toughness, and low tensile elongation. Then, MWCNTs were incorporated into the ELO plasticized PLA matrix at three different loadings (2, 3 and 5 wt. %, with the aim of making the resulting nanocomposites electrically conductive. The addition of ELO decreased glass transition temperature, and increased the elongation and thermal degradability of PLA, as shown in the results of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, tensile test, and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM were used to observe surface morphology, topography, and the dispersion of MWCNTs in the nanocomposite. Finally, the electroactive-shape memory effect (electroactive-SME in the resulting nanocomposite was investigated by a fold-deploy “U”-shape bending test. As per the results, the addition of both ELO and MWCNTs to PLA matrix seemed to enhance its overall properties with a great deal of potential in improved shape memory. The 3 wt. % MWCNTs-reinforced nanocomposite system, which showed 95% shape recovery within 45 s at 40 DC voltage, is expected to be used as a preferential polymeric nanocomposite material in various actuators, sensors and deployable devices.

  9. The selective recycling of mixed plastic waste of polylactic acid and polyethylene terephthalate by control of process conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Carné Sánchez, Arnau; Collinson, Simon R.

    2011-01-01

    The glycolysis of postconsumer polyethylene terephthalate (PET) waste was evaluated with catalysts of zinc acetate, zinc stearate and zinc sulfate, showing that zinc acetate was the most soluble and effective. The chemical recycling by solvolysis of polylactic acid (PLA) and PET waste in either methanol or ethanol was investigated. Zinc acetate as a catalyst was found to be necessary to yield an effective depolymerization of waste PLA giving lactate esters, while with the same reaction condit...

  10. Thermal Degradation and Kinetic Parameters of Polyester and Poly(Lactic Acid) Blends Used in Shopping Bags in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo Junior, J.; Magalhães, D; Oliveira, N. A.; Wiebeck, Helio; Matos, J. R.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, synthetic polyester and poly(lactic acid) blends used as biodegradable shopping plastic bags were studied, together with control samples of polyethylene containing pro-oxidant catalysts (called “oxidegradable bags” in the market). Samples of these materials were weighed and buried in simulated soil for 3 months, and then studied by Thermal Analysis including a non-isothermal kinetic analysis. It was observed that although there was no significant mass loss in the period of the a...

  11. Preparation and Characterization of Films Extruded of Polyethylene/Chitosan Modified with Poly(lactic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Manuel Quiroz-Castillo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of mixtures of synthetic and natural polymers is a potential option to reduce the pollution by plastic waste. In this work, the method for the chemical modification of chitosan with poly(lactic acid was developed; then, the preparation of films of blends of polyethylene and chitosan-poly(lactic acid produced by an extrusion method using polyethylene-graft maleic anhydride as a compatibilizer. It was possible to obtain films with a maximum content of 20 wt% and 30 wt%, chitosan, with and without compatibilizer, respectively. Scanning electron microscope (SEM analysis showed a homogeneous surface on all films. The addition of the compatibilizer had a significant effect on the mechanical properties of the films, such as an increase in Young’s modulus and a decrease in the elongation at break; additionally, the compatibilizer promotes thermal degradation in a single step and gives the film a slight increase in thermal resistance. These results are attributed to an improved interaction in the interface of polyethylene and chitosan-poly(lactic acid, promoted by the compatibilizer.

  12. A New Esterase from Thermobifida halotolerans Hydrolyses Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET and Polylactic Acid (PLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Steinkellner

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A new esterase from Thermobifida halotolerans (Thh_Est was cloned and expressed in E. coli and investigated for surface hydrolysis of polylactic acid (PLA and polyethylene terephthalate (PET. Thh_Est is a member of the serine hydrolases superfamily containing the -GxSxG- motif with 85–87% homology to an esterase from T. alba, to an acetylxylan esterase from T. fusca and to various Thermobifida cutinases. Thh_Est hydrolyzed the PET model substrate bis(benzoyloxyethylterephthalate and PET releasing terephthalic acid and mono-(2-hydroxyethyl terephthalate in comparable amounts (19.8 and 21.5 mmol/mol of enzyme while no higher oligomers like bis-(2-hydroxyethyl terephthalate were detected. Similarly, PLA was hydrolyzed as indicated by the release of lactic acid. Enzymatic surface hydrolysis of PET and PLA led to a strong hydrophilicity increase, as quantified with a WCA decrease from 90.8° and 75.5° to 50.4° and to a complete spread of the water drop on the surface, respectively.

  13. Preparation and Characterization of Films Extruded of Polyethylene/Chitosan Modified with Poly(lactic acid)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz-Castillo, Jesús Manuel; Rodríguez-Félix, Dora Evelia; Grijalva-Monteverde, Heriberto; Lizárraga-Laborín, Lauren Lucero; Castillo-Ortega, María Mónica; del Castillo-Castro, Teresa; Rodríguez-Félix, Francisco; Herrera-Franco, Pedro Jesús

    2014-01-01

    The use of mixtures of synthetic and natural polymers is a potential option to reduce the pollution by plastic waste. In this work, the method for the chemical modification of chitosan with poly(lactic acid) was developed; then, the preparation of films of blends of polyethylene and chitosan-poly(lactic acid) produced by an extrusion method using polyethylene-graft maleic anhydride as a compatibilizer. It was possible to obtain films with a maximum content of 20 wt% and 30 wt%, chitosan, with and without compatibilizer, respectively. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis showed a homogeneous surface on all films. The addition of the compatibilizer had a significant effect on the mechanical properties of the films, such as an increase in Young’s modulus and a decrease in the elongation at break; additionally, the compatibilizer promotes thermal degradation in a single step and gives the film a slight increase in thermal resistance. These results are attributed to an improved interaction in the interface of polyethylene and chitosan-poly(lactic acid), promoted by the compatibilizer. PMID:28787928

  14. Influence of lignin on morphology, structure and thermal behavior of polylactic acid-based biocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canetti, Maurizio; Cacciamani, Adriana; Bertini, Fabio

    2016-05-01

    Polylactic acid (PLA) is a thermoplastic biodegradable polymer that can be made from annually renewable resources. Lignin is a natural amorphous polyphenolic macromolecule inexpensive and easily available. In the present study PLA and acetylated lignin biocomposites were prepared by casting from chloroform solution. PLA can crystallize from the melt in the α and α' forms, depending on the adopted crystallization conditions. The presence of the lignin in the biocomposites can interfere with the crystal formation process. Isothermal crystallizations were performed at different temperatures, the presence of lignin causes an increase of the time of crystallization, while the overall crystallization rate and the spherulite radial growth rate decrease with enhancing the lignin content in the biocomposites.

  15. Development of polylactic acid nanocomposite films reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals derived from coffee silverskin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Soo Hyun; Chang, Yoonjee; Han, Jaejoon

    2017-08-01

    Bio-nanocomposite films based on polylactic acid (PLA) matrix reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) were developed using a twin-screw extruder. The CNCs were extracted from coffee silverskin (CS), which is a by-product of the coffee roasting process. They were extracted by alkali treatment followed by sulfuric acid hydrolysis. They were used as reinforcing agents to obtain PLA/CNC nanocomposites by addition at different concentrations (1%, 3%, and 5% CNCs). Morphological, tensile, and barrier properties of the bio-nanocomposites were analyzed. The tensile strength and Young's modulus increased with both 1% and 3% CNCs. The water vapor permeability decreased gradually with increasing addition of CNCs up to 3% and good oxygen barrier properties were found for all nanocomposites. These results suggest that CNCs from CS can improve the physical properties of PLA-based biopolymer film. The developed PLA/CNC bio-nanocomposite films can potentially be used for biopolymer materials with enhanced barrier and mechanical properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Performance properties, lactic acid specific migration and swelling by simulant of biodegradable poly(lactic acid)/nanoclay multilayer films for food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarfato, Paola; Di Maio, Luciano; Milana, Maria Rosaria; Giamberardini, Silvia; Denaro, Massimo; Incarnato, Loredana

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the study was the development of a multifunctional, high-performance, fully biodegradable multilayer polylactic acid (PLA) film for food packaging applications. In particular, sealable multilayer PLA-clay nanocomposite systems with different layouts in terms of composition and relative thickness of the layers, all consisting of a PLA-clay nanocomposite layer between two pure PLA layers for direct food contact, were designed and produced by blown film co-extrusion. The films obtained were analysed for their morphology, functional properties and lactic acid (LA)-specific migration in 50% ethanol. The results showed that, with respect to the unfilled multilayer system, taken as a reference, the nanocomposite films had significant improvements, up to about 40%, in their barriers to oxygen and tensile strengths, and resulted in being more easily sealable over a wide heat-sealing temperature range (80-100°C) with higher seal strength. Moreover, all films had LA migrations always well below the former generic overall migration limit of 60 mg kg -1 food (10 mg dm - 2 ) of European Union Regulation No. 10/2011 (deleted by the amending Regulation No. 2016/1416), even if their morphology was strongly modified during the migration tests due to the strong swelling action of the used simulant (simulant D1 = 50% ethanol (aq.) (v/v)) towards PLA.

  17. Porous stable poly(lactic acid)/ethyl cellulose/hydroxyapatite composite scaffolds prepared by a combined method for bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Daoyong; Li, Qing; Bai, Ningning; Dong, Hongzhou; Li, Daikun

    2018-01-15

    A major challenge in bone tissue engineering is the development of biomimetic scaffolds which should simultaneously meet mechanical strength and pore structure requirements. Herein, we combined technologies of high concentration solvent casting, particulate leaching, and room temperature compression molding to prepare a novel poly(lactic acid)/ethyl cellulose/hydroxyapatite (PLA/EC/HA) scaffold. The functional, structural and mechanical properties of the obtained porous scaffolds were characterized. The results indicated that the PLA/EC/HA scaffolds at the 20wt% HA loading level showed optimal mechanical properties and desired porous structure. Its porosity, contact angle, compressive yield strength and weight loss after 56days were 84.28±7.04%, 45.13±2.40°, 1.57±0.09MPa and 4.77±0.32%, respectively, which could satisfy the physiological demands to guide bone regeneration. Thus, the developed scaffolds have potential to be used as a bone substitute material for bone tissue engineering application. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. A Facile and Eco-friendly Route to Fabricate Poly(Lactic Acid) Scaffolds with Graded Pore Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaffaro, Roberto; Lopresti, Francesco; Botta, Luigi; Maio, Andrea; Sutera, Fiorenza; Mistretta, Maria Chiara; La Mantia, Francesco Paolo

    2016-10-17

    Over the recent years, functionally graded scaffolds (FGS) gaineda crucial role for manufacturing of devices for tissue engineering. The importance of this new field of biomaterials research is due to the necessity to develop implants capable of mimicking the complex functionality of the various tissues, including a continuous change from one structure or composition to another. In this latter context, one topic of main interest concerns the design of appropriate scaffolds for bone-cartilage interface tissue. In this study, three-layered scaffolds with graded pore size were achieved by melt mixing poly(lactic acid) (PLA), sodium chloride (NaCl) and polyethylene glycol (PEG). Pore size distributions were controlled by NaCl granulometry and PEG solvation. Scaffolds were characterized from a morphological and mechanical point of view. A correlation between the preparation method, the pore architecture and compressive mechanical behavior was found. The interface adhesion strength was quantitatively evaluated by using a custom-designed interfacial strength test. Furthermore, in order to imitate the human physiology, mechanical tests were also performed in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution at 37 °C. The method herein presented provides a high control of porosity, pore size distribution and mechanical performance, thus offering the possibility to fabricate three-layered scaffolds with tailored properties by following a simple and eco-friendly route.

  19. Biodegradability Study of the Blend Film of High Density Polyethylene and Poly(lactic acid Disposable Packages Flake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elahe Baghi Neirizi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the major concerns of using a non-biodegradable polymer product is its disposal at the end of its life cycle. Development of biodegradable plastics promises an alternative solution to combat this problem. Blending of poly(lactic acid with non-biodegradable polymers is a practical and economical method for modifying the biodegradability properties of non-biodegradable polymers. In this study, soil biodegradability of the blends of high density polyethylene (HDPE and variable amounts of recycled poly(lactic acid (r-PLA plastic flakes at 0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 wt% was studied. The behavior of the force-elongation profile of the blends having r-PLA content of lower than 30 wt% was approximately the same as that of pure HDPE while, it was completely different for the other blends. Tearing force and elongation-at-yield-point of the blends films with the 20 to 50 wt% r-PLA were decreased significantly after 60 days of soil biodegradability test. Morphological study showed that biodegradability of the blend films at surface of the samples (deep pores and grooves was increased with extended biodegradability time and higher r-PLA content, while, this variation was significant for the blend films of more than 20 wt% r-PLA content. Thermal properties evaluation by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC curves indicated that the glass transition temperature and enthalpy peaks during the heating stage were eliminated with increasing the biodegradability testing time. Also, reduction in the crystallinity degree of the r-PLA component with increasing the biodegradability testing time coincided with the earlier results.

  20. Thermal Stability and Surface Wettability Studies of Polylactic Acid/Halloysite Nanotube Nanocomposite Scaffold for Tissue Engineering Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizar, M. Mohd; Hamzah, M. S. A.; Razak, S. I. Abd; Mat Nayan, N. H.

    2018-03-01

    This paper reports the preliminary study about the incorporation of halloysite nanotubes (HNT) into polylactic acid (PLA) scaffold to improve the thermal resistance and surface wettability properties. The fabrication of the porous scaffold requires a simple yet effective technique with low-cost materials within freeze extraction method. The thermal stability of PLA/HNT scaffold compared to neat PLA scaffold achieved with increased content of HNT by 5 wt%. Moreover, the surface wettability of the scaffold also shows a positive impact with high content of HNT by 5 wt%. This new nanocomposite scaffold may have high potential as a suitable template for tissue regeneration.

  1. Three dimensional printed macroporous polylactic acid/hydroxyapatite composite scaffolds for promoting bone formation in a critical-size rat calvarial defect model

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Haifeng; Mao, Xiyuan; Du, Zijing; Jiang, Wenbo; Han, Xiuguo; Zhao, Danyang; Han, Dong; Li, Qingfeng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We have explored the applicability of printed scaffold by comparing osteogenic ability and biodegradation property of three resorbable biomaterials. A polylactic acid/hydroxyapatite (PLA/HA) composite with a pore size of 500??m and 60% porosity was fabricated by three-dimensional printing. Three-dimensional printed PLA/HA, ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) and partially demineralized bone matrix (DBM) seeded with bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were evaluated by cell adhesion, prolife...

  2. Improved cellular response of ion modified poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) substrates for mouse fibroblast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhikari, Ananta Raj; Geranpayeh, Tanya; Chu, Wei Kan; Otteson, Deborah C.

    2016-01-01

    In this report, the effects of argon (Ar) ion irradiation on poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) substrates on biocompatibility were studied. PLGA scaffold substrates were prepared by spin coating glass surfaces with PLGA dissolved in anhydrous chloroform. Previously, we showed that surface modifications of PLGA films using ion irradiation modulate the inherent hydrophobicity of PLGA surface. Here we show that with increasing ion dose (1 × 10 12 to 1 × 10 14 ions/cm 2 ), hydrophobicity and surface roughness decreased. Biocompatibility for NIH3T3 mouse fibroblast cells was increased by argon irradiation of PLGA substrates. On unirradiated PLGA films, fibroblasts had a longer doubling time and cell densities were 52% lower than controls after 48 h in vitro. Argon irradiated PLGA substrates supported growth rates similar to control. Despite differences in cell cycle kinetics, there was no detectible cytotoxicity observed on any substrate. This demonstrates that argon ion irradiation can be used to tune the surface microstructure and generate substrates that are more compatible for the cell growth and proliferation. - Highlights: • Argon irradiation modifies surface chemistry and increases hydrophilicity of poly(lactic-glycolic) acid (PLGA) films. • Both native and irradiated PLGA films were not cytotoxic for mouse fibroblasts. • Fibroblast proliferation increased on PLGA substrates modified with higher doses of Argon irradiation. • Surface modification with Argon irradiation increases biocompatibility of PLGA films.

  3. Preparation and Characterization of Poly(lactic acid)/ difatty Acyl urea/ modified Clay Nano composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mulla, E.M.A.

    2011-01-01

    One of the commercially available biodegradable polymer is Poly(lactic acid) (PLA). It is from the family of aliphatic polyesters, which are produced from many renewable resources such as corn and sugar beets. PLA and other biodegradable polymers are readily biodegradable by enzyme action, which have attracted a lot of attention in the scientific community due to a rapid growth of intensive interest in the global environment for alternatives to petroleum-based polymeric materials. Although PLA has good mechanical properties and process ability, its applications are limited due to its brittleness and non flexibility. However, PLA may be used as a biodegradable and renewable plastic for the textile industries, automotive and clinical uses as well as food packaging materials. Since soft and flexible PLA are required to reach end user demands. (author)

  4. Polylactic acid (PLA) controlled delivery carriers for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Betty; Gullotti, David; Mangraviti, Antonella; Utsuki, Tadanobu; Brem, Henry

    2016-12-15

    Polylactic acid (PLA) and its copolymers have a long history of safety in humans and an extensive range of applications. PLA is biocompatible, biodegradable by hydrolysis and enzymatic activity, has a large range of mechanical and physical properties that can be engineered appropriately to suit multiple applications, and has low immunogenicity. Formulations containing PLA have also been Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved for multiple applications making PLA suitable for expedited clinical translatability. These biomaterials can be fashioned into sutures, scaffolds, cell carriers, drug delivery systems, and a myriad of fabrications. PLA has been the focus of a multitude of preclinical and clinical testing. Three-dimensional printing has expanded the possibilities of biomedical engineering and has enabled the fabrication of a myriad of platforms for an extensive variety of applications. PLA has been widely used as temporary extracellular matrices in tissue engineering. At the other end of the spectrum, PLA's application as drug-loaded nanoparticle drug carriers, such as liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles, dendrimers, and micelles, can encapsulate otherwise toxic hydrophobic anti-tumor drugs and evade systemic toxicities. The clinical translation of these technologies from preclinical experimental settings is an ever-evolving field with incremental advancements. In this review, some of the biomedical applications of PLA and its copolymers are highlighted and briefly summarized. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterization of Polylactic Acid/ Microcrystalline Cellulose/ Montmorillonite Hybrid Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reza Arjmandi; Azman Hassan; Haafiz, M.K.M.; Zainoha Zakaria; Inuwa, I.M.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of montmorillonite (MMT)/ microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) hybrid fillers on mechanical properties and morphological characteristics of polylactic acid (PLA) composites. PLA/ MMT nano composites and PLA/ MMT/ MCC hybrid composites were prepared by solution casting method. Morphology and tensile properties of PLA composites were investigated using Field emission scanning electron microscopy and Instron tensile testing machine. The maximum tensile strength of PLA/ MMT nano composites was obtained with 5 phr contents of MMT, which corresponding to 30.75 MPa. Based on optimized formulation of PLA/ MMT nano composites (5 phr MMT contents), various amounts of MCC (0 to 7 phr) were added into optimum formulation of PLA/ MMT in order to produce PLA/ MMT/ MCC hybrid composites. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed some level of interaction between PLA and both MMT and MCC in the hybrid composites. However, the percent elongation at break of the hybrid composites was generally higher than PLA/ MMT nano composites. Additionally, Young's modulus of the PLA/ MMT/ MCC hybrid composites increased gradually with increasing of MCC contents and was higher than PLA/ MMT at all compositions. The present results are the first among a series of experiments that have been designed in order to probe the effect of MMT and MCC in the PLA. (author)

  6. Effects of a chitosan membrane coated with polylactic and polyglycolic acid on bone regeneration in a rat calvarial defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Ui-Won; Song, Kun-Young; Kim, Chang-Sung; Lee, Yong-Keun; Cho, Kyoo-Sung; Kim, Chong-Kwan; Choi, Seong-Ho

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a chitosan membrane coated with polylactic and polyglycolic acid (PLGA) on bone regeneration in a rat calvarial defect. Surgical implantation of chitosan membranes resulted in enhanced local bone formation at both 2 and 8 weeks. In conclusion, the chitosan membrane coated with PLGA had a significant potential to induce bone formation in the rat calvarial defect model. Within the selected PLGA dose range and observation intervals, there appeared to be no meaningful differences in bone formation

  7. Influence of polymer swelling and dissolution into food simulants on the release of graphene nanoplates and carbon nanotubes from poly(lactic) acid and polypropylene composite films

    OpenAIRE

    Velichkova, Hristiana; Petrova, Ivanka; Kotsilkov, Stanislav; Ivanov, Evgeni; Vitanov, Nikolay K.; Kotsilkova, Rumiana

    2017-01-01

    The study compared the effects of swelling and dissolution of a matrix polymer by food simulants on the release of graphene nanoplates (GNPs) and multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) from poly(lactic) acid (PLA) and polypropylene (PP) composite films. The total migration was determined gravimetrically in the ethanol and acetic acid food simulants at different time and temperature conditions, while migrants were detected by laser diffraction analysis and transmission electron microscopy. Swelli...

  8. Residual wood polymers facilitate compounding of microfibrillated cellulose with poly(lactic acid) for 3D printer filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Armin; Mundigler, Norbert; Holzweber, Julian; Veigel, Stefan; Müller, Ulrich; Kovalcik, Adriana; Gindl-Altmutter, Wolfgang

    2017-12-01

    Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) is a fascinating material with an obvious potential for composite reinforcement due to its excellent mechanics together with high specific surface area. However, in order to use this potential, commercially viable solutions to important technological challenges have to be found. Notably, the distinct hydrophilicity of MFC prevents efficient drying without loss in specific surface area, necessitating storage and processing in wet condition. This greatly hinders compounding with important technical polymers immiscible with water. Differently from cellulose, the chemistry of the major wood polymers lignin and hemicellulose is much more diverse in terms of functional groups. Specifically, the aromatic moieties present in lignin and acetyl groups in hemicellulose provide distinctly less polar surface-chemical functionality compared to hydroxyl groups which dominate the surface-chemical character of cellulose. It is shown that considerable advantages in the production of MFC-filled poly(lactic acid) filaments for three-dimensional printing can be obtained through the use of MFC containing residual lignin and hemicellulose due to their advantageous surface-chemical characteristics. Specifically, considerably reduced agglomerations of MFC in the filaments in combination with improved printability and improved toughness of printed objects are achieved. This article is part of a discussion meeting issue `New horizons for cellulose nanotechnology'.

  9. Residual wood polymers facilitate compounding of microfibrillated cellulose with poly(lactic acid) for 3D printer filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Armin; Mundigler, Norbert; Holzweber, Julian; Veigel, Stefan; Müller, Ulrich; Kovalcik, Adriana; Gindl-Altmutter, Wolfgang

    2018-02-13

    Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) is a fascinating material with an obvious potential for composite reinforcement due to its excellent mechanics together with high specific surface area. However, in order to use this potential, commercially viable solutions to important technological challenges have to be found. Notably, the distinct hydrophilicity of MFC prevents efficient drying without loss in specific surface area, necessitating storage and processing in wet condition. This greatly hinders compounding with important technical polymers immiscible with water. Differently from cellulose, the chemistry of the major wood polymers lignin and hemicellulose is much more diverse in terms of functional groups. Specifically, the aromatic moieties present in lignin and acetyl groups in hemicellulose provide distinctly less polar surface-chemical functionality compared to hydroxyl groups which dominate the surface-chemical character of cellulose. It is shown that considerable advantages in the production of MFC-filled poly(lactic acid) filaments for three-dimensional printing can be obtained through the use of MFC containing residual lignin and hemicellulose due to their advantageous surface-chemical characteristics. Specifically, considerably reduced agglomerations of MFC in the filaments in combination with improved printability and improved toughness of printed objects are achieved.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'New horizons for cellulose nanotechnology'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  10. Novel toughened polylactic acid nanocomposite: Mechanical, thermal and morphological properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakrishnan, Harintharavimal; Hassan, Azman; Wahit, Mat Uzir; Yussuf, A.A.; Razak, Shamsul Bahri Abdul

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study is to develop a novel toughened polylactic acid (PLA) nanocomposite. The effects of linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) and organophilic modified montmorillonite (MMT) on mechanical, thermal and morphological properties of PLA were investigated. LLDPE toughened PLA nanocomposites consisting of PLA/LLDPE blends, of composition 100/0 and 90/10 with MMT content of 2 phr and 4 phr were prepared. The Young's and flexural modulus improved with increasing content of MMT indicating that MMT is effective in increasing stiffness of LLDPE toughened PLA nanocomposite even at low content. LLDPE improved the impact strength of PLA nanocomposites with a sacrifice of tensile and flexural strength. The tensile and flexural strength also decreased with increasing content of MMT in PLA/LLDPE nanocomposites. The impact strength and elongation at break of LLDPE toughened PLA nanocomposites also declined steadily with increasing loadings of MMT. The crystallization temperature and glass transition temperature dropped gradually while the thermal stability of PLA improved with addition of MMT in PLA/LLDPE nanocomposites. The storage modulus of PLA/LLDPE nanocomposites below glass transition temperature increased with increasing content of MMT. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope studies revealed that an intercalated LLDPE toughened PLA nanocomposite was successfully prepared at 2 phr MMT content.

  11. Biodegradable packaging materials conception based on starch and polylactic acid (PLA) reinforced with cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masmoudi, Fatma; Bessadok, Atef; Dammak, Mohamed; Jaziri, Mohamed; Ammar, Emna

    2016-10-01

    The plastic materials used for packaging are increasing leading to a considerable amount of undegradable solid wastes. This work deals with the reduction of conventional plastics waste and the natural resources preservation by using cellulosic polymers from renewable resources (alfa and luffa). Plasticized starch films syntheses were achieved at a laboratory scale. These natural films showed some very attractive mechanical properties at relatively low plasticizers levels (12 to 17 % by weight). Furthermore, mixtures including polylactic acid polymer (PLA) and cellulose fibers extracted from alfa and luffa were investigated by melt extrusion technique. When used at a rate of 10 %, these fibers improved the mixture mechanical properties. Both developed materials were biodegradable, but the plasticized starch exhibited a faster biodegradation kinetic compared to the PLA/cellulose fibers. These new materials would contribute to a sustainable development and a waste reduction.

  12. Investigation of in-situ poly(lactic acid)/soy protein concentrate composites: Composite preparation, properties and foam application development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo

    2011-12-01

    In this study, soy protein (SP), the residue of oil crushing, was used for preparation of value-added thermoplastics. Novel poly(lactic acid) (PLA)/soy protein concentrate (SPC) blends were investigated and foaming of the resulting blends was developed. PLA/SPC blends were prepared by twin-screw extrusion and test specimens by injection molding. Unlike the practice elsewhere SP was used as a filler in mixing with other polymers, SPC was processed as a plastic component in blending process in this work. Processing SPC as plastic component, water played an important role in terms of the deformability and the morphology of SP thus the properties of the blends. Plasticization of SP, compatibilization of the blends and structure-property relationship of the PLA/SPC blends were studied. In the literature water and glycerol were often used together in preparing SP plastics or plastic blends, but this study found that this traditional combination did not provide the best results in terms of morphology and mechanical properties. Water is only recommended in plasticizing SP in the blends. This study showed water as a plasticizer was a domain factor on control of morphology and properties of PLA/SPC blends. The due to the evaporation of water after extrusion, SP domain lost its deformability thus resulted in in-situ composites. Interconnected SPC phase structure was achieved by control water content in the pre-formulated SPC and SPC content in the blends. A novel dual compatibilization method was developed to improve the properties of PLA/SPC blends. Poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) was used to improve the dispersion of SPC in the blending stage, and polymeric methylene diphenyl diisocyanate was used to improve the interfacial adhesion between SPC and PLA in the subsequent processing. The result showed excellent mechanical properties and improved thermal properties of PLA/SPC blends. Using processing aids is an effective way to decrease processing temperature and thermal degradation

  13. Functional Properties and Amino Acid Profile of Spirulina Platensis Protein Isolates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, S.; Sharif, M. K.; Butt, M. S.; Shahid, M.

    2016-01-01

    Protein malnutrition and food insecurity represent serious obstructions to sustainable development, poverty reduction and food quality throughout the world. The present study has been designed to evaluate the Spirulina platensis (SP) as a protein alternative source for the utilization in food products. A protein isolate was prepared from S. platensis powder through extraction with 0.1N NaOH, precipitation at pH 3, neutralization of the dispersed precipitate to pH 6.8-7.0, and subsequent freeze drying. The S. platensis isolate amino acids compositions revealed that the total essential amino acids contribution was comparatively higher in SPI (31.16±1.43 g/100 g) as compared with SP (27.75±1.21 g/100 g). Moreover, oil and water absorption capacities, foaming and emulsifying properties, surface hydrophobicity and nitrogen solubility index were found better functional properties under laboratory conditions except emulsion properties. Conclusively, SP and its isolates might be used in various food products to curtail protein energy malnutrition. (author)

  14. Improved cellular response of ion modified poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) substrates for mouse fibroblast cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adhikari, Ananta Raj, E-mail: aa8381@gmail.com [Department of Sciences, Wentworth Institute of Technology, Boston MA 02115 (United States); Geranpayeh, Tanya [Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 (United States); Chu, Wei Kan [Texas Center for Superconductivity, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 (United States); Otteson, Deborah C. [Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 (United States); Department of Basic and Vision Sciences, College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 (United States)

    2016-03-01

    In this report, the effects of argon (Ar) ion irradiation on poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) substrates on biocompatibility were studied. PLGA scaffold substrates were prepared by spin coating glass surfaces with PLGA dissolved in anhydrous chloroform. Previously, we showed that surface modifications of PLGA films using ion irradiation modulate the inherent hydrophobicity of PLGA surface. Here we show that with increasing ion dose (1 × 10{sup 12} to 1 × 10{sup 14} ions/cm{sup 2}), hydrophobicity and surface roughness decreased. Biocompatibility for NIH3T3 mouse fibroblast cells was increased by argon irradiation of PLGA substrates. On unirradiated PLGA films, fibroblasts had a longer doubling time and cell densities were 52% lower than controls after 48 h in vitro. Argon irradiated PLGA substrates supported growth rates similar to control. Despite differences in cell cycle kinetics, there was no detectible cytotoxicity observed on any substrate. This demonstrates that argon ion irradiation can be used to tune the surface microstructure and generate substrates that are more compatible for the cell growth and proliferation. - Highlights: • Argon irradiation modifies surface chemistry and increases hydrophilicity of poly(lactic-glycolic) acid (PLGA) films. • Both native and irradiated PLGA films were not cytotoxic for mouse fibroblasts. • Fibroblast proliferation increased on PLGA substrates modified with higher doses of Argon irradiation. • Surface modification with Argon irradiation increases biocompatibility of PLGA films.

  15. Preparation, Cell Compatibility and Degradability of Collagen-Modified Poly(lactic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miaomiao Cui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly(lactic acid (PLA was modified using collagen through a grafting method to improve its biocompatibility and degradability. The carboxylic group at the open end of PLA was transferred into the reactive acylchlorided group by a reaction with phosphorus pentachloride. Then, collagen-modified PLA (collagen-PLA was prepared by the reaction between the reactive acylchlorided group and amino/hydroxyl groups on collagen. Subsequently, the structure of collagen-PLA was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled fluorescence spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and DSC analyses. Finally, some properties of collagen-PLA, such as hydrophilicity, cell compatibility and degradability were characterized. Results showed that collagen had been grafted onto the PLA with 5% graft ratio. Water contact angle and water absorption behavior tests indicated that the hydrophilicity of collagen-PLA was significantly higher than that of PLA. The cell compatibility of collagen-PLA with mouse embryonic fibroblasts (3T3 was also significantly better than PLA in terms of cell morphology and cell proliferation, and the degradability of PLA was also improved after introducing collagen. Results suggested that collagen-PLA was a promising candidate for biomedical applications.

  16. Preparation and characterization of composites based on poly(lactic acid) and CaCO{sub 3} nanofiller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, Janaína Fernandes; Silva, Ana Lúcia N. da, E-mail: janamoreno.quim@gmail.com, E-mail: ananazareth@ima.ufrj.br [Instituto de Macromoléculas Professora Eloisa Mano - IMA/UFRJ – Brasil, Rio de Janeiro – RJ (Brazil); Silva, Antonio Henrique Monteiro da Fonseca T. da, E-mail: antoniohmfts@id.uff.br [Departamento Agrícola e Meio Ambiente – UFF – Brasil, Niterói – RJ (Brazil); Sousa, Ana Maria F. de, E-mail: ana.furtado.souza@gmail.com [Instituto de Química da Universidade - IQ/UERJ – Brasil, Rio de Janeiro – RJ (Brazil)

    2015-05-22

    In recent years, extensive studies have been conducted on the study of the poly(lactic acid) (PLA) properties, because of its being a typical biobased and biodegradable polymer, with good mechanical properties. However, its toughness and gas barrier properties are not satisfactory and can be improved by the addition of nanofillers, such as calcium carbonate (n-CaCO{sub 3}). The present work PLA composites with nano-sized precipitated calcium carbonate (n-NPCC) were prepared by melt extrusion. Thermal, mechanical and flow properties of the composites were evaluated by using a factorial design.The results showed that the addition of the nanofiller in the PLA matrix didn’t improve thethermal and mechanical properties of the matrix significantly. This behavior is probably due to the presence of the stearic acid that is coating on the n-NPCC particles, resulting in a weak polymer-particle interaction. Beyond this, it was also observed a decrease in MFI of the composites when nanofiller was added and at a higher screw speed.

  17. Modelling of photodegradation effect on elastic-viscoplastic behaviour of amorphous polylactic acid films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belbachir, S.; Zaïri, F.; Ayoub, G.; Maschke, U.; Naït-Abdelaziz, M.; Gloaguen, J. M.; Benguediab, M.; Lefebvre, J. M.

    2010-02-01

    Polylactic acid (PLA) films were subjected to accelerated ultra-violet (UV) ageing. The UV irradiation leads to the alteration of the chemical structure which influences directly the mechanical response of the polymer. The chemical modification of the polymer was followed by gel permeation chromatography. Uniaxial tension tests were conducted at 50 °C and for different strain rates in order to characterize the large deformation response of PLA. The influence of UV irradiation on the alteration of the large deformation response of PLA was examined. A physically based elastic-viscoplastic model was used to describe the mechanical response of virgin PLA. The photodegradation effect was incorporated into the constitutive model to capture the stress-strain behaviour up to failure of aged PLA. To that end, the measured molecular weight was used as a direct input into the model. The model is shown to be in good agreement with experimental results over a wide range of UV irradiation doses.

  18. Development and characterization of sugar palm starch and poly(lactic acid) bilayer films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyang, M L; Sapuan, S M; Jawaid, M; Ishak, M R; Sahari, J

    2016-08-01

    The development and characterization of environmentally friendly bilayer films from sugar palm starch (SPS) and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) were conducted in this study. The SPS-PLA bilayer films and their individual components were characterized for their physical, mechanical, thermal and water barrier properties. Addition of 50% PLA layer onto 50% SPS layer (SPS50-PLA50) increased the tensile strength of neat SPS film from 7.74 to 13.65MPa but reduced their elongation at break from 46.66 to 15.53%. The incorporation of PLA layer significantly reduced the water vapor permeability as well as the water uptake and solubility of bilayer films which was attributed to the hydrophobic characteristic of the PLA layer. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image of SPS50-PLA50 revealed lack of strong interfacial adhesion between the SPS and PLA. Overall, the incorporation of PLA layer onto SPS films enhances the suitability of SPS based films for food packaging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Styrene-Assisted Maleic Anhydride Grafted Poly(lactic acid as an Effective Compatibilizer for Wood Flour/Poly(lactic acid Bio-Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Du

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of styrene-assisted maleic anhydride-grafted poly(lactic acid (PLA-g-St/MAH on the interfacial properties of wood flour/poly(lactic acid (PLA bio-composites. PLA-g-St/MAH was synthesized by free-radical melt grafting using styrene as a comonomer and dicumyl peroxide as an initiator. The structure of PLA-g-St/MAH was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Wood flour/PLA composites were prepared by compression molding using PLA-g-St/MAH as a compatibilizer. The effects of PLA-g-St/MAH on the rheological and mechanical properties, as well as on the fractured surface morphology of the composites were investigated. Results indicated that storage modulus, complex viscosity, equilibrium torque, and shear heat were significantly increased. The mechanical properties of the wood flour/PLA composites were also significantly increased after the addition of PLA-g-St/MAH. The maximum values were achieved at the loading rate of 3 wt % because of the improved interfacial adhesion between the wood flour and the PLA matrix.

  20. The effect of fiber bleaching treatment on the properties of poly(lactic acid)/oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayung, Marwah; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa; Zainuddin, Norhazlin; Saad, Wan Zuhainis; Razak, Nur Inani Abdul; Chieng, Buong Woei

    2014-08-22

    In this work, biodegradable composites from poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fiber were prepared by melt blending method. Prior to mixing, the fiber was modified through bleaching treatment using hydrogen peroxide. Bleached fiber composite showed an improvement in mechanical properties as compared to untreated fiber composite due to the enhanced fiber/matrix interfacial adhesion. Interestingly, fiber bleaching treatment also improved the physical appearance of the composite. The study was extended by blending the composites with commercially available masterbatch colorant.

  1. Poly(lactic acid (PLA Based Tear Resistant and Biodegradable Flexible Films by Blown Film Extrusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Mallegni

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly(lactic acid (PLA was melt mixed in a laboratory extruder with poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate (PBAT and poly(butylene succinate (PBS in the presence of polypropylene glycol di glycidyl ether (EJ400 that acted as both plasticizer and compatibilizer. The process was then scaled up in a semi-industrial extruder preparing pellets having different content of a nucleating agent (LAK. All of the formulations could be processed by blowing extrusion and the obtained films showed mechanical properties dependent on the LAK content. In particular the tearing strength showed a maximum like trend in the investigated composition range. The films prepared with both kinds of blends showed a tensile strength in the range 12–24 MPa, an elongation at break in the range 150–260% and a significant crystallinity.

  2. A new approach in compatibilization of the poly(lactic acid)/thermoplastic starch (PLA/TPS) blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akrami, Marzieh; Ghasemi, Ismaeil; Azizi, Hamed; Karrabi, Mohammad; Seyedabadi, Mohammad

    2016-06-25

    In this study, a new compatibilizer was synthesized to improve the compatibility of the poly(lactic acid)/thermoplastic starch blends. The compatibilizer was based on maleic anhydride grafted polyethylene glycol grafted starch (mPEG-g-St), and was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) and back titration techniques. The results indicated successful accomplishment of the designed reactions and formation of a starch cored structure with many connections to m-PEG chains. To assess the performance of synthesized compatibilizer, several PLA/TPS blends were prepared using an internal mixer. Consequently, their morphology, dynamic-mechanical behavior, crystallization and mechanical properties were studied. The compatibilizer enhanced interfacial adhesion, possibly due to interaction between free end carboxylic acid groups of compatibilizer and active groups of TPS and PLA phases. In addition, biodegradability of the samples was evaluated by various methods consisting of weight loss, FTIR-ATR analysis and morphology. The results revealed no considerable effect of compatibilizer on biodegradability of samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization and properties of acetylated nanocrystalline cellulose (aNC) reinforced polylactic acid (PLA) polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasa, Siti Norbaya; Omar, Mohd Firdaus; Ismail, Ismarul Nizam

    2017-12-01

    Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) was synthesized from banana stem through strong acid hydrolysis with measured length of approximately 287.0 ± 56.4 nm and diameter of 26.6 ± 4.8 nm. Modification of NCC was carried by acetylation reaction in order to increase the compatibility during reinforcement with polylactic acid (PLA) polymer. The reinforcing effect towards morphology, crystallinity, mechanical and thermal properties of bio-nanocomposites was investigated. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) micrograph reveals the uniform dispersion achieved at 1 %, 3 % and 5% aNC loading while agglomeration was found at 7 % aNC loading. Disappearance of crystallinity peak at 2θ = 22.7⁰ for low aNC loading during elemental analysis using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) indicates the proper dispersion of aNC in PLA polymer. From the tensile test, 1 % aNC loading gives the highest mechanical properties of bio-nanocomposite film with 82.71 %, 118.7 % and 24.18 % increment in tensile strength, tensile modulus and elongation at break. However, 7 % aNC loading gives the highest increment in TGA of aNC-PLA nanocomposites which is from 310 °C to 320 °C.

  4. Bio-safe processing of polylactic-co-caprolactone and polylactic acid blends to fabricate fibrous porous scaffolds for in vitro mesenchymal stem cells adhesion and proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salerno, Aurelio, E-mail: asalerno@unina.it [Centre for Advanced Biomaterials for Health Care, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Largo Barsanti e Matteucci 53, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Institute of Materials Science of Barcelona (ICMAB-CSIC), Campus de la UAB s/n, Bellaterra 08193 (Spain); Guarino, Vincenzo; Oliviero, Olimpia; Ambrosio, Luigi [Institute of Polymers, Composites and Biomaterials, National Research Council of Italy, V.le Kennedy 54, Pad 20, Mostra d' Oltremare, 80125 Naples (Italy); Domingo, Concepción [Institute of Materials Science of Barcelona (ICMAB-CSIC), Campus de la UAB s/n, Bellaterra 08193 (Spain)

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the design and fabrication of porous scaffolds, made of blends of polylactic-co-caprolactone (PLC) and polylactic acid (PLA) polymers, for tissue engineering applications is reported. The scaffolds are prepared by means of a bio-safe thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) approach with or without the addition of NaCl particles used as particulate porogen. The scaffolds are characterized to assess their crystalline structure, morphology and mechanical properties, and the texture of the pores and the pore size distribution. Moreover, in vitro human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) culture tests have been carried out to demonstrate the biocompatibility of the scaffolds. The results of this study demonstrate that all of the scaffold materials processed by means of TIPS process are semi-crystalline. Furthermore, the blend composition affected polymer crystallization and, in turn, the nano and macro-structural properties of the scaffolds. Indeed, neat PLC and neat PLA crystallize into globular and randomly arranged sub micro-size scale fibrous conformations, respectively. Concomitantly, the addition of NaCl particles during the fabrication route allows for the creation of an interconnected network of large pores inside the primary structure while resulted in a significant decrease of scaffolds mechanical response. Finally, the results of cell culture tests demonstrate that both the micro and macro-structure of the scaffold affect the in vitro hMSCs adhesion and proliferation. - Highlights: • Porous scaffolds are prepared by polymer blending, phase separation and NaCl leaching. • The process avoids the use of toxic solvents. • Blend composition dictates polymer crystallization and scaffold properties. • Scaffolds are provided of a sub micro-scale fibers structure and interconnected macropores. • Stem cells adhesion and proliferation depend on scaffolds composition and structure.

  5. NPPD: A Protein-Protein Docking Scoring Function Based on Dyadic Differences in Networks of Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Amino Acid Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward S. C. Shih

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Protein-protein docking (PPD predictions usually rely on the use of a scoring function to rank docking models generated by exhaustive sampling. To rank good models higher than bad ones, a large number of scoring functions have been developed and evaluated, but the methods used for the computation of PPD predictions remain largely unsatisfactory. Here, we report a network-based PPD scoring function, the NPPD, in which the network consists of two types of network nodes, one for hydrophobic and the other for hydrophilic amino acid residues, and the nodes are connected when the residues they represent are within a certain contact distance. We showed that network parameters that compute dyadic interactions and those that compute heterophilic interactions of the amino acid networks thus constructed allowed NPPD to perform well in a benchmark evaluation of 115 PPD scoring functions, most of which, unlike NPPD, are based on some sort of protein-protein interaction energy. We also showed that NPPD was highly complementary to these energy-based scoring functions, suggesting that the combined use of conventional scoring functions and NPPD might significantly improve the accuracy of current PPD predictions.

  6. Protein Design Using Unnatural Amino Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgiçer, Basar; Kumar, Krishna

    2003-11-01

    With the increasing availability of whole organism genome sequences, understanding protein structure and function is of capital importance. Recent developments in the methodology of incorporation of unnatural amino acids into proteins allow the exploration of proteins at a very detailed level. Furthermore, de novo design of novel protein structures and function is feasible with unprecedented sophistication. Using examples from the literature, this article describes the available methods for unnatural amino acid incorporation and highlights some recent applications including the design of hyperstable protein folds.

  7. The Effect of Fiber Bleaching Treatment on the Properties of Poly(lactic acid/Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwah Rayung

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, biodegradable composites from poly(lactic acid (PLA and oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB fiber were prepared by melt blending method. Prior to mixing, the fiber was modified through bleaching treatment using hydrogen peroxide. Bleached fiber composite showed an improvement in mechanical properties as compared to untreated fiber composite due to the enhanced fiber/matrix interfacial adhesion. Interestingly, fiber bleaching treatment also improved the physical appearance of the composite. The study was extended by blending the composites with commercially available masterbatch colorant.

  8. Preparation and evaluation of 17-allyamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG)-loaded poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Roshan; Poudel, Bijay Kumar; Choi, Ju Yeon; Choi, Im Soon; Shin, Beom Soo; Choi, Han-Gon; Yong, Chul Soon; Kim, Jong Oh

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we developed the novel 17-allyamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG)-loaded poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) using the combination of sodium lauryl sulfate and poloxamer 407 as the anionic and non-ionic surfactant for stabilization. The PLGA NPs were prepared by emulsification/solvent evaporation method. Both the drug/polymer ratio and phase ratio were 1:10 (w/w). The optimized formulation of 17-AAG-loaded PLGA NPs had a particle size and polydispersity index of 151.6 ± 2.0 and 0.152 ± 0.010 nm, respectively, which was further supported by TEM image. The encapsulation efficiency and drug loading capacity were 69.9 and 7.0%, respectively. In vitro release study showed sustained release. When in vitro release data were fitted to Korsmeyer-Peppas model, the n value was 0.468, which suggested that the drug was released by anomalous or non-Fickian diffusion. In addition, 17-AAG-loaded PLGA NPs in 72 h, displayed approximately 60% cell viability reduction at 10 µg/ml 17-AAG concentration, in MCF-7 cell lines, indicating sustained release from NPs. Therefore, our results demonstrated that incorporation of 17-AAG into PLGA NPs could provide a novel effective nanocarrier for the treatment of cancer.

  9. Enhancement of the Mechanical Properties of a Polylactic Acid/Flax Fiber Biocomposite by WPU, WPU/Starch, and TPS Polyurethanes Using Coupling Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miskolczi, N.; Sedlarik, V.; Kucharczyk, P.; Riegel, E.

    2018-01-01

    This work is addressed to the synthesis of bio-based polymers and investigation of their application in a flax-fiber-reinforced polylactic acid. Polyurethane polymers were synthesized from polyphenyl-methane-diisocyanate, poly (ethylene oxide) glycol, and ricinoleic acid, and their structure was examined by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and differential scanning calorimetry. It was established that the introduction of flax fibers and different compatibilizers into the polymers improved their mechanical properties. A vinyl-trimetoxy-silane and polyalkenyl-polymaleic-anhydride derivative with a high acid number produced the best effect on the properties, but samples without additives had the highest water absorption capacity. SEM micrographs showed a good correlation between the morphology of fracture structure of the composites and the mechanical properties of flax fibers.

  10. Xanthurenic acid translocates proapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins into mitochondria and impairs mitochondrial function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hess Otto M

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Xanthurenic acid is an endogenous molecule produced by tryptophan degradation, produced in the cytoplasm and mitochondria. Its accumulation can be observed in aging-related diseases, e.g. senile cataract and infectious disease. We previously reported that xanthurenic acid provokes apoptosis, and now present a study of the response of mitochondria to xanthurenic acid. Results Xanthurenic acid at 10 or 20 μM in culture media of human aortic smooth muscle cells induces translocation of the proteins Bax, Bak, Bclxs, and Bad into mitochondria. In 20 μM xanthurenic acid, Bax is also translocated to the nucleus. In isolated mitochondria xanthurenic acid leads to Bax and Bclxs oligomerization, accumulation of Ca2+, and increased oxygen consumption. Conclusion Xanthurenic acid interacts directly with Bcl-2 family proteins, inducing mitochondrial pathways of apoptosis and impairing mitochondrial functions.

  11. Melt electrospinning of poly(lactic acid) and polycaprolactone microfibers by using a hand-operated Wimshurst generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Chong-Chong; Duan, Xiao-Peng; Wang, Le; Zhang, Li-Hua; Yu, Miao; Dong, Rui-Hua; Yan, Xu; He, Hong-Wei; Long, Yun-Ze

    2015-10-01

    A conventional melt electrospinning setup usually needs a large, heavy high-voltage power supply and cannot work without a plug (electricity supply). In this article, we report a new melt electrospinning setup based on a small hand-operated Wimshurst generator, which can avoid electrical interference between the high-voltage spinning system and the heating system, and make the setup very portable and safe. Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and polycaprolactone (PCL) fibers with diameters of 15-45 μm were fabricated successfully by using this apparatus. Experimental parameters such as the rotational speed of the generator handle (a half turn to two turns per second) and the spinning distance (2-14 cm) were investigated. In addition, PLA and PCL fibers were directly melt-electrospun onto a pork liver, and the temperature and adhesiveness of the deposited fibers were studied. The results indicate that the apparatus and melt-electrospun polymer microfibers may be used in dressing for wound healing.A conventional melt electrospinning setup usually needs a large, heavy high-voltage power supply and cannot work without a plug (electricity supply). In this article, we report a new melt electrospinning setup based on a small hand-operated Wimshurst generator, which can avoid electrical interference between the high-voltage spinning system and the heating system, and make the setup very portable and safe. Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and polycaprolactone (PCL) fibers with diameters of 15-45 μm were fabricated successfully by using this apparatus. Experimental parameters such as the rotational speed of the generator handle (a half turn to two turns per second) and the spinning distance (2-14 cm) were investigated. In addition, PLA and PCL fibers were directly melt-electrospun onto a pork liver, and the temperature and adhesiveness of the deposited fibers were studied. The results indicate that the apparatus and melt-electrospun polymer microfibers may be used in dressing for wound healing

  12. Optimization of a biomimetic poly-(lactic acid) ligament scaffold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehlin, Andrew F.

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is the most commonly injured ligament of the knee, often requiring orthopedic reconstruction using autograft or allograph tissue, both with significant disadvantages. As a result, tissue engineering an ACL replacement graft has been heavily investigated. The present study attempts to replicate the morphology and mechanical properties of the ACL using a nanomatrix composite of highly-aligned poly(lactic acid) (PLA) fibers with various surface and biochemical modifications. Additionally, this study attempts to recreate the natural mineralization gradient found at the ACL enthesis onto the scaffold, capable of inducing a favorable cellular response in vitro. Unidirectional electrospinning was used to create nanofibers of PLA, followed by an induced degradation of the nanofibers via 0.25M NaOH hydrolysis. The effects of the unidirectional electrospinning as well as the effects of NaOH hydrolysis on fiber alignment, fiber diameter, surface morphology, crystallinity, in vitro swelling, immobilization of fibrin, and mechanical properties were investigated, resulting in a modified morphology correlating to the microstructure of native ligament tissue with similar mechanical properties. Furthering the development of the PLA nanomatrix composite, a bioinkjet printer was used to immobilize nanoparticulate hydroxyapatite (HANP) on the surface of the scaffold. A series of 300pL droplets of HANP bioink were printed over a gradient pattern mimetic of (and spatially corresponding to) the mineralization gradient found over the microanatomy at the ACL enthesis. Proliferation and differentiation response of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in vitro was assessed on a variety of conditions and combinations of the PLA nanofiber scaffold surface modifications (inclusive and exclusive of HANP, fibrin, and various time dependent NaOH treatments). It was found that a combinatory effect of the HANP gradient with fibrin on 20 minute NaOH treated PLA

  13. Combination of Poly(lactic) Acid and Starch for Biodegradable Food Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Justine; González-Martínez, Chelo; Chiralt, Amparo

    2017-08-15

    The massive use of synthetic plastics, in particular in the food packaging area, has a great environmental impact, and alternative more ecologic materials are being required. Poly(lactic) acid (PLA) and starch have been extensively studied as potential replacements for non-degradable petrochemical polymers on the basis of their availability, adequate food contact properties and competitive cost. Nevertheless, both polymers exhibit some drawbacks for packaging uses and need to be adapted to the food packaging requirements. Starch, in particular, is very water sensitive and its film properties are heavily dependent on the moisture content, exhibiting relatively low mechanical resistance. PLA films are very brittle and offer low resistance to oxygen permeation. Their combination as blend or multilayer films could provide properties that are more adequate for packaging purposes on the basis of their complementary characteristics. The main characteristics of PLA and starch in terms of not only the barrier and mechanical properties of their films but also of their combinations, by using blending or multilayer strategies, have been analyzed, identifying components or processes that favor the polymer compatibility and the good performance of the combined materials. The properties of some blends/combinations have been discussed in comparison with those of pure polymer films.

  14. Poly(Lactic Acid) Filled with Cassava Starch-g-Soybean Oil Maleate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiangkitiwan, Nopparut; Srikulkit, Kawee

    2013-01-01

    Poly(lactic acid), PLA, is a biodegradable polymer, but its applications are limited by its high cost and relatively poorer properties when compared to petroleum-based plastics. The addition of starch powder into PLA is one of the most promising efforts because starch is an abundant and cheap biopolymer. However, the challenge is the major problem associated with poor interfacial adhesion between the hydrophilic starch granules and the hydrophobic PLA, leading to poorer mechanical properties. In this paper, soybean oil maleate (SOMA) was synthesized by grafting soybean oil with various weight percents of maleic anhydride (MA) using dicumyl peroxide (DCP) as an initiator. Then, SOMA was employed for the surface modifying of cassava starch powder, resulting in SOMA-g-STARCH. The obtained SOMA-g-STARCH was mixed with PLA in various weight ratios using twin-screw extruder, resulting in PLA/SOMA-g-STARCH. Finally, the obtained PLA/SOMA-g-STARCH composites were prepared by a compression molding machines. The compatibility, thermal properties, morphology properties, and mechanical properties were characterized and evaluated. The results showed that the compatibility, surface appearance, and mechanical properties at 90 : 10 and 80 : 20 ratios of PLA/SOMA-g-STARCH were the best. PMID:24307883

  15. Combination of Poly(lactic) Acid and Starch for Biodegradable Food Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Martínez, Chelo; Chiralt, Amparo

    2017-01-01

    The massive use of synthetic plastics, in particular in the food packaging area, has a great environmental impact, and alternative more ecologic materials are being required. Poly(lactic) acid (PLA) and starch have been extensively studied as potential replacements for non-degradable petrochemical polymers on the basis of their availability, adequate food contact properties and competitive cost. Nevertheless, both polymers exhibit some drawbacks for packaging uses and need to be adapted to the food packaging requirements. Starch, in particular, is very water sensitive and its film properties are heavily dependent on the moisture content, exhibiting relatively low mechanical resistance. PLA films are very brittle and offer low resistance to oxygen permeation. Their combination as blend or multilayer films could provide properties that are more adequate for packaging purposes on the basis of their complementary characteristics. The main characteristics of PLA and starch in terms of not only the barrier and mechanical properties of their films but also of their combinations, by using blending or multilayer strategies, have been analyzed, identifying components or processes that favor the polymer compatibility and the good performance of the combined materials. The properties of some blends/combinations have been discussed in comparison with those of pure polymer films. PMID:28809808

  16. Compostability assessment of nano-reinforced poly(lactic acid) films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaguer, M P; Aliaga, C; Fito, C; Hortal, M

    2016-02-01

    Nanomaterials can provide plastics with great advantages on mechanical and active properties (i.e. release and capture of specific substances). Therefore, packaging is expected to become one of the leading applications for these substances by 2020. There are some applications already in the market. Nevertheless, there is still some areas under development. A key issue to be analyzed is the end-of-life of these materials once they become waste, and specifically when nanomaterials are used in biodegradable products. The present study evaluated the disintegration, biodegradability, and ecotoxicity of poly(lactic acid) films reinforced with the three following nanomaterials: (1) montmorillonite modified with an ammonium quaternary salt, (2) calcium carbonate and (3) silicon dioxide. Results on disintegration showed that films completely disintegrated into visually indistinguishable residues after 6-7weeks of incubation in composting environment. Moreover, no differences were observed in the evolution of the bioresidue with respect to color, aspect, and odor in comparison with the control. It was also observed that nanomaterials did not significantly reduce the level of biodegradability of PLA (p>0.05). In fact, biodegradation was higher, without finding significant differences (p>0.05), in all the nano-reinforced samples with respect to PLA after 130days in composting (9.4% in PLA+Nano-SiO2; 34.0% in PLA+Clay1; 48.0% in PLA+Nano-CaCO3). Finally, no significant differences (p>0.05) in ecotoxicity in plants were observed as a result of the incorporation of nanoparticles in the PLA matrix. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Fabrication of high-performance poly(l-lactic acid)/lignin-graft-poly(d-lactic acid) stereocomplex films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Dai, Lin; Hu, Li-Qiu; Zhou, Wen-Qin; Si, Chuan-Ling

    2017-11-01

    The need for green renewable alternatives such as lignin to traditional fillers has driven recent interest in polylactic acid blend materials. Herein, lignin-graft-polylactic acid copolymers (LG-g-PDLA, LG-g-PDLLA, and LG-g-PLLA) have been synthesized via ring-opening polymerization of d-, dl-, and l-lactic acid. Then poly(l-lactic acid)/lignin-graft-polylactic acid (PLLA/LG-g-PDLA, /LG-g-PDLLA, and /LG-g-PLLA) complex films have been prepared. The results showed that, compared with LG-g-PDLA and LG-g-PLLA, a small amount of LG-g-PDLA addition could improve the crystallization rate, reduce the glass transition temperature and cold crystallization temperature of PLLA due to the stereocomplex crystallites. The thermal stability, tensile strength and strain of the stereocomplex films were also enhanced. Moreover, the PLLA/LG-g-PDLA films have good ultraviolet resistance and excellent biocompatibility. This study provides a green approach to design advanced polylactic acid-based blends with renewable natural resources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of Inorganic Fillers on the Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Poly(lactic acid).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingxun; Wang, Tongxin; Chow, Laurence C; Yang, Mingshu; Mitchell, James W

    Addition of filler to polylactic acid (PLA) may affect its crystallization behavior and mechanical properties. The effects of talc and hydroxyapatite (HA) on the thermal and mechanical properties of two types of PLA (one amorphous and one semicrystalline) have been investigated. The composites were prepared by melt blending followed by injection molding. The molecular weight, morphology, mechanical properties, and thermal properties have been characterized by gel permeation chromatography (GPC), scanning electron microscope (SEM), instron tensile tester, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). It was found that the melting blending led to homogeneous distribution of the inorganic filler within the PLA matrix but decreased the molecular weight of PLA. Regarding the filler, addition of talc increased the crystallinity of PLA, but HA decreased the crystallinity of PLA. The tensile strength of the composites depended on the crystallinity of PLA and the interfacial properties between PLA and the filler, but both talc and HA filler increased the toughness of PLA.

  19. Low molecular weight polylactic acid as a matrix for the delayed release of pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Wilkins, Richard M

    2005-05-18

    Low molecular weight polylactic acid (LMW PLA) was used as a matrix to formulate biodegradable matrix granules and films with bromacil using a melt process. The compatibility of the PLA with bromacil was evaluated. The release characteristics of the formulations were investigated in vitro. The degradation and erosion of the formulations were monitored by pH and gravimetric analysis during the course of release. Various granules and films had similar biphasic release patterns, a delayed release followed by an explosive release. The release rates were independent of bromacil content in the matrix, but varied with the geometry of matrices. The mechanisms of diffusion and erosion were involved in the release. The delayed release of the formulations was dominantly governed by the degradation and erosion of PLA. LMW PLA underwent bulk erosion. LMW PLA-based matrix formulations could thus be useful for the application of pesticides to sensitive targets such as seed treatment.

  20. Development of Poly(lactic acid)/Chitosan Fibers Loaded with Essential Oil for Antimicrobial Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaowen; Wang, Shuyao; Zhang, Rong; Lan, Wenting; Qin, Wen

    2017-01-01

    Cinnamon essential oil (CEO) was successfully encapsulated into chitosan (CS) nanoparticles at different loading amounts (1%, 1.5%, 2%, and 2.5% v/v) using oil-in-water (o/w) emulsion and ionic-gelation methods. In order to form active packaging, poly(lactic acid) (PLA) was used to fabricate PLA/CS-CEO composite fibers using a simple electrospinning method. The shape, size, zeta potential, and encapsulation efficacy of the CS-CEO nanoparticles were investigated. The composition, morphology, and release behavior of the composite fibers were investigated. PLA/CS-CEO-1.5 showed good stability and favorable sustained release of CEO, resulting in improved antimicrobial activity compared to the other blends. The PLA/CS-CEO fibers showed high long-term inactivation rates against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus due to the sustained release of CEO, indicating that the developed PLA/CS-CEO fibers have great potential for active food packaging applications. PMID:28737719

  1. Effects of Inorganic Fillers on the Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Poly(lactic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingxun Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Addition of filler to polylactic acid (PLA may affect its crystallization behavior and mechanical properties. The effects of talc and hydroxyapatite (HA on the thermal and mechanical properties of two types of PLA (one amorphous and one semicrystalline have been investigated. The composites were prepared by melt blending followed by injection molding. The molecular weight, morphology, mechanical properties, and thermal properties have been characterized by gel permeation chromatography (GPC, scanning electron microscope (SEM, instron tensile tester, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA. It was found that the melting blending led to homogeneous distribution of the inorganic filler within the PLA matrix but decreased the molecular weight of PLA. Regarding the filler, addition of talc increased the crystallinity of PLA, but HA decreased the crystallinity of PLA. The tensile strength of the composites depended on the crystallinity of PLA and the interfacial properties between PLA and the filler, but both talc and HA filler increased the toughness of PLA.

  2. Neuron attachment properties of carbon negative-ion implanted bioabsorbable polymer of poly-lactic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Hitoshi; Sato, Hiroko; Gotoh, Yasuhito; Ishikawa, Junzo

    2002-01-01

    Modification of a bioabsorbable polymer of poly-lactic acid (PLA) by negative carbon ion implantation was investigated with resect to radiation effects on surface physical properties and nerve-cell attachment properties. Carbon negative ions were implanted to PLA at energy of 5-30 keV with a dose of 10 14 -10 16 ions/cm 2 . Most C-implanted PLA samples showed contact angles near 80 deg. and almost same as that of unimplanted PLA, although a few samples at 5 keV and less 3x10 14 ions/cm 2 had contact angles larger than 90 deg. The attachment properties of nerve cells of PC-12h (rat adrenal phechromocytoma) in vitro were studied. PC-12h cells attached on the unimplanted region in C-implanted PLA samples at 5 and 10 keV. On the contrary, the nerve cells attached on only implanted region for the C-implanted PLA sample at 30 keV and 1x10 15 ions/cm 2

  3. Effect of Rhizopus oryzae Fermentation on Kenaf-Based Polylactic Acid’s Monomer

    OpenAIRE

    Nur Aimi Mohd Nasir; Mohd Adlan Mustafa Kamalbahrin; Nurhafizah Mohamad; Hazleen Anuar; Maizirwan Mel; and Rashidi Othman

    2011-01-01

    Kenaf biomass is the potential as raw materials used to produce polylactic acid's monomer which is lactic acid via fermentation by Rhizopus oryzae. Kenaf biomass' structure is complex due to its lignin and cellulose content. This matter had encouraged it to undergo pre- treatment process as the initial step before fermentation process can be done. In this paper, kenaf biomass was treated with dilute sulphuric acid (H2SO4) to hydrolyze the cellulose content in it as well as to convert the cell...

  4. Toughening of Poly(lactic acid and Thermoplastic Cassava Starch Reactive Blends Using Graphene Nanoplatelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anibal Bher

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly(lactic acid (PLA was reactively blended with thermoplastic cassava starch (TPCS and functionalized with commercial graphene (GRH nanoplatelets in a twin-screw extruder, and films were produced by cast-film extrusion. Reactive compatibilization between PLA and TPCS phases was reached by introducing maleic anhydride and a peroxide radical during the reactive blending extrusion process. Films with improved elongation at break and toughness for neat PLA and PLA-g-TPCS reactive blends were obtained by an addition of GRH nanoplatelets. Toughness of the PLA-g-TPCS-GRH was improved by ~900% and ~500% when compared to neat PLA and PLA-g-TPCS, respectively. Crack bridging was established as the primary mechanism responsible for the improvement in the mechanical properties of PLA and PLA-g-TPCS in the presence of the nanofiller due to the high aspect ratio of GRH. Scanning electron microscopy images showed a non-uniform distribution of GRH nanoplatelets in the matrix. Transmittance of the reactive blend films decreased due to the TPCS phase. Values obtained for the reactive blends showed ~20% transmittance. PLA-GRH and PLA-g-TPCS-GRH showed a reduction of the oxygen permeability coefficient with respect to PLA of around 35% and 50%, respectively. Thermal properties, molecular structure, surface roughness, XRD pattern, electrical resistivity, and color of the films were also evaluated. Biobased and compostable reactive blend films of PLA-g-TPCS compounded with GRH nanoplatelets could be suitable for food packaging and agricultural applications.

  5. Polymer Film-Based Screening and Isolation of Polylactic Acid (PLA)-Degrading Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Yeon; Kim, Changman; Moon, Jungheun; Heo, Jinhee; Jung, Sokhee P; Kim, Jung Rae

    2017-02-28

    Polylactic acid (PLA) has been highlighted as an alternative renewable polymer for the replacement of petroleum-based plastic materials, and is considered to be biodegradable. On the other hand, the biodegradation of PLA by terminal degraders, such as microorganisms, requires a lengthy period in the natural environment, and its mechanism is not completely understood. PLA biodegradation studies have been conducted using mainly undefined mixed cultures, but only a few bacterial strains have been isolated and examined. For further characterization of PLA biodegradation, in this study, the PLA-degrading bacteria from digester sludge were isolated and identified using a polymer film-based screening method. The enrichment of sludge on PLA granules was conducted with the serial transference of a subculture into fresh media for 40 days, and the attached biofilm was inoculated on a PLA film on an agar plate. 3D optical microscopy showed that the isolates physically degraded the PLA film due to bacterial degradation. 16S rRNA gene sequencing identified the microbial colonies to be Pseudomonas sp. MYK1 and Bacillus sp. MYK2. The two isolates exhibited significantly higher specific gas production rates from PLA biodegradation compared with that of the initial sludge inoculum.

  6. Mechanical, Thermal and Morphological Properties of Poly(lactic acid/Epoxidized Palm Olein Blend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazimah Abu Hassan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Poly(lactic acid (PLA is known to be a useful material in substituting the conventional petroleum-based polymer used in packaging, due to its biodegradability and high mechanical strength. Despite the excellent properties of PLA, low flexibility has limited the application of this material. Thus, epoxidized palm olein (EPO was incorporated into PLA at different loadings (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 wt% through the melt blending technique and the product was characterized. The addition of EPO resulted in a decrease in glass transition temperature and an increase of elongation-at-break, which indicates an increase in the PLA chain mobility. PLA/EPO blends also exhibited higher thermal stability than neat PLA. Further, the PLA/1 wt% EPO blend showed enhancement in the tensile, flexural and impact properties. This is due to improved interaction in the blend producing good compatible morphologies, which can be revealed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM analysis. Therefore, PLA can be efficiently plasticized by EPO and the feasibility of its use as flexible film for food packaging should be considered.

  7. Novel silver-based nanoclay as an antimicrobial in polylactic acid food packaging coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busolo, Maria A; Fernandez, Patricia; Ocio, Maria J; Lagaron, Jose M

    2010-11-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive performance study of polylactic acid (PLA) biocomposites, obtained by solvent casting, containing a novel silver-based antimicrobial layered silicate additive for use in active food packaging applications. The silver-based nanoclay showed strong antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative Salmonella spp. Despite the fact that no exfoliation of the silver-based nanoclay in PLA was observed, as suggested by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) experiments, the additive dispersed nicely throughout the PLA matrix to a nanoscale, yielding nanobiocomposites. The films were highly transparent with enhanced water barrier and strong biocidal properties. Silver migration from the films to a slightly acidified water medium, considered an aggressive food simulant, was measured by stripping voltammetry. Silver migration accelerated after 6 days of exposure. Nevertheless, the study suggests that migration levels of silver, within the specific migration levels referenced by the European Food Safety Agency (EFSA), exhibit antimicrobial activity, supporting the potential application of this biocidal additive in active food-packaging applications to improve food quality and safety.

  8. Natamycin based sol-gel antimicrobial coatings on polylactic acid films for food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantano, Claudia; Alfieri, Ilaria; Cavazza, Antonella; Corradini, Claudio; Lorenzi, Andrea; Zucchetto, Nicola; Montenero, Angelo

    2014-12-15

    In this work a comprehensive study on a new active packaging obtained by a hybrid organic-inorganic coating with antimicrobial properties was carried out. The packaging system based on polylactic acid was realised by sol-gel processing, employing tetraethoxysilane as a precursor of the inorganic phase and polyvinyl alcohol as the organic component, and incorporating natamycin as the active agent. Films with different organic-inorganic ratios (in a range between 1:19 and 1:4) were prepared, and the amount of antimycotic entrapped was found to be modulated by the sol composition, and was between 0.18 and 0.25mg/dm(2). FTIR microspectroscopic measurements were used to characterise the prepared coatings. The antifungal properties of the films were investigated against mould growth on the surface of commercial semi-soft cheese. The release of natamycin from the films to ethanol 50% (v/v) was studied by means of HPLC UV-DAD. The maximal level released was about 0.105 mg/dm(2), which is far below the value allowed by legislation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of lovastatin-loaded poly(lactic acid microspheres for sustained oral delivery: in vitro and ex vivo evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan QG

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Qigang Guan,1 Wei Chen,2 Xianming Hu2 1Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Pharmaceutical, Shenyang Institute of Pharmaceutical Industry, Shenyang, People’s Republic of China Background: A novel lovastatin (LVT-loaded poly(lactic acid microsphere suitable for oral administration was developed in this study, and in vitro and in vivo characteristics were evaluated. Methods: The designed microspheres were obtained by an improved emulsion-solvent evaporation method. The morphological examination, particle size, encapsulation ratio, drug loading, and in vitro release were characterized. Pharmacokinetics studies were used to show that microspheres possess more advantages than the conventional formulations. Results: By using the emulsion-solvent evaporation method, it was simple to prepare microspheres and easy to scale up production. The morphology of formed microspheres showed a spherical shape with a smooth surface, without any particle aggregation. Mean size of the microspheres was 2.65±0.69 µm; the encapsulation efficiency was 92.5%±3.6%, and drug loading was 16.7%±2.1%. In vitro release indicated that the LVT microspheres had a well-sustained release efficacy, and ex vivo studies showed that after LVT was loaded to microspheres, the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from zero to the last measurable plasma concentration point and the extrapolation to time infinity increased significantly, which represented 2.63-fold and 2.49-fold increases, respectively, compared to suspensions. The rate of ex vivo clearance was significantly reduced. Conclusion: This research proved that poly(lactic acid microspheres can significantly prolong the drug circulation time in vivo and can also significantly increase the relative bioavailability of the drug. Keywords: lovastatin, microspheres, PLA, in vitro release, pharmacokinetics 

  10. Novel multi-biotin grafted poly(lactic acid) and its self-assembling nanoparticles capable of binding to streptavidin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hao; Jiang, Weimin; Zhang, Yinxing; Liu, Ying; Wang, Bin; Yang, Li; Deng, Lihong; Singh, Gurinder K; Pan, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Targeted drug delivery requires novel biodegradable, specific binding systems with longer circulation time. The aim of this study was to prepare biotinylated poly(lactic acid) (PLA) nanoparticles (NPs) which can meet regular requirements as well conjugate more biotins in the polymer to provide better binding with streptavidin. A biotin-graft-PLA was synthesized based on previously published biodegradable poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-graft-PLA, with one polymer molecule containing three PEG molecules. Newly synthesized biotin-graft-PLA had three biotins per polymer molecule, higher than the previous biotinylated PLA (≤1 biotin per polymer molecule). A PEG with a much lower molecular weight (MW ~1900) than the previous biotinylated PLA (PEG MW ≥ 3800), and thus more biocompatible, was used which supplied good nonspecific protein-resistant property compatible to PEG-graft-PLA, suggesting its possible longer stay in the bloodstream. Biotin-graft-PLA specifically bound to streptavidin and self-assembled into NPs, during which naproxen, a model small molecule (MW 230 Da) and hydrophobic drug, was encapsulated (encapsulation efficiency 51.88%). The naproxen-loaded NPs with particle size and zeta potential of 175 nm and −27.35 mV realized controlled release within 170 hours, comparable to previous studies. The biotin-graft-PLA NPs adhered approximately two-fold more on streptavidin film and on biotin film via a streptavidin arm both in static and dynamic conditions compared with PEG-graft-PLA NPs, the proven nonspecific protein-resistant NPs. The specific binding of biotin-graft-PLA NPs with streptavidin and with biotin using streptavidin arm, as well as its entrapment and controlled release for naproxen, suggest potential applications in targeted drug delivery. PMID:22334778

  11. Crystallization kinetics of poly-(lactic acid) with and without talc: Optical microscopy and calorimetric analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refaa, Z.; Boutaous, M.; Rousset, F.; Fulchiron, R.; Zinet, M.; Xin, S.; Bourgin, P.

    2014-05-01

    Poly-(lactic acid) or PLA is a biodegradable polymer synthesized from renewable resources. Recently, the discovery of new polymerization routes has allowed increasing the produced volumes. As a consequence, PLA is becoming of great interest for reducing the dependence on petroleum-based plastics. Because of its interesting mechanical properties, PLA is seen as a potential substitute for some usual polymers. However, its relatively slow crystallization kinetics can be a disadvantage with regard to industrial applications. The crystallization kinetics of PLA can be enhanced by adding nucleating agents, which also influences on crystalline morphology and rheological behavior. In the present work, the isothermal quiescent crystallization kinetics of both neat PLA and PLA/talc composite (5 wt% talc) are investigated. The effects of talc on the overall crystallization kinetics and on the crystalline morphology are analyzed using both optical microscopy measurements and thermal analysis by differential scanning calorimetry.

  12. Chopped basalt fibres: A new perspective in reinforcing poly(lactic acid to produce injection moulded engineering composites from renewable and natural resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tamas

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the reinforcing of Poly(lactic acid with chopped basalt fibres by using silane treated and untreated basalt fibres. Composite materials with 5–10–15–20–30–40 wt% basalt fibre contents were prepared from silane sized basalt fibres using extrusion, and injection moulding, while composites with 5–10–15 wt% basalt fibre contents were also prepared by using untreated basalt fibres as control. The properties of the injection moulded composites were extensively examined by using quasi-static (tensile, three-point bending and dynamic mechanical tests (notched and unnotched Charpy impact tests, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, heat deflection temperature (HDT analysis, dimensional stability test, as well as melt flow index (MFI analysis and scanning electron microscopic (SEM observations. It was found that silane treated chopped basalt fibres are much more effective in reinforcing Poly(lactic acid than natural fibres; although basalt fibres are not biodegradable but they are still considered as natural (can be found in nature in the form of volcanic rocks and biologically inert. It is demonstrated in this paper that by using basalt fibre reinforcement, a renewable and natural resource based composite can be produced by injection moulding with excellent mechanical properties suitable even for engineering applications. Finally it was shown that by using adequate drying of the materials, composites with higher mechanical properties can be achieved compared to literature data.

  13. Phosphate functionalized and lactic acid containing graft copolymer: synthesis and evaluation as biomaterial for bone tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Pallab; Chatterjee, Jyotirmoy; Dhara, Santanu

    2013-01-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and polylactic acids (PLA) are biocompatible materials possessing some inherent contrasting limitations which have reduced the scope of their individual applicability. Specifically, overcoming strong hydrophobicity and introducing chemical groups for biofunctionalization are unmet challenges for PLA whilst chemical endeavors to render adequate aqueous stability and cell adhesion properties to PVA have not produced completely intended results. Objective of the present work is to explore synthesis of a graft polymer as an approach towards coupling biofunctional groups with PLA materials. In a two-step reaction, PPVA (phosphorylated polyvinyl alcohol or PVA pre-functionalized with phosphate) is esterified with lactic acid followed by polymerization into PLA in presence of stannous chloride as catalyst to obtain phosphorylated polyvinyl alcohol-graft-polylactic acid (PPVA-g-LA) copolymer. Product is characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance, X-ray diffraction, and thermogravimetric analysis. PPVA-g-LA shows an increase in uniaxial elongation compared to parent PPVA under condition of tensile loading. The graft copolymer also exhibits higher water contact angles compared to PPVA, but a more hydrophilic surface compared to PLA. Culture of MG-63 cells on solvent cast films of polymers demonstrates that PPVA-g-LA as a cell substrate can significantly (p acid-based biomaterials with subsequent improvement in cell response on the polymers. In this attempt, it also affords materials with tunable surface or bulk properties of relevance for tissue engineering applications.

  14. Amino acid metabolism conflicts with protein diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Krick, Teresa; Shub, David A.; Verstraete, Nina; Ferreiro, Diego U.; Alonso, Leonardo G.; Shub, Michael; Sanchez, Ignacio E.

    2014-01-01

    The 20 protein-coding amino acids are found in proteomes with different relative abundances. The most abundant amino acid, leucine, is nearly an order of magnitude more prevalent than the least abundant amino acid, cysteine. Amino acid metabolic costs differ similarly, constraining their incorporation into proteins. On the other hand, a diverse set of protein sequences is necessary to build functional proteomes. Here, we present a simple model for a cost-diversity trade-off postulating that n...

  15. Biodegradable multilayer barrier films based on alginate/polyethyleneimine and biaxially oriented poly(lactic acid).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Chun-Hong; Wang, Jia-Jun; Yu, Yang; Sun, Hui; Shuai, Ning; Wei, Bing

    2013-02-15

    A layer-by-layer (LBL) approach was used to assemble alternating layers of sodium alginate (ALG)/polyethyleneimine (PEI) on biaxially oriented poly(lactic acid) (BOPLA) films in order to produce bio-based all-polymer thin films with low gas permeability. Increasing the depositing of ALG and PEI from 0 to 30 layers results in large thickness variations (from 0 to 3.92 μm). After 30 ALG/PEI layers are deposited, the resulting assembly has an OTR of 1.22 cm(3)/(m(2) day atm). When multiplied by thickness, the resulting oxygen permeability (OP) is found to be less than 3.8×10(-17) cm(3) cm/cm(2) s Pa, which is almost 3 orders of magnitude lower than that of uncoated BOPLA film (1.8×10(-14) cm(3)cm/cm(2) s Pa). At the same time, the resulting multilayer-coated BOPLA films maintain high optical clarity and tensile properties. This unique barrier thin film has become a promising alternative to non-biodegradable synthetic food packaging materials. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cellular reactions to three-dimensional matrices of polylactic acid and hydroxyapatite generated by 3D-printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Druzhinina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to estimate Ex vivo physicochemical and biological features of three-dimensional (3D biodegradable matrices “polylactic acid/calcium phosphates” (hereafter 3D composites designed with the help of additive technologies (3D printing as potential materials for bone tissue regeneration.Materials and methods. Experimental samples (disks 1,2–1,6 mm thick, and 11 mm or 8 mm in diameter of composite biodegradable 3D matrices (hereafter 3D composites have been produced from initial mixture of 95 mas% polylactic acid (PLA and 5 mas% hydroxyapatite (HAP. Computer-aided design method, Blender software and fused filament fabrication (FFF; fiber diameter 1,75 mm with 3D printing were used in sample production. 100 mas% PLA disks served as control. One of the sample surfaces was textured with 0,3–0,5 mm wide grooves. Physicochemical properties of 11 mm disks (geometry, mass, morphology, roughness, electrostatic voltage, surface wettability, and element composition were studied. Biological trials included the evaluation of 24-hour cytotoxicity of 8 mm samples in culture of mononuclear leukocytes of a healthy volunteer or human Jurkat T cell leukemia-derived cell line (hereafter Jurkat T cells. Moreover, osteogenic potential of 11 mm disks was determined in 21-day culture of human adipose-derived multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (AMMSCs be means of osteocalcin secretion and intercellular matrix mineralization visualized by alizarin red S staining.Results. The features of PLA-HAP 3D composites generated by 3D printing correspond to physicochemical parameters which are crucial for bone tissue recovery. In case of small amount of calcium and phosphorus they facilitated ex vivo mineralization of extracellular matrix formed in AMMSCs culture. The number of died (by necrosis, mainly leukemic Jurkat T cells but not mononuclear leukocytes of a health volunteer increased to 9–10% in 24-hour in vitro contact with PLA-HAP 3D

  17. Epoxidized Vegetable Oils Plasticized Poly(lactic acid Biocomposites: Mechanical, Thermal and Morphology Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buong Woei Chieng

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Plasticized poly(lactic acid PLA with epoxidized vegetable oils (EVO were prepared using a melt blending method to improve the ductility of PLA. The plasticization of the PLA with EVO lowers the Tg as well as cold-crystallization temperature. The tensile properties demonstrated that the addition of EVO to PLA led to an increase of elongation at break, but a decrease of tensile modulus. Plasticized PLA showed improvement in the elongation at break by 2058% and 4060% with the addition of 5 wt % epoxidized palm oil (EPO and mixture of epoxidized palm oil and soybean oil (EPSO, respectively. An increase in the tensile strength was also observed in the plasticized PLA with 1 wt % EPO and EPSO. The use of EVO increases the mobility of the polymeric chains, thereby improving the flexibility and plastic deformation of PLA. The SEM micrograph of the plasticized PLA showed good compatible morphologies without voids resulting from good interfacial adhesion between PLA and EVO. Based on the results of this study, EVO may be used as an environmentally friendly plasticizer that can improve the overall properties of PLA.

  18. Influence of different sterilization processes on the properties of commercial poly(lactic acid)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savaris, M.; Santos, V. dos; Brandalise, R.N.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at analyzing the modifications in the morphological, physical, chemical and thermal properties of commercial poly(lactic acid) (PLA) films after exposure to five different sterilization processes. Films were obtained by compression molding, hygienized and sterilized by ethylene oxide (SEtO), hydrogen peroxide plasma (SH 2 O 2 ), saturated steam (SSS), electron beam radiation (SEB) and gamma radiation (SGR). The samples of PLA SEtO , PLA SH2O2 , PLA SEB and PLA SGR exhibited thermal and physical changes after being submitted to sterilization processes. PLA SSS showed morphological, chemical, thermal and physical changes. It is concluded that processes by SEtO, SH 2 O 2 , SEB and EGR can be applied for the sterilization of PLA films and the SSS process is not recommended in view of the data obtained and test conditions reported in this study for PLA films. - Highlights: • PLA was subjected to five different sterilization process. • All sterilization processes do not changed the hydrophilicity of PLA. • Morphological, chemical, physical and thermal changes were observed for the PLA SSS . • The sterilization by saturated steam is not recommended to sterilize PLA.

  19. Effects of Acids, Bases, and Heteroatoms on Proximal Radial Distribution Functions for Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Bao Linh; Pettitt, B Montgomery

    2015-04-14

    The proximal distribution of water around proteins is a convenient method of quantifying solvation. We consider the effect of charged and sulfur-containing amino acid side-chain atoms on the proximal radial distribution function (pRDF) of water molecules around proteins using side-chain analogs. The pRDF represents the relative probability of finding any solvent molecule at a distance from the closest or surface perpendicular protein atom. We consider the near-neighbor distribution. Previously, pRDFs were shown to be universal descriptors of the water molecules around C, N, and O atom types across hundreds of globular proteins. Using averaged pRDFs, a solvent density around any globular protein can be reconstructed with controllable relative error. Solvent reconstruction using the additional information from charged amino acid side-chain atom types from both small models and protein averages reveals the effects of surface charge distribution on solvent density and improves the reconstruction errors relative to simulation. Solvent density reconstructions from the small-molecule models are as effective and less computationally demanding than reconstructions from full macromolecular models in reproducing preferred hydration sites and solvent density fluctuations.

  20. Impacts of aeration management and polylactic acid addition on dissolved organic matter characteristics in intensified aquaponic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haiming; Zou, Yina; Lv, Jialong; Hu, Zhen

    2018-08-01

    Aquaponics as a potential alternative for conventional aquaculture industry has increasingly attracted worldwide attention in recent years. However, the sustainable application of aquaponics is facing a growing challenge. In particular, there is a pressing need to better understand and control the accumulation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in aquaponics with the aim of optimizing nitrogen utilization efficiency. This study was aiming for assessing the characteristics of DOM in the culture water and the relationship with the nitrogen transformations in different intensified aquaponic systems with hydroponic aeration supplement and polylactic acid (PLA) addition. Two enhancing attempts altered the quantity of DOM in aquaponic systems significantly with a varying DOM content of 21.98-45.65 mg/L. The DOM could be represented by four identified fluorescence components including three humic -like materials (83-86%) and one tryptophan-like substance (14-17%). The fluorescence intensities of humic acid-like components were decreased significantly after the application of intensifying strategies, which indicating that two enhancing attempts possibly affected humic acid-like fluorescence. Variation of optical indices also suggested the reductions of water DOM which could be impacted by the enhancing nitrogen treatment processes. These findings will benefit the potential applications and sustainable operation of these strategies in aquaponics. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Bamboo-Polylactic Acid (PLA) Composite Material for Structural Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozo Morales, Angel; Güemes, Alfredo; Fernandez-Lopez, Antonio; Carcelen Valero, Veronica; De La Rosa Llano, Sonia

    2017-11-09

    Developing an eco-friendly industry based on green materials, sustainable technologies, and optimum processes with low environmental impact is a general societal goal, but this remains a considerable challenge to achieve. Despite the large number of research on green structural composites, limited investigation into the most appropriate manufacturing methodology to develop a structural material at industrial level has taken place. Laboratory panels have been manufactured with different natural fibers but the methodologies and values obtained could not be extrapolated at industrial level. Bamboo industry panels have increased in the secondary structural sector such as building application, flooring and sport device, because it is one of the cheapest raw materials. At industrial level, the panels are manufactured with only the inner and intermediate region of the bamboo culm. However, it has been found that the mechanical properties of the external shells of bamboo culm are much better than the average cross-sectional properties. Thin strips of bamboo (1.5 mm thick and 1500 mm long) were machined and arranged with the desired lay-up and shape to obtain laminates with specific properties better than those of conventional E-Glass/Epoxy laminates in terms of both strength and stiffness. The strips of bamboo were bonded together by a natural thermoplastic polylactic acid (PLA) matrix to meet biodegradability requirements. The innovative mechanical extraction process developed in this study can extract natural strip reinforcements with high performance, low cost, and high rate, with no negative environmental impact, as no chemical treatments are used. The process can be performed at the industrial level. Furthermore, in order to validate the structural applications of the composite, the mechanical properties were analyzed under ageing conditions. This material could satisfy the requirements for adequate mechanical properties and life cycle costs at industrial sectors such

  2. Bamboo–Polylactic Acid (PLA Composite Material for Structural Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Pozo Morales

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Developing an eco-friendly industry based on green materials, sustainable technologies, and optimum processes with low environmental impact is a general societal goal, but this remains a considerable challenge to achieve. Despite the large number of research on green structural composites, limited investigation into the most appropriate manufacturing methodology to develop a structural material at industrial level has taken place. Laboratory panels have been manufactured with different natural fibers but the methodologies and values obtained could not be extrapolated at industrial level. Bamboo industry panels have increased in the secondary structural sector such as building application, flooring and sport device, because it is one of the cheapest raw materials. At industrial level, the panels are manufactured with only the inner and intermediate region of the bamboo culm. However, it has been found that the mechanical properties of the external shells of bamboo culm are much better than the average cross-sectional properties. Thin strips of bamboo (1.5 mm thick and 1500 mm long were machined and arranged with the desired lay-up and shape to obtain laminates with specific properties better than those of conventional E-Glass/Epoxy laminates in terms of both strength and stiffness. The strips of bamboo were bonded together by a natural thermoplastic polylactic acid (PLA matrix to meet biodegradability requirements. The innovative mechanical extraction process developed in this study can extract natural strip reinforcements with high performance, low cost, and high rate, with no negative environmental impact, as no chemical treatments are used. The process can be performed at the industrial level. Furthermore, in order to validate the structural applications of the composite, the mechanical properties were analyzed under ageing conditions. This material could satisfy the requirements for adequate mechanical properties and life cycle costs at

  3. Bamboo–Polylactic Acid (PLA) Composite Material for Structural Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozo Morales, Angel; Güemes, Alfredo; Fernandez-Lopez, Antonio; Carcelen Valero, Veronica; De La Rosa Llano, Sonia

    2017-01-01

    Developing an eco-friendly industry based on green materials, sustainable technologies, and optimum processes with low environmental impact is a general societal goal, but this remains a considerable challenge to achieve. Despite the large number of research on green structural composites, limited investigation into the most appropriate manufacturing methodology to develop a structural material at industrial level has taken place. Laboratory panels have been manufactured with different natural fibers but the methodologies and values obtained could not be extrapolated at industrial level. Bamboo industry panels have increased in the secondary structural sector such as building application, flooring and sport device, because it is one of the cheapest raw materials. At industrial level, the panels are manufactured with only the inner and intermediate region of the bamboo culm. However, it has been found that the mechanical properties of the external shells of bamboo culm are much better than the average cross-sectional properties. Thin strips of bamboo (1.5 mm thick and 1500 mm long) were machined and arranged with the desired lay-up and shape to obtain laminates with specific properties better than those of conventional E-Glass/Epoxy laminates in terms of both strength and stiffness. The strips of bamboo were bonded together by a natural thermoplastic polylactic acid (PLA) matrix to meet biodegradability requirements. The innovative mechanical extraction process developed in this study can extract natural strip reinforcements with high performance, low cost, and high rate, with no negative environmental impact, as no chemical treatments are used. The process can be performed at the industrial level. Furthermore, in order to validate the structural applications of the composite, the mechanical properties were analyzed under ageing conditions. This material could satisfy the requirements for adequate mechanical properties and life cycle costs at industrial sectors such

  4. Poly(lactic acid)-Based in Situ Microfibrillar Composites with Enhanced Crystallization Kinetics, Mechanical Properties, Rheological Behavior, and Foaming Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakroodi, Adel Ramezani; Kazemi, Yasamin; Ding, WeiDan; Ameli, Aboutaleb; Park, Chul B

    2015-12-14

    Melt blending is one of the most promising techniques for eliminating poly(lactic acid)'s (PLA) numerous drawbacks. However, success in a typical melt blending process is usually achieved through the inclusion of high concentrations of a second polymeric phase which can compromise PLA's green nature. In a pioneering study, we introduce the production of in situ microfibrillar PLA/polyamide-6 (PA6) blends as a cost-effective and efficient technique for improving PLA's properties while minimizing the required PA6 content. Predominantly biobased products, with only 3 wt % of in situ generated PA6 microfibrils (diameter ≈200 nm), were shown to have dramatically improved crystallization kinetics, mechanical properties, melt elasticity and strength, and foaming-ability compared with PLA. Crucially, the microfibrillar blends were produced using an environmentally friendly and cost-effective process. Both of these qualities are essential in guarantying the viability of the proposed technique for overcoming the obstacles associated with the vast commercialization of PLA.

  5. Reducing Water Vapor Permeability of Poly(lactic acid Film and Bottle through Layer-by-Layer Deposition of Green-Processed Cellulose Nanocrystals and Chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Halász

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Layer-by-layer electrostatic self-assembly technique was applied to improve the barrier properties of poly(lactic acid (PLA films and bottles. The LbL process was carried out by the alternate adsorption of chitosan (CH (polycation and cellulose nanocrystals (CNC produced via ultrasonic treatment. Four bilayers (on each side of chitosan and cellulose nanocrystals caused 29 and 26% improvement in barrier properties in case of films and bottles, respectively. According to the results the LbL process with CH and CNC offered a transparent “green” barrier coating on PLA substrates.

  6. Poly(Dopamine-Assisted Immobilization of Xu Duan on 3D Printed Poly(Lactic Acid Scaffolds to Up-Regulate Osteogenic and Angiogenic Markers of Bone Marrow Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hung Yeh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional printing is a versatile technique to generate large quantities of a wide variety of shapes and sizes of polymer. The aim of this study is to develop functionalized 3D printed poly(lactic acid (PLA scaffolds and use a mussel-inspired surface coating and Xu Duan (XD immobilization to regulate cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of human bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs. We prepared PLA scaffolds and coated with polydopamine (PDA. The chemical composition and surface properties of PLA/PDA/XD were characterized by XPS. PLA/PDA/XD controlled hBMSCs’ responses in several ways. Firstly, adhesion and proliferation of hBMSCs cultured on PLA/PDA/XD were significantly enhanced relative to those on PLA. In addition, the focal adhesion kinase (FAK expression of cells was increased and promoted cell attachment depended on the XD content. In osteogenesis assay, the osteogenesis markers of hBMSCs cultured on PLA/PDA/XD were significantly higher than seen in those cultured on a pure PLA/PDA scaffolds. Moreover, hBMSCs cultured on PLA/PDA/XD showed up-regulation of the ang-1 and vWF proteins associated with angiogenic differentiation. Our results demonstrate that the bio-inspired coating synthetic PLA polymer can be used as a simple technique to render the surfaces of synthetic scaffolds active, thus enabling them to direct the specific responses of hBMSCs.

  7. Poly(Dopamine)-Assisted Immobilization of Xu Duan on 3D Printed Poly(Lactic Acid) Scaffolds to Up-Regulate Osteogenic and Angiogenic Markers of Bone Marrow Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chia-Hung; Chen, Yi-Wen; Shie, Ming-You; Fang, Hsin-Yuan

    2015-07-14

    Three-dimensional printing is a versatile technique to generate large quantities of a wide variety of shapes and sizes of polymer. The aim of this study is to develop functionalized 3D printed poly(lactic acid) (PLA) scaffolds and use a mussel-inspired surface coating and Xu Duan (XD) immobilization to regulate cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of human bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs). We prepared PLA scaffolds and coated with polydopamine (PDA). The chemical composition and surface properties of PLA/PDA/XD were characterized by XPS. PLA/PDA/XD controlled hBMSCs' responses in several ways. Firstly, adhesion and proliferation of hBMSCs cultured on PLA/PDA/XD were significantly enhanced relative to those on PLA. In addition, the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) expression of cells was increased and promoted cell attachment depended on the XD content. In osteogenesis assay, the osteogenesis markers of hBMSCs cultured on PLA/PDA/XD were significantly higher than seen in those cultured on a pure PLA/PDA scaffolds. Moreover, hBMSCs cultured on PLA/PDA/XD showed up-regulation of the ang-1 and vWF proteins associated with angiogenic differentiation. Our results demonstrate that the bio-inspired coating synthetic PLA polymer can be used as a simple technique to render the surfaces of synthetic scaffolds active, thus enabling them to direct the specific responses of hBMSCs.

  8. Functional structural motifs for protein-ligand, protein-protein, and protein-nucleic acid interactions and their connection to supersecondary structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinjo, Akira R; Nakamura, Haruki

    2013-01-01

    Protein functions are mediated by interactions between proteins and other molecules. One useful approach to analyze protein functions is to compare and classify the structures of interaction interfaces of proteins. Here, we describe the procedures for compiling a database of interface structures and efficiently comparing the interface structures. To do so requires a good understanding of the data structures of the Protein Data Bank (PDB). Therefore, we also provide a detailed account of the PDB exchange dictionary necessary for extracting data that are relevant for analyzing interaction interfaces and secondary structures. We identify recurring structural motifs by classifying similar interface structures, and we define a coarse-grained representation of supersecondary structures (SSS) which represents a sequence of two or three secondary structure elements including their relative orientations as a string of four to seven letters. By examining the correspondence between structural motifs and SSS strings, we show that no SSS string has particularly high propensity to be found interaction interfaces in general, indicating any SSS can be used as a binding interface. When individual structural motifs are examined, there are some SSS strings that have high propensity for particular groups of structural motifs. In addition, it is shown that while the SSS strings found in particular structural motifs for nonpolymer and protein interfaces are as abundant as in other structural motifs that belong to the same subunit, structural motifs for nucleic acid interfaces exhibit somewhat stronger preference for SSS strings. In regard to protein folds, many motif-specific SSS strings were found across many folds, suggesting that SSS may be a useful description to investigate the universality of ligand binding modes.

  9. Miscibility and in vitro osteocompatibility of biodegradable blends of poly[(ethyl alanato) (p-phenyl phenoxy) phosphazene] and poly(lactic acid-glycolic acid).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Meng; Nair, Lakshmi S; Nukavarapu, Syam P; Kumbar, Sangamesh G; Jiang, Tao; Krogman, Nicholas R; Singh, Anurima; Allcock, Harry R; Laurencin, Cato T

    2008-01-01

    Previously we demonstrated the ability of ethyl glycinato substituted polyphosphazenes to neutralize the acidic degradation products and control the degradation rate of poly(lactic acid-glycolic acid) (PLAGA) by blending. In this study, blends of high strength poly[(50% ethyl alanato) (50% p-phenyl phenoxy) phosphazene] (PNEA(50)PhPh(50)) and 85:15 PLAGA were prepared using a mutual solvent approach. Three different solvents, methylene chloride (MC), chloroform (CF) and tetrahydrofuran (THF) were studied to investigate solvent effects on blend miscibility. Three different blends were then fabricated at various weight ratios namely 25:75 (BLEND25), 50:50 (BLEND50), and 75:25 (BLEND75) using THF as the mutual solvent. The miscibility of the blends was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Among these, BLEND25 was miscible while BLEND50 and BLEND75 were partially miscible. Furthermore, BLEND25 formed apatite layers on its surface as evidenced in a biomimetic study performed. These novel blends showed cell adhesion and proliferation comparable to PLAGA. However, the PNEA(50)PhPh(50) component in the blends was able to increase the phenotypic expression and mineralized matrix synthesis of the primary rat osteoblasts (PRO) in vitro. Blends of high strength PNEA(50)PhPh(50) and 85:15 PLAGA are promising biomaterials for a variety of musculoskeletal applications.

  10. Monolithic calcium phosphate/poly(lactic acid) composite versus calcium phosphate-coated poly(lactic acid) for support of osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasebi Birgani, Zeinab; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A; Habibovic, Pamela

    2016-03-01

    Calcium phosphates (CaPs), extensively used synthetic bone graft substitutes, are often combined with other materials with the aim to overcome issues related to poor mechanical properties of most CaP ceramics. Thin ceramic coatings on metallic implants and polymer-ceramic composites are examples of such hybrid materials. Both the properties of the CaP used and the method of incorporation into a hybrid structure are determinant for the bioactivity of the final construct. In the present study, a monolithic composite comprising nano-sized CaP and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and a CaP-coated PLA were comparatively investigated for their ability to support proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs). Both, the PLA/CaP composite, produced using physical mixing and extrusion and CaP-coated PLA, resulting from a biomimetic coating process at near-physiological conditions, supported proliferation of hMSCs with highest rates at PLA/CaP composite. Enzymatic alkaline phosphatase activity as well as the mRNA expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2, osteopontin and osteocalcin were higher on the composite and coated polymer as compared to the PLA control, while no significant differences were observed between the two methods of combining CaP and PLA. The results of this study confirmed the importance of CaP in osteogenic differentiation while the exact properties and the method of incorporation into the hybrid material played a less prominent role.

  11. Influence of Maleic Anhydride/Glycidyl Methacrylate Cografted Polylactic Acid on Properties of Wood Flour/PLA Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DU Jun

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Graft copolymers of PLA-g-MAH, PLA-g-GMA and PLA-co-MAH/GMA were prepared by means of melt grafting. The structure of the graft copolymers were characterized by FTIR.Wood flour/PLA composites were prepared by injection molding with three kinds of graft copolymers as compatibilizers, and the fractured morphology of composites was investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM. Results show that there is no obvious phase interface between wood flour and PLA,which indicating the interfacial compatibility of wood flour/PLA composites is improved after adding different graft copolymers. The determination results of mechanical properties, processing flowability and dynamic rheological property of composites prepared with different graft copolymers reveal that, compared to the composite without compatibilizer, the tensile strength and impact strength of wood flour/PLA composites are increased by 9.54% and 7.23% respectively, and the equilibrium torque, shear heat, storage modulus and complex viscosity are all increased after adding maleic anhydride/glycidyl methacrylate cografted polylactic acid.

  12. Preparation and Characterization of an Olive Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) Skin Gelatin and Polylactic Acid Bilayer Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ka-Yeon; Song, Kyung Bin

    2017-03-01

    Olive flounder skin gelatin (OSG) was used as a film base material. A bilayer film of OSG and polylactic acid (PLA) was prepared using solvent casting method to enhance the film properties. Physical properties of the OSG-PLA film were increased compared with the nonaugmented OSG film. In particular, the PLA lamination decreased water vapor permeability from 2.17 to 0.92 × 10 -9 g·m/m 2 ·s·Pa, as well as of the water solubility from 16.62% to 9.27%, in the bilayer film relative to the OSG film. The oxygen permeability of the OSG-PLA bilayer film was held low by the OSG film, compensating for the high oxygen permeability of the PLA layer. Therefore, the OSG-PLA bilayer film with its enhanced physical properties and high water and oxygen barrier properties can be applied as a food packaging material. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  13. Recent insights into the biological functions of liver fatty acid binding protein 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, GuQi; Bonkovsky, Herbert L.; de Lemos, Andrew; Burczynski, Frank J.

    2015-01-01

    Over four decades have passed since liver fatty acid binding protein (FABP)1 was first isolated. There are few protein families for which most of the complete tertiary structures, binding properties, and tissue occurrences are described in such detail and yet new functions are being uncovered for this protein. FABP1 is known to be critical for fatty acid uptake and intracellular transport and also has an important role in regulating lipid metabolism and cellular signaling pathways. FABP1 is an important endogenous cytoprotectant, minimizing hepatocyte oxidative damage and interfering with ischemia-reperfusion and other hepatic injuries. The protein may be targeted for metabolic activation through the cross-talk among many transcriptional factors and their activating ligands. Deficiency or malfunction of FABP1 has been reported in several diseases. FABP1 also influences cell proliferation during liver regeneration and may be considered as a prognostic factor for hepatic surgery. FABP1 binds and modulates the action of many molecules such as fatty acids, heme, and other metalloporphyrins. The ability to bind heme is another cytoprotective property and one that deserves closer investigation. The role of FABP1 in substrate availability and in protection from oxidative stress suggests that FABP1 plays a pivotal role during intracellular bacterial/viral infections by reducing inflammation and the adverse effects of starvation (energy deficiency). PMID:26443794

  14. Modeling of hyaluronic acid containing anti-cancer drugs-loaded polylactic-co-glycolic acid bioconjugates for targeted delivery to cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul-e-Saba, Adulphakdee, A.; Madthing, A.; Zafar, M. N.; Abdullah, M. A.

    2012-09-01

    Molecular modeling of hyaluronan (HA), polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA), polyethylene glycol-bis-amine (PEG-bis-amine), Curcumin, Cisplatin and the conjugate HA-PEG-PLGA containing Curcumin/Cisplatin were performed using Discovery Studio 2.5 to better understand issues and constraints related to targeted delivery of potent anticancer drugs to cancer cells. HA, a versatile biopolymer is a ligand of cancer cell receptor, CD44 that can be particularly useful in a receptor-mediated cellular uptake of drug-incorporated nanoparticles. Biocompatible and biodegradable polymers, PLGA and PEG, serve as polymeric micelles for controlled-release of drug. Curcumin as a natural anticancer agent has poor solubility that limits its use in drug therapeutics, while platinum-based Cisplatin exhibits systemic cytotoxicity. These can be overcome via drug delivery in polymeric biocompatible vehicles. The PLGA-PEG-HA conjugate shows the total measurement of 105 bond length with average bond length of 1.274163 Å. The conjugation between PEG and HA occurs at C8-O1 atoms and can be manipulated to improve properties.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of poly(lactic acid)/ montmorillonite nanocomposites by in situ polycondensation catalyzed by non-metal-based compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewprapan, Kulwadee; Phattanarudee, Siriwan

    2012-01-01

    Poly(lactic acid)/montmorillonite nanocomposites were prepared by using non-toxic catalysts, i.e., phthalic acid and succinimide, via in situ polycondensation in presence of silicate. Concentrations of catalysts and clay were varied in a range of 0-3% wt and 0-0.5% wt, respectively. The reaction condition was controlled at 180 degrees C for 24 hr under a reduced pressure. Viscosity average molecular weight of the synthesized polymers and nanocomposites were characterized and compared using an Ubbelohde viscometer. Pattern of silicate distribution in the composites was investigated by X-ray diffraction to correlate with thermal properties evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis. The results showed that the addition of catalysts at 2% wt gave the highest product yield (55-60%). The presence of silicate affected on molecular weight reduction, and the diffracted patterns suggested an intercalated structure. With a small amount of added filler, a significant improvement in thermal property and crystallinity of the resultant composites was obtained compared to those of the catalyzed polymers, in which the composites with succinimide exhibited overall better thermal stability and higher crystallinity than the ones prepared with phthalic acid.

  16. Synthesis of Bio-Based Poly(lactic acid-co-10-hydroxy decanoate Copolymers with High Thermal Stability and Ductility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongjian Shi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Novel bio-based aliphatic copolyesters, poly(lactic acid-co-10-hydroxy decanoate (P(LA-co-HDA, PLH, were successfully synthesized from lactic acid (LA and 10-hydroxycapric acid (HDA by a thermal polycondensation process, in the presence of p-toluenesulfonic acid (p-TSA and SnCl2·2H2O as co-catalyst. The copolymer structure was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR. The weight average molecular weights (Mw of PLH, from gel permeation chromatography (GPC measurements, were controlled from 18,500 to 37,900 by changing the molar ratios of LA and HDA. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA results showed that PLH had excellent thermal stability, and the decomposition temperature at the maximum rate was above 280 °C. The glass transition temperature (Tg and melting temperature (Tm of PLH decreased continuously with increasing the HDA composition by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC measurements. PLH showed high ductility, and the breaking elongation increased significantly by the increment of the HDA composition. Moreover, the PLH copolymer could degrade in buffer solution. The cell adhesion results showed that PLH had good biocompatibility with NIH/3T3 cells. The bio-based PLH copolymers have potential applications as thermoplastics, elastomers or impact modifiers in the biomedical, industrial and agricultural fields.

  17. Biodegradable Poly(Lactic Acid/Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposite Fabrication Using Casting And Hot Press Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park S.G.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable advanced polymer composites have recently received a large amount of attention. The present study aimed to design poly(lactic acid multiwalled carbon nanotube nanocomposites (PLA/MWCNTs using a simple fabrication technique. A PLA sheet was first dissolved in dichloromethane, and MWCNTs were subsequently added at various concentrations (0.5, 1.5 and 5% while applying shear strain stirring to achieve dispersion of carbon nanotubes (CNTs. These solutions were then molded and a hot press was used to generate sheets free of voids with entrapped solvent. The prepared samples were characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, x-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. Our data showed composite samples free of defects and voids, indicating that the hot press is capable of generating sufficiently compact polymer matrices. Additionally, TGA and FTIR showed significant bonding interactions between the PLA matrix and the nano-fillers. Collectively, our results suggest that incorporation of CNTs as nano-fillers into biodegradable polymers may have multiple applications in many different sectors.

  18. Processing and Characterisation of the Copper Treated Polylactic Acid and Cotton Fabrics: Thermophysiological Comfort Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet UZUN

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to develop a novel copper treatment method and characterise the effect of treatment on the thermophysiological comfort properties of the treated fabrics. It is also aimed to analyse and evaluate the thermophysiological properties of the PLA fabrics. The study was conducted by using polylactic acid (PLA, cotton and their blend yarns. The knitted fabrics, single pique, were made from these yarns by using weft knitting machine. The fabrics were treated with two copper solution concentrations (5 % and 10 % at 20 minutes ultrasonic energy. The results show that the treatment has a critical effect on the tested fabrics in terms of thermal conductivity, thermal resistance, thermal absorbtivity, water vapour permeability, and heat loss. The results also clearly demonstrated that the PLA fabric was successfully treated with the copper solution, and the coated fabrics showed significant change as compared to their untreated counterparts in terms of tested parameters.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.1.1853

  19. Synthesis and Properties of Carbon Nanotube-Grafted Silica Nanoarchitecture-Reinforced Poly(Lactic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Wen Hsu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A novel nanoarchitecture-reinforced poly(lactic acid (PLA nanocomposite was prepared using multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT-grafted silica nanohybrids as reinforcements. MWCNT-grafted silica nanohybrids were synthesized by the generation of silica nanoparticles on the MWCNT surface through the sol-gel technique. This synthetic method involves organo-modified MWCNTs that are dispersed in tetrahydrofuran, which incorporates tetraethoxysilane that undergoes an ultrasonic sol-gel process. Gelation yielded highly dispersed silica on the organo-modified MWCNTs. The structure and properties of the nanohybrids were established using 29Si nuclear magnetic resonance, Raman spectroscopy, wide-angle X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, and transmission electron microscopy. The resulting MWCNT nanoarchitectures were covalently assembled into silica nanoparticles, which exhibited specific and controllable morphologies and were used to reinforce biodegradable PLA. The tensile strength and the heat deflection temperature (HDT of the PLA/MWCNT-grafted silica nanocomposites increased when the MWCNT-grafted silica was applied to the PLA matrix; by contrast, the surface resistivity of the PLA/MWCNT-grafted silica nanocomposites appeared to decline as the amount of MWCNT-grafted silica in the PLA matrix increased. Overall, the reinforcement of PLA using MWCNT-grafted silica nanoarchitectures was efficient and improved its mechanical properties, heat resistance, and electrical resistivity.

  20. Elastic Evaluation of Poly(Lactic Acid) Electrospun Membranes Using the Pulsed Photoacoustic Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, M.; Vera-Graziano, R.; Maciel-Cerda, A.; Sánchez-Arévalo, F. M.; Godínez, F. A.

    2017-08-01

    Fibrous membranes manufactured by electrospinning possess unique features such as a high porosity and large specific surface area, making them suitable for applications in tissue engineering. However, the determination of their mechanical behavior under different loading conditions remains one of the most difficult technical problems for researchers to overcome. While the tensile properties of this kind of membrane are commonly reported in the literature, few explorations of their properties in other directions have been reported. In this paper, the pulsed photoacoustic technique is employed to obtain the elastic constants of electrospun non-woven membranes, specifically in two directions ( L, T). The electrospun samples are hybrid fiber membranes of poly(lactic acid) and hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles at different concentrations. It is found that the concentration of HA nanoparticles determines the mechanical response of the membrane, where the nanoparticles act either as a reinforcement or as a mesh defect. The elastic constants (EL, ET, GL, GT, vL, ν T) are obtained through velocity waves related to the stress-strain equations, using samples with two different geometries and considering the electrospinning mats as a transversely isotropic material. These values are compared to those acquired using macro-tensile testing equipment according to the ASTM D1708 standard.

  1. Influence of different sterilization processes on the properties of commercial poly(lactic acid)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savaris, M.; Santos, V. dos, E-mail: vsantos2@ucs.br; Brandalise, R.N.

    2016-12-01

    This study aims at analyzing the modifications in the morphological, physical, chemical and thermal properties of commercial poly(lactic acid) (PLA) films after exposure to five different sterilization processes. Films were obtained by compression molding, hygienized and sterilized by ethylene oxide (SEtO), hydrogen peroxide plasma (SH{sub 2}O{sub 2}), saturated steam (SSS), electron beam radiation (SEB) and gamma radiation (SGR). The samples of PLA{sub SEtO}, PLA{sub SH2O2}, PLA{sub SEB} and PLA{sub SGR} exhibited thermal and physical changes after being submitted to sterilization processes. PLA{sub SSS} showed morphological, chemical, thermal and physical changes. It is concluded that processes by SEtO, SH{sub 2}O{sub 2}, SEB and EGR can be applied for the sterilization of PLA films and the SSS process is not recommended in view of the data obtained and test conditions reported in this study for PLA films. - Highlights: • PLA was subjected to five different sterilization process. • All sterilization processes do not changed the hydrophilicity of PLA. • Morphological, chemical, physical and thermal changes were observed for the PLA{sub SSS}. • The sterilization by saturated steam is not recommended to sterilize PLA.

  2. Application of Lemongrass Oil-Containing Polylactic Acid Films to the Packaging of Pork Sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hyun-Ju; Song, Kyung Bin

    2016-01-01

    Polylactic acid (PLA) is a biodegradable and renewable polymer, which represents a valuable alternative to plastic packaging films, often associated with environmental problems. In this study, we tested the suitability of PLA as a biodegradable packaging film and assessed the antimicrobial activity of lemongrass oil (LO), incorporated into the PLA film in different concentrations. To obtain the optimal physical properties for PLA films, tensile strength, elongation at break, and water vapor permeability were measured under different preparation conditions. In addition, the antimicrobial activity of the LO contained in the PLA film against Listeria monocytogenes was investigated by disc diffusion and viable cell count. Among all concentrations tested, 2% LO was the most suitable in terms of antimicrobial activity and physical properties of the PLA film. Based on these results, we used the PLA film containing 2% LO to pack pork sausages; after 12 d of storage at 4℃, the population of inoculated L. monocytogenes in the sausage samples wrapped with the PLA film containing 2% LO was reduced by 1.47 Log CFU/g compared with the control samples. Our data indicate that PLA films containing 2% LO represent a valuable means for antimicrobial sausage packaging.

  3. Application of Lemongrass Oil-Containing Polylactic Acid Films to the Packaging of Pork Sausages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Polylactic acid (PLA) is a biodegradable and renewable polymer, which represents a valuable alternative to plastic packaging films, often associated with environmental problems. In this study, we tested the suitability of PLA as a biodegradable packaging film and assessed the antimicrobial activity of lemongrass oil (LO), incorporated into the PLA film in different concentrations. To obtain the optimal physical properties for PLA films, tensile strength, elongation at break, and water vapor permeability were measured under different preparation conditions. In addition, the antimicrobial activity of the LO contained in the PLA film against Listeria monocytogenes was investigated by disc diffusion and viable cell count. Among all concentrations tested, 2% LO was the most suitable in terms of antimicrobial activity and physical properties of the PLA film. Based on these results, we used the PLA film containing 2% LO to pack pork sausages; after 12 d of storage at 4℃, the population of inoculated L. monocytogenes in the sausage samples wrapped with the PLA film containing 2% LO was reduced by 1.47 Log CFU/g compared with the control samples. Our data indicate that PLA films containing 2% LO represent a valuable means for antimicrobial sausage packaging. PMID:27433114

  4. An amino acid depleted cell-free protein synthesis system for the incorporation of non-canonical amino acid analogs into proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh-Blom, Amrita; Hughes, Randall A; Ellington, Andrew D

    2014-05-20

    Residue-specific incorporation of non-canonical amino acids into proteins is usually performed in vivo using amino acid auxotrophic strains and replacing the natural amino acid with an unnatural amino acid analog. Herein, we present an efficient amino acid depleted cell-free protein synthesis system that can be used to study residue-specific replacement of a natural amino acid by an unnatural amino acid analog. This system combines a simple methodology and high protein expression titers with a high-efficiency analog substitution into a target protein. To demonstrate the productivity and efficacy of a cell-free synthesis system for residue-specific incorporation of unnatural amino acids in vitro, we use this system to show that 5-fluorotryptophan and 6-fluorotryptophan substituted streptavidin retain the ability to bind biotin despite protein-wide replacement of a natural amino acid for the amino acid analog. We envisage this amino acid depleted cell-free synthesis system being an economical and convenient format for the high-throughput screening of a myriad of amino acid analogs with a variety of protein targets for the study and functional characterization of proteins substituted with unnatural amino acids when compared to the currently employed in vivo methodologies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Degradation of polylactic acid (Pla) at different doses of gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo R, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The excessive use of polymers such as polyethylene (PET), polystyrene (Ps) and recently the polylactic acid (Pla) that take more than 20 years to degrade, have caused great pollution in the environment. In this study the effects of gamma radiation in the Pla to different doses were studied, in order to reduce the degradation time of this polymer. The changes in physico-chemical structure of Pla during radiation were studied by thermo-gravimetric/Mass analysis; differential scanning calorimetry; scanning electron microscopy; X-ray dispersive analysis; infrared spectroscopy; X-ray diffraction and mechanical tests of hardness, elasticity and deformation. With scanning electron microscopy, the morphology of the Pla surface unirradiated was observed, in which an apparently smooth surface was observed, after changes that had the Pla when irradiated also was observed, where the effects of radiation were observed in form of scratch, agglomeration and small fractures. By X-ray dispersive analysis was determined and verified the elemental chemical composition of the Pla; as expected the tests showed only carbon, oxygen and hydrogen. With thermo-gravimetric/Mass analysis the decomposition temperatures of Pla were determined, identifying that the degradation compounds are CO, CO 2 and CH 4 . With infrared spectrometry the major peaks of Pla were observed before and after being irradiated with increasing of radiation dose the intensity of the bands decreased. Also by X-ray diffraction was observed that the polymer is an amorphous material. The mechanical tests indicate that the values of each of the tests decrease significantly with increasing the radiation dose. (Author)

  6. Peptides, proteins and peptide/protein-polymer conjugates as drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Biswajit; Karmakar, Swapna D; Hossain, Chowdhury M; Bhattacharya, Sanchari

    2014-01-01

    In the last few decades, novel drug delivery strategies have been a big priority to the formulation scientists. Peptides and proteins have drawn a special attention for their wide scope in the area. Serum albumin, transferrin, recom- binant proteins, virus capsids etc. are used as carrier for drug and biomolecules. Conjugates of polymers with proteins have also shown strong potency in the field of drug delivery. Polyethylene glycol is one of the most successful polymers that has been used extensively to develop protein conjugated formulations. Besides, polyvinyl pyrrolidone, polylactic-co- glycolic acid, N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide copolymer, polyglutamic acid have also been investigated. In this re- view, we will highlight on the most recent overview of various advantages, limitations and marketed products of proteins, peptides and protein/peptide-polymer conjugates as drug carriers, such products in clinical trials and their various uses in the field of modern drug delivery. Understanding the key features of these materials and the vigorous research in this field will develop new drug formulations that will combat various types of life-threatening diseases.

  7. A comprehensive study on the fabrication and properties of biocomposites of poly(lactic acid)/ceramics for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajbakhsh, Saeid; Hajiali, Faezeh

    2017-01-01

    The fabrication of a suitable scaffold material is one of the major challenges for bone tissue engineering. Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) is one of the most favorable matrix materials in bone tissue engineering owing to its biocompatibility and biodegradability. However, PLA suffers from some shortcomings including low degradation rate, low cell adhesion caused by its hydrophobic property, and inflammatory reactions in vivo due to its degradation product, lactic acid. Therefore, the incorporation of bioactive reinforcements is considered as a powerful method to improve the properties of PLA. This review presents a comprehensive study on recent advances in the synthesis of PLA-based biocomposites containing ceramic reinforcements, including various methods of production and the evaluation of the scaffolds in terms of porosity, mechanical properties, in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility and bioactivity for bone tissue engineering applications. The production routes range from traditional approaches such as the use of porogens to provide porosity in the scaffolds to novel methods such as solid free-form techniques. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A Soluble, Folded Protein without Charged Amino Acid Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, Casper; Kofoed, Christian; Espersen, Roall

    2016-01-01

    Charges are considered an integral part of protein structure and function, enhancing solubility and providing specificity in molecular interactions. We wished to investigate whether charged amino acids are indeed required for protein biogenesis and whether a protein completely free of titratable...... side chains can maintain solubility, stability, and function. As a model, we used a cellulose-binding domain from Cellulomonas fimi, which, among proteins of more than 100 amino acids, presently is the least charged in the Protein Data Bank, with a total of only four titratable residues. We find...

  9. Sandwich-Architectured Poly(lactic acid)-Graphene Composite Food Packaging Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Kunli; Heising, Jenneke K; Yuan, Yang; Karahan, Huseyin E; Wei, Li; Zhai, Shengli; Koh, Jia-Xuan; Htin, Nanda M; Zhang, Feimo; Wang, Rong; Fane, Anthony G; Dekker, Matthijs; Dehghani, Fariba; Chen, Yuan

    2016-04-20

    Biodegradable food packaging promises a more sustainable future. Among the many different biopolymers used, poly(lactic acid) (PLA) possesses the good mechanical property and cost-effectiveness necessary of a biodegradable food packaging. However, PLA food packaging suffers from poor water vapor and oxygen barrier properties compared to many petroleum-derived ones. A key challenge is, therefore, to simultaneously enhance both the water vapor and oxygen barrier properties of the PLA food packaging. To address this issue, we design a sandwich-architectured PLA-graphene composite film, which utilizes an impermeable reduced graphene oxide (rGO) as the core barrier and commercial PLA films as the outer protective encapsulation. The synergy between the barrier and the protective encapsulation results in a significant 87.6% reduction in the water vapor permeability. At the same time, the oxygen permeability is reduced by two orders of magnitude when evaluated under both dry and humid conditions. The excellent barrier properties can be attributed to the compact lamellar microstructure and the hydrophobicity of the rGO core barrier. Mechanistic analysis shows that the large rGO lateral dimension and the small interlayer spacing between the rGO sheets have created an extensive and tortuous diffusion pathway, which is up to 1450-times the thickness of the rGO barrier. In addition, the sandwiched architecture has imbued the PLA-rGO composite film with good processability, which increases the manageability of the film and its competency to be tailored. Simulations using the PLA-rGO composite food packaging film for edible oil and potato chips also exhibit at least eight-fold extension in the shelf life of these oxygen and moisture sensitive food products. Overall, these qualities have demonstrated the high potential of a sandwich-architectured PLA-graphene composite film for food packaging applications.

  10. Effect of thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) on the thermal and mechanical properties of polylactic acid (PLA)/curcumin blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifah, I. S. S.; Adnan, M. D. A.; Nor Khairusshima, M. K.; Shaffiar, N. M.; Buys, Y. F.

    2018-01-01

    Polylactic acid (PLA) is known to be brittle by nature and thus limits the flexibility of the polymer. A possible solution to enhance the flexibility of PLA is to add a flexible polymeric based material such as thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU). In this study, 30-50 wt% of TPU was added into PLA/curcumin blends to improve its flexibility. Thermal analysis using differential scanning calorimetry shows that further additions of TPU at the expense of PLA did not affect the glass transition temperature, crystallisation temperature and melting temperature of the blends. Fibers of PLA/curcumin/TPU were successfully drawn and Single Fiber Tensile Test (SFTT) showed vast improvement in elongation at break. The initial addition of 30 wt% of TPU to the brittle PLA/curcumin composition causes a significant increase in elongation at break by 39 times and further additions at 50 wt %, the elongation at break increases by 105 times. However, with the increase in elongation, a decrease in strength and Young’s modulus was observed.

  11. Optimization of Processing Parameters in 3D-Printing of Poly(lactic acid by Fused Deposition Modeling Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ezoji

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, making use of additive manufacturing (AM processes such as fused deposition modeling (FDM, in different areas, such as car manufacturing, biomedical and aerospace industries is gaining popularity worldwide because of their capacities in producing functional parts with complex geometries. Therefore, it is very important to identify the significance of FDM processing parameters which would have an impact on the quality of articles produced by the processing system. In this work, poly(lactic acid was used to study the effects of processing parameters such as layer thickness, raster angle and printing plane on the tensile properties and surface roughness of the printed specimens. The results showed that the tensile strength of a specimen increased by reducing its layer thickness. However, the elastic modulus values increased with decreasing the layer thickness to some extent. Moreover, when the layer thickness was kept constant at 0.05 mm and 3D-printing was carried out in XYZ plane, the maximum modulus and tensile strength were obtained for the raster angle of 0˚. Microscopic studies showed that in low layer thickness, the polymeric layers diffused properly into each other and no voids were formed between the layers. However, with a thickness above its critical value, a few voids were formed between the layers which played as a stress concentrator and decreased the tensile strength of the specimens. The results also showed that the surface roughness increased with increasing the layer thickness.

  12. Manipulating fatty acid biosynthesis in microalgae for biofuel through protein-protein interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian L Blatti

    Full Text Available Microalgae are a promising feedstock for renewable fuels, and algal metabolic engineering can lead to crop improvement, thus accelerating the development of commercially viable biodiesel production from algae biomass. We demonstrate that protein-protein interactions between the fatty acid acyl carrier protein (ACP and thioesterase (TE govern fatty acid hydrolysis within the algal chloroplast. Using green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Cr as a model, a structural simulation of docking CrACP to CrTE identifies a protein-protein recognition surface between the two domains. A virtual screen reveals plant TEs with similar in silico binding to CrACP. Employing an activity-based crosslinking probe designed to selectively trap transient protein-protein interactions between the TE and ACP, we demonstrate in vitro that CrTE must functionally interact with CrACP to release fatty acids, while TEs of vascular plants show no mechanistic crosslinking to CrACP. This is recapitulated in vivo, where overproduction of the endogenous CrTE increased levels of short-chain fatty acids and engineering plant TEs into the C. reinhardtii chloroplast did not alter the fatty acid profile. These findings highlight the critical role of protein-protein interactions in manipulating fatty acid biosynthesis for algae biofuel engineering as illuminated by activity-based probes.

  13. Hypochlorous and peracetic acid induced oxidation of dairy proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkaert, Barbara; Mestdagh, Frédéric; Cucu, Tatiana; Aedo, Philip Roger; Ling, Shen Yan; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2011-02-09

    Hypochlorous and peracetic acids, both known disinfectants in the food industry, were compared for their oxidative capacity toward dairy proteins. Whey proteins and caseins were oxidized under well controlled conditions at pH 8 as a function of the sanitizing concentration. Different markers for protein oxidation were monitored. The results established that the protein carbonyl content was a rather unspecific marker for protein oxidation, which did not allow one to differentiate the oxidant used especially at the lower concentrations. Cysteine, tryptophan, and methionine were proven to be the most vulnerable amino acids for degradation upon hypochlorous and peracetic acid treatment, while tyrosine was only prone to degradation in the presence of hypochlorous acid. Hypochlorous acid induced oxidation gave rise to protein aggregation, while during peracetic acid induced oxidation, no high molecular weight aggregates were observed. Protein aggregation upon hypochlorous acid oxidation could primarily be linked to tryptophan and tyrosine degradation.

  14. Predicting nucleic acid binding interfaces from structural models of proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dror, Iris; Shazman, Shula; Mukherjee, Srayanta; Zhang, Yang; Glaser, Fabian; Mandel-Gutfreund, Yael

    2012-02-01

    The function of DNA- and RNA-binding proteins can be inferred from the characterization and accurate prediction of their binding interfaces. However, the main pitfall of various structure-based methods for predicting nucleic acid binding function is that they are all limited to a relatively small number of proteins for which high-resolution three-dimensional structures are available. In this study, we developed a pipeline for extracting functional electrostatic patches from surfaces of protein structural models, obtained using the I-TASSER protein structure predictor. The largest positive patches are extracted from the protein surface using the patchfinder algorithm. We show that functional electrostatic patches extracted from an ensemble of structural models highly overlap the patches extracted from high-resolution structures. Furthermore, by testing our pipeline on a set of 55 known nucleic acid binding proteins for which I-TASSER produces high-quality models, we show that the method accurately identifies the nucleic acids binding interface on structural models of proteins. Employing a combined patch approach we show that patches extracted from an ensemble of models better predicts the real nucleic acid binding interfaces compared with patches extracted from independent models. Overall, these results suggest that combining information from a collection of low-resolution structural models could be a valuable approach for functional annotation. We suggest that our method will be further applicable for predicting other functional surfaces of proteins with unknown structure. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Fabrication of polylactic acid/hydroxyapatite/graphene oxide composite and their thermal stability, hydrophobic and mechanical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Gong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A series of polylactic acid/hydroxyapatite/graphene oxide composite (PLA/HA/GO were fabricated via solution blending and casting method using N,N-dimethyl-formamide (DMF and CH2Cl2 as mutual solvents. The physicochemical properties of the resulting composites were characterized by means of FT-IR, SEM, TEM, Raman spectra, XRD and N2-physisorption. Particularly, the thermal stabilities, hydrophobic and mechanical properties of PLA/HA/GO composites were systematically investigated. The influences of GO content on thermal stabilities, hydrophobic and mechanical properties of the composites were also evaluated. The results showed that the addition of GO and HA not only improved the thermal stability of PLA, but also improved the hydrophobic property of PLA-based composites. By compared with the PLA/HA/GO composite, the tensile strength of pristine PLA is slight high. The tensile strength and hardness of PLA/HA/GO composites increased with the increase of GO content. The obtained PLA/HA/GO composite may be a promising material for load-bearing orthopedic implants.

  16. Regulation of intestinal protein metabolism by amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Julien; Goichon, Alexis; Déchelotte, Pierre; Coëffier, Moïse

    2013-09-01

    Gut homeostasis plays a major role in health and may be regulated by quantitative and qualitative food intake. In the intestinal mucosa, an intense renewal of proteins occurs, at approximately 50% per day in humans. In some pathophysiological conditions, protein turnover is altered and may contribute to intestinal or systemic diseases. Amino acids are key effectors of gut protein turnover, both as constituents of proteins and as regulatory molecules limiting intestinal injury and maintaining intestinal functions. Many studies have focused on two amino acids: glutamine, known as the preferential substrate of rapidly dividing cells, and arginine, another conditionally essential amino acid. The effects of glutamine and arginine on protein synthesis appear to be model and condition dependent, as are the involved signaling pathways. The regulation of gut protein degradation by amino acids has been minimally documented until now. This review will examine recent data, helping to better understand how amino acids regulate intestinal protein metabolism, and will explore perspectives for future studies.

  17. Analysis of Gas Permeability Characteristics of Poly(Lactic Acid/Poly(Butylene Succinate Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amita Bhatia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas permeability and morphological properties of nanocomposites prepared by the mixing of poly(lactic acid (PLA, poly(butylene succinate (PBS, and clay was investigated. While the composition of PLA and PBS polymers was fixed as 80% and 20% by weight, respectively, for all the nanocomposites, clay contents varied from 1 to 10 wt%. From the morphological studies using both wide angle X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, the nanocomposite having 1 wt% of clay was considered to have a mixed morphology of intercalated and delaminated structure, while some clusters or agglomerated particles were detected for nanocomposites having 3 and more than 3 wt% of clay content. However, the average particle size of the dispersed PBS phase was reduced significantly from 7 μm to 30–40 nm with the addition of clay in the blend. The oxygen barrier property was improved significantly as compared to the water vapor. A model based on gas barrier property was used for the validation of the oxygen relative permeabilities of PLA/PBS/clay nanocomposites. PLA/PBS/clay nanocomposites validated the Bharadwaj model up to 3 wt% of clay contents only, while for nanocomposites of higher clay contents the Bharadwaj model was invalid due to the clusters and agglomerates formed.

  18. Effect of gamma ray on poly(lactic acid)/poly(vinyl acetate-co-vinyl alcohol) blends as biodegradable food packaging films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razavi, Seyed Mohammad; Dadbin, Susan; Frounchi, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA)/poly(vinyl acetate-co-vinyl alcohol) [P(VAc-co-VA)] blends as new transparent film packaging materials were prepared at various blend compositions and different vinyl alcohol contents. The blends and pure PLA were irradiated by gamma rays to investigate the extent of changes in the packaging material during gamma ray sterilization process. The miscibility of the blends was dependent on the blend composition and vinyl alcohol content; gamma irradiation had little effect on the extent of miscibility. The glass transition temperature of pure PLA and PLA/P(VAc-co-VA) miscible blends reduced after irradiation. On the other hand in PLA/P(VAc-co-VA) immiscible blends, while the glass transition temperature of the PLA phase decreased; that of the copolymer phase slightly increased. The reduction in the glass transition was about 10 percent for samples irradiated with 50 kGy indicating dominance of chain scission of PLA molecules at high irradiation dose. The latter was verified by drop in mechanical properties of pure PLA after exposing to gamma irradiation at 50 kGy. Blending of PLA with the copolymer P(VAc-co-VA) compensated greatly the adverse effects of irradiation on PLA. The oxygen-barrier property of the blend was superior to the neat PLA and remained almost intact with irradiation. The un-irradiated and irradiated blends had excellent transparency. Gamma ray doses used for sterilization purposes are usually less than 20 kGy. It was shown that gamma irradiation at 20 kGy had no or little adverse effects on PLA/P(VAc-co-VA) blends mechanical and gas barrier properties. - Highlights: • Poly(lactic acid)/poly(vinyl acetate-co-vinyl alcohol) blends were prepared as new packaging film. • The blends are superior to PLA in oxygen gas barrier property. • The blends are suitable for gamma ray sterilization and maintain useful mechanical properties. • The blends are perfectly transparent

  19. Effect of Filler Content and Chemical Modification on Mechanical Properties of Polylactic Acid/Polymethyl Methacrylate/Nypa Fruticans Husk Biocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad Syahmie, MR; Pei Leng, T.; Nurul Najwa, Zabidi

    2018-03-01

    The main purpose of incorporating Nypa fruticans husks (NFH) into Polylactic acid (PLA)/Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) is to decrease the costs and enhanced the properties of the biocomposites. 3-Aminopropyl Triethoxysilane (3-APE) was used as coupling agent. The effect of NFH content and 3-APE on the mechanical properties and morphology of the biocomposites were investigated. Results show that the effect of NFH content increased Young’s modulus but decreased the tensile strength and elongation at break of PLA/PMMA/NFH biocomposites. However, silanized biocomposites using 3-APE) was found to enhanced the tensile strength and Young’s modulus but decreased the elongation at break of the silanized biocomposites. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study of the tensile fracture surface of the biocomposites indicated that the used of 3-APE as couling agent improved the interfacial interaction netween NFH and PLA/PMMA blends.

  20. Improved wettability and adhesion of polylactic acid/chitosan coating for bio-based multilayer film development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartner, Hunter; Li, Yana; Almenar, Eva

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of methyldiphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) concentration (0, 0.2, 1, 2, and 3%) on the wettability and adhesion of blend solutions of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and chitosan (CS) when coated on PLA film for development of a bio-based multi-layer film suitable for food packaging and other applications. Characterization was carried out by attenuated total reflectance infrared spectrometry (ATR-FTIR), contact angle (θ), mechanical adhesion pull-off testing, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The θ of the PLA/CS blend shifted to a lower value (41-35°) with increasing MDI concentration showing that the surface tension was modified between the PLA/CS blend solution and PLA film and better wettability was achieved. The increase in MDI also resulted in an increased breaking strength (228-303 kPa) due to the increased H-bonding resulting from the more urethane groups formed within the PLA/CS blend as shown by ATR-FTIR. The improved adhesion was also shown by the increased number of physical entanglements observed by SEM. It can be concluded that MDI can be used to improve wettability and adhesion between PLA/CS coating and PLA film.

  1. Characterization of hydrolytic degradation of polylactic acid/rice hulls composites in water at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Hydrolytic degradations of polylactic acid/rice hulls (PLA/RH composites with various rice hulls contents due to water absorptions at 23, 51 and 69°C were investigated by studying the thermal properties, chemical composition, molecular weight, and morphology of the degraded products. The results have attested that the stability of PLA/RH composites in water depends slightly on rice hulls contents but it is significantly influenced by water temperature. Water absorption in 30 days at 23°C was between 0.87 and 9.25% depending on rice hull contents. However, at thermophilic temperatures, the water absorption and degradation of these products were increased significantly. Saturations were achieved in less than 25 and 9 days at 51°C and 69°C, respectively, while hydrolytic degradation was demonstrated by an increase in fragility and development of crystallinity. At 69°C, there were significant reductions of the decomposition and glass transition temperatures of the polymer by 13°C. These changes were associated with the reduction of the molecular weight of PLA from 153.1 kDa to ~10.7 kDa due to hydrolysis of its ester group.

  2. Residue-specific incorporation of noncanonical amino acids for protein engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eldijk, Mark B.; van Hest, Jan C.M.; Lemke, E.A.

    2018-01-01

    The incorporation of noncanonical amino acids has given protein chemists access to an expanded repertoire of amino acids. This methodology has significantly broadened the scope of protein engineering allowing introduction of amino acids with non-native functionalities, such as bioorthogonal reactive

  3. Aligned flax fibre/polylactate composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bo; Lilholt, Hans; Thygesen, Anders

    2008-01-01

    The potential of biocomposites in engineering applications is demonstrated by using aligned flax fibre/polylactate composites as a materials model system. The failure stress of flax fibres is measured by tensile testing of single fibres and fibre bundles. For both fibre configurations, it is found...... that failure stress is decreased by increasing the tested fibre volume. Based on two types of flax fibre preforms: carded sliver and unidirectional non-crimp fabric, aligned flax fibre/polylactate composites were fabricated with variable fibre content. The volumetric composition and tensile properties...... of the composite were measured. For composites with a fibre content of 37 % by volume, stiffness is about 20 GPa and failure stress is about 180 MPa. The tensile properties of the composites are analysed with a modified rule of mixtures model, which includes the effect of porosity. The experimental results...

  4. Impact of Nanoclays on the Biodegradation of Poly(Lactic Acid Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Castro-Aguirre

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Poly(lactic acid (PLA, a well-known biodegradable and compostable polymer, was used in this study as a model system to determine if the addition of nanoclays affects its biodegradation in simulated composting conditions and whether the nanoclays impact the microbial population in a compost environment. Three different nanoclays were studied due to their different surface characteristics but similar chemistry: organo-modified montmorillonite (OMMT, Halloysite nanotubes (HNT, and Laponite® RD (LRD. Additionally, the organo-modifier of MMT, methyl, tallow, bis-2-hydroxyethyl, quaternary ammonium (QAC, was studied. PLA and PLA bio-nanocomposite (BNC films were produced, characterized, and used for biodegradation evaluation with an in-house built direct measurement respirometer (DMR following the analysis of evolved CO2 approach. A biofilm formation essay and scanning electron microscopy were used to evaluate microbial attachment on the surface of PLA and BNCs. The results obtained from four different biodegradation tests with PLA and its BNCs showed a significantly higher mineralization of the films containing nanoclay in comparison to the pristine PLA during the first three to four weeks of testing, mainly attributed to the reduction in the PLA lag time. The effect of the nanoclays on the initial molecular weight during processing played a crucial role in the evolution of CO2. PLA-LRD5 had the greatest microbial attachment on the surface as confirmed by the biofilm test and the SEM micrographs, while PLA-QAC0.4 had the lowest biofilm formation that may be attributed to the inhibitory effect also found during the biodegradation test when the QAC was tested by itself.

  5. Polylactic acid trays for fresh-food packaging: A Carbon Footprint assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingrao, Carlo; Tricase, Caterina; Cholewa-Wójcik, Agnieszka; Kawecka, Agnieszka; Rana, Roberto; Siracusa, Valentina

    2015-12-15

    This paper discusses application of Carbon Footprint (CF) for quantification of the 100-year Global Warming Potential (GWP100) associated with the life cycle of polylactic acid (PLA) trays for packaging of fresh foods. A comparison with polystyrene (PS)-based trays was done considering two different transport system scenarios for PLA-granule supply to the tray production firm: a transoceanic freight vessel and an intercontinental freight aircraft. Doing so enabled estimation of the influence of the transportation phase on the GHG-emission rate associated with the PLA-trays' life cycle. From the assessment, the GWP100 resulted to be mainly due to PLA-granulate production and to its transportation to the tray manufacturing facility. Also, the study documented that, depending upon the transport system considered, the CF associated with the life cycle of the PLA trays can worsen so much that the latter are no longer GHG-emission saving as they are expected to be compared to the PS ones. Therefore, based upon the findings of the study, it was possible for the authors to understand the importance and the need of accounting for the transport-related issues in the design of PLA-based products, thus preserving their environmental soundness compared to traditional petroleum-based products. In this context, the study could be used as the base to reconsider the merits of PLA usage for product manufacturing, especially when high distances are implied, as in this analysed case. So, the authors believe that new research and policy frameworks should be designed and implemented for both development and promotion of more globally sustainable options. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A Soluble, Folded Protein without Charged Amino Acid Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, Casper; Kofoed, Christian; Espersen, Roall

    2016-01-01

    side chains can maintain solubility, stability, and function. As a model, we used a cellulose-binding domain from Cellulomonas fimi, which, among proteins of more than 100 amino acids, presently is the least charged in the Protein Data Bank, with a total of only four titratable residues. We find......Charges are considered an integral part of protein structure and function, enhancing solubility and providing specificity in molecular interactions. We wished to investigate whether charged amino acids are indeed required for protein biogenesis and whether a protein completely free of titratable...... that the protein shows a surprising resilience toward extremes of pH, demonstrating stability and function (cellulose binding) in the pH range from 2 to 11. To ask whether the four charged residues present were required for these properties of this protein, we altered them to nontitratable ones. Remarkably...

  7. Investigating the use of coupling agents to improve the interfacial properties between a resorbable phosphate glass and polylactic acid matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Muhammad Sami; Ahmed, Ifty; Parsons, Andrew J; Rudd, Chris D; Walker, Gavin S; Scotchford, Colin A

    2013-09-01

    Eight different chemicals were investigated as potential candidate coupling agents for phosphate glass fibre reinforced polylactic acid composites. Evidence of reaction of the coupling agents with phosphate glass and their effect on surface wettability and glass degradation were studied along with their principle role of improving the interface between glass reinforcement and polymer matrix. It was found that, with an optimal amount of coupling agent on the surface of the glass/polymer, interfacial shear strength improved by a factor of 5. Evidence of covalent bonding between agent and glass was found for three of the coupling agents investigated, namely: 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane; etidronic acid and hexamethylene diisocyanate. These three coupling agents also improved the interfacial shear strength and increased the hydrophobicity of the glass surface. It is expected that this would provide an improvement in the macroscopic properties of full-scale composites fabricated from the same materials which may also help to retain these properties for the desired length of time by retarding the breakdown of the fibre/matrix interface within these composites.

  8. Proliferation related acidic leucine-rich protein PAL31 functions as a caspase-3 inhibitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Weiyong; Kimura, Hiromichi; Hattori, Naka; Tanaka, Satoshi; Matsuyama, Shigemi; Shiota, Kunio

    2006-01-01

    Proliferation related acidic leucine-rich protein PAL31 (PAL31) is expressed in proliferating cells and consists of 272 amino acids with a tandem structure of leucine-rich repeats in the N-terminus and a highly acidic region with a putative nuclear localization signal in the C-terminus. We previously reported that PAL31 is required for cell cycle progression. In the present study, we found that the antisense oligonucleotide of PAL31 induced apoptosis to the transfected Nb2 cells. Stable transfectants, in which PAL31 was regulated by an inducible promoter, were generated to gain further insight into the signaling role of PAL31 in the regulation of apoptosis. Expression of PAL31 resulted in the marked rescue of Rat1 cells from etoposide and UV radiation-induced apoptosis and the cytoprotection was correlated with the levels of PAL31 protein. Thus, cytoprotection from apoptosis is a physiological function of PAL31. PAL31 can suppress caspase-3 activity but not cytochrome c release in vitro, indicating that PAL31 is a direct caspase-3 inhibitor. In conclusion, PAL31 is a multifunctional protein working as a cell cycle progression factor as well as a cell survival factor

  9. Inferring the Functions of Proteins from the Interrelationships between Functional Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Kamal

    2018-01-01

    This study proposes a new method to determine the functions of an unannotated protein. The proteins and amino acid residues mentioned in biomedical texts associated with an unannotated protein can be considered as characteristics terms for , which are highly predictive of the potential functions of . Similarly, proteins and amino acid residues mentioned in biomedical texts associated with proteins annotated with a functional category can be considered as characteristics terms of . We introduce in this paper an information extraction system called IFP_IFC that predicts the functions of an unannotated protein by representing and each functional category by a vector of weights. Each weight reflects the degree of association between a characteristic term and (or a characteristic term and ). First, IFP_IFC constructs a network, whose nodes represent the different functional categories, and its edges the interrelationships between the nodes. Then, it determines the functions of by employing random walks with restarts on the mentioned network. The walker is the vector of . Finally, is assigned to the functional categories of the nodes in the network that are visited most by the walker. We evaluated the quality of IFP_IFC by comparing it experimentally with two other systems. Results showed marked improvement.

  10. Antimicrobial activity of a new synthetic peptide loaded in polylactic acid or poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid nanoparticles against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, J.; Flórez, J.; Torres, R.; Urquiza, M.; Gutiérrez, J. A.; Guzmán, F.; Ortiz, C. C.

    2017-03-01

    Nanocarrier systems are currently being developed for peptide, protein and gene delivery to protect them in the blood circulation and in the gastrointestinal tract. Polylactic acid (PLA) and poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticles loaded with a new antimicrobial GIBIM-P5S9K peptide were obtained by the double emulsion solvent extraction/evaporation method. PLA- and PLGA-NPs were spherical with sizes between 300 and 400 nm for PLA and 200 and 300 nm for PLGA and 20 mV. The peptide-loading efficiency of PLA-NP and PLGA-NPs was 75% and 55%, respectively. PLA- and PLGA-NPs released around 50% of this peptide over 8 h. In 10% human sera the size of peptide loaded PLA- and PLGA-NPs increased between 25.2% and 39.3%, the PDI changed from 3.2 to 5.1 and the surface charge from -7.15 to 14.6 mV. Both peptide loaded PLA- and PLGA-NPs at 0.5 μM peptide concentration inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E. coli O157:H7), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Pseudomonas. aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa). In contrast, free peptide inhibited at 10 μM but did not inhibit at 0.5 and 1 μM. These PLA- and PLGA-NPs presented <10% hemolysis indicating that they are hemocompatible and promising for delivery and protection system of GIBIM-P5S9K peptide.

  11. The use of orthologous sequences to predict the impact of amino acid substitutions on protein function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J Marini

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Computational predictions of the functional impact of genetic variation play a critical role in human genetics research. For nonsynonymous coding variants, most prediction algorithms make use of patterns of amino acid substitutions observed among homologous proteins at a given site. In particular, substitutions observed in orthologous proteins from other species are often assumed to be tolerated in the human protein as well. We examined this assumption by evaluating a panel of nonsynonymous mutants of a prototypical human enzyme, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR, in a yeast cell-based functional assay. As expected, substitutions in human MTHFR at sites that are well-conserved across distant orthologs result in an impaired enzyme, while substitutions present in recently diverged sequences (including a 9-site mutant that "resurrects" the human-macaque ancestor result in a functional enzyme. We also interrogated 30 sites with varying degrees of conservation by creating substitutions in the human enzyme that are accepted in at least one ortholog of MTHFR. Quite surprisingly, most of these substitutions were deleterious to the human enzyme. The results suggest that selective constraints vary between phylogenetic lineages such that inclusion of distant orthologs to infer selective pressures on the human enzyme may be misleading. We propose that homologous proteins are best used to reconstruct ancestral sequences and infer amino acid conservation among only direct lineal ancestors of a particular protein. We show that such an "ancestral site preservation" measure outperforms other prediction methods, not only in our selected set for MTHFR, but also in an exhaustive set of E. coli LacI mutants.

  12. Preparation of Au Nanoclusters-Modified Polylactic Acid Fiber with Bright Red Fluorescence and its Use as Sensing Probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenli; Li, Huili; Wan, Ajun; Liu, Lanbo

    2017-01-01

    In present work, the Au nanoclusters-modified polylactic acid fiber (PLA-Au NCs) with bright red fluorescence were fabricated by the encapsulation of Au nanoclusters (Au NCs) in the PLA fiber treated with H 2 O 2 . The Au 25 nanoclusters stabilized by bovine serum albumin (BSA-Au NCs) were prepared via an improved "green" synthetic routine. With pretreatment of the PLA fiber in H 2 O 2 concentration of 12 and 18 %, the as-prepared PLA-Au NCs exhibited brighter red emission with a strong peak centered at ~640 nm than BSA-Au NCs. The fluorescence can be quenched by nitric oxide (NO). A good linear relationship between the relative fluorescence quenching intensity of the as-prepared PLA-Au NCs and the concentration of NO can be obtained in the range of 0.0732 to 0.7320 mM, and the detection limit was 0.0070 mM.

  13. Plasticized poly(lactic acid)-poly(hydroxybutyrate) (PLA-PHB) blends incorporated with catechin intended for active food-packaging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrieta, Marina Patricia; Castro-López, María del Mar; Rayón, Emilio; Barral-Losada, Luis Fernando; López-Vilariño, José Manuel; López, Juan; González-Rodríguez, María Victoria

    2014-10-15

    Active biobased packaging materials based on poly(lactic acid)-poly(hydroxybutyrate) (PLA-PHB) blends were prepared by melt blending and fully characterized. Catechin incorporation, as antioxidant compound, enhanced the thermal stability, whereas its release was improved by the addition of acetyl(tributyl citrate) (ATBC) as plasticizer. Whereas the incorporation of ATBC resulted in a reduction of elastic modulus and hardness, catechin addition produced more rigid materials due to hydrogen-bonding interactions between catechin hydroxyl groups and carbonyl groups of PLA and PHB. The quantification of catechin released into a fatty food simulant and the antioxidant effectiveness after the release process were demonstrated. The effect of the materials' exposure to a food simulant was also investigated. PHB-added materials maintained their structural and mechanical properties after 10 days in a test medium that represents the worst foreseeable conditions of the intended use. Thus, plasticized PLA-PHB blends with catechin show their potential as biobased active packaging for fatty food.

  14. Distinct functional domains within the acidic cluster of tegument protein pp28 required for trafficking and cytoplasmic envelopment of human cytomegalovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jun-Young; Jeon, Hyejin; Hong, Sookyung; Britt, William J

    2016-10-01

    Human cytomegalovirus UL99-encoded tegument protein pp28 contains a 16 aa acidic cluster that is required for pp28 trafficking to the assembly compartment (AC) and the virus assembly. However, functional signals within the acidic cluster of pp28 remain undefined. Here, we demonstrated that an acidic cluster rather than specific sorting signals was required for trafficking to the AC. Recombinant viruses with chimeric pp28 proteins expressing non-native acidic clusters exhibited delayed viral growth kinetics and decreased production of infectious virus, indicating that the native acidic cluster of pp28 was essential for wild-type virus assembly. These results suggested that the acidic cluster of pp28 has distinct functional domains required for trafficking and for efficient virus assembly. The first half (aa 44-50) of the acidic cluster was sufficient for pp28 trafficking, whereas the native acidic cluster consisting of aa 51-59 was required for the assembly of wild-type levels of infectious virus.

  15. Structural and functional characterization of solute binding proteins for aromatic compounds derived from lignin: p-coumaric acid and related aromatic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kemin; Chang, Changsoo; Cuff, Marianne; Osipiuk, Jerzy; Landorf, Elizabeth; Mack, Jamey C; Zerbs, Sarah; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Collart, Frank R

    2013-10-01

    Lignin comprises 15-25% of plant biomass and represents a major environmental carbon source for utilization by soil microorganisms. Access to this energy resource requires the action of fungal and bacterial enzymes to break down the lignin polymer into a complex assortment of aromatic compounds that can be transported into the cells. To improve our understanding of the utilization of lignin by microorganisms, we characterized the molecular properties of solute binding proteins of ATP-binding cassette transporter proteins that interact with these compounds. A combination of functional screens and structural studies characterized the binding specificity of the solute binding proteins for aromatic compounds derived from lignin such as p-coumarate, 3-phenylpropionic acid and compounds with more complex ring substitutions. A ligand screen based on thermal stabilization identified several binding protein clusters that exhibit preferences based on the size or number of aromatic ring substituents. Multiple X-ray crystal structures of protein-ligand complexes for these clusters identified the molecular basis of the binding specificity for the lignin-derived aromatic compounds. The screens and structural data provide new functional assignments for these solute-binding proteins which can be used to infer their transport specificity. This knowledge of the functional roles and molecular binding specificity of these proteins will support the identification of the specific enzymes and regulatory proteins of peripheral pathways that funnel these compounds to central metabolic pathways and will improve the predictive power of sequence-based functional annotation methods for this family of proteins. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Effect of acid- and alkaline-aided extractions on functional and rheological properties of proteins recovered from mechanically separated turkey meat (MSTM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrynets, Yuliya; Omana, Dileep A; Xu, Yan; Betti, Mirko

    2010-09-01

    Functional and rheological characteristics of acid- and alkali-extracted proteins from mechanically separated turkey meat (MSTM) have been investigated. Extractions were carried out at 4 pH values (2.5, 3.5, 10.5, and 11.5). The study demonstrated that alkali and acid extractions resulted in significant (P hardness, chewiness, springiness, and cohesiveness) of recovered proteins were found to be unaffected (P > 0.05) by different extraction pH. The protein extracted at pH 3.5 formed a highly viscoelastic gel network as evidenced by storage modulus (G') values, whereas the gel formed from proteins extracted at pH 10.5 was found to be the weakest. The work also revealed that acid treatments were more effective for removal of total heme pigments from MSTM. Color characteristics of protein isolates were markedly improved compared to the initial material and tended to be better when subjected to acid extractions. Mechanically separated meat is one of the cheapest sources of protein obtained by grinding meat and bones together and forcing the mixture through a perforated drum. The use of mechanically separated turkey meat (MSTM) for the production of further processed poultry products is limited due to its undesirable color and textural properties. Recovery of proteins from MSTM using pH shifting process will help the poultry processors to get better returns and also create opportunity to produce functional food ingredients.

  17. Effect of dielectric barrier discharge treatment on surface nanostructure and wettability of polylactic acid (PLA) nonwoven fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yu; Xu, Lin; Wang, Chunxia; Wang, Xiaona; Ding, Zhirong; Chen, Yuyue

    2017-12-01

    Polylactic acid (PLA) nonwoven fabrics are treated with atmospheric dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma to improve surface wettability. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) show that micro- to nano-scale textures appear on the treated PLA surfaces dependent on the treatment time. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis reveals that the DBD plasma treatments result in decreased carbon contents and increased oxygen contents as well as slightly increased nitrogen contents. The water contact angle decreases sharply with the increase of the DBD plasma treatment time. The super hydrophilic PLA surfaces (the water contact angle reached 0°) are obtained when the treatment time is longer than 90 s. Ninety days after the DBD plasma treatment, the XPS analysis shows that Csbnd O/Csbnd N and Cdbnd O/Osbnd Cdbnd O percentages decline for all treatment groups. However, the water contact angle is kept constant at 0° for the groups treated above 90 s, which could be due to the oxidized nano-structured layer on the DBD plasma treated PLA surfaces.

  18. Effect of Extrusion on the Mechanical and Rheological Properties of a Reinforced Poly(Lactic Acid): Reprocessing and Recycling of Biobased Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peinado, Víctor; Castell, Pere; García, Lidia; Fernández, Ángel

    2015-10-19

    The aim of this research paper is to study the behaviour of a common used biopolymer (Poly(Lactic Acid) (PLA)) after several reprocesses and how two different types of additives (a melt strength enhancer and a nanoadditive) affect its mechanical and rheological properties. Systematic extraction of extrudate samples from a twin-screw compounder was done in order to study the effect in the properties of the reprocessed material. Detailed rheological tests on a capillary rheometer as well as mechanical studies on a universal tensile machine after preparation of injected specimens were carried out. Results evidenced that PLA and reinforced PLA materials can be reprocessed and recycled without a remarkable loss in their mechanical properties. Several processing restrictions and specific phenomena were identified and are explained in the present manuscript.

  19. Barrier Properties of Polylactic Acid in Cellulose Based Packages Using Montmorillonite as Filler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Sánchez Aldana

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Polylactic acid (PLA and montmorillonite (CB as filler were studied as coatings for cellulose based packages. Amorphous (AM and semi crystalline (SC PLA were used at different concentrations according to a 2 × 6 × 3 full factorial experimental design. CB loading was three concentrations and coating was performed by casting. Contact angle (CA, water vapor (WVP and grease permeabilities were measured for each resultant package and were compared to commercial materials (Glassine Paper, Grease Proof Papers 1 and 2 produced commercially. Significant differences were found and the main factors were the type and concentration of PLA. The best values were: for grease penetration, +1800 s; WVP from 161.36 to 237.8 g·µm·kPa−1·m−2·d−1 and CA from 69° to 73° for PLA–AM 0.5% and CB variable. These parameters are comparable to commercial packages used in the food industry. DSC revealed three different thermal events for PLA–SC and just Tg for PLA–AM. Crystallinity was also verified, obtaining a ΔHcrys of 3.7 J·g−1 for PLA–SC and 14 J·g−1 for PLA–SC–BC, evidencing clay interaction as a crystal nucleating agent. Differences found were explained on terms of the properties measured, where structural and chemical arrays of the coatings play a fundamental role for the barrier properties.

  20. Production and characterization of thermoplastic cassava starch, functionalized poly(lactic acid), and their reactive compatibilized blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detyothin, Sukeewan

    Cassava starch was blended with glycerol using a co-rotating twin-screw extruder (TSE). Thermoplastic cassava starch (TPCS) at a ratio of 70/30 by weight of cassava/glycerol was selected and further blended with other polymers. TPCS sheets made from compression molding had low tensile strength (0.45 +/- 0.05 MPa) and Young's modulus (1.24 +/- 0.58 MPa), but moderate elongation at break (83.0 +/- 0.18.6%), medium level of oxygen permeability, and high water vapor permeability with a very high rate of water absorption. TPCS was blended with poly(lactic acid) (PLA) at various ratios by using a TSE. The blend resins exhibited good properties such as increased thermal stability (Tmax) and crystallinity of PLA, and improved water sensitivity and processability of TPCS. PLA and TPCS exhibited a high interfacial tension between the two phases of 7.9 mJ·m -2, indicating the formation of an incompatible, immiscible blend. SEM micrographs showed a non-homogeneous distribution of TPCS droplets in the PLA continuous phase. TEM micrographs of the blend films made by cast-film extrusion showed coalescence of the TPCS droplets in the PLA continuous phase of the blend, indicating that the compatibility between the polymer pair needs to be improved. A response surface methodology (RSM) design was used to analyze the effects of maleic anhydride (MA) and 2,5-bis(tert-butylperoxy)-2,5-dimethylhexane (Luperox or L101) contents, and TSE screw speed on the degree of grafted MA and number average molecular weight (Mn) of functionalized PLA (PLA-g-MA), a reactive compatibilizer. PLA-g- MA made by reactive extrusion had an array of colors depending on the content of L101 and MA used. New FTIR peaks suggested that MA was grafted onto the PLA backbone and oligomeric MA may occur. Increasing L101 increased the degree of grafting and decreased Mn, but the Mn of the PLA-g-MA's produced with a high amount of L101 was stable during storage. MA exhibited an optimum concentration for maximizing the

  1. Self-aggregated nanoparticles based on amphiphilic poly(lactic acid-grafted-chitosan copolymer for ocular delivery of amphotericin B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou WJ

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Wenjun Zhou,1 Yuanyuan Wang,2 Jiuying Jian,2 Shengfang Song1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Yongchuan Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China; 2College of Life Science, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China Background: The purpose of this study was to develop a self-aggregated nanoparticulate vehicle using an amphiphilic poly(lactic acid-grafted-chitosan (PLA-g-CS copolymer and to evaluate its potential for ocular delivery of amphotericin B. Methods: A PLA-g-CS copolymer was synthesized via a “protection-graft-deprotection” procedure and its structure was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance, and X-ray diffraction spectra. Amphotericin B-loaded nanoparticles based on PLA-g-CS (AmB/PLA-g-CS were prepared by the dialysis method and characterized for particle size, zeta potential, and encapsulation efficiency. Studies of these AmB/PLA-g-CS nanoparticles, including their mucoadhesive strength, drug release properties, antifungal activity, ocular irritation, ocular pharmacokinetics, and corneal penetration were performed in vitro and in vivo. Results: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance, and X-ray diffraction spectra showed that the PLA chains were successfully grafted onto chitosan molecules and that crystallization of chitosan was suppressed. The self-aggregated PLA-g-CS nanoparticles had a core-shell structure with an average particle size of approximately 200 nm and zeta potentials higher than 30 mV. Amphotericin B was incorporated into the hydrophobic core of the nanoparticles with high encapsulation efficiency. Sustained drug release from the nanoparticles was observed in vitro. The ocular irritation study showed no sign of irritation after instillation of the PLA-g-CS nanoparticles into rabbit eyes. The minimal inhibitory concentration of the AmB/PLA-g-CS nanoparticles showed antifungal

  2. Mechanical and degradation properties of biodegradable Mg strengthened poly-lactic acid composite through plastic injection molding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Muhammad Shoaib; Bai, Jing; Wan, Xiaofeng; Chu, Chenglin; Xue, Feng; Ding, Hongyan; Zhou, Guanghong

    2017-01-01

    Full biodegradable magnesium alloy (AZ31) strengthened poly-lactic acid (PLA) composite rods for potential application for bone fracture fixation were prepared by plastic injection process in this work. Their surface/interfacial morphologies, mechanical properties and vitro degradation were studied. In comparison with untreated Mg rod, porous MgO ceramic coating on Mg surface formed by Anodizing (AO) and micro-arc-oxidation (MAO)treatment can significantly improve the interfacial binding between outer PLA cladding and inner Mg rod due to the micro-anchoring action, leading to better mechanical properties and degradation performance of the composite rods.With prolonging immersion time in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution until 8weeks, the MgO porous coating were corroded gradually, along with the disappearance of original pores and the formation of a relatively smooth surface. This resulted in a rapidly reduction in mechanical properties for corresponding composite rods owing to the weakening of interfacial binding capacity. The present results indicated that this new PLA-clad Mg composite rods show good potential biomedical applications for implants and instruments of orthopedic inner fixation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Supercritical impregnation of cinnamaldehyde into polylactic acid as a route to develop antibacterial food packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Carolina; Torres, Alejandra; Rios, Mauricio; Rojas, Adrián; Romero, Julio; de Dicastillo, Carol López; Valenzuela, Ximena; Galotto, María José; Guarda, Abel

    2017-09-01

    Supercritical impregnation was used to incorporate a natural compound with antibacterial activity into biopolymer-based films to develop active food packaging materials. Impregnation tests were carried out under two pressure conditions (9 and 12MPa), and three depressurization rates (0.1, 1 and 10MPamin -1 ) in a high-pressure cell at a constant temperature equal to 40°C. Cinnamaldehyde (Ci), a natural compound with proven antimicrobial activity, was successfully incorporated into poly(lactic acid) films (PLA) using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO 2 ), with impregnation yields ranging from 8 to 13% w/w. Higher pressure and slower depressurization rate seem to favor the Ci impregnation. The incorporation of Ci improved thermal, structural and mechanical properties of the PLA films. Impregnated films were more flexible, less brittle and more resistant materials than neat PLA films. The tested samples showed strong antibacterial activity against the selected microorganisms. In summary, this study provides an innovative route to the development of antibacterial biodegradable materials, which could be used in a wide range of applications of active food packaging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Mechanical Properties of Poly(lactic acid Sheet Reinforced with Microfibrillated Cellulose from Corn Cobs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deejam Prapatsorn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, cellulose was extracted from corn cobs by successive hot NaOH solution and followed by H2O2 bleaching. XRD pattern show characteristic peak of Cellulose I. Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC was successfully prepared by dissolving the extracted cellulose in NaOH/urea solution, shearing in a homogenizer and finally by freezing and thawing. To improve strength of MFC, MFC was physically crosslinked using PVA by freezing and thawing. The crosslinked MFC/PVA was added to poly(lactic acid (PLA to improve its mechanical properties. The non-crosslinked MFC/PVA was also prepared by only stirring the solution without freezing and thawing. MFC/PVA reinforced PLA films with various ratios of PLA and MFC/PVA at100:0, 99:1, 97:3 and 95:5were prepared through a solution casting method. Tensile strength and elongation at breakof PLA films increased with the addition of physically crosslinked MFC/PVA at 1%wt, whereas, the addition of non-crosslinked MFC/PVA decreased elongation at break. Crosslinking of MFC/PVA can improve tensile strength of PLA.It can render better tensile strength than that of non-crosslinked MFC/PVA. However, when MFC/PVA contents increase, tensile strength of PLA fims reinforced with non-crosslinked and crosslinked MFC/PVA decreased. Morphology of fracture surfaces reveals good dispersion and adhesion between 1% crosslinked MFC/PVA and PLA matrix.

  5. Mechanical, thermal and morphological properties of poly(lactic acid)/ethylene-butyl acrylate copolymer nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacharawichanant, S.; Hoysang, P.; Ratchawong, S.

    2017-07-01

    This paper reports a melt blend of poly(lactic acid) (PLA)/ethylene-butyl acrylate copolymer (EBAC) with organoclay content at 3 phr. The mechanical, thermal and morphological properties of PLA/EBAC blends and nanocomposites were investigated. The morphological analysis revealed EBAC phase dispersed as a spherical domain in PLA matrix and the domain size of EBAC dispersed phase increased with increasing EBAC content. The addition of organoclay could improve the miscibility of PLA/EBAC blends due to the decrease of domain size of EBAC dispersed phase. The mechanical properties indicated that the strain at break and impact strength of PLA increased when added EBAC, but Young’s modulus and tensile strength decreased. Storage modulus increased with the addition of organoclay to the PLA/EBAC blends. The thermal properties found that the incorporation of organoclay in the PLA/EBAC blends did not effect on the glass transition temperature and melting temperature values relative to PLA. The degradation temperature of PLA improved with the addition of EBAC. This indicated that EBAC has more thermal stability and degradation temperature than PLA. From X-ray diffraction patterns displayed the characteristic peak in PLA/EBAC/organoclay nanocomposites appeared at the lower angle, which indicated the dispersed clay is intercalated in the polymer matrix. However, second-order diffraction peak appeared at the higher angle indicated that there was partially the conventional composite.

  6. A biomimetic multilayer nanofiber fabric fabricated by electrospinning and textile technology from polylactic acid and Tussah silk fibroin as a scaffold for bone tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao, Weili; He, Jianxin; Han, Qiming; Sang, Feng; Wang, Qian; Chen, Li; Cui, Shizhong

    2016-01-01

    To engineer bone tissue, a scaffold with good biological properties should be provided to approximate the hierarchical structure of collagen fibrils in natural bone. In this study, we fabricated a novel scaffold consisting of multilayer nanofiber fabrics (MLNFFs) by weaving nanofiber yarns of polylactic acid (PLA) and Tussah silk fibroin (TSF). The yarns were fabricated by electrospinning, and we found that spinnability, as well as the mechanical properties of the resulting scaffold, was determined by the ratio between polylactic acid and Tussah silk fibroin. In particular, a 9:1 mixture can be spun continuously into nanofiber yarns with narrow diameter distribution and good mechanical properties. Accordingly, woven scaffolds based on this mixture had excellent mechanical properties, with Young's modulus 417.65 MPa and tensile strength 180.36 MPa. For nonwoven scaffolds fabricated from the same materials, the Young's modulus and tensile strength were 2- and 4-fold lower, respectively. Woven scaffolds also supported adhesion and proliferation of mouse mesenchymal stem cells, and promoted biomineralization via alkaline phosphatase and mineral deposition. Finally, the scaffolds significantly enhanced the formation of new bone in damaged femoral condyle in rabbits. Thus, the scaffolds are potentially suitable for bone tissue engineering because of biomimetic architecture, excellent mechanical properties, and good biocompatibility. - Highlights: • A novel strategy to mimic the hierarchical collagen fibril in bone is proposed by electrospinning and conventional textile technology. • The tensile strength of the woven scaffold was nearly 4-fold larger than that of nonwoven mats. • The nanofiber woven scaffolds show excellent cytocompatibility and accelerate osteoblast differentiation. • The composite scaffold significantly enhanced formation of new bone in damaged condyles in rabbit femur.

  7. A biomimetic multilayer nanofiber fabric fabricated by electrospinning and textile technology from polylactic acid and Tussah silk fibroin as a scaffold for bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Weili [Key Laboratory of Advanced Textile Composites, Ministry of Education, Institute of Textile Composites, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Henan provincial key laboratory of functional textile materials, Zhongyuan University of Technology, Zhengzhou 450007 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Textile and Garment Industry, Henan Province, Zhengzhou 450007 (China); He, Jianxin, E-mail: hejianxin771117@163.com [Henan provincial key laboratory of functional textile materials, Zhongyuan University of Technology, Zhengzhou 450007 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Textile and Garment Industry, Henan Province, Zhengzhou 450007 (China); Han, Qiming [Henan provincial key laboratory of functional textile materials, Zhongyuan University of Technology, Zhengzhou 450007 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Textile and Garment Industry, Henan Province, Zhengzhou 450007 (China); Sang, Feng [Department of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Treatment and Research Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Henan University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Zhengzhou 450000 (China); Wang, Qian [Henan provincial key laboratory of functional textile materials, Zhongyuan University of Technology, Zhengzhou 450007 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Textile and Garment Industry, Henan Province, Zhengzhou 450007 (China); Chen, Li [Key Laboratory of Advanced Textile Composites, Ministry of Education, Institute of Textile Composites, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Cui, Shizhong [Key Laboratory of Advanced Textile Composites, Ministry of Education, Institute of Textile Composites, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Henan provincial key laboratory of functional textile materials, Zhongyuan University of Technology, Zhengzhou 450007 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Textile and Garment Industry, Henan Province, Zhengzhou 450007 (China); and others

    2016-10-01

    To engineer bone tissue, a scaffold with good biological properties should be provided to approximate the hierarchical structure of collagen fibrils in natural bone. In this study, we fabricated a novel scaffold consisting of multilayer nanofiber fabrics (MLNFFs) by weaving nanofiber yarns of polylactic acid (PLA) and Tussah silk fibroin (TSF). The yarns were fabricated by electrospinning, and we found that spinnability, as well as the mechanical properties of the resulting scaffold, was determined by the ratio between polylactic acid and Tussah silk fibroin. In particular, a 9:1 mixture can be spun continuously into nanofiber yarns with narrow diameter distribution and good mechanical properties. Accordingly, woven scaffolds based on this mixture had excellent mechanical properties, with Young's modulus 417.65 MPa and tensile strength 180.36 MPa. For nonwoven scaffolds fabricated from the same materials, the Young's modulus and tensile strength were 2- and 4-fold lower, respectively. Woven scaffolds also supported adhesion and proliferation of mouse mesenchymal stem cells, and promoted biomineralization via alkaline phosphatase and mineral deposition. Finally, the scaffolds significantly enhanced the formation of new bone in damaged femoral condyle in rabbits. Thus, the scaffolds are potentially suitable for bone tissue engineering because of biomimetic architecture, excellent mechanical properties, and good biocompatibility. - Highlights: • A novel strategy to mimic the hierarchical collagen fibril in bone is proposed by electrospinning and conventional textile technology. • The tensile strength of the woven scaffold was nearly 4-fold larger than that of nonwoven mats. • The nanofiber woven scaffolds show excellent cytocompatibility and accelerate osteoblast differentiation. • The composite scaffold significantly enhanced formation of new bone in damaged condyles in rabbit femur.

  8. Impact of the Fused Deposition (FDM Printing Process on Polylactic Acid (PLA Chemistry and Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Arthur Cuiffo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Polylactic acid (PLA is an organic polymer commonly used in fused deposition (FDM printing and biomedical scaffolding that is biocompatible and immunologically inert. However, variations in source material quality and chemistry make it necessary to characterize the filament and determine potential changes in chemistry occurring as a result of the FDM process. We used several spectroscopic techniques, including laser confocal microscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy and photoacousitc FTIR spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS in order to characterize both the bulk and surface chemistry of the source material and printed samples. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC were used to characterize morphology, cold crystallinity, and the glass transition and melting temperatures following printing. Analysis revealed calcium carbonate-based additives which were reacted with organic ligands and potentially trace metal impurities, both before and following printing. These additives became concentrated in voids in the printed structure. This finding is important for biomedical applications as carbonate will impact subsequent cell growth on printed tissue scaffolds. Results of chemical analysis also provided evidence of the hygroscopic nature of the source material and oxidation of the printed surface, and SEM imaging revealed micro- and submicron-scale roughness that will also impact potential applications.

  9. Value of heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key Words: heart-type fatty acid-binding protein, acute coronary syndrome, biomarker. ... is essential to prevent major complications and death. Routinely used biomarkers such ..... fatty acid binding proteins: their function and physiological sig-.

  10. Co-Deposition of a Hydrogel/Calcium Phosphate Hybrid Layer on 3D Printed Poly(Lactic Acid Scaffolds via Dip Coating: Towards Automated Biomaterials Fabrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Schneider

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the surface modification of 3D printed poly(lactic acid (PLA scaffolds with calcium phosphate (CP/gelatin and CP/chitosan hybrid coating layers. The presence of gelatin or chitosan significantly enhances CP co-deposition and adhesion of the mineral layer on the PLA scaffolds. The hydrogel/CP coating layers are fairly thick and the mineral is a mixture of brushite, octacalcium phosphate, and hydroxyapatite. Mineral formation is uniform throughout the printed architectures and all steps (printing, hydrogel deposition, and mineralization are in principle amenable to automatization. Overall, the process reported here therefore has a high application potential for the controlled synthesis of biomimetic coatings on polymeric biomaterials.

  11. Comparative effectiveness of using resorbable membranes of polylactic acid and collagen in regeneration of bone defects in patients with periimplantitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudaryan A.A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of comparative study of effectiveness of usage of separation membranes from polylactic acid (PLA and collagen in carrying out targeted regeneration of bone tissue in 22 patients with periimplantitis. Purpose: To conduct a comparative clinico-radiological efficiency of PLA membrane and collagen membranes in removing bone defects of the alveolar bone in patients with periimplantitis in clinic. It was found that depending on the type of membrane, bone tissue growth occurs not in the same way. Surgery in treatment of periimplantitis using osteo-inducing agent «Bio-Oss» and PLA membranes allows to reach full recovery of bone in bone defects in 90.9 % of patients versus 63.63 % of cases with collagen membranes. Thus, reconstitution of bone in bone defects in periimplantitis is more of full value in using PLA membranes than with membranes from collagen.

  12. Direct investigations on strain-induced cold crystallization behavior and structure evolutions in amorphous poly(lactic acid) with SAXS and WAXS measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Chengbo; Li, Hongfei; Zhang, Wenyang

    2016-01-01

    scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements. The data obtained from the stretched samples within 70-90 degrees C showed that all of the formed crystals are disordered alpha' form with more compact chain packing than that of the cold crystallization. Upon stretching at 70 degrees C, the mesocrystal appears......Strain-induced cold crystallization behavior and structure evolution of amorphous poly(lactic acid) (PLA) stretched within 70-90 degrees C were investigated via in situ synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) measurements as well as differential...... in strain-induced crystallization behavior of amorphous PLA within 70-90 degrees C can be attributed to the competition between chain orientation caused by stretching and chain relaxation. It was proposed that the strain-induced mesocrystal/crystal and the lamellae are formed from the mesophase originally...

  13. Modifying the strength and strain concentration profile within collagen scaffolds using customizable arrays of poly-lactic acid fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozdzen, Laura C; Vucetic, Alan; Harley, Brendan A C

    2017-02-01

    The tendon-to-bone junction is a highly specialized tissue which dissipates stress concentrations between mechanically dissimilar tendon and bone. Upon injury, the local heterogeneities across this insertion are not regenerated, leading to poor functional outcomes such as formation of scar tissue at the insertion and re-failure rates exceeding 90%. Although current tissue engineering methods are moving towards the development of spatially-graded biomaterials to begin to address these injuries, significant opportunities remain to engineer the often complex local mechanical behavior of such biomaterials to enhance their bioactivity. Here, we describe the use of three-dimensional printing techniques to create customizable arrays of poly-lactic acid (PLA) fibers that can be incorporated into a collagen scaffold under development for tendon bone junction repair. Notably, we use additive manufacturing concepts to generate arrays of spatially-graded fibers from biodegradable PLA that are incorporated into collagen scaffolds to create a collagen-PLA composite. We demonstrate the ability to tune the mechanical performance of the fiber-scaffold composite at the bulk scale. We also demonstrate the incorporation of spatially-heterogeneous fiber designs to establish non-uniform local mechanical performance of the composite biomaterial under tensile load, a critical element in the design of multi-compartment biomaterials for tendon-to-bone regeneration applications. Together, this work highlights the capacity to use multi-scale composite biomaterials to control local and bulk mechanical properties, and provides key insights into design elements under consideration for mechanically competent, multi-tissue regeneration platforms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Characterization of Active Packaging Films Made from Poly(Lactic Acid/Poly(Trimethylene Carbonate Incorporated with Oregano Essential Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Liu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Antimicromial and antioxidant bioactive films based on poly(lactic acid/poly(trimenthylene carbonate films incorporated with different concentrations of oregano essential oil (OEO were prepared by solvent casting. The antimicrobial, antioxidant, physical, thermal, microstructural, and mechanical properties of the resulting films were examined. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed that the cross-section of films became rougher when OEO was incorporated into PLA/PTMC blends. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis indicated that crystallinity of PLA phase decreased by the addition of OEO, but this did not affect the thermal stability of the films. Water vapor permeability of films slightly increased with increasing concentration of OEO. However, active PLA/PTMC/OEO composite films showed adequate barrier properties for food packaging application. The antimicrobial and antioxidant capacities were significantly improved with the incorporation of OEO (p < 0.05. The results demonstrated that an optimal balance between the mechanical, barrier, thermal, antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties of the films was achieved by the incorporation of 9 wt % OEO into PLA/PTMC blends.

  15. Properties of poly(lactic acid nanocomposites based on montmorillonite, sepiolite and zirconium phosphonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Fukushima

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Poly(lactic acid (PLA based nanocomposites based on 5 wt.% of an organically modified montmorillonite (CLO, unmodified sepiolite (SEP and organically modified zirconium phosphonate (ZrP were obtained by melt blending. Wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS and scanning electron microscopy (SEM analysis showed a different dispersion level depending on the type and functionalisation of nanoparticles. Differenctial scanning calorimetric (DSC analysis showed that PLA was able to crystallize on heating, and that the addition of ZrP could promote extent of PLA crystallization, whereas the presence of CLO and SEP did not significantly affect the crystallization on heating and melting behaviour of PLA matrix. Dynamic Mechanical Thermoanalysis (DMTA results showed that addition of all nanoparticles brought considerable improvements in E' of PLA, resulting in a remarkable increase of elastic properties for PLA nanocomposites. The melt viscosity and dynamic shear moduli (G',G" of PLA nanocomposites were also enhanced significantly by the presence of CLO and SEP, and attributed to the formation of a PLA/nanoparticle interconnected structure within the polymer matrix. The oxygen permeability of PLA did not significantly vary upon addition of SEP and ZrP nanoparticles. Only addition of CLO led to about 30% decrease compared to PLA permeability, due to the good clay dispersion and clay platelet-like morphology. The characteristic high transparency of PLA in the visible region was kept upon addition of the nanoparticles. Based on these achievements, a high potential of these PLA nanocomposites in sustainable packaging applications could be envisaged.

  16. Acid-regulated proteins induced by Streptococcus mutans and other oral bacteria during acid shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, I R; Svensäter, G

    1998-10-01

    first 30 min of the acid shock, with a total of 11 acid-regulated proteins formed during the 2-h adaptation period with enhanced synthesis transient for seven of these proteins. Streptococcus salivarius AT2 and Streptococcus gordonii TH12 had the formation of 6 and 8 proteins enhanced, while the weakly responding organisms, Streptococcus sanguis ATCC 10,556 and Streptococcus oralis ATCC 10,557, exhibited 8 and 6 such proteins, respectively. Even non-responding strains unable to survive at very low pH, such as Streptococcus sobrinus CH125/43, Streptococcus mitis ATCC 12,261 and Actinomyces naeslundii 301-13 showed the initial formation of 3-9 acid-regulated proteins, but protein synthesis was not sustained over the entire adaptation period. Clearly, the survival of oral bacteria at very low pH is related, not to the total number of the acid-regulated proteins induced per se but to the formation of key proteins that function to augment normal pH homeostasis.

  17. New insights into structure and function of the different types of fatty acid-binding protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmerman, Augusta Wilhelmina

    2002-01-01

    Fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) are small cytosolic proteins with virtually identical backbone structures that facilitate the solubility and intracellular transport of fatty acids. They may also modulate the effect of fatty acids on various metabolic enzymes and receptors and on cellular

  18. Eco-sustainable systems based on poly(lactic acid), diatomite and coffee grounds extract for food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciotti, Ilaria; Mori, Stefano; Cherubini, Valeria; Nanni, Francesca

    2018-06-01

    In the food packaging sector many efforts have been (and are) devoted to the development of new materials in order to reply to an urgent market demand for green and eco-sustainable products. Particularly a lot of attention is currently devoted both to the use of compostable and biobased polymers as innovative and promising alternative to the currently used petrochemical derived polymers, and to the re-use of waste materials coming from agriculture and food industry. In this work, multifunctional eco-sustainable systems, based on poly(lactic acid) (PLA) as biopolymeric matrix, diatomaceous earth as reinforcing filler and spent coffee grounds extract as oxygen scavenger, were produced for the first time, in order to provide a simultaneous improvement of mechanical and gas barrier properties. The influence of the diatomite and the spent coffee grounds extract on the microstructural, mechanical and oxygen barrier properties of the produced films was deeply investigated by means of X-Ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, ATR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), uniaxial tensile tests, O 2 permeabilimetry measurements. An improvement of both mechanical and oxygen barrier properties was recorded for systems characterised by the co-presence of diatomite and coffee grounds extract, suggesting a possible synergic effect of the two additives. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effectiveness of trimethylopropane trimethacrylate for the electron-beam-irradiation-induced cross-linking of polylactic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Hon-Meng [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Jalan Genting Kelang, 53300 Setapak, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Bee, Soo-Tueen, E-mail: beest@utar.edu.my [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Jalan Genting Kelang, 53300 Setapak, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Ratnam, C.T. [Radiation Processing Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Sin, Lee Tin; Phang, Yee-Yao; Tee, Tiam-Ting [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Jalan Genting Kelang, 53300 Setapak, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Rahmat, A.R. [Department of Polymer Engineering, Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor (Malaysia)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Investigation of trimethylopropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) on electron beam irradiated PLA. • Irradiated PLA blends were weakened by incorporation of high amount of TMPTMA. • TMPTMA interacts with polymer free radicals to build crosslinking network. -- Abstract: The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of various loading levels of trimethylopropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) on the properties of polylactic acid (PLA) cross-linked via electron-beam irradiation. PLA was compounded with 3–5 wt.% of TMPTMA to induce cross-linking upon subjection to electron-beam irradiation doses of 25–250 kGy. The physical properties of the PLA samples were characterised by means of X-ray diffraction, gel fraction and scanning electron microscopy analyses on fractured surfaces after tensile tests. The presence of TMPTMA in PLA was found to effectively increase the crystallite size and gel fraction. However, higher loading levels of TMPTMA could compromise the properties of the PLA/TMPTMA samples, indicating that a larger amount of monomer free radicals might promote degradation within the substantially cross-linked amorphous phase. Irradiation-induced cross-linking in the samples could improve the cross-linking density while decreasing the elongation and interfering with the crystallisation. These effects are caused by the intensive irradiation-induced chain scission that is responsible for the deterioration of the mechanical and crystalline properties of the samples.

  20. Biodegradation behaviors and color change of composites based on type of bagasse pulp/polylactic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    maryam allahdadi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this research, appearance quality and decay resistance of polylactic acid (PLA based green composites made from monoethanolamine (MEA bagasse pulp, alkaline sulfite-anthraquinone (AS bagasse pulp, bleached soda (B S bagasse pulp, unbleached soda (UN S bagasse pulp (UN S bagasse pulp and raw bagasse fibers (B were investigated. For the investigation of biodegradation behaviors, effect of the white rot fungi (Coriolus versicolor on the neat PLA and composites with natural fibers during 30 and 60 days were studied. It is found that when the bagasse fibers were incorporated into composites matrix, percentage weight reduction and stiffness of samples have been increased. Also, the rate of loss mentioned of the composites made from bagasse pulp fibers were superior to the relevant raw bagase fibers. This can be explained by the removal of non-cellulosic components such as lignin and hemicelluloses from the fibers by pulping process. Also, the results indicates the inferior of surface qualities of fabricated composites regarding to neat PLA. Depending on the fiber type, different reductions of the surface qualities were attained. However, the degree of color change of the composites with any type of bagasse pulp fibers were lower compared with composite with raw bagasse fiber. Finally, as compared with the raw bagasse fibers, bagasse pulp fibers have better reinforcing capability.

  1. Effectiveness of trimethylopropane trimethacrylate for the electron-beam-irradiation-induced cross-linking of polylactic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Hon-Meng; Bee, Soo-Tueen; Ratnam, C.T.; Sin, Lee Tin; Phang, Yee-Yao; Tee, Tiam-Ting; Rahmat, A.R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Investigation of trimethylopropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) on electron beam irradiated PLA. • Irradiated PLA blends were weakened by incorporation of high amount of TMPTMA. • TMPTMA interacts with polymer free radicals to build crosslinking network. -- Abstract: The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of various loading levels of trimethylopropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) on the properties of polylactic acid (PLA) cross-linked via electron-beam irradiation. PLA was compounded with 3–5 wt.% of TMPTMA to induce cross-linking upon subjection to electron-beam irradiation doses of 25–250 kGy. The physical properties of the PLA samples were characterised by means of X-ray diffraction, gel fraction and scanning electron microscopy analyses on fractured surfaces after tensile tests. The presence of TMPTMA in PLA was found to effectively increase the crystallite size and gel fraction. However, higher loading levels of TMPTMA could compromise the properties of the PLA/TMPTMA samples, indicating that a larger amount of monomer free radicals might promote degradation within the substantially cross-linked amorphous phase. Irradiation-induced cross-linking in the samples could improve the cross-linking density while decreasing the elongation and interfering with the crystallisation. These effects are caused by the intensive irradiation-induced chain scission that is responsible for the deterioration of the mechanical and crystalline properties of the samples

  2. Biodegradable polylactic acid polymer with nisin for use in antimicrobial food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, T; Zhang, H

    2008-04-01

    Biodegradable polylactic acid (PLA) polymer was evaluated for its application as a material for antimicrobial food packaging. PLA films were incorporated with nisin to for control of foodborne pathogens. Antimicrobial activity of PLA/nisin films against Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella Enteritidis were evaluated in culture media and liquid foods (orange juice and liquid egg white). Scanned electron micrograph and confocal laser microscopy revealed that nisin particles were evenly distributed in PLA polymer matrix on the surface and inside of the PLA/nisin films. PLA/nisin significantly inhibited growth of L. monocytogenes in culture medium and liquid egg white. The greatest inhibition occurred at 24 h when the cell counts of L. monocytogenes in the PLA/nisin samples were 4.5 log CFU/mL less than the controls. PLA/nisin reduced the cell population of E. coli O157:H7 in orange juice from 7.5 to 3.5 log at 72 h whereas the control remained at about 6 log CFU/mL. PLA/nisin treatment resulted in a 2 log reduction of S. Enteritidis in liquid egg white at 24 degrees C. After 21 d at 4 degrees C the S. Enteritidis population from PLA/nisin treated liquid egg white (3.5 log CFU/mL) was significantly less than the control (6.8 log CFU/mL). E. coli O157:H7 in orange juice was more sensitive to PLA/nisin treatments than in culture medium. The results of this research demonstrated the retention of nisin activity when incorporated into the PLA polymer and its antimicrobial effectiveness against foodborne pathogens. The combination of a biopolymer and natural bacteriocin has potential for use in antimicrobial food packaging.

  3. Conformational Footprint in Hydrolysis-Induced Nanofibrillation and Crystallization of Poly(lactic acid).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huan; Yang, Xi; Xie, Lan; Hakkarainen, Minna

    2016-03-14

    The origin of hydrolysis-induced nanofibrillation and crystallization, at the molecular level, was revealed by mapping the conformational ordering during long-term hydrolytic degradation of initially amorphous poly(lactic acid) (PLA), a representative model for degradable aliphatic polyesters generally displaying strong interplay between crystallization and hydrolytic erosion. The conformational regularization of chain segments was essentially the main driving force for the morphological evolution of PLA during hydrolytic degradation. For hydrolysis at 37 °C, no significant structural variations were observed due to the immobilization of "frozen" PLA chains. In contrast, conformational ordering in PLA was immediately triggered during hydrolysis at 60 °C and was responsible for the transition from random coils to disordered trans and, further, to quasi-crystalline nanospheres. On the surfaces, the head-by-head absorption and joining of neighboring nanospheres led to nanofibrillar assemblies following a "gluttonous snake"-like manner. The length and density of nanofibers formed were in close relation to the hydrolytic evolution, both of which showed a direct rise in the initial 60 days and then a gradual decline. In the interior, presumably the high surface energy of the nanospheres allowed for the preferential anchoring and packing of conformationally ordered chains into lamellae. In accordance with the well-established hypothesis, the amorphous regions were attacked prior to the erosion of crystalline entities, causing a rapid increase of crystallinity during the initial 30 days, followed by a gradual fall until 90 days. In addition to adequate illustration of hydrolysis-induced variations of crystallinity, our proposed model elucidates the formation of spherulitic nuclei featuring an extremely wide distribution of diameters ranging from several nanometers to over 5 μm, as well as the inferior resistance to hydrolysis observed for the primary nuclei. Our work

  4. Recognizing protein–protein interfaces with empirical potentials and reduced amino acid alphabets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wodak Shoshana

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In structural genomics, an important goal is the detection and classification of protein–protein interactions, given the structures of the interacting partners. We have developed empirical energy functions to identify native structures of protein–protein complexes among sets of decoy structures. To understand the role of amino acid diversity, we parameterized a series of functions, using a hierarchy of amino acid alphabets of increasing complexity, with 2, 3, 4, 6, and 20 amino acid groups. Compared to previous work, we used the simplest possible functional form, with residue–residue interactions and a stepwise distance-dependence. We used increased computational ressources, however, constructing 290,000 decoys for 219 protein–protein complexes, with a realistic docking protocol where the protein partners are flexible and interact through a molecular mechanics energy function. The energy parameters were optimized to correctly assign as many native complexes as possible. To resolve the multiple minimum problem in parameter space, over 64000 starting parameter guesses were tried for each energy function. The optimized functions were tested by cross validation on subsets of our native and decoy structures, by blind tests on series of native and decoy structures available on the Web, and on models for 13 complexes submitted to the CAPRI structure prediction experiment. Results Performance is similar to several other statistical potentials of the same complexity. For example, the CAPRI target structure is correctly ranked ahead of 90% of its decoys in 6 cases out of 13. The hierarchy of amino acid alphabets leads to a coherent hierarchy of energy functions, with qualitatively similar parameters for similar amino acid types at all levels. Most remarkably, the performance with six amino acid classes is equivalent to that of the most detailed, 20-class energy function. Conclusion This suggests that six carefully chosen amino

  5. Functional discrimination of membrane proteins using machine learning techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yabuki Yukimitsu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Discriminating membrane proteins based on their functions is an important task in genome annotation. In this work, we have analyzed the characteristic features of amino acid residues in membrane proteins that perform major functions, such as channels/pores, electrochemical potential-driven transporters and primary active transporters. Results We observed that the residues Asp, Asn and Tyr are dominant in channels/pores whereas the composition of hydrophobic residues, Phe, Gly, Ile, Leu and Val is high in electrochemical potential-driven transporters. The composition of all the amino acids in primary active transporters lies in between other two classes of proteins. We have utilized different machine learning algorithms, such as, Bayes rule, Logistic function, Neural network, Support vector machine, Decision tree etc. for discriminating these classes of proteins. We observed that most of the algorithms have discriminated them with similar accuracy. The neural network method discriminated the channels/pores, electrochemical potential-driven transporters and active transporters with the 5-fold cross validation accuracy of 64% in a data set of 1718 membrane proteins. The application of amino acid occurrence improved the overall accuracy to 68%. In addition, we have discriminated transporters from other α-helical and β-barrel membrane proteins with the accuracy of 85% using k-nearest neighbor method. The classification of transporters and all other proteins (globular and membrane showed the accuracy of 82%. Conclusion The performance of discrimination with amino acid occurrence is better than that with amino acid composition. We suggest that this method could be effectively used to discriminate transporters from all other globular and membrane proteins, and classify them into channels/pores, electrochemical and active transporters.

  6. The functional properties, modification and utilization of whey proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. G. Venter

    1986-03-01

    Full Text Available Whey protein has an excellent nutritional value and exhibits a functional potential. In comparison with certain other food proteins, the whey protein content of essential amino acids is extremely favourable for human consumption. Depending on the heat-treatment history thereof, soluble whey proteins with utilizable functional properties, apart from high biological value, true digestibility, protein efficiency ratio and nett protein utilization, can be recovered. Various technological and chemical recovery processes have been designed. Chemically and enzymatically modified whey protein is manufactured to obtain technological and functional advantages. The important functional properties of whey proteins, namely hydration, gelation, emulsifying and foaming properties, are reviewed.

  7. Lipid recognition propensities of amino acids in membrane proteins from atomic resolution data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morita Mizuki

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein-lipid interactions play essential roles in the conformational stability and biological functions of membrane proteins. However, few of the previous computational studies have taken into account the atomic details of protein-lipid interactions explicitly. Results To gain an insight into the molecular mechanisms of the recognition of lipid molecules by membrane proteins, we investigated amino acid propensities in membrane proteins for interacting with the head and tail groups of lipid molecules. We observed a common pattern of lipid tail-amino acid interactions in two different data sources, crystal structures and molecular dynamics simulations. These interactions are largely explained by general lipophilicity, whereas the preferences for lipid head groups vary among individual proteins. We also found that membrane and water-soluble proteins utilize essentially an identical set of amino acids for interacting with lipid head and tail groups. Conclusions We showed that the lipophilicity of amino acid residues determines the amino acid preferences for lipid tail groups in both membrane and water-soluble proteins, suggesting that tightly-bound lipid molecules and lipids in the annular shell interact with membrane proteins in a similar manner. In contrast, interactions between lipid head groups and amino acids showed a more variable pattern, apparently constrained by each protein's specific molecular function.

  8. Lipid recognition propensities of amino acids in membrane proteins from atomic resolution data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Mizuki; Katta, AVSK Mohan; Ahmad, Shandar; Mori, Takaharu; Sugita, Yuji; Mizuguchi, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    Protein-lipid interactions play essential roles in the conformational stability and biological functions of membrane proteins. However, few of the previous computational studies have taken into account the atomic details of protein-lipid interactions explicitly. To gain an insight into the molecular mechanisms of the recognition of lipid molecules by membrane proteins, we investigated amino acid propensities in membrane proteins for interacting with the head and tail groups of lipid molecules. We observed a common pattern of lipid tail-amino acid interactions in two different data sources, crystal structures and molecular dynamics simulations. These interactions are largely explained by general lipophilicity, whereas the preferences for lipid head groups vary among individual proteins. We also found that membrane and water-soluble proteins utilize essentially an identical set of amino acids for interacting with lipid head and tail groups. We showed that the lipophilicity of amino acid residues determines the amino acid preferences for lipid tail groups in both membrane and water-soluble proteins, suggesting that tightly-bound lipid molecules and lipids in the annular shell interact with membrane proteins in a similar manner. In contrast, interactions between lipid head groups and amino acids showed a more variable pattern, apparently constrained by each protein's specific molecular function

  9. Degradability Enhancement of Poly(Lactic Acid) by Stearate-Zn3Al LDH Nanolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eili, Mahboobeh; Shameli, Kamyar; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa; Yunus, Wan Md Zin Wan

    2012-01-01

    Recent environmental problems and societal concerns associated with the disposal of petroleum based plastics throughout the world have triggered renewed efforts to develop new biodegradable products compatible with our environment. This article describes the preparation, characterization and biodegradation study of poly(lactic acid)/layered double hydroxide (PLA/LDH) nanocomposites from PLA and stearate-Zn3Al LDH. A solution casting method was used to prepare PLA/stearate-Zn3Al LDH nanocomposites. The anionic clay Zn3Al LDH was firstly prepared by co-precipitation method from a nitrate salt solution at pH 7.0 and then modified by stearate anions through an ion exchange reaction. This modification increased the basal spacing of the synthetic clay from 8.83 Å to 40.10 Å. The morphology and properties of the prepared PLA/stearate-Zn3Al LDH nanocomposites were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), tensile tests as well as biodegradation studies. From the XRD analysis and TEM observation, the stearate-Zn3Al LDH lost its ordered stacking-structure and was greatly exfoliated in the PLA matrix. Tensile test results of PLA/stearate-Zn3Al LDH nanocomposites showed that the presence of around 1.0–3.0 wt % of the stearate-Zn3Al LDH in the PLA drastically improved its elongation at break. The biodegradation studies demonstrated a significant biodegradation rate improvement of PLA in the presence of stearate-Zn3Al LDH nanolayers. This effect can be caused by the catalytic role of the stearate groups in the biodegradation mechanism leading to much faster disintegration of nanocomposites than pure PLA. PMID:22942682

  10. Poly(lactic acid)/TiO2 nanocomposites as alternative biocidal and antifungal materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, Carmen; Ochoa, Almudena; Ulloa, Maria Teresa; Alvarez, Eduardo; Canales, Daniel; Zapata, Paula A.

    2015-01-01

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) composites with titanium oxide (TiO 2 ) ~ 10-nm nanoparticles were produced by the melting process and their main properties were evaluated. The nanoparticles are homogeneously dispersed in the matrix with a low degree of agglomeration, as seen by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The crystallinity temperature increased ~ 12% when 5 wt.% of TiO 2 was added, showing that the nanoparticles acted as nucleating agents this trend was confirmed by optical images. The elastic modulus increased ~ 54% compared to neat PLA at 5 wt.% of nanoparticles. Despite these improvements, PLA/TiO 2 nanocomposites showed lower shear viscosity than neat PLA, possibly reflecting degradation of the polymer due to the particles. Regarding biocidal properties, after 2 h of contact the PLA/TiO 2 composites with 8 wt.% TiO 2 showed a reduction of Escherichia coli colonies of ~ 82% under no UVA irradiation compared to pure PLA. This biocidal characteristic can be increased under UVA irradiation, with nanocomposites containing 8 wt.% TiO 2 killing 94% of the bacteria. The PLA/TiO 2 nanocomposites with 8 wt.% were also 99.99% effective against Aspergillus fumigatus under the UVA irradiation. - Highlights: • PLA composites with titanium oxide (10 nm) were produced by the melting process. • The crystallinity temperature increased ~ 12% when 5 wt.% of TiO 2 was added. • The elastic modulus increased ~ 54% compared to neat PLA. • The PLA/TiO 2 composites showed a reduction of Escherichia coli colonies of 94%. • The PLA/TiO 2 nanocomposites with 8 wt.% were also 99.99% effective against fungi

  11. Preparation and investigation of polylactic acid, calcium carbonate and polyvinylalcohol nanofibrous scaffolds for osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Doustgani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: In this study, the effect of electrospun fiber orientation on proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs was evaluated. Materials and Methods: Aligned and random nanocomposite nanofibrous scaffolds were electrospun from polylactic acid (PLA, poly (vinyl alcohol (PVA and calcium carbonate nanoparticles (nCaP. The surface morphology of prepared nanofibrous scaffolds with and without cell was examined using scanning electron microscopy. Mechanical properties of electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds were determined with a  universal testing machine. The in vitro properties of fabricated scaffolds was also investigated by the MTT assay and alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP.Results: The average fiber diameter for aligned and random nanofibers were 82 ± 12 nm and 124 ± 25 nm, respectively. The mechanical testing indicated the higher tensile strength and elastic modulus of aligned nanofibers. MTT and ALP results showed that alignment of nanofiber increased the osteogenic differentiation of stem cells.Conclusion: Aligned nanofibrous nanocomposite scaffolds of PLA/nCaP/PVA could be an excellent substrate for MSCs and represents a potential bone-filling material.

  12. The effect of electrospun poly(lactic acid and nanohydroxyapatite nanofibers’ diameter on proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Doustgani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Electrospun nanofibrous mats of poly(lactic acid (PLA and nanohydroxyapatite (nano-HA were prepared and proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells on the prepared nanofibers were investigated in this study. Materials and Methods: PLA/nano-HA nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning. The effects of process parameters, such as nano-HA concentration, distance, applied voltage, and flow rate on the mean diameter of electrospun nanofibers were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was used to determine the mean fiber diameter of produced nanofibers. Mechanical propertes of nanofibrous mats were evaluated using a universal testing machine. Response surface methodology was used to model the fiber diameter of electrospun PLA/nano-HA nanofibers. Results: The average fiber diameter for optimized nanofibers was 125 ± 11 nm. MTT and ALP results showed that optimization of fiber diameter increased the osteogenic differentiation of stem cells. Conclusion: It could be concluded that optimization of fiber diameter has beneficial effect on cell proliferation and differentiation. Optimized nanofibers of PLA/nano-HA could be good candidates for bone tissue engineering.

  13. Feature Selection and the Class Imbalance Problem in Predicting Protein Function from Sequence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Shahib, A.; Breitling, R.; Gilbert, D.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract: When the standard approach to predict protein function by sequence homology fails, other alternative methods can be used that require only the amino acid sequence for predicting function. One such approach uses machine learning to predict protein function directly from amino acid sequence

  14. Preparation and characterization of reactive blends of poly(lactic acid), poly(ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol), and poly(ethylene-co-glycidyl methacrylate)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warangkhana, Phromma; Rathanawan, Magaraphan; Jana Sadhan, C.

    2015-01-01

    The ternary blends of poly(lactic acid) (PLA), poly(ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol) (EVOH), and poly(ethylene-co-glycidyl methacrylate) (EGMA) were prepared. The role of EGMA as a compatibilizer was evaluated. The weight ratio of PLA:EVOH was 80:20 and the EGMA loadings were varied from 5-20 phr. The blends were characterized as follows: thermal properties by differential scanning calorimetry, morphology by scanning electron microscopy, and mechanical properties by pendulum impact tester, and universal testing machine. The glass transition temperature of PLA blends did not change much when compared with that of PLA. The blends of PLA/EGMA and EVOH/EGMA showed EGMA dispersed droplets where the latter led to poor impact properties. However, the tensile elongation at break and tensile toughness substantially increased upon addition of EGMA to blends of PLA and EVOH. It was noted in tensile test samples that both PLA and EVOH domains fibrillated significantly to produce toughness

  15. Preparation and characterization of reactive blends of poly(lactic acid), poly(ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol), and poly(ethylene-co-glycidyl methacrylate)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warangkhana, Phromma; Rathanawan, Magaraphan, E-mail: rathanawan.k@chula.ac.th [Chulalongkorn University, Petroleum and Petrochemical College - Bangkok (Thailand); Jana Sadhan, C., E-mail: janas@uakron.edu [The University of Akron, Department of Polymer Engineering, Ohio (United States)

    2015-05-22

    The ternary blends of poly(lactic acid) (PLA), poly(ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol) (EVOH), and poly(ethylene-co-glycidyl methacrylate) (EGMA) were prepared. The role of EGMA as a compatibilizer was evaluated. The weight ratio of PLA:EVOH was 80:20 and the EGMA loadings were varied from 5-20 phr. The blends were characterized as follows: thermal properties by differential scanning calorimetry, morphology by scanning electron microscopy, and mechanical properties by pendulum impact tester, and universal testing machine. The glass transition temperature of PLA blends did not change much when compared with that of PLA. The blends of PLA/EGMA and EVOH/EGMA showed EGMA dispersed droplets where the latter led to poor impact properties. However, the tensile elongation at break and tensile toughness substantially increased upon addition of EGMA to blends of PLA and EVOH. It was noted in tensile test samples that both PLA and EVOH domains fibrillated significantly to produce toughness.

  16. Blending of Low-Density Polyethylene and Poly-Lactic Acid with Maleic Anhydride as A Compatibilizer for Better Environmentally Food-Packaging Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, A. H.; Aulia, F.

    2017-05-01

    The common conventional food packaging materialsare using a thin layer plastic or film, which is made of a synthetic polymer, such as Low-Density Poly Ethylene (LDPE). However, the use of these polymers hasan adverse impact on the environment, because the synthetic polymersare difficult to degrade naturally. Poly-Lactic Acid (PLA) is a biodegradable polymer that can be substituted to synthetic polymers. Since LDPE and PLA have a difference in polarity, therefore the first step of research is to graft them with maleic anhydride (MAH) for increasing the properties of its miscibility. The interaction between them is confirmed by FTIR; whereas the environment issueis characterized by the water adsorption and biodegradability. The FTIR spectra indicated that there had been an interaction between LDPE and MAH and LDPE/LDPE-g-MAH/PLA blend. Increasing PLA content in the blend affected to the increasing in their water absorption and biodegradable. Poly-blend with 20% PLA content was the optimum composition for environmentally food packaging.

  17. Mechanochemical Ring-Opening Polymerization of Lactide: Liquid-Assisted Grinding for the Green Synthesis of Poly(lactic acid) with High Molecular Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohn, Nuri; Shin, Jihoon; Kim, Sung Sik; Kim, Jeung Gon

    2017-09-22

    Mechanochemical polymerization of lactide is carried out by using ball milling. Mechanical energy from collisions between the balls and the vessel efficiently promotes an organic-base-mediated metal- and solvent-free solid-state polymerization. Investigation of the parameters of the ball-milling synthesis revealed that the degree of lactide ring-opening polymerization could be modulated by the ball-milling time, vibration frequency, mass of the ball media, and liquid-assisted grinding. Liquid-assisted grinding was found to be an especially important factor for achieving a high degree of mechanochemical polymerization. Although polymer-chain scission from the strong collision energy prevented mechanical-force-driven high-molecular-weight polymer synthesis, the addition of only a small amount of liquid enabled sufficient energy dissipation and poly(lactic acid) was thereby obtained with a molecular weight of over 1×10 5  g mol -1 . © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Development of polylactic acid-based materials through reactive modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowlks, Alison Camille

    2009-12-01

    Polylactic acid (PLA)-based systems have shown to be of great potential for the development of materials requiring biobased content, biodegradation, and sufficient properties. The efforts in this study are directed toward addressing the current research need to overcome some of the inherent drawbacks of PLA. To meet this need, reactive extrusion was employed to develop new materials based on PLA by grafting, compounding, and polymer blending. In the first part of this work, maleic anhydride (MA) was grafted onto PLA by reactive extrusion. Two structurally different peroxides were used to initiate grafting and results were reported on the basis of grafting, molecular weight, and thermal behavior. An inverse relationship between degree of grafting and molecular weight was established. It was also found that, regardless of peroxide type, there is an optimum peroxid-to-MA ratio of 0.5:2 that promotes maximum grafting, beyond which degradation reactions become predominant. Overall, it was found that the maleated copolymer (MAPLA) could be used as an interfacial modifier in PLA-based composites. Therefore, MAPLA was incorporated into PLA-talc composites in varying concentrations. The influence of the MAPLA addition on the mechanical and thermal behavior was investigated. When added in an optimum concentration, MAPLA improved the tensile strength and crystallization of the composite. Furthermore, microscopic observation confirmed the compatibilization effect of MAPLA in PLA-talc composites. Vinyltrimethoxysilane was free-radically grafted onto the backbone of PLA and subsequently moisture crosslinked. The effects of monomer, initiator, and catalyst concentration on the degree of crosslinking and the mechanical and thermal properties were investigated. The presence of a small amount of catalyst showed to be a major contributor to the crosslinking formation in the time frame investigated, shown by an increase in gel content and decrease in crystallinity. Furthermore

  19. Osteogenesis of human adipose-derived stem cells on hydroxyapatite-mineralized poly(lactic acid) nanofiber sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kung, Fu-Chen [Department of Health Developing and Health Marketing, Kainan University, Taiwan (China); Lin, Chi-Chang, E-mail: chichang31@thu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Tunghai University, Taiwan (China); Lai, Wen-Fu T., E-mail: Laitw@tmu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taiwan (China)

    2014-12-01

    Electrospun fiber sheets with various orientations (random, partially aligned, and aligned) and smooth and roughened casted membranes were prepared. Hydroxyapatite (HA) crystals were in situ formed on these material surfaces via immersion in 10 × simulated body fluid solution. The size and morphology of the resulting fibers were examined using scanning electron microscopy. The average diameter of the fibers ranged from 225 ± 25 to 1050 ± 150 nm depending on the electrospinning parameters. Biological experiment results show that human adipose-derived stem cells exhibit different adhesion and osteogenic differentiation on the three types of fiber. The cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation were best on the aligned fibers. Similar results were found for phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase expression. Electrospun poly(lactic acid) aligned fibers mineralized with HA crystals provide a good environment for cell growth and osteogenic differentiation and thus have great potential in the tissue engineering field. - Highlights: • hADSCs show higher adhesion and proliferation on HA-precipitate electrospun fiber sheets than those of the control membranes. • HA-mineralized fiber groups greatly improve cell growth and increase FAK and p-FAK expressions. • HA-precipitate electrospun fiber sheets present higher ALP and OC activity through the study periods. • Electrospun PLA fiber mineralized with HA provides a good environment for cell growth and osteogenic differentiation. • A simple immersion of electrospun fibers in 10 × SBF are a potential matrix for bone tissue engineering.

  20. Injury-induced inhibition of small intestinal protein and nucleic acid synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, E.A.; Hatz, R.A.; Yarmush, M.L.; Tompkins, R.G.

    1990-01-01

    Small intestinal mucosal weight and nutrient absorption are significantly diminished early after cutaneous thermal injuries. Because these intestinal properties are highly dependent on rates of nucleic acid and protein synthesis, in vivo incorporation of thymidine, uridine, and leucine into small intestinal deoxyribonucleic acid, ribonucleic acid, and proteins were measured. Deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis was markedly decreased with the lowest thymidine incorporation in the jejunum (p less than 0.01); these findings were confirmed by autoradiographic identification of radiolabeled nuclei in the intestinal crypts. Protein synthesis was decreased by 6 h postinjury (p less than 0.01) but had returned to normal by 48 h. Consistent with a decreased rate of protein synthesis, ribonucleic acid synthesis was also decreased 18 h postinjury (p less than 0.01). These decreased deoxyribonucleic acid, ribonucleic acid, and protein synthesis rates are not likely a result of ischemia because in other studies of this injury model, intestinal blood flow was not significantly changed by the burn injury. Potentially, factors initiating the acute inflammatory reaction may directly inhibit nucleic acid and protein synthesis and lead to alterations in nutrient absorption and intestinal barrier function after injury

  1. Specific Mechanical Energy and Thermal Degradation of Poly(lactic acid and Poly(caprolactone/Date Pits Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Mohamed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The compatibility of date pits (DP with polylactic acid (PLA or polycaprolactone (PCL is investigated. Composites were prepared by compounding PLA or PCL with date pits at 10, 20, 30, and 40% wt/wt and extruded. Wheat vital gluten (VG was also used as a filler and in combination with DP. The specific mechanical energy (SME was calculated and the composites thermal properties were tested using DSC (peak temperature, enthalpic relaxation, and glass transition and TGA (degradation temperature and mechanism and degradation kinetics. Because DP is hard filler, the SME of PCL-DP composites increased as the amount of filler increased. At 40% fill, the SME decreased due to the lubricating effect of oil found naturally in DP. As illustrated by lower SME, PLA composites exhibited softer texture because PLA is harder than DP. The DSC melting peak temperature of both polymers has increased at higher DP; however, PLA exhibited enthalpic relation between 66 and 68°C. The TGA profile of the composites displayed two distinct peaks versus one peak for the pure polymer. The degradation kinetics showed multistep process for the composites and one-step process for the pure polymer. The utilization of date pits as a hard filler in developing biodegradable plastics is good for the environment and a value added for the date industry.

  2. Effect of gamma irradiation on physicochemical properties of commercial poly(lactic acid) clamshell for food packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madera-Santana, Tomás J.; Meléndrez, R.; González-García, Gerardo; Quintana-Owen, Patricia; Pillai, Suresh D.

    2016-01-01

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) is a well-known biodegradable polymer with strong potential application in food packaging industry. In this paper, samples of PLA clamshell for tomatoes packaging were exposed with 60 CO γ-ray's source (1.33 MeV) at different dose levels (0, 10, 60, 150, 300, and 600 kGy), at room temperature and in presence of air. The physicochemical properties of neat PLA and sample exposed to gamma irradiation were investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and tensile measurements. Results show as the dose increases, the molecular weight (M w ), melting temperature (T m ), tensile strength and elongation at break decreased. However, the tensile modulus increased with increasing doses. The surface of PLA clamshells was degraded (scratches and minor cracks) when samples were exposed to doses greater than 60 kGy. - Highlights: • The gamma irradiation effects on PLA clamshells were studied. • DSC, XRD, NMR and FTIR analysis were used for PLA clamshell characterization. • The M w , T m , strength and elongation of the irradiated PLA clamshells decreased. • The tensile modulus increased with increasing gamma doses. • The Surface of PLA clamshell showed scratches and minor cracks.

  3. Disposal Options of Bamboo Fabric-Reinforced Poly(Lactic Acid Composites for Sustainable Packaging: Biodegradability and Recyclability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Nurul Fazita

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine the recyclability and biodegradability of bamboo fabric-reinforced poly(lactic acid (BF-PLA composites for sustainable packaging. BF-PLA composite was recycled through the granulation, extrusion, pelletization and injection processes. Subsequently, mechanical properties (tensile, flexural and impact strength, thermal stability and the morphological appearance of recycled BF-PLA composites were determined and compared to BF-PLA composite (initial materials and virgin PLA. It was observed that the BF-PLA composites had the adequate mechanical rigidity and thermal stability to be recycled and reused. Moreover, the biodegradability of BF-PLA composite was evaluated in controlled and real composting conditions, and the rate of biodegradability of BF-PLA composites was compared to the virgin PLA. Morphological and thermal characteristics of the biodegradable BF-PLA and virgin PLA were obtained by using environment scanning electron microscopy (ESEM and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, respectively. The first order decay rate was found to be 0.0278 and 0.0151 day−1 in a controlled composting condition and 0.0008 and 0.0009 day−1 in real composting conditions for virgin PLA and BF-PLA composite, respectively. Results indicate that the reinforcement of bamboo fabric in PLA matrix minimizes the degradation rate of BF-PLA composite. Thus, BF-PLA composite has the potential to be used in product packaging for providing sustainable packaging.

  4. Effect of Rhizopus oryzae Fermentation on Kenaf-Based Polylactic Acid’s Monomer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Aimi Mohd Nasir

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Kenaf biomass is the potential as raw materials used to produce polylactic acid's monomer which is lactic acid via fermentation by Rhizopus oryzae. Kenaf biomass' structure is complex due to its lignin and cellulose content. This matter had encouraged it to undergo pre- treatment process as the initial step before fermentation process can be done. In this paper, kenaf biomass was treated with dilute sulphuric acid (H2SO4 to hydrolyze the cellulose content in it as well as to convert the cellulose into glucose- a carbon source for Rhizopus to grow. Then, the fermentation process was carried out in shake flask for 3 days at pH 6. Several conditions for fermentation process had been chosen which were 25oC at 150 rpm, 25 oC at 200 rpm, 37 oC at 150 rpm and 37oC at 200 rpm. In this fermentation process, 0.471 g/L, 0.428 g/L, 0.444 g/L and 0.38 g/L of lactic acid was produced respectively. Sample at 25oC at 200 rpm produced maximum amount of lactic acid compared to others.ABSTRAK: Biojisim kenaf berpotensi sebagai bahan mentah dalam penghasilan monomer asid polylactic (poliester alifatik termoplastik diterbitkan daripada sumber boleh diperbaharu seperti kanji jagung yang merupakan asid laktik menerusi penapaian oleh Rhizopus oryzae (sejenis fungus yang hidup dalam jirim organik yang telah mati. Struktur biojisim kenaf adalah kompleks disebabkan kandungan lignin dan selulosanya. Hal ini menyebabkan ia perlu melalui proses pra-rawatan sebagai langkah awal sebelum proses penapaian dijalankan. Dalam kertas ini, biojirim kenaf dirawat dengan asid sulfurik (H2SO4 yang dicairkan untuk menghidrolisis kandungan selulosa di dalamnya di samping menukar selulosa menjadi glukosa - sumber karbon bagi tumbesaran Rhizopus. Kemudian, proses penapaian dijalankan di dalam kelalang goncang selama 3 hari pada pH 6. Beberapa ciri proses penapaian telah dipilih iaitu 25 oC pada 150 rpm, 25 oC pada 200 rpm, 37 oC pada 150 rpm dan 37 oC pada 200 rpm. Dalam proses penapaian

  5. The PANTHER database of protein families, subfamilies, functions and pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Mi, Huaiyu; Lazareva-Ulitsky, Betty; Loo, Rozina; Kejariwal, Anish; Vandergriff, Jody; Rabkin, Steven; Guo, Nan; Muruganujan, Anushya; Doremieux, Olivier; Campbell, Michael J.; Kitano, Hiroaki; Thomas, Paul D.

    2004-01-01

    PANTHER is a large collection of protein families that have been subdivided into functionally related subfamilies, using human expertise. These subfamilies model the divergence of specific functions within protein families, allowing more accurate association with function (ontology terms and pathways), as well as inference of amino acids important for functional specificity. Hidden Markov models (HMMs) are built for each family and subfamily for classifying additional protein sequences. The l...

  6. Polylactic-co-glycolic acid mesh coated with fibrin or collagen and biological adhesive substance as a prefabricated, degradable, biocompatible, and functional scaffold for regeneration of the urinary bladder wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Salah Abood; Hwei, Ng Min; Bin Saim, Aminuddin; Ho, Christopher C K; Sagap, Ismail; Singh, Rajesh; Yusof, Mohd Reusmaazran; Md Zainuddin, Zulkifili; Idrus, Ruszymah Bt Hj

    2013-08-01

    The chief obstacle for reconstructing the bladder is the absence of a biomaterial, either permanent or biodegradable, that will function as a suitable scaffold for the natural process of regeneration. In this study, polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) plus collagen or fibrin was evaluated for its suitability as a scaffold for urinary bladder construct. Human adipose-derived stem cells (HADSCs) were cultured, followed by incubation in smooth muscle cells differentiation media. Differentiated HADSCs were then seeded onto PLGA mesh supported with collagen or fibrin. Evaluation of cell-seeded PLGA composite immersed in culture medium was performed under a light and scanning microscope. To determine if the composite is compatible with the urodynamic properties of urinary bladder, porosity and leaking test was performed. The PLGA samples were subjected to tensile testing was pulled until PLGA fibers break. The results showed that the PLGA composite is biocompatible to differentiated HADSCs. PLGA-collagen mesh appeared to be optimal as a cell carrier while the three-layered PLGA-fibrin composite is better in relation to its leaking/ porosity property. A biomechanical test was also performed for three-layered PLGA with biological adhesive and three-layered PLGA alone. The tensile stress at failure was 30.82 ± 3.80 (MPa) and 34.36 ± 2.57 (MPa), respectively. Maximum tensile strain at failure was 19.42 ± 2.24 (mm) and 23.06 ± 2.47 (mm), respectively. Young's modulus was 0.035 ± 0.0083 and 0.043 ± 0.012, respectively. The maximum load at break was 58.55 ± 7.90 (N) and 65.29 ± 4.89 (N), respectively. In conclusion, PLGA-Fibrin fulfils the criteria as a scaffold for urinary bladder reconstruction. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Release of carbon nanoparticles of different size and shape from nanocomposite poly(lactic) acid film into food simulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velichkova, Hristiana; Kotsilkov, Stanislav; Ivanov, Evgeni; Kotsilkova, Rumiana; Gyoshev, Stanislav; Stoimenov, Nikolay; Vitanov, Nikolay K

    2017-06-01

    Poly(lactic) acid (PLA) film with 2 wt% mixed carbon nanofillers of graphene nanoplates (GNPs) and multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in a weight ratio of 1:1 with impurities of fullerene and carbon black (CB) was produced by layer-to-layer deposition and hot pressing. The release of carbon nanoparticles from the film was studied at varying time-temperature conditions and simulants. Migrants in simulant solvents were examined with laser diffraction analysis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Film integrity and the presence of migrants on the film surfaces were visualised by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The partial dissolution of PLA polymer in the solvents was confirmed by swelling tests and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Nanoparticle migrants were not detected in the simulants (at the LOD 0.020 μm of the laser diffraction analysis) after migration testing at 40°C for 10 days. However, high-temperature migration testing at 90°C for 4 h provoked a release of GNPs from the film into ethanol, acetic acid and oil-based food simulants. Short carbon nanotubes were observed rarely to release in the most aggressive acetic acid solvent. Obviously, the enhanced molecular mobility at temperatures above the glass transition and partial dissolution of PLA polymer by the food simulant facilitate the diffusion processes. Moreover, shape, size and concentration of nanoparticles play a significant role. Flexible naked GNPs (lateral size 100-1000 nm) easily migrate when the polymer molecules exhibit enhanced mobility, while fibrous MWCNTs (> 1 μm length) formed entangled networks on the film surfaces as the PLA polymer is partly dissolved, preventing their release into food simulants. The impurities of fullerenes and CB (5-30 nm) were of minor concentration in the polymer, therefore their migration is low or undetectable. The total amount of released migrants is below overall migration limits.

  8. Mechanical properties, morphology, and hydrolytic degradation behavior of polylactic acid / natural rubber blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buys, Y. F.; Aznan, A. N. A.; Anuar, H.

    2018-01-01

    Due to its biodegradability and renewability, polylactic acid (PLA) has been receiving enormous attention as a potential candidate to replace petroleum based polymers. However, PLA has limitation due to its inherent brittleness. In order to overcome this limitation, blending PLA with elastomeric materials such as natural rubber (NR) are commonly reported. In previous, several researches on PLA/NR blend had been reported, with most of them evaluated the mechanical properties. On the other hand, study of degradation behavior is significance of importance, as controlling materials degradation is required in some applications. This research studied the effect of blend composition on mechanical properties, morphology development, and hydrolytic degradation behavior of PLA/NR blends. Various compositions of PLA/NR blends were prepared by melt blending technique. Tensile test and impact test of the blends were performed to evaluate the mechanical properties. Addition of NR improved the elongation at break and impact strength of the blends, but reduced the tensile strength and stiffness of the specimens. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) measurements of the blends displayed two peaks at temperature -70˚C which corresponded to T g of NR and 65˚C which corresponded to T g of PLA. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) micrograph of 70/30 PLA/NR specimen also showed two distinct phases, which lead to indication that PLA/NR blends are immiscible. Hydrolytic degradation behavior was evaluated by measuring the remaining weight of the samples immersed in sodium hydroxide solution for a predetermined times. It was shown that the degradation behavior of PLA/NR blends is affected by composition of the blends, with 100 PLA and 70/30 PLA/NR blend showed the fastest degradation rate and 100 NR displayed the slowest one.

  9. Polymer blends of polylactic acid (PLA) and polybutylene succinate-adipate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wenguang

    A series of blends consisting of polylactic acid (PLA) and aliphatic succinate polyester (BionolleRTM #3000) had been prepared and investigated. The results of mechanical property investigations showed that using 20 wt% Bionolle#3000 can significantly increase the toughness of PLA. BionolleRTM #3000 also reduces the physical aging rate of PLA so blends remain tough longer. Conversely, the stiffness of BionolleRTM #3000 can be significantly increased by blending in PLA. DMA and DSC results show that PLA/BionolleRTM 3000 blends are not thermodynamically miscible, but are compatible blends. Studies have also been performed to determine the amount and rate of aerobic biodegradation of PLA/aliphatic succinate polyester blends in biologically active composting, enzymatic, and soil environments. The changes in molecular weight, molecular structure and thermal properties in the composting environment were also studied by GPC, NMR and DSC analyses. The research results showed BionolleRTM #3000 had a high degradation rate, while PLA had a low degradation rate. PLA/BionolleRTM #3000 blends had moderate degradation rates that increased with BionolleRTM #3000 content. The melt flow behavior of PLA/BionolleRTM #3000 blends has been studied by capillary rheometry. The relationship of the blends' viscosity with their composition, shear stress, shear rate, and temperature has been investigated. Power law index and activation energy of PLA, BionolleRTM #3000 and their blends have been calculated. The experimental and theoretical data can let us understand the processability of PLA/BionolleRTM #3000 blends. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to investigate the morphological structure of the PLA/BionolleRTM #3000 blends. Micrographs of the samples made from different methods (blown film, extrudate and compression molding sheet) were taken; their differences in morphology were compared. For comparison, the micrographs of blend PLA/BionolleRTM #6000 was also studied. The

  10. Glutamic Acid - Amino Acid, Neurotransmitter, and Drug - Is Responsible for Protein Synthesis Rhythm in Hepatocyte Populations in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, V Y; Malchenko, L A; Konchenko, D S; Zvezdina, N D; Dubovaya, T K

    2016-08-01

    Primary cultures of rat hepatocytes were studied in serum-free media. Ultradian protein synthesis rhythm was used as a marker of cell synchronization in the population. Addition of glutamic acid (0.2 mg/ml) to the medium of nonsynchronous sparse cultures resulted in detection of a common protein synthesis rhythm, hence in synchronization of the cells. The antagonist of glutamic acid metabotropic receptors MCPG (0.01 mg/ml) added together with glutamic acid abolished the synchronization effect; in sparse cultures, no rhythm was detected. Feeding rats with glutamic acid (30 mg with food) resulted in protein synthesis rhythm in sparse cultures obtained from the rats. After feeding without glutamic acid, linear kinetics of protein synthesis was revealed. Thus, glutamic acid, a component of blood as a non-neural transmitter, can synchronize the activity of hepatocytes and can form common rhythm of protein synthesis in vitro and in vivo. This effect is realized via receptors. Mechanisms of cell-cell communication are discussed on analyzing effects of non-neural functions of neurotransmitters. Glutamic acid is used clinically in humans. Hence, a previously unknown function of this drug is revealed.

  11. Nucleic acid programmable protein array a just-in-time multiplexed protein expression and purification platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Ji; LaBaer, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    Systematic study of proteins requires the availability of thousands of proteins in functional format. However, traditional recombinant protein expression and purification methods have many drawbacks for such study at the proteome level. We have developed an innovative in situ protein expression and capture system, namely NAPPA (nucleic acid programmable protein array), where C-terminal tagged proteins are expressed using an in vitro expression system and efficiently captured/purified by antitag antibodies coprinted at each spot. The NAPPA technology presented in this chapter enable researchers to produce and display fresh proteins just in time in a multiplexed high-throughput fashion and utilize them for various downstream biochemical researches of interest. This platform could revolutionize the field of functional proteomics with it ability to produce thousands of spatially separated proteins in high density with narrow dynamic rand of protein concentrations, reproducibly and functionally. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sciatic nerve regeneration by transplantation of Schwann cells via erythropoietin controlled-releasing polylactic acid/multiwalled carbon nanotubes/gelatin nanofibrils neural guidance conduit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Majid; Naseri-Nosar, Mahdi; Ebrahimi-Barough, Somayeh; Nourani, Mohammdreza; Khojasteh, Arash; Hamidieh, Amir-Ali; Amani, Amir; Farzamfar, Saeed; Ai, Jafar

    2018-05-01

    The current study aimed to enhance the efficacy of peripheral nerve regeneration using an electrically conductive biodegradable porous neural guidance conduit for transplantation of allogeneic Schwann cells (SCs). The conduit was produced from polylactic acid (PLA), multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), and gelatin nanofibrils (GNFs) coated with the recombinant human erythropoietin-loaded chitosan nanoparticles (rhEpo-CNPs). The PLA/MWCNTs/GNFs/rhEpo-CNPs conduit had the porosity of 85.78 ± 0.70%, the contact angle of 77.65 ± 1.91° and the ultimate tensile strength and compressive modulus of 5.51 ± 0.13 MPa and 2.66 ± 0.34 MPa, respectively. The conduit showed the electrical conductivity of 0.32 S cm -1 and lost about 11% of its weight after 60 days in normal saline. The produced conduit was able to release the rhEpo for at least 2 weeks and exhibited favorable cytocompatibility towards SCs. For functional analysis, the conduit was seeded with 1.5 × 10 4 SCs and implanted into a 10 mm sciatic nerve defect of Wistar rat. After 14 weeks, the results of sciatic functional index, hot plate latency, compound muscle action potential amplitude, weight-loss percentage of wet gastrocnemius muscle and Histopathological examination using hematoxylin-eosin and Luxol fast blue staining demonstrated that the produced conduit had comparable nerve regeneration to the autograft, as the gold standard to bridge the nerve gaps. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 106B: 1463-1476, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Dissociation of activated protein C functions by elimination of protein S cofactor enhancement.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Harmon, Shona

    2008-11-07

    Activated protein C (APC) plays a critical anticoagulant role in vivo by inactivating procoagulant factor Va and factor VIIIa and thus down-regulating thrombin generation. In addition, APC bound to the endothelial cell protein C receptor can initiate protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1)-mediated cytoprotective signaling. Protein S constitutes a critical cofactor for the anticoagulant function of APC but is not known to be involved in regulating APC-mediated protective PAR-1 signaling. In this study we utilized a site-directed mutagenesis strategy to characterize a putative protein S binding region within the APC Gla domain. Three single amino acid substitutions within the APC Gla domain (D35T, D36A, and A39V) were found to mildly impair protein S-dependent anticoagulant activity (<2-fold) but retained entirely normal cytoprotective activity. However, a single amino acid substitution (L38D) ablated the ability of protein S to function as a cofactor for this APC variant. Consequently, in assays of protein S-dependent factor Va proteolysis using purified proteins or in the plasma milieu, APC-L38D variant exhibited minimal residual anticoagulant activity compared with wild type APC. Despite the location of Leu-38 in the Gla domain, APC-L38D interacted normally with endothelial cell protein C receptor and retained its ability to trigger PAR-1 mediated cytoprotective signaling in a manner indistinguishable from that of wild type APC. Consequently, elimination of protein S cofactor enhancement of APC anticoagulant function represents a novel and effective strategy by which to separate the anticoagulant and cytoprotective functions of APC for potential therapeutic gain.

  14. Proteins and amino acids are fundamental to optimal nutrition support in critically ill patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijs, P.J.M.; Cynober, L.; DeLegge, M.; Kreymann, G.; Wernerman, J.; Wolfe, R.R.

    2014-01-01

    Proteins and amino acids are widely considered to be subcomponents in nutritional support. However, proteins and amino acids are fundamental to recovery and survival, not only for their ability to preserve active tissue (protein) mass but also for a variety of other functions. Understanding the

  15. Phthalic Acid Chemical Probes Synthesized for Protein-Protein Interaction Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Jen Wu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Plasticizers are additives that are used to increase the flexibility of plastic during manufacturing. However, in injection molding processes, plasticizers cannot be generated with monomers because they can peel off from the plastics into the surrounding environment, water, or food, or become attached to skin. Among the various plasticizers that are used, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid (phthalic acid is a typical precursor to generate phthalates. In addition, phthalic acid is a metabolite of diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP. According to Gene_Ontology gene/protein database, phthalates can cause genital diseases, cardiotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, etc. In this study, a silanized linker (3-aminopropyl triethoxyslane, APTES was deposited on silicon dioxides (SiO2 particles and phthalate chemical probes were manufactured from phthalic acid and APTES–SiO2. These probes could be used for detecting proteins that targeted phthalic acid and for protein-protein interactions. The phthalic acid chemical probes we produced were incubated with epithelioid cell lysates of normal rat kidney (NRK-52E cells to detect the interactions between phthalic acid and NRK-52E extracted proteins. These chemical probes interacted with a number of chaperones such as protein disulfide-isomerase A6, heat shock proteins, and Serpin H1. Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA software showed that these chemical probes were a practical technique for protein-protein interaction analysis.

  16. Computational mining for hypothetical patterns of amino acid side chains in protein data bank (PDB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, Nur Syatila Ab; Firdaus-Raih, Mohd

    2018-04-01

    The three-dimensional structure of a protein can provide insights regarding its function. Functional relationship between proteins can be inferred from fold and sequence similarities. In certain cases, sequence or fold comparison fails to conclude homology between proteins with similar mechanism. Since the structure is more conserved than the sequence, a constellation of functional residues can be similarly arranged among proteins of similar mechanism. Local structural similarity searches are able to detect such constellation of amino acids among distinct proteins, which can be useful to annotate proteins of unknown function. Detection of such patterns of amino acids on a large scale can increase the repertoire of important 3D motifs since available known 3D motifs currently, could not compensate the ever-increasing numbers of uncharacterized proteins to be annotated. Here, a computational platform for an automated detection of 3D motifs is described. A fuzzy-pattern searching algorithm derived from IMagine an Amino Acid 3D Arrangement search EnGINE (IMAAAGINE) was implemented to develop an automated method for searching of hypothetical patterns of amino acid side chains in Protein Data Bank (PDB), without the need for prior knowledge on related sequence or structure of pattern of interest. We present an example of the searches, which is the detection of a hypothetical pattern derived from known structural motif of C2H2 structural pattern from zinc fingers. The conservation of particular patterns of amino acid side chains in unrelated proteins is highlighted. This approach can act as a complementary method for available structure- and sequence-based platforms and may contribute in improving functional association between proteins.

  17. Poly(lactic acid)/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites as alternative biocidal and antifungal materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Carmen; Ochoa, Almudena [POLCA, Departamento de Ingeniería Mecánica, Química y Diseño Industrial, Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería y Diseño Industrial, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Ronda de Valencia 3, Madrid (Spain); Ulloa, Maria Teresa; Alvarez, Eduardo [Programa de Microbiología y Micología. ICBM-Facultad de Medicina Universidad de Chile, Dirección, Avenida Independencia 1027, Comuna Independencia, Santiago (Chile); Canales, Daniel [Grupo Polímeros, Facultad de Química y Biología, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, USACH, Casilla 40, Correo 33, Santiago (Chile); Zapata, Paula A., E-mail: paula.zapata@usach.cl [Grupo Polímeros, Facultad de Química y Biología, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, USACH, Casilla 40, Correo 33, Santiago (Chile)

    2015-12-01

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) composites with titanium oxide (TiO{sub 2}) ~ 10-nm nanoparticles were produced by the melting process and their main properties were evaluated. The nanoparticles are homogeneously dispersed in the matrix with a low degree of agglomeration, as seen by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The crystallinity temperature increased ~ 12% when 5 wt.% of TiO{sub 2} was added, showing that the nanoparticles acted as nucleating agents this trend was confirmed by optical images. The elastic modulus increased ~ 54% compared to neat PLA at 5 wt.% of nanoparticles. Despite these improvements, PLA/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites showed lower shear viscosity than neat PLA, possibly reflecting degradation of the polymer due to the particles. Regarding biocidal properties, after 2 h of contact the PLA/TiO{sub 2} composites with 8 wt.% TiO{sub 2} showed a reduction of Escherichia coli colonies of ~ 82% under no UVA irradiation compared to pure PLA. This biocidal characteristic can be increased under UVA irradiation, with nanocomposites containing 8 wt.% TiO{sub 2} killing 94% of the bacteria. The PLA/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites with 8 wt.% were also 99.99% effective against Aspergillus fumigatus under the UVA irradiation. - Highlights: • PLA composites with titanium oxide (10 nm) were produced by the melting process. • The crystallinity temperature increased ~ 12% when 5 wt.% of TiO{sub 2} was added. • The elastic modulus increased ~ 54% compared to neat PLA. • The PLA/TiO{sub 2} composites showed a reduction of Escherichia coli colonies of 94%. • The PLA/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites with 8 wt.% were also 99.99% effective against fungi.

  18. Water and UV degradable lactic acid polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsignore, P.V.; Coleman, R.D.

    1996-10-08

    A water and UV light degradable copolymer is described made from monomers of lactic acid and a modifying monomer selected from the class consisting of ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, P-dioxanone, 1,5 dioxepan-2-one, 1,4-oxathialan-2-one, 1,4-dioxide and mixtures thereof. These copolymers are useful for waste disposal and agricultural purposes. Also disclosed is a water degradable blend of polylactic acid or modified polylactic acid and high molecular weight polyethylene oxide wherein the high molecular weight polyethylene oxide is present in the range of from about 2 by weight to about 50% by weight, suitable for films. A method of applying an active material selected from the class of seeds, seedlings, pesticides, herbicides, fertilizers and mixtures thereof to an agricultural site is also disclosed.

  19. Designing sequence to control protein function in an EF-hand protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunick, Christopher G; Nelson, Melanie R; Mangahas, Sheryll; Hunter, Michael J; Sheehan, Jonathan H; Mizoue, Laura S; Bunick, Gerard J; Chazin, Walter J

    2004-05-19

    The extent of conformational change that calcium binding induces in EF-hand proteins is a key biochemical property specifying Ca(2+) sensor versus signal modulator function. To understand how differences in amino acid sequence lead to differences in the response to Ca(2+) binding, comparative analyses of sequence and structures, combined with model building, were used to develop hypotheses about which amino acid residues control Ca(2+)-induced conformational changes. These results were used to generate a first design of calbindomodulin (CBM-1), a calbindin D(9k) re-engineered with 15 mutations to respond to Ca(2+) binding with a conformational change similar to that of calmodulin. The gene for CBM-1 was synthesized, and the protein was expressed and purified. Remarkably, this protein did not exhibit any non-native-like molten globule properties despite the large number of mutations and the nonconservative nature of some of them. Ca(2+)-induced changes in CD intensity and in the binding of the hydrophobic probe, ANS, implied that CBM-1 does undergo Ca(2+) sensorlike conformational changes. The X-ray crystal structure of Ca(2+)-CBM-1 determined at 1.44 A resolution reveals the anticipated increase in hydrophobic surface area relative to the wild-type protein. A nascent calmodulin-like hydrophobic docking surface was also found, though it is occluded by the inter-EF-hand loop. The results from this first calbindomodulin design are discussed in terms of progress toward understanding the relationships between amino acid sequence, protein structure, and protein function for EF-hand CaBPs, as well as the additional mutations for the next CBM design.

  20. The effect of maleinized linseed oil (MLO) on mechanical performance of poly(lactic acid)-thermoplastic starch (PLA-TPS) blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, J M; Garcia-Garcia, D; Sánchez-Nacher, L; Fenollar, O; Balart, R

    2016-08-20

    In this work, poly(lactic acid), PLA and thermoplastic starch, TPS blends (with a fixed content of 30wt.% TPS) were prepared by melt extrusion process to increase the low ductile properties of PLA. The TPS used contains an aliphatic/aromatic biodegradable polyester (AAPE) that provides good resistance to aging and moisture. This blend provides slightly improved ductile properties with an increase in elongation at break of 21.5% but phase separation is observed due to the lack of strong interactions between the two polymers. Small amounts of maleinized linseed oil (MLO) can positively contribute to improve the ductile properties of these blends by a combined plasticizing-compatibilizing effect. The elongation at break increases over 160% with the only addition of 6phr MLO. One of the evidence of the plasticizing-compatibilizing effect provided by MLO is the change in the glass transition temperature (Tg) with a decrease of about 10°C. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) of PLA-TPS blends with varying amounts of maleinized linseed oil also suggests an increase in compatibility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A single dose of dexamethasone encapsulated in polyethylene glycol-coated polylactic acid nanoparticles attenuates cisplatin-induced hearing loss following round window membrane administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Changling; Wang, Xueling; Zheng, Zhaozhu; Chen, Dongye; Wang, Xiaoqin; Shi, Fuxin; Yu, Dehong; Wu, Hao

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the sustained drug release properties and hearing protection effect of polyethylene glycol-coated polylactic acid (PEG-PLA) stealth nanoparticles loaded with dexamethasone (DEX). DEX was fabricated into PEG-PLA nanoparticles using an emulsion and evaporation technique, as previously reported. The DEX-loaded PEG-PLA nanoparticles (DEX-NPs) had a hydrodynamic diameter of 130±4.78 nm, and a zeta potential of -26.13±3.28 mV. The in vitro release of DEX from DEX-NPs lasted 24 days in phosphate buffered saline (pH 7.4), 5 days in artificial perilymph (pH 7.4), and 1 day in rat plasma. Coumarin 6-labeled NPs placed onto the round window membrane (RWM) of guinea pigs penetrated RWM quickly and accumulated to the organs of Corti, stria vascularis, and spiral ganglion cells after 1 hour of administration. The DEX-NPs locally applied onto the RWM of guinea pigs by a single-dose administration continuously released DEX in 48 hours, which was significantly longer than the free DEX that was cleared out within 12 hours after administration at the same dose. Further functional studies showed that locally administrated single-dose DEX-NPs effectively preserved outer hair cells in guinea pigs after cisplatin insult and thus significantly attenuated hearing loss at 4 kHz and 8 kHz frequencies when compared to the control of free DEX formulation. Histological analyses indicated that the administration of DEX-NPs did not induce local inflammatory responses. Therefore, prolonged delivery of DEX by PEG-PLA nanoparticles through local RWM diffusion (administration) significantly protected the hair cells and auditory function in guinea pigs from cisplatin toxicity, as determined at both histological and functional levels, suggesting the potential therapeutic benefits in clinical applications.

  2. Polylactic acid (PLA)/Silver-NP/VitaminE bionanocomposite electrospun nanofibers with antibacterial and antioxidant activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munteanu, Bogdanel Silvestru; Aytac, Zeynep; Pricope, Gina M.; Uyar, Tamer; Vasile, Cornelia

    2014-10-01

    The antibacterial property of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) and the antioxidant activity of Vitamin E have been combined by incorporation of these two active components within polylactic acid (PLA) nanofibers via electrospinning (PLA/Ag-NP/VitaminE nanofibers). The morphological and structural characterizations of PLA/Ag-NP/VitaminE nanofibers were performed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The average fiber diameter was 140 ± 60 nm, and the size of the Ag-NP was 2.7 ± 1.5 nm. PLA/Ag-NP/VitaminE nanofibers inhibited growth of Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella typhymurium up to 100 %. The amount of released Ag ions from the nanofibers immersed in aqueous solution was determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry, and it has been observed that the release of Ag ions was kept approximately constant after 10 days of immersion. The antioxidant activity of PLA/Ag-NP/VitaminE nanofibers was evaluated according to DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) method and determined as 94 %. The results of the tests on fresh apple and apple juice indicated that the PLA/Ag/VitaminE nanofiber membrane actively reduced the polyphenol oxidase activity. The multifunctional electrospun PLA nanofibers incorporating Ag-NP and Vitamin E may be quite applicable in food packaging due to the extremely large surface area of nanofibers along with antibacterial and antioxidant activities. These materials could find application in food industry as a potential preservative packaging for fruits and juices.

  3. Mutagenesis Objective Search and Selection Tool (MOSST: an algorithm to predict structure-function related mutations in proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asenjo Juan A

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functionally relevant artificial or natural mutations are difficult to assess or predict if no structure-function information is available for a protein. This is especially important to correctly identify functionally significant non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs or to design a site-directed mutagenesis strategy for a target protein. A new and powerful methodology is proposed to guide these two decision strategies, based only on conservation rules of physicochemical properties of amino acids extracted from a multiple alignment of a protein family where the target protein belongs, with no need of explicit structure-function relationships. Results A statistical analysis is performed over each amino acid position in the multiple protein alignment, based on different amino acid physical or chemical characteristics, including hydrophobicity, side-chain volume, charge and protein conformational parameters. The variances of each of these properties at each position are combined to obtain a global statistical indicator of the conservation degree of each property. Different types of physicochemical conservation are defined to characterize relevant and irrelevant positions. The differences between statistical variances are taken together as the basis of hypothesis tests at each position to search for functionally significant mutable sites and to identify specific mutagenesis targets. The outcome is used to statistically predict physicochemical consensus sequences based on different properties and to calculate the amino acid propensities at each position in a given protein. Hence, amino acid positions are identified that are putatively responsible for function, specificity, stability or binding interactions in a family of proteins. Once these key functional positions are identified, position-specific statistical distributions are applied to divide the 20 common protein amino acids in each position of the protein

  4. Reliable porcine coronary model of chronic total occlusion using copper wire stents and bioabsorbable levo-polylactic acid polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Doo Sun; Jeong, Myung Ho; Cha, Kyoung Rae; Park, Suk Ho; Park, Jong Oh; Shin, Young Min; Shin, Heungsoo; Hong, Young Joon; Ahn, Youngkeun; Schwartz, Robert S; Kang, Jung Chaee

    2012-12-01

    Chronic total occlusion (CTO) remains a challenge in interventional cardiology. We investigated the feasibility and reliability of copper wire stents and levo-polylactic acid (l-PLA) as a means of CTO induction in a porcine model. In one group of 20 swine, copper stents were crimped on a 3.0mm angioplasty balloon and inserted into the mid-left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). In the other group of 20 swine, l-PLA was wrapped on a guidewire and pushed into the distal LAD with a 3.0mm balloon catheter to induce embolization. Of 20 swine which underwent copper stent implantation, 13 died of stent thrombosis. In the remaining 7 swine, total or near total occlusion with collateral circulation was observed at 5 weeks. Of 20 swine which underwent l-PLA embolization, 4 died of ventricular fibrillation during or shortly after the procedure. Serial histopathologic studies showed complete absorption of the polymer with replacement by fibrotic tissue approximately 4 weeks following the polymer implantation. CTO could be reliably induced in porcine coronary arteries by copper stents and l-PLA. These models may support investigation of new percutaneous devices to facilitate CTO interventions. Copyright © 2012 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The conserved 12-amino acid stretch in the inter-bromodomain region of BET family proteins functions as a nuclear localization signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukazawa, Hidesuke; Masumi, Atsuko

    2012-01-01

    The bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) family is a group of chromatin-binding proteins characterized by two bromodomains, an extraterminal (ET) domain, and several other conserved regions of unknown function. In humans, the BET family consists of four members, BRD2, BRD3, BRD4 and BRDT, that all normally localize to the nucleus. We identified a 12-amino acid stretch in the inter-bromodomain region that is perfectly conserved among the BET family members. We deleted these residues and expressed the mutant proteins in HEK293T cells to investigate the function of this motif. We found that the deletion of this motif alters the localization of BET proteins. Mutated BRD3 and BRD4 were excluded from the nucleus, and BRDT was found to be diffused throughout the nucleus and cytoplasm. Although the mutant BRD2 remained predominantly in the nucleus, a punctate distribution was also observed in the cytosol. It has been reported that a conserved motif between the second bromodomain and the ET domain serves as a nuclear localization signal for BRD2. Nevertheless, BET mutants lacking the reported nuclear localization signal motif but retaining the 12-amino acid stretch resided in the nucleus. Furthermore, these mutants were diffused throughout the cytoplasm when the 12 residues were removed. These results indicate that the conserved amino acid stretch in the inter-bromodomain region of the BET family functions as a nuclear localization signal.

  6. Development of poly(lactic acid) nanostructured membranes for the controlled delivery of progesterone to livestock animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Juliano Elvis; Medeiros, Eliton Souto; Cardozo, Lucio; Voll, Fernando; Madureira, Ed Hoffmann; Mattoso, Luiz Henrique Capparelli; Assis, Odilio Benedito Garrido

    2013-01-01

    Solution blow spinning (SBS) is a novel technology feasible to produce nanostructured polymeric membranes loaded with active agents. In the present study, nanofibrous mats of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) loaded with progesterone (P4) were produced by SBS at different P4 concentrations. The spun membranes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The in vitro releasing of P4 was evaluated using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Interactions between progesterone and PLA were confirmed by rheological measurements of the PLA/P4 solutions and in the spun mats by microscopy (SEM), thermal (DSC) and spectral (FTIR) analyses. SEM micrographs provided evidences of a smooth and homogeneous structure for nanostructured membranes without progesterone crystals on fiber surface. FTIR spectroscopy indicated miscibility and interaction between the ester of PLA and the ketone groups of the P4 in the nanofibers. X-ray analysis indicated that the size of PLA crystallites increased with progesterone content. Finally, by in vitro release experiments it was possible to observe that the progesterone releasing follows nearly first-order kinetics, probably due to the diffusion of hormone into PLA nanofibers. - Highlights: ► Nanofibers of PLA loading with progesterone were prepared via solution blow spinning. ► Their morphology, FTIR, and XRD and DSC characterization were analyzed. ► Fibers of PLA/progesterone with diameters from 280 to 440 nm were obtained. ► The effect of progesterone content in fiber properties was studied.

  7. Effect of combining cellulose nanocrystals and graphene nanoplatelets on the properties of poly(lactic acid based films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Montes

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, cellulose nanocrystals (CNC and graphene nanoplatelets (GR were combined in two different ratios and incorporated into polylactic acid (PLA by melt blending technique, at a total loading level of 1 wt%. The obtained PLA-CNC/GR nanocomposites were further processed by hot pressing for manufacturing films. For comparison purposes, PLA-CNC, PLA-GR and PLA-T (PLA blended with the organic surfactant Triton X-100 compositions were also prepared following the same procedure. The produced materials were characterized by several techniques, including Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM. The mechanical properties assessment showed an increase of 8 and 11% in the Young’s modulus and tensile strength respectively for PLA- CNC/GR (ratio 50/50 film compared to PLA-T. The thermal properties were also positively influenced by the incorporation of both nanofillers. Similarly, the gas barrier properties were improved by 23% in Oxygen Transmission Rate (OTR for films containing simultaneously CNC and GR. Finally, the antifungal properties were evaluated against Aspergillus Niger finding a superior antifungal activity in the CNC/GR hybrid films. The incorporation of CNC and GR in PLA showed a favourable impact in the overall properties of the obtained materials with only 1 wt% of nanofiller content. These results suggest that CNC/GR hybrid nanocomposites have a considerable potential in agricultural films or in food packaging trays applications.

  8. Preparation and Characterization of Composites Based on Polylactic Acid and Beeswax with Improved Water Vapor Barrier Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jung Hoon; Kim, Jeong Ae; Ko, Jung A; Park, Hyun Jin

    2015-11-01

    Beeswax and a plasticizer (ATBC) were added to polylactic acid (PLA) films in order to enhance the water vapor barrier properties of the films. Beeswax improved the barrier properties; the water vapor permeability in the composite containing 1% beeswax was 58% lower than that of the neat PLA. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the incorporation of beeswax and ATBC had so little effect on the PLA structure. In addition, the structure of PLA did not vary substantially with the additions. The surfaces of the composites were examined by using field emission scanning electron microscopy. Differential scanning calorimetry results showed that the degree of crystallinity of the PLA films increased with the addition of beeswax and ATBC. However, the tensile strength and elongation at break of the composites containing beeswax were up to approximately 50% lower than those of the neat PLA. Although further study is needed to improve the mechanical properties, the aforementioned results showed that the PLA barrier properties can be improved by the incorporation of a small amount of beeswax and ATBC. The results of this study can be applied for the preparation of PLA composite films with improved barrier properties. Such biodegradable films are extremely useful for applications in the food packaging industry. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. Synthesis of graphene oxide grafted poly(lactic acid) with palladium nanoparticles and its application to serotonin sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hyoung Soon; You, Jung-Min; Jeong, Haesang; Jeon, Seungwon

    2013-11-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) has treated with methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) and subsequent 1,4-butanediol (BD) to create an anchoring OH site on the surface of GO (GO-MDI-OH). The OH groups of GO-MDI-OH were the initiators of the polymerization of poly(lactic acid) (PLA). The subsequent GO-g-PLA was synthesized by the polymerization reaction in the presence of GO-MDI-OH and PLA. The synthesized materials were characterized via 1H-NMR, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermal analysis (differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)). The surface morphologies and degree of dispersions at G-g-PLA-metals were observed using a field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and a transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The electrical conductivity of G-g-PLA-Pd was largely enhanced compared with those of GO and GO-g-PLA. G-g-PLA-Pd was used for the electrochemical detection of serotonin. Electrocatalytic activities were verified from the cyclic voltammetry (CV) and amperometric response in a 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (PBS). A significantly higher concentration range (0.1-100.0 μM) and a lower detection limit (8.0 × 10-8 M, where s/n = 3) were found at the G-g-PLA-Pd modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE).

  10. Synthesis of graphene oxide grafted poly(lactic acid) with palladium nanoparticles and its application to serotonin sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Hyoung Soon; You, Jung-Min; Jeong, Haesang; Jeon, Seungwon, E-mail: swjeon3380@naver.com

    2013-11-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) has treated with methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) and subsequent 1,4-butanediol (BD) to create an anchoring OH site on the surface of GO (GO-MDI-OH). The OH groups of GO-MDI-OH were the initiators of the polymerization of poly(lactic acid) (PLA). The subsequent GO-g-PLA was synthesized by the polymerization reaction in the presence of GO-MDI-OH and PLA. The synthesized materials were characterized via {sup 1}H-NMR, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermal analysis (differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)). The surface morphologies and degree of dispersions at G-g-PLA-metals were observed using a field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and a transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The electrical conductivity of G-g-PLA-Pd was largely enhanced compared with those of GO and GO-g-PLA. G-g-PLA-Pd was used for the electrochemical detection of serotonin. Electrocatalytic activities were verified from the cyclic voltammetry (CV) and amperometric response in a 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (PBS). A significantly higher concentration range (0.1–100.0 μM) and a lower detection limit (8.0 × 10{sup −8} M, where s/n = 3) were found at the G-g-PLA-Pd modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE).

  11. Functions and Signaling Pathways of Amino Acids in Intestinal Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang He

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestine is always exposed to external environment and intestinal microorganism; thus it is more sensitive to dysfunction and dysbiosis, leading to intestinal inflammation, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, and diarrhea. An increasing number of studies indicate that dietary amino acids play significant roles in preventing and treating intestinal inflammation. The review aims to summarize the functions and signaling mechanisms of amino acids in intestinal inflammation. Amino acids, including essential amino acids (EAAs, conditionally essential amino acids (CEAAs, and nonessential amino acids (NEAAs, improve the functions of intestinal barrier and expressions of anti-inflammatory cytokines and tight junction proteins but decrease oxidative stress and the apoptosis of enterocytes as well as the expressions of proinflammatory cytokines in the intestinal inflammation. The functions of amino acids are associated with various signaling pathways, including mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR, nuclear factor-kappa-B (NF-κB, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK, nuclear erythroid-related factor 2 (Nrf2, general controlled nonrepressed kinase 2 (GCN2, and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2.

  12. Electrospun Poly(lactic acid)-Based Fibrous Nanocomposite Reinforced by Cellulose Nanocrystals: Impact of Fiber Uniaxial Alignment on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Siqi; Liu, Guoxiang; Cheng, Wanli; Han, Guangping; Bai, Long

    2018-03-12

    Uniform poly(lactic acid)/cellulose nanocrystal (PLA/CNC) fibrous mats composed of either random or aligned fibers reinforced with up to 20 wt % CNCs were successfully produced by two different electrospinning processes. Various concentrations of CNCs could be stably dispersed in PLA solution prior to fiber manufacture. The microstructure of produced fibrous mats, regardless of random or aligned orientation, was transformed from smooth to nanoporous surface by changing CNC loading levels. Aligning process through secondary stretching during high-speed collection can also affect the porous structure of fibers. With the same CNC loading, fibrous mats produced with aligned fibers had higher degree of crystallinity than that of fibers with random structure. The thermal properties and mechanical performances of PLA/CNC fibrous mats can be enhanced, showing better enhancement effect of aligned fibrous structure. This results from a synergistic effect of the increased crystallinity of fibers, the efficient stress transfer from PLA to CNCs, and the ordered arrangement of electrospun fibers in the mats. This research paves a way for developing an electrospinning system that can manufacture high-performance CNC-enhanced PLA fibrous nanocomposites.

  13. Noncoded amino acids in protein engineering: Structure-activity relationship studies of hirudin-thrombin interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Filippis, Vincenzo; Acquasaliente, Laura; Pontarollo, Giulia; Peterle, Daniele

    2018-01-01

    The advent of recombinant DNA technology allowed to site-specifically insert, delete, or mutate almost any amino acid in a given protein, significantly improving our knowledge of protein structure, stability, and function. Nevertheless, a quantitative description of the physical and chemical basis that makes a polypeptide chain to efficiently fold into a stable and functionally active conformation is still elusive. This mainly originates from the fact that nature combined, in a yet unknown manner, different properties (i.e., hydrophobicity, conformational propensity, polarizability, and hydrogen bonding capability) into the 20 standard natural amino acids, thus making difficult, if not impossible, to univocally relate the change in protein stability or function to the alteration of physicochemical properties caused by amino acid exchange(s). In this view, incorporation of noncoded amino acids with tailored side chains, allowing to finely tune the structure at a protein site, would facilitate to dissect the effects of a given mutation in terms of one or a few physicochemical properties, thus much expanding the scope of physical organic chemistry in the study of proteins. In this review, relevant applications from our laboratory will be presented on the use of noncoded amino acids in structure-activity relationships studies of hirudin binding to thrombin. © 2017 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. UET: a database of evolutionarily-predicted functional determinants of protein sequences that cluster as functional sites in protein structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lua, Rhonald C; Wilson, Stephen J; Konecki, Daniel M; Wilkins, Angela D; Venner, Eric; Morgan, Daniel H; Lichtarge, Olivier

    2016-01-04

    The structure and function of proteins underlie most aspects of biology and their mutational perturbations often cause disease. To identify the molecular determinants of function as well as targets for drugs, it is central to characterize the important residues and how they cluster to form functional sites. The Evolutionary Trace (ET) achieves this by ranking the functional and structural importance of the protein sequence positions. ET uses evolutionary distances to estimate functional distances and correlates genotype variations with those in the fitness phenotype. Thus, ET ranks are worse for sequence positions that vary among evolutionarily closer homologs but better for positions that vary mostly among distant homologs. This approach identifies functional determinants, predicts function, guides the mutational redesign of functional and allosteric specificity, and interprets the action of coding sequence variations in proteins, people and populations. Now, the UET database offers pre-computed ET analyses for the protein structure databank, and on-the-fly analysis of any protein sequence. A web interface retrieves ET rankings of sequence positions and maps results to a structure to identify functionally important regions. This UET database integrates several ways of viewing the results on the protein sequence or structure and can be found at http://mammoth.bcm.tmc.edu/uet/. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  15. Towards an understanding of Mesocestoides vogae fatty acid binding proteins' roles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Alvite

    Full Text Available Two fatty acid binding proteins, MvFABPa and MvFABPb were identified in the parasite Mesocestoides vogae (Platyhelmithes, Cestoda. Fatty acid binding proteins are small intracellular proteins whose members exhibit great diversity. Proteins of this family have been identified in many organisms, of which Platyhelminthes are among the most primitive. These proteins have particular relevance in flatworms since de novo synthesis of fatty acids is absent. Fatty acids should be captured from the media needing an efficient transport system to uptake and distribute these molecules. While HLBPs could be involved in the shuttle of fatty acids to the surrounding host tissues and convey them into the parasite, FABPs could be responsible for the intracellular trafficking. In an effort to understand the role of MvFABPs in fatty acid transport of M. vogae larvae, we analysed the intracellular localization of both MvFABPs and the co-localization with in vivo uptake of fatty acid analogue BODIPY FL C16. Immunohistochemical studies on larvae sections using specific antibodies, showed a diffuse cytoplasmic distribution of each protein with some expression in nuclei and mitochondria. MvFABPs distribution was confirmed by mass spectrometry identification from 2D-electrophoresis of larvae subcellular fractions. This work is the first report showing intracellular distribution of MvFABPs as well as the co-localization of these proteins with the BODIPY FL C16 incorporated from the media. Our results suggest that fatty acid binding proteins could target fatty acids to cellular compartments including nuclei. In this sense, M. vogae FABPs could participate in several cellular processes fulfilling most of the functions attributed to vertebrate's counterparts.

  16. Antimicrobial activity of lauric arginate-coated polylactic acid films against Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella typhimurium on cooked sliced ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theinsathid, Pornpun; Visessanguan, Wonnop; Kruenate, Jittiporn; Kingcha, Yutthana; Keeratipibul, Suwimon

    2012-02-01

    A novel type of environmentally friendly packaging with antibacterial activity was developed from lauric arginate (LAE)-coating of polylactic acid (PLA) films after surface activation using a corona discharge. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)-based analysis of the LAE/PLA films confirmed the successful coating of LAE on the PLA surface. The mechanical properties of the LAE/PLA films with different levels of LAE-coating (0% to 2.6%[w/w]) were essentially the same as those of the neat PLA film. The antibacterial activity of the LAE/PLA films against Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) was confirmed by a qualitative modified agar diffusion assay and quantitative JIS Z 2801:2000 method. Using the LAE/PLA film as a food-contact antimicrobial packaging for cooked cured ham, as a model system, suggested a potential application to inhibit L. monocytogenes and S. Typhimurium on ham with a 0.07% (w/w) LAE coating on the PLA when high transparency is required, as evidenced from the 2 to 3 log CFU/tested film lower pathogen growth after 7 d storage but even greater antibacterial activity is obtained with a LAE coating level of 2.6% (w/w) but at the cost of a reduced transparency of the finished product. This article shows how we can simply develop functional green packaging of PLA for food with effective and efficient antimicrobial activity by use of LAE coating on the surface via corona discharge. The effectiveness of an innovative antimicrobial LAE-coated PLA film against foodborne pathogens was demonstrated. Importantly, the application of the LAE to form the LAE-coated PLA film can be customized within current film manufacturing lines. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Origins of Protein Functions in Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seelig, Burchard; Pohorille, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    In modern organisms proteins perform a majority of cellular functions, such as chemical catalysis, energy transduction and transport of material across cell walls. Although great strides have been made towards understanding protein evolution, a meaningful extrapolation from contemporary proteins to their earliest ancestors is virtually impossible. In an alternative approach, the origin of water-soluble proteins was probed through the synthesis and in vitro evolution of very large libraries of random amino acid sequences. In combination with computer modeling and simulations, these experiments allow us to address a number of fundamental questions about the origins of proteins. Can functionality emerge from random sequences of proteins? How did the initial repertoire of functional proteins diversify to facilitate new functions? Did this diversification proceed primarily through drawing novel functionalities from random sequences or through evolution of already existing proto-enzymes? Did protein evolution start from a pool of proteins defined by a frozen accident and other collections of proteins could start a different evolutionary pathway? Although we do not have definitive answers to these questions yet, important clues have been uncovered. In one example (Keefe and Szostak, 2001), novel ATP binding proteins were identified that appear to be unrelated in both sequence and structure to any known ATP binding proteins. One of these proteins was subsequently redesigned computationally to bind GTP through introducing several mutations that introduce targeted structural changes to the protein, improve its binding to guanine and prevent water from accessing the active center. This study facilitates further investigations of individual evolutionary steps that lead to a change of function in primordial proteins. In a second study (Seelig and Szostak, 2007), novel enzymes were generated that can join two pieces of RNA in a reaction for which no natural enzymes are known

  18. Soft Cysteine Signaling Network: The Functional Significance of Cysteine in Protein Function and the Soft Acids/Bases Thiol Chemistry That Facilitates Cysteine Modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wible, Ryan S; Sutter, Thomas R

    2017-03-20

    The unique biophysical and electronic properties of cysteine make this molecule one of the most biologically critical amino acids in the proteome. The defining sulfur atom in cysteine is much larger than the oxygen and nitrogen atoms more commonly found in the other amino acids. As a result of its size, the valence electrons of sulfur are highly polarizable. Unique protein microenvironments favor the polarization of sulfur, thus increasing the overt reactivity of cysteine. Here, we provide a brief overview of the endogenous generation of reactive oxygen and electrophilic species and specific examples of enzymes and transcription factors in which the oxidation or covalent modification of cysteine in those proteins modulates their function. The perspective concludes with a discussion of cysteine chemistry and biophysics, the hard and soft acids and bases model, and the proposal of the Soft Cysteine Signaling Network: a hypothesis proposing the existence of a complex signaling network governed by layered chemical reactivity and cross-talk in which the chemical modification of reactive cysteine in biological networks triggers the reorganization of intracellular biochemistry to mitigate spikes in endogenous or exogenous oxidative or electrophilic stress.

  19. Environmentally Friendly Compatibilizers from Soybean Oil for Ternary Blends of Poly(lactic acid-PLA, Poly(ε-caprolactone-PCL and Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-PHB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Jesús Garcia-Campo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ternary blends of poly(lactic acid (PLA, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB and poly(ε-caprolactone (PCL with a constant weight percentage of 60%, 10% and 30% respectively were compatibilized with soybean oil derivatives epoxidized soybean oil (ESO, maleinized soybean oil (MSO and acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO. The potential compatibilization effects of the soybean oil-derivatives was characterized in terms of mechanical, thermal and thermomechanical properties. The effects on morphology were studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM. All three soybean oil-based compatibilizers led to a noticeable increase in toughness with a remarkable improvement in elongation at break. On the other hand, both the tensile modulus and strength decreased, but in a lower extent to a typical plasticization effect. Although phase separation occurred, all three soybean oil derivatives led somewhat to compatibilization through reaction between terminal hydroxyl groups in all three biopolyesters (PLA, PHB and PCL and the readily reactive groups in the soybean oil derivatives, that is, epoxy, maleic anhydride and acrylic/epoxy functionalities. In particular, the addition of 5 parts per hundred parts of the blend (phr of ESO gave the maximum elongation at break while the same amount of MSO and AESO gave the maximum toughness, measured through Charpy’s impact tests. In general, the herein-developed materials widen the potential of ternary PLA formulations by a cost effective blending method with PHB and PCL and compatibilization with vegetable oil-based additives.

  20. Environmentally Friendly Compatibilizers from Soybean Oil for Ternary Blends of Poly(lactic acid)-PLA, Poly(ε-caprolactone)-PCL and Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)-PHB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Campo, María Jesús; Quiles-Carrillo, Luis; Masia, Jaime; Reig-Pérez, Miguel Jorge; Montanes, Nestor; Balart, Rafael

    2017-11-22

    Ternary blends of poly(lactic acid) (PLA), poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) with a constant weight percentage of 60%, 10% and 30% respectively were compatibilized with soybean oil derivatives epoxidized soybean oil (ESO), maleinized soybean oil (MSO) and acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO). The potential compatibilization effects of the soybean oil-derivatives was characterized in terms of mechanical, thermal and thermomechanical properties. The effects on morphology were studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). All three soybean oil-based compatibilizers led to a noticeable increase in toughness with a remarkable improvement in elongation at break. On the other hand, both the tensile modulus and strength decreased, but in a lower extent to a typical plasticization effect. Although phase separation occurred, all three soybean oil derivatives led somewhat to compatibilization through reaction between terminal hydroxyl groups in all three biopolyesters (PLA, PHB and PCL) and the readily reactive groups in the soybean oil derivatives, that is, epoxy, maleic anhydride and acrylic/epoxy functionalities. In particular, the addition of 5 parts per hundred parts of the blend (phr) of ESO gave the maximum elongation at break while the same amount of MSO and AESO gave the maximum toughness, measured through Charpy's impact tests. In general, the herein-developed materials widen the potential of ternary PLA formulations by a cost effective blending method with PHB and PCL and compatibilization with vegetable oil-based additives.

  1. PrPC has nucleic acid chaperoning properties similar to the nucleocapsid protein of HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrington, Edmund; Gabus, Caroline; Leblanc, Pascal; Chnaidermann, Jonas; Grave, Linda; Dormont, Dominique; Swietnicki, Wieslaw; Morillas, Manuel; Marck, Daniel; Nandi, Pradip; Darlix, Jean-Luc

    2002-01-01

    The function of the cellular prion protein (PrPC) remains obscure. Studies suggest that PrPC functions in several processes including signal transduction and Cu2+ metabolism. PrPC has also been established to bind nucleic acids. Therefore we investigated the properties of PrPC as a putative nucleic acid chaperone. Surprisingly, PrPC possesses all the nucleic acid chaperoning properties previously specific to retroviral nucleocapsid proteins. PrPC appears to be a molecular mimic of NCP7, the nucleocapsid protein of HIV-1. Thus PrPC, like NCP7, chaperones the annealing of tRNA(Lys) to the HIV-1 primer binding site, the initial step of retrovirus replication. PrPC also chaperones the two DNA strand transfers required for production of a complete proviral DNA with LTRs. Concerning the functions of NCP7 during budding, PrPC also mimices NCP7 by dimerizing the HIV-1 genomic RNA. These data are unprecedented because, although many cellular proteins have been identified as nucleic acid chaperones, none have the properties of retroviral nucleocapsid proteins.

  2. Two novel Mesocestoides vogae fatty acid binding proteins--functional and evolutionary implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvite, Gabriela; Canclini, Lucía; Corvo, Ileana; Esteves, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    This work describes two new fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) identified in the parasite platyhelminth Mesocestoides vogae (syn. corti). The corresponding polypeptide chains share 62% identical residues and overall 90% similarity according to CLUSTALX default conditions. Compared with Cestoda FABPs, these proteins share the highest similarity score with the Taenia solium protein. M. vogae FABPs are also phylogenetically related to the FABP3/FABP4 mammalian FABP subfamilies. The native proteins were purified by chromatographical procedures, and apparent molecular mass and isoelectric point were determined. Immunolocalization studies determined the localization of the expression of these proteins in the larval form of the parasite. The genomic exon-intron organization of both genes is also reported, and supports new insights on intron evolution. Consensus motifs involved in splicing were identified.

  3. DOPO-Modified Two-Dimensional Co-Based Metal-Organic Framework: Preparation and Application for Enhancing Fire Safety of Poly(lactic acid).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yanbei; Liu, Longxiang; Qiu, Shuilai; Zhou, Xia; Gui, Zhou; Hu, Yuan

    2018-03-07

    Co-based metal-organic framework (Co-MOF) nanosheets were successfully synthesized by the organic ligands with Schiff base structure. The laminated structure gives Co-MOF nanosheets a great advantage in the application in the flame retardant field. Meanwhile, -C═N- from Schiff base potentially provides active sites for further modification. In this work, 9,10-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide (DOPO) was used to modify Co-MOF (DOPO@Co-MOF) to further enhance its flame retardant efficiency. It is attractive that DOPO has a synergistic effect with Co-MOF on improving fire safety of poly(lactic acid) (PLA). The obvious decrease in the values of peak heat release (27%), peak smoke production (56%), and total CO yield (20%) confirmed the enhanced fire safety of PLA composites. The possible flame retardant mechanism was proposed based on characterization results. Moreover, the addition of DOPO@Co-MOF had a positive influence on the mechanical performance, including tensile properties and impact resistance. This work designed and synthesized two-dimensional MOFs with active groups. As-prepared Co-MOF with expected structure shows a novel direction of preparing MOFs for flame retardant application.

  4. Myosin-cross-reactive antigen (MCRA) protein from Bifidobacterium breve is a FAD-dependent fatty acid hydratase which has a function in stress protection

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rosberg-Cody, Eva

    2011-02-17

    Abstract Background The aim of this study was to determine the catalytic activity and physiological role of myosin-cross-reactive antigen (MCRA) from Bifidobacterium breve NCIMB 702258. MCRA from B. breve NCIMB 702258 was cloned, sequenced and expressed in heterologous hosts (Lactococcus and Corynebacterium) and the recombinant proteins assessed for enzymatic activity against fatty acid substrates. Results MCRA catalysed the conversion of palmitoleic, oleic and linoleic acids to the corresponding 10-hydroxy fatty acids, but shorter chain fatty acids were not used as substrates, while the presence of trans-double bonds and double bonds beyond the position C12 abolished hydratase activity. The hydroxy fatty acids produced were not metabolised further. We also found that heterologous Lactococcus and Corynebacterium expressing MCRA accumulated increasing amounts of 10-HOA and 10-HOE in the culture medium. Furthermore, the heterologous cultures exhibited less sensitivity to heat and solvent stresses compared to corresponding controls. Conclusions MCRA protein in B. breve can be classified as a FAD-containing double bond hydratase, within the carbon-oxygen lyase family, which may be catalysing the first step in conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) production, and this protein has an additional function in bacterial stress protection.

  5. Myosin-cross-reactive antigen (MCRA protein from Bifidobacterium breve is a FAD-dependent fatty acid hydratase which has a function in stress protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross R

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to determine the catalytic activity and physiological role of myosin-cross-reactive antigen (MCRA from Bifidobacterium breve NCIMB 702258. MCRA from B. breve NCIMB 702258 was cloned, sequenced and expressed in heterologous hosts (Lactococcus and Corynebacterium and the recombinant proteins assessed for enzymatic activity against fatty acid substrates. Results MCRA catalysed the conversion of palmitoleic, oleic and linoleic acids to the corresponding 10-hydroxy fatty acids, but shorter chain fatty acids were not used as substrates, while the presence of trans-double bonds and double bonds beyond the position C12 abolished hydratase activity. The hydroxy fatty acids produced were not metabolised further. We also found that heterologous Lactococcus and Corynebacterium expressing MCRA accumulated increasing amounts of 10-HOA and 10-HOE in the culture medium. Furthermore, the heterologous cultures exhibited less sensitivity to heat and solvent stresses compared to corresponding controls. Conclusions MCRA protein in B. breve can be classified as a FAD-containing double bond hydratase, within the carbon-oxygen lyase family, which may be catalysing the first step in conjugated linoleic acid (CLA production, and this protein has an additional function in bacterial stress protection.

  6. Myosin-cross-reactive antigen (MCRA) protein from Bifidobacterium breve is a FAD-dependent fatty acid hydratase which has a function in stress protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosberg-Cody, Eva; Liavonchanka, Alena; Göbel, Cornelia; Ross, R Paul; O'Sullivan, Orla; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Feussner, Ivo; Stanton, Catherine

    2011-02-17

    The aim of this study was to determine the catalytic activity and physiological role of myosin-cross-reactive antigen (MCRA) from Bifidobacterium breve NCIMB 702258. MCRA from B. breve NCIMB 702258 was cloned, sequenced and expressed in heterologous hosts (Lactococcus and Corynebacterium) and the recombinant proteins assessed for enzymatic activity against fatty acid substrates. MCRA catalysed the conversion of palmitoleic, oleic and linoleic acids to the corresponding 10-hydroxy fatty acids, but shorter chain fatty acids were not used as substrates, while the presence of trans-double bonds and double bonds beyond the position C12 abolished hydratase activity. The hydroxy fatty acids produced were not metabolised further. We also found that heterologous Lactococcus and Corynebacterium expressing MCRA accumulated increasing amounts of 10-HOA and 10-HOE in the culture medium. Furthermore, the heterologous cultures exhibited less sensitivity to heat and solvent stresses compared to corresponding controls. MCRA protein in B. breve can be classified as a FAD-containing double bond hydratase, within the carbon-oxygen lyase family, which may be catalysing the first step in conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) production, and this protein has an additional function in bacterial stress protection.

  7. Influence of the Amino Acid Sequence on Protein-Mineral Interactions in Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacon, S. S.; Reardon, P. N.; Purvine, S.; Lipton, M. S.; Washton, N.; Kleber, M.

    2017-12-01

    The intimate associations between protein and mineral surfaces have profound impacts on nutrient cycling in soil. Proteins are an important source of organic C and N, and a subset of proteins, extracellular enzymes (EE), can catalyze the depolymerization of soil organic matter (SOM). Our goal was to determine how variation in the amino acid sequence could influence a protein's susceptibility to become chemically altered by mineral surfaces to infer the fate of adsorbed EE function in soil. We hypothesized that (1) addition of charged amino acids would enhance the adsorption onto oppositely charged mineral surfaces (2) addition of aromatic amino acids would increase adsorption onto zero charged surfaces (3) Increase adsorption of modified proteins would enhance their susceptibility to alterations by redox active minerals. To test these hypotheses, we generated three engineered proxies of a model protein Gb1 (IEP 4.0, 6.2 kDA) by inserting either negatively charged, positively charged or aromatic amino acids in the second loop. These modified proteins were allowed to interact with functionally different mineral surfaces (goethite, montmorillonite, kaolinite and birnessite) at pH 5 and 7. We used LC-MS/MS and solution-state Heteronuclear Single Quantum Coherence Spectroscopy NMR to observe modifications on engineered proteins as a consequence to mineral interactions. Preliminary results indicate that addition of any amino acids to a protein increase its susceptibility to fragmentation and oxidation by redox active mineral surfaces, and alter adsorption to the other mineral surfaces. This suggest that not all mineral surfaces in soil may act as sorbents for EEs and chemical modification of their structure should also be considered as an explanation for decrease in EE activity. Fragmentation of proteins by minerals can bypass the need to produce proteases, but microbial acquisition of other nutrients that require enzymes such as cellulases, ligninases or phosphatases

  8. Effect of a keto acid-amino acid supplement on the metabolism and renal elimination of branched-chain amino acids in patients with chronic renal insufficiency on a low protein diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teplan, V; Schück, O; Horácková, M; Skibová, J; Holecek, M

    2000-10-27

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of a low-protein diet supplemented with keto acids-amino acids on renal function and urinary excretion of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) in patients with chronic renal insufficiency (CRI). In a prospective investigation 28 patients with CRI (16 male, 12 female, aged 28-66 yrs, CCr 18.6 +/- 10.2 ml/min) on a low-protein diet (0.6 g of protein /kg BW/day and energy intake 140 kJ/kg BW/day) for a period of one month were included. Subsequently, this low protein diet was supplemented with keto acids-amino acids at a dose of 0.1 g/kg BW/day orally for a period of 3 months. Examinations performed at baseline and at the end of the follow-up period revealed significant increase in the serum levels of BCAA leucine (p Keto acid-amino acid administration had no effect on renal function and on the clearance of inulin, para-aminohippuric acid. Endogenous creatinine and urea clearance remained unaltered. A significant correlation between fractional excretion of sodium and leucine (p diet the supplementation of keto acids-amino acids does not affect renal hemodynamics, but is associated--despite increases in plasma concentrations--with a reduction of renal amino acid and protein excretion suggesting induction of alterations in the tubular transport mechanisms.

  9. Branched-chain Amino Acids are Beneficial to Maintain Growth Performance and Intestinal Immune-related Function in Weaned Piglets Fed Protein Restricted Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, M; Zhang, S H; Zeng, X F; Liu, H; Qiao, S Y

    2015-12-01

    As a novel approach for disease control and prevention, nutritional modulation of the intestinal health has been proved. However, It is still unknown whether branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) is needed to maintain intestinal immune-related function. The objective of this study was to determine whether BCAA supplementation in protein restricted diet affects growth performance, intestinal barrier function and modulates post-weaning gut disorders. One hundred and eight weaned piglets (7.96±0.26 kg) were randomly fed one of the three diets including a control diet (21% crude protein [CP], CON), a protein restricted diet (17% CP, PR) and a BCAA diet (BCAA supplementation in the PR diet) for 14 d. The growth performance, plasma amino acid concentrations, small intestinal morphology and intestinal immunoglobulins were tested. First, average daily gain (ADG) (pBCAA group improved ADG (pBCAA groups was not different (p>0.05). The PR and BCAA treatments had a higher (pBCAA supplementation significantly increased BCAA concentrations (pBCAA supplementation increased villous height in the duodenum (pBCAA supplementation increased levels of jejunal and ileal immunoglobulin mentioned above. In conclusion, BCAA supplementation to protein restricted diet improved intestinal immune defense function by protecting villous morphology and by increasing levels of intestinal immunoglobulins in weaned piglets. Our finding has the important implication that BCAA may be used to reduce the negative effects of a protein restricted diet on growth performance and intestinal immunity in weaned piglets.

  10. Perceptron learning of pairwise contact energies for proteins incorporating the amino acid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Muyoung; Kim, Suhkmann; Moon, Eun-Joung; Cheon, Mookyung; Chung, Kwanghoon; Chang, Iksoo

    2005-07-01

    Although a coarse-grained description of proteins is a simple and convenient way to attack the protein folding problem, the construction of a global pairwise energy function which can simultaneously recognize the native folds of many proteins has resulted in partial success. We have sought the possibility of a systematic improvement of this pairwise-contact energy function as we extended the parameter space of amino acids, incorporating local environments of amino acids, beyond a 20×20 matrix. We have studied the pairwise contact energy functions of 20×20 , 60×60 , and 180×180 matrices depending on the extent of parameter space, and compared their effect on the learnability of energy parameters in the context of a gapless threading, bearing in mind that a 20×20 pairwise contact matrix has been shown to be too simple to recognize the native folds of many proteins. In this paper, we show that the construction of a global pairwise energy function was achieved using 1006 training proteins of a homology of less than 30%, which include all representatives of different protein classes. After parametrizing the local environments of the amino acids into nine categories depending on three secondary structures and three kinds of hydrophobicity (desolvation), the 16290 pairwise contact energies (scores) of the amino acids could be determined by perceptron learning and protein threading. These could simultaneously recognize all the native folds of the 1006 training proteins. When these energy parameters were tested on the 382 test proteins of a homology of less than 90%, 370 (96.9%) proteins could recognize their native folds. We set up a simple thermodynamic framework in the conformational space of decoys to calculate the unfolded fraction and the specific heat of real proteins. The different thermodynamic stabilities of E.coli ribonuclease H (RNase H) and its mutants were well described in our calculation, agreeing with the experiment.

  11. Synthesis of Functional Polyester Based on Polylactic Acid and Its Effect on PC12 Cells after Coupling with Small Peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyesters containing functional groups are a suitable candidate matrix for cell culture in tissue engineering. Three types of semicrystalline copolymer poly(L-lactide-co-β-malic acid [P(LA-co-BMD] with pendent carboxyl groups were synthesized in this study. The functional monomer 3(S-[(benzyloxycarbonylmethyl]-1,4-dioxane-2,5-dione (BMD was synthesized using L-aspartic acid. The copolymer P(LA-co-BMD was then synthesized through ring-opening copolymerization of L-LA and BMD, with dodecanol as initiator and stannous octoate as catalyst. Copolymer structure was characterized by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR, gel permeation chromatography (GPC, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC analyses. Results of 1H NMR and GPC analyses showed that the copolymers were synthesized successfully. DSC curves showed that the crystal melting peak and enthalpy decreased with increased BMD. The crystallinity of the copolymer was destroyed by the presence of the functional monomer. After deprotection, carboxyl groups were coupled with the isoleucine-lysine-valine-alanine-valine peptide through N-hydroxysuccinimide/dicyclohexylcarbodiimide method. The small peptide was beneficial to the axon growth of PC12 cells.

  12. Improved wettability and adhesion of polylactic acid/chitosan coating for bio-based multilayer film development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gartner, Hunter [School of Packaging, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan (United States); Li, Yana [Mechanical Engineering College, Wuhan Polytechnic University (China); Almenar, Eva, E-mail: ealmenar@msu.edu [School of Packaging, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan (United States)

    2015-03-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Surface tension between PLA/CS blend solution and PLA film modified by MDI. • Better wettability between PLA/CS blend solution and PLA film by increasing MDI. • Increased breaking strength by increasing MDI due to the increased H-bonding. • Increased number of physical entanglements between PLA/CS coating and PLA film. • Development of a suitable bio-based multilayer film for food packaging applications. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of methyldiphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) concentration (0, 0.2, 1, 2, and 3%) on the wettability and adhesion of blend solutions of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and chitosan (CS) when coated on PLA film for development of a bio-based multi-layer film suitable for food packaging and other applications. Characterization was carried out by attenuated total reflectance infrared spectrometry (ATR-FTIR), contact angle (θ), mechanical adhesion pull-off testing, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The θ of the PLA/CS blend shifted to a lower value (41–35°) with increasing MDI concentration showing that the surface tension was modified between the PLA/CS blend solution and PLA film and better wettability was achieved. The increase in MDI also resulted in an increased breaking strength (228–303 kPa) due to the increased H-bonding resulting from the more urethane groups formed within the PLA/CS blend as shown by ATR-FTIR. The improved adhesion was also shown by the increased number of physical entanglements observed by SEM. It can be concluded that MDI can be used to improve wettability and adhesion between PLA/CS coating and PLA film.

  13. Improved wettability and adhesion of polylactic acid/chitosan coating for bio-based multilayer film development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gartner, Hunter; Li, Yana; Almenar, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Surface tension between PLA/CS blend solution and PLA film modified by MDI. • Better wettability between PLA/CS blend solution and PLA film by increasing MDI. • Increased breaking strength by increasing MDI due to the increased H-bonding. • Increased number of physical entanglements between PLA/CS coating and PLA film. • Development of a suitable bio-based multilayer film for food packaging applications. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of methyldiphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) concentration (0, 0.2, 1, 2, and 3%) on the wettability and adhesion of blend solutions of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and chitosan (CS) when coated on PLA film for development of a bio-based multi-layer film suitable for food packaging and other applications. Characterization was carried out by attenuated total reflectance infrared spectrometry (ATR-FTIR), contact angle (θ), mechanical adhesion pull-off testing, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The θ of the PLA/CS blend shifted to a lower value (41–35°) with increasing MDI concentration showing that the surface tension was modified between the PLA/CS blend solution and PLA film and better wettability was achieved. The increase in MDI also resulted in an increased breaking strength (228–303 kPa) due to the increased H-bonding resulting from the more urethane groups formed within the PLA/CS blend as shown by ATR-FTIR. The improved adhesion was also shown by the increased number of physical entanglements observed by SEM. It can be concluded that MDI can be used to improve wettability and adhesion between PLA/CS coating and PLA film

  14. In vitro antimicrobial activity of solution blow spun poly(lactic acid)/polyvinylpyrrolidone nanofibers loaded with Copaiba (Copaifera sp.) oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonan, Roberta F. [Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais (DEMAT), Universidade Federal da Paraíba (UFPB), Cidade Universitária, 58.051-900 João Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Centro de Ciências da Saúde (CCS), Universidade Federal da Paraíba (UFPB), Cidade Universitária, 58.051-900 João Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Bonan, Paulo R.F.; Batista, André U.D.; Sampaio, Fábio C.; Albuquerque, Allan J.R. [Centro de Ciências da Saúde (CCS), Universidade Federal da Paraíba (UFPB), Cidade Universitária, 58.051-900 João Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Moraes, Maria C.B. [Embrapa Recursos Genéticos e Biotecnologia, Parque Estação Ecológica, W/5 Norte (Final) Cenargen (Laboratório de Semioquímicos) ASA NORTE, 70770900 Brasília, DF (Brazil); Mattoso, Luiz H.C. [Laboratório Nacional de Nanotecnologia para o Agronegócio (LNNA), Embrapa Instrumentação Agropecuária (CNPDIA), Rua XV de Novembro, 1452, Centro, 13.560, 970 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Glenn, Gregory M. [United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Western Regional Research Center (WRRC), Bioproduct Chemistry and Engineering - BCE, Albany, CA 94710 (United States); and others

    2015-03-01

    In this study poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) micro- and nanofiber mats loaded with Copaiba (Copaifera sp.) oil were produced by solution blow spinning (SBS). The Copaiba (Copaifera sp.) oil was characterized by gas chromatography (GC). Neat PLA and four PLA/PVP blends containing 20% (wt.%) oil were spun and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and by studying the surface contact angle, in vitro release rate, and antimicrobial activity. All compositions evaluated were able to produce continuous and smooth fibers by SBS. The addition of PVP increased fiber diameter, and decreased the surface contact angle. GC analysis demonstrated that the main component of the Copaiba oil was β-caryophyllene, a known antimicrobial agent. In vitro release tests of Copaiba oil volatiles demonstrated a higher release rate in fibers containing PVP. Fiber mats made from blends containing higher amounts of PVP had greater antimicrobial action against Staphylococcus aureus. The results confirm the potential of the fiber mats for use in controlled drug release and could lead to promising applications in the biomedical field. - Highlights: • An efficient method for production of antimicrobial nanofiber mats using solution blow spinning was reported. • Nanofiber mats containing Copaiba oil were efficient against Staphylococcus aureus. • Nanofiber composition changed morphological properties and antimicrobial action.

  15. Heterologous protein display on the cell surface of lactic acid bacteria mediated by the s-layer protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Lanlan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have revealed that the C-terminal region of the S-layer protein from Lactobacillus is responsible for the cell wall anchoring, which provide an approach for targeting heterologous proteins to the cell wall of lactic acid bacteria (LAB. In this study, we developed a new surface display system in lactic acid bacteria with the C-terminal region of S-layer protein SlpB of Lactobacillus crispatus K2-4-3 isolated from chicken intestine. Results Multiple sequence alignment revealed that the C-terminal region (LcsB of Lb. crispatus K2-4-3 SlpB had a high similarity with the cell wall binding domains SA and CbsA of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lb. crispatus. To evaluate the potential application as an anchoring protein, the green fluorescent protein (GFP or beta-galactosidase (Gal was fused to the N-terminus of the LcsB region, and the fused proteins were successfully produced in Escherichia coli, respectively. After mixing them with the non-genetically modified lactic acid bacteria cells, the fused GFP-LcsB and Gal-LcsB were functionally associated with the cell surface of various lactic acid bacteria tested. In addition, the binding capacity could be improved by SDS pretreatment. Moreover, both of the fused proteins could simultaneously bind to the surface of a single cell. Furthermore, when the fused DNA fragment of gfp:lcsB was inserted into the Lactococcus lactis expression vector pSec:Leiss:Nuc, the GFP could not be secreted into the medium under the control of the nisA promoter. Western blot, in-gel fluorescence assay, immunofluorescence microscopy and SDS sensitivity analysis confirmed that the GFP was successfully expressed onto the cell surface of L. lactis with the aid of the LcsB anchor. Conclusion The LcsB region can be used as a functional scaffold to target the heterologous proteins to the cell surfaces of lactic acid bacteria in vitro and in vivo, and has also the potential for biotechnological

  16. Development of poly(lactic acid) nanostructured membranes for the controlled delivery of progesterone to livestock animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Juliano Elvis [Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnologia para o Agronegocio (LNNA), Embrapa Instrumentacao (CNPDIA), Rua XV de Novembro, 1452, Centro, 13.560, 970 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Medeiros, Eliton Souto [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais (DEMAT), Cidade Universitaria, 58.051-900, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Cardozo, Lucio; Voll, Fernando [Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), 87.020, 900 Maringa, PR (Brazil); Madureira, Ed Hoffmann [Departamento de Reproducao Animal, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia (FMVZ), Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Pirassununga-SP (Brazil); Mattoso, Luiz Henrique Capparelli, E-mail: mattoso@cnpdia.embrapa.br [Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnologia para o Agronegocio (LNNA), Embrapa Instrumentacao (CNPDIA), Rua XV de Novembro, 1452, Centro, 13.560, 970 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Assis, Odilio Benedito Garrido [Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnologia para o Agronegocio (LNNA), Embrapa Instrumentacao (CNPDIA), Rua XV de Novembro, 1452, Centro, 13.560, 970 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2013-03-01

    Solution blow spinning (SBS) is a novel technology feasible to produce nanostructured polymeric membranes loaded with active agents. In the present study, nanofibrous mats of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) loaded with progesterone (P4) were produced by SBS at different P4 concentrations. The spun membranes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The in vitro releasing of P4 was evaluated using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Interactions between progesterone and PLA were confirmed by rheological measurements of the PLA/P4 solutions and in the spun mats by microscopy (SEM), thermal (DSC) and spectral (FTIR) analyses. SEM micrographs provided evidences of a smooth and homogeneous structure for nanostructured membranes without progesterone crystals on fiber surface. FTIR spectroscopy indicated miscibility and interaction between the ester of PLA and the ketone groups of the P4 in the nanofibers. X-ray analysis indicated that the size of PLA crystallites increased with progesterone content. Finally, by in vitro release experiments it was possible to observe that the progesterone releasing follows nearly first-order kinetics, probably due to the diffusion of hormone into PLA nanofibers. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanofibers of PLA loading with progesterone were prepared via solution blow spinning. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Their morphology, FTIR, and XRD and DSC characterization were analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fibers of PLA/progesterone with diameters from 280 to 440 nm were obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of progesterone content in fiber properties was studied.

  17. Reinforcement effect of poly(butylene succinate) (PBS)-grafted cellulose nanocrystal on toughened PBS/polylactic acid blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuzhen; Zhang, Yong

    2016-04-20

    Poly(butylene succinate) (PBS)/polylactic acid (PLA) blends modified with dicumyl peroxide (DCP) were reinforced by PBS-g-cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) through melt mixing. PBS-g-CNC was prepared through in situ polymerization and its structure was confirmed by FTIR, (13)C NMR, XPS and GPC analysis after saponification. The morphological analysis of PBS/PLA/PBS-g-CNC composites before and after etched by CH2Cl2 shows that the addition of DCP and PBS-g-CNC could decrease the size of PBS as a dispersed phase in PLA matrix and improve the dispersion of PBS-g-CNC in both PBS and PLA phases, which could affect the crystallization and mechanical properties of composites. The crystallinity of PLA α'-phase crystal in PBS/PLA/PBS-g-CNC composites is increased obviously by the addition of PBS-g-CNC, leading to an increase of the crystallinity of the composites. PBS/PLA blends modified by DCP have high Notched Izod impact strength and moduli, and the values are increased by the addition of PBS-g-CNC. Both storage modulus and glass translation temperature of PBS/PLA blend are increased by DCP and PBS-g-CNC, which is proved by DMA results, showing a weak molecular segment mobility of PBS/PLA matrix. The addition of DCP decreases the crystallization temperature and crystallinity of PBS/PLA composite, but increases the thermal stability of composites, mostly because of the crosslink effect of DCP on PBS/PLA matrix. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of organoclay to miscibility, mechanical and thermal properties of poly(lactic acid) and propylene-ethylene copolymer blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacharawichanant, S.; Ounyai, C.; Rassamee, P.

    2017-07-01

    The effects of propylene-ethylene copolymer (PEC or PEC3300) and clay surface modified with 25-30 wt% of trimethylstearyl ammonium (Clay-TSA) on morphology, thermal and mechanical properties of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) were investigated. The morphology analysis showed PLA/PEC3300 blends clearly demonstrated a two-phase separation of dispersed phase and the matrix phase and the addition of Clay-TSA could improve the miscibility of PLA and PEC3300 blends due to the decreased of the domain sizes of dispersed PEC3300 phase in the polymer matrix. From X-ray diffraction analysis showed the intercalation of PLA chains inside the Clay-TSA and this result implied that Clay-TSA platelets acted as an effective compatibilizer. The tensile properties showed the strain at break of PLA was improved after adding PEC3300 while Young’s modulus, tensile strength and storage modulus decreased. The addition of Clay-TSA could improve Young’s modulus of PLA/PEC3300 blends. The addition of Clay-TSA 7 phr showed the maximum of Young’s modulus of PLA/PEC3300/Clay-TSA composites. The thermal properties found that the addition of PEC3300 and Clay-TSA did not change significantly on the glass transition temperature and melting point temperature of PLA. The percent of crystallinity of PLA decreased with increasing PEC content. The thermal stability of PLA improved after adding PEC3300.

  19. Biological conduits combining bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and extracellular matrix to treat long-segment sciatic nerve defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The transplantation of polylactic glycolic acid conduits combining bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and extracellular matrix gel for the repair of sciatic nerve injury is effective in some respects, but few data comparing the biomechanical factors related to the sciatic nerve are available. In the present study, rabbit models of 10-mm sciatic nerve defects were prepared. The rabbit models were repaired with autologous nerve, a polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, or a polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells + extracellular matrix gel. After 24 weeks, mechanical testing was performed to determine the stress relaxation and creep parameters. Following sciatic nerve injury, the magnitudes of the stress decrease and strain increase at 7,200 seconds were largest in the polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells + extracellular matrix gel group, followed by the polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells group, and then the autologous nerve group. Hematoxylin-eosin staining demonstrated that compared with the polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells group and the autologous nerve group, a more complete sciatic nerve regeneration was found, including good myelination, regularly arranged nerve fibers, and a completely degraded and resorbed conduit, in the polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells + extracellular matrix gel group. These results indicate that bridging 10-mm sciatic nerve defects with a polylactic glycolic acid conduit + bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells + extracellular matrix gel construct increases the stress relaxation under a constant strain, reducing anastomotic tension. Large elongations under a constant physiological load can limit the anastomotic opening and shift, which is beneficial for the regeneration and functional reconstruction of sciatic nerve. Better

  20. Prediction of human protein function from post-translational modifications and localization features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Juhl; Gupta, Ramneek; Blom, Nikolaj

    2002-01-01

    a number of functional attributes that are more directly related to the linear sequence of amino acids, and hence easier to predict, than protein structure. These attributes include features associated with post-translational modifications and protein sorting, but also much simpler aspects......We have developed an entirely sequence-based method that identifies and integrates relevant features that can be used to assign proteins of unknown function to functional classes, and enzyme categories for enzymes. We show that strategies for the elucidation of protein function may benefit from...

  1. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF RICE PROTEIN CONCENTRATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kolpakova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally rice and products of its processing are used to cook porridge, pilaf, lettuce, confectionery, fish, dairy and meat products. At the same time new ways of its processing with releasing of protein products for more effective using, including the use of a glutenfree diet, are developing. The task of this study was a comparative research of nutrition and biological value and functional properties of protein and protein-calcium concentrates produced from rice flour milled from white and brown rice. The traditional and special methods were used. Concentrates were isolated with enzyme preparations of xylanase and amylolytic activity with the next dissolution of protein in diluted hydrochloric acid. Concentrates differed in the content of mineral substances (calcium, zinc, iron and other elements, amino acids and functional properties. The values of the functional properties and indicators of the nutritional value of concentrates from white rice show the advisability of their using in food products, including gluten-free products prepared on the basis of the emulsion and foam systems, and concentrates from brown rice in food products prepared on the basis of using of the emulsion systems. Protein concentrates of brown rice have a low foaming capacity and there is no foam stability at all.

  2. Acylation of cellular proteins with endogenously synthesized fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towler, D.; Glaser, L.

    1986-01-01

    A number of cellular proteins contain covalently bound fatty acids. Previous studies have identified myristic acid and palmitic acid covalently linked to protein, the former usually attached to proteins by an amide linkage and the latter by ester or thio ester linkages. While in a few instances specific proteins have been isolated from cells and their fatty acid composition has been determined, the most frequent approach to the identification of protein-linked fatty acids is to biosynthetically label proteins with fatty acids added to intact cells. This procedure introduces possible bias in that only a selected fraction of proteins may be labeled, and it is not known whether the radioactive fatty acid linked to the protein is identical with that which is attached to the protein when the fatty acid is derived from endogenous sources. We have examined the distribution of protein-bound fatty acid following labeling with [ 3 H]acetate, a general precursor of all fatty acids, using BC 3 H1 cells (a mouse muscle cell line) and A431 cells (a human epidermoid carcinoma). Myristate, palmitate, and stearate account for essentially all of the fatty acids linked to protein following labeling with [ 3 H]acetate, but at least 30% of the protein-bound palmitate in these cells was present in amide linkage. In BC3H1 cells, exogenous palmitate becomes covalently bound to protein such that less than 10% of the fatty acid is present in amide linkage. These data are compatible with multiple protein acylating activities specific for acceptor protein fatty acid chain length and linkage

  3. Bacterial periplasmic sialic acid-binding proteins exhibit a conserved binding site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangi Setty, Thanuja [Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, NCBS Campus, GKVK Post, Bangalore, Karnataka 560 065 (India); Cho, Christine [Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242-1109 (United States); Govindappa, Sowmya [Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, NCBS Campus, GKVK Post, Bangalore, Karnataka 560 065 (India); Apicella, Michael A. [Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242-1109 (United States); Ramaswamy, S., E-mail: ramas@instem.res.in [Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, NCBS Campus, GKVK Post, Bangalore, Karnataka 560 065 (India)

    2014-07-01

    Structure–function studies of sialic acid-binding proteins from F. nucleatum, P. multocida, V. cholerae and H. influenzae reveal a conserved network of hydrogen bonds involved in conformational change on ligand binding. Sialic acids are a family of related nine-carbon sugar acids that play important roles in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. These sialic acids are incorporated/decorated onto lipooligosaccharides as terminal sugars in multiple bacteria to evade the host immune system. Many pathogenic bacteria scavenge sialic acids from their host and use them for molecular mimicry. The first step of this process is the transport of sialic acid to the cytoplasm, which often takes place using a tripartite ATP-independent transport system consisting of a periplasmic binding protein and a membrane transporter. In this paper, the structural characterization of periplasmic binding proteins from the pathogenic bacteria Fusobacterium nucleatum, Pasteurella multocida and Vibrio cholerae and their thermodynamic characterization are reported. The binding affinities of several mutations in the Neu5Ac binding site of the Haemophilus influenzae protein are also reported. The structure and the thermodynamics of the binding of sugars suggest that all of these proteins have a very well conserved binding pocket and similar binding affinities. A significant conformational change occurs when these proteins bind the sugar. While the C1 carboxylate has been identified as the primary binding site, a second conserved hydrogen-bonding network is involved in the initiation and stabilization of the conformational states.

  4. Bacterial periplasmic sialic acid-binding proteins exhibit a conserved binding site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangi Setty, Thanuja; Cho, Christine; Govindappa, Sowmya; Apicella, Michael A.; Ramaswamy, S.

    2014-01-01

    Structure–function studies of sialic acid-binding proteins from F. nucleatum, P. multocida, V. cholerae and H. influenzae reveal a conserved network of hydrogen bonds involved in conformational change on ligand binding. Sialic acids are a family of related nine-carbon sugar acids that play important roles in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. These sialic acids are incorporated/decorated onto lipooligosaccharides as terminal sugars in multiple bacteria to evade the host immune system. Many pathogenic bacteria scavenge sialic acids from their host and use them for molecular mimicry. The first step of this process is the transport of sialic acid to the cytoplasm, which often takes place using a tripartite ATP-independent transport system consisting of a periplasmic binding protein and a membrane transporter. In this paper, the structural characterization of periplasmic binding proteins from the pathogenic bacteria Fusobacterium nucleatum, Pasteurella multocida and Vibrio cholerae and their thermodynamic characterization are reported. The binding affinities of several mutations in the Neu5Ac binding site of the Haemophilus influenzae protein are also reported. The structure and the thermodynamics of the binding of sugars suggest that all of these proteins have a very well conserved binding pocket and similar binding affinities. A significant conformational change occurs when these proteins bind the sugar. While the C1 carboxylate has been identified as the primary binding site, a second conserved hydrogen-bonding network is involved in the initiation and stabilization of the conformational states

  5. Effects of Limited Hydrolysis and High-Pressure Homogenization on Functional Properties of Oyster Protein Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Cuiping; Cha, Yue; Wu, Fan; Xu, Xianbing; Du, Ming

    2018-03-22

    In this study, the effects of limited hydrolysis and/or high-pressure homogenization (HPH) treatment in acid conditions on the functional properties of oyster protein isolates (OPI) were studied. Protein solubility, surface hydrophobicity, particle size distribution, zeta potential, foaming, and emulsifying properties were evaluated. The results showed that acid treatment led to the dissociation and unfolding of OPI. Subsequent treatment such as limited proteolysis, HPH, and their combination remarkably improved the functional properties of OPI. Acid treatment produced flexible aggregates, as well as reduced particle size and solubility. On the contrary, limited hydrolysis increased the solubility of OPI. Furthermore, HPH enhanced the effectiveness of the above treatments. The emulsifying and foaming properties of acid- or hydrolysis-treated OPI significantly improved. In conclusion, a combination of acid treatment, limited proteolysis, and HPH improved the functional properties of OPI. The improvements in the functional properties of OPI could potentiate the use of oyster protein and its hydrolysates in the food industry.

  6. Comparative analysis of amino acids and amino-acid derivatives in protein crystallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Len; Shiraki, Kentaro; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    New types of aggregation suppressors, such as amino acids and their derivatives, were focused on as fourth-component additives. Data were obtained that indicated that the additives promote protein crystallization. Optimal conditions for protein crystallization are difficult to determine because proteins tend to aggregate in saturated solutions. This study comprehensively evaluates amino acids and amino-acid derivatives as additives for crystallization. This fourth component of the solution increases the probability of crystallization of hen egg-white lysozyme in various precipitants owing to a decrease in aggregation. These results suggest that the addition of certain types of amino acids and amino-acid derivatives, such as Arg, Lys and esterified and amidated amino acids, is a simple method of improving the success rate of protein crystallization

  7. Comparison of the frequency of functional SH3 domains with different limited sets of amino acids using mRNA display.

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    Junko Tanaka

    Full Text Available Although modern proteins consist of 20 different amino acids, it has been proposed that primordial proteins consisted of a small set of amino acids, and additional amino acids have gradually been recruited into the genetic code. This hypothesis has recently been supported by comparative genome sequence analysis, but no direct experimental approach has been reported. Here, we utilized a novel experimental approach to test a hypothesis that native-like globular proteins might be easily simplified by a set of putative primitive amino acids with retention of its structure and function than by a set of putative new amino acids. We performed in vitro selection of a functional SH3 domain as a model from partially randomized libraries with different sets of amino acids using mRNA display. Consequently, a library rich in putative primitive amino acids included a larger number of functional SH3 sequences than a library rich in putative new amino acids. Further, the functional SH3 sequences were enriched from the primitive library slightly earlier than from a randomized library with the full set of amino acids, while the function and structure of the selected SH3 proteins with the primitive alphabet were comparable with those from the 20 amino acid alphabet. Application of this approach to various combinations of codons in protein sequences may be useful not only for clarifying the precise order of the amino acid expansion in the early stages of protein evolution but also for efficiently creating novel functional proteins in the laboratory.

  8. Charge stabilization by reaction center protein immobilized to carbon nanotubes functionalized by amine groups and poly(3-thiophene acetic acid) conducting polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szabo, T.; Magyar, M.; Nagy, L. [Department of Medical Physics and Informatics, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged (Hungary); Nemeth, Z.; Hernadi, K. [Department of Applied and Environmental Chemistry, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged (Hungary); Endrodi, B.; Bencsik, G.; Visy, Cs. [Department of Physical Chemistry and Materials Science, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged (Hungary); Horvath, E.; Magrez, A.; Forro, L. [Institute of Physics of Complex Matter, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2012-12-15

    A large number of studies have indicated recently that photosynthetic reaction center proteins (RC) bind successfully to nanostructures and their functional activity is largely retained. The major goal of current research is to find the most efficient systems and conditions for the photoelectric energy conversion and for the stability of this bio-nanocomposite. In our studies, we immobilized the RC protein on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) through specific chemical binding to amine functional groups and through conducting polymer (poly(3-thiophene acetic acid), PTAA). Both structural (TEM, AFM) and functional (absorption change and conductivity) measurements has shown that RCs could be bound effectively to functionalized CNTs. The kinetics of the light induced absorption change indicated that RCs were still active in the composite and there was an interaction between the protein cofactors and the CNTs. The light generated photocurrent was measured in an electrochemical cell with transparent CNT electrode designed specially for this experiment. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Improving surface functional properties of tofu whey-derived peptides by chemical modification with fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matemu, Athanasia Oswald; Katayama, Shigeru; Kayahara, Hisataka; Murasawa, Hisashi; Nakamura, Soichiro

    2012-04-01

    Effect of acylation with saturated fatty acids on surface functional properties of tofu whey-derived peptides was investigated. Tofu whey (TW) and soy proteins (7S, 11S, and acid-precipitated soy protein [APP]) were hydrolyzed by Protease M 'Amano' G, and resulting peptide mixtures were acylated with esterified fatty acids of different chain length (6C to 18C) to form a covalent linkage between the carboxyl group of fatty acid and the free amino groups of peptide. Acylation significantly (P properties of 7S, 11S, and APP peptides independent of fatty acid chain length. Acylation decreased water binding capacity although oil binding capacity of acylated tofu whey ultra filtered fraction (UFTW acids had shown significant higher surface hydrophobicity as in contrast with acylated UFTW acids can further affect functional properties of soy proteins. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Poly-gamma-glutamic acid a substitute of salivary protein statherin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qamar, Z.; Rahim, Z.B.H.A.; Fatima, T.

    2016-01-01

    The modus operandi of salivary proteins in reducing the kinetics of enamel dissolution during simulated caries challenges is thought to be associated with interaction of glutamic acid residues with human teeth surfaces. Japanese traditional food stuff natto is rich with chain of repeating glutamic acid residues linked by gamma-peptide bond and hence, named poly-gamma-glutamic acid (PGGA). It is a naturally occurring polypeptide and may therefore perform similar caries inhibitory functions as statherin. (author)

  11. Degradability Enhancement of Poly(Lactic Acid by Stearate-Zn3Al LDH Nanolayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboobeh Eili

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent environmental problems and societal concerns associated with the disposal of petroleum based plastics throughout the world have triggered renewed efforts to develop new biodegradable products compatible with our environment. This article describes the preparation, characterization and biodegradation study of poly(lactic acid/layered double hydroxide (PLA/LDH nanocomposites from PLA and stearate-Zn3Al LDH. A solution casting method was used to prepare PLA/stearate-Zn3Al LDH nanocomposites. The anionic clay Zn3Al LDH was firstly prepared by co-precipitation method from a nitrate salt solution at pH 7.0 and then modified by stearate anions through an ion exchange reaction. This modification increased the basal spacing of the synthetic clay from 8.83 Å to 40.10 Å. The morphology and properties of the prepared PLA/stearate-Zn3Al LDH nanocomposites were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscope (TEM, scanning electron microscope (SEM, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, tensile tests as well as biodegradation studies. From the XRD analysis and TEM observation, the stearate-Zn3Al LDH lost its ordered stacking-structure and was greatly exfoliated in the PLA matrix. Tensile test results of PLA/stearate-Zn3Al LDH nanocomposites showed that the presence of around 1.0–3.0 wt % of the stearate-Zn3Al LDH in the PLA drastically improved its elongation at break. The biodegradation studies demonstrated a significant biodegradation rate improvement of PLA in the presence of stearate-Zn3Al LDH nanolayers. This effect can be caused by the catalytic role of the stearate groups in the biodegradation mechanism leading to much faster disintegration of nanocomposites than pure PLA.

  12. Films Based on Poly(lactic acid Biopolymer: Effect of Clay and Cellulosic Nanoparticles on their Physical, Mechanical and Structural Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Dadashi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Physical, mechanical and structural properties of poly(lactic acid (PLA-basedfilms containing different amounts of nanoclay and cellulose prepared bysolvent casting method were examined. Physical properties including thickness,transparency and color did not change significantly with addition of nanoparticles to the polymer matrix. X-Ray diffraction (XRD patterns showed that pure PLA has a semi-crystalline structure and addition of nanoclay into this polymer would produce more regular structure which results in improved crystallization. It also showed that the peak is shifted to lower degrees, with greater interlayer distance of nanoclay giving an intercalated structure. Because of the nature and particle size of the MCC, it did not interact sufficiently with the polymer. Tensile strength, elastic modulus andelongation-at-break of neat PLA were 27.44 MPa, 1.84 GPa and 24.53% which with the addition of 7% of nanoclay, was changed to 40.34, 2.62 and 10.36°C, respectively. As the results of XRD, MCC were indications of no significant effect on mechanical properties, AFM images were used to evaluate the surface morphology and roughness of PLA films. Neat PLA had smoother surfaces and a lower roughness parameter (Sa. This study indicates that PLA has acceptable properties which could be used forpackaging and other applications.

  13. Polylactic acid nano- and microchamber arrays for encapsulation of small hydrophilic molecules featuring drug release via high intensity focused ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, Meiyu; Frueh, Johannes; Tao, Tianyi; Petrov, Arseniy V; Petrov, Vladimir V; Shesterikov, Evgeniy V; Tverdokhlebov, Sergei I; Sukhorukov, Gleb B

    2017-06-01

    Long term encapsulation combined with spatiotemporal release for a precisely defined quantity of small hydrophilic molecules on demand remains a challenge in various fields ranging from medical drug delivery, controlled release of catalysts to industrial anti-corrosion systems. Free-standing individually sealed polylactic acid (PLA) nano- and microchamber arrays were produced by one-step dip-coating a PDMS stamp into PLA solution for 5 s followed by drying under ambient conditions. The wall thickness of these hydrophobic nano-microchambers is tunable from 150 nm to 7 μm by varying the PLA solution concentration. Furthermore, small hydrophilic molecules were successfully in situ precipitated within individual microchambers in the course of solvent evaporation after sonicating the PLA@PDMS stamp to remove air-bubbles and to load the active substance containing solvent. The cargo capacity of single chambers was determined to be in the range of several picograms, while it amounts to several micrograms per cm 2 . Two different methods for sealing chambers were compared: microcontact printing versus dip-coating whereby microcontact printing onto a flat PLA sheet allows for entrapment of micro-air-bubbles enabling microchambers with both ultrasound responsiveness and reduced permeability. Cargo release triggered by external high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) stimuli is demonstrated by experiment and compared with numerical simulations.

  14. Phospholipase D and phosphatidic acid in plant defence response: from protein-protein and lipid-protein interactions to hormone signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jian

    2015-04-01

    Phospholipase Ds (PLDs) and PLD-derived phosphatidic acids (PAs) play vital roles in plant hormonal and environmental responses and various cellular dynamics. Recent studies have further expanded the functions of PLDs and PAs into plant-microbe interaction. The molecular diversities and redundant functions make PLD-PA an important signalling complex regulating lipid metabolism, cytoskeleton dynamics, vesicle trafficking, and hormonal signalling in plant defence through protein-protein and protein-lipid interactions or hormone signalling. Different PLD-PA signalling complexes and their targets have emerged as fast-growing research topics for understanding their numerous but not yet established roles in modifying pathogen perception, signal transduction, and downstream defence responses. Meanwhile, advanced lipidomics tools have allowed researchers to reveal further the mechanisms of PLD-PA signalling complexes in regulating lipid metabolism and signalling, and their impacts on jasmonic acid/oxylipins, salicylic acid, and other hormone signalling pathways that essentially mediate plant defence responses. This review attempts to summarize the progress made in spatial and temporal PLD/PA signalling as well as PLD/PA-mediated modification of plant defence. It presents an in-depth discussion on the functions and potential mechanisms of PLD-PA complexes in regulating actin filament/microtubule cytoskeleton, vesicle trafficking, and hormonal signalling, and in influencing lipid metabolism-derived metabolites as critical signalling components in plant defence responses. The discussion puts PLD-PA in a broader context in order to guide future research. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Functions and structures of eukaryotic recombination proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Tomoko

    1994-01-01

    We have found that Rad51 and RecA Proteins form strikingly similar structures together with dsDNA and ATP. Their right handed helical nucleoprotein filaments extend the B-form DNA double helixes to 1.5 times in length and wind the helix. The similarity and uniqueness of their structures must reflect functional homologies between these proteins. Therefore, it is highly probable that similar recombination proteins are present in various organisms of different evolutional states. We have succeeded to clone RAD51 genes from human, mouse, chicken and fission yeast genes, and found that the homologues are widely distributed in eukaryotes. The HsRad51 and MmRad51 or ChRad51 proteins consist of 339 amino acids differing only by 4 or 12 amino acids, respectively, and highly homologous to both yeast proteins, but less so to Dmcl. All of these proteins are homologous to the region from residues 33 to 240 of RecA which was named ''homologous core. The homologous core is likely to be responsible for functions common for all of them, such as the formation of helical nucleoprotein filament that is considered to be involved in homologous pairing in the recombination reaction. The mouse gene is transcribed at a high level in thymus, spleen, testis, and ovary, at lower level in brain and at a further lower level in some other tissues. It is transcribed efficiently in recombination active tissues. A clear functional difference of Rad51 homologues from RecA was suggested by the failure of heterologous genes to complement the deficiency of Scrad51 mutants. This failure seems to reflect the absence of a compatible partner, such as ScRad52 protein in the case of ScRad51 protein, between different species. Thus, these discoveries play a role of the starting point to understand the fundamental gene targeting in mammalian cells and in gene therapy. (J.P.N.)

  16. Transcription Factor Functional Protein-Protein Interactions in Plant Defense Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo S. Alves

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Responses to biotic stress in plants lead to dramatic reprogramming of gene expression, favoring stress responses at the expense of normal cellular functions. Transcription factors are master regulators of gene expression at the transcriptional level, and controlling the activity of these factors alters the transcriptome of the plant, leading to metabolic and phenotypic changes in response to stress. The functional analysis of interactions between transcription factors and other proteins is very important for elucidating the role of these transcriptional regulators in different signaling cascades. In this review, we present an overview of protein-protein interactions for the six major families of transcription factors involved in plant defense: basic leucine zipper containing domain proteins (bZIP, amino-acid sequence WRKYGQK (WRKY, myelocytomatosis related proteins (MYC, myeloblastosis related proteins (MYB, APETALA2/ ETHYLENE-RESPONSIVE ELEMENT BINDING FACTORS (AP2/EREBP and no apical meristem (NAM, Arabidopsis transcription activation factor (ATAF, and cup-shaped cotyledon (CUC (NAC. We describe the interaction partners of these transcription factors as molecular responses during pathogen attack and the key components of signal transduction pathways that take place during plant defense responses. These interactions determine the activation or repression of response pathways and are crucial to understanding the regulatory networks that modulate plant defense responses.

  17. Biodegradation of poly(lactic acid, poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate, poly(butylene succinate and poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate under anaerobic and oxygen limited thermophilic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jutakan Boonmee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the biodegradation behavior of biodegradable plastics in landfill conditions, four types of biodegradable plastics including poly(lactic acid (PLA, poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate (PHBV, poly(butylene succinate (PBS, and poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate (PBAT were tested by burying in sludge mixed soil medium under anaerobic and oxygen limited conditions. The experiments were operated at 52 ± 2ºC in dark conditions according to ISO15985. The degree of biodegradation after 75 days was investigated by weight loss determination, visual examination, and surface appearance by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM. Under both anaerobic and oxygen limited conditions, the complete degradation (100% weight loss was found only in PHBV after 75 days. The plastic degradations were ranked in the order of PHBV> PLA> PBS> PBAT. The percentage of weight losses were significantly different at p ≤ 0.05. However, for all studied plastics, the degradation under anaerobic and oxygen limited conditions did not significantly different at 95% confidence.

  18. Protein synthesis in the presence of carbamoyl-amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus, L.M.; Stephens, M.C.

    1987-01-01

    The role of exogenous carbamoyl-amino acids in protein biosynthesis has been examined in vitro using a mixture of 14 C amino acids to label newly synthesized protein in human reticulocyte rich (8-18%) peripheral blood. Aliquots of the radiolabeled newly synthesized protein were acid precipitated, washed and the radioactivity measured. Control samples which measured the synthetic capacity of the blood were aliquots of the same blood- 14 C amino acid mixture without added carbamoyl-amino acids or cyanate. N-carbamoyl leucine alone or a 3 N-carbamoyl amino acid mixture of leucine, aspartic acid and tyrosine were used to test inhibition of protein synthesis. Also carbamoyl-amino acids were synthesized using cyanate and Pierce hydrolyzate amino acid calibration standards or the mixture of 14 C amino acids. In this system the carbamoylation of endogenous amino acids by cyanate up to 8 μmol/100μl showed a linear decrease in protein synthesis with time which is inversely related to the cyanate concentration. At greater cyanate levels the inhibition of protein synthesis reaches a plateau. When N-carbamoyl-amino acids only are present there is about a 50% decrease in the 14 C protein at 30 minutes as compared to the synthesis of 14 C protein without N-carbamoyl-amino acids. These results indicate that the presence of carbamoyl-amino acids interferes with protein synthesis

  19. The clinical significance of fatty acid binding proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Choromańska

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Excessive levels of free fatty acids are toxic to cells. The human body has evolved a defense mechanism in the form of small cytoplasmic proteins called fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs that bind long-chain fatty acids (LCFA, and then refer them to appropriate intracellular disposal sites (oxidation in mitochondria and peroxisomes or storage in the endoplasmic reticulum. So far, nine types of these proteins have been described, and their name refers to the place in which they were first identified or where they can be found in the greatest concentration. The most important FABPs were isolated from the liver (L-FABP, heart (H-FABP, intestine (I-FABP, brain (B-FABP, epidermis (E-FABP and adipocytes (A-FABP. Determination of H-FABP is used in the diagnosis of myocardial infarction, and L-FABP in kidney lesions of different etiologies. It is postulated that FABPs play an important role in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases. Elevated levels of A-FABP have been found in the pericardial fat tissue and were associated with cardiac dysfunction in obese people. A rise in A-FABP has been observed in patients with type II diabetes. I-FABP is known as a marker of cell damage in the small intestine. Increased concentration of B-FABP has been associated with human brain tumors such as glioblastoma and astrocytoma, as well as with neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and other disorders of cognitive function. The aim of this work was to present current data on the clinical significance of fatty acid binding proteins.

  20. Amino acid starvation has opposite effects on mitochondrial and cytosolic protein synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Johnson

    Full Text Available Amino acids are essential for cell growth and proliferation for they can serve as precursors of protein synthesis, be remodelled for nucleotide and fat biosynthesis, or be burnt as fuel. Mitochondria are energy producing organelles that additionally play a central role in amino acid homeostasis. One might expect mitochondrial metabolism to be geared towards the production and preservation of amino acids when cells are deprived of an exogenous supply. On the contrary, we find that human cells respond to amino acid starvation by upregulating the amino acid-consuming processes of respiration, protein synthesis, and amino acid catabolism in the mitochondria. The increased utilization of these nutrients in the organelle is not driven primarily by energy demand, as it occurs when glucose is plentiful. Instead it is proposed that the changes in the mitochondrial metabolism complement the repression of cytosolic protein synthesis to restrict cell growth and proliferation when amino acids are limiting. Therefore, stimulating mitochondrial function might offer a means of inhibiting nutrient-demanding anabolism that drives cellular proliferation.

  1. The primary structure of fatty-acid-binding protein from nurse shark liver. Structural and evolutionary relationship to the mammalian fatty-acid-binding protein family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medzihradszky, K F; Gibson, B W; Kaur, S; Yu, Z H; Medzihradszky, D; Burlingame, A L; Bass, N M

    1992-02-01

    The primary structure of a fatty-acid-binding protein (FABP) isolated from the liver of the nurse shark (Ginglymostoma cirratum) was determined by high-performance tandem mass spectrometry (employing multichannel array detection) and Edman degradation. Shark liver FABP consists of 132 amino acids with an acetylated N-terminal valine. The chemical molecular mass of the intact protein determined by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (Mr = 15124 +/- 2.5) was in good agreement with that calculated from the amino acid sequence (Mr = 15121.3). The amino acid sequence of shark liver FABP displays significantly greater similarity to the FABP expressed in mammalian heart, peripheral nerve myelin and adipose tissue (61-53% sequence similarity) than to the FABP expressed in mammalian liver (22% similarity). Phylogenetic trees derived from the comparison of the shark liver FABP amino acid sequence with the members of the mammalian fatty-acid/retinoid-binding protein gene family indicate the initial divergence of an ancestral gene into two major subfamilies: one comprising the genes for mammalian liver FABP and gastrotropin, the other comprising the genes for mammalian cellular retinol-binding proteins I and II, cellular retinoic-acid-binding protein myelin P2 protein, adipocyte FABP, heart FABP and shark liver FABP, the latter having diverged from the ancestral gene that ultimately gave rise to the present day mammalian heart-FABP, adipocyte FABP and myelin P2 protein sequences. The sequence for intestinal FABP from the rat could be assigned to either subfamily, depending on the approach used for phylogenetic tree construction, but clearly diverged at a relatively early evolutionary time point. Indeed, sequences proximately ancestral or closely related to mammalian intestinal FABP, liver FABP, gastrotropin and the retinoid-binding group of proteins appear to have arisen prior to the divergence of shark liver FABP and should therefore also be present in elasmobranchs

  2. Characterization of thermoplastic polyurethane/polylactic acid (TPU/PLA) tissue engineering scaffolds fabricated by microcellular injection molding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mi, Hao-Yang; Salick, Max R.; Jing, Xin; Jacques, Brianna R.; Crone, Wendy C.; Peng, Xiang-Fang; Turng, Lih-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Polylactic acid (PLA) and thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) are two kinds of biocompatible and biodegradable polymers that can be used in biomedical applications. PLA has rigid mechanical properties while TPU possesses flexible mechanical properties. Blended TPU/PLA tissue engineering scaffolds at different ratios for tunable properties were fabricated via twin screw extrusion and microcellular injection molding techniques for the first time. Multiple test methods were used to characterize these materials. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the existence of the two components in the blends; differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) confirmed the immiscibility between the TPU and PLA. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images verified that, at the composition ratios studied, PLA was dispersed as spheres or islands inside the TPU matrix and that this phase morphology further influenced the scaffold's microstructure and surface roughness. The blends exhibited a large range of mechanical properties that covered several human tissue requirements. 3T3 fibroblast cell culture showed that the scaffolds supported cell proliferation and migration properly. Most importantly, this study demonstrated the feasibility of mass producing biocompatible PLA/TPU scaffolds with tunable microstructures, surface roughnesses, and mechanical properties that have the potential to be used as artificial scaffolds in multiple tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • Microcellular injection molding was used to fabricate tissue engineering scaffolds. • TPU/PLA tissue engineering scaffolds with tunable properties were fabricated. • Multiple test methods were used to characterize the scaffolds. • The biocompatibility of the scaffolds was confirmed by fibroblast cell culture. • Scaffolds produced have the potential to be used in multiple tissue applications

  3. Prediction of functional sites in proteins using conserved functional group analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innis, C Axel; Anand, A Prem; Sowdhamini, R

    2004-04-02

    A detailed knowledge of a protein's functional site is an absolute prerequisite for understanding its mode of action at the molecular level. However, the rapid pace at which sequence and structural information is being accumulated for proteins greatly exceeds our ability to determine their biochemical roles experimentally. As a result, computational methods are required which allow for the efficient processing of the evolutionary information contained in this wealth of data, in particular that related to the nature and location of functionally important sites and residues. The method presented here, referred to as conserved functional group (CFG) analysis, relies on a simplified representation of the chemical groups found in amino acid side-chains to identify functional sites from a single protein structure and a number of its sequence homologues. We show that CFG analysis can fully or partially predict the location of functional sites in approximately 96% of the 470 cases tested and that, unlike other methods available, it is able to tolerate wide variations in sequence identity. In addition, we discuss its potential in a structural genomics context, where automation, scalability and efficiency are critical, and an increasing number of protein structures are determined with no prior knowledge of function. This is exemplified by our analysis of the hypothetical protein Ydde_Ecoli, whose structure was recently solved by members of the North East Structural Genomics consortium. Although the proposed active site for this protein needs to be validated experimentally, this example illustrates the scope of CFG analysis as a general tool for the identification of residues likely to play an important role in a protein's biochemical function. Thus, our method offers a convenient solution to rapidly and automatically process the vast amounts of data that are beginning to emerge from structural genomics projects.

  4. Computer analysis of protein functional sites projection on exon structure of genes in Metazoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedeva, Irina V; Demenkov, Pavel S; Ivanisenko, Vladimir A

    2015-01-01

    Study of the relationship between the structural and functional organization of proteins and their coding genes is necessary for an understanding of the evolution of molecular systems and can provide new knowledge for many applications for designing proteins with improved medical and biological properties. It is well known that the functional properties of proteins are determined by their functional sites. Functional sites are usually represented by a small number of amino acid residues that are distantly located from each other in the amino acid sequence. They are highly conserved within their functional group and vary significantly in structure between such groups. According to this facts analysis of the general properties of the structural organization of the functional sites at the protein level and, at the level of exon-intron structure of the coding gene is still an actual problem. One approach to this analysis is the projection of amino acid residue positions of the functional sites along with the exon boundaries to the gene structure. In this paper, we examined the discontinuity of the functional sites in the exon-intron structure of genes and the distribution of lengths and phases of the functional site encoding exons in vertebrate genes. We have shown that the DNA fragments coding the functional sites were in the same exons, or in close exons. The observed tendency to cluster the exons that code functional sites which could be considered as the unit of protein evolution. We studied the characteristics of the structure of the exon boundaries that code, and do not code, functional sites in 11 Metazoa species. This is accompanied by a reduced frequency of intercodon gaps (phase 0) in exons encoding the amino acid residue functional site, which may be evidence of the existence of evolutionary limitations to the exon shuffling. These results characterize the features of the coding exon-intron structure that affect the functionality of the encoded protein and

  5. Characterisation and functional properties of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) seed proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Ali Abas; Sogi, Dalbir Singh; Singh, Preeti; Wani, Idrees Ahmed; Shivhare, Uma S

    2011-01-15

    People in developing countries depend largely on non-conventional protein sources to augment the availability of proteins in their diets. Watermelon seed meal is reported to contain an adequate amount of nutritional proteins that could be extracted for use as nutritional ingredients in food products. Osborne classification showed that globulin was the major protein (≥500 g kg (-1)) present in watermelon seed meal, followed by albumin and glutelin. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis indicated that the polypeptides had low molecular weights ranging from 35 to 47 kDa. Isoelectric focusing revealed that the isoelectric point of most proteins was in the acidic range 4-6. These proteins are rich in aspartic acid, glutamic acid and serine. An increase in pH (5-9) significantly (P watermelon protein fractions respectively, while surface hydrophobicity ranged from 126.4 to 173.2 and from 125.8 to 169.3 respectively. The foaming and emulsifying properties of albumin were better than those of the other proteins studied. The good nutritional and functional properties of watermelon seed meal proteins suggest their potential use in food formulations. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Noroviruses Co-opt the Function of Host Proteins VAPA and VAPB for Replication via a Phenylalanine-Phenylalanine-Acidic-Tract-Motif Mimic in Nonstructural Viral Protein NS1/2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCune, Broc T; Tang, Wei; Lu, Jia; Eaglesham, James B; Thorne, Lucy; Mayer, Anne E; Condiff, Emily; Nice, Timothy J; Goodfellow, Ian; Krezel, Andrzej M; Virgin, Herbert W

    2017-07-11

    The Norovirus genus contains important human pathogens, but the role of host pathways in norovirus replication is largely unknown. Murine noroviruses provide the opportunity to study norovirus replication in cell culture and in small animals. The human norovirus nonstructural protein NS1/2 interacts with the host protein VAMP-associated protein A (VAPA), but the significance of the NS1/2-VAPA interaction is unexplored. Here we report decreased murine norovirus replication in VAPA- and VAPB-deficient cells. We characterized the role of VAPA in detail. VAPA was required for the efficiency of a step(s) in the viral replication cycle after entry of viral RNA into the cytoplasm but before the synthesis of viral minus-sense RNA. The interaction of VAPA with viral NS1/2 proteins is conserved between murine and human noroviruses. Murine norovirus NS1/2 directly bound the major sperm protein (MSP) domain of VAPA through its NS1 domain. Mutations within NS1 that disrupted interaction with VAPA inhibited viral replication. Structural analysis revealed that the viral NS1 domain contains a mimic of the phenylalanine-phenylalanine-acidic-tract (FFAT) motif that enables host proteins to bind to the VAPA MSP domain. The NS1/2-FFAT mimic region interacted with the VAPA-MSP domain in a manner similar to that seen with bona fide host FFAT motifs. Amino acids in the FFAT mimic region of the NS1 domain that are important for viral replication are highly conserved across murine norovirus strains. Thus, VAPA interaction with a norovirus protein that functionally mimics host FFAT motifs is important for murine norovirus replication. IMPORTANCE Human noroviruses are a leading cause of gastroenteritis worldwide, but host factors involved in norovirus replication are incompletely understood. Murine noroviruses have been studied to define mechanisms of norovirus replication. Here we defined the importance of the interaction between the hitherto poorly studied NS1/2 norovirus protein and the

  7. A Patient-Specific Polylactic Acid Bolus Made by a 3D Printer for Breast Cancer Radiation Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, So-Yeon; Choi, Chang Heon; Park, Jong Min; Chun, MinSoo; Han, Ji Hye; Kim, Jung-In

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and advantages of a patient-specific breast bolus made using a 3D printer technique. We used the anthropomorphic female phantom with breast attachments, which volumes are 200, 300, 400, 500 and 650 cc. We simulated the treatment for a right breast patient using parallel opposed tangential fields. Treatment plans were used to investigate the effect of unwanted air gaps under bolus on the dose distribution of the whole breast. The commercial Super-Flex bolus and 3D-printed polylactic acid (PLA) bolus were applied to investigate the skin dose of the breast with the MOSFET measurement. Two boluses of 3 and 5 mm thicknesses were selected. There was a good agreement between the dose distribution for a virtual bolus generated by the TPS and PLA bolus. The difference in dose distribution between the virtual bolus and Super-Flex bolus was significant within the bolus and breast due to unwanted air gaps. The average differences between calculated and measured doses in a 200 and 300 cc with PLA bolus were not significant, which were -0.7% and -0.6% for 3mm, and -1.1% and -1.1% for 5 mm, respectively. With the Super-Flex bolus, however, significant dose differences were observed (-5.1% and -3.2% for 3mm, and -6.3% and -4.2% for 5 mm). The 3D-printed solid bolus can reduce the uncertainty of the daily setup and help to overcome the dose discrepancy by unwanted air gaps in the breast cancer radiation therapy.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of Cerium-doped hydroxyapatite/polylactic acid composite coatings on metal substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Qiuhua, E-mail: yuanqiuh@szu.edu.cn; Qin, Caoping; Wu, Jianbo; Xu, Anping; Zhang, Ziqiang; Liao, Junquan; Lin, Songxin; Ren, Xiangzhong; Zhang, Peixin

    2016-10-01

    Ce-doped hydroxyapatite/polylactic acid (HA/PLA) composites serving as implant coatings have rarely been studied by other researchers in recent years. This paper was focused to study the existence of Ce ions in structure, chemical composition and surface morphology of HA and its composite coatings. Ce-doped HA powders were synthesized by chemical precipitation method with different Ce molar fractions (0(pure HA), 0.5 mol%, 1 mol% and 2 mol%). And Ce-doped HA/PLA composite coatings were fabricated for the first time on stainless steel substrates by spin coating technique. The obtained samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray detector (EDX), thermo gravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results showed that Ce ions were doped into the crystal lattice of apatite successfully. The (Ce + Ca)/P atomic ratios in the doped HA/PLA samples ranged from 1.614 to 1.673, which were very close to the theoretical value of 1.67 for the stoichiometric HA. The addition of PLA could keep metal substrates from catalyzing the decomposition of HA. TG-DTA analysis indicated that Ce-doped HA powder had high thermal stability, and the SEM micrographs revealed that the surface topography of Ce-doped HA/PLA composite coatings was uniform and dense when the Ce molar fraction was 2 mol%. XPS results indicated that the Ce ions doped in HA showed mixed valences of Ce{sup 3+} and Ce{sup 4+}. - Highlights: • Ce-doped HA composite coatings were synthesized by spin-coating technique for the first time. • Ce ions were demonstrated to dope into HA crystal lattice successfully. • The addition of PLA could keep metal substrates from catalyzing the decomposition of HA. • XPS results showed that Ce ions doped in HA have mixed valences of Ce{sup 3+} and Ce{sup 4+}.

  9. Polylactic Acid Improves the Rheological Properties, and Promotes the Degradation of Sodium Carboxymethyl Cellulose-Modified Alkali-Activated Cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijing Tan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In consideration of the insolubility in water, sensitivity to heat and wide application in the oil and gas industry as a degradable additive, this paper introduces polylactic acid (PLA to a self-degradable temporary sealing material (SDTSM to investigate its effect on the SDTSM performance and evaluate its potential to improve the rheological properties and further promote the self-degradation of the material. The thermal degradation of PLA, the rheological properties, compressive strength, hydrated products and water absorption of SDTSMs with different PLA dosages were tested. The analysis showed that the addition of 2% PLA increased the fluidity by 13.18% and reduced the plastic viscosity by 38.04%, when compared to those of the SDTSM without PLA. PLA increased the water absorption of 200 °C-heated SDTSM and had small effect on the types but decreased the hydrate products of 85 °C-cured SDTSM, and created plenty of pores in 200 °C-heated SDTSM. PLA enhanced the self-degradation level of SDTSM by generating a large amount of pores in cement. These pores worked in two ways: one was such a large amount of pores led to a looser microstructure; the other was these pores made the water impregnate the cement more easily, and then made the dissolution of substances in the 200 °C-heated SDTSM progress faster to generate heat and to destruct the microstructure.

  10. Electrospun poly(lactic acid) based conducting nanofibrous networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patra, S N; Bhattacharyya, D; Ray, S; Easteal, A J

    2009-01-01

    Multi-functionalised micro/nanostructures of conducting polymers in neat or blended forms have received much attention because of their unique properties and technological applications in electrical, magnetic and biomedical devices. Biopolymer-based conducting fibrous mats are of special interest for tissue engineering because they not only physically support tissue growth but also are electrically conductive, and thus are able to stimulate specific cell functions or trigger cell responses. They are effective for carrying current in biological environments and can thus be considered for delivering local electrical stimuli at the site of damaged tissue to promote wound healing. Electrospinning is an established way to process polymer solutions or melts into continuous fibres with diameter often in the nanometre range. This process primarily depends on a number of parameters, including the type of polymer, solution viscosity, polarity and surface tension of the solvent, electric field strength and the distance between the spinneret and the collector. The present research has included polyaniline (PANi) as the conducting polymer and poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) as the biopolymer. Dodecylbenzene sulphonic acid (DBSA) doped PANi and PLLA have been dissolved in a common solvent (mixtures of chloroform and dimethyl formamide (DMF)), and the solutions successfully electrospun. DMF enhanced the dielectric constant of the solvent, and tetra butyl ammonium bromide (TBAB) was used as an additive to increase the conductivity of the solution. DBSA-doped PANi/PLLA mat exhibits an almost bead-free network of nanofibres that have extraordinarily smooth surface and diameters in the range 75 to 100 nm.

  11. Only Acyl Carrier Protein 1 (AcpP1 Functions in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Fatty Acid Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Cheng Ma

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The genome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa contains three open reading frames, PA2966, PA1869, and PA3334, which encode putative acyl carrier proteins, AcpP1, AcpP2, and AcpP3, respectively. In this study, we found that, although these apo-ACPs were successfully phosphopantetheinylated by P. aeruginosa phosphopantetheinyl transferase (PcpS and all holo-forms of these proteins could be acylated by Vibrio harveyi acyl-ACP synthetase (AasS, only AcpP1 could be used as a substrate for the synthesis of fatty acids, catalyzed by P. aeruginosa cell free extracts in vitro, and only acpP1 gene could restore growth in the Escherichia coliacpP mutant strain CY1877. And P. aeruginosaacpP1 could not be deleted, while disruption of acpP2 or acpP3 in the P. aeruginosa genome allowed mutant strains to grow as well as the wild type strain. These findings confirmed that only P. aeruginosa AcpP1 functions in fatty acid biosynthesis, and that acpP2 and acpP3 do not play roles in the fatty acid synthetic pathway. Moreover, disruption of acpP2 and acpP3 did not affect the ability of P. aeruginosa to produce N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHL, but replacement of P. aeruginosaacpP1 with E. coliacpP caused P. aeruginosa to reduce the production of AHL molecules, which indicated that neither P. aeruginosa AcpP2 nor AcpP3 can act as a substrate for synthesis of AHL molecules in vivo. Furthermore, replacement of acpP1 with E. coliacpP reduced the ability of P. aeruginosa to produce some exo-products and abolished swarming motility in P. aeruginosa.

  12. The effect of surface modification of glass fiber on the performance of poly(lactic acid) composites: Graphene oxide vs. silane coupling agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Mengfan; Che, Junjin; Xu, Shuman; Liu, Zhenwei; Fu, Qiang

    2018-03-01

    In this work, a comparison study was carried out to investigate the efficacy of glass fiber (GF) in reinforcing poly(lactic acid) (PLA) by using traditional silane coupling agents (GF-S) and novel graphene oxide (GF-GO) as surface modifiers. The crystallization behavior of the PLA matrix was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry. The mechanical performances and the thermomechanical properties of the composites were evaluated by uniaxial tensile testing and dynamic mechanical analysis, respectively. For neat GF without any treatment, the poor interfacial adhesion and the sharp shortening of the GF length result in the relatively poor mechanical performances of PLA/GF composites. However, the incorporation of GF-S significantly improves the mechanical strength and keeps relatively good toughness of the composites, while GF-GO exhibits excellent nucleation ability for PLA and could moderately increase the modulus of the composites. The thermomechanical properties of the composites are improved markedly resulting from the crystallinity increase. The different surface modification of glass fiber influences the crystallinity of matrix, the interfacial interaction and the length of fiber, which altogether affect the mechanical performances of the prepared PLA/GF composites.

  13. Supertoughened Biobased Poly(lactic acid)-Epoxidized Natural Rubber Thermoplastic Vulcanizates: Fabrication, Co-continuous Phase Structure, Interfacial in Situ Compatibilization, and Toughening Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Youhong; Chen, Kunling; Xu, Chuanhui; Chen, Yukun

    2015-09-10

    In the presence of dicumyl peroxide (DCP), biobased thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPVs) composed of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) were prepared through dynamic vulcanization. Interfacial in situ compatibilization between PLA and ENR phases was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). A novel "sea-sea" co-continuous phase in the PLA/ENR TPVs was observed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differed from the typical "sea-island" morphology that cross-linked rubber particles dispersed in plastic matrix. A sharp, brittle-ductile transition occurred with 40 wt % of ENR, showing a significantly improved impact strength of 47 kJ/m(2), nearly 15 times that of the neat PLA and 2.6 times that of the simple blend with the same PLA/ENR ratio. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) results suggested that a certain amount of DCP was consumed in the PLA phase, causing a slight cross-linking or branching of PLA molecules. the effects of various DCP contents on the impact property were investigated. The toughening mechanism under impact testing was researched, and the influence factors for toughening were discussed.

  14. Heat-stable proteins and abscisic acid action in barley aleurone cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsen, J.V.; Shaw, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    [ 35 S]Methionine labeling experiments showed that abscisic acid (ABA) induced the synthesis of at least 25 polypeptides in mature barley (Hordeum vulgare) aleurone cells. The polypeptides were not secreted. Whereas most of the proteins extracted from aleurone cells were coagulated by heating to 100 degree C for 10 minutes, most of the ABA-induced polypeptides remained in solution (heat-stable). ABA had little effect on the spectrum of polypeptides that were synthesized and secreted by aleurone cells, and most of these secreted polypeptides were also heat-stable. Coomassie blue staining of sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gels indicated that ABA-induced polypeptides already occurred in high amounts in mature aleurone layers having accumulated during grain development. About 60% of the total protein extracted from mature aleurone was heat stable. Amino acid analyses of total preparations of heat-stable and heat-labile proteins showed that, compared to heat-labile proteins, heat-stable intracellular proteins were characterized by higher glutamic acid/glutamine (Glx) and glycine levels and lower levels of neutral amino acids. Secreted heat-stable proteins were rich in Glx and proline. The possibilities that the accumulation of the heat-stable polypeptides during grain development is controlled by ABA and that the function of these polypeptides is related to their abundance and extraordinary heat stability are considered

  15. Cartilage Acidic Protein 2 a hyperthermostable, high affinity calcium-binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjos, Liliana; Gomes, Ana S; Melo, Eduardo P; Canário, Adelino V; Power, Deborah M

    2013-03-01

    Cartilage Acidic Protein 2 (CRTAC2) is a novel protein present from prokaryotes to vertebrates with abundant expression in the teleost fish pituitary gland and an isoform of CRTAC1, a chondrocyte marker in humans. The two proteins are non-integrins containing N-terminal integrin-like Ca(2+)-binding motifs and their structure and function remain to be assigned. Structural studies of recombinant sea bream (sb)CRTAC2 revealed it is composed of 8.8% α-helix, 33.4% β-sheet and 57.8% unordered protein. sbCRTAC2 bound Ca(2+) with high affinity (K(d)=1.46nM) and favourable Gibbs free energy (∆G=-12.4kcal/mol). The stoichiometry for Ca(2+) bound to sbCRTAC2 at saturation indicated six Ca(2+) ligand-binding sites exist per protein molecule. No conformational change in sbCRTAC2 occurred in the presence of Ca(2+). Fluorescence emission revealed that the tertiary structure of the protein is hyperthermostable between 25°C and 95°C and the fully unfolded state is only induced by chemical denaturing (4M GndCl). sbCRTAC has a widespread tissue distribution and is present as high molecular weight aggregates, although strong reducing conditions promote formation of the monomer. sbCRTAC2 promotes epithelial cell outgrowth in vitro suggesting it may share functional homology with mammalian CRTAC1, recently implicated in cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. N-3 fatty acids and membrane microdomains: from model membranes to lymphocyte function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Saame Raza; Teague, Heather

    2012-12-01

    This article summarizes the author's research on fish oil derived n-3 fatty acids, plasma membrane organization and B cell function. We first cover basic model membrane studies that investigated how docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) targeted the organization of sphingolipid-cholesterol enriched lipid microdomains. A key finding here was that DHA had a relatively poor affinity for cholesterol. This work led to a model that predicted DHA acyl chains in cells would manipulate lipid-protein microdomain organization and thereby function. We then review how the predictions of the model were tested with B cells in vitro followed by experiments using mice fed fish oil. These studies reveal a highly complex picture on how n-3 fatty acids target lipid-protein organization and B cell function. Key findings are as follows: (1) n-3 fatty acids target not just the plasma membrane but also endomembrane organization; (2) DHA, but not eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), disrupts microdomain spatial distribution (i.e. clustering), (3) DHA alters protein lateral organization and (4) changes in membrane organization are accompanied by functional effects on both innate and adaptive B cell function. Altogether, the research over the past 10 years has led to an evolution of the original model on how DHA reorganizes membrane microdomains. The work raises the intriguing possibility of testing the model at the human level to target health and disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. In Vitro Evaluation of Essential Mechanical Properties and Cell Behaviors of a Novel Polylactic-co-Glycolic Acid (PLGA-Based Tubular Scaffold for Small-Diameter Vascular Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuoxin Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate essential mechanical properties and cell behaviors of the scaffolds fabricated by rolling polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA electrospinning (ES films for small-diameter vascular grafts (inner diameter < 6 mm. The newly developed strategy can be used to fabricate small diameter vascular grafts with or without pre-seeded cells, which are two main branches for small diameter vascular engineering. We demonstrate that the mechanical properties of our rolling-based scaffolds can be tuned flexibly by the number of layers. For cell-free scaffolds, with the increase of layer number, burst pressure and suture retention increase, elastic tensile modulus maintains unchanged statistically, but compliance and liquid leakage decrease. For cell-containing scaffolds, seeding cells will significantly decrease the liquid leakage, but there are no statistical differences for other mechanical properties; moreover, cells live and proliferate well in the scaffold after a 6-day culture.

  18. Lactic acid induces aberrant amyloid precursor protein processing by promoting its interaction with endoplasmic reticulum chaperone proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiwen Xiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lactic acid, a natural by-product of glycolysis, is produced at excess levels in response to impaired mitochondrial function, high-energy demand, and low oxygen availability. The enzyme involved in the production of β-amyloid peptide (Aβ of Alzheimer's disease, BACE1, functions optimally at lower pH, which led us to investigate a potential role of lactic acid in the processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Lactic acid increased levels of Aβ40 and 42, as measured by ELISA, in culture medium of human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y, whereas it decreased APP metabolites, such as sAPPα. In cell lysates, APP levels were increased and APP was found to interact with ER-chaperones in a perinuclear region, as determined by co-immunoprecipitation and fluorescence microscopy studies. Lactic acid had only a very modest effect on cellular pH, did increase the levels of ER chaperones Grp78 and Grp94 and led to APP aggregate formation reminiscent of aggresomes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that sustained elevations in lactic acid levels could be a risk factor in amyloidogenesis related to Alzheimer's disease through enhanced APP interaction with ER chaperone proteins and aberrant APP processing leading to increased generation of amyloid peptides and APP aggregates.

  19. Process for the separation of proteins from acid whey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirabel, B

    1980-01-01

    Acid whey from cheese or casein manufacture (pH less than 4.6) and containing about 5.2 g protein/l is passed through a cation exchange resin (of silica coated with a copolymer of styrene/vinyltriethoxysilane carrying SO/sub 3/H functional groups). The proteins adsorbed on the resin (alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, serum albumin and immunoglobulins) are eluated with an 0.1 M ammonia solution, concentrated under vacuum and freeze-dried, obtaining a final product with 88% undenatured protein. The products are for use in the food and pharmaceutical industries and for dietetic and veterinary purposes.

  20. Capillary microreactors for lactic acid extraction: experimental and modelling study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Susanti, Susanti; Winkelman, Jozef; Schuur, Boelo; Heeres, Hero; Yue, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Lactic acid is an important biobased chemical and, among others, is used for the production of poly-lactic acid. Down-stream processing using state of the art technology is energy intensive and leads to the formation of large amounts of salts. In this presentation, experimental and modeling studies

  1. Absorption of proteins and amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeejeebhoy, K.N.

    1976-01-01

    Although the absorption of proteins and amino acids is an important issue in nutrition, its measurement is not common because of the methodological difficulties. Complications are attributable in particular to the magnitude of endogenous protein secretion and to the diversity of absorption mechanisms for amino acids either as individual units or as peptides. Methods for studying absorption include balance techniques, tolerance tests, tracer techniques using proteins or amino acids labelled with 131 I, 3 H, or 15 N, intestinal perfusion studies, and others; they must be selected according to the nature of the information sought. Improvements over the current methods would be useful. (author)

  2. Branched-chain Amino Acids are Beneficial to Maintain Growth Performance and Intestinal Immune-related Function in Weaned Piglets Fed Protein Restricted Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ren

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As a novel approach for disease control and prevention, nutritional modulation of the intestinal health has been proved. However, It is still unknown whether branched-chain amino acid (BCAA is needed to maintain intestinal immune-related function. The objective of this study was to determine whether BCAA supplementation in protein restricted diet affects growth performance, intestinal barrier function and modulates post-weaning gut disorders. One hundred and eight weaned piglets (7.96±0.26 kg were randomly fed one of the three diets including a control diet (21% crude protein [CP], CON, a protein restricted diet (17% CP, PR and a BCAA diet (BCAA supplementation in the PR diet for 14 d. The growth performance, plasma amino acid concentrations, small intestinal morphology and intestinal immunoglobulins were tested. First, average daily gain (ADG (p0.05. The PR and BCAA treatments had a higher (p<0.05 plasma concentration of methionine and threonine than the CON treatment. The level of some essential and functional amino acids (such as arginine, phenylalanine, histidine, glutamine etc. in plasma of the PR group was lower (p<0.05 than that of the CON group. Compared with CON group, BCAA supplementation significantly increased BCAA concentrations (p<0.01 and decreased urea concentration (p<0.01 in pig plasma indicating that the efficiency of dietary nitrogen utilization was increased. Compared with CON group, the small intestine of piglets fed PR diet showed villous atrophy, increasing of intra-epithelial lymphocytes (IELs number (p<0.05 and declining of the immunoglobulin concentration, including jejunal immunoglobulin A (IgA (p = 0.04, secreted IgA (sIgA (p = 0.03 and immunoglobulin M (p = 0.08, and ileal IgA (p = 0.01 and immunoglobulin G (p = 0.08. The BCAA supplementation increased villous height in the duodenum (p<0.01, reversed the trend of an increasing IELs number. Notably, BCAA supplementation increased levels of jejunal and ileal

  3. Solvent-free preparation of polylactic acid fibers by melt electrospinning using umbrella-like spray head and alleviation of problematic thermal degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Melt electrospinning is an even simpler and safer method compared with the solution electrospinning in the production of ultra-fine fibers. Polylactic acid (PLA is a biodegradable and resorbable aliphatic ester that has received significant attention in recent years. PLA is easily degradable at high temperature in the process of melt electrospinning. High efficient fibers were made using our designed umbrella-like spray head spinning facility in this work. To find how to alleviate the problematic degradation and what factors could be relevant to degradation, temperature, relative molecular mass, Differential Scanning Calorimeter and X-ray Diffraction patterns before and after spinning were investigated and compared with each other. Results showed that fibers were facile shorten and fractured when spun at 245°C while the relative molecular mass of PLA fibers decreased markedly as compared with that spun at 210°C. To hinder the degradation, couple of experimental efforts were implemented with adding antioxidants, raising spinning voltage, lowering temperature, and reducing residence time. After such efforts, it was observed that the relative molecular mass of the PLA fibers was higher than those without inputting any efforts. The effect of antioxidant 1010 was found the most promising on the alleviation of PLA problematic thermal degradation.

  4. The acidic functional groups of humic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanxiang, Li; Shuhe, Sun; Zhai Zongxi, Wu Qihu

    1983-09-01

    The acidic functional groups content, pK value, DELTAH and DELTAS of humic acid (HA) and nitro-humic acid (NHA) were determined by potentiometry, conductometry and calorimetric titration. The thermodynamic parameters of carboxylic groups and phenolic hydroxyl groups of humic acid are similar to that of simple hydroxy-benzoic acid. The configuration sites of acidic functional groups in humic acid from different coals are different. The carbonyl groups on aromatic rings are probably ortho to phenolic -OH for HA and NHA extracted from Huangxian's brown coal and Japanese lignite, while those from Lingshi's weathered coal are not. The weak -COOH groups of the latter possess higher chemical activity. The -COOH content in HA increases, phenolic -OH group decreases and the chemical acidity of acidic functional groups increases when HA is oxidized by nitric acid. (14 refs.)

  5. Expression of a fatty acid-binding protein in yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholz, H.

    1991-06-01

    The unicellular eukaryotic microorganism, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, transformed with a plasmid containing a cDNA fragment encoding bovine heart fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP C ) under the control of the inducible yeast GAL10 promoter, expressed FABP during growth on galactose. The maximum level of immunoreactive FABP, identical in size and isoelectric point to native protein, was reached after approximately 16 hours of induction. In contrast, transcription of the gene was induced within half an hour. Both, protein and mRNA were unstable and degraded within 1 h after repression of transcription. Analysis of subcellular fractions showed that FABP was exclusively associated with the cytosol. FABP expressed in yeast cells was functional as was demonstrated by its capacity to bind long chain fatty acids in an in vitro assay. Growth of all transformants on galactose as the carbon source showed no phenotype at temperatures up to 37 deg C, but the growth of FABP-expressing cells at 37 deg C was significantly retarded. Among the biochemical effects of FABP expression on lipid metabolism is a marked reduction of chain elongation and desaturation of exogenously added 14 C-palmitic acid. This effect is most pronounced in triacylglycerols and phospholipids when cells grow at 30 deg C and 37 deg C, respectively. In an in vitro assay determining the desaturation of palmitoyl CoA by microsomal membranes cytosol with or without exo- or endogenous FABP showed the same stimulation of the reaction. The desaturation of exogenously added 14 C-stearic acid, the pattern of unlabelled fatty acids (saturated vs. unsaturated) and the distribution of exogenously added radioactive fatty acids (palmitic, stearic or oleic acid) among lipid classes was not significantly affected. Using high concentrations (1 mM) the uptake of fatty acids was first stimulated and then inhibited when FABP was expressed. (author)

  6. Interactions between Therapeutic Proteins and Acrylic Acid Leachable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dengfeng; Nashed-Samuel, Yasser; Bondarenko, Pavel V; Brems, David N; Ren, Da

    2012-01-01

    Leachables are chemical compounds that migrate from manufacturing equipment, primary containers and closure systems, and packaging components into biopharmaceutical and pharmaceutical products. Acrylic acid (at concentration around 5 μg/mL) was detected as leachable in syringes from one of the potential vendors (X syringes). In order to evaluate the potential impact of acrylic acid on therapeutic proteins, an IgG 2 molecule was filled into a sterilized X syringe and then incubated at 45 °C for 45 days in a pH 5 acetate buffer. We discovered that acrylic acid can interact with proteins at three different sites: (1) the lysine side chain, (2) the N-terminus, and (3) the histidine side chain, by the Michael reaction. In this report, the direct interactions between acrylic acid leachable and a biopharmaceutical product were demonstrated and the reaction mechanism was proposed. Even thought a small amount (from 0.02% to 0.3%) of protein was found to be modified by acrylic acid, the modified protein can potentially be harmful due to the toxicity of acrylic acid. After being modified by acrylic acid, the properties of the therapeutic protein may change due to charge and hydrophobicity variations. Acrylic acid was detected to migrate from syringes (Vendor X) into a therapeutic protein solution (at a concentration around 5 μg/mL). In this study, we discovered that acrylic acid can modify proteins at three different sites: (1) the lysine side chain, 2) the N-terminus, and 3) the histidine side chain, by the Michael reaction. In this report, the direct interactions between acrylic acid leachable and a biopharmaceutical product were demonstrated and the reaction mechanism was proposed.

  7. Cytocompatibility and Mechanical Properties of Short Phosphate Glass Fibre Reinforced Polylactic Acid (PLA Composites: Effect of Coupling Agent Mediated Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin Walker

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study three chemical agents Amino-propyl-triethoxy-silane (APS, sorbitol ended PLA oligomer (SPLA and Hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI were identified to be used as coupling agents to react with the phosphate glass fibre (PGF reinforcement and the polylactic acid (PLA polymer matrix of the composite. Composites were prepared with short chopped strand fibres (l = 20 mm, ϕ = 20 µm in a random arrangement within PLA matrix. Improved, initial composite flexural strength (~20 MPa was observed for APS treated fibres, which was suggested to be due to enhanced bonding between the fibres and polymer matrix. Both APS and HDI treated fibres were suggested to be covalently linked with the PLA matrix. The hydrophobicity induced by these coupling agents (HDI, APS helped to resist hydrolysis of the interface and thus retained their mechanical properties for an extended period of time as compared to non-treated control. Approximately 70% of initial strength and 65% of initial modulus was retained by HDI treated fibre composites in contrast to the control, where only ~50% of strength and modulus was retained after 28 days of immersion in PBS at 37 °C. All coupling agent treated and control composites demonstrated good cytocompatibility which was comparable to the tissue culture polystyrene (TCP control, supporting the use of these materials as coupling agent’s within medical implant devices.

  8. Apicoplast lipoic acid protein ligase B is not essential for Plasmodium falciparum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svenja Günther

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Lipoic acid (LA is an essential cofactor of alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complexes (KADHs and the glycine cleavage system. In Plasmodium, LA is attached to the KADHs by organelle-specific lipoylation pathways. Biosynthesis of LA exclusively occurs in the apicoplast, comprising octanoyl-[acyl carrier protein]: protein N-octanoyltransferase (LipB and LA synthase. Salvage of LA is mitochondrial and scavenged LA is ligated to the KADHs by LA protein ligase 1 (LplA1. Both pathways are entirely independent, suggesting that both are likely to be essential for parasite survival. However, disruption of the LipB gene did not negatively affect parasite growth despite a drastic loss of LA (>90%. Surprisingly, the sole, apicoplast-located pyruvate dehydrogenase still showed lipoylation, suggesting that an alternative lipoylation pathway exists in this organelle. We provide evidence that this residual lipoylation is attributable to the dual targeted, functional lipoate protein ligase 2 (LplA2. Localisation studies show that LplA2 is present in both mitochondrion and apicoplast suggesting redundancy between the lipoic acid protein ligases in the erythrocytic stages of P. falciparum.

  9. A Patient-Specific Polylactic Acid Bolus Made by a 3D Printer for Breast Cancer Radiation Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So-Yeon Park

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and advantages of a patient-specific breast bolus made using a 3D printer technique.We used the anthropomorphic female phantom with breast attachments, which volumes are 200, 300, 400, 500 and 650 cc. We simulated the treatment for a right breast patient using parallel opposed tangential fields. Treatment plans were used to investigate the effect of unwanted air gaps under bolus on the dose distribution of the whole breast. The commercial Super-Flex bolus and 3D-printed polylactic acid (PLA bolus were applied to investigate the skin dose of the breast with the MOSFET measurement. Two boluses of 3 and 5 mm thicknesses were selected.There was a good agreement between the dose distribution for a virtual bolus generated by the TPS and PLA bolus. The difference in dose distribution between the virtual bolus and Super-Flex bolus was significant within the bolus and breast due to unwanted air gaps. The average differences between calculated and measured doses in a 200 and 300 cc with PLA bolus were not significant, which were -0.7% and -0.6% for 3mm, and -1.1% and -1.1% for 5 mm, respectively. With the Super-Flex bolus, however, significant dose differences were observed (-5.1% and -3.2% for 3mm, and -6.3% and -4.2% for 5 mm.The 3D-printed solid bolus can reduce the uncertainty of the daily setup and help to overcome the dose discrepancy by unwanted air gaps in the breast cancer radiation therapy.

  10. Functional analysis of protein N-myristoylation: Metabolic labeling studies using three oxygen-substituted analogs of myristic acid and cultured mammalian cells provide evidence for protein-sequence-specific incorporation and analog-specific redistribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, D.R.; Heuckeroth, R.O.; Gordon, J.I.; Cox, A.D.; Solski, P.A.; Buss, J.E.; Devadas, B.; Adams, S.P.; Leimgruber, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    Covalent attachment of myristic acid (C14:0) to the NH 2 -terminal glycine residue of a number of cellular, viral, and oncogene-encoded proteins is essential for full expression of their biological function. Substitution of oxygen for methylene groups in this fatty acid does not produce a significant change in chain length or stereochemistry but does result in a reduction in hydrophobicity. These heteroatom-containing analogs serve as alternative substrates for mammalian myristoyl-CoA: protein N-myristoyltransferase and offer the opportunity to explore structure/function relationships of myristate in N-myristoyltransferase proteins. The authors have synthesized three tritiated analogs of myristate with oxygen substituted for methylene groups at C6, C11, and C13. Metabolic labeling studies were performed with these compounds and (i) a murine myocyte cell line (BC 3 H1), (ii) a rat fibroblast cell that produces p60 v-src (3Xsrc), or (iii) NIH 3T3 cells that have been engineered to express a fusion protein consisting of an 11-residue myristoylation signal from the Rasheed sarcoma virus (RaSV) gag protein linked to c-Ha-ras with a Cys → Ser-186 mutation. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of membrane and soluble fractions prepared from cell lysates revealed different patterns of incorporation of the analogs into cellular N-myristoyl proteins. The demonstration that these analogs differ in the extent to which they are incorporated and in their ability to cause redistribution of any single protein suggests that they may also have sufficient selectivity to be of potential therapeutic value

  11. Improvement of thermal and mechanical properties of composite based on polylactic acid and microfibrillated cellulose through chemical modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryanegara, L.; Nugraha, R. A.; Achmadi, S. S.

    2017-07-01

    Polylactic acid (PLA) is the most representative sustainable and bio-based polymer environmentally friendly that has a great potential to replace petroleum-based plastics. However, brittleness, low heat resistance, and slow crystallization limit the wide application of PLA. One of strategies to improve PLA properties is by reinforcing with microfibrillated cellulose (MFC). Unfortunately, the hydrophilic properties of MFC make it difficult to attain good dispersion in a hydrophobic PLA matrix. Therefore, modification of MFC was needed to increase its compatibility with PLA in the composite formation. In this experiment, MFC was modified with partial acetylation (degree of substitution: 1) and further grafted with lactide monomers through ring-opening polymerization using Sn(Oct)2 catalyst. The result of acetylation and grafting were verified by infrared spectra. Composites were prepared by mixing PLA (molecular weight of 200,000) and the modified MFC at 9:1 ratio through organic solvent method. Followed by 8 min-kneading and hot pressing at 180°C, the resulted composites were evaluated for their mechanical and thermal properties. Thermal characterization carried out using differential scanning calorimetry measurements showed that the presence of modified MFC increased the temperature of glass transition and accelerated the crystallization of PLA. Mechanical properties measurement showed that the presence of modified MFC enhanced the elongation at break (1.1 to 1.8%), tensile strength (14.9 to 25.7 MPa), and modulus of elasticity (1.7 to 2.1 GPa). These results demonstrated that the modified MFC could extend the application of PLA in industry.

  12. Surface biofunctionalization of three-dimensional porous poly(lactic acid) scaffold using chitosan/OGP coating for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Sen; Ye, Jianhua; Cui, Zhixiang; Si, Junhui; Wang, Qianting; Wang, Xiaofeng; Peng, Kaiping; Chen, Wenzhe

    2017-08-01

    As one of the stimulators on bone formation, osteogenic growth peptide (OGP) improves both proliferation and differentiation of the bone cells in vitro and in vivo. The aim of this work was the preparation of three dimensional porous poly(lactic acid) (PLA) scaffold with high porosity from PLA-dioxane-water ternary system with the use of vacuum-assisted solvent casting, phase separation, solvent extraction and particle leaching methods. Then, by surface coating of PLA scaffold with chitosan (CS)/OGP solution, biofunctionalization of PLA scaffold had been completed for application in bone regeneration. The effects of frozen temperature (-20, -50, -80°C) and PLA solution concentration (10, 12, 14wt%) on the microstructure, water absorption, porosity, hydrophilicity, mechanical properties, and biocompatibility of PLA and CS/OGP/PLA scaffold were investigated. Results showed that both PLA and CS/OGP/PLA scaffolds have an interconnected network structure and a porosity of up to 96.1% and 91.5%, respectively. The CS/OGP/PLA scaffold exhibited better hydrophilicity and mechanical properties than that of uncoated PLA scaffold. Moreover, the results of cell culture test showed that CS/OGP coating could stimulate the proliferation and growth of osteoblast cells on CS/OGP/PLA scaffold. These finding suggested that the surface biofunctionalization by CS/OGP coating layer could be an effective method on enhancing cell adhesion to synthetic polymer-based scaffolds in tissue engineering application and the developed porous CS/OGP/PLA scaffold should be considered as alternative biomaterials for bone regeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Programmable release of multiple protein drugs from aptamer-functionalized hydrogels via nucleic acid hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battig, Mark R; Soontornworajit, Boonchoy; Wang, Yong

    2012-08-01

    Polymeric delivery systems have been extensively studied to achieve localized and controlled release of protein drugs. However, it is still challenging to control the release of multiple protein drugs in distinct stages according to the progress of disease or treatment. This study successfully demonstrates that multiple protein drugs can be released from aptamer-functionalized hydrogels with adjustable release rates at predetermined time points using complementary sequences (CSs) as biomolecular triggers. Because both aptamer-protein interactions and aptamer-CS hybridization are sequence-specific, aptamer-functionalized hydrogels constitute a promising polymeric delivery system for the programmable release of multiple protein drugs to treat complex human diseases.

  14. Evaluation of polyethylene glycol/polylactic acid films in the prevention of adhesions in the rabbit adhesion formation and reformation sidewall models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, K; Cohn, D; Hotovely, A; Pines, E; Diamond, M P; diZerega, G

    1998-03-01

    To assess the efficacy of bioresorbable films consisting of various polyethylene glycol 6000 and polylactic acid block copolymers on the formation and reformation of adhesions in rabbit models of adhesion development between the sidewall to the adjacent cecum and bowel. The composition of the different polymers was expressed by the number of monomeric units in the block, namely, ethylene oxide (EO) and lactic acid (LA), respectively. Studies of the efficacy of EO/LA films were conducted in rabbit sidewall adhesion formation studies in the presence and absence of blood and in rabbit adhesion reformation studies. REPEL (Life Medical Sciences, Edison, NJ), a film of EO/LA ratio 3.0 manufactured under commercial conditions, was also tested in these animal models. University-based laboratory. New Zealand white rabbits. Placement of films of various EO/LA ratios at the site of injury to the parietal peritoneum. Adhesion formation and reformation. Films of various EO/LA ratios, Seprafilm (Genzyme, Cambridge, MA) and Interceed (Johnson and Johnson Medical, Arlington, TX) placed over an area of excised sidewall at the time of initial injury were highly efficacious in the prevention of adhesion formation. A film of EO/LA ratio 3.7, in contrast with Interceed, was also shown to maintain maximal efficacy in the reduction of adhesion formation in the presence of blood. Further, a film of EO/LA ratio 3.0 produced under commercial conditions, REPEL, was highly efficacious in reducing adhesion development in the rabbit models of adhesion and reformation. These studies suggest that bioresorbable EO/LA films reduced adhesion development in rabbit models of adhesion formation and reformation.

  15. New insights into sulfur amino acids function in gut health and disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is a metabolically significant site of sulfur amino acids (SAAs) metabolism in the body. Aside from their role in protein synthesis, methionine and cysteine are involved in many biological functions and diseases. Methionine (MET) is an indispensable amino acid and is...

  16. Factor VII and protein C are phosphatidic acid-binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavoosi, Narjes; Smith, Stephanie A; Davis-Harrison, Rebecca L; Morrissey, James H

    2013-08-20

    Seven proteins in the human blood clotting cascade bind, via their GLA (γ-carboxyglutamate-rich) domains, to membranes containing exposed phosphatidylserine (PS), although with membrane binding affinities that vary by 3 orders of magnitude. Here we employed nanodiscs of defined phospholipid composition to quantify the phospholipid binding specificities of these seven clotting proteins. All bound preferentially to nanobilayers in which PS headgroups contained l-serine versus d-serine. Surprisingly, however, nanobilayers containing phosphatidic acid (PA) bound substantially more of two of these proteins, factor VIIa and activated protein C, than did equivalent bilayers containing PS. Consistent with this finding, liposomes containing PA supported higher proteolytic activity by factor VIIa and activated protein C toward their natural substrates (factors X and Va, respectively) than did PS-containing liposomes. Moreover, treating activated human platelets with phospholipase D enhanced the rates of factor X activation by factor VIIa in the presence of soluble tissue factor. We hypothesize that factor VII and protein C bind preferentially to the monoester phosphate of PA because of its accessibility and higher negative charge compared with the diester phosphates of most other phospholipids. We further found that phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, which contains a monoester phosphate attached to its myo-inositol headgroup, also supported enhanced enzymatic activity of factor VIIa and activated protein C. We conclude that factor VII and protein C bind preferentially to monoester phosphates, which may have implications for the function of these proteases in vivo.

  17. Functional divergence outlines the evolution of novel protein ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-10-01

    Oct 1, 2013 ... identified a number of vital amino acid sites which contribute to predicted functional diversity. We have ... Taking this into account, in this study we looked into the possibility of ... to the structure of NifH protein and solubility accessibility of ..... ment through sequence weighting, position-specific gap penalties.

  18. Exploring protein dynamics space: the dynasome as the missing link between protein structure and function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf Hensen

    Full Text Available Proteins are usually described and classified according to amino acid sequence, structure or function. Here, we develop a minimally biased scheme to compare and classify proteins according to their internal mobility patterns. This approach is based on the notion that proteins not only fold into recurring structural motifs but might also be carrying out only a limited set of recurring mobility motifs. The complete set of these patterns, which we tentatively call the dynasome, spans a multi-dimensional space with axes, the dynasome descriptors, characterizing different aspects of protein dynamics. The unique dynamic fingerprint of each protein is represented as a vector in the dynasome space. The difference between any two vectors, consequently, gives a reliable measure of the difference between the corresponding protein dynamics. We characterize the properties of the dynasome by comparing the dynamics fingerprints obtained from molecular dynamics simulations of 112 proteins but our approach is, in principle, not restricted to any specific source of data of protein dynamics. We conclude that: 1. the dynasome consists of a continuum of proteins, rather than well separated classes. 2. For the majority of proteins we observe strong correlations between structure and dynamics. 3. Proteins with similar function carry out similar dynamics, which suggests a new method to improve protein function annotation based on protein dynamics.

  19. Consumer perception of astringency in clear acidic whey protein beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Jessica L; Drake, MaryAnne

    2010-01-01

    Acidic whey protein beverages are a growing component of the functional food and beverage market. These beverages are also astringent, but astringency is an expected and desirable attribute of many beverages (red wine, tea, coffee) and may not necessarily be a negative attribute of acidic whey protein beverages. The goal of this study was to define the consumer perception of astringency in clear acidic whey protein beverages. Six focus groups (n=49) were held to gain understanding of consumer knowledge of astringency. Consumers were presented with beverages and asked to map them based on astringent mouthfeel and liking. Orthonasal thresholds for whey protein isolate (WPI) in water and flavored model beverages were determined using a 7-series ascending forced choice method. Mouthfeel/basic taste thresholds were determined for WPI in water. Acceptance tests on model beverages were conducted using consumers (n=120) with and without wearing nose clips. Consumers in focus groups were able to identify astringency in beverages. Astringency intensity was not directly related to dislike. The orthonasal threshold for WPI in water was lower (P astringent mouthfeel and that both flavor and astringency should be the focus of ongoing studies to improve the palatability of these products. © 2010 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) fatty acid synthase complex: β-hydroxyacyl-[acyl carrier protein] dehydratase genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Thuillier, Irene; Venegas-Calerón, Mónica; Sánchez, Rosario; Garcés, Rafael; von Wettstein-Knowles, Penny; Martínez-Force, Enrique

    2016-02-01

    Two sunflower hydroxyacyl-[acyl carrier protein] dehydratases evolved into two different isoenzymes showing distinctive expression levels and kinetics' efficiencies. β-Hydroxyacyl-[acyl carrier protein (ACP)]-dehydratase (HAD) is a component of the type II fatty acid synthase complex involved in 'de novo' fatty acid biosynthesis in plants. This complex, formed by four intraplastidial proteins, is responsible for the sequential condensation of two-carbon units, leading to 16- and 18-C acyl-ACP. HAD dehydrates 3-hydroxyacyl-ACP generating trans-2-enoyl-ACP. With the aim of a further understanding of fatty acid biosynthesis in sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seeds, two β-hydroxyacyl-[ACP] dehydratase genes have been cloned from developing seeds, HaHAD1 (GenBank HM044767) and HaHAD2 (GenBank GU595454). Genomic DNA gel blot analyses suggest that both are single copy genes. Differences in their expression patterns across plant tissues were detected. Higher levels of HaHAD2 in the initial stages of seed development inferred its key role in seed storage fatty acid synthesis. That HaHAD1 expression levels remained constant across most tissues suggest a housekeeping function. Heterologous expression of these genes in E. coli confirmed both proteins were functional and able to interact with the bacterial complex 'in vivo'. The large increase of saturated fatty acids in cells expressing HaHAD1 and HaHAD2 supports the idea that these HAD genes are closely related to the E. coli FabZ gene. The proposed three-dimensional models of HaHAD1 and HaHAD2 revealed differences at the entrance to the catalytic tunnel attributable to Phe166/Val1159, respectively. HaHAD1 F166V was generated to study the function of this residue. The 'in vitro' enzymatic characterization of the three HAD proteins demonstrated all were active, with the mutant having intermediate K m and V max values to the wild-type proteins.

  1. OAS proteins and cGAS: unifying concepts in sensing and responding to cytosolic nucleic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornung, Veit; Hartmann, Rune; Ablasser, Andrea; Hopfner, Karl-Peter

    2014-08-01

    Recent discoveries in the field of innate immunity have highlighted the existence of a family of nucleic acid-sensing proteins that have similar structural and functional properties. These include the well-known oligoadenylate synthase (OAS) family proteins and the recently identified OAS homologue cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS). The OAS proteins and cGAS are template-independent nucleotidyltransferases that, once activated by double-stranded nucleic acids in the cytosol, produce unique classes of 2'-5'-linked second messenger molecules, which - through distinct mechanisms - have crucial antiviral functions. 2'-5'-linked oligoadenylates limit viral propagation through the activation of the enzyme RNase L, which degrades host and viral RNA, and 2'-5'-linked cGAMP activates downstream signalling pathways to induce de novo antiviral gene expression. In this Progress article, we describe the striking functional and structural similarities between OAS proteins and cGAS, and highlight their roles in antiviral immunity.

  2. Constraints and consequences of the emergence of amino acid repeats in eukaryotic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavali, Sreenivas; Chavali, Pavithra L; Chalancon, Guilhem; de Groot, Natalia Sanchez; Gemayel, Rita; Latysheva, Natasha S; Ing-Simmons, Elizabeth; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Balaji, Santhanam; Babu, M Madan

    2017-09-01

    Proteins with amino acid homorepeats have the potential to be detrimental to cells and are often associated with human diseases. Why, then, are homorepeats prevalent in eukaryotic proteomes? In yeast, homorepeats are enriched in proteins that are essential and pleiotropic and that buffer environmental insults. The presence of homorepeats increases the functional versatility of proteins by mediating protein interactions and facilitating spatial organization in a repeat-dependent manner. During evolution, homorepeats are preferentially retained in proteins with stringent proteostasis, which might minimize repeat-associated detrimental effects such as unregulated phase separation and protein aggregation. Their presence facilitates rapid protein divergence through accumulation of amino acid substitutions, which often affect linear motifs and post-translational-modification sites. These substitutions may result in rewiring protein interaction and signaling networks. Thus, homorepeats are distinct modules that are often retained in stringently regulated proteins. Their presence facilitates rapid exploration of the genotype-phenotype landscape of a population, thereby contributing to adaptation and fitness.

  3. Isotopomer distributions in amino acids from a highly expressed protein as a proxy for those from total protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaikh, Afshan; Shaikh, Afshan S.; Tang, Yinjie; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Keasling, Jay D.

    2008-06-27

    {sup 13}C-based metabolic flux analysis provides valuable information about bacterial physiology. Though many biological processes rely on the synergistic functions of microbial communities, study of individual organisms in a mixed culture using existing flux analysis methods is difficult. Isotopomer-based flux analysis typically relies on hydrolyzed amino acids from a homogeneous biomass. Thus metabolic flux analysis of a given organism in a mixed culture requires its separation from the mixed culture. Swift and efficient cell separation is difficult and a major hurdle for isotopomer-based flux analysis of mixed cultures. Here we demonstrate the use of a single highly-expressed protein to analyze the isotopomer distribution of amino acids from one organism. Using the model organism E. coli expressing a plasmid-borne, his-tagged Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP), we show that induction of GFP does not affect E. coli growth kinetics or the isotopomer distribution in nine key metabolites. Further, the isotopomer labeling patterns of amino acids derived from purified GFP and total cell protein are indistinguishable, indicating that amino acids from a purified protein can be used to infer metabolic fluxes of targeted organisms in a mixed culture. This study provides the foundation to extend isotopomer-based flux analysis to study metabolism of individual strains in microbial communities.

  4. Cytokines: muscle protein and amino acid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Hall, Gerrit

    2012-01-01

    raises TNF-α and IL-6 to moderate levels, has only identified IL-6 as a potent cytokine, decreasing systemic amino acid levels and muscle protein metabolism. The marked decrease in circulatory and muscle amino acid concentrations was observed with a concomitant reduction in both the rates of muscle...... of IL-6 on the regulation of muscle protein metabolism but indirectly via IL-6 reducing amino acid availability. SUMMARY: Recent studies suggest that the best described cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 are unlikely to be the major direct mediators of muscle protein loss in inflammatory diseases. However...

  5. Comparative Study of Chemical, Mechanical, Thermal, and Barrier Properties of Poly(Lactic Acid Plasticized with Epoxidized Soybean Oil and Epoxidized Palm Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee Bond Tee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To investigate epoxidized palm oil’s (EPO potential as plasticizer for poly(lactic acid (PLA, its plasticizing effect was compared with commercialized epoxidized soybean oil (ESO. The plasticizers were respectively melt-compounded into PLA at 3, 5, 10, and 15 wt.%. As it was aimed for the blends to be characterized towards packaging appropriate for food products, they were hot-pressed into ~0.3-mm sheets, which is the approximate thickness of clamshell packaging. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR confirmed the plasticizers’ compatibility with PLA. At similar loadings, EPO was superior in reinforcing elongation at break (EAB, thermal, and barrier properties of PLA. The ductility of PLA was notably improved to 50.0% with addition of 3 wt.% of EPO. From thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, PLA/EPO5 improved PLA’s thermal stability, while all PLA/ESO blends reported reduced thermal stability. From differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, the increase in crystallinity and the shifts in enthalpy of fusions in all plasticized blends denoted facilitation of PLA to form thermally stable α-form crystals. The addition of EPO enabled PLA to become highly impermeable to oxygen, which can extend its potential in packaging extensive range of oxygen sensitive food.

  6. Structure and function of homodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip) proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhiti, Mohamed; Stasolla, Claudio

    2009-02-01

    Homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip) proteins are transcription factors unique to plants and are encoded by more than 25 genes in Arabidopsis thaliana. Based on sequence analyses these proteins have been classified into four distinct groups: HD-Zip I-IV. HD-Zip proteins are characterized by the presence of two functional domains; a homeodomain (HD) responsible for DNA binding and a leucine zipper domain (Zip) located immediately C-terminal to the homeodomain and involved in protein-protein interaction. Despite sequence similarities HD-ZIP proteins participate in a variety of processes during plant growth and development. HD-Zip I proteins are generally involved in responses related to abiotic stress, abscisic acid (ABA), blue light, de-etiolation and embryogenesis. HD-Zip II proteins participate in light response, shade avoidance and auxin signalling. Members of the third group (HD-Zip III) control embryogenesis, leaf polarity, lateral organ initiation and meristem function. HD-Zip IV proteins play significant roles during anthocyanin accumulation, differentiation of epidermal cells, trichome formation and root development.

  7. Comparison of structure, function and regulation of plant cold shock domain proteins to bacterial and animal cold shock domain proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaikam, Vijay; Karlson, Dale T

    2010-01-01

    The cold shock domain (CSD) is among the most ancient and well conserved nucleic acid binding domains from bacteria to higher animals and plants. The CSD facilitates binding to RNA, ssDNA and dsDNA and most functions attributed to cold shock domain proteins are mediated by this nucleic acid binding activity. In prokaryotes, cold shock domain proteins only contain a single CSD and are termed cold shock proteins (Csps). In animal model systems, various auxiliary domains are present in addition to the CSD and are commonly named Y-box proteins. Similar to animal CSPs, plant CSPs contain auxiliary C-terminal domains in addition to their N-terminal CSD. Cold shock domain proteins have been shown to play important roles in development and stress adaptation in wide variety of organisms. In this review, the structure, function and regulation of plant CSPs are compared and contrasted to the characteristics of bacterial and animal CSPs. [BMB reports 2010; 43(1): 1-8].

  8. Better preservation of residual renal function in peritoneal dialysis patients treated with a low-protein diet supplemented with keto acids: a prospective, randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Na; Qian, Jiaqi; Sun, Weilan; Lin, Aiwu; Cao, Liou; Wang, Qin; Ni, Zhaohui; Wan, Yanping; Linholm, Bengt; Axelsson, Jonas; Yao, Qiang

    2009-08-01

    While a low-protein diet may preserve residual renal function (RRF) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients before the start of dialysis, a high-protein intake is usually recommended in dialysis patients to prevent protein-energy wasting. Keto acids, which were often recommended to pre-dialysis CKD patients treated with a low-protein diet, had also been reported to be associated with both RRF and nutrition maintenance. We conducted a randomized trial to test whether a low-protein diet with or without keto acids would be safe and associated with a preserved RRF during peritoneal dialysis (PD). To assess the safety of low protein, we first conducted a nitrogen balance study in 34 incident PD patients randomized to receive in-centre diets containing 1.2, 0.9 or 0.6 g of protein/kg ideal body weight (IBW)/day for 10 days. Second, 60 stable PD patients [RRF 4.04 +/- 2.30 ml/ min/1.73 m(2), urine output 1226 +/- 449 ml/day, aged 53.6 +/- 12.8 years, PD duration 8.8 (1.5-17.8) months] were randomized to receive either a low- (LP: 0.6-0.8 g/kg IBW/day), keto acid-supplemented low- (sLP: 0.6-0.8 g/kg IBW/day with 0.12 g/kg IBW/day of keto acids) or high-protein (HP: 1.0-1.2 g/kg IBW/day) diet. The groups were followed for 1 year and RRF as well as nutritional status was evaluated serially. A neutral or positive nitrogen balance was achieved in all three groups. RRF remained stable in group sLP (3.84 +/- 2.17 to 3.39 +/- 3.23 ml/min/1.73 m(2), P = ns) while it decreased in group LP (4.02 +/- 2.49 to 2.29 +/- 1.72 ml/min/1.73 m(2), P diet containing 0.6-0.8 g of protein/kg IBW/day is safe and, when combined with keto acids, is associated with an improved preservation of RRF in relatively new PD patients without significant malnutrition or inflammation.

  9. Milk protein tailoring to improve functional and biological properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JEAN-MARC CHOBERT

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteins are involved in every aspects of life: structure, motion, catalysis, recognition and regulation. Today's highly sophisticated science of the modifications of proteins has ancient roots. The tailoring of proteins for food and medical uses precedes the beginning of what is called biochemistry. Chemical modification of proteins was pursued early in the twentieth century as an analytical procedure for side-chain amino acids. Later, methods were developed for specific inactivation of biologically active proteins and titration of their essential groups. Enzymatic modifications were mainly developed in the seventies when many more enzymes became economically available. Protein engineering has become a valuable tool for creating or improving proteins for practical use and has provided new insights into protein structure and function. The actual and potential use of milk proteins as food ingredients has been a popular topic for research over the past 40 years. With today's sophisticated analytical, biochemical and biological research tools, the presence of compounds with biological activity has been demonstrated. Improvements in separation techniques and enzyme technology have enabled efficient and economic isolation and modification of milk proteins, which has made possible their use as functional foods, dietary supplements, nutraceuticals and medical foods. In this review, some chemical and enzymatic modifications of milk proteins are described, with particular focus on their functional and biological properties.

  10. A single extracellular amino acid in Free Fatty Acid Receptor 2 defines antagonist species selectivity and G protein selection bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sergeev, Eugenia; Hansen, Anders Højgaard; Bolognini, Daniele

    2017-01-01

    selectivity and mutational swap studies confirmed this hypothesis. Extending these studies to agonist function indicated that although the lysine - arginine variation between human and mouse orthologs had limited effect on G protein-mediated signal transduction, removal of positive charge from this residue...... produced a signalling-biased variant of Free Fatty Acid Receptor 2 in which Gi-mediated signalling by both short chain fatty acids and synthetic agonists was maintained whilst there was marked loss of agonist potency for signalling via Gq/11 and G12/13 G proteins. A single residue at the extracellular face...

  11. 40 CFR 79.67 - Glial fibrillary acidic protein assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Glial fibrillary acidic protein assay... Glial fibrillary acidic protein assay. (a) Purpose. Chemical-induced injury of the nervous system, i.e... paragraph (e)(3) in this section). Assays of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), the major intermediate...

  12. Chirality Matters: Synthesis and Consumption of the d-Enantiomer of Lactic Acid by Synechocystis sp. Strain PCC6803

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angermayr, S.A.; van der Woude, A.D.; Correddu, D.; Kern, R.; Hagemann, M.; Hellingwerf, K.J.

    2015-01-01

    Both enantiomers of lactic acid, l-lactic acid and d-lactic acid, can be produced in a sustainable way by a photosynthetic microbial cell factory and thus from CO2, sunlight, and water. Several properties of polylactic acid (a polyester of polymerized lactic acid) depend on the controlled blend of

  13. Functional Modification of Thioether Groups in Peptides, Polypeptides, and Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Timothy J

    2017-03-15

    Recent developments in the modification of methionine and other thioether-containing residues in peptides, polypeptides, and proteins are reviewed. Properties and potential applications of the resulting functionalized products are also discussed. While much of this work is focused on natural Met residues, modifications at other side-chain residues have also emerged as new thioether-containing amino acids have been incorporated into peptidic materials. Functional modification of thioether-containing amino acids has many advantages and is a complementary methodology to the widely utilized methods for modification at cysteine residues.

  14. Automatic discovery of cross-family sequence features associated with protein function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krings Andrea

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methods for predicting protein function directly from amino acid sequences are useful tools in the study of uncharacterised protein families and in comparative genomics. Until now, this problem has been approached using machine learning techniques that attempt to predict membership, or otherwise, to predefined functional categories or subcellular locations. A potential drawback of this approach is that the human-designated functional classes may not accurately reflect the underlying biology, and consequently important sequence-to-function relationships may be missed. Results We show that a self-supervised data mining approach is able to find relationships between sequence features and functional annotations. No preconceived ideas about functional categories are required, and the training data is simply a set of protein sequences and their UniProt/Swiss-Prot annotations. The main technical aspect of the approach is the co-evolution of amino acid-based regular expressions and keyword-based logical expressions with genetic programming. Our experiments on a strictly non-redundant set of eukaryotic proteins reveal that the strongest and most easily detected sequence-to-function relationships are concerned with targeting to various cellular compartments, which is an area already well studied both experimentally and computationally. Of more interest are a number of broad functional roles which can also be correlated with sequence features. These include inhibition, biosynthesis, transcription and defence against bacteria. Despite substantial overlaps between these functions and their corresponding cellular compartments, we find clear differences in the sequence motifs used to predict some of these functions. For example, the presence of polyglutamine repeats appears to be linked more strongly to the "transcription" function than to the general "nuclear" function/location. Conclusion We have developed a novel and useful approach for

  15. Poly (Methyl Methacrylate) (PMMA) and Polyactic Acid Nanoparticles as Adjuvents for Peroral Vaccines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kreuter, Jorg

    1999-01-01

    ...) or the employment of polylactic acid did not achieve a significant protection. Protection did not correlate at all with ELISA antibodies against ricin after oral as well as subcutaneous vaccination...

  16. Feature-Based Classification of Amino Acid Substitutions outside Conserved Functional Protein Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislava Gemovic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There are more than 500 amino acid substitutions in each human genome, and bioinformatics tools irreplaceably contribute to determination of their functional effects. We have developed feature-based algorithm for the detection of mutations outside conserved functional domains (CFDs and compared its classification efficacy with the most commonly used phylogeny-based tools, PolyPhen-2 and SIFT. The new algorithm is based on the informational spectrum method (ISM, a feature-based technique, and statistical analysis. Our dataset contained neutral polymorphisms and mutations associated with myeloid malignancies from epigenetic regulators ASXL1, DNMT3A, EZH2, and TET2. PolyPhen-2 and SIFT had significantly lower accuracies in predicting the effects of amino acid substitutions outside CFDs than expected, with especially low sensitivity. On the other hand, only ISM algorithm showed statistically significant classification of these sequences. It outperformed PolyPhen-2 and SIFT by 15% and 13%, respectively. These results suggest that feature-based methods, like ISM, are more suitable for the classification of amino acid substitutions outside CFDs than phylogeny-based tools.

  17. Three dimensional printed macroporous polylactic acid/hydroxyapatite composite scaffolds for promoting bone formation in a critical-size rat calvarial defect model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haifeng; Mao, Xiyuan; Du, Zijing; Jiang, Wenbo; Han, Xiuguo; Zhao, Danyang; Han, Dong; Li, Qingfeng

    2016-01-01

    We have explored the applicability of printed scaffold by comparing osteogenic ability and biodegradation property of three resorbable biomaterials. A polylactic acid/hydroxyapatite (PLA/HA) composite with a pore size of 500 μm and 60% porosity was fabricated by three-dimensional printing. Three-dimensional printed PLA/HA, β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and partially demineralized bone matrix (DBM) seeded with bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were evaluated by cell adhesion, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity and osteogenic gene expression of osteopontin (OPN) and collagen type I (COL-1). Moreover, the biocompatibility, bone repairing capacity and degradation in three different bone substitute materials were estimated using a critical-size rat calvarial defect model in vivo. The defects were evaluated by micro-computed tomography and histological analysis at four and eight weeks after surgery, respectively. The results showed that each of the studied scaffolds had its own specific merits and drawbacks. Three-dimensional printed PLA/HA scaffolds possessed good biocompatibility and stimulated BMSC cell proliferation and differentiation to osteogenic cells. The outcomes in vivo revealed that 3D printed PLA/HA scaffolds had good osteogenic capability and biodegradation activity with no difference in inflammation reaction. Therefore, 3D printed PLA/HA scaffolds have potential applications in bone tissue engineering and may be used as graft substitutes in reconstructive surgery.

  18. Fluorescent Proteins for Investigating Biological Events in Acidic Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajime Shinoda

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The interior lumen of acidic organelles (e.g., endosomes, secretory granules, lysosomes and plant vacuoles is an important platform for modification, transport and degradation of biomolecules as well as signal transduction, which remains challenging to investigate using conventional fluorescent proteins (FPs. Due to the highly acidic luminal environment (pH ~ 4.5–6.0, most FPs and related sensors are apt to lose their fluorescence. To address the need to image in acidic environments, several research groups have developed acid-tolerant FPs in a wide color range. Furthermore, the engineering of pH insensitive sensors, and their concomitant use with pH sensitive sensors for the purpose of pH-calibration has enabled characterization of the role of luminal ions. In this short review, we summarize the recent development of acid-tolerant FPs and related functional sensors and discuss the future prospects for this field.

  19. Protein-membrane interaction and fatty acid transfer from intestinal fatty acid-binding protein to membranes. Support for a multistep process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falomir-Lockhart, Lisandro J; Laborde, Lisandro; Kahn, Peter C; Storch, Judith; Córsico, Betina

    2006-05-19

    Fatty acid transfer from intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (IFABP) to phospholipid membranes occurs during protein-membrane collisions. Electrostatic interactions involving the alpha-helical "portal" region of the protein have been shown to be of great importance. In the present study, the role of specific lysine residues in the alpha-helical region of IFABP was directly examined. A series of point mutants in rat IFABP was engineered in which the lysine positive charges in this domain were eliminated or reversed. Using a fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay, we analyzed the rates and mechanism of fatty acid transfer from wild type and mutant proteins to acceptor membranes. Most of the alpha-helical domain mutants showed slower absolute fatty acid transfer rates to zwitterionic membranes, with substitution of one of the lysines of the alpha2 helix, Lys27, resulting in a particularly dramatic decrease in the fatty acid transfer rate. Sensitivity to negatively charged phospholipid membranes was also reduced, with charge reversal mutants in the alpha2 helix the most affected. The results support the hypothesis that the portal region undergoes a conformational change during protein-membrane interaction, which leads to release of the bound fatty acid to the membrane and that the alpha2 segment is of particular importance in the establishment of charge-charge interactions between IFABP and membranes. Cross-linking experiments with a phospholipid-photoactivable reagent underscored the importance of charge-charge interactions, showing that the physical interaction between wild-type intestinal fatty acid-binding protein and phospholipid membranes is enhanced by electrostatic interactions. Protein-membrane interactions were also found to be enhanced by the presence of ligand, suggesting different collisional complex structures for holo- and apo-IFABP.

  20. Magnetic Cellulose Nanocrystal Based Anisotropic Polylactic Acid Nanocomposite Films: Influence on Electrical, Magnetic, Thermal, and Mechanical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Prodyut; Kumar, Amit; Katiyar, Vimal

    2016-07-20

    This paper reports a single-step co-precipitation method for the fabrication of magnetic cellulose nanocrystals (MGCNCs) with high iron oxide nanoparticle content (∼51 wt % loading) adsorbed onto cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs). X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and Raman spectroscopic studies confirmed that the hydroxyl groups on the surface of CNCs (derived from the bamboo pulp) acted as anchor points for the adsorption of Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The fabricated MGCNCs have a high magnetic moment, which is utilized to orient the magnetoresponsive nanofillers in parallel or perpendicular orientations inside the polylactic acid (PLA) matrix. Magnetic-field-assisted directional alignment of MGCNCs led to the incorporation of anisotropic mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties in the fabricated PLA-MGCNC nanocomposites. Thermomechanical studies showed significant improvement in the elastic modulus and glass-transition temperature for the magnetically oriented samples. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and XRD studies confirmed that the alignment of MGCNCs led to the improvement in the percentage crystallinity and, with the absence of the cold-crystallization phenomenon, finds a potential application in polymer processing in the presence of magnetic field. The tensile strength and percentage elongation for the parallel-oriented samples improved by ∼70 and 240%, respectively, and for perpendicular-oriented samples, by ∼58 and 172%, respectively, in comparison to the unoriented samples. Furthermore, its anisotropically induced electrical and magnetic properties are desirable for fabricating self-biased electronics products. We also demonstrate that the fabricated anisotropic PLA-MGCNC nanocomposites could be laminated into films with the incorporation of directionally tunable mechanical properties. Therefore, the current study provides a novel noninvasive approach of orienting nontoxic bioderived CNCs in the presence of low

  1. Pyrolysis-gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry for monitoring natural additives in polylactic acid active food packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llana-Ruíz-Cabello, M; Pichardo, S; Jiménez-Morillo, N T; González-Vila, F J; Guillamón, E; Bermúdez, J M; Aucejo, S; Camean, A M; González-Pérez, J A

    2017-11-24

    Compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) usually requires preparative steps (pretreatments, extraction, derivatization) to get amenable chromatographic analytes from bulk geological, biological or synthetic materials. Analytical pyrolysis (Py-GC/MS) can help to overcome such sample manipulation. This communication describe the results obtained by hyphenating analytical pyrolysis (Py-GC) with carbon isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) for the analysis of a polylactic acid (PLA) a based bio-plastic extruded with variable quantities of a natural plant extract or oregano essential oil. The chemical structural information of pyrolysates was first determined by conventional analytical pyrolysis and the measure of δ 13 C in specific compounds was done by coupling a pyrolysis unit to a gas chromatograph connected to a continuous flow IRMS unit (Py-GC-C-IRMS). Using this Py-CSIA device it was possible to trace natural additives with depleted δ 13 C values produced by C3 photosystem vegetation (cymene: -26.7‰±2.52; terpinene: -27.1‰±0.13 and carvacrol: -27.5‰±1.80 from oregano and two unknown structures: -23.3‰±3.32 and -24.4‰±1.70 and butyl valerate: -24.1‰±3.55 from Allium spp.), within the naturally isotopically enriched bio-plastic backbone derived from corn (C4 vegetation) starch (cyclopentanones: -14.2‰±2.11; lactide enantiomers: -9.2‰±1.56 and larger polymeric units: -17.2‰±1.71). This is the first application of Py-CSIA to characterize a bio-plastic and is shown as a promising tool to study such materials, providing not only a fingerprinting, but also valuable information about the origin of the materials, allowing the traceability of additives and minimizing sample preparation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Structural evidence for solvent-stabilisation by aspartic acid as a mechanism for halophilic protein stability in high salt concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenton, Samuel; Walsh, Danielle L; Rhys, Natasha H; Soper, Alan K; Dougan, Lorna

    2016-07-21

    Halophilic organisms have adapted to survive in high salt environments, where mesophilic organisms would perish. One of the biggest challenges faced by halophilic proteins is the ability to maintain both the structure and function at molar concentrations of salt. A distinct adaptation of halophilic proteins, compared to mesophilic homologues, is the abundance of aspartic acid on the protein surface. Mutagenesis and crystallographic studies of halophilic proteins suggest an important role for solvent interactions with the surface aspartic acid residues. This interaction, between the regions of the acidic protein surface and the solvent, is thought to maintain a hydration layer around the protein at molar salt concentrations thereby allowing halophilic proteins to retain their functional state. Here we present neutron diffraction data of the monomeric zwitterionic form of aspartic acid solutions at physiological pH in 0.25 M and 2.5 M concentration of potassium chloride, to mimic mesophilic and halophilic-like environmental conditions. We have used isotopic substitution in combination with empirical potential structure refinement to extract atomic-scale information from the data. Our study provides structural insights that support the hypothesis that carboxyl groups on acidic residues bind water more tightly under high salt conditions, in support of the residue-ion interaction model of halophilic protein stabilisation. Furthermore our data show that in the presence of high salt the self-association between the zwitterionic form of aspartic acid molecules is reduced, suggesting a possible mechanism through which protein aggregation is prevented.

  3. Amino acid code of protein secondary structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shestopalov, B V

    2003-01-01

    The calculation of protein three-dimensional structure from the amino acid sequence is a fundamental problem to be solved. This paper presents principles of the code theory of protein secondary structure, and their consequence--the amino acid code of protein secondary structure. The doublet code model of protein secondary structure, developed earlier by the author (Shestopalov, 1990), is part of this theory. The theory basis are: 1) the name secondary structure is assigned to the conformation, stabilized only by the nearest (intraresidual) and middle-range (at a distance no more than that between residues i and i + 5) interactions; 2) the secondary structure consists of regular (alpha-helical and beta-structural) and irregular (coil) segments; 3) the alpha-helices, beta-strands and coil segments are encoded, respectively, by residue pairs (i, i + 4), (i, i + 2), (i, i = 1), according to the numbers of residues per period, 3.6, 2, 1; 4) all such pairs in the amino acid sequence are codons for elementary structural elements, or structurons; 5) the codons are divided into 21 types depending on their strength, i.e. their encoding capability; 6) overlappings of structurons of one and the same structure generate the longer segments of this structure; 7) overlapping of structurons of different structures is forbidden, and therefore selection of codons is required, the codon selection is hierarchic; 8) the code theory of protein secondary structure generates six variants of the amino acid code of protein secondary structure. There are two possible kinds of model construction based on the theory: the physical one using physical properties of amino acid residues, and the statistical one using results of statistical analysis of a great body of structural data. Some evident consequences of the theory are: a) the theory can be used for calculating the secondary structure from the amino acid sequence as a partial solution of the problem of calculation of protein three

  4. Unprecedented access to strong and ductile poly(lactic acid) by introducing In Situ Nanofibrillar Poly(butylene succinate) for green packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lan; Xu, Huan; Niu, Ben; Ji, Xu; Chen, Jun; Li, Zhong-Ming; Hsiao, Benjamin S; Zhong, Gan-Ji

    2014-11-10

    The notion of toughening poly(lactic acid) (PLA) by adding flexible biopolymers has generated enormous interest but has yielded few desirable advances, mainly blocked by the sacrifice of strength and stiffness due to uncontrollable phase morphology and poor interfacial interactions. Here the phase control methodology, that is, intense extrusion compounding followed by "slit die extrusion-hot stretching-quenching" technique, was proposed to construct well-aligned, stiff poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) nanofibrils in the PLA matrix for the first time. We show that generating nanosized discrete droplets of PBS phase during extrusion compounding is key to enable the development of in situ nanofibrillar PBS assisted by the shearing/stretching field. The size of PBS nanofibrils strongly dependent on the PBS content, showing an increased average diameter from 83 to 116 and 236 nm for the composites containing 10, 20, and 40 wt % nanofibrils, respectively. More importantly, hybrid shish-kebab superstructure anchoring ordered PLA kebabs were induced by the PBS nanofibrils serving as the central shish, conferring the creation of tenacious interfacial crystalline ligaments. The exceptional combination of strength, modulus, and ductility for the composites loaded 40 wt % PBS nanofibrils were demonstrated, outperforming pure PLA with the increments of 31, 51, and 72% in strength, modulus, and elongation at break (56.4 MPa, 1702 MPa, and 92.4%), respectively. The high strength, modulus, and ductility are unprecedented for PLA and are in great potential need for packaging applications.

  5. A proteomic analysis of the functional effects of fatty acids in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Magdalon, Juliana

    2011-11-24

    Abstract Previous studies have demonstrated that long chain fatty acids influence fibroblast function at sub-lethal concentrations. This study is the first to assess the effects of oleic, linoleic or palmitic acids on protein expression of fibroblasts, as determined by standard proteomic techniques. The fatty acids were not cytotoxic at the concentration used in this work as assessed by membrane integrity, DNA fragmentation and the MTT assay but significantly increased cell proliferation. Subsequently, a proteomic analysis was performed using two dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and MS based identification. Cells treated with 50 μM oleic, linoleic or palmitic acid for 24 h were associated with 24, 22, 16 spots differentially expressed, respectively. Among the identified proteins, α-enolase and far upstream element binding protein 1 (FBP-1) are of importance due to their function in fibroblast-associated diseases. However, modulation of α-enolase and FBP-1 expression by fatty acids was not validated by the Western blot technique.

  6. Margination of Fluorescent Polylactic Acid–Polyaspartamide based Nanoparticles in Microcapillaries In Vitro: the Effect of Hematocrit and Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Fabiola Craparo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The last decade has seen the emergence of vascular-targeted drug delivery systems as a promising approach for the treatment of many diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer. In this field, one of the major challenges is carrier margination propensity (i.e., particle migration from blood flow to vessel walls; indeed, binding of these particles to targeted cells and tissues is only possible if there is direct carrier–wall interaction. Here, a microfluidic system mimicking the hydrodynamic conditions of human microcirculation in vitro is used to investigate the effect of red blood cells (RBCs on a carrier margination in relation to RBC concentration (hematocrit and pressure drop. As model drug carriers, fluorescent polymeric nanoparticles (FNPs were chosen, which were obtained by using as starting material a pegylated polylactic acid–polyaspartamide copolymer. The latter was synthesized by derivatization of α,β-poly(N-2-hydroxyethyl-d,l-aspartamide (PHEA with Rhodamine (RhB, polylactic acid (PLA and then poly(ethyleneglycol (PEG chains. It was found that the carrier concentration near the wall increases with increasing pressure drop, independently of RBC concentration, and that the tendency for FNP margination decreases with increasing hematocrit. This work highlights the importance of taking into account RBC–drug carrier interactions and physiological conditions in microcirculation when planning a drug delivery strategy based on systemically administered carriers.

  7. Mung bean proteins and peptides: nutritional, functional and bioactive properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Yi-Shen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available To date, no extensive literature review exists regarding potential uses of mung bean proteins and peptides. As mung bean has long been widely used as a food source, early studies evaluated mung bean nutritional value against the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO/the World Health Organization (WHO amino acids dietary recommendations. The comparison demonstrated mung bean to be a good protein source, except for deficiencies in sulphur-containing amino acids, methionine and cysteine. Methionine and cysteine residues have been introduced into the 8S globulin through protein engineering technology. Subsequently, purified mung bean proteins and peptides have facilitated the study of their structural and functional properties. Two main types of extraction methods have been reported for isolation of proteins and peptides from mung bean flours, permitting sequencing of major proteins present in mung bean, including albumins and globulins (notably 8S globulin. However, the sequence for albumin deposited in the UniProt database differs from other sequences reported in the literature. Meanwhile, a limited number of reports have revealed other useful bioactivities for proteins and hydrolysed peptides, including angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activity, anti-fungal activity and trypsin inhibitory activity. Consequently, several mung bean hydrolysed peptides have served as effective food additives to prevent proteolysis during storage. Ultimately, further research will reveal other nutritional, functional and bioactive properties of mung bean for uses in diverse applications.

  8. Protein evolution via amino acid and codon elimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goltermann, Lise; Larsen, Marie Sofie Yoo; Banerjee, Rajat

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Global residue-specific amino acid mutagenesis can provide important biological insight and generate proteins with altered properties, but at the risk of protein misfolding. Further, targeted libraries are usually restricted to a handful of amino acids because there is an exponential...... correlation between the number of residues randomized and the size of the resulting ensemble. Using GFP as the model protein, we present a strategy, termed protein evolution via amino acid and codon elimination, through which simplified, native-like polypeptides encoded by a reduced genetic code were obtained...... simultaneously), while retaining varying levels of activity. Combination of these substitutions to generate a Phe-free variant of GFP abolished fluorescence. Combinatorial re-introduction of five Phe residues, based on the activities of the respective single amino acid replacements, was sufficient to restore GFP...

  9. Core-shell nanofibers of curcumin/cyclodextrin inclusion complex and polylactic acid: Enhanced water solubility and slow release of curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aytac, Zeynep; Uyar, Tamer

    2017-02-25

    Core-shell nanofibers were designed via electrospinning using inclusion complex (IC) of model hydrophobic drug (curcumin, CUR) with cyclodextrin (CD) in the core and polymer (polylactic acid, PLA) in the shell (cCUR/HPβCD-IC-sPLA-NF). CD-IC of CUR and HPβCD was formed at 1:2 molar ratio. The successful formation of core-shell nanofibers was revealed by TEM and CLSM images. cCUR/HPβCD-IC-sPLA-NF released CUR slowly but much more in total than PLA-CUR-NF at pH 1 and pH 7.4 due to the restriction of CUR in the core of nanofibers and solubility improvement shown in phase solubility diagram, respectively. Improved antioxidant activity of cCUR/HPβCD-IC-sPLA-NF in methanol:water (1:1) is related with the solubility enhancement achieved in water based system. The slow reaction of cCUR/HPβCD-IC-sPLA-NF in methanol is associated with the shell inhibiting the quick release of CUR. On the other hand, cCUR/HPβCD-IC-sPLA-NF exhibited slightly higher rate of antioxidant activity than PLA-CUR-NF in methanol:water (1:1) owing to the enhanced solubility. To conclude, slow release of CUR was achieved by core-shell nanofiber structure and inclusion complexation of CUR with HPβCD provides high solubility. Briefly, electrospinning of core-shell nanofibers with CD-IC core could offer slow release of drugs as well as solubility enhancement for hydrophobic drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Functional interactions of nucleocapsid protein of feline immunodeficiency virus and cellular prion protein with the viral RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscardini, Mila; Pistello, Mauro; Bendinelli, M; Ficheux, Damien; Miller, Jennifer T; Gabus, Caroline; Le Grice, Stuart F J; Surewicz, Witold K; Darlix, Jean-Luc

    2002-04-19

    All lentiviruses and oncoretroviruses examined so far encode a major nucleic-acid binding protein (nucleocapsid or NC* protein), approximately 2500 molecules of which coat the dimeric RNA genome. Studies on HIV-1 and MoMuLV using in vitro model systems and in vivo have shown that NC protein is required to chaperone viral RNA dimerization and packaging during virus assembly, and proviral DNA synthesis by reverse transcriptase (RT) during infection. The human cellular prion protein (PrP), thought to be the major component of the agent causing transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE), was recently found to possess a strong affinity for nucleic acids and to exhibit chaperone properties very similar to HIV-1 NC protein in the HIV-1 context in vitro. Tight binding of PrP to nucleic acids is proposed to participate directly in the prion disease process. To extend our understanding of lentiviruses and of the unexpected nucleic acid chaperone properties of the human prion protein, we set up an in vitro system to investigate replication of the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), which is functionally and phylogenetically distant from HIV-1. The results show that in the FIV model system, NC protein chaperones viral RNA dimerization, primer tRNA(Lys,3) annealing to the genomic primer-binding site (PBS) and minus strand DNA synthesis by the homologous FIV RT. FIV NC protein is able to trigger specific viral DNA synthesis by inhibiting self-priming of reverse transcription. The human prion protein was found to mimic the properties of FIV NC with respect to primer tRNA annealing to the viral RNA and chaperoning minus strand DNA synthesis. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  11. Evaluation of sustained release polylactate electron donors for removal of hexavalent chromium from contaminated groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodie, E.L.; Joyner, D. C.; Faybishenko, B.; Conrad, M. E.; Rios-Velazquez, C.; Mork, B.; Willet, A.; Koenigsberg, S.; Herman, D.; Firestone, M. K.; Hazen, T. C.; Malave, Josue; Martinez, Ramon

    2011-02-15

    To evaluate the efficacy of bioimmobilization of Cr(VI) in groundwater at the Department of Energy Hanford site, we conducted a series of microcosm experiments using a range of commercial electron donors with varying degrees of lactate polymerization (polylactate). These experiments were conducted using Hanford Formation sediments (coarse sand and gravel) immersed in Hanford groundwater, which were amended with Cr(VI) and several types of lactate-based electron donors (Hydrogen Release Compound, HRC; primer-HRC, pHRC; extended release HRC) and the polylactate-cysteine form (Metal Remediation Compound, MRC). The results showed that polylactate compounds stimulated an increase in bacterial biomass and activity to a greater extent than sodium lactate when applied at equivalent carbon concentrations. At the same time, concentrations of headspace hydrogen and methane increased and correlated with changes in the microbial community structure. Enrichment of Pseudomonas spp. occurred with all lactate additions, and enrichment of sulfate-reducing Desulfosporosinus spp. occurred with almost complete sulfate reduction. The results of these experiments demonstrate that amendment with the pHRC and MRC forms result in effective removal of Cr(VI) from solution most likely by both direct (enzymatic) and indirect (microbially generated reductant) mechanisms.

  12. Incorporation of radioactive amino acids into protein in isolated rat hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seglin, P.O.

    1976-01-01

    The incorporation of radioactivity from a 14 C-labelled amino acid mixture (algal protein hydrolysate) into protein in isolated rat hepatocytes has been studied. The incorporation rate declined with increasing cell concentration, an effect which could be explained by isotope consumption, partly (and largely) by isotope dilution due to the formation of non-labelled amino acids by the cells. At a high extracellular amino acid concentration, the rate of incorporation into protein became independent of cell concentration because the isotope dilution effect was now quantitatively insignificant. The time course of protein labelling at various cell concentrations correlated better with the intracellular than with the extracellular amino acid specific activity, suggesting that amino acids for protein synthesis were taken from an intracellular pool. With increasing extracellular amino acid concentrations, both the intracellular amino acid concentration, the intracellular radioactivity and the rate of incorporation into protein increased. Protein labelling exhibited a distinct time lag at high amino acid concentrations, presumable reflecting the time-dependent expansion of the intracellular amino acid pool. The gradual increase in the rate of protein labelling could be due either to an increased intracellular specific activity, or to a real stimulation of protein synthesis by amino acids, depending on whether the total intracellular amino acid pool or just the expandable compartment is the precursor pool for protein synthesis

  13. Properties of whey protein isolates extruded under acidic and alkaline conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwulata, C I; Isobe, S; Tomasula, P M; Cooke, P H

    2006-01-01

    Whey proteins have wide acceptance and use in many products due to their beneficial nutritional properties. To further increase the amount of whey protein isolates (WPI) that may be added to products such as extruded snacks and meats, texturization of WPI is necessary. Texturization changes the folding of globular proteins to improve interaction with other ingredients and create new functional ingredients. In this study, WPI pastes (60% solids) were extruded in a twin-screw extruder at 100 degrees C with 4 pH-adjusted water streams: acidic (pH 2.0 +/- 0.2) and alkaline (pH 12.4 +/- 0.4) streams from 2 N HCl and 2 N NaOH, respectively, and acidic (pH 2.5 +/- 0.2) and alkaline (pH 11.5 +/- 0.4) electrolyzed water streams; these were compared with WPI extruded with deionized water. The effects of water acidity on WPI solubility at pH 7, color, microstructure, Rapid Visco Analyzer pasting properties, and physical structure were determined. Alkaline conditions increased insolubility caused yellowing and increased pasting properties significantly. Acidic conditions increased solubility and decreased WPI pasting properties. Subtle structural changes occurred under acidic conditions, but were more pronounced under alkaline conditions. Overall, alkaline conditions increased denaturation in the extruded WPI resulting in stringy texturized WPI products, which could be used in meat applications.

  14. Protein function prediction using neighbor relativity in protein-protein interaction network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosavi, Sobhan; Rahgozar, Masoud; Rahimi, Amir

    2013-04-01

    There is a large gap between the number of discovered proteins and the number of functionally annotated ones. Due to the high cost of determining protein function by wet-lab research, function prediction has become a major task for computational biology and bioinformatics. Some researches utilize the proteins interaction information to predict function for un-annotated proteins. In this paper, we propose a novel approach called "Neighbor Relativity Coefficient" (NRC) based on interaction network topology which estimates the functional similarity between two proteins. NRC is calculated for each pair of proteins based on their graph-based features including distance, common neighbors and the number of paths between them. In order to ascribe function to an un-annotated protein, NRC estimates a weight for each neighbor to transfer its annotation to the unknown protein. Finally, the unknown protein will be annotated by the top score transferred functions. We also investigate the effect of using different coefficients for various types of functions. The proposed method has been evaluated on Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Homo sapiens interaction networks. The performance analysis demonstrates that NRC yields better results in comparison with previous protein function prediction approaches that utilize interaction network. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Affinity resins as new tools for identifying target proteins of ascorbic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaoka, Yuji; Nishino, Kohei; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Ito, Hideyuki; Sawa, Yoshihiro; Tai, Akihiro

    2018-02-12

    l-Ascorbic acid (AA) has diverse physiological functions, but little is known about the functional mechanisms of AA. In this study, we synthesized two types of affinity resin on which AA is immobilized in a stable form to identify new AA-targeted proteins, which can provide important clues for elucidating unknown functional mechanisms of AA. To our knowledge, an affinity resin on which AA as a ligand is immobilized has not been prepared, because AA is very unstable and rapidly degraded in an aqueous solution. By using the affinity resins, cytochrome c (cyt c) was identified as an AA-targeted protein, and we showed that oxidized cyt c exhibits specific affinity for AA. These results suggest that two kinds of AA-affinity resin can be powerful tools to identify new target proteins of AA.

  16. Adaptive Evolution of Eel Fluorescent Proteins from Fatty Acid Binding Proteins Produces Bright Fluorescence in the Marine Environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David F Gruber

    Full Text Available We report the identification and characterization of two new members of a family of bilirubin-inducible fluorescent proteins (FPs from marine chlopsid eels and demonstrate a key region of the sequence that serves as an evolutionary switch from non-fluorescent to fluorescent fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs. Using transcriptomic analysis of two species of brightly fluorescent Kaupichthys eels (Kaupichthys hyoproroides and Kaupichthys n. sp., two new FPs were identified, cloned and characterized (Chlopsid FP I and Chlopsid FP II. We then performed phylogenetic analysis on 210 FABPs, spanning 16 vertebrate orders, and including 163 vertebrate taxa. We show that the fluorescent FPs diverged as a protein family and are the sister group to brain FABPs. Our results indicate that the evolution of this family involved at least three gene duplication events. We show that fluorescent FABPs possess a unique, conserved tripeptide Gly-Pro-Pro sequence motif, which is not found in non-fluorescent fatty acid binding proteins. This motif arose from a duplication event of the FABP brain isoforms and was under strong purifying selection, leading to the classification of this new FP family. Residues adjacent to the motif are under strong positive selection, suggesting a further refinement of the eel protein's fluorescent properties. We present a phylogenetic reconstruction of this emerging FP family and describe additional fluorescent FABP members from groups of distantly related eels. The elucidation of this class of fish FPs with diverse properties provides new templates for the development of protein-based fluorescent tools. The evolutionary adaptation from fatty acid-binding proteins to fluorescent fatty acid-binding proteins raises intrigue as to the functional role of bright green fluorescence in this cryptic genus of reclusive eels that inhabit a blue, nearly monochromatic, marine environment.

  17. Biodegradable poly (lactic acid-co-glycolic acid scaffolds as carriers for genetically-modified fibroblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Perisic

    Full Text Available Recent advances in gene delivery into cells allow improved therapeutic effects in gene therapy trials. To increase the bioavailability of applied cells, it is of great interest that transfected cells remain at the application site and systemic spread is minimized. In this study, we tested clinically used biodegradable poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid (PLGA scaffolds (Vicryl & Ethisorb as transient carriers for genetically modified cells. To this aim, we used human fibroblasts and examined attachment and proliferation of untransfected cells on the scaffolds in vitro, as well as the mechanical properties of the scaffolds at four time points (1, 3, 6 and 9 days of cultivation. Furthermore, the adherence of cells transfected with green fluorescent protein (GFP and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF165 and also VEGF165 protein secretion were investigated. Our results show that human fibroblasts adhere on both types of PLGA scaffolds. However, proliferation and transgene expression capacity were higher on Ethisorb scaffolds most probably due to a different architecture of the scaffold. Additionally, cultivation of the cells on the scaffolds did not alter their biomechanical properties. The results of this investigation could be potentially exploited in therapeutic regiments with areal delivery of transiently transfected cells and may open the way for a variety of applications of cell-based gene therapy, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  18. Functional anthology of intrinsic disorder. 1. Biological processes and functions of proteins with long disordered regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hongbo; Vucetic, Slobodan; Iakoucheva, Lilia M; Oldfield, Christopher J; Dunker, A Keith; Uversky, Vladimir N; Obradovic, Zoran

    2007-05-01

    Identifying relationships between function, amino acid sequence, and protein structure represents a major challenge. In this study, we propose a bioinformatics approach that identifies functional keywords in the Swiss-Prot database that correlate with intrinsic disorder. A statistical evaluation is employed to rank the significance of these correlations. Protein sequence data redundancy and the relationship between protein length and protein structure were taken into consideration to ensure the quality of the statistical inferences. Over 200,000 proteins from the Swiss-Prot database were analyzed using this approach. The predictions of intrinsic disorder were carried out using PONDR VL3E predictor of long disordered regions that achieves an accuracy of above 86%. Overall, out of the 710 Swiss-Prot functional keywords that were each associated with at least 20 proteins, 238 were found to be strongly positively correlated with predicted long intrinsically disordered regions, whereas 302 were strongly negatively correlated with such regions. The remaining 170 keywords were ambiguous without strong positive or negative correlation with the disorder predictions. These functions cover a large variety of biological activities and imply that disordered regions are characterized by a wide functional repertoire. Our results agree well with literature findings, as we were able to find at least one illustrative example of functional disorder or order shown experimentally for the vast majority of keywords showing the strongest positive or negative correlation with intrinsic disorder. This work opens a series of three papers, which enriches the current view of protein structure-function relationships, especially with regards to functionalities of intrinsically disordered proteins, and provides researchers with a novel tool that could be used to improve the understanding of the relationships between protein structure and function. The first paper of the series describes our

  19. A combinatorial approach to detect coevolved amino acid networks in protein families of variable divergence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Baussand

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Communication between distant sites often defines the biological role of a protein: amino acid long-range interactions are as important in binding specificity, allosteric regulation and conformational change as residues directly contacting the substrate. The maintaining of functional and structural coupling of long-range interacting residues requires coevolution of these residues. Networks of interaction between coevolved residues can be reconstructed, and from the networks, one can possibly derive insights into functional mechanisms for the protein family. We propose a combinatorial method for mapping conserved networks of amino acid interactions in a protein which is based on the analysis of a set of aligned sequences, the associated distance tree and the combinatorics of its subtrees. The degree of coevolution of all pairs of coevolved residues is identified numerically, and networks are reconstructed with a dedicated clustering algorithm. The method drops the constraints on high sequence divergence limiting the range of applicability of the statistical approaches previously proposed. We apply the method to four protein families where we show an accurate detection of functional networks and the possibility to treat sets of protein sequences of variable divergence.

  20. Synthesis, physicochemical and biological properties of poly-α-amino acids - the simplest of protein models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katchalski-Katzir, Ephraim

    1996-01-01

    During the 1950s, linear and multichain poly-α-amino acids were synthesized by polymerization of the corresponding N-carboxy-amino acid anhydrides in solution in the presence of suitable catalysts. The resulting homo- and heteropolymers have since been widely employed as simple protein models. Under appropriate conditions, poly-α-amino acids, in the solid state and in solution, were found to acquire conformations of an α-helix and β-parallel and antiparallel pleased sheets, or to exist as random coils. Their use in experimental and theoretical investigations of helix-coil transitions helped to shed new light on the mechanisms involved in protein denaturation. Poly-α-amino acids played an important role in the deciphering of the genetic code. In addition, analysis of the antigenicity of poly-α-amino acids led to the clucidation of the factors determining the antigenicity of proteins and peptides. Interest in the biological and physicochemical characteristics of poly-α-amino acids was recently renewed because of the reported novel finding that some copolymers of amino acids are effective as drugs in multiple sclerosis, and that glutamine repeats and reiteration of other amino acids occur in inherited neurodegenerative diseases. The presence of repeating sequences of amino acids in proteins, and of nucleotides in DNA, raises many interesting questions about their respective roles in determining protein structure and function, and gene performance and regulation. (author). 35 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  1. Utilization of alimentary protein and amino acids in satisfying the nitrogen requirements of monogastric mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pion, R.; Arnal, M.

    1976-01-01

    The nitrogenous matter in the food of monogastric animals consists mainly of proteins, which are rapidly hydrolized in the intestinal tract when they have left the gastric reservoir. The digestive tube has several roles: it provides for hydrolysis of the food proteins and for a supply of endogenous nitrogen; it enables a certain digestive function to be performed by the intestinal flora and permits the transport of amino acids into the blood, selecting those which are needed for protein synthesis. The digestion products appear mainly in the form of free amino acids in the portal blood. A large proportion of these amino acids is taken up by the liver, so that intense protein synthesis takes place in the latter, coupled with a decrease in catabolism leading to a rhythmic increase in the liver content of proteins and RNA. The labile proteins retained are mainly enzymes, which catabolize the amino acids, and the liver is the site of the catabolism of most of the excess amino acids except those with chain branching. Alimentary deficiencies do not markedly reduce protein synthesis in this organ, since the rate of re-utilization of the amino acids is increased and the liver thus plays a regulatory role. The utilization of amino acids in muscle also follows a certain rhythm, partly connected with feeding, and under hormonal control. The muscle is the seat of catabolism of a large part of the branched chain amino acids, and like the liver it contributes to the energy utilization of amino acids. The rate of utilization of certain essential amino acids can be measured by metabolic criteria, including determination of blood and muscle concentrations and excretion of 14 CO 2 labels in the exhaled air or of 35 S labels in urine. (author)

  2. Acidic tumor microenvironment and pH-sensing G protein-coupled receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justus, Calvin R; Dong, Lixue; Yang, Li V

    2013-12-05

    The tumor microenvironment is acidic due to glycolytic cancer cell metabolism, hypoxia, and deficient blood perfusion. It is proposed that acidosis in the tumor microenvironment is an important stress factor and selection force for cancer cell somatic evolution. Acidic pH has pleiotropic effects on the proliferation, migration, invasion, metastasis, and therapeutic response of cancer cells and the function of immune cells, vascular cells, and other stromal cells. However, the molecular mechanisms by which cancer cells and stromal cells sense and respond to acidic pH in the tumor microenvironment are poorly understood. In this article the role of a family of pH-sensing G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in tumor biology is reviewed. Recent studies show that the pH-sensing GPCRs, including GPR4, GPR65 (TDAG8), GPR68 (OGR1), and GPR132 (G2A), regulate cancer cell metastasis and proliferation, immune cell function, inflammation, and blood vessel formation. Activation of the proton-sensing GPCRs by acidosis transduces multiple downstream G protein signaling pathways. Since GPCRs are major drug targets, small molecule modulators of the pH-sensing GPCRs are being actively developed and evaluated. Research on the pH-sensing GPCRs will continue to provide important insights into the molecular interaction between tumor and its acidic microenvironment and may identify new targets for cancer therapy and chemoprevention.

  3. The expression and function of fatty acid transport protein-2 and -4 in the murine placenta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya Mishima

    Full Text Available The uptake and trans-placental trafficking of fatty acids from the maternal blood into the fetal circulation are essential for embryonic development, and involve several families of proteins. Fatty acid transport proteins (FATPs uniquely transport fatty acids into cells. We surmised that placental FATPs are germane for fetal growth, and are regulated during hypoxic stress, which is associated with reduced fat supply to the fetus.Using cultured primary term human trophoblasts we found that FATP2, FATP4 and FATP6 were highly expressed in trophoblasts. Hypoxia enhanced the expression of trophoblastic FATP2 and reduced the expression of FATP4, with no change in FATP6. We also found that Fatp2 and Fatp4 are expressed in the mouse amnion and placenta, respectively. Mice deficient in Fatp2 or Fatp4 did not deviate from normal Mendelian distribution, with both embryos and placentas exhibiting normal weight and morphology, triglyceride content, and expression of genes related to fatty acid mobilization.We conclude that even though hypoxia regulates the expression of FATP2 and FATP4 in human trophoblasts, mouse Fatp2 and Fatp4 are not essential for intrauterine fetal growth.

  4. Topology-function conservation in protein-protein interaction networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Darren; Yaveroğlu, Ömer Nebil; Malod-Dognin, Noël; Stojmirovic, Aleksandar; Pržulj, Nataša

    2015-05-15

    Proteins underlay the functioning of a cell and the wiring of proteins in protein-protein interaction network (PIN) relates to their biological functions. Proteins with similar wiring in the PIN (topology around them) have been shown to have similar functions. This property has been successfully exploited for predicting protein functions. Topological similarity is also used to guide network alignment algorithms that find similarly wired proteins between PINs of different species; these similarities are used to transfer annotation across PINs, e.g. from model organisms to human. To refine these functional predictions and annotation transfers, we need to gain insight into the variability of the topology-function relationships. For example, a function may be significantly associated with specific topologies, while another function may be weakly associated with several different topologies. Also, the topology-function relationships may differ between different species. To improve our understanding of topology-function relationships and of their conservation among species, we develop a statistical framework that is built upon canonical correlation analysis. Using the graphlet degrees to represent the wiring around proteins in PINs and gene ontology (GO) annotations to describe their functions, our framework: (i) characterizes statistically significant topology-function relationships in a given species, and (ii) uncovers the functions that have conserved topology in PINs of different species, which we term topologically orthologous functions. We apply our framework to PINs of yeast and human, identifying seven biological process and two cellular component GO terms to be topologically orthologous for the two organisms. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  5. GX1-conjugated poly(lactic acid nanoparticles encapsulating Endostar for improved in vivo anticolorectal cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Y

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Yang Du,1,* Qian Zhang,1,* Lijia Jing,2 Xiaolong Liang,2 Chongwei Chi,1 Yaqian Li,1 Xin Yang,1 Zhifei Dai,2 Jie Tian1 1Key Laboratory of Molecular Imaging, The State Key Laboratory of Management and Control for Complex Systems, Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Tumor angiogenesis plays a key role in tumor growth and metastasis; thus, targeting tumor-associated angiogenesis is an important goal in cancer therapy. However, the efficient delivery of drugs to tumors remains a key issue in antiangiogenesis therapy. GX1, a peptide identified by phage-display technology, is a novel tumor vasculature endothelium-specific ligand and possesses great potential as a targeted vector and antiangiogenic agent in the diagnosis and treatment of human cancers. Endostar, a novel recombinant human endostatin, has been shown to inhibit tumor angiogenesis. In this study, we developed a theranostic agent composed of GX1-conjugated poly(lactic acid nanoparticles encapsulating Endostar (GPENs and labeled with the near-infrared dye IRDye 800CW to improve colorectal tumor targeting and treatment efficacy in vivo. The in vivo fluorescence molecular imaging data showed that GPENs (IRDye 800CW more specifically targeted tumors than free IRDye 800CW in colorectal tumor-bearing mice. Moreover, the antitumor efficacy was evaluated by bioluminescence imaging and immunohistology, revealing that GPENs possessed improved antitumor efficacy on subcutaneous colorectal xenografts compared to other treatment groups. Thus, our